Sample records for 3-d mesoscale numerical

  1. Impact of aircraft exhaust on the atmosphere. Box model studies and 3-D mesoscale numerical case studies of seasonal differences

    Petry, H.; Ebel, A.; Franzkowiak, V.; Hendricks, J.; Lippert, E.; Moellhoff, M. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meteorologie


    The impact of aircraft emissions released in the tropopause region on atmospheric trace gases as O{sub 3} or HNO{sub 3} is investigated by means of model studies. Special emphasis is drawn on seasonal effects. A box model is applied as well as a 3-D mesoscale chemistry transport model. These model studies show that the impact of aircraft emissions on ozone in the tropopause region is much stronger in summer than in late autumn with a difference of one order of magnitude. (author) 14 refs.

  2. Towards high resolution mapping of 3-D mesoscale dynamics from observations

    B. Buongiorno Nardelli


    Full Text Available The MyOcean R&D project MESCLA (MEsoSCaLe dynamical Analysis through combined model, satellite and in situ data was devoted to the high resolution 3-D retrieval of tracer and velocity fields in the oceans, based on the combination of in situ and satellite observations and quasi-geostrophic dynamical models. The retrieval techniques were also tested and compared with the output of a primitive equation model, with particular attention to the accuracy of the vertical velocity field as estimated through the Q vector formulation of the omega equation. The project focused on a test case, covering the region where the Gulf Stream separates from the US East Coast. This work demonstrated that innovative methods for the high resolution mapping of 3-D mesoscale dynamics from observations can be used to build the next generations of operational observation-based products.

  3. Numerical Simulation of 3-D Wave Crests

    YU Dingyong; ZHANG Hanyuan


    A clear definition of 3-D wave crest and a description of the procedures to detect the boundary of wave crest are presented in the paper. By using random wave theory and directional wave spectrum, a MATLAB-platformed program is designed to simulate random wave crests for various directional spectral conditions in deep water. Statistics of wave crests with different directional spreading parameters and different directional functions are obtained and discussed.

  4. Radiative Transfer in 3D Numerical Simulations

    Stein, R; Stein, Robert; Nordlund, Aake


    We simulate convection near the solar surface, where the continuum optical depth is of order unity. Hence, to determine the radiative heating and cooling in the energy conservation equation, we must solve the radiative transfer equation (instead of using the diffusion or optically thin cooling approximations). A method efficient enough to calculate the radiation for thousands of time steps is needed. We assume LTE and a non-gray opacity grouped into 4 bins according to strength. We perform a formal solution of the Feautrier equation along a vertical and four straight, slanted, rays (at four azimuthal angles which are rotated 15 deg. every time step). We present details of our method. We also give some results: comparing simulated and observed line profiles for the Sun, showing the importance of 3D transfer for the structure of the mean atmosphere and the eigenfrequencies of p-modes, illustrating Stokes profiles for micropores, and analyzing the effect of radiation on p-mode asymmetries.

  5. Numerical 3-D Modelling of Overflows

    Larsen, Torben; Nielsen, L.; Jensen, B.;


    The present study uses laboratory experiments to evaluate the reliability of two types of numerical models of sewers systems: - 1-dimensional model based on the extended Saint-Venant equation including the term for curvature of the water surface (the so-called Boussinesq approximation) - 2- and 3...

  6. 3D numerical design of tunnel hood

    Uystepruyst, David; Monnoyer, François


    This paper relates to the parametric study of tunnel hoods in order to reduce the shape, i.e the temporal gradient, of the pressure wave generated by the entry of a High speed train in tunnel. This is achieved by using an in-house three-dimensional numerical solver which solves the Eulerian equations on a Cartesian and unstructured mesh. The efficiency of the numerical methodology is demonstrated through comparisons with both experimental data and empirical formula. For the tunnel hood design, three parameters, that can influence the wave shape, are considered: the shape, the section and the length of the hood. The numerical results show, (i) that a constant section hood is the most efficient shape when compared to progressive (elliptic or conical) section hoods, (ii) an optimal ratio between hood's section and tunnel section where the temporal gradient of the pressure wave can be reduced by half, (iii) a significant efficiency of the hood's length in the range of 2 to 8 times the length of the train nose. Fi...

  7. Observed 3D Structure, Generation, and Dissipation of Oceanic Mesoscale Eddies in the South China Sea

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Tian, Jiwei; Qiu, Bo; Zhao, Wei; Chang, Ping; Wu, Dexing; Wan, Xiuquan


    Oceanic mesoscale eddies with horizontal scales of 50–300 km are the most energetic form of flows in the ocean. They are the oceanic analogues of atmospheric storms and are effective transporters of heat, nutrients, dissolved carbon, and other biochemical materials in the ocean. Although oceanic eddies have been ubiquitously observed in the world oceans since 1960s, our understanding of their three-dimensional (3D) structure, generation, and dissipation remains fragmentary due to lack of systematic full water-depth measurements. To bridge this knowledge gap, we designed and conducted a multi-months field campaign, called the South China Sea Mesoscale Eddy Experiment (S-MEE), in the northern South China Sea in 2013/2014. The S-MEE for the first time captured full-depth 3D structures of an anticyclonic and cyclonic eddy pair, which are characterized by a distinct vertical tilt of their axes. By observing the eddy evolution at an upstream versus downstream location and conducting an eddy energy budget analysis, the authors further proposed that generation of submesoscale motions most likely constitutes the dominant dissipation mechanism for the observed eddies.

  8. Numerical Relativity Towards Simulations of 3D Black Hole Coalescence

    Seidel, E


    I review recent developments in numerical relativity, focussing on progress made in 3D black hole evolution. Progress in development of black hole initial data, apparent horizon boundary conditions, adaptive mesh refinement, and characteristic evolution is highlighted, as well as full 3D simulations of colliding and distorted black holes. For true 3D distorted holes, with Cauchy evolution techniques, it is now possible to extract highly accurate, nonaxisymmetric waveforms from fully nonlinear simulations, which are verified by comparison to pertubration theory, and with characteristic techniques extremely long term evolutions of 3D black holes are now possible. I also discuss a new code designed for 3D numerical relativity, called Cactus, that will be made public.

  9. Numerical modeling of 3-D terrain effect on MT field

    徐世浙; 阮百尧; 周辉; 陈乐寿; 徐师文


    Using the boundary element method, the numerical modeling problem of three-dimensional terrain effect on magnetotelluric (MT) field is solved. This modeling technique can be run on PC in the case of adopting special net division. The result of modeling test for 2-D terrain by this modeling technique is basically coincident with that by 2-D modeling technique, but there is a great difference between the results of 3-D and 2-D modeling for 3-D terrain.

  10. Meso-Scale Damage Simulation of 3D Braided Composites under Quasi-Static Axial Tension

    Zhang, Chao; Mao, Chunjian; Zhou, Yexin


    The microstructure of 3D braided composites is composed of three phases: braiding yarn, matrix and interface. In this paper, a representative unit-cell (RUC) model including these three phases is established. Coupling with the periodical boundary condition, the damage behavior of 3D braided composites under quasi-static axial tension is simulated by using finite element method based on this RUC model. An anisotropic damage model based on Murakami damage theory is proposed to predict the damage evolution of yarns and matrix; a damage-friction combination interface constitutive model is adopted to predict the interface debonding behavior. A user material subroutine (VUMAT) involving these damage models is developed and implemented in the finite element software ABAQUS/Explicit. The whole process of damage evolution of 3D braided composites under quasi-static axial tension with typical braiding angles is simulated, and the damage mechanisms are revealed in detail in the simulation process. The tensile strength properties of the braided composites are predicted from the calculated stress-strain curves. Numerical results agree with the available experiment data and thus validates the proposed damage analysis model. The effects of certain material parameters on the predicted stress-strain responses are also discussed by numerical parameter study.

  11. Advances in the numerical simulation of 3D FSW processes

    Agelet de Saracibar Bosch, Carlos; Chiumenti, Michèle; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Dialami, Narges; Santiago, Diego de; Lombera, Guillermo


    This work deals with the computational modeling and numerical simulation of 3D Friction Stir Welding (FSW) processes. Eulerian and ALE formulations have been used to solve the quasi-static thermal transient governing equations. Mixed P2/P1/P2+SUPG and subgrid-scale stabilized P1/P1/P1 velocity/pressure/temperature elements have been implemented. Norton-Hoff and Sheppard-Wright rigid thermoplastic material models have been considered. Computational visualization techniques using tracers have b...

  12. 3D numerical simulation of transient processes in hydraulic turbines

    Cherny, S; Chirkov, D; Lapin, V; Eshkunova, I [Institute of Computational Technologies SB RAS Acad. Lavrentjev avenue 6, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Bannikov, D; Avdushenko, A [Department of Mechanics and Mathematics, Novosibirsk State University Pirogov st. 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Skorospelov, V, E-mail: chirkov@ict.nsc.r [Institute of Mathematics SB RAS Acad. Koptug avenue 4, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)


    An approach for numerical simulation of 3D hydraulic turbine flows in transient operating regimes is presented. The method is based on a coupled solution of incompressible RANS equations, runner rotation equation, and water hammer equations. The issue of setting appropriate boundary conditions is considered in detail. As an illustration, the simulation results for runaway process are presented. The evolution of vortex structure and its effect on computed runaway traces are analyzed.

  13. 3D numerical simulation of transient processes in hydraulic turbines

    Cherny, S.; Chirkov, D.; Bannikov, D.; Lapin, V.; Skorospelov, V.; Eshkunova, I.; Avdushenko, A.


    An approach for numerical simulation of 3D hydraulic turbine flows in transient operating regimes is presented. The method is based on a coupled solution of incompressible RANS equations, runner rotation equation, and water hammer equations. The issue of setting appropriate boundary conditions is considered in detail. As an illustration, the simulation results for runaway process are presented. The evolution of vortex structure and its effect on computed runaway traces are analyzed.

  14. Using 3-D Numerical Weather Data in Piloted Simulations

    Daniels, Taumi S.


    This report describes the process of acquiring and using 3-D numerical model weather data sets in NASA Langley's Research Flight Deck (RFD). A set of software tools implement the process and can be used for other purposes as well. Given time and location information of a weather phenomenon of interest, the user can download associated numerical weather model data. These data are created by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model, and are then processed using a set of Mathworks' Matlab(TradeMark) scripts to create the usable 3-D weather data sets. Each data set includes radar re ectivity, water vapor, component winds, temperature, supercooled liquid water, turbulence, pressure, altitude, land elevation, relative humidity, and water phases. An open-source data processing program, wgrib2, is available from NOAA online, and is used along with Matlab scripts. These scripts are described with sucient detail to make future modi cations. These software tools have been used to generate 3-D weather data for various RFD experiments.

  15. Precessing jets and molecular outflows a 3-D numerical study

    Cliffe, J A; Frank, Adam


    We present 3-D numerical hydrodynamical simulations of precessing supersonic heavy jets to explore how well they serve as a model for generating molecular outflows from Young Stellar Objects. The dynamics are studied with a number of high resolution simulations on a Cartesian grid (128x128x128 zones) using a high order finite difference method. A range of cone angles and precession rates were included in the study. Two higher resolution runs (256x256x256 zones) were made for comparison in order to confirm numerical convergence of global flow characteristics. Morphological, kinematical and dynamical characteristics of precessing jets are described and compared to important properties of straight jets and also to observations of YSOs. In order to examine the robustness of precessing jets as a mean to produce molecular outflows around Young Stellar Objects, ``synthetic observations'' of the momentum distributions of the simulated precessing jets are compared to observations of molecular outflows. It is found tha...

  16. 3D numerical simulation and analysis of railgun gouging mechanism

    Jin-guo WU; Bo TANG; Qing-hua LIN; Hai-yuan LI; Bao-ming LI


    A gouging phenomenon with a hypervelocity sliding electrical contact in railgun not only shortens the rail lifetime but also affects the interior ballistic performance. In this paper, a 3-D numerical model was introduced to simulate and analyze the generation mechanism and evolution of the rail gouging phenomenon. The results show that a rail surface bulge is an important factor to induce gouging. High density and high pressure material flow on the contact surface, obliquely extruded into the rail when accelerating the armature to a high velocity, can produce gouging. Both controlling the bulge size to a certain range and selecting suitable materials for rail surface coating will suppress the formation of gouging. The numerical simulation had a good agreement with experiments, which validated the computing model and methodology are reliable.

  17. A numerical approach for 3D manufacturing tolerances synthesis

    Vignat, Frédéric


    Making a product conform to the functional requirements indicated by the customer suppose to be able to manage the manufacturing process chosen to realise the parts. A simulation step is generally performed to verify that the expected generated deviations fit with these requirements. It is then necessary to assess the actual deviations of the process in progress. This is usually done by the verification of the conformity of the workpiece to manufacturing tolerances at the end of each set-up. It is thus necessary to determine these manufacturing tolerances. This step is called "manufacturing tolerance synthesis". In this paper, a numerical method is proposed to perform 3D manufacturing tolerances synthesis. This method uses the result of the numerical analysis of tolerances to determine influent mall displacement of surfaces. These displacements are described by small displacements torsors. An algorithm is then proposed to determine suitable ISO manufacturing tolerances.

  18. 3D numerical simulation and analysis of railgun gouging mechanism

    Jin-guo Wu


    Full Text Available A gouging phenomenon with a hypervelocity sliding electrical contact in railgun not only shortens the rail lifetime but also affects the interior ballistic performance. In this paper, a 3-D numerical model was introduced to simulate and analyze the generation mechanism and evolution of the rail gouging phenomenon. The results show that a rail surface bulge is an important factor to induce gouging. High density and high pressure material flow on the contact surface, obliquely extruded into the rail when accelerating the armature to a high velocity, can produce gouging. Both controlling the bulge size to a certain range and selecting suitable materials for rail surface coating will suppress the formation of gouging. The numerical simulation had a good agreement with experiments, which validated the computing model and methodology are reliable.

  19. Micro-mechanics based damage mechanics for 3D Orthogonal Woven Composites: Experiment and Numerical Modelling

    Saleh, Mohamed Nasr


    Damage initiation and evolution of three-dimensional (3D) orthogonal woven carbon fibre composite (3DOWC) is investigated experimentally and numerically. Meso-scale homogenisation of the representative volume element (RVE) is utilised to predict the elastic properties, simulate damage initiation and evolution when loaded in tension. The effect of intra-yarns transverse cracking and shear diffused damage on the in-plane transverse modulus and shear modulus is investigated while one failure criterion is introduced to simulate the matrix damage. The proposed model is based on two major assumptions. First, the effect of the binder yarns, on the in-plane properties, is neglected, so the 3DOWC unit cell can be approximated as a (0o/90o) cross-ply laminate. Second, a micro-mechanics based damage approach is used at the meso-scale, so damage indicators can be correlated, explicitly, to the density of cracks within the material. Results from the simulated RVE are validated against experimental results along the warp (0o direction) and weft (90o direction). This approach paves the road for more predictive models as damage evolution laws are obtained from micro mechanical considerations and rely on few well-defined material parameters. This largely differs from classical damage mechanics approaches in which the evolution law is obtained by retrofitting experimental observations.

  20. 3-D numerical simulations of coronal loops oscillations

    M. Selwa


    Full Text Available We present numerical results of 3-D MHD model of a dipole active region field containing a loop with a higher density than its surroundings. We study different ways of excitation of vertical kink oscillations by velocity perturbation: as an initial condition, and as an impulsive excitation with a pulse of a given position, duration, and amplitude. These properties are varied in the parametric studies. We find that the amplitude of vertical kink oscillations is significantly amplified in comparison to horizontal kink oscillations for exciters located centrally (symmetrically below the loop, but not if the exciter is located a significant distance to the side of the loop. This explains why the pure vertical kink mode is so rarely observed in comparison to the horizontally polarized one. We discuss the role of curved magnetic field lines and the pulse overlapping at one of the loop's footpoints in 3-D active regions (AR's on the excitation and the damping of slow standing waves. We find that footpoint excitation becomes more efficient in 3-D curved loops than in 2-D curved arcades and that slow waves can be excited within an interval of time that is comparable to the observed one wave-period due to the combined effect of the pulse inside and outside the loop. Additionally, we study the effect of AR topology on the excitation and trapping of loop oscillations. We find that a perturbation acting directly on a single loop excites oscillations, but results in an increased leakage compared to excitation of oscillations in an AR field by an external source.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Effective Properties of 3D Piezoelectric Composites

    Ri-Song Qin


    Full Text Available The prediction of the overall effective properties of fibre-reinforced piezocomposites has drawn much interest from investigators recently. In this work, an algorithm used in two-dimensional (2D analysis for calculating transversely isotropic material properties is developed. Since the finite element (FE meshing patterns on the opposite areas are the same, constraint equations can be applied directly to generate appropriate load. The numerical results derived using this model have found a good agreement with those in the literature. The 2D algorithm is then modified and improved in such a way that it is valid for three-dimensional (3D analysis in the case of random distributed shorts and inclusions. Linear interpolation of displacement field is employed to establish constraint equations of nodal displacements between two adjacent elements.

  2. Evolutions in 3D numerical relativity using fixed mesh refinement

    Schnetter, E; Hawke, I; Schnetter, Erik; Hawley, Scott H.; Hawke, Ian


    We present results of 3D numerical simulations using a finite difference code featuring fixed mesh refinement (FMR), in which a subset of the computational domain is refined in space and time. We apply this code to a series of test cases including a robust stability test, a nonlinear gauge wave and an excised Schwarzschild black hole in an evolving gauge. We find that the mesh refinement results are comparable in accuracy, stability and convergence to unigrid simulations with the same effective resolution. At the same time, the use of FMR reduces the computational resources needed to obtain a given accuracy. Particular care must be taken at the interfaces between coarse and fine grids to avoid a loss of convergence at high resolutions. This FMR system, "Carpet", is a driver module in the freely available Cactus computational infrastructure, and is able to endow existing Cactus simulation modules ("thorns") with FMR with little or no extra effort.

  3. 3-D numerical modeling of plume-induced subduction initiation

    Baes, Marzieh; Gerya, taras; Sobolev, Stephan


    Investigation of mechanisms involved in formation of a new subduction zone can help us to better understand plate tectonics. Despite numerous previous studies, it is still unclear how and where an old oceanic plate starts to subduct beneath the other plate. One of the proposed scenarios for nucleation of subduction is plume-induced subduction initiation, which was investigated in detail, using 2-D models, by Ueda et al. (2008). Recently. Gerya et al. (2015), using 3D numerical models, proposed that plume-lithosphere interaction in the Archean led to the subduction initiation and onset of plate tectonic. In this study, we aim to pursue work of Ueda et al. (2008) by incorporation of 3-D thermo-mechanical models to investigate conditions leading to oceanic subduction initiation as a result of thermal-chemical mantle plume-lithosphere interaction in the modern earth. Results of our experiments show four different deformation regimes in response to plume-lithosphere interaction, that are a) self-sustaining subduction initiation where subduction becomes self-sustained, b) freezing subduction initiation where subduction stops at shallow depths, c) slab break-off where subducting circular slab breaks off soon after formation and d) plume underplating where plume does not pass through the lithosphere but spreads beneath it (failed subduction initiation). These different regimes depend on several parameters such as plume's size, composition and temperature, lithospheric brittle/plastic strength, age of the oceanic lithosphere and presence/absence of lithospheric heterogeneities. Results show that subduction initiates and becomes self-sustained when lithosphere is older than 10 Myr and non-dimensional ratio of the plume buoyancy force and lithospheric strength above the plume is higher than 2.

  4. Process analysis of the modelled 3-D mesoscale impact of aircraft emissions on the atmosphere

    Hendricks, J.; Ebel, A.; Lippert, E.; Petry, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meterorologie


    A mesoscale chemistry transport model is applied to study the impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric trace gas composition. A special analysis of the simulations is conducted to separate the effects of chemistry, transport, diffusion and cloud processes on the transformation of the exhausts of a subsonic fleet cruising over the North Atlantic. The aircraft induced ozone production strongly depends on the tropopause height and the cruise altitude. Aircraft emissions may undergo an effective downward transport under the influence of stratosphere-troposphere exchange activity. (author) 12 refs.

  5. 3-D numerical modelling of flow around a groin

    Miller, R.; Roulund, A.; Sumer, B. Mutlu;


    A 3-D flow code, EllipSys3D, has been implemented to simulate the 3-D flow around a groin in steady current. The k  turbulence model has been used for closure. Two kinds of groins are considered: (1) A vertical-wall groin, and (2) A groin with a side slope. Steady-flow simulations were conducted...

  6. 3D Printing device adaptable to Computer Numerical Control (CNC)

    Gardan, Julien; DANESI, Frédéric; Roucoules, Lionel; Schneider, A


    This article presents the development of a 3D printing device for the additive manufacturing adapted to a CNC machining. The application involves the integration of a specific printing head. Additive manufacturing technology is most commonly used for modeling, prototyping, tooling through an exclusive machine or 3D printer. A global review and analysis of technologies show the additive manufacturing presents little independent solutions [6][9]. The problem studied especially the additive manu...

  7. Numerical Results of 3-D Modeling of Moon Accumulation

    Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod; Antipin, Alexandr


    For the last time for the model of the Moon usually had been used the model of mega impact in which the forming of the Earth and its sputnik had been the consequence of the Earth's collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,2] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al26,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone and additionally change the content of Moon forming to silicates. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius of the Earth, the growing area of the future Earth's core can save also the silicate envelope fragments [3]. For understanding the further system Earth-Moon evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on its accumulation stage.In that paper we are modeling the changing of temperature,pressure,velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3d spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach.The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in velocity

  8. Simulation of Fully Nonlinear 3-D Numerical Wave Tank

    张晓兔; 滕斌; 宁德志


    A fully nonlinear numerical wave tank (NWT) has been simulated by use of a three-dimensional higher order boundary element method (HOBEM) in the time domain. Within the frame of potential flow and the adoption of simply Rankine source, the resulting boundary integral equation is repeatedly solved at each time step and the fully nonlinear free surface boundary conditions are integrated with time to update its position and boundary values. A smooth technique is also adopted in order to eliminate the possible saw-tooth numerical instabilities. The incident wave at the uptank is given as theoretical wave in this paper. The outgoing waves are absorbed inside a damping zone by spatially varying artificial damping on the free surface at the wave tank end. The numerical results show that the NWT developed by these approaches has a high accuracy and good numerical stability.

  9. 3-D numerical simulations of volcanic ash transport and deposition

    Suzuki, Y. J.; Koyaguchi, T.


    During an explosive volcanic eruption, volcanic gas and pyroclasts are ejected from the volcanic vent. The pyroclasts are carried up within a convective plume, advected by the surrounding wind field, and sediment on the ground depending on their terminal velocity. The fine ash are expected to have atmospheric residence, whereas the coarser particles form fall deposits. Accurate modeling of particle transport and deposition is of critical importance from the viewpoint of disaster prevention. Previously, some particle-tracking models (e.g., PUFF) and advection-diffusion models (e.g., TEPHRA2 and FALL3D) tried to forecast particle concentration in the atmosphere and particle loading at ground level. However, these models assumed source conditions (the grain-size distribution, plume height, and mass release location) based on the simple 1-D model of convective plume. In this study, we aim to develop a new 3-D model which reproduces both of the dynamics of convective plume and the ash transport. The model is designed to describe the injection of eruption cloud and marker particles from a circular vent above a flat surface into the stratified atmosphere. Because the advection is the predominant mechanism of particle transport near the volcano, the diffusive process is not taken into account in this model. The distribution of wind velocity is given as an initial condition. The model of the eruption cloud dynamics is based on the 3-D time-dependent model of Suzuki et al. (2005). We apply a pseudo-gas model to calculate the eruption cloud dynamics: the effect of particle separation on the cloud dynamics is not considered. In order to reproduce the drastic change of eruption cloud density, we change the effective gas constant and heat capacity of the mixture in the equation of state for ideal gases with the mixing ratio between the ejected material and entrained air. In order to calculate the location and movement of ash particles, the present model employs Lagrangian marker

  10. 3D numerical modeling of YSO accretion shocks

    Matsakos T.


    Full Text Available The dynamics of YSO accretion shocks is determined by radiative processes as well as the strength and structure of the magnetic field. A quasi-periodic emission signature is theoretically expected to be observed, but observations do not confirm any such pattern. In this work, we assume a uniform background field, in the regime of optically thin energy losses, and we study the multi-dimensional shock evolution in the presence of perturbations, i.e. clumps in the stream and an acoustic energy flux flowing at the base of the chromosphere. We perform 3D MHD simulations using the PLUTO code, modelling locally the impact of the infalling gas onto the chromosphere. We find that the structure and dynamics of the post-shock region is strongly dependent on the plasma-beta (thermal over magnetic pressure, different values of which may give distinguishable emission signatures, relevant for observations. In particular, a strong magnetic field effectively confines the plasma inside its flux tubes and leads to the formation of quasi-independent fibrils. The fibrils may oscillate out of phase and hence the sum of their contributions in the emission results in a smooth overall profile. On the contrary, a weak magnetic field is not found to have any significant effect on the shocked plasma and the turbulent hot slab that forms is found to retain its periodic signature.

  11. 3D Numerical simulations of vesicle and inextensible capsule dynamics


    published in Journal of Computational Physics; International audience; Vesicles are locally-inextensible fluid membranes while inextensible capsules are in addition endowed with in-plane shear elasticity mimicking the cytoskeleton of red blood cells (RBCs). Boundary integral (BI) methods based on the Green's function techniques are used to describe their dynamics, that falls into the category of highly nonlinear and nonlocal dynamics. Numerical solutions raise several obstacles and challenges...

  12. Gravitational Collapse of Gravitational Waves in 3D Numerical Relativity

    Alcubierre, M; Brügmann, B; Lanfermann, G; Seidel, E; Suen, W M; Tobias, M; Alcubierre, Miguel; Allen, Gabrielle; Bruegmann, Bernd; Lanfermann, Gerd; Seidel, Edward; Suen, Wai-Mo; Tobias, Malcolm


    We demonstrate that evolutions of three-dimensional, strongly non-linear gravitational waves can be followed in numerical relativity, hence allowing many interesting studies of both fundamental and observational consequences. We study the evolution of time-symmetric, axisymmetric {\\it and} non-axisymmetric Brill waves, including waves so strong that they collapse to form black holes under their own self-gravity. The critical amplitude for black hole formation is determined. The gravitational waves emitted in the black hole formation process are compared to those emitted in the head-on collision of two Misner black holes.



    The bejavior of a bubble near a rigid structure was considered by using the local surface fitting method and the "jet prediction" method. The convergence difficulty caused by the abnormality of the elements was overcome. The flow was numerically simulated by using the boundary-integral method on the assumption that the water was inviscid and incompressible, and the bubble gas obeyed the isoentropic rule. The evolution of the bubble was investigated by means of the mixed Euler-Lagrange method, and the Runge-Kutta method. The important behavior of the bubble, such as migration and jetting, was analyzed in several examples. And the solution of one period of the explosion bubble was obtained.

  14. 3D numerical simulations of vesicle and inextensible capsule dynamics

    Farutin, Alexander; Biben, Thierry; Misbah, Chaouqi


    Vesicles are locally-inextensible fluid membranes, capsules are endowed with in-plane shear elasticity mimicking the cytoskeleton of red blood cells (RBCs), but are extensible, while RBCs are inextensible. We use boundary integral (BI) methods based on the Green function techniques to model and solve numerically their dynamics. We regularize the single layer integral by subtraction of exact identities for the terms involving the normal and the tangential components of the force. The stability and precision of BI calculation is enhanced by taking advantage of additional quadrature nodes located in vertices of an auxiliary mesh, constructed by a standard refinement procedure from the main mesh. We extend the partition of unity technique to boundary integral calculation on triangular meshes. The proposed algorithm offers the same treatment of near-singular integration regardless whether the source and the target points belong to the same surface or not. Bending forces are calculated by using expressions derived from differential geometry. Membrane incompressibility is handled by using two penalization parameters per suspended entity: one for deviation of the global area from prescribed value and another for the sum of squares of local strains defined on each vertex. Extensible or inextensible capsules, a model of RBC, are studied by storing the position in the reference configuration for each vertex. The elastic force is then calculated by direct variation of the elastic energy. Various nonequilibrium physical examples on vesicles and capsules will be presented and the convergence and precision tests highlighted. Overall, a good convergence is observed with numerical error inversely proportional to the number of vertices used for surface discretization, the highest order of convergence allowed by piece-wise linear interpolation of the surface.

  15. A Numerical Study on the Thermal Conductivity of 3D Woven C/C Composites at High Temperature

    Shigang, Ai; Rujie, He; Yongmao, Pei


    Experimental data for Carbon/Carbon (C/C) constituent materials are combined with a three dimensional steady state heat transfer finite element analysis to demonstrate the average in-plane and out-of-plane thermal conductivities (TCs) of C/C composites. The finite element analysis is carried out at two distinct length scales: (a) a micro scale comparable with the diameter of carbon fibres and (b) a meso scale comparable with the carbon fibre yarns. Micro-scale model calculate the TCs at the fibre yarn scale in the three orthogonal directions ( x, y and z). The output results from the micro-scale model are then incorporated in the meso-scale model to obtain the global TCs of the 3D C/C composite. The simulation results are quite consistent with the theoretical and experimental counterparts reported in references. Based on the numerical approach, TCs of the 3D C/C composite are calculated from 300 to 2500 K. Particular attention is given in elucidating the variations of the TCs with temperature. The multi-scale models provide an efficient approach to predict the TCs of 3D textile materials, which is helpful for the thermodynamic property analysis and structure design of the C/C composites.

  16. Model and numerical analysis of 3D corrosion layer of reinforced concrete structure

    李永和; 葛修润


    Under the assumption that the corrosion at the end of steel bolt or steel bar is shaped like the contour line of ellipsoid, a mathematic model and formulas of calculating the thickness of corrosion layer at arbitrary point are presented in this paper. Then regarding the arbitrary points of 3D corrosion layer as patch element model of fictitious displacement discontinuity, we propose the basic solution of 3D problem of the patch element acting on discontinuous displacement. With three basic assumptions of the corrosion layer, we set up the 3D numerical discreted model, and derive the stress boundary equation for fictitious corrosion layer of 3D numerical analysis. We also make the numerical stimulating calculation of the shotcrete structure at some lane using 3D finite element method. The results show that this method is effective and reasonable.

  17. Single-sided sheet-to-tube spot welding investigated by 3D numerical simulations

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Chergui, Azeddine; Zhang, Wenqi

    The single-sided resistance spot welding process is analyzed by a 3D numerical study of sheet-to-tube joining. Finite element simulations are carried out in SORPAS® 3D. Two levels of electrode force and five levels of welding current are simulated. The overall effects of changing current and force...

  18. Numerical simulation of 3D backward facing step flows at various Reynolds numbers

    Louda Petr


    Full Text Available The work deals with the numerical simulation of 3D turbulent flow over backward facing step in a narrow channel. The mathematical model is based on the RANS equations with an explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model (EARSM. The numerical method uses implicit finite volume upwind discretization. While the eddy viscosity models fail in predicting complex 3D flows, the EARSM model is shown to provide results which agree well with experimental PIV data. The reference experimental data provide the 3D flow field. The simulations are compared with experiment for 3 values of Reynolds number.

  19. The Impact of TRMM Data on Numerical Forecast of Mesoscale Systems

    Pu, Zhao-Xia; Tao, Wei-Kuo


    The impact of surface rainfall data derived from the TRMM Microwave Image (TMI) on the numerical forecast of mesoscale systems is evaluated. A series of numerical experiments are performed that assimilate TMI rainfall data into the Penn State University/National Centers for Atmospheric Research (PSU/NCAR) Mesoscale Model version 5 (MM5) using a four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4DVAR) technique. Experiments are conducted incorporating TMI rainfall data into the mesoscale model to improve hurricane initialization. It is found that assimilation of rainfall data into the model is beneficial in producing a more realistic eye and rain bands and also helps to improve the intensity forecast for the hurricane. Further 4DVAR experiments are performed on mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). Detailed results and related issues will be presented during the conference.

  20. Study of 3-D Numerical Simulation for Gas Transfer in the Goaf of the Coal Mining

    WU Zheng-yan; JIANG Shu-guang; HE Xin-jian; WANG Lan-yun; LIN Bai-quan


    In order to simulate field distribution rules, mathematical models for 3-D air flows and gas transfer in the goaf of the coal mining are established, based on theories of permeability and dynamic dispersion through porous media. A gas dispersion equation in a 3-D field is calculated by use of numerical method on a weighted upstream multi-element balance. Based on data of an example with a U type ventilation mode, surface charts of air pressure distribution and gas concentration are drawn by Graphtool software. Finally, a comparison between actually measured results in the model test and the numerical simulation results is made to proves the numerical implementation feasible.


    YAN Jing-hua(闫敬华); Detlev Majewski


    Based on the real case of a frontal precipitation process affecting South China, 27 controlled numerical experiments was made for the effects of hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic effects, different driving models, combinations of initial/boundary conditions, updates of lateral values and initial time levels of forecast, on model predictions. Features about the impact of initial/boundary conditions on mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model are analyzed and discussed in detail. Some theoretically and practically valuable conclusions aredrawn. It is found that the overall tendency of mesoscale NWP models is governed by its driving model, with the initial conditions showing remarkable impacts on mesoscale models for the first 10 hours of the predictions while leaving lateral boundary conditions to take care the period beyond; the latter affect the inner area of mesoscale predictions mainly through the propagation and movement of weather signals (waves) of different time scales; initial values of external model parameters such as soil moisture content may affect predictions of more longer time validity, while fast signals may be filtered away and only information with time scale 4 times as large as or more than the updated period of boundary values may be introduced, through lateral boundary, to mesoscale models, etc. Someresults may be taken as important guidance on mesoscale model and its data assimilation developments of the future.


    Zhang Yan; Lǖ Shanwei; Gao Wenjun


    A new method to reduce the numerical dispersion of the three-dimensional Alternating Direction Implicit Finite-Difference Time-Domain(3-D ADI-FDTD)method is proposed.Firstly,the numerical formulations of the 3-D ADI-FDTD method are modified with the artificial anisotropy,and the new numerical dispersion relation is derived.Secondly,the relative permittivity tensor of the artificial anisotropy can be obtained by the Adaptive Genetic Algorithm(AGA).In order to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of this new method,a monopole antenna is simulated as an example.And the numerical results and the computational requirements of the proposed method are cornpared with those of the conventional ADI-FDTD method and the measured data.In addition the reduction of the numerical dispersion is investigated as the objective function of the AGA.It is found that this new method is accurate and efficient by choosing proper objective function.

  3. Application of 3-D numerical simulation software SRIFCAST to produce ductile iron castings


    Based on a method using numerical simulation equations and their solution schemes for liquid metal flows and heat transfer during mold filling and the solidification process of casting, 3-D numerical simulation software SRIFCAST was created. This includes enmeshment of casting; velocity and temperature fields calculation; displaying iso-temperature lines;velocity vectors and 3-D temperature fields on a Windows 9x operating system. SRIFCAST was applied to produce sound castings of automobile and diesel engines, and also to connect with microstructure simulation for ductile iron castings.

  4. 3D numerical analysis of crack propagation of heterogeneous notched rock under uniaxial tension

    Wang, S. Y.; Sloan, S. W.; Sheng, D. C.; Tang, C. A.


    Macroscopic notches play an important role in evaluating the fracture process zone (FPZ) and the strengths of a heterogeneous rock mass. Crack initiation, propagation and coalescence for unnotched, single-notched and double-notched rock specimens are numerically simulated in a 3-D numerical model (RFPA3D). A feature of the code RFPA3D is that it can numerically simulate the evolution of cracks in three-dimensional space, as well as the heterogeneity of the rock mass. For the unnotched case, special attention is given to the complete stress-strain curve and the corresponding AE events for the failure process of rock specimen. By comparing with published experimental results, the simulation results from RFPA3D are found to be satisfactory. For the single-notched case, the effect of the length and the depth of the single notch and the thickness of the specimen on the failure mode and peak stress are evaluated. The 3D FPZ is very different from that in two dimensions. For the double-notched case, the effects of the separation distance and overlap distance of the double notches, as well as influence of the homogeneity index (m) are also investigated. As the overlap distance increases, the direction of the principal tensile stress at each notch-end changes from a perpendicular direction (tensile stress field) to a nearly parallel direction (compressive stress field), which affects the evolution of the cracks from the two notches.

  5. Calculation of residual stresses by means of a 3D numerical weld simulation

    Nicak, Tomas; Huemmer, Matthias [AREVA NP GmbH, Postfach 1109 (Germany)


    The numerical weld simulation has developed very fast in recent years. The problem complexity has increased from simple 2D models to full 3D models, which can describe the entire welding process more realistically. As recent research projects indicate, a quantitative assessment of the residual stresses by means of a 3D analysis is possible. The structure integrity can be assessed based on the weld simulation results superimposed with the operating load. Moreover, to support the qualification of welded components parametric studies for optimization of the residual stress distribution in the weld region can be performed. In this paper a full 3D numerical weld simulation for a man-hole drainage nozzle in a steam generator will be presented. The residual stresses are calculated by means of an uncoupled transient thermal and mechanical FE analysis. The paper will present a robust procedure allowing reasonable predictions of the residual stresses for complex structures in industrial practice. (authors)

  6. A 3-D model of superfluid helium suitable for numerical analysis

    Darve, C; Van Sciver, S W


    The two-fluid description is a very successful phenomenological representation of the properties of Helium II. A 3-D model suitable for numerical analysis based on the Landau-Khalatnikov description of Helium II is proposed. In this paper we introduce a system of partial differential equations that is both complete and consistent as well as practical, to be used for a 3-D solution of the flow of Helium II. The development of a 3-D numerical model for Helium II is motivated by the need to validate experimental results obtained by observing the normal component velocity distribution in a Helium II thermal counter-flow using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique.

  7. Assessing and improving seismic tomography models using 3-D numerical wave simulations. Geologica Ultraiectina (308)

    Bozdag, H.E.


    We have reached a stage in seismic tomography where further refinements with classical techniques become very difficult. Advances in numerical methods and computational facilities are providing new opportunities in seismic tomography to enhance the resolution of tomographic mantle images. 3-D numeri

  8. 3D strain map of axially loaded mouse tibia: a numerical analysis validated by experimental measurements.

    Stadelmann, Vincent A; Hocke, Jean; Verhelle, Jensen; Forster, Vincent; Merlini, Francesco; Terrier, Alexandre; Pioletti, Dominique P


    A combined experimental/numerical study was performed to calculate the 3D octahedral shear strain map in a mouse tibia loaded axially. This study is motivated by the fact that the bone remodelling analysis, in this in vivo mouse model should be performed at the zone of highest mechanical stimulus to maximise the measured effects. Accordingly, it is proposed that quantification of bone remodelling should be performed at the tibial crest and at the distal diaphysis. The numerical model could also be used to furnish a more subtle analysis as a precise correlation between local strain and local biological response can be obtained with the experimentally validated numerical model.

  9. 3D Numerical Simulation Analysis of Passive Drag near Free Surface in Swimming

    詹杰民; 李天赠; 陈学彬; 李毓湘; 韦永康


    The aim of this work is to build a 3D numerical model to study the characteristics of passive drag on competitive swimmers taking into account the impact of the free surface. This model solves the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using RNG k-εturbulence closure. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to locate the free surface. The 3D virtual model is created by Computer Aided Industrial Design (CAID) software, Rhinoceros. Firstly, a specific posture of swimming is studied. The simulation results are in good agreement with the data from mannequin towing experiments. The effects of a swimmer’s arms and legs positions on swimming performance are then studied. Finally, it is demonstrated that the present method is capable of simulating gliding near the free surface.

  10. 3D numerical simulation analysis of passive drag near free surface in swimming

    Zhan, Jie-min; Li, Tian-zeng; Chen, Xue-bin; Li, Yok-sheung; Wai, Wing-hong Onyx


    The aim of this work is to build a 3D numerical model to study the characteristics of passive drag on competitive swimmers taking into account the impact of the free surface. This model solves the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using RNG k- ɛ turbulence closure. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to locate the free surface. The 3D virtual model is created by Computer Aided Industrial Design (CAID) software, Rhinoceros. Firstly, a specific posture of swimming is studied. The simulation results are in good agreement with the data from mannequin towing experiments. The effects of a swimmer's arms and legs positions on swimming performance are then studied. Finally, it is demonstrated that the present method is capable of simulating gliding near the free surface.

  11. Mechanical Modelling of Pultrusion Process: 2D and 3D Numerical Approaches

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Akkerman, Remko


    The process induced variations such as residual stresses and distortions are a critical issue in pultrusion, since they affect the structural behavior as well as the mechanical properties and geometrical precision of the final product. In order to capture and investigate these variations......, a mechanical analysis should be performed. In the present work, the two dimensional (2D) quasi-static plane strain mechanical model for the pultrusion of a thick square profile developed by the authors is further improved using generalized plane strain elements. In addition to that, a more advanced 3D thermo......-chemical-mechanical analysis is carried out using 3D quadratic elements which is a novel application for the numerical modelling of the pultrusion process. It is found that the 2D mechanical models give relatively reasonable and accurate stress and displacement evolutions in the transverse direction as compared to the 3D...

  12. 3-D mesoscale MHD simulations of magnetospheric cusp-like configurations: cusp diamagnetic cavities and boundary structure

    E. Adamson


    Full Text Available We present results from mesoscale simulations of the magnetospheric cusp region for both strongly northward and strongly southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. Simulation results indicate an extended region of depressed magnetic field and strongly enhanced plasma β which exhibits a strong dependence on IMF orientation. These structures correspond to the Cusp Diamagnetic Cavities (CDC's. The typical features of these CDC's are generally well reproduced by the simulation. The inner boundaries between the CDC and the magnetosphere are gradual transitions which form a clear funnel shape, regardless of IMF orientation. The outer CDC/magnetosheath boundary exhibits a clear indentation in both the x-z and y-z planes for southward IMF, while it is only indented in the x-z plane for northward, with a convex geometry in the y-z plane. The outer boundary represents an Alfvénic transition, mostly consistent with a slow-shock, indicating that reconnection plays an important role in structuring the high-altitude cusp region.



    The use of 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is proposed to simulate the conjugate conduction-convection of heat transfer problems in eccentric annularfinned tube heat exchangers. The numerical simulation results allow us to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient over fin surfaces, the fin efficiency and the pressure drop. The aim of the present paper is to determine the optimum tube position in the circular fin that maximizes heat dissipation and minimizes pressure drop. In addition, th...

  14. 3D-FSM·DDM IBEM numerical system of multi-medium

    QIN Zhong-cheng; LIU Cheng-lun; ZHAO Qian-qiao; ZHAO Zhi-ye


    Based on the idea of the developed 3D-FSM·DDM boundary element method,the field with muti-medium was formulized firstly, then connected at the interface of two fields according to the continuous conditions of stress and displacement, after that, a boundary value problem with unified model was formed and solved. Ultimately, an applied numerical simulation system was developed. It was compared with the model having analytical solution for verifying the applicability and the calculating precision.

  15. Numerical Study of the Interaction Between an Internal Tide and Mesoscale/Submesoscale Turbulence

    Klein, P.; Ponte, A.


    Interactions between internal tides and mesoscale eddies are believed to be responsible for the incoherency of internal tides observed globally. This incoherency complicates the analysis of future high resolution altimetric missions (SWOT, COMPIRA). Attempts at quantifying the product of these interactions have been achieved with models of the ocean global circulation. These models resolve however the first few vertical modes of internal tide and their ability to represent interactions between internal tides and balanced circulation has to be tested against controlled high resolution numerical simulations. We present here first attempts in order to study such interactions in a controlled idealized setting. High resolution (1 km horizontal grid size) numerical simulations of mesoscale/submesoscale turbulence are produced by destabilizing a baroclinic jet in a zonally-periodic channel. An plane wave internal tide is generated inside the domain thanks to a localized wave-maker and propagates through the mesoscale/submesoscale turbulence. We quantify the level of incoherency of the internal tide and study how this level depends on the modal structure of the internal tide and the intensity of the mesoscale/submesoscale turbulence.

  16. 3D Nonlinear Numerical Simulation of Intact and Debonded Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Chen Quan(陈权); Marcus L.


    To study the behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) structures with sections of concrete removed and the reinforcement exposed, 3D nonlinear numerical analysis was performed upon both intact and debonded RC beams by using finite element techniques. The deformational characteristics and the ultimate loads were obtained through numerical models, as well as crack and stress distributions. The failure modes can also be deduced from computational results. Compared with intact beams, the normal assumptions of plane section behaviour is not hold true and the patterns of stress and strain are different in debonded RC beams. The numerical results show good consistency with experimental data. This kind of numerical simulation is a supplement to existing codes.

  17. Numerical Simulation of Transient Flows around a 3D Pitching Hydrofoil

    Qin Wu


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of the transient flows around a 3D pitching hydrofoil via numerical studies, where the effects of tunnel wall boundary layer and gap flows are considered. Simulations are performed using an unsteady Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes solver and the k-ω SST turbulence model, coupled with a two-equation γ-Reθ transition model. Hydrodynamic forces and flow structures are compared to the results with the equivalent 2D computations. During the upward pitching stage, the transition phenomenon is accurately captured by both the 2D and 3D simulations. The slightly lower lift and suction side loading coefficients predicted by the 3D simulation are due to the pressure effects caused by the tip gap flow. During the dynamic stall stage, the 2D case exhibits a clear overshoot on the hydrodynamic force coefficients and the 3D simulation results better agree with the experimental results. During the downward pitching stage, the flow transitions back to laminar. As for the effect of gap flow and the wall boundary condition, the gap flow causes disturbances to the formation and development of the vortex structures, resulting in the complex distribution of the three-dimensional streamlines and the particle path.

  18. Numerical investigations on cavitation intensity for 3D homogeneous unsteady viscous flows

    Leclercq, C.; Archer, A.; Fortes-Patella, R.


    The cavitation erosion remains an industrial issue. In this paper, we deal with the cavitation intensity which can be described as the aggressiveness - or erosive capacity - of a cavitating flow. The estimation of this intensity is a challenging problem both in terms of modelling the cavitating flow and predicting the erosion due to cavitation. For this purpose, a model was proposed to estimate cavitation intensity from 3D unsteady cavitating flow simulations. An intensity model based on pressure and void fraction derivatives was developped and applied to a NACA 65012 hydrofoil tested at LMH-EPFL (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) [1]. 2D and 3D unsteady cavitating simulations were performed using a homogeneous model with void fraction transport equation included in Code_Saturne with cavitating module [2]. The article presents a description of the numerical code and the physical approach considered. Comparisons between 2D and 3D simulations, as well as between numerical and experimental results obtained by pitting tests, are analyzed in the paper.

  19. 3-D Numerical Modeling of Heat Transport Phenomena in Soil under Climatic Conditions of Southern Thailand

    Jompob WAEWSAK


    Full Text Available This paper presents a 3-D numerical modeling of heat transport phenomena in soil due to a change of sensible and latent heat, under the ambient conditions of southern Thailand. The vertical soil temperature profile within 3 m was predicted based on energy balance and 3 modes of heat transfer mechanisms, i.e., conduction, convection, and radiation. Mathematical models for estimation of solar radiation intensity, ambient and sky temperatures, relative humidity, and surface wind velocity were used as model inputs. 3-D numerical implicit finite difference schemes, i.e., forward time, and forward, center, and backward spaces were used for discretizing the set of governing, initial, and boundary condition equations. The set of pseudo-linear equations were then solved using the single step Gauss-Seidel iteration method. Computer code was developed by using MATLAB computer software. The soil physical effects; density, thermal conductivity, emissivity, absorptivity, and latent heat on amplitude of soil temperature variation were investigated. Numerical results were validated in comparison to the experimental results. It was found that 3-D numerical modeling could predict the soil temperature to almost the same degree as results that were obtained by experimentation, especially at a depth of 1 m. The root mean square error at ground surface and at depths of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 m were 0.169, 0.153, 0.097, 0.116, 0.120, 0.115, and 0.098, respectively. Furthermore, it was found that variation of soil temperature occurred within 0.75 m only.

  20. The Vajont disaster: a 3D numerical simulation for the slide and the waves

    Rubino, Angelo; Androsov, Alexey; Vacondio, Renato; Zanchettin, Davide; Voltzinger, Naum


    A very high resolution O(5 m), 3D hydrostatic nonlinear numerical model was used to simulate the dynamics of both the slide and the surface waves produced during the Vajont disaster (north Italy, 1963), one of the major landslide-induced tsunamis ever documented. Different simulated wave phenomena like, e.g., maximum run-up on the opposite shore, maximum height, and water velocity were analyzed and compared with data available in literature, including the results of a fully 3D simulation obtained with a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic code. The difference between measured and simulated after-slide bathymetries was calculated and used in an attempt to quantify the relative magnitude and extension of rigid and fluid motion components during the event.

  1. Numerical simulations of self-propelled swimming of 3D bionic fish school


    Numerical simulations of self-propelled swimming of a three dimensional bionic fish and fish school in a viscous fluid are carried out. This is done with the assistance of a parallel software package produced for 3D moving boundary problems. This computational fluid dynamics package combines the adaptive multi-grid finite volume method, the immersed boundary method and VOF (volume of fluid) method. By using the package results of the self-propelled swimming of a 3D bionic fish and fish school in a vis- cous fluid are obtained. With comparison to the existing experimental measurements of living fishes, the predicted structure of vortical wakes is in good agreement with the measurements.

  2. An innovative 3-D numerical modelling procedure for simulating repository-scale excavations in rock - SAFETI

    Young, R. P.; Collins, D.; Hazzard, J.; Heath, A. [Department of Earth Sciences, Liverpool University, 4 Brownlow street, UK-0 L69 3GP Liverpool (United Kingdom); Pettitt, W.; Baker, C. [Applied Seismology Consultants LTD, 10 Belmont, Shropshire, UK-S41 ITE Shrewsbury (United Kingdom); Billaux, D.; Cundall, P.; Potyondy, D.; Dedecker, F. [Itasca Consultants S.A., Centre Scientifique A. Moiroux, 64, chemin des Mouilles, F69130 Ecully (France); Svemar, C. [Svensk Karnbranslemantering AB, SKB, Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory, PL 300, S-57295 Figeholm (Sweden); Lebon, P. [ANDRA, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 7, rue Jean Monnet, F-92298 Chatenay-Malabry (France)


    This paper presents current results from work performed within the European Commission project SAFETI. The main objective of SAFETI is to develop and test an innovative 3D numerical modelling procedure that will enable the 3-D simulation of nuclear waste repositories in rock. The modelling code is called AC/DC (Adaptive Continuum/ Dis-Continuum) and is partially based on Itasca Consulting Group's Particle Flow Code (PFC). Results are presented from the laboratory validation study where algorithms and procedures have been developed and tested to allow accurate 'Models for Rock' to be produced. Preliminary results are also presented on the use of AC/DC with parallel processors and adaptive logic. During the final year of the project a detailed model of the Prototype Repository Experiment at SKB's Hard Rock Laboratory will be produced using up to 128 processors on the parallel super computing facility at Liverpool University. (authors)

  3. Numerical methods for 3D tokamak simulations using a flux-surface independent grid

    Stegmeir, A.; Coster, D.; Maj, O.; Lackner, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, 85748 Garching (Germany)


    A numerical approach for 3D Tokamak simulations using a flux surface independent grid is presented. The grid consists of few poloidal planes with a Cartesian isotropic grid within each poloidal plane. Perpendicular operators can be discretised within a poloidal plane using standard second order finite difference methods. The discretisation of parallel operators is achieved with a field line following map and an interpolation. The application of the support operator method to the parallel diffusion operator conserves the self-adjointness of the operator on the discrete level and keeps the numerical decay rate at a low level. The developed numerical methods can be applied to geometries where an X-point is present. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Numerical modeling of 3-D Position Reconstruction from 3-Axial Planar Spiral Coil Sensor Sensitivity

    Sanjaya, Edi; Viridi, Sparisoma


    A sensitivity profile of a planar spiral coil sensor (PSCS) is proposed and use to generate the relation of 3-D position of object observed using three (PSCS)-s, one in each x, y, and z axis to the sensors response. A numerical procedure using self consistent field-like method to reconstruct the real position of observed object from sensor sensitivity is presented and the results are discussed. Unfortunately, the procedure fails to approach the desired results due to the existence of quadratic terms.

  5. Minimal duality breaking in the Kallen Lehman approach to 3D Ising model: A numerical test

    Astorino, Marco; Canfora, Fabrizio; Martínez, Cristián; Parisi, Luca


    A Kallen-Lehman approach to 3D Ising model is analyzed numerically both at low and high temperatures. It is shown that, even assuming a minimal duality breaking, one can fix three parameters of the model to get a very good agreement with the Monte Carlo results at high temperatures. With the same parameters the agreement is satisfactory both at low and near critical temperatures. How to improve the agreement with Monte Carlo results by introducing a more general duality breaking is shortly discussed.

  6. Numerical investigation of band gaps in 3D printed cantilever-in-mass metamaterials

    Qureshi, Awais; Li, Bing; Tan, K. T.


    In this research, the negative effective mass behavior of elastic/mechanical metamaterials is exhibited by a cantilever-in-mass structure as a proposed design for creating frequency stopping band gaps, based on local resonance of the internal structure. The mass-in-mass unit cell model is transformed into a cantilever-in-mass model using the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. An analytical model of the cantilever-in-mass structure is derived and the effects of geometrical dimensions and material parameters to create frequency band gaps are examined. A two-dimensional finite element model is created to validate the analytical results, and excellent agreement is achieved. The analytical model establishes an easily tunable metamaterial design to realize wave attenuation based on locally resonant frequency. To demonstrate feasibility for 3D printing, the analytical model is employed to design and fabricate 3D printable mechanical metamaterial. A three-dimensional numerical experiment is performed using COMSOL Multiphysics to validate the wave attenuation performance. Results show that the cantilever-in-mass metamaterial is capable of mitigating stress waves at the desired resonance frequency. Our study successfully presents the use of one constituent material to create a 3D printed cantilever-in-mass metamaterial with negative effective mass density for stress wave mitigation purposes.

  7. Volatile transport on inhomogeneous surfaces: II. Numerical calculations (VT3D)

    Young, Leslie A.


    Several distant icy worlds have atmospheres that are in vapor-pressure equilibrium with their surface volatiles, including Pluto, Triton, and, probably, several large KBOs near perihelion. Studies of the volatile and thermal evolution of these have been limited by computational speed, especially for models that treat surfaces that vary with both latitude and longitude. In order to expedite such work, I present a new numerical model for the seasonal behavior of Pluto and Triton which (i) uses initial conditions that improve convergence, (ii) uses an expedient method for handling the transition between global and non-global atmospheres, (iii) includes local conservation of energy and global conservation of mass to partition energy between heating, conduction, and sublimation or condensation, (iv) uses time-stepping algorithms that ensure stability while allowing larger timesteps, and (v) can include longitudinal variability. This model, called VT3D, has been used in Young (2012a, 2012b), Young (2013), Olkin et al. (2015), Young and McKinnon (2013), and French et al. (2015). Many elements of VT3D can be used independently. For example, VT3D can also be used to speed up thermophysical models (Spencer et al., 1989) for bodies without volatiles. Code implementation is included in the supplemental materials and is available from the author.

  8. 3-D-geomechanical-numerical model of the contemporary crustal stress state in the Alberta Basin

    K. Reiter


    Full Text Available In the context of examining the potential usage of safe and sustainable geothermal energy in the Alberta Basin whether in deep sediments or crystalline rock, the understanding of the in-situ stress state is crucial. It is a key challenge to estimate the 3-D stress state at an arbitrary chosen point in the crust, based on sparsely distributed in-situ stress data. To address this challenge, we present a large-scale 3-D geomechanical-numerical model (700 km × 1200 km × 80 km from a large portion of the Alberta Basin, to provide a 3-D continuous quantification of the contemporary stress orientations and stress magnitudes. To calibrate the model, we use a large database of in-situ stress orientation (321 SHmax as well as stress magnitude data (981 SV, 1720 SHmin and 2 (+11 SHmax from the Alberta Basin. To find the best-fit model we vary the material properties and primarily the kinematic boundary conditions of the model. This study focusses in detail on the statistical calibration procedure, because of the large amount of available data, the diversity of data types, and the importance of the order of data tests. The best-fit model provides the total 3-D stress tensor for nearly the whole Alberta Basin and allows estimation of stress orientation and stress magnitudes in advance of any well. First order implications for the well design and configuration of enhanced geothermal systems are revealed. Systematic deviations of the modelled stress from in-situ data are found for stress orientations in the Peace River- and the Bow Island Arch as well as for leak-off-test magnitudes.

  9. Numerical Simulation of the Protective Effect of Complex Boundaries Toward Shock Waves in a 3D Explosive Field

    吴开腾; 宁建国


    A numerical method is presented that simulates 3D explosive field problems. A code MMIC3D using this method can be used to simulate the propagation and reflected effects of all kinds of rigid boundaries to shock waves produced by an explosive source. These numerical results indicate that the code MMIC3D has the ability in computing cases such as 3D shock waves produced by air explosion, vortex region of the shock wave, the Mach wave, and reflected waves behind rigid boundaries.

  10. Numerical nonlinear complex geometrical optics algorithm for the 3D Calderón problem

    Delbary, Fabrice; Knudsen, Kim


    The Calderon problem is the mathematical formulation of the inverse problem in Electrical Impedance Tomography and asks for the uniqueness and reconstruction of an electrical conductivity distribution in a bounded domain from the knowledge of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map associated to the general...... to the simpler approximations. In addition, convergence of the numerical solution towards the exact solution of the boundary integral equation is proved....... to the generalized Laplace equation. The 3D problem was solved in theory in late 1980s using complex geometrical optics solutions and a scattering transform. Several approximations to the reconstruction method have been suggested and implemented numerically in the literature, but here, for the first time, a complete...... computer implementation of the full nonlinear algorithm is given. First a boundary integral equation is solved by a Nystrom method for the traces of the complex geometrical optics solutions, second the scattering transform is computed and inverted using fast Fourier transform, and finally a boundary value...


    Hou-de Han; Dong-sheng Yin


    In this paper, the numerical solutions of heat equation on 3-D unbounded spatial domain are considered. An artificial boundary Γ is introduced to finite the computational domain. On the artificial boundary Γ, the exact boundary condition and a series of approximating boundary conditions are derived, which are called artificial boundary conditions.By the exact or approximating boundary condition on the artificial boundary, the original problem is reduced to an initial-boundary value problem on the bounded computational domain, which is equivalent or approximating to the original problem. The finite difference method and finite element method are used to solve the reduced problems on the finite computational domain. The numerical results demonstrate that the method given in this paper is effective and feasible.

