WorldWideScience

Sample records for 3-4 months post-surgery

  1. Prevalence and risk of depressive symptoms 3-4 months post-surgery in a nationwide cohort study of Danish women treated for early stage breast-cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Zachariae, Robert; Jensen, Anders Bonde

    2009-01-01

    breast cancer during the 2 1/2 year study period. Of these, 3343 women (68%) participated in a questionnaire study 12-16 weeks following surgery. Depressive symptoms (Beck's Depression Inventory II) and health-related behaviors were assessed by questionnaire. The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group......BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of depressive symptoms are generally found among cancer patients, but results from existing studies vary considerably with respect to prevalence and proposed risk factors. PURPOSE: To study the prevalence of depressive symptoms and major depression 3-4 months following...... surgery for breast cancer, and to identify clinical risk factors while adjusting for pre-cancer sociodemographic factors, comorbidity, and psychiatric history. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study cohort consists of 4917 Danish women, aged 18-70 years, receiving standardized treatment for early stage invasive...

  2. The Food Craving Questionnaire-Trait in a bariatric surgery seeking population and ability to predict post-surgery weight loss at six months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Nina M; LePage, Marie L; Goldman, Rachel L; O'Neil, Patrick M; Borckardt, Jeffrey J; Byrne, T Karl

    2012-12-01

    Food cravings have been understudied in bariatric surgery patients and the Food Craving Questionnaire-Trait has not been validated in this population. Reliability and validity of the FCQ-T were examined and a regression analysis was run to determine whether or not preoperative scores on individual subscales of the instrument could predict weight loss at 6 months. The FCQ-T demonstrated excellent internal consistency in bariatric surgery-seeking patients, and individual subscales measuring emotion and mood were correlated with other measures of depression and anxiety. Endorsement of binge eating or emotional eating behaviors during a clinical interview was correlated with similar subscales on the FCQ-T. Higher scores on the subscale 'cues that may trigger food cravings' were associated with greater weight loss at 6 months post-surgery and higher scores on the subscale 'guilt from cravings and/or giving into them' was associated with less weight loss. Management of external cues may predict successful outcomes while emotional impact of cravings may indicate the need for further intervention to help manage specific food craving traits.

  3. Immunogenicity and safety of a pentavalent acellular pertussis combined vaccine including diphtheria, tetanus, inactivated poliovirus and conjugated Haemophilus Influenzae type b polysaccharide for primary vaccination at 2, 3, 4 or 3, 4, 5 months of age in infants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong Cheng; Li, Feng Xiang; Li, Yan Ping; Hou, Qi Ming; Li, Chang Gui; Li, Ya Nan; Chen, Fu Sheng; Hu, Xue Zhong; Su, Wen Bin; Zhang, Shu Min; Fang, Han Hua; Ye, Qiang; Zeng, Tian De; Liu, Tao Xuan; Li, Xiu Bi; Huang, Yun Neng; Deng, Man Ling; Zhang, Yan Ping; Ortiz, Esteban

    2011-02-24

    The aim was to demonstrate the immunogenicity and safety of a DTaP-IPV//PRP-T combined vaccine (Pentaxim(®)) compared to individual vaccines in infants in the People's Republic of China. Infants (N=792) were randomly assigned to receive DTaP-IPV//PRP-T at 2, 3 and 4 months of age (Group A) or 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group B), or DTaP (Wuhan Institute of Biological Products), PRP-T (Act-Hib(®)) and IPV (Imovax(®) Polio) at 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group C). Antibody titers were measured pre- and 1 month after the third vaccination; non-inferiority analyses were performed for seroprotection/seroconversion (SP/SC) rates. Safety was assessed 1 month after the primary series. SP/SC rates for the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine were high and non-inferior to the controls. Reactogenicity was low for each group and no hypotonic hyporesponsive episode or seizure was reported. In conclusion, the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine was highly immunogenic, non-inferior to the commercially available control vaccines and had a good safety profile for both primary administration schedules.

  4. Twelve-month, 12 km resolution North American WRF-Chem v3.4 air quality simulation: performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Tessum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present results from and evaluate the performance of a 12-month, 12 km horizontal resolution year 2005 air pollution simulation for the contiguous United States using the WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry meteorology and chemical transport model (CTM. We employ the 2005 US National Emissions Inventory, the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM, and the Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe (MADE with a volatility basis set (VBS secondary aerosol module. Overall, model performance is comparable to contemporary modeling efforts used for regulatory and health-effects analysis, with an annual average daytime ozone (O3 mean fractional bias (MFB of 12% and an annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5 MFB of −1%. WRF-Chem, as configured here, tends to overpredict total PM2.5 at some high concentration locations and generally overpredicts average 24 h O3 concentrations. Performance is better at predicting daytime-average and daily peak O3 concentrations, which are more relevant for regulatory and health effects analyses relative to annual average values. Predictive performance for PM2.5 subspecies is mixed: the model overpredicts particulate sulfate (MFB = 36%, underpredicts particulate nitrate (MFB = −110% and organic carbon (MFB = −29%, and relatively accurately predicts particulate ammonium (MFB = 3% and elemental carbon (MFB = 3%, so that the accuracy in total PM2.5 predictions is to some extent a function of offsetting over- and underpredictions of PM2.5 subspecies. Model predictive performance for PM2.5 and its subspecies is in general worse in winter and in the western US than in other seasons and regions, suggesting spatial and temporal opportunities for future WRF-Chem model development and evaluation.

  5. Scapula alata in early breast cancer patients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of post-surgery short-course image-guided radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaenssens Nele

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scapula alata (SA is a known complication of breast surgery associated with palsy of the serratus anterior, but it is seldom mentioned. We evaluated the risk factors associated with SA and the relationship of SA with ipsilateral shoulder/arm morbidity in a series of patients enrolled in a trial of post-surgery radiotherapy (RT. Methods The trial randomized women with completely resected stage I-II breast cancer to short-course image-guided RT, versus conventional RT. SA, arm volume and shoulder-arm mobility were measured prior to RT and at one to three months post-RT. Shoulder/arm morbidities were computed as a post-RT percentage change relative to pre-RT measurements. Results Of 119 evaluable patients, 13 (= 10.9% had pre-RT SA. Age younger than 50 years old, a body mass index less than 25 kg/m2, and axillary lymph node dissection were significant risk factors, with odds ratios of 4.8 (P = 0.009, 6.1 (P = 0.016, and 6.1 (P = 0.005, respectively. Randomization group was not significant. At one to three months’ post-RT, mean arm volume increased by 4.1% (P = 0.036 and abduction decreased by 8.6% (P = 0.046 among SA patients, but not among non-SA patients. SA resolved in eight, persisted in five, and appeared in one patient. Conclusion The relationship of SA with lower body mass index suggests that SA might have been underestimated in overweight patients. Despite apparent resolution of SA in most patients, pre-RT SA portended an increased risk of shoulder/arm morbidity. We argue that SA warrants further investigation. Incidentally, the observation of SA occurring after RT in one patient represents the second case of post-RT SA reported in the literature.

  6. Knee extension and flexion muscle power after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon graft or hamstring tendons graft: a cross-sectional comparison 3 years post surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageberg, Eva; Roos, Harald P; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Thomeé, Roland; Roos, Ewa M

    2009-02-01

    Hamstring muscles play a major role in knee-joint stabilization after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Weakness of the knee extensors after ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon (PT) graft, and in the knee flexors after reconstruction with hamstring tendons (HT) graft has been observed up to 2 years post surgery, but not later. In these studies, isokinetic muscle torque was used. However, muscle power has been suggested to be a more sensitive and sport-specific measures of strength. The aim was to study quadriceps and hamstring muscle power in patients with ACL injury treated with surgical reconstruction with PT or HT grafts at a mean of 3 years after surgery. Twenty subjects with PT and 16 subjects with HT grafts (mean age at follow up 30 years, range 20-39, 25% women), who were all included in a prospective study and followed the same goal-based rehabilitation protocol for at least 4 months, were assessed with reliable, valid, and responsive tests of quadriceps and hamstring muscle power at 3 years (SD 0.9, range 2-5) after surgery. The mean difference between legs (injured minus uninjured), the hamstring to quadriceps (H:Q, hamstring divided by quadriceps) ratio, and the limb symmetry index (LSI, injured leg divided by uninjured and multiplied by 100) value, were used for comparisons between the groups (analysis of variance). The mean difference between the injured and uninjured legs was greater in the HT than in the PT group for knee flexion power (-21.3 vs. 7.7 W, p = 0.001). Patients with HT graft had lower H:Q ratio in the injured leg than the patients with PT graft (0.63 vs. 0.77, p = 0.012). They also had lower LSI for knee flexion power than those in the PT group (88 vs. 106%, p knee extension power. The lower hamstring muscle power, and the lower hamstring to quadriceps ratio in the HT graft group than in the PT graft group 3 years (range 2-5) after ACL reconstruction, reflect imbalance of knee muscles after reconstruction with HT graft that

  7. Levels 3-4 English

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together the essential close reading skills needed by students taking part in the Broad General Education, Levels 3-4 (in S1 to S3).Split into two parts, the first section uses examples, models and active-learning tasks to teach key concepts of reading for understanding, analysis and evaluation. The second section provides 15 practice assessments, based on a variety of fiction and non-fiction texts, which become progressively more challenging. As well as allowing learners to demonstrate BGE reading skills, this section serves as a useful precursor to the

  8. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 3.4 Section..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.4 Compensation. (a) Compensation. This term...) Disability compensation. (1) Basic entitlement for a veteran exists if the veteran is disabled as the...

  9. Absceso cerebral posquirúrgico causado por Propionibacterium acnes Post-surgery cerebral abscess due to Propionibacterium acnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela S. Zárate

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Los abscesos cerebrales por Propionibacterium acnes son poco frecuentes. Es importante para el médico clínico la rápida identificación de este patógeno para la elección de una terapéutica antibiótica adecuada. En este caso se describe un paciente con una exéresis de un glioblastoma multiforme donde a los 9 meses se evidenció la existencia de una recidiva tumoral, se efectuó una extirpación tumoral subtotal y la colocación de implantes de quimioterapia en el lecho tumoral residual. Al cabo de un mes de esta reoperación presentó una lesión ocupante compatible con un absceso cerebral, motivo por el cual se realizó nueva craneotomía y drenaje del mismo. En los cultivos de las biopsias y del material purulento se aisló P. acnes como flora única. Para la identificación se realizaron pruebas bioquímicas y se aplicó el sistema API20A. Se determinó la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM a clindamicina, penicilina, amoxicilina y metronidazol, los valores de CIM (ug/ml obtenidos fueron: 0.250, 0.040, 0.023 y 256, respectivamente. El paciente recibió cefepime más metronidazol por vía endovenosa durante un período de 30 días y completó tratamiento con clindamicina por vía oral durante 60 días, dada la posible complicación ósea en el sitio de la infección. Luego de 8 meses de la intervención quirúrgica y el drenaje del absceso cerebral no hubo evidencia de signos clínicos de recidiva tumoral e infecciosa. P. acnes es un patógeno infrecuente como causal de abscesos cerebrales, sin embargo no se debe desestimar en muestras neuroquirúrgicas.Brain abscesses by Propionibacterium acnes are rare. The rapid identification of this pathogen is important in order to choice the appropriate antibiotic therapy. We describe the case of a patient with excision of a multiform glioblastoma who 9 months later presented a tumor recurrence. A subtotal tumor excision was made and implants chemotherapy were placed in the residual tumor

  10. Monthly errors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2006 monthly average statistical metrics for 2m Q (g kg-1) domain-wide for the base and MODIS WRF simulations against MADIS observations. This dataset is...

  11. Patient-Reported Outcomes Following Breast Reconstruction Surgery and Therapeutic Mammoplasty: Prospective Evaluation 1 Year Post-Surgery with BREAST-Q Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Laxmi; Busheri, Laleh; Dixit, Santosh; Patel, Chaula; Dhar, Upendra; Koppiker, Chaitanyanand

    2015-12-01

    Breast Cancer (BC) treatment leads to mutilation and destruction of breast shape with negative effects on body image and self-esteem.One of the main goals of reconstructive and oncoplastic breast surgery is to satisfy patients and improve their quality of life (QoL).Therefore, it is important to assess the patient experience post-surgery by means of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) that focus on the patient's perception of the surgery and surgical care, as well as psychosocial well-being and physical functioning. The objective of the current study was to identify predictors of patient satisfaction such as breast appearance including implant type in a selective sample of women who underwent breast reconstruction surgery using implants. Participants in this prospective study were women, (age 26-75 years) that were newly diagnosed with breast carcinoma. All consecutive patients who underwent breast reconstruction between January 2013 and October 2014 were asked to complete the BREAST-Q questionnaire 1 year after surgery. 120 patients underwent unilateral breast reconstruction using implant. While 38 patients underwent reconstruction with opposite breast reduction symmertization, 27 patients underwent therapeutic mammoplasty. The response rate for BREAST-Q questionnaire completion was 98 % with 147 out of 150 study participants completed the questionnaire. From the data collected from 147 patients, the responses could be distributed into 4 distinct groups based on the reconstruction outcomes namely "very much satisfied" (93 %) or "definitely and mostly satisfied" (94 %) or "satisfied" with the outcome (88 %) or "definitely agree on having reconstruction rather than the alternative of having no breast "(91 %).The results showed significant improvement in all four areas that were evaluated after surgery namely satisfaction with the appearance of the breasts, psychosocial, sexual and physical well-being. While the reconstruction surgery had an overall

  12. KinoHaptics: An Automated, Wearable, Haptic Assisted, Physio-therapeutic System for Post-surgery Rehabilitation and Self-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajanna, Vijay; Vo, Patrick; Barth, Jerry; Mjelde, Matthew; Grey, Trevor; Oduola, Cassandra; Hammond, Tracy

    2016-03-01

    A carefully planned, structured, and supervised physiotherapy program, following a surgery, is crucial for the successful diagnosis of physical injuries. Nearly 50 % of the surgeries fail due to unsupervised, and erroneous physiotherapy. The demand for a physiotherapist for an extended period is expensive to afford, and sometimes inaccessible. Researchers have tried to leverage the advancements in wearable sensors and motion tracking by building affordable, automated, physio-therapeutic systems that direct a physiotherapy session by providing audio-visual feedback on patient's performance. There are many aspects of automated physiotherapy program which are yet to be addressed by the existing systems: a wide classification of patients' physiological conditions to be diagnosed, multiple demographics of the patients (blind, deaf, etc.), and the need to pursue patients to adopt the system for an extended period for self-care. In our research, we have tried to address these aspects by building a health behavior change support system called KinoHaptics, for post-surgery rehabilitation. KinoHaptics is an automated, wearable, haptic assisted, physio-therapeutic system that can be used by a wide variety of demographics and for various physiological conditions of the patients. The system provides rich and accurate vibro-haptic feedback that can be felt by the user, irrespective of the physiological limitations. KinoHaptics is built to ensure that no injuries are induced during the rehabilitation period. The persuasive nature of the system allows for personal goal-setting, progress tracking, and most importantly life-style compatibility. The system was evaluated under laboratory conditions, involving 14 users. Results show that KinoHaptics is highly convenient to use, and the vibro-haptic feedback is intuitive, accurate, and has shown to prevent accidental injuries. Also, results show that KinoHaptics is persuasive in nature as it supports behavior change and habit building

  13. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer JS

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jerrold S Meyer Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behavior Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA Abstract: Ecstasy is a widely used recreational drug that usually consists primarily of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA. Most ecstasy users consume other substances as well, which complicates the interpretation of research in this field. The positively rated effects of MDMA consumption include euphoria, arousal, enhanced mood, increased sociability, and heightened perceptions; some common adverse reactions are nausea, headache, tachycardia, bruxism, and trismus. Lowering of mood is an aftereffect that is sometimes reported from 2 to 5 days after a session of ecstasy use. The acute effects of MDMA in ecstasy users have been attributed primarily to increased release and inhibited reuptake of serotonin (5-HT and norepinephrine, along with possible release of the neuropeptide oxytocin. Repeated or high-dose MDMA/ecstasy use has been associated with tolerance, depressive symptomatology, and persisting cognitive deficits, particularly in memory tests. Animal studies have demonstrated that high doses of MDMA can lead to long-term decreases in forebrain 5-HT concentrations, tryptophan hydroxylase activity, serotonin transporter (SERT expression, and visualization of axons immunoreactive for 5-HT or SERT. These neurotoxic effects may reflect either a drug-induced degeneration of serotonergic fibers or a long-lasting downregulation in 5-HT and SERT biosynthesis. Possible neurotoxicity in heavy ecstasy users has been revealed by neuroimaging studies showing reduced SERT binding and increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in several cortical and/or subcortical areas. MDMA overdose or use with certain other drugs can also cause severe morbidity and even death. Repeated use of MDMA may lead to dose escalation and the development of dependence, although such dependence is usually not as profound as is seen with many other drugs of abuse

  14. (E-3-(4-Bromophenyl-1-(3,4-dichlorophenylprop-2-en-1-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Kant

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The molecule of the title compound, C15H9BrCl2O, is shown to be the E isomer, with the 3,4-dichlorobenzoyl and p-bromophenyl substituents in trans positions with respect to the chalcone olefin bond. The molecule is non-planar, the two aromatic rings forming a dihedral angle of 49.58 (1°.

  15. How traumatic is breast cancer? Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and risk factors for severe PTSS at 3 and 15 months after surgery in a nationwide cohort of Danish women treated for primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Maja; Christensen, Søren; Jensen, Anders Bonde

    2011-01-01

    The literature shows considerable between-study variation in the prevalence of Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms (PTSS) among women with breast cancer. Our aim was therefore to explore the prevalence of and risk factors for cancer-related PTSS in a nationwide inception cohort of women treated...... for primary breast cancer. Methods: Sixty-eight percent of all Danish women receiving surgery for primary breast cancer between October 2001 to March 2004 completed a questionnaire 3 months post-surgery (n=3343), which included the Impact of Event Scale (IES). Ninety-four percent of the disease-free women...... also completed a follow-up questionnaire 15-months post-surgery. Data on pre-cancer demographic-, socioeconomic-, and psychiatric status were obtained from national registries. The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group and surgical departments provided information on disease variables, treatment...

  16. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  17. 41 CFR 60-3.4 - Information on impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Information on impact. 60-3.4 Section 60-3.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... 3-UNIFORM GUIDELINES ON EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 60-3.4...

  18. Knee extension and flexion muscle power after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon graft or hamstring tendons graft: a cross-sectional comparison 3 years post surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ageberg, Eva; Roos, Harald; Silbernagel, Karin;

    2008-01-01

    with surgical reconstruction with PT or HT grafts at a mean of 3 years after surgery. Twenty subjects with PT and 16 subjects with HT grafts (mean age at follow up 30 years, range 20-39, 25% women), who were all included in a prospective study and followed the same goal-based rehabilitation protocol...... for at least 4 months, were assessed with reliable, valid, and responsive tests of quadriceps and hamstring muscle power at 3 years (SD 0.9, range 2-5) after surgery. The mean difference between legs (injured minus uninjured), the hamstring to quadriceps (H:Q, hamstring divided by quadriceps) ratio...

  19. Anthracen-9-ylmethylene-(3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-ylamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Asiri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, anthracen-9-ylmethylene-(3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-ylamine (3, was synthesized in high yield by reaction of anthracene-9-carbaldehyde and 5-amino-3,4-dimethyl­isoxazole in ethanol. The structure of this new compound was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and GC-MS spectral analysis.

  20. A characterization of the SPARC T3-4 system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    This technical report covers a set of experiments on the 64-core SPARC T3-4 system, comparing it to two similar AMD and Intel systems. Key characteristics as maximum integer and floating point arithmetic throughput are measured as well as memory throughput, showing the scalability of the SPARC T3-4

  1. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Outdoor housing facilities. 3.4 Section 3.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment,...

  2. A Comparison Between Experimental and Authentic Blood/Serum Ratios of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine and 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boy, Regine Garcia; Henseler, Jörg; Ramaekers, Johannes G.; Mattern, Rainer; Skopp, Gisela

    2009-01-01

    This paper compares the blood-to-serum distribution (B/S ratio) of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its major metabolite 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA). B/S ratios were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis following liquid-liquid extraction as a func

  3. Monthly Meteorological Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly forms that do not fit into any regular submission. Tabulation sheets and generic monthly forms designed to capture miscellaneous monthly observations.

  4. Prevalence of use study for amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-ethylamphetamine (MDEA) in military entrance processing stations (MEPS) specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klette, Kevin L; Kettle, Aaron R; Jamerson, Matthew H

    2006-06-01

    The Roche Abuscreen Onlinetrade mark Amphetamine immunoassay (IA), modified to include sodium periodate, and the Microgenics DRI Ecstasy IA were used to determine the prevalence of amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in urine specimens from applicants seeking to join the United States Armed Forces. Over a 4-month period, a total of 85,658 specimens were IA screened using the Department of Defense 500 ng/mL administrative cutoff level for AMP and MDMA. All presumptively positive specimens were confirmed using a solid-phase extraction procedure coupled with simultaneous analysis of AMP, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, and MDEA by fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using the same cutoff levels as the IA. The Roche Online Amphetamine IA identified 216 specimens as presumptively positive; of these, 70 specimens confirmed positive for AMP and 87 specimens confirmed positive for AMP and/or MAMP, resulting in a confirmation rate of 73%. The Microgenics DRI Ecstasy IA identified eight specimens as presumptively positive; of these, five specimens confirmed positive for MDMA and/or MDA, resulting in a confirmation rate of 63%. The total use prevalence for AMP, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, and/or MDEA in military entrance processing stations specimens over the testing period was determined to be 0.19%.

  5. Kv3.4 channel function and dysfunction in nociceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, David M; Zemel, Benjamin M; Lepore, Angelo C; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported the isolation of the Kv3.4 current in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and described dysregulation of this current in a spinal cord injury (SCI) model of chronic pain. These studies strongly suggest that rat Kv3.4 channels are major regulators of excitability in DRG neurons from pups and adult females, where they help determine action potential (AP) repolarization and spiking properties. Here, we characterized the Kv3.4 current in rat DRG neurons from adult males and show that it transfers 40-70% of the total repolarizing charge during the AP across all ages and sexes. Following SCI, we also found remodeling of the repolarizing currents during the AP. In the light of these studies, homomeric Kv3.4 channels expressed in DRG nociceptors are emerging novel targets that may help develop new approaches to treat neuropathic pain.

  6. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-based glucose biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, A.; Hövell, W.F.M. van; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Nolte, R.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Amperometric biosensors for the recognition of glucose oxidase (GOx) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were fabricated for the first time. The resulting biosensor has potential applications for long-term glucose measurements.

  7. 5所三级医院术后疼痛管理质量评价分析%Evaluation and analysis for post-surgery pain management quality at five tertiary hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童莺歌; 刘敏君; 刘冬华; 王宏伟; 田素明

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解我国三级医院的术后疼痛管理质量现状及美国疼痛学会推荐的急性疼痛管理质量评价体系在我国的适用情况.方法 应用美国疼痛学会推荐的评价体系,通过问卷调查和查阅病历,对我国5所三级医院的术后疼痛管理质量现状进行分析.结果 被调查医院在记录疼痛状况、应用工具记录疼痛强度、采取恰当的镇痛疗法、应用非药物镇痛措施和疼痛管理结果上存在不足之处;急性疼痛服务组和无急性疼痛服务组在疼痛管理质量上存在差异,两组活动、情绪和睡眠受疼痛影响程度分别为3.12±2.82和5.16±2.07(P<0.05).结论 我国三级医院在术后疼痛管理过程和结果两方面均存在不足之处;已开展急性疼痛服务的医院在术后疼痛管理质量上优于未开展急性疼痛服务的医院.美国疼痛学会推荐的评价体系科学、灵敏,实用性和可操作性强,适用性广,适用于我国医院急性疼痛管理质量的评价.%Objective To learn the present pain management quality at tertiary hospitals in China and the application of the quality evaluation system for acute pain management quality recommended by American Pain Society.Methods Analyzing the present pain management at five tertiary hospitals in China by using the evaluation system recommended by American Pain Society,questionnaires and medical records reading.Results The hospitals were found with setbacks in describing pains,recording pains with tools,using the right pain controls,using non-drug pain control measures and pain management outcomes; differences were found between the acute pain service group and non-acute pain service group in pain management quality,as the pain impacts of both groups on activities,emotion and sleep were 3.12±2.82 and 5.16±2.07 (P<0.05) respectively.Conclusion Setbacks exist in both the process and outcomes of post-surgery pain management at these hospitals; those with acute pain

  8. Protection of a live Pasteurella multocida B:3,4 vaccine against haemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adin Priadi

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross protection conferred by a live Pasteurella multocida B:3,4 vaccine to infection by P. multocida B:2, the haemorrhagis septicaemia causing bacteria in cattle was investigated. Intranasal aerogenic immunization and subcutaneous injection of the live vaccine were applied to groups I and II of 5 Bali cattle respectively. Another group (III of 5 cattle were vaccinated with standard oli adjuvant killed vaccine intramuscularly. Cattle were observed for clinical signs and body temperatures were measured. Sera were collected monthly for 12 month and kept at -200C for further testing by ELISA. No adverse sign was observed at cattle of groups I and II after vaccination with the live vaccine. Both intranasal and subcutaneous vaccination of live vaccine showed a similar serological response which started at month-5, peaked at month-(6-7 after vaccination and still sustained at the level above positive cut-off (88 ELISA Unit at the end of observation month-12. Cattle vaccinated with killed adjuvanted vaccine responded earlier, peaked at 5-6 month after vaccination and declined steadily till the end of investigation. At 6 and 12 months after vaccination catlle were challenged with P. multocida B:2. All vaccinated cattle challenged at 6 months (C-1 and 12 (C-2 months after vaccination survived and showed no clinical signs. Body temperatures of all vaccinated cattle were normal and ranged from 38.10C to 39.10C and 38.50C to 39.50C for cattle chalenged at C-1 and C-2 respectively. However, there was 1 cattle of group I at C-1 showed an initial increase of body temperature to 400C and decreased to normal at 42 hours after challenge. One catlle of group II had a body temperature of 40.70C detected at 5 hours post C-2 and reached a normal temperature at hour-11. Both unvaccinated cattle at C-1 and C-2 died and had body temperatures of 41.40C and 41.10C respectively at the time of death. This investigation shows that live vaccine P. multocida B:3,4 is safe and

  9. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE : A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachwani Mukesh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole is a highly privileged structure the derivatives of which exhibit a wide range of biological activities including antibacterial, antitubercular, vasodialatory, antifungal, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, hypolipidemic, anticancer and ulcerogenic activities. Resistance to number of antimicrobial agents among a variety of clinically significant species of bacteria is becoming increasingly important global problem. The search for new antimicrobial agents will consequently always remain as an important and challenging task for medicinal chemists. This Review has basic information about 1,3,4-oxadiazole and its antimicrobial activity work for further development in this field.

