Sample records for 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde lyral

  1. Recommendation to include fragrance mix 2 and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (Lyral) in the European baseline patch test series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, Magnus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Goossens, An


    various European centres when tested in consecutive dermatitis patients. CONCLUSIONS: From 2008, pet. preparations of fragrance mix 2 at 14% w/w (5.6 mg/cm(2)) and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde at 5% w/w (2.0 mg/cm(2)) are recommended for inclusion in the baseline series. With the Finn...... Chamber technique, a dose of 20 mg pet. preparation is recommended. Whenever there is a positive reaction to fragrance mix 2, additional patch testing with the 6 ingredients, 5 if there are simultaneous positive reactions to hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde and fragrance mix 2, is recommended....

  2. Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde- known as Lyral: quantitative aspects and risk assessment of an important fragrance allergen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Frosch, Peter J; Svedman, C;


    as an allergen. It has been used without restrictions in cosmetic products, until now. In the present study, the dose-response relationship of Lyral contact allergy was studied with doses relevant for normal exposure in cosmetic products. 18 eczema patients, who previously had given a positive patch test...

  3. Antioxidant properties of flavone-6(4')-carboxaldehyde oxime ether derivatives. (United States)

    Ayhan-Kilcigil, Gülgün; Coban, Tülay; Tunçbilek, Meral; Can-Eke, Benay; Bozdağ-Dündar, Oya; Ertan, Rahmiye; Iscan, Mümtaz


    The in vitro antioxidant properties of some flavone-6(4)-carboxaldehyde oxime ether derivatives (Ia-f, IIa-f) were determined by their effects on the rat liver microsomal NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation (LP) levels by measuring the formation of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The free radical scavenging properties of the compounds were also examined in vitro by determining their capacity to scavenge superoxide anions and interact with the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The most active compounds, IIb (Flavone-4'-carboxaldehyde-O-ethyl oxime) and Id (Flavone-6-carboxaldehyde-O-[2-(1-pyrolidino) ethyl] oxime), caused 98 and 79% inhibition of superoxide anion production and DPPH stable free radical at 10(-3) M, respectively.

  4. Outer-Sphere Mechanism in the Oxidation of Pyrrole-2- Carboxaldehyde by Hexacyanoferrate (III Complex.

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    Abd-Alhakeem H. Abu-Nawwas


    Full Text Available The kinetics and mechanism of base-catalyzed oxidation of pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde with hexacyanoferrate (III is reported. The reaction showed first order with respect to aldahyde , alkali and hexaeyanoferrate(III. The kinetic data suggest that the oxidation involves the formation of an anion of the substrate undergoes oxidation with hexaeyanoferrate(III via outer sphere mechanism process. The free radical thus produced is further oxidized to form the final products. A suitable mechanism was proposed and rate law was derived as − d[Fe CN 6 ] 3− = 2k1k2 RC(OH2 [Fe CN 6 ] 3−[OH−] k−1 H2O

  5. Heterogeneous photochemistry of imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde: HO2 radical formation and aerosol growth (United States)

    González Palacios, Laura; Corral Arroyo, Pablo; Aregahegn, Kifle Z.; Steimer, Sarah S.; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Nozière, Barbara; George, Christian; Ammann, Markus; Volkamer, Rainer


    The multiphase chemistry of glyoxal is a source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), including its light-absorbing product imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC). IC is a photosensitizer that can contribute to additional aerosol ageing and growth when its excited triplet state oxidizes hydrocarbons (reactive uptake) via H-transfer chemistry. We have conducted a series of photochemical coated-wall flow tube (CWFT) experiments using films of IC and citric acid (CA), an organic proxy and H donor in the condensed phase. The formation rate of gas-phase HO2 radicals (PHO2) was measured indirectly by converting gas-phase NO into NO2. We report on experiments that relied on measurements of NO2 formation, NO loss and HONO formation. PHO2 was found to be a linear function of (1) the [IC] × [CA] concentration product and (2) the photon actinic flux. Additionally, (3) a more complex function of relative humidity (25 % seed aerosols containing IC and ammonium sulfate were exposed to gas-phase limonene and NOx in aerosol flow tube experiments, confirming significant PHO2 from aerosol surfaces. Our results indicate a potentially relevant contribution of triplet state photochemistry for gas-phase HO2 production, aerosol growth and ageing in the atmosphere.

  6. Preparation and characterization of poly(indole-3-carboxaldehyde) film at the glassy carbon surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deletioglu, Didem [Mustafa Kemal University, Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Chemistry, Antakya (Turkey); Hasdemir, Erdogan, E-mail: [Gazi University, Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey); Solak, Ali Osman [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey); Ustuendag, Zafer [Dumlupinar University, Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Chemistry, Kuetahya (Turkey); Guezel, Remziye [Dicle University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Diyarbakir (Turkey)


    Indole-3-carboxaldehyde (In3C) monomer was oxidized by electrochemical methods at the glassy carbon (GC) electrode in 0.05 M tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate in acetonitrile, with the aim to prepare a modified electrode. Modification was performed using cyclic voltammetry (CV) scanning from 0.0 V to 2.0 V at a scan rate of 50 mV s{sup -1} for 10 cycles in 1 mM In3C monomer solution. The modified GC surface (In3C-GC) was characterized by CV response of potassium ferricyanide and ferrocene redox probes as well as by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The modified surface was analyzed by reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy and compared with the spectrum of the monomeric In3C. Elemental composition of the surface was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Contact angle measurements was also performed to check the changes in hydrophobic character of the bare GC and compared to that of In3C-GC surface. Thickness of the oligomeric/polymeric film was investigated by ellipsometric measurements and a surface confined polymerization mechanism was proposed.

  7. Structure and Luminescence Property of a Hexanuclear Silver(I) Cluster Containing Pyridine-3-carboxaldehyde Thiosemicarbazone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Qiao-Zhen; CHAI Li-Yuan


    A new hexanuclear silver(I) compound containing thiosemicarbazone with group of 3-pyridine was synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction,elemental analysis and fluorescence spectrum.The title compound 3 crystallizes in monoclinic,space group C2/m with a = 18.6523(9),b = 24.7519(11),c = 22.4542(15) ,β = 93.4960(10)°,V = 10347.4(10)3,C68H104Ag6N30O8S6,Mr = 2309.39,Dc = 1.482g/cm3,μ(MoKα) = 1.293 mm-1,F(000) = 4656,Z = 4,the final R = 0.0544 and wR = 0.1580 for 6733 observed reflections(I 〉 2σ(I)).In the structure,two Ag6L36(L3 = pyridine-3-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone) clusters are contained.In each cluster,the S atom of ligand L3 served as a triply bridged chelator to connect the six silver atoms into a Ag6L36 cluster.Luminescence investigation revealed that the band at 630 nm was attributed to cluster-centered(CC) electron transfer,and those at 493 and 530 nm to the LMCT and CC transitions,respectively.

  8. Experimental and theoretical studies on IR, Raman, and UV-Vis spectra of quinoline-7-carboxaldehyde. (United States)

    Kumru, M; Küçük, V; Kocademir, M; Alfanda, H M; Altun, A; Sarı, L


    Spectroscopic properties of quinoline-7-carboxaldehyde (Q7C) have been studied in detail both experimentally and theoretically. The FT-IR (4000-50 cm(-1)), FT-Raman (4000-50 cm(-1)), dispersive-Raman (3500-50 cm(-1)), and UV-Vis (200-400 nm) spectra of Q7C were recorded at room temperature (25 °C). Geometry parameters, potential energy surface about CCH(O) bond, harmonic vibrational frequencies, IR and Raman intensities, UV-Vis spectrum, and thermodynamic characteristics (at 298.15K) of Q7C were computed at Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional B3LYP levels employing the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Frontier molecular orbitals, molecular electrostatic potential, and Mulliken charge analyses of Q7C have also been performed. Q7C has two stable conformers that are energetically very close to each other with slight preference to the conformer that has oxygen atom of the aldehyde away from the nitrogen atom of the quinoline.

  9. Combined experimental and quantum chemical studies on spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Vis, and NMR) and structural characteristics of quinoline-5-carboxaldehyde (United States)

    Kumru, Mustafa; Altun, Ahmet; Kocademir, Mustafa; Küçük, Vesile; Bardakçı, Tayyibe; Şaşmaz, İbrahim


    Comparative experimental and theoretical studies have been performed on the structure and spectral (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Vis and NMR) features of quinoline-5-carboxaldehyde. Quantum chemical calculations have been carried out at Hartree-Fock and density functional B3LYP levels with the triple-zeta 6-311++G** basis set. Two stable conformers of quinoline-5-carboxaldehyde arising from the orientation of the carboxaldehyde moiety have been located at the room temperature. The energetic separation of these conformers is as small as 2.5 kcal/mol with a low transition barrier (around 9 kcal/mol). Therefore, these conformers are expected to coexist at the room temperature. Several molecular characteristics of quinoline-5-carboxaldehyde obtained through B3LYP and time-dependent B3LYP calculations, such as conformational stability, key geometry parameters, vibrational frequencies, IR and Raman intensities, UV-Vis vertical excitation energies and the corresponding oscillator strengths have been analyzed. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of quinoline-5-carboxaldehyde were also investigated.

  10. Cosmetic allergy: incidence, diagnosis, and management. (United States)

    Orton, David I; Wilkinson, John D


    A recent epidemiologic survey in the UK revealed that 23% of women and 13.8% of men experience some sort of adverse reaction to a personal care product over the course of a year. Although most of these reactions may be due to subjective sensory irritation, various studies reveal that up to 10% of dermatologic patients who are patch tested are allergic to cosmetic products or their constituent ingredients. Causative products include deodorants and perfumes, skin care products, hair care products, and nail cosmetics. Allergic contact dermatitis mainly results from fragrance chemicals and preservatives. Recent work has suggested that additional fragrance chemicals may need to be tested in order to identify those patients 'missed' by the current fragrance mix; in particular, hydroxy-isohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HMPPC Lyral) has been singled out as an important sensitizing agent. The increased usage of natural fragrances and botanic extracts can also cause problems in their own right or through co-reactivity. The preservative methyldibromo glutaronitrile has also been recognized as an increasingly important sensitizer in Europe, which has led to the recent recommendation that it should be prohibited from 'leave-on' products until information on 'safe' consumer levels becomes available. Other emerging allergens include UV filters, tosylamide/formaldehyde resin, and nail acrylates. The diagnosis of cosmetic allergy should be confirmed with patch testing, including testing of 'whole' products, when necessary, and repeat open application tests can be used to confirm the relevance of reactions in cases of doubt.

  11. Eco-friendly synthesis, spectral and computational study of pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde salicylhydrazone (PCSH) for its application (United States)

    Rawat, Poonam; Singh, R. N.


    In this paper we present eco-friendly synthesis of Pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde salicylhydrazone (PCSH) and its molecular structural elucidation, spectral analysis and reactivity evaluation. Pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde and salicyl hydrazide in water undergo condensation reaction to produce PCSH in good yield (88%). All results of quantum chemical calculation corroborate well with the experimental findings. The PCSH has been characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV-Visible, and ESI-Mass spectroscopy. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out for PCSH by performing B3LYP functional using the standard basis set 6-31 + g (d, p), and additional basis sets 6D and 10F. Two most stable conformers for PCSH have been observed around the dihedral angle N1C5C6N7. The red shift observed in O-H stretching vibration in the FT-IR spectrum indicates the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The rotational barrier between syn-syn (closed) syn-syn (open) found to be 2966.9 kcal/mol. The presence of hydroxyl proton at 10.45 ppm downfield in experimental 1H NMR spectrum confirms the existence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding in PCSH. Further, topological parameters analysis at the bond critical points using 'Atoms in molecules' theory reveals intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The energy of homonuclear intramolecular hydrogen bond (O17-H28⋯O10) is calculated to be 14.03 kcal/mol. The ellipticity results confirm the resonance assisted nature of this intramolecular hydrogen bond. In addition to this work, the reactive sites in PCSH have been explored using DFT descriptors, predicting nucleophilic reactions at carbonyl carbon and electrophilic reactions are possible at pyrrolic NH, amidic NH and double bond Cdbnd N leading to several heterocyclic products and metal complexes.

  12. Synthesis, thermal and antitumour studies of Th(IV complexes with furan-2-carboxaldehyde4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone

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    Full Text Available Thorium(IV complexes with the Schiff base furan-2-carboxaldehyde4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (L were synthesised and characterized. The composition and structure of the metal complexes were proposed based on elemental analysis, molar conductivity measurements, FTIR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The Schiff base behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand coordinating through the azomethine N and the thioketo S atoms. From various studies, complexes were ascertained the general formula [ThL2X4] and [ThL2Y2], where X represents NO3–, NCS–, CH3COO–, CH3CHOHCOO–, ClO4– and Y SO42–and C2O42–. The thermal behaviour of the nitrato and oxalato complexes was studied and kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were calculated using the Coats-Redfern Equation. The ligand and a representative complex [ThL2(NO34] were screened in vitro for their antitumour activity against the human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa.


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    Bapu R Thorata, Dyneshwar Shelke, Ramdas Atram and Ramesh Yamgar


    Full Text Available Vanillin undergoes sequence of reaction forming phosphonium salt through dimethyaminomethyl derivative (Mannich reaction. The synthesis of phosphonium salt can be achieved by sequence of three steps which was condense with series of aliphatic/aromatic acid chlorides by refluxing in toluene in presence of triethylamine (Wittig reaction as key step resulting 7-methoxy-2-alkyl/aryl-l-benzofuran-5-carboxaldehyde. The crude product was purified by using column chromatography and characterized by FTIR, NMR and Mass spectroscopy.

  14. Pterostilbene carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone, a resveratrol derivative inhibits 17β-Estradiol induced cell migration and proliferation in HUVECs. (United States)

    Nikhil, Kumar; Sharan, Shruti; Wishard, Rohan; Palla, Srinivasa Rao; Krishna Peddinti, Rama; Roy, Partha


    Angiogenesis plays important roles in tumor growth and metastasis, thus development of a novel angiogenesis inhibitor is essential for the improvement of therapeutics against cancer. Thrombospondins-1 (TSP-1) is a potent endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis that acts through direct effects on endothelial cell migration, proliferation, survival, and activating apoptotic pathways. TSP-1 has been shown to disrupt estrogen-induced endothelial cell proliferation and migration. Here we investigated the potential of pterostilbene carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (PTERC-T), a novel resveratrol (RESV) derivative, to inhibit angiogenesis induced by female sex steroids, particularly 17β-Estradiol (E2), on Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to elucidate the involvement of TSP-1 in PTERC-T action. Our results showed that PTERC-T significantly inhibited 17β-E2-stimulated proliferation of HUVECs and induced apoptosis as determined by annexin V/propidium iodide staining and cleaved caspase-3 expression. Furthermore, PTERC-T also inhibited endothelial cell migration, and invasion in chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. In contrast, RESV failed to inhibit 17β-E2 induced HUVECs proliferation and invasion at similar dose. PTERC-T was also found to increase TSP-1 protein expression levels in a dose-dependent manner which, however, was counteracted by co-incubation with p38MAPK or JNK inhibitors, suggesting involvement of these pathways in PTERC-T action. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of PTERC-T on 17β-E2 induced angiogenesis is associated, at least in part, with its induction of endothelial cell apoptosis and inhibition of cell migration through targeting TSP-1. Thus, PTERC-T could be considered as a potential lead compound for developing a class of new drugs targeting angiogenesis-related diseases.

  15. Antioxidation and DNA-binding properties of binuclear lanthanide(III) complexes with a Schiff base ligand derived from 8-hydroxyquinoline-7-carboxaldehyde and benzoylhydrazine. (United States)

    Liu, Yongchun; Zhang, Kejun; Wu, Yun; Zhao, Junying; Liu, Jianning


    8-Hydroxyquinoline-7-carboxaldehyde (8-HQ-7-CA), Schiff-base ligand 8-hydroxyquinoline-7-carboxaldehyde benzoylhydrazone, and binuclear complexes [LnL(NO(3))(H(2)O)(2)](2) were prepared from the ligand and equivalent molar amounts of Ln(NO(3))·6H(2)O (Ln=La(3+), Nd(3+), Sm(3+), Eu(3+), Gd(3+), Dy(3+), Ho(3+), Er(3+), Yb(3+), resp.). Ligand acts as dibasic tetradentates, binding to Ln(III) through the phenolate O-atom, N-atom of quinolinato unit, and C=N and -O-C=N- groups of the benzoylhydrazine side chain. Dimerization of this monomeric unit occurs through the phenolate O-atoms leading to a central four-membered (LnO)(2) ring. Ligand and all of the Ln(III) complexes can strongly bind to CT-DNA through intercalation with the binding constants at 10(5)-10(6) M(-1). Moreover, ligand and all of the Ln(III) complexes have strong abilities of scavenging effects for hydroxyl (HO·) radicals. Both the antioxidation and DNA-binding properties of Ln(III) complexes are much better than that of ligand.

  16. Cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc complexes with 1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxaldehyde Schiff bases: antimicrobial, spectroscopic, thermal and fluorescence studies. (United States)

    Singh, Kiran; Kumar, Yogender; Puri, Parvesh; Kumar, Mahender; Sharma, Chetan


    Two new Schiff bases of 1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxaldehyde and 4-amino-5-mercapto-3-methyl/H-1,2,4-triazole [HL(1-2)] and their Cobalt, Nickel, Copper and Zinc complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, spectral (UV-vis, IR, (1)H NMR, Fluorescence) studies, thermal techniques and magnetic measurements. A square planar geometry for Cu(II) and octahedral geometry for Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes have been proposed. In order to evaluate the biological activity of Schiff bases and to assess the role of metal ion on biological activity, the pyrazole Schiff bases and their metal complexes have been studied in vitro antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal against Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus flavus. In most of the cases higher activity was exhibited upon coordination with metal ions.

  17. Coordination behavior of new bis Schiff base ligand derived from 2-furan carboxaldehyde and propane-1,3-diamine. Spectroscopic, thermal, anticancer and antibacterial activity studies. (United States)

    Mohamed, Gehad G; Zayed, Ehab M; Hindy, Ahmed M M


    Novel bis Schiff base ligand, [N1,N3-bis(furan-2-ylmethylene)propane-1,3-diamine], was prepared by the condensation of furan-2-carboxaldehyde with propane-1,3-diamine. Its conformational changes on complexation with transition metal ions [Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Fe(III)] have been studied on the basis of elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, spectral (infrared, (1)H NMR, electronic), magnetic and thermogravimetric studies. The conductance data of the complexes revealed their electrolytic nature suggesting them as 1:2 (for bivalent metal ions) and 1:3 (for Fe(III) ion) electrolytes. The complexes were found to have octahedral geometry based on magnetic moment and solid reflectance measurements. Thermal analysis data revealed the decomposition of the complexes in successive steps with the removal of anions, coordinated water and bis Schiff base ligand. The thermodynamic parameters were calculated using Coats-Redfern equation. The Anticancer screening studies were performed on human colorectal cancer (HCT), hepatic cancer (HepG2) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines. The antimicrobial activity of all the compounds was studied against Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris) and Gram positive (Bacillus vulgaris and Staphylococcus pyogones) bacteria. It was observed that the coordination of metal ion has a pronounced effect on the microbial activities of the bis Schiff base ligand. All the metal complexes have shown higher antimicrobial effect than the free bis Schiff base ligand.

  18. Photochemical and electrochemical studies on lanthanide complexes of 6-(hydroxymethylpyridine- 2-carboxaldehyde[2- methyl-pyrimidine-4,6-diyl] bis-hydrazone

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    María Alejandra Fernandez


    Full Text Available Herein we report the synthesis of the 6-(hydroxymethylpyridine-2- carboxaldehyde[2-methyl-pyrimidine- 4,6-diyl]bis-hydrazone by a condensation reaction between 6-(hydroxymethyl picolinaldehyde with 4,6-(bis-hydrazino-2- methylpyrimidine. This bis-hydrazone can be visualized as a two-arm system which exhibits photochemical induced [E,E]/[E,Z]/[Z,Z’] isomerizations and double coordination to metal centers. Configurational changes, upon UV light irradiation, were followed over time by 1 H NMR, establishing that isomerization, in both arms, is a consecutive reaction that follows first-order kinetics (k1 = 4.06 x 10-4 s-1 and k2 = 2.80 x 10-4 s-1. Furthermore, the synthesis of bis-hydrazone metal complexes with La (III and Sm (III ions was achieved; subsequently, the absorption and emission properties of these complexes were studied, determining the fluorescence quantum yields, La= 0.2024 and Sm= 0.1413. Electrochemical studies of the complexes were conducted by square wave voltammetry, demonstrating that the bis-hydrazone and its complexes are electroactive species between +1.5 and -2.5 V.

  19. Binary and ternary copper(II) complexes of a tridentate ONS ligand derived from 2-aminochromone-3 carboxaldehyde and thiosemicarbazide: Synthesis, spectral studies and antimicrobial activity (United States)

    Shebl, Magdy; Ibrahim, M. A.; Khalil, Saied M. E.; Stefan, S. L.; Habib, H.


    A tridentate ONS donor ligand, HL, was synthesized by the condensation of 2-aminochromone-3-carboxaldehyde with thiosemicarbazide. The structure of the ligand was elucidated by elemental analyses, IR, 1H and 13C NMR, electronic and mass spectra. Reaction of the ligand with several copper(II) salts, including AcO-, NO3-, SO42-, Cl-, Br- and ClO4- afforded different metal complexes that reflect the non-coordinating or weakly coordinating power of the ClO4- and Br- anions as compared to the strongly coordinating power of AcO-, SO42-, Cl- and NO3- anions. Also, the ligand was allowed to react with Cu(II) ion in the presence of a secondary ligand (L‧) [N,O-donor; 8-hydroxyquinoline or N,N-donor; 1,10-phenanthroline]. Characterization and structure elucidation of the prepared complexes were achieved by elemental and thermal analyses, IR, electronic, mass and EPR spectra as well as conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The EPR spin Hamiltonian parameters of some complexes were calculated. The metal complexes exhibited octahedral and square planar geometrical arrangements depending on the nature of the anion. The ligand and most of its metal complexes showed antibacterial activity towards Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis), Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli), yeast (Candida albicans) and fungus (Aspergillus fumigatus).

  20. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Quantum Chemical Investigation of Bis-Schiff Base Compounds Derived from2-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxaldehyde with Diamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Ling; LIU Gang; WANG Yan; WANG Ji-De; CHEN Jun-Feng


    Two new schiff base N,N'-bis((2-phenyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methylene)-1,3-pro- panediamine (1) and N,N'-bis((2-phenyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methylene) -1,4-butanediamine (2) were synthesized by condensation of 2-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxaldehyde with diamine, and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR and MS spectra. Their crystal structures were determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction. Both crystals belong to the monoclinic system, space group P21/c. For compound 1(C21H20N8, Mr=384.45): a = 16.314(3), b =5.7168(11), c = 21.316(4)(A),β= 105.3(2)°,Z = 4, V = 1917.6(7)(A)3, Dc =1.332 g/ cm3, F(000) = 808, μ = 0.086 mm- 1, R = 0.0533 and wR = 0.1460; for compound 2 (C22H22N8, Mr =398.48): a = 8.6156(17), b = 5.2964(11), c = 22.665(5) A, β = 100.54(3)°,Z = 2, V = 1016.8(4)(A)3, Dc = 1.302 g/ cm3, F (000) = 420, μ = 0.083 mm-1, R = 0.0373 and wR = 0.1155. Based on the crystal data, quantum chemistry calculation was performed on the two title compounds by means of Gaussian 98 program. The molecular orbital energies and atomic net charges population were obtained. Furthermore, we analyzed their active atoms. The investigation can serve as a theoretical guide to study the synthesis and activity of the title compounds.

  1. Lyral is an important sensitizer in patients sensitive to fragrances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, P J; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, T;


    Contact allergy to fragrances is a common problem world-wide. The currently used fragrance mix (FM) for patch testing has only eight constituents and does not identify all fragrance-allergic patients. As perfumes may contain 100 or more substances, the search for markers for allergy continues...