  12. Parareal in time 3D numerical solver for the LWR Benchmark neutron diffusion transient model

    Baudron, Anne-Marie, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Recherche Conventionné MANON, CEA/DEN/DANS/DM2S and UPMC-CNRS/LJLL (France); CEA-DRN/DMT/SERMA, CEN-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Lautard, Jean-Jacques, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Recherche Conventionné MANON, CEA/DEN/DANS/DM2S and UPMC-CNRS/LJLL (France); CEA-DRN/DMT/SERMA, CEN-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Maday, Yvon, E-mail: [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions and Institut Universitaire de France, F-75005, Paris (France); Laboratoire de Recherche Conventionné MANON, CEA/DEN/DANS/DM2S and UPMC-CNRS/LJLL (France); Brown Univ, Division of Applied Maths, Providence, RI (United States); Riahi, Mohamed Kamel, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Recherche Conventionné MANON, CEA/DEN/DANS/DM2S and UPMC-CNRS/LJLL (France); CMAP, Inria-Saclay and X-Ecole Polytechnique, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Salomon, Julien, E-mail: [CEREMADE, Univ Paris-Dauphine, Pl. du Mal. de Lattre de Tassigny, F-75016, Paris (France)


    In this paper we present a time-parallel algorithm for the 3D neutrons calculation of a transient model in a nuclear reactor core. The neutrons calculation consists in numerically solving the time dependent diffusion approximation equation, which is a simplified transport equation. The numerical resolution is done with finite elements method based on a tetrahedral meshing of the computational domain, representing the reactor core, and time discretization is achieved using a θ-scheme. The transient model presents moving control rods during the time of the reaction. Therefore, cross-sections (piecewise constants) are taken into account by interpolations with respect to the velocity of the control rods. The parallelism across the time is achieved by an adequate use of the parareal in time algorithm to the handled problem. This parallel method is a predictor corrector scheme that iteratively combines the use of two kinds of numerical propagators, one coarse and one fine. Our method is made efficient by means of a coarse solver defined with large time step and fixed position control rods model, while the fine propagator is assumed to be a high order numerical approximation of the full model. The parallel implementation of our method provides a good scalability of the algorithm. Numerical results show the efficiency of the parareal method on large light water reactor transient model corresponding to the Langenbuch–Maurer–Werner benchmark.

  13. 3-D-numerical approach to simulate an avalanche impact into a reservoir

    R. Gabl


    Full Text Available The impact of an avalanche into a reservoir induces an impulse wave, which poses a threat to population and infrastructure. For a good approximation of the generated wave height and length as well as the resulting outflow volume over structures and dams, formulas, which base on different simplifying assumptions, can be used. Further project-specific investigations by means of a scale model test or numerical simulations are advisable for complex reservoirs as well as the inclusion of hydraulic structures such as spillways. The paper presents a new approach for a 3-D-numerical simulation of an avalanche impact into a reservoir. In this model concept the energy and mass of the avalanche are represented by accelerated water on the real hill slope. Instead of snow, only water and air are used to simulate the moving avalanche with the software FLOW-3D. A significant advantage of this assumption is the self-adaptation of the model avalanche onto the terrain. In order to reach good comparability of the results with existing research at the ETH Zürich, a simplified reservoir geometry is investigated. Thus, a reference case has been analysed including a variation of three geometry parameters (still water depth in the reservoir, freeboard of the dam and reservoir width.

  14. 3-D numerical investigation of subsurface flow in anisotropic porous media using multipoint flux approximation method

    Negara, Ardiansyah


    Anisotropy of hydraulic properties of subsurface geologic formations is an essential feature that has been established as a consequence of the different geologic processes that they undergo during the longer geologic time scale. With respect to petroleum reservoirs, in many cases, anisotropy plays significant role in dictating the direction of flow that becomes no longer dependent only on the pressure gradient direction but also on the principal directions of anisotropy. Furthermore, in complex systems involving the flow of multiphase fluids in which the gravity and the capillarity play an important role, anisotropy can also have important influences. Therefore, there has been great deal of motivation to consider anisotropy when solving the governing conservation laws numerically. Unfortunately, the two-point flux approximation of finite difference approach is not capable of handling full tensor permeability fields. Lately, however, it has been possible to adapt the multipoint flux approximation that can handle anisotropy to the framework of finite difference schemes. In multipoint flux approximation method, the stencil of approximation is more involved, i.e., it requires the involvement of 9-point stencil for the 2-D model and 27-point stencil for the 3-D model. This is apparently challenging and cumbersome when making the global system of equations. In this work, we apply the equation-type approach, which is the experimenting pressure field approach that enables the solution of the global problem breaks into the solution of multitude of local problems that significantly reduce the complexity without affecting the accuracy of numerical solution. This approach also leads in reducing the computational cost during the simulation. We have applied this technique to a variety of anisotropy scenarios of 3-D subsurface flow problems and the numerical results demonstrate that the experimenting pressure field technique fits very well with the multipoint flux approximation

  15. Implementation of a 3d numerical model of a folded multilayer carbonate aquifer

    Di Salvo, Cristina; Guyennon, Nicolas; Romano, Emanuele; Bruna Petrangeli, Anna; Preziosi, Elisabetta


    The main objective of this research is to present a case study of the numerical model implementation of a complex carbonate, structurally folded aquifer, with a finite difference, porous equivalent model. The case study aquifer (which extends over 235 km2 in the Apennine chain, Central Italy) provides a long term average of 3.5 m3/s of good quality groundwater to the surface river network, sustaining the minimum vital flow, and it is planned to be exploited in the next years for public water supply. In the downstream part of the river in the study area, a "Site of Community Importance" include the Nera River for its valuable aquatic fauna. However, the possible negative effects of the foreseen exploitation on groundwater dependent ecosystems are a great concern and model grounded scenarios are needed. This multilayer aquifer was conceptualized as five hydrostratigraphic units: three main aquifers (the uppermost unconfined, the central and the deepest partly confined), are separated by two locally discontinuous aquitards. The Nera river cuts through the two upper aquifers and acts as the main natural sink for groundwater. An equivalent porous medium approach was chosen. The complex tectonic structure of the aquifer requires several steps in defining the conceptual model; the presence of strongly dipping layers with very heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity, results in different thicknesses of saturated portions. Aquifers can have both unconfined or confined zones; drying and rewetting must be allowed when considering recharge/discharge cycles. All these characteristics can be included in the conceptual and numerical model; however, being the number of flow and head target scarce, the over-parametrization of the model must be avoided. Following the principle of parsimony, three steady state numerical models were developed, starting from a simple model, and then adding complexity: 2D (single layer), QUASI -3D (with leackage term simulating flow through aquitards) and

  16. Terascale direct numerical simulations of turbulent combustion using S3D.

    Sankaran, Ramanan; Mellor-Crummy, J.; DeVries, M.; Yoo, Chun Sang; Ma, K. L.; Podhorski, N.; Liao, W. K.; Klasky, S.; de Supinski, B.; Choudhary, A.; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Chen, Jacqueline H.; Shende, Sameer


    Computational science is paramount to the understanding of underlying processes in internal combustion engines of the future that will utilize non-petroleum-based alternative fuels, including carbon-neutral biofuels, and burn in new combustion regimes that will attain high efficiency while minimizing emissions of particulates and nitrogen oxides. Next-generation engines will likely operate at higher pressures, with greater amounts of dilution and utilize alternative fuels that exhibit a wide range of chemical and physical properties. Therefore, there is a significant role for high-fidelity simulations, direct numerical simulations (DNS), specifically designed to capture key turbulence-chemistry interactions in these relatively uncharted combustion regimes, and in particular, that can discriminate the effects of differences in fuel properties. In DNS, all of the relevant turbulence and flame scales are resolved numerically using high-order accurate numerical algorithms. As a consequence terascale DNS are computationally intensive, require massive amounts of computing power and generate tens of terabytes of data. Recent results from terascale DNS of turbulent flames are presented here, illustrating its role in elucidating flame stabilization mechanisms in a lifted turbulent hydrogen/air jet flame in a hot air co-flow, and the flame structure of a fuel-lean turbulent premixed jet flame. Computing at this scale requires close collaborations between computer and combustion scientists to provide optimized scaleable algorithms and software for terascale simulations, efficient collective parallel I/O, tools for volume visualization of multiscale, multivariate data and automating the combustion workflow. The enabling computer science, applied to combustion science, is also required in many other terascale physics and engineering simulations. In particular, performance monitoring is used to identify the performance of key kernels in the DNS code, S3D and especially memory

  17. Terascale direct numerical simulations of turbulent combustion using S3D

    Chen, J. H.; Choudhary, A.; de Supinski, B.; DeVries, M.; Hawkes, E. R.; Klasky, S.; Liao, W. K.; Ma, K. L.; Mellor-Crummey, J.; Podhorszki, N.; Sankaran, R.; Shende, S.; Yoo, C. S.


    Computational science is paramount to the understanding of underlying processes in internal combustion engines of the future that will utilize non-petroleum-based alternative fuels, including carbon-neutral biofuels, and burn in new combustion regimes that will attain high efficiency while minimizing emissions of particulates and nitrogen oxides. Next-generation engines will likely operate at higher pressures, with greater amounts of dilution and utilize alternative fuels that exhibit a wide range of chemical and physical properties. Therefore, there is a significant role for high-fidelity simulations, direct numerical simulations (DNS), specifically designed to capture key turbulence-chemistry interactions in these relatively uncharted combustion regimes, and in particular, that can discriminate the effects of differences in fuel properties. In DNS, all of the relevant turbulence and flame scales are resolved numerically using high-order accurate numerical algorithms. As a consequence terascale DNS are computationally intensive, require massive amounts of computing power and generate tens of terabytes of data. Recent results from terascale DNS of turbulent flames are presented here, illustrating its role in elucidating flame stabilization mechanisms in a lifted turbulent hydrogen/air jet flame in a hot air coflow, and the flame structure of a fuel-lean turbulent premixed jet flame. Computing at this scale requires close collaborations between computer and combustion scientists to provide optimized scaleable algorithms and software for terascale simulations, efficient collective parallel I/O, tools for volume visualization of multiscale, multivariate data and automating the combustion workflow. The enabling computer science, applied to combustion science, is also required in many other terascale physics and engineering simulations. In particular, performance monitoring is used to identify the performance of key kernels in the DNS code, S3D and especially memory

  18. Early Earth plume-lid tectonics: A high-resolution 3D numerical modelling approach

    Fischer, R.; Gerya, T.


    Geological-geochemical evidence point towards higher mantle potential temperature and a different type of tectonics (global plume-lid tectonics) in the early Earth (>3.2 Ga) compared to the present day (global plate tectonics). In order to investigate tectono-magmatic processes associated with plume-lid tectonics and crustal growth under hotter mantle temperature conditions, we conduct a series of 3D high-resolution magmatic-thermomechanical models with the finite-difference code I3ELVIS. No external plate tectonic forces are applied to isolate 3D effects of various plume-lithosphere and crust-mantle interactions. Results of the numerical experiments show two distinct phases in coupled crust-mantle evolution: (1) a longer (80-100 Myr) and relatively quiet 'growth phase' which is marked by growth of crust and lithosphere, followed by (2) a short (∼20 Myr) and catastrophic 'removal phase', where unstable parts of the crust and mantle lithosphere are removed by eclogitic dripping and later delamination. This modelling suggests that the early Earth plume-lid tectonic regime followed a pattern of episodic growth and removal also called episodic overturn with a periodicity of ∼100 Myr.

  19. Generating Irregular Models for 3D Spherical-Particle-Based Numerical Methods

    Gang-Hai Huang


    Full Text Available The realistic representation of an irregular geological body is essential to the construction of a particle simulation model. A three-dimensional (3D sphere generator for an irregular model (SGIM, which is based on the platform of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC in VC++, is developed to accurately simulate the inherent discontinuities in geological bodies. OpenGL is employed to visualize the modeling in the SGIM. Three key functions, namely, the basic-model-setup function, the excavating function, and the cutting function, are implemented. An open-pit slope is simulated using the proposed model. The results demonstrate that an extremely irregular 3D model of a geological body can be generated using the SGIM and that various types of discontinuities can be inserted to cut the model. The data structure of the model that is generated by the SGIM is versatile and can be easily modified to match various numerical calculation tools. This can be helpful in the application of particle simulation methods to large-scale geoengineering projects.

  20. 3D numerical simulation of the evolutionary process of aeolian downsized crescent-shaped dunes

    Zhou, Xiaosi; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Yuan; Li, Min


    A dune constitutive model was coupled with a large eddy simulation (LES) with the Smagorinsky subgrid-scale (SGS) model to accurately describe the evolutionary process of dunes from the macroscopic perspective of morphological dynamics. A 3D numerical simulation of the evolution of aeolian downsized crescent-shaped dunes was then performed. The evolution of the 3D structure of Gaussian-shaped dunes was simulated under the influence of gravity modulation, which was the same with the vertical oscillation of the sand bed to adjust the threshold of sand grain liftoff in wind tunnel experiments under the same wind speed. The influence of gravity modulation intensity on the characteristic scale parameter of the dune was discussed. Results indicated that the crescent shape of the dune was reproduced with the action of gravity during regulation of the saturation of wind-sand flow at specific times. The crescent shape was not dynamically maintained as time passed, and the dunes dwindled until they reached final decomposition because of wind erosion. The height of the dunes decreased over time, and the height-time curve converged as the intensity of modulation increased linearly. The results qualitatively agreed with those obtained from wind tunnel experiments.

  1. 3D printing device for numerical control machine and wood deposition

    Julien Gardan


    Full Text Available The paper presents the development of a new sustainable approach in additive manufacturing adapted on a Numerical Control (NC machining. Wood has several advantages that are transferable to various derivatives allowing the introduction of sustainable material into the product lifecycle. The application involves the integration of wood pulp into rapid prototyping solutions. Wood is the main material studied for its ecological aspect. The primary goal was to create reconstituted wood objects through a rapid manufacturing. Additive manufacturing technology is most commonly used for modeling, prototyping, tooling through an exclusive machine or 3D printer. An overall review and an analysis of technologies show that the additive manufacturing presents some little independent solutions [9] [12]. The problem studied especially the additive manufacturing limits to produce an ecological product with materials from biomass. The study developed a 3d printing head as solution for shaping wood pulp or powder materials. Some technological problematic require enslavement to the NC controller, the programming building of model, and the realization of wood pulp. This work also presents a wood pulping process characterized by adding wood flour and starch. A machine implementation and some application examples used for its development are presented.

  2. Shear Behavior of 3D Woven Hollow Integrated Sandwich Composites: Experimental, Theoretical and Numerical Study

    Zhou, Guangming; Liu, Chang; Cai, Deng'an; Li, Wenlong; Wang, Xiaopei


    An experimental, theoretical and numerical investigation on the shear behavior of 3D woven hollow integrated sandwich composites was presented in this paper. The microstructure of the composites was studied, then the shear modulus and load-deflection curves were obtained by double lap shear tests on the specimens in two principal directions of the sandwich panels, called warp and weft. The experimental results showed that the shear modulus of the warp was higher than that of the weft and the failure occurred in the roots of piles. A finite element model was established to predict the shear behavior of the composites. The simulated results agreed well with the experimental data. Simultaneously, a theoretical method was developed to predict the shear modulus. By comparing with the experimental data, the accuracy of the theoretical method was verified. The influence of structural parameters on shear modulus was also discussed. The higher yarn number, yarn density and dip angle of the piles could all improve the shear modulus of 3D woven hollow integrated sandwich composites at different levels, while the increasing height would decrease the shear modulus.

  3. Coupling a Mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction Model with Large-Eddy Simulation for Realistic Wind Plant Aerodynamics Simulations (Poster)

    Draxl, C.; Churchfield, M.; Mirocha, J.; Lee, S.; Lundquist, J.; Michalakes, J.; Moriarty, P.; Purkayastha, A.; Sprague, M.; Vanderwende, B.


    Wind plant aerodynamics are influenced by a combination of microscale and mesoscale phenomena. Incorporating mesoscale atmospheric forcing (e.g., diurnal cycles and frontal passages) into wind plant simulations can lead to a more accurate representation of microscale flows, aerodynamics, and wind turbine/plant performance. Our goal is to couple a numerical weather prediction model that can represent mesoscale flow [specifically the Weather Research and Forecasting model] with a microscale LES model (OpenFOAM) that can predict microscale turbulence and wake losses.

  4. Numerical Investigation of Nozzle Geometry Effect on Turbulent 3-D Water Offset Jet Flows

    Negar Mohammad Aliha


    Full Text Available Using the Yang-Shih low Reynolds k-ε turbulence model, the mean flow field of a turbulent offset jet issuing from a long circular pipe was numerically investigated. The experimental results were used to verify the numerical results such as decay rate of streamwise velocity, locus of maximum streamwise velocity, jet half width in the wall normal and lateral directions, and jet velocity profiles. The present study focused attention on the influence of nozzle geometry on the evolution of a 3D incompressible turbulent offset jet. Circular, square-shaped, and rectangular nozzles were considered here. A comparison between the mean flow characteristics of offset jets issuing from circular and square-shaped nozzles, which had equal area and mean exit velocity, were made numerically. Moreover, the effect of aspect ratio of rectangular nozzles on the main features of the flow was investigated. It was shown that the spread rate, flow entrainment, and mixing rate of an offset jet issuing from circular nozzle are lower than square-shaped one. In addition, it was demonstrated that the aspect ratio of the rectangular nozzles only affects the mean flow field of the offset jet in the near field (up to 15 times greater than equivalent diameter of the nozzles. Furthermore, other parameters including the wall shear stress, flow entrainment and the length of potential core were also investigated.


    ZHANG Jin-feng; YUAN Shou-qi; FU Yong-hong; FANG Yu-jian


    Numerical simulation of 3-D inner flow between Up-stream Pumping Mechanical Face Seals (UPMFS) faces was initially done by CFD software, which made the flow visualization come true.Simulation results directly discover the action of hydrodynamic lubrication, and by comparison with that of Conventional Mechanic Face Seals (CMFS), the advantage over bigger bearing capability, less friction and much less leakage are explained clearly.Otherwise there are also some different ideas and results from precedent analysis and computational research results: dynamic and static pressure profiles can be obtained respectively instead of the analytic total pressure distribution only, pressure distribution is nonlinear, while always be solved as linear, lower pressure is observed at the area of inner diameter caused by the grooves, but its possible cavitations effects to the performance of UPMFS still need further study.


    JI Sheng Cheng; OUAHSINE Abdellatif; SMAOUI Hassan; SERGENT Philippe


    We consider waves generated by the passing of convoys in a restricted waterway.The magnitude of these waves depends mainly on the geometrical and kinematical parameters of the convoy,such as the speed and the hull geometry.The objective of this study is to predict the relationship between these geometrical and kinematical parameters and the amplitude of ship-generated waves as well as the water plane drawdown.Numerical simulations are conducted by solving the 3-D Navier-Stokes equations along with the standard k-ε model for turbulent processes.The results are compared first with the empirical model and second with experimental measurements performed by the French company Compagnie National du Rh(o)ne (CNR).

  7. Numerical Simulations of Flow in a 3-D Supersonic Intake at High Mach Numbers

    R. Sivakumar


    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of the compressible, 3-D non reacting flow in the engine inlet sectionof a concept hypersonic air-breathing vehicle are presented. These simulations have been carriedout using FLUENT. For all the results reported, the mesh has been refined to achieve areaaveragedwall y+ about 105. Mass flow rate through the intake and stagnation pressure recoveryare used to compare the performance at various angles of attack. The calculations are able topredict the mode of air-intake operation (critical and subcritical for different angles of attack.Flow distortion at the intake for various angles of attack is also calculated and discussed. Thenumerical results are validated by simulating the flow through a 2-D mixed compression hypersonicintake model and comparing with the experimental data.

  8. 3-D transient numerical simulation on the process of laser cladding by powder feeding

    Yanlu Huang; Gongying Liang; Junyi Su


    A 3-D transient mathematical model for laser cladding by powder feeding was developed to examine the macroscopic heat and momentum transport during the process, based on which a novel method for determining the configuration and thickness of cladding layer was presented. By using Lambert-Beer theorem and Mie′s theory, the interaction between powder stream and laser beam was treated to evoke their subtle effects on heat transfer and fluid flow in laser molten pool. The numerical study was performed in a co-ordinate system moving with the laser at a constant scanning speed. A fixed grid enthalpy-porosity approach was used,which predicted the evolutionary development of the laser molten pool. The commercial software PHOENICS, to which several modules were appended, was used to accomplish the simulation. The results obtained by the simulation were coincident with those measured in experiment basically.

  9. Full 3-D numerical modeling of borehole electric image logging and the evaluation model of fracture


    A full 3-D finite element method numerical modeling program is written based on the principle and technical specification of borehole electric image well logging tool. The response of well logging is computed in the formation media model with a single fracture. The effect of changing fracture aperture and resistivity ratio to the logging response is discussed. The identification ability for two parallel fractures is also present. A quantitative evaluation formula of fracture aperture from borehole electric image logging data is set up. A case study of the model well is done to verify the accuracy of the for-mula. The result indicates that the formula is more accurate than the foreign one.

  10. Volatile transport on inhomogeneous surfaces: II. Numerical calculations (VT3D)

    Young, Leslie A


    Several distant icy worlds have atmospheres that are in vapor-pressure equilibrium with their surface volatiles, including Pluto, Triton, and, probably, several large KBOs near perihelion. Studies of the volatile and thermal evolution of these have been limited by computational speed, especially for models that treat surfaces that vary with both latitude and longitude. In order to expedite such work, I present a new numerical model for the seasonal behavior of Pluto and Triton which (i) uses initial conditions that improve convergence, (ii) uses an expedient method for handling the transition between global and non-global atmospheres, (iii) includes local conservation of energy and global conservation of mass to partition energy between heating, conduction, and sublimation or condensation, (iv) uses time-stepping algorithms that ensure stability while allowing larger timesteps, and (v) can include longitudinal variability. This model, called VT3D, has been used in Young (2012), Young (2013), Olkin et al. (201...

  11. Comparison between the 3D numerical simulation and experiment of the bubble near different boundaries


    Based on the potential flow theory, the vortex ring is introduced to simulate the toroidal bubble, and the boundary element method is applied to simulate the evo- lution of the bubble. Elastic-plasticity of structure being taken into account, the interaction between the bubble and the elastic-plastic structure is computed by combining the boundary element method (BEM) and the finite element method (FEM), and a corresponding 3D computing program is developed. This program is used to simulate the three-dimensional bubble dynamics in free field, near wall and near the elastic-plastic structure, and the numerical results are compared with the existing experimental results. The error is within 10%. The effects of different boundaries upon the bubble dynamics are presented by studying the bubble dy- namics near different boundaries.

  12. Coupled 3D discrete-continuum numerical modeling of pile penetration in sand

    Jian ZHOU; Qi-wei JIAN; Jiao ZHANG; Jian-jun GUO


    A coupled discrete-continuum simulation incorporating a 3D aspect and non-circular particles was performed to analyze soil-pile interactions during pile penetration in sand.A self-developed non-circular particle numerical simulation program was used which considered sand near the pile as interacted particles using a discrete element method; the sand away from the pile was simulated as a continuous medium exhibiting linear elastic behaviors.The domain analyzed was divided into two zones.Contact forces at the interface between the two zones were obtained from a discrete zone and applied to the continuum boundaries as nodal forces,while the interface velocities were obtained from the continuum zone and applied to the discrete boundaries.We show that the coupled discrete-continuum simulation can give a microscopic description of the pile penetration process without losing the discrete nature of the zone concerned,and may significantly improve computational efticiency.

  13. Insights from 3D numerical simulations on the dynamics of the India-Asia collision zone

    Pusok, A. E.; Kaus, B.; Popov, A.


    The dynamics of the India-Asia collision zone remains one of the most remarkable topics of the current research interest: the transition from subduction to collision and uplift, followed by the rise of the abnormally thick Tibetan plateau, and the deformation at its Eastern and Western syntaxes, are processes still not fully understood. Models that have addressed this topic include wholescale underthrusting of Indian lithospheric mantle under Tibet, distributed homogeneous shortening or the thin-sheet model, slip-line field model for lateral extrusion or lower crustal flow models for the exhumation of the Himalayan units and lateral spreading of the Tibetan plateau. Of these, the thin-sheet model has successfully illustrated some of the basic physics of continental collision and has the advantage of a 3D model being reduced to 2D, but one of its major shortcomings is that it cannot simultaneously represent channel flow and gravitational collapse of the mantle lithosphere, since these mechanisms require the lithosphere to interact with the underlying mantle, or to have a vertically non-homogeneous rheology. As a consequence, 3D models are emerging as powerful tools to understand the dynamics of coupled systems. However, because of yet recent developments and various complexities, the current 3D models simulating the dynamics of continent collision zones have relied on certain explicit assumptions, such as replacing part of the asthenosphere with various types of boundary conditions that mimic the effect of mantle flow, in order to focus on the lithospheric/crustal deformation. Here, we employ the parallel 3D code LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model), with a finite difference staggered grid solver, which is capable of simulating lithospheric deformation while simultaneously taking mantle flow and a free surface into account. We present qualitative results on lithospheric and upper-mantle scale simulations in which the Indian lithosphere is subducted and

  14. Numerical Simulation for Three-Dimensional (3D) Unsteady State Temperature Field in Circumferential Laser Oxygen Cutting of Pipes

    Kaijin HUANG; Dawen ZENG; Changsheng XIE; Desheng XU


    A 3D unsteady state numerical model of heat transfer in the circumferential laser oxygen cutting of pipes wasdeveloped. In order to minimize the computing time required for solving the finite difference equations as much aspossible, the alternating direct

  15. Tidal dynamics of the Terminos Lagoon, Mexico: observations and 3D numerical modelling

    Contreras Ruiz Esparza, Adolfo; Douillet, Pascal; Zavala-Hidalgo, Jorge


    The tidal circulation patterns in the Terminos Lagoon were studied based on the analysis of 1 year of measurements and numerical simulations using a baroclinic 3D hydrodynamic model, the MARS3D. A gauging network was installed consisting of six self-recording pressure-temperature sensors, a tide gauge station and two current profilers, with pressure and temperature sensors moored in the main lagoon inlets. Model simulations were validated against current and sea level observations and were used to analyse the circulation patterns caused by the tidal forcing. The numerical model was forced with eight harmonic components, four diurnal ( K 1, O 1, P 1, Q 1) and four semi-diurnal ( M 2, S 2, N 2, K 2), extracted from the TPX0.7 database. The tidal patterns in the study area vary from mixed, mainly diurnal in the two main inlets of the lagoon, to diurnal in its interior. The tidal residual circulation inside the lagoon is dominated by a cyclonic gyre. The results indicate a net flux from the southwest Ciudad del Carmen inlet (CdC) towards the northeast Puerto Real inlet (PtR) along the southern side of the lagoon and the opposite in the northern side. The results indicate two areas of strong currents in the vicinity of the inlets and weak currents inside the lagoon. The area of strong currents in the vicinity of the CdC inlet is larger than that observed in the PtR inlet. Nevertheless, the current analysis indicates that the highest current speeds, which can reach a magnitude of 1.9 m s-1, occurred in PtR. A further analysis of the tide distortion in the inlets revealed that both passages are ebb dominated.

  16. 3D geomechanical-numerical modelling of the absolute stress state for geothermal reservoir exploration

    Reiter, Karsten; Heidbach, Oliver; Moeck, Inga


    For the assessment and exploration of a potential geothermal reservoir, the contemporary in-situ stress is of key importance in terms of well stability and orientation of possible fluid pathways. However, available data, e.g. Heidbach et al. (2009) or Zang et al. (2012), deliver only point wise information of parts of the six independent components of the stress tensor. Moreover most measurements of the stress orientation and magnitude are done for hydrocarbon industry obvious in shallow depth. Interpolation across long distances or extrapolation into depth is unfavourable, because this would ignore structural features, inhomogeneity's in the crust or other local effects like topography. For this reasons geomechanical numerical modelling is the favourable method to quantify orientations and magnitudes of the 3D stress field for a geothermal reservoir. A geomechanical-numerical modelling, estimating the 3D absolute stress state, requires the initial stress state as model constraints. But in-situ stress measurements within or close by a potential reservoir are rare. For that reason a larger regional geomechanical-numerical model is necessary, which derive boundary conditions for the wanted local reservoir model. Such a large scale model has to be tested against in-situ stress measurements, orientations and magnitudes. Other suitable and available data, like GPS measurements or fault slip rates are useful to constrain kinematic boundary conditions. This stepwise approach from regional to local scale takes all stress field factors into account, from first over second up to third order. As an example we present a large scale crustal and upper mantle 3D-geomechanical-numerical model of the Alberta Basin and the surroundings, which is constructed to describe continuously the full stress tensor. In-situ stress measurements are the most likely data, because they deliver the most direct information's of the stress field and they provide insights into different depths, a

  17. 3D numerical model of the Omega Nebula (M17): simulated thermal X-ray emission

    Reyes-Iturbide, J; Rosado, M; Rodríguez-Gónzalez, A; González, R F; Esquivel, A


    We present 3D hydrodynamical simulations of the superbubble M17, also known as the Omega nebula, carried out with the adaptive grid code yguazu'-a, which includes radiative cooling. The superbubble is modelled considering the winds of 11 individual stars from the open cluster inside the nebula (NGC 6618), for which there are estimates of the mass loss rates and terminal velocities based on their spectral types. These stars are located inside a dense interstellar medium, and they are bounded by two dense molecular clouds. We carried out three numerical models of this scenario, considering different line of sight positions of the stars (the position in the plane of the sky is known, thus fixed). Synthetic thermal X-ray emission maps are calculated from the numerical models and compared with ROSAT observations of this astrophysical object. Our models reproduce successfully both the observed X-ray morphology and the total X-ray luminosity, without taking into account thermal conduction effects.

  18. The Making of FR Is I. Numerical Hydrodynamic 3D Simulations of Low Power Jets

    Massaglia, S; Rossi, P; Capetti, S; Mignone, A


    Extragalactic radiosources have been classified in two classes, Fanaroff-Riley I and II, which differ in morphology and radio power. Strongly emitting sources belong to the edge brightened FR II class while the weak ones to the edge darkened FR I class. The origin of this dichotomy is not yet fully understood. Numerical simulations are successful in generating FR~II morphologies but they fail to reproduce the diffuse structure of FR Is. By means of hydro-dynamical 3D simulations of supersonic jets, we investigate how the displayed morphologies depend on the jet parameters. Bow shocks and Mach disks at the jet's head, likely responsible for the presence of hot spots in the FR II sources, disappear for a jet kinetic power less than 10^43 erg/s. This threshold compares favorably with the luminosity at which the FR~I/FR~II transition is observed. The problem is addressed by numerical means carrying out three-dimensional HD simulations of supersonic jets that propagate in a non homogeneous medium with the ambient ...




    Full Text Available The use of 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD is proposed to simulate the conjugate conduction-convection of heat transfer problems in eccentric annularfinned tube heat exchangers. The numerical simulation results allow us to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient over fin surfaces, the fin efficiency and the pressure drop. The aim of the present paper is to determine the optimum tube position in the circular fin that maximizes heat dissipation and minimizes pressure drop. In addition, this study analyzes the effects of fin spacing and fin tube diameter on heat transfer and flow characteristics for a range of Reynolds numbers, 4500≤Re≤22500. A satisfactory qualitative and quantitative agreement was obtained between the numerical predictions and the results published in the literature. For small fin spacings, the eccentric annular finned tube is more efficient than the concentric one. Among the cases examined, the average heat transfer coefficient of the eccentric annular-finned tube, for a tube shift St =12 mm and a Reynolds number Re = 9923, was 7.61% greater than that of the concentric one. This gain is associated with a 43.09% reduction in pressure drop.

  20. Numerical simulation of unsteady flow characteristics for cavitation around a 3-D hydrofoil

    Ahn, S. H.; Xiao, Y. X.; Wang, Z. W.


    At present it is possible to predict more accurately by various numerical methods established for cavitation simulation around a hydrofoil. However, for the solution of the complex unsteady cavity flow, it is still marginal. In this paper, numerical method is adopted to simulate cavitation around 3-D NACA0015 hydrofoil with homogeneous two-phase flow calculation using commercial code CFX-solver with two turbulence models, the standard RNG k-epsilon turbulence model and the modified RNG k-epsilon turbulence model respectively. First, pressure coefficient for non-cavitating flow, time averaged values of unsteady cavity flow around a hydrofoil are verified to simulate more closely to an actual cavity flow. And then frequency analysis is performed with Fast Fourier Transform. The results show that the calculation results with modified RNG k-epsilon turbulence model agree with experimental results in terms of mean cavity length and pressure drop, but the unsteady flow characteristics of oscillating cavitation still deviate slightly in terms of unsteady cavity flow.

  1. Tsunamis generated by 3D deformable landslides in various scenarios: laboratory experiments and numerical modeling

    McFall, B. C.; Fritz, H. M.; Horrillo, J. J.; Mohammed, F.


    Landslide generated tsunamis such as Lituya Bay, Alaska 1958 account for some of highest recorded tsunami runup heights. Source and runup scenarios based on real world events are physically modeled using generalized Froude similarity in the three dimensional NEES tsunami wave basin at Oregon State University. A novel pneumatic landslide tsunami generator (LTG) was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. The bathymetric and topographic scenarios tested with the LTG are the basin-wide propagation and runup, fjord, curved headland fjord and a conical island setting representing a landslide off an island or a volcano flank collapse. The LTG consists of a sliding box filled with 1,350 kg of landslide material which is accelerated by pneumatic pistons down slope. Two different landslide materials are used to study the granulometry effects: naturally rounded river gravel and cobble mixtures. Water surface elevations are recorded by an array of resistance wave gauges. The landslide deformation is measured from above and underwater camera recordings. The landslide deposit is measured on the basin floor with a multiple transducer acoustic array (MTA). Landslide surface reconstruction and kinematics are determined with a stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Wave runup is recorded with resistance wave gauges along the slope and verified with video image processing. The measured landslide and wave parameters are compared between the planar hill slope used in various scenarios and the convex hill slope of the conical island. The energy conversion rates from the landslide motion to the wave train is quantified for the planar and convex hill slopes. The wave runup data on the opposing headland is analyzed and evaluated with wave theories. The measured landslide and tsunami data serve to validate and advance three-dimensional numerical landslide tsunami prediction models. Two 3D Navier-Stokes models were tested, the commercial code FLOW-3D

  2. Transient 3D numerical simulations of column collapse and pyroclastic density current scenarios at Vesuvius

    Esposti Ongaro, T.; Neri, A.; Menconi, G.; de'Michieli Vitturi, M.; Marianelli, P.; Cavazzoni, C.; Erbacci, G.; Baxter, P. J.


    Numerical simulations of column collapse and pyroclastic density current (PDC) scenarios at Vesuvius were carried out using a transient 3D flow model based on multiphase transport laws. The model describes the dynamics of the collapse as well as the effects of the 3D topography of the volcano on PDC propagation. Source conditions refer to a medium-scale sub-Plinian event and consider a pressure-balanced jet. Simulation results provide new insights into the complex dynamics of these phenomena. In particular: 1) column collapse can be characterized by different regimes, from incipient collapse to partial or nearly total collapse, thus confirming the possibility of a transitional field of behaviour of the column characterized by the contemporaneous and/or intermittent occurrence of ash fallout and PDCs; 2) the collapse regime can be characterized by its fraction of eruptive mass reaching the ground and generating PDCs; 3) within the range of the investigated source conditions, the propagation and hazard potential of PDCs appear to be directly correlated with the flow-rate of the mass collapsing to the ground, rather than to the collapse height of the column (this finding is in contrast with predictions based on the energy-line concept, which simply correlates the PDC runout and kinetic energy with the collapse height of the column); 4) first-order values of hazard variables associated with PDCs (i.e., dynamic pressure, temperature, airborne ash concentration) can be derived from simulation results, thereby providing initial estimates for the quantification of damage scenarios; 5) for scenarios assuming a location of the central vent coinciding with that of the present Gran Cono, Mount Somma significantly influences the propagation of PDCs, largely reducing their propagation in the northern sector, and diverting mass toward the west and southeast, accentuating runouts and hazard variables for these sectors; 6) the 2D modelling approximation can force an artificial

  3. 3-D Numerical Investigation of the Tsaoling Landslide Induced by Chi-Chi Earthquake, Taiwan.

    Tang, C.; Hu, J.


    Large landslides occurred in the mountainous area near the epicenter of the Sept. 21st, 1999, Chi-Chi earthquake in central Taiwan. These landslides were triggered by the Mw = 7.6 earthquake, which resulted in more than 2,400 human casualties and widespread damage. The 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake triggered a catastrophic Tsaloing landslide, which mobilized about 0.125 km3 of rock and soil that slid across the Chingshui River and created a 5 km long natural dam. One fifth of the landslide mass dropped into the Chingshui River, the rest jumped over the river. At least five large landslides occurred in Tsaoling area are induced by big earthquake and heavy rainfalls since 1862 to 1999. Geological investigation shows that the prevailing attitude of sedimentary formation is about N45W with a dipping angle of 12S. First we used Remark Method to calculate the stability of slope. The bottom of slope has been eroded by Chingshui stream, and the PGA (Peak Ground Acceleration) in Chi-Chi earthquake was exceeded the yield acceleration along the sliding surface. The landslide mechanism may be including flowing, rolling, bouncing and sliding. The rock on the fault plane during faulting can generate pseudotachylyte resulted from melted rock by frictional heat energy along the sliding surface. The frictional melted rocks were found out in the Chiu-Fen-Erh-Shan collapses. However, we didn¡¦t found out the frictional melted rock in Tsaoling area. If we calculated the kinetic energy which was converted to heat energy, the increase of temperature was enough to melt the rocks on sliding surface. When the rocks on the sliding surface had been melted, the friction on the sliding surface must be decrease. Therefore, the 0.125 km3 debris had sufficient kinetic energy to across Chingshui River to the other side of the river. Using 3D distinct-element modeling (PFC3d code), we try to simulate kinematic process of Tsaoling landslide. Our numerical model was compose of about 10,000 spherical

  4. 3D numerical modeling of an anthropogenic sinkhole in the Marsala area of western Sicily

    Bonamini, Marco; Di Maggio, Cipriano; Lollino, Piernicola; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco


    processes, based on rock laboratory testing data and a detailed reconstruction of the underground cave geometry. At this goal, we took advantage of detailed topographic surveys of the underground quarry, carried out before (year 2000) and after occurrence of one the sinkholes, that opened in July 2011 at the eastern sector of the town of Marsala, causing significant damage to a school. In the implementation of the 3D-model, the geomechanical survey of the calcarenite rock mass was also taken into account, as a required input layer depicting the main discontinuity systems, and their main features (pervasiveness, joint opening and spacing, etc.). Relevant differences between the results from 2-D and 3-D analyses are pointed out in the paper, highlighting the need to perform 3D-modeling in order to define the real instability conditions of the rock mass, and to evaluate the possibility of sinkhole occurrence at the surface.

  5. Double-Exponentially Decayed Photoionization in CREI Effect:Numerical Experiment on 3D H+2

    LI Feng; WANG Ting-Ying; ZHANG Gui-Zhong; XIANG Wang-Hua; W.T.Hill III


    On the platform of the 3D H+2 system,we perform a numerical simulation of its photoionization rate under excitation of weak to intense laser intensities with varying pulse durations and wavelengths.A novel method is proposed for calculating the photoionization rate:a double exponential decay of ionization probability is best suited for fitting this rate.Confirmation of the well-documented charge-resonance-enhanced ionization (CREI)effect at medium laser intensity and finding of ionization saturation at high light intensity corroborate the robustness of the suggested double-exponential decay process.Surveying the spatial and temporal variations of electron wavefunctions uncovers a mechanism for the double-exponentially decayed photoionization probability as onset of electron ionization along extra degree of freedom.Henceforth,the new method makes clear the origins of peak features in photoionization rate versus internuclear separation.It is believed that this multi-exponentially decayed ionization mechanism is applicable to systems with more degrees of motion.

  6. 3D Numeric modeling of slab-plume interaction in Kamchatka

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Portnyagin, Maxim; Manea, Marina


    Volcanic rocks located in the central segment of the Eastern Volcanic Belt of Kamchatka show a high variability, both in age as well as in the geochemical composition. Three principal groups have been identified, an older group (7-12 my) represented by rich alkaline and transitional basalts, a 7-8 my group exemplified by alkaline basalts of extreme plume type, and a younger group (3-8 my) characterized by calc-alkaline andesites and dacites rocks. Moreover, the younger group shows an adakitic signature. The magmas are assumed to originate from two principle sources: from a subduction modified Pacific MORB-type and from plume-type mantle. In this paper we study the interaction of a cold subducting slab and a hot plume by means of 3D numeric modeling integrated 30 my back in time. Our preliminary modeling results show a short episode of plume material inflowing into the mantle wedge at ~10 my consistent with the second rocks group (plume like). Also our models predict slab edge melting consistent with the youngest group.

  7. A novel code for numerical 3-D MHD studies of CME expansion

    J. Kleimann


    Full Text Available A recent third-order, essentially non-oscillatory central scheme to advance the equations of single-fluid magnetohydrodynamics (MHD in time has been implemented into a new numerical code. This code operates on a 3-D Cartesian, non-staggered grid, and is able to handle shock-like gradients without producing spurious oscillations.

    To demonstrate the suitability of our code for the simulation of coronal mass ejections (CMEs and similar heliospheric transients, we present selected results from test cases and perform studies of the solar wind expansion during phases of minimum solar activity. We can demonstrate convergence of the system into a stable Parker-like steady state for both hydrodynamic and MHD winds. The model is subsequently applied to expansion studies of CME-like plasma bubbles, and their evolution is monitored until a stationary state similar to the initial one is achieved. In spite of the model's (current simplicity, we can confirm the CME's nearly self-similar evolution close to the Sun, thus highlighting the importance of detailed modelling especially at small heliospheric radii.

    Additionally, alternative methods to implement boundary conditions at the coronal base, as well as strategies to ensure a solenoidal magnetic field, are discussed and evaluated.

  8. Method of internal 3D flow field numerical simulation for hydrodynamic torque converter

    Tao SHANG; Dingxuan ZHAO; Yuankun ZHANG; Xiangen GUO; Xiangzhong SHI


    To enhance the performance of a hydrody-namic torque converter and thoroughly understand the trait of inside flow, a numerical simulation method of internal 3D flow for the three-element centrifugal hydrodynamic torque converter was systematically researched and expatiated in this paper. First, the internal flow field of each impeller was calculated. The curves that illustrate the relationships between the pressure differences of the inlet and outlet versus flux were drawn. Second, the concurrent working point of each impeller was approximately estimated. Finally, a calculation was performed considering the influence on each impeller. The flow field of a working point was solved by multiple calculations and the actual working condition was gradually determined. The pressure and velocity distributions of the flow field were proposed. The performance parameters of the hydrodynamic torque converter were predicted. The calculation method, and the proposed pressure and velocity distribution of the flow field, have practical significance for the design and improvement of a hydrodynamic torque converter.

  9. A numerical analysis of a deep Mediterranean lee cyclone: sensitivity to mesoscale potential vorticity anomalies

    Horvath, K.; Ivančan-Picek, B.


    A 12-15 November 2004 cyclone on the lee side of the Atlas Mountains and the related occurrence of severe bora along the eastern Adriatic coast are numerically analyzed using the MM5 mesoscale model. Motivated by the fact that sub-synoptic scales are more sensitive to initialization errors and dominate forecast error growth, this study is designed in order to assess the sensitivity of the mesoscale forecast to the intensity of mesoscale potential vorticity (PV) anomalies. Five sensitivity simulations are performed after subtracting the selected anomalies from the initial conditions, allowing for the analysis of the cyclone intensity and track, and additionally, the associated severe bora in the Adriatic. The results of the ensemble show that the cyclone is highly sensitive to the exact details of the upper-level dynamic forcing. The spread of cyclone intensities is the greatest in the mature phase of the cyclone lifecycle, due to different cyclone advection speeds towards the Mediterranean. However, the cyclone tracks diffluence appears to be the greatest during the cyclone movement out of the Atlas lee, prior to the mature stage of cyclone development, most likely due to the predominant upper-level steering control and its influence on the thermal anomaly creation in the mountain lee. Furthermore, it is quantitatively shown that the southern Adriatic bora is more sensitive to cyclone presence in the Mediterranean then bora in the northern Adriatic, due to unequal influence of the cyclone on the cross-mountain pressure gradient formation. The orographically induced pressure perturbation is strongly correlated with bora in the northern and to a lesser extent in the southern Adriatic, implying the existence of additional controlling mechanisms to bora in the southern part of the basin. In addition, it is shown that the bora intensity in the southern Adriatic is highly sensitive to the precise sub-synoptic pressure distribution in the cyclone itself, indicating a

  10. A Mechanical Study of a Glass Fabric-Thermoplastic Resin Composite: 3D-DIC and X-ray tomographic observations explained by numerical simulations based on a spectral solver

    Boufaida, Zakariya; André, Stéphane; Farge, Laurent


    In the study presented in this paper, we analyzed the mechanical response of a glass fiber plain weave/polymer composite at the fabric millimetric mesoscale. The detail of the stress and strain fields in a fabric repeating unit cell was numerically calculated using CraFT (Composite response and Fourier Transforms), a code specifically conceived for simulating the mechanical behaviour of materials with complex microstructure. The local strain fields obtained by simulation were found to be in very good agreement with measurements carried out using 3D Digital Image Correlation (3D DIC). From numerical stress fields calculated with the CraFT solver, we also highlighted the subregions inside the periodic mesostructure where there is maximum stress. Furthermore, with X-ray tomography post mortem measurements, we were able to confirm that certain damage modes were well initiated in these microstructure subregions of stress concentration.

  11. High resolution numerical modeling of mesoscale island wakes and sensitivity to static topographic relief data

    C. G. Nunalee


    Full Text Available Recent decades have witnessed a drastic increase in the fidelity of numerical weather prediction (NWP modeling. Currently, both research-grade and operational NWP models regularly perform simulations with horizontal grid spacings as fine as 1 km. This migration towards higher resolution potentially improves NWP model solutions by increasing the resolvability of mesoscale processes and reducing dependency on empirical physics parameterizations. However, at the same time, the accuracy of high-resolution simulations, particularly in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL, are also sensitive to orographic forcing which can have significant variability on the same spatial scale as, or smaller than, NWP model grids. Despite this sensitivity, many high resolution atmospheric simulations do not consider uncertainty with respect to selection of static terrain height dataset. In this paper, we use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model to simulate realistic cases of lower tropospheric flow over and downstream of mountainous islands using both the default global 30 s United States Geographic Survey terrain height dataset (GTOPO30 and the 3 s Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM terrain height dataset. Our results demonstrate cases where the differences between GTOPO30-based and SRTM-based model terrain height are significant enough to produce entirely different orographic wake mechanics, such as vortex shedding vs. no vortex shedding. These results are also compared to MODIS visible satellite imagery and highlight the importance of considering uncertain static boundary conditions when running high-resolution mesoscale models.

  12. A cloud chemistry module for the 3-D cloud-resolving mesoscale model Meso-NH with application to idealized cases

    M. Leriche


    the retention efficiency of gases in the ice phase. The 2-D and 3-D simulations illustrate that the retention in ice of a moderately soluble gas such as formaldehyde substantially decreases its concentration in the upper troposphere. In these simulations, retention of highly soluble species in the ice phase significantly increased the wet deposition rates.

  13. Early Earth tectonics: A high-resolution 3D numerical modelling approach

    Fischer, R.; Gerya, T.


    Early Earth had a higher amount of remaining radiogenic elements as well as a higher amount of leftover primordial heat. Both contributed to the increased temperature in the Earth's interior and it is mainly this increased mantle potential temperature ΔTp that controls the dynamics of the crust and upper mantle and the style of Early Earth tectonics. For a minor increase in temperature ΔTp buckling, delamination and Rayleigh-Taylor style dripping of the plate is observed in addition. For higher temperatures ΔTp > 250 K no subduction can be observed anymore and tectonics is dominated by delamination and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. We conduct 3D petrological-thermomechanical numerical modelling experiments of the crust and upper mantle under Early Earth conditions and a plume tectonics model setup. For varying crustal structures and an increased mantle potential temperature ΔTp, a thermal anomaly in the bottom temperature boundary introduces a plume. The model is able to self-sufficiently form depleted mantle lithosphere after repeated melt removal. New crust can be produced in the form of volcanics or plutonics. To simulate differentiation the newly formed crust can have a range in composition from basaltic over dacitic to granitic depending on its source rock. Models show large amounts of subcrustal decompression melting and consequently large amounts of new formed crust which in turn influences the dynamics. Mantle and crust are convecting separately. Dome-shaped plutons of mafic or felsic composition can be observed in the crust. Between these domes elongated belts of upper crust, volcanics and sediments are formed. These structures look similar to, for example, the Kaapvaal craton in South Africa where the elongated shape of the Barberton Greenstone Belt is surrounded by multiple plutons.

  14. The thermal regime of the Campi Flegrei magmatic system reconstructed through 3D numerical simulations

    Di Renzo, Valeria; Wohletz, Kenneth; Civetta, Lucia; Moretti, Roberto; Orsi, Giovanni; Gasparini, Paolo


    We illustrate a quantitative conductive/convective thermal model incorporating a wide range of geophysical, petrological, geological, geochemical and isotopical observations that constrain the thermal evolution and present state of the Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc) magmatic system. The proposed model has been computed on the basis of the current knowledge of: (1) the volcanic and magmatic history of the volcano over the last 44 ka, (2) its underlying crustal structure, and (3) the physical properties of the erupted magmas. 3D numerical simulations of heat conduction and convection within heterogeneous rock/magma materials with evolving heat sources and boundary conditions that simulate magma rise from a deep (≥ 8 km depth) to shallow (2-6 km) reservoirs, magma chamber formation, magma extrusion, caldera collapse, and intra-caldera hydrothermal convection, have been carried out. The evolution of the CFc magmatic system through time has been simulated through different steps related to its changes in terms of depth, location and size of magma reservoirs and their replenishment. The thermal modeling results show that both heat conduction and convection have played an important role in the CFc thermal evolution, although with different timing. The simulated present heat distribution is in agreement with the measured geothermal profiles (Agip, 1987), reproduces the thermal gradient peaks at the CFc margins in correspondence to the anomalies in surface gradients (Corrado et al., 1998), and suggests temperatures of 700 °C at depth of 4 km in the central portion of the caldera, in agreement with the estimated temperature for the brittle-ductile transition (Hill, 1992).

  15. Validation of a numerical 3-D fluid-structure interaction model for a prosthetic valve based on experimental PIV measurements.

    Guivier-Curien, Carine; Deplano, Valérie; Bertrand, Eric


    A numerical 3-D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of a prosthetic aortic valve was developed, based on a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software program using an Arbitrary Eulerian Lagrangian (ALE) formulation. To make sure of the validity of this numerical model, an equivalent experimental model accounting for both the geometrical features and the hydrodynamic conditions was also developed. The leaflet and the flow behaviours around the bileaflet valve were investigated numerically and experimentally by performing particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Through quantitative and qualitative comparisons, it was shown that the leaflet behaviour and the velocity fields were similar in both models. The present study allows the validation of a fully coupled 3-D FSI numerical model. The promising numerical tool could be therefore used to investigate clinical issues involving the aortic valve.



    Making use of altimeter wind data and standard sounding data in a mesoscale numerical model of PSU/NCAR (MM5), we test four-dimensional data assimilation scheme based on nudging. The purpose of this paper is to determine what meteorological fields and what assimilation method have positive effect on typhoon sea surface wind by simulating two typhoon cases in MM5. We perform seven experiments for 9608 Typhoon (Case 1): one control experiment, three analysis nudging experiments, two observation nudging experiments and one analysis and observation nudging experiment; we perform one control experiment and one analysis nudging experiment for 9711 Typhoon (Case 2). The results show assimilating wind-thermal fields can effectively improve simulation accuracy of the model; the experiment combining standard sounding data and surface observations can improve greatly the simulation accuracy of the model; the altimeter data contain lots of sea surface information and also have positive impact on typhoon sea surface wind.

  17. Numerical modeling of roll structures in mesoscale vortexes over the Black Sea

    Iarova, D A


    This paper is a case study of horizontal atmospheric rolls that formed over the Black Sea on 16 August 2007. The rolls were discovered in WRF modeling results for a mesoscale cyclone that originated over the sea on 15 August 2007. The roll formation mechanisms, such as Rayleigh-Benard convective instability, dynamic instability, advection and stretching of vertical velocity field inhomogeneities, are considered. It is shown that indeed convective instability played an important role in the roll formation but dynamic instability did not occur. In order to distinguish other possible mechanisms of the roll formation numerical experiments were performed. In these experiments sea surface temperature in the initial conditions was decreased in order to prevent convective instability. Even though convective instability was suppressed roll-like structures still appeared in the modeling results, although their height and circulation velocity were smaller than in the control run. It was found that these structures were ...

  18. Numerical investigation of 3D effects on a 2D-dominated shocked mixing layer

    Reese, Daniel; Weber, Christopher


    A nominally two-dimensional interface, unstable to the Rayleigh-Taylor or Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, will become three-dimensional at high Reynolds numbers due to the growth of background noise and 3D effects like vortex stretching. This three-dimensionality changes macroscopic features, such as the perturbation growth rate and mixing, as it enhances turbulent dissipation. In this study, a 2D perturbation with small-scale, 3D fluctuations is modeled using the hydrodynamics code Miranda. A Mach 1.95 shockwave accelerates a helium-over-SF6 interface, similar to the experiments of Motl et al. ["Experimental validation of a Richtmyer-Meshkov scaling law over large density ratio and shock strength ranges," Phys. Fluids 21(12), 126102 (2009)], to explore the regime where a 2D dominated flow will experience 3D effects. We report on the structure, growth, and mixing of the post-shocked interface in 2D and 3D.


    He Zhi-guo; Mao Gen-hai; Yuan Xing-ming


    The 3-D turbulent flows in a valve pipe were described by the incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with an RNG k-ε turbulence model. With the finite volume method and a body-fitted coordinate system, the discretised equations were solved by the SIMPLEST algorithm. The numerical result of a cut-off valve with curved inlet shows the flow characteristics and the main cause of energy loss when fluid flows through a valve. And then, the boundaries of valve were modified in order to reduce the energy loss. The computational results of modified valve show that the numerical value of turbulent kinetic energy is lower, and that the modified design of the 3-D valve boundaries is much better. The analysis of the result also shows that RNG k-ε turbulence model can successfully be used to predict the 3-D turbulent separated flows and the secondary flow inside valve pipes.

  20. Numerical simulation of standing wave with 3D predictor-corrector finite difference method for potential flow equations

    罗志强; 陈志敏


    A three-dimensional (3D) predictor-corrector finite difference method for standing wave is developed. It is applied to solve the 3D nonlinear potential flow equa-tions with a free surface. The 3D irregular tank is mapped onto a fixed cubic tank through the proper coordinate transform schemes. The cubic tank is distributed by the staggered meshgrid, and the staggered meshgrid is used to denote the variables of the flow field. The predictor-corrector finite difference method is given to develop the difference equa-tions of the dynamic boundary equation and kinematic boundary equation. Experimental results show that, using the finite difference method of the predictor-corrector scheme, the numerical solutions agree well with the published results. The wave profiles of the standing wave with different amplitudes and wave lengths are studied. The numerical solutions are also analyzed and presented graphically.

  1. Numerical simulation of 'X-wing' type biplane flapping wings in 3D using the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM)

    Tay, W.B.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.; Bijl, H.


    The numerical simulation of a “X-wing” type biplane flapping wings, has been performed in 3D using the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM). This “X-wing” type flapping configuration draws its inspiration from Delfly [1], a family of ornithopters developed by the Delft University of Technology, as shown i

  2. A numerical study on impact of crop canopy on mesoscale climate

    贾新媛; 叶卓佳


    The impact of well watered mesoscale wheat planted on the mesoscale boundary layer structures of midlatitude arid area has been investigated by using a mesoscale biophysical meteorological model. The investigation indicates that mesoscale perturbations in temperature and specific humidity over crop area from the adjacent dry, bare soil, caused by the transpiration from the crop canopy and evaporation from underlying humid soil, result in a horizontal pressure gradient. A mesoscale circulation is forced by the pressure perturbation with a wind speed of about 5 m/s directing from the crop canopy to the bare soil in the lower boundary layer. In the daytime, the boundary layer structure over a complex terrain is determined by the interactions between upslope flow circulations and the circulations mentioned above when wheat crop canopies are located on plain and plateau. The impact of crop canopy scale on this thermally forced mesoscale circulation is also investigated.

  3. Experimental and numerical investigation of 3D aerofoil characteristics on a MW wind turbine

    Troldborg, Niels; Bak, Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.;


    3D aerofoil characteristics on a MW wind turbine is investigated through a combination of field measurements, wind tunnel tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Surface pressuremeasurements as well as the integrated force coefficients for selected aerofoil sections on a blade of the turbine...... is compared to wind tunnel measurements on the same aerofoil sections in order to reveal the difference in performance of aerofoils on full scale rotors in atmospheric conditions and aerofoils in wind tunnels. The findings of the measurements are backed up by analogous CFD analysis involving fully resolved 3D...

  4. High-resolution numerical modeling of mesoscale island wakes and sensitivity to static topographic relief data

    C. G. Nunalee


    Full Text Available Recent decades have witnessed a drastic increase in the fidelity of numerical weather prediction (NWP modeling. Currently, both research-grade and operational NWP models regularly perform simulations with horizontal grid spacings as fine as 1 km. This migration towards higher resolution potentially improves NWP model solutions by increasing the resolvability of mesoscale processes and reducing dependency on empirical physics parameterizations. However, at the same time, the accuracy of high-resolution simulations, particularly in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL, is also sensitive to orographic forcing which can have significant variability on the same spatial scale as, or smaller than, NWP model grids. Despite this sensitivity, many high-resolution atmospheric simulations do not consider uncertainty with respect to selection of static terrain height data set. In this paper, we use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model to simulate realistic cases of lower tropospheric flow over and downstream of mountainous islands using the default global 30 s United States Geographic Survey terrain height data set (GTOPO30, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, and the Global Multi-resolution Terrain Elevation Data set (GMTED2010 terrain height data sets. While the differences between the SRTM-based and GMTED2010-based simulations are extremely small, the GTOPO30-based simulations differ significantly. Our results demonstrate cases where the differences between the source terrain data sets are significant enough to produce entirely different orographic wake mechanics, such as vortex shedding vs. no vortex shedding. These results are also compared to MODIS visible satellite imagery and ASCAT near-surface wind retrievals. Collectively, these results highlight the importance of utilizing accurate static orographic boundary conditions when running high-resolution mesoscale models.

