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Sample records for 3-4 nx m0

  1. Results of the Accord 12/0405- prodige 2 randomized test in the rectum cancers of stage T(2) 3-4 NX M0; Resultat de l'essai randomise Accord 12/0405-prodige 2 dans les cancers du rectum de stade T(2) 3-4 NX M0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, J.P.; Benezery, K. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France); Azria, D.; Gourgou-Bourgade, S. [CRLCC Val d' Aurelle-Paul-Lamarque, 34 - Montpellier (France); Martel-Laffay, I. [Centre Leon-Berard, 69 - Lyon (France); Hennequin, C. [Hopital St-Louis, 75 - Paris (France); Etienne, P.L. [Clinique Armoricaine de Radiologie, 22 - Saint-Brieuc (France); Vendrely, V. [CHU, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Peiffert, D. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Nancy (France); Montoto-Grillot, C. [FNCLCC-BECT, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-10-15

    The Capox 50 protocol increase the early toxicity without reducing the possibilities of surgery. It does not increase neither the sphincter conservation rate nor the surgery complications. It improves noticeably the histological tumor response (ypT) and the negative circumferential margin rate. The Star Italian protocol randomized for similar patients exclusively oxaliplatin, without increasing the histological tumor response rate and with 25% of grade 3 or 4 early toxicity. In comparison between the tests Accord 12 and Star it is possible to propose as neoadjuvant treatment of these rectum cancers (stage T3-4 Mo) a Cape 50 protocol associating a 50 Gy radiotherapy in 25 fractions and five weeks and a concomitant chemotherapy (capecitabine: 1600 mg/M{sup 2}/d). The oxaliplatin can be proposed out of radiotherapy to eradicate the infra clinical metastases. (N.C.)

  2. Evolution, global spread, and pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5Nx clade 2.3.4.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel subtypes of Eurasian-origin (Goose/Guangdong lineage) H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses belonging to clade 2.3.4 such as H5N2, H5N5, H5N6, and H5N8 have been identified in China since 2008 and subsequently evolved into four genetically distinct groups (A – D) of clade 2.3.4.4...

  3. NX 2D DRAWING FIX TOOL

    OpenAIRE

    Ser, Burcu

    2016-01-01

    NX Software is an integrated product design, engineering and manufacturing solution provided by Siemens. It offers a full range of advanced manufacturing applications, integration of multi-discipline simulation and it is considered as the best tightly integrated software with Teamcenter, Product Lifecycle Management plat-form. NX is the follower of I-deas software which is also used for similar purposes. The target of this project was to investigate the problems, which occur while mi-grat...

  4. Serum NX-DCP as a New Noninvasive Model to Predict Significant Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masaya; Yano, Yoshihiko; Hirano, Hirotaka; Momose, Kenji; Yoshida, Masaru; Azuma, Takeshi

    2015-02-01

    Finding a noninvasive method to predict liver fibrosis using inexpensive and easy-to-use markers is important. We aimed to clarify whether NX-des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (NX-DCP) could become a new noninvasive model to predict liver fibrosis in hepatitis C virus (HCV) related liver disease. We performed a prospective cohort study on a consecutive group of 101 patients who underwent liver biopsy for HCV-related liver disease at Kobe University Hospital. Laboratory measurements were performed on the same day as the biopsy. Factors associated with significant fibrosis (F3-4) were assessed by multivariate analyses. A comparison of predictive ability between multivariate factors and abovementioned noninvasive models was also performed. Increase in serum NX-DCP was significantly related to increase in fibrosis stage (P = 0.006). Moreover, NX-DCP was a multivariate factor associated with the presence of significant fibrosis F 3-4 (median 21 of F0-2 group vs. median 22 of F3-4 group with P = 0.002). The AUC of NX-DCP showed no significant differences compared with those of the AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), modified-APRI, the Göteborg University Cirrhosis Index (GUCI), the Lok index, the Hui score, cirrhosis discriminating score (CDS) and the Pohl score (P > 0.05). NX-DCP correlated positively with fibrosis stage and could discriminate well between HCV-related patients with or without significant fibrosis. Moreover, NX-DCP had a similar predictive ability to the abovementioned models, and thereby could be a new noninvasive prediction tool for fibrosis.

  5. Cortex-M0处理器初探%Cortex-M0 Processor:An Initial Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范云龙; 方安平; 李宁

    2010-01-01

    介绍Cortex-M0处理器的特点;详细分析Cortex-M0处理器的编程模型、存储模型、异常处理和功耗管理,并将Cortex-M0与Cortex-M3和基于8/16位架构的处理器作了对比分析;最后简要介绍Cortex-M0处理器的相关开发工具.

  6. Molecular Characterizations of Surface Proteins Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase from Recent H5Nx Avian Influenza Viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hua; Carney, Paul J.; Mishin, Vasiliy P.; Guo, Zhu; Chang, Jessie C.; Wentworth, David E.; Gubareva, Larisa V.; Stevens, James; Schultz-Cherry, S.

    2016-04-06

    ABSTRACT

    During 2014, a subclade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) virus caused poultry outbreaks around the world. In late 2014/early 2015, the virus was detected in wild birds in Canada and the United States, and these viruses also gave rise to reassortant progeny, composed of viral RNA segments (vRNAs) from both Eurasian and North American lineages. In particular, viruses were found with N1, N2, and N8 neuraminidase vRNAs, and these are collectively referred to as H5Nx viruses. In the United States, more than 48 million domestic birds have been affected. Here we present a detailed structural and biochemical analysis of the surface antigens of H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses in addition to those of a recent human H5N6 virus. Our results with recombinant hemagglutinin reveal that these viruses have a strict avian receptor binding preference, while recombinantly expressed neuraminidases are sensitive to FDA-approved and investigational antivirals. Although H5Nx viruses currently pose a low risk to humans, it is important to maintain surveillance of these circulating viruses and to continually assess future changes that may increase their pandemic potential.

    IMPORTANCEThe H5Nx viruses emerging in North America, Europe, and Asia pose a great public health concern. Here we report a molecular and structural study of the major surface proteins of several H5Nx influenza viruses. Our results improve the understanding of these new viruses and provide important information on their receptor preferences and susceptibilities to antivirals, which are central to pandemic risk assessment.

  7. 浅谈ARM Cortex-M0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢泰均

    2010-01-01

    @@ 引言 ARM公司在2009年初发布了其嵌入式处理器系列中最小型、最低功耗的Cortex-M0处理器.Cortex-M0低功耗、高性能与极精简程序代码的特性,能应用于各种微控制器(MCU)中,并可让研发业者以8位的价位创造32位的效能,并进一步将传统的8位和16位的处理器推进至更高效能、更低功耗的32位处理器.

  8. Rigid curves on $\\bar M_{0,n}$ and arithmetic breaks

    CERN Document Server

    Castravet, Ana-Maria

    2011-01-01

    A result of Keel and McKernan states that a hypothetical counterexample to the F-conjecture must come from rigid curves on $\\bar {M}_{0,n}$ that intersect the interior. We exhibit several ways of constructing rigid curves. In all our examples, a reduction mod p argument shows that the classes of the rigid curves that we construct can be decomposed as sums of F-curves.

  9. Successful Pregnancy Using the NxStage Home Hemodialysis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Brahmbhatt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy in the setting of the uremic milieu of renal disease has a lower success rate than in the normal population and is a rare event. While intensified renal replacement therapy (RRT during pregnancy can lead to improved outcomes, most studies have focused on nocturnal hemodialysis as the main RRT in pregnancy. Although thousands of patients use the home NxStage System One short daily hemodialysis (SDHD machine in the United States, pregnancy outcomes with this therapy are unknown. The NxStage System One uses low-volume dialysate and hence small and middle molecule clearance may differ compared to conventional therapies and affect pregnancy outcomes. We report a case of a successful conception and pregnancy using the home NxStage system. The NxStage system may provide an alternative to the more routinely used NHD or standard SDHD therapies for women of childbearing age.

  10. Effect of PECVD SiNx/SiOyNx-Si interface property on surface passivation of silicon wafer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiao-Jie; Zhou, Chun-Lan; Zhu, Jun-Jie; Zhou, Su; Wang, Wen-Jing

    2016-12-01

    It is studied in this paper that the electrical characteristics of the interface between SiOyNx/SiNx stack and silicon wafer affect silicon surface passivation. The effects of precursor flow ratio and deposition temperature of the SiOyNx layer on interface parameters, such as interface state density Dit and fixed charge Qf, and the surface passivation quality of silicon are observed. Capacitance-voltage measurements reveal that inserting a thin SiOyNx layer between the SiNx and the silicon wafer can suppress Qf in the film and Dit at the interface. The positive Qf and Dit and a high surface recombination velocity in stacks are observed to increase with the introduced oxygen and minimal hydrogen in the SiOyNx film increasing. Prepared by deposition at a low temperature and a low ratio of N2O/SiH4 flow rate, the SiOyNx/SiNx stacks result in a low effective surface recombination velocity (Seff) of 6 cm/s on a p-type 1 Ω·cm-5 Ω·cm FZ silicon wafer. The positive relationship between Seff and Dit suggests that the saturation of the interface defect is the main passivation mechanism although the field-effect passivation provided by the fixed charges also make a contribution to it. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA050302) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61306076).

  11. NX-2G : autonomous BBOBS-NX for a highly mobile broadband seismic observation at the seafloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiobara, Hajime; Sugioka, Hiroko; Ito, Aki; Shinohara, Masanao

    2016-04-01

    We had developed the broadband ocean bottom seismometer (BBOBS) and its new generation system (BBOBS-NX), and, with them, several practical observations have been performed to create and establish a new category of the ocean floor broadband seismology, since 1999. Now, our BBOBS and BBOBS-NX data is proved to be at acceptable level for broadband seismic analyses. Especially, the BBOBS-NX is able to obtain the low noise horizontal data comparable to the land station in periods longer than 10 s, which is adequate for modern analyses of the mantle structure. Moreover, the BBOBS(T)-NX is under practical evaluation for the mobile tilt observation at the seafloor, which will enable dense geodetic monitoring. The BBOBS-NX system must be a powerful tool, although, the current system has intrinsic limitation in opportunity of observations due to the necessary use of the submersible vehicle for the deployment and recovery. If we can use this system with almost any kind of vessels, like as the BBOBS (self pop-up system), it should lead us a true breakthrough of seafloor observations in geodynamics. Hereafter, we call the new autonomous BBOBS-NX as NX-2G in short. There are two main problems to be cleared to realize the NX-2G system. The first one is a tilt of the sensor unit on landing, which is larger than the acceptable limit of the sensor (±8°) in 47 % after our 15 free-fall deployments of the BBOBS-NX. As we had no evidence at which moment the tilt occurred, so it was observed during the BBOBS-NX deployment in the last year by attaching a video camera and an acceleration logger those were originally developed for this purpose. The only one result shows that the tilt on landing seemed determined by the final posture of the BBOBS-NX system just before the penetration into the sediment. The second problem is a required force to extract the sensor unit from the sticky clay sediment, which was about 80 kgf in maximum with the current BBOBS-NX system from in-situ measurements

  12. The preparation of thermally stable TiNx/Ag(Mo)/TiNx ultrathin films by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loka, Chadrasekhar; Yu, Ho Tak; Lee, Kee-Sun, E-mail: kslee@kongju.ac.kr

    2014-11-03

    Thermally stable optically selective coatings are indispensable for low emissivity (low-e) applications. Low-e coatings effectively reduce energy loss from the building glazing systems by allowing high visible transmittance and reflecting most near-infrared radiation of the solar spectrum. In the present study, we investigated the thermal stability and optical properties of TiNx/Ag(Mo)/TiNx films deposited on glass substrates by using rf and dc magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The deposited multilayer stacks were annealed up to 873 K for 1 h in air ambient and a rigorous analysis was presented on the structure, microstructure, topography, chemical composition, and optical properties by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and Ultraviolet–visible–near infrared spectrophotometer, respectively. The results revealed that the proposed structure was thermally stable with dense and smooth microstructure until 773 K; in addition, noteworthy inward/outward diffusion of silver was not observed due to the good diffusion barrier performance of TiNx. An abrupt rise in root mean square roughness and locally isolated islands like structures was observed at 873 K annealing temperature. The deposited films showed high transmittance in the visible region and high reflectance in the infrared region of the solar radiation spectrum. - Highlights: • TiNx/Ag(Mo)/TiNx/films were thermally durable until 773 K. • High visible transmittance was obtained by adopting the amorphous TiNx films. • Ag(Mo) film was protected until 773 K by partial oxidation of TiNx layers.

  13. Stability of SiNX/SiNX double stack antireflection coating for single crystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngseok; Gong, Daeyeong; Balaji, Nagarajan; Lee, Youn-Jung; Yi, Junsin

    2012-01-01

    Double stack antireflection coatings have significant advantages over single-layer antireflection coatings due to their broad-range coverage of the solar spectrum. A solar cell with 60-nm/20-nm SiNX:H double stack coatings has 17.8% efficiency, while that with a 80-nm SiNX:H single coating has 17.2% efficiency. The improvement of the efficiency is due to the effect of better passivation and better antireflection of the double stack antireflection coating. It is important that SiNX:H films have strong resistance against stress factors since they are used as antireflective coating for solar cells. However, the tolerance of SiNX:H films to external stresses has never been studied. In this paper, the stability of SiNX:H films prepared by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system is studied. The stability tests are conducted using various forms of stress, such as prolonged thermal cycle, humidity, and UV exposure. The heat and damp test was conducted for 100 h, maintaining humidity at 85% and applying thermal cycles of rapidly changing temperatures from -20°C to 85°C over 5 h. UV exposure was conducted for 50 h using a 180-W UV lamp. This confirmed that the double stack antireflection coating is stable against external stress.

  14. Research of Modular Assembly Methods in NX 8.0

    OpenAIRE

    Juustovaara, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    ABB Motors and Generators business unit received a new 3D design program; Siemens NX, in 2008 and took it as main design software in 2010. Since then the assemblies made in the NX were not following any rules thus editing of these assemblies was time-consuming and challenging depending on the designer. The thesis about a similar topic was made by Sami Risku for ABB, in 2010, but results were not used. The main objective of this thesis was to research further different assembly design approach...

  15. Structural Analysis Using NX Nastran 9.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolewicz, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    NX Nastran is a powerful Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software package used to solve linear and non-linear models for structural and thermal systems. The software, which consists of both a solver and user interface, breaks down analysis into four files, each of which are important to the end results of the analysis. The software offers capabilities for a variety of types of analysis, and also contains a respectable modeling program. Over the course of ten weeks, I was trained to effectively implement NX Nastran into structural analysis and refinement for parts of two missions at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, the Restore mission and the Orion mission.

  16. Resonant Tunnelling and Storage of Electrons in Si Nanocrystals within a-SiNx/nc-Si/a-SiNx Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiang; HUANG Jian; ZHANG Xian-Gao; DING Hong-Lin; YU Lin-Wei; HUANG Xin-Fan; LI Wei; XU Jun; CHEN Kun-Ji

    2008-01-01

    @@ The a-SiNx/nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si)/a-SiNx sandwiched structures with asymmetric double-barrier are fabricated in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) system on p-type Si substrates. The nc-Si layer in thickness 5nm is fabricated from a hydrogen-diluted silane gas by the layer-by-layer deposition technique. The thicknesses of tunnel and control SiNx layers are 3nm and 20nm,respectively. Frequency-dependent capacitance spectroscopy is used to study the electron tunnelling and the storage in the sandwiched structures.Distinct frequency-dependent capacitance peaks due to electrons tunnelling into the nc-Si dots and capacitance-voltage (C- V) hysteresis characteristic due to electrons storage in the nc-Si dots are observed with the same sample.

  17. Hall Mobilities in GaNxAs1-x

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Walukiewicz2, and Germán Gonzalez-Díaz1 1 Dpto. de Física Aplicada III, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid 28040...Ref. [15] temperature behavior of GaNxAs1-x mobility is modeled, but this model does not account for the different temperature dependences presented

  18. NX 6 With Synchronous Technology%应用同步建模技术的NX6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siemens PLM Software

    2008-01-01

    @@ NX 6的创新之处 1 创新性用户界面把高端功能与易用性和易学性结合在一起 NX 6建立在NX 5中引入的基于角色的用户界面基础上,把此方法的覆盖范围扩展至整个应用程序,以确保在核心产品领域中的一致性. 为了提供一个能够随着用户技能水平增长而成长并且保持用户效率的系统,NX 6具有可定制的可移动弹出工具栏,可以减少鼠标移动,使用户能够把他们的常用功能集成到由简单手势所控制的动作之中.

  19. Preoperative oxaliplatin, capecitabine, and external beam radiotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed, primary operable, cT3NxMo, low rectal cancer. A phase II study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oefner, Dietmar [Paracelsus Private Medical Univ., Salzburg (Austria). Dept. of Surgery; Innsbruck Medical Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Visceral, Transplant and Thoracic Surgery; DeVries, Alexander F. [Feldkirch Hospital (Austria). Dept. of Radio-Oncology; Schaberl-Moser, Renate [Medical Univ. Graz (AT). Div. of Oncology] (and others)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: In patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), preoperative chemoradiation is known to improve local control, and down-staging of the tumor serves as a surrogate for survival. Intensification of the systemic therapy may lead to higher downstaging rates and, thus, enhance survival. This phase II study investigated the efficacy and safety of preoperative capecitabine and oxaliplatin in combination with radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Patients with LARC of the mid and lower rectum, T3NxM0 staged by MRI received radiotherapy (total dose 45 Gy) in combination with oral capecitabine (825 mg/m{sup 2} twice a day on radiotherapy days; weeks 1-4) and oxaliplatin 50 mg/m{sup 2} intravenously (days 1, 8, 15, and 22). Efficacy was evaluated as rate of tumor down-categorization at the T level. Results: A total of 59 patients were enrolled (19 women, 40 men; median age of 61 years) and all were evaluable for efficacy and toxicity. Down-categorization at the T level was observed in 53% with pathological complete response in 6 patients (10%). Actual total radiotherapy, oxaliplatin and capecitabine doses received were 97%, 90%, and 93% of the protocol-specified preplanned doses, respectively. Grade 3/4 toxicity was observed in 15 patients (25%). The most frequent was diarrhea (12%). Conclusions: Preoperative chemoradiation with capecitabine and oxaliplatin is feasible in patients with MRI-proven cT3 LARC. The only clinically relevant toxicity was diarrhea. Overall, efficacy of the multimodality treatment was good, but not markedly exceeding that of 5-FU- or capecitabine-based chemoradiation approaches. (orig.)

  20. The Diophantine Equation nx2 + 2m = yn%Diophantine方程nx2+2m=yn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴华明

    2011-01-01

    设n是大于3的奇数.本文运用Y.Bilu,G.Hanrot和P.M.Voutier关于Lehmer 数本原素因子存在性的新近结果,证明了方程nx2+2m=yn没有适合gcd(x,y)=1且m为奇数的正整数解(x,y,m).%Let n be an odd integer with n > 3. In this paper, using a recent result on the existence of primitive divisors of Lehmer numbers given by Y. Bilu, G. Hanrot and P.M.Voutier, we prove that the equation nx2 + 2m = yn has no positive integer solution (x, y, m)satisfying gcd(x, y) = 1 and m is odd.

  1. Relevant Applications of Tools in UG NX CAM Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang En Guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the methods to establish the custom magazine have been proposed while the UG NX CAM module is employed to conduct the CNC milling programming. At the same time, how to set the parameters of the cutting tool has been also analyzed; in the creation of tools, the use of shank and holder as well as the use of handle check functions in NC machining has been introduced; meanwhile, the secondary rough machining of corner and the application of clean-cut features have been discussed.

  2. The stabilisation of the Nx phase in mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramou, E; Ahmed, Z; Welch, C; Karahaliou, P K; Mehl, G H

    2016-01-21

    The phase behaviour of mixtures between two symmetric dimers, CBC9CB and the ether-linked analogue CBOC9OCB was investigated by Polarizing Optical Microscopy (POM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) studies. The dimeric constituents are fully miscible and the construction of a temperature-composition phase diagram reveals a surprising amplification of the stability of the Nx phase in compositions of up to 37 wt% of CBOC9OCB in CBC9CB. The origin for this enhancement of stability is discussed and an explanation based on chiral recognition is developed.

  3. Diffusion barrier performance of nanoscale TaNx thin-film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    TaNx nanoscale thin-films and Cu/TaNx multilayer structures were deposited on P-type Si(100) substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The characteristics of TaNx films and thermal stabilities of Cu/TaNx/Si systems annealed at various temperatures were studied by four-point probe(FPP) sheet resistance measurement, atomic force microscopy(AFM), scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrum (SEM-EDS), Alpha-Step IQ Profilers and X-ray diffraction(XRD), respectively. The results show that the surfaces of deposited TaNx thin-films are smooth. With the increasing of N2 partial pressure, the deposition rate and root-mean-square(RMS) decrease, while the content of N and sheet resistance of the TaNx thin-films increase, and the diffusion barrier properties of TaNx thin-films is improved. TaN1.09 can prevent interdiffusion between Cu and Si effectively after annealing up to 650 ℃ for 60 s. The failure of TaNx is mainly attributed to the formation of Cu3Si on TaN/Si interface, which results from Cu diffusion along the grain boundaries of polycrystalline TaN.

  4. Antitumor efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and biodistribution of NX 211: a low-clearance liposomal formulation of lurtotecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, D L; Bendele, R; Brown, E; Chiang, S; Desjardins, J P; Dihel, L C; Gill, S C; Hamilton, M; LeRay, J D; Moon-McDermott, L; Moynihan, K; Richardson, F C; Tomkinson, B; Luzzio, M J; Baccanari, D

    2000-07-01

    Lurtotecan is a clinically active water-soluble camptothecin analogue that has been formulated into a low-clearance unilamellar liposome, NX 211. Comparative studies between free drug and NX 211 have been performed assessing pharmacokinetics in nude mice, tissue distribution in tumor-bearing mice, and antitumor efficacy in xenografts. Compared with lurtotecan, NX 211 demonstrated a significant increase in plasma residence time and a subsequent 1500-fold increase in the plasma area under the drug concentration curve. The volume of distribution was also greatly restricted, suggesting altered tissue distribution. Evaluation of tissues 24 h after administration of either [14C]NX 211 or [14C]lurtotecan to ES-2 tumor-bearing mice demonstrated a 40-fold increase in radiolabeled compound in the tumors of NX 211-treated mice compared with mice treated with lurtotecan. In single-dose efficacy studies, NX 211 produced a consistent 3-fold or greater increase in therapeutic index compared with lurtotecan in both the KB and ES-2 xenograft models. When compared at equitoxic levels in repeat-dose efficacy studies, NX 211 generated durable cures lasting >60 days and a 2-8-fold increase in log10 cell kill, compared with lurtotecan and topotecan, respectively. Together, these data demonstrate that NX 211 has significant therapeutic advantage over lurtotecan and that the improved antitumor activity is consistent with increased exposure and enhanced drug delivery to tumor sites.

  5. Outcome of surgical resection for pathologic N0 and Nx non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osarogiagbon, Raymond U; Allen, Jeffrey W; Farooq, Aamer; Berry, Allen; Spencer, David; O'Brien, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Metastasis to lymph nodes (LNs) connotes poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Sufficient LNs must be examined to accurately determine LN negativity. Patients with no LNs examined (pNx) have an indeterminate stage, may have undetected disease and erroneous assignment to a low-risk group. To evaluate this possibility, we compared the survival of patients with node-negative disease and at least one LN examined (pN0) to those with pNx. Retrospective analysis of all resections for NSCLC from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2007 at hospitals in the Memphis Metropolitan Area. Of 746 resections, 90 (12.1%) were Nx; 506 (67.8%) N0. Demographic and histologic characteristics were similar. A total of 54.4% Nx patients had sublobar resection, compared with 5.5% N0 (p Nx do significantly worse than those with pT2N0.

  6. Low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids ameliorates proteinuria in 3/4 nephrectomised rats by directly inhibiting the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Ying; Yin, Ying; Ni, Li; Long, Quan; You, Li; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Shan-Yan; Chen, Jing

    2016-11-01

    Low-protein diet plus ketoacids (LPD+KA) has been reported to decrease proteinuria in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD). However, the mechanisms have not been clarified. As over-activation of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been shown to play a key role in the progression of CKD, the current study was performed to investigate the direct effects of LPD+KA on intrarenal RAS, independently of renal haemodynamics. In this study, 3/4 subtotal renal ablated rats were fed 18 % normal-protein diet (Nx-NPD), 6 % low-protein diet (Nx-LPD) or 5 % low-protein diet plus 1 % ketoacids (Nx-LPD+KA) for 12 weeks. Sham-operated rats fed NPD served as controls. The level of proteinuria and expression of renin, angiotensin II (AngII) and its type 1 receptors (AT1R) in the renal cortex were markedly higher in Nx-NPD group than in the sham group. LPD+KA significantly decreased the proteinuria and inhibited intrarenal RAS activation. To exclude renal haemodynamic impact on intrarenal RAS, the serum samples derived from the different groups were added to the culture medium of mesangial cells. It showed that the serum from Nx-NPD directly induced higher expression of AngII, AT1R, fibronectin and transforming growth factor-β1 in the mesangial cells than in the control group. Nx-LPD+KA serum significantly inhibited these abnormalities. Then, proteomics and biochemical detection suggested that the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects of LPD+KA might be amelioration of the nutritional metabolic disorders and oxidative stress. In conclusion, LPD+KA could directly inhibit the intrarenal RAS activation, independently of renal haemodynamics, thus attenuating the proteinuria in CKD rats.

  7. Des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP and NX-DCP expressions and their relationship with clinicopathological features in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Sumi

    Full Text Available Des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP has been used as a tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Recently the DCP/NX-DCP ratio, calculated by dividing DCP by NX-DCP, has been reported useful in detecting HCC. The purpose of this study is to clarify the significance of DCP and NX-DCP expression in HCC tissues.HCC and non-HCC tissue samples were obtained from 157 patients and were immunohistochemically examined for DCP and NX-DCP expression using anti-DCP antibody and anti-NX-DCP antibody. DCP and NX-DCP expression scores were calculated by multiplying staining intensity grade by percentage of stained area. Serum DCP and NX-DCP levels were determined in 89 patients. We evaluated the relationship between tumor expression, serum level, and pathomorphological findings.Intrahepatic metastasis (im was significantly more frequent in cases with high DCP expression than in cases with low DCP expression. High NX-DCP expression was associated with significantly lower histological grade, and less frequent im or portal vein invasion (vp than low NX-DCP expression. Serum DCP was correlated with DCP expression, but serum NX-DCP was not correlated with NX-DCP expression. DCP-positive (≥40 mAU/L, NX-DCP-positive (≥90 mAU/L, and DCP/NX-DCP ratio-positive (≥1.5 cases were associated with significantly larger tumor size and more frequent vp than negative cases. DCP was rarely expressed, but NX-DCP was frequently expressed in non-cancerous liver tissues. Patients with NX-DCP expression-negative tumors showed a lower survival rate than those with NX-DCP expression-positive tumors (p = 0.04, whereas the survival in serum NX-DCP-positive cases was lower than that of serum negative cases (p = 0.02.DCP and NX-DCP were produced in HCC tissues, but differed in expression level and biological properties. DCP expression, serum DCP or NX-DCP level, and DCP/NX-DCP ratio were closely related to malignant properties of HCC.

  8. Des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) and NX-DCP expressions and their relationship with clinicopathological features in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Akiko; Akiba, Jun; Ogasawara, Sachiko; Nakayama, Masamichi; Nomura, Yoriko; Yasumoto, Makiko; Sanada, Sakiko; Nakashima, Osamu; Abe, Toshi; Yano, Hirohisa

    2015-01-01

    Des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) has been used as a tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently the DCP/NX-DCP ratio, calculated by dividing DCP by NX-DCP, has been reported useful in detecting HCC. The purpose of this study is to clarify the significance of DCP and NX-DCP expression in HCC tissues. HCC and non-HCC tissue samples were obtained from 157 patients and were immunohistochemically examined for DCP and NX-DCP expression using anti-DCP antibody and anti-NX-DCP antibody. DCP and NX-DCP expression scores were calculated by multiplying staining intensity grade by percentage of stained area. Serum DCP and NX-DCP levels were determined in 89 patients. We evaluated the relationship between tumor expression, serum level, and pathomorphological findings. Intrahepatic metastasis (im) was significantly more frequent in cases with high DCP expression than in cases with low DCP expression. High NX-DCP expression was associated with significantly lower histological grade, and less frequent im or portal vein invasion (vp) than low NX-DCP expression. Serum DCP was correlated with DCP expression, but serum NX-DCP was not correlated with NX-DCP expression. DCP-positive (≥40 mAU/L), NX-DCP-positive (≥90 mAU/L), and DCP/NX-DCP ratio-positive (≥1.5) cases were associated with significantly larger tumor size and more frequent vp than negative cases. DCP was rarely expressed, but NX-DCP was frequently expressed in non-cancerous liver tissues. Patients with NX-DCP expression-negative tumors showed a lower survival rate than those with NX-DCP expression-positive tumors (p = 0.04), whereas the survival in serum NX-DCP-positive cases was lower than that of serum negative cases (p = 0.02). DCP and NX-DCP were produced in HCC tissues, but differed in expression level and biological properties. DCP expression, serum DCP or NX-DCP level, and DCP/NX-DCP ratio were closely related to malignant properties of HCC.

  9. Levels 3-4 English

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together the essential close reading skills needed by students taking part in the Broad General Education, Levels 3-4 (in S1 to S3).Split into two parts, the first section uses examples, models and active-learning tasks to teach key concepts of reading for understanding, analysis and evaluation. The second section provides 15 practice assessments, based on a variety of fiction and non-fiction texts, which become progressively more challenging. As well as allowing learners to demonstrate BGE reading skills, this section serves as a useful precursor to the

  10. 4Nx Non-Isolated and Non-Inverting Hybrid Interleaved Multilevel Boost Converter Based on VLCIm Cell and Cockroft Walton Voltage Multiplier for Renewable Energy Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    In this treatise, 4Nx hybrid Non Inverting & Non Isolated (NI-NI) DC-DC interleaved multi-level boost converter (4Nx IMBC) for renewable energy applications is proposed. The proposed 4Nx IMBC is derived by coalescing the feature of 2Nx DC-DC Interleaved Multi-level Boost Converter (2Nx IMBC......), voltage-lift-switched-inductor-modified (VLSlm Cell) and Cockcroft Walton (CW) voltage multipliers. The 4Nx converter provides 4N times more conversion voltage ratio compared to conventional boost converter where N denotes the number of output stages of the 4Nx IMBC. To make renewable energy sources...

  11. Siemens PLM Software发布NX6软件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008年5月21日,西门子工业自动化业务部旗下机构、全球领先的产品生命周期管理(PLM)软件和服务提供商Siemens PLM Software与在波士顿举行的年度行业分析师大会同时发布了NX?第6版数字化产品开发软件,其中包括由Siemens PLM Software最近发布的同步建模技术所带来的新功能。NX6的四大关键创新:更灵活、更有力、更协调和更高效。

  12. The geographic distribution and complex evolutionary history of the NX-2 trichothecene chemotype from Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Amy; Proctor, Robert H; Belzile, Francois; Chulze, Sofia N; Clear, Randall M; Cowger, Christina; Elmer, Wade; Lee, Theresa; Obanor, Friday; Waalwijk, Cees; Ward, Todd J

    2016-10-01

    Fusarium graminearum and 21 related species comprising the F. sambucinum species complex lineage 1 (FSAMSC-1) are the most important Fusarium Head Blight pathogens of cereal crops world-wide. FSAMSC-1 species typically produce type B trichothecenes. However, some F. graminearum strains were recently found to produce a novel type A trichothecene (NX-2) resulting from functional variation in the trichothecene biosynthetic enzyme Tri1. We used a PCR-RFLP assay targeting the TRI1 gene to identify the NX-2 allele among a global collection of 2515 F. graminearum. NX-2 isolates were only found in southern Canada and the northern U.S., where they were observed at low frequency (1.8%), but over a broader geographic range and set of cereal hosts than previously recognized. Phylogenetic analyses of TRI1 and adjacent genes produced gene trees that were incongruent with the history of species divergence within FSAMSC-1, indicating trans-species evolution of ancestral polymorphism. In addition, placement of NX-2 strains in the TRI1 gene tree was influenced by the accumulation of nonsynonymous substitutions associated with the evolution of the NX-2 chemotype, and a significant (PNX-2 branch (ω=1.16) in comparison to other branches (ω=0.17) in the TRI1 phylogeny. Parameter estimates were consistent with positive selection for specific amino-acid changes during the evolution of NX-2, but direct tests of positive selection were not significant. Phylogenetic analyses of fourfold degenerate sites and intron sequences in TRI1 indicated the NX-2 chemotype had a single evolutionary origin and evolved recently from a type B ancestor. Our results indicate the NX-2 chemotype may be indigenous, and possibly endemic, to southern Canada and the northern U.S. In addition, we demonstrate that the evolution of TRI1 within FSAMSC-1 has been complex, with evidence of trans-species evolution and chemotype-specific shifts in selective constraint. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. NX 5新功能全面展示(一)——NX 5设计模块改进介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 一、NX 5概述 与以往版本相比,NX 5具有更好的协同能力,能够不受系统约束条件的影响,在整个产品开发过程中实现更高的工作流程效率、缩短产品开发周期,并提供更高的产品质量和性能.

  14. Effects of Resistivity and Viscosity on m =0 Rise and Fall Time in the RFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futch, A. M.; Craig, D.; Hesse, R.; Jacobson, C. M.

    2016-10-01

    In the reversed field pinch (RFP), poloidal mode number m =0 fluctuations are driven in a sawtooth cycle via nonlinear coupling with unstable m =1 tearing modes. We explore how the rise and fall time of these m =0 fluctuations depends on resistivity and viscosity in visco-resistive MHD simulations using the DEBS code. Both the Lundquist number (S) and magnetic Prandtl number (Pr) affect the rise/fall time. Analysis of MST experimental data also shows that both the rise and fall times of the m =0 amplitude vary with S. The variation observed in experiment is consistent with simulation results for rise time, but shows some differences for fall time. Rise time is insensitive to the resistivity profile but depends slightly on the viscosity profile. Fall time is strongly correlated with the duration of the crash which depends on both resistivity and viscosity profiles. These results suggest that the rise and fall time of the m =0 modes at the sawtooth crash is not strongly influenced by the local resistivity near the resonant surface but instead is primarily determined by the overall dynamics of the entire sawtooth cycle. The role of viscosity is less clear though the edge viscosity affects the m =0 evolution more than the core. This work has been supported by the U.S.D.O.E.

  15. Resistive switching characteristics of Pt/TaOx/HfNx structure and its performance improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qigang Zhou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The refractory transition metal nitride (TMN film Hafnium nitride (HfNx was successfully prepared on silicon-based substrates as bottom electrodes for resistive random access memory (RRAM cells in Pt (top/metal oxide/ HfNx (bottom sandwich structure. The reproducible resistive switching (RS characteristics of the memory cells were studied systematically for RRAM applications. The advantages of adopting HfNx instead of Pt as bottom electrode material were demonstrated, including the improvement of the low resistive state value, the RS endurance and the uniformity of RS parameters. The composition and chemical bonding states of the prepared HfNx was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS technique. The nitrogen content in the HfNx and the Gibbs free energy of the corresponding metal oxide formation has great influences on the RS properties. The oxygen reservoir ability and diffusion barrier effect of the HfNx play a key role in the RS performance improvement of the RRAM devices.

  16. Structure and Friction Behavior of CrNx/a-C:H Nanocomposite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunlin Shang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CrN and CrNx/a-C:H nanocomposite films were deposited on Si substrates by the magnetron sputtering technique. The structure, chemical state, and friction behavior of the CrNx/a-C:H films prepared at various CH4 content were studied systematically. The CrN film shows strong (111 and (220 orientation, while the CrNx/a-C:H films consist of the nanocrystalline CrNx or Cr particles embedded in an amorphous hydrocarbon (a-C:H matrix and show weak diffraction peaks, which is in accordance with the XPS analysis results. The typical Raman D and G peaks are observed, indicating that the separated amorphous carbon or CNx phase appears in the CrNx/a-C:H films. However, no chromium carbide was observed in all the as-deposited samples. From the SEM graphs, all the deposited films depicted a dense and compact microstructure with well-attached interface with the substrate. The average friction coefficient of the CrNx/a-C:H films largely decreased with increasing CH4 content.

  17. The comparison of visible-light photocatalytic activity for the degradation of propylene between Ag TiO2-x Nx and TiO2-x Nx%Ag/TiO2-x Nx 与 TiO2-x Nx 可见光催化降解丙烯的活性对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张郴艳; 朱兆田; 彭琳珊; 马清晨; 王曼丽; 庞钰华; 何建英; 冯彩霞

    2016-01-01

    利用纳米管钛酸(NTA)和氨水的水热反应制得 TiO 2-x Nx 系列催化剂,并进一步通过热分解-机械研磨的方法在 TiO 2-x Nx 表面附着上银颗粒,制得 Ag/TiO 2-x Nx 系列催化剂。采用 X 射线衍射(XRD)、紫外-可见漫反射(DRS)、X 射线光电子能谱(XPS)等技术对催化剂进行了表征和分析。光催化氧化丙烯的实验对比了TiO 2-x Nx 与 Ag/TiO 2-x Nx 两个系列催化剂的可见光催化活性,考察了氧空位、晶型结构、氮含量和银颗粒对催化剂可见光催化活性的影响。结果表明,催化剂锐钛矿的晶型越好,氧空位含量越高,催化剂的可见光催化活性越好;贵金属银的电子捕获能力使得 Ag/TiO 2-x Nx 的可见光催化活性远高于 TiO 2-x Nx 催化剂。%TiO 2 -x Nx series of catalysts were prepared by hydrothermal reaction method using nanotubed titanic acid (denoted as NTA)and ammonia as raw materials.Furthermore,silver nanoparticles were loaded on the surface of TiO 2 -x Nx by thermal decomposition-mechanical grinding method to produce Ag/TiO 2 -x Nx photocatalysts,TiO 2 -x Nx catalysts were character-ized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS)and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).The visible-light activity of two series of photocatalysts, TiO 2 -x Nx and Ag/TiO 2 -x Nx ,were compared by the degradation of propylene.Some effects of oxygen vacancy,crystal structure,contents of doped nitrogen and loaded silver on the visible-light activity were also studied.Results show that the better anatase structure and the higher content of oxygen vacancy are the higher visible-light activity will be.In addition,the visible-light activity of Ag/TiO 2 -x Nx is much higher than that of TiO 2 -x Nx due to the strong trapping electron ability of noble metal silver.

  18. Digital development of products with NX9 for academical areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goanta, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    International competitiveness forced the manufacturing enterprises to look for new ways to accelerate the development of digital products through innovation, global alliances and strategic partnerships. In an environment of global research and development of distributed geographically, all members of the joint teams made up of companies and universities need to access updated and accurate information about products created by any of the type employed, student, teacher. Current design processes involve more complex products consisting of elements of design created by multiple teams, disciplines and suppliers using independent CAD systems. Even when using a 3D CAD mature technology, many companies fail to significantly reduce losses in the process, improve product quality or product type to ensure successful innovations to market arouse interest. These challenges require a radical rethinking of the business model, which belongs to the field of design, which must be based on digital development of products based on integrated files. Through this work, the author has proposed to provide both synthesis and transformations brought news of the integrated NX [1, 2, 3] from Siemens PLM Software 9, following a news results detailed documentary study, and personal results obtained by applying the same version, the digital and integrated development of a product type device test beams. Based on educational license received for NX 9 was made a detailed study of the innovations made by this release, and the application of some of them went to graphical modelling and getting all the documentation of a test device bearing beams. Also, were synthesized in terms of methodology, the steps to take to obtain graphical documentation. The results consist of: 3D models of all parts and assembly 3D model of the three-dimensional constraints of all component parts and not least respectively all drawings and assembly drawing. The most important consequence of the paper is the obtaining of

  19. Non Isolated and Non-Inverting Cockcroft Walton Multiplier Based Hybrid 2Nx Interleaved Boost Converter For Renewable Energy Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Padamanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    In this paper hybrid non isolated and non-invertingCockcroft-Walton multiplier based 2Nx InterleavedBoost converter (2Nx IBC) for renewable energy applications is presented. The presented hybrid boost converter topology is derived from non-inverting Nx Multilevel Boost Converter (Nx MBC......) and inverting Nx Multilevel Boost Converter (Nx MBC). In renewable energy applications, generated voltage needs to be stepped up with high conversion ratio using a DC-DC converter at voltage levels as per the application requirement. The advantages of the presentedtopology of interleaved converter are high...... voltage conversion ratio, reduce ripple, low voltage stress, non-inverting output voltage without utilizing the high duty cycle, coupled inductors and transformer. The main advantage of presented topology consists in increasing voltage gain by adding capacitor and diode into circuitry without disturbing...

  20. Backbone NxH compounds at high pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, Alexander F; Holtgrewe, Nicholas; Qian, Guangrui; Hu, Chaohao; Oganov, Artem R; Somayazulu, Maddury; Stavrou, Elissaios; Pickard, Chris J; Berlie, Adam; Yen, Fei; Mahmood, Mahmood; Lobanov, Sergey S; Konôpková, Zuzana; Prakapenka, Vitali B

    2015-06-01

    Optical and synchrotron x-ray diffraction diamond anvil cell experiments have been combined with first-principles theoretical structure predictions to investigate mixtures of N2 and H2 up to 55 GPa. Our experiments show the formation of structurally complex van der Waals compounds [see also D. K. Spaulding et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5739 (2014)] above 10 GPa. However, we found that these NxH (0.5 < x < 1.5) compounds transform abruptly to new oligomeric materials through barochemistry above 47 GPa and photochemistry at pressures as low as 10 GPa. These oligomeric compounds can be recovered to ambient pressure at T < 130 K, whereas at room temperature, they can be metastable on pressure release down to 3.5 GPa. Extensive theoretical calculations show that such oligomeric materials become thermodynamically more stable in comparison to mixtures of N2, H2, and NH3 above approximately 40 GPa. Our results suggest new pathways for synthesis of environmentally benign high energy-density materials. These materials could also exist as alternative planetary ices.

  1. Backbone NxH compounds at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, Alexander F.; Holtgrewe, Nicholas; Qian, Guangrui; Hu, Chaohao; Oganov, Artem R.; Somayazulu, Maddury; Stavrou, Elissaios; Pickard, Chris J.; Berlie, Adam; Yen, Fei; Mahmood, Mahmood; Lobanov, Sergey S.; Konôpková, Zuzana; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2015-06-01

    Optical and synchrotron x-ray diffraction diamond anvil cell experiments have been combined with first-principles theoretical structure predictions to investigate mixtures of N2 and H2 up to 55 GPa. Our experiments show the formation of structurally complex van der Waals compounds [see also D. K. Spaulding et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5739 (2014)] above 10 GPa. However, we found that these NxH (0.5 < x < 1.5) compounds transform abruptly to new oligomeric materials through barochemistry above 47 GPa and photochemistry at pressures as low as 10 GPa. These oligomeric compounds can be recovered to ambient pressure at T < 130 K, whereas at room temperature, they can be metastable on pressure release down to 3.5 GPa. Extensive theoretical calculations show that such oligomeric materials become thermodynamically more stable in comparison to mixtures of N2, H2, and NH3 above approximately 40 GPa. Our results suggest new pathways for synthesis of environmentally benign high energy-density materials. These materials could also exist as alternative planetary ices.

  2. Space modeling with SolidWorks and NX

    CERN Document Server

    Duhovnik, Jože; Drešar, Primož

    2015-01-01

    Through a series of step-by-step tutorials and numerous hands-on exercises, this book aims to equip the reader with both a good understanding of the importance of space in the abstract world of engineers and the ability to create a model of a product in virtual space – a skill essential for any designer or engineer who needs to present ideas concerning a particular product within a professional environment. The exercises progress logically from the simple to the more complex; while SolidWorks or NX is the software used, the underlying philosophy is applicable to all modeling software. In each case, the explanation covers the entire procedure from the basic idea and production capabilities through to the real model; the conversion from 3D model to 2D manufacturing drawing is also clearly explained. Topics covered include modeling of prism, axisymmetric, symmetric, and sophisticated shapes; digitization of physical models using modeling software; creation of a CAD model starting from a physical model; free fo...

  3. Photochemical generation of H2NCNX, H2NNCX, H2NC(NX) (X = O, S) in low-temperature matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, Tamás; Lajgút, Győző György; Magyarfalvi, Gábor; Tarczay, György

    2017-01-14

    The [NH2, C, N, O] and the [NH2, C, N, S] molecular systems were investigated by computational and matrix-isolation spectroscopic methods. The determination of the equilibrium structures and relative energies by CCSD(T) method was followed by the computation of the harmonic and anharmonic vibrational wavenumbers, infrared intensities, relative Raman activities, and UV excitation energies. These computed data were used to assist the identification of products obtained by UV laser photolysis of 3,4-diaminofurazan and 3,4-diaminothiadiazole in low-temperature Ar and Kr matrices. It is shown that two open-chain H2NNCX and H2NCNX and one cyclic H2NC(NX) (X = O, S) isomers are generated in the case of both systems. Except for H2NNCO and H2NCNS, the present study reports the first generation and spectroscopic identification of these compounds.

  4. Seeding the m = 0 instability in dense plasma focus Z-pinches with a hollow anode

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, J X; McMahon, M; Tummel, K; Cooper, C; Higginson, D; Shaw, B; Povilus, A; Link, A; Schmidt, A

    2016-01-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF) is a classic Z-pinch plasma device that has been studied for decades as a radiation source. The formation of the m = 0 plasma instability during the compression phase is linked to the generation of high-energy charged particle beams, which, when operated in deuterium, lead to beam-target fusion reactions and the generation of neutron yield. In this paper, we present a technique of seeding the m = 0 instability by employing a hollow in the anode. As the plasma sheath moves along the anode's hollow structure, a low density perturbation is formed and this creates a non-uniform plasma column which is highly unstable. Dynamics of the low density perturbation and preferential seeding of the m = 0 instability were studied in detail with fully kinetic plasma simulations performed in the Large Scale Plasma particle-in-cell code as well as with a simple snowplow model. The simulations showed that by employing an anode geometry with appropriate inner hollow radius, the neutron yield of the D...

  5. The potential for NX-1207 in benign prostatic hyperplasia: an update for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Neal; Cowan, Barrett

    2011-11-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) affect many older men and can have a significant impact on health-related quality of life. BPH is a progressive condition that may lead to complications including acute urinary retention. There exists an unmet need for a safe and effective, office-based, catheter-free therapy for BPH patients. NX-1207 is a promising first-in-class drug currently in phase III trials for the treatment of BPH. This review provides an overview of the NX-1207 trial program and considers its potential application for patients with symptoms related to BPH. NX-1207 is administered as an office-based procedure by transrectal intraprostatic injection under ultrasound guidance. NX-1207 has selective pro-apoptotic properties, which induce focal cell loss in prostate tissue, leading to prostate volume reduction with both short- and long-term symptomatic improvement. In four US clinical trials to date, NX-1207 has shown evidence of symptomatic improvement substantially better than currently approved BPH medications with no significant safety issues. Larger phase III trials are ongoing to confirm further the efficacy, safety, and tolerability for this minimally invasive, anesthetic-free, clinic-based treatment for BPH.

  6. NX Nastran在压力容器应力分析中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢涛; 刘岩; 郭涛

    2009-01-01

    NX Nastran具有很强的线性分析功能和非线性分析功能,能够满足压力容器应力分析的需求。以压力容器典型的受内压圆筒径向接管结构为例,利用NX CAD的强大建模功能以及CAD&CAE的无缝集成,进行了应力分析以及线性化处理,成功证明了NX Nastran在压力容器分析设计中应用的可行性、方便性。

  7. NxRepair: error correction in de novo sequence assembly using Nextera mate pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Rebecca R; O'Connell, Jared; Cox, Anthony J; Schulz-Trieglaff, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Scaffolding errors and incorrect repeat disambiguation during de novo assembly can result in large scale misassemblies in draft genomes. Nextera mate pair sequencing data provide additional information to resolve assembly ambiguities during scaffolding. Here, we introduce NxRepair, an open source toolkit for error correction in de novo assemblies that uses Nextera mate pair libraries to identify and correct large-scale errors. We show that NxRepair can identify and correct large scaffolding errors, without use of a reference sequence, resulting in quantitative improvements in the assembly quality. NxRepair can be downloaded from GitHub or PyPI, the Python Package Index; a tutorial and user documentation are also available.

  8. Spark Plasma Sintering Bulk Sm2 Fe17NxMagnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Ming; Zhang Dongtao; Ji Yongcheng; Zhang Jiuxing

    2004-01-01

    High performance Sm2Fe17Nx magnetic powders were fabricated by ball-milling method and were compacted using spark plasma sintering(SPS) technique.Effects of processing conditions on the magnetic properties and decomposition dynamic of the magnets were investigated.It is found that higher sintering temperature improves the densification of the magnets, while deteriorates their magnetic properties simultaneously due to the decomposition of the Sm2Fe17Nx.Sintering at lower temperature can preserve the crystal structure of Sm2Fe17Nx compound, while the powders cannot be consolidated into a fully dense compact.An increased compressive pressure leads to better magnetic properties and higher density for the magnet at the same sintering temperature.

  9. NxRepair: error correction in de novo sequence assembly using Nextera mate pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca R. Murphy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scaffolding errors and incorrect repeat disambiguation during de novo assembly can result in large scale misassemblies in draft genomes. Nextera mate pair sequencing data provide additional information to resolve assembly ambiguities during scaffolding. Here, we introduce NxRepair, an open source toolkit for error correction in de novo assemblies that uses Nextera mate pair libraries to identify and correct large-scale errors. We show that NxRepair can identify and correct large scaffolding errors, without use of a reference sequence, resulting in quantitative improvements in the assembly quality. NxRepair can be downloaded from GitHub or PyPI, the Python Package Index; a tutorial and user documentation are also available.

  10. Drude's Model Optical Parameters and the Color of TiNx Films Obtained Through Reflectivity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, L. A.; Sagás, J. C.; Damião, A. J.; Fontana, L. C.

    2015-02-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) has been applied as decorative coating due to its high reflectivity and goldish color, having high hardness and wear resistance. In the present work, TiNx films were deposited by grid-assisted magnetron sputtering. The color and reflectivity were investigated by spectrophotometry as a function of the working gas ratio N2/Ar used during films deposition. The crystalline phases were identified by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD). The TiNx plasma frequency ( ω p) and the relaxation time ( τ) were determined by fitting the experimental reflectivity curves, according to the Drude model. The color parameters obtained by the CieLab method were used to compare TiNx films with gold film.

  11. Realization of Colored Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells with SiO2/SiNx:H Double Layer Antireflection Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We presented a method to use SiO2/SiNx:H double layer antireflection coatings (DARC on acid textures to fabricate colored multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si solar cells. Firstly, we modeled the perceived colors and short-circuit current density (Jsc as a function of SiNx:H thickness for single layer SiNx:H, and as a function of SiO2 thickness for the case of SiO2/SiNx:H (DARC with fixed SiNx:H (refractive index n=2.1 at 633 nm, and thickness = 80 nm. The simulation results show that it is possible to achieve various colors by adjusting the thickness of SiO2 to avoid significant optical losses. Therefore, we carried out the experiments by using electron beam (e-beam evaporation to deposit a layer of SiO2 over the standard SiNx:H for 156×156 mm2 mc-Si solar cells which were fabricated by a conventional process. Semisphere reflectivity over 300 nm to 1100 nm and I-V measurements were performed for grey yellow, purple, deep blue, and green cells. The efficiency of colored SiO2/SiNx:H DARC cells is comparable to that of standard SiNx:H light blue cells, which shows the potential of colored cells in industrial applications.

  12. NX-1207: a novel investigational drug for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Neal

    2010-02-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common affliction among older men that can have significant impact on health-related quality of life. BPH is a progressive condition that can lead to complications including acute urinary retention (AUR) and to surgical intervention. There is an ongoing need for new, safe and effective treatments for BPH. Currently available therapies have significant safety and efficacy limitations. NX-1207 is a promising first-in-class drug currently in Phase III trials for the treatment of BPH. This review provides an overview of BPH and currently approved medical treatments and drugs as described in the literature and treatment practice guidelines in the past 10 years, an outline of the results of the Phase II trials of NX-1207 and an expert opinion on the role NX-1207 may play in the treatment of men with clinical BPH. This review aims to introduce readers to NX-1207, a new treatment for BPH that is administered in an office-based procedure by transrectal intraprostatic injection under ultrasound guidance. NX-1207 has selective pro-apoptotic properties, which induces focal cell loss in prostate leading to prostate volume reduction with both short- and long-term symptomatic improvement. In four US clinical trials to date, NX-1207 has shown evidence of symptomatic improvement substantially better than currently approved BPH medications with no significant safety issues. Larger Phase III trials are ongoing to further confirm the efficacy, safety and tolerability for this minimally invasive, anesthetic free, clinic-based treatment for BPH.

  13. NX-PVKA levels before and after hepatectomy of hepatocellular carcinoma as predictors of patient survival: a preliminary evaluation of an improved assay for PIVKA-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanashima, Atsushi; Abo, Takafumi; Taura, Naota; Shibata, Hideki; Ichikawa, Tatsuki; Takagi, Katsunori; Arai, Junichi; Oyama, Shousaburou; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2013-06-01

    Although the protein-induced vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) is used as a prognostic marker in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a newly-improved assay, NX-PVKA (PIVKA-II measured using P-11 and P-16 antibodies) and NX-PVKA-R (ratio of PIVKA-II and NX-PVKA), are more accurate markers of PIVKA-II. We conducted a prospectively preliminary analysis of the relationship between NX-PVKA-R and clinicopathological parameters and prognosis in 22 patients with HCC who underwent hepatectomy and measured changes of this marker's levels after treatment. Median value of PIVKA-II (80 mAU/ml), NX-PVKA (60 mAU/ml), NX-PVKA-R (1.5) and NX-PVKA-D (difference of markers, 15 mAU/ml) were determined. Tumor relapse was observed in six patients, and the one year relapse-free survival rate was 88%. Correlation between PIVKA-II or alpha-fetoprotein levels and NX-PVKA, NX-PVKA-R or -D levels was significant (pPIVKA-II, NX-PVKA and NX-PVKA-R tended to be higher than in patients without pre-treatment, but this difference was not significant (p>0.10). For macroscopic findings, NX-PVKA-R for the confluent-nodular type was significantly higher than that for the simple-nodular type (p<0.05). The tumor-free survival rate in the group with a high NX-PVKA-R was significantly lower than that in the group with a low NX-PVKA-R group (p<0.05). In patients with tumor recurrence, postoperative NX-PVKA-R increased again. We conclude that a high value of NX-PVKA-R after hepatectomy for HCC reflects malignant potential and predicts early recurrence in patients with HCC.

  14. 详解NX 8.5新增功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭涛

    2012-01-01

      NX 8.5软件在现有功能的基础上增加了一些新功能和许多客户驱动的增强功能,这些改进有助于缩短创建、分析、交换和标注数据所需的时间,本文将从提高设计效率、优化仿真平台和加快NC编程和加工速度等方面具体介绍NX 8.5的具体改变.

  15. I-deas TMG to NX Space Systems Thermal Model Conversion and Computational Performance Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somawardhana, Ruwan

    2011-01-01

    CAD/CAE packages change on a continuous basis as the power of the tools increase to meet demands. End -users must adapt to new products as they come to market and replace legacy packages. CAE modeling has continued to evolve and is constantly becoming more detailed and complex. Though this comes at the cost of increased computing requirements Parallel processing coupled with appropriate hardware can minimize computation time. Users of Maya Thermal Model Generator (TMG) are faced with transitioning from NX I -deas to NX Space Systems Thermal (SST). It is important to understand what differences there are when changing software packages We are looking for consistency in results.

  16. Intel NX to PVM 3.2 message passing conversion library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Trey; Nelson, Michael L.

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has developed a library that allows Intel NX message passing codes to be executed under the more popular and widely supported Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) message passing library. PVM was developed at Oak Ridge National Labs and has become the defacto standard for message passing. This library will allow the many programs that were developed on the Intel iPSC/860 or Intel Paragon in a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) design to be ported to the numerous architectures that PVM (version 3.2) supports. Also, the library adds global operations capability to PVM. A familiarity with Intel NX and PVM message passing is assumed.

  17. I-deas TMG to NX Space Systems Thermal Model Conversion and Computational Performance Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somawardhana, Ruwan

    2011-01-01

    CAD/CAE packages change on a continuous basis as the power of the tools increase to meet demands. End -users must adapt to new products as they come to market and replace legacy packages. CAE modeling has continued to evolve and is constantly becoming more detailed and complex. Though this comes at the cost of increased computing requirements Parallel processing coupled with appropriate hardware can minimize computation time. Users of Maya Thermal Model Generator (TMG) are faced with transitioning from NX I -deas to NX Space Systems Thermal (SST). It is important to understand what differences there are when changing software packages We are looking for consistency in results.

  18. Application of NX Siemens PLM software in educational process in preparing students of engineering branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadchikova, G. M.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the results of the introduction of computer-aided design NX by Siemens Plm Software to the classes of a higher education institution. The necessity of application of modern information technologies in teaching students of engineering profile and selection of a software product is substantiated. The author describes stages of the software module study in relation to some specific courses, considers the features of NX software, which require the creation of standard and unified product databases. The article also gives examples of research carried out by the students with the various software modules.

  19. Risk and timing of biochemical recurrence in pT3aN0/Nx prostate cancer with positive surgical margin - A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Alexander; Buchner, Alexander; Tympner, Christiane; Kirchner, Thomas; Ganswindt, Ute; Belka, Claus; Ganzer, Roman; Wieland, Wolf; Eder, Fabian; Hofstädter, Ferdinand; Schilling, David; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Stenzl, Arnulf; Scharpf, Marcus; Fend, Falko; Vom Dorp, Frank; Rübben, Herbert; Schmid, Kurt Werner; Porres-Knoblauch, Daniel; Heidenreich, Axel; Hangarter, Birgit; Knüchel-Clarke, Ruth; Rogenhofer, Michael; Wullich, Bernd; Hartmann, Arndt; Comploj, Evi; Pycha, Armin; Hanspeter, Esther; Pehrke, Dirk; Sauter, Guido; Graefen, Markus; Gratzke, Christian; Stief, Christian; Wiegel, Thomas; Haese, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Positive surgical margins (PSM) after radical prostatectomy have been shown to be associated with impaired outcome. In pT3pN0 patients with PSM either immediate radiotherapy or clinical and biological monitoring followed by salvage radiotherapy is recommended by the latest guidelines of the European Association of Urology. A retrospective, multicenter study of eight urological centers was conducted on 536 prostatectomy patients with pT3aN0/NxR1 tumors and no neoadjuvant/adjuvant therapy. A pathological re-review of all prostate specimens was performed. Association of clinical and pathological features with biochemical recurrence (BCR) was analyzed using univariate and multivariate analysis. With 48months median follow-up, BCR occurred in 39.7%. Preoperative PSA value, performance of pelvic lymph node dissection and Gleason score were significantly associated with BCR. In multivariate analysis, Gleason score was the only independent prognostic factor (p<0.001) for BCR. Five-year BCR-free survival rates were 74%, 70%, 38%, and 51% with Gleason score 6, 3+4=7a, 4+3=7b, and 8-10, respectively. In pT3aN0/NxR1 patients with no adjuvant/neoadjuvant treatment, Gleason Score permits independent prediction of the risk for BCR. These findings could help to estimate and discuss the individual risk for BCR with our patients on an individual basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cosmological expansion and contraction from Pauli exclusion principle in $M0$-branes

    CERN Document Server

    Sepehri, Alireza; Bamba, Kazuharu; Capozziello, Salvatore; Pincak, Richard; Pradhan, Anirudh; Rahaman, Farook; Saridakis, Emmanuel N

    2016-01-01

    We show that the Pauli exclusion principle in a system of $M0$-branes can give rise to the expansion and contraction of the universe which is located on an $M3$-brane. We start with a system of $M0$-branes with high symmetry, which join mutually and form pairs of $M1$-anti-$M1$-branes. The resulting symmetry breaking creates gauge fields that live on the $M1$-branes and play the role of graviton tensor modes, which induce an attractive force between the $M1$ and anti-$M1$ branes. Consequently, the gauge fields that live on the $M1$-branes, and the scalar fields which are attached symmetrically to all parts of these branes, decay to fermions that attach anti-symmetrically to the upper and lower parts of the branes, and hence the Pauli exclusion principle emerges. By closing $M1$-branes mutually, the curvatures produced by parallel spins will be different from the curvatures produced by anti-parallel spins, and this leads to an inequality between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface and the ...

  1. LPC1100:低成本Cortex-M0微控制器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ NXP宣布,旗下基于ARM Conex-M0的LPC1100微控制器系列产品将于12月分销上市.该控制器性能优越、简单易用、功耗低,更重要的是,它能显著降低所有8/16位应用的代码长度.初期面市的LPCIl00系列有15种产品,能满足所有那些寻求用可扩展ARM架构来进行整个产品开发过程的8/16位用户,满足其产品开发无缝整合需求.

  2. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 3.4 Section..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.4 Compensation. (a) Compensation. This term...) Disability compensation. (1) Basic entitlement for a veteran exists if the veteran is disabled as the...

  3. Quantification of process variables for carbothermic synthesis of UC1-xNx fuel microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemer, T. B.; Silva, C. M.; Henry, J. J.; McMurray, J. W.; Voit, S. L.; Collins, J. L.; Hunt, R. D.