  2. Simple,Selective,and Sensitive Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Trace Amounts of Nickel(Ⅱ),Copper(Ⅱ), Cobalt(Ⅱ),and Iron(Ⅲ)with a Novel Reagent 2-Pyridine Carboxaldehyde Isonicotinyl Hydrazone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sajid H.Guzar; JIN Qin-han


    A selective and sensitive reagent of 2-pyridine carboxaldehyde isonicotinyl hydrazone(2-PYAINH)was synthesized and studied for the spectrophotometric determination of nickel,copper,cobalt,and iron in detail.At a pH value of 7.0,9.0,9.0,and 8.0,respectively,which greatly increased the selectivity;nickel,copper,cobalt, and iron reacted with 2-PYAINH to form a 1:2 yellow-orange,1:2 yellow-green,1:2 yellow and 1:1 yellow complexes,with absorption peaks at 363,352,346,and 359 nm,respectively.Under the optimal conditions,Beer's law was obeyed over the ranges of 0.01-1.4,0.01-1.5,0.01-2.7,and 0.01-5.4 mg/L,respectively.The apparent molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivities were 8.4×104,5.2x104,7.1×104,and 3.9×104L·,respectively,and 0.00069,0.0012,0.00078,and 0.0014 μ g·cm-2,respectively.The detection limits were found to be 0.001,O.002,0.003,and 0.01 mg/L,respectively.The detailed study of various interfering ions to make the method more sensitive was carried out and selective and several real samples were analyzed with satisfactory results.

  3. An in silico, in vitro and in vivo investigation of indole-3-carboxaldehyde identified from the seawater bacterium Marinomonas sp. as an anti-biofilm agent against Vibrio cholerae O1. (United States)

    Rajalaxmi, Murugan; Beema Shafreen, Rajamohamed; Iyer, Prasanth M; Sahaya Vino, Raja; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha


    Biofilm formation is a major contributing factor in the pathogenesis of Vibrio cholerae O1 (VCO1) and therefore preventing biofilm formation could be an effective alternative strategy for controlling cholera. The present study was designed to explore seawater bacteria as a source of anti-biofilm agents against VCO1. Indole-3-carboxaldehyde (I3C) was identified as an active principle component in Marinomonas sp., which efficiently inhibited biofilm formation by VCO1 without any selection pressure. Furthermore, I3C applications also resulted in considerable collapsing of preformed pellicles. Real-time PCR studies revealed the down-regulation of virulence gene expression by modulation of the quorum-sensing pathway and enhancement of protease production, which was further confirmed by phenotypic assays. Furthermore, I3C increased the survival rate of Caenorhabditis elegans when infected with VCO1 by significantly reducing in vivo biofilm formation, which was corroborated by a survivability assay. Thus, this study revealed, for the first time, the potential of I3C as an anti-biofilm agent against VCO1.

  4. A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of oral 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP, NSC #663249) in the treatment of advanced stage solid cancers – A California Cancer Consortium Study (United States)

    Chao, Joseph; Synold, Timothy W.; Morgan, Robert J.; Kunos, Charles; Longmate, Jeff; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Lim, Dean; Shibata, Stephen; Chung, Vincent; Stoller, Ronald G.; Belani, Chandra P.; Gandara, David R.; McNamara, Mark; Gitlitz, Barbara J.; Lau, Derick H.; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Davies, Angela; Espinoza-Delgado, Igor; Newman, Edward M.; Yen, Yun


    Background 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP) is a novel small molecule ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor. This study was designed to estimate the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and oral bioavailability of 3-AP in patients with advanced stage solid tumors. Methods Twenty patients received one dose of intravenous and subsequent cycles of oral 3-AP following a 3+3 patient dose-escalation. Intravenous 3-AP was administered to every patient at a fixed dose of 100 mg over a 2-hour infusion 1 week prior to the first oral cycle. Oral 3-AP was administered every 12 hours for 5 consecutive doses on days 1–3, days 8–10, and days 15–17 of every 28-day cycle. 3-AP was started at 50 mg with a planned dose escalation to 100, 150, and 200 mg. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) and bioavailability were evaluated. Results Twenty patients were enrolled. For dose level 1 (50mg), the second of three treated patients had a DLT of grade 3 hypertension. In the dose level 1 expansion cohort, three patients had no DLTs. No further DLTs were encountered during escalation until the 200 mg dose was reached. At the 200 mg 3-AP dose level, two treated patients had DLTs of grade 3 hypoxia. One additional DLT of grade 4 febrile neutropenia was subsequently observed at the de-escalated 150 mg dose. One DLT in 6 evaluable patients established the MTD as 150 mg per dose on this dosing schedule. Responses in the form of stable disease occurred in 5 (25%) of 20 patients. The oral bioavailability of 3-AP was 67 ± 29%, and was consistent with the finding that the MTD by the oral route was 33% higher than by the intravenous route. Conclusions Oral 3-AP is well-tolerated and has an MTD similar to its intravenous form after accounting for the oral bioavailability. Oral 3-AP is associated with a modest clinical benefit rate of 25% in our treated patient population with advanced solid tumors. PMID:22105720

  5. 噻吩-N-4甲基缩氨基硫脲及其银离子配合物对EC109增殖和凋亡影响%Effects of thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazone and its Ag(Ⅰ)complex on proliferation and apoptosis of EC109

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓娟; 曹更生; 刘广超; 李明雪; 张洪


    Aim To study the anti-tumor activity and the possible mechanism of thiophene-2-carboxaldehydeN( 4 )-methylthiosemicarbazone and its Ag( Ⅰ ) complex for esophageal EC109 in vitro. Methods The effect of the thiophene-2-carboxaldehydeN( 4 ) -methyl thiosemicarbazone and its Ag( Ⅰ ) complex on cell proliferation for esophageal EC109 in vitro was tested by MTT method. Ciemsa staining and acridine orange ( AO ) fluorescence staining were used to observe the morphological changes of the esophageal EC109. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were detected by flow cytometry. Results The results indicated its Ag ( Ⅰ ) complex had strong inhibitory effect on EC109 cell proliferation in a dose-and-time dependent manner;Typical morphological changes of apoptosis were also observed in the esophageal EC109. The result of flow cytometry showed the Ag( Ⅰ ) complex led to cell apoptosis partly in lower concentrations . And the apoptosis increased in a concentration dependent manner, and inhibited G0/G1 phase from entering S phase. Conclusions The ligand N has no anti-tumor effect at all on esophageal EC109 , but the Ag( Ⅰ )complex N-Ag exhibits significant anti-tumor activity after introducing Ag ion, and possibly induces cell apoptosis by blocking cell cycle.%目的 用食管癌细胞EC109体外鉴定噻吩-N-4甲基缩氨基硫脲(N)及其过渡金属配合物噻吩-N-4甲基缩氨基硫脲银(N-Ag)的抗肿瘤生物活性,探讨其可能机制.方法 采用四甲基偶氮唑法(MTT法)测定上述两种药物体外对食道癌细胞EC109生长抑制率;采用吖啶橙荧光染色和吉姆萨染色观察药物对食道癌细胞EC109形态影响;采用流式细胞仪检测细胞周期的改变和细胞的凋亡情况.结果 N-Ag对食道癌EC109的增殖有较强的抑制作用,且成量效和时效关系;实验组能观察到细胞凋亡形态;流式细胞仪检测结果表明在低剂量N-Ag作用下食道癌细胞EC109部分凋亡,且随着

  6. The dose-response relationship between the patch test and ROAT and the potential use for regulatory purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise Arup; Voelund, Aage; Andersen, Klaus Ejner


    . OBJECTIVES: The aim was to develop an equation that could predict the response to an allergen in a ROAT based on the dose-response curve derived by patch testing. MATERIALS/METHODS: Results from two human experimental elicitation studies with non-volatile allergens, nickel and the preservative methyldibromo...... glutaronitrile (MDBGN), were analysed by logistic dose-response statistics. The relation for volatile compounds was investigated using the results from experiments with the fragrance chemicals hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde and isoeugenol. RESULTS: For non-volatile compounds, the outcome of a ROAT...

  7. Categorization of fragrance contact allergens for prioritization of preventive measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Johansen, Jeanne D; Börje, Anna;


    of substances as contact allergens. A total of 54 individual chemicals and 28 natural extracts (essential oils) can be categorized as established contact allergens in humans, including all 26 substances previously identified as contact allergens (SCCNFP/0017/98). Twelve of the 54 individual chemicals...... of 11 substances of special concern should be limited to 100 ppm. The substance hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde and the two ingredients chloroatranol and atranol in the natural extracts Evernia prunastri and Evernia furfuracea should not be present in cosmetic products....

  8. One-pot synthesis of cyclic aldol tetramer and,β-unsaturated aldol from linear aldehydes using quaternary ammonium combined with sodium hydroxide as catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许海峰; 钟宏; 王帅; 李方旭


    One-pot synthesis of cyclic aldol tetramer anda,β-unsaturated aldol from C3−C8 linear aldehydes using phase-transfer catalyst (PTC), quaternary ammonium, combined with sodium hydroxide as catalysts was investigated. Butanal was subjected for detail investigations to study the effect of parameters. It was found that the selectivity of cyclic aldol tetramer depends greatly on the operating conditions of the reaction, especially the PTC/butanal molar ratio. The average selectivity of 2-hydroxy-6-propyl-l, 3, 5-triethyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde (HPTECHCA) was 54.41% using tetrabutylammonium chloride combined with 14% (mass fraction) NaOH as catalysts at 60 °C for 2 h with a PTC-to-butanal molar ratio of 0.09:1. Pentanal was more likely to generate cyclic aldol tetramer compared with other aldehydes under the optimum experimental conditions. Recovery of the PTC through water washing followed by adding enough sodium hydroxide from the washings was also demonstrated.

  9. Synthetic, structural and biological studies of organosilicon(IV complexes of Schiff bases derived from pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Selected new organosilicon(IV complexes having the general formula R2SiCl[L] and R2Si[L] 2 were synthesized by the reactions of Me2SiCl2 with Schiff bases (5-mercapto-4-[(1H-pyrrol-2ylmethyleneamino]-s-triazole, 5-mercapto-3-methyl-4-[(1H-pyrrol-2ylmethyleneamino]-s-triazole and 3-ethyl-5-mercapto-4-[(1H-pyrrol-2ylmethyleneamino]-s-triazole in 1:1 and 1:2 molar ratios. All of the compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, and IR, UV, 1H-, 13C- and 29Si-NMR spectral studies. All the spectral data suggest an involvement with an azomethine nitrogen in coordination to the central silicon atom. With the help of above-mentioned spectral studies, penta and hexacoordinated environments around the central silicon atoms in the 1:1 and 1:2 complexes, respectively, are proposed. Finally, the free ligands and their metal complexes were tested in vitro against some pathogenic bacteria and fungi to assess their antimicrobial properties.

  10. Categorization of fragrance contact allergens for prioritization of preventive measures: clinical and experimental data and consideration of structure-activity relationships. (United States)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Johansen, Jeanne D; Börje, Anna; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Lidén, Carola; Rastogi, Suresh; Roberts, David; White, Ian R


    Contact allergy to fragrances is still relatively common, affecting ∼ 16% of patients patch tested for suspected allergic contact dermatitis, considering all current screening allergens. The objective of the review is to systematically retrieve, evaluate and classify evidence on contact allergy to fragrances, in order to arrive at recommendations for targeting of primary and secondary prevention. Besides published evidence on contact allergy in humans, animal data (local lymph node assay), annual use volumes and structure-activity relationships (SARs) were considered for an algorithmic categorization of substances as contact allergens. A total of 54 individual chemicals and 28 natural extracts (essential oils) can be categorized as established contact allergens in humans, including all 26 substances previously identified as contact allergens (SCCNFP/0017/98). Twelve of the 54 individual chemicals are considered to be of special concern, owing to the high absolute number of reported cases of contact allergy (>100). Additionally, 18 single substances and one natural mixture are categorized as established contact allergens in animals. SARs, combined with limited human evidence, contributed to the categorization of a further 26 substances as likely contact allergens. In conclusion, the presence of 127 single fragrance substances and natural mixtures should, owing to their skin sensitizing properties, be disclosed, for example on the label. As an additional preventive measure, the maximum use concentration of 11 substances of special concern should be limited to 100 ppm. The substance hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde and the two ingredients chloroatranol and atranol in the natural extracts Evernia prunastri and Evernia furfuracea should not be present in cosmetic products.

  11. Microwave Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of some Copper (II, Cobalt (II, Nickel (II and Chromium (III Complexes with Schiff Base 2, 6-Pyridinedi carboxaldehyde-Thiosemicarbazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Mohammed.Fakruddin Ali Ahmed


    Full Text Available Some novel Schiff base metal complexes of Cr(III, Co(II, Ni(II andCu(II derived from 2, 6-pyridinedicarboxaldehyde-Thiosemicarbazone(PDCTC was synthesized by conventional as well as microwavemethods. This compound wascharacterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, Mass, molar conductanceand magneticsusceptibilitymeasurements analyses. Analytical data revealed that all the complexesexhibited 1:1 (metal: ligand ratio with a coordination number of six.The IR data showed that the ligand coordinates with the metal ions in ahexa-dentate manner. The solid state electricalconductivity of the metal complexes was also measured. Solid state electricalconductivity studies reflected a semi-conducting nature of the complexes. The Schiff base and metal complexes displayed good activity againstthe Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, the Gram-negative bacteriaEscherichia coli and the fungi AspergillusnigerandCandida albicans. The antimicrobialresults also indicated that the metal complexes displayed betterantimicrobial activity as compared to the Schiff bases.

  12. Synthesis and Structure-Activity Correlation Studies of Metal Complexes of α-N-heterocyclic Carboxaldehyde Thiosemicarbazones in Shewanella oneidensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintell Tillison


    Full Text Available This investigation involved the synthesis of metal complexes to test the hypothesis that structural changes and metal coordination in pyridine thiosemicarbazones affect cell growth and cell proliferation in vitro. Thiosemicarbazones are well known to possess antitumor, antiviral, antibacterial, antimalarial, and other activities. Extensive research has been carried out on aliphatic, aromatic, heterocyclic and other types of thiosemicarbazones and their metal complexes. Due to the pronounced reactivity exhibited by metal complexes of heterocyclic thiosemicarbazones, synthesis and structural characterization of di-2-pyridylketone 4N-phenyl thiosemicarbazone and diphenyl tin (Sn and platinum (Pt complexes were undertaken. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a metal ion-reducing bacterium, was used as a model organism to explore the biological activity under aerobic conditions. A comparision of the cytotoxic potential of selected ligand and metal-complex thiosemicarbazones on cell growth in wild type MR-1 and mutant DSP-010 Shewanella oneidensis strains at various concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 25 ppm was performed. The wild type (MR-1 grown in the presence of increasing concentrations of Sn- thiosemicarbazone complexes was comparatively more sensitive (mean cell number = 4.8 X 108 + 4.3 X 107 SD than the DSP-010, a spontaneous rifampicillin derivative of the parent strain (mean cell number = 5.6 x 108 + 6.4 X 107 SD under comparable aerobic conditions (p=0.0004. No differences were observed in the sensitivity of the wild and mutant types when exposed to various concentrations of diphenyl Pt- thiosemicarbazone complex (p= 0.425 or the thiosemicarbazone ligand (p=0.313. Growth of MR-1 in the presence of diphenyl Sn- thiosemicarbazone was significantly different among treatment groups (p=0.012. MR-1 cell numbers were significantly higher at 5ppm than at 10 to 20ppm (p = 0.05. The mean number of DSP-010 variant strain cells also differed among diphenyl Sn- thiosemicarbazone complex treated groups (p=0.051. In general, there was an increasing trend in the number of cells from about 5.0 X 108 cells (methanol control group to about 6.0 X 108 cells (25ppm. The number of cells in methanol control group was significantly lower than cell numbers at 20ppm and 25ppm (p = 0.05, and numbers at 5ppm treatment were lower than at 20 and 25ppm (p = 0.05. Furthermore, a marginally significant difference in the number of MR-1 cells was observed among diphenyl Pt- thiosemicarbazone complex treatment groups (p = 0.077, and an increasing trend in the number of cells was noted from ~5.0 X 108 cells (methanol control group to ~5.8 X 108 cells (20ppm. In contrast, the DSP-010 variant strain showed no significant differences in cell numbers when treated with various concentrations of diphenyl Pt- thiosemicarbazone complex (p = 0.251. Differences in response to Sn- metal complex between MR-1 and DSP-010 growing cultures indicate that biological activity to thiosemicarbazone metal complexes may be strain specific.

  13. Postnatal odorant exposure induces peripheral olfactory plasticity at the cellular level. (United States)

    Cadiou, Hervé; Aoudé, Imad; Tazir, Bassim; Molinas, Adrien; Fenech, Claire; Meunier, Nicolas; Grosmaitre, Xavier


    Mammalian olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) form the primary elements of the olfactory system. Inserted in the olfactory mucosa lining of the nasal cavity, they are exposed to the environment and their lifespan is brief. Several reports say that OSNs are regularly regenerated during the entire life and that odorant environment affects the olfactory epithelium. However, little is known about the impact of the odorant environment on OSNs at the cellular level and more precisely in the context of early postnatal olfactory exposure. Here we exposed MOR23-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and M71-GFP mice to lyral or acetophenone, ligands for MOR23 or M71, respectively. Daily postnatal exposure to lyral induces plasticity in the population of OSNs expressing MOR23. Their density decreases after odorant exposure, whereas the amount of MOR23 mRNA and protein remain stable in the whole epithelium. Meanwhile, quantitative PCR indicates that each MOR23 neuron has higher levels of olfactory receptor transcripts and also expresses more CNGA2 and phosphodiesterase 1C, fundamental olfactory transduction pathway proteins. Transcript levels return to baseline after 4 weeks recovery. Patch-clamp recordings reveal that exposed MOR23 neurons respond to lyral with higher sensitivity and broader dynamic range while the responses' kinetics were faster. These effects are specific to the odorant-receptor pair lyral-MOR23: there was no effect of acetophenone on MOR23 neurons and no effect of acetophenone and lyral on the M71 population. Together, our results clearly demonstrate that OSNs undergo specific anatomical, molecular, and functional adaptation when chronically exposed to odorants in the early stage of life.

  14. Hexa-kis-(μ3-2-hy-droxy-naphthalene-1-carboxaldehyde thio-semicarbazonato-κ(3) N (2):S:S)hexa-silver(I) N,N-dimethyl-formamide tetra-solvate. (United States)

    Sun, Qiaozhen; Chai, Liyuan; Liu, Hui; Wang, Junke


    In the title compound, [Ag6(C12H10N3OS)6]·4C3H7NO, the hexa-nuclear complex mol-ecule lies about an inversion center. The six Ag atoms form a distorted octa-hedron, with Ag⋯Ag distances in the range 2.933 (1)-3.401 (1) Å. Each Ag atom is surrounded by one N atom and two thiol-ate S atoms from two deprotonated 2-hy-droxy-1-naphthaldehyde thio-semi-carb-a-zone ligands. Each ligand coordinates three Ag atoms via a bridging thiol-ate S atom and a monodentate N atom, thus two Ag3S3 hexa-gonal rings are linked together. Two dimethyl-formamide solvent mol-ecules are located in four sets of sites with half-occupancy and form O⋯H-N hydrogen bonds to the complex mol-ecule. Intra-molecular O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds are also present. The discrete hexa-nuclear clusters are further linked through π-π inter-actions into layers parallel to (001), the shortest distance between the centroids of aromatic rings being 3.698 (2) Å.

  15. Synthesis of Tri(indolyl)methanes Mediated by Acidic Ionic Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Da-Gong; JI Shun-Jun


    Various tri(indolyl)methanes were synthesized by condensation of indole and its derivatives with indole-3-carboxaldehyde using acidic ionic liquids [hmim]HSO4/EtOH as an efficient and green catalyst system.

  16. Copper catalyzed synthesis of quinolinopyrano[2,3-]carbazole derivatives via Povarov reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subburethinam Ramesh; Rajagopal Nagarajan


    An efficient procedure for the synthesis of pyranocarbazole derivatives using copper catalysed Povarov reaction between aromatic amines and -propargyl carbazole carboxaldehyde has been developed. Ionic liquid is found to be a good solvent medium.

  17. U.S. Army Medical Department Journal, April-June 2008 (United States)


    respectively, are actively involved in marketing this compound.* The racemic 2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexene-1- carboxamide was first identified as an insect...treated surfaces primarily as a result of olfactory sensing. When cloth, one half untreated and the other half treated with chemical, was placed over...studies clearly showed that all 3 compounds were perceived by olfactory sensing, and it was curious that these man-made and structurally different

  18. Acutudaurin from cultured roots of Menispermum dauricum. (United States)

    Furumoto, T; Sugimoto, Y


    A new alkaloid, acutudaurin, was isolated from cultured roots of Menispermum dauricum, a rich source of the chlorine-containing alkaloid acutumine and its dechlorinated analogue dechloroacutumine. The structure of acutudaurin was determined to be 2',3'-dihydro-5-hydroxy-4,6',7'-trimethoxy- 1'-methylspiro[3-cyclohexene-1,10'-[3a,7a]propano[1H]indole]-2,5'(4'H)-dione by spectroscopic methods.

  19. Polyvalent type IV sensitizations to multiple fragrances and a skin protection cream in a metal worker. (United States)

    Tanko, Zita; Shab, Arna; Diepgen, Thomas Ludwig; Weisshaar, Elke


    Fragrances are very common in everyday products. A metalworker with chronic hand eczema and previously diagnosed type IV sensitizations to epoxy resin, balsam of Peru, fragrance mix and fragrance mix II was diagnosed with additional type IV sensitizations to geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, lilial, tree moss, oak moss absolute, citral, citronellol, farnesol, Lyral, fragrance mix II and fragrance mix (with sorbitan sesquioleate). In addition, a type IV sensitization to the skin protection cream containing geraniol and citronellol used at the workplace was detected, and deemed occupationally relevant in this case. The patient could have had contact to fragrances through private use of cosmetics and detergents. On the other hand, the fragrance-containing skin protection cream supports occupational exposure. This case report demonstrates that fragrance contact allergy has to be searched for and clarified individually, which requires a thorough history and a detailed analysis of the work place.

  20. Properties of Aircraft Fuels and Related Materials (United States)


    carboxaldehyde 0.42 7.12 Cumene 4.09 7.67 P-Methylstyrene 0.34 1) 7.85 n-propylbenzene 2.65 8.07 Methylethyl benzene + ethylcyclohexane 1.65 8.48...naphthalenes. These compounds were found to be above their normal levels in the subject sample. Polymerization or other internal reactions are extremely

  1. A facile synthesis of the spiroindoline-based growth hormone secretagogue, MK-677

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Liang Qi; Er Qun Yang; Jun Tao Zhang; Tao Wang; Xiao Ping Cao


    A facile and improved route for the synthesis of the orally active spiroindoline-based growth hormone secretagogue,MK-677 was described.The key step adopted the Fischer indole/reduction strategy.The preparation of the key intermediates N-protected piperidine carboxaldehyde 5 and the N-Boc-O-benzyl-D-serine (2) are also optimized.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Benzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde undergoes condensation with 4-methylpyridine and with 2-methylquinoline to produce trans-diarylethenes (52% and 76%, respectively). The former alkene photocyclizes in cyclohexane to yield [1]benzo[2,3-h]isoquinoline (35%), while the latter alkene does not give succ

  3. The Analysis of Lavender Oil by GC/MS%薰衣草挥发油化学成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解成喜; 王强; 崔晓明


    采用毛细管气质联用法对薰衣草挥发油化学成分进行了研究,共确认了其中21种成分,占精油总含量的96.55%.其主要化学成分为芳樟醇(Linalool),乙酸芳樟酯(Linalyl acetate),4-甲基-1-(1-异丙基)-3-环己烯-1-醇(3-Cyclohexen-1-o1,4-methy1-1-1(1-methykthyl)-),乙酸薰衣草酯(Lavandayl acetate)等.

  4. 黑种草籽挥发油化学成分的GC-MS分析%The Analysis of Nigelia Sativa L seed Volatile Oils by GC/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解成喜; 王强; 崔晓明



  5. Soluble Polyimides Bearing Long-Chain Alkyl Groups on Their Side Chain via Polymer Reaction



    Novel soluble polyimides having long-chain alkyl groups on their side chain were synthesized via polymer reaction with the polyimides having phenolic OH groups and 3,4,5-tris(dodecyloxy)benzoic acid (12GA) using N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as a dehydration reagent. The polyimides having phenolic OH groups were synthesized from the tetracarboxylic dianhydrides such as 5-(2,5-dioxotetrahydrofuryl)-3-methyl-3-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride (cyclohexene-DA), 4,4′-hexafluoroisoprop...