  10. Squaroglitter: A 3,4-Connected Carbon Net

    KAUST Repository

    Prasad, Dasari L. V. K.

    2013-08-13

    Theoretical calculations are presented on a new hypothetical 3,4-connected carbon net (called squaroglitter) incorporating 1,4 cyclohexadiene units. The structure has tetragonal space group P4/mmm (No. 123) symmetry. The optimized geometry shows normal distances, except for some elongated bonds in the cyclobutane ring substructures in the network. Squaroglitter has an indirect bandgap of about 1.0 eV. The hypothetical lattice, whose density is close to graphite, is more stable than other 3,4-connected carbon nets. A relationship to a (4,4)nanotube is explored, as is a potential threading of the lattice with metal needles. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  11. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  12. Proposing Chinese Pharmacists Month

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dear Pharmacists: Today I would like to share with you about the American Pharmacists Month which is celebrated in October every year.This month-long observance is promoted by American Pharmacist Association.

  13. Synthesis of Novel Biologically Active s-Triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazole Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN,Yi-Feng

    2004-01-01

    @@ Heterocycles bearing a symmetrical triazole or 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring system are reported to show a broad spectrum of biological activities.[1,2] The 1,2,4-triazole nucleus has been recently incorporated into a wide variety of therapeutically interesting drugs including H1/H2 histamine receptor blockers, cholinesterase active agents, CNS stimulants, antianxiety and sedatives[3] Coumarins are nowadays an important group of organic compounds that used as bactericides, fungicides,anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, anti-HIV and antitumour agents.[4,5] Keeping in view the biological importance of the above mentioned heterocyclic compounds and in continuation of our search for biologically active nitrogen and sulphur heterocycles, a series of s-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives was synthesized.

  14. AM2 3-4 Alternate Lay Pattern Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    pit lined with impervious sheeting. ................................................................................... 10 Figure 9. Pulverizing CH...haul truck. .................................................................................. 12 Figure 12. Leveling CH material in test pit prior to...traffic evaluations: 1. brickwork pattern, 2. 2-1 pattern, 3. 3-4 pattern, 4. 90-degree traffic application, 5. traffic over a voided subgrade

  15. Rapid simultaneous determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine in urine by fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klette, Kevin L; Jamerson, Matthew H; Morris-Kukoski, Cynthia L; Kettle, Aaron R; Snyder, J Jacob

    2005-10-01

    The use of fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (FGC-MS) was investigated to improve the efficiency of analysis of urine specimens that previously screened presumptively positive for amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and/or 3,4 methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) by immunoassay testing. Specimens were pretreated with basic sodium periodate, extracted using a positive-pressure manifold/cation-exchange solid-phase cartridge methodology, and derivatized using 4-carbethoxyhexafluorobutyryl chloride (4-CB). The analytical method was compared to traditional GC-MS analysis and evaluated with respect to assay chromatography, linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and reproducibility. The limits of detection were 62.5 ng/mL for MDA and 31.25 ng/mL for AMP, MAMP, MDMA, and MDEA. All of the target analytes were linear to 12,000 ng/mL with the exception of MAMP which was linear to 10,000 ng/mL. The intra-assay precision of a 500 ng/mL multiconstituent control (n=15) ranged from 522.6 to 575.9 ng/mL with a coefficient of variation of less than 3.8%. Authentic human urine specimens (n=187) previously determined to contain the target analytes were re-extracted and analyzed by both FGC-MS and the currently utilized GC-MS method. No significant differences in specimen concentration were observed between these analytical methods. No interferences were seen when the performance of the FGC-MS method was challenged with ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, and phentermine. When compared to traditional GC-MS analysis, FGC-MS analysis provided a dramatic reduction in retention time for amphetamine (1.8 min vs. 4.12 min). For example, the FGC-MS method reduced overall run time for a batch of 56 specimens from 12.0 h to 7.25 h. This reduction in analysis time makes FGC-MS an attractive alternative to traditional GC-MS by allowing a laboratory greater flexibility in the purchase

  16. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 3-(4-Ethoxyphenyl)-6-(phenoxymethyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Xin-Xiang; LIU Miao-Chang; XIAO Hong-Ping; ZHANG An-Jiang; ZHANG Li-Xue

    2007-01-01

    The title compound C18H16N4O2S has been synthesized by the reaction of 4-amino-3-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole with phenoxyacetic acid in phospho- rus oxychloride, and characterized by IR, NMR spectra and elemental analysis. Its structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 1.4903(3), b = 1.5230(2), c = 0.9615(16) nm, Z = 4, V = 1.7769(5) nm3, Dc = 1.317 g/cm3, ( = 0.201 mm-1, F(000) = 736, R = 0.0795 and wR = 0.2233. In the title compound, all rings are essentially planar.

  17. Infant Sleep Predicts Attention Regulation and Behavior Problems at 3-4 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Avi; De Marcas, Gali; Guri, Yael; Berger, Andrea; Tikotzky, Liat; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed the role of early sleep patterns in predicting attention regulation and behavior problems. Sleep of 43 infants was assessed using actigraphy at 12 months of age and then reassessed when the children were 3-4 years old. During this follow-up, their attention regulation and behavior problems were also assessed using a computerized test and parental reports. Lower quality of sleep in infancy significantly predicted compromised attention regulation and behavior problems. These findings underscore the need to identify and treat early sleep problems.

  18. Total Synthesis of Six 3,4-Unsubstituted Coumarins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Gao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe a new methodology for the total synthesis of 3,4-unsubstituted coumarins from commercially available starting materials. Six examples were prepared, including five naturally occurring coumarins—7-hydroxy-6,8-dimethoxy-coumarin (isofraxidin, 7-hydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin (scopoletin, 6,7,8-trimethoxy-coumarin, 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (scoparone, and 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin (daphnetin and one synthetic coumarin, 7-hydroxy-6-ethoxycoumarin. Moreover, five important o-hydroxybenzaldehyde intermediates were also obtained, namely 2,4-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, 2,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde, 5-ethoxy-2,4-dihydroxy-benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde, and 2-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxy-benzaldehyde. The method developed herein involves just three or four steps and allows for the rapid synthesis of these important molecules in excellent yields. This is the first synthesis of 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin and 7-hydroxy-6-ethoxycoumarin.

  19. Progress report, 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  20. Hispanic Heritage Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    Hispanic heritage month is from September 15 to October 15. One problem that arises when grouping people into categories such as Hispanic or Latino is stereotyping, stereotypes can be promoted or used in this Hispanic month to promote a greater understanding of Latino cultures.

  1. Progress report, 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  2. Simplicius on Aristotle on the heavens 1-3-4

    CERN Document Server

    Simplicius

    2013-01-01

    This is the first English translation of Simplicius responses to Philoponus Against Aristotle on the Eternity of the World. The commentary is published in two volumes: Ian Muellers previous book in the series, Simplicius: On Aristotle On the Heavens 1.2-3, and this book on 1.3-4. Philoponus, the Christian, had argued that Aristotles arguments do not succeed. For all they show to the contrary, Christianity may be right that the heavens were brought into existence by the only divine being and one moment in time, and will cease to exist at some future moment. Simplicius upholds the pagan view tha

  3. Stereoselective Synthesis of 2,3,4,6-Tetrasubstituted Tetrahydropyrans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Jun-Fang; WU Yang-Jie; Véronique Micheletb; Jean-Pierre Genêt b

    2003-01-01

    @@ The construction of stereodefined, highly substituted tetrahydropyrans has attracted a lot of interest over the years since they constitute ubiquitous fragments of numerous biologically active natural products.[1] During the course of our synthetic studies toward ambruticin, a fascinating antibiotic[2] which came back in the front scene with three recent total synthesis, [3] we have been interested in the synthesis of 2,3,4,6-tetrasubstituted tetrahydropyrans 5 (Scheme 1). [4] Moreover, this kind of subunit is found to be embedded in several other natural products such as lasonolide A, polycavernoside A, ratjadone, or concanamycin A.

  4. Polymers Containing 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole Rings for Advanced Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana-Dana Damaceanu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the synthesis, properties and potential applications of new polymers containing 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole rings, tacking into account the requirements of the modern technologies. Two classes of polymers containing oxadiazole rings were approached: polyamides and polyimides. All the polymers were characterized with respect to the identification of their chemical structure, solubility, molecular weights, film forming ability, thermal, dielectric and optical properties, and the behaviour of polyoxadiazole films upon irradiation with pulsed KrF laser. All the properties were discussed in correlation with their chemical structure and compared with those of related polymers.

  5. 3,4-Diaminopyridinium 2-carboxy-4,6-dinitrophenolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Hemamalini

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, C5H8N3+·C7H3N2O7−, the pyridine N atom of the 3,4-diaminopyridine molecule is protonated. The 3,5-dinitrosalicylate anion shows whole-molecule disorder over two orientations with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.875 (4: 0.125 (4. In the crystal, the cations and anions are connected by intermolecular N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  6. AGR 3/4 Irradiation Test Final As Run Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin, Blaise P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Several fuel and material irradiation experiments have been planned for the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program (referred to as the INL ART TDO/AGR fuel program hereafter), which supports the development and qualification of tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel for use in HTGRs. The goals of these experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination and safety testing (INL 05/2015). AGR-3/4 combined the third and fourth in this series of planned experiments to test TRISO coated low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide fuel. This combined experiment was intended to support the refinement of fission product transport models and to assess the effects of sweep gas impurities on fuel performance and fission product transport by irradiating designed-to-fail fuel particles and by measuring subsequent fission metal transport in fuel-compact matrix material and fuel-element graphite. The AGR 3/4 fuel test was successful in irradiating the fuel compacts to the burnup and fast fluence target ranges, considering the experiment was terminated short of its initial 400 EFPD target (Collin 2015). Out of the 48 AGR-3/4 compacts, 42 achieved the specified burnup of at least 6% fissions per initial heavy-metal atom (FIMA). Three capsules had a maximum fuel compact average burnup < 10% FIMA, one more than originally specified, and the maximum fuel compact average burnup was <19% FIMA for the remaining capsules, as specified. Fast neutron fluence fell in the expected range of 1.0 to 5.5×1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV) for all compacts. In addition, the AGR-3/4 experiment was globally successful in keeping the

  7. Reliability of poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Lillemose, Michael; Hansen, Thomas Steen;

    2007-01-01

    -polymer Microsystems. The measurements are made on microfabricated test chips with PEDT resistors patterned by conventional UV-lithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). We determine a gauge factor of 3.41 ± 0.42 for the strained PEDT and we see an increase in resistivity from 1.98 · 104 X m to 2.22 · 104 X m when......We report on the experimentally observed reliability of the piezoresistive effect in strained poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDT). PEDT is an intrinsic conductive polymer which can be patterned by conventional Cleanroom processing, and thus presents a promising material for all...

  8. Feasibility and outcomes of intravenous thrombolysis 3-4.5 hours after stroke in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-Peng; Li, Hong-Hua; Li, Ya-Hong; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Qiang; Lin, Lang

    2014-05-01

    The time window for intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) treatment in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients has been extended to 4.5 hours. But little is known about the safety and efficacy of IV rt-PA treatment in the 3-4.5 hour time window in Chinese patients with AIS. A total of 119 patients who were treated with standard IV rt-PA therapy within 4.5 hours after symptom onset were included in this study: 85 were treated within 0-3 hours and 34 were treated within 3-4.5 hours. Favorable outcome was defined as a modified Rankin scale (mRS) score of 0-1 at 6 months. The safety of IV rt-PA treatment was assessed by the rate of mortality, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) and other common complications. There were no significant differences in SICH rates (2.94% versus 2.35%; p=0.85) at 24-36 hours, mortality (5.88% versus 3.53%; p=0.56), other complications (14.71% versus 11.76%; p=0.66), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score improvement at 24 hours (41.18% versus 45.88%; p=0.64) and favorable mRS at 6 months (52.94% versus 54.12%; p=0.91) between the two time window groups. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age, lower admission NIHSS score and shorter time from symptom onset to treatment were associated with a favorable clinical outcome. This finding showed an additional 29% of patients received IV rt-PA because of the treatment window expansion to 4.5 hours. IV rt-PA was feasible and safe for treating AIS patients in the 3-4.5 hour time window in our Chinese population.

  9. Ultraporous poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) for nanometric electrochemical supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aradilla, David [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Center for Research in Nano-Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Campus Sud, Edifici C' , C/Pasqual i Vila s/n, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Estrany, Francesc [Center for Research in Nano-Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Campus Sud, Edifici C' , C/Pasqual i Vila s/n, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, EUETIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Comte d' Urgell 187, Barcelona E-08036 (Spain); Armelin, Elaine [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Center for Research in Nano-Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Campus Sud, Edifici C' , C/Pasqual i Vila s/n, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Aleman, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.aleman@upc.edu [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Center for Research in Nano-Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Campus Sud, Edifici C' , C/Pasqual i Vila s/n, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain)

    2012-04-30

    Ultrathin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) have been prepared by electropolymerization on steel and indium-tin oxide (ITO) substrates under identical experimental conditions. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy indicate that the substrate affects dramatically both the morphology and topography of films when the polymerization times are very short. An ultraporous three-dimensional network involving ultrathin sticks with a fiber-like morphology was formed on ITO. Asymmetric and symmetric supercapacitors have been fabricated by assembling electrodes of PEDOT deposited on ITO and steel. The specific capacitance, electrochemical stability, supercapacitor behavior and Coulombic efficiency measured for devices with an ITO/steel configuration were similar to those reported for advanced PEDOT-inorganic hybrid composites. Furthermore, the performance of the ITO/steel assembly is higher than those determined for symmetric supercapacitors derived from two identical electrodes of PEDOT deposited on steel or on ITO. The unique properties of the asymmetric supercapacitors have been attributed to the ultraporous structure of the ultrathin films deposited on ITO, which is not significantly perturbed when the device is submitted to a very high number of consecutive oxidation-reduction processes, and the different electroactivities of the two electrodes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrathin poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films show fiber-like morphology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The porosity of ultrathin PEDOT films induces a very high electrochemical stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Asymmetric supercapacitors made of ultrathin PEDOT behave like hybrid nanocomposites.

  10. 3,4-Dietilpirolün Sentezi ve Karakterizasyonu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. DEDE

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Pirol ve türevleri organik ve biyokimyada önemli heterosiklik bileşiklerdir ve birçok doğal üründe bulunmaktadırlar. Bu çalışmada, porfirin vb. gibi doğal ürünlerin sentezinde kullanılabilecek bir bileşik olan 3,4-dietilpirolün sentezi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu amaç için ilk önce bir α-halojenleme reaksiyonu ile bütanalden 2-bromobütanal elde edilmiş ve yine bütanal, morfolin ile etkileştirilerek 1-morfolino-1-büten enamini sentezlenmiştir. 2-Bromobutanal ve 1-morfolino-1-büten uygun şartlarda etkileştirilerek 2,3-dietilsüksinaldehit elde edilmiştir. 2,3-Dietilsüksinaldehitin amonyum karbonat ile reaksiyonu sonucu 3,4-dietilpirol sentezlenmiştir.

  11. Lightship Monthly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily Weather Observations (Monthly Form 1001) from lightship stations in the United States. Please see the 'Surface Weather Observations (1001)' library for more...

  12. TARP Monthly Housing Scorecard

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Treasury and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) jointly produce a Monthly Housing Scorecard on the health of the nation’s housing market. The...

  13. Oceanographic Monthly Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Monthly Summary contains sea surface temperature (SST) analyses on both regional and ocean basin scales for the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans....

  14. 3, 4-methylenedioximethamphetamin reverses anxiety induced by chronic mild stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Andrea León A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the effects of subchronic 3, 4 methylenedioximethamphetamine (MDMA on the elevated plusmaze, a widely used animal model of anxiety. Rats exposed to a mild chronic stress (MCS protocol received intracerebroventricular microinjections of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI – fluoxetine (2.0 ug/ul or MDMA, (2.0 ug/ul for seven days. On the eighth day rats were tested in the elevated plus-maze. Our results showed that sub chronic MDMA interacted with MCS leading to a decrease in anxiety related behaviors including: percentage of open arms entries (F [2, 26] = 4.00; p = 0.031, time spent in the open arms (F [2, 26] = 3.656; p = 0.040 and time spent in the open arms extremities (F [2, 26] = 5.842; p = 0.008. These results suggest a potential effect of MDMA in the reversion of the emotional significance of aversive stimuli.

  15. Accuracy of Fall Prediction in Parkinson Disease: Six-Month and 12-Month Prospective Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P. Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We analyzed the ability of four balance assessments to predict falls in people with Parkinson Disease (PD prospectively over six and 12 months. Materials and Methods. The BESTest, Mini-BESTest, Functional Gait Assessment (FGA, and Berg Balance Scale (BBS were administered to 80 participants with idiopathic PD at baseline. Falls were then tracked for 12 months. Ability of each test to predict falls at six and 12 months was assessed using ROC curves and likelihood ratios (LR. Results. Twenty-seven percent of the sample had fallen at six months, and 32% of the sample had fallen at 12 months. At six months, areas under the ROC curve (AUC for the tests ranged from 0.8 (FGA to 0.89 (BESTest with LR+ of 3.4 (FGA to 5.8 (BESTest. At 12 months, AUCs ranged from 0.68 (BESTest, BBS to 0.77 (Mini-BESTest with LR+ of 1.8 (BESTest to 2.4 (BBS, FGA. Discussion. The various balance tests were effective in predicting falls at six months. All tests were relatively ineffective at 12 months. Conclusion. This pilot study suggests that people with PD should be assessed biannually for fall risk.

  16. Monthly Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-28

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief ``energy plugs`` (reviews of EIA publications) are included, as well.

  17. Photos of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Congratulations to Adele Rimoldi, ATLAS physicist from Pavia, who ran her first marathon in New York last month. Adele completed the 42.2 km in a time of 4:49:19. She sure makes it look easy!!! The ATLAS pixel service quarter panel in SR1

  18. Monthly energy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  19. Your Child's Development: 9 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Baby's Growth: 9 Months Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 9 Months Your Child's Checkup: 9 Months Medical Care and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Sleep and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Contact ...

  20. Chemical modification of spiramycins. IV. Synthesis and in vitro and in vivo activities of 3'',4''-diacylates and 3,3'',4''-triacylates of spriamycin I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, H; Sunazuka, T; Tanaka, H; Yamashita, K; Okachi, R; Omura, S

    1984-07-01

    3'',4''-Diacylates and 3,3'',4''-triacylates of spiramycin I were synthesized and evaluated by the four parameters, MIC against bacteria, affinity to ribosomes, retention time in HPLC and therapeutic effect. Among them, 3,3'',4''-tri-O-propionyl and 3,4''-di-O-acetyl-3''-O-butyryl-spiramycin I were the most active in vivo, which were superior to acetylspiramycin.

  1. Drug interaction between ethanol and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("ecstasy").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, Vijay V; Eddington, Natalie D; Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Song, Byoung-Joon; Lee, Insong J

    2009-07-24

    Alcohol (ethanol) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) are frequently co-abused, but recent findings indicate a harmful drug interaction between these two agents. In our previous study, we showed that MDMA exposure inhibits the activity of the acetaldehyde (ACH) metabolizing enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase2 (ALDH2). Based on this finding, we hypothesized that the co-administration of MDMA and ethanol would reduce the metabolism of ACH and result in increased accumulation of ACH. Rats were treated with MDMA or vehicle and then administered a single dose of ethanol. Liver ALDH2 activity decreased by 35% in the MDMA-treated rats compared to control rats. The peak concentration and the area under the concentration versus time curve of plasma ACH were 31% and 59% higher, respectively, in the MDMA-ethanol group compared to the ethanol-only group. In addition, the MDMA-ethanol group had 80% higher plasma transaminase levels than the ethanol-only group, indicating greater hepatocellular damage. Our results not only support a drug interaction between MDMA and ethanol but a novel underlying mechanism for the interaction.

  2. Heterologous production of two unusual acyclic carotenoids, 1,1'-dihydroxy-3,4-didehydrolycopene and 1-hydroxy-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydrolycopene by combination of the crtC and crtD genes from Rhodobacter and Rubrivivax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Sabine; Takaichi, Shinichi; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2002-07-17

    Acyclic hydroxy carotenoids were produced from lycopene and 3,4-didehydrolycopene in Escherichia coli by combining different carotenogenic genes including the carotene hydratase gene crtC and the carotene 3,4-desaturase gene crtD. The genes originated either from Rhodobacter species or Rubrivivax gelatinosus. It was shown that the product of crtD from Rubrivivax unlike the one from Rhodobacter is able to convert 1-HO-3,4-didehydrolycopene to 1-HO-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydrolycopene (=3,4,3',4'-tetradehydro-1,2-dihydro-psi,psi-caroten-1-ol). Thus, only when the desaturase from Rubrivivax is expressed can this novel carotenoid be obtained. In the presence of crtC from Rubrivivax, another carotenoid 1,1'-(HO)(2)-3,4-didehydrolycopene (=3,4-didehydrolycopene-1,2,1',2'-tetrahydro-psi,psi-caroten-1,1'-diol) not found in a non-transgenic organism before is formed in E. coli. Its accumulation under these conditions and its absence when crtC from Rubrivivax is replaced by the corresponding gene from Rhodobacter is discussed. The function of the different crtC and crtD genes in the pathway leading to the individual carotenoids is outlined. Since 1,1'-(HO)(2)-3,4-didehydrolycopene could not be produced in substantial amounts and 1-HO-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydrolycopene has not been described before, their structural characteristics were determined for the definite assignment of their identity. This included spectral properties, determination of relative molecular mass as well as the number of hydroxy groups by mass spectroscopy and NMR spectroscopy for 1,1'-(HO)(2)-3,4-didehydrolycopene.

  3. [Monograph for 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC)--HBM values for the sum of metabolites 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4 CBHC) in the urine of adults and children. Statement of the HBM Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The substance 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC, CAS-No. 36861-47-9 as well as 38102-62-4) is used as UV-filter in cosmetics, mainly in sunscreen lotions. National as well as European evaluations are available for the substance, especially from the Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (SCCP). The SCCP did not derive a TDI-value, but used for a MoS assessment a NOAEL of 25 mg/(kg bw · d) based on effects on the thyroid gland of rats in a subchronic study with oral administration. Newer studies, however, indicate lower NOAEL values, leading to tolerable daily intakes of 0,01 mg/kg bw. The HBM Commission established for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) HBM-I values of 0,09 mg/l urine for adults and 0,06 mg/l urine for children. HBM-I values for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4CBHC) were set at 0,38 mg/l urine for adults and 0,25 mg/l urine for children. The rounded HBM-I value for the sum of metabolites 3-4CBC und 3-4CBHC is accordingly 0,5 mg/l urine for adults and 0,3 mg/l urine for children.

  4. False-positive amphetamine/ecstasy (MDMA/3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) (CEDIA) and ecstasy (MDMA/3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) (DRI) test results with fenofibrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Yusuf Cem; Erol, Almla; Karadaş, Barş

    2012-10-01

    This case report describes a false-positive amphetamine/ecstasy [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] and ecstasy (MDMA) screen after therapeutic use of antihyperlipidemic drug, fenofibrate. A 60-year-old male patient was admitted to inpatient psychiatry unit with the diagnosis of alcohol dependency. He was prescribed diazepam 30 mg/day, thiamine 300 mg/day, and naltrexone 50 mg/day. He had also been using fenofibrate 267 mg/day for 3 years for hyperlipidemia and trazodone 100 mg/day for 5 months for insomnia. On routine, urine drugs-of-abuse screening amphetamine/MDMA (CEDIA) test was positive for 4 different occasions and MDMA (DRI) test was positive on 5 different occasions. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry confirmation of the first positive 3 samples were negative for amphetamine and MDMA. After discontinuation of fenofibrate, amphetamine/MDMA, and MDMA immunoassay results turned out to be negative. Caution should be given to interpretation of amphetamine/MDMA (CEDIA) and MDMA (DRI) tests in patients taking fenofibrate. Specific confirmation with a suitable method should be used to prevent erroneous interpretations.

  5. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  6. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  7. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine facilitates fear extinction learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L

    2015-09-15

    Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were first exposed to cued fear conditioning and treated with drug vehicle or MDMA before extinction training 2 days later. MDMA was administered systemically and also directly targeted to brain structures known to contribute to extinction. In addition to behavioral measures of extinction, changes in mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and Fos were measured after MDMA treatment and extinction. MDMA (7.8 mg kg(-1)) persistently and robustly enhanced long-term extinction when administered before extinction training. MDMA increased the expression of Fos in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas increases in Bdnf expression were observed only in the amygdala after extinction training. Extinction enhancements were recapitulated when MDMA (1 μg) was infused directly into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), and enhancement was abolished when BDNF signaling was inhibited before extinction. These findings suggest that MDMA enhances fear memory extinction through a BDNF-dependent mechanism, and that MDMA may be a useful adjunct to exposure-based therapies for PTSD and other anxiety disorders characterized by altered fear learning.

  8. Characteristics of pregnant women who use ecstasy (3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, E; Karimi-Tabesh, L; Koren, G

    2001-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of pregnant women who use Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA), and to identify reproductive risk factors associated with this group of women. Prospective, observational study. Pregnant women who have contacted the Motherisk Alcohol and Substance Use Helpline at The Hospital for Sick Children, in Toronto, about exposure to drugs, chemicals, infection or radiation. All inquiries from December 1998 to October 2000 concerning pregnant women who reported use of MDMA, and control cases of women not exposed to MDMA selected within the same week of the MDMA callers. Age, maternal demographics, pregnancy characteristics, patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use, psychological/emotional status, sexually transmitted disease, MDMA method and pattern of use, and adverse drug reactions after ingestion of MDMA. The 132 pregnant women who used MDMA were significantly younger (mean 23.2 vs. 31.2 years, Palcohol (66.4% vs. 37.3%, Ppsilocybin were used more frequently among the MDMA sample. Over a third of MDMA users reported psychiatric/emotional problems, including 6.5% with a clinically diagnosed condition that was being treated with medication and/or counseling. Pregnant women who use MDMA tend to be young, single, and report psychological morbidity, and have a clustering of risk factors that may compromise the pregnancy and fetus. Smoking, heavy alcohol intake, and polydrug use, combined with a higher than expected rate of unplanned pregnancies, increases the risk of fetal exposure to potentially harmful substances. It is important to account for the range of confounding risk factors among women who use MDMA in order to define possible direct effects of MDMA in pregnancy.

  9. Synthesis of Novel 2,5-Disubstituted-1,3,4-thiadiazoles Clubbed 1,2,4-Triazole, 1,3,4-Thiadiazole, 1,3,4-Oxadiazole and/or Schiff Base as Potential Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadjet Rezki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a new series of 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-thiadiazole tethered 1,2,4-triazole, 1,3,4-thiadiazole, 1,3,4-oxadiazole and Schiff base derivatives were synthesized and characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS and elemental analyses. All compounds were screened for their antibacterial, antifungal and antiproliferative activity. Some of the synthesized derivatives have displayed promising biological activity.