    2017-01-01

    This report details the continued investigation of process variables involved in converting sol-gel-derived, urania-carbon microspheres to ∼820-μm-dia. UC1-xNx fuel kernels in flow-through, vertical Mo and W crucibles at temperatures up to 2123 K. Experiments included calcining of air-dried UO3-H2O-C microspheres in Ar and H2-containing gases, conversion of the resulting UO2-C kernels to dense UO2:2UC in the same gases and vacuum, and its conversion in N2 to UC1-xNx (x = ∼0.85). The thermodynamics of the relevant reactions were applied extensively to interpret and control the process variables. Producing the precursor UO2:2UC kernel of ∼96% theoretical density was required, but its subsequent conversion to UC1-xNx at 2123 K was not accompanied by sintering and resulted in ∼83-86% of theoretical density. Increasing the UC1-xNx kernel nitride component to ∼0.98 in flowing N2-H2 mixtures to evolve HCN was shown to be quantitatively consistent with present and past experiments and the only useful application of H2 in the entire process.

  4. The geographic distribution and complex evolutionary history of the NX-2 trichothecene chemotype from Fusarium graminearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. graminearum and 21 related species form a species complex (FSAMSC-1) characterized by production of type B trichothecenes. However, some F. graminearum strains were recently found to produce NX-2, a novel type A trichothecene, resulting from variation in the trichothecene biosynthetic enzyme Tri1...

  5. Ni-toughened nc-TiN/a-SiNx nanocomposite thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Sam; Sun, Deen; Fu, Yongqing; Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2005-01-01

    Nanocomposite nc-TiN/a-SiNx thin films containing Ni up to similar to 40 at.% were prepared by co-sputtering of Ti, TiNi and Si3N4 targets in ArN2 gas atmosphere. Adjusting TiNi/(Ti+TiNi) target power ratio altered chemical composition, microstructure and consequently mechanical properties. X-ray ph

  6. The Equation R[subscript n]x = b over Rhotrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminu, Abdulhadi

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we consider the concept of rhotrices and present one-sided system of the form R[subscript n]x = b, where R[subscript n] is an n-dimensional rhotrix, x the unknown n-dimensional rhotrix vector and b the right-hand-side rhotrix vector.

  7. Recent results on the peformance of EFOS, NP and NX hydrogen masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, V.; Ingold, J. S.; Stalder, T.; Saifi, M.; Dachel, P.; Wardrip, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    In response to a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Work Assignment, Bendix Field Engineering Corporation evaluated the performance of the Oscilloquartz EPOS-2 hydrogen maser along with that of NASA NX-3 and NP-2 hydrogen masers in early 1983. This paper presents the results of that evaluation.

  8. On some binomial coefficients related to the evaluation of tan(nx)

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Shi-Mei

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study some binomial coefficients which are related to the evaluation of tan(nx). We mainly present a connection between these binomial coefficients and the coefficients of a family of derivative polynomials for tangent and secant.

  9. A non-platinum counter electrode, MnNx/C, for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Suman; M. P., Karthikayini; Wang, Guanxiong; Mandal, Sudip; Bhobe, Preeti. A.; Ramani, Vijay K.; Priolkar, K. R.; Ramanujam, Kothandaraman

    2017-10-01

    A non-platinum metal catalyst, MnNx/C was synthesized via the high-pressure pyrolysis route. The combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies indicated the presence of Mn in +2 oxidation state surrounded by four N atoms. The peak-to-peak separation (ΔEp) of the more negative peak pair observed for I3-/I- redox couple over MnNx/C catalyst was 20 mV lower than that of the Pt catalyst, indicating high reversibility of the redox couple over MnNx/C catalyst. The charge transfer resistance of the MnNx/C electrode, as measured by the impedance spectroscopy, is ∼ 2 Ω higher than that of Pt, which resulted slightly lower short circuit current (Jsc) value for MnNx/C over Pt, however the fill factor (FF) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) values of MnNx/C was slightly higher and comparable to that of Pt respectively. Hence; replacing Pt with MnNx/C would decrease the cost of DSSCs.

  10. Phase I and pharmacologic study of liposomal lurtotecan, NX 211: urinary excretion predicts hematologic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrer, Diederik F S; Bos, Annelies M; Verweij, Jaap; Groen, Harry J; Loos, Walter J; Sparreboom, Alex; de Jonge, Maja J A; Hamilton, Marta; Cameron, Terri; de Vries, Elisabeth G E

    2002-03-01

    To determine the maximum-tolerated and recommended dose, toxicity profile, and pharmacokinetics of the liposomal topoisomerase I inhibitor lurtotecan (NX 211) administered as a 30-minute intravenous infusion once every 3 weeks in cancer patients. NX 211 was administered by peripheral infusion. Dose escalation decisions were based on all toxicities during the first cycle as well as pharmacokinetic parameters. Serial plasma, whole blood, and urine samples were collected for up to 96 hours after the end of infusion, and drug levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Twenty-nine patients (16 women; median age, 56 years; range, 39 to 74 years) received 77 courses of NX 211 at dose levels of 0.4 (n = 3), 0.8 (n = 6), 1.6 (n = 3), 3.2 (n = 6), 3.8 (n = 6), and 4.3 mg/m(2) (n = 5). Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were the dose-limiting toxicities and were not cumulative. Other toxicities were mild to moderate. Nine patients had stable disease while undergoing treatment. The systemic clearance of lurtotecan in plasma and whole blood was 0.82 +/- 0.78 L/h/m(2) and 1.15 +/- 0.96 L/h/m(2), respectively. Urinary recovery (Fu) of lurtotecan was 10.1% +/- 4.05% (range, 4.9% to 18.9%). In contrast to systemic exposure measures, the dose excreted in urine (ie, dose x Fu) was significantly related to the percent decrease in neutrophil and platelet counts at nadir (P NX 211 are neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. The recommended dose for phase II studies is 3.8 mg/m(2) once every 3 weeks. Pharmacologic data suggest a relationship between exposure to lurtotecan and NX 211-induced clinical effects.

  11. Emergence and expansion of cosmic space as due to M0-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehri, Alireza, E-mail: alireza.sepehri@uk.ac.ir [Faculty of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University, P.O. Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Setare, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir [Department of Science, University of Kurdistan, Campus of Bijar, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Capozziello, Salvatore, E-mail: capozziello@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Napoli Federico II, 80126, Naples (Italy); INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, 80126, Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), Viale F. Crispi, 7, 67100, L’Aquila (Italy)

    2015-12-29

    Recently, Padmanabhan discussed that the difference between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface and the number of degrees of freedom in a bulk region causes the accelerated expansion of the universe. The main question arising is: what is the origin of this inequality between the surface degrees of freedom and the bulk degrees of freedom? We answer this question in M-theory. In our model, first M0-branes are compactified on one circle and ND0-branes are created. Then ND0-branes join each other, grow, and form one D5-branes. Next, the D5-brane is compactified on two circles and our universe’s D3-brane, two D1-branes and some extra energies are produced. After that, one of the D1-branes, which is closer to the universe’s brane, gives its energy into it, and this leads to an increase in the difference between the numbers of degrees of freedom and the occurring inflation era. With the disappearance of this D1-brane, the number of degrees of freedom of boundary surface and bulk region become equal and inflation ends. At this stage, extra energies that are produced due to the compactification cause an expansion of the universe and deceleration epoch. Finally, another D1-brane dissolves in our universe’s brane, leads to an inequality between degrees of freedom, and there occurs a new phase of acceleration.

  12. 基于NX4.0的支架零件的高速铣削

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张花平

    2015-01-01

    结合具体实例,介绍了NX4.0软件的三维建模和高速铣削加工编程的方法。通过NX CAD模块建立支架零件三维模型,利用NX CAM模块对支架零件高速铣削加工进行数控编程,并采用仿真加工对刀具轨迹进行验证。

  13. Reoccurrence of H5Nx clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds during 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian-origin H5N1 A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (Gs/GD) lineage of high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) has become widespread across four continents, affecting poultry, wild birds and humans. H5N1 HPAIV has evolved into multiple hemagglutinin (HA) genetic clades and reassorting with dif...

  14. Emergence and expansion of cosmic space as due to M0-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehri, Alireza [Shahid Bahonar University, Faculty of Physics, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Setare, Mohammad Reza [University of Kurdistan, Department of Science, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Naples (Italy); Complutense Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    Recently, Padmanabhan (arXiv:1206.4916 [hepth]) discussed that the difference between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface and the number of degrees of freedom in a bulk region causes the accelerated expansion of the universe. The main question arising is: what is the origin of this inequality between the surface degrees of freedom and the bulk degrees of freedom? We answer this question in M-theory. In our model, first M0-branes are compactified on one circle and N D0-branes are created. Then N D0-branes join each other, grow, and form one D5-branes. Next, the D5-brane is compactified on two circles and our universe's D3-brane, two D1-branes and some extra energies are produced. After that, one of the D1-branes, which is closer to the universe's brane, gives its energy into it, and this leads to an increase in the difference between the numbers of degrees of freedom and the occurring inflation era. With the disappearance of this D1-brane, the number of degrees of freedom of boundary surface and bulk region become equal and inflation ends. At this stage, extra energies that are produced due to the compactification cause an expansion of the universe and deceleration epoch. Finally, another D1-brane dissolves in our universe's brane, leads to an inequality between degrees of freedom, and there occurs a new phase of acceleration. (orig.)

  15. Structure and Magnetic Properties of Sm2Fe17Nx Sintering Magnets Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Bulk Sm2Fe17Nx sintering magnet was fabricated by spark plasma sintering(SPS) technique. The effects of sintering pressure and sintering temperature on the magnetic properties of the Sm2Fe17Nx magnet were investigated. As a result, the density of the magnet is obviously improved with the increase of sintering pressure, but the coercivity drops since Sm2Fe17Nx has decomposed into SmN, α-Fe and N2. When sintering temperature was only above 200 ℃ under 1 GPa sintering pressure, the coercivity even begins to decrease, which indicates that high pressure promotes the decomposition of the Sm2Fe17Nx at lower temperature. The decomposition is also proved by the decrease of nitrogen and increase of α-Fe in the magnets.

  16. Hard and relaxed a-SiNxHy films prepared by PECVD: Structure analysis and formation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangdong; He, Qiong; Fan, Taijun; Jiang, Yadong; Huang, Long; Ao, Tianhong; Ma, Chunqian

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride (a-SiNxHy) films were prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Their chemical structures and mechanical properties were investigated. Results reveal that there are four kinds of Sisbnd N groups, involving Si3N4, Hsbnd Sisbnd N3, H2sbnd Sisbnd N2, and Si3sbnd Sisbnd N, in the a-SiNxHy films. Deposition at 300 °C and flow ratio of SiH4/NH3 = 30/30 sccm leads to the yield of special a-SiNxHy films, in which per two high-N-coordinated Sisbnd N groups (Si3N4 or Hsbnd Sisbnd N3) are distributed with one inter-buffer group (Si3sbnd Sisbnd N). Such a-SiNxHy films exhibit ultralow residual stress (-0.17 MPa), high elastic modulus (206.9 GPa) and high uniformity, holding great potential for device fabrications. The chemical reactions for the formation of a-SiNxHy films were proposed, and the thermodynamic calculations indicate that the utilization ratio of NH3 reagent in the chemical reactions increases significantly with the increase of SiH4 flow, but the utilization ratio of Sisbnd N bonds in the a-SiNxHy formation decreases inversely. This work discloses valuable information on the chemical reactions and structures for a-SiNxHy films, and suggests a route to the preparation of a-SiNxHy films with high hardness and low stress by conventional PECVD.

  17. Application of rapid thermal processing on SiNx thin film to solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youjie LI; Peiqing LUO; Zhibin ZHOU; Rongqiang CUI; Jianhua HUANG; Jingxiao WANG

    2008-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) of SiNx thin films from PECVD with low temperature was investigated. A special processing condition of this technique which could greatly increase the minority lifetime was found in the experiments. The processing mechanism and the application of the technique to silicon solar cells fabrication were dis-cussed. A main achievement is an increase of the minority lifetime in silicon wafer with SiNx thin film by about 200% after the RTP was reached. PC-1D simulation results exhibit an enhancement of the efficiency of the solar cell by 0.42% coming from the minority lifetime improvement. The same experiment was also conducted with P-diffusion silicon wafers, but the increment of minority lifetime is just about 55%. It could be expected to improve the solar cell efficiency if it would be used in silicon solar cells fabrication with the combination of laser firing contact technique.

  18. On the structure of the Nx phase of symmetric dimers: inferences from NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Anke; Vanakaras, Alexandros G; Kohlmeier, Alexandra; Mehl, Georg H; Photinos, Demetri J

    2015-02-07

    NMR measurements on a selectively deuterated liquid crystal dimer CB-C9-CB, exhibiting two nematic phases, show that the molecules in the lower temperature nematic phase, N(X), experience a chiral environment and are ordered about a uniformly oriented director throughout the macroscopic sample. The results are contrasted with previous interpretations that suggested a twist-bend spatial variation of the director. A structural picture is proposed wherein the molecules are packed into highly correlated chiral assemblies.

  19. SYNTHESIS AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF SUPERHARD TiN/SiNx MULTILAYER THIN FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.P. LeBlanc; Z.F. Zhou; Y.G. Shen; Y.W. Mai; K.Y. Li

    2005-01-01

    Multilayer thin films of TiN/SiNx have been deposited onto heated Si 100 substrates (200℃) by reactive dc-magnetron sputtering from Ti and Si targets in an Ar-N2 gas mixture. The rotation speed of the substrate holder was varied from 1 to 20rpm, while target currents were held constant, to produce bilayer periods varying from approximately 22 to 0.6nm. These multilayer films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and microhardness measurements. TEM and SEM studies showed elimination of columnar structure in TiN, owing to the incorporation of amorphous SiNx layers. The crystallinity of TiN and amorphous nature of SiNx were confirmed by high resolution TEM. An optimum rotation speed was observed, at which hardness was a maximum. The resulting bilayer period was found to be approximately 1.6nm,which resulted in a significant improvement in microhardness (~5TGPa). The rms surface roughness for this film was less than 1.5nm.

  20. Mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction catalyzed by Fe(Co)-Nx/C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Li, Fan; Zhang, Nanlin; An, Li; Xia, Dingguo

    2013-11-28

    Fe(Co)-Nx/C is an important candidate catalyst for the next generation proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), but the relationship between the structure and the oxygen reduction activity is still unclear. In this work, the different active site structures of Fe(Co)-Nx/C are explored and the oxygen reduction catalytic mechanisms are studied by means of density functional theory (DFT). Different kinds of Me-Nx/C motifs, including the edge site around the graphene sheet and the internal site in the graphene sheet (as well as in the graphyne sheet), are constructed and investigated. The calculated results suggest that for the edge active sites, high O2 adsorption strength may result in direct oxidation of metal ions thus losing their catalytic activity. The internal active sites are stable in acidic solution and display catalytic ability of oxygen reduction. The catalytic activity of the internal site is affected by three factors: the kind of internal metal ion, the bonded nitrogen or carbon atoms with metal ions and the size of the graphene sheet.

  1. Comparing Luminex NxTAG-Respiratory Pathogen Panel and RespiFinder-22 for multiplex detection of respiratory pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Christiane; Hirsch, Hans H

    2016-08-01

    Respiratory tract infection (RTI) involves a variety of viruses and bacteria, which can be conveniently detected by multiplex nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT). To compare the novel Luminex-based NxTAG-Respiratory Pathogen Panel (NxTAG-RPP) with the routine multiplex-ligation-NAT based RespiFinder-22® (RF-22), 282 respiratory specimens including nasopharyngeal swabs (71%), broncho-alveolar lavage (27%), throat swabs, tracheal secretions, and sputum (2%) from 116 children and 155 adults were extracted using a Corbett CAS1200 (Qiagen), and analyzed in parallel by the routine RF-22 and NxTAG-RPP. Concordant results were obtained in 263 (93.3%) cases consisting of concordant positives in 167 (59.2%) and concordant negatives in 96 (34%). Results were discordant in 19 (6.7%) consisting of 15 positive:negative, and 4 negative:positive results by NxTAG-RPP versus RF-22, respectively. Co-infections were observed in 10.3% with NxTAG-RPP and in 5.9% with RF-22. Most additional viral pathogens identified by the NxTAG-RPP involved dual infections with rhinovirus and RSV. Discordant samples were mainly due to low genome signals of Ct less than 36, when retested by QNAT suggesting a higher sensitivity of the NxTAG-RPP, also when detecting multiple infections. Hands-on time after extraction for 24 and 96 samples was 0.25 and <0.5 hr for the NxTAG-RPP, and 2 and 4 hr for the RF-22, respectively. The median turn-around time was 6 hr (range 5-7 hr) for NxTAG-RPP and 12 hr (range 8-16 hr) for RF-22. The NxTAG-RPP showed comparable detection rates for most respiratory pathogens, while hands-on and turn-around time were considerably shorter. The clinical significance of detecting multiple viruses needs further clinical evaluation. J. Med. Virol. 88:1319-1324, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Telmisartan protects 5/6 Nx rats against renal injury by enhancing nNOS-derived NO generation via regulation of PPARγ signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Rong; He, Yong; Li, Yue-Qiang; Han, Ming; Ma, Zu-Fu; Liu, Xiao-Cheng; Zeng, Rui; Shao, Jv-Fang; Guo, Yan-Chao; He, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Ping; Xu, Gang; Wang, Cong-Yi; YAO, Ying

    2014-01-01

    A 5/6 nephrectomized (Nx) rat model was employed to address the impact of telmisartan on CKD related renal injury and the underlying molecular mechanisms. It was noted that telmisartan provided protection for rats against 5/6 Nx induced lethality. Telmisartan treated 5/6 Nx rats manifested improved renal function as characterized by the higher GFR but lower urinary albumin, BUN and Scr as compared with that of control rats. Telmisartan treatment also significantly decreased systolic blood pre...

  3. Reduction of Hg1 - xCdxTe native oxide during the SiNx deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, G.; Kajihara, N.; Miyamoto, Y.; Tanikawa, K.

    1987-11-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance plasma chemical vapor deposition enables low-temperature SiNx deposition on Hg1-xCdxTe (MCT). The SiNx film has an excellent interface on MCT with a low surface state density of 1.0×1011 cm-2 eV-1 and a low fixed charge of -1.4×1011 cm-2. A detailed analysis by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy spectra of Te, Cd, and Si at the SiNx/MCT interface indicated that the SiNx deposition reduces the naturally grown MCT native oxide. The oxygen taken from Te oxidizes SiH4 and produces silicon oxides which remain in the SiNx film. Since a chemical shift caused by oxidized Cd at the fresh surface of MCT is very slight, intentionally oxidized samples were used to confirm the above reaction. The analysis of the shape of the Si(2p) peak at the interface indicated that the silicon oxides are composed of SiO and SiO2. Thermodynamic considerations support such a mechanism.

  4. Wearable Medical Devices' MCU Selection Analysis Based on the ARM Cortex-M0+ Architecture%基于ARM Cortex-M0+内核的穿戴式医疗设备MCU选型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴灶全; 刘梦星; 秦丽平; 叶树明; 陈杭

    2015-01-01

    According to the characteristics of low cost, high performance, high integration and long battery life of wearable medical devices, the mainstream low-power microcontroler(MCU) series were compared, and came to the conclusion that the MCU series based on ARM Cortex-M0+ architecture were suitable for the development of wearable medical devices. In aspects of power consumption, operational performance, integrated peripherals and cost, the MCU series based on Cortex-M0+ architecture of primary semiconductor companies were compared, aimed at providing the guides of MCU selection for wearable medical devices.%根据穿戴式医疗设备低成本、高性能、高集成度和续航时间长的特点,对比了当前主流的低功耗微控制器(MCU)系列,分析得出ARM? Cortex M0+内核的MCU系列适合该领域的产品开发.在功耗水平、运算性能、外设集成和产品成本等方面,进一步将各大半导体公司基于Cortex M0+内核的MCU系列展开参数对比,为穿戴式医疗设备的MCU选型提供指南.

  5. 3-(4-Chlorophenyl-4-phenylthiosydnone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Grossie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of C14H9ClN2O2S [systematic name: 3-(4-chlorophenyl-4-(phenylsulfanyl-1,2,3λ5-oxadiazol-3-ylium-5-olate], the central sydnone ring is inclined at angles of 67.49 (10° to the phenyl ring of the thiophenyl substituent and 52.61 (10° to the chlorophenyl ring. The compound crystallizes utilizing a network of weak S and Cl-based hydrogen bonds, together with S...π, O...π and C—H...π interactions, forming a three-dimensional structure. In spite of having three planar rings, no π–π interactions are found.

  6. APPLICATION OF MSC ADAMS – NX NASTRAN/FEMAP INTERFACE IN STRENGTH CALCULATIONS OF TRUCK FRAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam PRZEMYK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the finite element method (FEM is used to calculate the strength of truck frames by integrating the MSC Adams software, for dynamics analysis of mechanical systems, and the NX Nastran/Femap software. At the same time, a method for reducing degrees of freedom is been developed based on the Craig–Bampton method. The interface is applied in order to calculate the strength of the frame in the selected truck, which runs on the test track. The selected model of truck can be treated as the virtual prototype that is useful in the design process.

  7. Utilizing NX Advanced Simulation for NASA's New Mobile Launcher for Ares-l

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of NX to simulate the new Mobile Launcher (ML) for the Ares-I. It includes: a comparison of the sizes of the Saturn 5, the Space Shuttle, the Ares I, and the Ares V, with the height, and payload capability; the loads control plan; drawings of the base framing, the underside of the ML, beam arrangement, and the finished base and the origin of the 3D CAD data. It also reviews the modeling approach, meshing. the assembly Finite Element Modeling, the model summary. and beam improvements.

  8. Research of Multi-axis NC Machining Method of Cylindrical Cam Based on UG NX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Qianhua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have focused significant efforts on developing solutions for precision machining of cylindrical cams based on UG NX. A variety of processing method are put forward according to the digital model for a cylindrical cam which has been derived through parametric design, all of which are made a detailed comparison, analysis, research, elaborated. Simulation processing, post processing and NC program are carried out though optimized processing scheme. It will provide a reference for the numerical control programming of four-Coordinated axis.

  9. On the Diophantine equation (12n)x+(35n)y=(37n)z%关于丢番图方程(12n)x(35n)y=(37n)z

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志娟; 翁建欣

    2012-01-01

      Using the properties of congruences and the order of elements, we show that, for any positive integer n, the Diophantine equation (12n)x+(35n)y =(37n)z has no solution other than (x, y, z)=(2, 2, 2) in positive integers.%  运用同余及元素阶的性质,证明对任意正整数n,丢番图方程(12n)x+(35n)y=(37n)z仅有正整数解(x, y, z)=(2,2,2)。

  10. Siemens PLM Software NX 8软件提供全方面增强功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011年10月18日,西门子工业自动化有限公司旗下的全球领先的产品生命周期管理(PLM)软件和服务提供商Siemens PLM Software推出最新版本的NX8软件。该软件是Siemens PLM Software将计算机辅助设计、制造和工程分析(CAD/CAM/CAE)完全集成的解决方案。NX8在其CAE方案中加入了大量的增强功能——包括用于解决世界上最具挑战性的仿真问题及应用广泛的NX Nastran软件。

  11. Organic thin film transistors with a SiO2/SiNx/SiO2 composite insulator layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiang; Liu Hui

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated a SiO2/SiNx/SiO2 composite insulation layer structured gate dielectric for an organic thin film transistor (OTFT) with the purpose of improving the performance of the SiO2 gate insulator.The SiO2/SiNx/SiO2 composite insulation layer was prepared by magnetron sputtering.Compared with the same thickness of a SiO2 insulation layer device,the SiO2/SiNx/SiO2 composite insulation layer is an effective method of fabricating OTFT with improved electric characteristics and decreased leakage current.Electrical parameters such as carrier mobility by field effect measurement have been calculated.The performances of different insulating layer devices have been studied,and the results demonstrate that when the insulation layer thickness increases,the off-state current decreases.

  12. Discovery of ursolic acid prodrug (NX-201): Pharmacokinetics and in vivo antitumor effects in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeohong; Lim, Jee Woong; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Younggi; Chun, Keun Ho

    2016-11-15

    The aim of our study was to develop ursolic acid (UA) prodrugs in order to overcome UA's weakness, which has an extremely low bioavailability. UA-medoxomil (NX-201), one of our UA prodrugs, showed an improved bioavailability about 200times better than UA in rodent model. According to in vivo test performed with PANC-1 xenograft SCID mouse model, tumor growth rate decreased dose-dependently and 100mg/kg dose of NX-201 had an anticancer effect comparable to gemcitabine. Most of all the combination of NX-201 (50mg/kg, po, daily) and gemcitabine (40mg/kg, iv, 2timesperweek) even reduced tumor size after three weeks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Step-by-Step Laser Crystallization of Amorphous Si:H/SiNx:H Multilayer for Active Layer in Microcavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Bo; CHEN San; CEN Zhan-Hong; CHEN Kun-Ji; LIU Yan-Song; XU Jun; MA Zhong-Yuan; LI Wei; HUANG Xin-Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ We report the crystallization and photoluminescence (PL) properties of amorphous Si:H/SiNx :H multilayer (ML)films treated by step-by-step laser annealing. The results of Raman measurements show that the nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si) grains are formed in the a-Si:H layers under the constrained growth mechanism. The blue shift of PL peak with grain size is observed and can be attributed to the quantum confinement effect. For comparison, we also report the crystallization and PL of a-Si:H/SiNx :H ML samples by normal one-step treatment. This method of step-by-step laser treatment will be a candidate to make nc-Si quantum dots in amorphous Si:H/SiNx :H ML as an active layer in microcavities.

  14. Strong Green Light Emission from Low-Temperature Grown a-SiNx:H Film after Different Oxidation Routes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Heng-Ping; HUANG Rui; WANG Dan-Qing; CHEN Kun-Ji; LI Wei; MA Zhong-Yuan; XU Jun; HUANG Xin-Fan

    2008-01-01

    Room-temperature deposited amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx: H) films exhibit intense green light emission after post-treated by plasma oxidation, thermal oxidation and natural oxidation, respectively. All the photoluminescence (PL) spectra are peaked at around 500 nm, independent of oxidation method and excitation wavelength.Compared with the PL results from oxidized a-Si:H and as-deposited a-SiNx :H samples, it is indicated that not only oxygen but also nitrogen is of an important role in enhancing light emission from the oxidized a-SiNx:H.Combining the PL results with the analyses of the bonding configurations as well as chemical compositions of the films, the strong green light emission is suggested to be from radiative recombination in luminescent centres related to N-Si-O bonds.

  15. Ultra-thin a-SiNx protective overcoats for hard disks and read/write heads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Wan-Yu; Xu Jun; Lu Wen-Qi; Deng Xin-Lu; Dong Chuang

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports that amorphous silicon nitride(a-SiNx)overcoats were deposited at room temperature by microwave ECR plasma enhanced unbalanced magnetron sputtering.The 2 nm a-SiNx overcoat has better anti-corrosion properties than that of reference a-CNx overcoats(2-4.5 nm).The superior anti-corrosion performance is attributed to its stoichiomctric bond structure,where 94.8% Si atoms form Si-N asymmetric stretching vibration bonds.The N/Si ratio is 1.33 as in the stoichiometry of Si3N4 and corresponds to the highest hardness of 25.0 GPa.The surface is atomically smooth with RMS<0.2 nm.The ultra-thin a-SiNx overcoats are promising for hard disks and read/write heads protective coatings.

  16. Using measured 30-150 kVp polychromatic tungsten x-ray spectra to determine ion chamber calibration factors, Nx (Gy C(-1)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, J R; Kopp, D T; McDavid, W D; Dove, S B; Lancaster, J L; Tucker, D M

    2000-10-01

    Two methods for determining ion chamber calibration factors (Nx) are presented for polychromatic tungsten x-ray beams whose spectra differ from beams with known Nx. Both methods take advantage of known x-ray fluence and kerma spectral distributions. In the first method, the x-ray tube potential is unchanged and spectra of differing filtration are measured. A primary standard ion chamber with known Nx for one beam is used to calculate the x-ray fluence spectrum of a second beam. Accurate air energy absorption coefficients are applied to the x-ray fluence spectra of the second beam to calculate actual air kerma and Nx. In the second method, two beams of differing tube potential and filtration with known Nx are used to bracket a beam of unknown Nx. A heuristically derived Nx interpolation scheme based on spectral characteristics of all three beams is described. Both methods are validated. Both methods improve accuracy over the current half value layer Nx estimating technique.

  17. Post-mastectomy radiotherapy in pT3N0M0 breast cancer: is it needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helintö, M; Blomqvist, C; Heikkilä, P; Joensuu, H

    1999-09-01

    It is not been established whether breast cancer patients who have a primary tumor 5 cm or larger but no axillary nodal or distant metastases at the time of the diagnosis (pT3N0M0) benefit from post-operative radiation therapy after mastectomy. We identified 81 patients with T3N0M0 breast cancer out of the total of 4190 breast cancer patients treated in one university radiotherapy department from 1987 to 1994 from the department patient registry, and examined the clinical records and histopathological slides. Only 38 of the 81 patients had true pT3N0M0 breast cancer after the review (0.9% of the 4190 new breast cancer patients registered in the department from 1987 to 1994). Three (60%) of the five patients who were not treated with post-operative radiation therapy developed locoregional recurrence of breast cancer as compared with only three (9%) of the 33 patients who were given post-operative radiotherapy during a median follow-up of 58 months (P = 0.0003). Patients who were given post-operative radiotherapy had a better distant disease-free survival rate (P = 0.04) and overall survival rate (P = 0.03) than the ones who were not treated with radiation therapy after surgery. Of the 29 patients who had chest wall irradiation only, one had in-field recurrence at the surgical scar, one both at the scar and the unirradiated axilla, and only one (3%) solely in the axilla. Patients with true pT3N0M0 breast cancer are rare. The results suggest that women with pT3N0M0 breast cancer benefit from post-operative radiotherapy, but the value of irradiating the dissected ipsilateral axilla remains unsettled.

  18. SiNx Coatings Deposited by Reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering: Process Parameters Influencing the Nitrogen Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susann; Hänninen, Tuomas; Goyenola, Cecilia; Wissting, Jonas; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Goebbels, Nico; Tobler, Markus; Högberg, Hans

    2016-08-10

    Reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (rHiPIMS) was used to deposit silicon nitride (SiNx) coatings for biomedical applications. The SiNx growth and plasma characterization were conducted in an industrial coater, using Si targets and N2 as reactive gas. The effects of different N2-to-Ar flow ratios between 0 and 0.3, pulse frequencies, target power settings, and substrate temperatures on the discharge and the N content of SiNx coatings were investigated. Plasma ion mass spectrometry shows high amounts of ionized isotopes during the initial part of the pulse for discharges with low N2-to-Ar flow ratios of <0.16, while signals from ionized molecules rise with the N2-to-Ar flow ratio at the pulse end and during pulse-off times. Langmuir probe measurements show electron temperatures of 2-3 eV for nonreactive discharges and 5.0-6.6 eV for discharges in transition mode. The SiNx coatings were characterized with respect to their composition, chemical bond structure, density, and mechanical properties by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray reflectivity, X-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation, respectively. The SiNx deposition processes and coating properties are mainly influenced by the N2-to-Ar flow ratio and thus by the N content in the SiNx films and to a lower extent by the HiPIMS frequencies and power settings as well as substrate temperatures. Increasing N2-to-Ar flow ratios lead to decreasing growth rates, while the N content, coating densities, residual stresses, and the hardness increase. These experimental findings were corroborated by density functional theory calculations of precursor species present during rHiPIMS.

  19. DEVELOPING NX MICROWAVE DEVICE LIBRARY BASED ON .NET%基于.NET的NX微波器件库开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曼华

    2010-01-01

    对CAD/CAM系统NX 5进行简单介绍,并针对NX系统NX Open for .NET的二次开发方式进行研究.描述了在开发环境中的具体步骤,并结合企业应用中的具体需求,设计了微波器件库软件系统的内部和网络构架,采用visual C#开发语言和SQL server数据库实现了基于.NET平台的微波器件库开发.

  20. From I-Deas to NX : Changing the Design Application and Creating Work Instructions for a Large Industrial Product Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkinen, Harri

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to provide Citec Oy Ab with information whether it is beneficial to switch from using Siemens I-Deas to using Siemens NX, as the CAD design and drafting application, within a specific product group of Citec’s customer, an industrial product company. To acquire this information a case project in NX was made. This was the main method of this project type thesis. The project work included building the products main top level assembly and creating an assembly draw...

  1. Oxidation and thermal fatigue of coated and uncoated NX-188 nickel-base alloy in a high velocity gas stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Young, S. G.

    1972-01-01

    A cast nickel-base superalloy, NX-188, coated and uncoated, was tested in a high-velocity gas stream for resistance to oxidation and thermal fatigue by cycling between room temperature and 980, 1040, and 1090 C. Contrary to the behavior of more conventional nickel-base alloys, uncoated NX-188 exhibited the greatest weight loss at the lowest test temperature. In general, on the basis of weight change and metallographic observations a coating consisting of vapor-deposited Fe-Cr-Al-Y over a chromized substrate exhibited the best overall performance in resistance to oxidation and thermal fatigue.

  2. (E-3,4-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde 4-ethylthiosemicarbazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Simpson

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C10H13N3O2S, was prepared by condensation of 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde with 4-ethyl-3-thiosemicarbazide. The molecule adopts an E configuration with respect to the C=N bond. One of the OH substituents on the dihydroxybenzene ring is disordered over the two possible 3-positions on either side of the ordered 4-hydroxy group. The occupancy of the major disorder component refined to 0.633 (7. The molecule is essentially planar, with an r.m.s. deviation through all non-H atoms of 0.0862 Å. An intramolecular N—H...N hydrogen bond forms between the outer amine residue and the imine N atom, generating an S(5 ring motif and contributing to the planarity of the molecule. In the crystal structure, an extensive network of classical O—H...O, O—H...S and N—H...S hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...O and S...O [3.301 (3 Å] interactions link molecules into sheets running approximately parallel to the ab plane.

  3. CFD Analysis of Thermal Control System Using NX Thermal and Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, C. R.; Harris, M. F. (Editor); McConnell, S. (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    The Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) is a key part of the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) for the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of this subsystem is to provide thermal control, mainly cooling, to the other APH subsystems. One of these subsystems, the Environmental Control Subsystem (ECS), controls the temperature and humidity of the growth chamber (GC) air to optimize the growth of plants in the habitat. The TCS provides thermal control to the ECS with three cold plates, which use Thermoelectric Coolers (TECs) to heat or cool water as needed to control the air temperature in the ECS system. In order to optimize the TCS design, pressure drop and heat transfer analyses were needed. The analysis for this system was performed in Siemens NX Thermal/Flow software (Version 8.5). NX Thermal/Flow has the ability to perform 1D or 3D flow solutions. The 1D flow solver can be used to represent simple geometries, such as pipes and tubes. The 1D flow method also has the ability to simulate either fluid only or fluid and wall regions. The 3D flow solver is similar to other Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software. TCS performance was analyzed using both the 1D and 3D solvers. Each method produced different results, which will be evaluated and discussed.

  4. UG NX7.5用户初始化设置技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐昌维

    2014-01-01

    UG NX7.5是UG(Unigraphics NX)是Siemens PLM Software公司出的一款三维设计软件,以其强大的功能性、灵活性、易用性受到了很多设计师的追捧,但是由于文化、喜好、软件定位的原因,UG NX的默认初始化设置却一直让国内的用户们不甚满意,因此基于NX7.5版本,简要介绍了桌面快捷图标的创建、标题栏的更改、默认保存路径的更改、工具栏的调整及角色创建、默认首选项的设置,以方便大家定制满意的使用环境。

  5. The ML1Nx2 Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate Probe Shows Poor Selectivity in Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Gerald R V; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Takehiko; Balla, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) is a quantitatively minor phospholipid in eukaryotic cells that plays a fundamental role in regulating endocytic membrane traffic. Despite its clear importance for cellular function and organism physiology, mechanistic details of its biology have so far not been fully elucidated. In part, this is due to a lack of experimental tools that specifically probe for PtdIns(3,5)P2 in cells to unambiguously identify its dynamics and site(s) of action. In this study, we have evaluated a recently reported PtdIns(3,5)P2 biosensor, GFP-ML1Nx2, for its veracity as such a probe. We report that, in live cells, the localization of this biosensor to sub-cellular compartments is largely independent of PtdIns(3,5)P2, as assessed after pharmacological, chemical genetic or genomic interventions that block the lipid's synthesis. We therefore conclude that it is unwise to interpret the localization of ML1Nx2 as a true and unbiased biosensor for PtdIns(3,5)P2.

  6. Molecular metal-Nx centres in porous carbon for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hai-Wei; Brüller, Sebastian; Dong, Renhao; Zhang, Jian; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2015-08-07

    Replacement of precious platinum with efficient and low-cost catalysts for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution at low overpotentials holds tremendous promise for clean energy devices. Here we report a novel type of robust cobalt-nitrogen/carbon catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) that is prepared by the pyrolysis of cobalt-N4 macrocycles or cobalt/o-phenylenediamine composites and using silica colloids as a hard template. We identify the well-dispersed molecular CoNx sites on the carbon support as the active sites responsible for the HER. The CoNx/C catalyst exhibits extremely high turnover frequencies per cobalt site in acids, for example, 0.39 and 6.5 s(-1) at an overpotential of 100 and 200 mV, respectively, which are higher than those reported for other scalable non-precious metal HER catalysts. Our results suggest the great promise of developing new families of non-precious metal HER catalysts based on the controlled conversion of homogeneous metal complexes into solid-state carbon catalysts via economically scalable protocols.

  7. 关于F(y(n),y(n-m)=0型微分方程求解方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢光海

    2010-01-01

    对于高阶微分方程,能够求解的类型很少.本文用高等数学的方法,巧妙地解决了形如F(y(m),y(n-m)=0(n>m)这一类高阶微分方程的求解方法,并找出了对应的参数解公式.

  8. Locoregional treatment and overall survival of men with T1a,b,cN0M0 breast cancer: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, José Pablo; Leone, Julieta; Zwenger, Ariel Osvaldo; Iturbe, Julián; Leone, Bernardo Amadeo; Vallejo, Carlos Teodoro

    2017-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MaBC) is an understudied disease; information about locoregional treatment and outcomes in patients with early stage is unknown. We aimed to analyse patient characteristics, locoregional treatment and overall survival (OS) of T1a,b,cN0M0 male breast cancer. We evaluated men with T1a,b,cN0M0 breast cancer reported to Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program from 1988 to 2012. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the effect of each variable on OS. We included 1263 patients. Median age was 66 years (range 27-103). Median follow-up was 62 months (range 1-294). OS at 5 and 10 years were 85.1% and 66.5%, respectively. Distribution according to tumour sub-stage was: T1a 6.5%, T1b 20.7% and T1c 72.8%. Mastectomy was performed in >74% of patients of each tumour size group and overall 44.1% had >5 lymph nodes examined (LNE). Univariate analysis showed that patients with T1c, no surgery and 0 LNE had worse prognosis. In multivariate analysis, older age (hazard ratio [HR] 11.09), grade 3/4 tumours (HR 1.7), no surgery (HR 3.3), 0 LNE (HR 5.1) and unmarried patients (HR 1.7) had significantly shorter OS. There were no differences in OS between breast conservation versus mastectomy and 1-5 LNE versus > 5 LNE. Men with early breast cancer have a favourable OS. However, older age, higher grade, no breast surgery, no LNE and unmarried status emerged as poor prognostic characteristics. Efforts to decrease the high rates of mastectomy and extensive LNE should be taken given similar OS observed with breast conservation and 1-5 LNE, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Large Storage Window in a-SiNx/nc-Si/a-SiNx Sandwiched Structure for Nanocrystalline Silicon Floating Gate Memory Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Huang, Jian; Ding, Hong-Lin; Zhang, Xian-Gao; Yu, Lin-Wei; Huang, Xin-Fan; Li, Wei; Chen, Kun-Ji

    2008-07-01

    An a-SiNx/nanocrystalline silicon [(nc-Si)/a-SiNx] sandwiched structure is fabricated in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) system at low temperature (250° C). The nc-Si layer is fabricated from a hydrogen-diluted silane mixture gas by using a layer-by-layer deposition technique. Atom force microscopy measurement shows that the density of nc-Si is about 2 × 1011 cm-2. By the pretreatment of plasma nitridation, low density of interface states and high-quality interface between the Si substrate and a-SiNx insulator layer are obtained. The density of interface state at the midgap is calculated to be 1 × 1010 cm-2eV-1 from the quasistatic and high frequency C - V data. The charging and discharging property of nc-Si quantum dots is studied by capacitance-voltage (C - V) measurement at room temperature. An ultra-large hysteresis is observed in the C - V characteristics, which is attributed to storage of the electrons and holes into the nc-Si dots. The long-term charge-loss process is studied and ascribed to low density of interface states at SiNx/Si substrate.

  10. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer JS

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jerrold S Meyer Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behavior Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA Abstract: Ecstasy is a widely used recreational drug that usually consists primarily of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA. Most ecstasy users consume other substances as well, which complicates the interpretation of research in this field. The positively rated effects of MDMA consumption include euphoria, arousal, enhanced mood, increased sociability, and heightened perceptions; some common adverse reactions are nausea, headache, tachycardia, bruxism, and trismus. Lowering of mood is an aftereffect that is sometimes reported from 2 to 5 days after a session of ecstasy use. The acute effects of MDMA in ecstasy users have been attributed primarily to increased release and inhibited reuptake of serotonin (5-HT and norepinephrine, along with possible release of the neuropeptide oxytocin. Repeated or high-dose MDMA/ecstasy use has been associated with tolerance, depressive symptomatology, and persisting cognitive deficits, particularly in memory tests. Animal studies have demonstrated that high doses of MDMA can lead to long-term decreases in forebrain 5-HT concentrations, tryptophan hydroxylase activity, serotonin transporter (SERT expression, and visualization of axons immunoreactive for 5-HT or SERT. These neurotoxic effects may reflect either a drug-induced degeneration of serotonergic fibers or a long-lasting downregulation in 5-HT and SERT biosynthesis. Possible neurotoxicity in heavy ecstasy users has been revealed by neuroimaging studies showing reduced SERT binding and increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in several cortical and/or subcortical areas. MDMA overdose or use with certain other drugs can also cause severe morbidity and even death. Repeated use of MDMA may lead to dose escalation and the development of dependence, although such dependence is usually not as profound as is seen with many other drugs of abuse

  11. Preparation and thermoelectric properties of M0.05Ca0.95MnO3%M0.05Ca0.95MnO3的制备及其热电性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许洁; 魏长平; 贾坤

    2011-01-01

    采用溶胶-凝胶法,以硝酸盐为原料,在常压空气气氛中于1 000℃烧结8 h制备出CaMnO3和M0.05Ca0.95MnO3(M=Sr2+,Sm3+)块体材料。利用X线衍射、扫描电子显微镜等研究材料的物相和微观形貌,考察Sr2+和Sm3+M+掺杂对CaMnO3的高温热电性能参数Seebeck系数、电阻率和功率因子的影响。研究结果表明:制备的样品具有单一的物相,结构致密;金属离子Sr2+和Sm3+掺杂可以有效地改善其热电性能;当Sm3+的掺杂量为0.05时可获得最佳的热电性能,600℃时功率因子为23×10-5W·m-1·K-2。%CaMnO3 and M0.05Ca0.95MnO3 (M=Sr2+, Sm3+) samples were synthesized by sol-gel method and sintered in air at 1 000 "C for 8 h with nitrates as starting materials. The phase composition and microstructure were studied by XRD and SEM. Thermoelectric properties such as the Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity and power factor of M0.05Ca0.95MnO3 samples were studied. The results show that theM0.05Ca0.95MnO3 samples have single phase and condensed microstructure. The samples substituted by metal ions(Sr2+, Sm3+) enhance the electrical transmission performance effectively, and the highest power factor is 23×10-5 W·m-1·K-2 at 600 ℃ for the sample of Sm0.05Ca0.95MnO3.

  12. Effective Passivation of Large Area Black Silicon Solar Cells by SiO2/SiNx:H Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengchao Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of black silicon solar cells with various passivation films was characterized. Large area (156×156 mm2 black silicon was prepared by silver-nanoparticle-assisted etching on pyramidal silicon wafer. The conversion efficiency of black silicon solar cell without passivation is 13.8%. For the SiO2 and SiNx:H passivation, the conversion efficiency of black silicon solar cells increases to 16.1% and 16.5%, respectively. Compared to the single film of surface passivation of black silicon solar cells, the SiO2/SiNx:H stacks exhibit the highest efficiency of 17.1%. The investigation of internal quantum efficiency (IQE suggests that the SiO2/SiNx:H stacks films decrease the Auger recombination through reducing the surface doping concentration and surface state density of the Si/SiO2 interface, and SiNx:H layer suppresses the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH recombination in the black silicon solar cell, which yields the best electrical performance of b-Si solar cells.

  13. An evidence-based review of NX1207 and its potential in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunit T

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Kunit, Lukas LusuardiDepartment of Urology and Andrology, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Salzburg, AustriaAbstract: In elderly men, benign prostatic hyperplasia is often associated with lower urinary tract symptoms, and its prevalence rises with age. Lower urinary tract symptoms can be very bothersome and lead to a decrease in health-related quality of life. Furthermore, benign prostatic hyperplasia is a progressive disease that can lead to serious complications like acute urinary retention. Medical treatment with α1-blockers or 5α-reductase inhibitors is recommended by the European Association of Urology. On the other hand, there are some new innovations such as NX1207. The aim of this review is to summarize the published data. NX1207 is a new drug that is administered by transrectal intraprostatic injection under ultrasound guidance. The substance leads to prostate volume reduction and symptomatic improvement. However, patient numbers are still low and currently treatment with NX1207 is still experimental.Keywords: BPH, NX 1207, hyperplasia, LUTS, prostate

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF TECHNOLOGY IN PROCESSING THE LANDMARK ”SUCTION CAP” WITH NX 7.5 SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BLANARU Viorel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to present the optimization processing of the landmark suction cap with NX software 7.5. It has been done the modeling CAD of the landmark 3D. It has been projected the technology to execution CAM of the landmark where they revealed aspects of processing sequence and technological parameters.

  15. A density functional theory study of oxygen reduction reaction on non-PGM Fe-Nx-C electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattel, Shyam; Atanassov, Plamen; Kiefer, Boris

    2014-07-21

    First-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to explain the stability of catalytically active sites in Fe-Nx-C electrocatalysts, their ORR activity and ORR mechanism. The results show that the formation of graphitic in-plane Fe-N4 sites in a carbon matrix is energetically favorable over the formation of Fe-N2 sites. Chemisorption of ORR species O2, O, OH, OOH, and H2O and O-O bond breaking in peroxide occur on both Fe-N2 and Fe-N4 sites. In addition to the favorable interaction of ORR species, the computed free energy diagrams show that elementary ORR reaction steps on Fe-Nx sites are downhill. Thus, a complete ORR is predicted to occur via a single site 4e(-) mechanism on graphitic Fe-Nx (x = 2, 4) sites. Because of their higher stability and working potential for ORR, Fe-N4 sites are predicted to be prime candidate sites for ORR in pyrolyzed Fe-Nx-C electrocatalysts.

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF THE TEHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF THE PART ‘’CYLINDER PISTON” WITH NX 7.5 SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFTIMIE Dorin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the optimization of processing the part “piston cylinder” with NX 7.5 software. CAD modeling is realized and analyzed with finite elements (CAE simulating deformation and maximum stretching and virtual technology manufacturing (CAM where were highlighted aspects regarding the sequence of the manufacturing operations and the technological parameters.

  17. On solutions of $f(x)+f(a_1x)+...+f(a_Nx)=0$ and related equations

    CERN Document Server

    Almira, J M

    2011-01-01

    We study some properties of the solutions of the functional equation $$f(x)+f(a_1x)+...+f(a_Nx)=0,$$ which was introduced in the literature by Mora, Cherruault and Ziadi in 1999, for the case $a_k=k+1$, $k=1,2,...,N$ and studied by Mora in 2008 and Mora and Sepulcre in 2009 and 2011.

  18. Nonlinear sigma-model in the case of rectangular Nx. alpha. N matrices in two-dimensional euclidean space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekhov, L.O.

    1985-06-01

    Matrix nonlinear sigma-model is considered in the case of rectangular matrices of the dimension Nx..alpha..N. Renormalizability of the model with respect to ..alpha.. and 1/N is demonstrated for the case of two-dimensional Euclidean space. Validity of the chiral identity is proved in the operator expansion for the renormalized theory.

  19. (E-3-(4-Bromophenyl-1-(3,4-dichlorophenylprop-2-en-1-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Kant

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The molecule of the title compound, C15H9BrCl2O, is shown to be the E isomer, with the 3,4-dichlorobenzoyl and p-bromophenyl substituents in trans positions with respect to the chalcone olefin bond. The molecule is non-planar, the two aromatic rings forming a dihedral angle of 49.58 (1°.

  20. Fabrication and Photocatalytic Property of One-Dimensional SrTiO3/TiO2-xNx Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huarong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional SrTiO3/TiO2−xNx nanostructures were prepared by the hydrothermal method and investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS measurements. The photocatalytic activities of the prepared samples were evaluated by photodegrading the methylene blue (MB solution. According to the characterizations, the intermediate product of SrTiO3/titanate nanotubes was presented after hydrothermal processing of the TiO2−xNx nanoparticles with the mixed solution of NaOH and Sr(NO32. The final product of SrTiO3/TiO2−xNx nanorods was obtained after calcining the intermediate. As compared to the TiO2−xNx nanoparticles, the absorption performance of SrTiO3/titanate nanotubes or SrTiO3/TiO2−xNx nanorods was depressed, instead of improving it. The mechanisms of the absorption property changes were discussed. The SrTiO3/TiO2−xNx nanorods presented better photocatalytic activity than the TiO2−xNx nanoparticles or nanorods. However, due to overmuch adsorption, the SrTiO3/titanate nanotubes gave ordinary photocatalytic performances.

  1. Preparation and electrochemical properties of LiMn1.95M0.05O4 (M = Cr, Ni)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zemin; ZHAO Liancheng

    2007-01-01

    The preparation process and electrochemical properties of LiMn2O4 and LiMn1.95M0.05O4 (M = Cr, Ni) were studied.The results show that the decomposition temperature range of xerogel prepared with lithium acetate and manganese acetate as raw materials is large and the decomposition speed is slow.Oxygen consumed is apt to get a prompt supplement during the preparation of LiMn2O4,and carbonization of the organic matter can be reduced or avoided,which is favorable to the combination of lithium and manganese.Using lithium acetate,manganese acetate, chromium nitrate,and nickel nitrate as raw materials and adopting the citric acid complexing method,it has been found that the prepared powders have high purity,high quality stability,and even doping characters. With the increase of sintering temperature,the particle size and crystal lattice constant of LiMn1.95M0.05O4 (M = Cr, Ni) enhance.However,the purity of the product is relatively high and has no obvious change,which is advantageous to the control of the quality of LiMn1.95M0.05O4 (M = Cr, NJ).Doping with a small amount of Cr3+ and Ni2+ can stabilize the spinel structure of LiMn2O4,suppress the Jahn-Teller effect,and improve the cycling properties but reduce the initial capacity.

  2. Evaluation of the effect of sorafenib using serum NX-des-γ-carboxyprothrombin in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Koji; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Morimoto, Yuki; Tomoda, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Sayo; Takeuchi, Yasuto; Hagihara, Hiroaki; Kuwaki, Kenji; Ohnishi, Hideki; Ikeda, Fusao; Miyake, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Shiraha, Hidenori; Takaki, Akinobu; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2013-10-01

    Des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) is known to be increased by the use of sorafenib for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), despite its therapeutic efficacy. In addition to the tumor progression, hypoxia that impairs vitamin K uptake is known to induce DCP and this mechanism may explain DCP elevation by sorafenib. In this study, we tried to evaluate the effect of sorafenib treatment using a new marker, NX-DCP, which is specific to vitamin K absence. Serum DCP and NX-DCP were measured in 50 consecutive HCC patients before and 1 week after starting sorafenib, and compared with the treatment effect using the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors guidelines. DCP and NX-DCP increased 1.58- (median, range 0.21-28.7) and 1.20-fold (median, range 0.41-14.2) after the administration of sorafenib, respectively. The increases of both markers were less than twofold in approximately half of the patients (low-elevation group). However, 12 patients showed over twofold increase of both DCP and NX-DCP (double-elevation group), and eight patients showed over twofold increase of DCP alone (DCP-elevation group). The disease control rate (DCR) of the DCP-elevation group (12.5%) was significantly lower than those of the double-elevation group (75.0%, P = 0.020) and the low-elevation group (60.0%, P = 0.042). Progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly shorter in the DCP-elevation group than in the double-elevation group (P = 0.006) and the low-elevation group (P = 0.001). NX-DCP in combination with DCP could be a useful biomarker of sorafenib treatment for advanced HCC. © 2012 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  3. Characterisation and optimisation of PECVD SiNx as an antireflection coating and passivation layer for silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimao Wan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigate how the film properties of silicon nitride (SiNx depend on its deposition conditions when formed by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD. The examination is conducted with a Roth & Rau AK400 PECVD reactor, where the varied parameters are deposition temperature, pressure, gas flow ratio, total gas flow, microwave plasma power and radio-frequency bias voltage. The films are evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to determine structural properties, by spectrophotometry to determine optical properties, and by capacitance–voltage and photoconductance measurements to determine electronic properties. After reporting on the dependence of SiNx properties on deposition parameters, we determine the optimized deposition conditions that attain low absorption and low recombination. On the basis of SiNx growth models proposed in the literature and of our experimental results, we discuss how each process parameter affects the deposition rate and chemical bond density. We then focus on the effective surface recombination velocity Seff, which is of primary importance to solar cells. We find that for the SiNx prepared in this work, 1 Seff does not correlate universally with the bulk structural and optical properties such as chemical bond densities and refractive index, and 2 Seff depends primarily on the defect density at the SiNx-Si interface rather than the insulator charge. Finally, employing the optimized deposition condition, we achieve a relatively constant and low Seff,UL on low-resistivity (≤1.1 Ωcm p- and n-type c-Si substrates over a broad range of n = 1.85–4.07. The results of this study demonstrate that the trade-off between optical transmission and surface passivation can be circumvented. Although we focus on photovoltaic applications, this study may be useful for any device for which it is desirable to maximize light transmission and surface passivation.

  4. Relativistic local quantum field theory for m=0 particles; Campos cuanticos locales relativos a particulas de masa no nula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Villasevil, A.

    1965-07-01

    A method is introduced ta deal with relativistic quantum field theory for particles with m=0. Two mappings I and J, giving rise respectively to particle and anti particle states, are defined between a test space and the physical Hilbert space. The intrinsic field operator is then defined as the minimal causal linear combinations of operators belonging to the annihilation-creation algebra associated to the germ and antigerm parts of the element. Local elements are introduced as improper test elements and local field operators are constructed in the same way as the intrinsic ones. Commutation rules are given. (Author) 17 refs.

  5. Prognostic relevance of β-catenin expression in T2-3N0M0 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Rong; Situ; Tie-Hua; Rong

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression of β-catenin in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) at stage T2-3N0M0 and its relation with the prognosis of ESCC patients. METHODS: Expression of β-catenin in 227 ESCC speci-mens was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). A reproducible semi-quantitative method which takes both staining percentage and intensity into account was applied in IHC scoring, and receiver operating char-acteristic curve analysis was used to select the cut-off score for high or low IHC reactivity...

  6. UGS NX CAM Express在模具加工中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    普涛

    2008-01-01

    UGS NX CAM EXPRESS是UGS公司针对行业的模块化加工软件包,是专门为高级机床提供的高级CAM软件。它独立于CAD软件,不受特定CAD系统的限制,并且拥有关键的行业转换程序,可以在线访问后处理库,有利于加工数据导入,可以解决典型的CNC编程的需求。本文通过针对模具在完整的工作流环境下进行加工过程来介绍NX兴CAM Express的应用。

  7. UGS NX CAM Express V5软件问世

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    2007年7月3日.西门子自动化与驱动集团旗下的PLM软件供应商UGS公司发布了其最新版NX CAM Express V5软件.该软件是UGS Velocity组合里一个功能全面、独立于CAD系统的数控编程应用程序.不仅改善了操作界面.而且为用户提供了预配置的“铣-车”环境、新的工具以及突破性的“自由加工”技术。

  8. Strength analysis of parallel robot components in PLM Siemens NX 8.5 program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ociepka, P.; Herbus, K.

    2015-11-01

    This article presents a series of numerical analyses in order to identify the states of stress in elements, which arise during the operation of the mechanism. The object of the research was parallel robot, which is the basis for the prototype of a driving simulator. To conduct the dynamic analysis was used the Motion Simulation module and the RecurDyn solver. In this module were created the joints which occur in the mechanism of a parallel robot. Next dynamic analyzes were performed to determine the maximal forces that will applied to the analyzed elements. It was also analyzed the platform motion during the simulation a collision of a car with a wall. In the next step, basing on the results obtained in the dynamic analysis, were performed the strength analyzes in the Advanced Simulation module. For calculation the NX Nastran solver was used.

  9. Column number density expressions through M = 0 and M = 1 point source plumes along any straight path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Analytical expressions for column number density (CND) are developed for optical line of sight paths through a variety of steady free molecule point source models including directionally-constrained effusion (Mach number M = 0) and flow from a sonic orifice (M = 1). Sonic orifice solutions are approximate, developed using a fair simulacrum fitted to the free molecule solution. Expressions are also developed for a spherically-symmetric thermal expansion (M = 0). CND solutions are found for the most general paths relative to these sources and briefly explored. It is determined that the maximum CND from a distant location through directed effusion and sonic orifice cases occurs along the path parallel to the source plane that intersects the plume axis. For the effusive case this value is exactly twice the CND found along the ray originating from that point of intersection and extending to infinity along the plume's axis. For sonic plumes this ratio is reduced to about 4/3. For high Mach number cases the maximum CND will be found along the axial centerline path.

  10. Column Number Density Expressions Through M = 0 and M = 1 Point Source Plumes Along Any Straight Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woronowicz, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Analytical expressions for column number density (CND) are developed for optical line of sight paths through a variety of steady free molecule point source models including directionally-constrained effusion (Mach number M = 0) and flow from a sonic orifice (M 1). Sonic orifice solutions are approximate, developed using a fair simulacrum fitted to the free molecule solution. Expressions are also developed for a spherically-symmetric thermal expansion (M = 0). CND solutions are found for the most general paths relative to these sources and briefly explored. It is determined that the maximum CND from a distant location through directed effusion and sonic orifice cases occurs along the path parallel to the source plane that intersects the plume axis. For the effusive case this value is exactly twice the CND found along the ray originating from that point of intersection and extending to infinity along the plumes axis. For sonic plumes this ratio is reduced to about 43. For high Mach number cases the maximum CND will be found along the axial centerline path.

  11. Physical properties of NxTiO2 prepared by sol-gel route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahimi, Razika; Bessekhouad, Yassine; Trari, Mohamed

    2012-09-01

    The compounds NxTiO2(x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2) with the anatase structure have been synthesized by Sol-Gel method using Tri-ethyl Amine as nitrogen source and their optical, electrical and electrochemical properties are investigated. The electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power are measured in the temperature rang 300-600 K. The samples exhibit p-type behavior in contrast to TiO2. The doped-samples exhibit two optical transitions (2.35≤Eh-Vis(eV)≤2.55; 1.97≤El-Vis (eV)≤2.06) directly allowed in the visible region, while only one transition is observed in UV region (EUV∼3.00 eV). Pure TiO2 shows direct band gap transition of 3.17 eV. The results confirm experimentally the calculations of Di. Valentin et al. [42]. The transitions Eh-Vis and El-Vis are attributed respectively to the promotion of electrons from the localized N 2p and π* N-O bond to the conduction band. In all cases, EUV is associated to the forbidden band energy. Though that the conductivity is generally improved by doping process, only N0.05TiO2 and N0.1TiO2 shows an enhanced mobility. The mechanism of conduction takes place by small polaron hopping. The band edge positions of NxTiO2 (x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2) at room temperature is predicted from the obtained physical properties. This study proves experimentally the principal role of nitrogen in doping process and permits the electronic states localization associated with N-impurities in TiO2 anatase.

  12. An automation of design and modelling tasks in NX Siemens environment with original software - generator module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbiciak, M.; Grabowik, C.; Janik, W.

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays the design constructional process is almost exclusively aided with CAD/CAE/CAM systems. It is evaluated that nearly 80% of design activities have a routine nature. These design routine tasks are highly susceptible to automation. Design automation is usually made with API tools which allow building original software responsible for adding different engineering activities. In this paper the original software worked out in order to automate engineering tasks at the stage of a product geometrical shape design is presented. The elaborated software works exclusively in NX Siemens CAD/CAM/CAE environment and was prepared in Microsoft Visual Studio with application of the .NET technology and NX SNAP library. The software functionality allows designing and modelling of spur and helicoidal involute gears. Moreover, it is possible to estimate relative manufacturing costs. With the Generator module it is possible to design and model both standard and non-standard gear wheels. The main advantage of the model generated in such a way is its better representation of an involute curve in comparison to those which are drawn in specialized standard CAD systems tools. It comes from fact that usually in CAD systems an involute curve is drawn by 3 points that respond to points located on the addendum circle, the reference diameter of a gear and the base circle respectively. In the Generator module the involute curve is drawn by 11 involute points which are located on and upper the base and the addendum circles therefore 3D gear wheels models are highly accurate. Application of the Generator module makes the modelling process very rapid so that the gear wheel modelling time is reduced to several seconds. During the conducted research the analysis of differences between standard 3 points and 11 points involutes was made. The results and conclusions drawn upon analysis are shown in details.