  5. Computer numerical control (CNC) lithography: light-motion synchronized UV-LED lithography for 3D microfabrication

    Kim, Jungkwun; Yoon, Yong-Kyu; Allen, Mark G.


    This paper presents a computer-numerical-controlled ultraviolet light-emitting diode (CNC UV-LED) lithography scheme for three-dimensional (3D) microfabrication. The CNC lithography scheme utilizes sequential multi-angled UV light exposures along with a synchronized switchable UV light source to create arbitrary 3D light traces, which are transferred into the photosensitive resist. The system comprises a switchable, movable UV-LED array as a light source, a motorized tilt-rotational sample holder, and a computer-control unit. System operation is such that the tilt-rotational sample holder moves in a pre-programmed routine, and the UV-LED is illuminated only at desired positions of the sample holder during the desired time period, enabling the formation of complex 3D microstructures. This facilitates easy fabrication of complex 3D structures, which otherwise would have required multiple manual exposure steps as in the previous multidirectional 3D UV lithography approach. Since it is batch processed, processing time is far less than that of the 3D printing approach at the expense of some reduction in the degree of achievable 3D structure complexity. In order to produce uniform light intensity from the arrayed LED light source, the UV-LED array stage has been kept rotating during exposure. UV-LED 3D fabrication capability was demonstrated through a plurality of complex structures such as V-shaped micropillars, micropanels, a micro-‘hi’ structure, a micro-‘cat’s claw,’ a micro-‘horn,’ a micro-‘calla lily,’ a micro-‘cowboy’s hat,’ and a micro-‘table napkin’ array.

  6. Some Methods of Applied Numerical Analysis to 3d Facial Reconstruction Software

    Roşu, Şerban; Ianeş, Emilia; Roşu, Doina


    This paper deals with the collective work performed by medical doctors from the University Of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara and engineers from the Politechnical Institute Timisoara in the effort to create the first Romanian 3d reconstruction software based on CT or MRI scans and to test the created software in clinical practice.

  7. 3D wake dynamics of the VAWT: experimental and numerical investigation

    Ferreira, C.; Hofemann, C.; Dixon, K.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.


    The Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, in its 2D form, is characterized by a complex unsteady aerodynamic flow, including dynamic stall and blade vortex interaction. Adding to this complexity, the 3D flow causes spanwise effects and the presence of trailing vorticity and tip vortices. The objective of the

  8. Numerical simulation of behavior of gas bubbles using a 3-D front-tracking method

    Sint Annaland, van M.; Dijkhuizen, W.; Deen, N.G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.


    In this paper a three-dimensional (3-D) front-tracking (FT) model is presented featuring a new method to evaluate the surface force model that circumvents the explicit computation of the interface curvature. This method is based on a direct calculation of the net tensile forces acting on a different

  9. Numerical simulation of 3D boundary-driven acoustic streaming in microfluidic devices.

    Lei, Junjun; Hill, Martyn; Glynne-Jones, Peter


    This article discusses three-dimensional (3D) boundary-driven streaming in acoustofluidic devices. Firstly, the 3D Rayleigh streaming pattern in a microchannel is simulated and its effect on the movement of microparticles of various sizes is demonstrated. The results obtained from this model show good comparisons with 3D experimental visualisations and demonstrate the fully 3D nature of the acoustic streaming field and the associated acoustophoretic motion of microparticles in acoustofluidic devices. This method is then applied to another acoustofluidic device in order to gain insights into an unusual in-plane streaming pattern. The origin of this streaming has not been fully described and its characteristics cannot be explained from the classical theory of Rayleigh streaming. The simulated in-plane streaming pattern was in good agreement with the experimental visualisation. The mechanism behind it is shown to be related to the active sound intensity field, which supports our previous findings on the mechanism of the in-plane acoustic streaming pattern visualised and modelled in a thin-layered capillary device.

  10. Boundary Conditions in 2D Numerical and 3D Exact Models for Cylindrical Bending Analysis of Functionally Graded Structures

    F. Tornabene


    Full Text Available The cylindrical bending condition for structural models is very common in the literature because it allows an incisive and simple verification of the proposed plate and shell models. In the present paper, 2D numerical approaches (the Generalized Differential Quadrature (GDQ and the finite element (FE methods are compared with an exact 3D shell solution in the case of free vibrations of functionally graded material (FGM plates and shells. The first 18 vibration modes carried out through the 3D exact model are compared with the frequencies obtained via the 2D numerical models. All the 18 frequencies obtained via the 3D exact model are computed when the structures have simply supported boundary conditions for all the edges. If the same boundary conditions are used in the 2D numerical models, some modes are missed. Some of these missed modes can be obtained modifying the boundary conditions imposing free edges through the direction perpendicular to the direction of cylindrical bending. However, some modes cannot be calculated via the 2D numerical models even when the boundary conditions are modified because the cylindrical bending requirements cannot be imposed for numerical solutions in the curvilinear edges by definition. These features are investigated in the present paper for different geometries (plates, cylinders, and cylindrical shells, types of FGM law, lamination sequences, and thickness ratios.

  11. Numerical Simulation of 3D Solid-Liquid Turbulent Flow in a Low Specific Speed Centrifugal Pump: Flow Field Analysis

    Baocheng Shi


    Full Text Available For numerically simulating 3D solid-liquid turbulent flow in low specific speed centrifugal pumps, the iteration convergence problem caused by complex internal structure and high rotational speed of pump is always a problem for numeral simulation researchers. To solve this problem, the combination of three measures of dynamic underrelaxation factor adjustment, step method, and rotational velocity control means according to residual curves trends of operating parameters was used to improve the numerical convergence. Numeral simulation of 3D turbulent flow in a low specific speed solid-liquid centrifugal pump was performed, and the results showed that the improved solution strategy is greatly helpful to the numerical convergence. Moreover, the 3D turbulent flow fields in pumps have been simulated for the bottom ash-particles with the volume fraction of 10%, 20%, and 30% at the same particle diameter of 0.1 mm. The two-phase calculation results are compared with those of single-phase clean water flow. The calculated results gave the main region of the abrasion of the impeller and volute casing and improve the hydraulic design of the impeller in order to decrease the abrasion and increase the service life of the pump.

  12. Cross-Wire Calibration for Freehand 3D Ultrasonography: Measurement and Numerical Issues

    J. Jan


    Full Text Available 3D freehand ultrasound is an imaging technique, which is graduallyfinding clinical applications. A position sensor is attached to aconventional ultrasound probe, so that B-scans are acquired along withtheir relative locations. This allows the B-scans to be inserted into a3D regular voxel array, which can then be visualized usingarbitrary-plane slicing, and volume or surface rendering. A keyrequirement for correct reconstruction is the calibration: determiningthe position and orientation of the B-scans with respect to theposition sensor's receiver. Following calibration, interpolation in theset of irregularly spaced B-scans is required to reconstruct aregular-voxel array. This text describes a freehand measurement of 2Dultrasonic data, an approach to the calibration problem and severalnumerical issues concerned with the calibration and reconstruction.

  13. Numerical simulation of the filling stage in injection molding based on a 3D model

    GENG Tie; LI De-qun; ZHOU Hua-min


    Most injection molded parts are three-dimensional, with complex geometrical configurations and thick/thin wall sections. The change of the thickness of parts has significant influence on flow during injection molding. This paper presents a 3D finite element model to deal with the three-dimensional flow, which can more accurately predict the filling process than a 2. 5D model. In this model, equal-order velocity-pressure interpolation method is successfully employed and the relation between velocity and pressure is obtained from the discretized momentum equation in order to derive the pressure equation. A 3D control volume scheme is employed to track the flow front. The validity of the model has been tested through the analysis of the flow in a cavity.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Injection Molding Cooling Process Based on 3D Surface Model

    CUIShu-biao; ZHOUHua-min; LIDe-qun


    The design of the coohng system of injection molds directly affects both productivity and the quality of the final part. Using the cooling process CAE system to instruct the mold design, the efficiency and quality of design can be improved greatly. At the same time, it is helpful to confirm the cooling system structure and optimize the process conditions. In this paper, the 3D surface model of mold cavity is used to replace the middle-plane model in the simulation by Boundary Element Method, which break the bottleneck of the application of the injection molding simulation softwares base on the middle-plane model. With the improvements of this paper, a practical and commercial simulation software of injection molding cooling process named as HsCAE3D6.0 is developed.

  15. Fundamental Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Active Control of 3-D Flows


    on hot - wire anemometry and therefore, it was noted that understanding 3-D flow structures in detail was difficult. Nevertheless, prominent features...S.G., Reizes, J.A., Hong, G. and Westbury, P.S., 2004, “Analysis of Hot - wire Anemometry Data Obtained in a Synthetic Jet Flow”, Experimental Thermal...Measurements were made using three different techniques, namely, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), and hot - wire

  16. The 3D numerical simulation of waste heat inside the end-pumped DPAL

    Hua, Weihong; Yang, Zining; Wang, Hongyan


    The thermal effect produced by quantum defect is an important factor that affects the performance of DPAL. We report on 3D simulation results of temperature distribution inside the alkali gain medium. The results show a high and non-uniform temperature rise under CW pumped condition, and the current models that assume uniform alkali density distribution needs to be modified. A convective cooling scheme should be applied for high power DPALs.

  17. Numerical Simulation of the Effect of 3D Needle Movement on Cavitation and Spray Formation in a Diesel Injector

    Mandumpala Devassy, B.; Edelbauer, W.; Greif, D.


    Cavitation and its effect on spray formation and its dispersion play a crucial role in proper engine combustion and controlled emission. This study focuses on these effects in a typical common rail 6-hole diesel injector accounting for 3D needle movement and flow compressibility effects. Coupled numerical simulations using 1D and 3D CFD codes are used for this investigation. Previous studies in this direction have already presented a detailed structure of the adopted methodology. Compared to the previous analysis, the present study investigates the effect of 3D needle movement and cavitation on the spray formation for pilot and main injection events for a typical diesel engine operating point. The present setup performs a 3D compressible multiphase simulation coupled with a standalone 1D high pressure flow simulation. The simulation proceeds by the mutual communication between 1D and 3D solvers. In this work a typical common rail injector with a mini-sac nozzle is studied. The lateral and radial movement of the needle and its effect on the cavitation generation and the subsequent spray penetration are analyzed. The result indicates the effect of compressibility of the liquid on damping the needle forces, and also the difference in the spray penetration levels due to the asymmetrical flow field. Therefore, this work intends to provide an efficient and user-friendly engineering tool for simulating a complete fuel injector including spray propagation.

  18. A hybrid experimental-numerical technique for determining 3D velocity fields from planar 2D PIV data

    Eden, A.; Sigurdson, M.; Mezić, I.; Meinhart, C. D.


    Knowledge of 3D, three component velocity fields is central to the understanding and development of effective microfluidic devices for lab-on-chip mixing applications. In this paper we present a hybrid experimental-numerical method for the generation of 3D flow information from 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental data and finite element simulations of an alternating current electrothermal (ACET) micromixer. A numerical least-squares optimization algorithm is applied to a theory-based 3D multiphysics simulation in conjunction with 2D PIV data to generate an improved estimation of the steady state velocity field. This 3D velocity field can be used to assess mixing phenomena more accurately than would be possible through simulation alone. Our technique can also be used to estimate uncertain quantities in experimental situations by fitting the gathered field data to a simulated physical model. The optimization algorithm reduced the root-mean-squared difference between the experimental and simulated velocity fields in the target region by more than a factor of 4, resulting in an average error less than 12% of the average velocity magnitude.

  19. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Investigation of 3-D Separated Flow Field around a Blunt Body


    @@Motivated by re-designing a fuselage in engineering application, the numerical and experimental investigation of the separated flow field around a special blunt body is described in this thesis. The aerodynamic response of the blunt body is successively studied. The thesis consists of four parts: the numerical simulation of the flow field around a two-dimensional blunt body; the numerical simulation of the flow field around a three-dimensional blunt body; the flow



    The 3-D complex turbulent flow fields in aplunge pool with arciform bottom are simulated by using thek-ε model in body-fitted coordinates. The calculated results re-veal the flow characteristics in the arciform plunge pool underthe different flood discharge conditions, which can not be easi-ly obtained in the physical model test because the measure-ment of the complex velocity is very difficult. The calculatedflow fields are helpful to understand in depth the hydrauliccharacteristics of plunge pool. The calculated and the meas-ured pressure distributions on the pool bottom are comparedand in good agreement.

  1. Numerical simulation of a combined oxidation ditch flow using 3D k-εturbulence model

    LUO Lin; LI Wei-min; DENG Yong-sen; WANG Tao


    The standard three dimensional(3D) k-ε turbulence model was applied to simulate the flow field of a small scale combined oxidation ditch. The moving mesh approach was used to model the rotor of the ditch. Comparison of the computed and the measured data is acceptable. A vertical reverse flow zone in the ditch was found, and it played a very important role in the ditch flow behavior. The flow pattern in the ditch is discussed in detail, and approaches are suggested to improve the hydrodynamic performance in the ditch.

  2. Estimation of thawing cryolithic area with numerical modeling in 3D geometry while exploiting underground small nuclear power plant

    Melnikov N. N.


    Full Text Available The paper presents results on 3D numerical calculation of a thermal task related to assessing a thawing area when placing modules with reactor and steam-turbine facility of a small nuclear power plant in thickness of permafrost rocks. The paper discusses influence of the coefficient of thermal conductivity for large-scaled underground excavations lining and cryolithic area porosity on thawing depth and front movement velocity under different spatial directions

  3. 3-D parallel program for numerical calculation of gas dynamics problems with heat conductivity on distributed memory computational systems (CS)

    Sofronov, I.D.; Voronin, B.L.; Butnev, O.I. [VNIIEF (Russian Federation)] [and others


    The aim of the work performed is to develop a 3D parallel program for numerical calculation of gas dynamics problem with heat conductivity on distributed memory computational systems (CS), satisfying the condition of numerical result independence from the number of processors involved. Two basically different approaches to the structure of massive parallel computations have been developed. The first approach uses the 3D data matrix decomposition reconstructed at temporal cycle and is a development of parallelization algorithms for multiprocessor CS with shareable memory. The second approach is based on using a 3D data matrix decomposition not reconstructed during a temporal cycle. The program was developed on 8-processor CS MP-3 made in VNIIEF and was adapted to a massive parallel CS Meiko-2 in LLNL by joint efforts of VNIIEF and LLNL staffs. A large number of numerical experiments has been carried out with different number of processors up to 256 and the efficiency of parallelization has been evaluated in dependence on processor number and their parameters.

  4. An integrated meso-scale numerical model of melting and solidification in laser welding

    Duggan, G.; Tong, M.; Browne, D. J.


    The authors present an integrated numerical model for the simulation of laser spot welding of an aluminium alloy at meso-scale in 2D. This model deals with the melting of the parent materials which form the weld pool and the subsequent solidification of the liquid metal in the pool, during the welding process. The melting of the parent materials due to the applied heating power is an important phenomenon, which determines the conditions at the onset of solidification, such as the geometry of the weld pool and the distribution of the temperature field. An enthalpy method is employed to predict the melting during the heating phase of welding. A Gaussian distribution is used to model the heat input from the laser. Once the laser beam is switched off and the melting halts, solidification commences. The UCD front tracking model [1,2] for alloy solidification is applied to predict the advancement of the columnar dendritic front, and a volume-averaging formulation is used to simulate nucleation and growth of equiaxed dendrites. A mechanical blocking criterion is used to define dendrite coherency, and the columnar-to-equiaxed transition within the weld pool is predicted.

  5. Ash3d: A finite-volume, conservative numerical model for ash transport and tephra deposition

    Schwaiger, Hans F.; Denlinger, Roger P.; Mastin, Larry G.


    We develop a transient, 3-D Eulerian model (Ash3d) to predict airborne volcanic ash concentration and tephra deposition during volcanic eruptions. This model simulates downwind advection, turbulent diffusion, and settling of ash injected into the atmosphere by a volcanic eruption column. Ash advection is calculated using time-varying pre-existing wind data and a robust, high-order, finite-volume method. Our routine is mass-conservative and uses the coordinate system of the wind data, either a Cartesian system local to the volcano or a global spherical system for the Earth. Volcanic ash is specified with an arbitrary number of grain sizes, which affects the fall velocity, distribution and duration of transport. Above the source volcano, the vertical mass distribution with elevation is calculated using a Suzuki distribution for a given plume height, eruptive volume, and eruption duration. Multiple eruptions separated in time may be included in a single simulation. We test the model using analytical solutions for transport. Comparisons of the predicted and observed ash distributions for the 18 August 1992 eruption of Mt. Spurr in Alaska demonstrate to the efficacy and efficiency of the routine.

  6. Development of a Top-View Numeric Coding Teaching-Learning Trajectory within an Elementary Grades 3-D Visualization Design Research Project

    Sack, Jacqueline J.


    This article explicates the development of top-view numeric coding of 3-D cube structures within a design research project focused on 3-D visualization skills for elementary grades children. It describes children's conceptual development of 3-D cube structures using concrete models, conventional 2-D pictures and abstract top-view numeric…


    Mića V. Vukić


    Full Text Available A shell and tube heat exchanger (STHE is one of the most often used apparatuses in chemical industry. One of the main goals of the STHE manufacturers is to improve their exploitation reliability and efficiency. Two approaches to the STHE design improvement are possible: experimental investigation, which is very expensive and time-consuming because of the shell side complex geometry, and numerical investigations. Numerical simulations can be used to check the old and to develop new and more efficient STHE designs. In this paper, the results of the numerical investigations of fluid flow and heat transfer in the laboratory experimental STHE are presented. Numerical simulation has been performed by using the PHOENICS code. The tube bundle has been modeled by using the concept of porous media. Standard k-e turbulence model is used.

  8. The numerical study of the cavitation-structure interaction around 3D flexible hydrofoil

    Shi-liang, Hu; Ying, Chen; Chuan-jing, Lu


    The closely coupled approach combined the Finite Volume Method (FVM) solver and the Finite Element Method (FEM) solver is applied to simulation the cavitation-structure interaction of a 3D cantilevered flexible hydrofoil in water tunnel. In the cavitating flow, the elastic hydrofoil would deform or vibrate in bending and twisting mode. And the motion of the foil would affect the characteristics of the cavity and the hydrodynamic load on the foil in turn. With smaller cavitation numbers (σv=2.15), the frequency spectrum of the lift on the foil would contain two frequencies which are associated to the cavity shedding and the first bend frequency of the hydrofoil. With larger cavitation number (σv=2.55), the frequency of the lift is completely dominated by the natural frequency of the foil.


    ZHOU Zhi-fang; GUO Geng-xin


    Three-dimensional seepage in double fractured media was modeled in this paper.The determination of hydraulic conductivity tensor of rock mass is a vital problem for the sea water intrusion or sea water encroachment and seepage of fissured medium.According to the geological and hydrogeological conditions for the 2nd-stage construction of the Three Gorges Project (TGP), the physical and mathematical models for the groundwater movement through the 3D double fractured media of rock mass during construction were established in this paper.Based on discontinuity-control inverse theory, some related parameters of double fractured media were inversed with flux being the known quantity and calibration of water table the objective function.Synchronously, the seepage field of the construction region was systematically analyzed and simulated, the results of which exhibit that the double fractured media model of fracture water can comprehensively and correctly describe the geological and hydrogeological conditions in the construction region.

  10. Numerical 3-D heat flux simulations on flat plate solar collectors

    Villar, N. Molero; Lopez, J.M. Cejudo; Munoz, F. Dominguez; Garcia, E. Rodriguez; Andres, A. Carrillo [Grupo de Energetica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, UMA, Plaza El Ejido s/n, 29013 Malaga (Spain)


    A transient 3-D mathematical model for solar flat plate collectors has been developed. The model is based on setting mass and energy balances on finite volumes. The model allows the comparison of different configurations: parallel tubes collectors (PTC), serpentine tube collectors (STC), two parallel plate collectors (TPPC), and other non-usual possibilities like the use of absorbent fluids with semitransparent or transparent plates. Transparent honeycomb insulation between plate and cover can also be modelled. The effect of temperature on the thermal properties of the materials has also been considered. The model has been validated experimentally with a commercial PTC. The model is a useful tool to improve the design of plate solar collectors and to compare different configurations. In order to show the capabilities of the model, the performance of a PTC collector with non-uniformity flow is analysed and compared with experimental data from literature with good agreement. (author)

  11. Internal wave attractors examined using laboratory experiments and 3D numerical simulations

    Brouzet, Christophe; Scolan, H; Ermanyuk, E V; Dauxois, Thierry


    In the present paper, we combine numerical and experimental approaches to study the dynamics of stable and unstable internal wave attractors. The problem is considered in a classic trapezoidal setup filled with a uniformly stratified fluid. Energy is injected into the system at global scale by the small-amplitude motion of a vertical wall. Wave motion in the test tank is measured with the help of conventional synthetic schlieren and PIV techniques. The numerical setup closely reproduces the experimental one in terms of geometry and the operational range of the Reynolds and Schmidt numbers. The spectral element method is used as a numerical tool to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of a viscous salt-stratified fluid. We show that the results of three-dimensional calculations are in excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data, including the spatial and temporal parameters of the secondary waves produced by triadic resonance instability. Further, we explore experimentally and numeri...


    CHEN Hong-xun; GUO Jia-hong


    In this article, a numerical model for three-dimensional turbulent flow in the sump of the pump station was presented. A reasonable boundary condition for the flow in the sump with several water intakes at different flow rates was proposed. The finite volume method was employed to solve the governing equations with the body fitted grid generated by the multi-block grid technique. By using the Fluent software, the fluid flow in a model sump of the pump station was calculated. Compared with the experimental result, the numerical result of the example is fairly good.

  13. A 3-D Numerical Model for the Calculation of Water Wave Transformation in Large Area

    孙大鹏; 李玉成; 葛岚


    Based on the integral equation transformed from three dimensional Laplace equation and by the adoption of the division manner of sub-region boundary element method, the numerical computations of the velocity potential of each sub-region are given considering the continuity conditions of potential and normal derivatives at the interface of sub-regions. Therefore, computation of wave deformation in offshore flow field is realized. The present numerical model provides a good solution for the application of boundary element method to the calculation of wave deformation in large areas.

  14. Numerical method for calculation of 3D viscous turbomachine flow taking into account stator/rotor unsteady interaction

    Rusanov, A.V.; Yershov, S.V. [Institute of Mechanical Engineering Problems of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Kharkov (Ukraine)


    The numerical method is suggested for the calculation of the 3D periodically unsteady viscous cascade flow evoked by the aerodynamics interaction of blade rows. Such flow is described by the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulent effects are simulated with the modified Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model. The problem statement allows to consider an unsteady flow through either a single turbo-machine stage or a multi stage turbomachine. The sliding mesh techniques and the time-space non-oscillatory square interpolation are used in axial spacings to calculate the flow in a computational domain that contains the reciprocally moving elements. The gasdynamical equations are integrated numerically with the implicit quasi-monotonous Godunov`s type ENO scheme of the second or third order of accuracy. The suggested numerical method is incorporated in the FlowER code developed by authors for calculations of the 3D viscous compressible flows through multi stage turbomachines. The numerical results are presented for unsteady turbine stage throughflows. The method suggested is shown to simulate qualitatively properly the main unsteady cascade effects in particular the periodically blade loadings, the propagation of stator wakes through rotor blade passage and the unsteady temperature flowfields for stages with cooled stator blades. (author) 21 refs.

  15. DKE: a fast numerical solver for the 3-D relativistic bounce-averaged electron drift kinetic equation

    Decker, J.; Peysson, Y


    A new original code for solving the 3-D relativistic and bounce-averaged electron drift kinetic equation is presented. It designed for the current drive problem in tokamak with an arbitrary magnetic equilibrium. This tool allows self-consistent calculations of the bootstrap current in presence of other external current sources. RF current drive for arbitrary type of waves may be used. Several moments of the electron distribution function are determined, like the exact and effective fractions of trapped electrons, the plasma current, absorbed RF power, runaway and magnetic ripple loss rates and non-thermal Bremsstrahlung. Advanced numerical techniques have been used to make it the first fully implicit (reverse time) 3-D solver, particularly well designed for implementation in a chain of code for realistic current drive calculations in high {beta}{sub p} plasmas. All the details of the physics background and the numerical scheme are presented, as well a some examples to illustrate main code capabilities. Several important numerical points are addressed concerning code stability and potential numerical and physical limitations. (authors)

  16. PFLOW: A 3-D Numerical Modeling Tool for Calculating Fluid-Pressure Diffusion from Coulomb Strain

    Wolf, L. W.; Lee, M.; Meir, A.; Dyer, G.; Ma, K.; Chan, C.


    A new 3D time-dependent pore-pressure diffusion model PFLOW is developed to investigate the response of pore fluids to the crustal deformation generated by strong earthquakes in heterogeneous geologic media. Given crustal strain generated by changes in Coulomb stress, this MATLAB-based code uses Skempton's coefficient to calculate resulting changes fluid pressure. Pore-pressure diffusion can be tracked over time in a user-defined model space with user-prescribed Neumann or Dirchilet boundary conditions and with spatially variable values of permeability. PFLOW employs linear or quadratic finite elements for spatial discretization and first order or second order, explicit or implicit finite difference discretization in time. PFLOW is easily interfaced with output from deformation modeling programs such as Coulomb (Toda et al., 2007) or 3D-DEF (Gomberg and Ellis, 1994). The code is useful for investigating to first-order the evolution of pore pressure changes induced by changes in Coulomb stress and their possible relation to water-level changes in wells or changes in stream discharge. It can also be used for student research and classroom instruction. As an example application, we calculate the coseismic pore pressure changes and diffusion induced by volumetric strain associated with the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw = 7.6) in Taiwan. The Chi-Chi earthquake provides an unique opportunity to investigate the spatial and time-dependent poroelastic response of near-field rocks and sediments because there exist extensive observational data of water-level changes and crustal deformation. The integrated model allows us to explore whether changes in Coulomb stress can adequately explain hydrologic anomalies observed in areas such as Taiwan’s western foothills and the Choshui River alluvial plain. To calculate coseismic strain, we use the carefully calibrated finite fault-rupture model of Ma et al. (2005) and the deformation modeling code Coulomb 3.1 (Toda et al., 2007

  17. A Direct Numerical Reconstruction Algorithm for the 3D Calderón Problem

    Delbary, Fabrice; Hansen, Per Christian; Knudsen, Kim


    In three dimensions Calderón's problem was addressed and solved in theory in the 1980s in a series of papers, but only recently the numerical implementation of the algorithm was initiated. The main ingredients in the solution of the problem are complex geometrical optics solutions to the conducti...

  18. Numerical scheme for riser motion calculation during 3-D VIV simulation

    Huang, Kevin; Chen, Hamn-Ching; Chen, Chia-Rong


    This paper presents a numerical scheme for riser motion calculation and its application to riser VIV simulations. The discretisation of the governing differential equation is studied first. The top tensioned risers are simplified as tensioned beams. A centered space and forward time finite difference scheme is derived from the governing equations of motion. Then an implicit method is adopted for better numerical stability. The method meets von Neumann criteria and is shown to be unconditionally stable. The discretized linear algebraic equations are solved using a LU decomposition method. This approach is then applied to a series of benchmark cases with known solutions. The comparisons show good agreement. Finally the method is applied to practical riser VIV simulations. The studied cases cover a wide range of riser VIV problems, i.e. different riser outer diameter, length, tensioning conditions, and current profiles. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the numerical simulations and experimental data on riser motions and cross-flow VIV a/D . These validations and comparisons confirm that the present numerical scheme for riser motion calculation is valid and effective for long riser VIV simulation.

  19. Spent Fuel Ratio Estimates from Numerical Models in ALE3D

    Margraf, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunn, T. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Potential threat of intentional sabotage of spent nuclear fuel storage facilities is of significant importance to national security. Paramount is the study of focused energy attacks on these materials and the potential release of aerosolized hazardous particulates into the environment. Depleted uranium oxide (DUO2) is often chosen as a surrogate material for testing due to the unreasonable cost and safety demands for conducting full-scale tests with real spent nuclear fuel. To account for differences in mechanical response resulting in changes to particle distribution it is necessary to scale the DUO2 results to get a proper measure for spent fuel. This is accomplished with the spent fuel ratio (SFR), the ratio of respirable aerosol mass released due to identical damage conditions between a spent fuel and a surrogate material like depleted uranium oxide (DUO2). A very limited number of full-scale experiments have been carried out to capture this data, and the oft-questioned validity of the results typically leads to overly-conservative risk estimates. In the present work, the ALE3D hydrocode is used to simulate DUO2 and spent nuclear fuel pellets impacted by metal jets. The results demonstrate an alternative approach to estimate the respirable release fraction of fragmented nuclear fuel.

  20. 3D numerical simulation of gaseous flows structure in semidetached binaries

    Bisikalo, D V; Chechetkin, V M; Kuznetsov, O A; Molteni, D


    The results of 3D hydrodynamic simulation of mass transfer in semidetached binaries of different types (cataclysmic variables and low-mass X-ray binaries) are presented. We find that taking into account of a circumbinary envelope leads to significant changes in the stream-disc morphology. In particular, the obtained steady-state self-consistent solutions show an absence of impact between gas stream from the inner Lagrangian point L1 and forming accretion disc. The stream deviates under the action of gas of circumbinary envelope, and does not cause the shock perturbation of the disc boundary (traditional `hotspot'). At the same time, the gas of circumbinary envelope interacts with the stream and causes the formation of an extended shock wave, located on the stream edge. We discuss the implication of this model without `hotspot' (but with a shock wave located outside the disc) for interpretation of observations. The comparison of synthetic light curves with observations proves the validity of the discussed hydr...

  1. A 3D numerical simulation of different phases of friction stir welding

    Guerdoux, S.; Fourment, L.


    An adaptive arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation is developed to compute the material flow and the temperature evolution during the three phases of the friction stir welding (FSW) process. It follows a splitting approach: after the calculations of the velocity/pressure and temperature fields, the mesh velocity is derived from the domain boundary evolution and from an adaptive refinement criterion provided by error estimation, and finally state variables are remapped. In this way, the unilateral contact conditions between the plate and the tool are accurately taken into account, so allowing one to model various instabilities that may occur during the process, such as the role played by the plunge depth of the tool on the formations of flashes, the possible appearance of non-steady voids or tunnel holes and the influence of the threads on the material flow, the temperature field and the welding efforts. This formulation is implemented in the 3D Forge3 FE software with automatic remeshing. The non-steady phases of FSW can so be simulated, as well as the steady welding phase. The study of different process conditions shows that the main phenomena taking place during FSW can be simulated with the right sensitivities.

  2. Numerical simulation on the evolution of cloud particles in 3-D convective cloud


    A 3-D convective cloud model with compressible non-hydrostatic dynamics and the spectral bin microphysics of a 2-D slab-symmetric model has been used to simulate an observed supercell storm occurring on 29 June, 2000 near Bird City, Kansas, USA. The main objective of this paper is to study the evolution of particles in this convective storm with bin spectral microphysics scheme. Graupels form and grow through two mechanisms, deposition and riming, with the riming process dominant on top of the inflow and in the upper portion of main updraft. Over the outflow and during the developing and mature stages of the storm, graupel particles mainly grow through deposition with dominant unimodal spectra. Most fall out after growing up. Reducing initial relative humidity disturbance (increasing initial potential temperature disturbance) has negative impact on the formation and growth of graupels over the inflow (outflow). This study shows that large graupel and hail could be suppressed by altering the deposition and coalescence process over the inflow and main updraft. At different locations of the convective cells and with different initial humidity and potential temperature disturbance, the graupel formation and growth mechanisms are different, so as to the feasible hail suppression locations and methods.

  3. Numerical model of formation of a 3-D strike-slip fault system

    Chemenda, Alexandre I.; Cavalié, Olivier; Vergnolle, Mathilde; Bouissou, Stéphane; Delouis, Bertrand


    The initiation and the initial evolution of a strike-slip fault are modeled within an elastoplasticity constitutive framework taking into account the evolution of the hardening modulus with inelastic straining. The initial and boundary conditions are similar to those of the Riedel shear experiment. The models first deform purely elastically. Then damage (inelastic deformation) starts at the model surface. The damage zone propagates both normal to the forming fault zone and downwards. Finally, it affects the whole layer thickness, forming flower-like structure in cross-section. At a certain stage, a dense set of parallel Riedel shears forms at shallow depth. A few of these propagate both laterally and vertically, while others die. The faults first propagate in-plane, but then rapidly change direction to make a larger angle with the shear axis. New fault segments form as well, resulting in complex 3-D fault zone architecture. Different fault segments accommodate strike-slip and normal displacements, which results in the formation of valleys and rotations along the fault system.

  4. Direct Numerical Simulation of 3D Salt Fingers: From Secondary Instability to Chaotic Convection

    Simeonov, Julian A; Radko, Timour


    The amplification and equilibration of three-dimensional salt fingers in unbounded uniform vertical gradients of temperature and salinity is studied with a Direct Numerical Simulation in a triply periodic computational domain. A fluid dynamics video of the simulation shows that the secondary instability of the fastest growing square-planform finger mode is a combination of the well-known vertical shear instability of two-dimensional fingers [Holyer, 1984] and a new horizontal shear mode.

  5. Parareal in time 3D numerical solver for the LWR Benchmark neutron diffusion transient model

    Baudron, Anne-Marie A -M; Maday, Yvon; Riahi, Mohamed Kamel; Salomon, Julien


    We present a parareal in time algorithm for the simulation of neutron diffusion transient model. The method is made efficient by means of a coarse solver defined with large time steps and steady control rods model. Using finite element for the space discretization, our implementation provides a good scalability of the algorithm. Numerical results show the efficiency of the parareal method on large light water reactor transient model corresponding to the Langenbuch-Maurer-Werner (LMW) benchmark [1].

  6. 3-D Numerical Simulation on the Chip Machining Process of a Metal Block

    Yan Yixia; Yin Yihui; Li Weifen


    In this paper, the cutting process of a metal block is numerically simulated by the dynamic explicit FE code ABAQUS. Taking thermo-mechanical coupling effect into consideration, the simulation presents the variation of temperature, stress and strain distribution in the workpiece and chip. The effective plastic strain failure criterion is applied to modeling the chip separation and plastic formation. And the phenomenon of the contact and friction between the workpiece and the cutting tool are described in the paper.

  7. Numerical simulation and decomposition of kinetic energy in the Central Mediterranean: insight on mesoscale circulation and energy conversion

    R. Sorgente


    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal variability of eddy and mean kinetic energy of the Central Mediterranean region has been investigated, from January 2008 to December 2010, by mean of a numerical simulation mainly to quantify the mesoscale dynamics and their relationships with physical forcing. In order to understand the energy redistribution processes, the baroclinic energy conversion has been analysed, suggesting hypotheses about the drivers of the mesoscale activity in this area. The ocean model used is based on the Princeton Ocean Model implemented at 1/32° horizontal resolution. Surface momentum and buoyancy fluxes are interactively computed by mean of standard bulk formulae using predicted model Sea Surface Temperature and atmospheric variables provided by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast operational analyses. At its lateral boundaries the model is one-way nested within the Mediterranean Forecasting System operational products.

    The model domain has been subdivided in four sub-regions: Sardinia channel and southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Sicily channel, eastern Tunisian shelf and Libyan Sea. Temporal evolution of eddy and mean kinetic energy has been analysed, on each of the four sub-regions, showing different behaviours. On annual scales and within the first 5 m depth, the eddy kinetic energy represents approximately the 60 % of the total kinetic energy over the whole domain, confirming the strong mesoscale nature of the surface current flows in this area. The analyses show that the model well reproduces the path and the temporal behaviour of the main known sub-basin circulation features. New mesoscale structures have been also identified, from numerical results and direct observations, for the first time as the Pantelleria Vortex and the Medina Gyre.

    The classical kinetic energy decomposition (eddy and mean allowed to depict and to quantify the permanent and fluctuating parts of the circulation in the region, and

  8. Numerical and Experimental Study of the 3D Effect on Connecting Arm of Vertical Axis Tidal Current Turbine

    郭伟; 康海贵; 陈兵; 谢宇; 王胤


    Vertical axis tidal current turbine is a promising device to extract energy from ocean current. One of the important components of the turbine is the connecting arm, which can bring about a significant effect on the pressure distribution along the span of the turbine blade, herein we call it 3D effect. However, so far the effect is rarely reported in the research, moreover, in numerical simulation. In the present study, a 3D numerical model of the turbine with the connecting arm was developed by using FLUENT software compiling the UDF (User Defined Function) command. The simulation results show that the pressure distribution along the span of blade with the connecting arm model is significantly different from those without the connecting arm. To facilitate the validation of numerical model, the laboratory experiment has been carried out by using three different types of NACA aerofoil connecting arm and circle section connecting arm. And results show that the turbine with NACA0012 connecting arm has the best start-up performance which is 0.346 m/s and the peak point of power conversion coefficient is around 0.33. A further study has been performed and a conclusion is drawn that the aerofoil and thickness of connecting arm are the most important factors on the power conversion coefficient of the vertical axis tidal current turbine.

  9. Numerical validation framework for micromechanical simulations based on synchrotron 3D imaging

    Buljac, Ante; Shakoor, Modesar; Neggers, Jan; Bernacki, Marc; Bouchard, Pierre-Olivier; Helfen, Lukas; Morgeneyer, Thilo F.; Hild, François


    A combined computational-experimental framework is introduced herein to validate numerical simulations at the microscopic scale. It is exemplified for a flat specimen with central hole made of cast iron and imaged via in-situ synchrotron laminography at micrometer resolution during a tensile test. The region of interest in the reconstructed volume, which is close to the central hole, is analyzed by digital volume correlation (DVC) to measure kinematic fields. Finite element (FE) simulations, which account for the studied material microstructure, are driven by Dirichlet boundary conditions extracted from DVC measurements. Gray level residuals for DVC measurements and FE simulations are assessed for validation purposes.

  10. Code and Solution Verification of 3D Numerical Modeling of Flow in the Gust Erosion Chamber

    Yuen, A.; Bombardelli, F. A.


    Erosion microcosms are devices commonly used to investigate the erosion and transport characteristics of sediments at the bed of rivers, lakes, or estuaries. In order to understand the results these devices provide, the bed shear stress and flow field need to be accurately described. In this research, the UMCES Gust Erosion Microcosm System (U-GEMS) is numerically modeled using Finite Volume Method. The primary aims are to simulate the bed shear stress distribution at the surface of the sediment core/bottom of the microcosm, and to validate the U-GEMS produces uniform bed shear stress at the bottom of the microcosm. The mathematical model equations are solved by on a Cartesian non-uniform grid. Multiple numerical runs were developed with different input conditions and configurations. Prior to developing the U-GEMS model, the General Moving Objects (GMO) model and different momentum algorithms in the code were verified. Code verification of these solvers was done via simulating the flow inside the top wall driven square cavity on different mesh sizes to obtain order of convergence. The GMO model was used to simulate the top wall in the top wall driven square cavity as well as the rotating disk in the U-GEMS. Components simulated with the GMO model were rigid bodies that could have any type of motion. In addition cross-verification was conducted as results were compared with numerical results by Ghia et al. (1982), and good agreement was found. Next, CFD results were validated by simulating the flow within the conventional microcosm system without suction and injection. Good agreement was found when the experimental results by Khalili et al. (2008) were compared. After the ability of the CFD solver was proved through the above code verification steps. The model was utilized to simulate the U-GEMS. The solution was verified via classic mesh convergence study on four consecutive mesh sizes, in addition to that Grid Convergence Index (GCI) was calculated and based on

  11. Numerical validation framework for micromechanical simulations based on synchrotron 3D imaging

    Buljac, Ante; Shakoor, Modesar; Neggers, Jan; Bernacki, Marc; Bouchard, Pierre-Olivier; Helfen, Lukas; Morgeneyer, Thilo F.; Hild, François


    A combined computational-experimental framework is introduced herein to validate numerical simulations at the microscopic scale. It is exemplified for a flat specimen with central hole made of cast iron and imaged via in-situ synchrotron laminography at micrometer resolution during a tensile test. The region of interest in the reconstructed volume, which is close to the central hole, is analyzed by digital volume correlation (DVC) to measure kinematic fields. Finite element (FE) simulations, which account for the studied material microstructure, are driven by Dirichlet boundary conditions extracted from DVC measurements. Gray level residuals for DVC measurements and FE simulations are assessed for validation purposes.

  12. On the practical applications of atmosphere-ocean and atmosphere-wave coupling in mesoscale numerical modeling

    Kochanski, Adam

    The objectives of this work were to develop coupled atmosphere-ocean and atmosphere-wave models for the verification of the atmospheric simulations, model the small-scale ocean circulations, analyze the role of the atmospheric stability in the generation of coastal upwelling, improve the accuracy of numerical prediction over the coastal areas, and develop a parameterization of the swell-induced wind stress. The study confirmed the applicability of the high resolution Mesoscale Model 5 (MM5) wind field prediction to driving small scale ocean models applied to the U.S. West Coast, and showed that the small-scale circulation pattern of Bodega Bay can be well simulated even by the relatively simple 2D ocean model. Additional experiments performed with the complex 3D Princeton Ocean Model (POM) coupled with the MM5 showed the importance of the atmospheric stability in terms of the modification of the wind stress-curl pattern and the generation of coastal upwelling. The study revealed that the introduction of the stability effect to the wind stress computation may change the monthly mean wind stress curl by up to 0.15Pa/100km, and increase the simulated upwelling velocity by up to 25%, significantly improving the picture of the simulated upwelling and relaxation events. Further analysis performed with the MM5 model run at 9km resolution, showed that the introduction of the atmosphere-ocean coupling greatly improved the quality of the model results. The comparison with buoy data revealed that the atmosphere-ocean coupling led to a 95% increase in the correlation coefficients of the air temperature and heat fluxes, 23% for the wind direction, and up to 25% for the wind speed, and the reduction of the mean errors by up to 30%. The air-wave interaction model developed during this study showed the applicability of the innovative semi-analytical approach to the computation of the swell-induced stress. Its results also confirmed the importance of the swell-induced stress for

  13. 3D numerical simulation and structural optimization of the rod baffle heat exchanger

    YAN Liang-wen; PAN Lei; KAN Shu-lin


    Because of the complexities of fluid dynamics equations and the structure of heat exchangers, few theoretical solutions have been acquired to specify the shell side characteristics of the rod baffle heat exchanger (RBHE). Based on the platform of PHEONICS version 3.5.1, a three-dimensionai numerical method for predicting the turbulent fluid flow behavior in the shell side of the rod baffle heat exchangers is developed in this paper. With this method, modeling of the tube bundle is carried out based on the porous media concept using volumetric porosities and applicable flow resistance correlations. Turbulence effects are modeled using a standard κ-ε model. It is shown that the simulation results and experimental results are in good agreement in the shell side. The maximum absolute deviation value of pressure drops is less than 5%, and that of the heat transfer coefficients is less than 8%. Furthermore, the numerical model is used to optimize the structure of the RBHE and improves its performance.

  14. 3D Finite Element Numerical Simulation of Residual Stresses on Electron Beam Welded BT20 Plates

    Lixing HUO; Furong CHEN; Yufeng ZHANG; Li ZHANG; Fangjun LIU; Gang CHEN


    A three-dimensional finite-element model (FEM) used for calculating electron beam (EB) welding temperature and stresses fields of thin plates of BT20 titanium has been developed in which the nonlinear thermophysical and thermo-mechanical properties of the material has been considered. The welding temperature field, the distributions of residual stresses in aswelded (AW) and electron beam local post-weld heat treatment (EBLPWHT) conditions have been successfully simulated.The results show that: (1) In the weld center, the maximum magnitude of residual tensile stresses of BT20 thin plates of Ti alloy is equal to 60%~ 70% of its yield strength σs. (2) The residual tensile stresses in weld center can be even decreased after EBLPWHT and the longitudinal tensile stresses are decreased about 50% compared to joints in AW conditions. (3)The numerical calculating results of residual stresses by using FEM are basically in agreement with the experimental results.Combined with numerical calculating results, the effects of electron beam welding and EBLPWHT on the distribution of welding residual stresses in thin plates of BT20 have been analyzed in detail.

  15. Numerical simulation of 3-D incompressible, multi-phase flows over cavitating projectiles

    Owis, F.M.; Nayfeh, A.H. [Blacksburg State University, Dept. of Engineering Science and Mechanics, MC 0219, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, VA (United States)


    The hydrodynamic cavitation over axisymmetric projectiles is computed using the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for multi-fluid elements. The governing equations are discretized on a structured grid using an upwind difference scheme with flux limits. A preconditioning dual-time stepping method is used for the unsteady computations. The Eigen-system is derived for the Jacobian matrices. This Eigen-system is suitable for high-density ratio multi-fluid flows and it provides high numerical stability and fast convergence. This method can be used to compute single- as well as multi-phase flows. Cavitating flows over projectiles with different geometries are computed and the results are in good agreement with available experimental data and other published computations. (authors)

  16. Effects of a radially varying electrical conductivity on 3D numerical dynamos

    Gomez-Perez, Natalia; Wicht, Johannes; 10.1016/j.pepi.2010.03.006


    The transition from liquid metal to silicate rock in the cores of the terrestrial planets is likely to be accompanied by a gradient in the composition of the outer core liquid. The electrical conductivity of a volatile enriched liquid alloy can be substantially lower than a light-element-depleted fluid found close to the inner core boundary. In this paper, we investigate the effect of radially variable electrical conductivity on planetary dynamo action using an electrical conductivity that decreases exponentially as a function of radius. We find that numerical solutions with continuous, radially outward decreasing electrical conductivity profiles result in strongly modified flow and magnetic field dynamics, compared to solutions with homogeneous electrical conductivity. The force balances at the top of the simulated fluid determine the overall character of the flow. The relationship between Coriolis and Lorentz forces near the outer boundary controls the flow and magnetic field intensity and morphology of the...

  17. 3D Numerical Simulations of f-Mode Propagation Through Magnetic Flux Tubes

    Daiffallah, K; Bendib, A; Cameron, R; Gizon, L


    Three-dimensional numerical simulations have been used to study the scattering of a surface-gravity wave packet by vertical magnetic flux tubes, with radii from 200 km to 3 Mm, embedded in stratified polytropic atmosphere. The scattered wave was found to consist primarily of m=0 (axisymmetric) and m=1 modes. It was found that the ratio of the amplitude of these two modes is strongly dependant on the radius of the flux tube: The kink mode is the dominant mode excited in tubes with a small radius while the sausage mode is dominant for large tubes. Simulations of this type provide a simple, efficient and robust way to start understanding the seismic signature of flux tubes, which have recently began to be observed.

  18. Numerical estimation of 3D mechanical forces exerted by cells on non-linear materials.

    Palacio, J; Jorge-Peñas, A; Muñoz-Barrutia, A; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, C; de Juan-Pardo, E; García-Aznar, J M


    The exchange of physical forces in both cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions play a significant role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, such as cell migration, cancer metastasis, inflammation and wound healing. Therefore, great interest exists in accurately quantifying the forces that cells exert on their substrate during migration. Traction Force Microscopy (TFM) is the most widely used method for measuring cell traction forces. Several mathematical techniques have been developed to estimate forces from TFM experiments. However, certain simplifications are commonly assumed, such as linear elasticity of the materials and/or free geometries, which in some cases may lead to inaccurate results. Here, cellular forces are numerically estimated by solving a minimization problem that combines multiple non-linear FEM solutions. Our simulations, free from constraints on the geometrical and the mechanical conditions, show that forces are predicted with higher accuracy than when using the standard approaches.

  19. 3D Thermochemical Numerical Model of a Convergent Zone With an Overriding Plate

    Mason, W. G.; Moresi, L.; Betts, P. G.


    We have created a new three dimensional thermochemical numerical model of a convergent zone, in which a viscoplastic oceanic plate subducts beneath a viscous overriding plate, using the finite element Geoscience research code Underworld. Subduction is initiated by mantle flow induced by the gravitational instability of a slab tip, and buoyancy of the overriding plate. A cold thermal boundary layer envelopes both plates, and is partially dragged into the mantle along with the subducting slab. The trench rolls back as the slab subducts, and the overriding plate follows the retreating trench without being entrained into the upper mantle. The model is repeated with the overriding plate excluded, to analyse the influence of the overriding plate. The overriding plate retards the rate of subduction. Maximum strain rates, evident along the trench in the absence of an overriding plate, extend to a greater depth within the subducted portion of the slab in the presence of an overriding plate.

  20. Numerical Study on the 3-D Complex Characteristics of Flow Around the Hull Structure of TLP

    谷家扬; 朱新耀; 杨建民; 卢燕祥; 肖龙飞


    Vortex-induced motion is based on the complex characteristics of the flow around the tension leg platform (TLP) hull. By considering the flow field of the South China Sea and the configuration of the platform, three typical flow velocities and three flow directions are chosen to study the numerical simulation of the flow field characteristics around the TLP hull. Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations combined with the detached eddy simulation turbulence model are employed in the numerical study. The hydrodynamic coefficients of columns and pontoons, the total drag and lift coefficients of the TLP, the formation and development of the wake, and the vorticity iso-surfaces for different inlet velocities and current directions are discussed in this paper. The average value of the drag coefficient of the upstream columns is considerably larger than that of the downstream columns in the inlet direction of 0°. Although the time history of the lift coefficient demonstrates a “beating” behavior, the plot shows regularity in general. The Strouhal number decreases as the inlet velocity increases from the power spectral density plot at different flow velocities. The mean root values of the lift and drag coefficients of the front column decrease as the current direction increases. Under the symmetrical configuration of 45°, the streamwise force on C4 is the smallest, whereas the transverse force is the largest. The broken vortex conditions in current directions of 22.5° and 45° are more serious than that in the current direction of 0°. In addition, turbulence at the bottom of the TLP becomes stronger when the current direction changes from 0° to 45°. However, a high inlet velocity indicates a large region influenced by the broken vortex and shows the emergence of the wake behind the TLP under the same current angle.

  1. Geological characterization of Italian reservoirs and numerical 3D modelling of CO2 storage scenarios into saline aquifers

    Beretta, S.; Moia, F.; Guandalini, R.; Cappelletti, F.


    The research activities carried out by the Environment and Sustainable Development Department of RSE S.p.A. aim to evaluate the feasibility of CO2 geological sequestration in Italy, with particular reference to the storage into saline aquifers. The identification and geological characterization of the Italian potential storage sites, together with the study of the temporal and spatial evolution of the CO2 plume within the caprock-reservoir system, are performed using different modelling tools available in the Integrated Analysis Modelling System (SIAM) entirely powered in RSE. The numerical modelling approach is the only one that allows to investigate the behaviour of the injected CO2 regarding the fluid dynamic, geochemical and geomechanical aspects and effects due to its spread, in order to verify the safety of the process. The SIAM tools allow: - Selection of potential Italian storage sites through geological and geophysical data collected in the GIS-CO2 web database; - Characterization of caprock and aquifer parameters, seismic risk and environmental link for the selected site; - Creation of the 3D simulation model for the selected domain, using the modeller METHODRdS powered by RSE and the mesh generator GMSH; - Simulation of the injection and the displacement of CO2: multiphase fluid 3D dynamics is based on the modified version of TOUGH2 model; - Evaluation of geochemical reaction effects; - Evaluation of geomechanic effects, using the coupled 3D CANT-SD finite elements code; - Detailed local analysis through the use of open source auxiliary tools, such as SHEMAT and FEHM. - 3D graphic analysis of the results. These numerical tools have been successfully used for simulating the injection and the spread of CO2 into several real Italian reservoirs and have allowed to achieve accurate results in terms of effective storage capacity and safety analysis. The 3D geological models represent the high geological complexity of the Italian subsoil, where reservoirs are

  2. Temperature Mapping of 3D Printed Polymer Plates: Experimental and Numerical Study

    Charoula Kousiatza


    Full Text Available In Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM, which is a common thermoplastic Additive Manufacturing (AM method, the polymer model material that is in the form of a flexible filament is heated above its glass transition temperature (Tg to a semi-molten state in the head’s liquefier. The heated material is extruded in a rastering configuration onto the building platform where it rapidly cools and solidifies with the adjoining material. The heating and rapid cooling cycles of the work materials exhibited during the FDM process provoke non-uniform thermal gradients and cause stress build-up that consequently result in part distortions, dimensional inaccuracy and even possible part fabrication failure. Within the purpose of optimizing the FDM technique by eliminating the presence of such undesirable effects, real-time monitoring is essential for the evaluation and control of the final parts’ quality. The present work investigates the temperature distributions developed during the FDM building process of multilayered thin plates and on this basis a numerical study is also presented. The recordings of temperature changes were achieved by embedding temperature measuring sensors at various locations into the middle-plane of the printed structures. The experimental results, mapping the temperature variations within the samples, were compared to the corresponding ones obtained by finite element modeling, exhibiting good correlation.

  3. A continuous flow microfluidic calorimeter: 3-D numerical modeling with aqueous reactants

    Sen, Mehmet A., E-mail: [Northeastern University, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 360 Hungtington Avenue, 334 Snell Engineering Center, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kowalski, Gregory J., E-mail: [Northeastern University, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 360 Hungtington Avenue, 334 Snell Engineering Center, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Fiering, Jason, E-mail: [Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, 555 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Larson, Dale, E-mail: [Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, 555 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)


    Highlights: • A co-flow microreactor is modeled in flow, reaction/diffusion, and thermal domains. • Analysis shows how arrayed temperature sensors can provide enthalpy of reaction. • Optical plasmonic temperature sensors could be arrayed suitably for calorimetry. • The reactor studied has a volume of 25 nL. - Abstract: A computational analysis of the reacting flow field, species diffusion and heat transfer processes with thermal boundary layer effects in a microchannel reactor with a coflow configuration was performed. Two parallel adjacent streams of aqueous reactants flow along a wide, shallow, enclosed channel in contact with a substrate, which is affixed to a temperature controlled plate. The Fluent computational fluid dynamics package solved the Navier–Stokes, mass transport and energy equations. The energy model, including the enthalpy of reaction as a nonuniform heat source, was validated by calculating the energy balance at several control volumes in the microchannel. Analysis reveals that the temperature is nearly uniform across the channel thickness, in the direction normal to the substrate surface; hence, measurements made by sensors at or near the surface are representative of the average temperature. Additionally, modeling the channel with a glass substrate and a silicone cover shows that heat transfer is predominantly due to the glass substrate. Finally, using the numerical results, we suggest that a microcalorimeter could be based on this configuration, and that temperature sensors such as optical nanohole array sensors could have sufficient spatial resolution to determine enthalpy of reaction.

  4. A continuous flow microfluidic calorimeter: 3-D numerical modeling with aqueous reactants.

    Sen, Mehmet A; Kowalski, Gregory J; Fiering, Jason; Larson, Dale


    A computational analysis of the reacting flow field, species diffusion and heat transfer processes with thermal boundary layer effects in a microchannel reactor with a coflow configuration was performed. Two parallel adjacent streams of aqueous reactants flow along a wide, shallow, enclosed channel in contact with a substrate, which is affixed to a temperature controlled plate. The Fluent computational fluid dynamics package solved the Navier-Stokes, mass transport and energy equations. The energy model, including the enthalpy of reaction as a nonuniform heat source, was validated by calculating the energy balance at several control volumes in the microchannel. Analysis reveals that the temperature is nearly uniform across the channel thickness, in the direction normal to the substrate surface; hence, measurements made by sensors at or near the surface are representative of the average temperature. Additionally, modeling the channel with a glass substrate and a silicone cover shows that heat transfer is predominantly due to the glass substrate. Finally, using the numerical results, we suggest that a microcalorimeter could be based on this configuration, and that temperature sensors such as optical nanohole array sensors could have sufficient spatial resolution to determine enthalpy of reaction.

  5. A Numerical Method for Solving 3D Elasticity Equations with Sharp-Edged Interfaces

    Liqun Wang


    Full Text Available Interface problems occur frequently when two or more materials meet. Solving elasticity equations with sharp-edged interfaces in three dimensions is a very complicated and challenging problem for most existing methods. There are several difficulties: the coupled elliptic system, the matrix coefficients, the sharp-edged interface, and three dimensions. An accurate and efficient method is desired. In this paper, an efficient nontraditional finite element method with nonbody-fitting grids is proposed to solve elasticity equations with sharp-edged interfaces in three dimensions. The main idea is to choose the test function basis to be the standard finite element basis independent of the interface and to choose the solution basis to be piecewise linear satisfying the jump conditions across the interface. The resulting linear system of equations is shown to be positive definite under certain assumptions. Numerical experiments show that this method is second order accurate in the L∞ norm for piecewise smooth solutions. More than 1.5th order accuracy is observed for solution with singularity (second derivative blows up.

  6. Numerical analysis of 3-D unsteady flow in a vaneless counter-rotating turbine

    ZHAO Qingjun; WANG Huishe; ZHAO Xiaolu; XU Jianzhong


    To reveal the unsteady flow characteristics of a vaneless counter-rotating turbine (VCRT),a threedimensional,viscous,unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed.The results show that unsteady simulation is superior to steady simulation because more flow characteristics can be obtained.The unsteady effects in upstream airfoil rows are weaker than those in downstream airfoil rows in the VCRT.The static pressure distribution along the span in the pressure surface of a high pressure turbine stator is more uniform than that in the suction surface.The static pressure distributions along the span in the pressure surfaces and the suction surfaces of a high pressure turbine rotor and a low pressure turbine rotor are all uneven.The numerical results also indicate that the load of a high pressure turbine rotor will increase with the increase of the span.The deviation is very big between the direction of air flow at the outlet of a high pressure turbine rotor and the axial direction.A similar result can also be obtained in the outlet of a low pressure turbine rotor.This means that the specific work of a high pressure turbine rotor and a low pressure turbine rotor is big enough to reach the design objectives.