  10. Predictors of functional shoulder recovery at 1 and 12 months after breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Ellen W; Pfalzer, Lucinda A; Danoff, Jerome; Springer, Barbara A; McGarvey, Charles; Shieh, Ching-yi; Morehead-Gee, Alicia; Gerber, Lynn H; Stout, Nicole L

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study are (1) to determine if upper extremity function, as represented by shoulder ROM, self-reported symptoms and upper extremity functional limitations in activities of daily living could be predictively related to demographic and cancer characteristics post-surgery for breast cancer. And (2) to examine if variables related to early onset impairment contribute to late onset impairments in women after breast cancer surgery. Subjects were assessed preoperatively and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12+ months post breast cancer surgery for impairments and symptoms and at 12+ months for shoulder functional limitations using a physical therapy surveillance model. Body weight, shoulder ROM, manual muscle testing, and upper limb volume were recorded. At 12+ months, the Harvard Alumni Health Study Physical Activity Questionnaire, and an Upper Limb Disability Questionnaire were administered. Symptoms and ROM impairments were compared by functional limitations. Characteristics significantly associated with early ROM impairment (but not later impairment) were axillary lymph node dissection, removal of ≥15 nodes, mastectomy surgery and stage II breast cancer. Positive nodes, older age, and BMI≥25 were significantly associated with reduced shoulder ROM at 12+ months. At 12+ months, only 10 % of the patients experienced ROM impairments while rates of self-reported symptoms in the affected upper extremity at 12+ months were as follows: pain-49%, weakness-47.1%, numbness-55.9%, feeling tired-42.5%. The majority of patients used the affected upper extremity for reaching without limitation, but ≥35% reported limitation with household chores, carrying and lifting. Difficulty carrying and lifting could be predicted by BMI≥25 and use of the dominant affected upper limb. Different factors are associated with early versus later ROM loss. Symptoms reported by breast cancer survivors are frequently associated with functional limitations in upper extremity tasks and warrant

  11. Subtask 3.4 - Fischer - Tropsch Fuels Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strege, Joshua; Snyder, Anthony; Laumb, Jason; Stanislowski, Joshua; Swanson, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Under Subtask 3.4, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) examined the opportunities and challenges facing FischerTropsch (FT) technology in the United States today. Work was completed in two distinct budget periods (BPs). In BP1, the EERC examined the technical feasibility of using modern warm-gas cleanup techniques for FT synthesis. FT synthesis is typically done using more expensive and complex cold-gas sweetening. Warm-gas cleanup could greatly reduce capital and operating costs, making FT synthesis more attractive for domestic fuel production. Syngas was generated from a variety of coal and biomass types; cleaned of sulfur, moisture, and condensables; and then passed over a pilot-scale FT catalyst bed. Laboratory and modeling work done in support of the pilot-scale effort suggested that the catalyst was performing suboptimally with warm-gas cleanup. Long-term trends showed that the catalyst was also quickly deactivating. In BP3, the EERC compared FT catalyst results using warm-gas cleanup to results using cold-gas sweetening. A gas-sweetening absorption system (GSAS) was designed, modeled, and constructed to sweeten syngas between the gasifier and the pilot-scale FT reactor. Results verified that the catalyst performed much better with gas sweetening than it had with warm-gas cleanup. The catalyst also showed no signs of rapid deactivation when the GSAS was running. Laboratory tests in support of this effort verified that the catalyst had deactivated quickly in BP1 because of exposure to syngas, not because of any design flaw with the pilot-scale FT reactor itself. Based on these results, the EERC concludes that the two biggest issues with using syngas treated with warm-gas cleanup for FT synthesis are high concentrations of CO{sub 2} and volatile organic matter. Other catalysts tested by the EERC may be more tolerant of CO{sub 2}, but volatile matter removal is critical to ensuring long-term FT catalyst operation. This subtask was funded through

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  13. Commissioners' Monthly Case Activity Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission — Total cases pending at the beginning of the month, total cases added to the docket during the month, total cases disposed of during the month, and total cases...

  14. Developmental milestones record - 4 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 4 months; Childhood growth milestones - 4 months; Growth milestones for children - 4 months ... coo Be able to laugh out loud Anticipate feeding when able to see a bottle (if bottle- ...

  15. Análise pré e pós-operatória da capacidade funcional e qualidade de vida de pacientes portadores de Osteoartrose de quadril submetidos à Artroplastia Total Pre- and Post-Surgery analysis of functional capacity and quality of life of patienst with Osteoarthritis submitted to Total Hip Artroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lislei Jorge Patrizzi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a capacidade funcional da articulação do quadril e a qualidade de vida de pacientes portadores de osteoartrose submetidos à artroplastia total. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados 12 pacientes através do questionário Harris Hip Score (modificado/ escala de 0-95 pontos e goniometria no pré e pós-operatório de artroplastia total de quadril. RESULTADOS: a amplitude de movimento mostrou-se incompleta em todos os arcos de movimento no pré-operatório. No pós-operatório os valores aumentaram significativamente na flexão (p=0,007, extensão (p=0,02, abdução (p=0,001, rotação medial (p=0,0002 e lateral (p=0,01, apenas o aumento do movimento de adução de quadril não foi significativo (p=0,08. A medida do escore obtido através do questionário no pré-operatório foi 39,7 pontos e no pós-operatório 74,1 pontos (POBJECTIVE: To evaluate the functional capacity of the hip articulation and the quality of life of patients with osteoarthritis submitted to total artroplasty. METHODS: 12 patients were assessed through the questionnaire Harris Hip Score (modified/scale of 0-95 points and goniometry in the pre- and post-surgery of total hip artroplasty. RESULTS: The pre-surgery questionnaire score was 39.7 and in the post-surgery the average score reached 74.1 points (p = 0.000001. The range of motion of the hip was incomplete in all the movement arches in the pre-surgery, but in the post-surgery this value increased significantly in flexion (p = 0.007, extension (p = 0.02, abduction (p = 0.001, medial rotation (p = 0.0002 and lateral rotation (p = 0.01; only the aduction movement was not significantly increased (p = 0.08. CONCLUSIONS: Total hip artroplasty reliefs patients pain, improves daily life activities and increases the hip range of motion; patients, however, relate fear and insecurity in the accomplishment of those activities.

  16. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Fungicidal Activity of 3- ( 4- Chloro- 3- ethyl- 1 -methyl- 1 H- pyrazol- 5-yl ) - 6- (E) phenylvinyltriazolo [ 3, 4-b ] - 1,3, 4-thiadiazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈寒松; 李正名; 杨小平; 王宏根; 姚心侃

    2000-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound 3-(4-Chloro-3-ethyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-6- (E) phenylvinyltriazolo [ 3, 4-b ]-1, 3, 4-thiadiazole ( C17 H15ClN6S, Mr = 370.87) was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal ismonoclinic, space group P21/n, a = 10.862(2), b = 11.541(2), c = 14.994(3) A,β=108.41(3)°, V=1783(1) A, Z=4, Dx =1.381g/cm-3, μ=0.3361 mm-1, andF(000) = 768. The results confirmed that the title compound belongs to type E of ste-reochemistry. The dihedral angle between triazole and 1, 3, 4-thiadiaole ring is 3° andthe torsion angle between 1,3, 4-thiadiazole and pyrazole ring is 134.0°.

  17. Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. C. Venema

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative. The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide trend was added.

    Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii the error in linear trend estimates and (iii traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve

  18. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  19. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  20. COSMIC monthly progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of May 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are summarized. Nine articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: (1) WFI - Windowing System for Test and Simulation; (2) HZETRN - A Free Space Radiation Transport and Shielding Program; (3) COMGEN-BEM - Composite Model Generation-Boundary Element Method; (4) IDDS - Interactive Data Display System; (5) CET93/PC - Chemical Equilibrium with Transport Properties, 1993; (6) SDVIC - Sub-pixel Digital Video Image Correlation; (7) TRASYS - Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (HP9000 Series 700/800 Version without NASADIG); (8) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (VAX VMS Version); and (9) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (UNIX Version). Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and dissemination are also described along with a budget summary.

  1. Fine tuning the HOMO energy levels of polythieno[3,4-b]thiophene derivatives by incorporation of thiophene-3,4-dicarboxylate moiety for photovoltaic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Xiao-Lian; Zuo, Li-Jian; Nan, Ya-Xiong

    2012-01-01

    To lower the HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) energy level of polythieno[3,4-b]thiophene (∼−4.5eV), a series of ester-functionalized polythieno[3,4-b]thiophene derivatives (P1–P3) were designed and synthesized by Stille cross coupling reaction. The resulting copolymers exhibited broad an...

  2. Phase Transfer Catalyzed Synthesis of 1, 2-Bis[(3-aryl)-s-triazolo-[3, 4-b]-[1, 3, 4]thiadiazole-6-yl]ethanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De Jiang LI; He Qing FU

    2006-01-01

    A series of new 1, 2-bis[(3-aryl)-s-triazolo[3, 4-b]-[1, 3, 4]thiadiazole-6-yl]ethanes were synthesized in 50-82% yield by cyclization of 3-aryl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole with butanedioic acid in the presence of POC13 and tetrabutylammonium iodide as phase transfer catalyst.

  3. Simultaneous polysubstance use among Danish 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and hallucinogen users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Cecilie L; Christoffersen, Maria; Okholm, Mads;

    2012-01-01

    To describe patterns of simultaneous polysubstance use (SPU) among Danish 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) ("Ecstasy") and hallucinogen users.......To describe patterns of simultaneous polysubstance use (SPU) among Danish 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) ("Ecstasy") and hallucinogen users....

  4. Oral maxillofacial fractures seen at a ugandan tertiary hospital: a six-month prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Kamulegeya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of maxillofacial fractures and associated fractures in patients seen in the Oral Surgery Unit of Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. METHODOLOGY: A six-month prospective study was conducted. Data collected included socio-demographic factors, type and etiology of injury, additional fractures, and post-surgery complications. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-two (132 cases ranging from 5-70 yrs of age were reported, with a male: female ratio of 7.7:1. The 21-30 yr age group was the largest, comprising 51.51% of cases (n=68. Road traffic accidents contributed to 56.06% (n=74 of fractures. In total, 66% of the sample (n=87 suffered isolated mandibular fractures. Symphyseal and maxillary fractures were the most common mandibular and mid-facial fractures, respectively. Among associated fractures, the femur was most affected. A total of 39 (29.54% of patients had post-operative complications, of which infection accounted for 48.71% (n= 19, and malocclusion accounted for 17.94% (n=7. CONCLUSIONS: Anticipated changes in maxillofacial trauma trends necessitate regular epidemiologic studies of facial fractures to allow for development and implementation of timely novel preventive measures.

  5. 1,3,4,6,7,9-Hexamethylbenzo[1,2-c:3,4-c':5,6-c'']trithiophene: a twisted heteroarene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao-Ting; Tai, Chia-Cheng; Lin, Wei-Chih; Baldridge, Kim K

    2009-07-01

    1,3,4,6,7,9-Hexamethylbenzo[1,2-c:3,4-c':5,6-c'']trithiophene (C-Me) was prepared by palladium-catalyzed methylations of the corresponding hexabromide C-Br. The twisted structure of C-Me has been confirmed by X-ray crystal analysis. The physical properties of twisted C-Me and planar benzo[1,2-c:3,4-c':5,6-c'']trithiophene (C-H) were studied and compared. Crystal structures are compared to computational structures determined using density functional theory, with both the M06-2X and B3PW91 functionals.

  6. Electronic Services Monthly MI Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This electronic services monthly MI report contains monthly MI data for most public facing online online applications such as iClaim, electronic access, Mobile wage...

  7. Monthly energy review, August 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review for the month of August 1997, presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  8. Get effective polyclonal antisera in one month

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    According to the traditional immunization procedure, after the first injection of the sample A (emulsion of aimed antigen and Freund's complete adjuvant) to immunize rabbit, successive injections of the sample B (emulsion of aimed antigen and Freund's incomplete adjuvant) were followed every 2-4 weeks. In general,high titer of the corresponding polyclonal antisera will be observed after 4-5 injections of sample B in 3-4months. This report presents a simply modified procedure that was able to stimulate the antisera formation in one month and achieve enough avidity to satisfy either Western blot or immunohistochemistry analysis.It just applied an additional injection of the sample A to the rabbit at the 3rd day after the primary immunization injection. You could gain the high titer of the antisera right after the first sample B injection in one month. This method has produced the desired results in three different recombinant antigens with different molecular weight (5.9 KD-55 KD) expressed from prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells.

  9. Preparation of QTi4.3-4Graghite Composite by Semi-solid Casting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng; DU Yunhui; LIU Hanwu; ZENG Daben; BA Limin

    2005-01-01

    The electromagnetic-mechanical stirring technology was employed for preparing QTi4.3-4 graghite composite slurry, and QTi4.3-4 graghite composite with uniform distribution of graphite particles was prepared using the semi-solid casting technology successfully. The structure of this QTi4.3-4 graghite composite was studied and the condition for uniform distribution of graphite particles was got. The experimental results show that there exists a linear relationship between the solid fraction aud the stirring temperature of QTi4.3-4 graphite slurry. With the decreasing of stirring temperature, the solid fraction of QTi4.3-4 graghite slurry increases constantly. In casting, with the iucreasing of solid fraction of QTi4.3-4graghite slurry, the agglomeration of graphite particles is removed gradually. When the solid fraction is higher than 40% , graphite particles can distribute evenly in QTi4.3-4 graghite composite.

  10. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some novel fused heterocyclic 1,2,4-triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish K. Sahu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, the synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of 1,2,4-triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine including different pharmacophores are aimed at. In this study, a series of 6-aryl-3- (3,4 -dialkoxyphenyl-7H -[1,2,4]triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine (7a-7k was synthesized by condensing 4-amino-5-(3,4-dialkoxyphenyl-4H-[1,2,4]- triazole-3-thiol (6 with various aromatic carboxylic acids in the presence of phenacyl bromides through one-pot reaction. Eleven fused heterocyclic derivatives were successfully synthesized. The structures of these newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1 H NMR and mass spectroscopic studies. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial evaluation. Some of the compounds exhibited promising antimicrobial activity. From the present study it may be concluded that synthesized compounds are fruitful in terms of their structural novelty and marked biological activities. These compounds could be further modified to develop potential and safer antifungal agents.

  11. Synthesis of 3,4-disubstituted maleimides by selective cross-coupling reactions using indium organometallics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouissane, Latifa; Pérez Sestelo, José; Sarandeses, Luis A

    2009-03-19

    Unsymmetrical 3,4-disubstituted maleimides have been synthesized by palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of indium organometallics with 3,4-dihalomaleimides. The synthesis was performed by stepwise or sequential one-pot palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with various triorganoindium reagents. This method was used to prepare a wide variety of alkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, and alkynyl 3,4-disubstituted maleimides in good yields and with high selectivity and atom economy.

  12. Effects of 3,4-Dichloroaniline on Testicle Enzymes as Biological Markers in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo ZHANG; SEN LIN

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of 3,4-dichlomaniline (3,4-DCA) on activities of testicle enzymes as biological markers in rats. Methods Fifty male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10). One group was left untreated and used as a solvent control (administered orally by corn oil), while the other 4 groups were treated with 3, 4-DCA. Corn oil was used as a solvent, and 3,4-DCA was diluted into tested concentrations (39, 81, 170, and 357 mg/kg). All the groups orally administered 3,4-DCA or corn oil, once a day for 4 weeks. The testicle tissue was homogenized in a 0.1 mol/L potassium phosphate buffer (0.1 mol/L, pH 7.2). The crude homogenate was centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 5 rain at 4 ℃. The supematant obtained was used as an enzyme extract for determination of the enzyme activities. Results Compared with the control, the activities of ALP, ACE and SDH were increased significantly at a lower level of 3,4-DCA, and decreased at a higher level of 3, 4-DCA, whreas the activities of LDH, LDH-X, and G6PDH were inhibited significantly with the increased 3,4-DCA concentration. Organ coefficient "organ weight/total body weight × 100" of testis, liver, and spleen increased significantly with the increased 3,4-DCA concentration. These results suggest that 3,4-DCA toxicity to the male reproductive system was associated with the activities of testicular enzymes which are the sensitive biochemical endpoints reflecting 3,4-DCA toxicity to the male reproductive system. Conclusion 3,4-DCA has toxicity to the reproductive system in male rats.

  13. Monthly energy review, January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Major activities covered include production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  14. Natural gas monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured articles for this month are: Opportunities with fuel cells, and revisions to monthly natural gas data.

  15. Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR) replaces the Cost Distribution Report (CDR). The MPCR provides summary information about Veterans Affairs operational costs,...

  16. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  17. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  18. Spasmolytic agents. 2. 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-2-naphthylamine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanao, M; Hashizume, T; Ichikawa, Y; Irie, K; Isoda, S

    1982-11-01

    N-[(Benzoyloxy)alkyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-naphthylamine derivatives were synthesized from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-naphthylamines and evaluated for their spasmolytic. Some of these compounds showed a nerve-selective effect on colon rather than stomach in anesthetized dogs and were found to be equal to or more active than the reference drug (mebeverine). The biological data have indicated some structure-activity relationships. Among these compounds, N-ethyl-N-[6-(3,4-dimethoxybenzoyl)oxy]hexyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-methoxy-2- napththylamine hydrochloride (63) was found to be the most active spasmolytic agent.

  19. Pathway for inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate and 1,4-bisphosphate metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Inhorn, R C; Bansal, V S; Majerus, P W

    1987-01-01

    We prepared [3H]inositol-,3-[32P]phosphate-and 4-[32P]phosphate-labeled inositol phosphate substrates to investigate the metabolism of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate and inositol 1,4-bisphosphate. In crude extracts of calf brain, inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate is first converted to inositol 3,4-bisphosphate, then the inositol 3,4-bisphosphate intermediate is further converted to inositol 3-phosphate. Similarly, inositol 1,4-bisphosphate is converted to inositol 4-phosphate, and no inositol 1-phos...

  20. Ineffectiveness of 3,4-diaminopyridine as a therapy for type C botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, L.S.; Price, J.I.

    1987-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins inhibit acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions. Agents stimulating neurotransmitter efflux, such as 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP), could be useful for botulism therapy. Treatment with 3,4-DAP (8 mg/kg hourly, beginning 3 hr after toxin injection) failed to increase the survival times of mice receiving 10, 20 or 40 LD50 type C, but did prolong the survival of those receiving 20 LD50 type A. This difference in 3,4-DAP efficacy may reflect variations in the molecular mechanism of action of types A and C botulinum neurotoxins.

  1. Synthesis of 1-Substituted Carbazolyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro- and Carbazolyl-3,4-dihydro-β-carboline Analogs as Potential Antitumor Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Wang Chern

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of 1-substituted carbazolyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro- and carbazolyl-3,4-dihydro-b-carboline analogs have been synthesized and evaluated for antitumor activity against human tumor cells including KB, DLD, NCI-H661, Hepa, and HepG2/A2 cell lines. Among these, compounds 2, 6, 7, and 9 exhibited the most potent and selective activity against the tested tumor cells. As for inhibition of topoisomerase II, compounds 1–14 and 18 showed better activity than etoposide. Among them, compounds 3, 4, 7, 9, and 10 exhibited potent activity. The structure and activity relationship (SAR study revealed correlation between carbon numbers of the side chain and biological activities. The molecular complex with DNA for compound 2 was proposed.

  2. Practical and Efficient Synthesis of α-Aminophosphonic Acids Containing 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroquinoline or 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline Heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, Mario; Arizpe, Alicia; Sayago, Fracisco J; Jiménez, Ana I; Cativiela, Carlos

    2016-08-31

    We report here a practical and efficient synthesis of α-aminophosphonic acid incorporated into 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline heterocycles, which could be considered to be conformationally constrained analogues of pipecolic acid. The principal contribution of this synthesis is the introduction of the phosphonate group in the N-acyliminium ion intermediates, obtained from activation of the quinoline and isoquinoline heterocycles or from the appropriate δ-lactam with benzyl chloroformate. Finally, the hydrolysis of phosphonate moiety with simultaneous cleavage of the carbamate afforded the target compounds.

  3. Monthly energy review: April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This monthly report presents an overview of energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. A section is also included on international energy. The feature paper which is included each month is entitled ``Energy equipment choices: Fuel costs and other determinants.`` 37 figs., 59 tabs.

  4. Natural gas monthly, February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  5. Monthly energy review, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 75 tabs.

  6. Monthly energy review, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 36 figs., 61 tabs.

  7. Monthly energy review, November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 91 tabs.

  8. Monthly Energy Review, February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-26

    This monthly publication presents an overview of EIA`s recent monthly energy statistics, covering the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief descriptions (`energy plugs`) on two EIA publications are presented at the start.

  9. Monthly energy review, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs. 73 tabs.

  10. Haida Months of the Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Robert

    Students are introduced to Haida vocabulary in this booklet which briefly describes the seasons and traditional seasonal activities of Southeastern Alaska Natives. The first section lists the months in English and Haida; e.g., January is "Taan Kungaay," or "Bear Hunting Month." The second section contains seasonal names in…

  11. Natural gas monthly, December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  12. Monthly energy review, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  13. Monthly energy review, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  14. Natural gas monthly, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  15. Natural gas monthly, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  16. Monthly energy review, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  17. Monthly energy review, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  18. Monthly energy review, February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  19. Monthly energy review, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 74 tabs.

  20. Characterizations of a loss-of-function mutation in the Kir3.4 channel subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calloe, Kirstine; Ravn, Lasse Steen; Schmitt, Nicole;

    2007-01-01

    and two-electrode voltage-clamp revealed that Kir3.4-G247R basal current was reduced compared to wild-type Kir3.4 and co-expression with the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor type 2 showed that also the acetylcholine induced current was severely reduced in Kir3.4-G247R, indicating that the mutation...... interfered with activation by the stimulatory G betagamma-subunits. Co-expression of Kir3.4-G247R with wild-type Kir3.4 or Kir3.1 had a compensating effect on both basal current levels and the response to muscarinic stimulation suggesting the function of Kir3.4-G247R is compensated in vivo. This may explain......Kir3.4 and Kir3.1 potassium channel subunits mediate the acetylcholine induced inwardly rectifying current I(KACh) in the heart. We found a glycine to arginine substitution in codon 247 of Kir3.4 in a patient with a single episode of atrial fibrillation (AF). Expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes...

  1. Dissecting Oct3/4-regulated gene networks in embryonic stem cells by expression profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Matoba

    Full Text Available POU transcription factor Pou5f1 (Oct3/4 is required to maintain ES cells in an undifferentiated state. Here we show that global expression profiling of Oct3/4-manipulated ES cells delineates the downstream target genes of Oct3/4. Combined with data from genome-wide chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays, this analysis identifies not only primary downstream targets of Oct3/4, but also secondary or tertiary targets. Furthermore, the analysis also reveals that downstream target genes are regulated either positively or negatively by Oct3/4. Identification of a group of genes that show both activation and repression depending on Oct3/4 expression levels provides a possible mechanism for the requirement of appropriate Oct3/4 expression to maintain undifferentiated ES cells. As a proof-of-principle study, one of the downstream genes, Tcl1, has been analyzed in detail. We show that Oct3/4 binds to the promoter region of Tcl1 and activates its transcription. We also show that Tcl1 is involved in the regulation of proliferation, but not differentiation, in ES cells. These findings suggest that the global expression profiling of gene-manipulated ES cells can help to delineate the structure and dynamics of gene regulatory networks.

  2. Dissecting Oct3/4-Regulated Gene Networks in Embryonic Stem Cells by Expression Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoba, Ryo; Niwa, Hitoshi; Masui, Shinji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Carter, Mark G.; Sharov, Alexei A.; Ko, Minoru S.H.

    2006-01-01

    POU transcription factor Pou5f1 (Oct3/4) is required to maintain ES cells in an undifferentiated state. Here we show that global expression profiling of Oct3/4-manipulated ES cells delineates the downstream target genes of Oct3/4. Combined with data from genome-wide chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, this analysis identifies not only primary downstream targets of Oct3/4, but also secondary or tertiary targets. Furthermore, the analysis also reveals that downstream target genes are regulated either positively or negatively by Oct3/4. Identification of a group of genes that show both activation and repression depending on Oct3/4 expression levels provides a possible mechanism for the requirement of appropriate Oct3/4 expression to maintain undifferentiated ES cells. As a proof-of-principle study, one of the downstream genes, Tcl1, has been analyzed in detail. We show that Oct3/4 binds to the promoter region of Tcl1 and activates its transcription. We also show that Tcl1 is involved in the regulation of proliferation, but not differentiation, in ES cells. These findings suggest that the global expression profiling of gene-manipulated ES cells can help to delineate the structure and dynamics of gene regulatory networks. PMID:17183653

  3. Oxalic Acid Catalyzed Three Component One Pot Synthesis of 3,4-Dihydroquinazolin-4-ones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANGSHETTI Jaiprakash-N.; KOKARE Nagnnath-D.; SHINDE Devanand-B.

    2008-01-01

    An efficient one-pot method for synthesis of an array of 3,4-dihydroquinazolin-4-ones from anthranilicacid, triethyl orthoformate, and anilines using oxalic acid as a catalyst was described. The present protocol offers im-provements for the synthesis of 3,4-dihydroquinazolin-4-ones with regard to short reaction time, high yields of products, and simplicity in operation.

  4. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF... reports of injury or damage. A person may not knowingly give any false or fictitious report concerning...

  5. Synthesis of 3-cyano-4-aryl-5-ethoxycarbonyl-6-methyl-3,4-dihydropyridine-2-thiones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauze, A.A.; Liepin' sh, E.E.; Pelcher, Yu.E.; Kalme, Z.A.; Dipan, I.V.; Dubur, G.Ya.

    1985-12-01

    The condensation of ethyl arylidenacetoacetate with cyanothioacetamide and of arylidenecyanothioacetamides with ethyl acetoacetate or of arylidenecyanothioacetamides with ethyl ..beta..-aminocrotonate gave 3-cyano-4-aryl-5-ethoxycarbonyl-6-methyl-3,4-dihydropyridine-2-thiones. PMR spectroscopy showed that the 3-cyano-4-aryl-3,4-dihydro-pyridine-2-thiones are formed as a mixture of cis and trans isomers.

  6. Synthesis and insect antifeedant activities of some substituted styryl 3,4-dichlorophenyl ketones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunarayanan, G.; Surya, S.; Srinivasan, S.; Vanangamudi, G.; Sathiyendiran, V.