  13. Saturation effects on Ba 6pnl (l= 0, 2) and 6pnk (|M| = 0, 1) autoionization spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shi-Ben; Dai Chang-Jian

    2007-01-01

    Using a three-step laser saturation excitation technique, the saturation effects on the Ba 6pns (J = 1) and 6pnd (J = 1, 3) autoionization spectra are observed systemically in zero field. These saturation spectra are introduced to determine the high n members of 6pnl (l = 0, 2) autoionizing series and are used to analyse the channel interactions among the autoionizing series in zero field. Furthermore, the saturation excitation technique is applied to the electric field case, in which the saturation spectra of Ba 6pnk (|M|= 0, 1) autoionizing Stark states are measured. Most of these saturation spectra are observed for the first time so far as we know, which indicate the mixing of the autoionizing states in the electric fields.

  14. ARM Cortex M0的油田采输物联网监控系统设计%Design of IoT Monitoring System for Oil Extraction and Transportation Based on ARM Cortex-M0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于玉珠; 殷春莉

    2014-01-01

    为了提升油田生产的自动化程度,保障安全,降低运行成本,扩大对环境恶劣和偏远地区的自动化覆盖范围,设计一种油田采输物联网监控系统。该系统以基于 ARM Cortex M0的 LPC11C14FBD48为主控芯片,M35为 GPRS 通信模块,用 C++语言开发内核软件和远程集中监控中心软件。可远程对油田采输现场的数据进行采集和系统控制,同时与云计算服务中心实现数据交互,为大数据处理提供基础。该系统实现了油田采输无人值守,覆盖偏远区域,降低了运行成本,提升了油田生产的安全性、可靠性和高效性,使油田生产综合效益明显提高。%In order to raise the automation degree and security in oil field production,reduce the running cost and improve the automated range of poor environment and remote areas,a kind of IoT monitoring control system for oil production is designed.The system takes LPC1 1C14FBD48 based on ARM Cortex-M0 as main control chip and M35 as GPRS communication module.C++ is used to develop kernel software and the software of remote centralized monitoring control center.Remote data acquisition and system control of oil acqui-sition areas are realized,and data interactions with the cloud computing service center are completed so as to provide basic data for big data processing.The system can be applied in poor environment and remote areas.It not only saves the operation cost,but also improves safety,reliability and efficiency,so that it increases obviously comprehensive benefits of oil field production.

  15. Optimization of Al2O3/SiNx stacked antireflection structures for N-type surfacepassivated crystalline silicon solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Dawei; Jia Rui; Ding Wuchang; Chen Chen; Wu Deqi; Chen Wei; Li Haofeng; Yue Huihui; Liu Xinyu

    2011-01-01

    In the case of N-type solar cells,the anti-reflection property,as one of the important factors to further improve the energy-conversion efficiency,has been optimized using a stacked Al2O3/SiNx layer.The effect of SiNx layer thickness on the surface reflection property was systematically studied in terms of both experimental and theoretical measurement.In the stacked Al2O3/SiNx layers,results demonstrated that the surface reflection property can be effectively optimized by adding a SiNx layer,leading to the improvement in the final photovoltaic characteristic of the N-type solar cells.

  16. (Ⅲ)m=0类二次系统的极限环问题(Ⅲ)%LIMIT CYCLE PROBLEM OF QUADRATIC SYSTEM OF TYPE (Ⅲ)m=0,(Ⅲ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Ali; 罗定军

    2005-01-01

    To continue the discussion in (Ⅰ) and (Ⅱ),and finish the study of the limit cycle problem for quadratic system (Ⅲ)m=0 in this paper.Since there is at most one limit cycle that may be created from critical point O by Hopf bifurcation,the number of limit cycles depends on the different situations of separatrix cycle to be formed around O.If it is a homoclinic cycle passing through saddle S1 on 1+ax-y=0,which has the same stability with the limit cycle created by Hopf bifurcation,then the uniqueness of limit cycles in such cases can be proved.If it is a homoclinic cycle passing through saddle N on x=0,which has the different stability from the limit cycle created by Hopf bifurcation,then it will be a case of two limit cycles.For the case when the separatrix cycle is a heteroclinic cycle passing through two saddles at infinity,the discussion of the paper shows that the number of limit cycles will change from one to two depending on the different values of parameters of system.

  17. 41 CFR 60-3.4 - Information on impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Information on impact. 60-3.4 Section 60-3.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... 3-UNIFORM GUIDELINES ON EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 60-3.4...

  18. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  19. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy... REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall be... process. The DOE shall mitigate significant adverse environmental impacts, to the extent practicable...

  20. The serum level of NX-DCP-R, but not DCP, is not increased in alcoholic liver disease without hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masaya; Yano, Yoshihiko; Hirano, Hirotaka; Momose, Kenji; Mouri, Kentaro; Hishimoto, Akitoyo; Yoshida, Masaru; Azuma, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most common cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) is elevated in many patients with HCC, but also in severe alcoholics without HCC. We aimed to clarify whether the DCP/NX-DCP ratio (NX-DCP-R) could have a high specificity in ALD patients without HCC. We performed a prospective cohort study on a total of 703 consecutive outpatients of liver diseases including severe alcoholics and healthy volunteers, who underwent blood biochemical examinations at Kobe University Hospital. Serum DCP was measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) using a monoclonal antibody, MU-3. A novel parameter, serum NX-DCP, which represents predominantly DCP caused by reduced vitamin K availability, was also measured by ECLIA using monoclonal antibodies P-16 and P-11. The diagnostic accuracy of DCP and NX-DCP-R in patients with and without excessive alcohol intake was statistically examined. DCP was significantly higher in alcoholics than in non-alcoholics (p= 0.005), whereas the NX-DCP-R did not differ between alcoholics and non-alcoholics (p= 0.375). DCP was significantly increased in the serum of each patient with alcoholic hepatitis and alcoholic cirrhosis (pNX-DCP-R was not increased (p> 0.05). NX-DCP-R, but not DCP, was not increased in alcoholics without HCC. As for negative screening for HCC, the specificity of the NX-DCP-R in alcoholics without HCC was better than that of DCP in alcoholics without HCC, and so could be a useful negative screening tool for HCC in millions of alcoholics worldwide.

  1. Roles of Fe-Nx and Fe-Fe3C@C Species in Fe-N/C Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hyung; Sa, Young Jin; Jeong, Hu Young; Joo, Sang Hoon

    2017-03-22

    Iron and nitrogen codoped carbons (Fe-N/C) have emerged as promising nonprecious metal catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). While Fe-Nx sites have been widely considered as active species for Fe-N/C catalysts, very recently, iron and/or iron carbide encased with carbon shells (Fe-Fe3C@C) has been suggested as a new active site for the ORR. However, most of synthetic routes to Fe-N/C catalysts involve high-temperature pyrolysis, which unavoidably yield both Fe-Nx and Fe-Fe3C@C species, hampering the identification of exclusive role of each species. Herein, in order to establish the respective roles of Fe-Nx and Fe-Fe3C@C sites we rationally designed model catalysts via the phase conversion reactions of Fe3O4 nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes. The resulting catalysts selectively contained Fe-Nx, Fe-Fe3C@C, and N-doped carbon (C-Nx) sites. It was revealed that Fe-Nx sites dominantly catalyze ORR via 4-electron (4 e(-)) pathway, exerting a major role for high ORR activity, whereas Fe-Fe3C@C sites mainly promote 2 e(-) reduction of oxygen followed by 2 e(-) peroxide reduction, playing an auxiliary role.

  2. High-pressure synthesis and crystal structures of beta- M NX (M = Zr, Hf; X = Cl, Br, I)

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, X; Yamanaka, S

    2002-01-01

    The single crystals of six kinds of metal nitride halide, beta- M NX (M = Zr, Hf; X = Cl, Br, I), were grown in sealed Au (or Pt) tubes by the reaction of M N or M NX powders with NH sub 4 X as fluxes under high-temperature and high-pressure conditions such as 3-5 GPa at 900-1200 sup o C. The x-ray structure analysis revealed that all six kinds of compound crystallize in a rhombohedral space group R3-bar m, Z = 6. beta-ZrNCl, beta-ZrNBr, and beta-HfNCl are isotypic with SmSI, and the others isostructural with YOF.

  3. Characterization of a-SiNx:H layer. Bulk properties, interface with Si and solar cell efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamers, M.; Weeber, A. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Butler, K.; Harding, J. [University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Vullum, P.E. [SINTEF, Box 4760 Sluppen, 7465 Trondheim (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    In this paper two front-side a-SiNx:H layers that can be used in the solar cell industry are extensively characterized and related to solar cell efficiency. Variations in layer build up, atomic density, optical properties, bulk passivation and surface passivation are discussed. The build up of these two layers are considered against a background of over 80 SiNx:H layers. These layers differ in stoichiometry, atomic content, optical properties and surface passivation, as the refractive index is varied between 1.8 and 3.0. Additionally, comparable data output of different characterization equipment is discussed on validity. On solar cells, the effect of different layer build up is investigated and it is found that a wide process window is allowed for similar cell efficiencies regarding the optical transmission, bulk and surface passivation.

  4. Hybrid Non-Isolated and Non Inverting Nx Interleaved DC-DC Multilevel Boost Converter for Renewable Energy Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Kulkarni, Rishi M.; Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper hybrid non isolated/ non inverting Nx interleaved DC-DC multilevel Boost Converter for renewable energy applications is presented. The presented hybrid topology is derived from the conventional interleaved converter and the Nx Multilevel boost converter. In renewable energy...... applications, generated energy cannot be directly used at application end. In most of the cases it needs to be stepped up with DC-DC converter at operating voltage levels as per the requirement of the application. Though conventional boost converter can theoretically be used for this purpose, but obtaining....... The advantages of presenting topology of DC-DC converter are high voltage conversion, reduce ripple, low voltage stress, non inverting without utilizing the high duty and transformer. The main advantage of presented topology is more number of levels can be increased by adding capacitor and diode circuitry...

  5. Izdelava kinematičnega modela in poprocesorja dvoosne stružnice v okolju Siemens NX

    OpenAIRE

    Kešpret, Sandi

    2014-01-01

    Magistrsko delo v prvem delu obravnava teoretične splošne osnove simulacij CNC strojev – stružnic. V nadaljevanju so obravnavane simulacije v programskem paketu Siemens NX. Jedro magistrske naloge zavzema podroben opis izdelave simulacije stroja CNC stružnice GF – NDM 16 ter poprocesorja. V zaključku sledijo komentar, analiza in primerjava dobljenih rezultatov z rezultati, dobljenimi s sorodnim programskim paketom.

  6. Direct Observation of NN Pairs Transfer in GaP1-xNx (x = 0.12%)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yi-Jun; GAO Yu-Lin; ZHENG Jian-Sheng; ZHANG Yong; MASCARENHAS A.; XIN H.P.; TU C.W.

    2005-01-01

    @@ Time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) was applied to investigate the transient process in GaP1-xNx (x=0.12%) alloy. The filling, transferring and decay processes among nitrogen pairs are directly observed. The NN4pair, either not present or only a small obscure peak under a proper excitation condition in the steady-state photoluminescence spectrum, is well resolved by TRPL.

  7. Prognostic Value of the Number of Retrieved Lymph Nodes in Pathological Nx or N0 Classical Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Tae-Yon; Yoon, Jong Ho; Song, Dong Eun; Lee, Yu-Mi; Kim, Tae-Yong; Chung, Ki-Wook; Kim, Won Bae; Shong, Young Kee; Hong, Suck Joon

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the clinical implications of the number of retrieved central lymph nodes (LN) for the recurrence and recurrence-free survival (RFS) outcomes in patients with pathological Nx (pNx) or N0 classical papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). In total, 464 patients were enrolled following total thyroidectomy with central LN dissection. The risk factors related to recurrence and RFS were evaluated and compared between these groups. Age, primary tumor size, and number of retrieved central LNs were independent risk factors for recurrence according to multivariate analysis (p < 0.05). The cut-off value for the number of retrieved central LNs related to recurrence was 4.5. Group 2 (pN0; ≥5 nodes) demonstrated a significantly higher proportion of patients with an ablation-stimulated thyroglobulin (sTg) level <2.0 ng/mL (84.9 vs 61.1 %; p < 0.050) and control sTg level <1.0 ng/mL (92.1 vs 79.6 %; p < 0.050) in comparison with patients in group 1 (pNx or pN0; 1-4 nodes). Perioperative complication rates were comparable between groups. The number of retrieved central LNs is an independent risk factor for recurrence, even among patients with pNx or pN0 classical PTC. A thorough central LN dissection may therefore improve the long-term RFS rate.

  8. Ionization energies of niobium carbide clusters Nb(n)C(m) (n = 3-10, m = 0-7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Naoya; Miyajima, Ken; Mafuné, Fumitaka

    2009-03-19

    We prepared niobium carbide clusters, Nb(n)C(m), in the gas phase by a double laser ablation technique. A photoionization efficiency was measured as a function of the wavelength of an ionization laser to determine ionization energies (E(i)'s) of Nb(n)C(m) (n = 3-10, m = 0-7). The E(i)'s of Nb(4)C(4) and Nb(5)C(3) are found to be the lowest in the clusters studied. When the experimental E(i)'s are compared with the E(i)'s estimated by the density functional calculation previously reported (Harris, H.; Dance, I. J. Phys. Chem. A 2001, 105, 3340-3358), we determined Nb(5)C(3) to have a similar 2 x 2 x 2 cubic structure as Nb(4)C(4). We also found that the E(i)'s of carbon-rich clusters, Nb(n)C(m) (n 5 eV) than the E(i)'s of the niobium-rich clusters. The high E(i)'s are due to the structure of the carbon-rich clusters: carbon-carbon bonding is preferred when the number of carbon atoms exceeds the number of metal atoms. The structure was also discussed in relation to the reactivity of cluster ions with a hydrogen molecule.

  9. A method of computer aided design with self-generative models in NX Siemens environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.; Kempa, W.; Paprocka, I.

    2015-11-01

    Currently in CAD/CAE/CAM systems it is possible to create 3D design virtual models which are able to capture certain amount of knowledge. These models are especially useful in an automation of routine design tasks. These models are known as self-generative or auto generative and they can behave in an intelligent way. The main difference between the auto generative and fully parametric models consists in the auto generative models ability to self-organizing. In this case design model self-organizing means that aside from the possibility of making of automatic changes of model quantitative features these models possess knowledge how these changes should be made. Moreover they are able to change quality features according to specific knowledge. In spite of undoubted good points of self-generative models they are not so often used in design constructional process which is mainly caused by usually great complexity of these models. This complexity makes the process of self-generative time and labour consuming. It also needs a quite great investment outlays. The creation process of self-generative model consists of the three stages it is knowledge and information acquisition, model type selection and model implementation. In this paper methods of the computer aided design with self-generative models in NX Siemens CAD/CAE/CAM software are presented. There are the five methods of self-generative models preparation in NX with: parametric relations model, part families, GRIP language application, knowledge fusion and OPEN API mechanism. In the paper examples of each type of the self-generative model are presented. These methods make the constructional design process much faster. It is suggested to prepare this kind of self-generative models when there is a need of design variants creation. The conducted research on assessing the usefulness of elaborated models showed that they are highly recommended in case of routine tasks automation. But it is still difficult to distinguish

  10. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Ωm0 from the galaxy clustering ratio measured at z ~ 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel, J.; Marinoni, C.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Branchini, E.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; Iovino, A.; Percival, W. J.; Steigerwald, H.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Ilbert, O.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Mellier, Y.; Moscardini, L.; Nichol, R. C.; Phleps, S.; Wolk, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2014-03-01

    We use a sample of about 22 000 galaxies at 0.65 Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) Public Data Release 1 (PDR-1) catalogue, to constrain the cosmological model through a measurement of the galaxy clustering ratio ηg,R. This statistic has favourable properties, which is defined as the ratio of two quantities characterizing the smoothed density field in spheres of a given radius R: the value of its correlation function on a multiple of this scale, ξ(nR), and its variance σ2(R). For sufficiently large values of R, this is a universal number, which captures 2-point clustering information independently of the linear bias and linear redshift-space distortions of the specific galaxy tracers. In this paper, we discuss how to extend the application of ηg,R to quasi-linear scales and how to control and remove observational selection effects, which are typical of redshift surveys as VIPERS, in detail. We verify the accuracy and efficiency of these procedures using mock catalogues that match the survey selection process. These results show the robustness of ηg,R to non-linearities and observational effects, which is related to its very definition as a ratio of quantities that are similarly affected. At an effective redshift z = 0.93, we measured the value ηg,R(15) = 0.141 ± 0.013 at R = 5h-1 Mpc. Within a flat ΛCDM cosmology and by including the best available priors on H0, ns and baryon density, we obtain a matter density parameter at the current epoch Ωm,0 = 0.270-0.025+0.029. In addition to the great precision achieved on our estimation of Ωm using VIPERS PDR-1, this result is remarkable because it appears to be in good agreement with a recent estimate at z ≃ 0.3, which was obtained by applying the same technique to the SDSS-LRG catalogue. It, therefore, supports the robustness of the present analysis. Moreover, the combination of these two measurements at z ~ 0.3 and z ~ 0.9 provides us with a very precise estimate of Ωm,0 = 0.274 ± 0.017, which

  11. Stress-induced magnetization in Pr2Fe17Nx compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persiano, A. I. C.; Ardisson, J. D.; Batista, F. A.; Colucci, C. C.; Gama, S.

    1994-09-01

    The dependence on x of the phases present in Pr2Fe17Nx powder particles nitrided at 400°C is studied by means of Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results are compared with thermomagnetic analysis data and confirm the formation of a nitrogen-saturated core, as discussed in the literature, which is attributed to the diffusion of nitrogen through extended defects. The occurrence of three distinct Mössbauer subspectra is associated with the presence of the nitrogen-saturated phase with x = (2.8 ± 0.2), the original binary phase and a volume fraction of the Pr 2Fe 17 phase which becomes magnetic at room temperature due to the lattice expansion provoked by a stress-strain field within the particles. A model for the partially nitrided particles is employed successfully to account for the changes in the subspectral areas as well as the approach to saturation observed in the average hyperfine field of samples with nitrogen contents as low as x = 1.5; it also produces a preliminary value for the Poisson ratio (μ = 0.2) of the Pr 2Fe 17 phase.

  12. Contribution of glycerol on production of poly(gamma-Glutamic Acid) in Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Xu, Hong; Liang, Jinfeng; Yao, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Glycerol would stimulate the production of poly(gamma-glutamic acid) (gamma-PGA) and decrease its molecular weight in Bacillus subtilis NX-2. When 20 g/l glycerol was added in the medium, the yield of gamma-PGA increased from 26.7 +/- 1.0 to 31.7 +/- 1.3 g/l, and molecular weight of gamma-PGA decreased from 2.43 +/- 0.07 x 10(6) to 1.86 +/- 0.06 x 10(6) Da. In addition, it was found that the decrease of gamma-PGA chain length by glycerol would lead to the decrease of broth viscosity during the fermentation and enhanced the uptake of substrates, which could not only improve cell growth but also stimulate gamma-PGA production. Moreover, it was also found that glycerol could effectively regulate molecular weight between 2.43 +/- 0.07 x 10(6) and 1.42 +/- 0.05 x 10(6) Da with the concentration ranging from 0 to 60 g/l. This was the first time to discover such contribution of glycerol on gamma-PGA production in Bacillus genus. And the effects of glycerol on molecular weight of gamma-PGA would be developed to be an approach for the regulation of microbial gamma-PGA chain length, which is of practical importance for future commercial development of this polymer.

  13. Cloning and characterization of a sucrose isomerase from Erwinia rhapontici NX-5 for isomaltulose hyperproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Cai, Heng; Qing, Yujia; Ren, Ben; Xu, Hong; Zhu, Hongyang; Yao, Jun

    2011-01-01

    The sucrose isomerase (SIase) gene from an efficient strain of Erwinia rhapontici NX-5 for isomaltulose hyperproduction was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Protein sequence alignment revealed that SIase was a member of the glycoside hydrolase 13 family. The molecular mass of the purified recombinant protein was estimated at 66 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The SIase had an optimal pH and temperature of 5.0 and 30 °C, respectively, with a K (m) of 257 mmol/l and V (max) of 48.09 μmol/l/s for sucrose. To the best of our knowledge, the recombinant SIase has the most acidic optimum pH for isomaltulose synthesis. When the recombinant E. coli (pET22b- palI) cells were used for isomaltulose synthesis, almost complete conversion of sucrose (550 g/l solution) to isomaltulose was achieved in 1.5 h with high isomaltulose yields (87%). The immobilized E. coli cells remained stable for more than 30 days in a "batch"-type enzyme reactor. This indicated that the recombinant SIase could continuously and efficiently produce isomaltulose.

  14. Purification and characterization of a highly selective sucrose isomerase from Erwinia rhapontici NX-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ben; Li, Sha; Xu, Hong; Feng, Xiao-Hai; Cai, Heng; Ye, Qi

    2011-06-01

    A highly selective sucrose isomerase (SIase) was purified to homogeneity from the cell-free extract of Erwinia rhapontici NX-5 with a recovery of 27.7% and a fold purification of 213.6. The purified SIase showed a high specific activity of 427.1 U mg(-1) with molecular weight of 65.6 kDa. The K (m) for sucrose was 222 mM while V (max) was 546 U mg(-1). The optimum pH and temperature for SIase activity were 6.0 and 30 °C, respectively. The purified SIase was stable in the temperature range of 10-40 °C and retained 65% of the enzyme activity after 2 weeks' storage at 30 °C. The SIase activity was enhanced by Mg(2+) and Mn(2+), inhibited by Ca(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Co(2+), completely inhibited by Hg(2+) and Ag(2+). The purified SIase was strongly inhibited by SDS, while partially inhibited by dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran, and PMSF. Additionally, glucose and fructose acted as competitive inhibitors for purified SIase.

  15. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Outdoor housing facilities. 3.4 Section 3.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment,...

  16. A characterization of the SPARC T3-4 system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    This technical report covers a set of experiments on the 64-core SPARC T3-4 system, comparing it to two similar AMD and Intel systems. Key characteristics as maximum integer and floating point arithmetic throughput are measured as well as memory throughput, showing the scalability of the SPARC T3-4

  17. Anthracen-9-ylmethylene-(3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-ylamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Asiri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, anthracen-9-ylmethylene-(3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-ylamine (3, was synthesized in high yield by reaction of anthracene-9-carbaldehyde and 5-amino-3,4-dimethyl­isoxazole in ethanol. The structure of this new compound was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and GC-MS spectral analysis.

  18. Utilization of N-X bonds in the synthesis of N-heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, Satoshi

    2009-08-18

    Nitrogen-containing heterocycles--such as aziridines, pyrrolidines, piperidines, and oxazolines--frequently show up as substructures in natural products. In addition, some of these species show potent biological activities. Therefore, researchers would like to develop practical and convenient methods for constructing these heterocycles. Among the available methods, the transfer of N(1) units to organic molecules, especially olefins, is a versatile method for the synthesis of N-heterocycles. This Account reviews some of our recent work on the synthesis of N-heterocycles using the N-X bond. A nitrogen-halogen bond bearing an electron-withdrawing group on the nitrogen can be converted to a halonium ion. In the presence of C-C double bonds, these species produce three-membered cyclic halonium intermediates, which can be strong electrophiles and can produce stereocontrolled products. N-Halosuccinimides are representative sources of halonium ions, and the nitrogen of succinimide is rarely used in organic synthesis. If the nitrogen could act as a nucleophile, after releasing halonium ions to C-C double bonds, we expect great advances would be possible in the stereoselective functionalization of olefins. We chose N-chloro-N-sodio-p-toluenesulfonamide (chloramine-T, CT), an inexpensive and commercially available reagent, as our desired reactant. In the presence of a catalytic amount of CuCl or I(2) and AgNO(3), we achieved the direct aziridination of olefins with CT. The reaction catalyzed by I(2) could be carried out in water or silica-water as a green process. The reaction of iodoolefins with CT gave pyrrolidine derivatives under extremely mild conditions with complete stereoselectivity. We also extended the utility of the N-chloro-N-metallo reagent, which is often unstable and difficult to work with. Although CT does not react with electron-deficient olefins without a metal catalyst or an additive, we found that N-chloro-N-sodiocarbamates react with electron

  19. Various Recipes of SiNx Passivated AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors in Correlation with Current Slump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ling; HAO Yue; MA Xiao-Hua; QUAN Si; HU Gui-Zhou; JIANG Shou-Gao; YANG Li-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    The current slump of different recipes of SiNx passivated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) is investigated. The dc and pulsed current-voltage curves of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs using different recipes are analyzed. It is found that passivation leakage has a strong relationship with NH3 flow in the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor phase deposition process, which has impacted on the current collapse of SiNx passivated devices. We analyze the pulsed IDS-VDS characteristics of different recipes of SiNx passivation devices for different combinations of gate and drain quiescent biases (V_(GSO), V_(DSO)) of(0, 0), (-6, 0), (-6, 15) and (0, 15) V. The possible mechanisms are the traps in SiNx passivation capturing the electrons and the surface states at the SiNx/AlGaNinterface, which can affect the channel of two-dimensional electron gas and cause the current collapse.

  20. A Comparison Between Experimental and Authentic Blood/Serum Ratios of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine and 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boy, Regine Garcia; Henseler, Jörg; Ramaekers, Johannes G.; Mattern, Rainer; Skopp, Gisela

    2009-01-01

    This paper compares the blood-to-serum distribution (B/S ratio) of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its major metabolite 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA). B/S ratios were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis following liquid-liquid extraction as a func

  1. New 3,4-Secocycloartane and 3,4-Secodammarane Triterpenes from the Ecuadorian Plant Coussarea macrophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardoni, Gianluca; Chiriboga, Ximena; Vita Finzi, Paola; Vidari, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Coussarea macrophylla (Mart.) Müll.Arg. (Rubiaceae) was collected in Ecuador, and the bark was extracted with AcOEt. Chromatographic separation afforded six novel 3,4-secocycloartane and 3,4-secodammarane triterpenes, named macrocoussaric acids A-F, together with the known metabolites secaubryenol and 3,4-secodammara-4(28),20,24-triene-3,26-dioic acid. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of their spectroscopic data. This is the first report of 3,4-secocycloartane and 3,4-secodammarane triterpenes occurring in a Coussarea species. Macrocoussaric acids A and B (2 and 3, resp.) were found to be moderately cytotoxic against five different tumor cell lines. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  2. IBM Intellistation M PRO 9229图形工作站运行测试:UG NX 4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 强大的UG NX 4系统 属于德国西门子公司旗下的Unigraphics Solutions公司(简称UGS)是全球著名的MCAD供应商,主要为汽车与交通、航空航天、日用消费品、通用机械及电子工业等领域提供多级化的、集成的、企业级的包括软件产品与服务在内的完整的MCAD解决方案.

  3. 基于FEMAP WITH NX NASTRAN的货舱结构有限元分析实例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万冬冬

    2008-01-01

    本文通过58,000吨散货船5号货舱有限元计算实例,介绍了利用Femap with NX Nastran进行货舱整舱段有限元计算的基本过程。这里主要侧重于模型的建立过程和计算,对于计算结果的后处理可以根据不同的规范要求分别进行。

  4. A (Nd, Zr(Fe, Co11.5Ti0.5Nx compound as a permanent magnet material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suzuki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We studied NdFe11TiNx compounds as permanent magnet materials. The (Nd0.7,Zr0.3(Fe0.75Co0.2511.5Ti0.5N0.52 powder that contained a limited amount of the α-(Fe, Co phase shows fairly good magnetic properties, such as a saturation polarization (Js of 1.68 T and an anisotropic field (Ha of 2.88 (Law of approach to saturation – 4.0 MA/m (Intersection of magnetization curves. Both properties are comparable to those of the Nd2Fe14B phase.

  5. Butterfly-shaped distribution of SiNx precipitates in multi-crystalline Si for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianyong; Prakash, Ronit Roneel; Jiptner, Karolin; Chen, Jun; Miyamura, Yoshiji; Harada, Hirofumi; Kakimoto, Koichi; Ogura, Atsushi; Sekiguchi, Takashi

    2013-08-01

    This paper concerns the precipitation mechanism of SiNx impurities in multi-crystalline silicon grown with a directional solidification system. A butterfly-shaped precipitate region was found across the middle part of ingot. These precipitates showed filament-like and fiber-like shapes of several micrometers in diameter and up to several millimeters in length. These two types of precipitates exist in different areas, forming three distribution zones in the butterfly region. The precipitate growth periodically stopped at the last stage of the butterfly formation. A non-uniform convection flow model was proposed to explain the precipitation behavior at the butterfly.

  6. Low-noise on-chip frequency conversion by four-wave-mixing Bragg scattering in SiNx waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Agha, Imad; Thurston, Bryce; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2012-01-01

    Low-noise, tunable wavelength-conversion through non-degenerate four-wave mixing Bragg scattering in SiNx waveguides is experimentally demonstrated. Finite element method simulations of waveguide dispersion are used with the split-step Fourier method to predict device performance, and indicate a strong dependence of the conversion efficiency on phase matching, which is controlled by the waveguide geometry. Two 1550 nm wavelength band pulsed pumps are used to achieve tunable conversion of a 980 nm signal over a range of 5 nm with a peak conversion efficiency of \\approx 5 %. The demonstrated Bragg scattering process is suitable for frequency conversion of quantum states of light.

  7. Influence of Preparation Conditions on the Catalytic Performance of MoNx/SBA-15 for Ammonia Decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongchao Liu; Hua Wang; Jianghan Shen; Ying Sun; Zhongmin Liu

    2006-01-01

    The influence of preparation conditions (e.g. H2-N2 ratios, final nitriding temperatures) on the performance of MoNx/SBA-15 catalysts for ammonia decomposition was investigated. The variation of catalytic activity with H2-N2 ratios may be attributed to the variation of surface compositions and particle sizes of the active components. The variation of nitriding temperatures leads to the formation of molybdenum nitride domains of varying compositions, which are responsible for the difference in their catalytic performance with respect to ammonia decomposition. At 923 K, ammonia could be completely decomof ammonia.

  8. One-pot Reductive Amination of carbonyl Compounds with Nitro Compounds by Transfer Hydrogenation over Co-Nx as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Zhang, Zehui

    2017-05-09

    A new method was developed for the synthesis of secondary amines through the one-pot reductive amination of carbonyl compounds with nitro compounds using formic acid as the hydrogen donor over a heterogeneous non-noble-metal catalyst (Co-Nx /C-800-AT, generated by the pyrolysis of the cobalt phthalocyanine/silica composite at 800°C under a N2 atmosphere and subsequent etching by HF). Both nitrogen and cobalt were of considerable importance in the transfer hydrogenation reactions with formic acid. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Efficient visible light-induced degradation of rhodamine B by W(NxS1−x)2 nanoflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peitao; Zhang, Jingyan; Gao, Daqiang; Ye, Weichun

    2017-01-01

    Here, W(NxS1−x)2 nanoflowers were fabricated by simple sintering process. Photocatalytic activity results indicated our fabricated N-doped WS2 nanoflowers shown outstanding photoactivity of degradating of rhodamine B with visible light. Which is attributed to the high separation efficiency of photoinduced electron–hole pairs, the broadening of the valence band (VB), and the narrowing of energy band gap. Meanwhile, our work provided a novel method to induce surface sulfur vacancies in crystals by introduing impurities atoms for enhancing their photodegradation. PMID:28106096

  10. SiNx coatings deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering: Process parameters influencing the residual coating stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S.; Hänninen, T.; Wissting, J.; Hultman, L.; Goebbels, N.; Santana, A.; Tobler, M.; Högberg, H.

    2017-05-01

    The residual coating stress and its control is of key importance for the performance and reliability of silicon nitride (SiNx) coatings for biomedical applications. This study explores the most important deposition process parameters to tailor the residual coating stress and hence improve the adhesion of SiNx coatings deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (rHiPIMS). Reactive sputter deposition and plasma characterization were conducted in an industrial deposition chamber equipped with pure Si targets in N2/Ar ambient. Reactive HiPIMS processes using N2-to-Ar flow ratios of 0 and 0.28-0.3 were studied with time averaged positive ion mass spectrometry. The coatings were deposited to thicknesses of 2 μm on Si(001) and to 5 μm on polished CoCrMo disks. The residual stress of the X-ray amorphous coatings was determined from the curvature of the Si substrates as obtained by X-ray diffraction. The coatings were further characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and nanoindentation in order to study their elemental composition, morphology, and hardness, respectively. The adhesion of the 5 μm thick coatings deposited on CoCrMo disks was assessed using the Rockwell C test. The deposition of SiNx coatings by rHiPIMS using N2-to-Ar flow ratios of 0.28 yield dense and hard SiNx coatings with Si/N ratios <1. The compressive residual stress of up to 2.1 GPa can be reduced to 0.2 GPa using a comparatively high deposition pressure of 600 mPa, substrate temperatures below 200 °C, low pulse energies of <2.5 Ws, and moderate negative bias voltages of up to 100 V. These process parameters resulted in excellent coating adhesion (ISO 0, HF1) and a low surface roughness of 14 nm for coatings deposited on CoCrMo.

  11. Kv3.4 channel function and dysfunction in nociceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, David M; Zemel, Benjamin M; Lepore, Angelo C; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported the isolation of the Kv3.4 current in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and described dysregulation of this current in a spinal cord injury (SCI) model of chronic pain. These studies strongly suggest that rat Kv3.4 channels are major regulators of excitability in DRG neurons from pups and adult females, where they help determine action potential (AP) repolarization and spiking properties. Here, we characterized the Kv3.4 current in rat DRG neurons from adult males and show that it transfers 40-70% of the total repolarizing charge during the AP across all ages and sexes. Following SCI, we also found remodeling of the repolarizing currents during the AP. In the light of these studies, homomeric Kv3.4 channels expressed in DRG nociceptors are emerging novel targets that may help develop new approaches to treat neuropathic pain.

  12. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-based glucose biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, A.; Hövell, W.F.M. van; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Nolte, R.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Amperometric biosensors for the recognition of glucose oxidase (GOx) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were fabricated for the first time. The resulting biosensor has potential applications for long-term glucose measurements.

  13. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-based glucose biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, A.; Hövell, W.F.M. van; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Nolte, R.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Amperometric biosensors for the recognition of glucose oxidase (GOx) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were fabricated for the first time. The resulting biosensor has potential applications for long-term glucose measurements.

  14. 基于NX的汽车标准件库的研究与实现%Research and Realization of Automotive Standard-part Library based on NX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈诚

    2012-01-01

      Building the common parts library based on the CAD platform is very helpful to improving the efficiency and quality of the product design. The method of modeling based on NX NX2.0 platform is introduced. And the method and pro-cedure of developing automobile standard parts library with the secondary development are detailed.%  基于CAD平台建立常用的零部件库,有助于提高产品的设计效率和质量.文章介绍了零件模板的创建过程,详细说明了以NX2.0为平台,利用二次开发技术开发汽车标准件库的方法和步骤.

  15. Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Bacteriocin Production by Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6%嗜酸乳杆菌NX2-6产细菌素的发酵条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌云达来; 陆兆新; 吕凤霞; 别小妹; 卢亚萍; 孙会刚; 查干其劳

    2012-01-01

    Three culture medium components including glucose,sodium acetate and sodium citrate and fermentation time were identified as key factors that affect bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 using a Plackett-Burman design and their optimal levels were investigated using response surface methodology based on a Box-Behnken experimental desiign.The optimal levels of glucose,sodium acetate and sodium citrate concentrations and fermentation time were determined to be 60.0 g/L,8.0 g/L,5.0 g/L and 36 h,respectively based on the established quadratic polynormial regression equation for inhibition zone diameter of fermentaton broth.Under these conditions,the predicted inhibition zone diameter of fermentaton broth was 0.9918.The optimized culture medium resulted in an increase of approximately 80.0% in the antibacterial activity of fermentation broth compared to the basic culture medium.Therefore,response surface methodology can provide an economic,effective and reasonal strategy for the optimization of fermentation conditions for bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6.%在Plackett-Burman试验结果基础上,采用响应曲面法(Box-Behnken设计)对嗜酸乳杆菌NX2-6发酵产细菌素的关键影响因素,即葡萄糖质量浓度、乙酸钠质量浓度、柠檬酸三钠水合物质量浓度及培养时间的最佳水平范围进行研究和探讨。通过对发酵液抑菌圈直径的二次多项回归方程求解得知,在葡萄糖质量浓度、乙酸钠质量浓度、柠檬酸三钠水合物质量浓度和培养时间分别为60.0、8.0、5.0g/L和36h时,菌株NX2-6的发酵液抑菌圈直径预测值为21.37mm,验证实验抑菌圈直径实测值与预测值的相关系数R2为0.9918。优化后培养基与基础培养基相比,发酵液抗菌活性增加约80.0%,由此可见,利用响应曲面法对嗜酸乳杆菌NX2-6发酵产细菌素条件进行优化是经济有效且科学合理的。

  16. 数字化产品开发为创新注入动力--NX 4新功能介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ 一、NX 4概述 NX 4的集成自动化,使数字化产品的开发效率更高.而所有开发学科(工业设计、设计、模拟、刀具制作、机加工和管理)都增加了新功能.一个综合性的产品生命周期管理(PLM)解决方案,含有最先进的计算机辅助设计、工程和制造(CAD/CAE/CAM)技术.

  17. WNx and MoNx Layers: Elastic Properties and Crystal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsdolay, Brian

    This thesis research has focused on the thin film growth, phase stability, and elastic properties of two relatively unknown nitrides: tungsten nitride and molybdenum nitride. The elastic properties and hardness are not well characterized for either material, with previous measurements showing a wide range of values. In addition, the conditions leading to growth of high quality epitaxial layers of these materials are not well known. There is also some discrepancy over the cubic crystal structure seen in both WNx and MoNx. While the presence of nitrogen vacancies are well documented, it is unclear if metal vacancies also appear and in what concentrations. Tungsten nitride layers, 1.45-microm-thick, were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering on MgO(001), MgO(111), and Al2O3(0001) in 20 mTorr N2 at 500-800 °C. All layers deposited at Ts = 500-700 °C form a cubic phase, as determined by X-ray diffraction o-2theta scans, and show an N-to-W ratio x that decreases from x = 1.21 to 0.83 with increasing Ts = 500-700 °C, as measured by energy dispersive and photoelectron spectroscopies. Ts = 500 and 600 °C yields polycrystalline predominantly 111 oriented beta-WN on all substrates. In contrast, deposition at 700 °C results in epitaxial growth of beta-WN(111) and beta-WN(001) on MgO(111) and MgO(001), respectively, and a 111-preferred orientation on Al2O3(0001). Ts = 800 °C causes nitrogen loss and WN x layers with primarily BCC W grains and x = 0.04-0.06. For Ts = 700 °C, nanoindentation provides hardness values of 9.8+/-2.2, 12.5+/-1.0, and 10.3+/-0.4 GPa, and elastic moduli of 240+/-40, 257+/-13, and 242+/-10 GPa for layers grown on MgO(001), MgO(111), and Al2O3(0001), respectively. Brillouin spectroscopy measurements yield shear moduli of 120+/-2 GPa, 114+/-2 GPa and 108+/-2 GPa for WN on MgO(001), MgO(111) and Al2O3(0001), respectively, suggesting a WN elastic anisotropy factor of 1.6+/-0.3, consistent with the indentation results. The combined analysis of the

  18. Application of UG NX in forging die manufacturing%UGNX在锻模加工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙劲松

    2012-01-01

    以汽车曲轴锻造的模具加工为例,选用UG NX CAM软件进行NC编程,利用UG的CAD和CAM集成,提高工作效率.对于锻模的难加工材料,可以选用TiAlN等涂层的刀具,尽量使用大直径的刀具以提高刚性.粗加工工艺可以采用摆线加工,以获得高加工效率和长刀具寿命.精加工先选用较大的刀具加工,再用小的刀具局部清根.%Taking crankshaft mould machining for example, working efficiency was improved by NC programming using UG NX CAM software and UG CAD/CAM integration. For the forging mould materials which are hard to machine, coating tools such as TiAlN were choosem, tools with as large as possible diameter were used to improve rigidity. Tro-choidal machining was used for rough machining process to get high efficiency and long life of tools. Finish machining process includes machining with larger tools first and flow cut with smaller tools.

  19. The simultaneous production of sphingan Ss and poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate) in Sphingomonas sanxanigenens NX02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengmeng; Li, Guoqiang; Huang, Haidong; Chen, Sibin; Luo, Ying; Zhang, Wenwen; Li, Keran; Zhou, Jiefang; Ma, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Sphingans and poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) are both widely used biopolymers produced by bacteria. In the batch fermentation of Sphingomonas sanxanigenens NX02 in a 5L fermenter using glucose as carbon source, ivory colored sphingan Ss production was a growth-associated process with a maximum purified production of 14.88 ± 0.83 g/L, while 6.08 ± 0.23 g/L PHB was simultaneously produced. Sphingan Ss and PHB were separated by a simple dilution, heating and centrifugation or filtration process, and sphingan Ss can be cost-effectively extracted using a small amount of acid rather than multi-fold volumes of alcohols. From ultrathin sections of S. sanxanigenens NX02, we found that the interior space of the cells was filled with PHB granules, and the outside was surrounded by abundant Ss. The purified sphingan Ss can be used as an excellent gelling and emulsifying agent in biotechnology applications such as food, personal care and production processes. Proposed pathways of Ss and PHB biosynthesis from glucose are also presented.

  20. Probing the role of an atomically thin SiNx interlayer on the structure of ultrathin carbon films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Rismani-Yazdi, Ehsan; Yeo, Reuben J; Goohpattader, Partho S; Satyanarayana, Nalam; Srinivasan, Narasimhan; Druz, Boris; Tripathy, S; Bhatia, C S

    2014-05-21

    Filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) processed carbon films are being considered as a promising protective media overcoat material for future hard disk drives (HDDs). However, at ultrathin film levels, FCVA-deposited carbon films show a dramatic change in their structure in terms of loss of sp3 bonding, density, wear resistance etc., compared to their bulk counterpart. We report for the first time how an atomically thin (0.4 nm) silicon nitride (SiNx) interlayer helps in maintaining/improving the sp3 carbon bonding, enhancing interfacial strength/bonding, improving oxidation/corrosion resistance, and strengthening the tribological properties of FCVA-deposited carbon films, even at ultrathin levels (1.2 nm). We propose the role of the SiNx interlayer in preventing the catalytic activity of Co and Pt in media, leading to enhanced sp3C bonding (relative enhancement~40%). These findings are extremely important in view of the atomic level understanding of structural modification and the development of high density HDDs.

  1. Further Studies on the Effect of SiNx Refractive Index and Emitter Sheet Resistance on Potential-Induced Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jaewon; Dauksher, Bill; Bowden, Stuart; Tamizhmani, Govindasamy; Hacke, Peter; D' Amico, John

    2017-03-01

    We present the impacts of silicon nitride (SiNx) antireflection coating refractive index and emitter sheet resistance on potential-induced degradation of the shunting type (PID-s). Previously, it has been shown that the cell becomes more PID-s-susceptible as the refractive index decreases or the emitter sheet resistance increases. To verify the effect of refractive index on PID-s, we fabricated cells with varying SiNx refractive index (1.87, 1.94, 2.05) on typical p-type base solar cells with ~60 O/sq emitters. However, none of these cells showed output power degradation, regardless of the refractive index. Further investigation of the emitter showed that the PID-s was suppressed at ~60 O/sq due to the extremely high surface phosphorus concentration (6 x 1021 cm-3), as measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Furthermore, PID-s was observed on cells possessing a high emitter sheet resistance (~80 O/sq). The emitter surface phosphorus concentration plays an important role in determining PID-s susceptibility.

  2. W/Cu thin film infrared reflector for TiNxOy based selective solar absorber with high thermal stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Chen, T. P.; Liu, Y. C.; Liu, Z.; Yang, H. Y.

    2017-05-01

    The W/Cu thin film structure is deposited by magnetron sputtering to form the infrared reflector for the TiNxOy based selective solar absorber (SSA) that can be used in the low- and middle-temperature applications. The structural, chemical, and optical properties of the SSA layers that experienced thermal annealing at different temperatures for various durations have been investigated with the characterization techniques, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and spectrophotometry. Without a W layer, the reflectance in both visible and infrared ranges of the SSA increases as a result of the crystallization of the Cu layer at elevated temperatures. With a W layer with appropriate film thickness, the increase of the reflectance in the visible range can be suppressed to maintain a high solar absorptance, whereas a high infrared reflectance can be maintained to achieve a low thermal emittance. It is shown that for the SiO2-TiNxOy-W-Cu-Glass SSA with a 15 nm W thin film, thermal annealing can significantly reduce the thermal emittance to a low value (e.g., 4.4% at the temperature of 400 °C for annealing at 400 °C for 6 h), whereas the solar absorptance can be maintained at a high value (e.g., 92.2% for the annealing at 400 °C for 6 h).

  3. Highly efficient rice straw utilization for poly-(γ-glutamic acid) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bao; Lei, Peng; Xu, Zongqi; Jiang, Yongxiang; Xu, Zheng; Liang, Jinfeng; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been identified as an economic and environmental feedstock for future biotechnological production. Here, for the first time, poly-(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 using rice straw is investigated. Based on two-stage hydrolysis and characteristic consumption of xylose and glucose by B. subtilis NX-2, a co-fermentation strategy was designed to better accumulate PGA in a 7.5L fermentor by two feeding methods. The maximum cumulative respective PGA production and PGA productivity were 73.0 ± 0.5 g L(-1) and 0.81 g L(-1) h(-1) by the continuous feeding method, with carbon source cost was saved by 84.2% and 42.5% compared with glucose and cane molasse, respectively. These results suggest that rice straw, a type of abundant, low-cost, non-food lignocellulosic feedstock, may be feasibly and efficiently utilized for industrial-scale production of PGA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis and antityrosinase activities of alkyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhi-Zhen; Li, Hua-Liang; Yu, Xiao-Jie; Zuo, Qi-Xuan; Zheng, Guo-Xing; Shi, Yan; Liu, Xuan; Lin, Yi-Ming; Liang, Ge; Wang, Qin; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2011-06-22

    In insects, tyrosinase plays important roles in normal developmental processes, such as cuticular tanning, scleration, wound healing, production of opsonins, encapsulation and nodule formation for defense against foreign pathogens. Thus, tyrosinase may be regarded as a potential candidate for novel bioinsecticide development. A family of alkyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoates (C₆-C₉), new tyrosinsase inhibitors, were synthesized. Their inhibitory effects on the activity of tyrosinase have been investigated. The results showed all of them could inhibit the activity of tyrosianse effectively. The order of potency was nonyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (C₉DB) > octyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate(C₈DB) > heptyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate(C₇DB) > hexyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (C₆DB). The kinetic analysis of these four compounds on tyrosinase was taken to expound their inhibitory mechanism. The research of the control of insects in agriculture was taken as C₆DB for example. C₆DB could inhibit the development and molting of Plutella xylostella effectively. To clarify its insecticidal mechanism, we researched the expression of tyrosinase in the P. xylostella treated with C₆DB by real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed C₆DB could inhibit the expression of tyrosinase in the P. xylostella as expected.

  5. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE : A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachwani Mukesh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole is a highly privileged structure the derivatives of which exhibit a wide range of biological activities including antibacterial, antitubercular, vasodialatory, antifungal, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, hypolipidemic, anticancer and ulcerogenic activities. Resistance to number of antimicrobial agents among a variety of clinically significant species of bacteria is becoming increasingly important global problem. The search for new antimicrobial agents will consequently always remain as an important and challenging task for medicinal chemists. This Review has basic information about 1,3,4-oxadiazole and its antimicrobial activity work for further development in this field.

  6. Squaroglitter: A 3,4-Connected Carbon Net

    KAUST Repository

    Prasad, Dasari L. V. K.

    2013-08-13

    Theoretical calculations are presented on a new hypothetical 3,4-connected carbon net (called squaroglitter) incorporating 1,4 cyclohexadiene units. The structure has tetragonal space group P4/mmm (No. 123) symmetry. The optimized geometry shows normal distances, except for some elongated bonds in the cyclobutane ring substructures in the network. Squaroglitter has an indirect bandgap of about 1.0 eV. The hypothetical lattice, whose density is close to graphite, is more stable than other 3,4-connected carbon nets. A relationship to a (4,4)nanotube is explored, as is a potential threading of the lattice with metal needles. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  7. Aperture synthesis observations of the molecular environment of the SGR A complex. I - The M-0.13-0.08 molecular cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Sachiko K.; Ishiguro, Masato; Fomalont, Edward B.; Chikada, Yoshihiro; Kasuga, Takashi; Morita, Koh-Ichiro; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Kanzawa, Tomio; Iwashita, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Tetsuo

    1989-12-01

    NH3 and H2O maser observations of the 20 km/s molecular cloud M-0.13-0.08 in the Sgr A complex region are reported. NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) lines were observed simultaneously, and the molecular gas temperature and density are estimated. The NH3 emission is elongated in the smae direction of the entire M-0.13-0.08 cloud and has a large velocity gradient along its major axis. Strong NH3 emission is located in the northern part of the cloud, where a perturbed velocity field and broad line widths are observed. In addition, a new H2O maser spot was detected near one of the nonthermal continuum sources. These observational results suggest the physical association between a part of the M-0.13-0.08 molecular cloud and the nonthermal continuum sources in the Sgr A complex.

  8. AM2 3-4 Alternate Lay Pattern Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    pit lined with impervious sheeting. ................................................................................... 10 Figure 9. Pulverizing CH...haul truck. .................................................................................. 12 Figure 12. Leveling CH material in test pit prior to...traffic evaluations: 1. brickwork pattern, 2. 2-1 pattern, 3. 3-4 pattern, 4. 90-degree traffic application, 5. traffic over a voided subgrade

  9. Synthesis of Novel Biologically Active s-Triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazole Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN,Yi-Feng

    2004-01-01

    @@ Heterocycles bearing a symmetrical triazole or 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring system are reported to show a broad spectrum of biological activities.[1,2] The 1,2,4-triazole nucleus has been recently incorporated into a wide variety of therapeutically interesting drugs including H1/H2 histamine receptor blockers, cholinesterase active agents, CNS stimulants, antianxiety and sedatives[3] Coumarins are nowadays an important group of organic compounds that used as bactericides, fungicides,anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, anti-HIV and antitumour agents.[4,5] Keeping in view the biological importance of the above mentioned heterocyclic compounds and in continuation of our search for biologically active nitrogen and sulphur heterocycles, a series of s-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives was synthesized.

  10. Rapid simultaneous determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine in urine by fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klette, Kevin L; Jamerson, Matthew H; Morris-Kukoski, Cynthia L; Kettle, Aaron R; Snyder, J Jacob

    2005-10-01

    The use of fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (FGC-MS) was investigated to improve the efficiency of analysis of urine specimens that previously screened presumptively positive for amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and/or 3,4 methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) by immunoassay testing. Specimens were pretreated with basic sodium periodate, extracted using a positive-pressure manifold/cation-exchange solid-phase cartridge methodology, and derivatized using 4-carbethoxyhexafluorobutyryl chloride (4-CB). The analytical method was compared to traditional GC-MS analysis and evaluated with respect to assay chromatography, linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and reproducibility. The limits of detection were 62.5 ng/mL for MDA and 31.25 ng/mL for AMP, MAMP, MDMA, and MDEA. All of the target analytes were linear to 12,000 ng/mL with the exception of MAMP which was linear to 10,000 ng/mL. The intra-assay precision of a 500 ng/mL multiconstituent control (n=15) ranged from 522.6 to 575.9 ng/mL with a coefficient of variation of less than 3.8%. Authentic human urine specimens (n=187) previously determined to contain the target analytes were re-extracted and analyzed by both FGC-MS and the currently utilized GC-MS method. No significant differences in specimen concentration were observed between these analytical methods. No interferences were seen when the performance of the FGC-MS method was challenged with ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, and phentermine. When compared to traditional GC-MS analysis, FGC-MS analysis provided a dramatic reduction in retention time for amphetamine (1.8 min vs. 4.12 min). For example, the FGC-MS method reduced overall run time for a batch of 56 specimens from 12.0 h to 7.25 h. This reduction in analysis time makes FGC-MS an attractive alternative to traditional GC-MS by allowing a laboratory greater flexibility in the purchase

  11. H2-Ar dilution for improved c-Si quantum dots in P-doped SiNx:H thin film matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Zhang, Weijia; Liu, Shengzhong (Frank)

    2017-02-01

    Phosphorus-doped hydrogenated silicon nitride (SiNx:H) thin films containing crystalline silicon quantum dot (c-Si QD) was prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using hydrogen-argon mixed dilution. The effects of H2/Ar flow ratio on the structural, electrical and optical characteristics of as-grown P-doped SiNx:H thin films were systematically investigated. Experimental results show that crystallization is promoted by increasing the H2/Ar flow ratio in dilution, while the N/Si atomic ratio is higher for thin film deposited with argon-rich dilution. As the H2/Ar flow ratio varies from 100/100 to 200/0, the samples exhibit excellent conductivity owing to the large volume fraction of c-Si QDs and effective P-doping. By adjusting the H2/Ar ratio to 100/100, P-doped SiNx:H thin film containing tiny and densely distributed c-Si QDs can be obtained. It simultaneously possesses wide optical band gap and high dark conductivity. Finally, detailed discussion has been made to analyze the influence of H2-Ar mixed dilution on the properties of P-doped SiNx:H thin films.

  12. Compositional and Structural Properties of TiO2-xNx Thin Films Deposited by Radio-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Shi-Wei; LIU Yi-Chun; LIANG Yu; MA Jian-Gang; LU You-Ming; SHEN De-Zhen; ZHANG Ji-Ying; FAN Xi-Wu; MU Ri-Xiang

    2006-01-01

    @@ TiO2-xNx thin films are deposited onto Si(100) and quartz substrates by a rf magnetron sputtering method using a titanium metal disc as a target in Ar, N2, and O2 atmospheres. The substrate temperature is kept at 300°C. The O2 and Ar gas flow rates are kept to be constants and the N gas flow rate is varied. TiO2-xNx films with different N contents are characterized by x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicate that the TiO2-xNx thin films can be obtained at 13% N and 15% N contents in the film, and the films with mixed TiO2 and TiN crystal can be obtained at 13% N and 15% N contents in the film. In terms of the results of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N 1s of β-N (396 eV) is the main component in the TiO2-xNx thin films.

  13. Improved GaN Brown on Si(111 ) substrate using ammonia flow modulation on SiNx mask layer by MOCVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU NaiSen; WANG Yong; WANG Hui; NG KaiWei; LAU KeiMay

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, 1 μm n-GaN was grown by using varied and fixed ammonia flow (NH3) on SiNx mask layer on Si(111) substrate using metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). In-situ optical reflectivity traces of GaN growth show that the three- to two-dimensional process has been prolonged by using varied ammonia flow on SiNx mask layer method compared with that grown by fixing ammonia flow. Structural and optical properties were characterized by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and photolu-minescence, and compared with the sample grown by fixing ammonia flow, GaN grown using the varied ammonia flow on SiNx mask layer showed better structure and optical quality. It was assumed that the low NH3 flow in the initial growth stage considerably increased the GaN island density on the nano-porous SiNx layer by enhancing vertical growth. Lateral growth was significantly favored by high NH3 flow in the subsequent step. As a result, the improved crystal and optical quality was achieved utilizing NH3 flow modulation for GaN buffer growth on Si(111) substrate.

  14. Influence of low energy argon plasma treatment on the moisture barrier performance of hot wire-CVD grown SiNx multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majee, Subimal; Fátima Cerqueira, Maria; Tondelier, Denis; Geffroy, Bernard; Bonnassieux, Yvan; Alpuim, Pedro; Bourée, Jean Eric

    2014-01-01

    The reliability and stability are key issues for the commercial utilization of organic photovoltaic devices based on flexible polymer substrates. To increase the shelf-lifetime of these devices, transparent moisture barriers of silicon nitride (SiNx) films are deposited at low temperature by hot wire CVD (HW-CVD) process. Instead of the conventional route based on organic/inorganic hybrid structures, this work defines a new route consisting in depositing multilayer stacks of SiNx thin films, each single layer being treated by argon plasma. The plasma treatment allows creating smoother surface and surface atom rearrangement. We define a critical thickness of the single layer film and focus our attention on the effect of increasing the number of SiNx single-layers on the barrier properties. A water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of 2 × 10-4 g/(m2·day) is reported for SiNx multilayer stack and a physical interpretation of the plasma treatment effect is given.

  15. Optimal design of light trapping in thin-film solar cells enhanced with graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongxiang; Chen, Fei; Shen, Qiang; Zhang, Lianmeng

    2012-05-07

    In this paper, a graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure is proposed as antireflection coatings deposited on top of amorphous silicon (α-Si) thin-film solar cell. The structural parameters are optimized by differential evolution in order to enhance the optical absorption of solar cells to the greatest degree. The optimal design result demonstrates that the nonlinear profile of dielectric constant is superior to the linear profile, and discrete multilayer graded antireflection coatings can outperform near continuously graded antireflection coatings. What's more, the electric field intensity distributions clearly demonstrate the proposed graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure can remarkably increase the magnitude of electric field of a-Si:H layer and hence, enhance the light trapping of a-Si:H thin-film solar cells in the whole visible and near-infrared spectrum. Finally, we have compared the optical absorption enhancements of proposed graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure with nanoparticles structure, and demonstrated that it can result in higher enhancements compared to the dielectric SiC and TiO2 nanoparticles. We have shown that the optimal graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure optimized by differential evolution can reach 33.31% enhancement which has exceeded the ideal limit of 32% of nanoparticles structure including plasmonic Ag nanoparticles, dielectric SiC and TiO2 nanoparticles.

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF MANUFACTURING TEHNOLOGY FOR “ECCENTRIC MASS” COMPONENT OF A NEW TYPE OF VIBRATORY COMPACTOR USING NX 7.5 SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftimie Dorin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the technological optimization process of the eccentric mass component using the NX 7.5 software. The new design of the vibratory compactor with variable amplitudes was modeled 3D. The manufacturing technology presents graphical aspects of operations during mechanical processing.

  17. Telmisartan protects 5/6 Nx rats against renal injury by enhancing nNOS-derived NO generation via regulation of PPARγ signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Rong; He, Yong; Li, Yue-Qiang; Han, Ming; Ma, Zu-Fu; Liu, Xiao-Cheng; Zeng, Rui; Shao, Jv-Fang; Guo, Yan-Chao; He, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Ping; Xu, Gang; Wang, Cong-Yi; Yao, Ying

    2014-01-01

    A 5/6 nephrectomized (Nx) rat model was employed to address the impact of telmisartan on CKD related renal injury and the underlying molecular mechanisms. It was noted that telmisartan provided protection for rats against 5/6 Nx induced lethality. Telmisartan treated 5/6 Nx rats manifested improved renal function as characterized by the higher GFR but lower urinary albumin, BUN and Scr as compared with that of control rats. Telmisartan treatment also significantly decreased systolic blood pressure and alleviated glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that telmisartan possesses the capability to increase NO generation in the kidney. Further studies demonstrated that telmisartan promotes PPARγ expression, by which it specifically enhances nNOS expression in the kidneys after 5/6 Nx insult. Particularly, blockade of PPARγ signaling by GW9662 abolished the protective effect conferred by telmisartan, indicating that telmisartan induction of renal nNOS expression along with NO generation is dependent on PPARγ signaling. Together, our data support that telmisartan could be a promising drug for treatment of chronic kidney diseases in diverse clinical settings.

  18. Cathode encapsulation of OLEDs by atomic layer deposited Al2O3 films and Al2O3/a-SiNx:H stacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuning, W.; Van de Weijer, P.; Lifka, H.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Creatore, M.

    2011-01-01

    Al2O3 thin films synthesized by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition(ALD) at room temperature (25 ºC) have been tested as water vapor per-meation barriers for OLED devices. Silicon nitride films (a-SiNx:H)deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD) servedas reference and were

  19. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 3-(4-Ethoxyphenyl)-6-(phenoxymethyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Xin-Xiang; LIU Miao-Chang; XIAO Hong-Ping; ZHANG An-Jiang; ZHANG Li-Xue

    2007-01-01

    The title compound C18H16N4O2S has been synthesized by the reaction of 4-amino-3-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole with phenoxyacetic acid in phospho- rus oxychloride, and characterized by IR, NMR spectra and elemental analysis. Its structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 1.4903(3), b = 1.5230(2), c = 0.9615(16) nm, Z = 4, V = 1.7769(5) nm3, Dc = 1.317 g/cm3, ( = 0.201 mm-1, F(000) = 736, R = 0.0795 and wR = 0.2233. In the title compound, all rings are essentially planar.

  20. Effect of substituents on the strength of N-X (X = H, F, and Cl) bond dissociation energies: a high-level quantum chemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Robert J; Karton, Amir; Radom, Leo

    2011-06-02

    The effect of substituents on the strength of N-X (X = H, F, and Cl) bonds has been investigated using the high-level W2w thermochemical protocol. The substituents have been selected to be representative of the key functional groups that are likely to be of biological, synthetic, or industrial importance for these systems. We interpreted the effects through the calculation of relative N-X bond dissociation energies (BDE) or radical stabilization energies (RSE(NX)). The BDE and RSE(NX) values depend on stabilizing/destabilizing effects in both the reactant molecule and the product radical of the dissociation reactions. To assist us in the analysis of the substituent effects, a number of additional thermochemical quantities have been introduced, including molecule stabilization energies (MSE(NX)). We find that the RSE(NH) values are (a) increased by electron-donating alkyl substituents or the vinyl substituent, (b) increased in imines, and (c) decreased by electron-withdrawing substituents such as CF(3) and carbonyl moieties or through protonation. A different picture emerges when considering the RSE(NF) and RSE(NCl) values because of the electronegativities of the halogen atoms. The RSE(NX)s differ from the RSE(NH) values by an amount related to the stabilization of the N-halogenated molecules and given by MSE(NX). We find that substituents that stabilize/destabilize the radicals also tend to stabilize/destabilize the N-halogenated molecules. As a result, N-F- and N-Cl-containing molecules that include alkyl substituents or correspond to imines are generally associated with RSE(NF) and RSE(NCl) values that are less positive or more negative than the corresponding RSE(NH). In contrast, N-F- and N-Cl-containing molecules that include electron-withdrawing substituents or are protonated are generally associated with RSE(NF) and RSE(NCl) values that are more positive or less negative than the corresponding RSE(NH).