  7. An Innovative Hybrid 3D Analytic-Numerical Approach for System Level Modelling of PEM Fuel Cells

    Gregor Tavčar


    Full Text Available The PEM fuel cell model presented in this paper is based on modelling species transport and coupling electrochemical reactions to species transport in an innovative way. Species transport is modelled by obtaining a 2D analytic solution for species concentration distribution in the plane perpendicular to the gas-flow and coupling consecutive 2D solutions by means of a 1D numerical gas-flow model. The 2D solution is devised on a jigsaw puzzle of multiple coupled domains which enables the modelling of parallel straight channel fuel cells with realistic geometries. Electrochemical and other nonlinear phenomena are coupled to the species transport by a routine that uses derivative approximation with prediction-iteration. A hybrid 3D analytic-numerical fuel cell model of a laboratory test fuel cell is presented and evaluated against a professional 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD simulation tool. This comparative evaluation shows very good agreement between results of the presented model and those of the CFD simulation. Furthermore, high accuracy results are achieved at computational times short enough to be suitable for system level simulations. This computational efficiency is owed to the semi-analytic nature of its species transport modelling and to the efficient computational coupling of electrochemical kinetics and species transport.


    LUO Zu-jiang; WANG Yan


    In order to correctly evaluate the exploitable groundwater resource in regional complex,thick Quaternary unconsolidated sediments,the whole Quaternary unconsolidated sediments are considered as a unified hydrogeological unit and a 3-D unsteady groundwater flow numerical model is adopted.Meanwhile,with the consideration of the dynamic changes of the porosity,the hydraulic conductivity and the specific storage with the groundwater level dropping during the exploitation process,an improved composite element seepage matrix adjustment method is applied to solve the unsteady flow problem of free surface.In order to evaluate the exploitable groundwater resource in Cangzhou,Hebei Province,the hydrogeological conceptual model of Cangzhou is generalized to establish,a 3-D variable parameter numerical model of Cangzhou.Based on the prediction of the present groundwater exploitation,and by adjusting the groundwater exploitation layout,the exploitable groundwater resource is predicted.The model enjoys features like good convergence,good stability and high precision.

  9. Numerical modeling of cutting processes for elastoplastic materials in 3D-statement

    Kukudzhanov, V. N.; Levitin, A. L.


    In the present paper, we use the finite element method to perform the three-dimensional modeling of unsteady process of cutting an elastoplastic plate (slab) by an absolutely rigid cutting tool moving at a constant velocity V 0 at different inclinations α of the tool face (Fig. 1). The modeling was based on the coupled thermomechanical model of an elastoviscoplastic material. The adiabatic process of cutting was compared with the regime in which the slab material heat conduction is taken into account. The cutting process was parametrically studied for variations in the slab and cutting tool geometry, in the rate and depth of cutting, and in the properties of the processed material. The slab thickness was varied in the direction of the axis z. The stressed state varied from the plane-stressed bar H = H/L≪ 1 (thin plate) to the plane-strained bar H ≫ 1 (wide plate), where H is the slab thickness and L is the slab length. The problem was solved on a moving adaptive Lagrange-Euler grid by the finite element method with splitting, by using the explicit-implicit integration schemes for equations [13]. It was shown that the numerical modeling of the problem in the three-dimensional statement permits studying the cutting processes with continuous chip formation and with chip destruction into separate pieces. The mechanism of this phenomenon in the case of orthogonal cutting ( α = 0) can be explained by the thermal softening with formation of adiabatic shear strips without using the damage models. In cutting by a sharper tool (the angle α is large), it is necessary to use the coupled model of thermal and structural softening. We obtain dependences of the force acting on the tool for different geometric and physical parameters of the problem. We also show that the quasimonotone and oscillating operation modes are possible and explain them from the physical standpoint.


    Amnart Boonloi


    Full Text Available The article presents a mathematical study of fully developed periodic laminar flow visualization and heat transfer characteristics in an isothermal wall square-channel fitted with V-shaped baffles on one wall. The computations based on the finite volume method together with the SIMPLE algorithm have been performed. The investigation covers a range of Re based on the hydraulic diameter of the channel, Re = 100-1200. To create a pair of main streamwise vortex flows through the tested section, the V-baffles with the attack angle of 30° with the main flow direction are mounted in tandem and pointing downstream on the lower channel wall only. Effects of different baffle heights and pitches on heat transfer and pressure drop in the channel are examined and the results obtained are compared with smooth channel with no baffle. The numerical result shows that the presence of the V-baffle yields a significant heat transfer enhancement compared with the smooth channel. It is visible that the main vortex flows, a pair of streamwise twisted vortex (P-vortex can induce impingement flows on the walls leading to a drastic increase in heat transfer rate over the channel. In addition, the increase in the baffle height leads to the rise in the heat transfer and pressure loss while that in the baffle pitch provides the opposite trend. The predicted results expose that the maximum thermal enhancement factors for the V-baffles with BR = 0.3, 0.3 and 0.4; and PR = 1, 1.5 and 2 are, respectively, about 2.44, 2.29 and 2.37 at higher Re.

  11. A numerical study of the transition to oscillatory flow in 3D lid-driven cubic cavity flows

    Chiu, Shang-Huan; He, Jiwen; Guo, Aixia; Glowinski, Roland


    In this article, three dimensional (3D) lid-driven cubic cavity flows have been studied numerically for various values of Reynolds number ($Re$). The numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations modeling incompressible viscous fluid flow in a cubic cavity is obtained via a methodology combining a first order accurate operator-splitting, $L^2$-projection Stokes solver, a wave-like equation treatment of the advection and finite element methods. The numerical results obtained for Re$=$400, 1000, and 3200 show a good agreement with available numerical and experimental results in literature. Simulation results predict that the critical Re$_{cr}$ for the transition from steady flow to oscillatory (a Hopf bifurcation) is somewhere in [1870, 1875] for the mesh size $h=1/96$. Via studying the flow field distortion of fluid flow at Re before and after Re$_{cr}$, the occurrence of the first pair of Taylor-G\\"ortler-like vortices is connected to the flow field distortion at the transition from steady flow to oscilla...


    Malapaka, Shiva Kumar; Mueller, Wolf-Christian [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)


    Statistical properties of the Sun's photospheric turbulent magnetic field, especially those of the active regions (ARs), have been studied using the line-of-sight data from magnetograms taken by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and several other instruments. This includes structure functions and their exponents, flatness curves, and correlation functions. In these works, the dependence of structure function exponents ({zeta}{sub p}) of the order of the structure functions (p) was modeled using a non-intermittent K41 model. It is now well known that the ARs are highly turbulent and are associated with strong intermittent events. In this paper, we compare some of the observations from Abramenko et al. with the log-Poisson model used for modeling intermittent MHD turbulent flows. Next, we analyze the structure function data obtained from the direct numerical simulations (DNS) of homogeneous, incompressible 3D-MHD turbulence in three cases: sustained by forcing, freely decaying, and a flow initially driven and later allowed to decay (case 3). The respective DNS replicate the properties seen in the plots of {zeta}{sub p} against p of ARs. We also reproduce the trends and changes observed in intermittency in flatness and correlation functions of ARs. It is suggested from this analysis that an AR in the onset phase of a flare can be treated as a forced 3D-MHD turbulent system in its simplest form and that the flaring stage is representative of decaying 3D-MHD turbulence. It is also inferred that significant changes in intermittency from the initial onset phase of a flare to its final peak flaring phase are related to the time taken by the system to reach the initial onset phase.

  13. Roles of Mesoscale Terrain and Latent Heat Release in Typhoon Precipitation: A Numerical Case Study


    The mesoscale orographic effects on typhoon Aere's precipitation are simulated using an Advanced Regional Eta-coordinate Model (AREM) version 3.0. In particular, the effects of the latent heat release are studied by two comparable experiments: with and without condensational heating. The results show that the typhoon rainfall is tripled by the southeastern China mesoscale terrain, and the condensational heating is responsible for at least half of the increase. One role of the latent heat release is to warm the atmosphere,leading to a depression of the surface pressure, which then causes a larger pressure difference in the zonal direction. This pressure gradient guides the water vapour to flow into the foothills, which in turn amplifies the water vapour flux divergence amplified, causing the typhoon rainfall to increase eventually. The other role of the latent heat release is to make the convection more organized, resulting in a relatively smaller rain area and stronger precipitation.

  14. First 3D numerical simulations validated with experimental measurements during a LOVA reproduction inside the new facility STARDUST-Upgrade

    Ciparisse, J.F.; Malizia, A. [Associazione EUROFUSION-ENEA, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome 00133 (Italy); Poggi, L.A., E-mail: [Associazione EUROFUSION-ENEA, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome 00133 (Italy); Gelfusa, M. [Associazione EUROFUSION-ENEA, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome 00133 (Italy); Murari, A. [Consorzio RFX-Associazione EUROFUSION-ENEA per la Fusione, Padova I-35127 (Italy); Mancini, A.; Gaudio, P. [Associazione EUROFUSION-ENEA, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome 00133 (Italy)


    Highlights: • We model supersonic, turbulent 3D flow in the “STARDUST-Upgrade” facility. • We simulate air expansion into a low pressure vessel. • We compare numerical results with experimental results. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to simulate a Loss of Vacuum Accident (LOVA) in the STARDUST (Small Tank for Aerosol Removal and DUST)-UPGRADE facility. These events are one of the major safety concerns in Tokamaks, since they can cause the mobilization and the dispersion of radioactive dust contained in a fusion reactor. The first step in the study of a LOVA event is the estimation, by means of numerical simulations, of the pressurization transient in the vacuum chamber. The STARDUST-UPGRADE facility, which has a cylindrical shape, is considered as a case study. An air inlet is located in a radial position with respect to the facility, so the numerical domain is symmetric and, therefore, only a half of it has been considered in the simulation. A time-dependent mass flow rate is imposed at the inlet, in a range consistent with experimental estimates. The simulation takes 20 s and the attention is focused on the mean pressure value over time and on the Mach number distribution. The results are presented and discussed in the perspective of simulating LOVAs in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor).

  15. Numerical 3D Model of Viscous Turbulent Flow in One Stage Gas Turbine and Its Experimental Validation



    @@ The paper describes 3D numerical Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model and approximate sector approach for viscous turbulent flow through flow path of one stage axial supercharge gas turbine of marine diesel engine. Computational data are tested by comparison with experimental data. The back step flow path opening and tip clearance jet are taken into account.This approach could be applied for variety of turbine theory and design tasks: for offer optimal design in order to minimize kinetic energy stage losses; for solution of partial supply problem; for analysis of flow pattern in near extraction stages; for estimation of rotational frequency variable forces on blades; for sector vane adjustment (with thin leading edges mainly), for direct flow modeling in the turbine etc. The development of this work could be seen in the direction of unsteady stage model application.

  16. Experimental and numerical investigation of the 3D SPECT photon detection kernel for non-uniform attenuating media

    Riauka, Terence A.; Hooper, H. Richard; Gortel, Zbigniew W.


    Experimental tests for non-uniform attenuating media are performed to validate theoretical expressions for the photon detection kernel, obtained from a recently proposed analytical theory of photon propagation and detection for SPECT. The theoretical multi-dimensional integral expressions for the photon detection kernel, which are computed numerically, describe the probability that a photon emitted from a given source voxel will trigger detection of a photon at a particular projection pixel. The experiments were performed using a cylindrical water-filled phantom with large cylindrical air-filled inserts to simulate inhomogeneity of the medium. A point-like, a short thin cylindrical and a large cylindrical radiation source of were placed at various positions within the phantom. The values numerically calculated from the theoretical kernel expressions are in very good agreement with the experimentally measured data. The significance of Compton-scattered photons in planar image formation is discussed and highlighted by these results. Using both experimental measurements and the calculated values obtained from the theory, the kernel's size is investigated. This is done by determining the square pixel neighbourhood of the gamma camera that must be connected to a particular radiation source voxel to account for a specific fraction of all counts recorded at all camera pixels. It is shown that the kernel's size is primarily dependent upon the source position and the properties of the attenuating medium through Compton scattering events, with 3D depth-dependent collimator resolution playing an important but secondary role, at least for imaging situations involving parallel hole collimation. By considering small point-like sources within a non-uniform elliptical phantom, approximating the human thorax, it is demonstrated that on average a area of the camera plane is required to collect 85% of the total count recorded. This is a significantly larger connectivity than the area

  17. Making Faranoff-Riley I radio sources. I. Numerical hydrodynamic 3D simulations of low-power jets

    Massaglia, S.; Bodo, G.; Rossi, P.; Capetti, S.; Mignone, A.


    Context. Extragalactic radio sources have been classified into two classes, Fanaroff-Riley I and II, which differ in morphology and radio power. Strongly emitting sources belong to the edge-brightened FR II class, and weakly emitting sources to the edge-darkened FR I class. The origin of this dichotomy is not yet fully understood. Numerical simulations are successful in generating FR II morphologies, but they fail to reproduce the diffuse structure of FR Is. Aims: By means of hydro-dynamical 3D simulations of supersonic jets, we investigate how the displayed morphologies depend on the jet parameters. Bow shocks and Mach disks at the jet head, which are probably responsible for the hot spots in the FR II sources, disappear for a jet kinetic power ℒkin ≲ 1043 erg s-1. This threshold compares favorably with the luminosity at which the FR I/FR II transition is observed. Methods: The problem is addressed by numerical means carrying out 3D HD simulations of supersonic jets that propagate in a non-homogeneous medium with the ambient temperature that increases with distance from the jet origin, which maintains constant pressure. Results: The jet energy in the lower power sources, instead of being deposited at the terminal shock, is gradually dissipated by the turbulence. The jets spread out while propagating, and they smoothly decelerate while mixing with the ambient medium and produce the plumes characteristic of FR I objects. Conclusions: Three-dimensionality is an essential ingredient to explore the FR I evolution becausethe properties of turbulence in two and three dimensions are very different, since there is no energy cascade to small scales in two dimensions, and two-dimensional simulations with the same parameters lead to FRII-like behavior.

  18. The development of topographic plateaus in an India-Asia-like collision zone using 3D numerical simulations

    Pusok, Adina E.; Kaus, Boris; Popov, Anton


    The Himalayas and the adjacent Tibetan Plateau represent the most remarkable feature of the Earth's surface as the largest region of elevated topography and anomalously thick crust. Understanding the formation and evolution of the Himalayan-Tibetan region has become of high interest in the scientific community and different models have emerged over the last decades. They range from wholescale underthrusting of Indian lithospheric mantle under Tibet, distributed homogeneous shortening or the thin-sheet model, slip-line field model to the lower crustal flow model for the exhumation of the Himalayan units and lateral spreading of the Tibetan plateau. While some of these models have successfully illustrated some of the basic physics of continental collision, none can simultaneously represent active processes such as subduction, underthrusting, delamination, channel flow or extrusion, which are thought to be important during continental convergence, since these mechanisms require the lithosphere to interact with the underlying mantle. As such, 3D numerical models prove to be powerful tools in understanding the dynamics of coupled systems. However, because of yet recent developments and various complexities, the current 3D models simulating the dynamics of continental collision zones have relied on certain explicit assumptions, either focusing on crustal dynamics or slab-mantle dynamics. Here, we employ the parallel 3D code LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model), with a finite difference staggered grid solver, which is capable of simulating lithospheric deformation while simultaneously taking mantle flow and an internal free surface into account, which allows for the development of topography. We investigate the way deep processes affect continental tectonics at convergent margins, addressing the role continent subduction and collision have on the future of the subducting and overriding plates, and we discuss the implications these offer for the Asian tectonics


    ZHANG Ting; WU Chao; LIAO Hua-sheng; HU Yao-hua


    A new-style flood discharging dam, which consolidates the flaring gate pier and the stepped spillway for discharging the flood through the dam surface, had been applied in China. The theoretical study on it is in a beginning stage at present. The three-dimensional numerical simulation has not been reported. In this paper, the 3D numerical calculation on the two-phase flow of water and air with discharge per unit width 195m3/s* m is presented . The results indicate that there is negative pressure on the juncture of the spillway surface and the first step. There forms obvious longitudinal and transverse eddies on the steps and the velocity decreases obviously compared with the smooth spillway. The figures of the velocity distributions and the water-air two-phase flows are plotted. The results calculated on the pressure are in agreement with the experimental data. Based on the position of the negative pressure obtained from calculation, measurement points of pressure are arranged in physical model. The experimental results validate the existence of the negative pressure. Being an applied and trial study, the results obtained are of theoretical and practical significance.

  20. A Sensory 3D Map of the Odor Description Space Derived from a Comparison of Numeric Odor Profile Databases.

    Zarzo, Manuel


    Many authors have proposed different schemes of odor classification, which are useful to aid the complex task of describing smells. However, reaching a consensus on a particular classification seems difficult because our psychophysical space of odor description is a continuum and is not clustered into well-defined categories. An alternative approach is to describe the perceptual space of odors as a low-dimensional coordinate system. This idea was first proposed by Crocker and Henderson in 1927, who suggested using numeric profiles based on 4 dimensions: "fragrant," "acid," "burnt," and "caprylic." In the present work, the odor profiles of 144 aroma chemicals were compared by means of statistical regression with comparable numeric odor profiles obtained from 2 databases, enabling a plausible interpretation of the 4 dimensions. Based on the results and taking into account comparable 2D sensory maps of odor descriptors from the literature, a 3D sensory map (odor cube) has been drawn up to improve understanding of the similarities and dissimilarities of the odor descriptors most frequently used in fragrance chemistry.

  1. Mesoscale numerical modeling of meteorological events in a strong topographic gradient in the northeastern part of Mexico

    Pineda-Martinez, Luis F.; Carbajal, Noel [IPICYT, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)


    A series of numerical experiments were carried out to study the effect of meteorological events such as warm and cold air masses on climatic features and variability of a understudied region with strong topographic gradients in the northeastern part of Mexico. We applied the mesoscale model MM5. We investigated the influence of soil moisture availability in the performance of the model under two representative events for winter and summer. The results showed that a better resolution in land use cover improved the agreement among observed and calculated data. The topography induces atmospheric circulation patterns that determine the spatial distribution of climate and seasonal behavior. The numerical experiments reveal regions favorable to forced convection on the eastern side of the mountain chains Eastern Sierra Madre and Sierra de Alvarez. These processes affect the vertical and horizontal structure of the meteorological variables along the topographic gradient. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of the Heading Confinement Pressure Effect on Ground Settlement for EPBTBM Using Full 3D Numerical Analysis

    Amir Hossein Haghi


    Full Text Available Ground settlement is often the most serious concern when tunneling under an old city with numerous historic monuments. A successful engineering design under these conditions would require getting the most out of the ground strength parameters and avoiding any weakening maneuver throughout the operation. Knowing that surface settlement is highly affected by tunneling parameters in EPB shield tunneling lead us to estimate the optimum values for the machine heading pressure with the lower amount of the ground settlement in fragile structure of the old city for the Esfahan Subway Project. Tunnels were dug underneath some of the most prominent historical sites along the path of the project. To improve precision and efficiency in tunneling operation, at the first step, tunnel heading confinement pressure is calculated by using an advanced 3D mathematical approach based on the limit equilibrium theory. Then, a promoted 3D finite element model is developed, taking into account the tunneling procedures and the designed heading confinement pressure from the first step. Settlements were pre-calculated and the surface displacement was checked at all sensitive locations. At the third step, settlement is estimated by exerting executed face supporting pressure to the tunnel face and the concluded amounts for displacement are compared with the outputs of extensometers. This comparison leads us to check the reliability of calculated settlements and the accuracy of the designed tunnel heading confinement pressure. Furthermore, evaluating the relation between extensometer outputs and executed tunnel face pressure at the points of extensometers stations validates the assumption that the safe face supporting pressure causes least surface displacement. Although the minimum pressure occurred in short term fluctuations, this approach confirms the sensibility of settlement with the least executed face supporting pressure.. It is also found that higher executed face

  3. Numerical simulations of full-wave fields and analysis of channel wave characteristics in 3-D coal mine roadway models

    Yang, Si-Tong; Wei, Jiu-Chuan; Cheng, Jiu-Long; Shi, Long-Qing; Wen, Zhi-Jie


    Currently, numerical simulations of seismic channel waves for the advance detection of geological structures in coal mine roadways focus mainly on modeling twodimensional wave fields and therefore cannot accurately simulate three-dimensional (3-D) full-wave fields or seismic records in a full-space observation system. In this study, we use the first-order velocity-stress staggered-grid finite difference algorithm to simulate 3-D full-wave fields with P-wave sources in front of coal mine roadways. We determine the three components of velocity V x, V y, and V z for the same node in 3-D staggered-grid finite difference models by calculating the average value of V y, and V z of the nodes around the same node. We ascertain the wave patterns and their propagation characteristics in both symmetrical and asymmetric coal mine roadway models. Our simulation results indicate that the Rayleigh channel wave is stronger than the Love channel wave in front of the roadway face. The reflected Rayleigh waves from the roadway face are concentrated in the coal seam, release less energy to the roof and floor, and propagate for a longer distance. There are surface waves and refraction head waves around the roadway. In the seismic records, the Rayleigh wave energy is stronger than that of the Love channel wave along coal walls of the roadway, and the interference of the head waves and surface waves with the Rayleigh channel wave is weaker than with the Love channel wave. It is thus difficult to identify the Love channel wave in the seismic records. Increasing the depth of the receivers in the coal walls can effectively weaken the interference of surface waves with the Rayleigh channel wave, but cannot weaken the interference of surface waves with the Love channel wave. Our research results also suggest that the Love channel wave, which is often used to detect geological structures in coal mine stopes, is not suitable for detecting geological structures in front of coal mine roadways

  4. A numerical method for solving the 3D unsteady incompressible Navier Stokes equations in curvilinear domains with complex immersed boundaries

    Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis


    A novel numerical method is developed that integrates boundary-conforming grids with a sharp interface, immersed boundary methodology. The method is intended for simulating internal flows containing complex, moving immersed boundaries such as those encountered in several cardiovascular applications. The background domain (e.g. the empty aorta) is discretized efficiently with a curvilinear boundary-fitted mesh while the complex moving immersed boundary (say a prosthetic heart valve) is treated with the sharp-interface, hybrid Cartesian/immersed-boundary approach of Gilmanov and Sotiropoulos [A. Gilmanov, F. Sotiropoulos, A hybrid cartesian/immersed boundary method for simulating flows with 3d, geometrically complex, moving bodies, Journal of Computational Physics 207 (2005) 457-492.]. To facilitate the implementation of this novel modeling paradigm in complex flow simulations, an accurate and efficient numerical method is developed for solving the unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates. The method employs a novel, fully-curvilinear staggered grid discretization approach, which does not require either the explicit evaluation of the Christoffel symbols or the discretization of all three momentum equations at cell interfaces as done in previous formulations. The equations are integrated in time using an efficient, second-order accurate fractional step methodology coupled with a Jacobian-free, Newton-Krylov solver for the momentum equations and a GMRES solver enhanced with multigrid as preconditioner for the Poisson equation. Several numerical experiments are carried out on fine computational meshes to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method for standard benchmark problems as well as for unsteady, pulsatile flow through a curved, pipe bend. To demonstrate the ability of the method to simulate flows with complex, moving immersed boundaries we apply it to calculate pulsatile, physiological flow

  5. Wind-induced mesoscale circulation off the Ebro delta, NW Mediterranean: a numerical study

    Espino, M.; Arcilla, A.-S.; García, M. A.


    It is well known that the general circulation on the Catalan continental slope is dominated by a quasi-permanent southwestward geostrophic jet associated to the so-called Catalan front [Millot, C., 1987. Circulation in the western Mediterranean sea. Oceanol Acta 10, 143-149; Font, J., Salat, J., Tintoré, J., 1988. Permanent features of the circulation in the Catalan Sea. Oceanol. Acta 9, 51-57]. On the continental shelf, however, the flow is modified by the action of friction which enhances also other nonlinear interactions. Several authors have hypothesized that the shelf circulation is anticyclonic north of the Ebro delta [Salat, J., Manriquez, M., Cruzado, A., 1978. Hidrografia del golfo de Sant Jordi. Campaña Delta (Abril 1970). Investigación Pesquera 42 (2), 255-272; Ballester, A., Castellvı´, J., 1980. Estudio hidrográfico y biológico de las plataformas continentales españolas: I. Efecto de los efluentes de una planta de energı´a nuclear en el Golfo de San Jorge (Febrero 1975-Octubre 1976). Informes Técnicos del Instituto de Investigaciones Pesqueras 76, 70 pp.]. A quasi-3D finite element code based on the shallow-water equations has been used to explore the effect of several mechanisms which might be responsible for such a local circulation pattern, and in particular of wind. The obtained numerical results suggest that the basic anticyclonic structure of the mean flow is controlled by the bathymetry and that the clockwise-rotating mean flow pattern is not a permanent circulation feature. It is seen that the characteristic local wind stress fields—computed through interpolation of the records of a local network of meteo stations—may `enhance' or `delete' the anticyclonic gyre depending on the sign of their relative vorticity. According to the analysis of a 2-yr record of local wind data, the net contribution of wind events with a duration longer than 24 h is to reinforce the anticyclonic circulation (over 70% of these wind fields supply

  6. Application of SeaWIFS- and AVHRR-derived data for mesoscale and regional validation of a 3-D high-resolution physical biological model of the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Canada)

    Le Fouest, V.; Zakardjian, B.; Saucier, F. J.; Çizmeli, S. A.


    We present here a first attempt to validate a regional three-dimensional (3-D) physical-biological coupled model of the Gulf of St. Lawrence with coincident Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)-derived sea surface temperature (SST) and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWIFS)-derived Chlorophyll- a (Chl- a) data. The analysis focused on comparisons between remotely sensed data and simulated as well as in situ temperature, salinity, Chl- a, and nitrate. Results show that the simulated and AVHRR-derived fields of SST were qualitatively and quantitatively in agreement with in situ measurements. By contrast, marked differences were found between the simulated and SeaWIFS-derived fields of Chl- a, the latter comparing better with the freshwater-associated turbidity simulated by the model. Simulated temperature, salinity, nitrate, and Chl- a data compared well with coincident in situ measurements, and it is then suggested that freshwater-associated turbidity related to the river discharges largely contributed to the Chl- a retrievals by SeaWIFS in the Gulf's waters when using the standard OC4v.4 algorithm and atmospheric correction. Nevertheless, the striking agreement between SeaWIFS-derived ocean colour data and the simulated freshwater-associated turbidity allowed to validate the regional estuarine circulation and associated mesoscale variability. This result brings support to the model's ability to simulate realistic physical and biogeochemical fields in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

  7. Numerical uncertainty at mesoscale in a Lagrangian model in complex terrain

    Brioude, Jerome; Angevine, Wayne; McKeen, Stuart; Hsie, Eirh Yu


    Recently, it has been shown that mass conservation in Lagrangian models is improved by using time-average winds out of Eulerian models. In this study, we evaluate the mass conservation and trajectory uncertainties in complex terrain at mesoscale using the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model coupled with the WRF mesoscale model. The specific form of vertical wind used is found to have a large effect. Time average wind with time average sigma dot, instantaneous wind with geometric cartesian vertical wind (w) and instantaneous wind with sigma dot are used to simulate mixing ratios of a passive tracer in forward and backward runs using different time interval outputs and horizontal resolutions in California. Mass conservation in the FLEXPART model was not an issue when using time-average wind or instantaneous wind with sigma dot. However, mass was poorly conserved using instantaneous wind with w, with a typical variation of 25% within 24 h. Uncertainties in surface residence time (a backtrajectory product commonly used in source receptor studies or inverse modeling) calculated for each backtrajectory run were also analyzed. The smallest uncertainties were systematically found when using time-average wind. Uncertainties using instantaneous wind with sigma dot were slightly larger, as long as the time interval of output was sufficiently small. The largest uncertainties were found when using instantaneous wind with w. Those uncertainties were found to be linearly correlated with the local average gradient of orography. Differences in uncertainty were much smaller when trajectories were calculated over flat terrain. For a typical run at mesoscale in complex terrain, 4 km horizontal resolution and 1 h time interval output, the average uncertainty and bias in surface residence time is, respectively, 8.4% and -2.5% using time-average wind, and 13% and -3.7% using instantaneous wind with sigma dot in complex terrain. The corresponding values for instantaneous wind

  8. Numerical study for the calculation of computer-generated hologram in color holographic 3D projection enabled by modified wavefront recording plane method

    Chang, Chenliang; Qi, Yijun; Wu, Jun; Yuan, Caojin; Nie, Shouping; Xia, Jun


    A method of calculating computer-generated hologram (CGH) for color holographic 3D projection is proposed. A color 3D object is decomposed into red, green and blue components. For each color component, a virtual wavefront recording plane (WRP) is established which is nonuniformly sampled according to the depth map of the 3D object. The hologram of each color component is calculated from the nonuniform sampled WRP using the shifted Fresnel diffraction algorithm. Finally three holograms of RGB components are encoded into one single CGH based on the multiplexing encoding method. The computational cost of CGH generation is reduced by converting diffraction calculation from huge 3D voxels to three 2D planar images. Numerical experimental results show that the CGH generated by our method is capable to project zoomable color 3D object with clear quality.

  9. Effective grouting area of jointed slope and stress deformation responses by numerical analysis with FLAC3D

    ZHU Zi-qiang; LIU Qun-yi; ZENG Fan-he; QING Du-gan


    To study the grouting reinforcement mechanism in jointed rock slope, first, the theoretical deduction was done to calculate the critical length of slipping if the slope angle is larger than that of joint inclination; Second, the numerical calculation model was founded by FLAG3D, so as to find the stress and deformation responses of rock mass in the state before and after grouting, the analysis results show that the range between the boundary of critical slipping block and the joint plane that passes the slope toe is the effective grouting area (EGA). After excavation, large deformation occurs along the joint plane. After grouting, the displacements of rock particles become uniform and continuous, and large deformations along the joint plane are controlled; the dynamic displacement can reflect the deformation response of slope during excavation in the state before and after grouting, as well as the shear location of potential slip plane. After grouting, the dynamic displacement of each monitoring point reaches the peak value with very few time steps,which indicate that the parameters of the joint plane, such as strength and stiffness, are improved; the stress field becomes uniform. Tensile area reduces gradually; whole stability of the slope and its ability to resist tensile and shear stress are improved greatly.

  10. Experimental and numerical investigation into micro-flow cytometer with 3-D hydrodynamic focusing effect and micro-weir structure.

    Hou, Hui-Hsiung; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Fu, Lung-Ming; Yang, Ruey-Jen


    This study presents a novel 3-D hydrodynamic focusing technique for micro-flow cytometers. In the proposed approach, the sample stream is compressed initially in the horizontal direction by a set of sheath flows such that it is constrained to the central region of the microchannel and is then focused in the vertical direction by a second pair of sheath flows. Thereafter, the focused sample stream passes over a micro-weir structure positioned directly beneath an optical detection system to capture polystyrene beads fluorescent signal. The microchannel configuration and operational parameters are optimized by performing a series of numerical simulations. An experimental investigation is then performed using a micro-flow cytometer fabricated using conventional micro-electro-mechanical systems techniques and an isotropic wet etching method. The results indicate that the two sets of sheath flows successfully constrain the sample stream within a narrow, well-defined region of the microchannel. Furthermore, the micro-weir structure prompts the separation of a mixed sample of 5 and 10 microm polystyrene beads in the vertical direction and ensures that the beads flow through the detection region of the microchannel in a sequential fashion and can therefore be reliably detected and counted.

  11. 3D numerical study on flow structure and heat transfer in a circular tube with V-baffles☆

    Withada Jedsadaratanachai; Nuthvipa Jayranaiwachira; Pongjet Promvonge


    A 3D numerical investigation has been carried out to examine periodic laminar flow and heat transfer character-istics in a circular tube with 45° V-baffles with isothermal wal . The computations are based on the finite volume method (FVM), and the SIMPLE algorithm has been implemented. The fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are presented for Reynolds numbers ranging from 100 to 2000. To generate main longitudinal vortex flows through the tested section, V-baffles with an attack angle of 45° are mounted in tandem and in-line arrangement on the opposite positions of the circular tube. Effects of tube blockage ratio, flow direction on heat transfer and pressure drop in the tube are studied. It is apparent that a pair of longitudinal twisted vortices (P-vortex) created by a V-baffle can induce impingement on a wal of the inter-baffle cavity and lead a drastic increase in heat trans-fer rate at tube wall. In addition, the larger blockage ratio results in the higher Nusselt number and friction factor values. The computational results show that the optimum thermal enhancement factor is around 3.20 at baffle height of B=0.20 and B=0.25 times of the tube diameter for the V-upstream and V-downstream, respectively. © 2014 The Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China, and Chemical Industry Press. Al rights reserved.

  12. Insights into the effects of oblique extension on continental rift interaction from 3D analogue and numerical models

    Zwaan, Frank; Schreurs, Guido; Naliboff, John; Buiter, Susanne J. H.


    Continental rifts often develop from linkage of distinct rift segments under varying degrees of extension obliquity. These rift segments arise from rift initiation at non-aligned crustal heterogeneities and need to interact to develop a full-scale rift system. Here, we test the effects of 1) oblique extension and 2) initial heterogeneity (seed) offset on continental rift interaction with the use of an improved analogue model set-up. X-ray computer tomography (CT) techniques are used to analyse the 3D models through time and the results are compared with additional numerical models and natural examples. The experimental results reveal that increasing extension obliquity strongly changes rift segment structures from wide rifts in orthogonal settings to narrower rifts with oblique internal structures under oblique extension conditions to narrow strike-slip dominated systems towards the strike-slip domain. We also find that both decreasing seed offset and increasing extension obliquity promote hard linkage of rift segments through the formation of continuous rift boundary faults at the surface. (Initial) soft linkage through the formation of relay ramps is more likely when seed offset increases or extension is more orthogonal. Rather than linking at depth, the rift boundary faults curve around each other at depth and merge towards the surface to form a continuous trough. Orthogonal extension promotes the formation of intra-rift horsts, which may provide hydrocarbon traps in nature.

  13. 3D Numerical study on the hollow profile polymer extrusion forming based on the gas-assisted technique

    Ren, Z.; Huang, X. Y.; Liu, H. S.


    In this study, gas-assisted extrusion method was introduced into the extrusion of the hollow profiles. To validate the feasibility of the new extrusion method, 3D numerical simulation of the hollow profiles based on gas-assisted technique was carried out by using the finite element method. The Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) mode was selected as the construction equation. In the simulations, the physical field distributions of four different extrusion modes were obtained and analyzed. Results showed that the extrudate effect of traditional no gas- assisted mode was poor because the extrudate swell phenomenon is obvious and the physical field values are larger. For the gas-assisted of the inner wall, the extrudate swell of the melt was more obvious than that of the traditional no gas-assisted mode on account of the no-slip boundary condition on the outer wall. For the gas-assisted of the outer wall, the dimple effect of the inner wall is more obvious owing to the no-slip boundary condition on the inner wall. However, the extrusion effect of the double walls gas-assisted mode is very good because of the full-slip effect on the both walls.

  14. Numerical modelling of seawater intrusion in Shenzhen (China) using a 3D densitydependent model including tidal effects

    Wei Lu; Qingchun Yang; Jordi D Martín; Ricardo Juncosa


    During the 1990s, groundwater overexploitation has resulted in seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifer of the Shenzhen city, China. Although water supply facilities have been improved and alleviated seawater intrusion in recent years, groundwater overexploitation is still of great concern in some local areas. In this work we present a three-dimensional density-dependent numerical model developed with the FEFLOW code, which is aimed at simulating the extent of seawater intrusion while including tidal effects and different groundwater pumping scenarios. Model calibration, using waterheads and reported chloride concentration, has been performed based on the data from 14 boreholes, which were monitored from May 2008 to December 2009. A fairly good fitness between the observed and computed values was obtained by a manual trial-and-error method. Model prediction has been carried out forward 3 years with the calibrated model taking into account high, medium and low tide levels and different groundwater exploitation schemes. The model results show that tide-induced seawater intrusion significantly affects the groundwater levels and concentrations near the estuarine of the Dasha river, which implies that an important hydraulic connection exists between this river and groundwater, even considering that some anti-seepage measures were taken in the river bed. Two pumping scenarios were considered in the calibrated model in order to predict the future changes in the water levels and chloride concentration. The numerical results reveal a decreased tendency of seawater intrusion if groundwater exploitation does not reach an upper bound of about 1.32 × 104 m3/d. The model results provide also insights for controlling seawater intrusion in such coastal aquifer systems.

  15. Nonhydrostatic effects in numerical modeling of mesoscale convective systems and baroclinic waves

    Cohen, Charles


    The present investigation is concerned with the role of convection upon mesoscale modeling results, particularly when the grid resolution becomes small enough that there is not a clear scale separation between the explicitly resolved circulations and the parameterized clouds. In those situations, the vertical accelerations in explicitly resolved circulations become strong enough that the hydrostatic assumption may no longer be valid. These concerns arise from interests in improving mesoscale modeling per se and in improving the subgrid-scale parameterizations in global models. The hydrostatic and the nonhydrostatic options of the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System were used to simulate dry gravity currents in two dimensions, using several different horizontal grid sizes. With horizontal grid intervals of 10 km or less, nonhydrostatic simulations produce wider and colder heads and weaker but wider forced updrafts than do the hydrostatic simulations. Comparing the hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic models show that the difference between the vertical mass fluxes is much less than the difference between the vertical velocities. When the grid is fine enough to resolve the head of the gravity current, horizontal convergence at the gust front extends upwards almost to the head of the cold air. Vertical mass flux in the forced updraft at the front varies with horizontal grid size mainly as a function of the height of the simulated head. For coarser grids, which do not resolve the head, vertical mass flux at all heights decreases with increasing horizontal grid size. A comparison on nonhydrostatic simulations with horizontal grid intervals of 1 km and 2 km illustrates how decreasing the grid size does not necessarily increase the intensity of the resolved circulation. The smaller grid enables the simulated gravity current to entrain a bubble of warm air behind the head, which results in a weaker circulation with a shorter head and weaker updraft.

  16. 3D numerical modeling of mantle flow, crustal dynamics and magma genesis associated with slab roll-back and tearing: The eastern Mediterranean case

    Menant, Armel; Sternai, Pietro; Jolivet, Laurent; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Gerya, Taras


    International audience; Interactions between subduction dynamics and magma genesis have been intensely investigated, resulting in several conceptual models derived from geological, geochemical and geophysical data. To provide physico-chemical constraints on these conceptual models, self-consistent numerical simulations containing testable thermo-mechanical parameters are required, especially considering the three-dimensional (3D) natural complexity of subduction systems. Here, we use a 3D hig...

  17. 3D Faulting Numerical Model Related To 2009 L'Aquila Earthquake Based On DInSAR Observations

    Castaldo, Raffaele; Tizzani, Pietro; Solaro, Giuseppe; Pepe, Susi; Lanari, Riccardo


    We investigate the surface displacements in the area affected by the April 6, 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Central Italy) through an advanced 3D numerical modeling approach, by exploiting DInSAR deformation velocity maps based on ENVISAT (Ascending and Descending orbits) and COSMO-SkyMed data (Ascending orbit). We benefited from the available geological and geophysical information to investigate the impact of known buried structures on the modulation of the observed ground deformation field; in this context we implemented the a priori information in a Finite Element (FE) Environment considering a structural mechanical physical approach. The performed analysis demonstrate that the displacement pattern associated with the Mw 6.3 main-shock event is consistent with the activation of several fault segments of the Paganica fault. In particular, we analyzed the seismic events in a structural mechanical context under the plane stress mode approximation to solve for the retrieved displacements. We defined the sub-domain setting of the 3D FEM model using the information derived from the CROOP M-15 seismic line. We assumed stationarity and linear elasticity of the involved materials by considering a solution of classical equilibrium mechanical equations. We evolved our model through two stages: the model compacted under the weight of the rock successions (gravity loading) until it reached a stable equilibrium. At the second stage (co-seismic), where the stresses were released through a slip along the faults, by using an optimization procedure we retrieved: (i) the active seismogenic structures responsible for the observed ground deformation, (ii) the effects of the different mechanical constraints on the ground deformation pattern and (iii) the spatial distribution of the retrieved stress field. We evaluated the boundary setting best fit configuration responsible for the observed ground deformation. To this aim, we first generated several forward structural mechanical models

  18. Numerical model of water flow and solute accumulation in vertisols using HYDRUS 2D/3D code

    Weiss, Tomáš; Dahan, Ofer; Turkeltub, Tuvia


    Keywords: dessication-crack-induced-salinization, preferential flow, conceptual model, numerical model, vadose zone, vertisols, soil water retention function, HYDRUS 2D/3D Vertisols cover a hydrologically very significant area of semi-arid regions often through which water infiltrates to groundwater aquifers. Understanding of water flow and solute accumulation is thus very relevant to agricultural activity and water resources management. Previous works suggest a conceptual model of dessication-crack-induced-salinization where salinization of sediment in the deep section of the vadose zone (up to 4 m) is induced by subsurface evaporation due to convective air flow in the dessication cracks. It suggests that the salinization is induced by the hydraulic gradient between the dry sediment in the vicinity of cracks (low potential) and the relatively wet sediment further from the main cracks (high potential). This paper presents a modified previously suggested conceptual model and a numerical model. The model uses a simple uniform flow approach but unconventionally prescribes the boundary conditions and the hydraulic parameters of soil. The numerical model is bound to one location close to a dairy farm waste lagoon, but the application of the suggested conceptual model could be possibly extended to all semi-arid regions with vertisols. Simulations were conducted using several modeling approaches with an ultimate goal of fitting the simulation results to the controlling variables measured in the field: temporal variation in water content across thick layer of unsaturated clay sediment (>10 m), sediment salinity and salinity the water draining down the vadose zone to the water table. The development of the model was engineered in several steps; all computed as forward solutions by try-and-error approach. The model suggests very deep instant infiltration of fresh water up to 12 m, which is also supported by the field data. The paper suggests prescribing a special atmospheric

  19. A Numerical Study of Sensitivity of the Physical Dissipative Technique to Precipitation Parameterization in a Mesoscale Model

    LIU Ying; LIU Chongjian; XU Hui; ZHAO Yongming


    In this paper the numerical comparative experiments on sensitivity of the physical dissipative technique to the precipitation parameterizations, especially the different combination of the explicit micro-physical schemes and cumulus convection parameterizations, in the PSU/NCAR mesoscale model MM5V3 with a triple-nested domain are conducted using the case of heavy rain occurring in the northern China in October 2003. The experiments have revealed some meaningful results, notably the dramatic improvement in the simulative accuracy and quality by the physical dissipative technique based on the second law of thermodynamics, meanwhile, the weak sensitivity of the technique to the schemes of parameterization resulting mainly from improving the field of rainfall by the physical dissipative technique has been reached via improving the outputs of the model variables such as wind field determining the divergence field that is one of the most important factors in the case of designing the schemes of precipitation parameterization.

  20. Flow above and within granular media composed of spherical and non-spherical particles - using a 3D numerical model

    Bartzke, Gerhard; Kuhlmann, Jannis; Huhn, Katrin


    The entrainment of single grains and, hence, their erosion characteristics are dependent on fluid forcing, grain size and density, but also shape variations. To quantitatively describe and capture the hydrodynamic conditions around individual grains, researchers commonly use empirical approaches such as laboratory flume tanks. Nonetheless, it is difficult with such physical experiments to measure the flow velocities in the direct vicinity or within the pore spaces of sediments, at a sufficient resolution and in a non-invasive way. As a result, the hydrodynamic conditions in the water column, at the fluid-porous interface and within pore spaces of a granular medium of various grain shapes is not yet fully understood. For that reason, there is a strong need for numerical models, since these are capable of quantifying fluid speeds within a granular medium. A 3D-SPH (Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics) numerical wave tank model was set up to provide quantitative evidence on the flow velocities in the direct vicinity and in the interior of granular beds composed of two shapes as a complementary method to the difficult task of in situ measurement. On the basis of previous successful numerical wave tank models with SPH, the model geometry was chosen in dimensions of X=2.68 [m], Y=0.48 [m], and Z=0.8 [m]. Three suites of experiments were designed with a range of particle shape models: (1) ellipsoids with the long axis oriented in the across-stream direction, (2) ellipsoids with the long axis oriented in the along-stream direction, and (3) spheres. Particle diameters ranged from 0.04 [m] to 0.08 [m]. A wave was introduced by a vertical paddle that accelerated to 0.8 [m/s] perpendicular to the granular bed. Flow measurements showed that the flow velocity values into the beds were highest when the grains were oriented across the stream direction and lowest in case when the grains were oriented parallel to the stream, indicating that the model was capable to simulate simultaneously

  1. Numerical dispersion, stability, and phase-speed for 3D time-domain finite-difference seismic wave propagation algorithms

    Haney, M. M.; Aldridge, D. F.; Symons, N. P.


    Numerical solution of partial differential equations by explicit, time-domain, finite-difference (FD) methods entails approximating temporal and spatial derivatives by discrete function differences. Thus, the solution of the difference equation will not be identical to the solution of the underlying differential equation. Solution accuracy degrades if temporal and spatial gridding intervals are too large. Overly coarse spatial gridding leads to spurious artifacts in the calculated results referred to as numerical dispersion, whereas coarse temporal sampling may produce numerical instability (manifest as unbounded growth in the calculations as FD timestepping proceeds). Quantitative conditions for minimizing dispersion and avoiding instability are developed by deriving the dispersion relation appropriate for the discrete difference equation (or coupled system of difference equations) under examination. A dispersion relation appropriate for FD solution of the 3D velocity-stress system of isotropic elastodynamics, on staggered temporal and spatial grids, is developed. The relation applies to either compressional or shear wave propagation, and reduces to the proper form for acoustic propagation in the limit of vanishing shear modulus. A stability condition and a plane-wave phase-speed formula follow as consequences of the dispersion relation. The mathematical procedure utilized for the derivation is a modern variant of classical von Neumann analysis, and involves a 4D discrete space/time Fourier transform of the nine, coupled, FD updating formulae for particle velocity vector and stress tensor components. The method is generalized to seismic wave propagation within anelastic and poroelastic media, as well as sound wave propagation within a uniformly-moving atmosphere. A significant extension of the approach yields a stability condition for wave propagation across an interface between dissimilar media with strong material contrast (e.g., the earth's surface, the seabed

  2. 3D Numerical Optimization Modelling of Ivancich landslides (Assisi, Italy) via integration of remote sensing and in situ observations.

    Castaldo, Raffaele; De Novellis, Vincenzo; Lollino, Piernicola; Manunta, Michele; Tizzani, Pietro


    The new challenge that the research in slopes instabilities phenomena is going to tackle is the effective integration and joint exploitation of remote sensing measurements with in situ data and observations to study and understand the sub-surface interactions, the triggering causes, and, in general, the long term behaviour of the investigated landslide phenomenon. In this context, a very promising approach is represented by Finite Element (FE) techniques, which allow us to consider the intrinsic complexity of the mass movement phenomena and to effectively benefit from multi source observations and data. In this context, we perform a three dimensional (3D) numerical model of the Ivancich (Assisi, Central Italy) instability phenomenon. In particular, we apply an inverse FE method based on a Genetic Algorithm optimization procedure, benefitting from advanced DInSAR measurements, retrieved through the full resolution Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique, and an inclinometric array distribution. To this purpose we consider the SAR images acquired from descending orbit by the COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) X-band radar constellation, from December 2009 to February 2012. Moreover the optimization input dataset is completed by an array of eleven inclinometer measurements, from 1999 to 2006, distributed along the unstable mass. The landslide body is formed of debris material sliding on a arenaceous marl substratum, with a thin shear band detected using borehole and inclinometric data, at depth ranging from 20 to 60 m. Specifically, we consider the active role of this shear band in the control of the landslide evolution process. A large field monitoring dataset of the landslide process, including at-depth piezometric and geological borehole observations, were available. The integration of these datasets allows us to develop a 3D structural geological model of the considered slope. To investigate the dynamic evolution of a landslide, various physical approaches can be considered

  3. Numerical uncertainty at mesoscale in a Lagrangian model in complex terrain

    J. Brioude


    Full Text Available Recently, it has been shown that mass conservation in Lagrangian models is improved by using time-average winds out of Eulerian models. In this study, we evaluate the mass conservation and trajectory uncertainties in complex terrain at mesoscale using the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model coupled with the WRF mesoscale model. The specific form of vertical wind used is found to have a large effect. Time average wind with time average sigma dot (σ·, instantaneous wind with geometric cartesian vertical wind (w and instantaneous wind with σ· are used to simulate mixing ratios of a passive tracer in forward and backward runs using different time interval outputs and horizontal resolutions in California. Mass conservation in the FLEXPART model was not an issue when using time-average wind or instantaneous wind with σ·. However, mass was poorly conserved using instantaneous wind with w, with a typical variation of 25% within 24 h.

    Uncertainties in surface residence time (a backtrajectory product commonly used in source receptor studies or inverse modeling calculated for each backtrajectory run were also analyzed. The smallest uncertainties were systematically found when using time-average wind. Uncertainties using instantaneous wind with σ· were slightly larger, as long as the time interval of output was sufficiently small. The largest uncertainties were found when using instantaneous wind with w. Those uncertainties were found to be linearly correlated with the local average gradient of orography. Differences in uncertainty were much smaller when trajectories were calculated over flat terrain. For a typical run at mesoscale in complex terrain, 4 km horizontal resolution

  4. Numerical uncertainty at mesoscale in a Lagrangian model in complex terrain

    J. Brioude


    Full Text Available Recently, it has been shown that mass conservation in Lagrangian models is improved by using time-average winds out of Eulerian models. In this study, we evaluate the mass conservation and trajectory uncertainties in complex terrain at mesoscale using the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model coupled with the WRF mesoscale model. The specific form of vertical wind used is found to have a large effect. Time average wind with time average sigma dot (σ·, instantaneous wind with geometric cartesian vertical wind (w and instantaneous wind with σ· are used to simulate mixing ratios of a passive tracer in forward and backward runs using different time interval outputs and horizontal resolutions in California. Mass conservation in the FLEXPART model was not an issue when using time-average wind or instantaneous wind with σ·. However, mass was poorly conserved using instantaneous wind with w, with a typical variation of 25% within 24 h.

    Uncertainties in surface residence time (a backtrajectory product commonly used in source receptor studies or inverse modeling calculated for each backtrajectory run were also analyzed. The smallest uncertainties were systematically found when using time-average wind. Uncertainties using instantaneous wind with σ· were slightly larger, as long as the time interval of output was sufficiently small. The largest uncertainties were found when using instantaneous wind with w. Those uncertainties were found to be linearly correlated with the local average gradient of orography. Differences in uncertainty were much smaller when trajectories were calculated over flat terrain. For a typical run at mesoscale in complex terrain, 4 km horizontal resolution

  5. 3D Numerical Study on Compound Heat Transfer Enhancement of Converging-diverging Tubes Equipped with Twin Twisted Tapes

    洪宇翔; 邓先和; 张连山


    The paper presents a 3D numerical simulation of turbulent heat transfer and flow characteristics in converging-diverging tubes (CDs) and converging-diverg)ng tubes.equi.pped with twin counter-swirling twisted tapes (CDTs). The effects of Reynolds number (Re= 10000-20000), pitch length (P= 11.25, 22.5 mm), rib height (e = 0.5, 0.8, 1.1 ram), pitch ratio (8= 1 " 8, 5 " 4, 8 " 1), gap distance between twin t)visted tapes (b = 0.5, 4.5, 8.5 mm) and tape number (n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) on Nusselt number (Nu), Iriction tactor 0') and thermal enhancement factor (r/) are investigated under uniform heat flux conditions,using water as working fluid. In order to illustrate the heat transter and tlu~d tlow mechamsms, flow structures m ~StJs and ~SDIs are presented. The obtained results reveal that all geometric parameters have important effects on the thermal performance of CD and CDT, and both CD and CDT show better thermal performance than plain tube at the constant pumping power. It is also found that the increases in the Nusselt number and friction factor for CDT are, respectively, up to 6.3%-35.7% and 1.75-5.3 times of thecorresponding bare CD. All CDTs have good thermal perbrmance with greater than 1 which indicates that the compound heat transfer technique of CDT is commendable for the maximum enhanced heat transfer rate.

  6. Numerical prediction of 3-D periodic flow unsteadiness in a centrifugal pump under part-load condition

    裴吉; 袁寿其; 李晓俊; 袁建平


    Numerical simulation and 3-D periodic flow unsteadiness analysis for a centrifugal pump with volute are carried out in whole flow passage, including the impeller with twisted blades, the volute and the side chamber channels under a part-load condition. The pressure fluctuation intensity coefficient (PFIC) based on the standard deviation method, the time-averaged velocity unsteadi-ness intensity coefficient (VUIC) and the time-averaged turbulence intensity coefficient (TIC) are defined by averaging the results at each grid node for an entire impeller revolution period. Therefore, the strength distributions of the periodic flow unsteadiness based on the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations can be analyzed directly and in detail. It is shown that under the des.0.6Q condition, the pressure fluctuation intensity is larger near the blade pressure side than near the suction side, and a high fluctuation intensity can be observed at the beginning section of the spiral of the volute. The flow velocity unsteadiness intensity is larger near the blade suction side than near the pressure side. A strong turbulence intensity can be found near the blade suction side, the impeller shroud side as well as in the side chamber. The leakage flow has a significant effect on the inflow of the impeller, and can increase both the flow velocity unsteadiness intensity and the turbulence intensity near the wall. The accumulative flow unstea-diness results of an impeller revolution can be an important aspect to be considered in the centrifugal pump optimum design for ob-taining a more stable inner flow of the pump and reducing the flow-induced vibration and noise in certain components.

  7. 3D numerical simulation of a lab-on-a-chip--increasing measurement sensitivity of interdigitated capacitors by passivation optimization.

    Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Birnbaumer, Gerald M; Zanghellini, Juergen; Ertl, Peter


    Interdigital electrode structures (IDES) play a major role in many technical and analytical applications. In particular, they are a key technology in modern lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices. As high sensitivity is a key component of any (bio)analytical method, the presented work is aimed at designing a novel dielectric sensing system, which exhibits maximum sensor sensitivity using passivated dielectric microsensors. Although the implementation of high-ε(r) dielectric passivation materials such as tantalum oxide or titanium oxide showed increased sensor sensitivity by a factor of 5, simulations revealed that sensor sensitivity is ultimately determined by the dielectric properties of the analyte. Ideally, dielectric properties of the passivation material need to be adjusted to the dielectric properties of the material under investigation and any deviations (e.g. higher or lower dielectric constants) will result in significant loss of sensitivity. To address these shortcomings we have developed a novel dielectric sensing concept based on a dual-material passivation geometry. The novel design consists of electric flux barriers that are layered between the finger electrodes, as well as electric flux guides which are located above the electrode structures that direct the entire generated electric flux to the object under investigation. Our 3D numerical results clearly show that the novel design offers two main advantages: firstly, the measurement sensitivity is further increased by more than a factor of two in comparison to a homogeneous passivation material sensing strategy. Secondly, maximum sensitivity for a given set of finger geometries can be achieved using a single sensor design regardless of the frequency-dependent dielectric properties of the measured objects. Hence, the novel approach is capable of reducing design and manufacturing costs of lab-on-a-chip devices.

  8. Stress field sensitivity analysis within Mesozoic successions in the Swiss Alpine foreland using 3-D-geomechanical-numerical models

    Reiter, Karsten; Hergert, Tobias; Heidbach, Oliver


    The in situ stress conditions are of key importance for the evaluation of radioactive waste repositories. In stage two of the Swiss site selection program, the three siting areas of high-level radioactive waste are located in the Alpine foreland in northern Switzerland. The sedimentary succession overlays the basement, consisting of variscan crystalline rocks as well as partly preserved Permo-Carboniferous deposits in graben structures. The Mesozoic sequence represents nearly the complete era and is covered by Cenozoic Molasse deposits as well as Quaternary sediments, mainly in the valleys. The target horizon (designated host rock) is an >100 m thick argillaceous Jurassic deposit (Opalinus Clay). To enlighten the impact of site-specific features on the state of stress within the sedimentary succession, 3-D-geomechanical-numerical models with elasto-plastic rock properties are set up for three potential siting areas. The lateral extent of the models ranges between 12 and 20 km, the vertical extent is up to a depth of 2.5 or 5 km below sea level. The sedimentary sequence plus the basement are separated into 10 to 14 rock mechanical units. The Mesozoic succession is intersected by regional fault zones; two or three of them are present in each model. The numerical problem is solved with the finite element method with a resolution of 100-150 m laterally and 10-30 m vertically. An initial stress state is established for all models taking into account the depth-dependent overconsolidation ratio in Opalinus Clay in northern Switzerland. The influence of topography, rock properties, friction on the faults as well as the impact of tectonic shortening on the state of stress is investigated. The tectonic stress is implemented with lateral displacement boundary conditions, calibrated on stress data that are compiled in Northern Switzerland. The model results indicate that the stress perturbation by the topography is significant to depths greater than the relief contrast. The

  9. 3D multidisciplinary numerical model of polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics on the Black Sea north-western shelf

    Bagaiev, Andrii; Ivanov, Vitaliy


    The Black Sea north-western shelf plays a key role in economics of the developing countries such as Ukraine due to food supply, invaluable recreational potential and variety of the relevant maritime shipping routes. On the other hand, a shallow flat shelf is mostly affected by anthropogenic pollution, eutrophication, hypoxia and harmful algae blooms. The research is focused on modeling the transport and transformation of PCBs (PolyChlorinated Biphenyls) because they are exceedingly toxic and highly resistant to degradation, hence cumulatively affect marine ecosystems. Being lipophilic compounds, PCBs demonstrate the distinguishing sorption/desorption activity taking part in the biogeochemical fluxes via the organic matter particles and sediments. In the framework of the research, the coastal in-situ data on PCB concentration in the water column and sediments are processed, visualized and analyzed. It is concluded that the main sources of PCBs are related to the Danube discharge and resuspension from the shallow-water sediments. Developed 3D numerical model is aimed at simulation of PCB contamination of the water column and sediment. The model integrates the full physics hydrodynamic block as well as modules, which describe detritus transport and transformation and PCB dynamics. Three state variables are simulated in PCB transport module: concentration in solute, on the settling particles of detritus and in the top layer of sediments. PCB adsorption/desorption on detritus; the reversible PCB fluxes at the water-sediment boundary; destruction of detritus are taken into consideration. Formalization of PCB deposition/resuspension in the sediments is adapted from Van Rijn's model of the suspended sediment transport. The model was spun up to reconstruct the short term scenario of the instantaneous PCB release from the St. George Arm of Danube. It has been shown that PCB transport on sinking detritus represents the natural buffer mechanism damping the spreading PCB

  10. Does fluid infiltration affect the motion of sediment grains? - A 3-D numerical modelling approach using SPH

    Bartzke, Gerhard; Rogers, Benedict D.; Fourtakas, Georgios; Mokos, Athanasios; Huhn, Katrin


    The processes that cause the creation of a variety of sediment morphological features, e.g. laminated beds, ripples, or dunes, are based on the initial motion of individual sediment grains. However, with experimental techniques it is difficult to measure the flow characteristics, i.e., the velocity of the pore water flow in sediments, at a sufficient resolution and in a non-intrusive way. As a result, the role of fluid infiltration at the surface and in the interior affecting the initiation of motion of a sediment bed is not yet fully understood. Consequently, there is a strong need for numerical models, since these are capable of quantifying fluid driven sediment transport processes of complex sediment beds composed of irregular shapes. The numerical method Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) satisfies this need. As a meshless and Lagrangian technique, SPH is ideally suited to simulating flows in sediment beds composed of various grain shapes, but also flow around single grains at a high temporal and spatial resolution. The solver chosen is DualSPHysics ( since this is validated for a range of flow conditions. For the present investigation a 3-D numerical flume model was generated using SPH with a length of 4.0 cm, a width of 0.05 cm and a height of 0.2 cm where mobile sediment particles were deposited in a recess. An experimental setup was designed to test sediment configurations composed of irregular grain shapes (grain diameter, D50=1000 μm). Each bed consisted of 3500 mobile objects. After the bed generation process, the entire domain was flooded with 18 million fluid particles. To drive the flow, an oscillating motion perpendicular to the bed was applied to the fluid, reaching a peak value of 0.3 cm/s, simulating 4 seconds of real time. The model results showed that flow speeds decreased logarithmically from the top of the domain towards the surface of the beds, indicating a fully developed boundary layer. Analysis of the fluid

  11. 3-D Numerical Modeling as a Tool for Managing Mineral Water Extraction from a Complex Groundwater Basin in Italy

    Zanini, A.; Tanda, M.