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen substituted styryl 3,4-dichlorophenyl ketones [ (2E)-1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-phenyl-2-propen-1-ones] were synthesized using eco-friendly benign stereoselective crossed-aldol reaction. They are characterized by their analytical, infrared, NMR and mass spectral data. The insect antifeedant activities of these chalcones were evaluated using Caster semilooper and Achoea janata L.

  7. Determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in urine by online solid-phase extraction and ion-pairing liquid chromatography with detection by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ti-Yu; Fuh, Ming-Ren

    2005-01-01

    A method using an online solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ion-pairing liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ES-MS/MS) was developed for determination of amphetamine (Amp), methamphetamine (mAmp), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in urine samples. A SPE cartridge column with both hydrophilic and lipophilic functions was utilized for online extraction. A reversed-phase C18 LC column was employed for LC separation and MS/MS was used for detection. Trifluoroacetic acid was added to the mobile phase as an ion-pairing reagent. This method was fully automated and the extraction and analysis procedures were controlled by a six-port switch valve. Recoveries ranging from 85-101% were measured. Good linear ranges (10-500 ng/mL) for Amp and mAmp were determined. For MDA, MDMA and MDEA, dual linear ranges were obtained from 5-100 and 100-500 ng/mL, respectively. The detection limit of each analytical compound, based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, ranged from 1-3 ng/mL. The applicability of this newly developed method was examined by analyzing several urine samples from drug users. Good agreement was obtained between the results from this method and a literature GC/MS method.

  8. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Perceived Infant Outcomes at 18-24 months: Neural and Psychological Correlates of Parental Thoughts and Actions Assessed during the First Month Postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilyoung eKim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The first postpartum months constitute a critical period for parents to establish an emotional bond with their infants. Neural responses to infant-related stimuli have been associated with parental sensitivity. However, the associations among these neural responses, parenting, and later infant outcomes for mothers and fathers are unknown. In the current longitudinal study, we investigated the relationships between parental thoughts/actions and neural activation in mothers and fathers in the neonatal period with infant outcomes at the toddler stage. At the first month postpartum, mothers (n=21 and fathers (n=19 underwent a neuroimaging session during which they listened to their own and unfamiliar baby’s cry. Parenting-related thoughts/behaviors were assessed by interview twice at the first month and 3-4 months postpartum and infants’ socioemotional outcomes were reported by mothers and fathers at 18-24 months postpartum. In mothers, higher levels of anxious thoughts/actions about parenting at the first month postpartum, but not at 3-4 months postpartum, were associated with infant’s low socioemotional competencies at 18-24 months. Anxious thoughts/actions were also associated with heightened responses in the motor cortex and reduced responses in the substantia nigra to own infant cry sounds. On the other hand, in fathers, higher levels of positive perception of being a parent at the first month postpartum, but not at 3-4 months postpartum, were associated with higher infant socioemotional competencies at 18-24 months. Positive thoughts were associated with heightened responses in the auditory cortex and caudate to own infant cry sounds. The current study provides evidence that parental thoughts are related to concurrent neural responses to their infants at the first month postpartum as well as their infant’s future socioemotional outcome at 18-24 months. Parent differences suggest that anxious thoughts in mothers and positive thoughts in

  9. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dialkoxybenzene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labanauskas, L; Brukstus, A; Udrenaite, E; Bucinskaite, V; Susvilo, I; Urbelis, G

    2005-03-01

    New 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dialkoxybenzene derivatives 17-31 were synthesized by the acylation of amines 9-16 with acyl chlorides. Amines 9-16 were obtained from aryl ketones 1-8. Aryl ketones 1-8 were synthesized by the acylation of corresponding aromatic compounds. As it was preliminary predicted by PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substance) program, all 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dimethoxy- and 3,4-diethoxybenzene derivatives possess anti-inflammatory activity. Activity of compounds 18, 19, 21, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29 was similar to that of acetylsalicylic acid or ibuprofen however their acute toxicity was less than that of mentioned anti-inflammatory drugs. A series of 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dimethoxybenzene, 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-diethoxybenzene and 6-acylaminoalkyl-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxine derivatives have been synthesized. These compounds possess moderate or strong anti-inflammatory activity and low toxicity.

  10. Synthesis and Properties of N, N'-Bis (difuroxano [3,4-b: 3',4'-d]phenyl)oxalic Amide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Jian-Long; L(U),Lian-Ying; OU,Yu-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    N,N'-Bis(difuroxano[3,4-b:3',4'-d]phenyl)oxalic amide was synthesized via acylation, nitration, azidation, and pyrolysis-denitrogenation from the starting materials of oxalyl chloride and 3,5-dichloroaniline, under mild reaction conditions, with the yields of 81.0%, 82.0%, 86.0% and 81.7% respectively. The title compound and its precursors were characterized by 1H NMR, IR, MS, and elemental analysis. The title compound has a density of 1.92 g·cm-3 by a suspension method, a standard formation enthalpy of 979 kJ·mol 1 calculated by Gaussian programs, a detonation velocity of 8.17 km·s-1, and a detonation pressure of 31 GPa obtained by Kamlet Equation. The thermal decomposition reactions of the title compound at different heating rates were tested by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The kinetics parameters of the pyrolysis of the compound were calculated by Kissinger's method.The values of apparent activation energy (Ea) and pre-exponential constant (A) were 226.7 kJ·mol-1 and 1023.17 s-1 respectively. It was presupposed that N,N'-bis(difuroxano[3,4-b:3',4'-d]phenyl)oxalic amide would be a promising high energetic explosive with low sensitivity.

  11. 3,4-trans-4-Aryl-3-(1-pyridinio)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-6-thiolates--new group of potential cardiotonic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauze, A; Vītoliņa, R; Garaliene, V; Sīle, L; Klusa, V; Duburs, G

    2005-11-01

    3,4-trans-4-Aryl-3-(1-pyridinio)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-6-thiolates 6-11 were prepared by a Michael reaction of N-acetonylpyridinium chloride with 3-aryl-2-cyanothioacrylamides or by a one-pot three-carbon condensation of N-acetonylpyridinium chloride, aromatic aldehyde and 2-cyanothioacetamide, and their cardiotonic properties were studied. 3,4-trans-5-cyano-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-3-(1-pyridinio)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-6-thiolate 8 was considered as a lead compound in this series since it in vitro experiments (spontaneously beating rat atria) showed a cardiotonic activity similar to that of milrinone 2, however compound 8 induced activity at lover concentrations and without influence on chronotropic action of the heart. Unlike milrinone 2, thiolate 8 in vivo experiments (anaesthetized rats) did not influence blood pressure and heart rate. The acute toxicity of compound 8 was more than 10 times lower than that of milrinone 2.

  12. Dysregulation of Kv3.4 channels in dorsal root ganglia following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, David M; Zemel, Benjamin M; Hala, Tamara J; O'Leary, Michael E; Lepore, Angelo C; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2015-01-21

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients develop chronic pain involving poorly understood central and peripheral mechanisms. Because dysregulation of the voltage-gated Kv3.4 channel has been implicated in the hyperexcitable state of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following direct injury of sensory nerves, we asked whether such a dysregulation also plays a role in SCI. Kv3.4 channels are expressed in DRG neurons, where they help regulate action potential (AP) repolarization in a manner that depends on the modulation of inactivation by protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of the channel's inactivation domain. Here, we report that, 2 weeks after cervical hemicontusion SCI, injured rats exhibit contralateral hypersensitivity to stimuli accompanied by accentuated repetitive spiking in putative DRG nociceptors. Also in these neurons at 1 week after laminectomy and SCI, Kv3.4 channel inactivation is impaired compared with naive nonsurgical controls. At 2-6 weeks after laminectomy, however, Kv3.4 channel inactivation returns to naive levels. Conversely, Kv3.4 currents at 2-6 weeks post-SCI are downregulated and remain slow-inactivating. Immunohistochemistry indicated that downregulation mainly resulted from decreased surface expression of the Kv3.4 channel, as whole-DRG-protein and single-cell mRNA transcript levels did not change. Furthermore, consistent with Kv3.4 channel dysregulation, PKC activation failed to shorten the AP duration of small-diameter DRG neurons. Finally, re-expressing synthetic Kv3.4 currents under dynamic clamp conditions dampened repetitive spiking in the neurons from SCI rats. These results suggest a novel peripheral mechanism of post-SCI pain sensitization implicating Kv3.4 channel dysregulation and potential Kv3.4-based therapeutic interventions.

  13. Natural gas monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured article for this month is on US coalbed methane production.

  14. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  15. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  16. Natural gas monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  17. Monthly energy review, August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  18. US Monthly Pilot Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly winds aloft summary forms summarizing Pilot Balloon observational data for the United States. Generally labeled as Form 1114, and then transitioning to Form...

  19. Monthly energy review, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This document presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Activities covered include: U.S. production, consumption, trade, stock, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  20. Monthly Energy Review, July 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-07-27

    The Monthly Energy Review is prepared by the Energy Information Administration. Topics discussed include: Energy Overview, Energy Consumption, Petroleum, Natural Gas, Oil and Gas Resource Development, Coal, Electricity, Nuclear Energy, Energy Prices, International Energy. (VC)

  1. Monthly energy review, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-26

    This publication presents information for the month of August, 1993 on the following: Energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices, and international energy.

  2. Growth and Characteristic of YbAl3(BO3)4 Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    YbAl3(BO3)4 crystal of good optical quality was grown by the flux method. The structure of YbAl3(BO3)4 crystal was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The experiment shows that YbAl3(BO3)4 belongs to the double borates with a trigonal structure. The space group is R32 and its unit cell constants were measured to be a=0.92965 nm, c=0.72129 nm, V=0.53673 nm3, Z=3. The transmittance spectra were measured. The cut-off of YbAl3(BO3)4 crystal is 216 nm, and there are two absorption peaks located at 940 and 975 nm from 190 nm to 2600 nm. The thermal properties of YbAl3(BO3)4 crystal were studied for the first time. The average thermal expansion coefficients were determined to be 2×10-6/℃, 9.5×10-6/℃ along a- and c- direction. The specific heat of YbAl3(BO3)4 crystal was measured to be 0.6695 J·(g·℃)-1 at room temperature. All results indicate that the YbAl3(BO3)4 crystal is an excellent stoichioimetric laser material.

  3. Monthly energy review, August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  4. Monthly energy review, April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy data. A brief summary of the monthly and historical comparison data is provided in Section 1 of the report. A highlight section of the report provides an assessment of summer 1997 motor gasoline price increases.

  5. Natural Gas Monthly, March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  6. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  7. Natural gas monthly, September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  8. Natural gas monthly, June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  9. Natural gas monthly, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  10. Monthly energy review, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  11. Natural gas monthly, October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-23

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary of the terms used in this report is provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. 6 figs., 30 tabs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. Natural gas monthly, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  14. Natural gas monthly, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  15. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  16. 3,4-DHQLO and Triazole and Its Related Analogues with Anticonvulsant Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Li-Ping; Quan, Zhe-Shan

    2016-01-01

    The derivatives of quinolinone and triazole exhibit antitumor, antiplatelet, antidepressant, and anticonvulsant properties in diverse experimental systems. In the past decades, we have developed increasingly potent anticonvulsant agents by the structural modification of compounds derived from 3,4-DHQLO, triazole, and their analogs. Herein, we report the design and synthesis of a new series of 3,4-DHQLO and triazole and their derivatives; their anticonvulsant activity was evaluated. Moreover, we also reviewed the anticonvulsant activity of 3,4-DHQLO and triazole and their derivatives and new approaches.

  17. Synthesis and Thermal Behavior of a Fused, Tricyclic 1,2,3,4-Tetrazine Ring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, David E; Bottaro, Jeffery C; Petrie, Mark; Parrish, Damon A

    2015-10-26

    This study presents the synthesis and characterization of a fused, tricyclic 1,2,3,4-tetrazine ring system. The molecule is synthesized in a three-step process from 5,5'-dinitro-bis,1,2,4-triazole via a di-N-amino compound. Oxidation to form the azo-coupled fused tricyclic 1,2,3,4-tetrazine is achieved using tert-butyl hypochlorite as the oxidant. The di-N-amino compound and the desired fused tricyclic 1,2,3,4-triazine display interesting thermal behavior and are predicted to be high-performance energetic materials.

  18. Synthesis under Microwave Irradiation and Crystal Structure of 4-(3,4-Methylenedioxylphenyl)-6-methyl- 5-ethoxycaronyl-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(H)-one

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Shu-Jiang; FANG Fang; JIANG Hong; ZHU Song-Lei; LI Tuan-Jie; ZHANG Xiao-Jing; SHI Da-Qing

    2004-01-01

    The title compound 4-(3,4-methylenedioxylphenyl)-6-methyl-5-ethoxycaronyl-3,4- dihydropyrimidin-2(H)-one (C15H16N2O5) has been synthesized and determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal is of triclinic, space group Pī with a = 7.580(1), b = 7.920(2), c = 13.168(4)(A。),α = 96.44(2),β = 96.71(2), γ = 109.81(2)°, V = 728.8(3) (A。)3, Z = 2, Mr = 304.30, Dc = 1.387 g/cm3, F(000) = 320, μ(MoKα) = 0.105 mm-1 (λ = 0.71073(A。)), R = 0.0446 and wR = 0.1205. In the molecule the pyrimidine ring adopts a boat conformation.

  19. Microwave Induced Synthesis of 3-Aryl-6-( 6-/8-substituted 4-chloroquinoline-3-yl) - s - triazolo [ 3,4- b ] - 1,3,4- thiadiazoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO,Ren-Zhong(乔仁忠); HUI,Xin-Ping(惠新平); XU,Peng-Fei(许鹏飞); ZHANG,Zi-Yi(张自义); CHENG,Dong-Liang(程东亮)

    2001-01-01

    The condensation of 4-amino-3-aryl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-tria-zoles (1a-f) with 6-/8-substituted 1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-quino-line-3-carboxylic acids (2a-d) in the presence of phosphorus oxychloride on refluxing or under microwave irradiation gave twenty four novel 3-aryl-6-(6-/8-substituted 4-chloroquinoline-3-yl)-s-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazoles (4a-x), Consid-erable increase in the reaction rate has been observed with improved yields under microwave irradiation. The structures of the compounds synthesized were determined by elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR and MS spectra. Their spectral properties and the reaction mechanism were also discussed. The preliminary biological test showed that some of compounds had moderate antibacterial activities.

  20. [Pd4(μ3-SbMe3)4(SbMe3)4]: A Pd(0) Tetrahedron with μ3-Bridging Trimethylantimony Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Sophie L; Krämer, Tobias; Levason, William; Light, Mark E; Macgregor, Stuart A; Reid, Gillian

    2016-06-01

    The palladium(II) chlorostibine complex [PdCl2(SbMe2Cl)2]2 has a dimeric structure in the solid state, stabilized by hyper-coordination at the Lewis amphoteric Sb centers. Reaction with 8 equiv of MeLi forms [Pd4(μ3-SbMe3)4(SbMe3)4], whose structure comprises a tetrahedral Pd(0) core with four terminal SbMe3 ligands and four μ3-SbMe3 ligands, one capping each triangular Pd3 face. Density functional theory calculations, supported by energy decomposition analysis and the natural orbitals for chemical valence scheme, highlight significant donor and acceptor orbital contributions to the bonding between both the terminal and the bridging SbMe3 ligands and the Pd4 core.

  1. [Fetomaternal anti-RH3, -4 (anti-E and anti-c) rhesus isoimmunization: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnault, L; Garcia-Meric, P; Cortey, A; Arnaud, F

    2011-02-01

    Hemolytic disease of the newborn caused by maternal isoimmunization has been decreasing over the past 10 years because of prophylactic treatment with anti-RH1 (anti-D) immunoglobulin. Nevertheless, there is an increase in the incidence of both relative and absolute numbers of non-RH1 red-cell maternofetal isoimmunizations, essentially anti-RH4 (anti-c), anti-RH3 (anti-E), and anti-Kell. In 8 to 14% of cases, multispecificity antibodies are present, the most common combination being the association of anti-RH3 and -4. Despite absence of specific prophylactic therapy, anti-RH4 isoimmunization could be as severe as anti-RH1 ; as for anti-RH3, it is usually associated with mild to moderate clinical manifestations. Nevertheless, there are few publications on anti-RH3, -4 maternofetal isoimmunization with a bias toward the most severe cases being reported. We report here a case of nonsevere maternofetal anti-RH3, -4 isoimmunization complicated with severe hyperbilirubinemia and delayed profound anemia. Hyperbilirubinemia was controlled using intensive phototherapy. Although anemia was absent at birth, it appeared progressively with a nadir at 7.8 g/dL at 1-month postnatal age. Blood counts were monitored for 3 months but the patient did not require red blood cell transfusion. This report underlines the need for a prolonged and rigorous pediatric follow-up of children born in the context of maternofetal isoimmunization after the acute neonatal period. Furthermore, it stresses the necessity of DAT testing in all pregnant women, even those who are RH1-positive.

  2. Immobilization of Trametes hirsuta laccase into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and polyaniline polymer-matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoju; Sjöberg-Eerola, Pia; Immonen, Kirsi; Bobacka, Johan; Bergelin, Mikael

    The immobilization of Trametes hirsuta laccase (ThL) in the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and polyaniline (PANI) matrices was carried out in order to study the catalytic effect of ThL in different biocathode structures in a biofuel cell application. By using 2,2‧-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) as a mediator compound, the immobilized ThL in both polymer matrices, exhibited catalytic activity for the reduction of oxygen into water. The amount of ThL was adjustable in the PEDOT matrix by controlling the working parameters, such as the charge density used in the electropolymerization of EDOT monomer and the ThL concentration used in the electropolymerization electrolyte. In the PEDOT biocathode structure, the utilization of porous material as the PEDOT supporting template was studied in order to improve the current density generated per unit area/volume. Reticulated vitreous carbon foam (RVC foam) was chosen as the PEDOT supporting template material and the biocathodes were manufactured by in situ entrapment of ThL into PEDOT films polymerized on the RVC foam. These biocathodes possessed a high cathodic open circuit potential and produced a large current density, reaching 1 mA cm -3 at 0.45 V when 19.5 μg ml -1 of ThL was used in the electrolyte. The performance of these biocathodes was extremely sensitive to variations in pH and the optimal working pH was around 4.2. The biocathode reserved 80%, 50%, and 30% of the catalytic activity after storage in a +4 °C buffer solution for 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month, respectively. The PANI matrix was prepared in a form of printable ink where ThL was in situ entrapped in the PANI matrix during the laccase activated polymerization of aniline using a chemical batch reactor method. Different amounts of the ThL-containing printable PANI ink were then applied on carbon paper and the performance of the ink was subsequently electrochemically characterized. In this way, not only two different polymer

  3. Re-examination of the "3/4-law" of Metabolism

    CERN Document Server

    Dodds, P S; Weitz, J S; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Rothman, Daniel H.; Weitz, Joshua S.

    2000-01-01

    We examine the scaling law $B \\propto M^{\\alpha}$ which connects organismal metabolic rate $B$ with organismal mass $M$, where $\\alpha$ is commonly held to be 3/4. Since simple dimensional analysis suggests $\\alpha=2/3$, we consider this to be a null hypothesis testable by empirical studies. We re-analyze data sets for mammals and birds compiled by Heusner, Bennett and Harvey, Bartels, Hemmingsen, Brody, and Kleiber, and find little evidence for rejecting $\\alpha=2/3$ in favor of $\\alpha=3/4$. For mammals, we find a possible breakdown in scaling for larger masses reflected in a systematic increase in $\\alpha$. We also review theoretical justifications of $\\alpha=3/4$ based on dimensional analysis, nutrient-supply networks, and four-dimensional biology. We find that present theories for $\\alpha=3/4$ require assumptions that render them unconvincing for rejecting the null hypothesis that $\\alpha=2/3$.

  4. Intermolecular cyclocondensation reaction of 3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2-thione under the Mitsunobu reaction conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xia Da; Zhang Zhang; Zheng Jun Quan

    2011-01-01

    A self-intermolecular cyclocondensation reaction of 3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2-thione (DHPM) to give a novel tricyclic structure containing DHPM core in the presence of diethyl azodicarboxylate (DEAD) and triphenylphosphine (TPP) at room temperature is reported.

  5. New 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers from Croton micans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateu, Elsa; Chavez, Katiuska; Riina, Ricarda; Compagnone, Reinaldo S; Delle Monache, Franco; Suárez, Alírica I

    2012-01-01

    From the stems of Croton micans Sw., five new 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers: micansinoic acid (1), isomicansinoic acid (2), and the dimethyl (3), monomethyl (4) and monoethyl ester (5) of micansinoic acid were isolated. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation, mainly 1D and 2D NMR experiments and MS. These compounds are the first 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers from a Croton species.

  6. Dysregulation of Kv3.4 Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglia Following Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, David M.; Zemel, Benjamin M.; Hala, Tamara J.; O'Leary, Michael E; Lepore, Angelo C.; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients develop chronic pain involving poorly understood central and peripheral mechanisms. Because dysregulation of the voltage-gated Kv3.4 channel has been implicated in the hyperexcitable state of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following direct injury of sensory nerves, we asked whether such a dysregulation also plays a role in SCI. Kv3.4 channels are expressed in DRG neurons, where they help regulate action potential (AP) repolarization in a manner that depen...

  7. N-[(9-Ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-ylmethylene]-3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohamed Asiri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, N-[(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-ylmethylene]-3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-amine has been synthesized by reaction of 9-ethyl-9H-carbazole-3-carbaldehyde with 5-amino-3,4-dimethylisoxazole in the presence of acetic acid in ethanol. The structure of this new compound was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and EI-MS spectral analysis.

  8. n-Propyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranoside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Mönch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (2R,3R,4S,5R,6R-2-(acetoxymethyl-6-propoxytetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triyl triacetate], C17H26O10, was formed by a Koenigs–Knorr reaction of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-d-glucopyranosyl bromide and n-propanol. The central ring adopts a chair conformation. The crystal does not contain any significant interactions such as hydrogen bonds.

  9. Electric power monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  10. Electric power monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Statistics by company and plant are published on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  11. Natural gas monthly, April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Estimates extend through April 1998 for many data series. The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, feature articles are presented designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This issue contains the special report, ``Natural Gas 1997: A Preliminary Summary.`` This report provides information on natural gas supply and disposition for the year 1997, based on monthly data through December from EIA surveys. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  12. Electric power monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the U.S., Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. This April 1994 issue contains 1993 year-end data and data through January 1994.

  13. Electric power monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  14. Effect of Preoperative Play Interventions on Post Surgery Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Narges Alirezaei; Bahar Ashjaei; Zahra Shahrivar; Fatemeh Moharari; Javad Mahmoudi-gharaei; Jaleh Parizad

    2008-01-01

    "n "nObjective: Many studies have shown that the level of postoperative distress and anxiety in children is associated with the amount of anxiety during the pre operative period. In this study, we compared the effect of pre-operational attending in a playroom and using play activities on the level of anxiety increment after surgery in an intervention and a control group of Iranian children. "n "nMethod: In a clinical trial, 75 children aged 5 to 12 enrolled in the intervention and the control...

  15. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  16. Natural gas monthly, April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are present3ed each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas pipeline and system expansions.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  17. Electric power monthly, April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-07

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  18. Electric power monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  19. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-06

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  20. Monthly energy review, July 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 75 tabs.

  1. Monthly energy review, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  2. Natural gas monthly, March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas analysis and geographic information systems.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  3. Natural gas monthly, October 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  4. ULTRAPLATE 30 month management report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl

    2003-01-01

    In the period from month 24 to month 30 focus has been on the work-package 3 activities concerning optimisation of the newly developed ULTRAPLATE technology towards specific industrial applications. Three main application areas have been pursued: 1) High- speed plating of lead free solder contacts......, 2) electroforming of tools for moulding of low-cost precision polymer devices and 3) deposition of magnetic alloys to be used in new planar micro-devices. Within each of the three studied application areas, the targeted output is a finished demonstrator to show the potential of the new ULTRAPLATE...

  5. Electric power monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  6. Electric power monthly, May 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-25

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  7. Electric power monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  8. Your Child's Development: 1 Year (12 Months)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Child's Checkup: 1 Year (12 Months) Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 12 Months Sleep and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Growth ...

  9. Monthly energy review, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum,natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal metric conversion factors.

  10. Monthly energy review, July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document presents an overview of the recent monthly energy statistics from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Statistical data covers activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels , nuclear energy, and electricity. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  11. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  12. Monthly energy review, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  13. Prediction of Malaysian monthly GDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hin, Pooi Ah; Ching, Soo Huei; Yeing, Pan Wei

    2015-12-01

    The paper attempts to use a method based on multivariate power-normal distribution to predict the Malaysian Gross Domestic Product next month. Letting r(t) be the vector consisting of the month-t values on m selected macroeconomic variables, and GDP, we model the month-(t+1) GDP to be dependent on the present and l-1 past values r(t), r(t-1),…,r(t-l+1) via a conditional distribution which is derived from a [(m+1)l+1]-dimensional power-normal distribution. The 100(α/2)% and 100(1-α/2)% points of the conditional distribution may be used to form an out-of sample prediction interval. This interval together with the mean of the conditional distribution may be used to predict the month-(t+1) GDP. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), estimated coverage probability and average length of the prediction interval are used as the criterions for selecting the suitable lag value l-1 and the subset from a pool of 17 macroeconomic variables. It is found that the relatively better models would be those of which 2 ≤ l ≤ 3, and involving one or two of the macroeconomic variables given by Market Indicative Yield, Oil Prices, Exchange Rate and Import Trade.

  14. Monthly energy review, April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report presents an overview of monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. International energy and thermal metric conversion factors are included.

  15. Periodic progress report, 12 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the first 12 months of the project started with the establishment of the cutting theory for the cutting of heavy sections (phase 1). Phase 2 comprises the design of the first laboratory version cutting head with optics, nozzle systems and interfaces for the various machi...

  16. Monthly energy review, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review contains statistical data on the following: energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. In addition, an energy overview is provided, and, for the April issue, Energy use and carbon emissions; Some international comparisons.

  17. Monthly energy review, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-24

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  18. Monthly energy review, December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-22

    This document provides data on monthly energy use and fossil fuels. The following sections are included: Highlights: Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1985--1990; Highlights: assessment of energy use in multibuilding facilities; energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices; and international energy.

  19. Monthly energy review, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-25

    The Monthly Energy Review provides an overview of the production, distribution, and consumption of energy derived from petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. It also discusses oil and gas resource development, energy prices, and issues relevant to international energy markets.

  20. Monthly energy review, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-29

    The Monthly Energy Review provides information on production, distribution, consumption, prices, imports, and exports for the following US energy sources: petroleum; petroleum products; natural gas; coal; electricity; and nuclear energy. The section on international energy contains data for world crude oil production and consumption, petroleum stocks in OECD countries, and nuclear electricity gross generation.