  1. Factors on prognosis in patients of stage pT3N0M0 thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after two-field esophagectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: For patients of pT3N0M0 thoracic ESCC, the independent factors were the site of a lesion for OS and PFS, Hb levels, small LN in CT, and number of removed LN for OS. The value of postoperative adjuvant therapy need be further proved.

  2. Lowest surface recombination velocity on n-type crystalline silicon using PECVD a-Si:H/SiNx bi-layer passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Dmitri S.; Chowdhury, Zahidur R.; Kherani, Nazir P.

    2011-08-01

    Energy conversion efficiency of crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells manufactured on thin substrates is strongly influenced by the recombination losses of photo-generated charge carriers at the surface and in its proximity. Intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (i-a-Si:H) deposited using DC saddle-field plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) at a low temperature of ~200°C reduces recombination losses of photo-generated carriers through passivation of defects at the surface. This study reports on high quality surface passivation achieved using a dual layer approach wherein a 70nm amorphous silicon nitride (SiNx) capping layer is deposited on a less than 10nm thin i-a-Si:H layer. While the a-Si:H layer is effective in passivating the interface recombination sites, SiNx is deemed to incorporate field-effect passivation, thus providing a minority carrier mirror. Additionally, SiNx layer acts as an anti-reflection coating with a low absorption coefficient in the optical frequency range of interest. The SiNx deposition conditions, known to strongly influence the passivating quality of the dual layer structure, were systematically investigated using the response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal deposition parameters obtained from the RSM study were experimentally verified to yield the lowest surface recombination velocity of 3.5 cm/s on 1-2 Ω-cm n-type FZ c-Si using a PECVD a-Si:H/SiNx bi-layer passivation stack.

  3. The prognostic impact of preoperative blood monocyte count in pathological T3N0M0 rectal cancer without neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu-Ning; Xiao, Weiwei; OuYang, Pu-Yun; You, Kaiyun; Zeng, Zhi-Fan; Ding, Pei-Rong; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Xu, Rui-Hua; Gao, Yuan-Hong

    2015-09-01

    It remains controversial whether adjuvant therapy should be delivered to pathological T3N0M0 rectal cancer without neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Thus identification of patients at high risk is of particular importance. Herein, we aimed to evaluate whether the absolute peripheral blood monocyte count can stratify the pathological T3N0M0M0 rectal cancer patients in survival. A total of 270 pathological T3N0M0 rectal cancer patients with total mesorectal excision-principle radical resection were included. The optimal cut-off value of preoperative monocyte count was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Overall survival and disease-free survival between low- and high-monocyte were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model. The optimal cut-off value for monocyte count was 595 mm(3). In univariate analysis, patients with monocyte counts higher than 595/mm(3) had significantly inferior 5-year overall survival (79.2 vs 94.2 %, P = 0.006) and disease-free survival (67.8 vs 86.0 %, P count remained to be associated with poor overall survival (HR = 2.55, 95 % CI 1.27-5.10; P = 0.008) and disease-free survival (HR = 2.63, 95 % CI 1.48-4.69; P = 0.001). Additionally, the significant association of monocyte count with disease-free survival was hardly influenced in the subgroup analysis, whereas this correlation was restricted to the males and patients with normal carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level (count is independently predictive of worse survival of pathological T3N0M0 rectal cancer patients without neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Postoperative adjuvant therapy might be considered for patients with high-monocyte count.

  4. Role of SiNx Barrier Layer on the Performances of Polyimide Ga2O3-doped ZnO p-i-n Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Hsing Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, silicon nitride (SiNx thin films were deposited on polyimide (PI substrates as barrier layers by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD system. The gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO thin films were deposited on PI and SiNx/PI substrates at room temperature (RT, 100 and 200 °C by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering. The thicknesses of the GZO and SiNx thin films were controlled at around 160 ± 12 nm and 150 ± 10 nm, respectively. The optimal deposition parameters for the SiNx thin films were a working pressure of 800 × 10−3 Torr, a deposition power of 20 W, a deposition temperature of 200 °C, and gas flowing rates of SiH4 = 20 sccm and NH3 = 210 sccm, respectively. For the GZO/PI and GZO-SiNx/PI structures we had found that the GZO thin films deposited at 100 and 200 °C had higher crystallinity, higher electron mobility, larger carrier concentration, smaller resistivity, and higher optical transmittance ratio. For that, the GZO thin films deposited at 100 and 200 °C on PI and SiNx/PI substrates with thickness of ~1000 nm were used to fabricate p-i-n hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si thin film solar cells. 0.5% HCl solution was used to etch the surfaces of the GZO/PI and GZO-SiNx/PI substrates. Finally, PECVD system was used to deposit α-Si thin film onto the etched surfaces of the GZO/PI and GZO-SiNx/PI substrates to fabricate α-Si thin film solar cells, and the solar cells’ properties were also investigated. We had found that substrates to get the optimally solar cells’ efficiency were 200 °C-deposited GZO-SiNx/PI.

  5. Total Synthesis of Six 3,4-Unsubstituted Coumarins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Gao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe a new methodology for the total synthesis of 3,4-unsubstituted coumarins from commercially available starting materials. Six examples were prepared, including five naturally occurring coumarins—7-hydroxy-6,8-dimethoxy-coumarin (isofraxidin, 7-hydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin (scopoletin, 6,7,8-trimethoxy-coumarin, 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (scoparone, and 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin (daphnetin and one synthetic coumarin, 7-hydroxy-6-ethoxycoumarin. Moreover, five important o-hydroxybenzaldehyde intermediates were also obtained, namely 2,4-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, 2,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde, 5-ethoxy-2,4-dihydroxy-benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde, and 2-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxy-benzaldehyde. The method developed herein involves just three or four steps and allows for the rapid synthesis of these important molecules in excellent yields. This is the first synthesis of 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin and 7-hydroxy-6-ethoxycoumarin.

  6. 基于NX CAM的汽车转向节终锻模膛的高速加工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑维明; 罗功波; 于文强; 赵婷婷

    2013-01-01

    本文在NX CAM平台上,针对汽车转向节锻模具有不规则曲面和飞边的特点,分析了相应的高速铣削流程与走刀策略,并使用自动编程功能优化了切削方式、刀具轨迹等工艺参数,最后采用误差小、精度高的NURBS插补方法简化了NC加工程序代码,提高了模具的加工的质量和效率。

  7. Preservative effect of food-based fermentate from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 on chilled pork patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianying; Lu, Yingjian; Liu, Xiaoxi; Bie, Xiaomei; Lv, Fengxia; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2014-03-01

    The food-based fermentate (FBF) from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity but has not previously been reported as a food preservative. Experiments were conducted to assess its application as a preservative in pork patties. The effect of freeze-dried FBF on the microbiological parameters, physicochemical changes, and sensory evaluations of chilled pork patties stored for 15 days at 4°C was investigated. The five treatments evaluated included a control (meat only), nisin (meat plus 0.5% nisin), L.1 (meat plus 2% freeze-dried FBF), L.2 (meat plus 4% freeze-dried FBF), and L.3 (meat plus 8% freeze-dried FBF). The results showed that freeze-dried FBF could significantly (P preservative in chilled pork patties.

  8. Effect of rare earth and other cationic promoters on properties of CoMoNx/CNTs catalysts for ammonia decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhaohui; ZOU Hanbo; LIN Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) supported Co-Mo nitride catalysts were prepared by incipient-wetness impregnation method and temperature-programmed reaction in N2-H2 mixed gases.The effects of cationic promoters (K,Ba,La,Ce and Zr) on the catalytic performance and surface properties were investigated.All samples were characterized by N2 physical adsorption,X-ray diffraction,and temperature-programmed reduction of H2.The results showed that the addition of promoters reduced the crystallite size of Mo2N and Co3Mo3N species and increased their surface area and dispersion.Among the catalysts,the La promoted CoMoNx/CNTs catalyst had the highest ammonia conversion which could reach 97.63% at 600 ℃.

  9. Verifying field-effect passivation of a SiNx layer on a silicon nanopillar array using surface photovoltage characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunah; Cho, Yunae; Sohn, Ahrum; Kim, Dong-Wook; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Joondong

    In silicon (Si) wafer based photovoltaic (PV) devices, light-trapping strategies to improve optical absorption are very important due to the indirect bandgap of Si. Surface nano-patterned Si enable omnidirectional broadband antireflection (AR) effects with the help of graded refractive index, multiple scattering, diffraction, and Mie resonance. In this work, the surface photovoltage (SPV) of periodic nanopillar (NP) arrays were investigated using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). The SPV characteristics clearly revealed that positive fixed charges in SiNx layers induced downward band bending at the Si surface and increased SPV at the NP top surface. The similar SPV value of NPs and planar counterpart suggests that field effect passivation by the dielectric layer coating could help improve PV performance of nanostructure-based Si solar cells and that KPFM measurements are useful tool for quantitative investigation of surface electrical properties of Si nanostructures.

  10. Cytoplasmic N-glycosyltransferase of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is an inverting enzyme and recognizes the NX(S/T) consensus sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Flavio; Fan, Yao-Yun; Schubert, Mario; Aebi, Markus

    2011-10-07

    N-Linked glycosylation is a frequent protein modification that occurs in all three domains of life. This process involves the transfer of a preassembled oligosaccharide from a lipid donor to asparagine side chains of polypeptides and is catalyzed by the membrane-bound oligosaccharyltransferase (OST). We characterized an alternative bacterial pathway wherein a cytoplasmic N-glycosyltransferase uses nucleotide-activated monosaccharides as donors to modify asparagine residues of peptides and proteins. N-Glycosyltransferase is an inverting glycosyltransferase and recognizes the NX(S/T) consensus sequence. It therefore exhibits similar acceptor site specificity as eukaryotic OST, despite the unrelated predicted structural architecture and the apparently different catalytic mechanism. The identification of an enzyme that integrates some of the features of OST in a cytoplasmic pathway defines a novel class of N-linked protein glycosylation found in pathogenic bacteria.

  11. Optimization of SiNx Single and Double Layer ARC for Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells on Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beye

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the optimization of the antireflection effect of SiN in silicon on glass based structure. A numerical calculation is performed and a SiNx double stack antireflection coating is found to have significant advantages over single-layer due to their broad-range coverage of the solar spectrum. Moreover, it was found that minimum reflection losses is obtained for SiN/SiN double-layer ARC with refractive indexes of 1.9 et 2.3 for the top and the bottom layer, respectively. The effect of the incident angle on reflectance is also studied. The numerical optimization procedure and its results are presented.

  12. SYNTHESIS of 3.4-METHYLENEDIOXYPHENYL-2-PROPANONE from SAFROLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanoch J Sohilait

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Synthesis of 3.4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone from safrole has been achieved through conversion of allyl group to secondary alcohol, followed by oxidation with pyridinium chlorochromate(PCC.  The secondary alcohol has been achieved by two methods. The first method was formic acid adition reaction, followed by hydrolysis in aqueous ethanolic solution of potassium hydroxide.  The second method was the oxymercuration-demercuration reaction of safrole. The addition reaction of safrole with formic acid yield safrylformate (34,70%. The hydrolysis of safrylformate with 3M KOH produced safrylalchohol (73,29%. The oxymercuration-demercuration reaction of safrole with Hg(OAc2-NaBH4 gave (74,37% of safrylalcohol.  The oxidation of safryalcohol with PCC gave 3.4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone as a main target in 71,83%. The structure elucidations of these products were analyzed by  FTIR , 1H-NMR,  13C-NMR and MS.   Keyword: 3.4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone;  safrole

  13. 基于Siemens NX 8.5的典型零件数控加工仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玲

    2013-01-01

    For current CNC industry, most enterprises use manual process simple or less accuracy parts by manual programming in order to save costs.However,the manual programming cannot meet the requirements of high-volume production. And it also takes more material and time, thus , automatic programming plays an important role in production.Just a typical case in this paper, we introduced the analog processing to simulate machining for automatic generation of NC programs which based on Siemens NX8.5 CNC machining and the application of the Yulong simulation system .%  当前的数控行业中,对于简单零件或者是精度要求不高的零件加工,企业大都采用手工编程,以此来节省成本.但是,对于复杂零件或者是精度要求比较高的零件,在进行大批量生产时,手工编程无法满足要求,耗时耗材,这时自动编程就起着显著作用.本文以一典型零件为例,介绍了基于Siemens NX8.5的数控加工以及应用宇龙仿真系统对自动生成的NC程序进行模拟加工.

  14. Delayed risk stratification system in pT1aN0/Nx DTC patients treated without radioactive iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Ga˛sior-Perczak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Delayed risk stratification (DRS system by Momesso and coworkers was accepted by the American Thyroid Association as a diagnostic tool for the risk stratification of unfavorable clinical outcomes and to monitor the clinical outcomes of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC patients treated without radioactive iodine (RAI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the DRS system in patients with pT1aN0/Nx stage. Methods: The study included 304 low-risk patients after thyroidectomy (n = 202 or lobectomy (n = 102 without RAI and were treated at a single center. The median age was 50.5 years, 91.1% were women and the median follow-up was 4 years. DRS of the treatment response was performed based on medical records and according to the criteria of Momesso and coworkers. Disease course (recurrence, death and status (remission, persistent disease on December 31, 2016 were evaluated. The relationship between unfavorable outcomes and the DRS system was evaluated. Results: Response to initial therapy was excellent in 272 patients (89.5%, indeterminate in 31 (10.2% and biochemical incomplete (increased TgAb levels in one (0.3%. Two patients in the excellent response group experienced recurrence at 6 and 7 years of follow-up (after lobectomy. None of the patients with indeterminate and biochemical incomplete response developed structural disease, and none of the patients died during the follow-up. Conclusions: The DRS system was not useful for predicting the risk of unfavorable clinical outcomes and cannot be used to personalize the monitoring method of the disease in patients at pT1aN0/Nx stage who are not treated with RAI.

  15. Delayed risk stratification system in pT1aN0/Nx DTC patients treated without radioactive iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąsior-Perczak, Danuta; Pałyga, Iwona; Szymonek, Monika; Kowalik, Artur; Walczyk, Agnieszka; Kopczyński, Janusz; Lizis-Kolus, Katarzyna; Słuszniak, Anna; Słuszniak, Janusz; Łopatyński, Tomasz; Mezyk, Ryszard; Góźdź, Stanisław; Kowalska, Aldona

    2017-08-18

    A delayed risk stratification (DRS) system by Momesso et al. was accepted by the American Thyroid Association as a diagnostic tool for the risk stratification of unfavorable clinical outcomes and to monitor the clinical outcomes of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients treated without radioactive iodine (RAI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the DRS system in patients with pT1aN0/Nx stage . The study included 304 low-risk patients after thyroidectomy (n=202) or lobectomy (n=102) without RAI and were treated at a single center. The median age was 50.5 years, 91.1% were women, and the median follow-up was 4 years. DRS of the treatment response was performed based on medical records and according to the criteria of Momesso et al. Disease course (recurrence, death) and status (remission, persistent disease) on December 31, 2016 were evaluated. The relationship between unfavorable outcomes and the DRS system was evaluated. Response to initial therapy was excellent in 272 patients (89.5%), indeterminate in 31 (10.2%), and biochemical incomplete (increased TgAb levels) in one (0.3%). Two patients in the excellent response group experienced recurrence at 6 and 7 years of follow-up (after lobectomy). None of the patients with indeterminate and biochemical incomplete response developed structural disease, and none of the patients died during the follow-up. The DRS system was not useful for predicting the risk of unfavorable clinical outcomes and cannot be used to personalize the monitoring method of the disease in patients at pT1aN0/Nx stage who are not treated with RAI.

  16. Fundamental properties of a-SiNx:H thin films deposited by ICP-PECVD for MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergez, D.; Schalko, J.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U.

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the impact of deposition conditions on the properties of amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) films using an inductively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (ICP-CVD) is evaluated. Due to the large number of experiments - even when taking only the most important synthesization parameters into account such as the total pressure in the deposition chamber, the substrate temperature, the ICP power and the flow rate ratio of N2/SiH4 - a design of experiments-based approach is chosen. As expected, the deposition rate strongly depends on the ICP power and the N2/SiH4 flow rate ratio, respectively. Films in the field of investigation deposited with a high flow rate of N2 labeled as Type I show relatively low mechanical stress values between -50 and +200 MPa, but exhibit a strong drift behavior toward compressive stress. Layers deposited at low nitrogen flow rates (Type II), however, yield large compressive stress and are stable as a function of time. The wet etch rate in hydrofluoric acid shows a gap of over two orders of magnitude when comparing the two a-SiNx:H types, indicating strong differences in the chemical composition. Fourier-transform infrared measurements demonstrate that in Type I films the hydrogen is mainly bonded to nitrogen, in contrast to Type II films, where Si-H bonds dominate. Surface related X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that Type II layers have higher relative silicon content, while depth profiles yield that the oxygen content Type I films is above 10 at.%. This high oxygen content is proposed to be the result of diffusion of H2O into the layer, causing oxidation, and, as a consequence, the drifting behavior of the intrinsic film stress.

  17. Polymers Containing 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole Rings for Advanced Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana-Dana Damaceanu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the synthesis, properties and potential applications of new polymers containing 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole rings, tacking into account the requirements of the modern technologies. Two classes of polymers containing oxadiazole rings were approached: polyamides and polyimides. All the polymers were characterized with respect to the identification of their chemical structure, solubility, molecular weights, film forming ability, thermal, dielectric and optical properties, and the behaviour of polyoxadiazole films upon irradiation with pulsed KrF laser. All the properties were discussed in correlation with their chemical structure and compared with those of related polymers.

  18. Simplicius on Aristotle on the heavens 1-3-4

    CERN Document Server

    Simplicius

    2013-01-01

    This is the first English translation of Simplicius responses to Philoponus Against Aristotle on the Eternity of the World. The commentary is published in two volumes: Ian Muellers previous book in the series, Simplicius: On Aristotle On the Heavens 1.2-3, and this book on 1.3-4. Philoponus, the Christian, had argued that Aristotles arguments do not succeed. For all they show to the contrary, Christianity may be right that the heavens were brought into existence by the only divine being and one moment in time, and will cease to exist at some future moment. Simplicius upholds the pagan view tha

  19. Stereoselective Synthesis of 2,3,4,6-Tetrasubstituted Tetrahydropyrans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Jun-Fang; WU Yang-Jie; Véronique Micheletb; Jean-Pierre Genêt b

    2003-01-01

    @@ The construction of stereodefined, highly substituted tetrahydropyrans has attracted a lot of interest over the years since they constitute ubiquitous fragments of numerous biologically active natural products.[1] During the course of our synthetic studies toward ambruticin, a fascinating antibiotic[2] which came back in the front scene with three recent total synthesis, [3] we have been interested in the synthesis of 2,3,4,6-tetrasubstituted tetrahydropyrans 5 (Scheme 1). [4] Moreover, this kind of subunit is found to be embedded in several other natural products such as lasonolide A, polycavernoside A, ratjadone, or concanamycin A.

  20. Reliability of poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Lillemose, Michael; Hansen, Thomas Steen;

    2007-01-01

    -polymer Microsystems. The measurements are made on microfabricated test chips with PEDT resistors patterned by conventional UV-lithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). We determine a gauge factor of 3.41 ± 0.42 for the strained PEDT and we see an increase in resistivity from 1.98 · 104 X m to 2.22 · 104 X m when......We report on the experimentally observed reliability of the piezoresistive effect in strained poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDT). PEDT is an intrinsic conductive polymer which can be patterned by conventional Cleanroom processing, and thus presents a promising material for all...

  1. 3,4-Diaminopyridinium 2-carboxy-4,6-dinitrophenolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Hemamalini

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, C5H8N3+·C7H3N2O7−, the pyridine N atom of the 3,4-diaminopyridine molecule is protonated. The 3,5-dinitrosalicylate anion shows whole-molecule disorder over two orientations with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.875 (4: 0.125 (4. In the crystal, the cations and anions are connected by intermolecular N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  2. AGR 3/4 Irradiation Test Final As Run Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin, Blaise P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Several fuel and material irradiation experiments have been planned for the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program (referred to as the INL ART TDO/AGR fuel program hereafter), which supports the development and qualification of tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel for use in HTGRs. The goals of these experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination and safety testing (INL 05/2015). AGR-3/4 combined the third and fourth in this series of planned experiments to test TRISO coated low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide fuel. This combined experiment was intended to support the refinement of fission product transport models and to assess the effects of sweep gas impurities on fuel performance and fission product transport by irradiating designed-to-fail fuel particles and by measuring subsequent fission metal transport in fuel-compact matrix material and fuel-element graphite. The AGR 3/4 fuel test was successful in irradiating the fuel compacts to the burnup and fast fluence target ranges, considering the experiment was terminated short of its initial 400 EFPD target (Collin 2015). Out of the 48 AGR-3/4 compacts, 42 achieved the specified burnup of at least 6% fissions per initial heavy-metal atom (FIMA). Three capsules had a maximum fuel compact average burnup < 10% FIMA, one more than originally specified, and the maximum fuel compact average burnup was <19% FIMA for the remaining capsules, as specified. Fast neutron fluence fell in the expected range of 1.0 to 5.5×1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV) for all compacts. In addition, the AGR-3/4 experiment was globally successful in keeping the

  3. 3,4-Dietilpirolün Sentezi ve Karakterizasyonu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. DEDE

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Pirol ve türevleri organik ve biyokimyada önemli heterosiklik bileşiklerdir ve birçok doğal üründe bulunmaktadırlar. Bu çalışmada, porfirin vb. gibi doğal ürünlerin sentezinde kullanılabilecek bir bileşik olan 3,4-dietilpirolün sentezi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu amaç için ilk önce bir α-halojenleme reaksiyonu ile bütanalden 2-bromobütanal elde edilmiş ve yine bütanal, morfolin ile etkileştirilerek 1-morfolino-1-büten enamini sentezlenmiştir. 2-Bromobutanal ve 1-morfolino-1-büten uygun şartlarda etkileştirilerek 2,3-dietilsüksinaldehit elde edilmiştir. 2,3-Dietilsüksinaldehitin amonyum karbonat ile reaksiyonu sonucu 3,4-dietilpirol sentezlenmiştir.

  4. Ultraporous poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) for nanometric electrochemical supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aradilla, David [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Center for Research in Nano-Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Campus Sud, Edifici C' , C/Pasqual i Vila s/n, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Estrany, Francesc [Center for Research in Nano-Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Campus Sud, Edifici C' , C/Pasqual i Vila s/n, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, EUETIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Comte d' Urgell 187, Barcelona E-08036 (Spain); Armelin, Elaine [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Center for Research in Nano-Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Campus Sud, Edifici C' , C/Pasqual i Vila s/n, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Aleman, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.aleman@upc.edu [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Center for Research in Nano-Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Campus Sud, Edifici C' , C/Pasqual i Vila s/n, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain)

    2012-04-30

    Ultrathin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) have been prepared by electropolymerization on steel and indium-tin oxide (ITO) substrates under identical experimental conditions. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy indicate that the substrate affects dramatically both the morphology and topography of films when the polymerization times are very short. An ultraporous three-dimensional network involving ultrathin sticks with a fiber-like morphology was formed on ITO. Asymmetric and symmetric supercapacitors have been fabricated by assembling electrodes of PEDOT deposited on ITO and steel. The specific capacitance, electrochemical stability, supercapacitor behavior and Coulombic efficiency measured for devices with an ITO/steel configuration were similar to those reported for advanced PEDOT-inorganic hybrid composites. Furthermore, the performance of the ITO/steel assembly is higher than those determined for symmetric supercapacitors derived from two identical electrodes of PEDOT deposited on steel or on ITO. The unique properties of the asymmetric supercapacitors have been attributed to the ultraporous structure of the ultrathin films deposited on ITO, which is not significantly perturbed when the device is submitted to a very high number of consecutive oxidation-reduction processes, and the different electroactivities of the two electrodes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrathin poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films show fiber-like morphology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The porosity of ultrathin PEDOT films induces a very high electrochemical stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Asymmetric supercapacitors made of ultrathin PEDOT behave like hybrid nanocomposites.

  5. 3, 4-methylenedioximethamphetamin reverses anxiety induced by chronic mild stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Andrea León A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the effects of subchronic 3, 4 methylenedioximethamphetamine (MDMA on the elevated plusmaze, a widely used animal model of anxiety. Rats exposed to a mild chronic stress (MCS protocol received intracerebroventricular microinjections of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI – fluoxetine (2.0 ug/ul or MDMA, (2.0 ug/ul for seven days. On the eighth day rats were tested in the elevated plus-maze. Our results showed that sub chronic MDMA interacted with MCS leading to a decrease in anxiety related behaviors including: percentage of open arms entries (F [2, 26] = 4.00; p = 0.031, time spent in the open arms (F [2, 26] = 3.656; p = 0.040 and time spent in the open arms extremities (F [2, 26] = 5.842; p = 0.008. These results suggest a potential effect of MDMA in the reversion of the emotional significance of aversive stimuli.

  6. Finite Element Analysis of Mechanical Product Based on NX and ANSYS%基于NX和ANSYS的机械产品有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张焱焱

    2011-01-01

    对有限元分析的关键技术网格划分的理论方法进行了总结,采用UG NX7进行机械产品的三维建模、网格划分和载荷施加,通过图形数据转换接口将数模导入ANSYS中,利用ANSYS对机械产品进行仿真分析.最后以水平定向钻关键部件为例展示了建模及分析过程.%It summerizes the FEA key technology and mesh methods, builds the 3D and meshing model based on UG NX7, transformes the CAD model file into ANSYS through the interface of graph - transform and analyzes the key component of mechanical product. It takes the horizontal orientation drilling machine to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  7. Comparison of NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel and Anyplex II RV16 Tests for Multiplex Detection of Respiratory Pathogens in Hospitalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotons, Pedro; Henares, Desiree; Latorre, Irene; Cepillo, Antonio; Launes, Cristian; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen

    2016-12-01

    Multiplex molecular techniques can detect a diversity of respiratory viruses and bacteria that cause childhood acute respiratory infection rapidly and conveniently. However, currently available techniques show high variation in performance. We sought to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the novel multiplex NxTAG respiratory pathogen panel (RPP) RUO test versus a routine multiplex Anyplex II RV16 assay in respiratory specimens collected from children <18 years of age hospitalized with nonspecific symptoms of acute lower respiratory infection. Parallel testing was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates prospectively collected at referral Children's Hospital Sant Joan de Déu (Barcelona, Spain) between June and November 2015. Agreement values between the two tests and kappa coefficients were assessed. Bidirectional sequencing was performed for the resolution of discordant results. A total of 319 samples were analyzed by both techniques. A total of 268 (84.0%) of them yielded concordant results. Positive percent agreement values ranged from 83.3 to 100%, while the negative percent agreement was more than 99% for all targets except for enterovirus/rhinovirus (EV/RV; 94.4%). Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.83 to 1.00. Discrepancy analysis confirmed 66.0% of NxTAG RPP RUO results. A total of 260 viruses were detected, with EV/RV (n = 105, 40.4%) being the most prevalent target. Viral coinfections were found in 44 (14.2%) samples. In addition, NxTAG RPP RUO detected single bacterial and mixed viral-bacterial infections in seven samples. NxTAG RPP RUO showed high positive and negative agreement with Anyplex II RV16 for main viruses that cause acute respiratory infections in children, coupled with an additional capability to detect some respiratory bacteria. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Improvement of Physical Decline Through Combined Effects of Muscle Enhancement and Mitochondrial Activation by a Gastric Hormone Ghrelin in Male 5/6Nx CKD Model Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Masanori; Hagiwara, Aika; Miyashita, Kazutoshi; Wakino, Shu; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Kentaro; Fujii, Chikako; Sato, Masaaki; Mitsuishi, Masanori; Muraki, Ayako; Hayashi, Koichi; Doi, Toshio; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    Because a physical decline correlates with an increased risk of a wide range of disease and morbidity, an improvement of physical performance is expected to bring significant clinical benefits. The primary cause of physical decline in 5/6 nephrectomized (5/6Nx) chronic kidney disease model mice has been regarded as a decrease in muscle mass; however, our recent study showed that a decrease in muscle mitochondria plays a critical role. In the present study, we examined the effects of a gastric hormone ghrelin, which has been reported to promote muscle mitochondrial oxidation, on the physical decline in the chronic kidney disease model mice, focusing on the epigenetic modulations of a mitochondrial activator gene, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). Ghrelin treatment improved a decline in exercise endurance of 5/6Nx mice, associated with an increase in both of the muscle mass and mitochondrial amount. The expression level of PGC-1α was decreased in the skeletal muscle of 5/6Nx mice, which was associated with an increase in the methylation ratio of the cytosine residue at 260 base pairs upstream of the initiation point. Conversely, ghrelin treatment de-methylated the cytosine residue and increased the expression of PGC-1α. A representative muscle anabolic factor, IGF-1, did not affect the expression of PGC-1α and muscle mitochondrial amount, although it increased muscle mass. As a result, IGF-1 treatment in 5/6Nx mice did not increase the decreased exercise endurance as effectively as ghrelin treatment did. These findings indicate an advantage of ghrelin treatment for a recovery of physical decline.

  9. Fabrication and Photocatalytic Property of One-Dimensional SrTiO3/TiO2-xNx Nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Huarong Zhang; Miao Guashuai; Ma Xingping; Wang Bei

    2013-01-01

    One-dimensional SrTiO3/TiO2−xNx nanostructures were prepared by the hydrothermal method and investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS) measurements. The photocatalytic activities of the prepared samples were evaluated by photodegrading the methylene blue (MB) solution. According to the characterizations, the intermediate product of SrTiO3/titanate...

  10. A Final Result on the Oscillation of Solutions of the Linear Discrete Delayed Equation Δx(n=−p(nx(n−k with a Positive Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Baštinec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A linear (k+1th-order discrete delayed equation Δx(n=−p(nx(n−k where p(n a positive sequence is considered for n→∞. This equation is known to have a positive solution if the sequence p(n satisfies an inequality. Our aim is to show that, in the case of the opposite inequality for p(n, all solutions of the equation considered are oscillating for n→∞.

  11. A General Approach to Preferential Formation of Active Fe-Nx Sites in Fe-N/C Electrocatalysts for Efficient Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Young Jin; Seo, Dong-Jun; Woo, Jinwoo; Lim, Jung Tae; Cheon, Jae Yeong; Yang, Seung Yong; Lee, Jae Myeong; Kang, Dongwoo; Shin, Tae Joo; Shin, Hyeon Suk; Jeong, Hu Young; Kim, Chul Sung; Kim, Min Gyu; Kim, Tae-Young; Joo, Sang Hoon

    2016-11-16

    Iron-nitrogen on carbon (Fe-N/C) catalysts have emerged as promising nonprecious metal catalysts (NPMCs) for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in energy conversion and storage devices. It has been widely suggested that an active site structure for Fe-N/C catalysts contains Fe-Nx coordination. However, the preparation of high-performance Fe-N/C catalysts mostly involves a high-temperature pyrolysis step, which generates not only catalytically active Fe-Nx sites, but also less active large iron-based particles. Herein, we report a general "silica-protective-layer-assisted" approach that can preferentially generate the catalytically active Fe-Nx sites in Fe-N/C catalysts while suppressing the formation of large Fe-based particles. The catalyst preparation consisted of an adsorption of iron porphyrin precursor on carbon nanotube (CNT), silica layer overcoating, high-temperature pyrolysis, and silica layer etching, which yielded CNTs coated with thin layer of porphyrinic carbon (CNT/PC) catalysts. Temperature-controlled in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy during the preparation of CNT/PC catalyst revealed the coordination of silica layer to stabilize the Fe-N4 sites. The CNT/PC catalyst contained higher density of active Fe-Nx sites compared to the CNT/PC prepared without silica coating. The CNT/PC showed very high ORR activity and excellent stability in alkaline media. Importantly, an alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) with a CNT/PC-based cathode exhibited record high current and power densities among NPMC-based AEMFCs. In addition, a CNT/PC-based cathode exhibited a high volumetric current density of 320 A cm(-3) in acidic proton exchange membrane fuel cell. We further demonstrated the generality of this synthetic strategy to other carbon supports.

  12. a-SiNx:H-based ultra-low power resistive random access memory with tunable Si dangling bond conduction paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaofan; Ma, Zhongyuan; Xu, Jun; Chen, Kunji; Xu, Ling; Li, Wei; Huang, Xinfan; Feng, Duan

    2015-10-28

    The realization of ultra-low power Si-based resistive switching memory technology will be a milestone in the development of next generation non-volatile memory. Here we show that a high performance and ultra-low power resistive random access memory (RRAM) based on an Al/a-SiNx:H/p(+)-Si structure can be achieved by tuning the Si dangling bond conduction paths. We reveal the intrinsic relationship between the Si dangling bonds and the N/Si ratio x for the a-SiNx:H films, which ensures that the programming current can be reduced to less than 1 μA by increasing the value of x. Theoretically calculated current-voltage (I-V) curves combined with the temperature dependence of the I-V characteristics confirm that, for the low-resistance state (LRS), the Si dangling bond conduction paths obey the trap-assisted tunneling model. In the high-resistance state (HRS), conduction is dominated by either hopping or Poole-Frenkel (P-F) processes. Our introduction of hydrogen in the a-SiNx:H layer provides a new way to control the Si dangling bond conduction paths, and thus opens up a research field for ultra-low power Si-based RRAM.

  13. High-performance resin-bonded magnets produced from zinc metal-coated Sm2(Fe0.9Co0.1)17Nx fine powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, K.; Machida, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Nishimura, M.; Adachi, G.

    1999-09-01

    Fine powders of Sm2(Fe0.9Co0.1)17Nx (x=˜3) with particle sizes (d) around 1 μm as coated with zinc metal produced via the photodecomposition of diethylzinc [Zn(C2H5)2], which still provided high remanence (Br) and coercivity (Hcj) values of ˜1.43 T and ˜0.85 MAm-1, were molded to compression-type resin bonded Zn/Sm2(Fe0.9Co0.1)17Nx magnets with density values of ˜6.33 g cm-3. By optimizing the preparation conditions such as grinding, surface coating, and molding for them, the highest maximum energy product of (BH)max=186 kJm-3 for Hcj=0.73 MAm-1 was recorded among all kinds of the Sm-Fe-N based magnets reported to date. Furthermore, the excellent aging behavior of the bonded Zn/Sm2(Fe0.9Co0.1)17Nx magnets was observed after standing in air at ˜393 K and the thermal coefficient for permanent magnet was evaluated to be α(Br)=-0.04% K-1.

  14. Study of interface barrier of SiNx/GaN interface for nitrogen-polar GaN based high electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidhi, Rajan, Siddharth; Keller, Stacia; Wu, Feng; DenBaars, Steven P.; Speck, James S.; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2008-06-01

    The SiNx/GaN interface barrier height for N-polar GaN based metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MISHEMTs) was investigated. N-polar SiNx/GaN/AlGaN/GaN MISHEMT structures with different GaN cap thicknesses were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The properties of the SiNx/GaN interface are of critical importance to device operation and modeling in these devices. An analytical expression for the pinch-off voltage of the HEMT was obtained, and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements with different Schottky metals were used to extract the barrier height. The Fermi level at the interface was found to be pinned at approximately 1 eV with respect to GaN conduction band edge, irrespective of the work function of the gate metal. Hall measurements of the two-dimensional electron gas density were found to corroborate the predicted interface barrier height. An approximate value for interface charge causing this pinning was calculated to be 4.5×1012 cm-2.

  15. Estimation of the Binding Free Energy of AC1NX476 to HIV-1 Protease Wild Type and Mutations Using Free Energy Perturbation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Son Tung; Mai, Binh Khanh; Hiep, Dinh Minh; Li, Mai Suan

    2015-10-01

    The binding mechanism of AC1NX476 to HIV-1 protease wild type and mutations was studied by the docking and molecular dynamics simulations. The binding free energy was calculated using the double-annihilation binding free energy method. It is shown that the binding affinity of AC1NX476 to wild type is higher than not only ritonavir but also darunavir, making AC1NX476 become attractive candidate for HIV treatment. Our theoretical results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data as the correlation coefficient between calculated and experimentally measured binding free energies R = 0.993. Residues Asp25-A, Asp29-A, Asp30-A, Ile47-A, Gly48-A, and Val50-A from chain A, and Asp25-B from chain B play a crucial role in the ligand binding. The mutations were found to reduce the receptor-ligand interaction by widening the binding cavity, and the binding propensity is mainly driven by the van der Waals interaction. Our finding may be useful for designing potential drugs to combat with HIV.

  16. a-SiNx:H-based ultra-low power resistive random access memory with tunable Si dangling bond conduction paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaofan; Ma, Zhongyuan; Xu, Jun; Chen, Kunji; Xu, Ling; Li, Wei; Huang, Xinfan; Feng, Duan

    2015-10-01

    The realization of ultra-low power Si-based resistive switching memory technology will be a milestone in the development of next generation non-volatile memory. Here we show that a high performance and ultra-low power resistive random access memory (RRAM) based on an Al/a-SiNx:H/p+-Si structure can be achieved by tuning the Si dangling bond conduction paths. We reveal the intrinsic relationship between the Si dangling bonds and the N/Si ratio x for the a-SiNx:H films, which ensures that the programming current can be reduced to less than 1 μA by increasing the value of x. Theoretically calculated current-voltage (I-V ) curves combined with the temperature dependence of the I-V characteristics confirm that, for the low-resistance state (LRS), the Si dangling bond conduction paths obey the trap-assisted tunneling model. In the high-resistance state (HRS), conduction is dominated by either hopping or Poole-Frenkel (P-F) processes. Our introduction of hydrogen in the a-SiNx:H layer provides a new way to control the Si dangling bond conduction paths, and thus opens up a research field for ultra-low power Si-based RRAM.

  17. Ion mobility, conductivity, structure, and phase transitions in K0.7M0.3SbF4 compounds with M=Rb, NH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavun, V. Ya.; Gerasimenko, A. V.; Uvarov, N. F.; Polyantsev, M. M.; Zemnukhova, L. A.

    2016-09-01

    Ion mobility, phase transitions, structure, and conductivity in the K0.7M0.3SbF4 (M=Rb, NH4) compounds were studied by NMR spectroscopy, DSC, X-ray, and conductivity measurements. The predominant form in the ion motions resulting from the phase transition of high modification was diffusion of fluoride and ammonium ions above 450 K. The high-temperature phases of K0.7M0.3SbF4 (M=Rb, NH4) are superionic, while their conductivity attains the values of ~10-2-10-4 S/cm at 450-500 K. The structures of α- and β-modifications of the K0.7Rb0.3SbF4 are monoclinic (space group P21/m). The main structural units in them are statistically substituting each other K+ and Rb+ cations and complex 1[ SbF4 ]- ∞ anions linked into zigzag-like chains by bridge fluorine atoms. The nearest surrounding of each antimony atom contains five fluorine atoms, so that the antimony coordination polyhedron can be described, taking into account the lone electron pair, as a distorted SbF5E octahedron (ψ-octahedron).

  18. The evolution of Brown-York quasilocal energy as due to evolution of Lovelock gravity in a system of M0-branes

    CERN Document Server

    Sepehri, Alireza; Capozziello, Salvatore; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Pradhan, Anirudh

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested in [JHEP 12(2015)003] that the Brown-York mechanism can be used to measure the quasilocal energy in Lovelock gravity. We have used this method in a system of M0-branes and show that the Brown-York energy evolves in the process of birth and growth of Lovelock gravity. This can help us to predict phenomenological events which are emerged as due to dynamical structure of Lovelock gravity in our universe. In this model, first, M0-branes join to each other and form an M3-brane and an anti-M3-branes connected by an M2-brane. This system is named BIon. Universes and anti-universes live on M3-branes and M2 plays the role of wormhole between them. By passing time, M2 dissolves in M3's and nonlinear massive gravities like Lovelock massive gravity emerges and grows. By closing M3-branes, BIon evolves and wormhole between branes makes a transition to black hole. During this stage, Brown-York energy increases and shrinks to large values at the colliding points of branes. By approaching M3-b...

  19. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical studies of LiNi0.8M0.2O2 cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Sathiyamoorthi; P Manisankar; P Shakkthivel; Mu Sang Lee; T Vasudevan

    2008-06-01

    LiNiO2 and substituted nickel oxides, LiNi0.8M0.2O2 and LiCo0.8M0.2O2 (M = Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+), have been synthesized using simple solid state technique and used as cathode active materials for lithium rechargeable cells. Physical properties of the synthesized products are discussed in the structural (XRD, TEM, SEM with EDAX) and spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements. XRD results show that the compounds are similar to LiNiO2 in structure. TEM and SEM analyses were used to examine the particle size, nature and morphological aspects of the synthesized oxides. The composition of the materials was explored by EDAX analysis. Electrochemical studies were carried out in the range 3–4.5 V (vs Li metal) using 1 M LiBF4 in ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate as the electrolyte. The doping involving 20% Mg resulted in a discharge capacity of 185 mAhg-1 at 0.1 mA/cm2 and remained stable even after 25 cycles. Discharge capacity retention for Mg doped lithium nickelate at 25th cycle was noted to be nearly 7% higher than for the undoped material.

  20. CT characteristics and pathological implications of early stage (T1N0M0) lung adenocarcinoma with pure ground-glass opacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin; Zhao, Shao-hong; Wu, Jian; Wu, Chong-chong; Chang, Rui-ping; Ju, Hai-yue [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Gao, Jie; Wang, Dian-jun [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Pathology, Beijing (China)

    2015-09-15

    To analyze the CT characteristics and pathological classification of early lung adenocarcinoma (T1N0M0) with pure ground-glass opacity (pGGO). Ninety-four lesions with pGGO on CT in 88 patients with T1N0M0 lung adenocarcinoma were selected from January 2010 to December 2012. All lesions were confirmed by pathology. CT appearances were analyzed including lesion location, size, density, uniformity, shape, margin, tumour-lung interface, internal and surrounding malignant signs. Lesion size and density were compared using analysis of variance, lesion size also assessed using ROC curves. Gender of patients, lesion location and CT appearances were compared using χ2-test. There were no significant differences in gender, lesion location and density with histological invasiveness (P > 0.05). The ROC curve showed that the possibility of invasive lesion was 88.73 % when diameter of lesion was more than 10.5 mm. There was a significant difference between lesion uniformity and histological invasiveness (P = 0.01). There were significant differences in margin, tumour-lung interface, air bronchogram with histological invasiveness (P = 0.02,P = 0.00,P = 0.048). The correlation index of lesion size and uniformity was r = 0.45 (P = 0.00). The lesion size and uniformity, tumour-lung interface and the air bronchogram can help predict invasive extent of early stage lung adenocarcinoma with pGGO. (orig.)

  1. Si/SiO2和Si/SiNx/SiO2超晶格的能带结构%Band structure of Si/SiO2 and Si/SiNx/SiO2 superlattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏屹; 董成军; 徐明

    2010-01-01

    利用Kronig-Penney模型从理论上计算了Si/SiO2和Si/Si/SiNx/SiO2多层膜结构中量子阱的能带结构,进一步分析了各亚层薄膜厚度对能带结构和有效质量的影响.结果发现,适当减少亚层的厚度都能使得纳米Si薄膜的带隙发生明显宽化.在Si/SiO2超晶格中,Si量子阱层带隙能量随着Si层厚度的变化符合EPLL(eV)=1.6+0.7/d2关系,与我们的计算结果十分吻合.在Si/SiNdSiO2超晶格系统中,可以通过控制各亚层厚度,尤其是Si和SiNx层厚度,均能够有效地控制发光.

  2. Production of Welan Gum by Alcaligenes sp.NX-3 with Fed-batch Fermentation%Alcaligenes sp.NX-3产威兰胶的补料分批发酵工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李会; 李莎; 冯小海; 汪芙蓉; 徐虹

    2009-01-01

    在7.5 L发酵罐上考察了Alcaligenes sp.NX-3产威兰胶的发酵工艺.选用葡萄糖为碳源,通过分析比较不同初糖浓度下的细胞比生长速率和产物比合成速率,进一步研究了不同补料方式对产胶的影响.结果表明,采用分批补糖发酵工艺,威兰胶产量较分批发酵提高了13.6%,而且有效地缩短了发酵周期.在50 L发酵罐上进行补料分批发酵放大实验,威兰胶产量高达27.0 g/L,葡萄糖转化率由初始的44%提高到54%.

  3. 基于NX8.5的打纬摇轴载荷及模态分析%Analysis of Beating-up Rocker Shaft Load and Modal Based on NX8.5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨剑宇

    2014-01-01

    本文利用 UGNX8.5软件对剑杆织机共轭凸轮打纬机构中的打纬摇轴进行了载荷及模态分析,并通过数据分析,得到了打纬摇轴各阶的固有频率和振型,以及最大应力和最大应变值,从而提出了打纬摇轴设计的改进措施,为提高织造过程中的打纬质量和合理设计打纬摇轴提供了理论依据。%By using software NX8.5, this paper analyzes the load and modal of the beating-up rocker shaft in the beating-up mechanism of conjugate cam of rapier loom. Based on the data analysis, the natural frequency and vibration mode in beating-up process, and the maximum stress and maximum strain values have been ob-tained. Therefore, measures of improving the beating-up rocker shaft design have been put forward, which provides theoretical basis for the improvement of beating-up quality in weaving process and the proper design of beating-up rocker shaft.

  4. [3,4-methylene-dioxy-pyrovalerone (MDPV) epidemic?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapos, Miklós Péter

    2011-12-11

    Little is known about 3,4-methylene-dioxy-pyrovalerone (MDPV), a new designer drug that has become popular in Hungary in the last couple of months. At the same time, its consumption, as a consequence of its low street-price, rises so fast that the event can be considered an epidemic. This paper reviews the chemistry, biochemistry and metabolism of MDPV. Then, on the basis of a few international reports and the author's own clinical observations, it discusses MDPV intoxication and withdrawal. In the metabolism of MDPV, the most important catalyst is the CYP2C19 isoenzyme, but the CYP1A2 and the CYP2D6 isoenzymes also play a crucial role. The formed catechols are conjugated with either glucuronic acid or sulfate. It is important to note that MDPV is consumed either together or in a sequence with other illicit drugs of abuse. As far as it can be established, MDPV use increases the activity and vigilance, decreases appetite and claim to sleep, but it can also provoke cardiac sensations and disturbance of perception. In the course of coming down, withdrawal after MDPV use, bone and muscle pain, hypersomnia, disturbance of vision are experienced, but panic attack may also occur. The appearance of new designer drugs on the market draws attention to a need of paradigm changing in spiritual field. Unless it happens these negative trends likely will speed up.

  5. Drug interaction between ethanol and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("ecstasy").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, Vijay V; Eddington, Natalie D; Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Song, Byoung-Joon; Lee, Insong J

    2009-07-24

    Alcohol (ethanol) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) are frequently co-abused, but recent findings indicate a harmful drug interaction between these two agents. In our previous study, we showed that MDMA exposure inhibits the activity of the acetaldehyde (ACH) metabolizing enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase2 (ALDH2). Based on this finding, we hypothesized that the co-administration of MDMA and ethanol would reduce the metabolism of ACH and result in increased accumulation of ACH. Rats were treated with MDMA or vehicle and then administered a single dose of ethanol. Liver ALDH2 activity decreased by 35% in the MDMA-treated rats compared to control rats. The peak concentration and the area under the concentration versus time curve of plasma ACH were 31% and 59% higher, respectively, in the MDMA-ethanol group compared to the ethanol-only group. In addition, the MDMA-ethanol group had 80% higher plasma transaminase levels than the ethanol-only group, indicating greater hepatocellular damage. Our results not only support a drug interaction between MDMA and ethanol but a novel underlying mechanism for the interaction.

  6. Magnetic domain structures of 1:12 type nitrides NdFe10.5Mo1.5Nx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海; 韩宝善; 杨金波; 杨应昌

    1999-01-01

    The magnetic domain structures of the 1:12 type alloy NdFe10.5Mo1.5 and its nitride were firstly investigated by using magnetic force microscope (MFM). A complicated corrugation and spike magnetic domain structure was observed in NdFe10.5Mo1.5 alloy. Upon nitrogenation, a stripe domain structure occurs due to the dramatic increase of the uniaxial magneto-crystaUine anisotropy K1 induced by nitrogenation. Based on the basic domain theories, the origin of these domain patterns was analyzed and the reason of domain structure transition is explained quantitatively. The domain wall energy γ, exchange constant A and single-domain particle size Dc of NdFe10.5Mo1.5and NdFe10.5-Mo1.5Nx were calculated in combination with the measured domain width w and magnetic parameters. A comparison of magnetic parameters with those of SmCo5 and Nd2Fe14B permanent materials was also made.

  7. Analysis of carbon metabolism and improvement of gamma-polyglutamic acid production from Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Xu, Hong; Shi, Ningning; Cao, Xin; Feng, Xiaohai; Li, Sha; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2010-04-01

    Bacillus subtilis NX-2 produces gamma-polyglutamic acid (gamma-PGA) when using glucose and L-glutamate as carbon sources. The conversion of carbon sources into gamma-PGA was analyzed with the (13)C-NMR method after enriching the media with (13)C-labeled glucose. The results showed that the percentage of gamma-PGA monomers derived from glucose was relatively low, approximately 6% and 9%, respectively, with an initial glucose concentration of 30 and 40 g L(-1). It was concluded that glucose was utilized mainly as the growth-limiting substrate for cell growth and supplied the required energy during gamma-PGA biosynthesis, while L-glutamate was preferred as the main substrate for gamma-PGA formation. To achieve an efficient conversion of L-glutamate and enhance the gamma-PGA production, a fed-batch culture was proposed by feeding of glucose. By this method, supplied L-glutamate (40 g L(-1)) was completely depleted, and gamma-PGA yield was attained 42 g L(-1).

  8. Defect Engineering toward Atomic Co-Nx -C in Hierarchical Graphene for Rechargeable Flexible Solid Zn-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng; Wang, Bin; Wang, Hao-Fan; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-08-07

    Rechargeable flexible solid Zn-air battery, with a high theoretical energy density of 1086 Wh kg(-1) , is among the most attractive energy technologies for future flexible and wearable electronics; nevertheless, the practical application is greatly hindered by the sluggish oxygen reduction reaction/oxygen evolution reaction (ORR/OER) kinetics on the air electrode. Precious metal-free functionalized carbon materials are widely demonstrated as the most promising candidates, while it still lacks effective synthetic methodology to controllably synthesize carbocatalysts with targeted active sites. This work demonstrates the direct utilization of the intrinsic structural defects in nanocarbon to generate atomically dispersed Co-Nx -C active sites via defect engineering. As-fabricated Co/N/O tri-doped graphene catalysts with highly active sites and hierarchical porous scaffolds exhibit superior ORR/OER bifunctional activities and impressive applications in rechargeable Zn-air batteries. Specifically, when integrated into a rechargeable and flexible solid Zn-air battery, a high open-circuit voltage of 1.44 V, a stable discharge voltage of 1.19 V, and a high energy efficiency of 63% at 1.0 mA cm(-2) are achieved even under bending. The defect engineering strategy provides a new concept and effective methodology for the full utilization of nanocarbon materials with various structural features and further development of advanced energy materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Preparation and electromagnetic wave absorption properties of Sm2O3/α-Fe/Sm2Fe17Nx composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jinwen; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Jiao; Chen, Xianfu; Yao, Mingying

    2013-06-01

    Sm2O3/α-Fe/Sm2Fe17Nx composites were prepared in situ by hydrogenation-disproportionation-oxygen-desorption-recombination and nitrogen process, and their electromagnetic wave absorption properties were measured in the frequency range of 0.5-18 GHz. The result showed that saturation magnetization and coercivity of as-prepared powder with 25.3 wt% Sm2O3, 64.4 wt% α-Fe and 10.3 wt% Sm2Fe17N3 were 134.57 emu/g and 654.5 G, respectively. The dielectric constant of composites was low over the frequency range of 0.5-18 GHz, and their resonance frequencies were at a high frequency range. The resin composite of Sm2O3/α-Fe/Sm2Fe17N3 exhibited effective electromagnetic wave absorption (RL≤20 dB) in a frequency range 3-9 GHz, for absorber thickness ranging from 3 to 8 mm, respectively. A minimum reflection loss of -53 dB from the samples was observed at 7 GHz with an absorber thickness of 3.59 mm.

  10. Improvement of poly-γ-glutamic acid biosynthesis in a moving bed biofilm reactor by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yongxiang; Tang, Bao; Xu, Zongqi; Liu, Kun; Xu, Zheng; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2016-10-01

    The production of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 using a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system was tested for the first time in this study. Polypropylene TL-2 was chosen as a suitable carrier, and γ-PGA concentration of 42.7±0.86g/L and productivity of 0.59±0.06g/(Lh) were obtained in batch fermentation. After application of the strategy of dissolved oxygen (DO)-stat feeding, higher γ-PGA concentration and productivity were achieved than with glucose feedback feeding. Finally, the repeated fed-batch cultures implemented in the MBBR system showed high stability, and the maximal γ-PGA concentration and productivity of 74.2g/L and 1.24g/(Lh) were achieved, respectively. In addition, the promotion of oxygen transfer by an MBBR carrier was well explained by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. These results suggest that an MBBR system could be applied to large-scale γ-PGA production.

  11. Origin of the large positive magnetoresistance of G e1 -xM nx granular thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Yuki K.; Akiyama, Ryota; Takeda, Yukiharu; Horio, Masafumi; Shibata, Goro; Sakamoto, Shoya; Ban, Yoshisuke; Saitoh, Yuji; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Fujimori, Atsushi; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ohya, Shinobu

    2017-01-01

    G e1 -xM nx (GeMn) granular thin films are a unique and promising material for spintronic applications owing to their large positive magnetoresistance (MR). Previous studies of GeMn have suggested that the large MR is related to the nanospinodal decomposition of GeMn into Mn-rich ferromagnetic nanoparticles and a Mn-poor paramagnetic matrix. However, the microscopic origin of the MR has not yet been clarified. Here, we develop a method to separately investigate the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles and the matrix, utilizing the extremely high sensitivity of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) to the local magnetic state of each atom. We find that the MR ratio is proportional to the product of the magnetizations originating from the nanoparticles and the matrix. This result indicates that the spin-polarized holes in the nanoparticles penetrate into the matrix and that these holes undergo first order magnetic scattering by the paramagnetic Mn atoms in the matrix, which induces the large MR.

  12. Um negócio da China: o discurso do guānxì nas articulações no âmbito organizacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osíris Luís da Cunha Fernandes

    Full Text Available Este estudo explora o guānxì como discurso organizacional vigente na cultura de negócios nas organizações chinesas a partir da lógica da equivalência e da lógica da diferença propostas por Ernesto Laclau e Chantal Mouffe. O guānxì consiste em um relacionamento interpessoal e na criação de conhecimento colaborativo que envolve um saber tácito, orientado para o futuro, complexo que opera em contexto específico. Em uma perspectiva pós-estruturalista aplicada às organizações, utilizamos a análise de discurso como método que permite pôr em prática o papel da linguagem na condição de eixo de compreensão de processos sociais, como acontece com o guānxì. Analisamos 3 entrevistas em profundidade realizadas com chief executive officers (CEOs chineses e 32 reportagens relacionadas à prática do guānxì em organizações do setor terciário, publicadas em 2 dos maiores diários digitais da China. Com isso, nosso objetivo foi identificar a forma como esse fenômeno tem sido apropriado como discurso no âmbito organizacional a partir da lógica da equivalência e da lógica da diferença. Constatamos que as organizações chinesas utilizam o guānxì para obterem acesso preferencial a atores estratégicos que têm informações e recursos demandados nos processos negociais, com vista a obterem vantagens competitivas. Por outro lado, o sucesso dos negócios envolvendo essas organizações depende de uma identificação mútua entre seus líderes, baseada na confiança e credibilidade estabelecidas nas articulações.

  13. Chemical modification of spiramycins. IV. Synthesis and in vitro and in vivo activities of 3'',4''-diacylates and 3,3'',4''-triacylates of spriamycin I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, H; Sunazuka, T; Tanaka, H; Yamashita, K; Okachi, R; Omura, S

    1984-07-01

    3'',4''-Diacylates and 3,3'',4''-triacylates of spiramycin I were synthesized and evaluated by the four parameters, MIC against bacteria, affinity to ribosomes, retention time in HPLC and therapeutic effect. Among them, 3,3'',4''-tri-O-propionyl and 3,4''-di-O-acetyl-3''-O-butyryl-spiramycin I were the most active in vivo, which were superior to acetylspiramycin.

  14. Magnetic structure of Gd5Si2Ge2 and Gd5Si2Ge1.9M0.1 (M = Ga, Cu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, E; Rodríguez-Velamazán, J A; Wang, G F; Burriel, R; Cuello, G; Rodríguez-Carvajal, J

    2010-11-10

    Powder x-ray diffraction patterns of the doped compounds Gd(5)Si(2)Ge(1.9)M(0.1) (M = Ga, Cu) show the same crystal structure, orthorhombic Gd(5)Si(4)-type, in the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases. This is different from Gd(5)Si(2)Ge(2), whose paramagnetic phase is monoclinic. The magnetic structure at low temperature, solved from diffraction experiments with hot neutrons, is the same in all the three compounds, collinear ferromagnetic with moments along the crystal b-axis, or F(y)F(By) according to Bertaut's notation. These results, combined with those of heat capacity and magnetocaloric effect, indicate, similarly to Gd(5)Si(4), a second-order, purely magnetic, transition in the doped compounds explaining the absence of hysteresis.

  15. Born-Infeld extension of Lovelock brane gravity in the system of M0-branes and its application for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in BIonic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Alireza

    2016-07-01

    Recently, some authors (Cruz and Rojas, 2013 [1]) have constructed a Born-Infeld type action which may be written in terms of the Lovelock brane Lagrangians for a given dimension p. We reconsider their model in M-theory and study the process of birth and growth of nonlinear spinor and bosonic gravity during the construction of Mp-branes. Then, by application of this idea to BIonic system, we construct a BIonic superconductor in the background of nonlinear gravity. In this model, first, M0-branes link to each other and build an M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane connected by an M2-brane. M0-branes are zero dimensional objects that only scalars are attached to them. By constructing higher dimensional branes from M0-branes, gauge fields are produced. Also, if M0-branes don't link to each other completely, the symmetry of system is broken and fermions are created. The curvature produced by fermions has the opposite sign the curvature produced by gauge fields. Fermions on M5-branes and M2 plays the role of bridge between them. By passing time, M2 dissolves in M5's and nonlinear bosonic and spinor gravities are produced. By closing M5-branes towards each other, coupling of two identical fermions on two branes to each other causes that the square mass of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states are created. For removing these tachyons, M5-branes compact, the sign of gravity between branes reverses, anti-gravity is produced which causes that branes and identical fermions get away from each other. This is the reason for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in Bionic system. Also, the spinor gravity vanishes and its energy builds a new M2 between M5-branes. We obtain the resistivity in this system and find that its value decreases by closing M5 branes to each other and shrinks to zero at colliding point of branes. This idea has different applications. For example, in cosmology, universes are located on M5-branes and M2-brane has the role of bridge between

  16. Born–Infeld extension of Lovelock brane gravity in the system of M0-branes and its application for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in BIonic superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehri, Alireza, E-mail: alireza.sepehri@uk.ac.ir [Faculty of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University, P.O. Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-07-01

    Recently, some authors (Cruz and Rojas, 2013 [1]) have constructed a Born–Infeld type action which may be written in terms of the Lovelock brane Lagrangians for a given dimension p. We reconsider their model in M-theory and study the process of birth and growth of nonlinear spinor and bosonic gravity during the construction of Mp-branes. Then, by application of this idea to BIonic system, we construct a BIonic superconductor in the background of nonlinear gravity. In this model, first, M0-branes link to each other and build an M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane connected by an M2-brane. M0-branes are zero dimensional objects that only scalars are attached to them. By constructing higher dimensional branes from M0-branes, gauge fields are produced. Also, if M0-branes don't link to each other completely, the symmetry of system is broken and fermions are created. The curvature produced by fermions has the opposite sign the curvature produced by gauge fields. Fermions on M5-branes and M2 plays the role of bridge between them. By passing time, M2 dissolves in M5's and nonlinear bosonic and spinor gravities are produced. By closing M5-branes towards each other, coupling of two identical fermions on two branes to each other causes that the square mass of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states are created. For removing these tachyons, M5-branes compact, the sign of gravity between branes reverses, anti-gravity is produced which causes that branes and identical fermions get away from each other. This is the reason for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in Bionic system. Also, the spinor gravity vanishes and its energy builds a new M2 between M5-branes. We obtain the resistivity in this system and find that its value decreases by closing M5 branes to each other and shrinks to zero at colliding point of branes. This idea has different applications. For example, in cosmology, universes are located on M5-branes and M2-brane has the role of bridge

  17. Heterologous production of two unusual acyclic carotenoids, 1,1'-dihydroxy-3,4-didehydrolycopene and 1-hydroxy-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydrolycopene by combination of the crtC and crtD genes from Rhodobacter and Rubrivivax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Sabine; Takaichi, Shinichi; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2002-07-17

    Acyclic hydroxy carotenoids were produced from lycopene and 3,4-didehydrolycopene in Escherichia coli by combining different carotenogenic genes including the carotene hydratase gene crtC and the carotene 3,4-desaturase gene crtD. The genes originated either from Rhodobacter species or Rubrivivax gelatinosus. It was shown that the product of crtD from Rubrivivax unlike the one from Rhodobacter is able to convert 1-HO-3,4-didehydrolycopene to 1-HO-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydrolycopene (=3,4,3',4'-tetradehydro-1,2-dihydro-psi,psi-caroten-1-ol). Thus, only when the desaturase from Rubrivivax is expressed can this novel carotenoid be obtained. In the presence of crtC from Rubrivivax, another carotenoid 1,1'-(HO)(2)-3,4-didehydrolycopene (=3,4-didehydrolycopene-1,2,1',2'-tetrahydro-psi,psi-caroten-1,1'-diol) not found in a non-transgenic organism before is formed in E. coli. Its accumulation under these conditions and its absence when crtC from Rubrivivax is replaced by the corresponding gene from Rhodobacter is discussed. The function of the different crtC and crtD genes in the pathway leading to the individual carotenoids is outlined. Since 1,1'-(HO)(2)-3,4-didehydrolycopene could not be produced in substantial amounts and 1-HO-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydrolycopene has not been described before, their structural characteristics were determined for the definite assignment of their identity. This included spectral properties, determination of relative molecular mass as well as the number of hydroxy groups by mass spectroscopy and NMR spectroscopy for 1,1'-(HO)(2)-3,4-didehydrolycopene.