    The groundwater in Italy plays an important role as drinking water; in fact it covers about the 30% of the national demand (70% in Northern Italy). The mineral water distribution in Italy is an important business with an increasing demand from abroad countries. The mineral water Companies have a great interest in order to increase the water extraction, but for the delicate and complex geology of the subsoil, where such very high quality waters are contained, a particular attention must be paid in order to avoid an excessive lowering of the groundwater reservoirs or great changes in the groundwater flow directions. A big water Company asked our University to set up a numerical model of the groundwater basin, in order to obtain a useful tool which allows to evaluate the strength of the aquifer and to design new extraction wells. The study area is located along Appennini Mountains and it covers a surface of about 18 km2; the topography ranges from 200 to 600 m a.s.l.. In ancient times only a spring with naturally sparkling water was known in the area, but at present the mineral water is extracted from deep pumping wells. The area is characterized by a very complex geology: the subsoil structure is described by a sequence of layers of silt-clay, marl-clay, travertine and alluvial deposit. Different groundwater layers are present and the one with best quality flows in the travertine layer; the natural flow rate seems to be not subjected to seasonal variations. The water age analysis revealed a very old water which means that the mineral aquifers are not directly connected with the meteoric recharge. The Geologists of the Company suggest that the water supply of the mineral aquifers comes from a carbonated unit located in the deep layers of the mountains bordering the spring area. The valley is crossed by a river that does not present connections to the mineral aquifers. Inside the area there are about 30 pumping wells that extract water at different depths. We built a 3

  12. Numerical study of tracers transport by a mesoscale convective system over West Africa

    J.-P. Pinty


    Full Text Available A three-dimensional cloud-resolving model is used to investigate the vertical transport from the lower to the upper troposphere in a mesoscale convective system (MCS that occurred over Niger on 15 August 2004. The redistribution of five passive tracers initially confined in horizontally homogeneous layers is analyzed. The monsoon layer tracer (0–1.5 km is the most efficiently transported in the upper troposphere with concentrations 3 to 4 times higher than the other tracers in the anvil. On the contrary the African Easterly Jet tracer (~3 km has the lowest contribution above 5 km. The vertical profiles of the mid-troposphere tracers (4.5–10 km in the MCS exhibit two peaks: one in their initial layers, and the second one at 13–14 km altitude, underlying the importance of mid-tropospheric air in feeding the upper troposphere. Mid-tropospheric tracers also experience efficient transport by convective downdrafts with a consequent increase of their concentrations at the surface. The concentration of the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere tracer exhibits strong gradients at the edge of the cloud, meaning almost no entrainment of this tracer into the cloud. No downward transport from the upper troposphere is simulated below 5 km. A proxy for lightning produced NOx is transported preferentially in the forward anvil in the upper troposphere. Additionally, lateral inflows significantly contribute to the updraft and downdraft airflows emphasizing the three-dimensional structure of the West African MCSs.



    In this article, a model of 3-D net is set up by using lumped mass method. Model test results made by Lader and Enerhaug are cited to verify the numerical model. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of weight system on the hydrodynamic behavior of 3-D net of gravity cage in current. Using the 3-D net model, with different styles and masses of weight system, hydrodynamic behavior of gravity cage net in current is simulated. In this article, two styles of common weight system are used, which include: (1) sinker system , (2) bottom collar-sinker system. Under each style, three different masses of weight system are adopted. The numerical results indicate that the bottom collar-sinker system is practically feasible in improving the cage net volume deformation. Results of this study will give references for better knowledge of hydrodynamic behavior of gravity cage.

  14. Efficient Numerical Modeling of 3D, Half-Space, Slow-Slip and Quasi-Dynamic Earthquake Ruptures

    Bradley, A. M.; Segall, P.


    Motivated by the hypothesis that dilatancy plays a critical role in faulting in subduction zones, we are developing FDRA2 (Fault Dynamics with the Radiation-damping Approximation), a software package to simulate three-dimensional quasi-dynamic faulting that includes rate-state friction, thermal pressurization, and dilatancy (following Segall and Rice [1995]) in a finite-width shear zone. This work builds on the two-dimensional simulations performed by FDRA1 (Bradley and Segall [AGU 2010], Segall and Bradley [submitted]). These simulations show that at lower background effective normal stress (\\bar σ), slow slip events occur spontaneously, whereas at higher \\bar σ , slip is inertially limited. At intermediate \\bar σ , dynamic events are followed by quiescent periods and then long durations of repeating slow slip events. Models with depth-dependent properties produce sequences similar to those observed in Cascadia. Like FDRA1, FDRA2 solves partial differential equations in pressure and temperature on profiles normal to the fault. The diffusion equations are discretized in space using finite differences on a nonuniform mesh having greater density near the fault. The full system of equations is a semiexplicit index-1 differential algebraic equation (DAE) in slip, slip rate, state, fault zone porosity, pressure, and temperature. We integrate state, porosity, and slip explicitly; solve the momentum balance equation on the fault for slip rate; and integrate pressure and temperature implicitly. Adaptive time steps are limited by accuracy and the stability criterion governing explicit integration of hyperbolic, but not the more stringent one governing parabolic, PDE. To compute elasticity in a 3D half-space, FDRA2 compresses the large, dense matrix arising from the boundary element method using an H-matrix. The work to perform a matrix-vector product scales almost linearly, rather than quadratically, in the number of fault cells. A new technique to relate the error

  15. Numerical simulation of X-wing type biplane flapping wings in 3D using the immersed boundary method.

    Tay, W B; van Oudheusden, B W; Bijl, H


    The numerical simulation of an insect-sized 'X-wing' type biplane flapping wing configuration is performed in 3D using an immersed boundary method solver at Reynolds numbers equal to 1000 (1 k) and 5 k, based on the wing's root chord length. This X-wing type flapping configuration draws its inspiration from Delfly, a bio-inspired ornithopter MAV which has two pairs of wings flapping in anti-phase in a biplane configuration. The objective of the present investigation is to assess the aerodynamic performance when the original Delfly flapping wing micro-aerial vehicle (FMAV) is reduced to the size of an insect. Results show that the X-wing configuration gives more than twice the average thrust compared with only flapping the upper pair of wings of the X-wing. However, the X-wing's average thrust is only 40% that of the upper wing flapping at twice the stroke angle. Despite this, the increased stability which results from the smaller lift and moment variation of the X-wing configuration makes it more suited for sharp image capture and recognition. These advantages make the X-wing configuration an attractive alternative design for insect-sized FMAVS compared to the single wing configuration. In the Reynolds number comparison, the vorticity iso-surface plot at a Reynolds number of 5 k revealed smaller, finer vortical structures compared to the simulation at 1 k, due to vortices' breakup. In comparison, the force output difference is much smaller between Re = 1 k and 5 k. Increasing the body inclination angle generates a uniform leading edge vortex instead of a conical one along the wingspan, giving higher lift. Understanding the force variation as the body inclination angle increases will allow FMAV designers to optimize the thrust and lift ratio for higher efficiency under different operational requirements. Lastly, increasing the spanwise flexibility of the wings increases the thrust slightly but decreases the efficiency. The thrust result is similar to one of the

  16. Momentum Transfer Between an Atmospheric and an Oceanic Layer at the Synoptic and the Mesoscale: An Idealized Numerical Study

    Moulin, A.; Wirth, A.


    We consider air-sea interaction at the (atmospheric) synoptic and the mesoscale due to momentum transfer only. Two superposed one-layer fine-resolution shallow-water models are numerically integrated, where the upper layer represents the atmosphere and the lower layer the ocean. The frictional force between the two layers is implemented using a quadratic drag law and experiments with different values of the surface drag coefficient are performed. The actual energy loss of the atmosphere and the energy gain by the ocean, due to the interfacial shear, is determined and compared to estimates based on average speeds. The correlation between the vorticity in the atmosphere and the ocean is determined. Results differ from previous investigations where the exchange of momentum was considered at basin scale. It is shown that the ocean has a passive role, absorbing kinetic energy at nearly all times and locations, results showing that the energy input to the ocean increases almost quadratically with the value of the drag coefficient. Due to the feeble velocities in the ocean, the energy transfer depends only weakly on the oceanic velocity. The ocean dynamics leave nevertheless their imprint on atmospheric dynamics, leading to a quenched disordered state of the atmosphere-ocean system for the highest value of the drag coefficient considered. This finding questions the ergodic hypothesis for the idealized configuration studied here. The ergodic hypothesis is at the basis of a large number of experimental, observational and numerical results in ocean, atmosphere and climate dynamics.

  17. Modeling spatial patterns of wildfire susceptibility in southern California: Applications of MODIS remote sensing data and mesoscale numerical weather models

    Schneider, Philipp

    This dissertation investigates the potential of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery and mesoscale numerical weather models for mapping wildfire susceptibility in general and for improving the Fire Potential Index (FPI) in southern California in particular. The dissertation explores the use of the Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARI) from MODIS data for mapping relative greenness (RG) of vegetation and subsequently for computing the FPI. VARI-based RG was validated against in situ observations of live fuel moisture. The results indicate that VARI is superior to the previously used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for computing RG. FPI computed using VARI-based RG was found to outperform the traditional FPI when validated against historical fire detections using logistic regression. The study further investigates the potential of using Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) on MODIS data for estimating live and dead fractions of vegetation. MESMA fractions were compared against in situ measurements and fractions derived from data of a high-resolution, hyperspectral sensor. The results show that live and dead fractions obtained from MODIS using MESMA are well correlated with the reference data. Further, FPI computed using MESMA-based green vegetation fraction in lieu of RG was validated against historical fire occurrence data. MESMA-based FPI performs at a comparable level to the traditional NDVI-based FPI, but can do so using a single MODIS image rather than an extensive remote sensing time series as required for the RG approach. Finally this dissertation explores the potential of integrating gridded wind speed data obtained from the MM5 mesoscale numerical weather model in the FPI. A new fire susceptibility index, the Wind-Adjusted Fire Potential Index (WAFPI), was introduced. It modifies the FPI algorithm by integrating normalized wind speed. Validating WAFPI against historical wildfire events using

  18. Numerical modelling 2 D and 3 D of circulating fluidized bed: application to the realization of regime diagrams; Modelisation numerique 2D et 3D de lit fluidise circulant: application a la realisation du diagramme des regimes

    Begis, J.; Balzer, G.


    The numerical modelling of internal CFB boilers flows faced with complex phenomenons due to the flows un-stationariness, the heterogeneousness of the particle size distribution, and interactions between the two phases and the walls. Our study consisted in applying numerical models to the experimental configuration of cold circulating fluidized bed studied at the Cerchar. Special attention was given to the analysis of particles - wall interactions models, stemming from Jenkins (1992) and Louge`s (1994) theories, as well as the influence of the particles on fluid turbulence. In order to realize numerical simulations, we have used Eulerian two-phases flow codes developed at NHL medolif(2D), ESTET-ASTRID(3D). From different tests we have deducted that the most appropriate model for the realization of CFB`s prediction is the model taking in account the influence of particles on fluid turbulence. Then, to evaluate the validity limits of this model, we have built the regime diagram, and we have compared it with the experimental diagram. We have concluded that the simulation allows to describe the different CFB`s working regimes, and especially transitions. We have also noticed the importance of the choice of the mean diameter of the simulated particles. In this way, making a correction of the simulated particles` diameter in comparison with Sauter mean particle diameter, we obtained numerical results in good agreement with experimental data. (authors) 13 refs.

  19. Application of Radar Reflectivity Factor in Initializing Cloud-Resolving Mesoscale Model. Part Ⅱ: Numerical Simulation Experiments

    LIU Hongya; XU Haiming; XUE Jishan; HU Zhijin; SHEN Tongli


    Microphysics elements and vertical velocity retrieved were incorporated using the nudging method into the initial data assimilation of GRAPES (Global/Regional Assimilation and Prediction System) model.Simulation experiments indicated that nudging technique was effective in forcing the model forecast gradually consistent to the observations, yielding the thermodynamically and dynamically balanced analysis field. As viewed from the simulation results, water vapor is vital to precipitation, and it is a governing factor for the amount and duration of precipitation. The initial cloud water, rain water, and vertical velocity determine the strength distribution of convection and precipitation at the beginning time of forecast; the horizontal wind field steers the motion of the mesoscale weather system embedded in and impacts the position of precipitation zone to a large extent. The simulation experiments show that the influence of the initial retrieval data on prediction weakens with the increase of forecast time, and within the first hour of forecast, the retrieval data have an important impact on the evolution of the weather system, but its influence becomes trivial after the first three hours. Changing the nudging coefficient and the integral time-spacing of numerical model will bring some influences to the results. Herein only one radar reflectivity was used, the radar observations did not cover the whole model domain, and some empirical parameters were used in the retrieval method, therefore some differences still lie between simulation and observation to a certain extent, and further studies on several aspects are expected.

  20. Numerical Modelling of the Aeroelastic Behaviour and Variable Loads for the Turbine Stage in 3D Transonic Flow



    Fiszera st., 14, Gdansk, 80 952 PolandIn this study presented the algorithm proposed involves the coupled solution of 3-D unsteady flow through a turbine stage and the dynamics problem for rotor-blade motion by the action of aerodynamic forces, without separating the outer and inner flow fluctuations. The partially integrated method involves the solution of the fluid and structural equations separately, but information is exchanged at each time step, so that solution from one domain is used as a boundary condition for the other domain. 3-D transonic gas flow through the stator and rotor blades in relative motion with periodicity on the whole annulus is described by the unsteady Euler conservation equations, which are integrated using the explicit monotonous finite-volume difference scheme of GodunovKolgan. The structural analysis uses the modal approach and a 3-D finite element model of a blade. A calculation has been done for the last stage of the steam turbine, under design and off-design regimes. It is shown that the amplitude-frequency spectrum of blade oscillations contains the high frequency harmonics, corresponding to the rotor moving past one stator blade pitch, and low frequency harmonics caused by blade oscillations and flow nonunifonnity downstream from the blade row; moreover, the spectrum involves the harmonics which are not multiples of the rotation frequency.

  1. Development of a stereolithography (STL input and computer numerical control (CNC output algorithm for an entry-level 3-D printer

    Brown, Andrew


    Full Text Available This paper presents a prototype Stereolithography (STL file format slicing and tool-path generation algorithm, which serves as a data front-end for a Rapid Prototyping (RP entry- level three-dimensional (3-D printer. Used mainly in Additive Manufacturing (AM, 3-D printers are devices that apply plastic, ceramic, and metal, layer by layer, in all three dimensions on a flat surface (X, Y, and Z axis. 3-D printers, unfortunately, cannot print an object without a special algorithm that is required to create the Computer Numerical Control (CNC instructions for printing. An STL algorithm therefore forms a critical component for Layered Manufacturing (LM, also referred to as RP. The purpose of this study was to develop an algorithm that is capable of processing and slicing an STL file or multiple files, resulting in a tool-path, and finally compiling a CNC file for an entry-level 3- D printer. The prototype algorithm was implemented for an entry-level 3-D printer that utilises the Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM process or Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF process; an AM technology. Following an experimental method, the full data flow path for the prototype algorithm was developed, starting with STL data files, and then processing the STL data file into a G-code file format by slicing the model and creating a tool-path. This layering method is used by most 3-D printers to turn a 2-D object into a 3-D object. The STL algorithm developed in this study presents innovative opportunities for LM, since it allows engineers and architects to transform their ideas easily into a solid model in a fast, simple, and cheap way. This is accomplished by allowing STL models to be sliced rapidly, effectively, and without error, and finally to be processed and prepared into a G-code print file.

  2. Interaction between Meso-scale Eddies and Sub-polar Front in the East (Japan) Sea based on ARGO, AVHRR, and Numerical Model

    Ro, Y.; Kim, E.


    The East (Japan) Sea is drawing keen international attentions from broad spectrum of groups such as scientists, diplomats, and defense officers for its geopolitical situation, peculiar scientific assets recognized as miniature ocean. From physical oceanographic aspect, it is very rich with many features such as basin-wide circulation pattern, boundary currents, sub-polar front, meso-scale eddy activities and deep water formation. The circulation pattern in the East (Japan) Sea has been of major interests for its peculiar gyre, a western boundary current and its separation that resembles the currents such as Kuroshio and Gulf Stream. In relation to the gyre system in the East Sea, the formation of the East Korea Warm Current (EKWC) has brought up with many numerical experiments. Numerical experiments suggested a new idea to explain the formation of the EKWC in that the potential energy supply into the Ulleung Basin (UB) from the meso-scale eddy is a key process. This is closely linked with the baroclinic instability and the meandering of offshore component of Tsushima Warm Current. The UB has drawn attentions for its role of the formation of two major boundary currents, EKWC, North Korea Warm Current (NKCC), their interaction with the mesoscale UWE, watermass exchange between the Northern Japan Basin and UB. Numerical experiments along with hydrographic and other satellite datasets such as AVHRR, altimeter and ARGO profiles have been analyzed to understand the formation of the UWE. We found that the influence of the bottom topography and frictional forcing against lateral boundary are all closely associated with the sub-polar front. Meandering of the axis of the sub-polar front is closely linked with the separation point of the EKWC, Ulleung Warm Eddy, and other small and meso-scale eddies on the sub-polar front. These will be demonstrated with results of the numerical modeling experiments and animation movie will be presented.


    YAN Jing-hua; XU Jian-ping


    Taking Shenzhen city as an example, the statistical and physical relationship between the density of pollutants and various atmospheric parameters are analyzed in detail, and a space-partitioned city air pollution potential prediction scheme is established based on it. The scheme considers quantitatively more than ten factors at the surface and planetary boundary layer (PBL), especially the effects of anisotropy of geographical environment, and treats wind direction as an independent impact factor. While the scheme treats the prediction equation respectively for different pollutants according to their differences in dilute properties, it considers as well the possible differences in dilute properties at different districts of the city under the same atmospheric condition, treating predictions respectively for different districts. Finally, the temporally and spatially high resolution predictions for the atmospheric factors are made with a high resolution numerical model, and further the space-partitioned and time-variational city pollution potential predictions are made. The scheme is objective and quantitative, and with clear physical meaning, so it is suitable to use in making high resolution air pollution predictions.

  4. 3D numerical simulation of the long range propagation of acoustical shock waves through a heterogeneous and moving medium

    Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François, E-mail: [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7190, Institut Jean Le Rond d’Alembert, F-75005, Paris (France)


    Many situations involve the propagation of acoustical shock waves through flows. Natural sources such as lightning, volcano explosions, or meteoroid atmospheric entries, emit loud, low frequency, and impulsive sound that is influenced by atmospheric wind and turbulence. The sonic boom produced by a supersonic aircraft and explosion noises are examples of intense anthropogenic sources in the atmosphere. The Buzz-Saw-Noise produced by turbo-engine fan blades rotating at supersonic speed also propagates in a fast flow within the engine nacelle. Simulating these situations is challenging, given the 3D nature of the problem, the long range propagation distances relative to the central wavelength, the strongly nonlinear behavior of shocks associated to a wide-band spectrum, and finally the key role of the flow motion. With this in view, the so-called FLHOWARD (acronym for FLow and Heterogeneous One-Way Approximation for Resolution of Diffraction) method is presented with three-dimensional applications. A scalar nonlinear wave equation is established in the framework of atmospheric applications, assuming weak heterogeneities and a slow wind. It takes into account diffraction, absorption and relaxation properties of the atmosphere, quadratic nonlinearities including weak shock waves, heterogeneities of the medium in sound speed and density, and presence of a flow (assuming a mean stratified wind and 3D turbulent ? flow fluctuations of smaller amplitude). This equation is solved in the framework of the one-way method. A split-step technique allows the splitting of the non-linear wave equation into simpler equations, each corresponding to a physical effect. Each sub-equation is solved using an analytical method if possible, and finite-differences otherwise. Nonlinear effects are solved in the time domain, and others in the frequency domain. Homogeneous diffraction is handled by means of the angular spectrum method. Ground is assumed perfectly flat and rigid. Due to the 3D


    ZHOU Hua


    Axisymmetric liquid jets have been studied extensively for more than one century, while non-axisymmetric jets are also very common in engineering applications but attract less concern. Based on Eulerian fluid-fluid model in Fluent software, this article analysizes the 3-D flow fields of pressure atomizers with V-shaped cut at orifice, which will result in a non-axisymmetric liquid jet.Flow rate analysis and jet structure analysis are carried out, the results show that the flow rate can be formulated by adding a correction coefficient to the formula of inviscid axisymmetric jets in atomization regime, when the Weber number is low enough to make the flow fall out of atomization regime, and the jet structure together with the flow rate formula will change. Analysis shows that the evolution of the spray and therefore the structure of the liquid jet are affected much by relative velocity and the local volume fraction of liquid phase.


    HU De-chao; FAN Bei-lin; WANG Guang-qian; ZHANG Hong-wu


    A 3-D numerical formulation is proposed on the horizontal Cartesian, vertical sigma-coordinate grid for modeling non-hydrostatic pressure free-surface flows.The pressure decomposition technique and θ semi-implicit method are used, with the solution procedure being split into two steps.First, with the implicit parts of non-hydrostatic pressures excluded, the provisional velocity field and free surface are obtained by solving a 2-D Poisson equation.Second, the theory of the differential operator is employed to derive the 3-D Poisson equation for non-hydrostatic pressures, which is solved to obtain the non-hydrostatic pressures and to update the provisional velocity field.When the non-orthogonal sigma-coordinate transformation is introduced, additional terms come into being, resulting in a 15-diagonal, diagonally dominant but unsymmetric linear system in the 3-D Poisson equation for non-hydrostatic pressures.The Biconjugate Gradient Stabilized (BiCGstab) method is used to solve the resulting 3-D unsymmetric linear system instead of the conjugate gradient method, which can only be used for symmetric, positive-definite linear systems.Three test cases are used for validations.The successful simulations of the small-amplitude wave, a supercritical flow over a ramp and a turbulent flow in the open channel indicate that the new model can simulate well non-hydrostatic flows, supercritical flows and turbulent flows.

  7. Numerical Prediction of Wave Patterns Due to Motion of 3D Bodies by Kelvin-Havelock Sources

    Ghassemi Hassan


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the numerical evaluation of the hydrodynamic characteristics of submerged and surface piercing moving bodies. Generally, two main classes of potential methods are used for hydrodynamic characteristic analysis of steady moving bodies which are Rankine and Kelvin-Havelock singularity distribution. In this paper, the Kelvin- Havelock sources are used for simulating the moving bodies and then free surface wave patterns are obtained. Numerical evaluation of potential distribution of a Kelvin-Havelock source is completely presented and discussed. Numerical results are calculated and presented for a 2D cylinder, single source, two parallel moving source, sphere, ellipsoid and standard Wigley hull in different situation that show acceptable agreement with results of other literatures or experiments.


    Hou-de Han; Xin Wen


    We consider the numerical approximations of the three-dimensional steady potential flow around a body moving in a liquid of finite constant depth at constant speed and distance below a free surface in a channel. One vertical side is introduced as the upstream artificial boundary and two vertical sides are introduced as the downstream artificial boundaries. On the artificial boundaries, a sequence of high-order global artificial boundary conditions are given. Then the original problem is reduced to a problem defined on a finite computational domain, which is equivalent to a variational problem. After solving the variational problem by the finite element method, we obtain the numerical approximation of the original problem. The numerical examples show that the artificial boundary conditions given in this paper are very effective.

  9. Numerical simulation of perfect fluid flows around complex 3D configurations by a multidomain solver using the MUSCL approach

    Guillen, Ph.; Borrel, M.; Dormieux, M.


    A numerical scheme of the MUSCL type used for the numerical simulation of gas flow of different types around complex configurations is described. Approximate Riemann solvers of the Van Leer, Roc, and Osher types, developed for perfect gas flows are used. These solvers have been extended to non-reactive mixtures of two species and real gas flows by Abgrall, Montagne and Vinokur. The architecture of the code, dictated by constraints in geometrical considerations, computational aspects, the specific nature of the flow, and ergonomy, is described.

  10. Symmetry-plane model of 3D Euler flows and mapping to regular systems to improve blowup assessment using numerical and analytical solutions

    Mulungye, Rachel M; Bustamante, Miguel D


    Motivated by the work on stagnation-point type exact solutions (with infinite energy) of 3D Euler fluid equations by Gibbon et al. (1999) and the subsequent demonstration of finite-time blowup by Constantin (2006) we introduce a one-parameter family of models of the 3D Euler fluid equations on a 2D symmetry plane. Our models are seen as a deformation of the 3D Euler equations which respects the variational structure of the original equations so that explicit solutions can be found for the supremum norms of the basic fields. The value of the model's parameter determines if there is finite-time blowup, and the singularity time can be computed explicitly in terms of the initial conditions and the model's parameter. We use a representative parameter value, for which the solution blows up in finite-time, as a benchmark for the systematic study of errors in numerical solutions. We compare numerical integrations of our "original" model with a "mapped" version of these equations. The mapped version is a globally regu...

  11. 3D numerical modeling of mantle flow, crustal dynamics and magma genesis associated with slab roll-back and tearing: The eastern Mediterranean case

    Menant, Armel; Sternai, Pietro; Jolivet, Laurent; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Gerya, Taras


    Interactions between subduction dynamics and magma genesis have been intensely investigated, resulting in several conceptual models derived from geological, geochemical and geophysical data. To provide physico-chemical constraints on these conceptual models, self-consistent numerical simulations containing testable thermo-mechanical parameters are required, especially considering the three-dimensional (3D) natural complexity of subduction systems. Here, we use a 3D high-resolution petrological and thermo-mechanical numerical model to quantify the relative contribution of oceanic and continental subduction/collision, slab roll-back and tearing to magma genesis and transport processes. Our modeling results suggest that the space and time distribution and composition of magmas in the overriding plate is controlled by the 3D slab dynamics and related asthenospheric flow. Moreover, the decrease of the bulk lithospheric strength induced by mantle- and crust-derived magmas promotes the propagation of strike-slip and extensional fault zones through the overriding crust as response to slab roll-back and continental collision. Reduction of the lithosphere/asthenosphere rheological contrast by lithospheric weakening also favors the transmission of velocities from the flowing mantle to the crust. Similarities between our modeling results and the late Cenozoic tectonic and magmatic evolution across the eastern Mediterranean region suggest an efficient control of mantle flow on the magmatic activity in this region, which in turn promotes lithospheric deformation by mantle drag via melt-induced weakening effects.

  12. 3D Numerical Modelling of Transport, Deposition and Resuspension of Highway Deposited Sediments in Wet Detention Ponds

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby


    The paper presents results from an experimental and numerical study of flows and transport of primarily particle bound pollutants in highway wet detention ponds. The study presented here is part of a general investigation on road runoff and pollution in respect to wet detention ponds. The objecti...

  13. Numerical modeling of the Linac4 negative ion source extraction region by 3D PIC-MCC code ONIX

    Mochalskyy, S; Minea, T; Lifschitz, AF; Schmitzer, C; Midttun, O; Steyaert, D


    At CERN, a high performance negative ion (NI) source is required for the 160 MeV H- linear accelerator Linac4. The source is planned to produce 80 mA of H- with an emittance of 0.25 mm mradN-RMS which is technically and scientifically very challenging. The optimization of the NI source requires a deep understanding of the underling physics concerning the production and extraction of the negative ions. The extraction mechanism from the negative ion source is complex involving a magnetic filter in order to cool down electrons’ temperature. The ONIX (Orsay Negative Ion eXtraction) code is used to address this problem. The ONIX is a selfconsistent 3D electrostatic code using Particles-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collisions (PIC-MCC) approach. It was written to handle the complex boundary conditions between plasma, source walls, and beam formation at the extraction hole. Both, the positive extraction potential (25kV) and the magnetic field map are taken from the experimental set-up, in construction at CERN. This contrib...

  14. 3D FEM numerical simulation and experimental study on symmetric thin-wall tube neck-spinning

    KUANG Wei-hua; XIA Qin-xiang; RUAN Feng


    A 3D FEM model for symmetric thin-wall tube neck-spinning is established. The spinning process is simulated by means of ANSYS software, and the dynamic boundary and contact problems in simulation are solved. The transient stress distribution of contact area, the transient strain distribution of nodes in typical section and the strain distribution of the whole part at last are attained, and the place and the cause of crack are analyzed. Simulation results show how the strain distribution of typical section, the thickness of some typical nodes, the Z coordinate in typical section and the spinning force of three rollers change with the time. According to study the variation curve, the material flow law along radial, tangential and axial direction is attained and the whole spinning process is studied. The experiment data reflect how the spinning force is influenced by different process parameters, such as feed rate, roundness radius and pass reduction. The simulation and the experiment results supply criteria for optimum design and reasonable parameter selection.

  15. Numerical simulation of suspended sediment concentration by 3D coupled wave-current model in the Oujiang River Estuary, China

    Xu, Ting; You, Xue-yi


    A 3D sediment transport model based on the modified environmental fluid dynamics code (EFDC) and the nearshore waves simulation model (SWAN) is developed to study the change of suspended sediment concentration and bottom shear stress under the actions of pure current and wave-current. After being validated by the field measured data, the proposed sediment transport model is applied in the Oujiang River Estuary, China. The results show that the ratios of both bottom shear stress and suspended sediment concentration of pure current to those of wave-current show a gradually increase from shallow nearshore water to deep open sea. The results also show that the proportion of wave contributions on bottom shear stress and sediment concentration are above 60%, approximately 20-30% and less than 10% for the water depth of less than 5 m, 5-10 m and more than 20 m, respectively. For the waters among islands, the proportion of wave contribution to bottom shear stress and sediment concentration is reduced to 10-20% for -5 m water depth and this is more obvious for the waves of large amplitude. The bottom stress and suspended sediment concentration between islands are mainly controlled by tidal current, and the effect of wave is not significant.

  16. Influence of critical current density on magnetic force of HTSC bulk above PMR with 3D-modeling numerical solutions

    Lu, Yiyun; Qin, Yujie


    Numerical simulations of thermo-electromagnetic properties of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk levitating over a permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) are performed by resorting to the quasistatic approximation of the H-method coupling with the classical description of the heat conduction equation. The numerical resolving codes are practiced with the help of the finite element program generation system (FEPG) platform using finite element method (FEM). The E-J power law is used to describe the electric current nonlinear characteristics of HTS bulk. The simulation results show that the heat conduction and the critical current density are tightly relative to the thermal effects of the HTS bulk over the PMG. The heat intensity which responds to the heat loss of the HTS bulk is mainly distributed at the two bottom-corners of the bulk sample.

  17. Numerical Calculation of Secondary Flow in Pump Volute and Circular Casings using 3D Viscous Flow Techniques

    K. Majidi


    Full Text Available The flow field in volute and circular casings interacting with a centrifugal impeller is obtained by numerical analysis. In the present study, effects of the volute and circular casings on the flow pattern have been investigated by successively combining a volute casing and a circular casing with a single centrifugal impeller. The numerical calculations are carried out with a multiple frame of reference to predict the flow field inside the entire impeller and casings. The impeller flow field is solved in a rotating frame and the flow field in the casings in a stationary frame. The static pressure and velocity in the casing and impeller, and the static pressures and secondary velocity vectors at several cross-sectional planes of the casings are calculated. The calculations show that the curvature of the casings creates pressure gradients that cause vortices at cross-sectional planes of the casings.

  18. A numerical study of super-resolution through fast 3D wideband algorithm for scattering in highly-heterogeneous media

    Létourneau, Pierre-David


    We present a wideband fast algorithm capable of accurately computing the full numerical solution of the problem of acoustic scattering of waves by multiple finite-sized bodies such as spherical scatterers in three dimensions. By full solution, we mean that no assumption (e.g. Rayleigh scattering, geometrical optics, weak scattering, Born single scattering, etc.) is necessary regarding the properties of the scatterers, their distribution or the background medium. The algorithm is also fast in the sense that it scales linearly with the number of unknowns. We use this algorithm to study the phenomenon of super-resolution in time-reversal refocusing in highly-scattering media recently observed experimentally (Lemoult et al., 2011), and provide numerical arguments towards the fact that such a phenomenon can be explained through a homogenization theory.

  19. 基于 ArcGIS 与 FLAC3D 的矿山边坡三维可视化与数值模拟耦合研究%Research on the Coupling of Mine Slope 3D Visualized Model and Numerical Simulation Based on ArcGIS and FLAC3D

    刘林贵; 李小双; 李晓军; 蔡永昌


    Taking the slope of a open-pit mine as an example,the 3D stratum visualized model is established,and the coupling of 3D stratum model and slope numerical simulation using FLAC3D software is realized preliminarily in a simplified transfer method,according to the characteristics of geotechnical engineering,based on the plug-in of ArcGIS software is developed.The coupling method of 3D stratum model and slope numerical simulation using FLAC3D software take the advantages of the 3D stratum visual-ized model which could express the geological condition in the research area,it extends the application of the visualized model,avoids the great difficulties of generating precise numerical model from visualized model in mesh shape,material area boundary and fault/joint element and simplifies the pre-process of nu-merical simulation.The numerical simulation results show that as the mesh size gets refined,the calcula-tion results obtained by the method in this paper gradually approaches the results of precise numerical model,which could satisfy the analysis requirements of geotechnical engineering,therefore,it has good en-gineering prospects.%以某矿山露采边坡为例,利用 ArcGIS 软件建立了边坡三维地层可视化模型,针对岩土工程特点,采用一种简化方法实现了从矿山边坡三维可视化模型到 FALC3D计算模型的耦合与自动转化,开发了相应的计算模型生成插件。该方法充分利用了地层三维可视化模型可较好地表达研究区域内地质体的空间几何形态的优点,拓展了可视化模型的应用范围,排除了从地层可视化模型全自动生成精确岩土工程数值计算模型在网格形状、材料区域边界、断层/节理单元等方面所面临的困难,极大地简化了数值模拟的前处理工作。数值模拟结果表明:随着网格尺寸的不断加密,本研究方法得到的计算结果可满足岩土工程分析的实际需求,具有良好的工程应用前景。

  20. Numerical 3D modeling of heat transfer in human tissues for microwave radiometry monitoring of brown fat metabolism

    Rodrigues, Dario B.; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Salahi, Sara; Colebeck, Erin; Topsakal, Erdem; Pereira, Pedro J. S.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Stauffer, Paul R.


    Background: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and could potentially mediate weight gain and insulin sensitivity. Although some imaging techniques allow BAT detection, there are currently no viable methods for continuous acquisition of BAT energy expenditure. We present a non-invasive technique for long term monitoring of BAT metabolism using microwave radiometry. Methods: A multilayer 3D computational model was created in HFSSTM with 1.5 mm skin, 3-10 mm subcutaneous fat, 200 mm muscle and a BAT region (2-6 cm3) located between fat and muscle. Based on this model, a log-spiral antenna was designed and optimized to maximize reception of thermal emissions from the target (BAT). The power absorption patterns calculated in HFSSTM were combined with simulated thermal distributions computed in COMSOL® to predict radiometric signal measured from an ultra-low-noise microwave radiometer. The power received by the antenna was characterized as a function of different levels of BAT metabolism under cold and noradrenergic stimulation. Results: The optimized frequency band was 1.5-2.2 GHz, with averaged antenna efficiency of 19%. The simulated power received by the radiometric antenna increased 2-9 mdBm (noradrenergic stimulus) and 4-15 mdBm (cold stimulus) corresponding to increased 15-fold BAT metabolism. Conclusions: Results demonstrated the ability to detect thermal radiation from small volumes (2-6 cm3) of BAT located up to 12 mm deep and to monitor small changes (0.5 °C) in BAT metabolism. As such, the developed miniature radiometric antenna sensor appears suitable for non-invasive long term monitoring of BAT metabolism.

  1. The mechanisms of driving lithospheric deformation in India-Asia collision zone: a perspective from 3-D numerical modeling

    Yang, Jianfeng; Kaus, Boris


    The mechanism of intraplate deformation remains incompletely understood by plate tectonics theory. The India-Asia collision zone is the largest present-day example of continental collision, which makes it an ideal location to study the processes of continental deformation. Existing models of lithospheric deformation are typically quasi two-dimensional and often assume that the lithosphere is a thin viscous sheet, which deforms homogeneously as a result of the collision, or flows above a partially molten lower crust, which explains the exhumation of Himalayan units and lateral spreading of Tibetan plateau. An opposing view is that most deformation localize in shear zones separating less deformed blocks, requiring the lithosphere to have an elasto-plastic rather than a viscous rheology. In order to distinguish which model best fits the observations we develop a 3-D visco-elasto-plastic model, which can model both distributed and highly localized deformation. In our preliminary result, most of the large-scale strike-slips faults including Altyn-Tagh fault, Xianshuihe fault, Red-River fault, Sagaing fault and Jiali fault can be simulated. The topography is consistent with observations that flat plateau in central Tibet and steep, abrupt margins adjacent to Sichuan basin, and gradual topography in southeast Tibet. These models suggest that the localized large-scale strike-slip faults accommodate the continental deformation. These results show the importance of a weak lower crust and topographic effects, as well as the effect of rheology and temperature structure of the lithosphere on the deformation patterns.

  2. An Innovative Hybrid 3D Analytic-Numerical Approach for System Level Modelling of PEM Fuel Cells

    Gregor Tavčar; Tomaž Katrašnik


    The PEM fuel cell model presented in this paper is based on modelling species transport and coupling electrochemical reactions to species transport in an innovative way. Species transport is modelled by obtaining a 2D analytic solution for species concentration distribution in the plane perpendicular to the gas-flow and coupling consecutive 2D solutions by means of a 1D numerical gas-flow model. The 2D solution is devised on a jigsaw puzzle of multiple coupled domains which enables the modell...

  3. Mode transformation and frequency change with height in 3D numerical simulations of magneto-acoustic wave propagation in sunspots

    Felipe, T; Collados, M


    Three-dimensional numerical simulations of magnetoacoustic wave propagation are performed in a sunspot atmosphere with a computational domain covering from the photosphere to the chromosphere. The wave source, with properties resembling the solar spectrum, is located at different distances from the axis of the sunspot for each simulation. These results are compared with the theory of mode transformation and also with observational features. Simulations show that the dominant oscillation frequency in the chromosphere decreases with the radial distance from the sunspot axis. The energy flux of the different wave modes involved, including de Alfv\\'en mode, is evaluated and discussed.

  4. A coupled 3D-1D numerical monodomain solver for cardiac electrical activation in the myocardium with detailed Purkinje network

    Vergara, Christian; Lange, Matthias; Palamara, Simone; Lassila, Toni; Frangi, Alejandro F.; Quarteroni, Alfio


    We present a model for the electrophysiology in the heart to handle the electrical propagation through the Purkinje system and in the myocardium, with two-way coupling at the Purkinje-muscle junctions. In both the subproblems the monodomain model is considered, whereas at the junctions a resistor element is included that induces an orthodromic propagation delay from the Purkinje network towards the heart muscle. We prove a sufficient condition for convergence of a fixed-point iterative algorithm to the numerical solution of the coupled problem. Numerical comparison of activation patterns is made with two different combinations of models for the coupled Purkinje network/myocardium system, the eikonal/eikonal and the monodomain/monodomain models. Test cases are investigated for both physiological and pathological activation of a model left ventricle. Finally, we prove the reliability of the monodomain/monodomain coupling on a realistic scenario. Our results underlie the importance of using physiologically realistic Purkinje-trees with propagation solved using the monodomain model for simulating cardiac activation.

  5. Mesoscale Ionospheric Prediction


    for both scientific and DoD applications. OBJECTIVES The first scientific objective of this research project is to derive a full four...5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME...of the algorithm. Ms. Curtis is responsible for the conversion of IDA3D to a plane wave mesoscale assimilation program. WORK COMPLETED With

  6. Deterministic evaluation of collapse risk for a decomissioned flooded mine system: 3D numerical modelling of subsidence, roof collapse and impulse water flow.

    Castellanza, Riccardo; Fernandez Merodo, Josè Antonio; di Prisco, Claudio; Frigerio, Gabriele; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Orlandi, Gianmarco


    Aim of the study is the assessment of stability conditions for an abandoned gypsum mine (Bologna , Italy). Mining was carried out til the end of the 70s by the room and pillar method. During mining a karst cave was crossed karstic waters flowed into the mine. As a consequence, the lower level of the mining is completely flooded and portions of the mining levels show critical conditions and are structurally prone to instability. Buildings and infrastructures are located above the first and second level and a large portion of the area below the mine area, and just above of the Savena river, is urbanised. Gypsum geomechanical properties change over time; water, or even air humidity, dissolves or weaken gypsum pillars, leading progressively to collapse. The mine is located in macro-crystalline gypsum beds belonging to the Messinian Gessoso Solfifera Formation. Selenitic gypsum beds are interlayered with by centimetre to meter thick shales layers. In order to evaluate the risk related to the collapse of the flooded level (level 3) a deterministic approach based on 3D numerical analyses has been considered. The entire abandoned mine system up to the ground surface has been generated in 3D. The considered critical scenario implies the collapse of the pillars and roof of the flooded level 3. In a first step, a sequential collapse starting from the most critical pillar has been simulated by means of a 3D Finite Element code. This allowed the definition of the subsidence basin at the ground surface and the interaction with the buildings in terms of ground displacements. 3D numerical analyses have been performed with an elasto-perfectly plastic constitutive model. In a second step, the effect of a simultaneous collapse of the entire level 3 has been considered in order to evaluate the risk of a flooding due to the water outflow from the mine system. Using a 3D CFD (Continuum Fluid Dynamics) finite element code the collapse of the level 3 has been simulated and the volume of

  7. Numerical Simulation of Tip Leakage Vortex Effect on Hydrogen-Combustion Flow around 3D Turbine Blade

    Naoto Miyama; Kazuaki Inaba; Makoto Yamamoto


    In these years, a lot of environmental problems such as air pollution and exhaustion of fossil fuels have been discussed intensively. In our laboratory, a hydrogen-fueled propulsion system has been researched as an alternative to conventional systems. A hydrogen-fueled propulsion system is expected to have higher power, lighter weight and lower emissions. However, for the practical use, there exist many problems that must be overcome. Considering these backgrounds, jet engines with hydrogen-fueled combustion within a turbine blade passage have been studied. Although some studies have been made on injecting and burning hydrogen fuel from a stator surface, little is known about the interaction between a tip leakage vortex near the suction side of a rotor tip and hydrogen-fueled combustion.The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence of the tip leakage vortex on the characteristics of the 3-dimensional flow field with hydrogen-fueled combustion within a turbine blade passage. Reynolds-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with incorporating a k-ε turbulence and a reduced chemical mechanism models. Using the computational results, the 3-dimensional turbulent flow field with chemical reactions is numerically visualized, and the three-dimensional turbulent flow fields with hydrogen combustion and the structure of the tip leakage vortex are investigated.

  8. Mixing behavior of the rhombic micromixers over a wide Reynolds number range using Taguchi method and 3D numerical simulations.

    Chung, C K; Shih, T R; Chen, T C; Wu, B H


    A planar micromixer with rhombic microchannels and a converging-diverging element has been systematically investigated by the Taguchi method, CFD-ACE simulations and experiments. To reduce the footprint and extend the operation range of Reynolds number, Taguchi method was used to numerically study the performance of the micromixer in a L(9) orthogonal array. Mixing efficiency is prominently influenced by geometrical parameters and Reynolds number (Re). The four factors in a L(9) orthogonal array are number of rhombi, turning angle, width of the rhombic channel and width of the throat. The degree of sensitivity by Taguchi method can be ranked as: Number of rhombi > Width of the rhombic channel > Width of the throat > Turning angle of the rhombic channel. Increasing the number of rhombi, reducing the width of the rhombic channel and throat and lowering the turning angle resulted in better fluid mixing efficiency. The optimal design of the micromixer in simulations indicates over 90% mixing efficiency at both Re > or = 80 and Re < or = 0.1. Experimental results in the optimal simulations are consistent with the simulated one. This planar rhombic micromixer has simplified the complex fabrication process of the multi-layer or three-dimensional micromixers and improved the performance of a previous rhombic micromixer at a reduced footprint and lower Re.

  9. The 3D Kasteleyn transition in dipolar spin ice: a numerical study with the conserved monopoles algorithm

    Baez, M. L.; Borzi, R. A.


    We study the three-dimensional Kasteleyn transition in both nearest neighbours and dipolar spin ice models using an algorithm that conserves the number of excitations. We first limit the interactions range to nearest neighbours to test the method in the presence of a field applied along ≤ft[1 0 0\\right] , and then focus on the dipolar spin ice model. The effect of dipolar interactions, which is known to be greatly self screened at zero field, is particularly strong near full polarization. It shifts the Kasteleyn transition to lower temperatures, which decreases  ≈0.4 K for the parameters corresponding to the best known spin ice materials, \\text{D}{{\\text{y}}2}\\text{T}{{\\text{i}}2}{{\\text{O}}7} and \\text{H}{{\\text{o}}2}\\text{T}{{\\text{i}}2}{{\\text{O}}7} . This shift implies effective dipolar fields as big as 0.05 T opposing the applied field, and thus favouring the creation of ‘strings’ of reversed spins. We compare the reduction in the transition temperature with results in previous experiments, and study the phenomenon quantitatively using a simple molecular field approach. Finally, we relate the presence of the effective residual field to the appearance of string-ordered phases at low fields and temperatures, and we check numerically that for fields applied along ≤ft[1 0 0\\right] there are only three different stable phases at zero temperature.

  10. Numerical Simulation and Analysis on 3D Temperature Field of the Metal Ablated with Femtosecond Pulse Laser

    Yang Li; Yang Wei [Science College, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China); Wang Chingyue, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Opto-electronic Information Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)


    To describe femtosecond laser ablation on the metal, numerical simulation on the basis of the double-temperature equation for three-dimension temperature field of the copper ablated with femtosecond pulse laser was performed by finite-difference method. Based on imbalance of the electronic and lattice's temperatures, the calefactive process of the electron and the lattice was obtained, respectively. The dependence of the electron-lattice coupling time on irradiated laser fluence was studied. The ablation depth and the ablation radius of the copper for single pulse fluence were calculated. The dependence of the start ablation (phase explosion arises) time of the copper on irradiated laser fluence was studied. The results indicate that the material jet due to phase explosion is earlier and the duration of ablation is longer with the increase of the laser fluence. When the laser fluence is higher than 1.5 J/cm{sup 2} the ablation start time is about 2-3 ps.

  11. 3D Numerical Experiments of Lithospheric Transtension Reveal Complex Crustal-Scale Flow and Strain Partitioning in Transdomes

    Rey, P. F.; Mondy, L. S.; Duclaux, G.; Teyssier, C. P.; Whitney, D. L.


    We have used Underworld to perform a series of numerical experiments involving a 256 x 256 x 128 km domain, at a grid resolution of 1.33 km. The kinematic boundary conditions simulate a lithospheric-scale pull-apart setting. We compare the structural and thermal evolution of a model involving a crust of thickness 40 km (TMoho=540ºC) with a model with a crust of thickness 60 km (TMoho=830ºC). We show that in the thick, hot crust model the flow in the pull-apart region is strongly partitioned between the strong upper crust and the weak lower crust. The weak, deep crust flows toward the pull-apart region to isostatically compensate the stretching and thinning of the upper crust. In contrast, the velocity field in the upper crust remains parallel to the imposed direction of extension. In the pull-apart region a transdome, made of two parallel foliation folds (or sub-domes), forms. In the dome, fabrics evolve from strong vertical flattening in between the two sub-domes, to shallow dipping constriction roughly parallel to the direction of extension in the upper part of the transdome.

  12. Identifying the origin of differences between 3D numerical simulations of ground motion in sedimentary basins: lessons from stringent canonical test models in the E2VP framework

    Chaljub, Emmanuel; Maufroy, Emeline; Moczo, Peter; Kristek, Jozef; Priolo, Enrico; Klin, Peter; De Martin, Florent; Zhang, Zenghuo; Hollender, Fabrice; Bard, Pierre-Yves


    Numerical simulation is playing a role of increasing importance in the field of seismic hazard by providing quantitative estimates of earthquake ground motion, its variability, and its sensitivity to geometrical and mechanical properties of the medium. Continuous efforts to develop accurate and computationally efficient numerical methods, combined with increasing computational power have made it technically feasible to calculate seismograms in 3D realistic configurations and for frequencies of interest in seismic design applications. Now, in order to foster the use of numerical simulations in practical prediction of earthquake ground motion, it is important to evaluate the accuracy of current numerical methods when applied to realistic 3D sites. This process of verification is a necessary prerequisite to confrontation of numerical predictions and observations. Through the ongoing Euroseistest Verification and Validation Project (E2VP), which focuses on the Mygdonian basin (northern Greece), we investigated the capability of numerical methods to predict earthquake ground motion for frequencies up to 4 Hz. Numerical predictions obtained by several teams using a wide variety of methods were compared using quantitative goodness-of-fit criteria. In order to better understand the cause of misfits between different simulations, initially performed for the realistic geometry of the Mygdonian basin, we defined five stringent canonical configurations. The canonical models allow for identifying sources of misfits and quantify their importance. Detailed quantitative comparison of simulations in relation to dominant features of the models shows that even relatively simple heterogeneous models must be treated with maximum care in order to achieve sufficient level of accuracy. One important conclusion is that the numerical representation of models with strong variations (e.g. discontinuities) may considerably vary from one method to the other, and may become a dominant source of

  13. The Application of 3-D Numerical Simulation to Calculating the Waves in Surge Tanks%CFD在调压室涌浪水位模拟中的应用

    刘飞; 杨建东; 李进平


    While a hydropower station is in its transition process, the unsteady flow in the tailrace surge tank has been simulated by using the method of CFD. In this paper, the surge wave and the bottom plate pressure difference are the focus of concern in the 3-D numerical simulation. Three turbulence models have been used to simulate the unsteady flow. We can illustrate the differences between the three turbulence models while they are used to simulate the transition process. Based on the advantage that the 3-D numerical simulation can capture the information of internal flow field, we are also able to explore the situation of free surface and flow regime in the surge tank through the entire wave process.%对某水电站的尾水隧洞及下游调压室过渡过程中的非恒定流流态进行三维数值模拟,着重观测调压室内涌浪波动及调压室内底板压差变化过程。采用3种湍流模型对下游调压室及尾水隧洞进行了模拟,将调压室涌浪波动过程与调压室底板压差变化过程的三维计算结果与物理模型实验、一维数值计算的相应结果予以对比分析,阐明了不同湍流模型对过渡过程模拟的影响。结合三维模拟能捕捉流场内部流态的优势,探讨了涌浪波动过程中调压室水面波动过程及水流流态。

  14. Evaluation of cloud prediction and determination of critical relative humidity for a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model

    Seaman, N.L.; Guo, Z.; Ackerman, T.P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)


    Predictions of cloud occurrence and vertical location from the Pennsylvannia State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research nonhydrostatic mesoscale model (MM5) were evaluated statistically using cloud observations obtained at Coffeyville, Kansas, as part of the Second International satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment campaign. Seventeen cases were selected for simulation during a November-December 1991 field study. MM5 was used to produce two sets of 36-km simulations, one with and one without four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA), and a set of 12-km simulations without FDDA, but nested within the 36-km FDDA runs.

  15. Acid rain: Mesoscale model

    Hsu, H. M.


    A mesoscale numerical model of the Florida peninsula was formulated and applied to a dry, neutral atmosphere. The prospective use of the STAR-100 computer for the submesoscale model is discussed. The numerical model presented is tested under synoptically undisturbed conditions. Two cases, differing only in the direction of the prevailing geostrophic wind, are examined: a prevailing southwest wind and a prevailing southeast wind, both 6 m/sec at all levels initially.

  16. A 3D numerical study of LO2/GH2 supercritical combustion in the ONERA-Mascotte Test-rig configuration

    Benmansour, Abdelkrim; Liazid, Abdelkrim; Logerais, Pierre-Olivier; Durastanti, Jean-Félix


    Cryogenic propellants LOx/H2 are used at very high pressure in rocket engine combustion. The description of the combustion process in such application is very complex due essentially to the supercritical regime. Ideal gas law becomes invalid. In order to try to capture the average characteristics of this combustion process, numerical computations are performed using a model based on a one-phase multi-component approach. Such work requires fluid properties and a correct definition of the mixture behavior generally described by cubic equations of state with appropriated thermodynamic relations validated against the NIST data. In this study we consider an alternative way to get the effect of real gas by testing the volume-weighted-mixing-law with association of the component transport properties using directly the NIST library data fitting including the supercritical regime range. The numerical simulations are carried out using 3D RANS approach associated with two tested turbulence models, the standard k-Epsilon model and the realizable k-Epsilon one. The combustion model is also associated with two chemical reaction mechanisms. The first one is a one-step generic chemical reaction and the second one is a two-step chemical reaction. The obtained results like temperature profiles, recirculation zones, visible flame lengths and distributions of OH species are discussed.

  17. 3D Numerical Simulation versus Experimental Assessment of Pressure Pulsations Using a Passive Method for Swirling Flow Control in Conical Diffusers of Hydraulic Turbines



    The hydraulic turbines operated at partial discharge (especially hydraulic turbines with fixed blades, i.e. Francis turbine), developing a swirling flow in the conical diffuser of draft tube. As a result, the helical vortex breakdown, also known in the literature as “precessing vortex rope” is developed. A passive method to mitigate the pressure pulsations associated to the vortex rope in the draft tube cone of hydraulic turbines is presented in this paper. The method involves the development of a progressive and controlled throttling (shutter), of the flow cross section at the bottom of the conical diffuser. The adjustable cross section is made on the basis of the shutter-opening of circular diaphragms, while maintaining in all positions the circular cross-sectional shape, centred on the axis of the turbine. The stagnant region and the pressure pulsations associated to the vortex rope are mitigated when it is controlled with the turbine operating regime. Consequently, the severe flow deceleration and corresponding central stagnant are diminished with an efficient mitigation of the precessing helical vortex. Four cases (one without diaphragm and three with diaphragm), are numerically and experimentally investigated, respectively. The present paper focuses on a 3D turbulent swirling flow simulation in order to evaluate the control method. Numerical results are compared against measured pressure recovery coefficient and Fourier spectra. The results prove the vortex rope mitigation and its associated pressure pulsations when employing the diaphragm.

  18. Experimental characterization of the constitutive materials of MgB2 multi-filamentary wires for the development of 3D numerical models

    Escamez, Guillaume; Sirois, Frédéric; Tousignant, Maxime; Badel, Arnaud; Granger, Capucine; Tixador, Pascal; Bruzek, Christian-Éric


    Today MgB2 superconducting wires can be manufactured in long lengths at low cost, which makes this material a good candidate for large scale applications. However, because of its relatively low critical temperature (less than 40 K), it is necessary to operate MgB2 devices in a liquid or gaseous helium environment. In this context, losses in the cryogenic environment must be rigorously minimized, otherwise the use of a superconductor is not worthy. An accurate estimation of the losses at the design stage is therefore mandatory in order to allow determining the device architecture that minimizes the losses. In this paper, we present a complete a 3D finite element model of a 36-filament MgB2 wire based on the architecture of the Italian manufacturer Colombus. In order for the model to be as accurate as possible, we made a substantial effort to characterize all constitutive materials of the wire, namely the E–J characteristics of the MgB2 filaments and the electric and magnetic properties (B‑H curves) of nickel and monel, which are the two major non-superconducting components of the wire. All properties were characterized as a function of temperature and magnetic field. Limitations of the characterization and of the model are discussed, in particular the difficulty to extract the maximum relative permeability of nickel and monel from the experimental data, as well as the lack of a thin conductive layer model in the 3D finite element method, which prevents us from taking into account the resistive barriers around the MgB2 filaments in the matrix. Two examples of numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the capabilities of the model in its current state.

  19. Numerical Analysis of Three-Dimensional Cervical Behaviors in Posterior-Oblique Car Collisions Using 3-D Human Whole Body Finite Element Model

    Kang, Yu-Bong; Jung, Duk-Young; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Yoshino, Nobuyuki; Tsutsumi, Sadami; Ikeuchi, Ken

    Whiplash injuries are most common disorders in rear-end car accidents, while the injury mechanism is yet unknown. Many numerical and experimental approaches have conducted to investigate the cervical behaviors with solely two-dimensional analyses in the sagittal plane. In real accidents, however, as impacts may affect several directions, the cervical behaviors should be evaluated three-dimensionally. Therefore, we evaluated the cervical behaviors under assumption of the posterior-oblique impacts depending on the impact angles with 3-D FE analysis. In addition, we analyzed the stresses occurred in the facet joints considering the relationship with a whiplash disorders. The cervical behaviors showed complex motion combined with axial torsion and lateral bending. The bending angle peaked in the impact at the angle of 15°, and the peak compressive and shear stress on the facet cartilage at C6-C7 increased by 11% and 14%. In the impact at the angle of 30°, the torsion angle peaked at C2-C3, the peak shear stress in the facet cartilage increased by 27%. It showed that the torsion and lateral bending affected the cervical behaviors, and caused the increase of peak stresses on the soft tissues. It is assumed as one of important causes of whiplash injury.

  20. Constraints on post Mid-Jurassic basin evolution in the North Sea from 3D numerical modelling of basin initiation and subsidence.

    Petersen, K. D.; Nielsen, S. B.