  6. 3-(Substituted Aryl-1-benzofuranyl-2-propenones: Antimicrobial Properties of Some Chalcones-Type Compounds and their 2-Pyrazoline Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Coskun


    Full Text Available 2-Acetylbenzofuran on condensation with furan-2-carboxaldehyde and pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde in methanolic KOH solution yielded the corresponding benzofuran chalcones. These two compounds and nine benzofuran chalcones were synthesized before, were further reacted with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol which led to the formation of 2-pyrazoline derivatives. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, melting point determination, infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Nine chalcone-type compounds and eleven 2-pyrazolines were evaluated for their biological activities against the six bacteria and the three yeast and it was seen that thirteen compounds showed activity. Four of them are chalcone-type compounds showed more or less activity.

  7. Development of fluorescent lead II sensor based on an anthracene derived chalcone. (United States)

    Prabhu, J; Velmurugan, K; Nandhakumar, R


    A simple anthracene based chalcone as a fluorescent chemosensor 1, capable of detecting Pb(2+) in aqueous media, has been synthesized by the reaction between pyridine 2-carboxaldehyde and 9-acetyl anthracene. The Pb(2+) recognition processes follows a photo induced electron transfer (PET) mechanism and are scarcely influenced by other coexisting metal ions. In addition, determination of lead in a variety of samples was also determined.

  8. Syntheses and Structural Studies of Schiff Bases Involving Hydrogen Bonds


    José Elguero; Rosa M. Claramunt; Dionisia Sanz; Almudena Perona


    New Schiff bases have been prepared by reacting 3-hydroxy-4-pyridine- carboxaldehyde with various amines. NMR spectroscopic methods provided clear evidence that the Schiff bases exist in the solid state and in solution as hydroxyimino tautomers with the E-configuration. A study of the stabilities of the tautomeric forms and the different conformers has been carried out using density functional calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G** level. © 2006 by MDPI.

  9. Komponen kimia daun Cinnamomum macrophyllum Miq Lauraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andria Agusta


    Full Text Available An analysis on the chemical constituents of Cinnnamomum macrophyllum Miq leaves from Halmahera island using combination techniques GCMS was conducted. Total numbers of the constituents which can be detected were 59 consisted of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, phenol derivates, alkanes, oxygenated hydrocarbon, alcohols, aldehydes, caboxilix acid and alkaloid aong with eight unidentified compounds (1-8. Leaves of C. macrophyllum contained bioactive compound such as limonene, isoeugenol, methyleugenon, safrole, vitamin E, furfuraldehyde, 2-furan-carboxaldehyde and 7-methyl xanthine.

  10. Stereoselective synthesis of (+)-euphococcinine and (-)-adaline. (United States)

    Arbour, Mélissa; Roy, Stéphanie; Godbout, Cédrickx; Spino, Claude


    We describe the syntheses of (+)-euphococcinine and (-)-adaline, two naturally occurring alkaloids containing a quaternary carbon bearing a nitrogen atom. Key features of the syntheses are a 3,3-sigmatropic rearrangement to give an all-carbon quaternary center, a ring-closing alkene metathesis to give an 8-membered ring, and the use of a single enantiomer of p-menthane-3-carboxaldehyde to make two natural alkaloids of opposite configuration.

  11. Antileishmanial, antimicrobial and antifungal activities of some new aryl azomethines. (United States)

    Al-Kahraman, Yasser M S A; Madkour, Hassan M F; Ali, Dildar; Yasinzai, Masoom


    A series of eighteen azomethines has been synthesized by the reaction of appropriate primary aromatic amines with aryl and/or heteroaryl carboxaldehydes. The synthesized azomethines have been evaluated for their in vitro antileishmanial, antibacterial and antifungal activities. The results revealed some antifungal activity of most of the synthesized compounds, whereas the antileishmaniasis activity results highlighted that all synthesized azomethines inhibited parasite growth and most of them showed highly potent action towards Leishmania major promastigotes. No remarkable bactericidal activities were observed.

  12. N1-((1H-Indazol-5-ylmethylene-N2-(2-((2-((2-(((1H-indazol-6-ylmethyleneaminoethylaminoethylaminoethylethane-1,2-diamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lodeiro


    Full Text Available One novel molecular emissive probe L has been synthesized by classical Schiff-base reaction between 1H-indazole-6-carboxaldehyde and tetraethylenepentamine. The structure of compound L was confirmed by melting point, elemental analysis, ESI-MS spectrometry and by IR and 13C-NMR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy.

  13. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OO Johnson


    Full Text Available The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity. The microorganisms used include, Staphylococcus aureus isolate, Escherichia coli isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans isolate, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 90028. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs ranged from 9.31×10-13 – 7.88 mg/ml for garlic oil, 0.16 – 2.66 mg/ml for tangerine oil and 5.95×10-31 – 1.24 mg/ml for the essential oil blend. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration indicated that the Garlic oil and Tangerine oil blend was better at inhibiting the tested microorganisms than the individual oils except for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (30.32% as the major component in the garlic oil extract and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha 4-trimethyl (33.38% in the tangerine oil. While the equal volume of the oil blend also revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (15.92% and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha.4-trimethyl (12.02% as the major constituents though in lower concentrations. Hence, the more potent antimicrobial properties demonstrated by the oil blend can be exploited further with a view to generate new effective antimicrobial compounds.

  14. Metal based biologically active compounds: design, synthesis, and antibacterial/antifungal/cytotoxic properties of triazole-derived Schiff bases and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes. (United States)

    Chohan, Zahid H; Sumrra, Sajjad H; Youssoufi, Moulay H; Hadda, Taibi B


    A new series of oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been designed and synthesized with a new class of triazole Schiff bases derived from the reaction of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde and acetyl pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, respectively. Physical (magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance), spectral (IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, mass and electronic) and analytical data have established the structures of these synthesized Schiff bases and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes. The Schiff bases, predominantly act as bidentate and coordinate with the vanadium(IV) metal to give a stoichiometric ratio of 1:2 [M:L], forming a general formulae, [M(L-H)(2)] and [M(L)(2)]SO(4) where L = (L(1))-(L(4)) and M = VO(IV) of these complexes in a square-pyramidal geometry. In order to evaluate the biological activity of Schiff bases and to assess the role of vanadium(IV) metal on biological activity, the triazole Schiff bases and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been studied for in vitro antibacterial activity against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella flexenari, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi) and two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis) bacterial strains, in vitro antifungal activity against Trichophyton longifucus, Candida albican, Aspergillus flavus, Microscopum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glaberata. The simple Schiff bases showed weaker to significant activity against one or more bacterial and fungal strains. In most of the cases higher activity was exhibited upon coordination with vanadium(IV) metal. Brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out for in vitro cytotoxic properties against Artemia salina.

  15. Diastereo- and enantioselective three-component coupling approach to highly substituted pyrrolidines. (United States)

    Chaulagain, Mani Raj; Felten, Albert E; Gilbert, Kevin; Aron, Zachary D


    The enantioselective synthesis of substituted pyrrolidines through a mild Lewis-acid catalyzed three-component coupling reaction between picolinaldehyde, amino acids, and activated olefins is reported. The reaction uses low catalyst loadings of commercially available chiral diamines and copper triflate proposed to self-assemble in conjunction with the chelating aldehydes, 4-substituted-2-picolinaldehydes or 4-methylthiazole-2-carboxaldehyde, to generate a catalyst complex. A model is provided to explain how this complex directs enantioselectivity. This work represents a significant advance in the ease, scope, and cost of producing highly substituted, enantioenriched pyrrolidines.

  16. Schiff base functionalized Organopropylsilatranes: Synthesis and structural characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gurjaspreet Singh; Promila; Amandeep Saroa; Jandeep Singh; Raj Pal Sharm; V Ferretti


    Synthesis of Schiff bases linked to organopropylsilatranes were performed by condensation reaction of post-functionalized silatranes such as aminopropylsilatrane (4), aminopropyl-3,7,10-trimethylsilatrane (5) and N-substituted aminopropylsilatrane (10) with two different aldehydes viz. pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde and 2-hydroxy-1-napthaldehyde. The resulting Schiff base substituted silatranes were well characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic studies [IR, (1H, 13C) NMR, and MS]. The structures of two silatranes were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.

  17. Structure and spectroscopic properties of N,S-coordinating 2-methylsulfanyl-N-[(1H-pyrrol-2-ylmethylidene]aniline methanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Douglas Richards


    Full Text Available The reaction of pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde and 2-(methylsulfanylaniline in refluxing methanol gave an olive-green residue in which yellow crystals of the title compound, C12H12N2S·CH3OH, were grown from slow evaporation of methanol at 263 K. In the crystal, hydrogen-bonding interactions link the aniline molecule and a nearby methanol solvent molecule. These units are linked by a pair of weak C—H...Omethanol interactions, forming inversion dimers consisting of two main molecules and two solvent molecules.

  18. Antileishmanial, Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activities of Some New Aryl Azomethines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoom Yasinzai


    Full Text Available A series of eighteen azomethines has been synthesized by the reaction of appropriate primary aromatic amines with aryl and/or heteroaryl carboxaldehydes. The synthesized azomethines have been evaluated for their in vitro antileishmanial, antibacterial and antifungal activities. The results revealed some antifungal activity of most of the synthesized compounds, whereas the antileishmaniasis activity results highlighted that all synthesized azomethines inhibited parasite growth and most of them showed highly potent action towards Leishmania major promastigotes. No remarkable bactericidal activities were observed.

  19. Two Indole Derivatives and Phenolic Compound Isolated from Mushroom Phellinus linteus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sorasak Samchai; Prapairat Seephonkai; Chatthai Kaewtong


    AIM: To investigate the constituents from the dichloromethane fraction of the mushroom Phellinus lintues. METHODS: Silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography were used for the isolation and purification. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated based on NMR spectroscopic analyses and mass spectrometric data. RESULTS: Two indole derivatives, 7-methoxyindole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (1) and l-methylindole-3-carboxaldehyde (2), and a phenolic compound, (E)-4-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)but-3-en-2-one (3) were isolated. CONCLUSION: Compounds 1 and 2 were isolated for the first time from P. linteus.

  20. Patch test results in patients with allergic contact dermatitis in Yozgat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Çölgeçen Özel


    Full Text Available Background and Design: Patch testing is valuable in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD as well as in determining the causative agent and thus is helpful in prevention of the disease and also provides information for the patient Material and Method: Hundred and sixty-eight patients (94 female and 74 male with ACD were patch tested with European standard series. Patch test result were assessed according to suggestion of International Contact Dermatitis Research Group at 48 and 72 hours after initial application. Results: Of the patients, 64.3% were between 16-45 years of age and majority of the lesions (57.1% were localized on the hands. A total of 86 (51.1% patients had one or more positive patch test reactions. The most common allergens were nickel sulfate (20.2% followed by potassium dichromate (8.3%, cobalt chloride (7.1%, fragrance mix (7.1%, paraphenylendiamine base (6%, paraben mix 3.6%, N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (3.6%, wool alcohols (3.6%, formaldehyde (3.6%, quaternium-15 (3.6%. Positive reactions to nickel sulfate were more common among women, especially those in younger group. Frequency of contact allergy to neomycin sulfate, epoxy resin, 4-tert-butylphenolformaldehyde resin, sesquiterpenelactone mix, primin, 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-1, budesonide, lyral were relatively low (1.2%, while no positive reaction was obtained to clioquinol and methyldibromoglutaronitrile in any case. Conclusion: Since no similar study has been previously performed in our area, this study provides information about contact allergen profile in patients underwent skin patch test with a diagnosis of AKD at Yozgat. The most frequent allergens detected with ASS and frequency rates may vary among different facilities at various cities of Turkey. A standard series for our country may be created after assessment of regional variability by new studies conducted in same time zone.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and biological studies of Schiff bases derived from heterocyclic moiety. (United States)

    Shanty, Angamaly Antony; Philip, Jessica Elizabeth; Sneha, Eeettinilkunnathil Jose; Prathapachandra Kurup, Maliyeckal R; Balachandran, Sreedharannair; Mohanan, Puzhavoorparambil Velayudhan


    Some new Schiff bases (H1-H7) have been synthesized by the condensation of 2-aminophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-methylphenol, 2-amino benzimidazole with thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde and pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde. The structures of newly synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR, UV-VIS, and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds has been tested against Salmonella typhi, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus pumills, Escherichia coli, Bacillus circulans, Pseudomonas, Clostridium and Klebsilla pneumonia by disk diffusion method. The quantitative antimicrobial activity of the test compounds was evaluated using Resazurin based Microtiter Dilution Assay. Ampicillin was used as standard antibiotics. Schiff bases individually exhibited varying degrees of inhibitory effects on the growth of the tested bacterial species. The antioxidant activity of the synthesized compounds was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) method. IC50 value of synthesized Schiff bases were calculated and compared with standard BHA.

  2. Design, spectral characterization and biological studies of transition metal(II) complexes with triazole Schiff bases. (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H


    A new series of three biologically active triazole derived Schiff base ligands L(1)-L(3) have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole with pyrrol-2-carboxaldehyde, 4-bromo-thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde, and 5-iodo-2-hydroxy benzaldehyde. The prepared Schiff bases were used for further complex formation reaction with different metal elements like Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) as chlorides by using a molar ratio of ligand:metal as 2:1. The structure and bonding nature of all the compounds were identified by their physical, spectral and analytical data. All the metal(II) complexes possessed an octahedral geometry except the Cu(II) complexes which showed a distorted octahedral geometry. All the synthesized compounds, were studied for their in vitro antibacterial, and antifungal activities, against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi) and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains and against six fungal strains (Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata) by using agar-well diffusion method. It has been shown that all the synthesized compounds showed moderate to significant antibacterial activity against one or more bacterial strains. In vitro Brine Shrimp bioassay was also carried out to investigate the cytotoxic properties of these compounds. The data also revealed that the metal complexes showed better activity than the ligands due to chelation/coordination.

  3. Synthesis and Electrical and Gas Sensing Properties of Some 5-(Quinolinylmethylene-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H-dione and 5-(Quinolinylmethylenepyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H-trione Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kerim Beker


    Full Text Available Eight new 5-(quinolinylmethylenebarbituric acid derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid and 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid with quinoline-4-carboxaldehydes and several quinoline-2-carboxaldehydes via Knoevenagel condensation. The novel compounds were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass, IR, and UV-visible spectral data and elemental analyses. d.c. and a.c. conduction properties of the compounds were investigated in the frequency range of 40–105 Hz and temperature range 295–440 K. The d.c. results showed an activated conductivity dependence on temperature for all films. Obtained data reveal that a.c. conductivity obeys the relation and exponent is found to decrease by increasing temperature. The analysis of the a.c. conduction data showed that the CBH model is the dominant conduction mechanism for the electron transport in the films. Gas sensing properties of the films for the volatile organic compounds (VOCs were also investigated in the same temperature range. Maximum sensitivity to VOCs was observed at around 360 K for compound 6.

  4. Preparation of zinc sulfide nanocrystallites from single-molecule precursors (United States)

    Palve, Anil M.; Garje, Shivram S.


    Zinc sulfide nanocrystallites were prepared using Zinc(II) thiosemicarbazone complexes of the types Zn(L) 2 and ZnCl 2(LH) 2 (where, LH=thiosemicarbazones of cinnamaldehyde, 4-chlorobenzaldehyde, indol-3-carboxaldehyde and thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde) as single source precursors by solvothermal decomposition in ethylene glycol and ethylene diamine in few cases. The materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and UV-vis and IR spectroscopy. Solvothermal decomposition in ethylene glycol resulted in the formation of hexagonal ZnS (JCPDS: 36-1450) as evident from the XRD patterns. However, XRD shows formation of hybrid material, ZnS 0.5EN in case of solvothermal decomposition in ethylenediamine. Infrared spectra authenticate the capping of ethylene glycol and ethylenediamine on ZnS and ZnS 0.5EN, respectively. TEM images showed formation of spherical nanoparticles for the materials obtained from ethylene glycol, whereas plate-like morphology is observed in case of materials obtained from ethylene diamine. The blue shift of absorption bands compared to bands of bulk materials in the UV-vis spectra supports the formation of smaller particles.

  5. Identification of novel orosensory active molecules in cured vanilla Beans (Vanilla planifolia). (United States)

    Schwarz, Bernd; Hofmann, Thomas


    Sequential application of solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography, and HPLC in combination with taste dilution analyses, followed by LC-MS and 1D/2D NMR experiments, led to the discovery of seven velvety mouth-coating molecules in cured beans of Vanilla planifolia . Among these, 5-(4-hydroxybenzyl)vanillin, 4-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-2-methoxyphenol, 4-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-5-methoxybenzaldehyde, (1-O-vanilloyl)-(6-O-feruloyl)-beta-d-glucopyranoside, americanin A, and 4',6'-dihydroxy-3',5-dimethoxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-carboxaldehyde were previously not reported in vanilla beans. Sensory studies revealed human recognition thresholds for the velvety mouth-coating sensation between 1.0 and 5.0 mumol/kg (water). Interestingly, the biphenyl derivatives were found to enhance the perception of creaminess and fatty body of sweetened skim milk, among which 4',6'-dihydroxy-3',5-dimethoxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-carboxaldehyde showed the lowest threshold level of 5 mumol/kg. Quantitative analysis of these compounds in cured vanilla beans from different origins as well as in noncured beans revealed that, with the exception of americanin A, all of the other taste compounds are not present in the green vanilla beans and are formed during the bean curing process.

  6. Metal based new triazoles: their synthesis, characterization and antibacterial/antifungal activities. (United States)

    Sumrra, Sajjad H; Chohan, Zahid H


    A series of new triazoles and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated for antibacterial/antifungal properties. The new Schiff bases ligands (L(1))-(L(5)) were prepared by the condensation reaction of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, 2-acetyl pyridine and 2-methoxy benzaldehyde. The structures of the ligands have been established on the basis of their physical, spectral (IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry) and elemental analytical data. The prepared ligands were used to synthesize their oxovanadium(IV) complexes (1)-(5) which were also characterized by their physical, spectral and analytical data and proposed to have a square pyramidal geometry. The ligands and their complexes were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity against six bacterial species such as, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis and for in vitro antifungal activity against six fungal strains, Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, and Candida glabrata. Cytotoxic nature of the compounds was also reported using brine shrimp bioassay method against Artemia salina.

  7. Design, spectral characterization and biological studies of transition metal(II) complexes with triazole Schiff bases (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H.


    A new series of three biologically active triazole derived Schiff base ligands L1-L3 have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole with pyrrol-2-carboxaldehyde, 4-bromo-thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde, and 5-iodo-2-hydroxy benzaldehyde. The prepared Schiff bases were used for further complex formation reaction with different metal elements like Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) as chlorides by using a molar ratio of ligand:metal as 2:1. The structure and bonding nature of all the compounds were identified by their physical, spectral and analytical data. All the metal(II) complexes possessed an octahedral geometry except the Cu(II) complexes which showed a distorted octahedral geometry. All the synthesized compounds, were studied for their in vitro antibacterial, and antifungal activities, against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi) and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains and against six fungal strains (Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata) by using agar-well diffusion method. It has been shown that all the synthesized compounds showed moderate to significant antibacterial activity against one or more bacterial strains. In vitro Brine Shrimp bioassay was also carried out to investigate the cytotoxic properties of these compounds. The data also revealed that the metal complexes showed better activity than the ligands due to chelation/coordination.

  8. Metal based new triazoles: Their synthesis, characterization and antibacterial/antifungal activities (United States)

    Sumrra, Sajjad H.; Chohan, Zahid H.


    A series of new triazoles and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated for antibacterial/antifungal properties. The new Schiff bases ligands (L1)-(L5) were prepared by the condensation reaction of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, 2-acetyl pyridine and 2-methoxy benzaldehyde. The structures of the ligands have been established on the basis of their physical, spectral (IR, 1H and 13C NMR and mass spectrometry) and elemental analytical data. The prepared ligands were used to synthesize their oxovanadium(IV) complexes (1)-(5) which were also characterized by their physical, spectral and analytical data and proposed to have a square pyramidal geometry. The ligands and their complexes were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity against six bacterial species such as, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis and for in vitro antifungal activity against six fungal strains, Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, and Candida glabrata. Cytotoxic nature of the compounds was also reported using brine shrimp bioassay method against Artemia salina.

  9. Antibacterial and Antifungal Studies on Some Schiff Base Complexes of Zinc(II). (United States)

    Joseyphus, R Selwin; Nair, M Sivasankaran


    Two Schiff base ligands L1and L2 were obtained by the condensation of glycylglycine respectively with imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde and indole-3-carboxaldehyde and their complexes with Zn(II) were prepared and characterized by microanalytical, conductivity measurement, IR, UV-Vis., XRD and SEM. The molar conductance measurement indicates that the Zn(II) complexes are 1: 1electrolytes. The IR data demonstrate the tetradentate binding of L1and tridentate binding of L2. The XRD data show that Zn(II) complexes with L1and L2 have the crystallite sizes of 53 and 61nm respectively. The surface morphology of the complexes was studied using SEM. The in vitro biological screening effects of the investigated compounds were tested against the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumaniae, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungal species Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizoctonia bataicola and Candida albicans by the disc diffusion method. A comparative study of inhibition values of the Schiff base ligands and their complexes indicates that the complexes exhibit higher antimicrobial activity than the free ligands. Zinc ions are proven to be essential for the growth-inhibitor effect. The extent of inhibition appeared to be strongly dependent on the initial cell density and on the growth medium.

  10. Non-conventional halide oxidation pathways : oxidation by imidazole triplet and surface specific oxidation by ozone (United States)

    Ammann, Markus; Corral-Arroyo, Pablo; Aellig, Raphael; Orlando, Fabrizio; Lee, Ming-Tao; Artiglia, Luca


    Oxidation of halide ions (chloride, bromide, iodide) are the starting point of halogen release mechanisms out of sea water, marine aerosol or other halide containing continental aerosols. Slow oxidation of chloride and bromide by ozone in the bulk aqueous phase is of limited relevance. Faster surface specific oxidation has been suggested based on heterogeneous kinetics experiments. We provide first insight into very efficient bromide oxidation by ozone at the aqueous solution - air interface by surface sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicating significant build-up of an oxidized intermediate at the surface within millisecond time scales. The second source of oxidants in the condensed we have considered is the absorption of light by triplet forming photosensitizers at wavelengths longer than needed for direct photolysis and radical formation. We have performed coated wall flow tube experiments with mixtures of citric acid (CA) and imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) to represent secondary organic material rich marine aerosol. The halide ions bromide and iodide have been observed to act as efficient electron donors leading to their oxidation, HO2 formation and finally release of molecular halogen compounds. The photosensitization of imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) involves a well-known mechanism where the triplet excited state of IC is reduced by citric acid to a reduced ketyl radical that reacts with halide ions. A competition kinetics approach has been used to evaluate the rate limiting steps and to assess the significance of this source of halogens to the gas phase.

  11. White light generation by carbonyl based indole derivatives due to proton transfer: an efficient fluorescence sensor. (United States)

    Singla, Nidhi; Bhadram, Venkata Srinu; Narayana, Chandrabhas; Chowdhury, Papia


    The motivation of the present work is to understand the optical, chemical, and electrical aspects of the proton transfer mechanism of indole (I) and some carbonyl based indole derivatives: indole-3-carboxaldehyde (I3C) and indole-7-carboxaldehyde (I7C) for both powder form and their liquid solution. Structural information for indole derivatives (isolated molecule and in solution) is obtained with density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT (TD-DFT) methods. Calculated transition energies are used to generate UV-vis, FTIR, Raman, and NMR spectra which are later verified with the experimental spectra. The occurrence of different conformers [cis (N(c)), trans (N(t)), and zwitterion (Z*)] have been interpreted by Mulliken charge, natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, and polarization versus electric field (P-E loop) studies. (1)H and (13)C NMR and molecular vibrational frequencies of the fundamental modes established the stability of Nc due to the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding (IHB) in the ground state (S0). Computed/experimental UV-vis absorption/emission studies reveal the creation of new species: zwitterion (Z*) and anion (A*) in the excited state (S1) due to excited state intramolecular and intermolecular proton transfer (ESI(ra)PT and ESI(er)PT). Increased electrical conductivity (σ(ac)) with temperature and increased ferroelectric polarization at higher field verifies proton conduction in I7C.