  1. Developmental milestones record - 18 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concerned about your child's development, talk to your child's health care provider. PHYSICAL AND MOTOR SKILL MARKERS The typical 18-month-old: Has ... Read to the child. Encourage play dates with children of the same ... 2. Play simple games together, such as puzzles and shape sorting. Use ...

  2. Natural gas monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-05

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

  3. Monthly energy review, November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. International energy and thermal and metric conversion factors are included.

  4. Natural gas monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-03

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  5. Monthly energy review, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-26

    The Monthly Energy Review presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities.

  6. STD Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-19

    April is National STD Awareness Month. STDs can affect anyone. Many STDs don't have symptoms so it's important to get tested.  Created: 4/19/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 4/19/2011.

  7. Electric Power Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-12

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost in fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 12 refs., 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  8. Electric power monthly, March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-20

    This report for March 1995, presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  9. Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of 3-Phenyl-6-aryl-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]-thiadiazoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Miao; XIAO Tai; LI Hui-xue; LIU Xiang

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction Since Tang[1] firstly reported the electroluminescence of 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminium, much attention has been paid to the organic compound as electro-luminescent material. Especially, electron transport materials play an important role in organic light-emitting diode(OLED). 2-(4-Biphenyl)-5-(t-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole(PBD), as a kind of popular electron injection/transport materials, can improve remarkably the injection balance of electrons and holes. As a result, it can amend the properties of OLED[2,3].

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  11. Electric power monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels. Data on quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels lag data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the US, Census division, and State level tables. However, for purposes of comparison, plant-level data are presented for the earlier month.

  12. Novel lanthanide complexes constructed from 3, 4-dimethoxybenzoic acid: crystal structures, spectrum and thermochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Xiao-Xia; Wu, Jun-Chen [Testing and Analysis Center, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); College of Chemistry & Material Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Ren, Ning, E-mail: ningren9@163.com [College of Chemical engineering & Material, Handan College, Handan 056005 (China); Zhao, Chun-Li [Raoyang High School of Hebei, Raoyang 053900 (China); Zhang, Jian-Jun, E-mail: jjzhang6@126.com [Testing and Analysis Center, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); College of Chemistry & Material Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Zong, Guang-Cai; Gao, Jie [Testing and Analysis Center, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); College of Chemistry & Material Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China)

    2015-09-10

    Graphical abstract: Four novel lanthanide coordination polymers [Ln(3,4-DMOBA){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·H{sub 2}O·C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH (Ln = Sm(1), Tb(2), Dy(3), Ho(4); 3,4-DMOBA = 3, 4-dimethoxybenzoate) have been hydrothermal synthesized and characterized. Single crystal structures indicates 1 D stucture of the title complexes are linked by hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional (3-D) structure. Complex 2 exhibits the characteristic emission of Tb{sup 3+} ion({sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 6-3}). The investigation of TG-FTIR and IR spectra of the evolved gases shows uncoordinated water and ethanol molecules tend to lose firstly, and then 3,4-DMOBA ligands begin to decompose. - Highlights: • Four lanthanide coordination polymers were synthesized and characterized. • 1-D chain structures of the title complexes are are linked by hydrogen bonds to form a 3-D structures. • Thermal decomposition processes of the title complexes were studied using TG-FTIR techniques. • IR spectra of evolved gases in thermal decomposition process were obtained and analyzed. - Abstract: Four novel lanthanide complexes [Ln(3,4-DMOBA){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·H{sub 2}O·C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH (Ln = Sm(1), Tb(2), Dy(3), Ho(4); 3,4-DMOBA = 3, 4-dimethoxybenzoate) have been hydrothermal synthesized and characterized. Structural analyses reveal that adjacent lanthanide ions are connected by 3,4-DMOBA ligands adopting bridging bidentate mode to generate one-dimensional (1-D) structure with the uncoordinated water and ethanol molecules. 1-D structures are linked by hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional (3-D) structure, which is rarely observed in lanthanide carboxylic acids complexes. Under the radiation of UV light, complex 2 exhibits the characteristic emission of Tb{sup 3+} ion ({sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 6-3}). The thermal decomposition mechanism is investigated by TG-FTIR technology. IR spectra of the evolved gases show that the uncoordinated water and ethanol

  13. Highly Efficient and Stable Novel NanoBiohybrid Catalyst to Avert 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid Pollutant in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rasel; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    The present study reported for the first time covalent immobilization of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (3,4-POD) onto functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (F-MWCNT) for degrading the toxic 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHBA) pollutant in water. The F-MWCNTs had a maximum 3,4-POD loading of 1060 μg/mg. Immobilized 3,4 POD had 44% of relative structural changes to its free configurations. Nevertheless, >90% of relative activity and about 50% of catalytic efficiency were retained to the free enzyme. Immobilized 3,4-POD demonstrated higher alkaline stability and thermostability than the free 3,4-POD. The free and immobilized 3,4-POD lost 82% and 66% of relative activities, respectively after 180 min of incubations at 90 °C. Excellent shelf-life was observed for the immobilized 3,4-POD with residual activity of 56% compared with 41% and 39% of the free 3,4-POD at 4 °C and 25 °C over 30 days storage. Immobilized 3,4-POD showed >60% of catalytic activity retention even after ten-cycle uses, defraying the expenses of free 3,4-POD productions for long term uses. Finally, the immobilized 3,4-POD removed 71% of 3,4-DHBA from water in <4 h, paving its future application for water purification with reduced costs and time. PMID:27721429

  14. High cervical C3-4 ′disc′ compression associated with basilar invagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel Atul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old male had torticollis and short neck since birth. He presented with symptom of progressive quadriparesis over a two-year period. Investigations revealed basilar invagination with marked rotation in the craniovertebral region and relatively large C3-4 region osteophytes. Serial MRI over two years showed persistent signal opposite C3-4 disc space suggestive of cord compression. Although the cord was humped over the odontoid process, there was no clear radiological evidence that the cord was compromised at this level. During surgery, instability was identified only at the craniovertebral region and not at the level of C3-4. Distraction of the lateral masses of atlas and axis and fixation using interarticular spacers and bone graft and direct screw implantation in the lateral mass of the atlas and pars of the axis resulted in reduction of the basilar invagination and of atlantoaxial dislocation. The patient had marked clinical recovery, despite the fact that no direct procedure was done for C3-4 disc decompression. The case suggests that C3-4 disc changes could be secondary to primary instability at the craniovertebral junction.

  15. The MiRP2-Kv3.4 potassium channel: muscling in on Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun; Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2007-09-01

    In this issue of Molecular Pharmacology (p. 665), Pannacione et al. provide evidence of a role for the voltage-gated potassium channel alpha subunit Kv3.4 and its ancillary subunit MiRP2 in beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide-mediated neuronal death. The MiRP2-Kv3.4 channel complex-previously found to be important in skeletal myocyte physiology-is now argued to be a molecular correlate of the transient outward potassium current up-regulated by Abeta peptide, considered a significant step in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. The authors conclude that MiRP2 and Kv3.4 are up-regulated by Abeta peptide in a nuclear factor kappaB-dependent fashion at the transcriptional level, and the sea anemone toxin BDS-I is shown to protect against Abeta peptide-mediated cell death by specific blockade of Kv3.4-generated current. The findings lend weight to the premise that specific channels, such as MiRP2-Kv3.4, could hold promise as future therapeutic targets in Alzheimer's disease and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders.

  16. Chronic deficit in the expression of voltage-gated potassium channel Kv3.4 subunit in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco Otalora, Luis F; Skinner, Frank; Oliveira, Mauro S; Farrell, Bianca; Arshadmansab, Massoud F; Pandari, Tarun; Garcia, Ileana; Robles, Leslie; Rosas, Gerardo; Mello, Carlos F; Ermolinsky, Boris S; Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R

    2011-01-12

    Voltage gated K(+) channels (Kv) are a highly diverse group of channels critical in determining neuronal excitability. Deficits of Kv channel subunit expression and function have been implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. In this study, we investigate whether the expression of the specific subunit Kv3.4 is affected during epileptogenesis following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. For this purpose, we used immunohistochemistry, Western blotting assays and comparative analysis of gene expression using TaqMan-based probes and delta-delta cycle threshold (ΔΔCT) method of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique in samples obtained from age-matched control and epileptic rats. A marked down-regulation of Kv3.4 immunoreactivity was detected in the stratum lucidum and hilus of dentate gyrus in areas corresponding to the mossy fiber system of chronically epileptic rats. Correspondingly, a 20% reduction of Kv3.4 protein levels was detected in the hippocampus of chronic epileptic rats. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression revealed that a significant 33% reduction of transcripts for Kv3.4 (gene Kcnc4) occurred after 1 month of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and persisted during the chronic phase of the model. These data indicate a reduced expression of Kv3.4 channels at protein and transcript levels in the epileptic hippocampus. Down-regulation of Kv3.4 in mossy fibers may contribute to enhanced presynaptic excitability leading to recurrent seizures in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

  17. Influence of southern oscillation and SSTs over Nino-3.4 region on the winter monsoon rainfall over coastal Andhra Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O S R U Bhanu Kumar; C V Naidu; S R L Rao

    2004-09-01

    An analysis of the mean monthly data of 124 years reveals that the relationship between the Southern Oscillation Index in September and the winter monsoon rainfall (WMR) over Coastal Andhra Pradesh (CAP) is variable and non-stationary. In the recent four decades, however, SOI (Sept) is negatively and significantly correlated with CAP WMR. A similar analysis is performed using 50 years of mean monthly SSTs over Nino-3.4 region in August and September and CAP WMR to detect a possible relationship and there is a striking positive relation between them. In both of the above cases, the September signal is more significant in the recent four decades than for the other months and seasons for probable prediction of CAP WMR. Finally, to examine the influence of SO on the winter monsoon rainfall, a non-parametric test "Mann-Whitney Rank Statistics" test has been applied to the rainfall associated with extreme positive and negative SOI events.

  18. 3.4nm超薄SiO2栅介质的特性%Electrical Characteristics of 3.4nm Gate Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓燕; 谭静荣; 高文钰; 黄如; 田大宇; 张兴

    2002-01-01

    用LOCOS工艺制备出栅介质厚度为3.4nm的MOS电容样品,通过对样品进行I-V特性和恒流应力下V-t特性的测试,分析用氮气稀释氧化法制备的栅介质的性能,同时考察了硼扩散对栅介质性能的影响.实验结果表明,制备出的3.4nm SiO2栅介质的平均击穿场强为16.7MV/cm,在恒流应力下发生软击穿,平均击穿电荷为2.7C/cm2.栅介质厚度相同的情况下,P+栅样品的击穿场强和软击穿电荷都低于N+栅样品.

  19. Synthesis and theoretical studies of non‒covalent interactions within a newly synthesized chiral 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Uzma; Ahmed, Shahbaz; Chahkandi, Mohammad; Bhatti, Moazzam H.; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz

    2017-02-01

    In this work the synthesis of a new compound formulated as C12H12N4OS, ((S)-1-(6-Phenyl-7H-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazin-3-yl)ethanol) (5) reported and theoretical studies of the non‒covalent interactions constructed the related crystalline network described. It has been characterized by IR, Mass, and 1H, 13C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X‒ray diffraction analysis. The binding energy of the non‒covalent interactions constructing the network of 5 have been calculated by dispersion corrected density functional theory (DFT‒D). The optimization of the formed network using H‒bonding and π‒stacking revealed that 1‒D coordination chain has been composed of neutral monomeric compound. For this purpose, the independent smallest fragment (monomer) and subsequently the related network, including seven monomers, having all non‒covalent interactions have been optimized. The results demonstrate that hydrogen bonds, especially Osbnd H⋯N, Csbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯N, and Csbnd H⋯S interactions, govern the network formation. The calculated results of electronic transition in agreement with the experiment ones show eleven major bands derived from σ → π, n → n/σ*/π* aromatic rings to hydroxyl, inter‒atomic of oxygen, and thiadiazine to phenyl ring charge transfer transitions.

  20. Phase transitions and exchange interactions in the SmCr3(BO3)4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobretsova, E. A.; Boldyrev, K. N.; Popova, M. N.; Gavrilkin, S. Yu.; Mukhin, A. A.; Ivanov, V. Yu.; Mal'tsev, V. V.; Leonyuk, N. I.; Malkin, B. Z.

    2016-12-01

    Spectroscopic investigation and specific heat and magnetic susceptibility measurements of SmCr3(BO3)4 crystals were performed. The spectra of the Sm3+ and Cr3+ ions in samarium chromium borate were calculated and parameters of the exchange interactions between the nearest chromium ions, chromium and samarium ions were determined. Three phase transitions were observed at the temperatures T1 = 7.8 ± 0.5 K, T2 = 6.7 ± 0.5 K, and T3 = 4.3 ± 0.2 K, their nature is discussed. The crystal structures with different space symmetry groups R32 and C2/c were found to coexist in a SmCr3(BO3)4 single crystal.

  1. Synthesis of 1,2-bis[2-methyl-5(3,4-difluorophenyl)-3-thienyl] perfluorocyclopentene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taiqi LIU; Liyan YANG; Jianxiang YU

    2008-01-01

    2,Methylthiophene (1) was treated at 0℃ with liquid bromine to form 3,5,dibromo,2,methylthiophene (2) which reacted with tributyl borate to give 2,methyl,3,bromo,5,boronate thiophene (3) at,78℃. Treatment of 3 with 3,4,difluorobrombenzene gave 2,methyl,3,bromo,5,(3,4,difluorophenyl)thiophene (4). Finally,a novel photochromic dithienylethene compound,1,2,bis [2,methyl,5(3,4,difluorophenyl),3,thienyl]perfluorocyclopentene (DT,1),was synthesized by the reaction of 4 with perfluorocyclopentene at,78℃. The compound (DT,1)was characterized by IR,NMR,MS,elemental analysis and its photochromic behavior was also discussed.

  2. Time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy of UO2(CO3)3(4-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E C; Cho, H-R; Baik, M H; Kim, H; Cha, W

    2015-11-21

    The objective of the present study is to examine the luminescence characteristics of UO2(CO3)3(4-) in detail using time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy. The peak wavelengths and lifetime of UO2(CO3)3(4-) were determined at room temperature using the two excitation laser wavelengths of 266 and 448 nm. The peak wavelengths in the luminescence spectrum exhibited hypsochromic shifts compared with those of UO2(2+). The lifetime determined from several samples containing various uranium concentrations was 8.9 ± 0.8 ns. Explanations for the hindrance to the observation of the luminescence spectrum of UO2(CO3)3(4-) in previous investigations are discussed. The representative experimental parameters, which might interrupt the measurement of weak luminescence, are the insertion delay time of the detection device, the overlapped luminescence of the background materials and the primary inner filter effect in the sample solution.

  3. Monthly energy review, March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Energy production during December 1997 totaled 5.9 quadrillion Btu, a 2.8 percent increase from the level of production during December 1996. Coal production increased 9.5 percent, natural gas production increased 3.9 percent, and production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids decreased 1.1 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.9 percent from the level of production during December 1996.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  5. Natural gas monthly, October 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-05

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. 16 figs., 33 tabs.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  7. Natural Gas Monthly August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. Explanatory notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication.

  8. Natural gas monthly, August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This analysis presents the most recent data on natural gas prices, supply, and consumption from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The presentation of the latest monthly data is followed by an update on natural gas markets. The markets section examines the behavior of daily spot and futures prices based on information from trade press, as well as regional, weekly data on natural gas storage from the American Gas Association (AGA). This {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} closes with a special section comparing and contrasting EIA and AGA storage data on a monthly and regional basis. The regions used are those defined by the AGA for their weekly data collection effort: the Producing Region, the Consuming Region East, and the Consuming Region West. While data on working gas levels have tracked fairly closely between the two data sources, differences have developed recently. The largest difference is in estimates of working gas levels in the East consuming region during the heating season.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  10. Yersinia enterocolitica palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 - a successful group of emerging zoonotic pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höper Dirk

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-pathogenic Y. enterocolitica ssp. enterocolitica caused several human outbreaks in Northern America. In contrast, low pathogenic Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 is responsible for sporadic cases worldwide with asymptomatic pigs being the main source of infection. Genomes of three Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 human isolates (including the completely sequenced Y11 German DSMZ type strain were compared to the high-pathogenic Y. enterocolitica ssp. enterocolitica 8081 O:8/1B to address the peculiarities of the O:3/4 group. Results Most high-pathogenicity-associated determinants of Y. enterocolitica ssp. enterocolitica (like the High-Pathogenicity Island, yts1 type 2 and ysa type 3 secretion systems are absent in Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 genomes. On the other hand they possess alternative putative virulence and fitness factors, such as a different ysp type 3 secretion system, an RtxA-like and insecticidal toxins, and a N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc PTS system (aga-operon. Horizontal acquisition of two prophages and a tRNA-Asn-associated GIYep-01 genomic island might also influence the Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 pathoadaptation. We demonstrated recombination activity of the PhiYep-3 prophage and the GIYep-01 island and the ability of the aga-operon to support the growth of the Y. enterocolitica ssp. enterocolitica O:8/1B on GalNAc. Conclusions Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 experienced a shift to an alternative patchwork of virulence and fitness determinants that might play a significant role in its host pathoadaptation and successful worldwide dissemination.

  11. Nitrative DNA damage and Oct3/4 expression in urinary bladder cancer with Schistosomahaematobium infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ning [Faculty of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie (Japan); Thanan, Raynoo [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie (Japan); Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Kobayashi, Hatasu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Hammam, Olfat; Wishahi, Mohamed; Leithy, Tarek El [Departments of Pathology and Urology, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza (Egypt); Hiraku, Yusuke [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Amro, EL-Karef [Department of Pathology and Matrix Biology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Oikawa, Shinji [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Ohnishi, Shiho [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie (Japan); Murata, Mariko [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Kawanishi, Shosuke, E-mail: kawanisi@suzuka-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie (Japan); Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan)

    2011-10-22

    Highlights: {yields} Oct3/4-positive cells increase in Schistosoma haematobium (SH)-associated bladder cancer. {yields} iNOS-dependent DNA lesion, 8-nitroguanine, was formed in Oct3/4-positive cells. {yields} 8-Nitroguanine formed in stem-like cells plays a role in SH-induced carcinogenesis. {yields} Mutant stem cells may participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis. -- Abstract: To investigate whether mutant stem cells participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis, we performed immunohistochemical analysis to examine nitrative and oxidative DNA lesions (8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG) and a stem cell marker Oct3/4 in bladder tissues obtained from cystitis and bladder cancer patients infected with Schistosomahaematobium (S. haematobium). We also detected the expression of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which lead to 8-nitroguanine formation. The staining intensity of 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG was significantly higher in bladder cancer and cystitis tissues than in normal tissues. iNOS expression was colocalized with NF-{kappa}B in 8-nitroguanine-positive tumor cells from bladder cancer patients. Oct3/4 expression was significantly increased in cells from S. haematobium-associated bladder cancer tissues in comparison to normal bladder and cancer tissues without infection. Oct3/4 was also expressed in epithelial cells of cystitis patients. Moreover, 8-nitroguanine was formed in Oct3/4-positive stem cells in S. haematobium-associated cystitis and cancer tissues. In conclusion, inflammation by S.haematobium infection may increase the number of mutant stem cells, in which iNOS-dependent DNA damage occurs via NF-{kappa}B activation, leading to tumor development.

  12. Monthly energy review, October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Information is also provided for oil and gas resource development. International energy statistics are given for petroleum production, consumption, and stocks, and for nuclear electricity gross generation. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  13. Introducing 'Image of the Month'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Jones

    2016-04-01

    The Editors of Sedimentary Geology are pleased to announce the establishment of an 'Image of the Month', to appear in each issue of the journal. The idea is to publish outstanding examples of sedimentary features, at all scales, as a means of increasing their visibility and so promoting further discussion and exchange of ideas within the community. The image could be at the scale of satellite image, aerial photograph, outcrop, specimen or thin section.

  14. Natural gas monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-25

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The NGM also features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  15. Natural gas monthly, March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  16. Electric power monthly, May 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and Stage agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities in Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  17. Electric Power monthly, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  18. Monthly energy review, December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-21

    This publication presents an overview of EIA`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. An energy preview of alternative fuel providers vehicle fleet surveys is included. The publication is intended for use by members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  19. Electric power monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-20

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  20. Natural gas monthly, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly contains estimates for March 1999 for many natural gas data series at the national level. Estimates of national natural gas prices are available through December 1998 for most series. Highlights of the data contained in this issue are listed below. Preliminary data indicate that the national average wellhead price for 1998 declined to 16% from the previous year ($1.96 compared to $2.32 per thousand cubic feet). At the end of March, the end of the 1998--1999 heating season, the level of working gas in underground natural gas storage facilities is estimated to be 1,354 billion cubic feet, 169 billion cubic feet higher than at the end of March 1998. Gas consumption during the first 3 months of 1999 is estimated to have been 179 billion cubic feet higher than in the same period in 1998. Most of this increase (133 billion cubic feet) occurred in the residential sector due to the cooler temperatures in January and February compared to the same months last year. According to the National Weather Service, heating degree days in January 1999 were 15% greater than the previous year while February recorded a 5% increase.

  1. Electric power monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-16

    The Electric Power Monthly (EMP) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  2. Electric power monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-26

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  3. Electric Power Monthly, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-13

    The EPM is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 40 tabs.

  4. Synthesis of 3-{4-[4-(Benzylideneaminobenzenesulfonyl]- phenyl}-2-phenylquinazolin-4(3H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Manohar Babu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the synthesis of a Schiff base, 3-{4-[4-(benzylideneamino benzenesulfonyl]phenyl}-2-phenylquinazolin-4(3H-one from a novel quinazolinone, 3-[4-(4 aminobenzenesulfonylphenyl]-2-phenylquinazolin-4(3H-one. The quinazolinone was prepared by reacting 2-phenyl-4H-3,1 benzoxazin-4-one with dapsone. The structure of the synthesized Schiff base is confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS and elemental analysis.-

  5. Synthesis and biological evaluation of β -aroylpropionic acid based 1,3,4-oxadiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, two new series, 1-(4-benzylphenyl-3-(5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl-1-propanone and 1-(4-ethylphenyl-3-(5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl-1-propanone from β-(4-benzylbenzoylpropionic acid and β-(4-ethylbenzoylpropionic acid, respectively, were synthesized and tested for antiinflammatory, analgesic, lipid peroxidation, ulcerogenic and antibacterial actions. A fair number of compounds were found to have good antiinflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema test, while a few compounds showed significant antibacterial activity. The newly synthesized compounds showed very low ulcerogenic action.

  6. Photophysical characterization of 2,3-difunctionalized thieno[3,4-b]pyrazines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, S.C. E-mail: seth.rasmussen@ndsu.nodak.edu; Sattler, D.J.; Mitchell, K.A.; Maxwell, John

    2004-08-01

    In order to better understand the optical properties of polythieno[3,4-b]pyrazine materials, the photophysical characteristics of a series of monomeric 2,3-difunctionalized thieno[3,4-b]pyrazines (where R=H, CH{sub 3}, C{sub 6}H{sub 13}, C{sub 8}H{sub 17}, C{sub 10}H{sub 21}, C{sub 12}H{sub 25}, and Ph) have been studied. Characterization of the room temperature UV-vis and fluorescence spectra, including solvent and pH dependence, are presented and compared to the related species isothianaphthene and quinoxaline.

  7. [Kv3.4 channel is involved in rat pulmonary vasoconstriction induced by 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Bi, Hai-Rong; Zhang, Rong; Zhu, Da-Ling

    2006-02-25

    We have reported that hypoxia increases the activation of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO), which converts arachidonic acid (AA) into 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) in small pulmonary arteries (PAs). Through inhibition of Kv channels, 15-HETE causes more robust concentration-dependent contraction of PA rings from the hypoxic compared to the normoxic controls. However, the subtypes of Kv channels inhibited by 15-HETE are incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to identify the contribution of Kv3.4 channel in the process of pulmonary vasoconstriction induced by 15-HETE using the tension studies of PA rings from rat with Kv3.4 channel blocker in tissue bath; to explore the role of vascular endothelium in15-HETE-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction through denuded endothelia of PA rings; and to define the downregulation of 15-HETE on the expression of Kv3.4 channel in cultured pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) with RT-PCR and Western blot. In the present study, healthy Wistar rats were divided randomly into two groups: Group A with normal oxygen supply and group B with hypoxia. Six days later, the rats were killed. Pulmonary artery rings were prepared for organ bath experiments. Firstly, different concentrations of 15-HETE (10~1 000 nmol/L) were added to the Krebs solution. The isometric tension was recorded using a four-channel force-displacement transducer. Then Kv3.4 channel blocker, 100 nmol/L BDS-I, was added, followed by adding 1 mumol/L 15-HETE, and the isometric tension was recorded. Furthermore, RT-PCR and Western blot were employed to identify the influence of 15-HETE on the expression of Kv3.4 channel in cultured rat PASMCs.The results showed the PA tension was significantly increased both in groups A and B by 15-HETE in a concentration-dependent manner (PKv3.4 channel blocker, BDS-I, significantly decreased the PA ring constriction induced by 15-HETE (PKv3.4 mRNA and protein in rat PASMCs were significantly downregulated by 15

  8. The First Occurrence of A Mallotus 3,4-Seco-Taraxerane Triterpenoid from Mallotus barbatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Minh Giang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The first occurrence of a 3,4-seco-taraxerane triterpenoid in Mallotus species (Euphorbiaceae is reported. The triterpenoid was isolated from the leaves of the Vietnamese medicinal plant Mallotus barbatus ( Wall. Muell.-Arg. and its structure was determined to be 3,4-seco-taraxer-14-en-3-oic acid on the basis of HR-MS and NMR spectroscopic methods. For the first time, the 1 H and 13C NMR data and stereochemistry of this compound were fully established on the basis of the 1H- 1H COSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC spectroscopic data.

  9. Fracture of the L-4 vertebral body after use of a stand-alone interbody fusion device in degenerative spondylolisthesis for anterior L3-4 fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yoon-Kwang; Jang, Ju-Hee; Lee, Choon-Dae; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2014-06-01

    Many studies attest to the excellent results achieved using anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) for degenerative spondylolisthesis. The purpose of this report is to document a rare instance of L-4 vertebral body fracture following use of a stand-alone interbody fusion device for L3-4 ALIF. The patient, a 55-year-old man, had suffered intractable pain of the back, right buttock, and left leg for several weeks. Initial radiographs showed Grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis, with instability in the sagittal plane (upon 15° rotation) and stenosis of central and both lateral recesses at the L3-4 level. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion of the affected vertebrae was subsequently conducted using a stand-alone cage/plate system. Postoperatively, the severity of spondylolisthesis diminished, with resolution of symptoms. However, the patient returned 2 months later with both leg weakness and back pain. Plain radiographs and CT indicated device failure due to anterior fracture of the L-4 vertebral body, and the spondylolisthesis had recurred. At this point, bilateral facetectomies were performed, with reduction/fixation of L3-4 by pedicle screws. Again, degenerative spondylolisthesis improved postsurgically and symptoms eased, with eventual healing of the vertebral body fracture. This report documents a rare instance of L-4 vertebral body fracture following use of a stand-alone device for ALIF at L3-4, likely as a consequence of angular instability in degenerative spondylolisthesis. Under such conditions, additional pedicle screw fixation is advised.