  18. Coping with uncertainty: T1a,bN0M0 HER2-positive breast cancer, do we have a treatment threshold?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, C M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent retrospective studies have suggested that patients with T1a,bN0M0 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer are at a higher risk for recurrence and might benefit from adjuvant trastuzumab. The absolute benefits associated with treating this subgroup are uncertain. Design: We reviewed recent studies examining the prognostic value of HER2 in patients with node-negative T1a,b HER2-positive breast cancer. We calculated the number needed to treat (NNT) using baseline risk estimates for untreated T1a,bN0M0 breast cancer and the number needed to harm (NNH) using the incidence of cardiac events in each of the adjuvant trastuzumab clinical trials. RESULTS: Several studies were identified, each with limitations inherent to retrospective database analyses: small cohort sizes, lack of systematic HER2 testing in older specimens, variations in the use of adjuvant therapy and definitions of study end points, and lack of information relating to comorbidities. The 5-year disease-free survival in the pre-trastuzumab era ranged from 77% to 95%. Comparisons between small HER2 -positive and small HER2 -negative cancers showed numerically worse outcome for the HER2-positive cohort in some but not all studies. In many instances, the NNH was larger (26-250) than the NNT (13-35); however, in a subset of patients, the NNH was lower (6) than the NNT (13-35). CONCLUSIONS: Better prediction tools to estimate more precisely the risk for death due to comorbid illness versus breast cancer are needed. In some patients, the risks of therapy could outweigh the benefits. Treatment selection for T1a,bN0 HER2-positive cancers remains in the transition area between evidence- and subjective judgment-based medicine.

  19. 108例Tis~1N0M0期中低位直肠癌经肛门局部切除的临床评价%Clinical Evaluation of Transanal Local Excision in 108 Cases with Tis~1N0M0 Middle and Low Rectal Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭涛; 杨永江; 赵轶峰; 高建朝; 刘军超; 杨静; Abbas; 李曙光

    2015-01-01

    [目的]探讨Tis~1N0M0期中低位直肠癌经肛门局部切除的合理性.[方法]回顾性分析经肛门局部切除治疗的108例Tis~1N0M0期中低位直肠癌患者的资料.其中TisN0M0 63例,T1N0M0 45例.8例T1期患者接受了术后辅助放疗.[结果]所有患者术后恢复顺利,中位住院时问5d(3~8d).无吻合口漏、直肠狭窄、肛瘘及其他手术并发症.术后肛门括约肌功能良好.5年总生存率为99.07%,Tis~1T1期5年生存率分别为100%和97.78%.5年总复发率为1.85%,Tis、T1期5年复发率分别为0、4.44%.[结论]对Tis~1N0M0期中低位直肠癌患者,经肛门局部切除术既保证了生存率,又兼顾了患者的生存质量,为一种较为理想的术式选择.

  20. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine facilitates fear extinction learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L

    2015-09-15

    Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were first exposed to cued fear conditioning and treated with drug vehicle or MDMA before extinction training 2 days later. MDMA was administered systemically and also directly targeted to brain structures known to contribute to extinction. In addition to behavioral measures of extinction, changes in mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and Fos were measured after MDMA treatment and extinction. MDMA (7.8 mg kg(-1)) persistently and robustly enhanced long-term extinction when administered before extinction training. MDMA increased the expression of Fos in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas increases in Bdnf expression were observed only in the amygdala after extinction training. Extinction enhancements were recapitulated when MDMA (1 μg) was infused directly into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), and enhancement was abolished when BDNF signaling was inhibited before extinction. These findings suggest that MDMA enhances fear memory extinction through a BDNF-dependent mechanism, and that MDMA may be a useful adjunct to exposure-based therapies for PTSD and other anxiety disorders characterized by altered fear learning.

  1. Characteristics of pregnant women who use ecstasy (3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, E; Karimi-Tabesh, L; Koren, G

    2001-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of pregnant women who use Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA), and to identify reproductive risk factors associated with this group of women. Prospective, observational study. Pregnant women who have contacted the Motherisk Alcohol and Substance Use Helpline at The Hospital for Sick Children, in Toronto, about exposure to drugs, chemicals, infection or radiation. All inquiries from December 1998 to October 2000 concerning pregnant women who reported use of MDMA, and control cases of women not exposed to MDMA selected within the same week of the MDMA callers. Age, maternal demographics, pregnancy characteristics, patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use, psychological/emotional status, sexually transmitted disease, MDMA method and pattern of use, and adverse drug reactions after ingestion of MDMA. The 132 pregnant women who used MDMA were significantly younger (mean 23.2 vs. 31.2 years, Palcohol (66.4% vs. 37.3%, Ppsilocybin were used more frequently among the MDMA sample. Over a third of MDMA users reported psychiatric/emotional problems, including 6.5% with a clinically diagnosed condition that was being treated with medication and/or counseling. Pregnant women who use MDMA tend to be young, single, and report psychological morbidity, and have a clustering of risk factors that may compromise the pregnancy and fetus. Smoking, heavy alcohol intake, and polydrug use, combined with a higher than expected rate of unplanned pregnancies, increases the risk of fetal exposure to potentially harmful substances. It is important to account for the range of confounding risk factors among women who use MDMA in order to define possible direct effects of MDMA in pregnancy.

  2. [Monograph for 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC)--HBM values for the sum of metabolites 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4 CBHC) in the urine of adults and children. Statement of the HBM Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The substance 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC, CAS-No. 36861-47-9 as well as 38102-62-4) is used as UV-filter in cosmetics, mainly in sunscreen lotions. National as well as European evaluations are available for the substance, especially from the Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (SCCP). The SCCP did not derive a TDI-value, but used for a MoS assessment a NOAEL of 25 mg/(kg bw · d) based on effects on the thyroid gland of rats in a subchronic study with oral administration. Newer studies, however, indicate lower NOAEL values, leading to tolerable daily intakes of 0,01 mg/kg bw. The HBM Commission established for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) HBM-I values of 0,09 mg/l urine for adults and 0,06 mg/l urine for children. HBM-I values for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4CBHC) were set at 0,38 mg/l urine for adults and 0,25 mg/l urine for children. The rounded HBM-I value for the sum of metabolites 3-4CBC und 3-4CBHC is accordingly 0,5 mg/l urine for adults and 0,3 mg/l urine for children.

  3. Synthesis of Novel 2,5-Disubstituted-1,3,4-thiadiazoles Clubbed 1,2,4-Triazole, 1,3,4-Thiadiazole, 1,3,4-Oxadiazole and/or Schiff Base as Potential Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadjet Rezki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a new series of 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-thiadiazole tethered 1,2,4-triazole, 1,3,4-thiadiazole, 1,3,4-oxadiazole and Schiff base derivatives were synthesized and characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS and elemental analyses. All compounds were screened for their antibacterial, antifungal and antiproliferative activity. Some of the synthesized derivatives have displayed promising biological activity.

  4. Subtask 3.4 - Fischer - Tropsch Fuels Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strege, Joshua; Snyder, Anthony; Laumb, Jason; Stanislowski, Joshua; Swanson, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Under Subtask 3.4, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) examined the opportunities and challenges facing FischerTropsch (FT) technology in the United States today. Work was completed in two distinct budget periods (BPs). In BP1, the EERC examined the technical feasibility of using modern warm-gas cleanup techniques for FT synthesis. FT synthesis is typically done using more expensive and complex cold-gas sweetening. Warm-gas cleanup could greatly reduce capital and operating costs, making FT synthesis more attractive for domestic fuel production. Syngas was generated from a variety of coal and biomass types; cleaned of sulfur, moisture, and condensables; and then passed over a pilot-scale FT catalyst bed. Laboratory and modeling work done in support of the pilot-scale effort suggested that the catalyst was performing suboptimally with warm-gas cleanup. Long-term trends showed that the catalyst was also quickly deactivating. In BP3, the EERC compared FT catalyst results using warm-gas cleanup to results using cold-gas sweetening. A gas-sweetening absorption system (GSAS) was designed, modeled, and constructed to sweeten syngas between the gasifier and the pilot-scale FT reactor. Results verified that the catalyst performed much better with gas sweetening than it had with warm-gas cleanup. The catalyst also showed no signs of rapid deactivation when the GSAS was running. Laboratory tests in support of this effort verified that the catalyst had deactivated quickly in BP1 because of exposure to syngas, not because of any design flaw with the pilot-scale FT reactor itself. Based on these results, the EERC concludes that the two biggest issues with using syngas treated with warm-gas cleanup for FT synthesis are high concentrations of CO{sub 2} and volatile organic matter. Other catalysts tested by the EERC may be more tolerant of CO{sub 2}, but volatile matter removal is critical to ensuring long-term FT catalyst operation. This subtask was funded through

  5. 基于LiCo0.8M0.2O2(M=Ni,Zr)薄膜的全固态薄膜锂电池%Physical and Electrochemical Characterization of LiCo0.8M0.2O2 (M=Ni,Zr) Cathode Films for All-solid-state Rechargeable Thin-film Lithium Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李驰麟; 刘文元; 傅正文

    2006-01-01

    LiCo0.8M0.2O2 (M=Ni,Zr) films were fabricated by radio frequency sputtering deposition combined with conventional annealing methods. The structures of the films were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD),Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. It was shown that the 700 ℃annealed LiCo0.8M0.2O2 has an α-NaFeO2-like layered structure. All-solid-state thin-film batteries (TFBs)were fabricated with these films as the cathode and their electrochemical performances were evaluated. It was found that doping of electrochemically active Ni and inactive Zr has different effects on the structural and electrochemical properties of the LiCoO2 cathode films. Ni doping increases the discharge capacity of the film while Zr doping improves its cycling stability.%用射频磁控溅射结合传统退火的方法制备LiCo0.8M0.2O2(M=Ni,Zr)阴极薄膜X射线衍射、拉曼光谱、扫描电子显微镜等手段表征了不同掺杂的LiCo0.8M0.2O2薄膜.结果显示,700 ℃退火的LiCo0.8M0.2O2薄膜具有类似Q-NaFeO2的层状结构.通过对不同掺杂锂钴氧阴极的全同态薄膜钮电池Li/LiPON/LiCo0.8M0.2O2的电化学性能研究表明,电化学活性元素Ni的掺杂使全固态电池具有更大的放电容量(56 μAh/cm2,μm),而非电化学活性元素Zr的掺杂使全固态电池具有更好的循环稳定性.

  6. Topochemical fluorination of Sr3(M(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7 (M = Ti, Mn, Fe), n = 2, Ruddlesden-Popper phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Fabio Denis; Bingham, Paul A; Forder, Susan D; Hayward, Michael A

    2013-03-18

    Reaction of the appropriate Sr3(M(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7 (M = Ti, Mn, Fe), n = 2, Ruddlesden-Popper oxide with CuF2 under flowing oxygen results in formation of the oxide-fluoride phases Sr3(Ti(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7F2, Sr3(Mn(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7F2, and Sr3(Fe(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O(5.5)F(3.5) via a topochemical anion insertion/substitution process. Analysis indicates the titanium and manganese phases have Ti(4+), Ru(6+) and Mn(4+), Ru(6+) oxidation state combinations, respectively, while Mössbauer spectra indicate an Fe(3+), Ru(5.5+) combination for the iron phase. Thus, it can be seen that the soft fluorination conditions employed lead to formation of highly oxidized Ru(6+) centers in all three oxide-fluoride phases, while oxidation states of the other transition metal M cations remain unchanged. Fluorination of Sr3(Ti(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7 to Sr3(Ti(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7F2 leads to suppression of magnetic order as the fluorinated material approaches metallic behavior. In contrast, fluorination of Sr3(Mn(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7 and Sr3(Fe(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7 lifts the magnetic frustration present in the oxide phases, resulting in observation of long-range antiferromagnetic order at low temperature in Sr3(Mn(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7F2 and Sr3(Fe(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O(5.5)F(3.5). The influence of the topochemical fluorination on the magnetic behavior of the Sr3(M(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O(x)F(y) phases is discussed on the basis of changes to the ruthenium oxidation state and structural distortions.

  7. 临床T1、T2 N0 M0乳腺癌腋窝淋巴结转移状况研究的意义%Metastasis of axillary node in clinical T1 -T2 N0M0 breast cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳军忠; 王磊; 徐青; 王庆庆; 仇爱峰; 马利林

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the metastasis of lymph node of breast cancer patients in clinical T1-T2 N0 M0 and its clinical significance in (sentinel lymph node biopsy, SLNB). Methods A total of 276 pa-tients of breast cancer were enrolled in the study (T1 N0M0 cases =115 ; T2N0M0 cases = 161 ). The metas-tasis and distribution of axillary node by virtue of the location of primary tumor, ages and pathologic status were analyzed. Results The metastasis rate of axillary node in T1 N0M0 patients was less than T2 N0 M0 (P =0.027), while that in the central and lower outer quadrant's was higher than in other' s parts(P =0.004).When the tumor located in outer quadrant, the axillary node metastasis rate of Berg I was highest in the cen-tral, outer and inner quadrant(P =0.000). But the metastasis rate of Berg Ⅲ was lowest in the three quad-rants (P = 0. 000). For the pathologic status, the metastasis rate of invasive carcinoma-not otherwise speci-fied(NOS) was higher than early breast carcinoma and other pathologic categories (P =0.000). More than 2 groups axillary node metastasis was found in 6 of 9 patients with carcinoma simplex. The 90 cases with axilla-ry node metastasis were analyzed by age. Axillary node was easier for metastasis in those cases aged above 50years than those below 50 years(68.9% vs 31.1% )(P =0. 000). Two eases with skip metastasis were in T2 No Mo (invasive ductal carcinoma disease = 1, carcinoma simplex disease = 1 ). Conclusion The distri-bution of the metastasis of lymph node in clinical T1 ,T2 N0M0 breast cancer plays an important role in SLNB and formulating reasonable treatment protocols.%目的 探讨临床T1、T2、 N0、M0.乳腺癌腋窝淋巴结转移状况及临床意义.方法 结合原发肿瘤位置、年龄、病理等,分析了276例临床T1、T2 N0M0乳腺癌患者腋窝淋巴结转移情况及意义.结果 临床T1 N0M0.腋淋巴结转移率低于T2 N0M0乳腺癌患者(P=0.027),乳腺中央区与外下象限乳腺癌发生腋淋巴结

  8. Effect of SiNx diffusion barrier thickness on the structural properties and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 films obtained by sol–gel dip coating and reactive magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Nawfal Ghazzal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of the thickness of the silicon nitride (SiNx diffusion barrier on the structural and photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films obtained with different processes. We show that the structural and photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films produced using soft chemistry (sol–gel and physical methods (reactive sputtering are affected differentially by the intercalating SiNx diffusion barrier. Increasing the thickness of the SiNx diffusion barrier induced a gradual decrease of the crystallite size of TiO2 films obtained by the sol–gel process. However, TiO2 obtained using the reactive sputtering method showed no dependence on the thickness of the SiNx barrier diffusion. The SiNx barrier diffusion showed a beneficial effect on the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films regardless of the synthesis method used. The proposed mechanism leading to the improvement in the photocatalytic efficiency of the TiO2 films obtained by each process was discussed.

  9. Structure and Redox Properties of VCe0.95M0.05 (M=Cu, Co, Mn, Fe and Cr) Mixed Oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟依均; 罗孟飞

    2002-01-01

    The mixed oxides, VCe and VCe0.95M0.05 (M=Cu, Co, Mn, Fe and Cr), we re prepared by sol-gel method. The structure and redox properties of these mixe d oxides were characterized by XRD, Raman, XPS and TPR techniques. The main phas e is tetragonal VCeO4 phase in all samples. The substitution of Fe, Mn, Cu or Co for Ce results in the formation of CeO2 or monoclinic VCeO4 phase. The XP S result indicates that valence of V is +5+δ(δ<1) in VCe0.95Co0 .05, VCe0.95Mn0.05, VCe0.95Cr0.05 and VCe0.95Fe 0.05 samples compared with VCe , on the contrary, valence of V is +5-δ (δ<1) in VCe0.95Cu0.05 sample. The Fe, Co, Cr and Mn enhanc e the reduction of V5+ in VCeO4, whereas Cu inhibits this reduction.

  10. Tests of stellar model atmospheres by optical interferometry III: NPOI and VINCI interferometry of the M0 giant gamma Sge covering 0.5 - 2.2 microns

    CERN Document Server

    Wittkowski, M; Aufdenberg, J P; Roccatagliata, V

    2006-01-01

    Aims: We present a comparison of the visual and NIR intensity profile of the M0 giant gamma Sagittae to plane-parallel ATLAS 9 as well as to plane-parallel & spherical PHOENIX model atmospheres. Methods: We use previously described visual interferometric data obtained with the NPOI in July 2000. We apply the recently developed technique of coherent integration, and thereby obtain visibility data of more spectral channels and with higher precision than before. In addition, we employ new measurements of the K-band diameter of gamma Sagittae obtained with the instrument VINCI at the VLTI in 2002. Results: The spherical PHOENIX model leads to a precise definition of the Rosseland angular diameter and a consistent high-precision diameter value for our NPOI and VLTI/VINCI data sets of Theta_Ross=6.06 pm 0.02 mas, with the Hipparcos parallax corresponding to R_Ross=55 pm 4 R_sun, and with the bolometric flux corresponding to an effective temperature T_eff=3805 pm 55 K. Our visual visibility data close to the fir...

  11. Improvement of Hydrogen Storage Properties of La0.6M0.4Ni4.8Mn0.2 Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping DU; Wei CAO; Manqi LU; Jiangping CHEN; Ke YANG

    2004-01-01

    Investigation has been carried out to find the effects of Nd substitution and Cu addition on the hydrogen storage properties of AB5-type alloy with a multicomponent La0.6M0.4Ni4.8Mn0.2 (M=Y, Nd) system. La0.6Y0.4Ni4.8Mn0.2,which was used in an air-conditioning system, showed poor hysteresis and sloping characteristics, which led to a decrease concerning the coefficient of performance of the system. By the substitution of Nd for Y, the hydrogenstorage capacity increased, and the plateau pressure decreased a little, but the hydrogen absorption kinetics decreased dramatically. Cu addition can effectively improve the kinetics of hydride formation without changing the hydrogen storage capacity of La0.6Nd0.4Ni4.8Mn0.2. It has been found that La0.6Nd0.4Ni4.8Mn0.2Cu0.1 alloy showed good hydrogen storage characteristics for metal hydride air-conditioning system. The results showed that, for each component of La0.6Mo.4Ni4.8Mn0.2, the effective hydrogen storage capacity increased with decrease of the unit cell parameter c/a and the hydrogen absorption plateau pressure increased with decrease of the parameter a.

  12. A Dilemma in Staging of Esophageal Cancer: How Should We Stage ypT0 N2 M0 Esophageal Cancer after Neoadjuvant Therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahattin Celik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since neoadjuvant treatment in esophageal cancer began to become popular, a complete pathological response at the primary tumour site has been commonly reported. An issue of conflict is whether complete response in the esophageal lumen means that the esophagus is completely tumour-free. Another important issue is whether lymph nodes that are retrieved from pathologically complete response cases are also tumour-free or not. There is a gap in the esophageal cancer staging system for ypT0 N2 M0 tumours that have received neoadjuvant therapy. Here, we will discuss the problem about staging of esophageal cancer associated with neoadjuvant therapy. Case. A female aged 40 years complaining of dysphagia was diagnosed as having locally advanced thoracic esophageal cancer. Neoadjuvant therapy decision was taken by oncology committee. Six weeks after neoadjuvant therapy, with a curative intention, minimal invasive surgery was performed. The pathology report was as follows. “There were no neoplastic cells in the suspected area of the esophageal mucosa upon examination with all staining. There was no cancer at resection margins. Four metastatic lymph nodes were infiltrated with squamous cell cancer.” Conclusion. Despite the growing use of neoadjuvant treatment in locally advanced esophageal cancer in world, we do not have a protocol for the evaluation of these patients’ pathology reports. We believe that new studies and new ideas are needed to resolve this dilemma associated with neoadjuvant therapy.

  13. Grids of white dwarf evolutionary models with masses from M = 0.1 $M(solar)$ to M = 1.2 $M(solar)$

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuto, O G

    1999-01-01

    We present detailed evolutionary calculations for CO- and helium- core white dwarf (WD) models with masses ranging from M= 0.1 to M= 1.2 and for metallicities Z= 0.001 and Z= 0. The sequences cover a wide range of hydrogen envelopes as well. We employed a detailed WD evolutionary code. In particular, the energy transport by convection is treated within the formalism of the full spectrum turbulence theory. Convective mixing, crystallization, hydrogen burning and neutrino energy losses are considered. The set of models presented here is very detailed and should be valuable for the interpretation of the observational data about low mass WDs recently discovered in numerous binary configurations and also for the general problem of determining the theoretical luminosity function for WDs. In this context, we compare our cooling sequences to the observed WD luminosity function recently improved by Leggett, Ruiz and Bergeron (1998) and we obtain an age for the Galactic disk of approximately 8 Gyr. Finally, we applied ...

  14. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Fungicidal Activity of 3- ( 4- Chloro- 3- ethyl- 1 -methyl- 1 H- pyrazol- 5-yl ) - 6- (E) phenylvinyltriazolo [ 3, 4-b ] - 1,3, 4-thiadiazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈寒松; 李正名; 杨小平; 王宏根; 姚心侃

    2000-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound 3-(4-Chloro-3-ethyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-6- (E) phenylvinyltriazolo [ 3, 4-b ]-1, 3, 4-thiadiazole ( C17 H15ClN6S, Mr = 370.87) was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal ismonoclinic, space group P21/n, a = 10.862(2), b = 11.541(2), c = 14.994(3) A,β=108.41(3)°, V=1783(1) A, Z=4, Dx =1.381g/cm-3, μ=0.3361 mm-1, andF(000) = 768. The results confirmed that the title compound belongs to type E of ste-reochemistry. The dihedral angle between triazole and 1, 3, 4-thiadiaole ring is 3° andthe torsion angle between 1,3, 4-thiadiazole and pyrazole ring is 134.0°.

  15. 基于NX8.0盘形凸轮轮廓曲线的参数化设计及运动仿真%Parametric Design and Motion Simulation of Disc Cam Profile Curve Based on NX8.0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恩光; 王丽; 黄冠元; 惠帅

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a parametric design method of the cam profile curve with“law curve”function of NX8.0,analyzes the continuity of the cam profile curve and verifies the correctness of the design through the cam motion simulation. Through the analysis of the displacement and velocity motion laws of the fol ower,the parametric drive of the cam design is verified. The result shows that the CAD and CAE module of NX8.0 can is used for the parametric design and motion analysis of the cam profile curve to ful y guaran-tee the design accuracy and greatly improve the editability and reusability of the model.%介绍了利用NX8.0的“规律曲线”功能对凸轮轮廓曲线进行参数化设计的方法,分析了凸轮轮廓曲线的连续性,通过对凸轮的运动仿真验证了设计结果的正确性,分析了从动件的位移和速度的运动规律,验证了凸轮设计的参数化驱动,结果表明使用NX8.0的CAD和CAE模块对凸轮轮廓曲线进行参数化设计和运动分析能够充分保证设计精度,大大提高了模型可编辑性与重用性。

  16. Band gap characterization of ternary BBi1-xNx (0≤x≤1) alloys using modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Battal G.

    2015-04-01

    The semi-local Becke-Johnson (BJ) exchange-correlation potential and its modified form proposed by Tran and Blaha have attracted a lot of interest recently because of the surprisingly accurate band gaps they can deliver for many semiconductors and insulators (e.g., sp semiconductors, noble-gas solids, and transition-metal oxides). The structural and electronic properties of ternary alloys BBi1-xNx (0≤x≤1) in zinc-blende phase have been reported in this study. The results of the studied binary compounds (BN and BBi) and ternary alloys BBi1-xNx structures are presented by means of density functional theory. The exchange and correlation effects are taken into account by using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional of Wu and Cohen (WC) which is an improved form of the most popular Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE). For electronic properties the modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential, which is more accurate than standard semi-local LDA and PBE calculations, has been chosen. Geometric optimization has been implemented before the volume optimization calculations for all the studied alloys structure. The obtained equilibrium lattice constants of the studied binary compounds are in coincidence with experimental works. And, the variation of the lattice parameter of ternary alloys BBi1-xNx almost perfectly matches with Vegard's law. The spin-orbit interaction (SOI) has been also considered for structural and electronic calculations and the results are compared to those of non-SOI calculations.

  17. Atomic Layer Deposition TiO2 Films and TiO2/SiNx Stacks Applied for Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu-Po Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Titanium oxide (TiO2 films and TiO2/SiNx stacks have potential in surface passivation, anti-reflection coatings and carrier-selective contact layers for crystalline Si solar cells. A Si wafer, deposited with 8-nm-thick TiO2 film by atomic layer deposition, has a surface recombination velocity as low as 14.93 cm/s at the injection level of 1.0 × 1015 cm−3. However, the performance of silicon surface passivation of the deposited TiO2 film declines as its thickness increases, probably because of the stress effects, phase transformation, atomic hydrogen and thermal stability of amorphous TiO2 films. For the characterization of 66-nm-thick TiO2 film, the results of transmission electron microscopy show that the anatase TiO2 crystallinity forms close to the surface of the Si. Secondary ion mass spectrometry shows the atomic hydrogen at the interface of TiO2 and Si which serves for chemical passivation. The crystal size of anatase TiO2 and the homogeneity of TiO2 film can be deduced by the measurements of Raman spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry, respectively. For the passivating contacts of solar cells, in addition, a stack composed of 8-nm-thick TiO2 film and a plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor-deposited 72-nm-thick SiNx layer has been investigated. From the results of the measurement of the reflectivity and effective carrier lifetime, TiO2/SiNx stacks on Si wafers perform with low reflectivity and some degree of surface passivation for the Si wafer.

  18. 美利肯Millad NX 8000透明剂为Sistema聚丙烯容器赢得更多客户青睐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易美济

    2011-01-01

    在2011芝加哥国际家庭用品博览会上,总部位于新西兰的Sistema塑胶有限公司隆重推介其全新升级的聚丙烯(PP)食品储藏容器产品线。此类产品采用了美利肯公司的Millad NX 8000高级透明剂,具有堪比玻璃的出色清晰度,这也正是成就Sistema产品卓越品质的一个重要因素。

  19. Crystal, electronic and luminescence properties of Eu2+-doped Sr2Al2−xSi1+xO7−xNx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Qiang Li, Naoto Hirosaki, Rong-Jun Xie and Mamoru Mitomo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The crystal and electronic structures, as well as the luminescence properties of Sr2Al2−xSi1+xO7−xNx:Eu2+ are reported. First-principles calculations energetically confirm that the Al and Si atoms are in partial ordering in the 2a and 4e sites in Sr2Al2SiO7. In addition, the band structure calculation shows that Sr2Al2SiO7 has an indirect band gap with an energy gap of about 4.07 eV, which is in good agreement with the experimental data (~5.3 eV obtained from the diffuse reflection spectrum. The crystal structure of Sr2Al2SiO7 can be modified by Si–N substitution for Al–O in the lattice with a maximum solubility of about x=0.6. The average bond length of EuSr-(O,N slightly increases although the lattice parameters decrease with the incorporation of Si–N in Sr2Al2SiO7:Eu2+. Under excitation in the visible spectral region, Sr2Al2−xSi1+xO7−xNx:Eu2+ emits blue to yellow light with a broad emission band in the range of 480–570 nm, varying with both the Eu concentration and the x value. The red shift of the emission band of Eu2+ is associated with an increase in the crystal-field splitting and the covalency, which arise from the incorporation of nitrogen as well as the energy transfer between the Eu ions at high Eu concentrations. Moreover, the Eu ions have a strong effect on both the concentration quenching and the thermal quenching in Sr2Al2−xSi1+xO7−xNx. The temperature dependence of photoluminescence indicates that Sr2Al2−xSi1+xO7−xNx:Eu2+ shows strong thermal quenching due to the dominant nonradiative process at room temperature.

  20. Highly Corrosion Resistant and Sandwich-like Si3N4/Cr-CrNx/Si3N4 Coatings Used for Solar Selective Absorbing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Du, Miao; Haoa, Lei; Meng, Jianping; Wang, Jining; Mi, Jing; Liu, Xiaopeng

    2016-12-14

    Highly corrosion resistant, layer-by-layer nanostructured Si3N4/Cr-CrNx/Si3N4 coatings were deposited on aluminum substrate by DC/RF magnetron sputtering. Corrosion resistance experiments were performed in 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 wt % NaCl salt spray at 35 °C for 168 h. Properties of the coatings were comprehensively investigated in terms of optical property, surface morphology, microstructure, elemental valence state, element distribution, and potentiodynamic polarization. UV-vis-near-IR spectrophotometer and FTIR measurements show that the change process in optical properties of Si3N4/Cr-CrNx/Si3N4/Al coatings can be divided into three stages: a rapid active degradation stage, a steady passivation stage, and a transpassivation degradation stage. With the increase in the concentration of NaCl salt spray, solar absorptance and thermal emittance experienced a slight degradation. SEM images reveal that there is an increase in surface defects, such as microcracks and holes and -cracks. XRD and TEM measurements indicate that the phase structure changed partially and the content of CrOx and Al2O3 has increased. Auger electron spectroscopy shows that the elements of Cr, N, and O have undergone a minor diffusion. Electrochemical polarization curves show that the as-deposited Si3N4/Cr-CrNx/Si3N4/Al coatings have excellent corrosion resistance of 3633.858 kΩ, while after corroding in 5.0 wt % NaCl salt spray for 168 h the corrosion resistance dropped to 13.759 kΩ. However, these coatings still have an outstanding performance of high solar absorptance of 0.924 and low thermal emittance of 0.090 after corroding in 3.0 wt % NaCl salt spray for 120 h. Thus, the Si3N4/Cr-CrNx/Si3N4/Al coating is a good choice for solar absorber coatings applied in the high-saline environment.

  1. Self-Aligned ALD AlOx T-gate Insulator for Gate Leakage Current Suppression in SiNx-Passivated AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Self-aligned ALD AlOx T-gate insulator for gate leakage current suppression in SiNx-passivated AlGaN/ GaN HEMTs David J. Meyer *, Robert Bass, D...concept metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) AlGaN/ GaN high-electron mobility transistor ( HEMT ) that uses a self-aligned 10 nm AlOx gate insulator and...Au gate metal layers to fabri- cate submicron insulated T-gates for AlGaN/ GaN high-electron mobility transistors ( HEMTs ). Metal–insulator

  2. Ti/Cu bilayer electrodes for SiNx-passivated Hf-In-Zn-O thin film transistors: Device performance and contact resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon Seok; Kim, Tae Sang; Son, Kyoung Seok; Lee, Eunha; Jung, Ji Sim; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Maeng, Wan-Joo; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Eok Su; Park, Kyung-Bae; Kwon, Jang-Yeon; Ryu, Myung Kwan; Lee, Sang Yoon

    2010-10-01

    In this study, we examine the possibility of using Ti/Cu bilayer as source/drain electrodes for SiNx-passivated Hf-In-Zn-O (HIZO) thin film transistors by comparing their electrical properties with devices that use Mo electrodes. The Mo devices operate in depletion mode with a higher field effect mobility, while the Ti/Cu devices exhibit an improved subthreshold swing and operate in enhancement mode. Transmission electron microscopy characterization reveals the formation of an amorphous TiOx layer at the Ti/HIZO interface, which is suggested to be responsible for the disparate device characteristics in terms of contact resistance and threshold delay.

  3. Nonpolar a-plane light-emitting diode with an in-situ SiNx interlayer on r-plane sapphire grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Hao; Long Hao; Sang Li-Wen; Qi Sheng-Li; Xiong Chang; Yu Tong-Jun; Yang Zhi-Jian; Zhang Guo-Yi

    2011-01-01

    We report on the growth and fabrication of nonpolar a-plane light emitting diodes with an in-situ SiNx interlayer grown between the undoped a-plane GaN buffer and Si-doped GaN layer. X-ray diffraction shows that the crystalline quality of the GaN buffer layer is greatly improved with the introduction of the SiNx interlayer. The electrical properties are also improved. For example, electron mobility and sheet resistance are reduced from high resistance to 31.6 cm2/(V·s) and 460 Ω/□ respectively. Owing to the significant effect of the SiNx interlayer, a-plane LEDs are realized. Electroluminescence of a nonpolar a-plane light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 488nm is demonstrated.The emission peak remains constant when the injection current increases to over 20 mA.

  4. Fine tuning the HOMO energy levels of polythieno[3,4-b]thiophene derivatives by incorporation of thiophene-3,4-dicarboxylate moiety for photovoltaic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Xiao-Lian; Zuo, Li-Jian; Nan, Ya-Xiong

    2012-01-01

    To lower the HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) energy level of polythieno[3,4-b]thiophene (∼−4.5eV), a series of ester-functionalized polythieno[3,4-b]thiophene derivatives (P1–P3) were designed and synthesized by Stille cross coupling reaction. The resulting copolymers exhibited broad an...

  5. Thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione-3,4-difluorothiophene Polymer Acceptors for Efficient All-Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Shengjian

    2016-09-16

    Branched-alkyl-substituted poly(thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione-alt-3,4-difluorothiophene) (PTPD[2F]T) can be used as a polymer acceptor in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with a low-band-gap polymer donor (PCE10) commonly used with fullerenes. The

  6. Phase Transfer Catalyzed Synthesis of 1, 2-Bis[(3-aryl)-s-triazolo-[3, 4-b]-[1, 3, 4]thiadiazole-6-yl]ethanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De Jiang LI; He Qing FU

    2006-01-01

    A series of new 1, 2-bis[(3-aryl)-s-triazolo[3, 4-b]-[1, 3, 4]thiadiazole-6-yl]ethanes were synthesized in 50-82% yield by cyclization of 3-aryl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole with butanedioic acid in the presence of POC13 and tetrabutylammonium iodide as phase transfer catalyst.

  7. 高效解磷解钾菌 NX-11菌株的分离筛选、鉴定及最佳培养条件的确定%Screening,Identification and Sporulation Conditions Optimization of NX-11 Strain Having the Ability of Solubilizing Phosphorus and Potassium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻瑞阳; 张爱民; 惠小双; 代萌; 王雯; 朱宝成

    2013-01-01

      分离筛选具有高效解磷解钾效果的菌株并进行鉴定及培养条件优化。采用鉴别培养基进行菌株分离筛选,通过生理生化鉴定及16S rRNA基因序列分析进行菌种鉴定,并对其发酵培养基和培养条件进行正交试验确定最佳培养条件。筛选出高效解磷解钾菌株NX-11。测序结果表明,NX-11与Bacillus subtilis subsp.Subtilis亲缘关系接近。确定其最佳发酵培养基配方为:淀粉5.0%,黄豆饼粉1.5%,MgSO40.07%,NaCl 0.05%;最佳培养条件为:种龄20 h、装量30 mL/250 mL三角瓶、接种量4%、pH值8.0培养温度37℃、摇床转速200 r/min。%Bacteria having the efficient activity on solubilizing phosphate and potassium have been isolated for its utilization as a biological fertilizer .The most efficient strain named NX-11 was chosen for further study .NX-11 was identified as Bacillus subtilis after a series of physiological and biochemical experiments ,morphological observa-tion and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis .The solubilization ability of NX-11 was tested in the condition of pure cul-ture.The results showed that the optimal medial components were composed of 5.0% starch,1.5% soybean cake powder,0.07%MgSO4 ,0.05%NaCl.The optimal culture conditions were at temperature 37 ℃with initial pH 8.0 and incubation time 20 h,inoculum’s volume 40 mL/L,medium volume 30 mL in 250 mL flask and 200 r/min.

  8. 采用真空磁控反应溅射和热水氧化法制备AlNxOy增透膜%Preparation of Transmittance-Increasing AlNxOy Film by Vacuum Magnetron Reactively Sputtering and Hydrothermal Oxidation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池华敬; 熊凯; 郭帅; 许丽; 王双; 陈革; 章其初

    2011-01-01

    在3.2mm厚的低铁玻璃衬底上采用金属Al靶在溅射气体Ar和反应气体H2的混合气体中,真空磁控反应溅射沉积半透明的Al-AlN金属陶瓷薄膜.再将沉积该薄膜的玻璃试样浸入沸腾的去离子水中,经一定时间氧化后,制备成表面粗糙的AlN和Al2O3的陶瓷混合物增透膜AlNxOy.在3.2 mm厚的低铁玻璃上,溅射沉积厚度为120 nm的Al-AlN金属陶瓷薄膜,沸水氧化8 min,制备的单面增透膜AlNxOy试样的太阳透射比Te达93.5%,可见光透射比Tv达95.2%.制备的双面增透膜AlNxOy试样的Te,Tv进一步提高,Te高达95.6%,与未镀膜玻璃衬底的90.4%相比,增加了5.2%;Tv高达97.0%,与玻璃衬底的91.6%相比,增加了5.4%.%The translucent A1-A1N cermet thin film are deposited on 3.2 mm thickness low-iron glass substrate by magnetron reactive sputtering using Al target in the atmosphere of Ar and N2. The transmittance-increasing film of AlNxOy with surface roughness are made after hydrothermal oxidation in boiling pure water for a certain time. For a 3.2 mm thickness low-iron glass with a AlNxOy, film obtained by oxidation a 120 nm thickness A1-A1N film in boiling water for 8 min, the measured solar light transmittance Te is 93.5%, and the visible light transmittance Tv is 95.2%. For a glass that both sides is coated, Te and Tv are 95.6% and 97% respectively, while for uncoated glass, the two values are 90.4% and 91.6%.

  9. 关于丢番图方程(195n)x+(28n)y=(197n)z%On the Diophantine equation (195n)x+(28n)y=(197n)z

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌灯荣; 翁建欣

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, using the properties of congruences and the order of elements, we show that for any positive integer n, the Diophantine equation (195n)x+(28n)y =(197n)z has no solution other than (x, y, z)=(2, 2, 2) in positive integers.%  运用同余及元素阶的性质,证明了对任意的正整数n,丢番图方程(195n)x+(28n)y=(197n)z仅有正整数解(x, y, z)=(2,2,2)。

  10. Simultaneous polysubstance use among Danish 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and hallucinogen users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Cecilie L; Christoffersen, Maria; Okholm, Mads;

    2012-01-01

    To describe patterns of simultaneous polysubstance use (SPU) among Danish 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) ("Ecstasy") and hallucinogen users.......To describe patterns of simultaneous polysubstance use (SPU) among Danish 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) ("Ecstasy") and hallucinogen users....

  11. Temperature and Composition Dependence of GaNxAs1-x(0<x≤0.05)before and after Annealing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵传阵; 李娜娜; 魏通; 唐春晓

    2011-01-01

    The parameters in the band-anticrossing model for GaNxAsi-x (0NxAs1-x(0<x≤0.05)are obtained considering the effect of temperature and composition.It is found that the effect of composition on the N levels in the band-anticrossing model is weak.The temperature dependence of the N levels and the temperature dependence of the band gap energy of GaNAs are weaker than that of GaAs.In addition,the reason for a spectral blueshift and the effect of annealing on the parameters in the band-anticrossing model are also discussed.

  12. First-Principle Study of the Structural, Electronic, and Optical Properties of Cubic InNxP1-x Ternary Alloys under Hydrostatic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattabi, I.; Abdiche, A.; Moussa, R.; Riane, R.; Hadji, K.; Soyalp, F.; Varshney, Dinesh; Syrotyuk, S. V.; Khenata, R.

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we present results of the first-principle study of the structural, electronic, and optical properties of the InN, InP binary compounds and their related ternary alloy InNxP1-x in the zinc-blend (ZB) phase within a nonrelativistic full potential linearised augmented plan wave (FP-LAPW) method using Wien2k code based on the density functional theory (DFT). Different approximations of exchange-correlation energy were used for the calculation of the lattice constant, bulk modulus, and first-order pressure derivative of the bulk modulus. Whereas the lattice constant decreases with increasing nitride composition x. Our results present a good agreement with theoretical and experimental data. The electronic band structures calculated using Tran-Blaha-modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) approach present a direct band gap semiconductor character for InNxP1-x compounds at different x values. The electronic properties were also calculated under hydrostatic pressure for (P=0.00, 5.00, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0 GPa) where it is found that the InP compound change from direct to indirect band gap at the pressure P≥7.80 GPa. Furthermore, the pressure effect on the dielectric function and the refractive index was carried out. Results obtained in our calculations present a good agreement with available theoretical reports and experimental data.

  13. Nanomechanical Properties and Deformation Behaviors of Multi-Component (AlCrTaTiZrNxSiy High-Entropy Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Yi Lin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study multi-component (AlCrTaTiZrNxSiy high-entropy coatings were developed by co-sputtering of AlCrTaTiZr alloy and Si in an Ar/N2 mixed atmosphere with the application of different substrate biases and Si-target powers. Their nanomechanical properties and deformation behaviors were characterized by nanoindentation tests. Because of the effect of high mixing entropies, all the deposited multi-component (AlCrTaTiZrNxSiy high-entropy coatings exhibited a simple face-centered cubic solid-solution structure. With an increased substrate bias and Si-target power, their microstructures changed from large columns with a [111] preferred orientation to a nanocomposite form with ultrafine grains. The hardness, H/E ratio and H3/E2 ratio of (AlCrTaTiZrN1.07Si0.15 coating reached 30.2 GPa, 0.12 and 0.41 GPa, respectively, suggesting markedly suppressed dislocation activities and a very high resistance to wear and plastic deformation, attributable to grain refinements and film densification by the application of substrate bias, a nanocomposite structure by the introduction of silicon nitrides, and a strengthening effect induced by severe lattice distortions. In the deformed regions under indents, stacking faults or partial dislocations were formed, while in the stress-released regions, near-perfect lattices recovered.

  14. Mechanistic Study of Visible-Light-Induced Photodegradation of 4-Chlorophenol by TiO2−xNx with Low Nitrogen Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangfeng Shang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2−x Nx powders with low N-doping concentrations (0.021<<0.049 were prepared by annealing commercial TiO2 (P-25 under an NH3 flow at 550°C. Regardless of UV or visible case, the photoactivities of the samples decreased as x increased, and TiO1.979N0.021 showed the highest activity for the 4-chlorophenol (4-CP decomposition under the visible-light irradiation. The visible-light response for N-doped TiO2 could arise from an N-induced midgap level, formed above the valence band (O 2p. Electron spin resonance (ESR measurements and the radical scavenger technologies gave the combined evidence that the active species (•OH and O2•− are responsible for the photodecomposition of 4-CP over TiO2−xNx under the visible irradiation. A possible photocatalytic mechanism was discussed in detail.

  15. Enhanced poly(γ-glutamic acid) production by H2 O2 -induced reactive oxygen species in the fermentation of Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bao; Zhang, Dan; Li, Sha; Xu, Zongqi; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on cell growth and poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) synthesis were studied by adding hydrogen peroxide to a medium of Bacillus subtilis NX-2. After optimizing the addition concentration and time of H2 O2 , a maximum concentration of 33.9 g/L γ-PGA was obtained by adding 100 µM H2 O2 to the medium after 24 H. This concentration was 20.6% higher than that of the control. The addition of diphenyleneiodonium chloride (ROS inhibitor) can interdict the effect of H2 O2 -induced ROS. Transcriptional levels of the cofactors and relevant genes were also determined under ROS stress to illustrate the possible metabolic mechanism contributing to the improve γ-PGA production. The transcriptional levels of genes belonging to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and electron transfer chain system were significantly increased by ROS, which decreased the NADH/NAD(+) ratio and increased the ATP levels, thereby providing more reducing power and energy for γ-PGA biosynthesis. The enhanced γ-PGA synthetic genes also directly promoted the formation of γ-PGA. This study was the first to use the ROS control strategy for γ-PGA fermentation and provided valuable information on the possible mechanism by which ROS regulated γ-PGA biosynthesis in B. subtilis NX-2.

  16. Development of Jerusalem artichoke resource for efficient one-step fermentation of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) using a novel strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NX-2S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yibin; Sha, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yatao; Xu, Zongqi; Li, Sha; Lei, Peng; Xu, Zheng; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to develop non-food fermentation for the cost-effective production of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) using a novel strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NX-2S. The new isolate assimilated inulin more efficiently than other carbohydrates from Jerusalem artichoke, without hydrolytic treatment. To investigate the effect of inulin on γ-PGA production, the transcript levels of γ-PGA synthetase genes (pgsB, pgsC, pgsA), regulatory genes (comA, degQ, degS), and the glutamic acid biosynthesis gene (glnA) were analyzed; inulin addition upregulated these key genes. Without exogenous glutamate, strain NX-2S could produce 6.85±0.22g/L of γ-PGA during fermentation. Exogenous glutamate greatly enhances the γ-PGA yield (39.4±0.38g/L) and productivity (0.43±0.05g/L/h) in batch fermentation. Our study revealed a potential method of non-food fermentation to produce high-value products. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. "Wiring" Fe-Nx -Embedded Porous Carbon Framework onto 1D Nanotubes for Efficient Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Alkaline and Acidic Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sung Hoon; Yu, Xingwen; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2017-07-01

    This study presents a novel metal-organic-framework-engaged synthesis route based on porous tellurium nanotubes as a sacrificial template for hierarchically porous 1D carbon nanotubes. Furthermore, an ultrathin Fe-ion-containing polydopamine layer has been introduced to generate highly effective FeNx C active sites into the carbon framework and to induce a high degree of graphitization. The synergistic effects between the hierarchically porous 1D carbon structure and the embedded FeNx C active sites in the carbon framework manifest in superior catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) compared to Pt/C catalyst in both alkaline and acidic media. A rechargeable zinc-air battery assembled in a decoupled configuration with the nonprecious pCNT@Fe@GL/CNF ORR electrode and Ni-Fe LDH/NiF oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrode exhibits charge-discharge overpotentials similar to the counterparts of Pt/C ORR electrode and IrO2 OER electrode. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Economical production of poly(γ-glutamic acid) using untreated cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Feng, Xiaohai; Zhou, Zhe; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Hong

    2012-06-01

    The production of poly(γ-glutamic acid) by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 from cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL) was studied for the first time in this work. When batch fermentation was carried out with untreated molasses, 33.6±0.37 g L(-1) PGA was obtained with a productivity of 0.46±0.006 g L(-1) h(-1). In order to minimize the substrate inhibition, fed-batch fermentation was performed with untreated or hydrolyzed molasses in 7.5 L bioreactor, giving 50.2±0.53 and 51.1±0.51 g L(-1) of PGA at 96 h, respectively. Further studies were carried out by using MGWL as another carbon source, resulting in a PGA concentration of 52.1±0.52 g L(-1) with a productivity of 0.54±0.003 g L(-1) h(-1). These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and MGWL can be used for the environmental-friendly and economical production of PGA by B. subtilis NX-2.

  19. 1,3,4,6,7,9-Hexamethylbenzo[1,2-c:3,4-c':5,6-c'']trithiophene: a twisted heteroarene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao-Ting; Tai, Chia-Cheng; Lin, Wei-Chih; Baldridge, Kim K

    2009-07-01

    1,3,4,6,7,9-Hexamethylbenzo[1,2-c:3,4-c':5,6-c'']trithiophene (C-Me) was prepared by palladium-catalyzed methylations of the corresponding hexabromide C-Br. The twisted structure of C-Me has been confirmed by X-ray crystal analysis. The physical properties of twisted C-Me and planar benzo[1,2-c:3,4-c':5,6-c'']trithiophene (C-H) were studied and compared. Crystal structures are compared to computational structures determined using density functional theory, with both the M06-2X and B3PW91 functionals.

  20. Prognostic value of lymph node micrometastases in patients with colorectal cancer in Dukes stages A and B (T1-T4, N0, M0 Valor pronóstico de las micrometástasis linfoganglionares en pacientes con cáncer colorrectal en estadios A y B de Dukes (T1-T4, N0, M0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uribarrena-Amezaga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: 30% of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC in Dukes stages A and B (T1-T4, N0, M0 present tumor recurrence and die after 5 years follow up. This unexpectedly poor evolution might be attributable to the presence of lymph node micrometastasis undetected in routine examination with haematoxilin-eosine (H&E. Objective: to assess the presence of undetected micrometastasis. Patients and methods: we conducted a retrospective study of the locoregional lymph nodes in 85 patients operated for CRC in Dukes stages A and B (T1-T4, N0, M0, using immunohistochemistry with anticytokeratin antibodies AE1/AE3. In this descriptive, inferential bivariant and survival study, we analyzed different risk factors, including local infiltration T1/T4, Dukes A/B, number of dissected lymph nodes, vascular invasion, micrometastasis, tumor recurrence and death in the context of the presence or absence of micrometastases. Results: Dukes stage and neoplastic angioinvasion are influential in patient prognosis; however, lymph node micrometastases were not associated with a poorer outcome of CRC. Conclusions: locorregional lymph node micrometastases detected with anticytokeratine antibodies AE1/AE3 in Dukes A and B CRC patients are not associated with reduced survival.Introducción: un 30% de los pacientes con cáncer colorrectal (CCR en estadios A y B de Dukes (T1-T4, N0, M0 presentan recidiva tumoral y/o fallecen a los 5 años. Esta inesperada mala evolución, en casos presumiblemente curados podría deberse, entre otras causas, a la presencia de micrometástasis linfoganglionares no detectadas en el estudio de rutina: hematoxilina-eosina (H&E. Objetivo: determinar si la presencia de micrometástasis linfoganglionares detectadas mediante inmunohistoquímica con anticuerpos anticitoqueratina AE1/AE3, influyen en la evolución del CCR. Pacientes y métodos: se han estudiado los ganglios linfáticos locorregionales de 85 pacientes con CCR en estadios A y B de Dukes (T1

  1. Synthesis and Crystal Structures of Azolo[b]1,3,4-Thiadiazinium Bromides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Laus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three azolo[b]1,3,4-thiadiazinium bromides were prepared from the respective N-amino-N'-methylazolethiones and phenacyl bromide, and their crystal structures were determined. 6-Phenyl-1-methylimidazo[2,1-b]1,3,4-thiadiazinium bromide (1 crystallized as methanol solvate (P21/n, 6-phenyl-1-methyl-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]1,3,4-thiadiazinium bromide (2 as hemi-ethanol solvate (P21/n, and 6-phenyl-1-methyl-1,2,4-triazolo[3,2-b]1,3,4-thiadiazinium bromide (3 solvent-free (P21/c. Interionic contacts were identified.

  2. NX15 science workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Science. For some of us, it's daunting or maybe even terrifying. How to tell a good science story? That's the question we will explore together in this workshop. Conceived and produced by journalist and Scientific News producer Claudio Rosmino of Euronews, and presented by Euronews' Jeremy Wilks, the workshop will look at actual case studies (from Euronews and beyond) where science news proved exciting, inspiring and accessible to audiences around the world. These might include the Rosetta mission and CERN's work on Science for Peace. Together, we'll share ideas and knowledge around how science journalism and science news can increase its visibility in the media and maybe save the planet...!

  3. Preparation of QTi4.3-4Graghite Composite by Semi-solid Casting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng; DU Yunhui; LIU Hanwu; ZENG Daben; BA Limin

    2005-01-01

    The electromagnetic-mechanical stirring technology was employed for preparing QTi4.3-4 graghite composite slurry, and QTi4.3-4 graghite composite with uniform distribution of graphite particles was prepared using the semi-solid casting technology successfully. The structure of this QTi4.3-4 graghite composite was studied and the condition for uniform distribution of graphite particles was got. The experimental results show that there exists a linear relationship between the solid fraction aud the stirring temperature of QTi4.3-4 graphite slurry. With the decreasing of stirring temperature, the solid fraction of QTi4.3-4 graghite slurry increases constantly. In casting, with the iucreasing of solid fraction of QTi4.3-4graghite slurry, the agglomeration of graphite particles is removed gradually. When the solid fraction is higher than 40% , graphite particles can distribute evenly in QTi4.3-4 graghite composite.

  4. The interdomain interface in bifunctional enzyme protein 3/4A (NS3/4A) regulates protease and helicase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cihan; Mukherjee, Sourav; Hanson, Alicia M; Frick, David N; Schiffer, Celia A

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV) protein 3/4A (NS3/4A) is a bifunctional enzyme comprising two separate domains with protease and helicase activities, which are essential for viral propagation. Both domains are stable and have enzymatic activity separately, and the relevance and implications of having protease and helicase together as a single protein remains to be explored. Altered in vitro activities of isolated domains compared with the full-length NS3/4A protein suggest the existence of interdomain communication. The molecular mechanism and extent of this communication was investigated by probing the domain-domain interface observed in HCV NS3/4A crystal structures. We found in molecular dynamics simulations that the two domains of NS3/4A are dynamically coupled through the interface. Interestingly, mutations designed to disrupt this interface did not hinder the catalytic activities of either domain. In contrast, substrate cleavage and DNA unwinding by these mutants were mostly enhanced compared with the wild-type protein. Disrupting the interface did not significantly alter RNA unwinding activity; however, the full-length protein was more efficient in RNA unwinding than the isolated protease domain, suggesting a more direct role in RNA processing independent of the interface. Our findings suggest that HCV NS3/4A adopts an "extended" catalytically active conformation, and interface formation acts as a switch to regulate activity. We propose a unifying model connecting HCV NS3/4A conformational states and protease and helicase function, where interface formation and the dynamic interplay between the two enzymatic domains of HCV NS3/4A potentially modulate the protease and helicase activities in vivo. © 2013 The Protein Society.

  5. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some novel fused heterocyclic 1,2,4-triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish K. Sahu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, the synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of 1,2,4-triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine including different pharmacophores are aimed at. In this study, a series of 6-aryl-3- (3,4 -dialkoxyphenyl-7H -[1,2,4]triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine (7a-7k was synthesized by condensing 4-amino-5-(3,4-dialkoxyphenyl-4H-[1,2,4]- triazole-3-thiol (6 with various aromatic carboxylic acids in the presence of phenacyl bromides through one-pot reaction. Eleven fused heterocyclic derivatives were successfully synthesized. The structures of these newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1 H NMR and mass spectroscopic studies. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial evaluation. Some of the compounds exhibited promising antimicrobial activity. From the present study it may be concluded that synthesized compounds are fruitful in terms of their structural novelty and marked biological activities. These compounds could be further modified to develop potential and safer antifungal agents.

  6. Application of the Machine Vice Motion Simulation Based on the UG NX%基于UG NX在机用虎钳运动仿真中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡素萍

    2012-01-01

    NX是一种最普及、最优秀的CAD/CAM/CAE软件。笔者结合近几年的教学及工作经验,借助NX软件强大的实体建模功能进行建模,并利用装配功能完成了虚拟模型的创建,然后进行了详细的运动仿真分析。本文简单介绍NX软件的装配模块以及UGNX运动仿真应用于机械结构设计。%NX is one of the most popular and the most excellent CAD/CAM/CAE software. Combined with the teaching and work experience in recent years, and with the help of powerful modeling function of the NX soft- ware, this paper uses the assembly function to complete the virtual model, and then carries out a detailed analysis simulation. This paper briefly introduces the assembly module of the NX software and the application of UG NX motion simulation to the design of mechanical structure.

  7. A comparison of the 60Co gamma radiation hardness, breakdown characteristics and the effect of SiNx capping on InAlN and AlGaN HEMTs for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. D.; O'Mahony, D.; Vitobello, F.; Muschitiello, M.; Costantino, A.; Barnes, A. R.; Parbrook, P. J.

    2016-02-01

    Electrical performance and stability of InAlN and AlGaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) subjected 9.1 mrad of 60Co gamma radiation and off-state voltage step-stressing until breakdown are reported. Comparison with commercially available production-level AlGaN HEMT devices, which showed negligible drift in DC performance throughout all experiments, suggests degradation mechanisms must be managed and suppressed through development of advanced epitaxial and surface passivation techniques in order to fully exploit the robustness of the III-nitride material system. Of the research level devices without dielectric layer surface capping, InAlN HEMTs exhibited the greater stability compared with AlGaN under off-state bias stressing and gamma irradiation in terms of their DC characteristics, although AlGaN HEMTs had significantly higher breakdown voltages. The effect of plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition SiNx surface capping is explored, highlighting the sensitivity of InAlN HEMT performance to surface passivation techniques. InAlN-SiNx HEMTs suffered more from trap related degradation than AlGaN-SiNx devices in terms of radiation hardness and step-stress characteristics, attributed to an increased capturing of carriers in traps at the InAlN/SiNx interface.

  8. MC3T3-E1 Cell Response to Ti1-xAgx and Ag-TiNx Electrodes Deposited on Piezoelectric Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Substrates for Sensor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, S M; Rico, P; Carvalho, I; Gómez Ribelles, J L; Fialho, L; Lanceros-Méndez, S; Henriques, M; Carvalho, S

    2016-02-17

    In the sensors field, titanium based coatings are being used for the acquisition/application of electrical signals from/to piezoelectric materials. In this particular case, sensors are used to detect dynamic mechanical loads at early stages after intervention of problems associated with prostheses implantation. The aim of this work is to select an adequate electrode for sensor applications capable, in an initial stage to avoid bone cell adhesion, but at a long stage, permit osteointegration and osteoinduction. This work reports on the evaluation of osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells behavior in terms of proliferation, adhesion and long-term differentiation of two different systems used as sensor electrodes: Ti1-xAgx and Ag-TiNx deposited by d.c. and pulsed magnetron sputtering at room temperature on poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). The results indicated an improved effect of Ag-TiNx electrodes compared with Ti1-xAgx and TiN, in terms of diminished cell adhesion and proliferation at an initial cell culture stage. Nevertheless, when cell culture time is longer, cells grown onto Ag-TiNx electrodes are capable to proliferate and also differentiate at proper rates, indicating the suitability of this coating for sensor application in prostheses devices. Thus, the Ag-TiNx system was considered the most promising electrode for tissue engineering applications in the design of sensors for prostheses to detect dynamic mechanical loads.

  9. t(4;11 (q21;q23 in acute myeloid leukemia-M0 following treatment [EW92 Protocol] for Ewing's sarcoma Leucemia mielóide aguda-M0 com t(4;11 (q21;q23 após tratamento para sarcoma de Ewing com o protocolo EW92

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha J. Marques Salles

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 7-year-old girl with Ewing's Sarcoma (ES who developed a poorly differentiated acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M0 20 months after beginning the EW92 protocol for the treatment of the primary tumor. She received a total dose of 1500 mg of etoposide, a tumor cumulative radiation dose of 35Gy and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF was as predicted in the protocol regimen. At onset of secondary malignancy her laboratorial analysis revealed immature blast cells characterized by CD34+/CD33-/a-MPO+ and a t(4;11(q21;q23 abnormality. This serious complication of ES treatment, which associates etoposide, irradiation and G-CSF schedule, should be weighed against its therapeutic benefits.Nós descrevemos o caso clínico de uma criança do sexo feminino, com 7 anos de idade, portadora de sarcoma de Ewing, que evoluiu com leucemia aguda mielóide pouco diferenciada (LMA-M0 após vinte meses de tratamento utilizando o protocolo EW92. Ela recebeu uma dose total de 1.500 mg de etoposídio, irradiação tumoral na dose total de 35G, e fator de estimulação de colônia granulocítica (G-CSF conforme programação do protocolo terapêutico. Os exames laboratoriais, por ocasião do diagnóstico da segunda malignidade, mostraram células blásticas imaturas caracterizadas pela expressão de CD34+/CD33-/aMPO+ e a translocação t(4;11 (q 21;q23. A exclusão do G-CSF nos esquemas terapêuticos que associam etoposídio e irradiação tumoral se justifica devido a esta séria complicação no tratamento do sarcoma de Ewing.

  10. Effects of 3,4-Dichloroaniline on Testicle Enzymes as Biological Markers in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo ZHANG; SEN LIN

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of 3,4-dichlomaniline (3,4-DCA) on activities of testicle enzymes as biological markers in rats. Methods Fifty male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10). One group was left untreated and used as a solvent control (administered orally by corn oil), while the other 4 groups were treated with 3, 4-DCA. Corn oil was used as a solvent, and 3,4-DCA was diluted into tested concentrations (39, 81, 170, and 357 mg/kg). All the groups orally administered 3,4-DCA or corn oil, once a day for 4 weeks. The testicle tissue was homogenized in a 0.1 mol/L potassium phosphate buffer (0.1 mol/L, pH 7.2). The crude homogenate was centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 5 rain at 4 ℃. The supematant obtained was used as an enzyme extract for determination of the enzyme activities. Results Compared with the control, the activities of ALP, ACE and SDH were increased significantly at a lower level of 3,4-DCA, and decreased at a higher level of 3, 4-DCA, whreas the activities of LDH, LDH-X, and G6PDH were inhibited significantly with the increased 3,4-DCA concentration. Organ coefficient "organ weight/total body weight × 100" of testis, liver, and spleen increased significantly with the increased 3,4-DCA concentration. These results suggest that 3,4-DCA toxicity to the male reproductive system was associated with the activities of testicular enzymes which are the sensitive biochemical endpoints reflecting 3,4-DCA toxicity to the male reproductive system. Conclusion 3,4-DCA has toxicity to the reproductive system in male rats.