  12. Coordination behavior of new bis(tridentate ONO, ONS and ONN) donor hydrazones towards some transition metal ions: Synthesis, spectral, thermal, antimicrobial and antitumor studies (United States)

    Shebl, Magdy


    Three new hydrazone ligands, H2L1, H2L2 and H4L3, were prepared by condensation of 4,6-bis(1-hydrazonoethyl)benzene-1,3-diol with furan-2-carboxaldehyde, thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde and 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, respectively. The ligands reacted with copper(II), nickel(II), cobalt(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and dioxouranium(VI) ions to yield binuclear complexes formulated as [(L)M2(OAc)2(H2O)n(EtOH)m]·xH2O·yEtOH where L = L1 or L2; M = Cu, Ni, Co, Zn or Cd; n = nil, 1 or 4; m, x and y = nil or 1, [(H2L2)Cd2(OAc)4(H2O)2]·EtOH, [(L)(UO2)2(OAc)2(H2O)2Y2]·nH2O where L = L1 or L2; Y = nil or H2O; n = 2.5 or 7, [(L3)M2(H2O)6]·nH2O where M = Cu or Zn; n = 1 or 6, [(L3)(UO2)2(H2O)4]·2.5H2O and dimeric complexes; [(L1)2Ni2]·3H2O and [(H2L3)2M2]·nH2O where M = Ni or Co; n = 1.5 or 3. The ligands and their metal complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, 1H and 13C NMR, electronic, ESR and mass spectra, conductivity, magnetic susceptibility measurements and powder XRD as well as thermal analysis. The coordinating sites are phenolic oxygens, azomethine nitrogens and the hetero O/N/S atoms. Octahedral, tetrahedral and square planar geometrical arrangements are proposed for metal complexes whilst the uranium ion is hepta- or octa-coordinated. The kinetics of the thermal decomposition for some metal complexes were studied and their thermodynamic parameters were calculated using Coats-Redfern method. The antimicrobial activity of the ligands and their complexes was screened. The antitumor activity of the ligands and their complexes was tested on Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma. Copper(II) complexes showed promising IC50 values, which are comparable to that of cisplatin.

  13. Larvicidal efficacies and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus sylvestris and Syzygium aromaticum against mosquitoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kehinde Adenike Fayemiwo; Monsuru Adebayo Adeleke; Ovie Princewill Okoro; Shola Hezekiah Awojide; Ilias Olufemi Awoniyi


    Objective:To assess the chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal potentials of essential oils of locally sourced Pinus sylvestris (P. sylvestris) and Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum) against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus (C. quinquefasciatus). Method:The chemical composition of the essential oils of both plants was determined using GC-MS while the larvicidal bioassay was carried out using different concentrations of the oils against the larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus in accordance with the standard protocol. Results:The results as determined by GC-MS showed that oil of S. aromaticum has eugenol (80.5%) as its principal constituent while P. sylvestris has 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, .alpha., .alpha.4-trimethyl (27.1%) as its dominant constituent. Both oils achieved over 85%larval mortality within 24 h. The larvae of A. aegypti were more susceptible to the oils [LC50 (S. aromaticum)=92.56 mg/L, LC50(P. sylvestris)=100.39 mg/L] than C. quinquefasciatus [LC50(S. aromaticum)=124.42 mg/L;LC50(P. sylvestris)=128.00 mg/L]. S. aromaticum oil was more toxic to the mosquito larvae than oil of P. sylvestris but the difference in lethal concentrations was insignificant (P>0.05). Conclusion: The results justify the larvicidal potentials of both essential oils and the need to incorporate them in vector management and control.

  14. Characterization of urinary volatiles in Swiss male mice (Mus musculus): bioassay of identified compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Achiraman; G Archunan


    The present study was carried out to investigate the chemical nature of the urine of male mice and to assess its bioactivity. Urine of mature male mice was extracted with dichloromethane (1 : 1 ratio v/v) and analysed by gas-chromatography linked mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). Ten different compounds such as alkanes, alcohols, etc. were detected in the urine. Among the ten, five compounds are specific to males, namely 3-cyclohexene-1-methanol (I), 3-amino-s-triazole (II), 4-ethyl phenol (III), 3-ethyl-2,7-dimethyl octane (IV) and 1-iodoundecane (V). The compound, 4-ethylphenol, has been previously reported in several strains of male mice. Furthermore, the compounds (II) and (IV) are similar to 2-sec-butylthiazole and dehydro-exo-brevicomin compounds which have already been reported in male mice. Bioassay revealed that compounds (II), (III) and (IV) were responsible for attracting females and in inducing aggression towards males, as compared to the other compounds, i.e. (I) and (V). The results indicate that these three volatiles (II, III and IV) of male mice appear to act as attractants of the opposite sex.

  15. Soluble Polyimides Bearing Long-Chain Alkyl Groups on Their Side Chain via Polymer Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Tsuda


    Full Text Available Novel soluble polyimides having long-chain alkyl groups on their side chain were synthesized via polymer reaction with the polyimides having phenolic OH groups and 3,4,5-tris(dodecyloxybenzoic acid (12GA using N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC as a dehydration reagent. The polyimides having phenolic OH groups were synthesized from the tetracarboxylic dianhydrides such as 5-(2,5-dioxotetrahydrofuryl-3-methyl-3-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride (cyclohexene-DA, 4,4′-hexafluoroisopropylidendi(phthalic anhydride (6FDA, and 3,3′,4,4′-diphenylsulfone tetracarboxylic dianhydride (DSDA and aromatic diamines such as 4,4′-diamino-3,3′-dihydroxybiphenyl (HAB. The polymer reactions were carried out in NMP and the progresses of polymer reactions were quantitatively monitored by 1H NMR measurements (conversion; 12.2–98.7%. The obtained polyimides bearing long-chain alkyl groups have enough molecular weights, good film-forming ability, good solubility for various organic solvents, and enough thermal stability. The water contact angles of the polyimide films were investigated, and it is noted that the introduction of long-chain alkyl groups increases the hydrophobicity of polyimide surface. These polyimides are expected to be applicable as the functional materials for microelectronics such as the alignment layers of LCDs.

  16. Immunotoxicity activity from the essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seeds. (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Ahmad, Ateeque; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Jung, Woo-Suk; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Nayeem, Abdul; Nagella, Praveen


    The seeds of the Coriandrum sativum were extracted and the essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analysis of the essential oil was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, which revealed 33 components, representing 99.99% of the total oil from the seeds of coriander. The major components are linalool (55.09%), α-pinene (7.49%), 2,6-Octadien-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, acetate, (E)- (5.70%), geraniol (4.83%), 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, α,α,4-trimethyl- (4.72%), hexadecanoic acid (2.65%), tetradecanoic acid (2.49%), 2-α-pinene (2.39%), citronellyl acetate (1.77%), and undecanal (1.29%). The seed oil had significant toxic effects against the larvae of Aedes aegypti with an LC(50) value of 21.55 ppm and LC(90) value of 38.79 ppm. The above data indicate that the major components in the essential oil of coriander play an important role as immunotoxicity on the A. aegypti.

  17. Antimicrobial activities of essential oil from Artemisiae argyi leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; ZHANG Xue-ke; WU Nan; FU Yu-jie; ZU Yuan-gang


    A study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial activities of essential oil from Artemisiae argyi leaves. The sample of the essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS. From 18 compounds representing the oils, Eucalyptole (18.42%), Spathulenol (14.32), 4-Methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-3-cyclohexen-1-ol (3.10%), 3-Carene (2.64%) appeared as the main components. The screening of antimicro bial activity of the essential oil was evaluated using agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Gram-positive bacterial were more sensitive than gram-negative bacterial of the 8 microorganisms, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 showed the lowest MIC (0.3125%) and MBC (0.625%). In the disc diffusion assay, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 49134 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 showed obvious inhibitory activity. Survival curve showed that, 2MIC ofArtemisiae argyi essential oil had a lethal effect on Candida albicans within the first 1 h. Results presented here suggest that the essential oil of Artemisiae argyi leaves possesses antimicrobial properties, and provides scientific foundations for exploition ofArtemisiae argyi.

  18. Fluorescent-magnetic Janus particles prepared via seed emulsion polymerization. (United States)

    Kaewsaneha, Chariya; Bitar, Ahmad; Tangboriboonrat, Pramuan; Polpanich, Duangporn; Elaissari, Abdelhamid


    Anisotropic polymeric colloidal or Janus particles possessing simultaneous magnetic and fluorescent properties were successfully prepared via the swelling-diffusion or the in situ emulsion polymerization method. In the swelling-diffusion process, magnetic emulsions (an organic ferrofluid dispersed in aqueous medium) were synthesized and used for seeds of submicron magnetic Janus particles. After swelling the anisotropic particles obtained by 1-pyrene-carboxaldehyde fluorescent dye dissolved in tetrahydrofuran, well-defined fluorescent-magnetic Janus particles were produced. In the in situ emulsion polymerization, styrene monomer mixed with fluorescent dye monomers, i.e., 1-pyrenylmethyl methacrylate (PyMMA) or fluorescein dimethacrylate (FDMA), and an oil-soluble initiator (2,2'-azobis(2-isobutyronitrile)) were emulsified in the presence of magnetic seed emulsions. The confocal microscopic images showed the fluorescent-magnetic Janus particles with high fluorescent intensity when a fluorescent crosslinker monomer FDMA was employed.

  19. Flavonoides e outros compostos isolados de Mimosa artemisiana Heringer e Paula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildomar Alves do Nascimento


    Full Text Available This the first phytochemical investigation of Mimosa artemisiana (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae describing the isolation and identification of quercitrin, myricitrin, 3,5,4´-trihydroxi-6,7-dimethoxyflavone (6,7-dimethylkaepferol, flavolignans, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosil sitosterol, lupeol, sitostenone, stigmastenone, campestenone, sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, methyl indole-3-carboxilate and indole-3-carboxaldehyde in the extracts from the leaves and wood of this plant. This is the first registry of 6,7-dimethoxy,4'-hydroxy-flavona and the flavonolignans in this genera. The isolation of all metabolites was made by chromatographic methods and the structures were established on the basis of IR, MS, ¹H and 13C NMR spectra analysis, comparison with literature data and GC-MS of mixtures analysis.

  20. Synthesis and antituberculosis activity of indole-pyridine derived hydrazides, hydrazide-hydrazones, and thiosemicarbazones. (United States)

    Velezheva, Valeriya; Brennan, Patrick; Ivanov, Pavel; Kornienko, Albert; Lyubimov, Sergey; Kazarian, Konstantin; Nikonenko, Boris; Majorov, Konstantin; Apt, Alexander


    We describe the design, synthesis, and in vitro antimycobacterial activity of a series of novel simple hybrid hydrazides and hydrazide-hydrazones combining indole and pyridine nuclei. The compounds are derivatives of 1-acetylindoxyl or substituted indole-3-carboxaldehydes tethered via a hydrazine group by simple C-N or double C=N bonds with 3- and 4-pyridines, 1-oxide 3- and 4-pyridine carbohydrazides. The most active of 15 compounds showed MICs values against an INH-sensitive strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv equal to that of INH (0.05-2 μg/mL). Five compounds demonstrated appreciable activity against the INH-resistant M. tuberculosis CN-40 clinical isolate (MICs: 2-5 μg/mL), providing justification for further in vivo studies.

  1. An efficient synthesis of 3'-indolyl substituted pyrido[1,2-]benzimidazoles as potential antimicrobial and antioxidant agents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harshad G Kathrotiya; Manish P Patel


    A new class of indole-based pyrido[1,2-]benzimidazole derivatives 4a-r have been synthesized by one-pot cyclocondensation reaction of 2-phenyl-1-indole-3-carboxaldehyde 1a-i, malononitrile 2 and 2-cyanomethylbenzimidazole 3a-b in the presence of catalytic amount of NaOH. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the synthesized compounds were investigated against a representative panel of pathogenic strains specifically three Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Clostridium tetani, Bacillus subtilis), three Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli) and two fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans) using broth microdilution MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) method. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay method. Compounds 4c, 4e, 4l and 4q have been found to be most efficient antimicrobial members while compounds 4h and 4p possess better ferric reducing antioxidant power.

  2. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of cumin oil (Cuminum cyminum, Apiaceae). (United States)

    Wanner, Juergen; Bail, Stefanie; Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Schmidt, Erich; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tanya; Atanasova, Teodora; Stoyanova, Albena


    Cumin oil samples (Cuminum cyminum L.) from four different geographical origins were analyzed using GC-MS and GC-FID for their qualitative and quantitative composition. The major compounds in all cumin oils were the monoterpenes beta-pinene, p-cymene and gamma-terpinene and the terpenoid aldehydes cuminic aldehyde and the isomeric menthadien carboxaldehydes. All essential oils, and cuminic aldehyde, were tested, using agar diffusion and serial dilution methods, against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from different sources of food (pork fillet, minced meat and sausages) and clinical isolates, as well as three different Candida albicans isolates. All cumin oils and cuminic aldehyde exhibited a considerable inhibitory effect against all the organisms tested, except Pseudomonas spp.

  3. Schiff bases of N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and its silatranes: Synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gurjaspreet Singh; Amandeep Saroa; Sadhika Khullar; Sanjay K Mandal


    This paper aims at the introduction of azomethine group by the condensation reaction of N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane with different compounds containing carbonyl group such as 2’-hydroxyacetophenone, salicylaldehyde, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, acetylacetone and ethyl acetoacetate. Further, transesterification reaction of these Schiff base modified silanes with triethanolamine as a tripodal ligand leads to the synthesis of corresponding silatranes 1–5 bearing Schiff base functionalized long chain in the axial position. All the synthesized compounds are characterized by spectroscopic methods, elemental analysis and mass spectrometry. The authentication of Schiff base modified silatranes is scrutinized by single X-ray crystal structure of silatrane 1. The thermal stability of the five silatranes is studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA).

  4. [Chemical constituents in higher polar substances from Desmodium caudatum]. (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Wang, Di; Wang, Guang-Hui; Guo, Zhi-Jian; Zou, Xiu-Hong; Lin, Ting; Chen, Hai-Feng


    In this study the chemical constituents of the higher polar sustances from Desmodium caudatum were investigated.The compounds were isolated by using column chromatographies over silicagel, polyamide, ODS, Sephadex LH-20, and preparative HPLC. The structures of these compounds were identified on the basis of NMR and MS spectra. Thirteen compounds were obtained and their structures were identified as vanillin(1), loliolide(2), indole-3-carboxaldehyde(3), salicylic acid(4), swertisin(5), saccharumoside C(6), isosinensin (7), kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (8), isovitexin (9), vitexin (10), nothofagin(11), resveratroloside (12), and 2"-α-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-methylvitexin (13). Except for compound 5, the remaining compounds were isolated from D. caudatum for the first time. Compounds 2, 3, 6-8, 11-13 were separated from the genus Desmodium for the first time.

  5. Is copper(I) really soft? Probing the hardness of Cu(I) with pyridinecarboxaldehyde ligands

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Saravanabharathi; M Nethaji; A G Samuelson


    Cu(I) complexes of formula Cu(PPh3)2LClO4 [L = 2 or 3 pyridine carboxaldehyde] are synthesised and characterised to explore the coordination of an aldehyde, a hard and neutral oxygen donor to a soft Cu(I) centre. The structural and spectroscopic results illustrate that only in 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, the `C=O' group coordinates to soft Cu(I) centres due to a favourable chelate effect, while in 3-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, it remains uncoordinated. Upon chelation via N and O donors, 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde resembles bipyridine or phenanthroline in terms of its bite angle and spectroscopic features. Such chelation can be easily challenged with coordinating anions like bromide, or more basic pyridines. A drastic change in the MLCT absorption signals the decomplexation of the `C=O’ group. The observed results point out that the Cu(I) centre can readily exchange the hard `O’ donor for softer ligands.

  6. Assays for Determination of Protein Concentration. (United States)

    Olson, Bradley J S C


    Biochemical analysis of proteins relies on accurate quantification of protein concentration. Detailed in this appendix are some commonly used methods for protein analysis, e.g., Lowry, Bradford, bicinchoninic acid (BCA), UV spectroscopic, and 3-(4-carboxybenzoyl)quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde (CBQCA) assays. The primary focus of this report is assay selection, emphasizing sample and buffer compatibility. The fundamentals of generating protein assay standard curves and of data processing are considered, as are high-throughput adaptations of the more commonly used protein assays. Also included is a rapid, inexpensive, and reliable BCA assay of total protein in SDS-PAGE sample buffer that is used for equal loading of SDS-PAGE gels. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Thermal, Spectral, Fluorescence, and Antimicrobial Studies of Cobalt, Nickel, Copper, and Zinc Complexes Derived from 4-[(5-Bromo-thiophen-2-ylmethylene-amino]-3-mercapto-6-methyl-5-oxo-[1,2,4]triazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Singh


    Full Text Available A new series of cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc complexes of bidentate Schiff base derived from the condensation of 5-bromothiophene-2-carboxaldehyde with 4-amino-3-mercapto-6-methyl-5-oxo-[1,2,4]triazine were synthesized. Physical (magnetic measurements, molar conductance, TG, spectral (UV-Vis, IR, 1HNMR, fluorescence, ESR, and analytical data have established the structures of synthesized Schiff base and its metal complexes. The presence of coordinated water in metal complexes was confirmed by IR and TG studies. The Schiff base exhibits a strong fluorescence emission, contrast to this partial fluorescence quenching phenomena is observed in its metal complexes. A square planar geometry for Cu(II and octahedral geometry for Co(II, Ni(II and Zn(II complexes have been proposed. The Schiff base and its metal complexes have been screened for antibacterial (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activities (Aspergillus niger, A. flavus.

  8. Structural analysis of pyridine-imino boronic esters involving secondary interactions on solid state (United States)

    Sánchez-Portillo, Paola; Arenaza-Corona, Antonino; Hernández-Ahuactzi, Irán F.; Barba, Victor


    Twelve boronic esters (1a-1l) synthesized from 4-halo- substituted arylboronic acids (halo = F, Cl, Br, I and CF3) with 2-amino-2- alkyl (H, Me) -1,3-propanediol in presence of (3- or 4)-pyridine carboxaldehyde are described. A solvent mixture toluene/methanol 1:4 ratio was used. All compounds include both donor/acceptor functional groups, which are the necessary elements to self-assembly of the molecular species. Several secondary interactions as I⋯N, Br⋯Br, Br⋯B, F⋯B, Csbnd H⋯N, Csbnd H⋯O, Br⋯π and Csbnd H⋯π support the 1D and 2D polymeric frameworks in solid state. The coordination of the nitrogen atom from the pyridine moiety with the boron atom was not observed in either solution or solid state.

  9. Synthesis of novel Indolyl benzo[b][1,4]diazepins as potent antimicrobial and antioxidant agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiprakash S. Biradar


    Full Text Available A new series of novel indolyl benzo[b][1,4]diazepins bearing a 2,5-dichlorothiophene moiety are reported. Claisen–Schmidt condensation of 2,5-disubstituted indole-3-carboxaldehydes with 2,5-dichloro-3-acetylthiophene will produce (E-3-(2,5-disubstituted-1H-indol-3-yl-1-(2,5-dichlorothiophene-3-ylprop-2-en-1-one. The acid catalysed cyclocondensation of preformed chalcones with substituted ortho-phenylenediamine has produced the titled compounds in good yields. All the newly synthesized compounds are characterised by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analysis and mass spectroscopic data. Compounds 4b, 4c and 4f have emerged as most potent analogues in antimicrobial and antioxidant evaluations.

  10. Deposition of rod-shaped antimony sulfide thin films from single-source antimony thiosemicarbazone precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswal, Jasmine B.; Sawant, Narayan V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai - 400 098 (India); Garje, Shivram S., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai - 400 098 (India)


    Antimony sulfide thin films were deposited on glass substrates by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition technique using single source precursors, namely, antimony(III) thiosemicarbazones, SbCl{sub 3}(L) (L = thiosemicarbazones of thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde (1) and cinnamaldehyde (2)). The deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and UV-visible spectroscopy in order to identify their phases, morphologies, compositions and optical properties respectively. These characterizations revealed that the films were comprised of rod-shaped particles of orthorhombic stibnite (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) with a Sb:S stoichiometry of {approx} 1:1.3. The calculated optical band gap from UV-vis absorption spectrum is found to be 3.48 eV.

  11. Pyroligneous acid-the smoky acidic liquid from plant biomass. (United States)

    Mathew, Sindhu; Zakaria, Zainul Akmar


    Pyroligneous acid (PA) is a complex highly oxygenated aqueous liquid fraction obtained by the condensation of pyrolysis vapors, which result from the thermochemical breakdown or pyrolysis of plant biomass components such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. PA produced by the slow pyrolysis of plant biomass is a yellowish brown or dark brown liquid with acidic pH and usually comprises a complex mixture of guaiacols, catechols, syringols, phenols, vanillins, furans, pyrans, carboxaldehydes, hydroxyketones, sugars, alkyl aryl ethers, nitrogenated derivatives, alcohols, acetic acid, and other carboxylic acids. The phenolic components, namely guaiacol, alkyl guaiacols, syringol, and alkyl syringols, contribute to the smoky odor of PA. PA finds application in diverse areas, as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, plant growth stimulator, coagulant for natural rubber, and termiticidal and pesticidal agent; is a source for valuable chemicals; and imparts a smoky flavor for food.

  12. Copper(II) complexes with aroylhydrazones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samudranil Pal


    The coordination chemistry of copper(II) with tridentate aroylhydrazones is briefly discussed in this article. Two types of aroylhydrazones derived from aroylhydrazines and ortho-hydroxy aldehydes or 2-pyridine-carboxaldehyde have been used. The characterization of the complexes has been performed with the help of various physico-chemical techniques. Solid state structural patterns have been established by X-ray crystallography. In the solid state, structural varieties of these complexes are seen to range from monomeric, dimeric, polymeric and onedimensional self-assembly via hydrogen bonds and - interactions. EPR spectroscopy and variable temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements have been used to reveal the nature of the coordination geometry and magnetic characteristics of these complexes.

  13. Antibacterial and Enzyme Inhibition Studies of N'-Substituted Benzylidene-2-(2, 4-Dimethylphenoxy Acetatohydrazides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1S. Nadeem


    Full Text Available The molecules bearing azomethine group are known to possess biological activities. In the present work, the synthesis of N'-Substitutedbenzylidene-2-(2, 4-dimethylphenoxy acetatohydrazide (5a-d has been elaborated using 2,4-Dimethylphenol (1 as precursor. The molecule, 1, was converted to ethyl 2-(2,4-dimethylphenoxyacetate (2 on refluxing with ethyl 2-bromoacetate in ethanol in the presence of KOH. Ethyl ester, 2, was refluxed with hydrated hydrazine (80% in ethanol to yield 2-(2,4-dimethylphenoxy acetohydrazide (3. The target molecules, 5a-d, were synthesized by stirring 3 with phenyl/aryl carboxaldehyde (4a-d in methanol in the presence of glacial acetic acid. The synthesized molecules were characterized by spectral data and evaluated for antibacterial and anti-enzymatic activities.

  14. Synthesis, antioxidant and antimicrobial evaluation of thiazolidinone, azetidinone encompassing indolylthienopyrimidines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anand Raghunath Saundane; Manjunatha Yarlakatti; Prabhaker Walmik; Vijaykumar Katkar


    Various 2-amino-N'-{3-(2',5'-disubstituted-1H-indol-3'-yl)methylene}-4,5-dimethylthieno-3-carbohydrazides (3) synthesized by condensation of 2-amino-4,5-dimethyl thiophene-3-carbohydrazide (2) with 2,5- disubstituded indole-3-carboxaldehyde (1). The Schiff’s base (3) on cyclocondensation with acetic anhydride and triethyl orthoformate afforded thienopyrimidine analogues (4) and (7), respectively. Compounds 4 or 7 on cyclization with thioglycolic acid and chloroacetyl chloride gave thiazolidin-4-ones (5) or (8) and azitidin-2-ones (6) or (9) respectively. The structures of these newly synthesized compounds have been established on the basis of their spectral data and elemental analysis. Some of the compounds exhibited promising antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  15. Isothiourea-catalysed enantioselective pyrrolizine synthesis: synthetic and computational studies. (United States)

    Stark, Daniel G; Williamson, Patrick; Gayner, Emma R; Musolino, Stefania F; Kerr, Ryan W F; Taylor, James E; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; O'Riordan, Timothy J C; Macgregor, Stuart A; Smith, Andrew D


    The catalytic enantioselective synthesis of a range of cis-pyrrolizine carboxylate derivatives with outstanding stereocontrol (14 examples, >95 : 5 dr, >98 : 2 er) through an isothiourea-catalyzed intramolecular Michael addition-lactonisation and ring-opening approach from the corresponding enone acid is reported. An optimised and straightforward three-step synthetic route to the enone acid starting materials from readily available pyrrole-2-carboxaldehydes is delineated, with benzotetramisole (5 mol%) proving the optimal catalyst for the enantioselective process. Ring-opening of the pyrrolizine dihydropyranone products with either MeOH or a range of amines leads to the desired products in excellent yield and enantioselectivity. Computation has been used to probe the factors leading to high stereocontrol, with the formation of the observed cis-steroisomer predicted to be kinetically and thermodynamically favoured.