  10. The comparison of compensatory sweating after T2-4 and T3-4 endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy for the treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis.%T2-4与T3-4交感神经链切断治疗手足多汗症术后代偿性出汗比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠国; 黄邵洪; 谷力加; 廖洪映; 张健; 李昀; 蔡松旺

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare compensatory sweating after T2-4 and T3-4 endoscopic thoracic sympathecto-my for the treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis, and thus to investigate the potential mechanism of the occurrence of compensatory sweating. Methods; One hundred and forty-six patients with primary palmar hyperhidrosis were divided into two groups; 66 with T2-4 sympathectomy (T2-4 group) and 80 with T3-4 sympathectomy (T3-4 group). The effects of operation, compensatory sweating location and severity one day and 6 months after operation were compared. Results; The effective rate was 100% , and the most common compensatory sweating locations were on the back and the chest The compensatory sweating incidence was 39% and 21% respectively in T2-4 and T3-4 group with significant difference ( P < 0. 05 ). There were 2 cases of severe compensatory sweating in T2-4 group, and T3-4 group without severe case 1 day after operation. The compensatory sweating incidence was 24% and 11 % respectively , with significant difference ( P < 0. 05). There was 1 case of severe compensatory sweating in T2-4 group, and T3-4 group without severe case 6 months after operation. Conclusion; Lowering the level of sympathectomy for primary palmar hyperhidrosis results in less compensatory sweeting. T3-4 sympathectomy is an ideal operation method to reduce compensatory sweating.%目的:通过比较胸腔镜下T2-4与T3-4交感神经链切断治疗手足多汗症术后代偿性出汗发生情况,探讨其发生的可能机制.方法:手足多汗症患者146例,按不同手术方式分为T2-4组(行T2-4水平交感神经链切断术,共66例)与T3-4组(行T3-4水平交感神经链切断术,共80例).比较两组术后第1日、第6个月手术效果以及代偿性出汗发生部位和严重程度.结果:术后两组手汗治愈率100%,最常见代偿性出汗部位是背部和胸部.术后第1日T2-4组代偿性出汗发生率明显高于T3-4组(39%对比21%,P<0.05),T2-4组出现2

  11. 高纯度3,4-二羟基苯甲醛的制备%Preparation of High Pure 3,4-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏春年; 陈利民; 胡惟孝

    2004-01-01

    研究了香兰素经脱甲基制备3,4-二羟基苯甲醛的反应.正交试验确定最佳反应条件为:香兰素7.8g(51mmol),CH2Cl2 15mL(234mmol),无水AlCl3 9.4g(70mmol),吡啶13.3g(168mmol)和TEBA 0.05g,反应温度48℃,回流时间28h,收率92.6%,纯度99.7%(HPLC).

  12. Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-few walled carbon nanotube (PEDOT-FWCNT) nanocomposite based thin films for Schottky diode application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Bhavana, E-mail: bgupta1206@gmail.com [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre of Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India); Mehta, Minisha, E-mail: mehta.mini@gmail.com [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre of Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India); Melvin, Ambrose [Catalysis Division, CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha, Pune 411008 (India); Kamalakannan, R.; Dash, S.; Kamruddin, M.; Tyagi, A.K. [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre of Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Transparent, conductive films of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-few walled carbon nanotube (PEDOT-FWCNT) nanocomposite were synthesized by in-situ oxidative polymerization and investigated for their Schottky diode property. The prepared films were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), surface resistivity, cyclic voltametery, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). SEM reveals the formation of homogeneous and adhesive polymer films while HRTEM confirms the uniform wrapping of polymer chains around the nanotube walls for PEDOT-FWCNT film. Improved thermal stability, conductivity and charge storage property of PEDOT in the presence of FWCNT is observed. Among different compositions, 5 wt. % of FWCNT is found to be optimum with sheet resistance and transmittance of 500 Ω sq{sup −1} and 77%, respectively. Moreover, the electronic and junction properties of polymer films were studied and compared by fabricating sandwich type devices with a configuration of Al/PEDOT or PEDOT-FWCNT nanocomposite/indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. The measured current density-voltage characteristics show typical rectifying behavior for both configurations. However, enhanced rectification ratio and higher forward current density is observed in case of PEDOT-FWCNT based Schottky diode. Furthermore, reliability test depicts smaller hysteresis effect and better performance of PEDOT-FWCNT based diodes. - Highlights: • Single step synthesis of PEDOT and PEDOT-FWCNT nanocomposites films via in-situ oxidative polymerization. • Thermal, electrical and electrochemical properties of films show positive effect of FWCNT on PEDOT films. • Schottky diodes based on metal Al/PEDOT or PEDOT-FWCNT composites/ITO glass are fabricated. • Improved electrical characteristics with better reliability is achieved for PEDOT-FWCNT based diodes.

  13. Poly(3-buthyl-co-3,4-dibuthylthiophene)s: synthesis and electrochromic characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catellani, M. [Istituto di Chimica delle Macromolecole, CNR, via Bassini 15, 20133 Milano (Italy); Arbizzani, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica ``G. Ciamician``, Universita di Bologna, via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Mastragostino, M. [Dipartimento di Chimica ``G. Ciamician``, Universita di Bologna, via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Zanelli, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica ``G. Ciamician``, Universita di Bologna, via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    We have prepared a series of soluble, processable copolymers containing both 3-buthylthiophene and 3,4-dibuthylthiophene units in well defined percentages. The modification of the copolymer composition produces materials with various {pi}-electron conjugation length and with diverse electrochromic properties tested for applications in electrochromic devices. (orig.)

  14. Synthesis of Some Benzimidazole Derivatives Bearing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Moiety as Anticancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochona, Bereket; Mazzio, Elizabeth; Gangapurum, Madhavei; Mateeva, Nelly; Redda, K K

    2015-04-01

    In an effort to establish new benzimidazole related structural leads with improved anticancer activity, several new benzimidazole derivatives (5a-i) with 1,3,4-oxadiazole scaffold incorporated were synthesized and studied for their anticancer activity. The anticancer screening against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines showed that compound (5c) exhibited moderate cytotoxicity.

  15. Footballers' movement behaviour during 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-a-side small-sided games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguiar, Marco; Goncalves, Bruno; Botelho, Goreti; Lemmink, Koen; Sampaio, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare footballers' movement behaviour during 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-a-side small-sided games. Ten young professional players (age=18.0 +/- 0.67years) participated in 3 bouts of each small-sided games for 6min with 1min of active rest between bouts. Positional data were colle

  16. Synthesis of novel pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidinone derivatives as cytotoxic inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameur Rahmouni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Various α-fonctionalized iminoethers 2 were easily prepared from ethyl 5-amino-3-substituted-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate 1. The reaction of iminoethers 2 with ammonia afforded 3-substitued-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidin-4(5H-ones 3 which were also synthesized by the addition of formamide to ethyl 5-amino-3-substituted-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate 1. The 5-amino-3-substitued-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4(5H-ones 4 were obtained from hydrazonolysis of iminoethers 2. Otherwise, the condensation of these intermediates 2 with a series of some primary amines and hydroxylamine led respectively, to the corresponding 3,5-disubstitued-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4(5H-ones 5 and the 3-substitued-5-hydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidin-4-(5H-ones 6. The synthesized compounds 1-6 were completely characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and HRMS. Some synthesized compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic effect using the Human cervical adenocarcinoma Hela cell line.

  17. A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nupur Jaiswal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Heterocyclic compounds possess diverse biological properties that has lead to intense study and research of these compounds. One of these compounds is oxadiazole which has been found to exhibit various pharmacological activities. Oxadiazole is a five membered heterocyclic ring which is a versatile lead compound for designing potent bioactive agents. It exists in four isomeric forms. Out of its four isomers 1, 3, 4-oxadizole exhibited a wide range of biological activities which includes antibacterial, antitubercular, anticonvulsant, hypoglycemic, antiallergic, enzyme inhibitor, vasodialatory, antifungal, cytotoxic, antiinflammatory, analgesic, hypolipidemic, anticancer, insecticidal, ulcerogenic activities etc. The 1,3,4-Oxadiazole have shown significant antimicrobial activity against a wide variety of microorganisms like fungi, Gram +ve strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus lintus and Gram –ve strains such as Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Oxadiazole derivatives and investigation of their chemical and biological behavior have gained more importance in recent decades for biological, medical and agricultural reasons. A large number of drugs used clinically have oxadiazole ring as a structural building block. The capacity of 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole nucleus to undergo variety of chemical reactions including electrophillic substitution, nucleophilic substitution, thermal and photochemical which make it medicinal backbone on which a number of potential molecules can be constructed. Present review is flooded with reports of antimicrobial activity of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives published in various journals.

  18. Schisanlactone G,a new 3,4-seco-lanostane triterpenoid from Schisandra sphenanthera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Ren; Guo Jun Luo; Hong Mei Li; Zhao Yuan Wu; Hai Zhou Li; Rong Tao Li

    2009-01-01

    A new 3,4-seco-lanostane triterpenoid,schisanlactone G (1),was isolated from the fruits of Schisandra sphenanthera.Its structure was established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis.2009 Rong Tao Li.Published by Elsevier B.V.on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society.All fights reserved.

  19. Thermodynamic and kinetic investigations of PO3-4 adsorption on blast furnace slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Ensar

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics of adsorption of PO(3-)(4) by blast furnace slag were found to be fast, reaching equilibrium in 20 min and following a pseudo-second-order rate equation. The adsorption behavior of PO(3-)(4) on blast furnace slag has been studied as a function of the solution agitation speed, pH, and temperature. Results have been analyzed by Freundlich, Langmuir, BET, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption isotherms. The mean energy of adsorption, 10.31 kJ mol(-1), was calculated from the D-R adsorption isotherm. The rate constants were calculated for 293, 298, 303, and 308 K using a pseudo-second-order rate equation and the activation energy (E(a)) was derived using the Arrhenius equation. Thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaH(0), DeltaS(0), and DeltaG(0) were calculated from the slope and intercept of linear plot of lnK(D) against 1/T. The DeltaH(0) and DeltaG(0) values of PO(3-)(4) adsorption on the blast furnace slag show endothermic heat of adsorption. But there is a negative free energy value, indicating that the process of PO(3-)(4) adsorption is favored at high temperatures.

  20. Carotenoid 3',4'-desaturase is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis in the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bing; Sun, Zongtao; Xu, Zhenjian; Shen, Shaochuan; Wang, Hu; Hua, Yuejin

    2008-12-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans strain R1 synthesizes deinoxanthin, a unique carotenoid product, which contributes to cell resistance following various stresses. The biosynthetic pathway of deinoxanthin is unclear, although several enzymes are presumed to be involved. The gene (dr2250) predicted by gene homologue analysis to encode carotenoid 3',4'-desaturase (CrtD) was deleted to investigate its function. A mutant deficient in the gene homologue of crtLm (dr0801) was also constructed to verify the catalytic function of the gene product in the native host. Carotenoid analysis of the resultant mutants verified that DR2250 encodes carotenoid 3',4'-desaturase, which catalyses the C-3',4'-desaturation of the monocyclic precursor of deinoxanthin but not acyclic carotenoids. Mutation of the gene homologue of crtLm (dr0801) resulted in accumulation of lycopene, confirming that it encodes the lycopene cyclase in the native host. The lack of CrtD decreased the antioxidant capacity of the mutant deficient in dr2250 compared with the wild-type, indicating that the C-3',4'-desaturation step contributes to the antioxidant capacity of deinoxanthin in D. radiodurans.

  1. Ethanol co-administration moderates 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine effects on human physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, G.J.H.; Kramers, C.; Sweep, F.C.G.J.; Willemsen, J.J.; Touw, D.J.; Schoemaker, R.C.; Van Gerven, J.M.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verkes, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol is frequently used in combination with 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Both drugs affect cardiovascular function, hydration and temperature regulation, but may have partly opposing effects. The present study aims to assess the acute physiologic effects of (co-) administration of M

  2. Increased oxytocin concentrations and prosocial feelings in humans after ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, G J H; Sweep, F C G J; van der Steen, R; Hermsen, R; Donders, A R T; Touw, D J; van Gerven, J M A; Buitelaar, J K; Verkes, R J

    2009-01-01

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or "ecstasy") is a recreationally used drug with remarkable and characteristic prosocial effects. In spite of abundant attention in the scientific literature, the mechanism of its prosocial effects has not been elucidated in humans. Recently, research in anima

  3. Increased oxytocin concentrations and prosocial feelings in humans after ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) administration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, G.J.H.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Steen, R. van der; Hermsen, R.; Donders, A.R.T.; Touw, D.J.; Gerven, J.M. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verkes, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or "ecstasy") is a recreationally used drug with remarkable and characteristic prosocial effects. In spite of abundant attention in the scientific literature, the mechanism of its prosocial effects has not been elucidated in humans. Recently, research in anima

  4. A mechanistic insight into 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("ecstasy")-mediated hepatotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antolino-Lobo, I.; Meulenbelt, J.; van den Berg, M.; van Duursen, M.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is a popular drug of abuse among young people with stimulant and hallucinogenic properties. The drug is generally thought to be safe among consumers due to its low-mortality rates. However, MDMA-adverse effects can occur and the risks are not clear

  5. 4-[5-(2-Methoxyphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]benzohydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Taha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 4-(5-(2-Methoxyphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylbenzohydrazide (5 was synthesized by three steps. The synthesis started with 2-methoxybenzohydrazide to form hydrazone (3 which was then cyclized to oxadiazole (4 and finally, treatment of oxadiazole (4 with hydrazine hydrate afforded the final product (5.

  6. Caesium europium(III) polyphosphate, CsEu(PO3)4

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhu; Wen-Dan Cheng; Hao Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Caesium europium polyphosphate, CsEu(PO3)4, was synthesized by a high-temperature solution reaction. Its structure is charaterized by a three-dimensional framework made up of double PO4 spiral chains and EuO8 and CsO11 polyhedra.

  7. Biocatalytic acylation of sugar alcohols by 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croitoru, R.; Fitigau, F.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Frissen, A.E.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Enzymatic synthesis of aromatic esters of four different sugar alcohols (xylitol, arabitol, mannitol, and sorbitol) with 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid was performed in organic solvent medium, using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase (Novozyme 435), and molecular sieves for control of the wate

  8. The leachability of carbon-14-labelled 3,4-benzopyrene from coal ash into aqueous systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besemer, A.C.; Kanij, J.

    1984-01-01

    The leachability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal ash into aqueous systems was studied. Carbon-14-labeled 3,4-Benzopyrene (BaP) was deposited on coal fly ash by adsorption from the liquid phase in quantities of about 10 ??g/g ash. After a thermal treatment in air at 120??C for 2 hours t

  9. Preparation and Luminescence Characteristics of Ca3Y2(BO3)4:Eu3+ Phosphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Pan-Lai; YANG Zhi-Ping; WANG Zhi-Jun; Guo Qing-Lin

    2007-01-01

    Ca3Y2(BO3)4:Eu3+ phosphor is synthesized by high temperature solid-state reaction method, and the luminescence characteristics are investigated. The emission spectrum exhibits two strong red emissions at 613 and 621 nm corresponding to the electric dipole 5 Do-7F2 transition of Eu3+ under 365 nm excitation, the reason is that Eu3+ substituting for y3+ occupies the non-centrosymmetric position in the crystal structure of Ca3Y2 (BO3 )4. The excitation spectrum for 613 nm indicates that the phosphor can be effectively excited by ultraviolet (UV) (254 nm,365nm and 400nm) and blue (470nm) light. The effect of Eu3+ concentration on the emission intensity of Ca3Y2 (BO3 )4:Eu3+ phosphor is measured, the result shows that the emission intensities increase with increasing Eu3+ concentration, then decrease. The CIE colour coordinates of Ca3Y2(BO3)4:Eu3+ phosphor is (0.639, 0.357) at 15mol% Eu3+.

  10. Pharmacological Studies of p, N-(3, 4-Methylenedioxy phenyl Benzoic Acid (RRL-1364 - Part-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahanukar Sharadini

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed pharmacological investigations of p-N-(3, 4-methylene dioxy phenyl benzoic acid revealed marked hypotensive action which was dose dependent and most marked in cats; it was absent in rats. Atropine could block this hypotensive action, thus suggest-ing cholinomimetic mechanism. Further studies indicated that the hypotension produced was central and possibly medullary in origin.

  11. Polar alicyclic rings: synthesis and structure of all cis-1,2,3,4-tetrafluorocyclopentane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zeguo; Al-Maharik, Nawaf; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Bühl, Michael; O'Hagan, David

    2016-04-14

    The all-cis isomer of 1,2,3,4-tetrafluorocyclopentane is prepared and characterised by NMR and X-ray crystallography and the experimental structure compared with theory. The structure has a similarly high polarity to all-cis tetrafluorocyclohexanes despite the increased conformational flexibility of a cyclopentane.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-25

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  13. Monthly energy review, September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Information is also provided on international energy, including petroleum production, consumption, and stocks and nuclear electricity gross generation. This issues provides a brief industry overview and a detailed analysis of the spring 1996 gasoline price runup, crude oil supply issues, U.S. crude oil imports, petroleum stocks, futures markets, refining cash margin trends, and the financial performance of U.S. refining and marketing firms. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-10

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed costs of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly: December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Data are presented which describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. Data are presented in two sections: Summary Statistics, presenting a time series of selected petroleum data on a U.S. level, and Detailed Statistics, presenting statistics for the most current month available as well as year to date.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase prices, the f.o b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 49 tabs.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  20. 食管贲门癌术后胃瘫32例临床诊治体会%Thoughts on diagnosis and treatment of 32 cases of post-surgery subtotal gastroparesis on gastrectomy and esophagectomy can-cer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶一勤; 李道航; 沙纪名; 胡海峰

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review the diagnosis and treatment of gastroparesis after esophagectomy. Methods Retrospectively ana-lyzed 32 cases of clinical data between 1991 and 2007 with post-surgery subtotal Gastroparesis on gastrectomy & esophagectomy patients. Re-sults Gastroparesis in these patients caused the undesirable symptoms of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, bloating and early satiety and there is lcase of death due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. The upper gastrointestinal radiography showed a decrease in gastric motility, and no stomach obstruction. The rest of the cases had curative effects through the reduction of gastric pressure, maintenance of hydro electrolytic bal-ance and nutritional supplement, and application of prokinetic drugs. Conclusion The diagnosis of gastroparesis mainly depends on the clini-cal appearances, chest CT Scan and GI. When the gastroparesis is confirmed, the patient should be treated with conservative methods, such as the application of internal nutrition, prokinetic agents.%目的 总结食管、贲门癌术后胃瘫临床诊治经验.方法 对1991年至2007年食管癌、贲门癌术后发生胃瘫的32例患者的治疗过程和效果进行回顾性分析.结果 所有患者主要表现为胃潴留,无明显腹痛,肛门排气大多正常.消化道造影可见胃蠕动差,吻合口通畅.CT显示胸腔胃明显增大以及大量胃液潴留.本组病例中1例患者死于绿脓杆菌性肺炎.其余所有病例经胃肠减压,肠内营养支持,维持水电解质平衡,以及用促进胃肠动力药物的应用等措施使病情均得以缓解出院.结论 食管癌、贲门癌术后胃瘫的诊断主要依据临床表现、消化道造影及胸CT等检查.排除机械性梗阻的存在后应积极采取肠内营养及胃肠动力促进剂等综合治疗,可以治愈.

  1. Neurotoxic thioether adducts of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine identified in human urine after ecstasy ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Ximena; O'Mathúna, Brian; Pizarro, Nieves; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Khymenets, Olha; Almeida, Bruno; Pellegrini, Manuela; Pichini, Simona; Lau, Serrine S; Monks, Terrence J; Farré, Magí; Pascual, Jose Antonio; Joglar, Jesús; de la Torre, Rafael

    2009-07-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) is a widely misused synthetic amphetamine derivative and a serotonergic neurotoxicant in animal models and possibly humans. The underlying mechanism of neurotoxicity involves the formation of reactive oxygen species although their source remains unclear. It has been postulated that MDMA-induced neurotoxicity is mediated via the formation of bioreactive metabolites. In particular, the primary catechol metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA) and 3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine (HHA), subsequently cause the formation of glutathione and N-acetylcysteine conjugates, which retain the ability to redox cycle and are serotonergic neurotoxicants in rats. Although the presence of such metabolites has been recently demonstrated in rat brain microdialysate, their formation in humans has not been reported. The present study describes the detection of 5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (N-Ac-5-Cys-HHMA) and 5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine (N-Ac-5-Cys-HHA) in human urine of 15 recreational users of MDMA (1.5 mg/kg) in a controlled setting. The results reveal that in the first 4 h after MDMA ingestion approximately 0.002% of the administered dose was recovered as thioether adducts. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP2D6 and catechol-O-methyltransferase expression, the combination of which are major determinants of steady-state levels of HHMA and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine, probably explain the interindividual variability seen in the recovery of N-Ac-5-Cys-HHMA and N-Ac-5-Cys-HHA. In summary, the formation of neurotoxic thioether adducts of MDMA has been demonstrated for the first time in humans. The findings lend weight to the hypothesis that the bioactivation of MDMA to neurotoxic metabolites is a relevant pathway to neurotoxicity in humans.

  2. Monthly energy review, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This publication contains statistical information and data analysis of energy production and consumption within the major energy industries of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy and oil and gas resource development. Energy production during October 1993 totaled 5.5-quadrillion Btu, a 3.0 percent decrease from the level of production during October 1992. Coal production decreased 5.6 percent, petroleum production decreased 3.4 percent, and natural gas production increased 1.9 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.0 percent from the level of production during October 1992. Energy consumption during October 1993 totaled 6.7 quadrillion Btu, 0.9 percent above the level of consumption during October 1992. Natural gas consumption increased 6.5 percent, coal consumption rose 2.9 percent, and petroleum consumption was down 1.3 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 5.5 percent from the level of 1 year earlier.

  3. Monthly Narrative: Canaan National Wildlife Refuge 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monthly narrative report for Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments month by month in 2007 from January through July. The report...

  4. Study of refining process of 3, 4-dichloroaniline%3,4-二氯苯胺精制工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洋; 李玉刚; 张兵; 程华农

    2013-01-01

    Through the thermostability experiment of 3, 4-dichloroaniline, which is the product of catalytic hydrogenation reaction, it is found that the amine hydrochloride of 3,4-dichloroaniline will not be pyrolyzed to HCl, and no corrosion to distillation equipment. Through the experiments of inhibitor degradation and thermostability of product, it is found that the rectification tower kettle temperature must be controlled under 190℃so that the inhibitor decomposion and the chromaticity of product becoming bigger could be avoided effectively. Using ASPEN to simulate and analyze the separation technology which could produce 3, 4-dichloroaniline 5000 t per year, the separation sequence is found, that remove methyl alcohol firstly, then the water and the light constituent, then remove the tar lastly, and get the product. It is operated under atmospheric pressure in the methyl alcohol removal tower, the purity of methyl alcohol in the supertower is 99.9%, but the mass fraction of methyl alcohol in bottom is 10 mg.l-1. The theoretical plates number is 26, feed at the 15 plate, and the quantity of reflux is 3000 kg.h-1. It is also operated under atmospheric pressure in the light constituent removal tower, the bottom temperature is 175 ℃, and the mass fraction of phenylamine in bottom is 10 mg.l-1. The theoretical plates number is 26, feed at the 7 plate, and the quantity of reflux is 1590 kg.h-1. It is forced to circulate in the bottom tower of tar, the product is side-draw, and the mass fraction could reach to 100%, and the quantity of reflux is 1500 kg.h-1, and feed at the 30 plate. The yield of product is 99.15%in the whole separation process.%通过催化加氢反应产物3,4-二氯苯胺的热稳定性实验,得出产物中的胺基盐酸盐不会受热分解成 HCl,对精馏设备不会产生腐蚀。通过抑制剂降解实验和产品热稳定性实验得出精馏塔釜温度须控制在190℃以下,可以有效避免抑制剂分解

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  6. Best pictures of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    The last sector of the Big Muon Wheels was brought to the cavern in the morning of September 20... ... installed on one of the Big Muon Wheels during the same afternoon... ... just in time to sqeeze lots of people in between two of the all-completed Big Muon Wheels on the 21st of September to celebrate the installation of the last sector. Installation of the first ATLAS small wheel in building 191 on September 10. Some of the people involved in the construction and installation of the chambers on the first ATLAS small wheel in building 191 celebrating its completion on September 20. After hearing that the rock band The Police played in Geneva last month, Muriel got inspired and decided to become a rock star, just like one of her favorites, Keith Richards from the Rolling Stones. Special accomplishment of the month: (top) Martina Hurwitz (#908) and Monica Dunford (680), both from the Chicago University group, completed the Lausanne Marathon on October 21 in 4h 4...

  7. Uncertainty Quantification of Calculated Temperatures for the AGR 3/4 Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Binh Thi-Cam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) irradiation experiments are being conducted within the Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The main objectives of the fuel experimental campaign are to provide the necessary data on fuel performance to support fuel process development, qualify a fuel design and fabrication process for normal operation and accident conditions, and support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes (PLN 3636, “Technical Program Plan for INL Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office/Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program”). The AGR 3/4 test was inserted in the Northeast Flux Trap position in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) core at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in December 2011 and successfully completed irradiation in mid-April 2014, resulting in irradiation of the tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel for 369.1 effective full-power days (EFPDs) during approximately 2.4 calendar years. The AGR 3/4 data, including the irradiation data and calculated results, were qualified and stored in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). To support the U.S. TRISO fuel performance assessment and to provide data for validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, the daily as run thermal analysis has been performed separately on each of twelve AGR 3/4 capsules for the entire irradiation as discussed in ECAR-2807, “AGR 3/4 Daily As Run Thermal Analyses”. The ABAQUS code’s finite element-based thermal model predicts the daily average volume average (VA) fuel temperature (FT), peak FT, and graphite matrix, sleeve, and sink temperature in each capsule. The JMOCUP simulation codes were also created to perform depletion calculations for the AGR 3/4 experiment (ECAR-2753, “JMOCUP As-Run Daily Physics Depletion Calculation for the AGR 3/4 TRISO Particle Experiment in ATR

  8. Hexahydro-Pyrrolo[1',2',5':3,4,5]Thiazolo[3,4-c]Oxazol-1-ones: New Chiral Tricyclic L-Cysteine and D-Penicillamine Derivatives.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    A simple and efficient approach to the synthesis of the new chiral hexahydropyrrolo [1',2',5':3,4,5]thiazolo[3,4-c]oxazol-1-one ring system is reported. Infrared spectroscopy, quantum-chemical calculations and X-ray analysis allowed the stereochemistry assignment of (2aS,4aR,6aR)-2a,3,4,4a,6,6ahexahydropyrrolo-[ 1',2',5':3,4,5]thiazolo[3,4-c]oxazol-1-one. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]. Copyright of Letters in Organic Chemistry is the property of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. and its content ma...