  11. Synthesis of 3,4-disubstituted maleimides by selective cross-coupling reactions using indium organometallics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouissane, Latifa; Pérez Sestelo, José; Sarandeses, Luis A

    2009-03-19

    Unsymmetrical 3,4-disubstituted maleimides have been synthesized by palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of indium organometallics with 3,4-dihalomaleimides. The synthesis was performed by stepwise or sequential one-pot palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with various triorganoindium reagents. This method was used to prepare a wide variety of alkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, and alkynyl 3,4-disubstituted maleimides in good yields and with high selectivity and atom economy.

  12. Characterizations of a loss-of-function mutation in the Kir3.4 channel subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calloe, Kirstine; Ravn, Lasse Steen; Schmitt, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Kir3.4 and Kir3.1 potassium channel subunits mediate the acetylcholine induced inwardly rectifying current I(KACh) in the heart. We found a glycine to arginine substitution in codon 247 of Kir3.4 in a patient with a single episode of atrial fibrillation (AF). Expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes ...... the lack of clear clinical manifestations and further studies are necessary to elucidate if mutations in Kir3.4 are predisposing AF. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec-28...

  13. Establishment Conforms to National Standard Dimensioning Siemens NX Software%Siemens NX软件中建立符合国标尺寸标注

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏丹娅

    2016-01-01

    本文探索了Siemens NX软件中建立符合国标尺寸标注的方法,通过一项项的设置使得在其平台上能够高效的建立美观、符合国标的工程图,同时保证了工程图与3D模型之间的关联性。%This paper explores the establishing method of GB dimension Siemens NX software, through a set makes it possible to build beautiful, accord with national standard of engineering drawing on its platform, but also ensure the relationship between engineering drawing and 3D model.

  14. The Semiclassical distorted wave (SCDW) model for multistep direct processes in (p,px) and (p, nx) reactions at intermediate energies: formalism and application

    CERN Document Server

    Kawai, M; Watanabe, Y

    2002-01-01

    The semi-classical distorted wave (SCDW) model for (p,p sup ' x) and (p,nx) reactions at intermediate energies is presented. Simple closed forms with no free adjustable parameter are derived for inclusive double differential cross sections and spin observables. The formulae allow simple intuitive physical interpretations. Applications of the model to analyses of experimental data at 120 to 400 MeV on target nuclei sup 1 sup 2 C, sup 4 sup 0 Ca and sup 9 sup 0 Zr are discussed. Calculations include up to three-step processes with realistic effective nucleon-nucleon interactions modified in the nuclear medium. Good over all agreement with the data is obtained including absolute magnitude of the cross sections. Through the analysis the role of multistep processes is revealed and the possibility of extracting information on nucleon-nucleon interaction in the nuclear medium becomes clear

  15. Customization and Application of Machining Data Library Based on UG NX%NX加工数据库的定制及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文学

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the customization and application of machining data library of NX. Machining data library by customized can reflect enterprises' conditions of NC machining,and enterprises' standards. It will provide NC programmer more convenient ways for controlling parameters of NC manufacturing. And it will provide more efficient and exact conditions for technician.%主要介绍了NX加工数据库中数控加工工艺参数的客户化定制方法和应用,经过定制的加工数据库更能反映企业实际数控加工工艺条件、标准和环境,为数控加工编程技术人员提供更为便利的操作,为企业的数控编程应用更上一个台阶提供高效、准确的条件.

  16. NX注塑模向导中的视图管理器定制及应用%Customization & Application of View Manager in NX Moldwizard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文学

    2015-01-01

    This Paper introduce the customization and application of view manager of NX Mold wizard. View manager after customized can reflect enterprises’ standards and habits of using. It will provide mold designers more convenient ways for controlling components.%介绍了NX注塑模向导(Moldwizard)中视图管理器的客户化定制方法和应用,定制后的视图管理器(View Manager)能更好地满足企业的标准及工程技术人员的使用习惯,为模具设计工程技术人员提供更为便利的组件操作控制方式。

  17. Ineffectiveness of 3,4-diaminopyridine as a therapy for type C botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, L.S.; Price, J.I.

    1987-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins inhibit acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions. Agents stimulating neurotransmitter efflux, such as 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP), could be useful for botulism therapy. Treatment with 3,4-DAP (8 mg/kg hourly, beginning 3 hr after toxin injection) failed to increase the survival times of mice receiving 10, 20 or 40 LD50 type C, but did prolong the survival of those receiving 20 LD50 type A. This difference in 3,4-DAP efficacy may reflect variations in the molecular mechanism of action of types A and C botulinum neurotoxins.

  18. Pathway for inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate and 1,4-bisphosphate metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Inhorn, R C; Bansal, V S; Majerus, P W

    1987-01-01

    We prepared [3H]inositol-,3-[32P]phosphate-and 4-[32P]phosphate-labeled inositol phosphate substrates to investigate the metabolism of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate and inositol 1,4-bisphosphate. In crude extracts of calf brain, inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate is first converted to inositol 3,4-bisphosphate, then the inositol 3,4-bisphosphate intermediate is further converted to inositol 3-phosphate. Similarly, inositol 1,4-bisphosphate is converted to inositol 4-phosphate, and no inositol 1-phos...

  19. Spasmolytic agents. 2. 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-2-naphthylamine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanao, M; Hashizume, T; Ichikawa, Y; Irie, K; Isoda, S

    1982-11-01

    N-[(Benzoyloxy)alkyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-naphthylamine derivatives were synthesized from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-naphthylamines and evaluated for their spasmolytic. Some of these compounds showed a nerve-selective effect on colon rather than stomach in anesthetized dogs and were found to be equal to or more active than the reference drug (mebeverine). The biological data have indicated some structure-activity relationships. Among these compounds, N-ethyl-N-[6-(3,4-dimethoxybenzoyl)oxy]hexyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-methoxy-2- napththylamine hydrochloride (63) was found to be the most active spasmolytic agent.

  20. Synthesis of 1-Substituted Carbazolyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro- and Carbazolyl-3,4-dihydro-β-carboline Analogs as Potential Antitumor Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Wang Chern

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of 1-substituted carbazolyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro- and carbazolyl-3,4-dihydro-b-carboline analogs have been synthesized and evaluated for antitumor activity against human tumor cells including KB, DLD, NCI-H661, Hepa, and HepG2/A2 cell lines. Among these, compounds 2, 6, 7, and 9 exhibited the most potent and selective activity against the tested tumor cells. As for inhibition of topoisomerase II, compounds 1–14 and 18 showed better activity than etoposide. Among them, compounds 3, 4, 7, 9, and 10 exhibited potent activity. The structure and activity relationship (SAR study revealed correlation between carbon numbers of the side chain and biological activities. The molecular complex with DNA for compound 2 was proposed.

  1. Realization of MBD model digitalization definition in UG/NX%基于模型的数字化定义在UG/NX中的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶杰; 葛如海; 周临震

    2013-01-01

    Through studying the development process of DPD and in-depth analysis of the relationship between DPD and MBD, the importance of DPD as the basis of MBD technology application system was revealed. The content of Digital Product Definition, the definition method of GD&T in 3D model, the application of 3D cutaway view and the comments expression of non-geometry manufacturing information of air bag support were analyzed based on UG/ NX platform. In addition, the expression method of product manufacturing information under NX platform was given. DPD, as the basis of MBD technology, will completely change the information carrier from 2D drawings to 3D model and lead digital manufacturing technology to great changes.%通过探究DPD的发展历程,深入剖析DPD与MBD的关系,揭示了DPD作为MBD技术应用体系基础的重要性.以UG/NX软件为平台,以气囊下支座为研究对象,分析了DPD定义的内容,GD&T在三维数模中的定义方法,三维剖视图的应用及非几何信息的注释表达,明确了在NX平台下产品制造信息的表达方法.DPD作为MBD技术的基础,彻底将产品定义信息载体变更为三维模型,必将引起数字化制造技术的巨大变革.

  2. Influence of a-Si:H deposition power on surface passivation property and thermal stability of a-Si:H/SiNx:H stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H layers for passivating crystalline silicon surfaces has been well documented in the literature for well over a decade. One limitation of such layers however has arisen from their inability to withstand temperatures much above their deposition temperature without significant degradation. This limitation is of importance particularly with multicrystalline silicon materials where temperatures of at least 400°C are needed for effective hydrogenation of the crystallographic defects such as grain boundaries. To address this limitation, in this work the surface passivation quality and thermal stability of a stack passivating system, combining a layer of intrinsic a-Si:H and a capping layer of silicon nitride (SiNx:H, on p-type crystalline silicon wafers is studied and optimized. In particular the sensitivity of different microwave (MW power levels for underlying a-Si:H layer deposition are examined. Both effective minority carrier lifetime (ζeff measurement and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrometry were employed to study the bonding configurations, passivating quality and thermal stability of the a-Si:H/SiNx:H stacks. It is established that the higher MW power could result in increased as-deposited ζeff and implied Voc (iVoc values, indicating likely improved surface passivation quality, but that this combination degrades more quickly when exposed to prolonged thermal treatments. The more dihydride-rich film composition corresponding to the higher MW power appears to be beneficial for bond restructuring by hydrogen interchanges when exposed to short term annealing, however it also appears more susceptible to providing channels for hydrogen out-effusion which is the likely cause of the poorer thermal stability for prolonged high temperature exposure compared with stacks with underlying a-Si:H deposited with lower MW power.

  3. 基于UG NX的产品设计重用性研究%Study on Product Design Reusability Based on UG NX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟平

    2015-01-01

    Taking a normal Nylon cases for wheelset assembly as an example, this paper describes a method for product design reuse based on UG NX creatively. In general terms,there are essentially four steps in this design scheme:parameterized modeling, part families establishment ,application of reuse library, sharing reuse library. For more details ,users can achieve the component design reuse personally by taking advantage of modules of UG NX, such as reuse library ,etc. Furthermore , users can also share the reusable personal resource by creating a network. This scheme has significative and practical value in product design to improve efficiency and to reduce the cost by reducing the repetitive work of designers.%以轮对压装的尼龙保护套的设计为例,按照建模参数化、部件族的创建、重用库的运用、共享重用库的流程详细介绍了一套利用UG NX软件实现产品设计重用性的方法.在UG NX的部件族功能的基础上巧妙利用重用库等模块实现部件设计的个人重用,继而通过搭建共享网络实现局域网内多人共享设计重用资源. 该方案可以减少设计者的重复性工作,提高效率,降低成本,具有较好的实用价值.

  4. Influence of Substrate Heating and Nitrogen Flow on the Composition, Morphological and Mechanical Properties of SiNx Coatings Aimed for Joint Replacements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Skjöldebrand

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nitride (SiNx coatings are promising for joint replacement applications due to their high wear resistance and biocompatibility. For such coatings, a higher nitrogen content, obtained through an increased nitrogen gas supply, has been found to be beneficial in terms of a decreased dissolution rate of the coatings. The substrate temperature has also been found to affect the composition as well as the microstructure of similar coatings. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the substrate temperature and nitrogen flow on the coating composition, microstructure and mechanical properties. SiNx coatings were deposited onto CoCrMo discs using reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering. During deposition, the substrate temperatures were set to 200 °C, 350 °C or 430 °C, with nitrogen-to-argon flow ratios of 0.06, 0.17 or 0.30. Scanning and transmission electron spectroscopy revealed that the coatings were homogenous and amorphous. The coatings displayed a nitrogen content of 23–48 at.% (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface roughness was similar to uncoated CoCrMo (p = 0.25 (vertical scanning interferometry. The hardness and Young’s modulus, as determined from nanoindentation, scaled with the nitrogen content of the coatings, with the hardness ranging from 12 ± 1 GPa to 26 ± 2 GPa and the Young’s moduli ranging from 173 ± 8 GPa to 293 ± 18 GPa, when the nitrogen content increased from 23% to 48%. The low surface roughness and high nano-hardness are promising for applications exposed to wear, such as joint implants.

  5. Practical and Efficient Synthesis of α-Aminophosphonic Acids Containing 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroquinoline or 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline Heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, Mario; Arizpe, Alicia; Sayago, Fracisco J; Jiménez, Ana I; Cativiela, Carlos

    2016-08-31

    We report here a practical and efficient synthesis of α-aminophosphonic acid incorporated into 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline heterocycles, which could be considered to be conformationally constrained analogues of pipecolic acid. The principal contribution of this synthesis is the introduction of the phosphonate group in the N-acyliminium ion intermediates, obtained from activation of the quinoline and isoquinoline heterocycles or from the appropriate δ-lactam with benzyl chloroformate. Finally, the hydrolysis of phosphonate moiety with simultaneous cleavage of the carbamate afforded the target compounds.

  6. pT3N0M0期胸段食管鳞癌胸腹两野根治术后的复发模式%Patterns of recurrence in patients with stage pT3N0M0t horacic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after two-field esophagectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉祥; 王丽丽; 杨琼; 李静; 何明; 姚继方; 齐战; 李宝重; 乔学英

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the patterns of recurrence and the related factors in patients with pT3N0M0 thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) after two-field esophagectomy.Methods From Jan 2008 to Dec 2009, 208 patients with stage pT3N 0M0(2002, UICC) thoracic ESCC were treated with two-field esophagectomy in our hospital.There were 138 males and 70 females, and the median age was 60 years old ( range 33-78) .There were 33 patients in the upper-, 134 in the middle-, and 41 in the lower-thoracic esophagus, with a median length of lesion of 5 cm.There were 32 patients with no-, 78 with mild-and 98 patients with severe adhesions at surgery.The median number of dissected lymph nodes was 9 ( range 1-27) .98 patients were treated with surgery alone and 110 with postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy.The statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 13.0 software.Results The follow-up was ended on July 2013. In the total group of 208 patients, the total recurrence rate was 41.8%(87/208).Among them, 52 patients had locoregional recurrence ( LR ) , 15 had distant metastasis ( DM ) and 20 patients had both local recurrence and distant metastasis.40.2% ( 35/87 ) of all recurrences were found within one year after operation, 67.8%( 59/87) within 2 years, 86.2%( 75/87) within 3 years, and 100%( 87/87) within 4 years.The 1-, 3-, and 5-year progression-free survival ( PFS ) rate was 83.0%, 62.8% and 56.3%, respectively.The overall locoregional recurrence rate was 34.6% ( 72/208) , among them, 9 cases had recurrence in the cervix ( all were supraclavicular lymph node metastasis) , 66 cases in the mediastinum and 4 cases had para-aortic lymph node metastasis.83.3%( 60/72) of the locoregional recurrence was located in the carinal region or upper area.The 1-, 3-, 5-year locoregional recurrence rate was 15.6%, 32.2%, and 36.8%, respectively, and the median time of recurrence was 15.5 months.The overall distant metastasis ( DM) rate was 16.8%( 35/208 ) .The 1-, 3-, and 5-year DM

  7. T1-2 N0-1 M0期乳腺癌保乳术后大分割调强放疗近期临床观察%The retrospective study of hypofractionated intensity -modulated radiotherapy in breast cancer after breast conserving surgery with stage T1-2N0-1M0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景娜; 王玉; 杨君; 王仙玲; 马永强

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the efficacy,cosmetic outcome and adverse reaction of hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy for T1 -2 N0 -1 M0 breast cancer after breast conserving surgery.Methods:From November 2011 to November 2012,41 patients with T1 -2 N0 -1 M0 breast cancer after breast conserving surgery in Shanxi Tumor Hospital were enrolled in the trial.The hypofractionated intensity -modulated radiotherapy was applied to each pa-tient.The hypofractionated intensity -modulated radiotherapy was 43.5Gy/(15f·3w)to the whole breast,with a boost of 8.7Gy/(3f·3d)to the tumor bed.The dose was 2.9Gy per fraction,the total course of treatment was 24 days.Locoregional control and overall survival were calculated by Kaplan -Meier method.Results:The follow -up rate was 100%,the 3 -year locoregional control and overall survival were both 100%.4 developed grade Ⅰ acute ra-diodermatitis,3 developed grade Ⅱ acute radiodermatitis,5 developed grade Ⅰ leukocyte reduction,3 developed grade Ⅱ leukocyte reduction,2 developed grade Ⅲ leukocyte reduction,2 developed grade Ⅰ acute radioactive pneu-monia,1 developed grade late radioactive pneumonia,2 developed grade Ⅰ limb edema.The excellent and good rates of cosmetic outcomes before and after radiotherapy were 95.1%,87.8%,The 1 -,3 -,6 -,12 -month excellent and good rates of cosmetic outcomes after radiotherapy were 90.2%.Conclusion:The hypofractionated intensity -modula-ted radiotherapy for the patients with early -stage breast cancer after breast -conserving surgery have good therapeu-tic effects and cosmetic results,acceptable toxicities,low adverse reaction,as well as can shorten the time of radiother-apy.%目的:观察 T1-2 N0-1 M0期乳腺癌保乳术后大分割调强放疗的疗效、美容效果及不良反应。方法:选择2011年11月-2012年11月间就诊于山西省肿瘤医院乳腺疾病诊治中心的乳腺癌保乳患者41例,予大分割调强放疗,全乳计划靶体积43.5Gy

  8. Determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in urine by online solid-phase extraction and ion-pairing liquid chromatography with detection by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ti-Yu; Fuh, Ming-Ren

    2005-01-01

    A method using an online solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ion-pairing liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ES-MS/MS) was developed for determination of amphetamine (Amp), methamphetamine (mAmp), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in urine samples. A SPE cartridge column with both hydrophilic and lipophilic functions was utilized for online extraction. A reversed-phase C18 LC column was employed for LC separation and MS/MS was used for detection. Trifluoroacetic acid was added to the mobile phase as an ion-pairing reagent. This method was fully automated and the extraction and analysis procedures were controlled by a six-port switch valve. Recoveries ranging from 85-101% were measured. Good linear ranges (10-500 ng/mL) for Amp and mAmp were determined. For MDA, MDMA and MDEA, dual linear ranges were obtained from 5-100 and 100-500 ng/mL, respectively. The detection limit of each analytical compound, based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, ranged from 1-3 ng/mL. The applicability of this newly developed method was examined by analyzing several urine samples from drug users. Good agreement was obtained between the results from this method and a literature GC/MS method.

  9. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF... reports of injury or damage. A person may not knowingly give any false or fictitious report concerning...

  10. Oxalic Acid Catalyzed Three Component One Pot Synthesis of 3,4-Dihydroquinazolin-4-ones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANGSHETTI Jaiprakash-N.; KOKARE Nagnnath-D.; SHINDE Devanand-B.

    2008-01-01

    An efficient one-pot method for synthesis of an array of 3,4-dihydroquinazolin-4-ones from anthranilicacid, triethyl orthoformate, and anilines using oxalic acid as a catalyst was described. The present protocol offers im-provements for the synthesis of 3,4-dihydroquinazolin-4-ones with regard to short reaction time, high yields of products, and simplicity in operation.

  11. Regioselective Protection of the 4-Hydroxyl of 3,4-Dihydroxy-benzaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy R. Spaetzel

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The regioselective protection of the 4-hydroxyl group of 3,4-dihydroxy-benzaldehyde was accomplished with seven different protecting groups (benzyl, p-methoxybenzyl, o-nitrobenzyl, 2,6-dichlorobenzyl, 3,4-dichlorobenzyl, vinyl and propargyl in yields ranging between 67-75%.

  12. Dissecting Oct3/4-regulated gene networks in embryonic stem cells by expression profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Matoba

    Full Text Available POU transcription factor Pou5f1 (Oct3/4 is required to maintain ES cells in an undifferentiated state. Here we show that global expression profiling of Oct3/4-manipulated ES cells delineates the downstream target genes of Oct3/4. Combined with data from genome-wide chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays, this analysis identifies not only primary downstream targets of Oct3/4, but also secondary or tertiary targets. Furthermore, the analysis also reveals that downstream target genes are regulated either positively or negatively by Oct3/4. Identification of a group of genes that show both activation and repression depending on Oct3/4 expression levels provides a possible mechanism for the requirement of appropriate Oct3/4 expression to maintain undifferentiated ES cells. As a proof-of-principle study, one of the downstream genes, Tcl1, has been analyzed in detail. We show that Oct3/4 binds to the promoter region of Tcl1 and activates its transcription. We also show that Tcl1 is involved in the regulation of proliferation, but not differentiation, in ES cells. These findings suggest that the global expression profiling of gene-manipulated ES cells can help to delineate the structure and dynamics of gene regulatory networks.

  13. Dissecting Oct3/4-Regulated Gene Networks in Embryonic Stem Cells by Expression Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoba, Ryo; Niwa, Hitoshi; Masui, Shinji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Carter, Mark G.; Sharov, Alexei A.; Ko, Minoru S.H.

    2006-01-01

    POU transcription factor Pou5f1 (Oct3/4) is required to maintain ES cells in an undifferentiated state. Here we show that global expression profiling of Oct3/4-manipulated ES cells delineates the downstream target genes of Oct3/4. Combined with data from genome-wide chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, this analysis identifies not only primary downstream targets of Oct3/4, but also secondary or tertiary targets. Furthermore, the analysis also reveals that downstream target genes are regulated either positively or negatively by Oct3/4. Identification of a group of genes that show both activation and repression depending on Oct3/4 expression levels provides a possible mechanism for the requirement of appropriate Oct3/4 expression to maintain undifferentiated ES cells. As a proof-of-principle study, one of the downstream genes, Tcl1, has been analyzed in detail. We show that Oct3/4 binds to the promoter region of Tcl1 and activates its transcription. We also show that Tcl1 is involved in the regulation of proliferation, but not differentiation, in ES cells. These findings suggest that the global expression profiling of gene-manipulated ES cells can help to delineate the structure and dynamics of gene regulatory networks. PMID:17183653

  14. Alternative biological sources for 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene in flash pyrolysates of kerogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hoefs, M.J.L.; Heemst, J.D.H. van; Gelin, F.; Koopmans, M.P.; Kaam-Peters, H.M.E. van; Schouten, S.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1995-01-01

    Pyrolysates of kerogens isolated from Indian Ocean surface sediments and from Black Sea Unit II contain abundant 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene (1,2,3,4-TMB) suggesting the presence of macromolecularly-bound isorenieratane skeletons derived from isorenieratene biosynthesized by green sulphur bacteria

  15. Synthesis of 3-cyano-4-aryl-5-ethoxycarbonyl-6-methyl-3,4-dihydropyridine-2-thiones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauze, A.A.; Liepin' sh, E.E.; Pelcher, Yu.E.; Kalme, Z.A.; Dipan, I.V.; Dubur, G.Ya.

    1985-12-01

    The condensation of ethyl arylidenacetoacetate with cyanothioacetamide and of arylidenecyanothioacetamides with ethyl acetoacetate or of arylidenecyanothioacetamides with ethyl ..beta..-aminocrotonate gave 3-cyano-4-aryl-5-ethoxycarbonyl-6-methyl-3,4-dihydropyridine-2-thiones. PMR spectroscopy showed that the 3-cyano-4-aryl-3,4-dihydro-pyridine-2-thiones are formed as a mixture of cis and trans isomers.

  16. Synthesis and insect antifeedant activities of some substituted styryl 3,4-dichlorophenyl ketones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunarayanan, G.; Surya, S.; Srinivasan, S.; Vanangamudi, G.; Sathiyendiran, V.

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen substituted styryl 3,4-dichlorophenyl ketones [ (2E)-1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-phenyl-2-propen-1-ones] were synthesized using eco-friendly benign stereoselective crossed-aldol reaction. They are characterized by their analytical, infrared, NMR and mass spectral data. The insect antifeedant activities of these chalcones were evaluated using Caster semilooper and Achoea janata L.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and anti cancer activity of some fluorinated 3,6-diaryl-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Chowrasia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of fluorinated 3,6-diaryl-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles (2a–2i was synthesized by condensation of various substituted 4-amino-5-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiols (1a–1i with penta fluoro benzoic acid in good yields (60–80%. The synthesized compounds were screened for anticancer activity against three cancerous cell lines MCF7 (human breast cancer, SaOS-2 (human osteosarcoma and K562 (human myeloid leukemia. The compounds showed moderate to good antiproliferative potency against the studied cell lines. Among these, compound 2b showed higher antiproliferative activity (IC50 22.1, 19 and 15 μM against MCF7, SaOS-2 and K562, respectively while 2a exhibited least antiproliferative activity (IC50 30.2, 39 and 29.4 μM against MCF7, SaOS-2 and K562 cells, respectively. Therefore, the present study demonstrates that fluorine substituted 3,6-diaryl-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles would be a better prospective in the development of anticancer drugs.

  18. Synthesis and Properties of N, N'-Bis (difuroxano [3,4-b: 3',4'-d]phenyl)oxalic Amide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Jian-Long; L(U),Lian-Ying; OU,Yu-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    N,N'-Bis(difuroxano[3,4-b:3',4'-d]phenyl)oxalic amide was synthesized via acylation, nitration, azidation, and pyrolysis-denitrogenation from the starting materials of oxalyl chloride and 3,5-dichloroaniline, under mild reaction conditions, with the yields of 81.0%, 82.0%, 86.0% and 81.7% respectively. The title compound and its precursors were characterized by 1H NMR, IR, MS, and elemental analysis. The title compound has a density of 1.92 g·cm-3 by a suspension method, a standard formation enthalpy of 979 kJ·mol 1 calculated by Gaussian programs, a detonation velocity of 8.17 km·s-1, and a detonation pressure of 31 GPa obtained by Kamlet Equation. The thermal decomposition reactions of the title compound at different heating rates were tested by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The kinetics parameters of the pyrolysis of the compound were calculated by Kissinger's method.The values of apparent activation energy (Ea) and pre-exponential constant (A) were 226.7 kJ·mol-1 and 1023.17 s-1 respectively. It was presupposed that N,N'-bis(difuroxano[3,4-b:3',4'-d]phenyl)oxalic amide would be a promising high energetic explosive with low sensitivity.

  19. 3,4-trans-4-Aryl-3-(1-pyridinio)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-6-thiolates--new group of potential cardiotonic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauze, A; Vītoliņa, R; Garaliene, V; Sīle, L; Klusa, V; Duburs, G

    2005-11-01

    3,4-trans-4-Aryl-3-(1-pyridinio)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-6-thiolates 6-11 were prepared by a Michael reaction of N-acetonylpyridinium chloride with 3-aryl-2-cyanothioacrylamides or by a one-pot three-carbon condensation of N-acetonylpyridinium chloride, aromatic aldehyde and 2-cyanothioacetamide, and their cardiotonic properties were studied. 3,4-trans-5-cyano-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-3-(1-pyridinio)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-6-thiolate 8 was considered as a lead compound in this series since it in vitro experiments (spontaneously beating rat atria) showed a cardiotonic activity similar to that of milrinone 2, however compound 8 induced activity at lover concentrations and without influence on chronotropic action of the heart. Unlike milrinone 2, thiolate 8 in vivo experiments (anaesthetized rats) did not influence blood pressure and heart rate. The acute toxicity of compound 8 was more than 10 times lower than that of milrinone 2.

  20. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dialkoxybenzene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labanauskas, L; Brukstus, A; Udrenaite, E; Bucinskaite, V; Susvilo, I; Urbelis, G

    2005-03-01

    New 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dialkoxybenzene derivatives 17-31 were synthesized by the acylation of amines 9-16 with acyl chlorides. Amines 9-16 were obtained from aryl ketones 1-8. Aryl ketones 1-8 were synthesized by the acylation of corresponding aromatic compounds. As it was preliminary predicted by PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substance) program, all 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dimethoxy- and 3,4-diethoxybenzene derivatives possess anti-inflammatory activity. Activity of compounds 18, 19, 21, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29 was similar to that of acetylsalicylic acid or ibuprofen however their acute toxicity was less than that of mentioned anti-inflammatory drugs. A series of 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dimethoxybenzene, 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-diethoxybenzene and 6-acylaminoalkyl-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxine derivatives have been synthesized. These compounds possess moderate or strong anti-inflammatory activity and low toxicity.

  1. Dysregulation of Kv3.4 channels in dorsal root ganglia following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, David M; Zemel, Benjamin M; Hala, Tamara J; O'Leary, Michael E; Lepore, Angelo C; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2015-01-21

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients develop chronic pain involving poorly understood central and peripheral mechanisms. Because dysregulation of the voltage-gated Kv3.4 channel has been implicated in the hyperexcitable state of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following direct injury of sensory nerves, we asked whether such a dysregulation also plays a role in SCI. Kv3.4 channels are expressed in DRG neurons, where they help regulate action potential (AP) repolarization in a manner that depends on the modulation of inactivation by protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of the channel's inactivation domain. Here, we report that, 2 weeks after cervical hemicontusion SCI, injured rats exhibit contralateral hypersensitivity to stimuli accompanied by accentuated repetitive spiking in putative DRG nociceptors. Also in these neurons at 1 week after laminectomy and SCI, Kv3.4 channel inactivation is impaired compared with naive nonsurgical controls. At 2-6 weeks after laminectomy, however, Kv3.4 channel inactivation returns to naive levels. Conversely, Kv3.4 currents at 2-6 weeks post-SCI are downregulated and remain slow-inactivating. Immunohistochemistry indicated that downregulation mainly resulted from decreased surface expression of the Kv3.4 channel, as whole-DRG-protein and single-cell mRNA transcript levels did not change. Furthermore, consistent with Kv3.4 channel dysregulation, PKC activation failed to shorten the AP duration of small-diameter DRG neurons. Finally, re-expressing synthetic Kv3.4 currents under dynamic clamp conditions dampened repetitive spiking in the neurons from SCI rats. These results suggest a novel peripheral mechanism of post-SCI pain sensitization implicating Kv3.4 channel dysregulation and potential Kv3.4-based therapeutic interventions.

  2. Growth and Characteristic of YbAl3(BO3)4 Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    YbAl3(BO3)4 crystal of good optical quality was grown by the flux method. The structure of YbAl3(BO3)4 crystal was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The experiment shows that YbAl3(BO3)4 belongs to the double borates with a trigonal structure. The space group is R32 and its unit cell constants were measured to be a=0.92965 nm, c=0.72129 nm, V=0.53673 nm3, Z=3. The transmittance spectra were measured. The cut-off of YbAl3(BO3)4 crystal is 216 nm, and there are two absorption peaks located at 940 and 975 nm from 190 nm to 2600 nm. The thermal properties of YbAl3(BO3)4 crystal were studied for the first time. The average thermal expansion coefficients were determined to be 2×10-6/℃, 9.5×10-6/℃ along a- and c- direction. The specific heat of YbAl3(BO3)4 crystal was measured to be 0.6695 J·(g·℃)-1 at room temperature. All results indicate that the YbAl3(BO3)4 crystal is an excellent stoichioimetric laser material.

  3. Synthesis and Thermal Behavior of a Fused, Tricyclic 1,2,3,4-Tetrazine Ring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, David E; Bottaro, Jeffery C; Petrie, Mark; Parrish, Damon A

    2015-10-26

    This study presents the synthesis and characterization of a fused, tricyclic 1,2,3,4-tetrazine ring system. The molecule is synthesized in a three-step process from 5,5'-dinitro-bis,1,2,4-triazole via a di-N-amino compound. Oxidation to form the azo-coupled fused tricyclic 1,2,3,4-tetrazine is achieved using tert-butyl hypochlorite as the oxidant. The di-N-amino compound and the desired fused tricyclic 1,2,3,4-triazine display interesting thermal behavior and are predicted to be high-performance energetic materials.

  4. 3,4-DHQLO and Triazole and Its Related Analogues with Anticonvulsant Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Li-Ping; Quan, Zhe-Shan

    2016-01-01

    The derivatives of quinolinone and triazole exhibit antitumor, antiplatelet, antidepressant, and anticonvulsant properties in diverse experimental systems. In the past decades, we have developed increasingly potent anticonvulsant agents by the structural modification of compounds derived from 3,4-DHQLO, triazole, and their analogs. Herein, we report the design and synthesis of a new series of 3,4-DHQLO and triazole and their derivatives; their anticonvulsant activity was evaluated. Moreover, we also reviewed the anticonvulsant activity of 3,4-DHQLO and triazole and their derivatives and new approaches.

  5. Synthesis under Microwave Irradiation and Crystal Structure of 4-(3,4-Methylenedioxylphenyl)-6-methyl- 5-ethoxycaronyl-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(H)-one

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Shu-Jiang; FANG Fang; JIANG Hong; ZHU Song-Lei; LI Tuan-Jie; ZHANG Xiao-Jing; SHI Da-Qing

    2004-01-01

    The title compound 4-(3,4-methylenedioxylphenyl)-6-methyl-5-ethoxycaronyl-3,4- dihydropyrimidin-2(H)-one (C15H16N2O5) has been synthesized and determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal is of triclinic, space group Pī with a = 7.580(1), b = 7.920(2), c = 13.168(4)(A。),α = 96.44(2),β = 96.71(2), γ = 109.81(2)°, V = 728.8(3) (A。)3, Z = 2, Mr = 304.30, Dc = 1.387 g/cm3, F(000) = 320, μ(MoKα) = 0.105 mm-1 (λ = 0.71073(A。)), R = 0.0446 and wR = 0.1205. In the molecule the pyrimidine ring adopts a boat conformation.

  6. Microwave Induced Synthesis of 3-Aryl-6-( 6-/8-substituted 4-chloroquinoline-3-yl) - s - triazolo [ 3,4- b ] - 1,3,4- thiadiazoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO,Ren-Zhong(乔仁忠); HUI,Xin-Ping(惠新平); XU,Peng-Fei(许鹏飞); ZHANG,Zi-Yi(张自义); CHENG,Dong-Liang(程东亮)

    2001-01-01

    The condensation of 4-amino-3-aryl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-tria-zoles (1a-f) with 6-/8-substituted 1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-quino-line-3-carboxylic acids (2a-d) in the presence of phosphorus oxychloride on refluxing or under microwave irradiation gave twenty four novel 3-aryl-6-(6-/8-substituted 4-chloroquinoline-3-yl)-s-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazoles (4a-x), Consid-erable increase in the reaction rate has been observed with improved yields under microwave irradiation. The structures of the compounds synthesized were determined by elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR and MS spectra. Their spectral properties and the reaction mechanism were also discussed. The preliminary biological test showed that some of compounds had moderate antibacterial activities.

  7. [Pd4(μ3-SbMe3)4(SbMe3)4]: A Pd(0) Tetrahedron with μ3-Bridging Trimethylantimony Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Sophie L; Krämer, Tobias; Levason, William; Light, Mark E; Macgregor, Stuart A; Reid, Gillian

    2016-06-01

    The palladium(II) chlorostibine complex [PdCl2(SbMe2Cl)2]2 has a dimeric structure in the solid state, stabilized by hyper-coordination at the Lewis amphoteric Sb centers. Reaction with 8 equiv of MeLi forms [Pd4(μ3-SbMe3)4(SbMe3)4], whose structure comprises a tetrahedral Pd(0) core with four terminal SbMe3 ligands and four μ3-SbMe3 ligands, one capping each triangular Pd3 face. Density functional theory calculations, supported by energy decomposition analysis and the natural orbitals for chemical valence scheme, highlight significant donor and acceptor orbital contributions to the bonding between both the terminal and the bridging SbMe3 ligands and the Pd4 core.

  8. 2,5-Bis[(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctylsulfanyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Partl

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C18H8F26N2S3, was obtained by double S-perfluorohexylethylation of dipotassium 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiolate in methanol. The molecule exhibits twofold rotational symmetry, with the S atom lying on the rotation axis. The fluorocarbon chains adopt helical conformations and the F atoms of the two terminal C atoms are disordered over two sets of sites. No directional intermolecular interactions occur in the crystal.

  9. Synthesis of New 1,3,4-Thiadiazole and 1,2,3,4-Oxathiadiazole Derivatives from Carbohydrate Precursors and Study of Their Effect on Tyrosinase Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda E. Abdelwahab

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available 5-(1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroxybutyl-2-methylfuran-3-carbohydrazide (2 was condensed with a variety of ketones to afford carbohydrazide derivatives 36. Acetylation of 35 afforded the acetyl derivatives 79, while periodate oxidation of 36 afforded the formyl derivatives 1013. Acid catalyzed condensation of thiosemicarbazide or o-tolylthiosemicarbazide with the prepared aldehydes 1012 gave thiosemicarbazone derivatives 1419. Cyclization of the latter with acetic anhydride afforded 4,5-dihydro-1,3,4-thiadiazolyl derivatives 2025. On the other hand, condensation of p-tosylhydrazine with the prepared aldehydes 1012 afforded p-tosylhydrazone derivatives 2628. Cyclization of 2628 with acetic anhydride afforded 1,2,3,4-oxathiadiazole derivatives 2931 respectively. Moreover, the obtained results regarding to the effect of some of the prepared compounds on tyrosinase enzyme showed that the majority of these compounds having an inhibitory effect; especially compounds 12, 16, 17, and 28.

  10. AMORPHOUS HYDROGENATED ALLOYS : A COMPARATIVE EXAFS STUDY OF a-Si1-xCx : H, a-Si1- xGex : H, a-SiNx : H AT THE SILICON K-EDGE

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    a-Si1-xCx : H, a-Si1-xGex : H, a-SiNx : H alloys have been studied at the Si K-edge. Si-Si and Si-A (A being C, N, Ge) bond lengths have been determined as a function of composition. The Si-C distance was found to vary significantly, while the Si-Ge and Si-N distances remain almost constant. A high frequency signal has been detected in the a-Si1-xCx : H and a-SiNx : H films at large x due to a second shell contribution. The compositions of the first coordination shell are also reported and di...

  11. Perturbation of spectra properties of 3,4-diphenyl thiophene by polar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-19

    Nov 19, 2007 ... The UV/visible spectra of 3,4-diphenyl thiophene were obtained in various solvents (both polar and non ... Electronic spectroscopy is concerned with electron transi- ... radiation by organic molecules result in electronic excita-.

  12. Re-examination of the "3/4-law" of Metabolism

    CERN Document Server

    Dodds, P S; Weitz, J S; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Rothman, Daniel H.; Weitz, Joshua S.

    2000-01-01

    We examine the scaling law $B \\propto M^{\\alpha}$ which connects organismal metabolic rate $B$ with organismal mass $M$, where $\\alpha$ is commonly held to be 3/4. Since simple dimensional analysis suggests $\\alpha=2/3$, we consider this to be a null hypothesis testable by empirical studies. We re-analyze data sets for mammals and birds compiled by Heusner, Bennett and Harvey, Bartels, Hemmingsen, Brody, and Kleiber, and find little evidence for rejecting $\\alpha=2/3$ in favor of $\\alpha=3/4$. For mammals, we find a possible breakdown in scaling for larger masses reflected in a systematic increase in $\\alpha$. We also review theoretical justifications of $\\alpha=3/4$ based on dimensional analysis, nutrient-supply networks, and four-dimensional biology. We find that present theories for $\\alpha=3/4$ require assumptions that render them unconvincing for rejecting the null hypothesis that $\\alpha=2/3$.

  13. Pseudorotaxane capped mesoporous silica nanoparticles for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) detection in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano-Torres, Beatriz; Pascual, Lluís; Bernardos, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded with fluorescein and capped by a pseudorotaxane, formed between a naphthalene derivative and cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT4+), were used for the selective and sensitive fluorogenic detection of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)....

  14. Intermolecular cyclocondensation reaction of 3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2-thione under the Mitsunobu reaction conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xia Da; Zhang Zhang; Zheng Jun Quan

    2011-01-01

    A self-intermolecular cyclocondensation reaction of 3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2-thione (DHPM) to give a novel tricyclic structure containing DHPM core in the presence of diethyl azodicarboxylate (DEAD) and triphenylphosphine (TPP) at room temperature is reported.

  15. Electrochemical sensing of melamine with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid as recognition element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qian; Zhao, Hong; He, Yujian; Ding, Nan; Wang, Jian

    2010-08-18

    A new electrochemical sensor for melamine with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid as the recognition element is established. The results of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectra demonstrate that melamine may interact with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid to form a complex mainly through the hydrogen-bonding interaction. The electrochemical behavior of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the presence of melamine was studied. The anodic peak currents of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid obtained by differential pulse voltammetry are linear with the logarithm of melamine concentrations in the range from 1.0 x 10(-8) to 5.0 x 10(-6) M with a linear coefficiency of 0.997. The detection limit is 3.0 x 10(-9) M. The proposed method displayed an excellent sensitivity and was successfully applied to the determination of melamine in milk products. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Transanal local excision for Tis-1N0M0 lower rectal carcinoma%早期直肠癌经肛门局部切除的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶再元; 李曙光; 邵钦树; 张威; 杨琼; 董建华; 赵轶峰; 王金科

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨Tis-1N0M0期低位直肠癌经肛门局部切除的合理性.方法: 回顾性分析1996-01-01-2002-12-30经肛门局部切除治疗的53例Tis-1N0M0期直肠癌患者的资料.其中TisN0M0 18例,T1N0M0 35例.6例T1患者接受了术后放疗.结果:所有患者术后恢复良好,住院时间7 d(5~8 d).无吻合口漏、直肠狭窄、肛瘘及其他手术并发症.术后肛门括约肌功能良好.总5年生存率为98.11%(52/53),Tis、T1期5年生存率分别为100%(18/18) 和97.14%(34/35).总5年复发率为3.78%(2/53),Tis、T1期5年复发率分别为0(0/18)、5.71%(2/35).结论:对Tis-1N0M0期低风险低位直肠癌患者,经肛门局部切除术既保证了生存率,又兼顾了患者的生存质量,是一种较为理想的术式选择.

  17. Dysregulation of Kv3.4 Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglia Following Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, David M.; Zemel, Benjamin M.; Hala, Tamara J.; O'Leary, Michael E; Lepore, Angelo C.; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients develop chronic pain involving poorly understood central and peripheral mechanisms. Because dysregulation of the voltage-gated Kv3.4 channel has been implicated in the hyperexcitable state of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following direct injury of sensory nerves, we asked whether such a dysregulation also plays a role in SCI. Kv3.4 channels are expressed in DRG neurons, where they help regulate action potential (AP) repolarization in a manner that depen...

  18. N-[(9-Ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-ylmethylene]-3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohamed Asiri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, N-[(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-ylmethylene]-3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-amine has been synthesized by reaction of 9-ethyl-9H-carbazole-3-carbaldehyde with 5-amino-3,4-dimethylisoxazole in the presence of acetic acid in ethanol. The structure of this new compound was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and EI-MS spectral analysis.

  19. Implementation experiences of NASTRAN on CDC CYBER 74 SCOPE 3.4 operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, J. C.; Hill, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    The implementation of the NASTRAN system on the CDC CYBER 74 SCOPE 3.4 Operating System is described. The flexibility of the NASTRAN system made it possible to accomplish the change with no major problems. Various sizes of benchmark and test problems, ranging from two hours to less than one minute CP time were run on the CDC CYBER SCOPE 3.3, Univac EXEC-8, and CDC CYBER SCOPE 3.4. The NASTRAN installation deck is provided.

  20. New 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers from Croton micans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateu, Elsa; Chavez, Katiuska; Riina, Ricarda; Compagnone, Reinaldo S; Delle Monache, Franco; Suárez, Alírica I

    2012-01-01

    From the stems of Croton micans Sw., five new 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers: micansinoic acid (1), isomicansinoic acid (2), and the dimethyl (3), monomethyl (4) and monoethyl ester (5) of micansinoic acid were isolated. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation, mainly 1D and 2D NMR experiments and MS. These compounds are the first 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers from a Croton species.

  1. NC-code post-processor for 4-axis machining center based on NX of FANUC system%基于NX的FANUC系统四轴加工中心后置处理器构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭大庆

    2013-01-01

      A customized NC-code post-processor,based on the universal template of NX post-processor, is designed to meet the standards of 4-axis machining center equipped with FANUC CNC system.%  使用NX后置处理构建器通用模板的基础上,设计符合FANUC数控系统四轴加工中心要求的专用后置处理器。

  2. Impact of Gleason score on biochemical recurrence in patients with pT3aN0/Nx prostate cancer with positive surgical margins: a multicenter study from the Prostate Cancer Research Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wan; Lee, Dong Hyeon; Jeon, Hwang Gyun; Jeong, Byong Chang; Seo, Seong Il; Lee, Hyun Moo; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Jong Wook; Lee, SangChul; Byun, Seok-Soo; Jeong, Chang Wook; Kwak, Cheol; Cho, Jin Seon; Ahn, Hanjong; Jeon, Seong Soo

    2017-08-19

    Oncologic outcomes of patients with pT3aN0/Nx prostate cancer (PCa) with positive surgical margins (PSM) after radical prostatectomy (RP) are heterogeneous. We investigated the impact of Gleason score (GS) on biochemical recurrence (BCR) in these patients. A retrospective, multicenter study was performed on 795 patients with pT3aN0/Nx PCa with PSM after RP between January 2006 and December 2014. Clinicopathologic characteristics of patients were examined and onset of BCR was identified. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to illustrate BCR-free survival (BFS) and Cox proportional hazard models were applied to identify factors predicting BCR. During the mean follow-up period of 63.9 months, BCR was identified in 274 (34.5%) patients. The 5-year BFS was 56.6% in all patients. In multivariate analysis, pathologic GS was the only significant prognostic factor for BCR in patients with pT3aN0/Nx PCa with PSM (GS 6 vs. GS 7 (3 + 4), P = 0.047; vs. GS 7 (4 + 3), P = 0.007, and vs. GS 8-10, P Nx with PSM after RP, pathologic GS is the sole independent predictor for risk stratification of BCR. These findings might be used to determine the risk and timing of BCR and to help counsel patients regarding treatment strategy and prognosis of disease on an individual basis.

  3. Chemical beam epitaxy of GaAs1-xNx using MMHy and DMHy precursors, modeled by ab initio study of GaAs(100) surfaces stability over As2, H2 and N2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Hubert; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kakimoto, Koichi

    2017-06-01

    Using ab initio calculations, a simple model for GaAs1-xNx vapor-phase epitaxy on (100) surface of GaAs was created. By studying As2 and H2 molecules adsorptions and As/N atom substitutions on (100) GaAs surfaces, we obtain a relative stability diagram of all stable surfaces under varying As2, H2, and N2 conditions. We previously proved that this model could describe the vapor-phase epitaxy of GaAs1-x Nx with simple, fully decomposed, precursors. In this paper, we show that in more complex reaction conditions using monomethylhydrazine (MMHy), and dimethylhydrazine (DMHy), it is still possible to use our model to obtain an accurate description of the temperature and pressure stability domains for each surfaces, linked to chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) growth conditions. Moreover, the different N-incorporation regimes observed experimentally at different temperature can be explain and predict by our model. The use of MMHy and DMHy precursors can also be rationalized. Our model should then help to better understand the conditions needed to obtain an high quality GaAs1-xNx using vapor-phase epitaxy.

  4. Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of 3-Phenyl-6-aryl-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]-thiadiazoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Miao; XIAO Tai; LI Hui-xue; LIU Xiang

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction Since Tang[1] firstly reported the electroluminescence of 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminium, much attention has been paid to the organic compound as electro-luminescent material. Especially, electron transport materials play an important role in organic light-emitting diode(OLED). 2-(4-Biphenyl)-5-(t-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole(PBD), as a kind of popular electron injection/transport materials, can improve remarkably the injection balance of electrons and holes. As a result, it can amend the properties of OLED[2,3].

  5. 6-(4-Bromophenyl-3-methyl-7H-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C11H9BrN4S, the 1,2,4-triazole ring is essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.020 Å and makes a dihedral angle of 29.1 (5° with the bromobenzene ring. The 3,6-dihydro-1,3,4-thiadiazine ring adopts a twist-boat conformation. In the crystal, molecules are linked by C—H...N interactions into sheets lying parallel to the (010 plane. The same N atom accepts two such hydrogen bonds.

  6. Novel lanthanide complexes constructed from 3, 4-dimethoxybenzoic acid: crystal structures, spectrum and thermochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Xiao-Xia; Wu, Jun-Chen [Testing and Analysis Center, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); College of Chemistry & Material Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Ren, Ning, E-mail: ningren9@163.com [College of Chemical engineering & Material, Handan College, Handan 056005 (China); Zhao, Chun-Li [Raoyang High School of Hebei, Raoyang 053900 (China); Zhang, Jian-Jun, E-mail: jjzhang6@126.com [Testing and Analysis Center, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); College of Chemistry & Material Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Zong, Guang-Cai; Gao, Jie [Testing and Analysis Center, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); College of Chemistry & Material Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China)

    2015-09-10

    Graphical abstract: Four novel lanthanide coordination polymers [Ln(3,4-DMOBA){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·H{sub 2}O·C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH (Ln = Sm(1), Tb(2), Dy(3), Ho(4); 3,4-DMOBA = 3, 4-dimethoxybenzoate) have been hydrothermal synthesized and characterized. Single crystal structures indicates 1 D stucture of the title complexes are linked by hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional (3-D) structure. Complex 2 exhibits the characteristic emission of Tb{sup 3+} ion({sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 6-3}). The investigation of TG-FTIR and IR spectra of the evolved gases shows uncoordinated water and ethanol molecules tend to lose firstly, and then 3,4-DMOBA ligands begin to decompose. - Highlights: • Four lanthanide coordination polymers were synthesized and characterized. • 1-D chain structures of the title complexes are are linked by hydrogen bonds to form a 3-D structures. • Thermal decomposition processes of the title complexes were studied using TG-FTIR techniques. • IR spectra of evolved gases in thermal decomposition process were obtained and analyzed. - Abstract: Four novel lanthanide complexes [Ln(3,4-DMOBA){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·H{sub 2}O·C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH (Ln = Sm(1), Tb(2), Dy(3), Ho(4); 3,4-DMOBA = 3, 4-dimethoxybenzoate) have been hydrothermal synthesized and characterized. Structural analyses reveal that adjacent lanthanide ions are connected by 3,4-DMOBA ligands adopting bridging bidentate mode to generate one-dimensional (1-D) structure with the uncoordinated water and ethanol molecules. 1-D structures are linked by hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional (3-D) structure, which is rarely observed in lanthanide carboxylic acids complexes. Under the radiation of UV light, complex 2 exhibits the characteristic emission of Tb{sup 3+} ion ({sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 6-3}). The thermal decomposition mechanism is investigated by TG-FTIR technology. IR spectra of the evolved gases show that the uncoordinated water and ethanol

  7. The MiRP2-Kv3.4 potassium channel: muscling in on Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun; Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2007-09-01

    In this issue of Molecular Pharmacology (p. 665), Pannacione et al. provide evidence of a role for the voltage-gated potassium channel alpha subunit Kv3.4 and its ancillary subunit MiRP2 in beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide-mediated neuronal death. The MiRP2-Kv3.4 channel complex-previously found to be important in skeletal myocyte physiology-is now argued to be a molecular correlate of the transient outward potassium current up-regulated by Abeta peptide, considered a significant step in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. The authors conclude that MiRP2 and Kv3.4 are up-regulated by Abeta peptide in a nuclear factor kappaB-dependent fashion at the transcriptional level, and the sea anemone toxin BDS-I is shown to protect against Abeta peptide-mediated cell death by specific blockade of Kv3.4-generated current. The findings lend weight to the premise that specific channels, such as MiRP2-Kv3.4, could hold promise as future therapeutic targets in Alzheimer's disease and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. High cervical C3-4 ′disc′ compression associated with basilar invagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel Atul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old male had torticollis and short neck since birth. He presented with symptom of progressive quadriparesis over a two-year period. Investigations revealed basilar invagination with marked rotation in the craniovertebral region and relatively large C3-4 region osteophytes. Serial MRI over two years showed persistent signal opposite C3-4 disc space suggestive of cord compression. Although the cord was humped over the odontoid process, there was no clear radiological evidence that the cord was compromised at this level. During surgery, instability was identified only at the craniovertebral region and not at the level of C3-4. Distraction of the lateral masses of atlas and axis and fixation using interarticular spacers and bone graft and direct screw implantation in the lateral mass of the atlas and pars of the axis resulted in reduction of the basilar invagination and of atlantoaxial dislocation. The patient had marked clinical recovery, despite the fact that no direct procedure was done for C3-4 disc decompression. The case suggests that C3-4 disc changes could be secondary to primary instability at the craniovertebral junction.

  9. Analysis of Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-Trisphosphates of PTEN Expression on Mammalian Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Jahan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to find an experimental condition which enables us to perform enzymatic studies on the cellular behavior of PTEN (phosphatase and tensine homolog through identification of molecular species of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5- trisphosphates and their quantitative analysis in a mammalian cell line using mass spectrometry. We initially exployed a two-step extraction process using HCl for extraction of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphates from two mammalian cell lines and further analyzed the extracted phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphates using tandem mass spectrometry for the identification of them. We finally quantified the concentration of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphates using internal standard calibration. From these observation, we found that HEK 293-T cells is a good model to examine the enzymatic behavior of PTEN in a cell, and the minimum amount of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphates is more than 50 pmol for quantification in a mass spectrometer. These results suggest that the well-optimized experimental conditions are required for the investigation of the cellular PTEN in terms of the catalytic mechanism and further for the detailed identification of cellular substrates

  10. 3.4nm超薄SiO2栅介质的特性%Electrical Characteristics of 3.4nm Gate Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓燕; 谭静荣; 高文钰; 黄如; 田大宇; 张兴

    2002-01-01

    用LOCOS工艺制备出栅介质厚度为3.4nm的MOS电容样品,通过对样品进行I-V特性和恒流应力下V-t特性的测试,分析用氮气稀释氧化法制备的栅介质的性能,同时考察了硼扩散对栅介质性能的影响.实验结果表明,制备出的3.4nm SiO2栅介质的平均击穿场强为16.7MV/cm,在恒流应力下发生软击穿,平均击穿电荷为2.7C/cm2.栅介质厚度相同的情况下,P+栅样品的击穿场强和软击穿电荷都低于N+栅样品.

  11. Synthesis and theoretical studies of non‒covalent interactions within a newly synthesized chiral 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Uzma; Ahmed, Shahbaz; Chahkandi, Mohammad; Bhatti, Moazzam H.; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz

    2017-02-01

    In this work the synthesis of a new compound formulated as C12H12N4OS, ((S)-1-(6-Phenyl-7H-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazin-3-yl)ethanol) (5) reported and theoretical studies of the non‒covalent interactions constructed the related crystalline network described. It has been characterized by IR, Mass, and 1H, 13C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X‒ray diffraction analysis. The binding energy of the non‒covalent interactions constructing the network of 5 have been calculated by dispersion corrected density functional theory (DFT‒D). The optimization of the formed network using H‒bonding and π‒stacking revealed that 1‒D coordination chain has been composed of neutral monomeric compound. For this purpose, the independent smallest fragment (monomer) and subsequently the related network, including seven monomers, having all non‒covalent interactions have been optimized. The results demonstrate that hydrogen bonds, especially Osbnd H⋯N, Csbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯N, and Csbnd H⋯S interactions, govern the network formation. The calculated results of electronic transition in agreement with the experiment ones show eleven major bands derived from σ → π, n → n/σ*/π* aromatic rings to hydroxyl, inter‒atomic of oxygen, and thiadiazine to phenyl ring charge transfer transitions.

  12. NX模型信息管理系统的研究与开发%Research and development of NX model information management system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周临震

    2015-01-01

    NX模型承载了企业大部分的产品信息,随着Siemens NX系统在制造业的广泛使用,NX模型文件的数量与日俱增。为了帮助工程师管理这些日渐增多的模型文件,并且能够在不打开模型文件的情况下,获取模型中所包含的各种信息,以便能够快速检索所需的模型。以Siemens NX为设计平台,采用NX/Open开发技术,开发了NX模型信息管理系统,该系统能够管理NX模型文件,并快速获取相关信息,有效地提高了工作效率。

  13. Semiclassical distorted wave model analysis of the complete set of spin transfer coefficients for multistep direct (p,nx) at 350 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ogata, K; Weili, S; Kohno, M; Kawai, M

    2002-01-01

    The semiclassical distorted wave (SCDW) model of multistep direct processes is extended to calculate the double differential inclusive cross section (DDX) and the complete set of spin transfer coefficients (D sub i sub j) at energies of 350-400 MeV, taking account of one- and two-step processes. The DDX for (p,p'x) on sup 4 sup 0 Ca at 392 MeV is calculated and compared with experimental data. The calculated D sub i sub j and the DDXs for (p,nx) on sup 1 sup 2 C and sup 4 sup 0 Ca at 346 MeV for the emission angle of 22 deg. are compared with the measured ones. Features of the calculated D sub i sub j , the contribution of two-step processes in particular, are discussed in terms of the comparison with those of the DDX. The calculated DDX and D sub i sub j are analyzed in terms of the choice of the bare NN force on which the effective interaction is based, the difference in the methods of the calculation of G matrices, and the in-medium modification of effective interactions.

  14. Elastic Properties and the Band Gap of AlNxP1-x Semiconductor Alloy: A Comparative Study of Various Ab Initio Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Polak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural and elastic properties of AlNxP1-x, a novel semiconductor alloy, are studied from the first principles in both zinc-blende and wurtzite structures. Performances of the finite difference (FD method and the density functional perturbation theory (DFPT are tested and compared. Both of these methods are applied to two different approaches of alloy simulation, a supercell of 16 and 32 atoms (for zinc-blende and wurtzite structures, resp. and the alchemical mixing (AM method, where the pseudopotentials are mixed in an appropriate way to form an alloy. All elastic properties, including the elastic tensors, elastic moduli, Poisson’s ratio, B/G, and relaxation coefficient, as well as lattice parameters are calculated using all said methods. Conclusions about the use of the approaches investigated in this paper and about their performance are drawn. In addition, in both crystal structures, the band gap is studied in the whole composition range using the MBJLDA functional. The band gap bowings are unusually high, which confirms earlier reports.

  15. YAMAHA(雅马哈)NX-A01迷你扬声器系统、YDS-10 iPod底座

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    在众多厂商陆续为Apple公司的iPod推出相关的配件时,YAMAHA也及时地推出了NX-A01迷你扬声器系统和YDS-10 iPod底座两款适用于iPod的音响附件。NX—A01迷你音箱系统为立方体式设计,每边长度不到9cm,外形十分简洁时尚,使用也十分方便,只需通过3.5mm插头的音频线连接iPod以及其他便携式音频设备即可。由于采用了专有的SR-Bass低音加强技术,使得这套小小的扬声器系统也具有美妙的音质和震撼的低音。

  16. Electronic band structure and optical gain of GaNxBiyAs1-x-y/GaAs pyramidal quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhi-Gang; Bose, Sumanta; Fan, Wei-Jun; Li, Shu-Shen

    2016-04-01

    The electronic band structure and optical gain of GaNxBiyAs1-x-y/GaAs pyramidal quantum dots (QDs) are investigated using the 16-band k ṡ p model with constant strain. The optical gain is calculated taking both homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings into consideration. The effective band gap falls as we increase the composition of nitrogen (N) and bismuth (Bi) and with an appropriate choice of composition we can tune the emission wavelength to span within 1.3 μm-1.55 μm, for device application in fiber technology. The extent of this red shift is more profound in QDs compared with bulk material due to quantum confinement. Other factors affecting the emission characteristics include virtual crystal, strain profile, band anticrossing (BAC), and valence band anticrossing (VBAC). The strain profile has a profound impact on the electronic structure, specially the valence band of QDs, which can be determined using the composition distribution of wave functions. All these factors eventually affect the optical gain spectrum. With an increase in QD size, we observe a red shift in the emission energy and emergence of secondary peaks owing to transitions or greater energy compared with the fundamental transition.

  17. Fabrication and magnetic properties of Sm3(Fe,Ti)29Nx/α-Fe dual-phase nanocomposite permanent magnetic material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sm3(Fe,Ti)29Nx/α-Fe dual-phase nanometer magnetic material was fabricated through rapid solidification, crystallization and nitridation of Sm-Fe (Ti) alloy. The effect of combination of rapid solidification and Ti alloy addition on the phase for- mation and microstructure of the Sm-Fe alloy is investigated in this paper. The mi- crostructure of amorphous phase and dual-phase nano-grain crystals before and after crystallization annealing were observed using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HREM). The dual-phase nano-grains after annealing were compacted together with a clear interface with the direct exchange-coupling mechanism. Different annealing processes were used to examine the melt-spun alloy. Comparison of the images of SEM showed that annealing at 750 ℃ for 10 min was most suitable to get homogeneous and nano-grains. No obvious kink was de- tected in the second quadrant of the hysteresis loop like a single hard magnet, and strong exchange coupling was found between hard magnets and soft magnets.

  18. Fabrication and magnetic properties of Sm3(Fe,Ti)29Nx/α-Fe dual-phase nanocomposite permanent magnetic material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI ChunXiang; ZHANG Ying; SUN JiBing; WANG Ru

    2007-01-01

    Sm3(Fe,Ti)29Nx/α-Fe dual-phase nanometer magnetic material was fabricated through rapid solidification, crystallization and nitridation of Sm-Fe (Ti) alloy. The effect of combination of rapid solidification and Ti alloy addition on the phase formation and microstructure of the Sm-Fe alloy is investigated in this paper. The microstructure of amorphous phase and dual-phase nano-grain crystals before and after crystallization annealing were observed using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HREM). The dual-phase nano-grains after annealing were compacted together with a clear interface with the direct exchange-coupling mechanism. Different annealing processes were used to examine the melt-spun alloy. Comparison of the images of SEM showed that annealing at 750℃ for 10 min was most suitable to get homogeneous and nano-grains. No obvious kink was detected in the second quadrant of the hysteresis loop like a single hard magnet, and strong exchange coupling was found between hard magnets and soft magnets.