  16. SYNTHESIS OF 1-({7-METHOXY-2-[4-(METHYLSULFANYL PHENYL]-1- BENZOFURAN-5-YL}-N-[(N-ETHYLPYRROLIDIN-2-YL METHYL]METHANAMINE BY REDUCTIVE AMINATION. Synthese von 1 - ({7-methoxy-2-[4 - (methylsulfanyl phenyl] -1 - BENZOFURAN-5-yl}-N-[(N-Ethylpyrrolidin-2-yl methyl] MethanaMine Durch reduktive LAMINATION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapu R Thorata, Dyneshwar Shelke, Ramdas Atram and Ramesh Yamgar


    Full Text Available Vanillin undergoes sequence of reaction forming phosphonium salt through dimethyaminomethyl derivative (Mannich reaction. The synthesis of phosphonium salt can be achieved by sequence of three steps. A solution of Mannich base in acetic anhydride was refluxed for 24 hrs to give crude diacetate which is purified and treated with HCl to give chloromethyl derivative. It is further treated with triphenylphosphine in dry benzene under reflux condition. The phosphonium salt undergoes condensation with 4-methylsulfanylbenzoyl chloride by refluxing in toluene in presence of triethylamine. The reaction was completed in 6 hrs. The crude product was purified by using column chromatography. The resulting 7-methoxy-2-[4- (methylsulfanylphenyl]-l-benzofuran-5-carboxaldehyde was subjected to reductive amination and the final product 1-({7-methoxy-2-[4-(methylsulfanylphenyl]-1-benzofuran-5-yl}-N-[(Nethylpyrrolidin- 2-ylmethyl]methan amine was purified by column chromatography and characterized by FT-IR, NMR and Mass spectroscopy.

  17. Synthesis of 2-(2-Aryl)ethylbenzoic Acid%2-(2-芳基)乙基苯甲酸的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢艳; 郑土才; 周文军; 陈芬儿


    以邻氰基氯苄为原料,与苯甲醛或2-噻吩甲醛经Wittig-Horner反应、水解及氢化反应制得2-(2-苯乙基)苯甲酸或2-(2-噻吩基)乙基苯甲酸,总收率分别约64%和60%.%2- (2-Phenylethyl) benzoic acid or 2- (thiophen-2-ylethyl) benzoic acid was synthesized from o-cyanobenzyl chloride via Wittig-Horner reaction with benzaldehyde or 2-thiophene carboxaldehyde, hydrolysis and then hydrogenation with the overall yield of about 64 % or 60 % .

  18. Imidazole-based Potential Bi- and Tridentate Nitrogen Ligands: Synthesis, Characterization and Application in Asymmetric Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kulhánek


    Full Text Available Twelve new imidazole-based potential bi- and tridentate ligands were synthesized and characterized. Whereas in the first series the α-amino acid and imidazole moieties were linked by an amino bond, in the second series the tridentate ligands, containing two imidazole groups, were separated by an amide bond. The first series was obtained by the reductive amination of 2-phenylimidazole-4-carboxaldehyde with α-amino acid esters. The tridentate ligands were prepared from 2-phenylimidazole-4-carboxylic acid and chiral amines. In the Henry reaction, the amines were revealed as a more reactive species than the less nucleophilic amides, however the enantiomeric excesses were generally poor.

  19. Stereoselective [3+2] Carbocyclization of Indole-Derived Imines and Electron-Rich Alkenes: A Divergent Synthesis of Cyclopenta[b]indole or Tetrahydroquinoline Derivatives. (United States)

    Galván, Alicia; Calleja, Jonás; González-Pérez, Adán B; Álvarez, Rosana; de Lera, Angel R; Fañanás, Francisco J; Rodríguez, Félix


    An unprecedented stereoselective [3+2] carbocyclization reaction of indole-2-carboxaldehydes, anilines, and electron-rich alkenes to obtain cyclopenta[b]indoles is disclosed. This pathway is different from the well-established Povarov reaction: the formal [4+2] cycloaddition involving the same components, which affords tetrahydroquinolines. Moreover, by simply changing the Brønsted acid catalyst, this multicomponent coupling process could be divergently directed towards the conventional Povarov pathway to produce tetrahydroquinolines or to the new pathway (anti-Povarov) to generate cyclopenta[b]indoles. Supported by computational studies, a stepwise Mannich/Friedel-Crafts cascade is proposed for the new anti-Povarov reaction, whereas a concerted [4+2] cycloaddition mechanism is proposed for the Povarov reaction.

  20. Flavonolignoids and other compounds isolated from Mimosa artemisiana Heringer and Paula; Flavonoides e outros compostos isolados de Mimosa artemisiana Heringer e Paula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Ildomar Alves do [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Mathias, Leda [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas; Carvalho, Mario Geraldo de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (NPPN/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Nucleo de Pesquisa em Produtos Naturais; Fonseca, Fabio de Alcantara [Instituto Estadual de Florestas (IEF), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    This the first phytochemical investigation of Mimosa artemisiana (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) describing the isolation and identification of quercitrin, myricitrin, 3,5,4'-trihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavone (6,7-dimethylkaempferol), flavolignans, 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl sitosterol, lupeol, sitostenone, stigmastenone, campestenone, sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, methyl indole-3-carboxylate and indole-3-carboxaldehyde in the extracts from the leaves and wood of this plant. This is the first registry of 6,7-dimethoxy,4'-hydroxy-flavone and the flavonolignans in this genera. The isolation of all metabolites was made by chromatographic methods and the structures were established on the basis of IR, MS, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectra analysis, comparison with literature data and GC-MS of mixtures analysis. (author)

  1. Chemical Constituents of the Sponge Mycale Sp ecies from South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Zhou


    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the sponge Mycale species from the South China Sea afforded eleven known compounds, henicosanoic acid methyl ester (1 , hexadecyl ethers of glycerol ( 2 , N-docosanoyl-D-erythro-(2S,3R-16-methyl-heptadecasphing-4(E-enine ( 3 , dibutyl phthalate ( 4 , cholesterol ( 5 , 5α,8α-epidioxycholest-6,22-dien-3β-ol ( 6 , 5-hexadecyl-pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde ( 7 , benzoic acid ( 8 , 4-hydroxybenzoic acid ( 9 , thymine ( 10 ,and uracil ( 11 . Compounds 1 – 4 , 6 – 9 were obtained from the sponge of the genus Mycale for the first time, and 4 and 6 showed toxicity in the brine shrimp lethality test with the LD 50 values at 2.9 μg/mL and 4. 7 μg/mL, respectively .

  2. Isothiourea-catalysed enantioselective pyrrolizine synthesis: synthetic and computational studies† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: NMR spectra, HPLC analysis and computational co-ordinates. Data available.12 CCDC 1483759. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c6ob01557c Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. (United States)

    Stark, Daniel G.; Williamson, Patrick; Gayner, Emma R.; Musolino, Stefania F.; Kerr, Ryan W. F.; Taylor, James E.; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; O'Riordan, Timothy J. C.


    The catalytic enantioselective synthesis of a range of cis-pyrrolizine carboxylate derivatives with outstanding stereocontrol (14 examples, >95 : 5 dr, >98 : 2 er) through an isothiourea-catalyzed intramolecular Michael addition-lactonisation and ring-opening approach from the corresponding enone acid is reported. An optimised and straightforward three-step synthetic route to the enone acid starting materials from readily available pyrrole-2-carboxaldehydes is delineated, with benzotetramisole (5 mol%) proving the optimal catalyst for the enantioselective process. Ring-opening of the pyrrolizine dihydropyranone products with either MeOH or a range of amines leads to the desired products in excellent yield and enantioselectivity. Computation has been used to probe the factors leading to high stereocontrol, with the formation of the observed cis-steroisomer predicted to be kinetically and thermodynamically favoured. PMID:27489030

  3. Pattern recognition analysis of chromatographic fingerprints of Crocus sativus L. secondary metabolites towards source identification and quality control. (United States)

    Aliakbarzadeh, Ghazaleh; Sereshti, Hassan; Parastar, Hadi


    Chromatographic fingerprinting is an effective methodology for authentication and quality control of herbal products. In the presented study, a chemometric strategy based on multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) and multivariate pattern recognition methods was used to establish a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) fingerprint of saffron. For this purpose, the volatile metabolites of 17 Iranian saffron samples, collected from different geographical regions, were determined using the combined method of ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction (UASE) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), coupled with GC-MS. The resolved elution profiles and the related mass spectra obtained by an extended MCR-ALS algorithm were then used to estimate the relative concentrations and to identify the saffron volatile metabolites, respectively. Consequently, 77 compounds with high reversed match factors (RMFs > 850) were successfully determined. The relative concentrations of these compounds were used to generate a new data set which was analyzed by multivariate data analysis methods including principal component analysis (PCA) and k-means. Accordingly, the saffron samples were categorized into five classes using these techniques. The results revealed that 11 compounds, as biomarkers of saffron, contributed to the class discrimination and characterization. Eleven biomarkers including nine secondary metabolites of saffron (safranal, α- and β-isophorone, phenylethyl alcohol, ketoisophorone, 2,2,6-trimethyl-1,4-cyclohexanedione, 2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxo-2-cyclohexen-1-carbaldehyde, 2,4,4-trimethyl-3-carboxaldehyde-5-hydroxy-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one, and 2,6,6-trimethyl-4-hydroxy-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde (HTCC)), a primary metabolite (linoleic acid), and a long chain fatty alcohol (nanocosanol) were distinguished as the saffron fingerprint. Finally, the individual contribution of each biomarker to the classes was determined by the

  4. Antimicrobial activity of some essential oils against microorganisms deteriorating fruit juices. (United States)

    Helal, G A; Sarhan, M M; Abu Shahla, A N K; Abou El-Khair, E K


    Seventeen microbial species including 10 fungal taxa, two yeasts and five bacteria, were isolated from freshly prepared orange, guava and banana juices kept in open bottles at room temperature for 7 days. Eight different essential oils, from local herbs, were tested for their antimicrobial activity against these test organisms. The essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum and Origanum majorana were found to be highly effective against these microorganisms. Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the most prevalent microorganisms in juice, showed the highest resistance against these essential oils. GC-MS analysis showed that while e-citral, a'-myrcene, and z-citral represent the major components (75.1%) of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus; bezynen,1-methyl-4-(2-propenyl), 1,8-cineole and trans-a'-bisabolene were the main components (90.6%) of Ocimum basilicum; whereas 3-cyclohexen-1-01,4-methyl-1(1-methylethyl)-(CAS), c-terpinene and trans-caryophyllene represent the major components (65.1%) of Origanum majorana. These three essential oils were introduced into juices by two techniques namely, fumigation and direct contact. The former technique showed more fungicidal effect than the latter one against A. flavus, A. niger, and S. cerevisiae. The essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus by comparison to other test oils showed the strongest effect against these fungi with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.5 µl/ml medium and a sublethal concentration of 1.0 µl/ml. The antimicrobial activity of this oil is thermostable at 121℃ for 30 min.

  5. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Tibetan herbal medicine Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. (United States)

    Zhang, Chunjiang; Li, Hongyu; Yun, Tian; Fu, Yonghong; Liu, Chunmei; Gong, Bu; Neng, Benjia


    The essential oil of Tibetan medicine Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth was obtained by hydrodistillation with a 0.7% (v/w) yield. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectral (GC-MS). Eighty-three compounds, constituting about 89.83% of the total oil, were identified. The main compound in the oil were Cineole (14.89%), trans-nerolido (7.10%), 1-m-ethyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-benzene (4.42%), Germacrene-D (4.84%), Decahydro-1,1,4,7-tetramethyl-4aH-cycloprop[e]azulen-4a-ol (4.94%), p-menth-1-en-4-ol,acetate (4.34%), 4-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-3-cyclohexen-1-ol (4.10%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated against nine bacterial, one yeast, and three fungi. The antimicrobial test result showed that the essential oil strongly inhibited the growth of test microorganisms studied. The maximal inhibition zones and MIC values for bacterial, yeast and fungi strain were in the range of 18-25 mm and 0.039-0.156 mg mL(-1); *20 mm, and 0.156 mg mL(-1); 8-24 mm and 0.313-2.5 mg mL(-1); respectively. The antioxidant activity of the oil was determined by the malonyldialdehyde (MDA) test, measuring the MDA concentration in mouse liver cell microsomal after induced lipid peroxidation using FeSO(4) and ascorbic acid, The inhibition of lipid peroxidation was 59.3% with a concentration of 0.5 mg mL(-1). Result presented here may suggest that the essential oil of D. heterophyllum posses antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and therefore, they can be one of new medicinal resources for antimicrobial agent and/or used as a natural preservative ingredient in food and cosmetics and pharmaceuticals industry.

  6. Volatile emissions during storing of green food waste under different aeration conditions. (United States)

    Agapiou, A; Vamvakari, J P; Andrianopoulos, A; Pappa, A


    Controlled field experiments were carried out for monitoring the emissions of three plastic commercial household waste bins, which were adapted for studying the effect of aeration process in the evolved volatiles, during house storing of green food waste for 2 weeks, prior to collection. Three experimental scenarios were examined based on no aeration ("NA," closed commercial waste bin), diffusion-based aeration ("DA," closed commercial waste bin with tiny holes), and enforced aeration ("EA," closed commercial waste bin with tiny holes and enforced aeration). The monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from organic household kitchen waste was performed using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) analysis. Portable sensors were also used for monitoring selected gases and parameters of environmental, bioprocess, and health interest (e.g., CO2, O2, H2S, CH4, NH3, % RH, waste temperatures). VOC emissions are strongly dependent on the waste material. The most frequent VOCs identified over the storing waste, showing over 50 % appearance in all examined samples, were terpenes (e.g., di-limonene, beta-myrcene, delta-3-carene, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpinolene, linalool, etc.), sulfides (dimethyl disulfide), aromatics (benzene, 1-methyl-2-(2-propenyl)), alkanes (e.g., decane, dodecane), ketones (2-propanone), esters (e.g., acetic acid ethyl ester, acetic acid methyl ester), and alcohols (e.g., 3-cyclohexen-1-ol, 4-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)). The prominent role of terpenes in the "pre-compost" odor and especially that of di-limonene was highlighted. In all examined scenarios, the emitted volatiles were increased at raised temperatures and later decreased in time. Aeration of waste bins slightly affected the volatilization process resulting in higher profiles of VOCs; uniformity in the composition of VOCs was also noted. Slight modifications of commercial waste bins may favor the initiation of home composting.

  7. How polar are choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents? (United States)

    Pandey, Ashish; Rai, Rewa; Pal, Mahi; Pandey, Siddharth


    Developing and characterizing green solvents with low toxicity and cost is one of the most important issues in chemistry. Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs), in this regard, have shown tremendous promise. Compared to popular organic solvents, DESs possess negligible VOCs and are non-flammable. Compared to ionic liquids, which share many characteristics but are ionic compounds and not ionic mixtures, DESs are cheaper to make, much less toxic and mostly biodegradable. An estimate of the polarity associated with DESs is essential if they are to be used as green alternatives to common organic solvents in industries and academia. As no one physical parameter can satisfactorily represent solute-solvent interactions within a medium, polarity of DESs is assessed through solvatochromic optical spectroscopic responses of several UV-vis absorbance and molecular fluorescence probes. Information on the local microenvironment (i.e., the cybotactic region) that surrounds several solvatochromic probes [betaine dye, pyrene, pyrene-1-carboxaldehyde, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS), p-toluidinyl-6-naphthalene sulfonate (TNS), 6-propionyl-2-(dimethylaminonaphthalene) (PRODAN), coumarin-153, and Nile Red] for four common and popular DESs formed from choline chloride combined with 1,2-ethanediol, glycerol, urea, and malonic acid, respectively, in 1 : 2 molar ratios termed ethaline, glyceline, reline, and maline is obtained and used to assess the effective polarity afforded by each of these DESs. The four DESs as indicated by these probe responses are found to be fairly dipolar in nature. Absorbance probe betaine dye and fluorescence probes ANS, TNS, PRODAN, coumarin-153, and Nile Red, whose solvatochromic responses are based on photoinduced charge-transfer, imply ethaline and glyceline, DESs formed using alcohol-based H-bond donors, to be relatively more dipolar in nature as compared to reline and maline. The pyrene polarity scale, which is based on polarity-induced changes in

  8. Rational design and synthesis of novel dibenzo[b,d]furan-1,2,3-triazole conjugates as potent inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (United States)

    Yempala, Thirumal; Sridevi, Jonnalagadda Padma; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Kantevari, Srinivas


    A series of novel dibenzo[b,d]furan-1,2,3-triazole conjugates, rationally designed by reorientation of dibenzo[b,d]furan pharmacophore and alkyl/aryl groups appended on 1,2,3-triazole core, were synthesized using click chemistry. The required key intermediate, 2-ethynyl dibenzo[b,d]furan 3 was prepared from dibenzofuran-2-carboxaldehyde using Corey-Fuchs reaction. Further reaction of 3 with various alkyl/aryl azides in the presence of copper catalyst produced 1,2,3-triazole conjugates in excellent yields. Evaluation of all the new compounds for in vitro antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC27294), resulted 5a (MIC: 1.56 μg/mL), 5d (MIC: 0.78 μg/mL) and 5f (MIC: 0.78 μg/mL) as promising lead analogues. Among these three compounds, 1-(4-bromobenzyl)-4-(dibenzo[b,d]furan-2-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole (5f) emerged as the most promising antitubercular agent with lowest cytotoxicity (selectivity index: ≫25) against the HEK-293T cell line.

  9. Degradation of carbofuran-contaminated water by the Fenton process. (United States)

    Ma, Ying-Shih; Kumar, Mathava; Lin, Jih-Gaw


    In this study, the Fenton process was applied for the degradation of carbofuran from aqueous system. Batch experiments were conducted at two different carbofuran concentrations i.e., 10 and 50 mg/L, and at pH 3. Batch experiments at each carbofuran concentration were designed by central composite design (CCD) with two independent variables i.e. Fe2+ and H2O2. Experimental results indicate that more than 90% of carbofuran removal was observed within 5 mins of Fenton reaction at 5 mg/L of Fe2+ concentration and 100 mg/L of H202 concentration. Increases in Fe2+ and/or H2O2 concentrations beyond 5 and 100 mg/L, respectively produced 100% carbofuran removal. Based on the experimental observations, the optimal Fe2+ and H2O2 dosages required for 10 mg/L of aqueous carbofuran removal were estimated as 7.4 and 143 mg/L, respectively. During this study, three carbofuran intermediates such as 7-benzofuranol,2,3,-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl, 7-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-benzofuran-3-one and 1,4-Benzene-di-carboxaldehyde were identified using GC/MS analyses.

  10. Toward the control of Leptosphaeria maculans: design, syntheses, biological activity, and metabolism of potential detoxification inhibitors of the crucifer phytoalexin brassinin. (United States)

    Pedras, M Soledade C; Jha, Mukund


    Brassinin (1), a crucial plant defense produced by crucifers, is detoxified by the phytopathogenic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans (Phoma lingam) to indole-3-carboxaldehyde using a putative brassinin oxidase. Potential inhibitors of brassinin detoxification were designed by replacement of its dithiocarbamate group (toxophore) with carbamate, dithiocarbonate, urea, thiourea, sulfamide, sulfonamide, dithiocarbazate, amide, and ester functional groups. In addition, the indolyl moiety was substituted for naphthalenyl and phenyl. The syntheses and chemical characterization of these potential detoxification inhibitors, along with their antifungal and cytotoxic activity, as well as screening using cultures of L. maculans are reported. Overall, three types of interaction were observed in cultures of L. maculans co-incubated with the potential inhibitors and brassinin: (1) a decrease on the rate of brassinin detoxification due to the strong inhibitory activity of the compound on fungal growth, (2) a decrease on the rate of brassinin detoxification due to the inhibitory activity of the compound on the putative brassinin oxidase, and (3) a low to no detectable effect on the rate of brassinin detoxification. A noticeable decrease in the rate of brassinin detoxification was observed in the presence of N'-methylbrassinin, methyl N-methyl-N-(naphthalen-2-ylmethyl) dithiocarbamate, tryptophol dithiocarbonate, and methyl 3-phenyldithiocarbazate. Tryptophol dithiocarbonate appeared to be the best inhibitor among the designed compounds, representing the first inhibitor of brassinin detoxification and potentially the first selective protecting agent of oilseed crucifers against L. maculans infestation.

  11. Application of Porous Nickel-Coated TiO2 for the Photocatalytic Degradation of Aqueous Quinoline in an Internal Airlift Loop Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxin Huo


    Full Text Available P25 film, prepared by a facile dip-coating method without any binder, was further developed in a recirculating reactor for quinoline removal from synthetic wastewater. Macroporous foam Ni, which has an open three-dimensional network structure, was utilized as a substrate to make good use of UV rays. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the coated/calcinated P25 films consisted of two crystal phases, and had a number of uniform microcracks on the surface. The effects of initial quinoline concentration, light intensity, reaction temperature, aeration, and initial pH were studied. Increased reaction time, light intensity, environmental temperature, and gas aeration were found to significantly improve the quinoline removal efficiency. The aeration effect of oxygen dependency on the quinoline degradation had the trend pure oxygen > air > no gas > pure nitrogen with free O2. The solution pH crucially affected quinoline photodegradation; the high electrostatic adsorption of quinoline molecules on the TiO2 surface was strongly pH dependent. 2-Pyridine-carboxaldehyde, 3-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, and 2(1H-quinolinone were identified as the major intermediates of quinoline degradation. Based on these intermediates, a primary degradation mechanism was proposed. This reusable P25 film benefits the photodegradation of water contaminants and has potential in other various applications.

  12. New group 6 metal carbonyl complexes with 4,5-dimethyl-N,N-bis(pyridine-2-yl-methylene)benzene-1,2-diimine Schiff base: synthesis, spectral, cyclic voltammetry and biological activity studies. (United States)

    Mohamed, Rania G; Elantabli, Fatma M; Helal, Nadia H; El-Medani, Samir M


    Thermal reaction of M(CO)6 (M=Cr, Mo or W) with a Schiff base (DMPA) derived from the condensation of 4,5-dimethyl-1,2-phenylenediamine and pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde in THF in absence and presence of a secondary ligand; 2-aminobenzimidazole (Abz), thiourea (Tu) or 2-(2'-pyridyl)benzimidazole (pybz) were studied. The reaction of Cr(CO)6 gave the four complexes Cr2(CO)2(DMPA)2; 1, Cr(DMPA)2(Abz)2; 2, Cr2(CO)4(DMPA)2(Tu)2; 3 and Cr(DMPA)2(Pybz); 4, while the thermal reaction of Mo(CO)6 resulted in the formation of the two complexes Mo2(O)6(DMPA)2; 5, and Mo2(O)2(CO)2(DMPA)2(Tu)2; 6. Thermal reaction of W(CO)6 and the Schiff base DMPA gave the complex W(O)2(DMPA)2; 7. The ligand DMPA and its metal complexes have been reported and characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, (1)H NMR, magnetic measurements, and thermal analysis. Cyclic voltammetry and biological activity were also investigated.

  13. Five new alkaloids from Coptidis Rhizoma-Euodiae Fructus couple and their cytotoxic activities against gastrointestinal cancer cells. (United States)

    Qian, Ping; Yang, Xiu-Wei


    A new indoloquinazoline alkaloid, 10-methoxywuchuyuamide I (1), three new benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, named as coptichic aldehyde (2), coptichine (3) and 13-carboxaldehyde-8-oxocoptisine (4), and a new isoindoline alkaloid, named as coptichinamide (5), together with two known alkaloids, wuchuyuamide I (6) and 8-oxocoptisine (7) were isolated from the Coptidis Rhizoma-Euodiae Fructus couple. Their chemical structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including IR, UV, EI-MS, HRESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR data ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC and HMBC). Cytotoxicities of the isolated alkaloids against NCI-N87 and Caco-2 cell lines were evaluated. Four benzylisoquinoline alkaloids 2-4 and 7 showed inhibitory activities against NCI-N87 cell with IC50 values range from 8.92 to 35.98 μM. The alkaloid 3 was a new antiproliferation compound against NCI-N87 cells. The results provided valuable information for further investigation of alkaloid 3 as a chemopreventive agent.