    The North Sea sedimentary basin contains more than 3km of post Mid-Jurassic sediments. These are located in a trilete graben system consisting of the Moray Firth and the Viking and Central grabens, but also in a broad region surrounding the grabens, corresponding to the post-mid Cretaceous sediment deposits During the Mid- Jurassic the area was exposed to volcanism, domal regional uplift and erosion, followed by crustal thinning and normal faulting in the grabens. We use a numerical model considering 3D thermal evolution, flexural isostasy, erosion, sedimentation and compaction together with isopach data to simulate the geodynamic evolution of the area since the Mid-Jurassic. Our modelling studies show that the broad distribution of post Jurassic sediments cannot be explained by uniform stretching in the graben areas alone. Regional Mid-Jurassic thinning of the subcrustal lithosphere producing first uplift and erosion and later accommodation space for Cretaceous and Cenozoic sediments is also required. The uniform crustal thinning factor in the grabens amounts to a maximum of 1.14. The required subcrustal lithospheric thinning amounts to about 15 km. Our results are in accordance with observations from recent rift systems such as the Rhine Graben, Eastern Africa and the Baikal Rift, which show that crustal thinning is restricted to the graben areas while thinning of the subcrustal lithosphere (up to 100 km) and the associated domal surface uplift are more regionally distributed.

  1. Boundary-layer turbulent processes and mesoscale variability represented by numerical weather prediction models during the BLLAST campaign

    Couvreux, Fleur; Bazile, Eric; Canut, Guylaine; Seity, Yann; Lothon, Marie; Lohou, Fabienne; Guichard, Françoise; Nilsson, Erik


    This study evaluates the ability of three operational models, with resolution varying from 2.5 to 16 km, to predict the boundary-layer turbulent processes and mesoscale variability observed during the Boundary Layer Late-Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field campaign. We analyse the representation of the vertical profiles of temperature and humidity and the time evolution of near-surface atmospheric variables and the radiative and turbulent fluxes over a total of 12 intensive observing periods (IOPs), each lasting 24 h. Special attention is paid to the evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), which was sampled by a combination of independent instruments. For the first time, this variable, a central one in the turbulence scheme used in AROME and ARPEGE, is evaluated with observations.In general, the 24 h forecasts succeed in reproducing the variability from one day to another in terms of cloud cover, temperature and boundary-layer depth. However, they exhibit some systematic biases, in particular a cold bias within the daytime boundary layer for all models. An overestimation of the sensible heat flux is noted for two points in ARPEGE and is found to be partly related to an inaccurate simplification of surface characteristics. AROME shows a moist bias within the daytime boundary layer, which is consistent with overestimated latent heat fluxes. ECMWF presents a dry bias at 2 m above the surface and also overestimates the sensible heat flux. The high-resolution model AROME resolves the vertical structures better, in particular the strong daytime inversion and the thin evening stable boundary layer. This model is also able to capture some specific observed features, such as the orographically driven subsidence and a well-defined maximum that arises during the evening of the water vapour mixing ratio in the upper part of the residual layer due to fine-scale advection. The model reproduces the order of magnitude of spatial variability observed at

  2. Numerical study on the interactions between the Kuroshio current in the Luzon Strait and a mesoscale eddy

    Kuo, Yi-Chun; Chern, Ching-Sheng; Zheng, Zhe-Wen


    The Luzon Strait (LS) connects the northwestern Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea (SCS) and is the western boundary gap for the Kuroshio current (KC). Satellite observations indicate that a cyclonic mesoscale eddy can trigger westward extension of the KC into the SCS and shed a smaller anticyclonic eddy to the west of the LS. We used a nonlinear reduced-gravity (primitive equation) model to study this phenomenon and analyzed the dynamic process. The location of the collision between the eddy and the KC could be critical for varying the circulation in the LS. The eddy's deformation rate, associated with its decaying speed, is also closely related to the location of the eddy during collision. When a cyclonic eddy moved from a region to the east of the Luzon Island toward the LS, the KC intruded into the SCS with growing negative vorticity during the collision of the eddy and KC. This tendency for negative vorticity is attributed to the beta effect and squeezing of the planetary vorticity caused by the flow divergence. As the eddy dissipated, the KC in the LS recovered its original pattern. When the collision of the eddy occurred at the center of the LS, the momentum balance of the KC loop was dominated by the inertial term, and the circulation in the LS remained in a leaping state.

  3. On the forcing mechanisms of mesocyclones in the eastern Weddell Sea region, Antarctica: Process studies using a mesoscale numerical model

    Thomas Klein


    Full Text Available Development mechanisms of Antarctic mesocyclones in the eastern Weddell Sea area are examined by means of simulations with a mesoscale model using different idealized initial conditions. In one of the experiments, a mesocyclone develops over an area of open water close to the coast of the Antarctic continent. The forcing mechanisms of this mesocyclogenesis are investigated by means of sensitivity studies in which certain physical processes and the relevance of the surface conditions topography, sea surface temperature and sea ice coverage are examined. The sensitivity experiments show that the simulated mesocyclone is forced by an interaction of several forcing mechanisms at different stages of the development rather than by a single mechanism. The topography of the eastern Weddell Sea region and the summertime coastal polynia are shown to be of great importance for the mesocyclogenesis. A suitable synoptic-scale flow is necessary to support the katabatic flow over the sloped ice sheet, and to enhance the generation of cyclonic vorticity due to vertical stretching for the initial mesocyclogenesis. The diabatic process of the convergence of the sensible and latent heat fluxes in the boundary layer over the coastal polynia then becomes the dominant forcing mechanism for the further development of the mesocyclone.

  4. Robustness of numerical TIG welding simulation of 3D structures in stainless steel 316L; Robustesse de la simulation numerique du soudage TIG de structures 3D en acier 316L

    El-Ahmar, W


    The numerical welding simulation is considered to be one of those mechanical problems that have the great level of nonlinearity and which requires a good knowledge in various scientific fields. The 'Robustness Analysis' is a suitable tool to control the quality and guarantee the reliability of numerical welding results. The robustness of a numerical simulation of welding is related to the sensitivity of the modelling assumptions on the input parameters. A simulation is known as robust if the result that it produces is not very sensitive to uncertainties of the input data. The term 'Robust' was coined in statistics by G.E.P. Box in 1953. Various definitions of greater or lesser mathematical rigor are possible for the term, but in general, referring to a statistical estimator, it means 'insensitive to small deviation from the idealized assumptions for which the estimator is optimized. In order to evaluate the robustness of numerical welding simulation, sensitivity analyses on thermomechanical models and parameters have been conducted. At the first step, we research a reference solution which gives the best agreement with the thermal and mechanical experimental results. The second step consists in determining through numerical simulations which parameters have the largest influence on residual stresses induced by the welding process. The residual stresses were predicted using finite element method performed with Code-Aster of EDF and SYSWELD of ESI-GROUP. An analysis of robustness can prove to be heavy and expensive making it an unjustifiable route. However, only with development such tool of analysis can predictive methods become a useful tool for industry. (author)

  5. Effects of in-pulse transverse relaxation in 3D ultrashort echo time sequences: analytical derivation, comparison to numerical simulation and experimental application at 3T.

    Springer, Fabian; Steidle, Günter; Martirosian, Petros; Claussen, Claus D; Schick, Fritz


    The introduction of ultrashort-echo-time-(UTE)-sequences to clinical whole-body MR scanners has opened up the field of MR characterization of materials or tissues with extremely fast signal decay. If the transverse relaxation time is in the range of the RF-pulse duration, approximation of the RF-pulse by an instantaneous rotation applied at the middle of the RF-pulse and immediately followed by free relaxation will lead to a distinctly underestimated echo signal. Thus, the regular Ernst equation is not adequate to correctly describe steady state signal under those conditions. The paper presents an analytically derived modified Ernst equation, which correctly describes in-pulse relaxation of transverse magnetization under typical conditions: The equation is valid for rectangular excitation pulses, usually applied in 3D UTE sequences. Longitudinal relaxation time of the specimen must be clearly longer than RF-pulse duration, which is fulfilled for tendons and bony structures as well as many solid materials. Under these conditions, the proposed modified Ernst equation enables adequate and relatively simple calculation of the magnetization of materials or tissues. Analytically derived data are compared to numerical results obtained by using an established Runge-Kutta-algorithm based on the Bloch equations. Validity of the new approach was also tested by systematical measurements of a solid polymeric material on a 3T whole-body MR scanner. Thus, the presented modified Ernst equation provides a suitable basis for T1 measurements, even in tissues with T2 values as short as the RF-pulse duration: independent of RF-pulse duration, the 'variable flip angle method' led to consistent results of longitudinal relaxation time T1, if the T2 relaxation time of the material of interest is known as well.

  6. Numerical simulations of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in planar inertial-confinement-fusion targets using the FastRad3D code

    Bates, J. W.; Schmitt, A. J.; Karasik, M.; Zalesak, S. T.


    The ablative Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is a central issue in the performance of laser-accelerated inertial-confinement-fusion targets. Historically, the accurate numerical simulation of this instability has been a challenging task for many radiation hydrodynamics codes, particularly when it comes to capturing the ablatively stabilized region of the linear dispersion spectrum and modeling ab initio perturbations. Here, we present recent results from two-dimensional numerical simulations of the ablative RT instability in planar laser-ablated foils that were performed using the Eulerian code FastRad3D. Our study considers polystyrene, (cryogenic) deuterium-tritium, and beryllium target materials, quarter- and third-micron laser light, and low and high laser intensities. An initial single-mode surface perturbation is modeled in our simulations as a small modulation to the target mass density and the ablative RT growth-rate is calculated from the time history of areal-mass variations once the target reaches a steady-state acceleration. By performing a sequence of such simulations with different perturbation wavelengths, we generate a discrete dispersion spectrum for each of our examples and find that in all cases the linear RT growth-rate γ is well described by an expression of the form γ = α [ k g / ( 1 + ɛ k L m ) ] 1 / 2 - β k V a , where k is the perturbation wavenumber, g is the acceleration of the target, Lm is the minimum density scale-length, Va is the ablation velocity, and ɛ is either one or zero. The dimensionless coefficients α and β in the above formula depend on the particular target and laser parameters and are determined from two-dimensional simulation results through the use of a nonlinear curve-fitting procedure. While our findings are generally consistent with those of Betti et al. (Phys. Plasmas 5, 1446 (1998)), the ablative RT growth-rates predicted in this investigation are somewhat smaller than the values previously reported for the

  7. Mesoscale Modeling, Forecasting and Remote Sensing Research.

    remote sensing , cyclonic scale diagnostic studies and mesoscale numerical modeling and forecasting are summarized. Mechanisms involved in the release of potential instability are discussed and simulated quantitatively, giving particular attention to the convective formulation. The basic mesoscale model is documented including the equations, boundary condition, finite differences and initialization through an idealized frontal zone. Results of tests including a three dimensional test with real data, tests of convective/mesoscale interaction and tests with a detailed

  8. 混凝土损伤断裂的三维细观数值模拟%3-D mesoscopic numerical simulation of concrete damage and fracture

    李朝红; 王海龙; 徐光兴


    On the meso-level, a method for establishing 3-D numerical model with random distribution of aggregate location and mechanical parameters was put forward. Based on damage mechanics and computational mechanics, two groups of numerical models of wet-screened concrete cube specimens were established with ANSYS software, i.e., the first group of models was designed to simulate three kinds of aggregate random distribution with the same gradation, and the second group of models was designed to simulate the random distribution of main material parameters of phases that composed concrete. By the numerical axial compression simulation of the two groups of models, the gradual process of damage crack appearance and the growth of concrete were revealed. The results show that the cubic compressive strength of concrete by numerical simulation approximates to that by physical test. The random distributing of aggregate location has influence on the generating location and expanding paths of crack, yet it has slight influence on the carrying capacity of samples. The material parameters heterogeneity of phases, which can be characterized well by Weibull distribution,reduces the carrying capacity of specimens.%提出一种在细观层次建立混凝土三维随机骨料随机力学参数模型的方法.将损伤力学与计算力学相结合,基于ANSYS软件平台进行二次开发,建立2组混凝土立方体湿筛试件的数值模犁:第1组模型模拟3种不同的骨料随机分布;第2组模型模拟混凝土各相材料主要力学参数的随机性,分别假定其参数符合对数正态分布和Weibull分布.通过对这2组模型的轴压进行模拟,揭示混凝土在轴向压力作用下单元的渐进损伤和裂缝的萌生与扩展过程.研究结果表明:数值模拟得到的混凝土立方体抗压强度与试验测得的抗压强度较接近;骨料的随机分布会影响试件裂缝产生的位置和扩展路径,但其对试件承载力的影响不大;混凝土

  9. 3D flow numerical simulation of ball valve based on CFD%基于CFD的球阀三维流场数值模拟

    张生昌; 张玉林; 方志明; 柯愈龙


    为了探索新型转子式油气混输泵出口球阀内流场规律,建立球阀流场的三维模型,利用Fluent软件,将标准k-ε湍流模型与多相流技术相结合,采用SIMPLE算法,对新型转子式油气混输泵出口球阀内的三维气液两相流场进行数值模拟.在容积含气率为25%,50%,75%的不同工况下,通过对球阀开启高度分别为3,5,7 mm时的速度场、压力场与气液相分布的分析,探讨在气液混输过程中阀的开启高度及不同气液比对阀内流场的影响规律.模拟结果表明:球阀开启高度越大,阀球上下压差越小;阀隙流速随着开启高度的增大而减小.在气液混输过程中气相介质主要靠近阀球壁流动,同一开启高度下气液比对阀隙流速的影响较小.研究结果直观展现了球阀内流场形态,在一定程度上揭示了气液两相介质在阀内的流动规律,为新型转子式油气混输泵出口球阀的设计与优化提供理论指导.%To explore the flow field law of the outlet ball valve of the new rotor oil-gas mixed pump, a 3D model of ball valve flow field was established. Using Fluent software, combining standard turbulent model and multiphase flow technology together, adopting SIMPLE algorithm, a 3D gas-liquid double-phase flow field in outlet ball valve of new rotor oil-gas mixed pump was numerically simulated. With gas fraction of 25% , 50% and 75% and valve's opening height at 3, 5 and 7 mm respectively, velocity field, pressure field and the distribution of liquid and gas was analyzed. The law of valve's opening height and different gas-liquid ratio's effect on outlet ball valves in the process of gas-liquid mixing was discussed. The simulation results show that, the greater the opening height, the smaller the pressure difference between ball valves: The gap flow velocity decreases as the open height increases. Gas mainly flows in the vicinity of the valve ball in the process of gas-liquid mixing. At the same

  10. 3D Animation Essentials

    Beane, Andy


    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  11. 3D video

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline


    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  12. 3-D numerical models of viscous flow applied to fold nappes and the Rawil depression in the Helvetic nappe system (western Switzerland)

    von Tscharner, M.; Schmalholz, S. M.; Epard, J.-L.


    The Helvetic nappe system exhibits three-dimensional (3-D) features such as the lateral variation in geometry between the Morcles and Doldenhorn fold nappes or the Rawil depression. We perform 3-D finite element simulations of linear and power-law viscous flow to investigate fold nappe formation during shortening of a half graben with laterally varying thickness. 3-D ellipsoids and corresponding 2-D intersection ellipses are used to quantify finite strain. Fold nappes which formed above a thicker graben have (i) larger amplitudes, (ii) a less sheared and thinned overturned limb, and (iii) a larger thickness than fold nappes formed above a thinner graben. These results agree with observations for the Morcles and Doldenhorn nappes. We also perform 3-D simulations for a tectonic scenario suggested for the evolution of the Rawil depression. The basement is shortened and extended laterally and includes a graben which is oblique to the shortening direction and acts as mechanical weak zone. The graben causes laterally varying basement uplift generating a depression whose amplitude depends on the graben orientation and the stress exponent of basement and sediments. The axial plunge of the depression is smaller (approximately 10°) than the observed plunge (approximately 30°) indicating that additional processes are required to explain the geometry of the Rawil depression.

  13. Evolution of the Lake Victoria basin in the context of coeval rift initiation in East Africa: a 3D numerical model approach

    Wichura, Henry; Quinteros, Javier; Melnick, Daniel; Brune, Sascha; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Strecker, Manfred R.


    Over the last four years sedimentologic and thermochronologic studies in the western and eastern branches of the Cenozoic East African Rift System (EARS) have supported the notion of a broadly contemporaneous onset of normal faulting and rift-basin formation in both segments. These studies support previous interpretations based on geophysical investigations from which an onset of rifting during the Paleogene had been postulated. In light of these studies we explore the evolution of the Lake Victoria basin, a shallow, unfaulted sedimentary basin centered between both branches of the EARS and located in the interior of the East African Plateau (EAP). We quantify the fluvial catchment evolution of the Lake Victoria basin and assess the topographic response of African crust to the onset of rifting in both branches. Furthermore, we evaluate and localize the nature of strain and flexural rift-flank uplift in both branches. We use a 3D numerical forward model that includes nonlinear temperature- and stress-dependent elasto-visco-plastic rheology. The model is able to reproduce the flexural response of variably thick lithosphere to rift-related deformation processes such as lithospheric thinning and asthenospheric upwelling. The model domain covers the entire EAP and integrates extensional processes in a heterogeneous, yet cold and thick cratonic block (Archean Tanzania craton), which is surrounded by mechanically weaker Proterozoic mobile belts, which are characterized by thinner lithosphere ("thin spots"). The lower limits of the craton (170 km) and the mobile belts (120 km) are simulated by different depths of the 1300 °C lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. We assume a constant extension rate of 4 mm/a throughout the entire simulation of 30 Ma and neglect the effect of dynamic topography and magmatism. Even though the model setup is very simple and the resolution is not high enough to calculate realistic rift-flank uplift, it intriguingly reveals important topographic

  14. Effect of Mesoscale and Multiscale Modeling on the Performance of Kevlar Woven Fabric Subjected to Ballistic Impact: A Numerical Study

    Jia, Xin; Huang, Zhengxiang; Zu, Xudong; Gu, Xiaohui; Xiao, Qiangqiang


    In this study, an optimal finite element model of Kevlar woven fabric that is more computational efficient compared with existing models was developed to simulate ballistic impact onto fabric. Kevlar woven fabric was modeled to yarn level architecture by using the hybrid elements analysis (HEA), which uses solid elements in modeling the yarns at the impact region and uses shell elements in modeling the yarns away from the impact region. Three HEA configurations were constructed, in which the solid element region was set as about one, two, and three times that of the projectile's diameter with impact velocities of 30 m/s (non-perforation case) and 200 m/s (perforation case) to determine the optimal ratio between the solid element region and the shell element region. To further reduce computational time and to maintain the necessary accuracy, three multiscale models were presented also. These multiscale models combine the local region with the yarn level architecture by using the HEA approach and the global region with homogenous level architecture. The effect of the varying ratios of the local and global area on the ballistic performance of fabric was discussed. The deformation and damage mechanisms of fabric were analyzed and compared among numerical models. Simulation results indicate that the multiscale model based on HEA accurately reproduces the baseline results and obviously decreases computational time.

  15. Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative and latent heating profiles of mesoscale convective systems for general circulation models

    Houze, Jr., Robert A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences


    We examined cloud radar data in monsoon climates, using cloud radars at Darwin in the Australian monsoon, on a ship in the Bay of Bengal in the South Asian monsoon, and at Niamey in the West African monsoon. We followed on with a more in-depth study of the continental MCSs over West Africa. We investigated whether the West African anvil clouds connected with squall line MCSs passing over the Niamey ARM site could be simulated in a numerical model by comparing the observed anvil clouds to anvil structures generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model at high resolution using six different ice-phase microphysical schemes. We carried out further simulations with a cloud-resolving model forced by sounding network budgets over the Niamey region and over the northern Australian region. We have devoted some of the effort of this project to examining how well satellite data can determine the global breadth of the anvil cloud measurements obtained at the ARM ground sites. We next considered whether satellite data could be objectively analyzed to so that their large global measurement sets can be systematically related to the ARM measurements. Further differences were detailed between the land and ocean MCS anvil clouds by examining the interior structure of the anvils with the satellite-detected the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR). The satellite survey of anvil clouds in the Indo-Pacific region was continued to determine the role of MCSs in producing the cloud pattern associated with the MJO.

  16. Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative and latent heating profiles of mesoscale convective systems for general circulation models

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Houze, Robert, A., Jr.; Zeng, Xiping


    observations to evaluate model simulations In cooperation with Profs. Bob Houze at University of Washington and Steven Rutledge at Colorado State University, numerical model results were evaluated with observations from W- and C-band radars and CloudSat/TRMM satellites. These studies exhibited some shortcomings of current numerical models, such as too little of thin anvil clouds, directing the future improvement of cloud microphysics parameterization in CRMs. Two papers of Powell et al (2012) and Zeng et al. (2013), summarizing these studies, were published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 4. Analyzed the water budgets of MCSs Using ARM data from TWP-ICE, ARM-SGP and other field campaigns, the Goddard CRM simulations were carried out to analyze the water budgets of clouds from TWP-ICE and AMMA. The simulations generated a set of datasets on clouds and radiation, which are available The cloud datasets were available for modelers and other researchers aiming to improve the representation of cloud processes in multi-scale modeling frameworks, GCMs and climate models. Special datasets, such as 3D cloud distributions every six minutes for TWP-ICE, were requested and generated for ARM/ASR investigators. Data server records show that 86,206 datasets were downloaded by 120 users between April of 2010 and January of 2012. 5. MMF simulations The Goddard MMF (multi-scale modeling framework) has been improved by coupling with the Goddard Land Information System (LIS) and the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GOES5). It has also been optimized on NASA HEC supercomputers and can be run over 4000 CPUs. The improved MMF with high horizontal resolution (1 x 1 degree) is currently being applied to cases covering 2005 and 2006. The results show that the spatial distribution pattern of precipitation rate is well simulated by the MMF through comparisons with satellite retrievals from the CMOPRH and GPCP data sets. In addition, the MMF results


    Brdnik, Lovro


    Diplomsko delo analizira trenutno stanje 3D tiskalnikov na trgu. Prikazan je razvoj in principi delovanja 3D tiskalnikov. Predstavljeni so tipi 3D tiskalnikov, njihove prednosti in slabosti. Podrobneje je predstavljena zgradba in delovanje koračnih motorjev. Opravljene so meritve koračnih motorjev. Opisana je programska oprema za rokovanje s 3D tiskalniki in komponente, ki jih potrebujemo za izdelavo. Diploma se oklepa vprašanja, ali je izdelava 3D tiskalnika bolj ekonomična kot pa naložba v ...

  18. 3D and Education

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile


    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  19. 复杂地形尾矿库三维渗流场的数值模拟%Numerical simulation of 3-D seepage field in the tailings of complex terrain

    齐清兰; 张力霆; 李广晶


    采用有限元对复杂地形的尾矿库渗流场进行数值模拟分析时,提出了三维数值模型概化的新方法:将地形剖面上的主要控制点拟合成曲线,然后再将曲线拟合成曲面,最后由曲面生成概化的三维数值模型。在此基础上进行了某尾矿库的三维渗流场计算,计算结果与该尾矿库的实测资料吻合良好,表明了模型概化的合理性。%This paper puts forth a generalization method of 3-D numerical model for finite element analysis of 3-D seepage flow field in the tailing pond of a complex terrain.In this generalization,fitting curves are generated to the data of major control points of topographical profiles,and a curved surface is created from these curves.Then using the curved surfaces a 3-D generalization model can be built.By this method,the 3-D seepage flow was simulated and the results are in good agreement with the measurements.


    Kolar, Nataša


    Diplomsko delo predstavi razvoj tiskanja skozi čas. Podrobneje so opisani 3D tiskalniki, ki uporabljajo različne tehnologije 3D tiskanja. Predstavljene so različne tehnologije 3D tiskanja, njihova uporaba in narejeni prototipi oz. končni izdelki. Diplomsko delo opiše celoten postopek, od zamisli, priprave podatkov in tiskalnika do izdelave prototipa oz. končnega izdelka.

  1. Probabilistic models and numerical calculation of system matrix and sensitivity in list-mode MLEM 3D reconstruction of Compton camera images.

    Maxim, Voichita; Lojacono, Xavier; Hilaire, Estelle; Krimmer, Jochen; Testa, Etienne; Dauvergne, Denis; Magnin, Isabelle; Prost, Rémy


    This paper addresses the problem of evaluating the system matrix and the sensitivity for iterative reconstruction in Compton camera imaging. Proposed models and numerical calculation strategies are compared through the influence they have on the three-dimensional reconstructed images. The study attempts to address four questions. First, it proposes an analytic model for the system matrix. Second, it suggests a method for its numerical validation with Monte Carlo simulated data. Third, it compares analytical models of the sensitivity factors with Monte Carlo simulated values. Finally, it shows how the system matrix and the sensitivity calculation strategies influence the quality of the reconstructed images.

  2. Magnetic Forces Investigation of Bulk HTS over Permanent Magnetic Guideway under Different Lateral Offset with 3D-Model Numerical Method

    Yiyun Lu


    Full Text Available Magnetic forces of a cylinder shape bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS over a permanent magnet guideway (PMG are studied mathematically. One cylindrical bulk HTS with a diameter of 30 mm and 15 mm in height is used. Two types of PMG are employed for external magnetic fields consideration. The relationship of magnetic forces of bulk HTS under different lateral offsets over PMG is studied with 3D-model finite element method (FEM. The calculation results show that the maximum magnetic levitation force of bulk HTS over PMG is tightly related to the applied magnetic field distribution. For the symmetrical PMG, the maximum magnetic levitation force decreases linearly with the increase of lateral offset of the bulk sample. For the Halbach PMG, when lateral offset changes from 0 mm to 25 mm, the maximum magnetic levitation force increases with the increase of lateral offset of the bulk HTS. When the lateral offset exceeds the center of the Halbach by 25 mm, the maximum levitation force decreases rapidly with the increase of the lateral offset of the bulk sample.

  3. 3D virtuel udstilling

    Tournay, Bruno; Rüdiger, Bjarne


    3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s.......3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s....

  4. Numerical Study of Velocity Shear Stabilization of 3D and Theoretical Considerations for Centrifugally Confined Plasmas and Other Interchange-Limited Fusion Concepts

    Hassam, Adil [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)


    We studied the feasibility of resonantly driving GAMs in tokamaks. A numerical simulation was carried out and showed the essential features and limitations. It was shown further that GAMs can damp by phase-mixing, from temperature gradients, or nonlinear detuning, thus broadening the resonance. Experimental implications of this were quantified. Theoretical support was provided for the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment, funded in a separate grant by DOE. Plasma diamagnetism from supersonic rotation was established. A theoretical model was built to match the data. Additional support to the experiment in terms of numerical simulation of the interchange turbulence was provided. Spectra from residual turbulence on account of velocity shear suppression were obtained and compared favorably to experiment. A new drift wave, driven solely by the thermal force, was identified.

  5. 3-D Numerical Simulation and Analysis of Complex Fiber Geometry RaFC Materials with High Volume Fraction and High Aspect Ratio based on ABAQUS PYTHON

    Jin, BoCheng


    Organic and inorganic fiber reinforced composites with innumerable fiber orientation distributions and fiber geometries are abundantly available in several natural and synthetic structures. Inorganic glass fiber composites have been introduced to numerous applications due to their economical fabrication and tailored structural properties. Numerical characterization of such composite material systems is necessitated due to their intrinsic statistical nature, which renders extensive experimentation prohibitively time consuming and costly. To predict various mechanical behavior and characterizations of Uni-Directional Fiber Composites (UDFC) and Random Fiber Composites (RaFC), we numerically developed Representative Volume Elements (RVE) with high accuracy and efficiency and with complex fiber geometric representations encountered in uni-directional and random fiber networks. In this thesis, the numerical simulations of unidirectional RaFC fiber strand RVE models (VF>70%) are first presented by programming in ABAQUS PYTHON. Secondly, when the cross sectional aspect ratios (AR) of the second phase fiber inclusions are not necessarily one, various types of RVE models with different cross sectional shape fibers are simulated and discussed. A modified random sequential absorption algorithm is applied to enhance the volume fraction number (VF) of the RVE, which the mechanical properties represents the composite material. Thirdly, based on a Spatial Segment Shortest Distance (SSSD) algorithm, a 3-Dimentional RaFC material RVE model is simulated in ABAQUS PYTHON with randomly oriented and distributed straight fibers of high fiber aspect ratio (AR=100:1) and volume fraction (VF=31.8%). Fourthly, the piecewise multi-segments fiber geometry is obtained in MATLAB environment by a modified SSSD algorithm. Finally, numerical methods including the polynomial curve fitting and piecewise quadratic and cubic B-spline interpolation are applied to optimize the RaFC fiber geometries

  6. The European-Alpine collision during the last 45Myrs - constraints obtained from comparing 3-D numerical subduction models and tomographic observations

    Morra, G.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Kissling, E.; Lippitsch, R.


    We analyze the interaction of Adriatic and the European Plates driven self-consistently by slab pull in order to seperate out the roles of (1) intrinsic dynamics of the slab driven Adriatic microplate system, (2) interaction with the subducting European plate, (3) the pushing African plate and (4) the feedback of slab induced flow within the mantle. The simulation is based on a new three-dimensional solid-fluid solver that we developed for plate tectonics reconstruction. The method embeds a Lagrangian Finite Element model of the lithosphere into a creeping medium (Stokeslet Method see poster) representing the mantle. Density inhomogeneities within the subducting plate are inserted to obtain realistic reconstructions of tomographically observed slab lengths in both the Central Mediterranean and European-Alpine subduction systems. In a first step we analyse the system in the absence of the African convergence. With this asssumption the model is only driven by gravity and thus gives an insight into the internal dynamics of the Central-European microplate evolution. In a second step we add the African convergence as a large scale distributed force. Using this method the mechanical origin of rotation of the Adriatic microplate in the vise of the African-European convergence can be analysed and its impact on the collision in the Alps derived. While our solution space is a first set, the aim of the analysis is to obtain constraints of the history of Adriatic-European collision using the new solver as a toolbox. The method has the potential to act as a filter between geological observation, tomographic data and mechanical constraints within the framework of a dynamic 3-D plate tectonic evolution.

  7. Artificial Neural Networks as a powerful numerical tool to classify specific features of a tooth based on 3D scan data.

    Raith, Stefan; Vogel, Eric Per; Anees, Naeema; Keul, Christine; Güth, Jan-Frederik; Edelhoff, Daniel; Fischer, Horst


    Chairside manufacturing based on digital image acquisition is gainingincreasing importance in dentistry. For the standardized application of these methods, it is paramount to have highly automated digital workflows that can process acquired 3D image data of dental surfaces. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) arenumerical methods primarily used to mimic the complex networks of neural connections in the natural brain. Our hypothesis is that an ANNcan be developed that is capable of classifying dental cusps with sufficient accuracy. This bears enormous potential for an application in chairside manufacturing workflows in the dental field, as it closes the gap between digital acquisition of dental geometries and modern computer-aided manufacturing techniques.Three-dimensional surface scans of dental casts representing natural full dental arches were transformed to range image data. These data were processed using an automated algorithm to detect candidates for tooth cusps according to salient geometrical features. These candidates were classified following common dental terminology and used as training data for a tailored ANN.For the actual cusp feature description, two different approaches were developed and applied to the available data: The first uses the relative location of the detected cusps as input data and the second method directly takes the image information given in the range images. In addition, a combination of both was implemented and investigated.Both approaches showed high performance with correct classifications of 93.3% and 93.5%, respectively, with improvements by the combination shown to be minor.This article presents for the first time a fully automated method for the classification of teeththat could be confirmed to work with sufficient precision to exhibit the potential for its use in clinical practice,which is a prerequisite for automated computer-aided planning of prosthetic treatments with subsequent automated chairside manufacturing.

  8. Quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic wave propagation in inhomogeneous anisotropic austenitic welds using 3D ray tracing method. Numerical and experimental validation

    Kolkoori, Sanjeevareddy


    Austenitic welds and dissimilar welds are extensively used in primary circuit pipes and pressure vessels in nuclear power plants, chemical industries and fossil fuelled power plants because of their high fracture toughness, resistance to corrosion and creep at elevated temperatures. However, cracks may initiate in these weld materials during fabrication process or stress operations in service. Thus, it is very important to evaluate the structural integrity of these materials using highly reliable non-destructive testing (NDT) methods. Ultrasonic non-destructive inspection of austenitic welds and dissimilar weld components is complicated because of anisotropic columnar grain structure leading to beam splitting and beam deflection. Simulation tools play an important role in developing advanced reliable ultrasonic testing (UT) techniques and optimizing experimental parameters for inspection of austenitic welds and dissimilar weld components. The main aim of the thesis is to develop a 3D ray tracing model for quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic wave propagation in an inhomogeneous anisotropic austenitic weld material. Inhomogenity in the anisotropic weld material is represented by discretizing into several homogeneous layers. According to ray tracing model, ultrasonic ray paths are traced during its energy propagation through various discretized layers of the material and at each interface the problem of reflection and transmission is solved. The influence of anisotropy on ultrasonic reflection and transmission behaviour in an anisotropic austenitic weld material are quantitatively analyzed in three dimensions. The ultrasonic beam directivity in columnar grained austenitic steel material is determined three dimensionally using Lamb's reciprocity theorem. The developed ray tracing model evaluates the transducer excited ultrasonic fields accurately by taking into account the directivity of the transducer, divergence of the ray bundle, density of rays and phase

  9. Modal Wave Number Spectrum for Mesoscale Eddies

    KANG Ying; PENG Linhui


    The variations of ocean environmental parameters invariably result in variations of local modal wave numbers of a sound pressure field. The asymptotic Hankel transform with a short sliding window is applied to the complex sound pressure field in the water containing a mesoscale eddy to examine the variation of local modal wave numbers in such a range-dependent environment. The numerical simulation results show that modal wave number spectra obtained by this method can reflect the location and strength of a mesoscale eddy, therefore it can be used to monitor the strength and spatial scale of ocean mesoscale eddies.

  10. Evolution, Interaction, and Intrinsic Properties of Dislocations in Intermetallics: Anisotropic 3D Dislocation Dynamics Approach

    Chen, Qian [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The generation, motion, and interaction of dislocations play key roles during the plastic deformation process of crystalline solids. 3D Dislocation Dynamics has been employed as a mesoscale simulation algorithm to investigate the collective and cooperative behavior of dislocations. Most current research on 3D Dislocation Dynamics is based on the solutions available in the framework of classical isotropic elasticity. However, due to some degree of elastic anisotropy in almost all crystalline solids, it is very necessary to extend 3D Dislocation Dynamics into anisotropic elasticity. In this study, first, the details of efficient and accurate incorporation of the fully anisotropic elasticity into 3D discrete Dislocation Dynamics by numerically evaluating the derivatives of Green's functions are described. Then the intrinsic properties of perfect dislocations, including their stability, their core properties and disassociation characteristics, in newly discovered rare earth-based intermetallics and in conventional intermetallics are investigated, within the framework of fully anisotropic elasticity supplemented with the atomistic information obtained from the ab initio calculations. Moreover, the evolution and interaction of dislocations in these intermetallics as well as the role of solute segregation are presented by utilizing fully anisotropic 3D dislocation dynamics. The results from this work clearly indicate the role and the importance of elastic anisotropy on the evolution of dislocation microstructures, the overall ductility and the hardening behavior in these systems.

  11. 三维纤维过滤介质压力损失数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of Pressure Drop in 3D Fiber Filter Media

    徐芳芳; 付海明; 雷泽明; 甘灵


    The pressure drop of fiber filter media was mostly based on unrealistic 2D geometries with the fibers placed regularly and low-filtration state, which was different with the geometry of real fiber filter media and the running-state. Based on VBA programming, a series of 3D fiber filter media models with the fibers arranged randomly were created. Then the flow field was simulated by computational fluid dynamics(CFD) software. Also the relationship between pressure drop and velocity at low-speed and high-speed were analyzed. The research results showed that there were two kinds of flow field regions, the linear flow region and the no-linear flow region, and the critical value of Reynolds of the two regions was 0.33. While the mean velocity of the fluid was large than 0. 3 m/s, pressure drop and mean velocity of the fluid was no longer a linear relationship. Finally, a new extensional expression of pressure drop and face velocity of fiber filter media applying to linear flow region and non-linear flow region was obtained.%目前纤维过滤介质压力损失的研究大多基于纤维的二维规则排列及低速过滤状态,这与实际过滤介质构造及过滤运行状态存在一定的差异.基于VBA编程,创建三维随机排列纤维过滤介质模型,采用计算流体动力学(CFD)软件模拟计算其内部流场,研究低速及高速过滤状态下压力损失与速度的关系,研究结果表明:模型内部的流体流动呈现线性流区和非线性流区两种流动区域,且两种流动区域的雷诺数临界值为0.33;当流体平均速度大于0.3 m/s对,压力损失与流体平均速度不再是简单的线性关系.通过对模拟数据的分析,提出了适合于线性流区及非线性流区的压力损失-流体平均速度关系表达式.

  12. An Axisymmetric Numerical Model for Simulating Kinetically-Limited Growth of a Cylindrical Rod in 3D Laser-induced Chemical Vapor Deposition


    Laser-induced chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) is an important process for freeform microfabrication of high aspect ratio prototypes. The system consists of a laser beam focused onto a movable substrate in a vacuum chamber.Heat from the laser at or near the focal spot of the beam causes gas in the chamber to react. As a result, solidphase reaction products are deposited on the substrate to form the microstructure. In this paper, we develop a numerical model for simulating growth of an axisymmetric cylindrical rod by pre-specifying the surface temperatures required for growing the rod and then by solving for the laser power that satisfies the pre-specified temperatures.The solution using least squares is obtained by minimizing the sum of square deviations between the pre-specified surface temperatures and the calculated temperatures from the heat equation with a given laser power as a heat source. Model predictions of the laser power over growth time helped in optimizing the growth process. Rods grown based on the predicted laser power from the numerical model were very close to being cylindrical in shape. Ways to further improve the model are being investigated.

  13. 3D laptop for defense applications

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David


    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  14. Blender 3D cookbook

    Valenza, Enrico


    This book is aimed at the professionals that already have good 3D CGI experience with commercial packages and have now decided to try the open source Blender and want to experiment with something more complex than the average tutorials on the web. However, it's also aimed at the intermediate Blender users who simply want to go some steps further.It's taken for granted that you already know how to move inside the Blender interface, that you already have 3D modeling knowledge, and also that of basic 3D modeling and rendering concepts, for example, edge-loops, n-gons, or samples. In any case, it'

  15. 3D Digital Modelling

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    wave of new building information modelling tools demands further investigation, not least because of industry representatives' somewhat coarse parlance: Now the word is spreading -3D digital modelling is nothing less than a revolution, a shift of paradigm, a new alphabet... Research qeustions. Based...... on empirical probes (interviews, observations, written inscriptions) within the Danish construction industry this paper explores the organizational and managerial dynamics of 3D Digital Modelling. The paper intends to - Illustrate how the network of (non-)human actors engaged in the promotion (and arrest) of 3......D Modelling (in Denmark) stabilizes - Examine how 3D Modelling manifests itself in the early design phases of a construction project with a view to discuss the effects hereof for i.a. the management of the building process. Structure. The paper introduces a few, basic methodological concepts...

  16. Professional Papervision3D

    Lively, Michael


    Professional Papervision3D describes how Papervision3D works and how real world applications are built, with a clear look at essential topics such as building websites and games, creating virtual tours, and Adobe's Flash 10. Readers learn important techniques through hands-on applications, and build on those skills as the book progresses. The companion website contains all code examples, video step-by-step explanations, and a collada repository.

  17. AE3D


    AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.

  18. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of 3D crystal growth: Numerical schemes for a phase-field model with anti-trapping current

    Cartalade, Alain; Plapp, Mathis


    A lattice-Boltzmann (LB) scheme, based on the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) collision rules is developed for a phase-field model of alloy solidification in order to simulate the growth of dendrites. The solidification of a binary alloy is considered, taking into account diffusive transport of heat and solute, as well as the anisotropy of the solid-liquid interfacial free energy. The anisotropic terms in the phase-field evolution equation, the phenomenological anti-trapping current (introduced in the solute evolution equation to avoid spurious solute trapping), and the variation of the solute diffusion coefficient between phases, make it necessary to modify the equilibrium distribution functions of the LB scheme with respect to the one used in the standard method for the solution of advection-diffusion equations. The effects of grid anisotropy are removed by using the lattices D3Q15 and D3Q19 instead of D3Q7. The method is validated by direct comparison of the simulation results with a numerical code that uses t...

  19. Along-strike variation in subducting plate velocity induced by along-strike variation in overriding plate structure: Insights from 3D numerical models

    Rodríguez-González, Juan; Billen, Magali I.; Negredo, Ana M.; Montesi, Laurent G. J.


    Subduction dynamics can be understood as the result of the balance between driving and resisting forces. Previous work has traditionally regarded gravitational slab pull and viscous mantle drag as the main driving and resistive forces for plate motion respectively. However, this paradigm fails to explain many of the observations in subduction zones. For example, subducting plate velocity varies significantly along-strike in many subduction zones and this variation is not correlated to the age of subducting lithosphere. Here we present three-dimensional and time-dependent numerical models of subduction. We show that along-strike variations of the overriding plate thermal structure can lead to along-strike variations in subducting plate velocity. In turn, velocity variations lead to significant migration of the Euler pole over time. Our results show that the subducting plate is slower beneath the colder portion of the overriding plate due to two related mechanisms. First, the mantle wedge beneath the colder portion of the overriding plate is more viscous, which increases mantle drag. Second, where the mantle wedge is more viscous, hydrodynamic suction increases, leading to a lower slab dip. Both factors contribute to decreasing subducting plate velocity in the region; therefore, if the overriding plate is not uniform, the resulting velocity varies significantly along-strike, which causes the Euler pole to migrate closer to the subducting plate. We present a new mechanism to explain observations of subducting plate velocity in the Cocos and Nazca plates. These results shed new light on the balance of forces that control subduction dynamics and prove that future studies should take into consideration the three-dimensional structure of the overriding plate.

  20. 船用换热器三维流场数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of the 3D Flow Field for Marine Heat Exchangers

    王冶; 徐筱欣


    This paper develops a three-dimensional model of the closed engineroom heat exchanger by us-ing the Pro/E software. Based on the obtained numerical model,the shell-side turbulent flow and heat transfer characteristics of the examined heat exchanger is analyzed with the aid of the Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD)software Fluent. Particularly,by taking the shell-side pressure drop,the total heat trans-fer rate,and the flow rate as three comprehensive indicators,the field of velocity,temperature,and pres-sure of the heat exchanger under different baffle nick heights and numbers are investigated. The results show that as the segmental baffle number increases,the pressure drop at the shell-side rises and the outlet temperature drops;meanwhile,when the baffle nick height increases,the pressure drop decreases and the outlet temperature increases.%采用Pro/E软件对闭式机舱淡水海水换热器的三维建模,利用FLUENT软件对该换热器壳程流体的流动与传热进行了数值模拟计算,分别以壳程总压降、总传热率、速度这三个方面作为综合衡量标准,分析具有不同折流板弦高、折流板数目的几种淡水海水换热器模型的速度场、温度场和压力场。结果表明:随着折流板数目的增加,壳程流体的压降逐渐升高,出口温度逐渐减小;随着缺口高度的增加,壳程流体的压降明显下降,出口温度也明显增加。

  1. Numerical Simulation of Cavitation for 3-D ALE15 Hydrofoil%三维ALE15翼型空化流动数值模拟

    谭磊; 曹树良; 王玉明; 祝宝山


    The phase transformation in cavitation flow field was calculated by the full cavitation model considering the pressure and velocity turbulent fluctuation of the fluid, as well as the influence of noncondensable gas based on the homogeneous flow assumption. The turbulence viscosity coefficient was modified by the density function. A computation model and calculation method was proposed for the steady cavitation. The steady cavitation flow field of ALE 15 hydrofoil was numerical simulated for the cavitation numbers of 2, 3 by using the computation model and calculation method according to the conditions in the experiment- The calculated velocity distributions on different profiles agreed well with the experiment data, which validated the reliability of this computation model and calculation method. The velocity far away from the hydrofoil section was close to the velocity in the main flow region, and gradually decreased along the flow direction for the reason that the cavity acted as an obstacle. There is a large vortex zone in the cavity rear, and the velocity near the hydrofoil section is negative, both caused by the re-entrant jet.%在均相流假设下,考虑流体压力和速度湍流脉动、不可凝结性气体的影响,采用完全空化模型计算空化流场的相变,引入密度函数对RNGk-ε湍流模型的湍流粘性系数进行修正,提出了一种空化流动的数值模型和计算方法.根据试验条件给定的参数,采用提出的数值模型和计算方法,数值模拟了空化数为2.3时ALE15翼型定常空化流动.计算得到的不同剖面速度分布与试验数据吻合较好,验证了该数值模型和计算方法的一致性.不同剖面上,远离翼型表面的速度与主流区速度接近,沿着流动方向,远离翼型表面的速度逐渐减小,这与空泡形成的阻碍有关.空泡尾部出现较大的漩涡区,靠近翼型表面的速度为负值,这与反向射流的作用有关.

  2. Numerical Simulation on 3D Multi-element Wings in Ground Effect%三维多段机翼地面效应数值模拟

    秦绪国; 刘沛清; 屈秋林; 徐婕


    通过数值模拟方法研究多段机翼的地面效应,采用有限体积法求解质量加权平均Navier-Stokes方程,湍流模型选用Spalart-Allmaras模型,利用运动壁面边界模拟地面的相对运动.计算结果分析表明:随着飞行高度的降低,多段机翼的升力、阻力和低头力矩均减小;迎角、展弦比越大,地面效应越明显,升力损失越大;升力的减小主要是由于地面效应导致机翼下方静压增大的气流通过缝隙进入机翼上表面流场,使得机翼下翼面压力的增加量小于上翼面吸力的减小量;地面效应使机翼上翼面翼尖容易发生分离;翼尖涡沿着展向方向向外移动,机翼诱导阻力减小.该文研究结果可以为大型飞机的增升装置地面效应设计提供参考依据.%A multi-element wing operating in ground effect is investigated numerically. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the finite-volume method. An Spalart-AIImaras turbulence model is used. The slipping wall is used to simulate the relative movement of the ground. The results indicate that, with a reduction in height, the lift, drag and node down moment of the multi-element wing decrease. The ground effect is more obvious with greater angles of attack and aspect ratios, and the lift losses also become greater. The effect of the sweep angle on the ground effect is small. The cause of the reduction of lift is that the losses of the suction side of the upper surface are greater than the increases of the pressure side of the lower surface. Adverse gradient increases on the upper surface of the wing in ground effect may cause the flow to separate near the wing tip. Tip vortex goes downstream outward along the span direction, and the induced drag of the wing decreases. The results of the simulation may provide a theoretical basis for the design of height lift devices of large aircraft in ground effect.

  3. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    Oldham, Mark


    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  4. 3D Spectroscopic Instrumentation

    Bershady, Matthew A


    In this Chapter we review the challenges of, and opportunities for, 3D spectroscopy, and how these have lead to new and different approaches to sampling astronomical information. We describe and categorize existing instruments on 4m and 10m telescopes. Our primary focus is on grating-dispersed spectrographs. We discuss how to optimize dispersive elements, such as VPH gratings, to achieve adequate spectral resolution, high throughput, and efficient data packing to maximize spatial sampling for 3D spectroscopy. We review and compare the various coupling methods that make these spectrographs ``3D,'' including fibers, lenslets, slicers, and filtered multi-slits. We also describe Fabry-Perot and spatial-heterodyne interferometers, pointing out their advantages as field-widened systems relative to conventional, grating-dispersed spectrographs. We explore the parameter space all these instruments sample, highlighting regimes open for exploitation. Present instruments provide a foil for future development. We give an...

  5. 3D Projection Installations

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle


    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article...... contributes to the understanding of the distinctive characteristics of such a new medium, and identifies three strategies for designing 3-D projection installations: establishing space; interplay between the digital and the physical; and transformation of materiality. The principal empirical case, From...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  6. Meso-scale wind variability. Final report

    Larsen, S.; Larsen, X.; Vincent, C.; Soerensen, P.; Pinson, P.; Trombe, P.-J.; Madsen, H.; Cutululis, N.


    The project has aimed to characterize mesoscale meteorological phenomenon for the North Sea and the Inner Danish waters, and additionally aimed on improving the predictability and quality of the power production from offshore windfarms. The meso-scale meteorology has been characterized with respect to the physical processes, climatology, spectral characteristics and correlation properties based on measurements from wind farms, satellite data (SAR) and mesoscale numerical modeling (WRF). The abilities of the WRF model to characterize and predict relevant mesoscale phenomenon has been proven. Additionally application of statistical forecasting, using a Markov switching approach that can be related to the meteorological conditions, to analyze and short term predict the power production from an offshore wind farms have been documented. Two PhD studies have been conducted in connection with the project. The project has been a cooperative project between Risoe DTU, IMM DTU, DONG Energy, Vattenfall and VESTAS. It is registered as, project no. 2007-1-7141. (Author)

  7. Interaktiv 3D design

    Villaume, René Domine; Ørstrup, Finn Rude


    Projektet undersøger potentialet for interaktiv 3D design via Internettet. Arkitekt Jørn Utzons projekt til Espansiva blev udviklet som et byggesystem med det mål, at kunne skabe mangfoldige planmuligheder og mangfoldige facade- og rumudformninger. Systemets bygningskomponenter er digitaliseret som...... 3D elementer og gjort tilgængelige. Via Internettet er det nu muligt at sammenstille og afprøve en uendelig  række bygningstyper som  systemet blev tænkt og udviklet til....

  8. Computer Graphics Teaching Support using X3D: Extensible 3D Graphics for Web Authors

    Brutzman, Don


    X3D is the ISO-standard scene-graph language for interactive 3D graphics on the Web. A new course is available for teaching the fundamentals of 3D graphics using Extensible 3D (X3D). Resources include a detailed textbook, an authoring tool, hundreds of example scenes, and detailed slidesets covering each chapter. The published book is commercially available, while all other course-module resources are provided online free under open-source licenses. Numerous other commercial and o...

  9. Meso-scale turbulence in living fluids

    Dunkel, Jorn; Wensink, Rik; Heidenreich, Sebastian; Drescher, Knut; Goldstein, Ray; Loewen, Hartmut; Yeomans, Julia


    The mathematical characterization of turbulence phenomena in active non-equilibrium fluids proves even more difficult than for conventional liquids or gases. It is not known which features of turbulent phases in living matter are universal or system-specific, or which generalizations of the Navier-Stokes equations are able to describe them adequately. We combine experiments, particle simulations, and continuum theory to identify the statistical properties of self-sustained meso-scale turbulence in active systems. To study how dimensionality and boundary conditions affect collective bacterial dynamics, we measured energy spectra and structure functions in dense Bacillus subtilis suspensions in quasi-2D and 3D geometries. Our experimental results for the bacterial flow statistics agree well with predictions from a minimal model for self-propelled rods, suggesting that at high concentrations the collective motion of the bacteria is dominated by short-range interactions. To provide a basis for future theoretical studies, we propose a minimal continuum model for incompressible bacterial flow. A detailed numerical analysis of the 2D case shows that this theory can reproduce many of the experimentally observed features of self-sustained active turbulence. Supported by the ERC, EPSRC and DFG.

  10. Tangible 3D Modelling

    Hejlesen, Aske K.; Ovesen, Nis


    This paper presents an experimental approach to teaching 3D modelling techniques in an Industrial Design programme. The approach includes the use of tangible free form models as tools for improving the overall learning. The paper is based on lecturer and student experiences obtained through...

  11. Shaping 3-D boxes

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.


    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data...

  12. 3D Wire 2015

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and ha......, improves socialization and networking, improves media impact, improves fun factor and improves encouragement of the production team....

  13. 3D photoacoustic imaging

    Carson, Jeffrey J. L.; Roumeliotis, Michael; Chaudhary, Govind; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Anastasio, Mark A.


    Our group has concentrated on development of a 3D photoacoustic imaging system for biomedical imaging research. The technology employs a sparse parallel detection scheme and specialized reconstruction software to obtain 3D optical images using a single laser pulse. With the technology we have been able to capture 3D movies of translating point targets and rotating line targets. The current limitation of our 3D photoacoustic imaging approach is its inability ability to reconstruct complex objects in the field of view. This is primarily due to the relatively small number of projections used to reconstruct objects. However, in many photoacoustic imaging situations, only a few objects may be present in the field of view and these objects may have very high contrast compared to background. That is, the objects have sparse properties. Therefore, our work had two objectives: (i) to utilize mathematical tools to evaluate 3D photoacoustic imaging performance, and (ii) to test image reconstruction algorithms that prefer sparseness in the reconstructed images. Our approach was to utilize singular value decomposition techniques to study the imaging operator of the system and evaluate the complexity of objects that could potentially be reconstructed. We also compared the performance of two image reconstruction algorithms (algebraic reconstruction and l1-norm techniques) at reconstructing objects of increasing sparseness. We observed that for a 15-element detection scheme, the number of measureable singular vectors representative of the imaging operator was consistent with the demonstrated ability to reconstruct point and line targets in the field of view. We also observed that the l1-norm reconstruction technique, which is known to prefer sparseness in reconstructed images, was superior to the algebraic reconstruction technique. Based on these findings, we concluded (i) that singular value decomposition of the imaging operator provides valuable insight into the capabilities of

  14. Unoriented 3d TFTs

    Bhardwaj, Lakshya


    This paper generalizes two facts about oriented 3d TFTs to the unoriented case. On one hand, it is known that oriented 3d TFTs having a topological boundary condition admit a state-sum construction known as the Turaev-Viro construction. This is related to the string-net construction of fermionic phases of matter. We show how Turaev-Viro construction can be generalized to unoriented 3d TFTs. On the other hand, it is known that the "fermionic" versions of oriented TFTs, known as Spin-TFTs, can be constructed in terms of "shadow" TFTs which are ordinary oriented TFTs with an anomalous Z_2 1-form symmetry. We generalize this correspondence to Pin+ TFTs by showing that they can be constructed in terms of ordinary unoriented TFTs with anomalous Z_2 1-form symmetry having a mixed anomaly with time-reversal symmetry. The corresponding Pin+ TFT does not have any anomaly for time-reversal symmetry however and hence it can be unambiguously defined on a non-orientable manifold. In case a Pin+ TFT admits a topological bou...

  15. Numerical Analysis of Turbulent Structures with a {kappa}-{epsilon} 3D Model of a Flow over a Cubic Obstacle; Estudio numerico de estructuras turbulentas con un modelo {kappa}-{epsilon} en 3D de un flujo sobre un obstaculo cubico

    Millan Barrera, Cecia; Ramirez Leon, Hermilo [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)


    A numerical analysis is applied to a flow in an open channel and deformed by a three dimensional obstacle. The proposed model solves the 3-D Navier-Stokes equations, to which a {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model is coupled. The numerical analysis was constructed using a finite difference formulation for time evaluation purposed and staggered cells for space evaluation. The main goal of the present work was to study the turbulent structures and patterns of the flow due to an obstacle at the bottom of the channel plate. Our results are according to those found in the related literature. Flow patterns allow establishing the generation of turbulent structures by means of a comparison between this study and a most recent related work that evaluates the vorticity of the flow. [Spanish] Se reportan los resultados obtenidos, mediante simulaciones numericas, del movimiento del flujo en un canal con superficie libre y un obstaculo en el fondo. El sistema ecuaciones utilizado resuelve las ecuaciones de Navier-Stokes en tres dimensiones, al cual se le acoplo un modelo de turbulencia tipo {kappa}-{epsilon}. La solucion se obtiene numericamente utilizando un esquema en diferencias finitas para la evaluacion temporal de las variables y una celda escalonada para la evaluacion espacial de las mismas. El objetivo del modelo es estudiar los patrones de flujo y las estructuras turbulentas que se generan debido a la presencia del obstaculo. El estudio se realizo para un flujo en tres dimensiones. Los resultados son satisfactorios, ya que muestran concordancia con otros estudios numericos y experimentales encontrados en la literatura.

  16. 2D/3D switchable displays

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.


    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  17. 搅拌釜内流场三维数值模拟及功率预测%3-D Numerical Simulation and Power Prediction of Flow Field in Stirred Tank

    丁健华; 马腾; 陈涛; 杨象岳; 刘延雷


    大型搅拌釜,尤其是涉及传热或两相介质搅拌的容器,其搅拌效果和功率往往难以预测。针对大型搅拌釜的搅拌器设计、流场结构模拟和功率预测等问题,采用CFD数值模拟技术,对搅拌釜内部的三维流场进行了数值计算。分析了搅拌釜内的流动结构,计算了不同曝气量时的搅拌功率,获得了详细的流场信息和各项特性参数。%The stirring effects and powers of large stirred tanks, especially that involving heat transfer or stirring of two-phase medium, are difficult to predict. Employs CFD numerical simulation method to perform the numerical calculation of 3-D flow field in a stirred tank, referring to the design of stirrer, structure simulation of flow field and power prediction of the large stirred tank. Analyzes the flow structure in the tank, calculates the stirring power at different aeration intensities and obtains detailed information about flow field and various characteristic parameters. The analysis method mentioned in the paper can provide a reference for the design of stirrers.

  18. Edge element method for 3D numerical analysis of magneto-hydro dynamics solder device%磁流体钎焊复杂电磁过程边棱元法3D模拟分析

    国宁; Stoimen Balinov; 宋乐平


    The electromagnetic field state of MHD welding process is difficult to determine. 3D numerical analysis of the electromagnetic field in a magneto-hydro dynamic device for soldering the winding to the commutator of electric machines was carried out by means of the edge element method. The very good convergence of numerical process and the accuracy of the obtained results show that the edge element method is suitable for studying the electromagnetic processes in devices with complex geometry and non-linear properties of materials.%磁流体动力钎焊设备主要用于电机换向器绕组线圈的焊接,焊接过程中电磁场的状态很难测定,采用边棱元法对其焊接过程进行3D数值模拟分析.数值模拟过程和结果能与实际结果达到很高精度的匹配.边棱元3D数值模拟方法可以成功应用在复杂几何形状的设备和非线性特性材料的电磁过程研究.

  19. 3D and beyond

    Fung, Y. C.


    This conference on physiology and function covers a wide range of subjects, including the vasculature and blood flow, the flow of gas, water, and blood in the lung, the neurological structure and function, the modeling, and the motion and mechanics of organs. Many technologies are discussed. I believe that the list would include a robotic photographer, to hold the optical equipment in a precisely controlled way to obtain the images for the user. Why are 3D images needed? They are to achieve certain objectives through measurements of some objects. For example, in order to improve performance in sports or beauty of a person, we measure the form, dimensions, appearance, and movements.