  9. PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is a regulator of myosin-X localization and filopodia formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plantard, Laure; Arjonen, Antti; Lock, John G

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] is a key regulator of cell signaling that acts by recruiting proteins to the cell membrane, such as at the leading edge during cell migration. Here, we show that PtdIns (3,4,5)P3 plays a central role in filopodia formation via the bindi...

  10. 17 CFR 3.4 - Registration in one capacity not included in registration in any other capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Registration in one capacity not included in registration in any other capacity. 3.4 Section 3.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGISTRATION Registration § 3.4 Registration in one capacity...

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  14. Synthesis of New [1,2,4]Triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazines and Study of Their Anti-Candidal and Cytotoxic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashooq Ahmad Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New triazolothiadiazine derivatives 5a–h were synthesized from 4-amino-3-(4-pyridyl-5-mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazole (3 with substituted aryl hydrazonoyl chlorides 4a–h. The compounds were tested in vitro against eleven Candida species and compared with standard drug ketoconazole. Among these compounds, the compounds bearing p-chlorophenyl 5e, p-methoxyphenyl 5c, phenyl 5a, and p-sulphonamidophenyl 5g substituents on triazolothiadiazine system were found to be the most effective derivatives against Candida species. Compound 5e was the most effective compound against C. parapsilosis (ATCC 22019, C. albicans (ATCC 66027, C. specie [blood] 12810, and C. specie [urine] 300 with MIC value of 6.25 μg/mL, whereas ketoconazole exhibits the inhibitory activity with MIC value of 3–30 μg/mL against all tested strains. It was clear that there is a positive correlation between anti-Candidal activity and p-chlorophenyl substitution on triazolothiadiazine ring. All the synthesized compounds were also investigated for their potential cytotoxicity on noncancer cell line (MCF-12 using WST-1 assay. Three compounds 5d, 5a, and 5h were found to have the same IC50 value as that of standard drug ketoconazole against noncancer cell line MCF-12 (IC50 ≥ 1.0 × 105 μg/mL.

  15. New 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Based Photosensitizers for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Mehmood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 1,3,4-Oxadiazole based photosensitizers with biphenyl, naphthalene, anthracene, and triphenylamine as the electron-donating moiety were synthesized for solar cell applications. In these photosensitizers, cyano groups were introduced as the electron acceptor and the anchor group because of their high electron-withdrawing ability and strong bonding to the semiconductor. Oxadiazole isomers were used as the π-conjugation system, which bridges the donor-acceptor systems. The electrochemical and optical properties of the sensitizers were investigated both in their native form and upon incorporation into dye sensitized solar cells. The results of UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements, and photocurrent voltage characteristics indicate that 1,3,4-oxadiazole pi-spacer with the anthracene moiety has the highest efficiency of 2.58%. Density functional theory was employed to optimize the structures of the sensitizers and the TiO2 cluster.

  16. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel Sulfone Derivatives Containing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoguo Tong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of new sulfone compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moieties were synthesized. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic data (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR and elemental analyses. Antifungal tests indicated that all the title compounds exhibited good antifungal activities against eight kinds of plant pathogenic fungi, and some showed superiority over the commercial fungicide hymexazol. Among them, compounds 5d, 5e, 5f, and 5i showed prominent activity against B. cinerea, with determined EC50 values of 5.21 μg/mL, 8.25 µg/mL, 8.03 µg/mL, and 21.00 µg/mL, respectively. The present work demonstrates that sulfone derivatives such as 5d containing a 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety can be used as possible lead compounds for the development of potential agrochemicals.

  17. Sonochemical synthesis of novel pyrano[3,4-e][1,3]oxazines: A green protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Tamer S; Al-Bogami, Abdullah S; Mekky, Ahmed E M; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z

    2017-05-01

    The atom-efficient and green protocol for formation of pyrano[3,4-e][1,3]oxazines utilizing dimethyl carbonate under ultrasound irradiation in a presence of KF/basic alumina was reported. We provide a novel series of pyrano[3,4-e][1,3]oxazine derivatives interesting for biological screening tests. In general, it was found that ultrasound irradiations enable the reactions to occur which could not be carried out under silent conditions. These remarkable effects appeared in sonicated reactions can be reasonably interpreted in terms of acoustic cavitation phenomenon. Structures of the products were established on analytical and spectral data. This protocol offers several advantages attain many principles of green chemistry including, save energy, atom economy, clean reactions, inexpensive green reagent and use catalysts rather than stoichiometric reagents.

  18. Application of stochastic variational method to 3-4 body systems with realistic nuclear force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohbayashi, Yoshihide [Niigata Univ. (Japan); Varga, K.; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki

    1997-05-01

    SVM (stochastic variational method) was applied to simulate triton and alpha with realistic nuclear force such as Reid V8 (RV8), Argonne V6, V8 (AV6 and aV8). 3-4 body systems were solved by about 300-400 dimensions and the results were agreed with the most accurate solution. Convergence of energy of 3-4 body systems was rapid by using AV6 and AV8 potential, but it was slow by RV8 with strong repulsive force core. The energy values using SVM and GFMC were almost same. Number of dimension to convert the energy of triton was decreased by refinement. (S.Y.)

  19. A tomato enzyme catalyzing the phosphorylation of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Stefan; Kis, Klaus; Bacher, Adelbert; Rohdich, Felix

    2002-05-01

    A riboflavin biosynthesis ribB mutant of Escherichia coli deficient of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase was complemented with a cDNA library from Lycopersicon esculentum. The complementing gene was isolated and expressed in E. coli. The resulting protein was shown to specify a 62 kDa protein which phosphorylates dihydroxyacetone, both enantiomers of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone, and several other aldoses and ketoses. Sequence analysis revealed homology to dihydroacetone kinases (dak) genes from plants, animals, fungi and some eubacteria. Genes with similarity to the 5' part of the dak gene from tomato were found in many other eubacteria. The physiological role of the dak gene is still incompletely known.

  20. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Herbicidal Activities of 2-Cyanoacrylates Containing 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Moieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tingting; Miao Wenke; Wu Shanshan; Bing Guifang; Zhang Xin; Qin Zhenfang; Yu Haibo; Qin Xue; Fang Jianxin

    2011-01-01

    Three series of novel 2-cyanoacrylates 7a-7f, 9a-9f, 10a-10f containing 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring moieties were synthesized as herbicidal inhibitors of photosystem Ⅱ (PS Ⅱ) electron transportation. Their structures were clearly verified by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analysis (or HRMS analysis) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Bioassay showed that a suitable group at the 3-position of acrylates was essential for high herbicidal activ-ity. In particular, compound 7e showed the best herbicidal activities and gave 100% inhibitory activity against rape and amaranth pigweed at a dose of 1.5 kg/ha. Introduction of substituent with higher polarity such as sulfinyl or sulfonyl to the 5-position of 1,3,4-thiadiazole decreased herbicidal activities.

  1. SYNTHESIS OF SOLUBLE POLY(3,4-DIHYDROXY-o-TOLYLENE): REDOX POLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sa(a)d Moulay; Fatima M'zyène

    2006-01-01

    Conventional chloromethylation, paraformaldehyde/hydrogen chloride in acetic acid medium, was applied to 1,2-dimethoxybenzene. Chloroform-soluble poly(3,4-dimethoxy-o-tolylene) was obtained with an intrinsic viscosity of 0.034 dL g-1. The polymer was evaluated as a condensation redox polymer precursor formed by a Friedel-Crafts reaction.Cleavage of the methoxy groups present in this polymer resulted in poly(3,4-dihydroxy-o-tolylene) which manifested a great air-oxidation resistance. The redox property of the latter polymer was found to be 1017 mV by potentiometric titration with 0.05 N ceric ammonium nitrate at 25℃. This midpotential was compared to that of catechol, a monomeric analogue, under the same titration conditions.

  2. A Convenient Synthesis of Benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrazine-1,3-dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-wei; ZHAO Xiu-xiu; LIN Zhi-hui; PANG Si-ping; SUN Cheng-hui; LI Sheng-hua

    2013-01-01

    Benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrazine-1,3-dioxide was synthesized from 2-bromonitrobenzene,which is converted to 2-bromo-1-( tert-butyl-NNO-azoxy)benzene by a three-step standem reaction. Amination of 2-bromo-1-( tert-butyl-NNO-azoxy)benzene with aqueous ammonia using Cu2 O as the catalyst yielded 2-amino-1-(tert-butyl-NNO-azoxy)benzene,that was cyclized with nitration agents N2O5 or NO2BF4 to give benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrazine-1,3-dioxide. A mild and convenient route was developed. Moreover,the target compound was identified by 1 H NMR,13 C NMR,IR, MS-EI and elemental analysis.

  3. Synthesis, antiproliferative activities, and computational evaluation of novel isocoumarin and 3,4-dihydroisocoumarin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Keller G; de Freitas, Rossimiriam P; Ruiz, Ana L T G; Fiorito, Giovanna F; de Carvalho, João E; da Cunha, Elaine F F; Ramalho, Teodorico C; Alves, Rosemeire B

    2016-03-23

    A series of novel isocoumarin derivatives were synthesized using Castro-Stephens cross-coupling. Moreover, novel 3,4-dihydroisocoumarin derivatives were obtained by catalytic hydrogenation of the corresponding isocoumarin precursors. The antiproliferative activity of all compounds was evaluated in vitro in different tumor cells. Furthermore, docking calculations were performed for the kallikrein 5 (KLK5) active site to predict the possible mechanism of action of this series of compounds. Theoretical findings indicate that the 3,4-dihydroisocoumarin derivative 10a forms hydrogen bonds with Ser190 and Gln192 residues of KLK5. This derivative was the most active compound in the series with potent antiproliferative activity and high selectivity index (SI > 378.79) against breast cancer cells (MCF-7, GI50 = 0.66 μg mL(-1)). This compound represents a promising matrix for developing new antiproliferative agents.

  4. The causality between the rapid rotation of a sunspot and an X3.4 flare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Li Yan; Zhong-Quan Qu; Cheng-Lin Xu; Zhi-Ke Xue; De-Fang Kong

    2009-01-01

    Using multi-wavelength data of Hinode, the rapid rotation of a sunspot in ac-tive region NOAA 10930 is studied in detail. We found extraordinary counterclockwise rotation of the sunspot with positive polarity before an X3.4 flare. From a series of vector magnetograms, it is found that magnetic force lines are highly sheared along the neu-tral line accompanying the sunspot rotation. Furthermore, it is also found that sheared loops and an inverse S-shaped magnetic loop in the corona formed gradually after the sunspot rotation. The X3.4 flare can be reasonably regarded as a result of this movement. A detailed analysis provides evidence that sunspot rotation leads to magnetic field linestwisting in the photosphere. The twist is then transported into the corona and triggers flares.

  5. Structure and Biological Activities of Novel Triazole Compounds Containing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-zhong; BI Wen-zhao; SHANG Yu-qing; ZHAI Zhi-wei; YI Xu

    2008-01-01

    Eighteen novel triazole compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole groups were synthesized from 2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-y1)acetohydrazide and carbon disulfide by several step reactions. The target compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, MS, and X-ray crystallography. The results of preliminary biological tests show that all the compounds exhibit certain fungicidal activities.

  6. {2,2′-[Pyridine-3,4-diylbis(nitrilomethylidyne]diphenolato}zinc(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Sheng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Zn(C19H13N3O2], has been synthesized by the reaction of Zn(ClO42·6H2O and the tetradentate Schiff base ligand 2,2′-[pyridine-3,4-diylbis(nitrilomethylidyne]diphenol (L. The coordination geometry of the ZnII ion is slightly distorted square-planar, formed by two N atoms and two O atoms from the L ligand.

  7. Catechol and Aldehyde Moieties of 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde Contribute to Tyrosine Hydroxylase Inhibition and Neurotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder which leads to the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons. This causes a decrease in the important neurotransmitter dopamine (DA), which is essential for coordinated movement. Previous studies have implicated the monoamine oxidase metabolite of DA, 3,4-dihydroxphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), in the pathogenesis of PD and have shown it to be a reactive intermediate capable of protein modification. DOPAL also has demonstrated the ...

  8. Significant Electronic Thermal Transport in the Conducting Polymer Poly(3,4‐ethylenedioxythiophene)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weathers, Annie; Khan, Zia Ullah; Brooke, Robert;

    2015-01-01

    Suspended microdevices are employed to measure the in-plane electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient of suspended poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin films. The measured thermal conductivity is higher than previously reported for PEDOT and generally increas...... with the electrical conductivity. The increase exceeds that predicted by the Wiedemann–Franz law for metals and can be explained by significant electronic thermal transport in PEDOT....

  9. Syntheses of 3,4-benzotropolones by ring-closing metatheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arican, Deniz; Brückner, Reinhard

    2013-06-01

    Ortho-lithiated styrenes or ortho-lithiated benzaldehyde dimethyl acetals were added to 2,2-dimethoxypent-4-enals 7. The resulting alcohols were carried on to the aromatic dienones 10. These were ring-closed by olefin metathesis. Hydrolysis of the dimethyl ketal moiety and enolization provided the 3,4-benzotropolones 5. Overall, this access comprises 4-6 steps and totaled a 22-81% yield.

  10. [Determination of 3, 4-benzopyrene in spiruline algae produced and treated by various procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bories, G; Tulliez, J

    1975-01-01

    Spirulina algae grow in highly salted natural lakes. Artificial cultivation in tanks with addition of carbon dioxide (natural gas, burned gases) has been studied in order to improve the biosynthesis. A possible 3, 4-benzopyrene (BaP) contamination must be then considered. Several BaP determinations have been performed in batches of algae from bath origins, prepared following different processes (filtration, spray, cylinder drying). BaP contents are very low (2 to 3 ppb) and comparable between batches.

  11. Poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene as an entrapment support for amperometric enzyme sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano, Silvia; Tran-Minh, Canh; Piro, Benoît; Anh Dang, Lan; Chau Pham, Minh; Vittori, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    International audience; A conducting polymer of poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDT) was used as a matrix for entrapment of enzymes onto a platinum electrode surface in order to construct amperometric biosensors. Glucose oxidase (GOD) was used as an example, and it was entrapped in the polymer during the electrochemical polymerization. Glucose in oxygenated solutions was tested by amperometric measurements at +650 mV (vs. SCE) in a batch system. The influence of several experimental paramet...

  12. An infrared integrated optic astronomical beam combiner for stellar interferometry at 3-4 microns

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiao, Hsien-kai; Monnier, John D; Berger, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Integrated-optic, astronomical, two-beam and three-beam, interferometric combiners have been designed and fabricated for operation in the L band (3 - 4 microns) for the first time. The devices have been realized in titanium-indiffused, x-cut lithium niobate substrates, and on-chip electro-optic fringe scanning has been demonstrated. White light fringes were produced in the laboratory using the two-beam combiner integrated with an on-chip Y-splitter.

  13. Novel Diarylethenes: N-Substituted-3, 4-bisheteroaryl-2, 5-dihydropyrrole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong HAN; Zhi Bin ZHANG; Jun Ping XIAO; Wen Peng YAN; Mei Gong FAN

    2005-01-01

    Novel diarylethene derivatives: N-substituted-3,4-bisheteroaryl-2,5-dihydropyrroles were synthesized through Mcmurry couple reaction with high yields. The photochromic properties and UV-Vis absorption spectra were studied. The maximal absorptions of their close forms were around at 406 nm or 446 nm, which related mainly with heteroaryl groups but not with substituted groups at nitrogen atom of dihydropyrrole. The absorption of their colored form could be matched with blue light laser.

  14. Macrocyclic Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease Inhibitors: An Overview of Medicinal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillaiyar, Thanigaimalai; Namasivayam, Vigneshwaran; Manickam, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a causative agent of hepatitis C infectious disease that primarily affects the liver, ranging in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a lifelong illness. The 9.6 kb RNA genome of HCV encodes approximately 3000 amino acid polyprotein that must be processed by host and viral proteases into both structural (S) and non-structural (NS) proteins, respectively. Targeting the serine protease NS3 with an activating factor NS4A, i.e., NS3/4A has been considered as one of the most attractive targets for the development of anti-HCV therapy. Although there is no vaccine available, antiviral medicines cure approximately 90% of the persons with hepatitis C infection. On the other hand, efficacy of these medications can be hampered due to the rapid drug and cross resistances. To date, all developed HCV NS3/4A inhibitors are mainly peptide-based compounds derived from the cleavage products of substrate. Specifically macrocyclic peptidomimetics have rapidly emerged as a classical NS3/4A protease inhibitors for treating the HCV infection. This review highlights the development of macrocyclic anti-HCV NS3/4A protease, as well as clinically important inhibitors developed from linear peptides, discovered during the last 12 years (2003-2015) from all sources, including laboratory synthetic methods, virtual screening and structure-based molecular docking studies. We emphasize the rationale behind the design, study of structure-activity relationships, and mechanism of inhibitions and cellular effect of the macrocyclic inhibitors.

  15. Wavelet Spectral Finite Elements for Wave Propagation in Composite Plates with Damages - Years 3-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-23

    proposed by Timoshenko (1921) and Timoshenko and Woinowski-Krieger (1989). Gavric (1994) developed a numerical approach to model the cross section...Hence, in this section, skin is modeled as spectral plate element and the stiffener is modeled as a Timoshenko beam element and they are coupled using a...plates using a new stiffened element. Tech. Mech. 28 (3-4), 227-236. Timoshenko , S., 1921. On the correction of transverse shear deformation of the

  16. 2-[3-(4-Methoxyphenyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl]phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C22H18N2O2, was derived from 1-(2-hydroxyphenyl-3-(4-methoxyphenylpropane-1,3-dione. The central pyrazole ring forms dihedral angles of 16.83 (5, 48.97 (4 and 51.68 (4°, respectively, with the methoxyphenyl, phenyl and hydroxyphenyl rings. The crystal packing is stabilized by O—H...N hydrogen bonding.

  17. Prenatal exposure to alcohol and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) alters adult hippocampal neurogenesis and causes enduring memory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Juan J; Ferrer-Donato, Agueda

    2014-01-01

    Recreational drug use among pregnant women is a source of concern due to potential harmful effects of drug exposure on prenatal and infant development. The simultaneous abuse of ecstasy [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] and alcohol is prevalent among young adults, including young expectant mothers. Here, we used a rat model to study the potential risks associated with exposure to alcohol and MDMA during pregnancy. Pregnant rats received alcohol, MDMA, or both alcohol and MDMA by gavage at E13 through E15 twice daily. Female offspring treated prenatally with the combination of alcohol and MDMA, but not those exposed to either drug separately, showed at 3 months of age decreased exploratory activity and impaired working memory function. Prenatal treatment with the combination of alcohol and MDMA decreased proliferation of neuronal precursors in the adult dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, as measured by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine labelling, and adult neurogenesis, assessed by quantifying doublecortin expression. These results provide the first evidence that the simultaneous abuse of alcohol and ecstasy during pregnancy, even for short periods of time, may cause significant abnormalities in neurocognitive development.

  18. Lack of Evidence for 3/4 Scaling of Metabolism in Terrestrial Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Tao LI; Xing-Guo HAN; Jian-Guo WU

    2005-01-01

    Scaling, as the translation of information across spatial, temporal, and organizational scales, is essential to predictions and understanding in all sciences and has become a central issue in ecology. A large body of theoretical and empirical evidence concerning allometric scaling in terrestrial individual plants and plant communities has been constructed around the fractal volume-filling theory of West, Brown, and Enquist (the WBE model). One of the most thought-provoking findings has been that the metabolic rates of plants, like those of animals, scale with their size as a 3/4 power law. The earliest, single most-important study cited in support of the application of the WBE model to terrestrial plants claims that whole-plant resource use in terrestrial plants scales as the 3/4 power of total mass, as predicted by the WBE model.However, in the present study we show that empirical data actually do not support such a claim. More recent studies cited as evidence for 3/4 scaling also suffer from several statistical and data-related problems. Using a forest biomass dataset including 1 266 plots of 17 main forest types across China, we explored the scaling exponents between tree productivity and tree mass and found no universal value across forest stands. We conclude that there is not sufficient evidence to support the existence of a single constant scaling exponent for the metabolism-biomass relationship for terrestrial plants.

  19. Acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibitor activity of some novel pyrazinamide condensed 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Elumalai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new series of some novel pyrazinamide condensed 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidines was prepared by reacting of N-(3-oxobutanoylpyrazine-2-carboxamide with urea/thiourea and appropriate aldehyde in the presence of catalytic amount of laboratory made p-toluenesulfonic acid as an efficient catalyst. Confirmation of the chemical structure of the synthesized compounds (4a–l was substantiated by TLC, different spectral data IR, 1H NMR, mass spectra and elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for acetyl and butyl cholinesterase (AChE and BuChE inhibitor activity. The titled compounds exhibited weak, moderate or high AChE and BuChE inhibitor activity. Especially, compound (4l showed the best AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity of all the 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine derivatives, with an IC50 value of 0.11 μM and 3.4 μM.

  20. Crystal structure and infrared spectrum of thallium holmium polyphosphate, TIHo(PO3)4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karima Horchani-Naifer; Jaouher Amami; Mokhtar Ferid

    2008-01-01

    Crystals of thallium-holmium polyphosphate TIHo(PO3)4 were grown by flux method technique and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Structure of TIHo(PO3)4 was solved for the first time, and it crystallized in the monoclinic P21/n space group with the following unit-cell dimensions: a=1.02225(3) nm, b=0.88536(2) nm, c=1.09541(4) nm, β=105.888(1)°, V=0.95354(5) nm3 and Z=4. The crystal structure was solved from 2174 independent reflections with final R1(F2)=0.0442 and Rw(F<2)=0.0861 refined with 164 parameters. The atomic arrangement could be described as a long chain polyphosphate organization. Holmium atoms had eighffold coordination. The structure of T1Ho(PO3)4 consisted of HoO8 polyhedra sharing oxygen atoms with phosphoric group PO4. Infrared spectrum was investigated at room temperature in the frequencies range, 350-4000 cm-1, showing some characteristic vibration bands of infinite chain structure of PO4 tetrahedra linked by bridging oxygen.

  1. POLYAMIDES WITH PENDANT 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE AND PYRIDINE MOIETIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yagoub Mansoori; Behzad Koohi-Zargar; Hemayat Shekaari; Mohammad Reza Zamanloo; Gholam Hassan Imanzadeh

    2012-01-01

    A novel aromatic diamine,2-(5-(3,5-diaminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-yl)pyridine (POBD),containing a pyridine ring and a 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety,was synthcsized.It was used in a polycondensation with various aromatic and aliphatic diacid chlorides to generate a series of new aromatic polyamides with pendant 1,3,4-oxadiazole groups.The prepared polyamides were characterized by IR,elemental analysis and through the synthesis of model compounds.Thermophysical properties of the synthesized polyamides have been studied by DSC,TGA and inherent viscosity measurements.Relatively high inherent viscosity values (0.76-1.62 dL/g,in 0.125% H2SO4 at 25℃) were observed for these compounds.Number average molecular weight (Mn) of the polymers was measured by vapor phase osmometry (VPO).The introduction of bulky side chains in the structure of aromatic polyamides led to increased solubility of these polymers in common polar and aprotic solvents,such as DMF,DMSO,NMP and DMAc,which allowed thin films to be cast from polymer solutions.The highest molecular weight (Mn =51190) was observed for polymer (Ⅸ),which was prepared from pyridine-2,6-dichlorocarbonyl.

  2. Theoretical study of an energetic material di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Computations by density functional theory (DFT method are performed on a series of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives with different substituents and linkages. The heat of formation (HOF is predicted by the designed isodesmic reactions. The predicted results reveal that –N3 and –NN– groups are effective structural units for increasing the HOF values of the di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The HOMO–LUMO gap is affected by the substituents and linkage groups. Detonation performance is evaluated using the Kamlet–Jacobs approach based on the calculated density and HOF. The results indicate that –NO2, –NF2, –NH–, –NH–NH– and –NN– groups are helpful for enhancing the detonation properties of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The bond dissociation energy and bond order of the weakest bonds are analyzed to investigate their stability. It is observed that the –CH2–, –CH2–CH2– and –CHCH– groups are effective structural units for improving the stabilities of these derivatives. Considering the detonation performance and the stability, five compounds are screened as the potential candidates for high energy density materials.

  3. Theoretical study of an energetic material di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua ZHOU; Zhong-liang MA; Jian-long WANG; Dong WANG

    2014-01-01

    Computations by density functional theory (DFT) method are performed on a series of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives with different sub-stituents and linkages. The heat of formation (HOF ) is predicted by the designed isodesmic reactions. The predicted results reveal that eN3 and eN]Ne groups are effective structural units for increasing the HOF values of the di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The HOMOeLUMO gap is affected by the substituents and linkage groups. Detonation performance is evaluated using the KamleteJacobs approach based on the calculated density and HOF. The results indicate that eNO2, eNF2, eNHe, eNHeNHe and eN]Ne groups are helpful for enhancing the detonation properties of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The bond dissociation energy and bond order of the weakest bonds are analyzed to investigate their stability. It is observed that the eCH2e, eCH2eCH2e and eCH]CHe groups are effective structural units for improving the stabilities of these derivatives. Considering the detonation performance and the stability, five compounds are screened as the potential candidates for high energy density materials.

  4. Antitumor activity of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene derivatives and quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, Marijana; Rastija, Vesna; Opačak-Bernardi, Teuta; Stolić, Ivana; Krstulović, Luka; Bajić, Miroslav; Glavaš-Obrovac, Ljubica

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate nine newly synthesized amidine derivatives of 3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene (3,4-EDOT) for their cytotoxic activity against a panel of human cancer cell lines and to perform a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis for the antitumor activity of a total of 27 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene derivatives. Induction of apoptosis was investigated on the selected compounds, along with delivery options for the optimization of activity. The best obtained QSAR models include the following group of descriptors: BCUT, WHIM, 2D autocorrelations, 3D-MoRSE, GETAWAY descriptors, 2D frequency fingerprint and information indices. Obtained QSAR models should be relieved in elucidation of important physicochemical and structural requirements for this biological activity. Highly potent molecules have a symmetrical arrangement of substituents along the x axis, high frequency of distance between N and O atoms at topological distance 9, as well as between C and N atoms at topological distance 10, and more C atoms located at topological distances 6 and 3. Based on the conclusion given in the QSAR analysis, a new compound with possible great activity was proposed.