  14. Synthesis of (plus or minus) [5-{sup 3}H] N'-Nitrosoanatabine, a tobacco-specific nitrosamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Dhimant; Lin, Guoying; Morimoto, Hiromi; Williams, Philip G.; El-Bayoumy, Karam; Amin, Shantu


    Tobacco-specific N'-nitrosamines (TSNA) are a unique class of systemic organ-specific carcinogens. The TSNA are formed by N-nitrosation of nicotine and of the minor tobacco alkaloids after harvesting of tobacco and during smoking. The N-nitrosation of anatabine leads to N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT; 1-nitroso-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2,3'-bipyridyl) which requires in-depth assays in laboratory animals other than the rat. Furthermore, delineation of its tissue distribution and metabolism is needed for structure:activity comparisons with other TSNA and for the assessment of potential human risk from this TSNA. We have, therefore, synthesized (+)[5-3H]NAT. 5-Bromo-3-pyridine-carboxaldehyde was condensed with ethyl carbamate prior to Diels-Alder reaction with 1,4-butadiene to give the racemic anatabine ring system. Hydrolysis followed by reduction with LiAlT4 and nitrosation, led to (+)[5-3H]NAT (60 percent yield, specific activity 266 mCi/mmol, radiochemical purity of >99 percent).

  15. Hydroxypyridyl Imines: Enhancing Chromatographic Separation and Stereochemical Analysis of Chiral Amines via Circular Dichroism. (United States)

    Joyce, Leo A; Regalado, Erik L; Welch, Christopher J


    Imine-bond formation between chiral amines and commercially available 3-hydroxypyridine-2-carboxaldehyde (HCA) was exploited for rapid determination of stereochemical composition. Chiral supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) screening of the derivatized imine compounds led to the elucidation of multiple combinations of mobile and stationary phases that gave resolution of all members of a series of chiral amines. The first eluting enantiomer was generally the derivative of the (R)-amine enantiomer across the series that was studied, indicating that the imine formed from the (S)-amine has more favorable interaction with the chiral stationary phase of the column. These conditions were then applied to more challenging compounds, namely amino alcohols and diastereomers possessing more than one stereocenter. The approach was utilized to monitor stereoselective biocatalytic transamination and assign the absolute configuration of the enantiomeric products. Finally, hydrolysis of the imine bond of the derivative was shown to generate enantiopure amine starting materials without racemization. This further highlights the value of this approach for creating readily reversed derivatives that enhance chromatographic separation and aid in the determination of absolute configuration.

  16. Synthesis, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anticonvulsant activities of some new 4,6-dimethoxy-5-(heterocyclesbenzofuran starting from naturally occurring visnagin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. El-Sawy


    Full Text Available Novel 3-(4,6-dimethoxybenzofuran-5-yl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxaldehyde (3 and 3-chloro-3-(4,6-dimethoxybenzofuran-5-ylpropenal (4 were prepared via Vilsmeier–Haack reaction of 1-(4,6-dimethoxybenzofuran-5-ylethanone (1 and its hydrazone derivative 2. Reaction of compound 4 with some hydrazine derivatives, namely hydrazine hydrate, phenylhydrazine and benzylhydrazine hydrochloride led to the formation of pyrazole derivatives 5–8, respectively. On the other hand, reaction of compound 4 with thiourea, urea or guanidine gave the pyrimidine derivatives 9–11, respectively. Reaction of amino compound 11 with acetic anhydride, benzoyl chloride and benzenesulphonyl chloride yielded N-substituted pyrimidine derivatives 12–14, respectively. Reaction of diazonium salt of compound 11 with sodium azide afforded azidopyrimidine derivative 15, which upon reaction with ethyl acetoacetate gave 1,2,3-triazole derivative 16. Acid catalyzed reaction of 11 with p-nitrobenzaldehyde gave Schiff base 17, which cyclized upon reaction with thioglycolic acid or chloroacetyl chloride to give thiazolidin-4-one 18 and azetidin-2-one 19, respectively. The newly synthesized compounds were tested for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anticonvulsant activities. Depending on the obtained results, the newly synthesized compounds possess significant anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anticonvulsant activities.

  17. Synthesis of Novel Ferrocenyl Quinoxaline Piperazines and Their Relevant Antimalarial Activities%新型二茂铁基喹喔啉哌嗪的合成及其抗疟活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭平; 吴超; 向建南


    A series of novel ferrocenyl-substituted pyrrolo [1,2-α] quinoxaline piperazines 1a-h were synthe-sized from ferrocene-carboxaldehyde by six-step reactions .All of the compounds were screened for their antimalarial activities against plasmodium falciparum FcB1, K1, F32 strains.The results revealed that compounds 1 exhibited some inhibitory activities against the plasmodium falciparum strains.Among them, nitro substituted 1h was best. This work laid a foundation for further study of new antimalarial drugs .%以二茂铁甲醛为起始原料,经过6步反应合成得到新型的二茂铁吡咯并[1,2-α]喹喔啉哌嗪类衍生物1a-h.产物针对恶性疟原虫FcB1, K1, F32等菌株进行了体外抑制活性实验.实验结果表明,新合成的化合物具有一定的抗疟活性,其中芳环上4-位硝基取代的化合物1h体外抗疟活性最优.本工作为进一步研究具有更好活性的抗疟药物打下一定的基础.

  18. Thermal solvent-free synthesis of novel pyrazolyl chalcones and pyrazolines as potential antimicrobial agents. (United States)

    Siddiqui, Zeba N; Musthafa, T N Mohammed; Ahmad, Anis; Khan, Asad U


    A novel approach was adopted for the synthesis of series of new pyrazolyl chalcones (3a-c) by the reaction of 5-chloro-3-methyl-1-phenylpyrazole-4-carboxaldehyde (1) with different 5-acetylbarbituric acid derivatives (2a-c) under thermal solvent-free condition. The chalcones were then converted to the corresponding pyrazolines (4a-c) under the same condition in excellent yields. All the synthesized compounds were characterized using elemental analysis and spectral data (IR, (1)H NMR, and mass spectrometry). The synthesized compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activity by disk diffusion assay with slight modifications against Gram-positive, Gram-negative strains of bacteria as well as fungal strains. The investigation of antimicrobial screening revealed that compounds (3a-4c) showed good antibacterial and antifungal activities, respectively. Among the screened compounds, 3b showed more potent inhibitory activity (MIC=12.5 μg/ml) nearly to that of standard antibiotics ciprofloxacin, griseofulvin and fluconazole.

  19. New anthracene-based Schiff bases: Theoretical and experimental investigations of photophysical and electrochemical properties (United States)

    Sek, Danuta; Siwy, Mariola; Grucela, Marzena; Małecki, Grzegorz; Nowak, Elżbieta M.; Lewinska, Gabriela; Santera, Jerzy; Laba, Katarzyna; Lapkowski, Mieczyslaw; Kotowicz, Sonia; Schab-Balcerzak, Ewa


    The new Schiff bases bearing anthracene unit were synthesized from 2-aminoanthracene and various aldehydes such as: benzaldehyde, 4-(diphenylamino)benzaldehyde, 9-phenanthrenecarboxaldehyde, 9-anthracenecarboxaldehyde, and biphenyl-4-carboxaldehyde, 2-naphthaldehyde. Resulted azomethines were characterized by IR, NMR (1H and 13C), elemental analysis and UV-vis spectroscopy. The imine consists of anthracene and biphenyl moieties exhibited liquid crystal properties and their nematic phase showed Schlieren texture. The photoluminescence measurements carried out in solution and in solid state as blend with PMMA revealed the ability of the imines to emission of the blue light with quantum yield efficiency in the range of 2.18-6.03% in blend. Based on the electrochemical experiment they showed value of energy gap (Eg) in the range of 2.5-2.7 eV. Additionally, density functional theory (DFT) was applied for calculations of both electronic structure and spectroscopic properties of synthesized Schiff bases. Moreover, the results obtained from preliminary tests of application of the azomethines in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices confirmed their electron acceptor character.

  20. 1,10-Phenanthroline promotes copper complexes into tumor cells and induces apoptosis by inhibiting the proteasome activity. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Bi, Caifeng; Schmitt, Sara M; Fan, Yuhua; Dong, Lili; Zuo, Jian; Dou, Q Ping


    Indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-propionic acid, two potent natural plant growth hormones, have attracted attention as promising prodrugs in cancer therapy. Copper is known to be a cofactor essential for tumor angiogenesis. We have previously reported that taurine, L-glutamine, and quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde Schiff base copper complexes inhibit cell proliferation and proteasome activity in human cancer cells. In the current study, we synthesized two types of copper complexes, dinuclear complexes and ternary complexes, to investigate whether a certain structure could easily carry copper into cancer cells and consequently inhibit tumor proteasome activity and induce apoptosis. We observed that ternary complexes binding with 1,10-phenanthroline are more potent proteasome inhibitors and apoptosis inducers than dinuclear complexes in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, the ternary complexes potently inhibit proteasome activity before induction of apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, but not in nontumorigenic MCF-10A cells. Our results suggest that copper complexes binding with 1,10-phenanthroline as the third ligand could serve as potent, selective proteasome inhibitors and apoptosis inducers in tumor cells, and that the ternary complexes may be good potential anticancer drugs.

  1. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Aminonaphthols Incorporated Indole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saundane Anand Raghunath


    Full Text Available An efficient one pot condensation of naphthols (1, 2,5-disubstituted indole-3-carboxaldehydes (2, and secondary amines (3 has been achieved using dichloromethane as a solvent, stirring at room temperature. Some of the new [(disubstituted amino(5-substituted 2-phenyl-1H-indol-3-ylmethyl]naphthalene-ols (4 derivatives were prepared in good yields. The significant features of this method are simple work-up procedure, inexpensive nontoxic solvent, shorter reaction times, and excellent product yields. The structures of newly synthesized compounds (4a–r are confirmed by their elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR, and mass spectral data. These compounds were screened for their in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitubercular, and anticancer activities. Among the synthesized compounds (4a–r, the compound 4e exhibited highest activity for radical scavenging and ferric ions reducing antioxidant power activities; compounds 4b, 4h, and 4k showed good metal chelating activity. Compounds 4n and 4q showed excellent antimicrobial activities with MIC value 08 µg/mL against tested strains. Compounds 4h, 4k, 4n, and 4q exhibited promising antitubercular activity with MIC value 12.5 µg/mL. Compounds 4k and 4q exhibited 100% cell lysis at concentration 10 µg/mL against MDA-MB-231 (human adenocarcinoma mammary gland cell lines.

  2. Design, synthesis, structural elucidation, pharmacological evaluation of metal complexes with pyrazoline derivatives. (United States)

    Muneera, M Sirajul; Joseph, J


    A bioactive pyrazoline derivatives have been synthesized by the base-catalyzed Claisen-Schmidt condensation of imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde with 1-acetyl-2-hydroxynaphthalene followed by cyclization with phenylhydrazine (L(1))/2,3-dimethylphenylhydrazine (L(2)) and 3-nitrophenylhydrazine (L(3)). The metal(II) complexes [Ni(II), Co(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)] were formed by reacting the corresponding metal acetates with the ligands. All complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, electronic, IR, NMR, mass and ESR spectroscopic techniques. The synthesized metal complexes of pyrazoline compounds showed significant antibacterial activity against the organisms Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Salmonella typhii when compared with the standard antibiotic (Streptomycin). The ligands and their metal complexes were screened for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide radical scavenging assay methods. All the complexes showed good free radical scavenging activity which is comparable to that of the standards. Among the metal complexes, the copper complex has showed higher activity. The results were indicated that 2-pyrazoline (structural core) and copper ion could be responsible for the potential candidate eliciting antioxidant activity. All compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ligands and metal complexes were subjected to fluorescence properties and exhibited that the variable fluorescence emission behavior of complexes. It can be attributed to the combined effect of the substituents and naphthyl structural core present in the ligands.

  3. Fluorescence, Photophysical Behaviour and DFT Investigation of E,E-2,5-bis[2-(3-pyridyl)ethenyl]pyrazine (BPEP). (United States)

    Al-Soliemy, Amerah M; Osman, Osman I; Hussein, Mahmoud A; Asiri, Abdullah M; El-Daly, Samy A


    E,E-2,5-bis[2-(3-pyridyl)ethenyl]pyrazine (BPEP) has been prepared by aldol condensation between 2,5-dimethylpyrazine and pyridine-3-carboxaldehyde. It is characterized by IR, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR. The electronic absorption and emission properties of BPEP were studied in different solvents. BPEP displays a slight solvatochromic effect of the absorption and emission spectrum, indicating a small change in dipole moment of BPEP upon excitation. The dye solutions (1 × 10(-4) M) in CHCl3, EtOH and dioxane give laser emission in blue region upon excitation by a 337.1 nm nitrogen pulse (λ = 337 nm). The tuning range, gain coefficient (α) and emission cross - section (σe) have been determined. Ground and excited states electronic geometric optimizations were performed using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), respectively. A DFT natural bond analysis complemented the ICT. The simulated maximum absorption and emission wavelengths are in line the observed ones in trend, and are proportionally red-shifted with the increase of the solvent polarity. The stability, hardness and electrophilicity of BPEP in different solvents were correlated with the polarity of the elected solvents. BPEP dye displays fluorescence quenching by colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The fluorescence data reveal that radiative and non-radiative energy transfer play a major role in the fluorescence quenching mechanism.

  4. Synthesis, optical and photoelectrical characterizations of the novel 10-chloro-6H,8H-dichromeno[2,3-b:3‧,4‧-e]pyridine-6,8-dione (CDPD) and its photodiode application (United States)

    Ibrahim, Magdy A.; Farag, A. A. M.; Roushdy, N.; El-Gohary, Nasser M.


    Friedländer condensation of 2-amino-6-chlorochromone-3-carboxaldehyde (1) with 4-hydroxycoumarin (2) under basic conditions afforded 10-chloro-6H,8H-dichromeno[2,3-b:3‧,4‧-e]pyridine-6,8-dione (3) (CDPD). Structure of CDPD was deduced based on its correct elemental analysis and spectral data (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectra). Crystalline structure by using X-ray diffraction confirms a polycrystalline nature of the powder and films with monoclinic system. A flower-like morphology was resolved for the high magnification images of scanning electron microscopy. Three direct optical band gaps were obtained and found to be 1.17, 2.24 and 3.40 eV, respectively. A sharp single peak of photoluminescence in the visible region was observed and centered at around 683 nm as well as another two peaks at 417 and 386 nm. Rectification characteristics of the device based CDPD indicates that the device behaves as a diode. A maximum value of photosensitivity of the device was obtained under effect of 60 mW/cm2 and bias voltage of 1.25 V. The phototransient characteristics of the device confirm that the device can be operated as a photodiode.

  5. LC-MS/MS quantification of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol metabolites in human plasma and urine after dietary intake of selenium-fortified broccoli. (United States)

    Hauder, Johanna; Winkler, Stefanie; Bub, Achim; Rüfer, Corinna E; Pignitter, Marc; Somoza, Veronika


    This study aimed at developing a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of sulforaphane (SFN) and indole-3-carbinol metabolites in plasma and urine after dietary intake of regular and selenium-fertilized broccoli using stable isotope dilution analysis. In a three-armed, placebo-controlled, randomized human intervention study with 76 healthy volunteers, 200 g of regular (485 μg of total glucosinolates and <0.01 μg of selenium per gram fresh weight) or selenium-fertilized broccoli (589 μg of total glucosinolates and 0.25 μg of selenium per gram fresh weight) was administered daily for 4 weeks. Glucoraphanin and glucobrassicin metabolites quantified in plasma and urine were SFN-glutathione, SFN-cysteine, SFN-cysteinylglycine, SFN-acetylcysteine, and indole-3-carboxaldehyde, indole-3-carboxylic acid, and ascorbigen, respectively. Dietary intake of selenium-fertilized broccoli increased serum selenium concentration analyzed by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy by up to 25% (p < 0.001), but affected neither glucosinolate concentrations in broccoli nor their metabolite concentrations in plasma and urine compared to regular broccoli.

  6. A moderate metal-binding hydrazone meets the criteria for a bioinorganic approach towards Parkinson's disease: Therapeutic potential, blood-brain barrier crossing evaluation and preliminary toxicological studies. (United States)

    Cukierman, Daphne Schneider; Pinheiro, Ana Beatriz; Castiñeiras-Filho, Sergio L P; da Silva, Anastácia Sá P; Miotto, Marco C; De Falco, Anna; de P Ribeiro, Thales; Maisonette, Silvia; da Cunha, Alessandra L M C; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A; Landeira-Fernandez, J; Aucélio, Ricardo Q; Outeiro, Tiago F; Pereira, Marcos D; Fernández, Claudio O; Rey, Nicolás A


    Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases share similar amyloidogenic mechanisms, in which metal ions might play an important role. In this last neuropathy, misfolding and aggregation of α-synuclein (α-Syn) are crucial pathological events. A moderate metal-binding compound, namely, 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (INHHQ), which was previously reported as a potential 'Metal-Protein Attenuating Compound' for Alzheimer's treatment, is well-tolerated by healthy Wistar rats and does not alter their major organ weights, as well as the tissues' reduced glutathione and biometal levels, at a concentration of 200mgkg(-1). INHHQ definitively crosses the blood-brain barrier and can be detected in the brain of rats so late as 24h after intraperitoneal administration. After 48h, brain clearance is complete. INHHQ is able to disrupt, in vitro, anomalous copper-α-Syn interactions, through a mechanism probably involving metal ions sequestering. This compound is non-toxic to H4 (human neuroglioma) cells and partially inhibits intracellular α-Syn oligomerization. INHHQ, thus, shows definite potential as a therapeutic agent against Parkinson's as well.

  7. Characterization of acute biliary hyperplasia in Fisher 344 rats administered the indole-3-carbinol analog, NSC-743380. (United States)

    Eldridge, Sandy R; Covey, Joseph; Morris, Joel; Fang, Bingliang; Horn, Thomas L; Elsass, Karen E; Hamre, John R; McCormick, David L; Davis, Myrtle A


    NSC-743380 (1-[(3-chlorophenyl)-methyl]-1H-indole-3-carbinol) is in early stages of development as an anticancer agent. Two metabolites reflect sequential conversion of the carbinol functionality to a carboxaldehyde and the major metabolite, 1-[(3-chlorophenyl)-methyl]-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid. In an exploratory toxicity study in rats, NSC-743380 induced elevations in liver-associated serum enzymes and biliary hyperplasia. Biliary hyperplasia was observed 2 days after dosing orally for 2 consecutive days at 100mg/kg/day. Notably, hepatotoxicity and biliary hyperplasia were observed after oral administration of the parent compound, but not when major metabolites were administered. The toxicities of a structurally similar but pharmacologically inactive molecule and a structurally diverse molecule with a similar efficacy profile in killing cancer cells in vitro were compared to NSC-743380 to explore scaffold versus target-mediated toxicity. Following two oral doses of 100mg/kg/day given once daily on two consecutive days, the structurally unrelated active compound produced hepatic toxicity similar to NSC-743380. The structurally similar inactive compound did not, but, lower exposures were achieved. The weight of evidence implies that the hepatotoxicity associated with NSC-743380 is related to the anticancer activity of the parent molecule. Furthermore, because biliary hyperplasia represents an unmanageable and non-monitorable adverse effect in clinical settings, this model may provide an opportunity for investigators to use a short-duration study design to explore biomarkers of biliary hyperplasia.

  8. Solvent Effects on the Electrochemical Behavior of TAPD-Based Redox-Responsive Probes for Cadmium(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihab Sahli


    Full Text Available Two tetralkylated phenylenediamines (TAPD 1 and 2 have been prepared by reductive alkylation of para-dimethylaminoaniline with furfural or thiophene 2-carboxaldehyde, respectively. Their chelation ability has been evaluated as electrochemical guest-responsive chemosensors for Cd(II in acetonitrile (ACN, dimethylformamide (DMF, propylene carbonate (PC, and nitromethane (NM. The voltamperometric studies showed that these compounds are able to bind the Cd(II cation with strong affinities except in DMF. The redox features of the chemosensors changed drastically when they are bounded to Cd(II to undergo important anodic potential peak shifts comprised between ca. 500 and ca. 900 mV depending on the solvent. The addition of ∼4–10% molar triflic acid (TfOH was found to be necessary to achieve rapidly the cation chelation which is slow without the acid. The electrochemical investigations suggested the formation of 1 : 2 stoichiometry complexes [Cd(L2]2+. The results are discussed in terms of solvent effects as a competitive electron donating ligand to the cation. The reaction coupling efficiency (RCE values were determined and were also found to be solvent-dependent.

  9. Electromeric effect of substitution at 6th position in 2-(Furan-2-yl)-3-hydroxy-4 H-chromen-4-one (FHC) on the absorption and emission spectra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manisha Bansal; Ranbir Kaur


    Five 3-Hydroxychromones (3HCs), namely, 2-(furan-2-yl)-3-hydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one (FHC) and its four derivatives by substitution of -CH3, -OH, -NO2 and -Cl at 6th position were synthesized from their corresponding 2’-hydroxyacetophenone and furan-2-carboxaldehyde. Various spectral transitions of all these 3-hydroxychromones (3-HCs) have been assigned by interpreting their absorption spectra in cyclohexane, acetonitrile and methanol. It has been shown that the electromeric effects of substitution at 2nd and 6th positions on the 2–3 double bond in `C’ ring are similar but the effect on the double bond of 4-carbonyl group is opposite. It has been found that the substitution at 2nd position changes mainly the electron density directly at the 4-carbonyl group and substitution at 6th position changes the electron density of the `C’ ring, changing the overall dipole moment of the molecule, which in turn changes the electron density at the 4-carbonyl group. Emission spectral studies showed that the increase and decrease in dipole moment by substitution at 6th position with electron withdrawing group like NO2 and electron donating group like -CH3 and -OH, stabilizes and destabilizes the N* state in the polar solvents respectively

  10. A virus-MIPs fluorescent sensor based on FRET for highly sensitive detection of JEV. (United States)

    Liang, Caishuang; Wang, Huan; He, Kui; Chen, Chunyan; Chen, Xiaoming; Gong, Hang; Cai, Changqun


    Major stumbling blocks in the recognition and detection of virus are the unstable biological recognition element or the complex detection means. Here a fluorescent sensor based on virus-molecular imprinted polymers (virus-MIPs) was designed for specific recognition and highly sensitive detection of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). The virus-MIPs were anchored on the surface of silica microspheres modified by fluorescent dye, pyrene-1-carboxaldehyde (PC). The fluorescence intensity of PC can be enhanced by the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), where virus acted as energy donor and PC acted as energy acceptor. The enhanced fluorescence intensity was proportional to the concentration of virus in the range of 24-960pM, with a limit of detection (LOD, 3σ) of 9.6pM, and the relative standard deviation was 1.99%. In additional, the specificity study confirmed the resultant MIPs has high-selectivity for JEV. This sensor would become a new key for the detection of virus because of its high sensitive, simple operation, high stability and low cost.

  11. Quantitative impurity analysis of monoclonal antibody size heterogeneity by CE-LIF: example of development and validation through a quality-by-design framework. (United States)

    Michels, David A; Parker, Monica; Salas-Solano, Oscar


    This paper describes the framework of quality by design applied to the development, optimization and validation of a sensitive capillary electrophoresis-sodium dodecyl sulfate (CE-SDS) assay for monitoring impurities that potentially impact drug efficacy or patient safety produced in the manufacture of therapeutic MAb products. Drug substance or drug product samples are derivatized with fluorogenic 3-(2-furoyl)quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde and nucleophilic cyanide before separation by CE-SDS coupled to LIF detection. Three design-of-experiments enabled critical labeling parameters to meet method requirements for detecting minor impurities while building precision and robustness into the assay during development. The screening design predicted optimal conditions to control labeling artifacts while two full factorial designs demonstrated method robustness through control of temperature and cyanide parameters within the normal operating range. Subsequent validation according to the guidelines of the International Committee of Harmonization showed the CE-SDS/LIF assay was specific, accurate, and precise (RSD ≤ 0.8%) for relative peak distribution and linear (R > 0.997) between the range of 0.5-1.5 mg/mL with LOD and LOQ of 10 ng/mL and 35 ng/mL, respectively. Validation confirmed the system suitability criteria used as a level of control to ensure reliable method performance.