  20. 3D Surgical Simulation

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael


    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308


    Ms. Swapnali R. Ghadge


    Full Text Available In today’s ever-shifting media landscape, it can be a complex task to find effective ways to reach your desired audience. As traditional media such as television continue to lose audience share, one venue in particular stands out for its ability to attract highly motivated audiences and for its tremendous growth potential the 3D Internet. The concept of '3D Internet' has recently come into the spotlight in the R&D arena, catching the attention of many people, and leading to a lot of discussions. Basically, one can look into this matter from a few different perspectives: visualization and representation of information, and creation and transportation of information, among others. All of them still constitute research challenges, as no products or services are yet available or foreseen for the near future. Nevertheless, one can try to envisage the directions that can be taken towards achieving this goal. People who take part in virtual worlds stay online longer with a heightened level of interest. To take advantage of that interest, diverse businesses and organizations have claimed an early stake in this fast-growing market. They include technology leaders such as IBM, Microsoft, and Cisco, companies such as BMW, Toyota, Circuit City, Coca Cola, and Calvin Klein, and scores of universities, including Harvard, Stanford and Penn State.

  2. Three-dimensional Simulations of the Mean Air Transport During the 1997 Forest Fires in Kalimantan, Indonesia Using a Mesoscale Numerical Model

    Roswintiarti, O.; Raman, S.

    - This paper describes the meteorological processes responsible for the mean transport of air pollutants during the ENSO-related forest fires in Kalimantan, Indonesia from 00 UTC 21 September to 00 UTC 25 September, 1997. The Fifth Generation of the Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU-NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5) is used to simulate three-dimensional winds at 6-hourly intervals. A nonhydrostatic version of the model is run using two nested grids with horizontal resolutions of 45 km and 15 km. From the simulated wind fields, the backward and forward trajectories of the air parcel are investigated using the Vis5D model.The results indicate that the large-scale subsidence over Indonesia, the southwest monsoon low-level flows (2-8 m s-1), and the shallow planetary boundary layer height (400-800 m) play a key role in the transport of air pollutants from Kalimantan to Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei.

  3. Modeling mesoscale eddies

    Canuto, V. M.; Dubovikov, M. S.

    Mesoscale eddies are not resolved in coarse resolution ocean models and must be modeled. They affect both mean momentum and scalars. At present, no generally accepted model exists for the former; in the latter case, mesoscales are modeled with a bolus velocity u∗ to represent a sink of mean potential energy. However, comparison of u∗(model) vs. u∗ (eddy resolving code, [J. Phys. Ocean. 29 (1999) 2442]) has shown that u∗(model) is incomplete and that additional terms, "unrelated to thickness source or sinks", are required. Thus far, no form of the additional terms has been suggested. To describe mesoscale eddies, we employ the Navier-Stokes and scalar equations and a turbulence model to treat the non-linear interactions. We then show that the problem reduces to an eigenvalue problem for the mesoscale Bernoulli potential. The solution, which we derive in analytic form, is used to construct the momentum and thickness fluxes. In the latter case, the bolus velocity u∗ is found to contain two types of terms: the first type entails the gradient of the mean potential vorticity and represents a positive contribution to the production of mesoscale potential energy; the second type of terms, which is new, entails the velocity of the mean flow and represents a negative contribution to the production of mesoscale potential energy, or equivalently, a backscatter process whereby a fraction of the mesoscale potential energy is returned to the original reservoir of mean potential energy. This type of terms satisfies the physical description of the additional terms given by [J. Phys. Ocean. 29 (1999) 2442]. The mesoscale flux that enters the momentum equations is also contributed by two types of terms of the same physical nature as those entering the thickness flux. The potential vorticity flux is also shown to contain two types of terms: the first is of the gradient-type while the other terms entail the velocity of the mean flow. An expression is derived for the mesoscale

  4. 老港填埋场的稳定性三维数值模拟分析%Study on Stability of Laogang Landfill by Using 3D Numerical Simulation

    席永慧; 熊浩


    The stability of the landfill decides its service life and the quantity of waste which it could contain. The NO. 5 to 8 reservoir regions of Shanghai Laogang landfill, which are enclosed by gravity waste dam, are filled with sewage sludge which had already been solidified. The limit equilibrium method was not used during the process of the calculation, and the stability of the landfill was simulated and analyzed on the three dimension by using FD software, FLAC3D, with the indexes of physical and mechanical properties of soil extracted from the field tests and indoor tests. During the numerical simulation, gravity stress was only taken into account. According to the simulation, the stress and displacement diagrams were yielded. The results of the numerical simulation showed that latent sliding surface is under the waste dam,and the dam is just above the latent sliding surface. The displacement values of the dam top and dam base are large. The results also showed that the stability of the waste dam is good, and the FOS is 2. 72 according to the results of simulation. By comparison analysis,it could be concluded that the limitations could be overcome by the usage of FLAC3D when the similar landfills' stability is analyzed. The software,FLAC3D,has its own advantages.%填埋场的稳定性决定着填埋场的使用年限和填埋废弃物的数量.上海老港填埋场的5~8号库区填埋的为固化污泥,周围以垃圾土坝围护.在对老港填埋场稳定性进行分析时,没有采用常用的极限平衡法,而是采用FLAC3D软件对填埋场进行了三维数值模拟分析.根据现场和室内试验得到的各类土的物理力学性能指标数据,在模拟过程只考虑自重应力,得到了填埋场的应力和位移情况以及安全系数.模拟结果表明:①库区的潜在滑动面在垃圾土坝底面的一定范围内,垃圾坝正好处在滑移面以上;②垃圾土坝的坝底和坝顶的位移相对较大;③

  5. 复杂花纹子午线轮胎水滑特性仿真研究%Numerical Investigation of Hydroplaning Characteristics of Tire with 3D Complex Pattern

    王长建; 臧孟炎


    The detailed model for 175/65R14 radial tire with 3D complex pattern was constructed by LS-DYNA finite element analysis software. The model was validated with experimental data of radial stiffness and numerical model of hydroplaning was obtained based on it. Meanwhile, the fluid-structure coupling was characterized by the algorithm of ALE. Through the numerical analysis, thewhole tire hydroplaning phenomenon was simulated and critical hydroplaning speed was obtained, which was quite consistent with the theoretical value. Moreover,the effectiveness of model was further supported by comparison of hydroplaning speeds of tires with three different types of pattern.%基于LS-DYNA非线性有限元分析软件,建立具有复杂胎面花纹的175/65R14子午线轮胎三维有限元模型.通过轮胎径向刚度试验验证所建轮胎有限元模型的有效性,并在此基础上构造轮胎水滑仿真分析模型.使用ALE算法处理轮胎与水流间的流固耦合关系,仿真分析轮胎从静止到水滑现象产生的全过程,获得的轮胎临界水滑速度与经验公式的计算结果具有较好的一致性.3种不同花纹轮胎水滑速度仿真结果在趋势上与预期一致,进一步说明了有限元方法对轮胎水滑特性仿真评价的有效性.

  6. 3D printing for dummies

    Hausman, Kalani Kirk


    Get started printing out 3D objects quickly and inexpensively! 3D printing is no longer just a figment of your imagination. This remarkable technology is coming to the masses with the growing availability of 3D printers. 3D printers create 3-dimensional layered models and they allow users to create prototypes that use multiple materials and colors.  This friendly-but-straightforward guide examines each type of 3D printing technology available today and gives artists, entrepreneurs, engineers, and hobbyists insight into the amazing things 3D printing has to offer. You'll discover methods for

  7. DNA biosensing with 3D printing technology.

    Loo, Adeline Huiling; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin


    3D printing, an upcoming technology, has vast potential to transform conventional fabrication processes due to the numerous improvements it can offer to the current methods. To date, the employment of 3D printing technology has been examined for applications in the fields of engineering, manufacturing and biological sciences. In this study, we examined the potential of adopting 3D printing technology for a novel application, electrochemical DNA biosensing. Metal 3D printing was utilized to construct helical-shaped stainless steel electrodes which functioned as a transducing platform for the detection of DNA hybridization. The ability of electroactive methylene blue to intercalate into the double helix structure of double-stranded DNA was then exploited to monitor the DNA hybridization process, with its inherent reduction peak serving as an analytical signal. The designed biosensing approach was found to demonstrate superior selectivity against a non-complementary DNA target, with a detection range of 1-1000 nM.


    M. Skamantzari


    Full Text Available The interest in the development of virtual museums is nowadays rising rapidly. During the last decades there have been numerous efforts concerning the 3D digitization of cultural heritage and the development of virtual museums, digital libraries and serious games. The realistic result has always been the main concern and a real challenge when it comes to 3D modelling of monuments, artifacts and especially sculptures. This paper implements, investigates and evaluates the results of the photogrammetric methods and 3D surveys that were used for the development of a virtual museum. Moreover, the decisions, the actions, the methodology and the main elements that this kind of application should include and take into consideration are described and analysed. It is believed that the outcomes of this application will be useful to researchers who are planning to develop and further improve the attempts made on virtual museums and mass production of 3D models.

  9. Intraoral 3D scanner

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther


    Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

  10. Martian terrain - 3D


    This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  11. Handbook of 3D machine vision optical metrology and imaging

    Zhang, Song


    With the ongoing release of 3D movies and the emergence of 3D TVs, 3D imaging technologies have penetrated our daily lives. Yet choosing from the numerous 3D vision methods available can be frustrating for scientists and engineers, especially without a comprehensive resource to consult. Filling this gap, Handbook of 3D Machine Vision: Optical Metrology and Imaging gives an extensive, in-depth look at the most popular 3D imaging techniques. It focuses on noninvasive, noncontact optical methods (optical metrology and imaging). The handbook begins with the well-studied method of stereo vision and

  12. Lithospheric deformation and mantle/crust coupling related to slab roll-back and tearing processes: the role of magma-related rheological weakening highlighted by 3D numerical modeling

    Menant, Armel; Jolivet, Laurent; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Sternai, Pietro; Gerya, Taras


    Active convergent margins are the locus of various large-scale lithospheric processes including subduction, back-arc opening, lithospheric delamination, slab tearing and break-off. Coexistence of such processes results in a complex lithospheric deformation pattern through the rheological stratification of the overriding lithosphere. In this context, another major feature is the development of an intense arc- and back-arc-related magmatism whose effects on lithospheric deformation by rheological weakening are largely unknown. Quantifying this magma-related weakening effect and integrating the three-dimensional (3D) natural complexity of subduction system is however challenging because of the large number of physico-chemical processes involved (e.g. heat advection, dehydration of subducted material, partial melting of the mantle wedge). We present here a set of 3D high-resolution petrological and thermo-mechanical numerical experiments to assess the role of low-viscosity magmatic phases on lithospheric deformation associated with coeval oceanic and continental subduction, followed by slab retreat and tearing processes. Results in terms of crustal kinematics, patterns of lithospheric deformation and distribution and composition of magmatic phases are then compared to a natural example displaying a similar geodynamical evolution: the eastern Mediterranean subduction zone. Our modeling results suggest that the asthenospheric flow controls the ascending trajectories of mantle-derived magmatic sources developed in the mantle wedge in response to dehydration of oceanic slab. Once stored at the base of the overriding continental crust, low-viscosity mantle- and crustal-derived magmatic phases allow to decrease the lithospheric strength. This weakening then enhances the propagation of localized extensional and strike-slip deformation in response to slab roll-back and extrusion tectonics respectively. In addition, we show that storage of large amounts of low-viscosity magmas

  13. 3D Printing an Octohedron

    Aboufadel, Edward F.


    The purpose of this short paper is to describe a project to manufacture a regular octohedron on a 3D printer. We assume that the reader is familiar with the basics of 3D printing. In the project, we use fundamental ideas to calculate the vertices and faces of an octohedron. Then, we utilize the OPENSCAD program to create a virtual 3D model and an STereoLithography (.stl) file that can be used by a 3D printer.

  14. Salient Local 3D Features for 3D Shape Retrieval

    Godil, Afzal


    In this paper we describe a new formulation for the 3D salient local features based on the voxel grid inspired by the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT). We use it to identify the salient keypoints (invariant points) on a 3D voxelized model and calculate invariant 3D local feature descriptors at these keypoints. We then use the bag of words approach on the 3D local features to represent the 3D models for shape retrieval. The advantages of the method are that it can be applied to rigid as well as to articulated and deformable 3D models. Finally, this approach is applied for 3D Shape Retrieval on the McGill articulated shape benchmark and then the retrieval results are presented and compared to other methods.

  15. PB3D: A new code for edge 3-D ideal linear peeling-ballooning stability

    Weyens, T.; Sánchez, R.; Huijsmans, G.; Loarte, A.; García, L.


    A new numerical code PB3D (Peeling-Ballooning in 3-D) is presented. It implements and solves the intermediate-to-high-n ideal linear magnetohydrodynamic stability theory extended to full edge 3-D magnetic toroidal configurations in previous work [1]. The features that make PB3D unique are the assumptions on the perturbation structure through intermediate-to-high mode numbers n in general 3-D configurations, while allowing for displacement of the plasma edge. This makes PB3D capable of very efficient calculations of the full 3-D stability for the output of multiple equilibrium codes. As first verification, it is checked that results from the stability code MISHKA [2], which considers axisymmetric equilibrium configurations, are accurately reproduced, and these are then successfully extended to 3-D configurations, through comparison with COBRA [3], as well as using checks on physical consistency. The non-intuitive 3-D results presented serve as a tentative first proof of the capabilities of the code.

  16. 3D MHD Flux emergence experiments

    Hood, A.W.; Archontis, V.; Mactaggart, David


    This paper reviews some of the many 3D numerical experiments of the emergence of magnetic fields from the solar interior and the subsequent interaction with the pre-existing coronal magnetic field. The models described here are idealised, in the sense that the internal energy equation only involves...

  17. 3D Printed Terahertz Focusing Grating Couplers

    Jahn, David; Weidenbach, Marcel; Lehr, Jannik; Becker, Leonard; Beltrán-Mejía, Felipe; Busch, Stefan F.; Balzer, Jan C.; Koch, Martin


    We have designed, constructed and characterized a grating that focuses electromagnetic radiation at specific frequencies out of a dielectric waveguide. A simple theoretical model predicts the focusing behaviour of these chirped gratings, along with numerical results that support our assumptions and improved the grating geometry. The leaky waveguide was 3D printed and characterized at 120 GHz demonstrating its potential for manipulating terahertz waves.

  18. A3-D Numerical Optimization Design Method and Its Application in Axial Fans with Outlet Guide Vanes%轴流风机后导叶三维数值优化设计方法及其应用

    孟丽; 林丽华; 吴海英; 陈永宁; 何海江; 陶中兰; 李嵩


    基于轴流风机安装后导叶能明显改善性能,但用目前使用的二维理想的工程方法无法设计良好导叶,必须通过大量后导叶安装角试验,才能改进使用。本文提出轴流风机后导叶三维数值优化设计方法,并用于一个商用风机,设计工况全压和全压效率均提高13%,有很好的变工况性能;本文还对比了用传统工程方法设计的后导叶的性能。%The performance of an axial flow fan can be obviously improved after installing outlet guide vanes. But the commonly used 2-D ideal engineering method can’t be applied to design the good outlet guide vanes. After that a lot of experiments about the installing angle of outlet guide vane must be carried out in order to improve the designed vanes. In this paper, a 3-D numerical optimization design method of axial flow fans with outlet guide vanes is presented and used to a commercial fan. The total pressure and its efficiency are improved about 13% at the design operation and the performances of the off-design operation are also obviously improved. Moreover, the performance of the outlet guide vanes designed by the traditional engineering method is also compared with the presented one in the paper.

  19. 多峰负氢离子源全三维数值模拟研究%3D numerical simulation of multi-peak negative hydrogen ion sources


    The mechanism of the negative hydrogen ion volume production is analysed theoretically. The negative hydrogen ion source restrained by multi⁃peak megnetic field was numerically simulated with self⁃developed 3D simulation software PIC⁃MCC,in which the influence of leading⁃out megnetic field,primary energy and position of discharge on the collision efficiency excited by vibration are simulated. The optimization means for the multi⁃peak negative hydrogen ion source are explored. The re⁃sults show that the more the fast electrons move into the extraction region and the more severe the negative y⁃direction drift is, the more frequent the vibrational excitation collision happens and the higher the relative collision rate becomes,in other word, the higher the volume production efficiency of negative hydrogen ions appears.%  理论分析了负氢离子体积产生机制,采用自主开发的三维PIC⁃MCC模拟软件,对多峰磁场约束的负氢离子源进行数值模拟研究。模拟了引出磁场、放电初始能量、及放电位置对振动激发碰撞效率的影响,探索了多峰负氢离子源的优化手段。研究表明:如果进入引出区的快电子越多且-y方向漂移越剧烈,那么振动碰撞越频繁且相对碰撞率越高,即负氢离子体积产生效率越高。

  20. Numerical Simulation of the Depressurization Process of a Natural Gas Hydrate Reservoir: An Attempt at Optimization of Field Operational Factors with Multiple Wells in a Real 3D Geological Model

    Zhixue Sun


    Full Text Available Natural gas hydrates, crystalline solids whose gas molecules are so compressed that they are denser than a typical fluid hydrocarbon, have extensive applications in the areas of climate change and the energy crisis. The hydrate deposit located in the Shenhu Area on the continental slope of the South China Sea is regarded as the most promising target for gas hydrate exploration in China. Samples taken at drilling site SH2 have indicated a high abundance of methane hydrate reserves in clay sediments. In the last few decades, with its relatively low energy cost, the depressurization gas recovery method has been generally regarded as technically feasible and the most promising one. For the purpose of a better acquaintance with the feasible field operational factors and processes which control the production behavior of a real 3D geological CH4-hydrate deposit, it is urgent to figure out the effects of the parameters such as well type, well spacing, bottom hole pressure, and perforation intervals on methane recovery. One years’ numerical simulation results show that under the condition of 3000 kPa constant bottom hole pressure, 1000 m well spacing, perforation in higher intervals and with one horizontal well, the daily peak gas rate can reach 4325.02 m3 and the cumulative gas volume is 1.291 × 106 m3. What’s more, some new knowledge and its explanation of the curve tendency and evolution for the production process are provided. Technically, one factor at a time design (OFAT and an orthogonal design were used in the simulation to investigate which factors dominate the productivity ability and which is the most sensitive one. The results indicated that the order of effects of the factors on gas yield was perforation interval > bottom hole pressure > well spacing.

  1. 3-D Numerical Simulation and Optimization of High-density Sedimentation Tank in Water Treatment Plant%给水厂高密度沉淀池沉淀效果三维数值模拟与优化

    雷晓玲; 陈昆萍; 陶礴


    应用FLUENT流体力学软件对重庆某大型在建给水厂高密度沉淀池沉淀区的流速场和浓度场进行了三维数值模拟,分析了不同运行参数与结构参数对沉淀区水流流场与沉淀效果的影响.模拟结果表明,增加进水口流速在一定程度上缓解了异重流现象,但不能提高沉淀效果;选取进水口流速为0.016 m/s,将沉淀池的导流墙左侧改为弧形,在斜板沉淀区前端加上1 m的挡板,可使异重流现象减弱,且沉淀效果得到明显的改善.%The 3-D numerical simulation of velocity field and concentration field of sedimentation zone in high-density sedimentation tank of a large-scale water treatment plant under construction in Chongqing City was performed using FLUENT software. The influence of different operation parameters and structure parameters on the flow state and sedimentation effect was analyzed. The results show that increasing the inlet velocity can relieve the density current to a certain extent, but can not improve the sedimentation effect. When the inlet velocity is 0.016 m/s, changing the left side of guide wall into arc shape and adding one meter baffle in the front of the inclined plate settling zone can ease the density current, and the sedimentation effect can be significantly improved.

  2. Rubber Impact on 3D Textile Composites

    Heimbs, Sebastian; Van Den Broucke, Björn; Duplessis Kergomard, Yann; Dau, Frederic; Malherbe, Benoit


    A low velocity impact study of aircraft tire rubber on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates was performed experimentally and numerically. In contrast to regular unidirectional composite laminates, no delaminations occur in such a 3D textile composite. Yarn decohesions, matrix cracks and yarn ruptures have been identified as the major damage mechanisms under impact load. An increase in the number of 3D warp yarns is proposed to improve the impact damage resistance. The characteristic of a rubber impact is the high amount of elastic energy stored in the impactor during impact, which was more than 90% of the initial kinetic energy. This large geometrical deformation of the rubber during impact leads to a less localised loading of the target structure and poses great challenges for the numerical modelling. A hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin constitutive law was used in Abaqus/Explicit based on a step-by-step validation with static rubber compression tests and low velocity impact tests on aluminium plates. Simulation models of the textile weave were developed on the meso- and macro-scale. The final correlation between impact simulation results on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates and impact test data was promising, highlighting the potential of such numerical simulation tools.

  3. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco


    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  4. Spherical 3D isotropic wavelets

    Lanusse, F.; Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.


    Context. Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in spherical coordinates is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the SFB decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. Methods: We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. (2006). We also present a new fast discrete spherical Fourier-Bessel transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large box cosmological simulations and find we can successfully remove noise without much loss to the large scale structure. Results: We have described a new spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform, ideally suited to analyse and denoise future 3D spherical cosmological surveys, which uses a novel DSFBT. We illustrate its potential use for denoising using a toy model. All the algorithms presented in this paper are available for download as a public code called MRS3D at

  5. 3D IBFV : Hardware-Accelerated 3D Flow Visualization

    Telea, Alexandru; Wijk, Jarke J. van


    We present a hardware-accelerated method for visualizing 3D flow fields. The method is based on insertion, advection, and decay of dye. To this aim, we extend the texture-based IBFV technique for 2D flow visualization in two main directions. First, we decompose the 3D flow visualization problem in a

  6. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  7. Interactive 3D multimedia content

    Cellary, Wojciech


    The book describes recent research results in the areas of modelling, creation, management and presentation of interactive 3D multimedia content. The book describes the current state of the art in the field and identifies the most important research and design issues. Consecutive chapters address these issues. These are: database modelling of 3D content, security in 3D environments, describing interactivity of content, searching content, visualization of search results, modelling mixed reality content, and efficient creation of interactive 3D content. Each chapter is illustrated with example a

  8. A 3-D Contextual Classifier

    Larsen, Rasmus


    . This includes the specification of a Gaussian distribution for the pixel values as well as a prior distribution for the configuration of class variables within the cross that is m ade of a pixel and its four nearest neighbours. We will extend this algorithm to 3-D, i.e. we will specify a simultaneous Gaussian...... distr ibution for a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours, and generalise the class variable configuration distribution within the 3-D cross. The algorithm is tested on a synthetic 3-D multivariate dataset....

  9. 3D Bayesian contextual classifiers

    Larsen, Rasmus


    We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.......We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours....

  10. 3-D printers for libraries

    Griffey, Jason


    As the maker movement continues to grow and 3-D printers become more affordable, an expanding group of hobbyists is keen to explore this new technology. In the time-honored tradition of introducing new technologies, many libraries are considering purchasing a 3-D printer. Jason Griffey, an early enthusiast of 3-D printing, has researched the marketplace and seen several systems first hand at the Consumer Electronics Show. In this report he introduces readers to the 3-D printing marketplace, covering such topics asHow fused deposition modeling (FDM) printing workBasic terminology such as build

  11. 3D for Graphic Designers

    Connell, Ellery


    Helping graphic designers expand their 2D skills into the 3D space The trend in graphic design is towards 3D, with the demand for motion graphics, animation, photorealism, and interactivity rapidly increasing. And with the meteoric rise of iPads, smartphones, and other interactive devices, the design landscape is changing faster than ever.2D digital artists who need a quick and efficient way to join this brave new world will want 3D for Graphic Designers. Readers get hands-on basic training in working in the 3D space, including product design, industrial design and visualization, modeling, ani

  12. Pyrolytic 3D Carbon Microelectrodes for Electrochemistry

    Hemanth, Suhith; Caviglia, Claudia; Amato, Letizia


    electrochemical activity, chemical stability, and ease in surface functionalization [1]. The most common carbon microfabrication techniques (i.e. screen printing) produce two-dimensional (2D) electrodes, which limit the detection sensitivity. Hence several 3D microfabrication techniques have been explored......This work presents the fabrication and characterization of multi-layered three-dimensional (3D) pyrolysed carbon microelectrodes for electrochemical applications. For this purpose, an optimized UV photolithography and pyrolysis process with the negative tone photoresist SU-8 has been developed...... carbon [2]. This process enables fabrication of 2D and 3D electrodes with possibility for tailoring ad-hoc designs and unique sensitivities for specific applications. Due to this, pyrolysed carbon is becoming increasingly attractive for numerous applications, such as novel sensors and scaffolds for cell...

  13. Statistical Model of the 3-D Braided Composites Strength

    XIAO Laiyuan; ZUO Weiwei; CAI Ganwei; LIAO Daoxun


    Based on the statistical model for the tensile statistical strength of unidirectional composite materials and the stress analysis of 3-D braided composites, a new method is proposed to calculate the tensile statistical strength of the 3-D braided composites. With this method, the strength of 3-D braided composites can be calculated with very large accuracy, and the statistical parameters of 3-D braided composites can be determined. The numerical result shows that the tensile statistical strength of 3-D braided composites can be predicted using this method.

  14. 3D/2D Registration of medical images

    Tomaževič, D.


    The topic of this doctoral dissertation is registration of 3D medical images to corresponding projective 2D images, referred to as 3D/2D registration. There are numerous possible applications of 3D/2D registration in image-aided diagnosis and treatment. In most of the applications, 3D/2D registration provides the location and orientation of the structures in a preoperative 3D CT or MR image with respect to intraoperative 2D X-ray images. The proposed doctoral dissertation tries to find origin...

  15. 3D Flow Field Numerical Simulation on Aerodynamic Characteristics of New Double-rotor Wind Turbines%新型双风轮风力机气动特性的三维流场数值模拟

    周云龙; 杨承志; 李律万


    Based on Simplic algorithm and SST κ-ωturbulence model, using numerical simulation software Fluent 6.3, the 3D aerodynamic flow field of a new type of small double-rotor wind turbines has been studied and compared with that of single-rotor wind turbines in same size. Results show that compared with single-rotor wind turbine, the turbulence intensity of new double-rotor wind turbine strengthens along with the increase of blade number of rear rotor, and its operation stability reduces to a certain extent; however, the rear rotor with a reasonable number of blades has little influence on the front rotor, which can capture the air leakage of the front rotor effectively, and therefore enables the wind turbine to simulta- neously have a larger windward area and maintain a higher rotating speed, and subsequently helps it to achieve two grade utility of wind energy, improve the power generation efficiency and raise the wind power utilization coefficient.%基于Simplic算法,采用SST κ-ω湍流模型,利用Fluent6.3数值模拟软件对新型的小型双风轮风力机的气动特性进行了三维流场研究,并与同规格单风轮风力机的三维流场进行了比较.结果表明:与单风轮风力机相比,随着后风轮叶片数目的增加,新型双风轮风力机的湍流强度变大,风力机运行的稳定性在一定程度上有所降低;当后风轮的叶片数目合理时,后风轮对前风轮的影响较小,且可以有效地捕捉到前风轮的漏风,使得新型双风轮风力机的风轮在获得较大迎风面积的同时可以保持较高的转速,进而能够高效地实现风能的两级利用,明显提高发电功率和增大风能利用系数.

  16. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of 3 D Composite Heat Pipe Radiator for IGBT%IGBT用3D复合热管散热器的数值仿真与实验验证

    杨雄鹏; 张磊; 曹伦


    IGBT元件广泛应用于变频器、逆变器、电力传动等各个方面,随着其工作热耗和自身体积功率密度的不断增大,其散热设计的好坏直接关系到其运行的稳定性、可靠性及使用寿命。文中以应用于IGBT模块冷却系统的3 D复合热管散热器为研究对象,详细介绍了其结构组成和工作原理,并通过数值仿真和实验验证,充分评估了其应用优势。该散热器可在有限的结构空间下,使得超高功率密度IGBT模块的温度得到很好的控制,使得器件长期安全稳定地工作,提高了整机产品的可靠性。%IGBT components are widely used in converters, inverters, power transmission, and so on.With the continuous increasing of their heat consumption and volumetric power density, the quality of their thermal design is directly related to the operation stability, reliability and service life.In this paper, the 3D composite heat pipe radiator applied to IGBT module cooling system is studied, its structure and working principle are presented in detail.A full assessment of its application advantages is performed through numerical simulation and experimental verification.The heat pipe radiator in a limited structure space is able to control the tempera-ture of the IGBT module with very high power density very well, so that the device can operate safely and stab-ly for a long time, and the products reliability is improved.

  17. 波节管纵向逆流换热性能的三维数值模拟研究%3D Numerical Simulation Investigation of Heat Transfer Performance for Vertical Countercurrent Flow in Corrugated Tube

    金铁石; 付崇彬


    In this article, the 3D k - e Model numerical simulation is adopted to research heat transfer and frictional characteristic of the vertical countercurrent flow in corrugated tube. The working medium was helium and nitrogen in the tube side and shell side respectively. The tube bundle has used triangular arrangement. The paper has first analyzed the impact of different wave distance and Reynolds number on heat transfer rate. At the same time, the impact of different wave distance and Reynolds number on Q/Qo (heat transfer ratio between smooth and corrugated tube) and △p/△po(pressure loss ratio between smooth and corrugated) were also analyzed in order to emphasize the superiority of corrugated tube. It was found that the heat transfer and frictional characteristic of corrugated tube have decreased with the increasing of wave length, whereas the overall heat transfer performance has been improved. On the contrary, the Reynolds number has the opposite effect.%本文基于k-ε模型,针对波节管高效换热元件中纵向逆流换热的传热特性和阻力特性进行三维数值模拟研究.传热工质在管程和壳程分别为氦气和氮气,管束采用三角形布置.本文首先分析了不同波距及雷诺数下对换热量影响.为了体现高效换热元件比光管的优越性,随后分析了不同波距及雷诺数对Q/Qo(波节管与光管的换热量比)与△p/△Po(波节管与光管的压力降比).最后得出结论,波距L的增加使高效换热元件的传热性能和阻力性能有所降低,但提高了其综合传热性能.雷诺数的增加会大幅提高换热量,但同时综合传热效率也大幅降低.

  18. Mesoscale poroelasticity of heterogeneous media

    Monfared, Siavash; Laubie, Hadrien; Radjai, Farhang; Pellenq, Roland; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    Poroelastic behavior of heterogeneous media is revisited. Lattice Element Method (LEM) is used to model interaction between solid constituents due to a pressurized pore space. Exploring beyond mean-field based theories in continuum microporomechanics, local textural variations and its contribution to the global anisotropic poroelastic behavior of real multiphase porous media are captured. To this end, statistical distributions of mesoscale poroelastic coefficients from numerical simulations on X-ray microscopy scans of two different organic-rich shales with different microtextures are presented. The results are compared with predictions using mean-field based tools of continuum micromechanics. The textural dependency of strain localization and stress chain formation captured in this framework promises a powerful tool for modeling poroelastic response of complex porous composites and a path to incorporate local textural and elastic variations into a continuum description. Visiting Scientist, CNRS-MIT, MIT.

  19. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  20. 基于HYDRUS-3D的涌泉根灌土壤入渗数值模拟%Numerical simulation of soil water infiltration under bubbled root irrigation based on HYDRUS-3D

    李耀刚; 王文娥; 胡笑涛


    针对涌泉根灌流量大且出流边界为柱状,与传统滴灌、渗灌等存在很大差异的问题,依据非饱和土壤水动力学理论,并结合涌泉根灌条件下土壤水分运动特征,建立了具有柱状出流边界的入渗模型,利用HYDRUS-3D对模型进行求解,所建模型通过土壤剖面含水率随时间变化的实测值与模拟值的对比进行验证.结果表明:模拟值与实测值的相对误差在10%以内,两者具有较好的一致性,数值模拟结果可为涌泉根灌系统的合理设计及运行提供理论依据.通过数值模拟方法研究了流量、套管开孔长度对土壤含水率的影响,发现流量越大,水分运移速率越大,随着时间推移流量所引起的差异减小;灌水量相同时,灌水结束后土壤湿润体范围随流量增大略有减小;开孔区长度增加对湿润体形状、大小没有显著影响,但对土壤湿润体内水分分布状况影响较大.%With large flow and columnar flow boundary,bubbled root irrigation is greatly different from traditional drip irrigation and infiltrating irrigation.It is therefore necessary to study water movement under bubbled root irrigation from different boundaries.Based on the theory of unsaturated soil water dynamics,combining the characteristics of soil water movement under bubbled root irrigation,an infiltration model with columnar flow boundary was established.The HYDRUS-3 D software was applied to solve the model numerically.The model is validated through the contrast of measured values and simulated values of the soil moisture which change over time.The results show that the simulation results are in well agreement with measured values.The relative error between simulated and measured values is less than 10%,both of which are quite consistent.The simulation results can provide some theoretical basis for the rational design and operation of the bubbled root irrigation system.The influences on soil moisture content by dripper

  1. Spherical 3D Isotropic Wavelets

    Lanusse, F; Starck, J -L


    Future cosmological surveys will provide 3D large scale structure maps with large sky coverage, for which a 3D Spherical Fourier-Bessel (SFB) analysis in is natural. Wavelets are particularly well-suited to the analysis and denoising of cosmological data, but a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet transform does not currently exist to analyse spherical 3D data. The aim of this paper is to present a new formalism for a spherical 3D isotropic wavelet, i.e. one based on the Fourier-Bessel decomposition of a 3D field and accompany the formalism with a public code to perform wavelet transforms. We describe a new 3D isotropic spherical wavelet decomposition based on the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) described in Starck et al. 2006. We also present a new fast Discrete Spherical Fourier-Bessel Transform (DSFBT) based on both a discrete Bessel Transform and the HEALPIX angular pixelisation scheme. We test the 3D wavelet transform and as a toy-application, apply a denoising algorithm in wavelet space to the Virgo large...

  2. Improvement of 3D Scanner


    The disadvantage remaining in 3D scanning system and its reasons are discussed. A new host-and-slave structure with high speed image acquisition and processing system is proposed to quicken the image processing and improve the performance of 3D scanning system.

  3. 3D Printing for Bricks

    ECT Team, Purdue


    Building Bytes, by Brian Peters, is a project that uses desktop 3D printers to print bricks for architecture. Instead of using an expensive custom-made printer, it uses a normal standard 3D printer which is available for everyone and makes it more accessible and also easier for fabrication.

  4. 3D vision system assessment

    Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad


    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.

  5. PLOT3D user's manual

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.


    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  6. 3D printing in dentistry.

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A


    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  7. Using 3D in Visualization

    Wood, Jo; Kirschenbauer, Sabine; Döllner, Jürgen


    The notion of three-dimensionality is applied to five stages of the visualization pipeline. While 3D visulization is most often associated with the visual mapping and representation of data, this chapter also identifies its role in the management and assembly of data, and in the media used...... to display 3D imagery. The extra cartographic degree of freedom offered by using 3D is explored and offered as a motivation for employing 3D in visualization. The use of VR and the construction of virtual environments exploit navigational and behavioral realism, but become most usefil when combined...... with abstracted representations embedded in a 3D space. The interactions between development of geovisualization, the technology used to implement it and the theory surrounding cartographic representation are explored. The dominance of computing technologies, driven particularly by the gaming industry...

  8. Superplot3d: an open source GUI tool for 3d trajectory visualisation and elementary processing.

    Whitehorn, Luke J; Hawkes, Frances M; Dublon, Ian An


    When acquiring simple three-dimensional (3d) trajectory data it is common to accumulate large coordinate data sets. In order to examine integrity and consistency of object tracking, it is often necessary to rapidly visualise these data. Ordinarily, to achieve this the user must either execute 3d plotting functions in a numerical computing environment or manually inspect data in two dimensions, plotting each individual axis.Superplot3d is an open source MATLAB script which takes tab delineated Cartesian data points in the form x, y, z and time and generates an instant visualization of the object's trajectory in free-rotational three dimensions. Whole trajectories may be instantly presented, allowing for rapid inspection. Executable from the MATLAB command line (or deployable as a compiled standalone application) superplot3d also provides simple GUI controls to obtain rudimentary trajectory information, allow specific visualization of trajectory sections and perform elementary processing.Superplot3d thus provides a framework for non-programmers and programmers alike, to recreate recently acquired 3d object trajectories in rotatable 3d space. It is intended, via the use of a preference driven menu to be flexible and work with output from multiple tracking software systems. Source code and accompanying GUIDE .fig files are provided for deployment and further development.

  9. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla


    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  10. Applications of 3D printing in healthcare

    Dodziuk, Helena


    3D printing is a relatively new, rapidly expanding method of manufacturing that found numerous applications in healthcare, automotive, aerospace and defense industries and in many other areas. In this review, applications in medicine that are revolutionizing the way surgeries are carried out, disrupting prosthesis and implant markets as well as dentistry will be presented. The relatively new field of bioprinting, that is printing with cells, will also be briefly discussed.

  11. Applications of 3D printing in healthcare.

    Dodziuk, Helena


    3D printing is a relatively new, rapidly expanding method of manufacturing that found numerous applications in healthcare, automotive, aerospace and defense industries and in many other areas. In this review, applications in medicine that are revolutionizing the way surgeries are carried out, disrupting prosthesis and implant markets as well as dentistry will be presented. The relatively new field of bioprinting, that is printing with cells, will also be briefly discussed.

  12. Applications of 3D printing in healthcare


    3D printing is a relatively new, rapidly expanding method of manufacturing that found numerous applications in healthcare, automotive, aerospace and defense industries and in many other areas. In this review, applications in medicine that are revolutionizing the way surgeries are carried out, disrupting prosthesis and implant markets as well as dentistry will be presented. The relatively new field of bioprinting, that is printing with cells, will also be briefly discussed. PMID:27785150

  13. ADT-3D Tumor Detection Assistant in 3D

    Jaime Lazcano Bello


    Full Text Available The present document describes ADT-3D (Three-Dimensional Tumor Detector Assistant, a prototype application developed to assist doctors diagnose, detect and locate tumors in the brain by using CT scan. The reader may find on this document an introduction to tumor detection; ADT-3D main goals; development details; description of the product; motivation for its development; result’s study; and areas of applicability.

  14. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.


    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  15. Bioprinting of 3D hydrogels.

    Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S


    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. 3D hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible 3D printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models.

  16. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.


    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  17. Tuotekehitysprojekti: 3D-tulostin

    Pihlajamäki, Janne


    Opinnäytetyössä tutustuttiin 3D-tulostamisen teknologiaan. Työssä käytiin läpi 3D-tulostimesta tehty tuotekehitysprojekti. Sen lisäksi esiteltiin yleisellä tasolla tuotekehitysprosessi ja syntyneiden tulosten mahdollisia suojausmenetelmiä. Tavoitteena tässä työssä oli kehittää markkinoilta jo löytyvää kotitulostin-tasoista 3D-laiteteknologiaa lähemmäksi ammattilaistason ratkaisua. Tavoitteeseen pyrittiin keskittymällä parantamaan laitteella saavutettavaa tulostustarkkuutta ja -nopeutt...

  18. Handbook of 3D integration

    Garrou , Philip; Ramm , Peter


    Edited by key figures in 3D integration and written by top authors from high-tech companies and renowned research institutions, this book covers the intricate details of 3D process technology.As such, the main focus is on silicon via formation, bonding and debonding, thinning, via reveal and backside processing, both from a technological and a materials science perspective. The last part of the book is concerned with assessing and enhancing the reliability of the 3D integrated devices, which is a prerequisite for the large-scale implementation of this emerging technology. Invaluable reading fo

  19. Color 3D Reverse Engineering


    This paper presents a principle and a method of col or 3D laser scanning measurement. Based on the fundamental monochrome 3D measureme nt study, color information capture, color texture mapping, coordinate computati on and other techniques are performed to achieve color 3D measurement. The syste m is designed and composed of a line laser light emitter, one color CCD camera, a motor-driven rotary filter, a circuit card and a computer. Two steps in captu ring object's images in the measurement process: Firs...

  20. Exploration of 3D Printing

    Lin, Zeyu


    3D printing technology is introduced and defined in this Thesis. Some methods of 3D printing are illustrated and their principles are explained with pictures. Most of the essential parts are presented with pictures and their effects are explained within the whole system. Problems on Up! Plus 3D printer are solved and a DIY product is made with this machine. The processes of making product are recorded and the items which need to be noticed during the process are the highlight in this th...

  1. Accepting the T3D

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.


    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  2. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer

    The main purpose of the PhD project was to develop methods that increase the 3-D ultrasound imaging quality available for the medical personnel in the clinic. Acquiring a 3-D volume gives the medical doctor the freedom to investigate the measured anatomy in any slice desirable after the scan has...... been completed. This allows for precise measurements of organs dimensions and makes the scan more operator independent. Real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging is still not as widespread in use in the clinics as 2-D imaging. A limiting factor has traditionally been the low image quality achievable using...... Field II simulations and measurements with the ultrasound research scanner SARUS and a 3.5MHz 1024 element 2-D transducer array. In all investigations, 3-D synthetic aperture imaging achieved a smaller main-lobe, lower sidelobes, higher contrast, and better signal to noise ratio than parallel...

  3. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi


    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained...

  4. 3D Face Apperance Model

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K


    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...

  5. 3D Face Appearance Model

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Åström, Kalle


    We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}......We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}...


    Full Text Available TATCCAYMOTIFOSRAMY3D S000256 01-August-2006 (last modified) kehi TATCCAY motif foun...d in rice (O.s.) RAmy3D alpha-amylase gene promoter; Y=T/C; a GATA motif as its antisense sequence; TATCCAY ...motif and G motif (see S000130) are responsible for sugar repression (Toyofuku et al. 1998); GATA; amylase; sugar; repression; rice (Oryza sativa) TATCCAY ...

  7. Eigenfrequency optimized 3D continua, with possibility for cavities

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard


    Eigenfrequency optimization for 3D continua is formulated and exemplified by the geometry and boundary conditions of a thick plate. Numerical finite element models are based on four node tetrahedra and results from subspace iterations give directly the basis for the continuum redesign. The 3D mod...

  8. CASTOR3D: linear stability studies for 2D and 3D tokamak equilibria

    Strumberger, E.; Günter, S.


    The CASTOR3D code, which is currently under development, is able to perform linear stability studies for 2D and 3D, ideal and resistive tokamak equilibria in the presence of ideal and resistive wall structures and coils. For these computations ideal equilibria represented by concentric nested flux surfaces serve as input (e.g. computed with the NEMEC code). Solving an extended eigenvalue problem, the CASTOR3D code takes simultaneously plasma inertia and wall resistivity into account. The code is a hybrid of the CASTOR_3DW stability code and the STARWALL code. The former is an extended version of the CASTOR and CASTOR_FLOW code, respectively. The latter is a linear 3D code computing the growth rates of resistive wall modes in the presence of multiply-connected wall structures. The CASTOR_3DW code, and some parts of the STARWALL code have been reformulated in a general 3D flux coordinate representation that allows to choose between various types of flux coordinates. Furthermore, the implemented many-valued current potentials in the STARWALL part allow a correct treatment of the m  =  0, n  =  0 perturbation. In this paper, we outline the theoretical concept, and present some numerical results which illustrate the present status of the code and demonstrate its numerous application possibilities.

  9. MPML3D: Scripting Agents for the 3D Internet.

    Prendinger, Helmut; Ullrich, Sebastian; Nakasone, Arturo; Ishizuka, Mitsuru


    The aim of this paper is two-fold. First, it describes a scripting language for specifying communicative behavior and interaction of computer-controlled agents ("bots") in the popular three-dimensional (3D) multiuser online world of "Second Life" and the emerging "OpenSimulator" project. While tools for designing avatars and in-world objects in Second Life exist, technology for nonprogrammer content creators of scenarios involving scripted agents is currently missing. Therefore, we have implemented new client software that controls bots based on the Multimodal Presentation Markup Language 3D (MPML3D), a highly expressive XML-based scripting language for controlling the verbal and nonverbal behavior of interacting animated agents. Second, the paper compares Second Life and OpenSimulator platforms and discusses the merits and limitations of each from the perspective of agent control. Here, we also conducted a small study that compares the network performance of both platforms.

  10. From 3D view to 3D print

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.


    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  11. 3D-mallinnus ja 3D-animaatiot biovoimalaitoksesta

    Hiltula, Tytti


    Opinnäytetyössä tehtiin biovoimalaitoksen piirustuksista 3D-mallinnus ja animaatiot. Työn tarkoituksena oli saada valmiiksi Recwell Oy:lle markkinointiin tarkoitetut kuva- ja videomateriaalit. Työssä perehdyttiin 3D-mallintamisen perustietoihin ja lähtökohtiin sekä animaation laatimiseen. Työ laadittiin kokonaisuudessaan AutoCAD-ohjelmalla, ja työn aikana tutustuttiin huolellisesti myös ohjelman käyttöohjeisiin. Piirustusten mitoituksessa huomattiin jo alkuvaiheessa suuria puutteita, ...

  12. Dynamical Study of 3D Boson Stars

    Choi, Dae-Il; Choptuik, M. W.


    We study the dynamical evolution of ``boson stars'' in 3D numerical relativity. Boson stars are equilibrium states of a self-gravitating, complex Klein-Gordon field: a resurgence of interest in scalar fields in the context of astroparticle physics and quantum cosmology has prompted investigation of their dynamics, particularly since they are possible dark matter candidates. In addition, even though any direct physical relevance has yet to be demonstrated, boson star systems provide excellent numerical laboratories in which to study strong gravitational fields. Specifically, the boson star model provides an ideal vehicle with which to implement and evaluate (1) various coordinate conditions in the context of the ADM formalism, and (2) multi-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement techniques which appear crucial for many problems in 3D numerical relativity. We first consider boson stars in the Newtonian regime, where the (numerical) stability of single stars is shown and the interaction of multiple-star-systems is simulated. We also discuss issues which hamper progress towards a stable evolution of general relativistic boson stars, and then show some preliminary results for the general relativistic case.

  13. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic


    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  14. 3D future internet media

    Dagiuklas, Tasos


    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The main contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Projects ROMEO, which focus on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the Future Internet ( The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of constant video quality to both fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will design and develop hybrid-networking solutions that co...

  15. Materialedreven 3d digital formgivning

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede


    Formålet med forskningsprojektet er for det første at understøtte keramikeren i at arbejde eksperimenterende med digital formgivning, og for det andet at bidrage til en tværfaglig diskurs om brugen af digital formgivning. Forskningsprojektet fokuserer på 3d formgivning og derved på 3d digital...... formgivning og Rapid Prototyping (RP). RP er en fællesbetegnelse for en række af de teknikker, der muliggør at overføre den digitale form til 3d fysisk form. Forskningsprojektet koncentrerer sig om to overordnede forskningsspørgsmål. Det første handler om, hvordan viden og erfaring indenfor det keramiske...... fagområde kan blive udnyttet i forhold til 3d digital formgivning. Det andet handler om, hvad en sådan tilgang kan bidrage med, og hvordan den kan blive udnyttet i et dynamisk samspil med det keramiske materiale i formgivningen af 3d keramiske artefakter. Materialedreven formgivning er karakteriseret af en...

  16. Novel 3D media technologies

    Dagiuklas, Tasos


    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Project ROMEO, which focuses on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the future Internet. The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of consistent video quality to fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will present hybrid networking solutions that combine the DVB-T2 and DVB-NGH broadcas...

  17. Speaking Volumes About 3-D


    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  18. 3D numerical simulation of the flow field with push-pull hoods containing barriers between them%罩间存在障碍物的吹吸罩流场三维数值模拟

    胡鸿; 易灿南; 廖可兵


    为了使吹吸罩达到对污染物的最佳控制,以某企业电镀生产线上行车行进过程中由于镀件表面黏附高浓度槽液而造成室内环境污染为实物模型,建立吹吸罩口间存在障碍物的三维数学模型,利用Fluent计算动力学软件对不同吹风口风速和吸风口风速下的排风罩流场进行数值模拟,经比较确定最佳联合速度,并将模拟结果与经典吹吸速度分布图及试验条件下所测得的污染气体质量分数进行对比分析.结果表明,所建立数学模型是合理的,所确定的最佳效果时的相关参数与经典理论基本一致,可用于工程实际.%This paper attempts to proposo a 3D numerical simulation model of the flow field with push-pull hoods containing barriers between them in hoping to solve the problem of the dispersion of contaminants.As is known,the dispersion of contaminants in different sections of an apparatus can be controlled effectively via a pull-push hood powered by a jet flow.Actually,such device has already been widely used in places where contaminants are serious but can not be eliminated.The said push-pullhoods are usually armed with the following features:minute air volume,perfect pollution control,powerful anti-jam behavior,free from the impact of the process operations.Although no barriers were considered in the former design between the push hood and pull hood in the regular production process according to the processing demands,we still feel it necessary to stress the demand for them,for it is necessary to choose the best velocity of push hood and pull hood to control the containments.Based on the above starting point,we have chosen the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to solve the problem.First of all,we have taken the contaminants accumulated in the painted work-pieces with very harmful content adhered in them as a physical model,while assuming that geometrical models are set by the GAMBIT code.Along with it,let the appropriate

  19. Modification of 3D milling machine to 3D printer

    Halamíček, Lukáš


    Tato práce se zabývá přestavbou gravírovací frézky na 3D tiskárnu. V první části se práce zabývá možnými technologiemi 3D tisku a možností jejich využití u přestavby. Dále jsou popsány a vybrány vhodné součásti pro přestavbu. V další části je realizováno řízení ohřevu podložky, trysky a řízení posuvu drátu pomocí softwaru TwinCat od společnosti Beckhoff na průmyslovém počítači. Výsledkem práce by měla být oživená 3D tiskárna. This thesis deals with rebuilding of engraving machine to 3D pri...

  20. Aspects of defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito


    In this paper we study supersymmetric co-dimension 2 and 4 defects in the compactification of the 6d (2, 0) theory of type A N -1 on a 3-manifold M . The so-called 3d-3d correspondence is a relation between complexified Chern-Simons theory (with gauge group SL(N,C) ) on M and a 3d N=2 theory T N [ M ]. We study this correspondence in the presence of supersymmetric defects, which are knots/links inside the 3-manifold. Our study employs a number of different methods: state-integral models for complex Chern-Simons theory, cluster algebra techniques, domain wall theory T [SU( N )], 5d N=2 SYM, and also supergravity analysis through holography. These methods are complementary and we find agreement between them. In some cases the results lead to highly non-trivial predictions on the partition function. Our discussion includes a general expression for the cluster partition function, which can be used to compute in the presence of maximal and certain class of non-maximal punctures when N > 2. We also highlight the non-Abelian description of the 3d N=2 T N [ M ] theory with defect included, when such a description is available. This paper is a companion to our shorter paper [1], which summarizes our main results.

  1. Laser printing of 3D metallic interconnects

    Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott A.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto


    The use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) techniques for the printing of functional materials has been demonstrated for numerous applications. The printing gives rise to patterns, which can be used to fabricate planar interconnects. More recently, various groups have demonstrated electrical interconnects from laser-printed 3D structures. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or of pastes containing dispersed metallic particles. However, the generated 3D structures do not posses the same metallic conductivity as a bulk metal interconnect of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. An alternative is to laser transfer entire 3D structures using a technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place is a LIFT process whereby whole components and parts can be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This paper will describe the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding, solid metal foils or beams precisely over the contact pads of discrete devices to interconnect them into fully functional circuits. Furthermore, this paper will also show how the same laser can be used to bend or fold the bulk metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief for the circuits under flexing or during motion from thermal mismatch. These interconnect "ridges" can span wide gaps (on the order of a millimeter) and accommodate height differences of tens of microns between adjacent devices. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented.

  2. 3-D Vector Flow Imaging

    Holbek, Simon

    studies and in vivo. Phantom measurements are compared with their corresponding reference value, whereas the in vivo measurement is validated against the current golden standard for non-invasive blood velocity estimates, based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The study concludes, that a high precision......, if this significant reduction in the element count can still provide precise and robust 3-D vector flow estimates in a plane. The study concludes that the RC array is capable of estimating precise 3-D vector flow both in a plane and in a volume, despite the low channel count. However, some inherent new challenges......For the last decade, the field of ultrasonic vector flow imaging has gotten an increasingly attention, as the technique offers a variety of new applications for screening and diagnostics of cardiovascular pathologies. The main purpose of this PhD project was therefore to advance the field of 3-D...

  3. 3D vector flow imaging

    Pihl, Michael Johannes

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet...... conventional methods can estimate only the axial component. Several approaches for 3D vector velocity estimation have been suggested, but none of these methods have so far produced convincing in vivo results nor have they been adopted by commercial manufacturers. The basis for this project is the Transverse...... on the TO fields are suggested. They can be used to optimize the TO method. In the third part, a TO method for 3D vector velocity estimation is proposed. It employs a 2D phased array transducer and decouples the velocity estimation into three velocity components, which are estimated simultaneously based on 5...

  4. Markerless 3D Face Tracking

    Walder, Christian; Breidt, Martin; Bulthoff, Heinrich


    We present a novel algorithm for the markerless tracking of deforming surfaces such as faces. We acquire a sequence of 3D scans along with color images at 40Hz. The data is then represented by implicit surface and color functions, using a novel partition-of-unity type method of efficiently...... combining local regressors using nearest neighbor searches. Both these functions act on the 4D space of 3D plus time, and use temporal information to handle the noise in individual scans. After interactive registration of a template mesh to the first frame, it is then automatically deformed to track...... the scanned surface, using the variation of both shape and color as features in a dynamic energy minimization problem. Our prototype system yields high-quality animated 3D models in correspondence, at a rate of approximately twenty seconds per timestep. Tracking results for faces and other objects...

  5. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C


    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  6. Microfluidic 3D Helix Mixers

    Georgette B. Salieb-Beugelaar


    Full Text Available Polymeric microfluidic systems are well suited for miniaturized devices with complex functionality, and rapid prototyping methods for 3D microfluidic structures are increasingly used. Mixing at the microscale and performing chemical reactions at the microscale are important applications of such systems and we therefore explored feasibility, mixing characteristics and the ability to control a chemical reaction in helical 3D channels produced by the emerging thread template method. Mixing at the microscale is challenging because channel size reduction for improving solute diffusion comes at the price of a reduced Reynolds number that induces a strictly laminar flow regime and abolishes turbulence that would be desired for improved mixing. Microfluidic 3D helix mixers were rapidly prototyped in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS using low-surface energy polymeric threads, twisted to form 2-channel and 3-channel helices. Structure and flow characteristics were assessed experimentally by microscopy, hydraulic measurements and chromogenic reaction, and were modeled by computational fluid dynamics. We found that helical 3D microfluidic systems produced by thread templating allow rapid prototyping, can be used for mixing and for controlled chemical reaction with two or three reaction partners at the microscale. Compared to the conventional T-shaped microfluidic system used as a control device, enhanced mixing and faster chemical reaction was found to occur due to the combination of diffusive mixing in small channels and flow folding due to the 3D helix shape. Thus, microfluidic 3D helix mixers can be rapidly prototyped using the thread template method and are an attractive and competitive method for fluid mixing and chemical reactions at the microscale.

  7. PSH3D fast Poisson solver for petascale DNS

    Adams, Darren; Dodd, Michael; Ferrante, Antonino


    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of high Reynolds number, Re >= O (105) , turbulent flows requires computational meshes >= O (1012) grid points, and, thus, the use of petascale supercomputers. DNS often requires the solution of a Helmholtz (or Poisson) equation for pressure, which constitutes the bottleneck of the solver. We have developed a parallel solver of the Helmholtz equation in 3D, PSH3D. The numerical method underlying PSH3D combines a parallel 2D Fast Fourier transform in two spatial directions, and a parallel linear solver in the third direction. For computational meshes up to 81923 grid points, our numerical results show that PSH3D scales up to at least 262k cores of Cray XT5 (Blue Waters). PSH3D has a peak performance 6 × faster than 3D FFT-based methods when used with the 'partial-global' optimization, and for a 81923 mesh solves the Poisson equation in 1 sec using 128k cores. Also, we have verified that the use of PSH3D with the 'partial-global' optimization in our DNS solver does not reduce the accuracy of the numerical solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations.

  8. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    Manos, Harry


    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  9. 3D terahertz beam profiling

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Strikwerda, Andrew; Wang, Tianwu


    We present a characterization of THz beams generated in both a two-color air plasma and in a LiNbO3 crystal. Using a commercial THz camera, we record intensity images as a function of distance through the beam waist, from which we extract 2D beam profiles and visualize our measurements into 3D beam...

  10. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim


    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  11. When Art Meets 3D


    The presentation of the vanguard work,My Dream3D,the innovative production by the China Disabled People’s Performing Art Troupe(CDPPAT),directed by Joy Joosang Park,provided the film’s domestic premiere at Beijing’s Olympic Park onApril7.The show provided an intriguing insight not

  12. In vitro biological characterization of macroporous 3D Bonelike structures prepared through a 3D machining technique

    Laranjeira, M.S.; Dias, A.G. [INEB - Instituto de Engenharia Biomedica, Divisao de Biomateriais, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 823, 4150-180 Porto (Portugal); Santos, J.D. [INEB - Instituto de Engenharia Biomedica, Divisao de Biomateriais, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 823, 4150-180 Porto (Portugal); Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia, Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e Materiais, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto - Portugal (Portugal); Fernandes, M.H., E-mail: [Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Medicina Dentaria, Laboratorio de Farmacologia e Biocompatibilidade Celular, Rua Dr. Manuel Pereira da Silva, 4200-392 Porto (Portugal)


    3D bioactive macroporous structures were prepared using a 3D machining technique. A virtual 3D structure model was created and a computer numerically controlled (CNC) milling device machined Bonelike samples. The resulting structures showed a reproducible macroporosity and interconnective structure. Macropores size after sintering was approximately 2000 {mu}m. In vitro testing using human bone marrow stroma showed that cells were able to adhere and proliferate on 3D structures surface and migrate into all macropore channels. In addition, these cells were able to differentiate, since mineralized globular structures associated with cell layer were identified. Results obtained showed that 3D structures of Bonelike successfully allow cell migration into all macropores, and allow human bone marrow stromal cells to proliferate and differentiate. This innovative technique may be considered as a step-forward preparation for 3D interconnective macroporous structures that allow bone ingrowth while maintaining mechanical integrity.