  19. Conversion of agroindustrial residues for high poly(γ-glutamic acid) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 via solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bao; Xu, Hong; Xu, Zongqi; Xu, Cen; Xu, Zheng; Lei, Peng; Qiu, Yibin; Liang, Jinfeng; Feng, Xiaohai

    2015-04-01

    Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 was carried out through solid-state fermentation with dry mushroom residues (DMR) and monosodium glutamate production residues (MGPR; a substitute of glutamate) for the first time. Dry shiitake mushroom residue (DSMR) was found to be the most suitable solid substrate among these DMRs; the optimal DSMR-to-MGPR ratio was optimized as 12:8. To increase γ-PGA production, industrial waste glycerol was added as a carbon source supplement to the solid-state medium. As a result, γ-PGA production increased by 34.8%. The batch fermentation obtained an outcome of 115.6 g kg(-1) γ-PGA and 39.5×10(8) colony forming units g(-1) cells. Furthermore, a satisfactory yield of 107.7 g kg(-1) γ-PGA was achieved by compost experiment on a scale of 50 kg in open air, indicating that economically large-scale γ-PGA production was feasible. Therefore, this study provided a novel method to produce γ-PGA from abundant and low-cost agroindustrial residues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. HPLC analysis of asymmetric dimethylarginine, symmetric dimethylarginine, homoarginine and arginine in small plasma volumes using a Gemini-NX column at high pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine E; Darcy, Christabelle J; Woodberry, Tonia; Anstey, Nicholas M; McNeil, Yvette R

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the clinical importance of endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors in critical illness. This has highlighted the need for an accurate high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for detection of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in small volumes of blood. Here, the validation of an accurate, precise HPLC method for the determination of ADMA, SDMA, homoarginine and arginine concentrations in plasma is described. Solid phase extraction is followed by derivatisation with AccQ-Fluor and reversed phase separation on a Gemini-NX column at pH 9. Simultaneous detection by both UV-vis and fluorescence detectors affords extra validation. This solid phase extraction method gives absolute recoveries of more than 85% for ADMA and SDMA and relative recoveries of 102% for ADMA and 101% for SDMA. The intra-assay relative standard deviations are 2.1% and 2.3% for ADMA and SDMA, respectively, with inter-assay relative standard deviations of 2.7% and 3.1%, respectively. Advantages of this method include improved recovery of all analytes using isopropanol in the solid phase extraction; sharp, well-resolved chromatographic peaks using a high pH mobile phase; a non-endogenous internal standard, n-propyl L-arginine; and accurate and precise determination of methylated arginine concentrations from only 100microL of plasma.

  1. Magnetization enhancement due to incorporation of non-magnetic nitrogen content in (Co84Zr16Nx nano-composite films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the magnetic, electronic, and structural properties of nano-composite (Co84Zr16Nx or CZN films prepared by reactive co-sputter deposition method. As-deposited CZN films have shown enhancement in magnetization (Ms with incorporation of nitrogen content, which is related to the evolution of nano-composite phase. X-ray diffraction study has confirmed poly-crystalline growth of CZN films with fcc(331 and fcc(422 phases. High-resolution transmission electron microscope study reveals that CZN films are composed of ordered and crystalline ferromagnetic Co nano-clusters, which are embedded in the nano-composite matrix. Photoemission measurements show the change in the intensity near the Fermi level most likely due to defects and shift in the core-levels binding energy with nitrogen concentration. Raman spectroscopy data show an increase in the intensity of the Raman lines with nitrogen concentration upto 20%. However, the intensity is significantly lower for 30% sample. This indicates that less nitrogen or defect states are being substituted into the lattice above 20% and is consistent with the observed magnetic behavior. Our studies indicate that defects induced due to the incorporation of non-magnetic nitrogen content play a key role to enhance the magnetization.

  2. Removal of Cr(III), Ni(II) and Cu(II) by poly(gamma-glutamic acid) from Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Xu, Hong; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Min; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2007-01-01

    Poly(gamma-glutamic acid) (gamma-PGA) derived from Bacillus subtilis NX-2 was investigated as a sorbent for heavy metal ions in batch adsorption experiments. The results showed that the heavy metal adsorption capacity of gamma-PGA enhanced with the increase of pH, in the following order: Cr(III) > Cu(II) > Ni(II), within the pH range 3-5. The Langmuir sorption model effectively described the metal sorption of y-PGA through the experiments of isotherm sorption, and it was deduced that the affinity of gamma-PGA for metals was following the sequence: Cr(III) > Cu(II) > Ni(II). Gamma-PGA was also used to trap trace amounts of heavy metals from the electroplating wastewater, which were difficult to be entirely removed by the traditional hydroxide precipitation method. The results showed that Cr(III) and Ni(II) in the electroplating effluent decreased from 3.07 and 9.46 mg/l to 0.15 and 1.01 mg/l, respectively, and the treated solutions reached the effluent standard. Therefore, gamma-PGA is satisfactory as a well biosorbent for the removal of heavy metals. The adsorption mechanism of gamma-PGA binding heavy metals was also studied using HyperChem simulation and FT-IR.

  3. 基于NX的组合机床智能化设计系统开发%Development of NX Based Intelligent Design System for Modular Machine Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈青; 李青祝

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of study of design procedure,a framework of intelligent design system of modular machine tools was pro-posed. With the NX based intelligent design system of modular machine tools,and assistant of its design wizard supported by knowl-edge base and inference machine,designers could build parameterized control structure of modular machine tools,perform calculations of modular machine tool design,and create digital prototypes based on the parameterized models in database,according to customer re-quirements. As a result,high quality design can be made to meet market requirement swiftly.%在研究组合机床设计流程的基础上,提出组合机床智能化设计系统的框架。在NX平台上开发组合机床智能化设计系统,设计人员可依据客户需求,按照设计向导在知识库、推理机等的支撑下,建立组合机床的参数化控制结构,完成组合机床的设计计算,并调用数据库中的参数化模型,创建数字化样机,实现高质量的设计,快速满足市场需求。

  4. Heat capacities and thermodynamic functions of new nanosized ferro-chromo-manganites LaM0.5 IIFeCrMnO6.5 (MII-Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasenov, B. K.; Kasenova, Sh. B.; Sagintaeva, Zh. I.; Turtubaeva, M. O.; Kakenov, K. S.; Esenbaeva, G. A.

    2017-03-01

    The heat capacities of nanosized ferro-chromo-manganites LaM0.5 IIFeCrMnO6.5 (MII-Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) are measured via dynamic calorimetry in the temperature range of 298.15-673 K using an IT-S-400 instrument. It is established that the C°p f( T) function of LaM0.5 IIFeCrMnO6.5 (MII-Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) has λ-type effects, due probably to phase transitions of the second order. Considering the temperatures of the phase transitions, equations of the heat capacity of ferro-chromo-manganites LaM0.5 IIFeCrMnO6.5 (MII-Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) as a function of temperature are derived on the basis of experimental data. Thermodynamic functions H°( T)- H°(298.15), S°( T), and V xx( T) are calculated in the temperature range of 298.15-675 K.

  5. Fabrication of MgAl2Si2O8 : M0.01 (M = Ni2+, Cu2+, Pd2+, Pt2+ and Ru3+): catalytic effects for the reduction of 2- or 4-nitroanilines in water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Serkan Dayan; Sevgi Öztürk; Nilgün Kayaci; Nilgun Kalaycioglu Ozpozan; Esra Öztürk

    2015-10-01

    Five new MgAl2Si2O8 : M0.01 (M = Ni2+, Cu2+, Pd2+, Pt2+ and Ru3+) materials were developed for the reduction of nitroarenes as catalysts by conventional solid state reaction at 1300°C. The prepared materials were characterized by thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and nitrogen adsorption–desorption analysis. The catalytic activities of the prepared catalysts were tested in the reduction of 2- or 4-nitroanilines in aqueous media at ambient temperature in the presence of NaBH4 by UV–vis spectrophotometer. Furthermore, the MgAl2Si2O8 : M0.01 catalysts can be recovered by filtration and reused for five cycles for the reduction of 2-nitroaniline. These results show that the MgAl2Si2O8 : M0.01 catalysts can be used in practical applications in the reduction of nitroanilines.

  6. Novel Highly Pathogenic Avian A(H5N2) and A(H5N8) Influenza Viruses of Clade 2.3.4.4 from North America Have Limited Capacity for Replication and Transmission in Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bryan S; Russier, Marion; Jeevan, Trushar; Marathe, Bindumadhav; Govorkova, Elena A; Russell, Charles J; Kim-Torchetti, Mia; Choi, Young Ki; Brown, Ian; Saito, Takehiko; Stallknecht, David E; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A(H5N8) viruses from clade 2.3.4.4 were introduced to North America by migratory birds in the fall of 2014. Reassortment of A(H5N8) viruses with avian viruses of North American lineage resulted in the generation of novel A(H5N2) viruses with novel genotypes. Through sequencing of recent avian influenza viruses, we identified PB1 and NP gene segments very similar to those in the viruses isolated from North American waterfowl prior to the introduction of A(H5N8) to North America, highlighting these bird species in the origin of reassortant A(H5N2) viruses. While they were highly virulent and transmissible in poultry, we found A(H5N2) viruses to be low pathogenic in mice and ferrets, and replication was limited in both hosts compared with those of recent highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses. Molecular characterization of the hemagglutinin protein from A(H5N2) viruses showed that the receptor binding preference, cleavage, and pH of activation were highly adapted for replication in avian species and similar to those of other 2.3.4.4 viruses. In addition, North American and Eurasian clade 2.3.4.4 H5NX viruses replicated to significantly lower titers in differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells than did seasonal human A(H1N1) and highly pathogenic A(H5N1) viruses isolated from a human case. Thus, despite their having a high impact on poultry, our findings suggest that the recently emerging North American A(H5N2) viruses are not expected to pose a substantial threat to humans and other mammals without further reassortment and/or adaptation and that reassortment with North American viruses has not had a major impact on viral phenotype. IMPORTANCE Highly pathogenic H5 influenza viruses have been introduced into North America from Asia, causing extensive morbidity and mortality in domestic poultry. The introduced viruses have reassorted with North American avian influenza viruses, generating viral genotypes not seen on

  7. Highly Efficient and Stable Novel NanoBiohybrid Catalyst to Avert 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid Pollutant in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rasel; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    The present study reported for the first time covalent immobilization of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (3,4-POD) onto functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (F-MWCNT) for degrading the toxic 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHBA) pollutant in water. The F-MWCNTs had a maximum 3,4-POD loading of 1060 μg/mg. Immobilized 3,4 POD had 44% of relative structural changes to its free configurations. Nevertheless, >90% of relative activity and about 50% of catalytic efficiency were retained to the free enzyme. Immobilized 3,4-POD demonstrated higher alkaline stability and thermostability than the free 3,4-POD. The free and immobilized 3,4-POD lost 82% and 66% of relative activities, respectively after 180 min of incubations at 90 °C. Excellent shelf-life was observed for the immobilized 3,4-POD with residual activity of 56% compared with 41% and 39% of the free 3,4-POD at 4 °C and 25 °C over 30 days storage. Immobilized 3,4-POD showed >60% of catalytic activity retention even after ten-cycle uses, defraying the expenses of free 3,4-POD productions for long term uses. Finally, the immobilized 3,4-POD removed 71% of 3,4-DHBA from water in <4 h, paving its future application for water purification with reduced costs and time. PMID:27721429

  8. Phase transitions and exchange interactions in the SmCr3(BO3)4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobretsova, E. A.; Boldyrev, K. N.; Popova, M. N.; Gavrilkin, S. Yu.; Mukhin, A. A.; Ivanov, V. Yu.; Mal'tsev, V. V.; Leonyuk, N. I.; Malkin, B. Z.

    2016-12-01

    Spectroscopic investigation and specific heat and magnetic susceptibility measurements of SmCr3(BO3)4 crystals were performed. The spectra of the Sm3+ and Cr3+ ions in samarium chromium borate were calculated and parameters of the exchange interactions between the nearest chromium ions, chromium and samarium ions were determined. Three phase transitions were observed at the temperatures T1 = 7.8 ± 0.5 K, T2 = 6.7 ± 0.5 K, and T3 = 4.3 ± 0.2 K, their nature is discussed. The crystal structures with different space symmetry groups R32 and C2/c were found to coexist in a SmCr3(BO3)4 single crystal.

  9. Synthesis of 1,2-bis[2-methyl-5(3,4-difluorophenyl)-3-thienyl] perfluorocyclopentene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taiqi LIU; Liyan YANG; Jianxiang YU

    2008-01-01

    2,Methylthiophene (1) was treated at 0℃ with liquid bromine to form 3,5,dibromo,2,methylthiophene (2) which reacted with tributyl borate to give 2,methyl,3,bromo,5,boronate thiophene (3) at,78℃. Treatment of 3 with 3,4,difluorobrombenzene gave 2,methyl,3,bromo,5,(3,4,difluorophenyl)thiophene (4). Finally,a novel photochromic dithienylethene compound,1,2,bis [2,methyl,5(3,4,difluorophenyl),3,thienyl]perfluorocyclopentene (DT,1),was synthesized by the reaction of 4 with perfluorocyclopentene at,78℃. The compound (DT,1)was characterized by IR,NMR,MS,elemental analysis and its photochromic behavior was also discussed.

  10. Time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy of UO2(CO3)3(4-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E C; Cho, H-R; Baik, M H; Kim, H; Cha, W

    2015-11-21

    The objective of the present study is to examine the luminescence characteristics of UO2(CO3)3(4-) in detail using time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy. The peak wavelengths and lifetime of UO2(CO3)3(4-) were determined at room temperature using the two excitation laser wavelengths of 266 and 448 nm. The peak wavelengths in the luminescence spectrum exhibited hypsochromic shifts compared with those of UO2(2+). The lifetime determined from several samples containing various uranium concentrations was 8.9 ± 0.8 ns. Explanations for the hindrance to the observation of the luminescence spectrum of UO2(CO3)3(4-) in previous investigations are discussed. The representative experimental parameters, which might interrupt the measurement of weak luminescence, are the insertion delay time of the detection device, the overlapped luminescence of the background materials and the primary inner filter effect in the sample solution.

  11. 制备TiO2-xNx薄膜陶瓷托槽的抗菌性能%TiO2-xNx thin filmson ceramic bracket surfaces:preparation and antibiotic performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建卫; 王宇; 车远倩; 朱博武; 曹宝成

    2016-01-01

      结果与结论:①TiO2-xNx薄膜为锐钛矿型,结构均匀致密,随着薄膜厚度的增加,X射线衍射峰表现为增强趋势;②厚度最高薄膜最终附着力为18.37 N,说明薄膜与托槽具有较好的附着力,可承受在口腔应用中所受到的摩擦;③镀膜后,厚度最高薄膜托槽的色泽均有所变化,但变化较小,不至于影响陶瓷托槽原有的美观特性;④TiO2-xNx薄膜陶瓷托槽对白色念珠菌、变形链球菌均有一定的抗菌性能,且随着薄膜厚度的增加抗菌性能逐渐增强,对变形链球菌的抗菌效果更明显;⑤结果表明,TiO2-xNx薄膜陶瓷托槽在不影响美观的同时,对常见口腔致龋菌和条件致病菌具有较高的抗菌作用,且与托槽具有较好的附着力。%BACKGROUND:Enamel demineralization has been plaguing doctors and patients in the fixed orthodontic treatment, so we attempt to seek an effective method of reducingitsincidence. OBJECTIVE:To prepare TiO2-xNx thin filmsat different thicknesses on the ceramic bracket surface by sol-gel method folowed by detection of antibiotic performance. METHODS:TiO2-xNx thin films at different thicknesses were prepared on the ceramic bracket surface by sol-gel method. The crystal structure, surface morphology and attachment force of these thin films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and multi-function material surface tester, respectively. The color changes of ceramic brackets before and after coating were evaluated through German VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0 photoelectric color comparator. Antibiotic performance of the ceramic bracket coated with TiO2-xNx thin film forCandida albicansandStreptococcus mutanswas evaluated by the flat colony counting method. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The prepared TiO2-xNx thin film was anatase type, which had uniform and compact structure, and its X-ray diffraction peaks were elevated with the increase of film thickness. The

  12. Yersinia enterocolitica palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 - a successful group of emerging zoonotic pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höper Dirk

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-pathogenic Y. enterocolitica ssp. enterocolitica caused several human outbreaks in Northern America. In contrast, low pathogenic Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 is responsible for sporadic cases worldwide with asymptomatic pigs being the main source of infection. Genomes of three Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 human isolates (including the completely sequenced Y11 German DSMZ type strain were compared to the high-pathogenic Y. enterocolitica ssp. enterocolitica 8081 O:8/1B to address the peculiarities of the O:3/4 group. Results Most high-pathogenicity-associated determinants of Y. enterocolitica ssp. enterocolitica (like the High-Pathogenicity Island, yts1 type 2 and ysa type 3 secretion systems are absent in Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 genomes. On the other hand they possess alternative putative virulence and fitness factors, such as a different ysp type 3 secretion system, an RtxA-like and insecticidal toxins, and a N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc PTS system (aga-operon. Horizontal acquisition of two prophages and a tRNA-Asn-associated GIYep-01 genomic island might also influence the Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 pathoadaptation. We demonstrated recombination activity of the PhiYep-3 prophage and the GIYep-01 island and the ability of the aga-operon to support the growth of the Y. enterocolitica ssp. enterocolitica O:8/1B on GalNAc. Conclusions Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 experienced a shift to an alternative patchwork of virulence and fitness determinants that might play a significant role in its host pathoadaptation and successful worldwide dissemination.

  13. Nitrative DNA damage and Oct3/4 expression in urinary bladder cancer with Schistosomahaematobium infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ning [Faculty of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie (Japan); Thanan, Raynoo [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie (Japan); Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Kobayashi, Hatasu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Hammam, Olfat; Wishahi, Mohamed; Leithy, Tarek El [Departments of Pathology and Urology, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza (Egypt); Hiraku, Yusuke [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Amro, EL-Karef [Department of Pathology and Matrix Biology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Oikawa, Shinji [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Ohnishi, Shiho [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie (Japan); Murata, Mariko [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Kawanishi, Shosuke, E-mail: kawanisi@suzuka-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie (Japan); Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan)

    2011-10-22

    Highlights: {yields} Oct3/4-positive cells increase in Schistosoma haematobium (SH)-associated bladder cancer. {yields} iNOS-dependent DNA lesion, 8-nitroguanine, was formed in Oct3/4-positive cells. {yields} 8-Nitroguanine formed in stem-like cells plays a role in SH-induced carcinogenesis. {yields} Mutant stem cells may participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis. -- Abstract: To investigate whether mutant stem cells participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis, we performed immunohistochemical analysis to examine nitrative and oxidative DNA lesions (8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG) and a stem cell marker Oct3/4 in bladder tissues obtained from cystitis and bladder cancer patients infected with Schistosomahaematobium (S. haematobium). We also detected the expression of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which lead to 8-nitroguanine formation. The staining intensity of 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG was significantly higher in bladder cancer and cystitis tissues than in normal tissues. iNOS expression was colocalized with NF-{kappa}B in 8-nitroguanine-positive tumor cells from bladder cancer patients. Oct3/4 expression was significantly increased in cells from S. haematobium-associated bladder cancer tissues in comparison to normal bladder and cancer tissues without infection. Oct3/4 was also expressed in epithelial cells of cystitis patients. Moreover, 8-nitroguanine was formed in Oct3/4-positive stem cells in S. haematobium-associated cystitis and cancer tissues. In conclusion, inflammation by S.haematobium infection may increase the number of mutant stem cells, in which iNOS-dependent DNA damage occurs via NF-{kappa}B activation, leading to tumor development.

  14. For or against adjuvant trastuzumab for pT1a-bN0M0 breast cancer patients with HER2-positive tumors: a meta-analysis of published literatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the prognosis of patients with small (≤1cm tumors is generally favorable, emerging data suggests that biological behavior varies between intrinsic subtypes in such patients. Furthermore, it still remains unclear whether HER2-positive pT1a-bN0M0 patients could benefit from adjuvant trastuzumab. For further evaluation, we sought to conduct a meta-analysis so as to get a better understanding of the prognosis for HER2-positive pT1a-bN0M0 patients and their survival benefit from adjuvant trastuzumab, accordingly, offering the implications for current practice. METHODS: The PubMed database, the online proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO Annual Meetings, the online proceedings of the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, and the CD proceedings of the International St. Gallen Breast Cancer Conference were searched for all relevant studies published before September 2012. Relative risks (RRs were used to compare the prognosis of different intrinsic subtypes for pT1a-bN0M0 breast cancer. Analyses were also performed to estimate the association between adjuvant trastuzumab and various survival outcomes. RESULTS: With eight eligible studies identified, this meta-analysis demonstrated a deleterious effect of HER2+ phenotype on disease-free survival (DFS; RR = 3.677, 95% CI 2.606-5.189, p <0.001 and distant disease-free survival (DDFS; RR = 3.824, 95% CI 2.249-6.501, p<0.001 as compared to HR+/HER2- subgroup. However, significant difference failed to be achieved in terms of any endpoint between HER2+ and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC. Besides, a marked improvement in DFS was observed with the addition of trastuzumab for HER2-positive pT1a-bN0M0 patients (RR = 0.323, 95% CI 0.191-0.547, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis clarifies that intrinsic subtypes might be a reliable marker to predict the prognosis in pT1a-bN0M0 breast cancer. Besides, even for such early stage HER2-positive

  15. Some observations on the synthesis and electrolytic properties of (Ba1-xCax (M0.9Y0.1O3, M = Ce, Zr-based samples modified with calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the impact of partial substitution of calcium for barium in (Ba1-xCax (M0.9Y0.1 O3, M = Ce, Zr on physicochemical properties of the powders and sintered samples was investigated. The powders, with various contents of calcium (x = 0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, were prepared by means of thermal decomposition of organometallic precursors containing EDTA. All of the BaCeO3-based powders synthesised at 1100 °C were monophasic with a rhombohedral structure, however, completely cubic BaZrO3-based solid solutions were obtained at 1200 °C. A study of the sinterability of BaZr0.9Y0.1O3 and BaCe0.9Y0.1O3-based pellets was performed under non-isothermal conditions within a temperature range of 25 to 1200 °C. The partial substitution of barium for calcium in the (Ba1-xCax (M0.9Y0.1 O3, M = Ce, Zr solid solution improved the sinterability of the samples in comparison to the initial BaCe0.9Y0.1O3 or BaZr0.9Y0.1O3. The relative density of calcium-modified BaCe0.9Y0.1O3-based samples reached approximately 95 to 97 % after sintering at 1500 °C for 2 h in air. The same level of relative density was achieved after sintering calcium-modified BaZr0.9Y0.1O3 at 1600 °C for 2 h. Analysis of the electrical conductivity from both series of investigated materials showed that the highest ionic conductivity, in air and wet 5 % H2 in Ar, was attained for the compositions of x = 0.02 to 0.05 (Ba1-xCax(M0.9Y0.1O3, M = Zr, Ce. The oxygen reduction reaction on the interface Pt│BaM0.9Y0.1O3, M = Ce, Zr was investigated using Pt microelectrodes. Selected samples of (Ba1-xCax (M0.9Y0.1O3, M = Zr, Ce were tested as ceramic electrolytes in hydrogen-oxygen solid oxide fuel cells operating at temperatures of 700 to 850 °C.

  16. [Kv3.4 channel is involved in rat pulmonary vasoconstriction induced by 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Bi, Hai-Rong; Zhang, Rong; Zhu, Da-Ling

    2006-02-25

    We have reported that hypoxia increases the activation of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO), which converts arachidonic acid (AA) into 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) in small pulmonary arteries (PAs). Through inhibition of Kv channels, 15-HETE causes more robust concentration-dependent contraction of PA rings from the hypoxic compared to the normoxic controls. However, the subtypes of Kv channels inhibited by 15-HETE are incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to identify the contribution of Kv3.4 channel in the process of pulmonary vasoconstriction induced by 15-HETE using the tension studies of PA rings from rat with Kv3.4 channel blocker in tissue bath; to explore the role of vascular endothelium in15-HETE-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction through denuded endothelia of PA rings; and to define the downregulation of 15-HETE on the expression of Kv3.4 channel in cultured pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) with RT-PCR and Western blot. In the present study, healthy Wistar rats were divided randomly into two groups: Group A with normal oxygen supply and group B with hypoxia. Six days later, the rats were killed. Pulmonary artery rings were prepared for organ bath experiments. Firstly, different concentrations of 15-HETE (10~1 000 nmol/L) were added to the Krebs solution. The isometric tension was recorded using a four-channel force-displacement transducer. Then Kv3.4 channel blocker, 100 nmol/L BDS-I, was added, followed by adding 1 mumol/L 15-HETE, and the isometric tension was recorded. Furthermore, RT-PCR and Western blot were employed to identify the influence of 15-HETE on the expression of Kv3.4 channel in cultured rat PASMCs.The results showed the PA tension was significantly increased both in groups A and B by 15-HETE in a concentration-dependent manner (PKv3.4 channel blocker, BDS-I, significantly decreased the PA ring constriction induced by 15-HETE (PKv3.4 mRNA and protein in rat PASMCs were significantly downregulated by 15

  17. The First Occurrence of A Mallotus 3,4-Seco-Taraxerane Triterpenoid from Mallotus barbatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Minh Giang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The first occurrence of a 3,4-seco-taraxerane triterpenoid in Mallotus species (Euphorbiaceae is reported. The triterpenoid was isolated from the leaves of the Vietnamese medicinal plant Mallotus barbatus ( Wall. Muell.-Arg. and its structure was determined to be 3,4-seco-taraxer-14-en-3-oic acid on the basis of HR-MS and NMR spectroscopic methods. For the first time, the 1 H and 13C NMR data and stereochemistry of this compound were fully established on the basis of the 1H- 1H COSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC spectroscopic data.

  18. Photophysical characterization of 2,3-difunctionalized thieno[3,4-b]pyrazines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, S.C. E-mail: seth.rasmussen@ndsu.nodak.edu; Sattler, D.J.; Mitchell, K.A.; Maxwell, John

    2004-08-01

    In order to better understand the optical properties of polythieno[3,4-b]pyrazine materials, the photophysical characteristics of a series of monomeric 2,3-difunctionalized thieno[3,4-b]pyrazines (where R=H, CH{sub 3}, C{sub 6}H{sub 13}, C{sub 8}H{sub 17}, C{sub 10}H{sub 21}, C{sub 12}H{sub 25}, and Ph) have been studied. Characterization of the room temperature UV-vis and fluorescence spectra, including solvent and pH dependence, are presented and compared to the related species isothianaphthene and quinoxaline.

  19. Synthesis of 3-{4-[4-(Benzylideneaminobenzenesulfonyl]- phenyl}-2-phenylquinazolin-4(3H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Manohar Babu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the synthesis of a Schiff base, 3-{4-[4-(benzylideneamino benzenesulfonyl]phenyl}-2-phenylquinazolin-4(3H-one from a novel quinazolinone, 3-[4-(4 aminobenzenesulfonylphenyl]-2-phenylquinazolin-4(3H-one. The quinazolinone was prepared by reacting 2-phenyl-4H-3,1 benzoxazin-4-one with dapsone. The structure of the synthesized Schiff base is confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS and elemental analysis.-

  20. Synthesis and biological evaluation of β -aroylpropionic acid based 1,3,4-oxadiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, two new series, 1-(4-benzylphenyl-3-(5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl-1-propanone and 1-(4-ethylphenyl-3-(5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl-1-propanone from β-(4-benzylbenzoylpropionic acid and β-(4-ethylbenzoylpropionic acid, respectively, were synthesized and tested for antiinflammatory, analgesic, lipid peroxidation, ulcerogenic and antibacterial actions. A fair number of compounds were found to have good antiinflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema test, while a few compounds showed significant antibacterial activity. The newly synthesized compounds showed very low ulcerogenic action.

  1. 高纯度3,4-二羟基苯甲醛的制备%Preparation of High Pure 3,4-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏春年; 陈利民; 胡惟孝

    2004-01-01

    研究了香兰素经脱甲基制备3,4-二羟基苯甲醛的反应.正交试验确定最佳反应条件为:香兰素7.8g(51mmol),CH2Cl2 15mL(234mmol),无水AlCl3 9.4g(70mmol),吡啶13.3g(168mmol)和TEBA 0.05g,反应温度48℃,回流时间28h,收率92.6%,纯度99.7%(HPLC).

  2. Reinforcing and neurochemical effects of the "bath salts" constituents 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone (methylone) in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Charles W; Thorndike, Eric B; Goldberg, Steven R; Lehner, Kurt R; Cozzi, Nicholas V; Brandt, Simon D; Baumann, Michael H

    2016-05-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone (methylone) are synthetic drugs found in so-called "bath salts" products. Both drugs exert their effects by interacting with monoamine transporter proteins. MDPV is a potent uptake blocker at transporters for dopamine and norepinephrine while methylone is a non-selective releaser at transporters for dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin (5-HT). We hypothesized that prominent 5-HT-releasing actions of methylone would render this drug less reinforcing than MDPV. To test this hypothesis, we compared behavioral effects of MDPV and methylone using intravenous (i.v.) self-administration on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule in male rats. Additionally, neurochemical effects of the drugs were examined using in vivo microdialysis in nucleus accumbens, in a separate cohort of rats. MDPV self-administration (0.03 mg/kg/inj) was acquired rapidly and reached 40 infusions per session, similar to the effects of cocaine (0.5 mg/kg/inj), by the end of training. In contrast, methylone self-administration (0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg/inj) was acquired slowly, and response rates only reached 20 infusions per session by the end of training. In dose substitution studies, MDPV and cocaine displayed typical inverted U-shaped dose-effect functions, but methylone did not. In vivo microdialysis revealed that i.v. MDPV (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg) increased extracellular dopamine while i.v. methylone (1 and 3 mg/kg) increased extracellular dopamine and 5-HT. Our findings support the hypothesis that elevations in extracellular 5-HT in the brain can dampen positive reinforcing effects of cathinone-type drugs. Nevertheless, MDPV and methylone are both self-administered by rats, suggesting these drugs possess significant abuse liability in humans.

  3. Reinforcing and neurochemical effects of the “bath salts” constituents 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone (methylone) in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Charles W.; Thorndike, Eric B.; Goldberg, Steven R.; Lehner, Kurt R.; Cozzi, Nicholas V.; Brandt, Simon D.; Baumann, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone (methylone) are synthetic drugs found in so-called “bath salts” products. Both drugs exert their effects by interacting with monoamine transporter proteins. MDPV is a potent uptake blocker at transporters for dopamine and norepinephrine while methylone is a non-selective releaser at transporters for dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin (5-HT). Objectives We hypothesized that prominent 5-HT-releasing actions of methylone would render this drug less reinforcing than MDPV. Methods To test this hypothesis, we compared behavioral effects of MDPV and methylone using intravenous (i.v.) self-administration on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule in male rats. Additionally, neurochemical effects of the drugs were examined using in vivo microdialysis in nucleus accumbens, in a separate cohort of rats. Results MDPV self-administration (0.03 mg/kg/inj) was acquired rapidly, and reached 40 infusions per session, similar to the effects of cocaine (0.5 mg/kg/inj), by the end of training. By contrast, methylone self-administration (0.3 & 0.5 mg/kg/inj) was acquired slowly, and response rates only reached 20 infusions per session by the end of training. In dose substitution studies, MDPV and cocaine displayed typical inverted U-shaped dose-effect functions, but methylone did not. In vivo microdialysis revealed that i.v. MDPV (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg) increased extracellular dopamine while i.v. methylone (1 and 3 mg/kg) increased extracellular dopamine and 5-HT. Conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that elevations in extracellular 5-HT in the brain can dampen positive reinforcing effects of cathinone-type drugs. Nevertheless, MDPV and methylone are both self-administered by rats suggesting these drugs possess significant abuse liability in humans. PMID:26319160

  4. Methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) induce differential cytotoxic effects in bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Cuevas, Elvis; Lantz, Susan M; Rice, Kenner C; Gannon, Brenda M; Fantegrossi, William E; Gonzalez, Carmen; Paule, Merle G; Ali, Syed F

    2016-08-26

    Designer drugs such as synthetic psychostimulants are indicative of a worldwide problem of drug abuse and addiction. In addition to methamphetamine (METH), these drugs include 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) and commercial preparations of synthetic cathinones including 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), typically referred to as "bath salts." These psychostimulants exert neurotoxic effects by altering monoamine systems in the brain. Additionally, METH and MDMA adversely affect the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB): there are no current reports on the effects of MDPV on the BBB. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of METH, MDMA and MDPV on bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells (bBMVECs), an accepted in vitro model of the BBB. Confluent bBMVEC monolayers were treated with METH, MDMA and MDPV (0.5mM-2.5mM) for 24h. METH and MDMA increased lactate dehydrogenase release only at the highest concentration (2.5mM), whereas MDPV induced cytotoxicity at all concentrations. MDMA and METH decreased cellular proliferation only at 2.5mM, with similar effects observed after MDPV exposures starting at 1mM. Only MDPV increased reactive oxygen species production at all concentrations tested whereas all 3 drugs increased nitric oxide production. Morphological analysis revealed different patterns of compound-induced cell damage. METH induced vacuole formation at 1mM and disruption of the monolayer at 2.5mM. MDMA induced disruption of the endothelial monolayer from 1mM without vacuolization. On the other hand, MDPV induced monolayer disruption at doses ≥0.5mM without vacuole formation; at 2.5mM, the few remaining cells lacked endothelial morphology. These data suggest that even though these synthetic psychostimulants alter monoaminergic systems, they each induce BBB toxicity by different mechanisms with MDPV being the most toxic. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Contrasting effects of d-methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, and 4-methylmethcathinone on wheel activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pai-Kai; Aarde, Shawn M; Angrish, Deepshikha; Houseknecht, Karen L; Dickerson, Tobin J; Taffe, Michael A

    2012-11-01

    Reports from U.S., U.K. and European drug policy entities, and ongoing media accounts, show increasing recreational use of 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC, mephedrone) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). Severe sympathomimetic symptoms, hallucinations, psychoses, and even deaths have been reported, yet little scientific information is available on the effects of these compounds in laboratory models. Available studies on the neurochemistry of these drugs show that 4-MMC and MDPV enhance DA neurotransmission, while 4-MMC additionally enhances 5-HT neurotransmission--a pattern much like that reported for methamphetamine versus 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). As is the case for designer amphetamines, these neurochemical distinctions may predict differential potential for repetitive versus episodic abuse and distinct lasting toxicities. This study determined relative locomotor stimulant effects of 4-MMC (1-10 mg/kg, s.c.) and MDPV (0.5-5.6 mg/kg, s.c.), in comparison with d-methamphetamine (MA; 0.5-5.6 mg/kg, s.c.) and MDMA (1-7.5 mg/kg, s.c.) on a measure of locomotor activity--voluntary wheel running--in male Wistar rats (N=8). Compared to counts of wheel rotations after saline, a biphasic change in the pattern of counts was observed after injections of MA and MDPV, with relatively higher counts following lower doses and lower counts following the highest dose. However, monophasic, dose-dependent reductions in counts were observed in response to injections of MDMA and 4-MMC. Thus, voluntary wheel running yielded the same categorical distinctions for these drugs as did prior experiments testing the effects of these drugs on monoaminergic neurotransmission. These data indicate that MDPV produces prototypical locomotor stimulant effects whereas 4-MMC is more similar to the entactogen MDMA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-few walled carbon nanotube (PEDOT-FWCNT) nanocomposite based thin films for Schottky diode application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Bhavana, E-mail: bgupta1206@gmail.com [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre of Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India); Mehta, Minisha, E-mail: mehta.mini@gmail.com [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre of Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India); Melvin, Ambrose [Catalysis Division, CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha, Pune 411008 (India); Kamalakannan, R.; Dash, S.; Kamruddin, M.; Tyagi, A.K. [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre of Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Transparent, conductive films of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-few walled carbon nanotube (PEDOT-FWCNT) nanocomposite were synthesized by in-situ oxidative polymerization and investigated for their Schottky diode property. The prepared films were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), surface resistivity, cyclic voltametery, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). SEM reveals the formation of homogeneous and adhesive polymer films while HRTEM confirms the uniform wrapping of polymer chains around the nanotube walls for PEDOT-FWCNT film. Improved thermal stability, conductivity and charge storage property of PEDOT in the presence of FWCNT is observed. Among different compositions, 5 wt. % of FWCNT is found to be optimum with sheet resistance and transmittance of 500 Ω sq{sup −1} and 77%, respectively. Moreover, the electronic and junction properties of polymer films were studied and compared by fabricating sandwich type devices with a configuration of Al/PEDOT or PEDOT-FWCNT nanocomposite/indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. The measured current density-voltage characteristics show typical rectifying behavior for both configurations. However, enhanced rectification ratio and higher forward current density is observed in case of PEDOT-FWCNT based Schottky diode. Furthermore, reliability test depicts smaller hysteresis effect and better performance of PEDOT-FWCNT based diodes. - Highlights: • Single step synthesis of PEDOT and PEDOT-FWCNT nanocomposites films via in-situ oxidative polymerization. • Thermal, electrical and electrochemical properties of films show positive effect of FWCNT on PEDOT films. • Schottky diodes based on metal Al/PEDOT or PEDOT-FWCNT composites/ITO glass are fabricated. • Improved electrical characteristics with better reliability is achieved for PEDOT-FWCNT based diodes.

  7. Preparation and Luminescence Characteristics of Ca3Y2(BO3)4:Eu3+ Phosphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Pan-Lai; YANG Zhi-Ping; WANG Zhi-Jun; Guo Qing-Lin

    2007-01-01

    Ca3Y2(BO3)4:Eu3+ phosphor is synthesized by high temperature solid-state reaction method, and the luminescence characteristics are investigated. The emission spectrum exhibits two strong red emissions at 613 and 621 nm corresponding to the electric dipole 5 Do-7F2 transition of Eu3+ under 365 nm excitation, the reason is that Eu3+ substituting for y3+ occupies the non-centrosymmetric position in the crystal structure of Ca3Y2 (BO3 )4. The excitation spectrum for 613 nm indicates that the phosphor can be effectively excited by ultraviolet (UV) (254 nm,365nm and 400nm) and blue (470nm) light. The effect of Eu3+ concentration on the emission intensity of Ca3Y2 (BO3 )4:Eu3+ phosphor is measured, the result shows that the emission intensities increase with increasing Eu3+ concentration, then decrease. The CIE colour coordinates of Ca3Y2(BO3)4:Eu3+ phosphor is (0.639, 0.357) at 15mol% Eu3+.

  8. Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate as a mediator of neuronal death in ischemic hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokawa, H; Oguro, K; Robinson, H P; Masuzawa, T; Rhee, T S; Takenawa, T; Kawai, N

    1994-03-01

    Selective death of CA1 pyramidal neurons after transient forebrain ischemia has attracted interest for its possible relation to the pathogenesis of memory deficits and dementia. Using whole cell patch-clamp recording from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices of gerbils after ischemia we studied the intracellular signaling mechanisms related to the phosphoinositide cycle. Intracellular application of an antibody against phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate rescued ischemic neurons from stimulus-induced irreversible depolarization. Furthermore, application of inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate in normal cells caused an irreversible depolarization in response to synaptic input, which mimicked the deterioration of ischemic neurons. Depolarization of both ischemic and normal neurons in the presence of inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate was prevented by the addition of the Ca2+ chelator, 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetate. Application of antibody against inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate 3-kinase, which blocks formation of inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, also protected against cell deterioration. Our results suggest that the vulnerability of hippocampal pyramidal neurons following ischemia is caused by a disturbed phosphoinositide cascade, with one metabolite, inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, playing a key role in the induction of Ca2+ accumulation, which leads to neuronal death.

  9. Biocatalytic acylation of sugar alcohols by 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croitoru, R.; Fitigau, F.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Frissen, A.E.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Enzymatic synthesis of aromatic esters of four different sugar alcohols (xylitol, arabitol, mannitol, and sorbitol) with 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid was performed in organic solvent medium, using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase (Novozyme 435), and molecular sieves for control of the wate

  10. Synthesis of Some Benzimidazole Derivatives Bearing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Moiety as Anticancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochona, Bereket; Mazzio, Elizabeth; Gangapurum, Madhavei; Mateeva, Nelly; Redda, K K

    2015-04-01

    In an effort to establish new benzimidazole related structural leads with improved anticancer activity, several new benzimidazole derivatives (5a-i) with 1,3,4-oxadiazole scaffold incorporated were synthesized and studied for their anticancer activity. The anticancer screening against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines showed that compound (5c) exhibited moderate cytotoxicity.

  11. Thermodynamic and kinetic investigations of PO3-4 adsorption on blast furnace slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Ensar

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics of adsorption of PO(3-)(4) by blast furnace slag were found to be fast, reaching equilibrium in 20 min and following a pseudo-second-order rate equation. The adsorption behavior of PO(3-)(4) on blast furnace slag has been studied as a function of the solution agitation speed, pH, and temperature. Results have been analyzed by Freundlich, Langmuir, BET, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption isotherms. The mean energy of adsorption, 10.31 kJ mol(-1), was calculated from the D-R adsorption isotherm. The rate constants were calculated for 293, 298, 303, and 308 K using a pseudo-second-order rate equation and the activation energy (E(a)) was derived using the Arrhenius equation. Thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaH(0), DeltaS(0), and DeltaG(0) were calculated from the slope and intercept of linear plot of lnK(D) against 1/T. The DeltaH(0) and DeltaG(0) values of PO(3-)(4) adsorption on the blast furnace slag show endothermic heat of adsorption. But there is a negative free energy value, indicating that the process of PO(3-)(4) adsorption is favored at high temperatures.

  12. Ethanol co-administration moderates 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine effects on human physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, G.J.H.; Kramers, C.; Sweep, F.C.G.J.; Willemsen, J.J.; Touw, D.J.; Schoemaker, R.C.; Van Gerven, J.M.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verkes, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol is frequently used in combination with 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Both drugs affect cardiovascular function, hydration and temperature regulation, but may have partly opposing effects. The present study aims to assess the acute physiologic effects of (co-) administration of M

  13. Synthesis of 3,4-Dibenzyltetrahydrofuran Lignans (9,9′-Epoxylignanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Wähälä

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Different strategies for the racemic or enantiospecific total syntheses of plant and mammalian 3,4-dibenzyltetrahydrofuran lignans are reviewed and compared. The multi-step approaches have various key step strategies: Diels–Alder reactions, Stobbe condensations, Michael additions, alkylations, nitrile oxide cycloadditions, radical cyclisations, dianion and oxidative couplings.

  14. The leachability of carbon-14-labelled 3,4-benzopyrene from coal ash into aqueous systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besemer, A.C.; Kanij, J.

    1984-01-01

    The leachability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal ash into aqueous systems was studied. Carbon-14-labeled 3,4-Benzopyrene (BaP) was deposited on coal fly ash by adsorption from the liquid phase in quantities of about 10 ??g/g ash. After a thermal treatment in air at 120??C for 2 hours t

  15. Caesium europium(III) polyphosphate, CsEu(PO3)4

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhu; Wen-Dan Cheng; Hao Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Caesium europium polyphosphate, CsEu(PO3)4, was synthesized by a high-temperature solution reaction. Its structure is charaterized by a three-dimensional framework made up of double PO4 spiral chains and EuO8 and CsO11 polyhedra.

  16. Poly(3-buthyl-co-3,4-dibuthylthiophene)s: synthesis and electrochromic characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catellani, M. [Istituto di Chimica delle Macromolecole, CNR, via Bassini 15, 20133 Milano (Italy); Arbizzani, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica ``G. Ciamician``, Universita di Bologna, via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Mastragostino, M. [Dipartimento di Chimica ``G. Ciamician``, Universita di Bologna, via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Zanelli, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica ``G. Ciamician``, Universita di Bologna, via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    We have prepared a series of soluble, processable copolymers containing both 3-buthylthiophene and 3,4-dibuthylthiophene units in well defined percentages. The modification of the copolymer composition produces materials with various {pi}-electron conjugation length and with diverse electrochromic properties tested for applications in electrochromic devices. (orig.)

  17. Synthesis of novel pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidinone derivatives as cytotoxic inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameur Rahmouni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Various α-fonctionalized iminoethers 2 were easily prepared from ethyl 5-amino-3-substituted-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate 1. The reaction of iminoethers 2 with ammonia afforded 3-substitued-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidin-4(5H-ones 3 which were also synthesized by the addition of formamide to ethyl 5-amino-3-substituted-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate 1. The 5-amino-3-substitued-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4(5H-ones 4 were obtained from hydrazonolysis of iminoethers 2. Otherwise, the condensation of these intermediates 2 with a series of some primary amines and hydroxylamine led respectively, to the corresponding 3,5-disubstitued-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4(5H-ones 5 and the 3-substitued-5-hydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidin-4-(5H-ones 6. The synthesized compounds 1-6 were completely characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and HRMS. Some synthesized compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic effect using the Human cervical adenocarcinoma Hela cell line.

  18. Footballers' movement behaviour during 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-a-side small-sided games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguiar, Marco; Goncalves, Bruno; Botelho, Goreti; Lemmink, Koen; Sampaio, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare footballers' movement behaviour during 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-a-side small-sided games. Ten young professional players (age=18.0 +/- 0.67years) participated in 3 bouts of each small-sided games for 6min with 1min of active rest between bouts. Positional data were colle

  19. Schisanlactone G,a new 3,4-seco-lanostane triterpenoid from Schisandra sphenanthera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Ren; Guo Jun Luo; Hong Mei Li; Zhao Yuan Wu; Hai Zhou Li; Rong Tao Li

    2009-01-01

    A new 3,4-seco-lanostane triterpenoid,schisanlactone G (1),was isolated from the fruits of Schisandra sphenanthera.Its structure was established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis.2009 Rong Tao Li.Published by Elsevier B.V.on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society.All fights reserved.

  20. A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nupur Jaiswal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Heterocyclic compounds possess diverse biological properties that has lead to intense study and research of these compounds. One of these compounds is oxadiazole which has been found to exhibit various pharmacological activities. Oxadiazole is a five membered heterocyclic ring which is a versatile lead compound for designing potent bioactive agents. It exists in four isomeric forms. Out of its four isomers 1, 3, 4-oxadizole exhibited a wide range of biological activities which includes antibacterial, antitubercular, anticonvulsant, hypoglycemic, antiallergic, enzyme inhibitor, vasodialatory, antifungal, cytotoxic, antiinflammatory, analgesic, hypolipidemic, anticancer, insecticidal, ulcerogenic activities etc. The 1,3,4-Oxadiazole have shown significant antimicrobial activity against a wide variety of microorganisms like fungi, Gram +ve strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus lintus and Gram –ve strains such as Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Oxadiazole derivatives and investigation of their chemical and biological behavior have gained more importance in recent decades for biological, medical and agricultural reasons. A large number of drugs used clinically have oxadiazole ring as a structural building block. The capacity of 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole nucleus to undergo variety of chemical reactions including electrophillic substitution, nucleophilic substitution, thermal and photochemical which make it medicinal backbone on which a number of potential molecules can be constructed. Present review is flooded with reports of antimicrobial activity of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives published in various journals.

  1. Increased oxytocin concentrations and prosocial feelings in humans after ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, G J H; Sweep, F C G J; van der Steen, R; Hermsen, R; Donders, A R T; Touw, D J; van Gerven, J M A; Buitelaar, J K; Verkes, R J

    2009-01-01

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or "ecstasy") is a recreationally used drug with remarkable and characteristic prosocial effects. In spite of abundant attention in the scientific literature, the mechanism of its prosocial effects has not been elucidated in humans. Recently, research in anima

  2. Increased oxytocin concentrations and prosocial feelings in humans after ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) administration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, G.J.H.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Steen, R. van der; Hermsen, R.; Donders, A.R.T.; Touw, D.J.; Gerven, J.M. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verkes, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or "ecstasy") is a recreationally used drug with remarkable and characteristic prosocial effects. In spite of abundant attention in the scientific literature, the mechanism of its prosocial effects has not been elucidated in humans. Recently, research in anima

  3. A mechanistic insight into 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("ecstasy")-mediated hepatotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antolino-Lobo, I.; Meulenbelt, J.; van den Berg, M.; van Duursen, M.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is a popular drug of abuse among young people with stimulant and hallucinogenic properties. The drug is generally thought to be safe among consumers due to its low-mortality rates. However, MDMA-adverse effects can occur and the risks are not clear

  4. 4-[5-(2-Methoxyphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]benzohydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Taha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 4-(5-(2-Methoxyphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylbenzohydrazide (5 was synthesized by three steps. The synthesis started with 2-methoxybenzohydrazide to form hydrazone (3 which was then cyclized to oxadiazole (4 and finally, treatment of oxadiazole (4 with hydrazine hydrate afforded the final product (5.

  5. Carotenoid 3',4'-desaturase is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis in the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bing; Sun, Zongtao; Xu, Zhenjian; Shen, Shaochuan; Wang, Hu; Hua, Yuejin

    2008-12-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans strain R1 synthesizes deinoxanthin, a unique carotenoid product, which contributes to cell resistance following various stresses. The biosynthetic pathway of deinoxanthin is unclear, although several enzymes are presumed to be involved. The gene (dr2250) predicted by gene homologue analysis to encode carotenoid 3',4'-desaturase (CrtD) was deleted to investigate its function. A mutant deficient in the gene homologue of crtLm (dr0801) was also constructed to verify the catalytic function of the gene product in the native host. Carotenoid analysis of the resultant mutants verified that DR2250 encodes carotenoid 3',4'-desaturase, which catalyses the C-3',4'-desaturation of the monocyclic precursor of deinoxanthin but not acyclic carotenoids. Mutation of the gene homologue of crtLm (dr0801) resulted in accumulation of lycopene, confirming that it encodes the lycopene cyclase in the native host. The lack of CrtD decreased the antioxidant capacity of the mutant deficient in dr2250 compared with the wild-type, indicating that the C-3',4'-desaturation step contributes to the antioxidant capacity of deinoxanthin in D. radiodurans.

  6. The leachability of carbon-14-labelled 3,4-benzopyrene from coal ash into aqueous systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besemer, A.C.; Kanij, J.

    1984-01-01

    The leachability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal ash into aqueous systems was studied. Carbon-14-labeled 3,4-Benzopyrene (BaP) was deposited on coal fly ash by adsorption from the liquid phase in quantities of about 10 ??g/g ash. After a thermal treatment in air at 120??C for 2 hours

  7. Polar alicyclic rings: synthesis and structure of all cis-1,2,3,4-tetrafluorocyclopentane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zeguo; Al-Maharik, Nawaf; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Bühl, Michael; O'Hagan, David

    2016-04-14

    The all-cis isomer of 1,2,3,4-tetrafluorocyclopentane is prepared and characterised by NMR and X-ray crystallography and the experimental structure compared with theory. The structure has a similarly high polarity to all-cis tetrafluorocyclohexanes despite the increased conformational flexibility of a cyclopentane.

  8. Pharmacological Studies of p, N-(3, 4-Methylenedioxy phenyl Benzoic Acid (RRL-1364 - Part-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahanukar Sharadini

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed pharmacological investigations of p-N-(3, 4-methylene dioxy phenyl benzoic acid revealed marked hypotensive action which was dose dependent and most marked in cats; it was absent in rats. Atropine could block this hypotensive action, thus suggest-ing cholinomimetic mechanism. Further studies indicated that the hypotension produced was central and possibly medullary in origin.

  9. Neurotoxic thioether adducts of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine identified in human urine after ecstasy ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Ximena; O'Mathúna, Brian; Pizarro, Nieves; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Khymenets, Olha; Almeida, Bruno; Pellegrini, Manuela; Pichini, Simona; Lau, Serrine S; Monks, Terrence J; Farré, Magí; Pascual, Jose Antonio; Joglar, Jesús; de la Torre, Rafael

    2009-07-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) is a widely misused synthetic amphetamine derivative and a serotonergic neurotoxicant in animal models and possibly humans. The underlying mechanism of neurotoxicity involves the formation of reactive oxygen species although their source remains unclear. It has been postulated that MDMA-induced neurotoxicity is mediated via the formation of bioreactive metabolites. In particular, the primary catechol metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA) and 3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine (HHA), subsequently cause the formation of glutathione and N-acetylcysteine conjugates, which retain the ability to redox cycle and are serotonergic neurotoxicants in rats. Although the presence of such metabolites has been recently demonstrated in rat brain microdialysate, their formation in humans has not been reported. The present study describes the detection of 5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (N-Ac-5-Cys-HHMA) and 5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine (N-Ac-5-Cys-HHA) in human urine of 15 recreational users of MDMA (1.5 mg/kg) in a controlled setting. The results reveal that in the first 4 h after MDMA ingestion approximately 0.002% of the administered dose was recovered as thioether adducts. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP2D6 and catechol-O-methyltransferase expression, the combination of which are major determinants of steady-state levels of HHMA and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine, probably explain the interindividual variability seen in the recovery of N-Ac-5-Cys-HHMA and N-Ac-5-Cys-HHA. In summary, the formation of neurotoxic thioether adducts of MDMA has been demonstrated for the first time in humans. The findings lend weight to the hypothesis that the bioactivation of MDMA to neurotoxic metabolites is a relevant pathway to neurotoxicity in humans.

  10. Study of refining process of 3, 4-dichloroaniline%3,4-二氯苯胺精制工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洋; 李玉刚; 张兵; 程华农

    2013-01-01

    Through the thermostability experiment of 3, 4-dichloroaniline, which is the product of catalytic hydrogenation reaction, it is found that the amine hydrochloride of 3,4-dichloroaniline will not be pyrolyzed to HCl, and no corrosion to distillation equipment. Through the experiments of inhibitor degradation and thermostability of product, it is found that the rectification tower kettle temperature must be controlled under 190℃so that the inhibitor decomposion and the chromaticity of product becoming bigger could be avoided effectively. Using ASPEN to simulate and analyze the separation technology which could produce 3, 4-dichloroaniline 5000 t per year, the separation sequence is found, that remove methyl alcohol firstly, then the water and the light constituent, then remove the tar lastly, and get the product. It is operated under atmospheric pressure in the methyl alcohol removal tower, the purity of methyl alcohol in the supertower is 99.9%, but the mass fraction of methyl alcohol in bottom is 10 mg.l-1. The theoretical plates number is 26, feed at the 15 plate, and the quantity of reflux is 3000 kg.h-1. It is also operated under atmospheric pressure in the light constituent removal tower, the bottom temperature is 175 ℃, and the mass fraction of phenylamine in bottom is 10 mg.l-1. The theoretical plates number is 26, feed at the 7 plate, and the quantity of reflux is 1590 kg.h-1. It is forced to circulate in the bottom tower of tar, the product is side-draw, and the mass fraction could reach to 100%, and the quantity of reflux is 1500 kg.h-1, and feed at the 30 plate. The yield of product is 99.15%in the whole separation process.%通过催化加氢反应产物3,4-二氯苯胺的热稳定性实验,得出产物中的胺基盐酸盐不会受热分解成 HCl,对精馏设备不会产生腐蚀。通过抑制剂降解实验和产品热稳定性实验得出精馏塔釜温度须控制在190℃以下,可以有效避免抑制剂分解

  11. Estrogen receptor (α and β) but not androgen receptor expression is correlated with recurrence, progression and survival in post prostatectomy T3N0M0 locally advanced prostate cancer in an urban Greek population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgios Megas; Michael Chrisofos; Ioannis Anastasiou; Aida Tsitlidou; Theodosia Choreftaki; Charalampos Deliveliotis

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of estrogen receptors (ER(α) and ER(β)) and androgen receptors (ARs) as prognostic factors for biochemical recurrence, disease progression and survival in patients with pT3N0M0 prostate cancer (PCa) in an urban Greek population. A total of 100 consecutive patients with pT3N0M0 PCa treated with radical prostatectomy participated in the study. The mean age and follow‑up were 64.2 and 6 years, respectively. The HSCORE was used for semi‑quantitative analysis of the immunoreactivity of the receptors. The prognostic value of the ER(α) and ER(β) and AR was assessed in terms of recurrence, progression, and survival. AR expression was not associated with any of the above parameters; however, both ERs correlated with the prognosis. A univariate Cox regression analysis showed that ER(α) positive staining was significantly associated with a greater hazard for all outcomes. Increased ER(β) staining was significantly associated with a lower hazard for all outcomes in the univariate analysis. When both ER HSCORES were used for the analysis, it was found that patients with high ER(α) or low ER(β) HSCORES compared with patients with negatively stained ER(α) and >1.7 hSCORE ER(β) had 6.03, 10.93, and 10.53 times greater hazard for biochemical disease recurrence, progression of disease and death, respectively. Multiple Cox proportional hazard analyses showed that the age, preoperative prostate specific antigen, Gleason score and ERs were independent predictors of all outcomes. ER expression is an important prognosticator after radical prostatectomy in patients with pT3N0M0 PCa. By contrast, AR expression has limited prognostic value.

  12. Investigation of physicochemical properties and catalytic activity of nanostructured Ce0.7M0.3O2− (M = Mn, Fe, Co) solid solutions for CO oxidation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Venkataswamy; D Jampaiah; C U Aniz; Benjaram M Reddy

    2015-08-01

    In this work, nanosized Ce0.7M0.3O2− (M = Mn, Fe, Co) solid solutions were prepared by a facile coprecipitation method and evaluated for CO oxidation. The physicochemical properties of the synthesized samples were investigated by various characterization techniques, namely, XRD, ICP-OES, BET surface area, SEM-EDX, TEM and HRTEM, Raman, XPS, and H2 -TPR. XRD studies confirmed the formation of nanocrystalline single phase Ce0.7M0.3O2− solid solutions. ICP-OES analysis confirmed actual amount of metal loadings in the respective catalysts. The BET surface area of Ce0.7M0.3O2− samples significantly enhanced after the incorporation of dopants. TEM studies confirmed nanosized nature of the samples and the average particle sizes of Ce0.7M0.3O2− were found to be in the range of ~8–16 nm. Raman studies indicated that the incorporation of dopant ions into the CeO2 lattice promote the formation of more oxygen vacancies. The existence of oxygen vacancies and different oxidation states (Ce3+/Ce4+ and Mn2+/Mn3+, Fe2+/ Fe3+, and Co2+/Co3+) in the doped CeO2 samples were further confirmed from XPS investigation. TPR measurements revealed an enhanced reducibility of ceria after the incorporation of dopants. The catalytic activity results indicated that the doped CeO2 samples show excellent CO oxidation activity and the order of activity was found to be Ce0.7Mn0.3O2− > Ce0.7Fe0.3O2− > Ce0.7Co0.3O2− > CeO2. The superior CO oxidation performance of CeO2-MnOx has been attributed to a unique Ce-Mn synergistic interaction, which facilitates materials with promoted redox properties and improved oxidation activity.

  13. Reinforcing Effects of Binary Mixtures of Common Bath Salt Constituents: Studies with 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), 3,4-Methylenedioxymethcathinone (Methylone), and Caffeine in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Brenda M; Galindo, Kayla I; Mesmin, Melson P; Rice, Kenner C; Collins, Gregory T

    2017-07-05

    'Bath salts' use is associated with high rates of abuse, toxicity, and death. bath salt preparations often contain mixtures of drugs including multiple synthetic cathinones (eg, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) or 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone)) or synthetic cathinones and caffeine; however, little is known about whether interactions among bath salt constituents contribute to the abuse-related effects of bath salts preparations. This study used male Sprague-Dawley rats responding under a progressive ratio schedule to quantify the reinforcing effectiveness of MDPV, methylone, and caffeine, administered alone and as binary mixtures (n=12 per mixture). Each mixture was evaluated at four ratios (10 : 1, 3 : 1, 1 : 1, and 1 : 3) relative to the mean ED50 for each drug alone. Dose-addition analyses were used to determine the predicted, additive effect for each dose pair within each drug mixture. MDPV, methylone, and caffeine maintained responding in a dose-dependent manner, with MDPV being the most potent and effective, and caffeine being the least potent and effective of the three bath salts constituents. High levels of responding were also maintained by each of the bath salts mixtures. Although the nature of the interactions tended toward additivity for most bath salts mixtures, supra-additive (3 : 1 MDPV : caffeine, and 3 : 1 and 1 : 1 methylone : caffeine) and sub-additive (3 : 1, 1 : 1, and 1 : 3 MDPV : methylone) interactions were also observed. Together, these findings demonstrate that the composition of bath salts preparations can have an impact on both their reinforcing potency and effectiveness, and suggest that such interactions among constituent drugs could contribute to the patterns of use and effects reported by human bath salts users.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 2 August 2017; doi:10.1038/npp.2017.141.