  12. Deracemization of Racemic Amino Acids Using (R)- and (S)-Alanine Racemase Chiral Analogues as Chiral Converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, Manjeong [Sunchon National Univ., Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, So Hee; Lee, Wonjae [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jong Seong [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwan Mook [Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Our findings show that both (R)- and (S)-ARCA can be practical chiral converters for L- and D-amino acids, respectively, in the deracemization of racemic amino acids. The overall stereoselectivities of both chiral converters are generally greater than 90%. In addition, we developed chiral and achiral HPLC methods for the analysis of stereoselectivity determination. This chromatographic method proved much more accurate and convenient at determining both enantiomer and diastereomer purity than did those previously reported. Deracemization is the stereoselective process of converting a racemate into either a pure enantiomer or a mixture in which one enantiomer is present in excess.1 Previous studies have shown that (S)-alanine racemase chiral analogue (ARCA) [(S)-2-hydroxy-2'-(3-phenyluryl-benzyl)-1,1'-binaphthyl-3-carboxaldehyde], developed as a chiral convertor compound that imitates the function of alanine racemase, plays an essential role in the stereoselective conversion of amino acid. Since (S)-ARCA showed a higher stability with D-amino acids than with L-amino acids, several L-amino acids were preferentially converted to D-amino acids via (S)-ARCA/D-amino acid imine diastereomer formation. For the deracemization process undertaken in this study, we utilized both (R)-ARCA and (S)-ARCA as chiral converters, which were expected to generate L- and D-amino acids, respectively, from the starting racemic mixtures.

  13. Synthesis, DFT calculations, electronic structure, electronic absorption spectra, natural bond orbital (NBO) and nonlinear optical (NLO) analysis of the novel 5-methyl-8H-benzo[h]chromeno[2,3-b][1,6] naphthyridine-6(5H),8-dione (MBCND) (United States)

    Halim, Shimaa Abdel; Ibrahim, Magdy A.


    New derivative of heteroannulated chromone identified as 5-methyl-8H-benzo[h]chromeno[2,3-b][1,6]naphthyridine-6(5H),8-dione (5, MBCND) was easily and efficiently synthesized from DBU catalyzed condensation reaction of 2-aminochromone-3-carboxaldehyde (1) with 4-hydroxy-1-methylquinolin-2(1H)-one (2). The same product 5 was isolated from condensation reaction of aldeyde 1 with 3-(4-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-3-yl)-3-oxopropanoic acid (3) or ethyl 4-(4-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-3-yl)-2,4-dioxobutanoate (4). Structure of compound (5, MBCND) was deduced based on their elemental analyses and spectral data (IR, 1H NMR and mass spectra). Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) level of theory have been carried out to investigate the equilibrium geometry of the novel compound (5, MBCND). Moreover, total energy, energy of HOMO and LUMO and Mullikan atomic charges were calculated. In addition, the dipole moment, theoretical study of the electronic structure, nonlinear optical properties (NLO), and natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis and orientation have been performed and discussed. Also the electronic absorption spectra were measured in polar (methanol) as well as non polar (dioxane) solvents and the assignment of the observed bands has been discussed by TD-DFT calculations. The correspondences between calculated and experimental transitions energies are satisfactory.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Shakru, N.J.P.Subhashini, Acharyanagarjuna,Shivaraj


    Full Text Available The Schiff base ligands L1 4-allyl-2-{[(5'-methyl-3'-isoxazolylimino]methyl}phenol [AMIIMP] and L2 N-[5'-methyl-3'-isoxazolyl]-[(EPyridine]methylidine]amine[MIPMA] have been synthesized by the condensation of 4-allyl 2- hydroxyl 1-benzaldehyde and Pyridine 3- carboxaldehyde with 3- amino 5-methy isoxazole. The metal chelates of L1 and L2 with Cobalt (II, Nickel (II, Copper (II and Zn (II metal ions have been synthesised and characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, 1H- NMR, Mass, Electronic spectra and magnetic moment studies. From these studies it is found that ligands act as bivalent chelating agents coordinating through oxygen and nitrogen donor atoms in the case of AMIIMP, and pyridine nitrogen and imino nitrogen donar atoms of in the case of MIPMA. The chelates of Co (II, Ni (II and Zn (II appear to be octahedral geometry and Cu (II appears to be tetragonal geometry. Antimicrobial activity of the ligands and their metal complexes against bacteria (Bacillus, Pseudomonas and fungus (R. Solani, A. Niger has been carried out. It is found that the metal complexes have higher activities than those of free ligands.

  15. Chemical constituents of Pilea cavaleriei subsp. Cavaleriei%石油菜化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任恒春; 覃日懂; 张庆英; 程伟; 梁鸿


    目的:对民间药材石油菜的化学成分进行研究.方法:用硅胶、葡聚糖凝胶Sephadex LH-20等手段进行分离纯化,并通过1H,13C-NMR,MS等波谱方法鉴定结构.结果:分离鉴定了17个化合物,其中酚酸类6个,分别为苯甲酸(benzoic acid,1),对羟基苯甲醛(4-hydroxy benzaldehyde,2),香豆酸(coumaric acid,3),原儿茶酸(protocatechuic acid,4),没食子酸(gallic acid,5),对羟基苯甲酸(4-hydroxy benzoic acid,6);含N化合物6个,分别为3-吲哚甲醛(3-indole carboxaldehyde,7),3-吲哚甲酸(3-indole carboxylic acid,8),4-甲基-(1,2,3)-三唑[4-methyl-(1,2,3)-tfiazole,9],尿嘧啶(uracil,10),菸酰胺(nicotinamide,11),(2S,E)-N-[2-羟基-2-(4-羟基苯)乙酯]阿魏酰胺{(2S,E)-N-[2-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethyl] ferulamide,12};5个其他类成分,(+)-去氢催吐萝芙醇[(+)-dehydrovomifoliol,13],正三十一烷(hentriantane,14),β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol,15),棕榈酸(palmitic acid,16),胡萝卜苷(daucossterol,17).结论:所有化合物均为首次从该属植物中分离得到.%Objective: To investigate chemical constituents from folk herb Pilea cavaleriei subsp. cavaleriei. Method; The compounds were separated and purified by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and the like. The structures were identified by spectral methods such as 1H, 13C-NMR and MS. Result; Seventeen compounds were isolated and identified as benzoic acid(1) , 4-hydroxy benzalde-hyde(2) , coumaric acid(3) , protocatechuic acid(4) , gallic acid(5) , 4-hydroxy benzoic acid(6) , 3-indole carboxaldehyde(7) , 3-indole carbo-xylicacid(8) , 4-methyl-( 1,2,3)-triazole(9) , uracil(lO) , nicotinamide (11) , (2S,E) -N-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl) ethyl] ferulamide(12) , ( + )-dehydrovomifoliol(13) ,hentriantane(14) , β-sitosterol(15) , palmitic acid(16) , daucossterol (17) , respectively. Conclusion: All compounds were obtained from the genus for the first time.

  16. 5,6-Dimethoxybenzofuran-3-one Derivatives: a Novel Series of Dual Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors Bearing Benzyl Pyridinium Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdollahi


    Full Text Available Several studies have been focused on design and synthesis of multi-target anti Alzheimer compounds. Utilizing of the dual Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors has gained more interest to treat the Alzheimer’s disease. As a part of a research program to find a novel drug for treating Alzheimer disease, we have previously reported 6-alkoxybenzofuranone derivatives as potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. In continuation of our work, we would like to report the synthesis of 5,6-dimethoxy benzofuranone derivatives bearing a benzyl pyridinium moiety as dual Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors.MethodsThe synthesis of target compounds was carried out using a conventional method. Bayer-Villiger oxidation of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde furnished 3,4-dimethoxyphenol. The reaction of 3,4-dimethoxyphenol with chloroacetonitrile followed by treatment with HCl solution and then ring closure yielded the 5,6-dimethoxy benzofuranone. Condensation of the later compound with pyridine-4-carboxaldehyde and subsequent reaction with different benzyl halides afforded target compounds. The biological activity was measured using standard Ellman’s method. Docking studies were performed to get better insight into interaction of compounds with receptor.ResultsThe in vitro anti acetylcholinesterase/butyrylcholinesterase activity of compounds revealed that, all of the target compounds have good inhibitory activity against both Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase enzymes in which compound 5b (IC50 = 52 ± 6.38nM was the most active compound against acetylcholinesterase. The same binding mode and interactions were observed for the reference drug donepezil and compound 5b in docking study.ConclusionsIn this study, we presented a new series of benzofuranone-based derivatives having pyridinium moiety as potent dual acting Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors.

  17. Synthesis, characterization, electronic structure and catalytic activity of new ruthenium carbonyl complexes of N-[(2-pyridyl)methylidene]-2-aminothiazole (United States)

    Kundu, Subhankar; Sarkar, Deblina; Jana, Mahendra Sekhar; Pramanik, Ajoy Kumar; Jana, Subrata; Mondal, Tapan Kumar


    Reaction of ruthenium carbonyls, [Ru(CO)2Cl2]n/[Ru(CO)4I2] with bidentate Schiffs base ligands derived by the condensation of pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde with 2-aminothiazole in a 1:1 mole ratio in acetonitrile led to the formation of complexes having general formula [Ru(CO)2(L)X2] (X = Cl (1) and I (2)) (L = N-[(2-pyridyl)methylidene]-2-aminothiazole). The compounds have been characterized by various analytical and spectroscopic (IR, electronic and 1H NMR) studies. In acetonitrile solution the complexes exhibit a weak broad metal-ligand to ligand charge transfer (MLLCT) band along with ILCT transitions. The compounds are emissive in room temperature upon excitation in the ILCT band. The complexes exhibit a quasi-reversible one electron Ru(II)/Ru(III) oxidation couple at 1.44 V for 1 and 0.94 V for 2. Catalytic activity of these compounds is investigated to the oxidation of PhCH2OH to PhCHO, 2-butanol (C4H9OH) to 2-butanone, 1-phenylethanol (PhC2H4OH) to acetophenone, cyclopentanol (C5H9OH) to cyclopentanone, cyclohexanol to cyclohexanone, cycloheptanol to cycloheptanone and cycloctanol to cycloctanone using N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMO) as oxidant. The catalytic efficiency of 2 is greater than complex 1 and well correlate with the metal oxidation potential of the complexes. DFT, NBO and TDDFT calculations are employed to explain the structural and electronic features and to support the spectroscopic assignments.

  18. Stereochemistry and Mechanism of Undecylprodigiosin Oxidative Carbocyclization to Streptorubin B by the Rieske Oxygenase RedG. (United States)

    Withall, David M; Haynes, Stuart W; Challis, Gregory L


    The prodiginines are a group of specialized metabolites that share a 4-methoxypyrrolyldipyrromethene core structure. Streptorubin B is a structurally remarkable member of the prodiginine group produced by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and other actinobacteria. It is biosynthesized from undecylprodigiosin by an oxidative carbocyclization catalyzed by the Rieske oxygenase-like enzyme RedG. Undecylprodigiosin derives from the RedH-catalyzed condensation of 2-undecylpyrrole and 4-methoxy-2, 2'-bipyrrole-5-carboxaldehyde (MBC). To probe the mechanism of the RedG-catalyzed reaction, we synthesized 2-(5-pentoxypentyl)-pyrrole, an analogue of 2-undecylpyrrole with an oxygen atom next to the site of C-C bond formation, and fed it, along with synthetic MBC, to Streptomyces albus expressing redH and redG. This resulted in the production of the 6'-oxa analogue of undecylprodigiosin. In addition, a small amount of a derivative of this analogue lacking the n-pentyl group was produced, consistent with a RedG catalytic mechanism involving hydrogen abstraction from the alkyl chain of undecylprodigiosin prior to pyrrole functionalization. To investigate the stereochemistry of the RedG-catalyzed oxidative carbocyclization, [7'-(2)H](7'R)-2-undecylpyrrole and [7'-(2)H](7'S)-2-undecylpyrrole were synthesized and fed separately, along with MBC, to S. albus expressing redH and redG. Analysis of the extent of deuterium incorporation into the streptorubin B produced in these experiments showed that the pro-R hydrogen atom is abstracted from C-7' of undecylprodigiosin and that the reaction proceeds with inversion of configuration at C-7'. This contrasts sharply with oxidative heterocyclization reactions catalyzed by other nonheme iron-dependent oxygenase-like enzymes, such as isopenicillin N synthase and clavaminate synthase, which proceed with retention of configuration at the carbon center undergoing functionalization.

  19. Ruthenium (II) complexes of thiosemicarbazone: Synthesis, biosensor applications and evaluation as antimicrobial agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, Hatice [Dokuz Eylul University, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Guler, Emine [Ege University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Yavuz, Murat, E-mail: [Ege University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Dicle University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 21280 Diyarbakir (Turkey); Ozturk, Nurdan; Kose Yaman, Pelin [Dokuz Eylul University, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Subasi, Elif; Sahin, Elif [Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Timur, Suna [Ege University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ege University, Institute on Drug Abuse, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science (BATI), 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)


    A conformationally rigid half-sandwich organoruthenium (II) complex [(η{sup 6}-p-cymene)RuClTSC{sup N–S}]Cl, (1) and carbonyl complex [Ru(CO)Cl(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}TSC{sup N–S}] (2) have been synthesized from the reaction of [{(η"6-p-cymene)RuCl}{sub 2}(μ-Cl){sub 2}] and [Ru(H)(Cl)(CO)(PPh{sub 3}){sub 3}] with thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazon (TSC) respectively and both novel ruthenium (II) complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. The peripheral TSC in the complexes acts as an electrochemical coupling unit providing the ability to carry out electrochemical deposition (ED) and to form an electro-deposited film on a graphite electrode surface. The biosensing applicability of complexes 1 and 2 was investigated by using glucose oxidase (GOx) as a model enzyme. Electrochemical measurements at − 0.9 V versus Ag/AgCl electrode by following the ED Ru(II) reduction/oxidation due to from the enzyme activity, in the presence of glucose substrate. The designed biosensor showed a very good linearity for 0.01–0.5 mM glucose. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of complexes 1 and 2 were also investigated against nine bacterial strains and one fungus by the disc diffusion test method. No activity was observed against the Gram-negative strains and fungus, whereas complex 1 showed moderate antibacterial activities against Gram-positive bacterial strains. - Highlights: • Novel Ru (II) thiosemicarbazone complexes were synthesized and characterized. • Electrochemical depositions were performed. • Rigid half-sandwich Ru (II) complex showed enhanced antibacterial activity.

  20. Use of volatile organic solvents in headspace liquid-phase microextraction by direct cooling of the organic drop using a simple cooling capsule. (United States)

    Ghiasvand, Ali Reza; Yazdankhah, Fatemeh; Hajipour, Somayeh


    A low-cost and simple cooling-assisted headspace liquid-phase microextraction device for the extraction and determination of 2,6,6-trimethyl-1,3 cyclohexadiene-1-carboxaldehyde (safranal) in Saffron samples, using volatile organic solvents, was fabricated and evaluated. The main part of the cooling-assisted headspace liquid-phase microextraction system was a cooling capsule, with a Teflon microcup to hold the extracting organic solvent, which is able to directly cool down the extraction phase while the sample matrix is simultaneously heated. Different experimental factors such as type of organic extraction solvent, sample temperature, extraction solvent temperature, and extraction time were optimized. The optimal conditions were obtained as: extraction solvent, methanol (10 μL); extraction temperature, 60°C; extraction solvent temperature, 0°C; and extraction time, 20 min. Good linearity of the calibration curve (R(2) = 0.995) was obtained in the concentration range of 0.01-50.0 μg/mL. The limit of detection was 0.001 μg/mL. The relative standard deviation for 1.0 μg/mL of safranal was 10.7% (n = 6). The proposed cooling-assisted headspace liquid-phase microextraction device was coupled (off-line) to high-performance liquid chromatography and used for the determination of safranal in Saffron samples. Reasonable agreement was observed between the results of the cooling-assisted headspace liquid-phase microextraction high-performance liquid chromatography method and those obtained by a validated ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction procedure.

  1. [Chemical constituents from ethyl acetate extract of flower of Albizia julibrissin]. (United States)

    Rong, Guang-Qing; Geng, Chang-An; Ma, Yun-Bao; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Hong-Ling; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Chen, Ji-Jun


    The ethyl acetate extract of the flower of Albizia julibrissin was isolated and purified by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and MCI GEL CHP-20P column chromatography to yield 29 compounds. Their structures were elucidated as 8-hydroxy-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6Z-octadienoic acid (1), 8-O-formyl-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6Z-octadienoic acid (la), 8-hydroxy-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6E-octadienoic acid (2), 8-O-formyl-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6E-octadienoic acid (2a), (2E, 6S)-2, 6-dimethyl-6-O-beta-D-xylpyranosyloxy-2, 7-menthia-folic acid (3), clovan-2beta, 9alpha-diol (4), 2beta-O-formyl-clovan-9alpha-ol (4a), 2beta, 9alpha-O-diformyl-clovan (4b), vomifoliol (5), (6S, 9R)-roseoside (6), vanillin (7), 4-O-ethylgallic acid (8), 3-ethoxy4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (9), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (10), gallic acid (11), protocatechoic acid (12), stearic acid (13), palmitic acid (14), 2, 3-dihydroxypropyl hexadecanoate (15), linoleic acid (16), scopoletin (17), indole-3-carboxaldehyde (18), 2-furoic acid (19), 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (20), (22E, 24R)-5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6, 22-dien-3beta-ol (21), (22E, 24R)-5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6, 9, 22-trien-3beta-ol (22), (+)-lariciresinol 9'-stearate (23), formononetin (24) and uridine (25). Compounds 1a, 2a, 4a and 4b were new artifacts from the separation process, and others were obtained from A. julibrissin for the first time.

  2. Characterization of acute biliary hyperplasia in Fisher 344 Rats administered the Indole-3-Carbinol Analog, NSC-743380

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldridge, Sandy R.; Covey, Joseph; Morris, Joel [Developmental Therapeutics Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD, 20892 (United States); Fang, Bingliang [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, 77030 (United States); Horn, Thomas L. [IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL, 60616 (United States); Elsass, Karen E. [Battelle Columbus, Columbus, OH, 43201 (United States); Hamre, John R. [Investigative Toxicology Laboratory, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); McCormick, David L. [IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL, 60616 (United States); Davis, Myrtle A., E-mail: [Developmental Therapeutics Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD, 20892 (United States)


    NSC-743380 (1-[(3-chlorophenyl)-methyl]-1H-indole-3-carbinol) is in early stages of development as an anticancer agent. Two metabolites reflect sequential conversion of the carbinol functionality to a carboxaldehyde and the major metabolite, 1-[(3-chlorophenyl)-methyl]-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid. In an exploratory toxicity study in rats, NSC-743380 induced elevations in liver-associated serum enzymes and biliary hyperplasia. Biliary hyperplasia was observed 2 days after dosing orally for 2 consecutive days at 100 mg/kg/day. Notably, hepatotoxicity and biliary hyperplasia were observed after oral administration of the parent compound, but not when major metabolites were administered. The toxicities of a structurally similar but pharmacologically inactive molecule and a structurally diverse molecule with a similar efficacy profile in killing cancer cells in vitro were compared to NSC-743380 to explore scaffold versus target-mediated toxicity. Following two oral doses of 100 mg/kg/day given once daily on two consecutive days, the structurally unrelated active compound produced hepatic toxicity similar to NSC-743380. The structurally similar inactive compound did not, but, lower exposures were achieved. The weight of evidence implies that the hepatotoxicity associated with NSC-743380 is related to the anticancer activity of the parent molecule. Furthermore, because biliary hyperplasia represents an unmanageable and non-monitorable adverse effect in clinical settings, this model may provide an opportunity for investigators to use a short-duration study design to explore biomarkers of biliary hyperplasia. - Highlights: • NSC-743380 induced biliary hyperplasia in rats. • Toxicity of NSC-743380 appears to be related to its anticancer activity. • The model provides an opportunity to explore biomarkers of biliary hyperplasia.

  3. Formation of cholesterol ozonolysis products in vitro and in vivo through a myeloperoxidase-dependent pathway (United States)

    Tomono, Susumu; Miyoshi, Noriyuki; Shiokawa, Hidemi; Iwabuchi, Tomoe; Aratani, Yasuaki; Higashi, Tatsuya; Nukaya, Haruo; Ohshima, Hiroshi


    3β-Hydroxy-5-oxo-5,6-secocholestan-6-al (secosterol-A) and its aldolization product 3β-hydroxy-5β-hydroxy-B-norcholestane-6β-carboxaldehyde (secosterol-B) were recently detected in human atherosclerotic tissues and brain specimens, and they may play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. However, as their origin remains unidentified, we examined the formation mechanism, the stability, and the fate of secosterols in vitro and in vivo. About 40% of secosterol-A remained unchanged after 3 h incubation in the FBS-free medium, whereas 20% and 40% were converted to its aldehyde-oxidation product, 3β-hydroxy-5-oxo-secocholestan-6-oic acid, and secosterol-B, respectively. In the presence of FBS, almost all secosterol-A was converted immediately to these compounds. Secosterol-B in the medium, with and without FBS, was relatively stable, but ∼30% was converted to its aldehyde-oxidation product, 3β-hydroxy-5β-hydroxy-B-norcholestane-6-oic acid (secoB-COOH). When neutrophil-like differentiated human leukemia HL-60 (nHL-60) cells activated with PMA were cultured in the FBS-free medium containing cholesterol, significantly increased levels of secosterol-A and its aldehyde-oxidation product, but not secosterol-B, were formed. This secosterol-A formation was decreased in the culture of PMA-activated nHL-60 cells containing several reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitors and scavengers or in the culture of PMA-activated neutrophils isolated from myeloperoxidase (MPO)-deficient mice. Our results demonstrate that secoterol-A is formed by an ozone-like oxidant generated with PMA-activated neutrophils through the MPO-dependent mechanism. PMID:20921334

  4. Synthesis and Application of 1-(Pyridin-2-yl)-2-azabuta-1,3-dienes%1-(2-吡啶基)-2-氮杂-1,3-丁二烯的合成与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨维芳; 徐晓丽; 张站斌


    1-(Pyridin-2-yl)-2-azabuta-1,3-dienes (2) prepared from pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde underwent Diels-Alder reac-tion with electron-poor dienophiles such as alkenes and alkynes to give 6-(pyridin-2-yl)piperidin-2-ones and dihydro-6-(pyri-din-2-yl)pyridin-2-ones. Dihydro-6-(pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-2-one was oxidized with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) to afford 6-(pyridin-2-yl) pyridin-2-one. Treatment of 6-(pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-2-one with phosphorus oxychloride gave bipyridine derivative.%以2-吡啶甲醛为起始原料制备1-(2-吡啶基)-2-氮杂-1,3-丁二烯(2),然后与烯烃、炔烃发生Diels-Alder反应分别得到6-(2-吡啶基)-2-哌啶酮和6-(2-吡啶基)-二氢-2-吡啶酮。用2,3-二氯-5,6-二氰基-1,4-苯醌(DDQ)氧化6-(2-吡啶基)-二氢-2-吡啶酮得到6-(2-吡啶基)-2-吡啶酮,最后用三氯氧磷处理得到联吡啶类化合物。

  5. 新疆圆柏叶挥发油化学成分变化的研究%Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oil from Leaves of Sabina vulgaris Ant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田旭平; 高莉