  13. Influence of mesoscale topography on vortex intensity


    The effect of mesoscale topography on multi-vortex self-organization is investigated numerically in this paper using a barotropic primitive equation model with topographic term. In the initial field there are one DeMaria major vortex with the maximum wind radius rm of 80 km at the center of the computational domain, and four meso-β vortices in the vicinity of rm to the east of the major vortex center.When there is no topography present, the initial vortices self-organize into a quasi-final state flow pattern, I.e. A quasi-axisymmetric vortex whose intensity is close to that of the initial major vortex. However, when a mesoscale topography is incorporated, the spatial scale of the quasi-final state vortex reduces, and the relative vorticity at the center of the vortex and the local maximum wind speed remarkably increase. The possible mechanism for the enhancement of the quasi-final state vortex might be that the negative relative vorticity lump,generated above the mesoscale topography because of the constraint of absolute vorticity conservation, squeezes the center of positive vorticity towards the mountain slope area, and thus reduces the spatial range of the major vortex. Meanwhile, because the total kinetic energy is basically conservative, the squeezing directly leads to the concentration of the energy in a smaller area, I.e. The strengthening of the vortex.

  14. Priprava 3D modelov za 3D tisk


    Po mnenju nekaterih strokovnjakov bo aditivna proizvodnja (ali 3D tiskanje) spremenila proizvodnjo industrijo, saj si bo vsak posameznik lahko natisnil svoj objekt po želji. V diplomski nalogi so predstavljene nekatere tehnologije aditivne proizvodnje. V nadaljevanju diplomske naloge je predstavljena izdelava makete hiše v merilu 1:100, vse od modeliranja do tiskanja. Poseben poudarek je posvečen predelavi modela, da je primeren za tiskanje, kjer je razvit pristop za hitrejše i...

  15. Post processing of 3D models for 3D printing


    According to the opinion of some experts the additive manufacturing or 3D printing will change manufacturing industry, because any individual could print their own model according to his or her wishes. In this graduation thesis some of the additive manufacturing technologies are presented. Furthermore in the production of house scale model in 1:100 is presented, starting from modeling to printing. Special attention is given to postprocessing of the building model elements us...

  16. 3D modeling of buildings outstanding sites

    Héno, Rapha?le


    Conventional topographic databases, obtained by capture on aerial or spatial images provide a simplified 3D modeling of our urban environment, answering the needs of numerous applications (development, risk prevention, mobility management, etc.). However, when we have to represent and analyze more complex sites (monuments, civil engineering works, archeological sites, etc.), these models no longer suffice and other acquisition and processing means have to be implemented. This book focuses on the study of adapted lifting means for "notable buildings". The methods tackled in this book cover las

  17. Reconnection experiments with 3D magnetic nulls

    Vrublevskis, A.; Egedal, J.; Le, A.; Montag, P.


    Three-dimensional effects have been crucial in explaining experiments at the Versatile Toroidal Facility (VTF) even in nominal axisymmetric plasmas with a non-vanishing toroidal field. In general, depending on the topological and geometric structure of the magnetic field, a rich collection of magnetic reconnection scenarios is possible in three dimensions. The new adjustable set of coils in VTF allows exploring reconnection in 2D and 3D geometries including configurations with magnetic null points. We present results of a numerical and experimental investigation of magnetic field topologies attainable in VTF. This work was supported by NSF CAREER Award 0844620.

  18. 3D blob dynamics in toroidal geometry

    Nielsen, Anders Henry; Reiser, Dirk

    . The DIESEL code is an extension of the ESEL code [1]. It solves a simple interchange model in full 3D tokamak geometry, where the toroidal direction is divided into a number of drift planes. On each drift plane the equations are solved in a domain corresponding to the full 2D cross section of the tokamak......In this paper we study the simple case of the dynamics of a density perturbation localized in the edge region of a medium sized tokamak in a full 3D geometry. The 2D evolution of such a perturbation has been studied in details on the low-field side, where the gradient of the magnetic field always...... point radial inward, see e.g. [1-2]. Here, the initial condition is implemented in two very different 3D numerical codes, ATTEMPT [3], and a new developed code, DIESEL (Disk version of ESEL), and the results are compared and discussed in detail. The ATTEMPT code has been employed to study the blob...

  19. Inkjet 3D printed check microvalve

    Walczak, Rafał; Adamski, Krzysztof; Lizanets, Danylo


    3D printing enables fast and relatively easy fabrication of various microfluidic structures including microvalves. A check microvalve is the simplest valve enabling control of the fluid flow in microchannels. Proper operation of the check valve is ensured by a movable element that tightens the valve seat during backward flow and enables free flow for forward pressure. Thus, knowledge of the mechanical properties of the movable element is crucial for optimal design and operation of the valve. In this paper, we present for the first time the results of investigations on basic mechanical properties of the building material used in multijet 3D printing. Specified mechanical properties were used in the design and fabrication of two types of check microvalve—with deflecting or hinge-fixed microflap—with 200 µm and 300 µm thickness. Results of numerical simulation and experimental data of the microflap deflection were obtained and compared. The valves were successfully 3D printed and characterised. Opening/closing characteristics of the microvalve for forward and backward pressures were determined. Thus, proper operation of the check microvalve so developed was confirmed.

  20. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction



    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  1. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.


    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  2. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong


    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  3. Medical 3D thermography system



    Infrared (IR) thermography determines the surface temperature of an object or human body using thermal IR measurement camera. It is an imaging technology which is contactless and completely non-invasive. These propertiesmake IR thermography a useful method of analysis that is used in various industrial applications to detect, monitor and predict irregularities in many fields from engineering to medical and biological observations. This paper presents a conceptual model of Medical 3D Thermo...

  4. Angular Distributions of Discrete Mesoscale Mapping Functions

    Kroszczyński Krzysztof


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of analyses of numerical experiments concerning GPS signal propagation delays in the atmosphere and the discrete mapping functions defined on their basis. The delays were determined using data from the mesoscale non-hydrostatic weather model operated in the Centre of Applied Geomatics, Military University of Technology. A special attention was paid to investigating angular characteristics of GPS slant delays for low angles of elevation. The investigation proved that the temporal and spatial variability of the slant delays depends to a large extent on current weather conditions

  5. Numerical Analysis of 3-D Internal Flow Field for the Motor with Swing Nozzle%具有摆动喷管发动机三维内流场数值分析

    周红梅; 黄志勇; 李季颖


    分析了喷管摆动对发动机内流场的影响,针对喷管摆动情况下的流场特点,采用动网格技术及用户自定义( UDF)编程,实现与喷管摆动相对应计算区域的实时变化,并对具有摆动喷管的发动机三维内流场进行了数值模拟,得到了发动机内流场的详细情况.%According to the characters of the flow field in the case of nozzle swaying, dynamic mesh and UDF programming technology are used to realize the real-time changing of the calculating area corresponding to nozzle swaying. This paper simulates the 3-D internal flow field for the motor with swing nozzle, obtains the detailed distribution about the internal flow field for the motor and analyses the effect on the motor's internal flow field when the nozzle sways.

  6. A356合金3D Kagome点阵夹芯板低压熔模铸造工艺%Numerical Simulation of A356 Truss Core Panels by Low Pressure Investment Casting

    董多; 朱冬冬; 贺庆; 周兆忠; 倪成员; 魏尊杰


    3D-Kagome点阵夹芯板为研究对象,采用Anycasting软件对A356合金点阵夹芯板的低压熔模铸造过程进行数值模拟,研究了浇注系统及主要的工艺参数对A356合金点阵夹芯板成形的影响,并在此基础上进行了工艺优化.结果表明,随着浇注温度提高,金属液的充型能力增加,缺陷减少,但当温度超过770℃时,缩松、缩孔缺陷有增加的趋势.通过模拟计算,确定了点阵夹芯板最佳浇注工艺:浇注温度为770℃,型壳预热温度为200℃,充型速度为40 mm/s,并将模拟试验结果进行试验验证,表明该工艺切实可行.

  7. 3D silicon strip detectors

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail:; Bates, Richard [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pellegrini, Giulio [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Szumlak, Tomasz [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)


    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of

  8. Efficient construction of unified continuous and discontinuous Galerkin formulations for the 3D Euler equations

    Abdi, Daniel S.; Giraldo, Francis X.


    A unified approach for the numerical solution of the 3D hyperbolic Euler equations using high order methods, namely continuous Galerkin (CG) and discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods, is presented. First, we examine how classical CG that uses a global storage scheme can be constructed within the DG framework using constraint imposition techniques commonly used in the finite element literature. Then, we implement and test a simplified version in the Non-hydrostatic Unified Model of the Atmosphere (NUMA) for the case of explicit time integration and a diagonal mass matrix. Constructing CG within the DG framework allows CG to benefit from the desirable properties of DG such as, easier hp-refinement, better stability etc. Moreover, this representation allows for regional mixing of CG and DG depending on the flow regime in an area. The different flavors of CG and DG in the unified implementation are then tested for accuracy and performance using a suite of benchmark problems representative of cloud-resolving scale, meso-scale and global-scale atmospheric dynamics. The value of our unified approach is that we are able to show how to carry both CG and DG methods within the same code and also offer a simple recipe for modifying an existing CG code to DG and vice versa.

  9. Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers

    Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang


    Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of assem

  10. 3D-Printed Biopolymers for Tissue Engineering Application

    Xiaoming Li


    Full Text Available 3D printing technology has recently gained substantial interest for potential applications in tissue engineering due to the ability of making a three-dimensional object of virtually any shape from a digital model. 3D-printed biopolymers, which combine the 3D printing technology and biopolymers, have shown great potential in tissue engineering applications and are receiving significant attention, which has resulted in the development of numerous research programs regarding the material systems which are available for 3D printing. This review focuses on recent advances in the development of biopolymer materials, including natural biopolymer-based materials and synthetic biopolymer-based materials prepared using 3D printing technology, and some future challenges and applications of this technology are discussed.

  11. Feasibility of Bioprinting with a Modified Desktop 3D Printer.

    Goldstein, Todd A; Epstein, Casey J; Schwartz, John; Krush, Alex; Lagalante, Dan J; Mercadante, Kevin P; Zeltsman, David; Smith, Lee P; Grande, Daniel A


    Numerous studies have shown the capabilities of three-dimensional (3D) printing for use in the medical industry. At the time of this publication, basic home desktop 3D printer kits can cost as little as $300, whereas medical-specific 3D bioprinters can cost more than $300,000. The purpose of this study is to show how a commercially available desktop 3D printer could be modified to bioprint an engineered poly-l-lactic acid scaffold containing viable chondrocytes in a bioink. Our bioprinter was used to create a living 3D functional tissue-engineered cartilage scaffold. In this article, we detail the design, production, and calibration of this bioprinter. In addition, the bioprinted cells were tested for viability, proliferation, biochemistry, and gene expression; these tests showed that the cells survived the printing process, were able to continue dividing, and produce the extracellular matrix expected of chondrocytes.

  12. 3D-printing technologies for electrochemical applications.

    Ambrosi, Adriano; Pumera, Martin


    Since its conception during the 80s, 3D-printing, also known as additive manufacturing, has been receiving unprecedented levels of attention and interest from industry and research laboratories. This is in addition to end users, who have benefited from the pervasiveness of desktop-size and relatively cheap printing machines available. 3D-printing enables almost infinite possibilities for rapid prototyping. Therefore, it has been considered for applications in numerous research fields, ranging from mechanical engineering, medicine, and materials science to chemistry. Electrochemistry is another branch of science that can certainly benefit from 3D-printing technologies, paving the way for the design and fabrication of cheaper, higher performing, and ubiquitously available electrochemical devices. Here, we aim to provide a general overview of the most commonly available 3D-printing methods along with a review of recent electrochemistry related studies adopting 3D-printing as a possible rapid prototyping fabrication tool.

  13. Numerical model simulating water flow and contaminant and sediment transport in watershed systems of 1-d stream-river network, 2-d overland regime, and 3-d subsurface media (WASH123d: version 1.0). Final report

    Yeh, G.; Cheng, H.; Cheng, J.; Lin, H.C.; Martin, W.D.


    This report presents the development of a numerical model simulating water flow and contaminant and sediment transport in watershed systems of one-dimensional river/stream network, two-dimensional overland regime, and three-dimensional subsurface media. The model is composed of two modules: flow and transport. Three options are provided in modeling the flow module in river/ stream network and overland regime: the kinematic wave approach, diffusion wave approach, and dynamic wave approach. The kinematic and diffusion wave approaches are known to be numerically robust in terms of numerical convergency and stability; i.e., they can generate convergent and stable simulations over a wide range of ground surface slopes in the entire watershed. The question is the accuracy of these simulations. The kinematic wave approach usually produces accurate solutions only over the region of steep slopes. The diffusion wave approach normally gives accurate solutions over the region of mild to steep slopes. However, neither approach has the ability to yield accurate solutions over the region of small slopes, in which the inertial forces are no longer negligible compared to the gravitational forces. The kinematic wave approach cannot address the problems of backwater effects. On the other hand, a dynamic wave approach, having included all forces, can theoretically have the potential to generate accurate simulations over all ranges of slopes in a watershed. The subsurface flow is described by Richard`s equation where water flow through saturated-unsaturated porous media is accounted for.

  14. 三维圆柱坐标系下FDTD法对电磁波传播测井的数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of Eletromagnetic Propagation Logging by FDTD in 3-D Cylindrical Coordinates

    姚军; 范晓敏; 王斌


    Eletromagnetic Propagation Logging Tool (EPT) is a high-frequency electromagnetic logging tool. It can measure the permittivity of formation, in some cases, it is better than resis-tivity logging in regard to the distinction between oil and water layer. The FDTD is used to make forward modeling of electromagnetic propagation logging in simple 3-D cylindrical formation, the Mur first order and second order absorbing boundary conditions are used in the different bounda-ries of cylinder models, then a special method is used to calculate the eletromagnetic fields in the central axis of cylinder models. On this basis, simulated are the responses of electromagnetic propagation logging in oil-water layer, the result is good.%电磁波传播测井EPT(Eletromaganetic Propagation Logging Tool)是一种高频电磁波测井方法,它可以测量地层的介电常数,在区分油水层方而有时较电阻率测井效果明显.运用时域有限差分法FDTD(Finite DifferenceTime Domain Method)法在三维圆柱坐标系下对电磁波传播测井进行了数值模拟,在圆柱体模型的不同边界处综合运用了Mur一阶和Mur二阶吸收边界条件并且在中心轴上对电磁场的计算运用了特殊的处理方法.在此基础上模拟分析了电磁波传播测井在油水层中的测井响应特征,得到了良好的效果.

  15. Radiative transfer with scattering for domain-decomposed 3D MHD simulations of cool stellar atmospheres. Numerical methods and application to the quiet, non-magnetic, surface of a solar-type star

    Hayek, W.; Asplund, M.; Carlsson, M.; Trampedach, R.; Collet, R.; Gudiksen, B. V.; Hansteen, V. H.; Leenaarts, J.


    Aims: We present the implementation of a radiative transfer solver with coherent scattering in the new BIFROST code for radiative magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) simulations of stellar surface convection. The code is fully parallelized using MPI domain decomposition, which allows for large grid sizes and improved resolution of hydrodynamical structures. We apply the code to simulate the surface granulation in a solar-type star, ignoring magnetic fields, and investigate the importance of coherent scattering for the atmospheric structure. Methods: A scattering term is added to the radiative transfer equation, requiring an iterative computation of the radiation field. We use a short-characteristics-based Gauss-Seidel acceleration scheme to compute radiative flux divergences for the energy equation. The effects of coherent scattering are tested by comparing the temperature stratification of three 3D time-dependent hydrodynamical atmosphere models of a solar-type star: without scattering, with continuum scattering only, and with both continuum and line scattering. Results: We show that continuum scattering does not have a significant impact on the photospheric temperature structure for a star like the Sun. Including scattering in line-blanketing, however, leads to a decrease of temperatures by about 350 K below log10 τ5000 ⪉ -4. The effect is opposite to that of 1D hydrostatic models in radiative equilibrium, where scattering reduces the cooling effect of strong LTE lines in the higher layers of the photosphere. Coherent line scattering also changes the temperature distribution in the high atmosphere, where we observe stronger fluctuations compared to a treatment of lines as true absorbers.

  16. Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer



    Full Text Available This study is for the BSHRM Students of Batangas State University (BatStateU ARASOF for the researchers believe that the Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer would be helpful in their degree program especially on making creative, artistic, personalized and decorative chocolate designs. The researchers used the Prototyping model as procedural method for the successful development and implementation of the hardware and software. This method has five phases which are the following: quick plan, quick design, prototype construction, delivery and feedback and communication. This study was evaluated by the BSHRM Students and the assessment of the respondents regarding the software and hardware application are all excellent in terms of Accuracy, Effecitveness, Efficiency, Maintainability, Reliability and User-friendliness. Also, the overall level of acceptability of the design project as evaluated by the respondents is excellent. With regard to the observation about the best raw material to use in 3D printing, the chocolate is good to use as the printed material is slightly distorted,durable and very easy to prepare; the icing is also good to use as the printed material is not distorted and is very durable but consumes time to prepare; the flour is not good as the printed material is distorted, not durable but it is easy to prepare. The computation of the economic viability level of 3d printer with reference to ROI is 37.14%. The recommendation of the researchers in the design project are as follows: adding a cooling system so that the raw material will be more durable, development of a more simplified version and improving the extrusion process wherein the user do not need to stop the printing process just to replace the empty syringe with a new one.

  17. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    Powell, Mark W.


    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  18. How 3-D Movies Work



    难度:★★★★☆词数:450 建议阅读时间:8分钟 Most people see out of two eyes. This is a basic fact of humanity,but it’s what makes possible the illusion of depth(纵深幻觉) that 3-D movies create. Human eyes are spaced about two inches apart, meaning that each eye gives the brain a slightly different perspective(透视感)on the same object. The brain then uses this variance to quickly determine an object’s distance.

  19. Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction

    Martin Paul Evison


    Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

  20. The PRISM3D paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    Dowsett, H.; Robinson, M.; Haywood, A.M.; Salzmann, U.; Hill, Daniel; Sohl, L.E.; Chandler, M.; Williams, Mark; Foley, K.; Stoll, D.K.


    The Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) paleoenvironmental reconstruction is an internally consistent and comprehensive global synthesis of a past interval of relatively warm and stable climate. It is regularly used in model studies that aim to better understand Pliocene climate, to improve model performance in future climate scenarios, and to distinguish model-dependent climate effects. The PRISM reconstruction is constantly evolving in order to incorporate additional geographic sites and environmental parameters, and is continuously refined by independent research findings. The new PRISM three dimensional (3D) reconstruction differs from previous PRISM reconstructions in that it includes a subsurface ocean temperature reconstruction, integrates geochemical sea surface temperature proxies to supplement the faunal-based temperature estimates, and uses numerical models for the first time to augment fossil data. Here we describe the components of PRISM3D and describe new findings specific to the new reconstruction. Highlights of the new PRISM3D reconstruction include removal of Hudson Bay and the Great Lakes and creation of open waterways in locations where the current bedrock elevation is less than 25m above modern sea level, due to the removal of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the reduction of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The mid-Piacenzian oceans were characterized by a reduced east-west temperature gradient in the equatorial Pacific, but PRISM3D data do not imply permanent El Niño conditions. The reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient that characterized previous PRISM reconstructions is supported by significant displacement of vegetation belts toward the poles, is extended into the Arctic Ocean, and is confirmed by multiple proxies in PRISM3D. Arctic warmth coupled with increased dryness suggests the formation of warm and salty paleo North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and a more vigorous thermohaline circulation system that may

  1. Modeling 3D Objects for Navigation Purposes Using Laser Scanning

    Cezary Specht


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the creation of 3d models and their applications in navigation. It contains a review of available methods and geometric data sources, focusing mostly on terrestrial laser scanning. It presents detailed description, from field survey to numerical elaboration, how to construct accurate model of a typical few storey building as a hypothetical reference in complex building navigation. Hence, the paper presents fields where 3d models are being used and their potential new applications.

  2. The Application of 3-D Visible Technology to Reservoir Management

    Yu Long; LIU Tao


    The paper deals with the application of 3 -D visible technology to reservoir management. Making use of this method for expanding - spread data point in reservoir management, can discard the false and retain the true during data recording. As a result, The quality of data recording is ensured. In reservoir description, the reservoir characteristics, such as space distribution,physical change and fluid distribution may be identified by restoring palaeostructures, building - up 3-D facics tract model and 3-D fracture system model. Seismic interpretation, geologic modeling and numerical simulation are well integrated so that they can be promote reservoir performance management to develop into the intensive management pattern.

  3. Generalized Method of Variational Analysis for 3-D Flow

    兰伟仁; 黄思训; 项杰


    The generalized method of variational analysis (GMVA) suggested for 2-D wind observations by Huang et al. is extended to 3-D cases. Just as in 2-D cases, the regularization idea is applied. But due to the complexity of the 3-D cases, the vertical vorticity is taken as a stable functional. The results indicate that wind observations can be both variationally optimized and filtered. The efficiency of GMVA is also checked in a numerical test. Finally, 3-D wind observations with random disturbances are manipulated by GMVA after being filtered.

  4. 大型地下立交正交下穿段三维有限元数值分析%3D FE Numerical Analysis on Undercrossing Section of Underground Interchange

    蒋树屏; 石波; 林志; 晋学辉


    In the large-sized underground interchange, the undercrossing tunnel is always the lowest part in the whole project. Therefore, water pump house should be set up, which will result in multi-tunnel excavation. The construction process of the undercrossing section of Dongpingshan underground interchange in Xiamen is dynamically simulated by means of 3D finite element method and the rules of the displacement and deformation induced are analyzed. The calculation results show that differential settlement, differential lateral displacement and deformation will occur to the under-crossing section during the construction of the undercrossing tunnel and the water pump house, the rock mass of the undercrossing section and the water pump house should be reinforced and protective steel arches should be set up at the corresponding positions of the overlying tunnel.%在大型互通式地下立交工程中,下穿隧道往往都处于整个地下立交工程的最低点,需要设置排水泵房,于是造成了在一定空间范围内的多洞室开挖。下穿隧道及排水泵房的修建不可避免地会对上覆小净距隧道产生影响,本文针对地下立交工程中隧道正交下穿段,以厦门东坪山地下立交工程为背景,采用三维有限元方法对新建下穿隧道的施工过程进行动态模拟,分析下穿段隧道动态开挖时,整个正交下穿段位移和变形的变化规律。计算结果表明下穿隧道和排水泵房施工时整个下穿段将产生不均匀沉降、不均匀侧移和变形,需要对下穿段隧道和排水泵房所处的围岩进行加固,并在上覆隧道相应处设置防护钢拱架。

  5. 3D medical thermography device

    Moghadam, Peyman


    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  6. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong


    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  7. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C


    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  8. Dimensionality Reduction of Laplacian Embedding for 3D Mesh Reconstruction

    Mardhiyah, I.; Madenda, S.; Salim, R. A.; Wiryana, I. M.


    Laplacian eigenbases are the important thing that we have to process from 3D mesh information. The information of geometric 3D mesh are include vertices locations and the connectivity of graph. Due to spectral analysis, geometric 3D mesh for large and sparse graphs with thousands of vertices is not practical to compute all the eigenvalues and eigenvector. Because of that, in this paper we discuss how to build 3D mesh reconstruction by reducing dimensionality on null eigenvalue but retain the corresponding eigenvector of Laplacian Embedding to simplify mesh processing. The result of reducing information should have to retained the connectivity of graph. The advantages of dimensionality reduction is for computational eficiency and problem simplification. Laplacian eigenbases is the point of dimensionality reduction for 3D mesh reconstruction. In this paper, we show how to reconstruct geometric 3D mesh after approximation step of 3D mesh by dimensionality reduction. Dimensionality reduction shown by Laplacian Embedding matrix. Furthermore, the effectiveness of 3D mesh reconstruction method will evaluated by geometric error, differential error, and final error. Numerical approximation error of our result are small and low complexity of computational.

  9. 3D biometrics systems and applications

    Zhang, David


    Includes discussions on popular 3D imaging technologies, combines them with biometric applications, and then presents real 3D biometric systems Introduces many efficient 3D feature extraction, matching, and fusion algorithms Techniques presented have been supported by experimental results using various 3D biometric classifications

  10. A review of the LATEX project: mesoscale to submesoscale processes in a coastal environment

    Petrenko, Anne A.; Doglioli, Andrea M.; Nencioli, Francesco; Kersalé, Marion; Hu, Ziyuan; d'Ovidio, Francesco


    The main objective of the LAgrangian Transport EXperiment (LATEX) project was to study the influence of coastal mesoscale and submesoscale physical processes on circulation dynamics, cross-shelf exchanges, and biogeochemistry in the western continental shelf of the Gulf of Lion, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. LATEX was a five-year multidisciplinary project based on the combined analysis of numerical model simulations and multi-platform field experiments. The model component included a ten-year realistic 3D numerical simulation, with a 1 km horizontal resolution over the gulf, nested in a coarser 3 km resolution model. The in situ component involved four cruises, including a large-scale multidisciplinary campaign with two research vessels in 2010. This review concentrates on the physics results of LATEX, addressing three main subjects: (1) the investigation of the mesoscale to submesoscale processes. The eddies are elliptic, baroclinic, and anticyclonic; the strong thermal and saline front is density compensated. Their generation processes are studied; (2) the development of sampling strategies for their direct observations. LATEX has implemented an adaptive strategy Lagrangian tool, with a reference software available on the web, to perform offshore campaigns in a Lagrangian framework; (3) the quantification of horizontal mixing and cross-shelf exchanges. Lateral diffusivity coefficients, calculated in various ways including a novel technique, are in the range classically encountered for their associated scales. Cross-shelf fluxes have been calculated, after retrieving the near-inertial oscillation contribution. Further perspectives are discussed, especially for the ongoing challenge of studying submesoscale features remotely and from in situ data.

  11. Numerical simulation of sediment scouring due to horizontal jet based on Flow-3 D%基于Flow-3D的水平射流冲刷泥沙数值模拟

    刘成林; 陈宇豪


    To analyze the whole process of sluice downstream sediment scouring due to horizontal jet, the downstream scouring process of a fixed floor were simulated by using sediment scour model, RNG k-εmodel and FAVOR method in Flow-3D soft-ware and on the basis of the hydraulic model test. The test simulation calculation was carried out according to the conditions of o-riginal hydraulic model. Combining with the result of hydraulic model tests, the water surface profile, velocity distribution, scou-ring hole depth and dune height during the scouring process were compared and analyzed. The result shows that the water surface profile and velocity distribution of the model test and simulation is consistent well, also the simulated scouring hole depth and dune height are in good agreement with the test. The sediment motion is analyzed, and the scouring process in case of different sediment grain size is simulated and the results are compared. It is concluded that the maximum scour depth and dune height de-creases with increase of particle size when the scouring reaches the equilibrium, which is consistent with the theoretical analysis. It is proved that the sediment scouring model can be used in the analysis of variables in hydraulic tests.%为了模拟分析闸口水平射流对下游泥沙冲刷的全过程,基于水工模型试验,采用Flow-3D软件中的泥沙冲刷模型结合RNG 模型和FAVOR方法,进行了水平射流冲刷固定底板下游泥沙的模拟试验。根据原水工模型条件,结合模型试验结果,对冲刷过程中的水面线、流速分布、冲坑深度和堆丘高度进行了对比分析。结果显示,数值模拟与原试验结果中水面线和流速分布吻合度很高,冲刷过程中的冲坑深度与堆丘的高度也很接近。分析了冲刷过程中的泥沙运动,模拟了不同粒径泥沙的冲刷过程并将结果进行对比,发现达到冲刷平衡阶段时冲坑深度与堆丘高度随泥沙粒径的增大

  12. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong


    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  13. Application of mesoscale modeling optimization to development of advanced materials

    SONG Xiaoyan


    The rapid development of computer modeling in recent years offers opportunities for materials preparation in a more economic and efficient way. In the present paper, a practicable route for research and development of advanced materials by applying the visual and quantitative modeling technique on the mesoscale is introduced. A 3D simulation model is developed to describe the microstructure evolution during the whole process of deformation, recrystallization and grain growth in a material containing particles. In the light of simulation optimization, the long-term stabilized fine grain structures ideal for high-temperature applications are designed and produced. In addition, the feasibility, reliability and prospects of material development based on mesoscale modeling are discussed.

  14. Numerical Research on 3-D Flow Field Characteristics within the Slipstream of a Low Loaded Propeller%某轻载螺旋桨滑流区三维流场特性数值研究

    段中喆; 刘沛清; 屈秋林


    When the revolving slipstream fly past the other parts of aircraft, it will make different degree of changes to the drag/lift property and stability to the aircraft This paper made numerical research on three dimensional flow field of a low loaded propeller. Under design conditions ( headway 66. 889 m/s, revolving velocity 2 575 rpm) , the Slipstream flow field of a Propeller is solved by RANS e-quations with structured mesh. Through verification of reliability to mesh, the mesh has chose 12 million mesh. The numerical result consists of the flow field and vortex field in the propeller slipstream. With comparison to the calculation result of standard strip theory, it is shown that for light load propeller with the side small contraction of slipstream, the vortex system structure of slipstream is comprised of vortex zone within the propeller axis and vortex cylinder model of the blade tip; in the slipstream cross section after 0. 6R a-way from downstream of propeller rotation plane, the axial, circular and radial induced velocity coefficient by standard strip theory and Prandtl's blade tip corrected result is in consistent with the result of three dimensional flows numerical simulation. It verified the correctness of standard strip theory and also provided scientific basis for the correction of actuator disk model%螺旋桨旋转的滑流掠过飞机的其他部件将使飞机的气动性能有不同程度的改变对螺旋桨滑流流场特性的分析在对螺旋桨飞机设计中十分重要.三维实体数值模拟某轻载螺旋桨流场,在设计工况下(航行速度66.889m/s,转速2575 r/min)采用全结构网格,求解Navier-Stokes(N-S)方程.通过对网格依赖性的验证,计算结果选取了1200万网格,深入分析了螺旋桨滑流区三维流动现象及其流场和涡场结构.通过与片条理论计算结果相比,证实了对于轻载螺旋桨,滑流区侧收缩小;滑流区的涡系结构主要由桨轴区的涡带和桨尖区的涡柱体

  15. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    Jenny Emnéus


    Full Text Available Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements.

  16. Gis-Based Smart Cartography Using 3d Modeling

    Malinverni, E. S.; Tassetti, A. N.


    3D City Models have evolved to be important tools for urban decision processes and information systems, especially in planning, simulation, analysis, documentation and heritage management. On the other hand existing and in use numerical cartography is often not suitable to be used in GIS because not geometrically and topologically correctly structured. The research aim is to 3D structure and organize a numeric cartography for GIS and turn it into CityGML standardized features. The work is framed around a first phase of methodological analysis aimed to underline which existing standard (like ISO and OGC rules) can be used to improve the quality requirement of a cartographic structure. Subsequently, from this technical specifics, it has been investigated the translation in formal contents, using an owner interchange software (SketchUp), to support some guide lines implementations to generate a GIS3D structured in GML3. It has been therefore predisposed a test three-dimensional numerical cartography (scale 1:500, generated from range data captured by 3D laser scanner), tested on its quality according to the previous standard and edited when and where necessary. Cad files and shapefiles are converted into a final 3D model (Google SketchUp model) and then exported into a 3D city model (CityGML LoD1/LoD2). The GIS3D structure has been managed in a GIS environment to run further spatial analysis and energy performance estimate, not achievable in a 2D environment. In particular geometrical building parameters (footprint, volume etc.) are computed and building envelop thermal characteristics are derived from. Lastly, a simulation is carried out to deal with asbestos and home renovating charges and show how the built 3D city model can support municipal managers with risk diagnosis of the present situation and development of strategies for a sustainable redevelop.

  17. 3D printing of microscopic bacterial communities

    Connell, Jodi L.; Ritschdorff, Eric T.; Whiteley, Marvin; Shear, Jason B.


    Bacteria communicate via short-range physical and chemical signals, interactions known to mediate quorum sensing, sporulation, and other adaptive phenotypes. Although most in vitro studies examine bacterial properties averaged over large populations, the levels of key molecular determinants of bacterial fitness and pathogenicity (e.g., oxygen, quorum-sensing signals) may vary over micrometer scales within small, dense cellular aggregates believed to play key roles in disease transmission. A detailed understanding of how cell–cell interactions contribute to pathogenicity in natural, complex environments will require a new level of control in constructing more relevant cellular models for assessing bacterial phenotypes. Here, we describe a microscopic three-dimensional (3D) printing strategy that enables multiple populations of bacteria to be organized within essentially any 3D geometry, including adjacent, nested, and free-floating colonies. In this laser-based lithographic technique, microscopic containers are formed around selected bacteria suspended in gelatin via focal cross-linking of polypeptide molecules. After excess reagent is removed, trapped bacteria are localized within sealed cavities formed by the cross-linked gelatin, a highly porous material that supports rapid growth of fully enclosed cellular populations and readily transmits numerous biologically active species, including polypeptides, antibiotics, and quorum-sensing signals. Using this approach, we show that a picoliter-volume aggregate of Staphylococcus aureus can display substantial resistance to β-lactam antibiotics by enclosure within a shell composed of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:24101503

  18. Supernova Remnant in 3-D


    of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through. The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave. This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron. High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these structures, but their orientation and

  19. Analysis of the cavitating flow induced by an ultrasonic horn – Numerical 3D simulation for the analysis of vapour structures and the assessment of erosion-sensitive areas

    Mottyll Stephan


    Full Text Available This paper reports the outcome of a numerical study of ultrasonic cavitation using a CFD flow algorithm based on a compressible density-based finite volume method with a low-Machnumber consistent flux function and an explicit time integration [15; 18] in combination with an erosion-detecting flow analysis procedure. The model is validated against erosion data of an ultrasonic horn for different gap widths between the horn tip and a counter sample which has been intensively investigated in previous material studies at the Ruhr University Bochum [23] as well as on first optical in-house flow measurement data which is presented in a companion paper [13]. Flow features such as subharmonic cavitation oscillation frequencies as well as constricted vapour cloud structures can also be observed by the vapour regions predicted in our simulation as well as by the detected collapse event field (collapse detector [12]. With a statistical analysis of transient wall loads we can determine the erosion sensitive areas qualitatively. Our simulation method can reproduce the influence of the gap width on vapour structure and on location of cavitation erosion.

  20. High-order high-density 3D multi-wave multi-component elastic wave field separating forward numerical simulation%高阶高密度三维多波多分量弹性波波场分离正演数值模拟

    陈可洋; 吴清岭; 范兴才; 陈树民; 李来林; 王建民; 关昕; 刘振宽


    For the reason that the 2D full elastic wave simulation method cannot correctly depict the real 3D earth medium’s wave re-sponses, 3D full elastic wave field separating forward numerical simulation is carried out, which is the important mean of comprehen-sively recognize and study the seismic wave’s propagating law in 3D earth medium. This paper started from 3D first order velocity-stress elastic wave equation, used high-order (16th) staggered grid finite difference method and PML absorbing boundary condition of inside and outside bordering method and combined with 3D high-order spatial wave separating operator based on divergence and curl law. Taking 3D geologic model as an example, this paper designed and simulated acquisition of the field surface multi-compo-nent seismic data, zero offset VSP records and nonzero offset VSP records, and then carried out the high-accuracy high-density for-ward numerical simulation of 3D full elastic wave fields, and used 3D visualization on the computational results. The theoretical anal-ysis and the numerical experiments showed that the simulation results contained three multi-component hybrid wave field, one pure compress wave field and three pure shear wave field. Every formational interface’s complex wave field such as reflective waves and transformation waves could be obviously recognized and traced within 3D elastic wave snapshots and numerical records. The comput-ed results had perfect numerical accuracy and boundary absorbing effect. The adopted 3D elastic wave field separating method could also guide for the accurate and effective of the practical multi-wave multi-component seismic data wave field separating method and the reverse-time migration imagery. This method could be extended in multi-wave multi-component seismic prospecting.%针对二维全波场弹性波模拟无法准确表征真实的三维地球介质波场响应,为此首次开展了三维弹性波全波场波场分离正演数值模拟研究,该

  1. 2 types of spicules "observed" in 3D realistic models

    Martínez-Sykora, Juan


    Realistic numerical 3D models of the outer solar atmosphere show two different kind of spicule-like phenomena, as also observed on the solar limb. The numerical models are calculated using the 2 types of spicules "observed" in 3D realistic models Oslo Staggered Code (OSC) to solve the full MHD equations with non-grey and NLTE radiative transfer and thermal conduction along the magnetic field lines. The two types of spicules arise as a natural result of the dynamical evolution in the models. We discuss the different properties of these two types of spicules, their differences from observed spicules and what needs to be improved in the models.

  2. Reconnection experiments including 3D magnetic nulls

    Le, A.; Egedal, J.; Vrublevskis, A.


    A rich collection of magnetic reconnection scenarios is possible in three dimensions depending on the topological and geometric structure of the magnetic field [1]. In recent experiments at the Versatile Toroidal Facility (VTF) three-dimensional effects were essential even in nearly axisymmetric plasmas with a non-vanishing toroidal field [2]. To explore reconnection in 3D geometries including magnetic null points, a new adjustable set of coils will be installed in the vacuum chamber of VTF. The range of vacuum magnetic field topologies attainable in VTF will be explored numerically. Plasma reconnection experiments will be run in these configurations, and measurements will be presented if available. [4pt] [1] CE Parnell, et al., (2009) ``Three-Dimensional Magnetic Reconnection, in Magnetic Coupling between the Interior and the Atmosphere of the Sun,'' eds. S.S. Hasan and R.J. Rutten, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin. [0ex] [2] Katz, N. et al., (2010) Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 255004.

  3. 3-D nonlinear evolution of MHD instabilities

    Bateman, G.; Hicks, H. R.; Wooten, J. W.


    The nonlinear evolution of ideal MHD internal instabilities is investigated in straight cylindrical geometry by means of a 3-D initial-value computer code. These instabilities are characterized by pairs of velocity vortex cells rolling off each other and helically twisted down the plasma column. The cells persist until the poloidal velocity saturates at a few tenths of the Alfven velocity. The nonlinear phase is characterized by convection around these essentially fixed vortex cells. For example, the initially centrally peaked temperature profile is convected out and around to form an annulus of high temperature surrounding a small region of lower temperature. Weak, centrally localized instabilities do not alter the edge of the plasma. Strong, large-scale instabilities, resulting from a stronger longitudinal equilibrium current, drive the plasma against the wall. After three examples of instability are analyzed in detail, the numerical methods and their verification are discussed.

  4. 2-D Versus 3-D Magnetotelluric Data Interpretation

    Ledo, Juanjo


    In recent years, the number of publications dealing with the mathematical and physical 3-D aspects of the magnetotelluric method has increased drastically. However, field experiments on a grid are often impractical and surveys are frequently restricted to single or widely separated profiles. So, in many cases we find ourselves with the following question: is the applicability of the 2-D hypothesis valid to extract geoelectric and geological information from real 3-D environments? The aim of this paper is to explore a few instructive but general situations to understand the basics of a 2-D interpretation of 3-D magnetotelluric data and to determine which data subset (TE-mode or TM-mode) is best for obtaining the electrical conductivity distribution of the subsurface using 2-D techniques. A review of the mathematical and physical fundamentals of the electromagnetic fields generated by a simple 3-D structure allows us to prioritise the choice of modes in a 2-D interpretation of responses influenced by 3-D structures. This analysis is corroborated by numerical results from synthetic models and by real data acquired by other authors. One important result of this analysis is that the mode most unaffected by 3-D effects depends on the position of the 3-D structure with respect to the regional 2-D strike direction. When the 3-D body is normal to the regional strike, the TE-mode is affected mainly by galvanic effects, while the TM-mode is affected by galvanic and inductive effects. In this case, a 2-D interpretation of the TM-mode is prone to error. When the 3-D body is parallel to the regional 2-D strike the TE-mode is affected by galvanic and inductive effects and the TM-mode is affected mainly by galvanic effects, making it more suitable for 2-D interpretation. In general, a wise 2-D interpretation of 3-D magnetotelluric data can be a guide to a reasonable geological interpretation.

  5. Metrology of 3D nanostructures.

    Barsic, Anthony; Piestun, Rafael; Boye, Robert R.


    We propose a superresolution technique to resolve dense clusters of blinking emitters. The method relies on two basic assumptions: the emitters are statistically independent, and a model of the imaging system is known. We numerically analyze the performance limits of the method as a function of the emitter density and the noise level. Numerical simulations show that five closely packed emitters can be resolved and localized to a precision of 17nm. The experimental resolution of five quantum dots located within a diffraction limited spot confirms the applicability of this approach.

  6. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel


    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  7. 双转子对旋风轮设计及三维数值验证%Design of A Counter-rotating Wind Turbine and Validation with 3-D Numerical Simulation

    王掩刚; 赵龙波; 国睿; 任思源


    On the basis of investigating the advantages and disadvantages of Betz and Schmitz theory, the procedure of a new wind machine which is a horizontal axial counter-rotating wind turbine has been shown. A mini-type counter-rotating wind turbine has been designed successfully by this method. The performance and detailed flow structure of the designed machine has been obtained by three dimensional numerical simulation. The results show that; (l)Compared with the Betz theory, Schmitz theory is reasonable which could be used in the design process of counter-rotating wind turbine. However there are some faults of Schmitz theory because the setting angle near the hub section of wind rotor is larger when Schmitz theory is used. ( 2 ) Counter-rotating wind turbine could be attainable in engineering. The designed wind turbine in this paper achieved the aim and the power of downstream rotor is greater than the upstream rotor' s. (3)There is no separation on the suction side when the counter-rotating wind turbine is working under the designed condition, the pressure gradient is reasonable.%详细分析了Betz理论和Schmitz理论的优势和不足,给出了对旋式水平轴风力机设计流程,设计了小型双转子对旋式风力机,结合三维数值分析手段对所设计的风力机进行了设计工况的流动分析,研究结果表明:(1) Schmitz理论相对合理,但仍然存在缺陷,依据该理论所计算的翼型根部安装角过大;(2)双转子对旋式风力机在工程上是可实现的,本文所设计的风力机基本达到设计目标,下游风轮输出功率大于上游风轮;(3)设计工况下所设计的双转子对旋风力机两排叶片吸力面没有出现分离,压力梯度控制合理,均工作于比较理想的气动状态下.

  8. 巷道聚焦电流法超前探测的三维有限元数值模拟%3D finite element numerical simulation of advanced detection in roadway for DC focus method

    邓小康; 柳建新; 刘海飞; 童孝忠; 柳卓


    Within the roadway advanced detection methods, DC resistivity method has an extensive application because of its simple principle and operation. Numerical simulation of the effect of focusing current on advanced detection was carried out using a three-dimensional finite element method (FEM), meanwhile the electric-field distribution of the point source and nine-point power source were calculated and analyzed with the same electric charges. The results show that the nine-point power source array has a very good ability to focus, and the DC focus method can be used to predict the aquifer abnormality body precisely. By comparing the FEM modelling results with physical simulation results from soil sink, it is shown that the accuracy of forward simulation meets the requirement and the artificial disturbance from roadway has no impact on the DC focus method.%  在巷道超前探测的方法中,电阻率法由于原理简单、操作方便,有着很好的应用前景。运用三维有限元法对聚焦电流法的超前预报效果进行数值模拟,计算和分析点电源和九点式电源在供相同电流的情况下电场的分布情况。结果表明:九点式布极方式有很好的聚焦能力,聚焦电流法能准确地发现掘进面前方含水异常体。将数值模拟和物理土槽试验进行对比,正演模拟精度符合要求,巷道中的人为干扰对聚焦电流法超前探测没有影响。

  9. Adaptive interrogation for 3D-PIV

    Novara, Matteo; Ianiro, Andrea; Scarano, Fulvio


    A method to adapt the shape and orientation of interrogation volumes for 3D-PIV motion analysis is introduced, aimed to increase the local spatial resolution. The main application of this approach is the detailed analysis of complex 3D and vortex-dominated flows that exhibit high vorticity in confined regions like shear layers and vortex filaments. The adaptive criterion is based on the analysis of the components of the local velocity gradient tensor, which returns the level of anisotropy of velocity spatial fluctuations. The principle to increase the local spatial resolution is based on the deformation of spherical isotropic interrogation regions, obtained by means of Gaussian weighting, into ellipsoids, with free choice of the principal axes and their directions. The interrogation region is contracted in the direction of the maximum velocity variation and elongated in the minimum one in order to maintain a constant interrogation volume. The adaptivity technique for three-dimensional PIV data takes advantage of the 3D topology of the flow, allowing increasing the spatial resolution not only in the case of shear layers, but also for vortex filaments, which is not possible for two-dimensional measurement in the plane normal to the vortex axis. The definition of the ellipsoidal interrogation region semi-axes is based on the singular values and singular directions of the local velocity gradient tensor as obtained by the singular values decomposition technique (SVD). The working principle is verified making use of numerical simulations of a shear layer and of a vortex filament. The application of the technique to data from a Tomo-PIV experiment conducted on a round jet, shows that the resolution of the shear layer at the jet exit can be considerably improved and an increase of about 25% in the vorticity peak is attained when the adaptive approach is applied. On the other hand, the peak vorticity description in the core of vortex rings is only slightly improved with

  10. 3D Printed Graphene Based Energy Storage Devices.

    Foster, Christopher W; Down, Michael P; Zhang, Yan; Ji, Xiaobo; Rowley-Neale, Samuel J; Smith, Graham C; Kelly, Peter J; Banks, Craig E


    3D printing technology provides a unique platform for rapid prototyping of numerous applications due to its ability to produce low cost 3D printed platforms. Herein, a graphene-based polylactic acid filament (graphene/PLA) has been 3D printed to fabricate a range of 3D disc electrode (3DE) configurations using a conventional RepRap fused deposition moulding (FDM) 3D printer, which requires no further modification/ex-situ curing step. To provide proof-of-concept, these 3D printed electrode architectures are characterised both electrochemically and physicochemically and are advantageously applied as freestanding anodes within Li-ion batteries and as solid-state supercapacitors. These freestanding anodes neglect the requirement for a current collector, thus offering a simplistic and cheaper alternative to traditional Li-ion based setups. Additionally, the ability of these devices' to electrochemically produce hydrogen via the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) as an alternative to currently utilised platinum based electrodes (with in electrolysers) is also performed. The 3DE demonstrates an unexpectedly high catalytic activity towards the HER (-0.46 V vs. SCE) upon the 1000th cycle, such potential is the closest observed to the desired value of platinum at (-0.25 V vs. SCE). We subsequently suggest that 3D printing of graphene-based conductive filaments allows for the simple fabrication of energy storage devices with bespoke and conceptual designs to be realised.

  11. 3D Printed Graphene Based Energy Storage Devices

    Foster, Christopher W.; Down, Michael P.; Zhang, Yan; Ji, Xiaobo; Rowley-Neale, Samuel J.; Smith, Graham C.; Kelly, Peter J.; Banks, Craig E.


    3D printing technology provides a unique platform for rapid prototyping of numerous applications due to its ability to produce low cost 3D printed platforms. Herein, a graphene-based polylactic acid filament (graphene/PLA) has been 3D printed to fabricate a range of 3D disc electrode (3DE) configurations using a conventional RepRap fused deposition moulding (FDM) 3D printer, which requires no further modification/ex-situ curing step. To provide proof-of-concept, these 3D printed electrode architectures are characterised both electrochemically and physicochemically and are advantageously applied as freestanding anodes within Li-ion batteries and as solid-state supercapacitors. These freestanding anodes neglect the requirement for a current collector, thus offering a simplistic and cheaper alternative to traditional Li-ion based setups. Additionally, the ability of these devices’ to electrochemically produce hydrogen via the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) as an alternative to currently utilised platinum based electrodes (with in electrolysers) is also performed. The 3DE demonstrates an unexpectedly high catalytic activity towards the HER (‑0.46 V vs. SCE) upon the 1000th cycle, such potential is the closest observed to the desired value of platinum at (‑0.25 V vs. SCE). We subsequently suggest that 3D printing of graphene-based conductive filaments allows for the simple fabrication of energy storage devices with bespoke and conceptual designs to be realised.

  12. Kuvaus 3D-tulostamisesta hammastekniikassa

    Munne, Mauri; Mustonen, Tuomas; Vähäjylkkä, Jaakko


    3D-tulostaminen kehittyy nopeasti ja yleistyy koko ajan. Tulostimien tarkkuuksien kehittyessä 3D-tulostus on ottamassa myös jalansijaa hammastekniikan alalta. Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on kuvata 3D-tulostamisen tilaa hammastekniikassa. 3D-tulostaminen on Suomessa vielä melko harvinaista, joten opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on koota yhteen kaikki mahdollinen tieto liittyen 3D-tulostamiseen hammastekniikassa. Tavoitteena on myös 3D-tulostimen testaaminen käytännössä aina suun skannaami...

  13. 内置螺旋弹簧换热管内流动与传热三维数值模拟%3D numerical simulation of fluid flow and heat transfer in heat exchange tube with helical coil inserts

    徐建民; 彭坤; 胡小霞; 黄伟; 余海燕


    In order to investigate single-tube heat transfer enhancement principles of heat exchange tube with helical coil inserts,the flow and heat transfer characteristics were simulated using Fluent software.The effects of spring application on flow field,pressure drop and heat transfer performance were investigated.The pitch of coil spring was set as 2 mm,4 mm,5 mm.The effects of spring pitch on the heat transfer enhancement performance were analyzed.The numerical results showed that the fluid in tube with helical coil inserts presents the helical flow,the cutting speed and the radial velocity of flow near the wall had been improved to some extent.Thus the fluid was mixed completely,boundary layer was disturbed fully and heat was exchanged thoroughly.And the temperature difference between inlet and outlet increased as well,with the maximum increase of 0.9 ℃.Under the conditions of the same Reynolds number,the Nusselt number in tube with helical coil inserts was higher than plain tube,but pressure drop and friction factor increased obviously.With the reduced spring pitch,heat transfer was enhanced and friction factor was increased.%为研究内置螺旋弹簧换热管单管强化传热原理,采用Fluent软件对内置螺旋弹簧换热管内流体流动与传热特性进行数值模拟,考察了弹簧的应用对管内流场、压降和换热性能的影响,并分别取螺旋弹簧节距p分别为2 mm、4 mm、5 mm初步研究了弹簧的节距对强化传热效果的影响。模拟结果显示:弹簧管内流体呈螺旋流动状态,管壁附近流体切向速度和径向速度有一定程度的提高,从而加剧了管内流体的混合及边界层的扰动,充分换热,弹簧管进出口温度差较光管有所增加,最高增加了0.9℃;相同雷诺数条件下,内置螺旋弹簧换热管Nu数均高于光管,而压降和阻力系数相比光管有明显增加,随着弹簧节距减小换热增强而摩擦阻力系数增加。

  14. 3D Numerical modeling of pile-soil interaction for covered sheet-piled wharf%遮帘式板桩码头结构与土共同作用3D数值模拟分析

    司海宝; 蔡正银; 俞缙


    遮帘式板桩码头作为一种全新码头结构,因缺少相关设计规范和计算方法,给工程设计、施工与优化带来很大困难。基于ABAQUS计算软件平台,利用自行二次开发的、能较好地反映土体塑性体应变和剪胀特性的“南水”双屈服面土体本构模型,对遮帘式板桩码头三维数值计算展开研究,探讨该新型码头结构与地基土体间相互作用、墙身与桩体的变形、拉杆力的变化以及桩与墙体土压力及弯矩分布与变化规律。计算结果表明,新型板桩码头结构沉降量较小,水平位移因前沿港池的开挖相对较大,由于设置遮帘桩,结构充分利用了土体自身抗剪力学特性,导致上部土体作用于前墙土压力显著减小,下部土体作用于前墙土压力显著增大,从而极大改善了前墙承受由于前沿港池开挖深度增加而迅速增大的土压力,使得结构更加稳定;同时,遮帘桩承担了较大的弯矩,增强了抗倾覆的能力,使得遮帘式板桩码头得以深水化。%For covered type of sheet pile wharf, an innovative type of sheet pile wharf, there lacks related designing regulation and calculation method. Secondary development was made on the ABAQUS software, numerical simulation was carried out for covered sheet pile wharf, and comparison was performed with the result from the prototype observation to the 32# berth of Jingtang Harbor. The following issues were discussed: interaction between the wharf structure and foundation soil, deformation of the wall and pile, variation of pull rod stress as well as the distribution and variation of soil pressure on the pile and wall. The result indicates that settlement of the wharf structure is extremely small, while the horizontal displacement seems relatively large due to the excavation of the harbor basin. The stress on the front wall was tremendously relieved because of the barrier piles, and decrease of load in

  15. 含水疏松砂岩隧洞冻结施工三维数值模拟%3-D numerical simulation of frozen construction for tunnel of water content loose sandstone

    任伯锋; 许健; 赵琨


    By using artificially ground freezing process,No.7 tunnel export of Gansu YinTao Proj ect Phase-I successfully pass through water bearing loose sandstones formations.On the basis of three-dimen-sional numerical simulation for work progress through the application of the large finite element analysis software ANSYS,this paper analyzed the displacement and stress distributions of frozen soil curtain in the process of tunnel excavation,and put forward in the construction process of some security measures,in or-der to accurately grasp the changes and development of frozen soil thickness of soil temperature,as well as determine the optimal excavation.The analysis results and engineering practice showed that the maximum tension,compression,shear stress calculation values were 3.02,0.15 and 0.97 Mpa,the safety coefficient was 13,1.9 and 1.5 respectively,and its extremum position was determined.It also showed that using freezing method through the water tunnel was reasonable in loose sandstone reservoir.In this paper,some effective measures and reasonable advice were put forward for freezing construction by integrating on-site data monitoring,which provided theoretical support for the freezing construction of No.7 tunnel export of Gansu YinTao Proj ect Phase-I,and set up a reference for similar proj ects meanwhile.%甘肃省引洮供水一期工程总干渠7#引水隧洞出口,采用冻结施工法成功穿越了含水疏松砂岩地层.应用大型有限元软件 ANSYS,对冻结施工过程进行了三维数值模拟,分析了隧洞开挖过程中冻土帷幕的位移和应力分布情况,并提出了在施工过程中的一些安全保障措施,以便准确地掌握冻土温度的变化及冻土帷幕厚度发展状况,从而确定最优的开挖时间.分析结果及工程实践表明:最大拉、压、剪应力计算值分别为3.02、0.15和0.97 Mpa,计算值相对于设计值的安全系数分别为13、1.9 和 1.5,并确定了其极值发生位置.同时也表明

  16. 3D Numerical Simulation of Excavation of Shield Tunnel in Softground%软土地区盾构法隧道施工三维数值模拟

    张社荣; 田新星; 王刚; 崔溦


    本文采用三维有限元方法,考虑软土的固结作用和隧道开挖与周边建筑物变形的相互作用,对隧道施工的全过程进行数值模拟,分析盾构法隧道施工对周边建筑物的影响.数值计算结果表明:在考虑流固耦合的条件下,盾构法隧道开挖时3~4倍洞径范围内的土体变形可能会超过土体位移的规范规定值,施工中应加强该距离范围内的土体和周边建筑物的监测;盾构法仅对开挖掌子面处附近局部区域的孔隙水压力有影响,说明软土地区盾构法隧道施工对地下水的扰动很小;通过监测数据与计算值的对比分析可以得出,典型监测点的变形规律与监测规律相同,说明在工程条件相似的软土地区采用数值模拟对盾构法隧道施工进行预测和仿真分析是可行的,具有一定的工程参考价值.%Three-dimensional finite element method was used to simulate the whole process of the tunnel construction , to analyze the impact of shield tunnel construction on surrounding buildings. During the process of analysis, the consolidation effect and the interaction of tunnel excavation and the deformation of surrounding buildings were taken into consideration. Numerical results show that; in considering the conditions of fluid-structure interaction,the deformation of the soil within 3 to 4 times of tunnel diameter may exceed the value of the specific displacement. The monitoring of soil and surrounding buildings within this range should be intensified. Shield tunnel construction influences the pore water pressure near the working face which means the groundwater disturbance of shield tunnel construction in soft tunnel is very small. The computed deformation law of typical point was the same to that of the monitoring point, which means that it is possible to forecast and simulate the process of shield tunnel construction in the similar soft clay area. The study is a valuable reference for simulation of shield

  17. Robust Reconstruction and Generalized Dual Hahn Moments Invariants Extraction for 3D Images

    Mesbah, Abderrahim; Zouhri, Amal; El Mallahi, Mostafa; Zenkouar, Khalid; Qjidaa, Hassan


    In this paper, we introduce a new set of 3D weighed dual Hahn moments which are orthogonal on a non-uniform lattice and their polynomials are numerically stable to scale, consequent, producing a set of weighted orthonormal polynomials. The dual Hahn is the general case of Tchebichef and Krawtchouk, and the orthogonality of dual Hahn moments eliminates the numerical approximations. The computational aspects and symmetry property of 3D weighed dual Hahn moments are discussed in details. To solve their inability to invariability of large 3D images, which cause to overflow issues, a generalized version of these moments noted 3D generalized weighed dual Hahn moment invariants are presented where whose as linear combination of regular geometric moments. For 3D pattern recognition, a generalized expression of 3D weighted dual Hahn moment invariants, under translation, scaling and rotation transformations, have been proposed where a new set of 3D-GWDHMIs have been provided. In experimental studies, the local and global capability of free and noisy 3D image reconstruction of the 3D-WDHMs has been compared with other orthogonal moments such as 3D Tchebichef and 3D Krawtchouk moments using Princeton Shape Benchmark database. On pattern recognition using the 3D-GWDHMIs like 3D object descriptors, the experimental results confirm that the proposed algorithm is more robust than other orthogonal moments for pattern classification of 3D images with and without noise.

  18. 3D unstructured mesh discontinuous finite element hydro

    Prasad, M.K.; Kershaw, D.S.; Shaw, M.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    The authors present detailed features of the ICF3D hydrodynamics code used for inertial fusion simulations. This code is intended to be a state-of-the-art upgrade of the well-known fluid code, LASNEX. ICF3D employs discontinuous finite elements on a discrete unstructured mesh consisting of a variety of 3D polyhedra including tetrahedra, prisms, and hexahedra. The authors discussed details of how the ROE-averaged second-order convection was applied on the discrete elements, and how the C++ coding interface has helped to simplify implementing the many physics and numerics modules within the code package. The author emphasized the virtues of object-oriented design in large scale projects such as ICF3D.

  19. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.


    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  20. 3D Flash LIDAR Space Laser Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business that has developed 3D Flash LIDAR systems for space and terrestrial applications. 3D Flash LIDAR is...