  14. Study on the electrical degradation of AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMTs induced by residual stress of SiNx passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhiyuan; Du, Jiangfeng; Liu, Yong; Xin, Qi; Liu, Yang; Yu, Qi

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we report a new phenomenon in C-V measurement of different gate length MIS-HEMTs, which can be associated with traps character of the AlGaN/GaN interface. The analysis of DC measurement, frequency dependent capacitance-voltage measurements and simulation show that the stress from passivation layer may induce a decrease of drain output current Ids, an increase of on-resistance, serious nonlinearity of transconductance gm, and a new peak of C-V curve. The value of the peak is reduced to zero while the gate length and measure frequency are increasing to 21 μm and 1 MHz, respectively. By using conductance method, the SiNx/GaN interface traps with energy level of EC-0.42 eV to EC-0.45 eV and density of 3.2 × 1012 ∼ 5.0 × 1012 eV-1 cm-2 is obtained after passivation. According to the experimental and simulation results, formation of the acceptor-like traps with concentration of 3 × 1011 cm-2 and energy level of EC-0.37 eV under the gate on AlGaN barrier side of AlGaN/GaN interface is the main reason for the degradation after the passivation. He is currently an Associate Professor with State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Microelectronics and Solid-State Electronics, UESTC. He is the author of over 30 peer-reviewed journal papers and more than 20 conference papers. He has also hold over 20 patents. His research interests include Gallium Nitride based high-voltage power switching devices, microwave and millimeter-wave power devices and integrated technologies. Dr. Yu was a recipient of the prestigious Award of Science and Technology of China

  15. Uncertainty Quantification of Calculated Temperatures for the AGR 3/4 Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Binh Thi-Cam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) irradiation experiments are being conducted within the Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The main objectives of the fuel experimental campaign are to provide the necessary data on fuel performance to support fuel process development, qualify a fuel design and fabrication process for normal operation and accident conditions, and support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes (PLN 3636, “Technical Program Plan for INL Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office/Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program”). The AGR 3/4 test was inserted in the Northeast Flux Trap position in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) core at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in December 2011 and successfully completed irradiation in mid-April 2014, resulting in irradiation of the tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel for 369.1 effective full-power days (EFPDs) during approximately 2.4 calendar years. The AGR 3/4 data, including the irradiation data and calculated results, were qualified and stored in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). To support the U.S. TRISO fuel performance assessment and to provide data for validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, the daily as run thermal analysis has been performed separately on each of twelve AGR 3/4 capsules for the entire irradiation as discussed in ECAR-2807, “AGR 3/4 Daily As Run Thermal Analyses”. The ABAQUS code’s finite element-based thermal model predicts the daily average volume average (VA) fuel temperature (FT), peak FT, and graphite matrix, sleeve, and sink temperature in each capsule. The JMOCUP simulation codes were also created to perform depletion calculations for the AGR 3/4 experiment (ECAR-2753, “JMOCUP As-Run Daily Physics Depletion Calculation for the AGR 3/4 TRISO Particle Experiment in ATR

  16. False-positive amphetamine/ecstasy (MDMA/3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) (CEDIA) and ecstasy (MDMA/3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) (DRI) test results with fenofibrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Yusuf Cem; Erol, Almla; Karadaş, Barş

    2012-10-01

    This case report describes a false-positive amphetamine/ecstasy [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] and ecstasy (MDMA) screen after therapeutic use of antihyperlipidemic drug, fenofibrate. A 60-year-old male patient was admitted to inpatient psychiatry unit with the diagnosis of alcohol dependency. He was prescribed diazepam 30 mg/day, thiamine 300 mg/day, and naltrexone 50 mg/day. He had also been using fenofibrate 267 mg/day for 3 years for hyperlipidemia and trazodone 100 mg/day for 5 months for insomnia. On routine, urine drugs-of-abuse screening amphetamine/MDMA (CEDIA) test was positive for 4 different occasions and MDMA (DRI) test was positive on 5 different occasions. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry confirmation of the first positive 3 samples were negative for amphetamine and MDMA. After discontinuation of fenofibrate, amphetamine/MDMA, and MDMA immunoassay results turned out to be negative. Caution should be given to interpretation of amphetamine/MDMA (CEDIA) and MDMA (DRI) tests in patients taking fenofibrate. Specific confirmation with a suitable method should be used to prevent erroneous interpretations.

  17. Synthesis of New [1,2,4]Triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazines and Study of Their Anti-Candidal and Cytotoxic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashooq Ahmad Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New triazolothiadiazine derivatives 5a–h were synthesized from 4-amino-3-(4-pyridyl-5-mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazole (3 with substituted aryl hydrazonoyl chlorides 4a–h. The compounds were tested in vitro against eleven Candida species and compared with standard drug ketoconazole. Among these compounds, the compounds bearing p-chlorophenyl 5e, p-methoxyphenyl 5c, phenyl 5a, and p-sulphonamidophenyl 5g substituents on triazolothiadiazine system were found to be the most effective derivatives against Candida species. Compound 5e was the most effective compound against C. parapsilosis (ATCC 22019, C. albicans (ATCC 66027, C. specie [blood] 12810, and C. specie [urine] 300 with MIC value of 6.25 μg/mL, whereas ketoconazole exhibits the inhibitory activity with MIC value of 3–30 μg/mL against all tested strains. It was clear that there is a positive correlation between anti-Candidal activity and p-chlorophenyl substitution on triazolothiadiazine ring. All the synthesized compounds were also investigated for their potential cytotoxicity on noncancer cell line (MCF-12 using WST-1 assay. Three compounds 5d, 5a, and 5h were found to have the same IC50 value as that of standard drug ketoconazole against noncancer cell line MCF-12 (IC50 ≥ 1.0 × 105 μg/mL.

  18. Immediate versus deferred chemotherapy after radical cystectomy in patients with pT3-pT4 or N+ M0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (EORTC 30994): an intergroup, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sternberg, Cora N; Skoneczna, Iwona; Kerst, J Martijn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder have poor survival after cystectomy. The EORTC 30994 trial aimed to compare immediate versus deferred cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy after radical cystectomy in patients with pT3-pT4 or N+ M0 urothelial carcin...... patient data meta-analysis and biomarker research are needed to further elucidate the potential for survival benefit in subgroups of patients. FUNDING: Lilly, Canadian Cancer Society Research.......BACKGROUND: Patients with muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder have poor survival after cystectomy. The EORTC 30994 trial aimed to compare immediate versus deferred cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy after radical cystectomy in patients with pT3-pT4 or N+ M0 urothelial......, doxorubicin, and cisplatin [high-dose MVAC], or MVAC) or six cycles of deferred chemotherapy at relapse, with stratification for institution, pT category, and lymph node status according to the number of nodes dissected. Neither patients nor investigators were masked. Overall survival was the primary endpoint...

  19. D2 lymphadenectomy alone or with No.14v lymph lode dissection for curable distal gastric cancer with clinical stage t4n+m0:a randomized and multicenter phase iii study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Objective:The study is a prospective, open, randomized multicenter phase III clinical trial with two arms that aims to elucidate superiority of D2 plus No.14v lymph node dissection in comparison with standard D2 surgery in patients with curable distal gastric cancer staged cT4N+M0. hTe primary endpoint is overall survival secondary endpoint is disease-free survival. Each treatment arm includes 255 patients, providing an expected hazard ratio of 0.6.Methods:A prospective, open, randomized multicenter phase III clinical trial was designed to elucidate superiority of D2 plus No.14v lymph node dissection in improving overall survival with regard to standard D2 surgery in patients with curable distal gastric cancer staged cT4N+M0. hTe study is a multi-institutional prospective randomized controlled trial, with participating institutions including 20 specialized centers. Treatment methodsEnrolled patients are randomized to 14v- (arm A) or to 14v + (arm B).Results:End points the primary endpoint is overall survival secondary endpoint is disease-free survival.Conclusion:Results are unifnished.

  20. Hexahydro-Pyrrolo[1',2',5':3,4,5]Thiazolo[3,4-c]Oxazol-1-ones: New Chiral Tricyclic L-Cysteine and D-Penicillamine Derivatives.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    A simple and efficient approach to the synthesis of the new chiral hexahydropyrrolo [1',2',5':3,4,5]thiazolo[3,4-c]oxazol-1-one ring system is reported. Infrared spectroscopy, quantum-chemical calculations and X-ray analysis allowed the stereochemistry assignment of (2aS,4aR,6aR)-2a,3,4,4a,6,6ahexahydropyrrolo-[ 1',2',5':3,4,5]thiazolo[3,4-c]oxazol-1-one. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]. Copyright of Letters in Organic Chemistry is the property of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. and its content ma...

  1. PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is a regulator of myosin-X localization and filopodia formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plantard, Laure; Arjonen, Antti; Lock, John G

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] is a key regulator of cell signaling that acts by recruiting proteins to the cell membrane, such as at the leading edge during cell migration. Here, we show that PtdIns (3,4,5)P3 plays a central role in filopodia formation via the bindi...

  2. 17 CFR 3.4 - Registration in one capacity not included in registration in any other capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Registration in one capacity not included in registration in any other capacity. 3.4 Section 3.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGISTRATION Registration § 3.4 Registration in one capacity...

  3. Sonochemical synthesis of novel pyrano[3,4-e][1,3]oxazines: A green protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Tamer S; Al-Bogami, Abdullah S; Mekky, Ahmed E M; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z

    2017-05-01

    The atom-efficient and green protocol for formation of pyrano[3,4-e][1,3]oxazines utilizing dimethyl carbonate under ultrasound irradiation in a presence of KF/basic alumina was reported. We provide a novel series of pyrano[3,4-e][1,3]oxazine derivatives interesting for biological screening tests. In general, it was found that ultrasound irradiations enable the reactions to occur which could not be carried out under silent conditions. These remarkable effects appeared in sonicated reactions can be reasonably interpreted in terms of acoustic cavitation phenomenon. Structures of the products were established on analytical and spectral data. This protocol offers several advantages attain many principles of green chemistry including, save energy, atom economy, clean reactions, inexpensive green reagent and use catalysts rather than stoichiometric reagents.

  4. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activities of Novel Imidazo[2,1-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal F. M. Atta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 2-Amino-5-(2-aryl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl-1,3,4-thiadiazoles 2-4 have been synthesized by the reaction of 2-aryl-2H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylic acids 1 with thiosemicarbazide. Their reaction with phenacyl (p-substituted phenacyl bromides led to formation of the respective 6-aryl-2-(2-aryl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-ylimidazo[2,1-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazoles 5. Reactivity of the latter fused ring towards reaction with different electrophilic reagents afforded the corresponding 5-substituted derivatives 6-8. The structure of the above compounds was confirmed from their spectral characteristics. Some of these compounds were found to possess slight to moderate activity against the microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli.

  5. Copper 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis-(3,4-dibenzyloxyphenylporphyrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dalila Mathews

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The copper complex of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(3,4-dibenzyloxyphenylporphyrin (CuTDBOPP was synthesized and characterized with electronic absorption spectroscopy and ESI high-resolution spectrometry. In the electronic spectrum, there was a shift in the Soret band from 424 nm to 420 nm that indicated that the insertion of the metal ion was successful. Additionally, the number of Q bands decreased from four peaks to a single peak at 541 nm. The molar absorptivity of the Soret and Q band are 3.4 × 105 cm−1·M−1 and 1.8 × 105 cm−1·M−1, respectively. The ESI HRMS was in excellent agreement with simulated isotopic distribution spectra. CuTDBOPP was incorporated into a series of Gratzel cells where the open current voltage was recorded.

  6. Synthesis, antiproliferative activities, and computational evaluation of novel isocoumarin and 3,4-dihydroisocoumarin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Keller G; de Freitas, Rossimiriam P; Ruiz, Ana L T G; Fiorito, Giovanna F; de Carvalho, João E; da Cunha, Elaine F F; Ramalho, Teodorico C; Alves, Rosemeire B

    2016-03-23

    A series of novel isocoumarin derivatives were synthesized using Castro-Stephens cross-coupling. Moreover, novel 3,4-dihydroisocoumarin derivatives were obtained by catalytic hydrogenation of the corresponding isocoumarin precursors. The antiproliferative activity of all compounds was evaluated in vitro in different tumor cells. Furthermore, docking calculations were performed for the kallikrein 5 (KLK5) active site to predict the possible mechanism of action of this series of compounds. Theoretical findings indicate that the 3,4-dihydroisocoumarin derivative 10a forms hydrogen bonds with Ser190 and Gln192 residues of KLK5. This derivative was the most active compound in the series with potent antiproliferative activity and high selectivity index (SI > 378.79) against breast cancer cells (MCF-7, GI50 = 0.66 μg mL(-1)). This compound represents a promising matrix for developing new antiproliferative agents.

  7. Preparation of gelatin-assisted polypyrrole-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Eun Jin; Male, Umashankar; Huh, Do Sung [Dept.of Chemistry and Nanosystem Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Conductive polymer composite was synthesized by the polymerization of pyrrole with 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene using ammonium persulfate as an oxidant with different concentrations of gelatin dispersed in aqueous medium along with the polymerization. Differently from pure polypyrrole–poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PPy–PEDOT) copolymer, the gelatin-assisted composites showed good solubility in aqueous media. The prepared PPy–PEDOT/gelatin composites were identified with Fourier-transform infrared, UV–visible spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Morphological analysis and temperature-dependent direct current conductivity of PPy–PEDOT/gelatin composites were carried out. Obtained results revealed that added gelatin greatly increased conductivity due to the improved mobility of charge carriers.

  8. Application of stochastic variational method to 3-4 body systems with realistic nuclear force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohbayashi, Yoshihide [Niigata Univ. (Japan); Varga, K.; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki

    1997-05-01

    SVM (stochastic variational method) was applied to simulate triton and alpha with realistic nuclear force such as Reid V8 (RV8), Argonne V6, V8 (AV6 and aV8). 3-4 body systems were solved by about 300-400 dimensions and the results were agreed with the most accurate solution. Convergence of energy of 3-4 body systems was rapid by using AV6 and AV8 potential, but it was slow by RV8 with strong repulsive force core. The energy values using SVM and GFMC were almost same. Number of dimension to convert the energy of triton was decreased by refinement. (S.Y.)

  9. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Herbicidal Activities of 2-Cyanoacrylates Containing 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Moieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tingting; Miao Wenke; Wu Shanshan; Bing Guifang; Zhang Xin; Qin Zhenfang; Yu Haibo; Qin Xue; Fang Jianxin

    2011-01-01

    Three series of novel 2-cyanoacrylates 7a-7f, 9a-9f, 10a-10f containing 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring moieties were synthesized as herbicidal inhibitors of photosystem Ⅱ (PS Ⅱ) electron transportation. Their structures were clearly verified by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analysis (or HRMS analysis) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Bioassay showed that a suitable group at the 3-position of acrylates was essential for high herbicidal activ-ity. In particular, compound 7e showed the best herbicidal activities and gave 100% inhibitory activity against rape and amaranth pigweed at a dose of 1.5 kg/ha. Introduction of substituent with higher polarity such as sulfinyl or sulfonyl to the 5-position of 1,3,4-thiadiazole decreased herbicidal activities.

  10. SYNTHESIS OF SOLUBLE POLY(3,4-DIHYDROXY-o-TOLYLENE): REDOX POLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sa(a)d Moulay; Fatima M'zyène

    2006-01-01

    Conventional chloromethylation, paraformaldehyde/hydrogen chloride in acetic acid medium, was applied to 1,2-dimethoxybenzene. Chloroform-soluble poly(3,4-dimethoxy-o-tolylene) was obtained with an intrinsic viscosity of 0.034 dL g-1. The polymer was evaluated as a condensation redox polymer precursor formed by a Friedel-Crafts reaction.Cleavage of the methoxy groups present in this polymer resulted in poly(3,4-dihydroxy-o-tolylene) which manifested a great air-oxidation resistance. The redox property of the latter polymer was found to be 1017 mV by potentiometric titration with 0.05 N ceric ammonium nitrate at 25℃. This midpotential was compared to that of catechol, a monomeric analogue, under the same titration conditions.

  11. New 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Based Photosensitizers for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Mehmood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 1,3,4-Oxadiazole based photosensitizers with biphenyl, naphthalene, anthracene, and triphenylamine as the electron-donating moiety were synthesized for solar cell applications. In these photosensitizers, cyano groups were introduced as the electron acceptor and the anchor group because of their high electron-withdrawing ability and strong bonding to the semiconductor. Oxadiazole isomers were used as the π-conjugation system, which bridges the donor-acceptor systems. The electrochemical and optical properties of the sensitizers were investigated both in their native form and upon incorporation into dye sensitized solar cells. The results of UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements, and photocurrent voltage characteristics indicate that 1,3,4-oxadiazole pi-spacer with the anthracene moiety has the highest efficiency of 2.58%. Density functional theory was employed to optimize the structures of the sensitizers and the TiO2 cluster.

  12. A Convenient Synthesis of Benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrazine-1,3-dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-wei; ZHAO Xiu-xiu; LIN Zhi-hui; PANG Si-ping; SUN Cheng-hui; LI Sheng-hua

    2013-01-01

    Benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrazine-1,3-dioxide was synthesized from 2-bromonitrobenzene,which is converted to 2-bromo-1-( tert-butyl-NNO-azoxy)benzene by a three-step standem reaction. Amination of 2-bromo-1-( tert-butyl-NNO-azoxy)benzene with aqueous ammonia using Cu2 O as the catalyst yielded 2-amino-1-(tert-butyl-NNO-azoxy)benzene,that was cyclized with nitration agents N2O5 or NO2BF4 to give benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrazine-1,3-dioxide. A mild and convenient route was developed. Moreover,the target compound was identified by 1 H NMR,13 C NMR,IR, MS-EI and elemental analysis.

  13. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel Sulfone Derivatives Containing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoguo Tong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of new sulfone compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moieties were synthesized. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic data (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR and elemental analyses. Antifungal tests indicated that all the title compounds exhibited good antifungal activities against eight kinds of plant pathogenic fungi, and some showed superiority over the commercial fungicide hymexazol. Among them, compounds 5d, 5e, 5f, and 5i showed prominent activity against B. cinerea, with determined EC50 values of 5.21 μg/mL, 8.25 µg/mL, 8.03 µg/mL, and 21.00 µg/mL, respectively. The present work demonstrates that sulfone derivatives such as 5d containing a 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety can be used as possible lead compounds for the development of potential agrochemicals.

  14. Superhydrophobic conducting polymers based on hydrocarbon poly(3,4-ethylenedioxyselenophene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunand, Oceane; Darmanin, Thierry; Guittard, Frederic

    2013-09-16

    We report the first studied example of wettability of conducting polymers based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxyselenophene). Hydrocarbon 3,4-ethylenedioxyselenophene (C2H5 to C12H25) derivatives are synthesized and electropolymerized in propylene carbonate using lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4) and lithium bistrifluoromethanesulfonimidate (LiTf2N) as electrolyte. Highly structured films are obtained from a C8H17 chain independent of the electrolyte used. Superhydrophobic properties with high adhesion are specifically reached if using a C12H25 chain and LiBF4. The surface morphology is porous and highly structured as the films consist of assemblies of nanofibrils. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A tomato enzyme catalyzing the phosphorylation of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Stefan; Kis, Klaus; Bacher, Adelbert; Rohdich, Felix

    2002-05-01

    A riboflavin biosynthesis ribB mutant of Escherichia coli deficient of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase was complemented with a cDNA library from Lycopersicon esculentum. The complementing gene was isolated and expressed in E. coli. The resulting protein was shown to specify a 62 kDa protein which phosphorylates dihydroxyacetone, both enantiomers of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone, and several other aldoses and ketoses. Sequence analysis revealed homology to dihydroacetone kinases (dak) genes from plants, animals, fungi and some eubacteria. Genes with similarity to the 5' part of the dak gene from tomato were found in many other eubacteria. The physiological role of the dak gene is still incompletely known.

  16. Characterization of solvated electrons in hydrogen cyanide clusters: (HCN)n- (n=3, 4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Li, Ying; Li, Zhuo; Chen, Wei; Li, Zhi-Ru; Sun, Chia-Chung

    2006-02-01

    Theoretical studies of the solvated electrons (HCN)n- (n =3, 4) reveal a variety of electron trapping possibilities in the (HCN)n (n =3, 4) clusters. Two isomers for (HCN)3- and four isomers for (HCN)4- are obtained at the MP2/aug -cc-pVDZ+dBF (diffusive bond functions) level of theory. In view of vertical electron detachment energies (VDEs) at the CCSD(T) level, the excess electron always "prefers" locating in the center of the system, i.e., the isomer with higher coordination number shows larger VDE value. However, the most stable isomers of the solvated electron state (HCN)3- and (HCN)4- are found to be the linear C∞ν and D∞h structures, respectively, but not the fullyl symmetric structures which have the largest VDE values.

  17. The causality between the rapid rotation of a sunspot and an X3.4 flare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Li Yan; Zhong-Quan Qu; Cheng-Lin Xu; Zhi-Ke Xue; De-Fang Kong

    2009-01-01

    Using multi-wavelength data of Hinode, the rapid rotation of a sunspot in ac-tive region NOAA 10930 is studied in detail. We found extraordinary counterclockwise rotation of the sunspot with positive polarity before an X3.4 flare. From a series of vector magnetograms, it is found that magnetic force lines are highly sheared along the neu-tral line accompanying the sunspot rotation. Furthermore, it is also found that sheared loops and an inverse S-shaped magnetic loop in the corona formed gradually after the sunspot rotation. The X3.4 flare can be reasonably regarded as a result of this movement. A detailed analysis provides evidence that sunspot rotation leads to magnetic field linestwisting in the photosphere. The twist is then transported into the corona and triggers flares.

  18. An infrared integrated optic astronomical beam combiner for stellar interferometry at 3-4 microns

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiao, Hsien-kai; Monnier, John D; Berger, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Integrated-optic, astronomical, two-beam and three-beam, interferometric combiners have been designed and fabricated for operation in the L band (3 - 4 microns) for the first time. The devices have been realized in titanium-indiffused, x-cut lithium niobate substrates, and on-chip electro-optic fringe scanning has been demonstrated. White light fringes were produced in the laboratory using the two-beam combiner integrated with an on-chip Y-splitter.

  19. [Determination of 3, 4-benzopyrene in spiruline algae produced and treated by various procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bories, G; Tulliez, J

    1975-01-01

    Spirulina algae grow in highly salted natural lakes. Artificial cultivation in tanks with addition of carbon dioxide (natural gas, burned gases) has been studied in order to improve the biosynthesis. A possible 3, 4-benzopyrene (BaP) contamination must be then considered. Several BaP determinations have been performed in batches of algae from bath origins, prepared following different processes (filtration, spray, cylinder drying). BaP contents are very low (2 to 3 ppb) and comparable between batches.

  20. Poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene as an entrapment support for amperometric enzyme sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano, Silvia; Tran-Minh, Canh; Piro, Benoît; Anh Dang, Lan; Chau Pham, Minh; Vittori, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    International audience; A conducting polymer of poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDT) was used as a matrix for entrapment of enzymes onto a platinum electrode surface in order to construct amperometric biosensors. Glucose oxidase (GOD) was used as an example, and it was entrapped in the polymer during the electrochemical polymerization. Glucose in oxygenated solutions was tested by amperometric measurements at +650 mV (vs. SCE) in a batch system. The influence of several experimental paramet...

  1. Macrocyclic Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease Inhibitors: An Overview of Medicinal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillaiyar, Thanigaimalai; Namasivayam, Vigneshwaran; Manickam, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a causative agent of hepatitis C infectious disease that primarily affects the liver, ranging in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a lifelong illness. The 9.6 kb RNA genome of HCV encodes approximately 3000 amino acid polyprotein that must be processed by host and viral proteases into both structural (S) and non-structural (NS) proteins, respectively. Targeting the serine protease NS3 with an activating factor NS4A, i.e., NS3/4A has been considered as one of the most attractive targets for the development of anti-HCV therapy. Although there is no vaccine available, antiviral medicines cure approximately 90% of the persons with hepatitis C infection. On the other hand, efficacy of these medications can be hampered due to the rapid drug and cross resistances. To date, all developed HCV NS3/4A inhibitors are mainly peptide-based compounds derived from the cleavage products of substrate. Specifically macrocyclic peptidomimetics have rapidly emerged as a classical NS3/4A protease inhibitors for treating the HCV infection. This review highlights the development of macrocyclic anti-HCV NS3/4A protease, as well as clinically important inhibitors developed from linear peptides, discovered during the last 12 years (2003-2015) from all sources, including laboratory synthetic methods, virtual screening and structure-based molecular docking studies. We emphasize the rationale behind the design, study of structure-activity relationships, and mechanism of inhibitions and cellular effect of the macrocyclic inhibitors.

  2. Significant Electronic Thermal Transport in the Conducting Polymer Poly(3,4‐ethylenedioxythiophene)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weathers, Annie; Khan, Zia Ullah; Brooke, Robert;

    2015-01-01

    Suspended microdevices are employed to measure the in-plane electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient of suspended poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin films. The measured thermal conductivity is higher than previously reported for PEDOT and generally increas...... with the electrical conductivity. The increase exceeds that predicted by the Wiedemann–Franz law for metals and can be explained by significant electronic thermal transport in PEDOT....

  3. Creating 3, 4, 6 and 10-dimensional spacetime from W3 symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambjørn, J.; Watabiki, Y.

    2017-07-01

    We describe a model where breaking of W3 symmetry will lead to the emergence of time and subsequently of space. Surprisingly the simplest such models which lead to higher dimensional spacetimes are based on the four ;magical; Jordan algebras of 3 × 3 Hermitian matrices with real, complex, quaternion and octonion entries, respectively. The simplest symmetry breaking leads to universes with spacetime dimensions 3, 4, 6, and 10.

  4. Potent rewarding and reinforcing effects of the synthetic cathinone 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)

    OpenAIRE

    Watterson, Lucas R.; Kufahl, Peter R.; Nemirovsky, Natali E.; Sewalia, Kaveish; Grabenauer, Megan; Thomas, Brian F.; Marusich, Julie A.; Wegner, Scott; Olive, M. Foster

    2012-01-01

    Reports of abuse and toxic effects of synthetic cathinones, frequently sold as “bath salts” or “legal highs”, have increased dramatically in recent years. One of the most widely used synthetic cathinones is 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). The current study evaluated the abuse potential of MDPV by assessing its ability to support intravenous self-administration and lower thresholds for intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in rats. In the first experiment, rats were trained to intravenou...

  5. Neuropharmacology of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), Its Metabolites, and Related Analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Michael H.; Bukhari, Mohammad O; Lehner, Kurt R.; Anizan, Sebastien; Rice, Kenner C; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2017-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a psychoactive component of so-called bath salts products that has caused serious medical consequences in humans. In this chapter, we review the neuropharmacology of MDPV and related analogs, and supplement the discussion with new results from our preclinical experiments. MDPV acts as a potent uptake inhibitor at plasma membrane transporters for dopamine (DAT) and norepinephrine (NET) in nervous tissue. The MDPV formulation in bath salts is a racemic m...

  6. Neuropharmacology of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), Its Metabolites, and Related Analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michael H; Bukhari, Mohammad O; Lehner, Kurt R; Anizan, Sebastien; Rice, Kenner C; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2017-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a psychoactive component of so-called bath salts products that has caused serious medical consequences in humans. In this chapter, we review the neuropharmacology of MDPV and related analogs, and supplement the discussion with new results from our preclinical experiments. MDPV acts as a potent uptake inhibitor at plasma membrane transporters for dopamine (DAT) and norepinephrine (NET) in nervous tissue. The MDPV formulation in bath salts is a racemic mixture, and the S isomer is much more potent than the R isomer at blocking DAT and producing abuse-related effects. Elevations in brain extracellular dopamine produced by MDPV are likely to underlie its locomotor stimulant and addictive properties. MDPV displays rapid pharmacokinetics when injected into rats (0.5-2.0 mg/kg), with peak plasma concentrations achieved by 10-20 min and declining quickly thereafter. MDPV is metabolized to 3,4-dihydroxypyrovalerone (3,4-catechol-PV) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxypyrovalerone (4-OH-3-MeO-PV) in vivo, but motor activation produced by the drug is positively correlated with plasma concentrations of parent drug and not its metabolites. 3,4-Catechol-PV is a potent uptake blocker at DAT in vitro but has little activity after administration in vivo. 4-OH-3-MeO-PV is the main MDPV metabolite but is weak at DAT and NET. MDPV analogs, such as α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP), display similar ability to inhibit DAT and increase extracellular dopamine concentrations. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that MDPV and its analogs represent a unique class of transporter inhibitors with a high propensity for abuse and addiction.

  7. {2,2′-[Pyridine-3,4-diylbis(nitrilomethylidyne]diphenolato}zinc(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Sheng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Zn(C19H13N3O2], has been synthesized by the reaction of Zn(ClO42·6H2O and the tetradentate Schiff base ligand 2,2′-[pyridine-3,4-diylbis(nitrilomethylidyne]diphenol (L. The coordination geometry of the ZnII ion is slightly distorted square-planar, formed by two N atoms and two O atoms from the L ligand.

  8. Structure and Biological Activities of Novel Triazole Compounds Containing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-zhong; BI Wen-zhao; SHANG Yu-qing; ZHAI Zhi-wei; YI Xu

    2008-01-01

    Eighteen novel triazole compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole groups were synthesized from 2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-y1)acetohydrazide and carbon disulfide by several step reactions. The target compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, MS, and X-ray crystallography. The results of preliminary biological tests show that all the compounds exhibit certain fungicidal activities.

  9. Syntheses of 3,4-benzotropolones by ring-closing metatheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arican, Deniz; Brückner, Reinhard

    2013-06-01

    Ortho-lithiated styrenes or ortho-lithiated benzaldehyde dimethyl acetals were added to 2,2-dimethoxypent-4-enals 7. The resulting alcohols were carried on to the aromatic dienones 10. These were ring-closed by olefin metathesis. Hydrolysis of the dimethyl ketal moiety and enolization provided the 3,4-benzotropolones 5. Overall, this access comprises 4-6 steps and totaled a 22-81% yield.

  10. Novel Diarylethenes: N-Substituted-3, 4-bisheteroaryl-2, 5-dihydropyrrole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong HAN; Zhi Bin ZHANG; Jun Ping XIAO; Wen Peng YAN; Mei Gong FAN

    2005-01-01

    Novel diarylethene derivatives: N-substituted-3,4-bisheteroaryl-2,5-dihydropyrroles were synthesized through Mcmurry couple reaction with high yields. The photochromic properties and UV-Vis absorption spectra were studied. The maximal absorptions of their close forms were around at 406 nm or 446 nm, which related mainly with heteroaryl groups but not with substituted groups at nitrogen atom of dihydropyrrole. The absorption of their colored form could be matched with blue light laser.

  11. Catechol and Aldehyde Moieties of 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde Contribute to Tyrosine Hydroxylase Inhibition and Neurotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder which leads to the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons. This causes a decrease in the important neurotransmitter dopamine (DA), which is essential for coordinated movement. Previous studies have implicated the monoamine oxidase metabolite of DA, 3,4-dihydroxphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), in the pathogenesis of PD and have shown it to be a reactive intermediate capable of protein modification. DOPAL also has demonstrated the ...

  12. New 3,4-seco-cycloartane triterpenes from Gardenia sootepensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei-Wu; Wang, Xue-Qin; Li, Bo

    2016-07-01

    Two new 3,4-seco-cycloartane triterpenes, named sootepins H (1) and I (2), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the leaves and twigs of Gardenia sootepensis. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, as well as high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS), infrared (IR), and ultra violet (UV).

  13. Wavelet Spectral Finite Elements for Wave Propagation in Composite Plates with Damages - Years 3-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-23

    proposed by Timoshenko (1921) and Timoshenko and Woinowski-Krieger (1989). Gavric (1994) developed a numerical approach to model the cross section...Hence, in this section, skin is modeled as spectral plate element and the stiffener is modeled as a Timoshenko beam element and they are coupled using a...plates using a new stiffened element. Tech. Mech. 28 (3-4), 227-236. Timoshenko , S., 1921. On the correction of transverse shear deformation of the

  14. 2-[3-(4-Methoxyphenyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl]phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C22H18N2O2, was derived from 1-(2-hydroxyphenyl-3-(4-methoxyphenylpropane-1,3-dione. The central pyrazole ring forms dihedral angles of 16.83 (5, 48.97 (4 and 51.68 (4°, respectively, with the methoxyphenyl, phenyl and hydroxyphenyl rings. The crystal packing is stabilized by O—H...N hydrogen bonding.

  15. POLYAMIDES WITH PENDANT 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE AND PYRIDINE MOIETIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yagoub Mansoori; Behzad Koohi-Zargar; Hemayat Shekaari; Mohammad Reza Zamanloo; Gholam Hassan Imanzadeh

    2012-01-01

    A novel aromatic diamine,2-(5-(3,5-diaminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-yl)pyridine (POBD),containing a pyridine ring and a 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety,was synthcsized.It was used in a polycondensation with various aromatic and aliphatic diacid chlorides to generate a series of new aromatic polyamides with pendant 1,3,4-oxadiazole groups.The prepared polyamides were characterized by IR,elemental analysis and through the synthesis of model compounds.Thermophysical properties of the synthesized polyamides have been studied by DSC,TGA and inherent viscosity measurements.Relatively high inherent viscosity values (0.76-1.62 dL/g,in 0.125% H2SO4 at 25℃) were observed for these compounds.Number average molecular weight (Mn) of the polymers was measured by vapor phase osmometry (VPO).The introduction of bulky side chains in the structure of aromatic polyamides led to increased solubility of these polymers in common polar and aprotic solvents,such as DMF,DMSO,NMP and DMAc,which allowed thin films to be cast from polymer solutions.The highest molecular weight (Mn =51190) was observed for polymer (Ⅸ),which was prepared from pyridine-2,6-dichlorocarbonyl.

  16. Crystal structure and infrared spectrum of thallium holmium polyphosphate, TIHo(PO3)4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karima Horchani-Naifer; Jaouher Amami; Mokhtar Ferid

    2008-01-01

    Crystals of thallium-holmium polyphosphate TIHo(PO3)4 were grown by flux method technique and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Structure of TIHo(PO3)4 was solved for the first time, and it crystallized in the monoclinic P21/n space group with the following unit-cell dimensions: a=1.02225(3) nm, b=0.88536(2) nm, c=1.09541(4) nm, β=105.888(1)°, V=0.95354(5) nm3 and Z=4. The crystal structure was solved from 2174 independent reflections with final R1(F2)=0.0442 and Rw(F<2)=0.0861 refined with 164 parameters. The atomic arrangement could be described as a long chain polyphosphate organization. Holmium atoms had eighffold coordination. The structure of T1Ho(PO3)4 consisted of HoO8 polyhedra sharing oxygen atoms with phosphoric group PO4. Infrared spectrum was investigated at room temperature in the frequencies range, 350-4000 cm-1, showing some characteristic vibration bands of infinite chain structure of PO4 tetrahedra linked by bridging oxygen.

  17. Lack of Evidence for 3/4 Scaling of Metabolism in Terrestrial Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Tao LI; Xing-Guo HAN; Jian-Guo WU

    2005-01-01

    Scaling, as the translation of information across spatial, temporal, and organizational scales, is essential to predictions and understanding in all sciences and has become a central issue in ecology. A large body of theoretical and empirical evidence concerning allometric scaling in terrestrial individual plants and plant communities has been constructed around the fractal volume-filling theory of West, Brown, and Enquist (the WBE model). One of the most thought-provoking findings has been that the metabolic rates of plants, like those of animals, scale with their size as a 3/4 power law. The earliest, single most-important study cited in support of the application of the WBE model to terrestrial plants claims that whole-plant resource use in terrestrial plants scales as the 3/4 power of total mass, as predicted by the WBE model.However, in the present study we show that empirical data actually do not support such a claim. More recent studies cited as evidence for 3/4 scaling also suffer from several statistical and data-related problems. Using a forest biomass dataset including 1 266 plots of 17 main forest types across China, we explored the scaling exponents between tree productivity and tree mass and found no universal value across forest stands. We conclude that there is not sufficient evidence to support the existence of a single constant scaling exponent for the metabolism-biomass relationship for terrestrial plants.

  18. Antitumor activity of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene derivatives and quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, Marijana; Rastija, Vesna; Opačak-Bernardi, Teuta; Stolić, Ivana; Krstulović, Luka; Bajić, Miroslav; Glavaš-Obrovac, Ljubica

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate nine newly synthesized amidine derivatives of 3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene (3,4-EDOT) for their cytotoxic activity against a panel of human cancer cell lines and to perform a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis for the antitumor activity of a total of 27 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene derivatives. Induction of apoptosis was investigated on the selected compounds, along with delivery options for the optimization of activity. The best obtained QSAR models include the following group of descriptors: BCUT, WHIM, 2D autocorrelations, 3D-MoRSE, GETAWAY descriptors, 2D frequency fingerprint and information indices. Obtained QSAR models should be relieved in elucidation of important physicochemical and structural requirements for this biological activity. Highly potent molecules have a symmetrical arrangement of substituents along the x axis, high frequency of distance between N and O atoms at topological distance 9, as well as between C and N atoms at topological distance 10, and more C atoms located at topological distances 6 and 3. Based on the conclusion given in the QSAR analysis, a new compound with possible great activity was proposed.

  19. Theoretical study of an energetic material di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Computations by density functional theory (DFT method are performed on a series of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives with different substituents and linkages. The heat of formation (HOF is predicted by the designed isodesmic reactions. The predicted results reveal that –N3 and –NN– groups are effective structural units for increasing the HOF values of the di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The HOMO–LUMO gap is affected by the substituents and linkage groups. Detonation performance is evaluated using the Kamlet–Jacobs approach based on the calculated density and HOF. The results indicate that –NO2, –NF2, –NH–, –NH–NH– and –NN– groups are helpful for enhancing the detonation properties of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The bond dissociation energy and bond order of the weakest bonds are analyzed to investigate their stability. It is observed that the –CH2–, –CH2–CH2– and –CHCH– groups are effective structural units for improving the stabilities of these derivatives. Considering the detonation performance and the stability, five compounds are screened as the potential candidates for high energy density materials.

  20. Theoretical study of an energetic material di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua ZHOU; Zhong-liang MA; Jian-long WANG; Dong WANG

    2014-01-01

    Computations by density functional theory (DFT) method are performed on a series of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives with different sub-stituents and linkages. The heat of formation (HOF ) is predicted by the designed isodesmic reactions. The predicted results reveal that eN3 and eN]Ne groups are effective structural units for increasing the HOF values of the di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The HOMOeLUMO gap is affected by the substituents and linkage groups. Detonation performance is evaluated using the KamleteJacobs approach based on the calculated density and HOF. The results indicate that eNO2, eNF2, eNHe, eNHeNHe and eN]Ne groups are helpful for enhancing the detonation properties of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The bond dissociation energy and bond order of the weakest bonds are analyzed to investigate their stability. It is observed that the eCH2e, eCH2eCH2e and eCH]CHe groups are effective structural units for improving the stabilities of these derivatives. Considering the detonation performance and the stability, five compounds are screened as the potential candidates for high energy density materials.

  1. Acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibitor activity of some novel pyrazinamide condensed 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Elumalai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new series of some novel pyrazinamide condensed 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidines was prepared by reacting of N-(3-oxobutanoylpyrazine-2-carboxamide with urea/thiourea and appropriate aldehyde in the presence of catalytic amount of laboratory made p-toluenesulfonic acid as an efficient catalyst. Confirmation of the chemical structure of the synthesized compounds (4a–l was substantiated by TLC, different spectral data IR, 1H NMR, mass spectra and elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for acetyl and butyl cholinesterase (AChE and BuChE inhibitor activity. The titled compounds exhibited weak, moderate or high AChE and BuChE inhibitor activity. Especially, compound (4l showed the best AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity of all the 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine derivatives, with an IC50 value of 0.11 μM and 3.4 μM.

  2. Probing magnetostructural correlations in multiferroic HoA l3(BO3) 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Yu, T.; Chen, Z.; Nelson, C. S.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.; Abeykoon, A. M. M.; Tyson, T. A.

    2015-09-01

    The system HoA l3(BO3) 4 has recently been found to exhibit a large magnetoelectric effect. To understand the mechanism, macroscopic and atomic level properties of HoA l3(BO3) 4 were explored by temperature and magnetic field dependent heat capacity measurements, pressure and temperature dependent x-ray diffraction measurements, as well as temperature and magnetic field dependent x-ray absorption fine structure measurements. The experimental work was complemented by density functional theory calculations. An anomalous change in the structure is found in the temperature range where large magnetoelectric effects occur. No significant structural change or distortion of the Ho O6 polyhedra is seen to occur with magnetic field. However, the magnetic field dependent structural measurements reveal enhanced correlation between neighboring Ho O6 polyhedra. This observed response is seen to saturate near 3 T. A qualitative atomic level description of the mechanism behind the large electric polarization induced by magnetic fields in the general class of RA l3(BO3) 4 systems (R = rare earth) is developed.

  3. A randomized clinical trial on the sealing of occlusal carious lesions: 3-4-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luana Severo; Giongo, Fernanda Cristina Mendes de Santa; Mua, Bruna; Martins, Vanessa Balbé; Barbachan E Silva, Berenice; Qvist, Vibeke; Maltz, Marisa

    2017-06-05

    This randomized clinical trial aimed to assess the efficacy of sealing occlusal carious lesions in permanent teeth. The sample consisted of 54 occlusal carious lesions in permanent molars and premolars of 49 patients aged 8-43 years (median: 19 years). The inclusion criteria comprised the presence of a cavity with no access allowing biofilm control. The maximum depth of the lesion was the middle third of the dentin thickness, as assessed by bitewing radiography. The teeth were randomly assigned to sealant treatment (n = 28) or restorative treatment (n = 26). Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed after 1 year and after 3-4 years. The outcomes depended on the clinical performance of the sealant/restoration and the control of caries progression observed radiographically. Survival analysis was performed to assess success rates. Over the 3-4 years of monitoring, 2 sealants were totally lost, 1 needed repair, and 1 showed caries progression, totaling 4 failures in the sealant group. In the restoration group, 1 failure was observed (in need of repair). The success rates were 76% and 94% in the sealant and the restoration groups, respectively (p > 0.05). The sealing of occlusal carious lesions in permanent teeth succeeded in controlling caries over a 3-4-year period. However, sealed carious lesions require patient compliance in attending regular follow-ups to control the occurrence of clinical failures of the sealants.

  4. Effect of Dissolved Oxygen Control Strategies on Welan Gum Fermentation by Alcaligenes sp.NX-3%溶氧调控策略对Alcaligenes sp.NX-3产威兰胶发酵过程的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万萍; 李会; 徐浩; 陈飞; 徐虹

    2011-01-01

    主要研究了发酵过程中溶氧调控策略对Alcaligenes sp.NX-3产威兰胶的影响.在7.5 L发酵罐中,首先考察了不同通气量对菌体生长、威兰胶浓度、葡萄糖消耗、威兰胶黏度等的影响.结果表明,通气量为1vvm时,有利于威兰胶浓度的提高.通过研究不同供氧水平对威兰胶发酵的影响,发现较高的溶氧水平有利于威兰胶的合成,但是不利于威兰胶黏度的提高.因此提出了低供氧-中供氧-高供氧、高供氧-中供氧-低供氧2种不同溶氧调控策略.实验结果表明:采用高供氧-中供氧-低供氧策略,能够使威兰胶浓度达到25.4 g/L,葡萄糖对威兰胶的转化率提高到0.51g/g,威兰胶黏度达到2.700 Pa·s.%The dissolved oxygen control in the production of welan gum by Alcaligenes sp. NX - 3 was investigated. Firstly, based on the analysis of the effect of various aeration rate on cell growth, welan gum concentration, glucose consumption, dissolved oxygen level, and welan gum viscosity, we confirmed that in a 7.5 L bioreactor 1 vvm aeration rate was beneficial for welan gum production. After that, the effect of different oxygen supply levels on the welan gum fermentation was studied. The results indicated that high oxygen supply level could improve the welan gum production, but it was not helpful for welan gum viscosity. Therefore, the two oxygen supply strategies:low-moderatehigh oxygen supply level and high-moderate-low oxygen supply level were proposed. The results showed that the latter was better for the welan gum fermentation. Finally, the maximum concentration of welan gum reached 25.4 g/L with a yield of 0.51 g/g and the welan gum viscosity of 2. 700 Pa · s .

  5. 美利肯Millad~ NX~(TM) 8000透明剂为Sistema聚丙烯容器赢得更多客户青睐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    在2011芝加哥国际家庭用品博览会上,总部位于新西兰的Sistema塑胶有限公司隆重推介其全新升级的聚丙烯(PP)食品储藏容器产品线。此类产品采用了美利肯公司Millad NX^TM8000高级透明剂,具有堪比玻璃的出色清晰度,这也正是成就Sistema产品卓越品质的一个重要因素。

  6. 五轴数控加工中心UG NX后处理研究%UG NX Post-processing Research on Five-axis CNC Machining Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾建军; 刘建敏; 许东太

    2010-01-01

    介绍了UG后处理开发的方法,以一个典型的A、B摆角的五轴FANUC系统数控龙门铣床为例.设定了机床参数、程序和刀轨参数,叙述了刀库后处理方法.指出了普通的UG NX/Post Builder产生的后处理文件不符合要求时,可利用Custom Command(用户自定义命令)来处理,生成符合条件的NC程序.

  7. Simulation analysis and optimization for ackerman steering linkage of double-wishbone suspension on UG NX%基于UG NX的双横臂独立悬架转向系统的仿真分析及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 张勇

    2014-01-01

    利用UG NX软件建立某客车双横臂独立悬架转向系统模型.基于NX CAD/Motion/Natran协同仿真平台,对转向系统结构进行系统动力学仿真,绘制前束角变化曲线,同时对内、外侧前轮转向角关系仿真曲线与阿克曼理论曲线进行对比分析.运用NX/Nastran与NX/Motion共同建立刚柔混合模型并对转向节臂进行柔性分析和拓扑优化.

  8. Non-vanishing at m -> 0 of the 1-loop self-mass of an electron of mass m propagating in a graphene-like medium in a constant external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Machet, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The 1-loop self-energy of a Dirac electron of mass m propagating in a thin medium simulating graphene in an external magnetic field B is investigated in Quantum Field Theory. Equivalence is shown with the so-called reduced QED_{3+1} on a 2-brane. Schwinger-like methods are used to calculate the self-mass \\delta m_{LLL} of the electron when it lies in the lowest Landau level. Unlike in standard QED_{3+1}, it does not vanish at the limit m -> 0 :\\delta m_{LLL} -> (\\alpha/2)\\sqrt{pi/2}sqrt{\\hbar|e|B/c^2}; all Landau levels of the virtual electron are taken into account and on mass-shell renormalization conditions are implemented. Restricting to the sole lowest Landau level of the virtual electron is explicitly shown to be inadequate. Resummations at higher orders lie beyond the scope of this work.

  9. Early and late recurrence after intentional limited resection for cT1aN0M0, non-small cell lung cancer: from a multi-institutional, retrospective analysis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Yuki; Yano, Motoki; Yoshida, Junji; Koike, Terumoto; Kameyama, Kotaro; Shimamoto, Akira; Nishio, Wataru; Yoshimoto, Kentaro; Utsumi, Tomoki; Shiina, Takayuki; Watanabe, Atsushi; Yamato, Yasushi; Watanabe, Takehiro; Takahashi, Yusuke; Sonobe, Makoto; Kuroda, Hiroaki; Oda, Makoto; Inoue, Masayoshi; Tanahashi, Masayuki; Adachi, Hirofumi; Saito, Masao; Hayashi, Masataro; Otsuka, Hajime; Mizobuchi, Teruaki; Moriya, Yasumitsu; Takahashi, Mamoru; Nishikawa, Shigeto; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    In 2015, we reported the outcomes of patients undergoing intentional limited resection (ILR) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from a retrospective, multi-institutional large database in Japan. Here, we analyse the clinicopathological characteristics of the patients extracted from this database with late recurrence and compare them with those with early recurrence. Of 1538 patients in the database with cT1aN0M0 NSCLC, 92 (6%) had recurrence. In this study, early recurrence was defined as recurrence within 5 years and late recurrence as recurrence beyond 5 years after surgery. We compared the clinicopathological characteristics and post-recurrence survival (PRS) between patients with early and late recurrence. Of the 92 patients with recurrence, 21 (23%) had late recurrence. Compared with the early recurrence group, there were significantly more adenocarcinomas and local recurrences in the late recurrence group (P = 0.04 for both). The 3- and 5-year PRS rates were 53 and 24%, respectively, and the median PRS period was 38 months. There were no significant differences in the PRS curves between patients with early and late recurrence (P = 0.12). Only 3 patients (0.2%) had recurrence more than 10 years after ILR. Of the 21 late-recurrence patients, 17 (81%) had tumours with a consolidation/tumour ratio (CTR) >0.25. Late recurrence occurred in 21 (23%) of 92 patients with recurrence after ILR for cT1aN0M0 NSCLC. Late recurrence was more likely to involve adenocarcinoma and local recurrence. It is thus considered reasonable to follow patients with a CTR >0.25 for 10 years after ILR. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  10. In situ formation of oxygen vacancy in perovskite Sr0.95Ti0.8Nb0.1M0.1O3 (M = Mn, Cr) toward efficient carbon dioxide electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Xie, Kui; Wei, Haoshan; Qin, Qingqing; Qi, Wentao; Yang, Liming; Ruan, Cong; Wu, Yucheng

    2014-01-01

    In this work, redox-active Mn or Cr is introduced to the B site of redox stable perovskite Sr0.95Ti0.9Nb0.1O3.00 to create oxygen vacancies in situ after reduction for high-temperature CO2 electrolysis. Combined analysis using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis confirms the change of the chemical formula from oxidized Sr0.95Ti0.9Nb0.1O3.00 to reduced Sr0.95Ti0.9Nb0.1O2.90 for the bare sample. By contrast, a significant concentration of oxygen vacancy is additionally formed in situ for Mn- or Cr-doped samples by reducing the oxidized Sr0.95Ti0.8Nb0.1M0.1O3.00 (M = Mn, Cr) to Sr0.95Ti0.8Nb0.1M0.1O2.85. The ionic conductivities of the Mn- and Cr-doped titanate improve by approximately 2 times higher than bare titanate in an oxidizing atmosphere and 3–6 times higher in a reducing atmosphere at intermediate temperatures. A remarkable chemical accommodation of CO2 molecules is achieved on the surface of the reduced and doped titanate, and the chemical desorption temperature reaches a common carbonate decomposition temperature. The electrical properties of the cathode materials are investigated and correlated with the electrochemical performance of the composite electrodes. Direct CO2 electrolysis at composite cathodes is investigated in solid-oxide electrolyzers. The electrode polarizations and current efficiencies are observed to be significantly improved with the Mn- or Cr-doped titanate cathodes. PMID:25403738

  11. Crystal structures of three 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzamide-based derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia R. Gomes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structures of three benzamide derivatives, viz. N-(6-hydroxyhexyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzamide, C16H25NO5, (1, N-(6-anilinohexyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzamide, C22H30N2O4, (2, and N-(6,6-diethoxyhexyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzamide, C20H33NO6, (3, are described. These compounds differ only in the substituent at the end of the hexyl chain and the nature of these substituents determines the differences in hydrogen bonding between the molecules. In each molecule, the m-methoxy substituents are virtually coplanar with the benzyl ring, while the p-methoxy substituent is almost perpendicular. The carbonyl O atom of the amide rotamer is trans related with the amidic H atom. In each structure, the benzamide N—H donor group and O acceptor atoms link the molecules into C(4 chains. In 1, a terminal –OH group links the molecules into a C(3 chain and the combined effect of the C(4 and C(3 chains is a ribbon made up of screw related R22(17 rings in which the ...O—H... chain lies in the centre of the ribbon and the trimethoxybenzyl groups forms the edges. In 2, the combination of the benzamide C(4 chain and the hydrogen bond formed by the terminal N—H group to an O atom of the 4-methoxy group link the molecules into a chain of R22(17 rings. In 3, the molecules are linked only by C(4 chains.

  12. Feasibility and outcomes of intravenous thrombolysis 3-4.5 hours after stroke in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-Peng; Li, Hong-Hua; Li, Ya-Hong; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Qiang; Lin, Lang

    2014-05-01

    The time window for intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) treatment in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients has been extended to 4.5 hours. But little is known about the safety and efficacy of IV rt-PA treatment in the 3-4.5 hour time window in Chinese patients with AIS. A total of 119 patients who were treated with standard IV rt-PA therapy within 4.5 hours after symptom onset were included in this study: 85 were treated within 0-3 hours and 34 were treated within 3-4.5 hours. Favorable outcome was defined as a modified Rankin scale (mRS) score of 0-1 at 6 months. The safety of IV rt-PA treatment was assessed by the rate of mortality, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) and other common complications. There were no significant differences in SICH rates (2.94% versus 2.35%; p=0.85) at 24-36 hours, mortality (5.88% versus 3.53%; p=0.56), other complications (14.71% versus 11.76%; p=0.66), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score improvement at 24 hours (41.18% versus 45.88%; p=0.64) and favorable mRS at 6 months (52.94% versus 54.12%; p=0.91) between the two time window groups. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age, lower admission NIHSS score and shorter time from symptom onset to treatment were associated with a favorable clinical outcome. This finding showed an additional 29% of patients received IV rt-PA because of the treatment window expansion to 4.5 hours. IV rt-PA was feasible and safe for treating AIS patients in the 3-4.5 hour time window in our Chinese population.

  13. [Assessment of the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, J-J; Legros, H; Janin, Fr; Dourmap, N; Costentin, J

    2004-09-01

    This work was carried out in order to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL). This aldehyde is formed from dopamine (DA) by monoamine oxidases (MAO) and is mainly oxidised to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid by brain aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH), or eventually reduced to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol by aldose/aldehyde reductases. In vitro, catecholaminergic SH-SY5Y cells were incubated with DA and disulfiram (DSF), an irreversible inhibitor of ALDH. As evidenced by MTT assays, a 24-h treatment with 10(-4) M DA and/or 10(-6) M DSF followed by a 24-h incubation in a drug-free medium evidenced that the toxicity of each of these drugs was potentiated by the second drug. HPLC measurements demonstrated that this drug association induced an early DOPAL production that could result in a delayed cell toxicity. For in vivo studies, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with L-DOPA-benserazide, which increases the production of DOPAL by MAO, and DSF. An acute injection of DSF (100mg/kg i.p.) and L-DOPA/benserazide (100mg/kg+25mg/kg, 24h later) significantly increased the DOPAL striatal level. However, a 30-day treatment with DSF (100mg/kg i.p., once every two days) and L-DOPA/benserazide (100mg/kg+25mg/kg, twice a day) did not affect both indexes used to assess the integrity of the nigro-striatal dopaminergic terminals (i.e. the striatal content in DA and the binding to the vesicular monoamine transporter on striatal membranes). These results do not support the hypothesis of a DOPAL toxicity and argue against the toxicity of L-DOPA therapy.

  14. Crystal structures of three 3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide-based derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Ligia R; Low, John Nicolson; Oliveira, Catarina; Cagide, Fernando; Borges, Fernanda

    2016-05-01

    The crystal structures of three benzamide derivatives, viz. N-(6-hy-droxy-hex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C16H25NO5, (1), N-(6-anilinohex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C22H30N2O4, (2), and N-(6,6-di-eth-oxy-hex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C20H33NO6, (3), are described. These compounds differ only in the substituent at the end of the hexyl chain and the nature of these substituents determines the differences in hydrogen bonding between the mol-ecules. In each mol-ecule, the m-meth-oxy substituents are virtually coplanar with the benzyl ring, while the p-meth-oxy substituent is almost perpendicular. The carbonyl O atom of the amide rotamer is trans related with the amidic H atom. In each structure, the benzamide N-H donor group and O acceptor atoms link the mol-ecules into C(4) chains. In 1, a terminal -OH group links the mol-ecules into a C(3) chain and the combined effect of the C(4) and C(3) chains is a ribbon made up of screw related R 2 (2)(17) rings in which the ⋯O-H⋯ chain lies in the centre of the ribbon and the tri-meth-oxy-benzyl groups forms the edges. In 2, the combination of the benzamide C(4) chain and the hydrogen bond formed by the terminal N-H group to an O atom of the 4-meth-oxy group link the mol-ecules into a chain of R 2 (2)(17) rings. In 3, the mol-ecules are linked only by C(4) chains.

  15. 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene absorption, disposition, and metabolism in male Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, U A; Ziegler, T L; Wang, D X; Kattnig, M J; McClure, T; Liebler, D C; Mayersohn, M; Sipes, I G

    1996-02-01

    3,3',4,4'-Tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB) is a contaminant generated during the synthesis of 3,4-dichloroaniline and 3,4-dichloroaniline-derived pesticides. TCAB is isosteric to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and has been shown to bind to the Ah receptor. Following oral administration of [14C]TCAB (3.2 and 32 mg/kg), 39-45% of the dosed radioactivity was excreted into the urine and 53-56% was recovered in the feces within 48 hr. Less than 6% of the dosed radioactivity remained in the tissues examined at 96 hr. After intravenous administration (3.2 mg/kg), 33% of the dose was excreted in the bile during 6 hr. TCAB metabolites in urine were identified using LC/MS. The major metabolites were sulfate ester conjugates of hydroxylated mono- or dichloroaniline derivatives. Some of these metabolites were also acetylated. After intravenous administration, the disappearance of [14C]TCAB from blood was monitored, and the pharmacokinetic profile was consistent with a two-compartment model. Pharmacokinetic parameters reveal that the compound is readily cleared from the blood with a t1/2 of 4.0 hr, clearance of 12.3 ml/min.kg, and an apparent volume of distribution of 4.3 liters/kg. The absolute oral bioavailability was determined to be 30%. The extensive azo reduction of TCAB decreases its systemic absorption after oral administration and thereby limits the amount of parent compound available to interact with the Ah receptor and decreases the Ah receptor-mediated toxicity.

  16. Chiral 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ones as highly selective FAAH inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jayendra Z; Parkkari, Teija; Laitinen, Tuomo; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Saario, Susanna M; Savinainen, Juha R; Navia-Paldanius, Dina; Cipriano, Mariateresa; Leppänen, Jukka; Koshevoy, Igor O; Poso, Antti; Fowler, Christopher J; Laitinen, Jarmo T; Nevalainen, Tapio

    2013-11-14

    In the present study, identification of chiral 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ones as potent and selective FAAH inhibitors has been described. The separated enantiomers showed clear differences in the potency and selectivity toward both FAAH and MAGL. Additionally, the importance of the chirality on the inhibitory activity and selectivity was proven by the simplification approach by removing a methyl group at the 3-position of the 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-one ring. The most potent compound of the series, the S-enantiomer of 3-(1-(4-isobutylphenyl)ethyl)-5-methoxy-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3H)-one (JZP-327A, 51), inhibited human recombinant FAAH (hrFAAH) in the low nanomolar range (IC50 = 11 nM), whereas its corresponding R-enantiomer 52 showed only moderate inhibition toward hrFAAH (IC50 = 0.24 μM). In contrast to hrFAAH, R-enantiomer 52 was more potent in inhibiting the activity of hrMAGL compared to S-enantiomer 51 (IC50 = 4.0 μM and 16% inhibition at 10 μM, respectively). The FAAH selectivity of the compound 51 over the supposed main off-targets, MAGL and COX, was found to be >900-fold. In addition, activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) indicated high selectivity over other serine hydrolases. Finally, the selected S-enantiomers 51, 53, and 55 were shown to be tight binding, slowly reversible inhibitors of the hrFAAH.

  17. [Substrate specificity of carotenoid 3',4'-desaturase from Deinococcus radiodurans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zongtao; Tian, Bing; Shen, Shaochuan; Hu, Yuejin

    2010-10-01

    To examine the substrate specificity of carotenoid 3',4'-desaturase (DR2250) from Deinococcus radiodurans, we amplified the dr2250 gene by using PCR methods. The PCR products were digested by Hind III-BamH I and ligated into the vector pUC19, yielding recombinant vector pUC-CRTD. We analyzed the carotenoids of E. coli transformants containing pACCRT-EBI(Eu) and (or) pRK-CRTC and (or) pUC-CRTD. Our results demonstrated that DR2250 had substrate specificity on the carotenoids with hydroxyl group at C1 (1').

  18. Synthesis and nonlinear optical characterization of new 1,3,4-oxadiazoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Chandrakantha; Arun M Isloor; Reji Philip; M Mohesh; Prakash Shetty; A M Vijesh

    2011-07-01

    A new series of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives containing 2-fluoro-4-methoxy phenyl were synthesized by refluxing mixture of acid hydrazide 3 with different aromatic carboxylic acids (a–e) in phosphorous oxychloride. These newly synthesized compounds were characterized by NMR, mass spectral, and IR spectral studies, and also by C, H, N analyses. The open-aperture z-scan experiment was employed to measure the optical nonlinearity of the samples at 532 nm, using 5 ns laser pulses. The measurements indicate that compound 4a, which contains Bromine, behaves as an optical limiter at this wavelength, with potential applications in optoelectronics.

  19. Synthesis and antimicrobial properties of 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogs containing dibenzosuberone moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moger, Manjunath [Mangalore University, Karnataka (India). Department of Chemistry; Satam, Vijay; Paniraj, A.S.; Gopinath, Vadiraj S.; Hindupur, Rama Mohan; Pati, Hari N., E-mail: hari.pati@advinus.com [Advinus Therapeutics Ltd., 21 and 22, Phase II, Peenya Industrial Area, Karnataka (India); Govindaraju, Darshan Raj C. [Department of Bio-Medicinal Research, Vidya Herbs Pvt. Ltd., Karnataka (India)

    2014-01-15

    A series of ten novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogs containing dibenzosuberone moiety were synthesized using linear as well as convergent synthesis approach. All the compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry, infrared (IR), {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR) spectroscopies and elemental analysis. These compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among ten analogs, four compounds, namely, 8a, 8d, 8e and 8j were found to be highly active antibacterial and antifungal agents (author)

  20. Sterically Stabilized Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Colloidal Dispersions Doped with Different Sulfonic Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tie Jun WANG; Ping CHEN; Xiu Jie HU; Shu Yun ZHOU

    2006-01-01

    The preparation of sterically stabilized poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene)(PEDOT)colloidal dispersions doped with different sulfonic acids is described. Three different sulfonic acids, i.e., p-toluenesulfonic acid, β-naphthalenesuffonic acid and D-camphor-10-sulfonic acid are used, facilitating the preparation of sterically stable PEDOT colloidal particles. The influences of the dopants and concentration of polymeric stabilizer on the yields, morphologies and electrical properties of the resultant colloidal particles were investigated. The colloidal particles with the size ranging from 172 to 334 nm have been obtained in good yields. The compressed pellet conductivity was as high as 4.5 Scm-1.