    采用水蒸气蒸馏法和气相色谱-质谱联用技术,对新疆圆柏(Sabina vulgaris Ant.)鲜叶和贮存1年的干燥叶中的挥发油化学成分进行检测,鲜叶中的成分鉴定了31种,干叶中的成分鉴定了23种,共有成分15种.与鲜叶比较,干叶中含量减少的成分是:2,7-二甲基-3-辛烯-5-炔(51.88%,15.29%,前者为鲜叶中的量,后者为干叶中的量,下同)、1-柠檬烯(1.65%,1.13%)、α-异松油烯(0.92%,0.58%)、3,7-二甲基-甲基酯-2,6-辛二烯酸(2.88%,0.50%)、α-长叶蒎烯(1.91%,1.46%)、α-雪松醇(12.69%,10.81%),含量增加的成分是:β-侧柏酮(1.01%,1.98%)、4-甲基-1-(1-甲基乙基)-3-环己烯-1-醇(0.22%,2.83%)、β-香茅醇(0.22%,10.83%)、乙酸香桧酯(4.37%,39.83%),新疆圆柏鲜叶和干叶中的挥发性成分及其含量差异甚大,但是特征成分种类基本一致,随着叶的干燥贮存时间的延长,其挥发性成分及其含量在逐渐减少.%The volatile composition from fresh leaves and dry leaves of Juniperus sabina L. storaged for one year were analyzed by steam distillation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 31 compounds from fresh leaves were indentified, and 23 compounds from dry leaves were indentified. The same composition between fresh leaves and dried leaves were 15 kinds. The compounds of contents decreased were ( E) 2, 7-dimethyl-3-octen-5-yne ( 51.88 % , 15.29 % ) , limonene ( 1.65 % , 1. 13 % ), α-terpinolene(0.92 % , 0. 58 % ), 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienoicacid methyl ester(2.88 % , 0.50 % ), α-longip-inene (1.91 % , 1.46 % ) , α-cedrol ( 12. 69 % , 10. 81 % ). The compounds of contents increased were β-thujone (1.01 % , 1.98 % ) , 4-methyl-l -( 1 -methyl ethyl) -3-cyclohexen-l -ol (0. 22 % , 2. 83 % ) , β-citronellol (0.22 % , 10. 83 % ) , sabinyl acetate(4. 37 % , 39.83 % ). The difference of heterogeneous were significantly. The difference of volatile composition from the fresh leaves and dry

  6. 天福号酱香鸡挥发性香成分的提取与分析%Extraction and Analysis of Volatile Aroma Components in Tianfuhao-Branded Sauce Fragrant Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓兰; 张宁; 綦艳梅; 陈海涛; 孙宝国


    In order to explore the volatile aroma composition of Tianfuhao-branded Sauce fragrant chicken, volatile aroma components were isolated and identified by simultaneous distillation extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SDE- GC-MS). 84 and 72 volatile aromatic compounds were identified from the ethyl ether and dichloromethane extracts from Tianfuhao- branded Sauce fragrant chicken, respectively. Altogether, 85 flavor compounds were found in both extracts, including 10 hydrocarbons, 24 aldehydes, 12 ketones, 2 ethers, 2 phenols, 19 alcohols, 4 acids, 4 ester and 8 nitrogen-containing or sulfur- containing or heterocyclic compounds. The major volatile aroma components with relatively higher peak area (〉 1%) were hexanal, 1- methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)-benzene, hexadecanal, nonanal, eucalyptol, heptanal, 2-pentyl-furan, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, octanal, 1-octen- 3-ol, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-decenal, 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol, (S)-alpha, a/pha-4-trimethyl-3-cyclohexene-1-methanol and 2,3- octanedione. Among these aroma components, aldehydes, ethers and nitrogen-containing and sulfur-containing and heterocyclic compounds were considered as the major flavor components in Tianfuhao Sauce fragrant chicken.%为探究北京传统肉制品——天福号酱香鸡的挥发性风味成分,采用同时蒸馏萃取法对酱香鸡的香成分进行提取,并采用气相色谱-质谱联用法对香成分进行分离鉴定。结果表明:以乙醚作溶剂共鉴定出84种风味化合物,以二氯甲烷作溶剂共鉴定出72种风味化合物,两者共计鉴定出85种风味化合物,可分为9类,即烃类10种、醛类24种、酮类12种、醚类2种、酚类2种、醇类19种、酸类4种、酯类4种、含氮含硫及杂环化合物8种;含量较高(峰面积大于1%)的化合物有己醛、茴香脑、棕榈醛、壬醛、桉叶油醇、庚醛、2-正戊基呋喃、(反,反)-2,4-癸二烯醛、正辛醛、1-辛烯-3-醇、反-2-

  7. Radical production from photosensitization of imidazoles (United States)

    Corral Arroyo, P.; Gonzalez, L.; Steimer, S.; Aellig, R.; Volkamer, R. M.; George, C.; Bartels-Rausch, T.; Ammann, M.


    Reactions promoted by light are key in atmospheric chemistry. Some of them occur in the condensed phase of aerosols containing light absorbing organic compounds (George et al., 2015). This work explores the radical reactions initiated by near-UV light in mixtures of citric acid (CA) and imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) using NO as a probe molecule for HO2, by means of coated wall flow tube experiments. Citric acid may act as H atom or electron donor in condensed phase radical cycles. IC may act as a photosensitizer. The loss of NO was measured by a chemiluminescence detector. The dependence of the NO loss on the NO concentration, the IC/CA ratio in the film, relative humidity, light intensity, oxygen molar fraction were investigated as well as the HONO and NO2 yields. We also added halide salts to investigate the effect of a competing electron donor in the system and the output of halogens to the gas phase. We found a correlation between the loss of NO above the film and the molar ratio of IC/CA and the light intensity. The variation of the NO loss with oxygen corroborates a mechanism, in which the triplet excited state of IC is reduced by citric acid, to a reduced ketyl radical that transfers an electron to molecular oxygen, which in turn leads to production of HO2 radicals. Therefore, the NO loss in the gas phase is related to the production of HO2 radicals. Relative humidity had a strong impact on the HO2 output, which shows a maximum production rate at around 30%. The addition of halide ions (X- = Cl-, Br-, I-) increases the HO2 output at low concentration and decrease it at higher concentration when X2- radical ions likely scavenge HO2. We could preliminarily quantify for the first time the contribution of these processes to the oxidative capacity in the atmosphere and conclude that their role is significant for aerosol aging and potentially a significant source of halogen compounds to the gas phase.

  8. Sensitivity of silver(I) complexes of a pyrimidine-hydrazone ligand to solvent, counteranion, and metal-to-ligand ratio changes. (United States)

    Hutchinson, Daniel J; Cameron, Scott A; Hanton, Lyall R; Moratti, Stephen C


    Metal complexation studies were performed with AgSO(3)CF(3) and AgBF(4) and the ditopic pyrimidine-hydrazone ligand 6-(hydroxymethyl)pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde (2-methylpyrimidine-4,6-diyl)bis(1-methylhydrazone) (1) in both CH(3)CN and CH(3)NO(2) in a variety of metal-to-ligand ratios. The resulting complexes were studied in solution by NMR spectroscopy and in the solid state by X-ray crystallography. Reacting either AgSO(3)CF(3) or AgBF(4) with 1 in either CH(3)CN or CH(3)NO(2) in a 1:1 metal-to-ligand ratio produced a double helicate in solution. This double helicate could be converted into a linear complex by increasing the metal-to-ligand ratio; however, the degree of conversion depended on the solvent and counteranion used. Attempts to crystallize the linear AgSO(3)CF(3) complex resulted in crystals with the dimeric structure [Ag(2)1(CH(3)CN)(2)](2)(SO(3)CF(3))(4) (2), while attempts to crystallize the AgSO(3)CF(3) double helicate from CH(3)CN resulted in crystals of another dimeric complex, [Ag(2)1(SO(3)CF(3))(CH(3)CN)(2)](2)(SO(3)CF(3))(2)·H(2)O (3). The AgSO(3)CF(3) double helicate was successfully crystallized from a mixture of CH(3)CN and CH(3)NO(2) and had the structure [Ag(2)1(2)](SO(3)CF(3))(2)·3CH(3)NO(2) (4). The linear AgBF(4) complex could not be isolated from the double helicate in solution; however, crystals grown from a solution containing both the AgBF(4) double helicate and linear complexes in CH(3)CN had the structure [Ag(2)1(CH(3)CN)(2)](BF(4))(2) (5). The AgBF(4) double helicate could only be crystallized from CH(3)NO(2) and had the structure [Ag(2)1(2)](BF(4))(2)·2CH(3)NO(2) (6).

  9. Mechanistic studies of semicarbazone triapine targeting human ribonucleotide reductase in vitro and in mammalian cells: tyrosyl radical quenching not involving reactive oxygen species. (United States)

    Aye, Yimon; Long, Marcus J C; Stubbe, JoAnne


    Triapine® (3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP)) is a drug in Phase II trials. One of its established cellular targets is the β(2) subunit of ribonucleotide reductase that requires a diferric-tyrosyl-radical [(Fe(III)(2)-Y·)(Fe(III)(2))] cofactor for de novo DNA biosynthesis. Several mechanisms for 3-AP inhibition of β(2) have been proposed; one involves direct iron chelation from β(2), whereas a second involves Y· destruction by reactive oxygen species formed in situ in the presence of O(2) and reductant by Fe(II)-(3-AP). Inactivation of β(2) can thus arise from cofactor destruction by loss of iron or Y·. In vitro kinetic data on the rates of (55)Fe and Y· loss from [((55)Fe(III)(2)-Y·)((55)Fe(III)(2))]-β(2) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions reveal that Y· loss alone is sufficient for rapid β(2) inactivation. Oxyblot(TM) and mass spectrometric analyses of trypsin-digested inhibited β(2), and lack of Y· loss from H(2)O(2) and O(2)(•) treatment together preclude reactive oxygen species involvement in Y· loss. Three mammalian cell lines treated with 5 μm 3-AP reveal Y· loss and β(2) inactivation within 30-min of 3-AP-exposure, analyzed by whole-cell EPR and lysate assays, respectively. Selective degradation of apo- over [(Fe(III)(2)-Y·)(Fe(III)(2))]-β(2) in lysates, similar iron-content in β(2) immunoprecipitated from 3-AP-treated and untreated [(55)Fe]-prelabeled cells, and prolonged (12 h) stability of the inhibited β(2) are most consistent with Y· loss being the predominant mode of inhibition, with β(2) remaining iron-loaded and stable. A model consistent with in vitro and cell-based biochemical studies is presented in which Fe(II)-(3-AP), which can be cycled with reductant, directly reduces Y· of the [(Fe(III)(2)-Y·)(Fe(III)(2))] cofactor of β(2).

  10. Study on Chemical Constituents of Non-medicinal Parts of Curcuma longa%姜黄非药用部位化学成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏文文; 叶育石; 徐良雄


    Objective]To study the chemical constituents of non-medicinal parts of Curcuma longa.[Method] The chemical constituents of non-medicinalparts of C.longa were isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography ,dextran gel column chromatography and high perform-ance liquid chromatography (HPLC).Chemical structures of these compounds were analyzed based on spectral data.[Result] Five compounds were isolated from C.longa,including indole-3-carboxaldehyde (1),lumichrome (2),3-O-(α-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1″→6′)-O-β-D-galactopyr-anosyl-glycerol (3),gingerglycolipid A (4) and noralpindenoside B (5).[Conclusion]The five compounds were isolated from non-medicinalparts of C.longa for the first time,compounds1 and 5 were isolated from Curcuma for the first time.%[目的]研究姜黄( Curcuma longa L.)非药用部位的化学成分。[方法]采用硅胶柱色谱、葡聚糖凝胶柱色谱和高效液相色谱等方法对姜黄非药用部位化学成分进行分离纯化,通过波谱数据鉴定所得化合物结构。[结果]从姜黄非药用部位中分离鉴定了5个化合物,通过波谱解析分别鉴定为3-吲哚甲醛(1)、光色素(2)、3-O-(α-D-半乳糖)-(1″→6′)-O-β-D-半乳糖苷–丙三醇(3)、姜糖脂A(4)和noralpindenoside B(5)。[结论]5个化合物均是首次从姜黄非药用部位分离得到,其中化合物1和5为首次从该属植物中分离得到。

  11. Non-Steroidal Constituents from the Leaves of Dregea volubilis%南山藤叶非甾体类化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳; 赵岑; 张朝凤; 张勉


    To study the non-steroidal constituents of the leaves from Dregea Volubilis and to clarify the material basis. Methods: The ethyl acetate extracts of the 80% ethanol extracts of Dregea volubilis were separated by means of silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and MCI chromatography. The compounds isolated from the plant were identified by spectrum methods such as MS and NMR. Results: Nine non-steroidal compounds were isolated from the leaves of Dregea volubilis (Asclepiadaceae) and identified as:taraxerol (1), β-sitosterol (2), syringaresinol (3), medioresinol (4), queretaroic acid (5), β-daucosterol (6), auranti-amide benzoate (7), indole-3-carboxaldehyde (8) and aurantiamide acetate (9). Conclusion: Among them, amide (or dipeptide) -type compounds 7 and 9 were firstly obtained from this family.%目的:研究南山藤叶中的非甾体类化学成分,阐明其物质基础。方法:利用硅胶、凝胶、MCI等色谱技术手段,对南山藤叶80%乙醇提取物的乙酸乙酯萃取部位进行分离,运用MS、NMR等波谱方法确定所得化合物结构。结果:从萝藦科南山藤属植物南山藤的干燥叶中分离鉴定了9个化合物:蒲公英赛醇(1),谷甾醇(2),丁香树脂醇(3),梣皮树脂醇(4),栎焦油酸(5),β-胡萝卜苷(6),橙黄胡椒酰胺苯甲酸酯(7),吲哚-3-甲醛(8),橙黄胡椒酰胺乙酸酯(9)。结论:酰胺类化合物7和9为首次从萝藦科中分得。

  12. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of some A- and B modified D-homo lactone androstane derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Marina P.


    Full Text Available An efficient synthesis of several A- and B-modified D-homo lactone androstane derivatives from 3β-hydroxy-17-oxa-D-homoandrost-5-en-16-one (1 is reported. 17-Oxa-Dhomoandrost- 4-ene-3,16-dione (2, obtained by the Oppenauer oxidation of compound 1, was converted via the unstable intermediate 3,16-dioxo-4,17-dioxa-D-homoandrostane- 5α-carboxaldehyde (3 to 17-oxa-D-homo-3,5-seco-4-norandrostan-5-one-3-carboxylic acid (4, which was also obtained directly from compound 2. Compound 1 was acetylated to give 17-oxa-D-homoandrost-5-en-16-on-3β-yl acetate (5 which was then oxidized with chromium(VI-oxide in 50% acetic acid or with meta-chlorperbenzoic acid and chromium(VI-oxide to yield compounds 6-8 and 5α-hydroxy-17-oxa-D-homoandrostane- 6,16-dion-3β-yl acetate (9, respectively. The oximination of compound 9 gave a mixture of 6(E-hydroximino-5α-hydroxy-17-oxa-D-homoandrostan-16-on-3β-yl acetate (10 and 6(Z-hydroximino-5α-hydroxy-17-oxa-D-homoandrostan-16-on-3β-yl acetate (11, the hydrolysis of which gave 6(E-hydroximino-3β,5α-dihydroxy-17-oxa-D-homoandrostan- 16-one (12 and 6(Z-hydroximino-3β,5α-dihydroxy-17-oxa-D-homoandrostan-16-one (13. 6-Nitrile-17-oxa-5,6-seco-D-homoandrostane-5,16-dion-3β-yl acetate (14 was obtained under the Beckmann fragmentation of compounds 10 and 11. Only pure and stable compounds (1, 2, 4, 5, 9 and 14 were tested in vitro on six malignant cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, PC-3, HeLa, HT-29, K562 and one non-tumor MRC-5 cell line. Significant antiproliferative activity against MDA-MB-231 cells showed compounds 1, 5 and 9, while compound 2 exhibited a strong antiproliferative activity. Only compound 14 showed weak antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells. All tested compounds were not toxic on MRC-5 cells, whereas Doxorubicin was highly toxic on these cells. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172021

  13. Organic Aerosol Formation Photoenhanced by the Formation of Secondary Photo-sensitizers in ageing Aerosols (United States)

    Aregahegn, Kifle; Nozière, Barbara; George, Christian


    Humankind is facing a changing environment possibly due to anthropogenic stress on the atmosphere. In this context, aerosols play a key role by affecting the radiative climate forcing, hydrological cycle, and by their adverse effect on health. The role of organic compounds in these processes is however still poorly understood because of their massive chemical complexity and numerous transformations. This is particularly true for Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA), which are produced in the atmosphere by organic gases. Traditionally, the driving forces for SOA growth is believed to be the partitioning onto aerosol seeds of condensable gases, either emitted primarily or resulting from the gas phase oxidation of organic gases. However, even the most up-to-date models based on such mechanisms can not account for the SOA mass observed in the atmosphere, suggesting the existence of other, yet unknown formation processes. The present study shows experimental evidence that particulate phase chemistry produces photo-sensitizers that lead to photo-induced formation and growth of secondary organic aerosol in the near UV and the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOC) such as terpenes. By means of an aerosol flow tube reactor equipped with Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) having Kr-85 source aerosol neutralizer, Differential Mobility Analyser (DMA) and Condensation Particle Sizer (CPC), we identified that traces of the aerosol phase product of glyoxal chemistry as is explained in Gallway et al., and Yu et al., namely imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) is a strong photo-sensitizer when irradiated by near-UV in the presence of volatile organic compounds such as terpenes. Furthermore, the influence of pH, type and concentration of VOCs, composition of seed particles, relative humidity and irradiation intensity on particle growth were studied. This novel photo-sensitizer contributed to more than 30% of SOA growth in 19min irradiation time in the presence of terpenes in the

  14. Changes in the composition of aroma components in blue honeysuckle fruit at different developmental stages%蓝果忍冬果实不同发育期香气成分构成及对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朋; 赵毅; 赵利娟; 辛秀兰; 娄爽; 霍俊伟; 秦栋; 马旿晛; 刘煜池


    were identified from the two cultivars.During fruit ripening,the total relative content of hydrocarbons rose,and aldehydes decreased first and then increased,while alcohol content displayed an opposite pattern with aldehydes.Butylated hydroxytoluene,(E)-2-hexenal,hexanal,alpha-4-trimethyl,1-butanol,trimethylamine,compd with borane (1:1) and eucalyptol were the major aroma components in ripe fruit.Composition of aroma components differed in different periods of fruit.developments.In ‘Berel' fruit,a total of 20 species of compounds were detected at fruit setting stage,and aldehydes [(E)-2-hexenal and hexanal] and alcohols (3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol) were prevailing compounds.19 aroma components were identified at color break including alcohols such as 1-butanol,(E)-3-hexen-1-ol,2-ethyl-1-hexanol,3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol,and 2-hexen-1-ol.A total of 24 aroma components were identified in the mature fruit,and aldehydes such as hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal) and hydrocarbons such as butylated hydroxytoluene were the dominant.In ‘ C-1' fruit,25 aroma components were detected in fruit at setting period,and the main components were aldehydes such as (E)-2-hexenal and hexanal.A total of 25 aroma components,chiefly alcohols (1-Butanol,(Z)-3-hexen-1-ol,3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-5-ol,α-4-trimethyl,α-3-cyclohexene-1-methano) and hydrocarbons (butylated,hydroxytoluene,eucalyptol) were identified at color break stage.In ripe fruit,25 aroma compounds were indentified including chiefly alcohols (3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol,α-4-trimethyl,α-3-cyclohexene-1-methanol),aldehydes [(E)-2-hexenal and hexanal],hydrocarbons (butylated hydroxytoluene,eucalyptol) and others (1-methoxy-1-propene).There were 11 compounds detected in mature fruit of both cultivars.They were 1-butanol,3-methylpenta-1,4-diene-3-ol,alpha-4-trimethyl,hexanal,(E)-2-hexenal,nonanal,eucalyptol,tridecane,tetradecane,butylatcd hydroxytoluene and 2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl-phenol.The contents of aroma

  15. Oviposition Preferences of Major Lepidoptera Pest of Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis%思茅松主要鳞翅目害虫的产卵选择性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马惠芬; 刘凌; 闫争亮; 刘云彩


    )-caryophyllene, isocaryophyllene, α-muurolene, guaiane-1(5), 11-diene and bicyclogermacrene are the main components.In addition to some terpenoids (egα-pinene), lots of green leaf volatile compounds are in volatileof Betula alon ides, such as 2-exenal, 1-hexenol, (Z)-3-cyclohexene-1-ol and (Z)-2-cyclohexene-1-ol.Tests of oviposition preferences show that three species prefers Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis as their egg dropping sites, and oviposition amounts are greatly reduced when volatile extracts of Altingia chinensi or Betula al-noides spray over leaves of Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis.Plant volatileas play important roles in oviposition host selec-tion for the pine pest, and R.crstata, D.rueb lla, D.kikuchii, pine volatile can provide some chemical cues of suitability for females to oviposit.Whereas, the broadleaf volatiles are repellent to the oviposition.

  16. 二茂铁取代卟啉的合成表征及电化学性质%Synthesis, Characterization and Electrochemical Properties of Ferrocenyl-Substituted Free-Base Porphyrins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱佳丽; 张秀风; 房媛媛; 孙斌; 路桂芬; 欧忠平


    Six free-base porphyrins containing 0~4 ferrocenyl substituents were synthesized and successfully isolated from the direct cross-condensation reaction between pyrrole, p-methylbenzaldehyde and ferrocene carboxaldehyde. These porphyrins are represented as (CHsPh)4PH2, Fc(CH3Ph)3PH2, cis-Fc2(CH3Ph)2PH2, trans-Fc2(CH3Ph)2PH2, Fc3(CH3Ph)PH2 and Fc4PH2, respectively. Each compound was characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR, 1H NMR and mass spectroscopy. The protonation constants of these compounds were determined in non-aqueous solvent by the micro-spectral titration technique. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical properties of each porphyrin were also examined. The results indicated that ferrocenyl substituents have a significant effect on the spectra and redox potentials.%通过吡咯与二茂铁甲醛和对甲基苯甲醛的直接交叉缩合反应,合成并成功分离了6个含有0~4个二茂铁取代基的卟啉化合物:5,10,15,20-四(4-甲苯基)卟啉[(CH3Ph)4PH2]、5-(二茂铁基)-10,15,20-三(4-甲苯基)卟啉[Fc(CH3Ph)3PH2]、cis-5,10-二(二茂铁基)-15,20-二 (4-甲苯基)卟啉[cis-Fc2(CH3Ph)2PH2]、trans-5,15-二(二茂铁基)-10,20-二(4-甲苯基)卟啉[trans-Fc2(CH3Ph)2PH2]、5,10,15-三(二茂铁基)-20-(4-甲苯基)卟啉[Fc3(CH3Ph)PH2]、5,10,15,20-四(二茂铁基)卟啉[Fc4PH2].用紫外-可见和红外光谱、核磁共振及质谱等技术对卟啉化合物进行了表征,用微量光谱滴定法测定了化合物在非水溶剂中的质子化反应常数,研究了它们的电化学和光谱电化学性质.结果表明,二茂铁取代基对化合物的光谱及氧化还原电位有较大的影响.

  17. 华山松大小蠹成虫粪便挥发性物质分析%Volatile Compounds in the Frass of Adult Chinese White Pine Beetle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴绍平; 陈辉; 吴琼


    Volatile compounds from phloem of healthy Chinese white pine (Pinus armandi Franch) and fresh frass of Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi Tsai et Li) were extracted by solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results show that the most substances were sesquitertenes, followed by monoterpenes, no diterpenes were detected in frass and phloem. There was significant difference both in constituents and contents between beetle adult frass and trees phloem. The content of monoterpene was much more but the sesquitertene was less in frass of Chinese white pine beetle than those in phloem of healthy Chinese white pine. Fifteen substances such as 6 ,6-dimethyl- bicyclo[3. 1. 1] hept-2-ene-2-carboxaldehyde, 1, 3 , 3-trimethyl-bicyclo[2. 2. l]heptan-2-ol, 2 ,3-dimethyl-tricycle [2. 2. 1. 0(2,6)] heptane-3-methanol, and so on were detected only in adult D. armandi frass, of which eight substances such as 4 ,6 ,6-trimethyl-(lS)-bicycle[3. 1. l]hept-3-en-2-one, 1,3, 3- trimethyl-bicycle[2. 2. l]heptan-2-one, pallyl-anisole were only detected in female frass and 3,7-dimeth-yl-1, 6~octadien-3-ol, 2 , 2 , 3-trimethyl-3-cyclopentene-l-acetaldehyde, butylated hydroxytoluene in male frass, which provided theoretical basis to the host selection of adults D. armandi to Chinese white pine and secretion of D. armandi pheromone.%采用固相微萃取(SPME)和气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)技术,对华山松大小蠹(Dendroctonus armandi Tsai et Li)成虫新鲜粪便和华山松韧皮部中的挥发性物质进行了分析.结果表明,华山松大小蠹雌雄成虫新鲜粪便和华山松韧皮部中挥发性物质以倍半萜类物质最多,其次是单萜类物质,而未见有二萜类物质,华山松大小蠹雌雄成虫粪便和华山松韧皮部中挥发性物质在成分和含量上都有较大差别,粪便中单萜类物质含量明显高于韧皮部,而倍半萜含量则低于韧皮部.此外,6,6-二甲基-2-