  5. Probing magnetostructural correlations in multiferroic HoA l3(BO3) 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Yu, T.; Chen, Z.; Nelson, C. S.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.; Abeykoon, A. M. M.; Tyson, T. A.

    2015-09-01

    The system HoA l3(BO3) 4 has recently been found to exhibit a large magnetoelectric effect. To understand the mechanism, macroscopic and atomic level properties of HoA l3(BO3) 4 were explored by temperature and magnetic field dependent heat capacity measurements, pressure and temperature dependent x-ray diffraction measurements, as well as temperature and magnetic field dependent x-ray absorption fine structure measurements. The experimental work was complemented by density functional theory calculations. An anomalous change in the structure is found in the temperature range where large magnetoelectric effects occur. No significant structural change or distortion of the Ho O6 polyhedra is seen to occur with magnetic field. However, the magnetic field dependent structural measurements reveal enhanced correlation between neighboring Ho O6 polyhedra. This observed response is seen to saturate near 3 T. A qualitative atomic level description of the mechanism behind the large electric polarization induced by magnetic fields in the general class of RA l3(BO3) 4 systems (R = rare earth) is developed.

  6. Disease activity in idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a 3-month follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skau, Maren; Sander, Birgit; Milea, Dan

    2011-01-01

    , fast RNFL 3.4 protocol), and Humphrey visual field testing were evaluated at regular intervals. Repeat lumbar puncture was performed at final visit (n = 13). The diagnostic delay was 3 months and initial symptoms were headache (94%), visual blurring (82%) and pulsatile tinnitus (65%). Complete clinical...

  7. Monthly Energy Review, February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Energy production during November 1997 totaled 5.6 quadrillion Btu, a 0.3-percent decrease from the level of production during November 1996. Natural gas production increased 2.8 percent, production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids decreased 1.7 percent, and coal production decreased 1.6 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 1.1 percent from the level of production during November 1996. Energy consumption during November 1997 totaled 7.5 quadrillion Btu, 0.1 percent above the level of consumption during November 1996. Consumption of natural gas increased 1.5 percent, consumption of coal fell 0.3 percent, while consumption of petroleum products decreased 0.2 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 0.8 percent from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during November 1997 totaled 1.7 quadrillion Btu, 8.6 percent above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 6.3 percent, and net imports of natural gas were up 1.2 percent. Net exports of coal fell 17.8 percent from the level in November 1996.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  12. Natural gas monthly, November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through November for many data series, and through August for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the most recent data estimates are: (1) Preliminary estimates of dry natural gas production and total consumption available through November 1997 indicate that both series are on track to end the year at levels close to those of 1996. Cumulative dry production is one-half percent higher than in 1996 and consumption is one-half percent lower. (2) Natural gas production is estimated to be 52.6 billion cubic feet per day in November 1997, the highest rate since March 1997. (3) After falling 8 percent in July 1997, the national average wellhead price rose 10 percent in August 1997, reaching an estimated $2.21 per thousand cubic feet. (4) Milder weather in November 1997 compared to November 1996 has resulted in significantly lower levels of residential consumption of natural gas and net storage withdrawls than a year ago. The November 1997 estimates of residential consumption and net withdrawls are 9 and 20 percent lower, respectively, than in November 1996.

  13. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  15. Natural gas monthly, January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This publication, the Natural Gas Monthly, presents the most recent data on natural gas supply, consumption, and prices from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Of special interest in this issue are two articles summarizing reports recently published by EIA. The articles are {open_quotes}Natural Gas Productive Capacity{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Outlook for Natural Gas Through 2015,{close_quotes} both of which precede the {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} section. With this issue, January 1997, changes have been made to the format of the Highlights section and to several of the tabular and graphical presentations throughout the publication. The changes to the Highlights affect the discussion of developments in the industry and the presentation of weekly storage data. An overview of the developments in the industry is now presented in a brief summary followed by specific discussions of supply, end-use consumption, and prices. Spot and futures prices are discussed as appropriate in the Price section, together with wellhead and consumer prices.

  16. Chiral 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ones as highly selective FAAH inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jayendra Z; Parkkari, Teija; Laitinen, Tuomo; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Saario, Susanna M; Savinainen, Juha R; Navia-Paldanius, Dina; Cipriano, Mariateresa; Leppänen, Jukka; Koshevoy, Igor O; Poso, Antti; Fowler, Christopher J; Laitinen, Jarmo T; Nevalainen, Tapio

    2013-11-14

    In the present study, identification of chiral 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ones as potent and selective FAAH inhibitors has been described. The separated enantiomers showed clear differences in the potency and selectivity toward both FAAH and MAGL. Additionally, the importance of the chirality on the inhibitory activity and selectivity was proven by the simplification approach by removing a methyl group at the 3-position of the 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-one ring. The most potent compound of the series, the S-enantiomer of 3-(1-(4-isobutylphenyl)ethyl)-5-methoxy-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3H)-one (JZP-327A, 51), inhibited human recombinant FAAH (hrFAAH) in the low nanomolar range (IC50 = 11 nM), whereas its corresponding R-enantiomer 52 showed only moderate inhibition toward hrFAAH (IC50 = 0.24 μM). In contrast to hrFAAH, R-enantiomer 52 was more potent in inhibiting the activity of hrMAGL compared to S-enantiomer 51 (IC50 = 4.0 μM and 16% inhibition at 10 μM, respectively). The FAAH selectivity of the compound 51 over the supposed main off-targets, MAGL and COX, was found to be >900-fold. In addition, activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) indicated high selectivity over other serine hydrolases. Finally, the selected S-enantiomers 51, 53, and 55 were shown to be tight binding, slowly reversible inhibitors of the hrFAAH.

  17. 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene absorption, disposition, and metabolism in male Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, U A; Ziegler, T L; Wang, D X; Kattnig, M J; McClure, T; Liebler, D C; Mayersohn, M; Sipes, I G

    1996-02-01

    3,3',4,4'-Tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB) is a contaminant generated during the synthesis of 3,4-dichloroaniline and 3,4-dichloroaniline-derived pesticides. TCAB is isosteric to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and has been shown to bind to the Ah receptor. Following oral administration of [14C]TCAB (3.2 and 32 mg/kg), 39-45% of the dosed radioactivity was excreted into the urine and 53-56% was recovered in the feces within 48 hr. Less than 6% of the dosed radioactivity remained in the tissues examined at 96 hr. After intravenous administration (3.2 mg/kg), 33% of the dose was excreted in the bile during 6 hr. TCAB metabolites in urine were identified using LC/MS. The major metabolites were sulfate ester conjugates of hydroxylated mono- or dichloroaniline derivatives. Some of these metabolites were also acetylated. After intravenous administration, the disappearance of [14C]TCAB from blood was monitored, and the pharmacokinetic profile was consistent with a two-compartment model. Pharmacokinetic parameters reveal that the compound is readily cleared from the blood with a t1/2 of 4.0 hr, clearance of 12.3 ml/min.kg, and an apparent volume of distribution of 4.3 liters/kg. The absolute oral bioavailability was determined to be 30%. The extensive azo reduction of TCAB decreases its systemic absorption after oral administration and thereby limits the amount of parent compound available to interact with the Ah receptor and decreases the Ah receptor-mediated toxicity.

  18. [Assessment of the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, J-J; Legros, H; Janin, Fr; Dourmap, N; Costentin, J

    2004-09-01

    This work was carried out in order to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL). This aldehyde is formed from dopamine (DA) by monoamine oxidases (MAO) and is mainly oxidised to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid by brain aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH), or eventually reduced to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol by aldose/aldehyde reductases. In vitro, catecholaminergic SH-SY5Y cells were incubated with DA and disulfiram (DSF), an irreversible inhibitor of ALDH. As evidenced by MTT assays, a 24-h treatment with 10(-4) M DA and/or 10(-6) M DSF followed by a 24-h incubation in a drug-free medium evidenced that the toxicity of each of these drugs was potentiated by the second drug. HPLC measurements demonstrated that this drug association induced an early DOPAL production that could result in a delayed cell toxicity. For in vivo studies, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with L-DOPA-benserazide, which increases the production of DOPAL by MAO, and DSF. An acute injection of DSF (100mg/kg i.p.) and L-DOPA/benserazide (100mg/kg+25mg/kg, 24h later) significantly increased the DOPAL striatal level. However, a 30-day treatment with DSF (100mg/kg i.p., once every two days) and L-DOPA/benserazide (100mg/kg+25mg/kg, twice a day) did not affect both indexes used to assess the integrity of the nigro-striatal dopaminergic terminals (i.e. the striatal content in DA and the binding to the vesicular monoamine transporter on striatal membranes). These results do not support the hypothesis of a DOPAL toxicity and argue against the toxicity of L-DOPA therapy.

  19. Crystal structures of three 3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide-based derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Ligia R; Low, John Nicolson; Oliveira, Catarina; Cagide, Fernando; Borges, Fernanda

    2016-05-01

    The crystal structures of three benzamide derivatives, viz. N-(6-hy-droxy-hex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C16H25NO5, (1), N-(6-anilinohex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C22H30N2O4, (2), and N-(6,6-di-eth-oxy-hex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C20H33NO6, (3), are described. These compounds differ only in the substituent at the end of the hexyl chain and the nature of these substituents determines the differences in hydrogen bonding between the mol-ecules. In each mol-ecule, the m-meth-oxy substituents are virtually coplanar with the benzyl ring, while the p-meth-oxy substituent is almost perpendicular. The carbonyl O atom of the amide rotamer is trans related with the amidic H atom. In each structure, the benzamide N-H donor group and O acceptor atoms link the mol-ecules into C(4) chains. In 1, a terminal -OH group links the mol-ecules into a C(3) chain and the combined effect of the C(4) and C(3) chains is a ribbon made up of screw related R 2 (2)(17) rings in which the ⋯O-H⋯ chain lies in the centre of the ribbon and the tri-meth-oxy-benzyl groups forms the edges. In 2, the combination of the benzamide C(4) chain and the hydrogen bond formed by the terminal N-H group to an O atom of the 4-meth-oxy group link the mol-ecules into a chain of R 2 (2)(17) rings. In 3, the mol-ecules are linked only by C(4) chains.

  20. Crystal structures of three 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzamide-based derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia R. Gomes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structures of three benzamide derivatives, viz. N-(6-hydroxyhexyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzamide, C16H25NO5, (1, N-(6-anilinohexyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzamide, C22H30N2O4, (2, and N-(6,6-diethoxyhexyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzamide, C20H33NO6, (3, are described. These compounds differ only in the substituent at the end of the hexyl chain and the nature of these substituents determines the differences in hydrogen bonding between the molecules. In each molecule, the m-methoxy substituents are virtually coplanar with the benzyl ring, while the p-methoxy substituent is almost perpendicular. The carbonyl O atom of the amide rotamer is trans related with the amidic H atom. In each structure, the benzamide N—H donor group and O acceptor atoms link the molecules into C(4 chains. In 1, a terminal –OH group links the molecules into a C(3 chain and the combined effect of the C(4 and C(3 chains is a ribbon made up of screw related R22(17 rings in which the ...O—H... chain lies in the centre of the ribbon and the trimethoxybenzyl groups forms the edges. In 2, the combination of the benzamide C(4 chain and the hydrogen bond formed by the terminal N—H group to an O atom of the 4-methoxy group link the molecules into a chain of R22(17 rings. In 3, the molecules are linked only by C(4 chains.

  1. [Substrate specificity of carotenoid 3',4'-desaturase from Deinococcus radiodurans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zongtao; Tian, Bing; Shen, Shaochuan; Hu, Yuejin

    2010-10-01

    To examine the substrate specificity of carotenoid 3',4'-desaturase (DR2250) from Deinococcus radiodurans, we amplified the dr2250 gene by using PCR methods. The PCR products were digested by Hind III-BamH I and ligated into the vector pUC19, yielding recombinant vector pUC-CRTD. We analyzed the carotenoids of E. coli transformants containing pACCRT-EBI(Eu) and (or) pRK-CRTC and (or) pUC-CRTD. Our results demonstrated that DR2250 had substrate specificity on the carotenoids with hydroxyl group at C1 (1').

  2. Multifunctional finishing of cotton with 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid: functional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Aiqin; Sun, Gang

    2013-07-25

    3,3',4,4'-Benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid (BPTCA) can directly react with hydroxyl groups on cotton cellulose to form ester bonds, which could crosslink cellulose and provide wrinkle-free functions to the cotton fabrics. BPTCA, as a derivative of photo-active benzophenone, can absorb ultraviolet lights and offer ultraviolet (UV) protective and photo-sensitive functions on the treated materials. Finishing conditions such as agent concentration, curing temperature and time, could affect ester bond formation and crosslinking of cellulose. Wrinkle-free and UV protective functions in relationship to the functional agent, as well as surface morphology of BPTCA treated cotton were investigated as well.

  3. (Z-3-(1-Benzofuran-2-yl-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylacrylonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Parkin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C20H17NO4, the double bond of the acrylonitrile group separating the 1-benzofuran moiety from the 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl ring has Z geometry. The 1-benzofuran groups are π–π stacked with inversion-related counterparts such that the furan ring centroid–centroid distance is 3.804 (5 Å. The dihedral angle between the planes of the trimethoxyphenyl ring and the acrylonitrile group is 24.2 (2°.

  4. Synthesis and nonlinear optical characterization of new 1,3,4-oxadiazoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Chandrakantha; Arun M Isloor; Reji Philip; M Mohesh; Prakash Shetty; A M Vijesh

    2011-07-01

    A new series of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives containing 2-fluoro-4-methoxy phenyl were synthesized by refluxing mixture of acid hydrazide 3 with different aromatic carboxylic acids (a–e) in phosphorous oxychloride. These newly synthesized compounds were characterized by NMR, mass spectral, and IR spectral studies, and also by C, H, N analyses. The open-aperture z-scan experiment was employed to measure the optical nonlinearity of the samples at 532 nm, using 5 ns laser pulses. The measurements indicate that compound 4a, which contains Bromine, behaves as an optical limiter at this wavelength, with potential applications in optoelectronics.

  5. A comparison of shuttle vernier engine plume contamination with CONTAM 3.4 code predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Carl R.; Jones, Thomas M.; Rao, Shankar M.; Linder, W. Kelly

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, using the CONTAM 3.2 code, it was predicted that the shuttle Primary Reaction Control System (PRCS) and Vernier Reaction Control System (VRCS) engines could be potential contamination sources to sensitive surfaces located within the shuttle payload bay. Spaceflight test data on these engines is quite limited. Shuttle mission STS-32, the Long Duration Exposure Facility retrieval mission, was instrumented with an experiment that provided the design engineer with evidence that contaminant species from the VRCS engines can enter the payload bay. More recently, the most recent version of the analysis code, CONTAM 3.4, has re-examined the contamination potential of these engines.

  6. 5-Bromo-N3-[(E-(6-bromopyridin-2-ylmethylidene]pyridine-3,4-diamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjian Cai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C11H8Br2N4, is a Schiff base obtained from 6-bromopicolinaldehyde and 5-bromopyridine-3,4-diamine. The molecule has an E configuration about the C=N bond and the dihedral angle between the two pyridine rings is 14.02 (1°. The observed conformation is stabilised by an intramolecular N—H...N hydrogen bond. In the crystal, molecules are stacked along the b axis and are linked through N—H...N hydrogen bonds into chains along the c axis.

  7. Synthesis and antimicrobial properties of 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogs containing dibenzosuberone moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moger, Manjunath [Mangalore University, Karnataka (India). Department of Chemistry; Satam, Vijay; Paniraj, A.S.; Gopinath, Vadiraj S.; Hindupur, Rama Mohan; Pati, Hari N., E-mail: hari.pati@advinus.com [Advinus Therapeutics Ltd., 21 and 22, Phase II, Peenya Industrial Area, Karnataka (India); Govindaraju, Darshan Raj C. [Department of Bio-Medicinal Research, Vidya Herbs Pvt. Ltd., Karnataka (India)

    2014-01-15

    A series of ten novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogs containing dibenzosuberone moiety were synthesized using linear as well as convergent synthesis approach. All the compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry, infrared (IR), {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR) spectroscopies and elemental analysis. These compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among ten analogs, four compounds, namely, 8a, 8d, 8e and 8j were found to be highly active antibacterial and antifungal agents (author)

  8. Synthesis and Bioassay of a New Class of Furanyl-1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galila A. Yacout

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase enzyme is a monophenol monoxygenase enzyme, which plays an important role in human as a rate limiting step enzyme for different specific metabolic pathways, as well as its useful application in industry and agriculture. So this study was carried out to test the effect of newly prepared compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazoles with different substituted groups on tyrosinase enzyme activity, hoping to use them in the treatment of some diseases arising from tyrosinase activity disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, autism, attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder, and cancer.

  9. Synthesis and biological activities of pyrazolo[3,4-g]quinoxaline derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavara, Laurent; Saugues, Emmanuelle; Alves, Georges; Debiton, Eric; Anizon, Fabrice; Moreau, Pascale

    2010-11-01

    The synthesis of new pyrazolo[3,4-g]quinoxaline derivatives, as well as their Pim kinases (Pim-1, Pim-2, Pim-3) inhibitory potencies and in vitro antiproliferative activities toward a human fibroblast primary culture and three human solid cancer cell lines (PA1, PC3 and DU145) are described. The results obtained in this preliminary structure-activity relationship study have pointed out that most of the compounds in this series exhibited interesting in vitro Pim-3 kinase inhibitory potencies. Moreover, some of the tested compounds have demonstrated favorable antiproliferative potencies.

  10. The Electrochemical Degradation of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Films Electrodeposited from Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Láng, Gyözö G.; Ujvári, Mária; Vesztergom, Soma; Kondratiev, Veniamin; Gubicza, Jenö; Szekeres, Krisztina J.

    2016-09-01

    In this review, results of recent studies on the electrochemical stability and degradation properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) films are summarized, with particular emphasis on the structural changes induced by overoxidation and electrochemical degradation. The most important electrodeposition methods for the preparation of PEDOT films in surfactant free aqueous media have also been summarized, and several experimental techniques suitable for monitoring the degradation process have been discussed. Morphological changes in PEDOT films during overoxidation have been analyzed. Overoxidation mechanisms proposed in the literature have been surveyed.

  11. Three-Photon Absorption and Upconversion Fluorescence Properties of Series 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei; LU Chang-Gui; QIAN Ying; LIU Chang; WANG Zhu-Yuan; CUI Yi-Ping

    2008-01-01

    @@ A newly synthesized 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives have been studied using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser system.The series molecules present strong three-photon absorption and frequency upconversion fluorescence at wavelengths from 1205nm to 1575nm.Furthermore,there is no proportional relationship between three-photon absorption cross sections and the chemical structure transformation from monomer,dimer to trimer.Effective charge-transfer distance by π-conjugation bonds may be the contributing factor.In the experimental design,the far-field intensity distribution of femtosecond laeer beam has been taken into account.

  12. Corrosion Inhibition Property of Some 1, 3, 4- Thiadiazolines on Mild Steel in Acidic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shamitha Begum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the corrosion behavior of mild steel in acidic medium. The inhibitive effect of substituted 1, 3, 4-Thiadiazol-2-amines on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M H2SO4 has been studied by weight loss and electrochemical methods. The electrochemical parameters for mild steel in acidic solution with and without inhibitor were calculated. The effect of temperature on the corrosion rate, activation energy and free energy of adsorption were also calculated. The synergistic effect has been studied by weight loss and electrochemical methods. The electrochemical parameters for mild steel in acidic solution were also calculated.

  13. The effects of trace elements, cations, and environmental conditions on protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Scaramal da Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenanthracene is a highly toxic organic compound capable of contaminating water and soils, and biodegradation is an important tool for remediating polluted environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of trace elements, cations, and environmental conditions on the activity of the protocatechol 3,4-dioxygenase (P3,4O enzyme produced by the isolate Leifsonia sp. in cell-free and immobilized extracts. The isolate was grown in Luria Bertani broth medium (LB amended with 250 mg L-1 of phenanthrene. Various levels of pH (4.0-9.0, temperature (5-80 °C, time (0-90 min, trace elements (Cu2+, Hg2+ and Fe3+, and cations (Mg2+, Mn2+, K+ and NH4+ were tested to determine which conditions optimized enzyme activity. In general, the immobilized extract exhibited higher enzyme activity than the cell-free extract in the presence of trace elements and cations. Adding iron yielded the highest relative activity for both cell-free and immobilized extracts, with values of 16 and 99 %, respectively. Copper also increased enzyme activity for both cell-free and immobilized extracts, with values of 8 and 44 %, respectively. Enzyme activity in the phosphate buffer was high across a wide range of pH, reaching 80 % in the pH range between 6.5 and 8.0. The optimum temperatures for enzyme activity differed for cell-free and immobilized extracts, with maximum enzyme activity observed at 35 ºC for the cell-free extract and at 55 ºC for the immobilized extract. The cell-free extract of the P3,4O enzyme exhibited high activity only during the first 3 min of incubation, when it showed 50 % relative activity, and dropped to 0 % after 60 min of incubation. By contrast, activity in the immobilized extract was maintained during 90 min of incubation. This isolate has important characteristics for phenanthrene biodegradation, producing high quantities of the P3,4O enzyme that forms part of the most important pathway for PAH biodegradation.

  14. Na + concentration dependence of intermolecular distance in 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Kazuhito

    2010-01-01

    We have discussed the Na + concentration dependence of the intermolecular distance of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) dimers in aqueous solution of NaOH. We have particularly focused on the S10-S00 transition of the PTCDA dimers which is sensitive to the intermolecular distance and we have found that the S10 state is split for the higher lying sublevel and the lower lying sublevel with the increase of the Na + concentrations. From the energy shift of the lower lying sublevel, we have estimated the intermolecular distance of the PTCDA dimer, that changes from 7.5 to 4.9 Å by the Na + concentration.

  15. 3,4-Diamino naphthalimides and their respective imidazoles - Synthesis, spectroscopic and theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangalov, Miroslav; Yordanova, Stanislava; Stoyanova, Malinka; Cheshmedzhieva, Diana; Petrov, Petar; Stoyanov, Stanimir

    2016-12-01

    A series of compounds containing 1,8-naphthalimide photoactive core were synthesized and studied with respect to their optical properties and applications. Combined spectral measurements and quantum chemical calculations allowed better understanding of the electronic effects in any particular substitution pattern starting from 3,4-diamino naphthalimides, through their respective imidazoles and quaternary N-heterocyclic carbene precursors, to corresponding carbene dimer (tetraaminoethylene). The absorption and fluorescence energies have been calculated with the PCM TDDFT formalism. PBE0 and M06 functionals were found to accurately model the distinctly different photophysical characteristics of the newly synthesized compounds.

  16. Design, synthesis and cytotoxic activity of some novel compounds containing pyrazolo[3,4-]pyrimidines nucleus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manal M Kandeel; Sameha M Roshdy; Eman K A Abdelall; Mohamed A Abdelgawad; Phoebe F Lamie

    2013-09-01

    Novel pyrazolo[3,4-]pyrimidines were designed and synthesized as antitumour agents against human breast cancer adenoma (MCF-7). Molecular modelling and pharmacological screening were performed against breast cancer cell line and also certain synthetic pathways were developed in order to introduce functionality onto C6 and N5 positions of pyrimidine moiety. Surprisingly, all the test compounds showed IC50 lower than that of the standard olomoucine I, especially compounds 4b, 8a, 10b, 11a and b, which showed IC50 between 0.009 and 0.004 M.

  17. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Novel (E-N’-(Substituted-3,4,5-Trimethoxybenzohydrazide Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namala Rambabu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydrazide-hydrazone analogs 4a-4l is described via the condensation of3,4,5-trimethoxybenzohydrazide 3 with various aromatic and hetero aromatic aldehydes a-l. Various spectroscopic techniques viz., (1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and MS were utilized to determine the structures of synthesized compounds. These compounds were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal screening against S.aureus, S.pyogenes, E.coli, P.aeruginosa, Aspergillusnigerand Candida albicans(Fungal strains. The results revealed that most of the hydrazone derivatives exhibited significant antibacterial activity. Furthermore, the synthesized hydrazone derivatives were found to exhibit significant antidiabetic activity when compared to insulin.

  18. Sterically Stabilized Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Colloidal Dispersions Doped with Different Sulfonic Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tie Jun WANG; Ping CHEN; Xiu Jie HU; Shu Yun ZHOU

    2006-01-01

    The preparation of sterically stabilized poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene)(PEDOT)colloidal dispersions doped with different sulfonic acids is described. Three different sulfonic acids, i.e., p-toluenesulfonic acid, β-naphthalenesuffonic acid and D-camphor-10-sulfonic acid are used, facilitating the preparation of sterically stable PEDOT colloidal particles. The influences of the dopants and concentration of polymeric stabilizer on the yields, morphologies and electrical properties of the resultant colloidal particles were investigated. The colloidal particles with the size ranging from 172 to 334 nm have been obtained in good yields. The compressed pellet conductivity was as high as 4.5 Scm-1.

  19. Atmospheric chemistry of n-CxF2x+1CHO (x = 1, 2, 3, 4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, M. D.; Ball, J. C.; Wallington, T. J.;

    2006-01-01

    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the atmospheric fate of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) (x = 1, 2, 3, 4) radicals in 700 Torr O(2)/N(2) diluent at 298 +/- 3 K. A competition is observed between reaction with O(2) to form n-C(x)()F(2)(x)()(+1)C(O)O(2) radicals and decomposition to form n-C(x...... to the atmospheric chemistry of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) radicals and their possible role in contributing to the formation of perfluorocarboxylic acids in the environment....

  20. Bis[1-(2-ethoxyphenyl-3-(4-nitrophenyltriazenido]mercury(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Rofouei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Hg(C14H13N4O32], the central Hg atom (site symmetry 2 is six-coordinated by two tridentate 1-(2-ethoxyphenyl-3-(4-nitrophenyltriazenide ligands through two N and one O atoms. The mononuclear complex molecules are connected into two parallel chains by intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions. These chains are connected to each other by face-to-edge C—H...π interactions between the CH of the ethoxy groups and the aromatic rings, resulting in a two-dimensional architecture in the ac plane.

  1. Flexible organic light-emitting diodes with poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene as transparent anode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The flexible oragnic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) fabricated on poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene/poly- styrenesulfonate (PEDOT/PSS) coated substrates were demonstrated. How the fabricating processes and the device structure will affect the device performance was studied and the atomic force microscopy was employed to analyze the mophorlogy of the conducting polymer anode. Under optimized conditions, flexible OLEDs with PEDOT anode showed the brightness up to 2760 cd/m2 and maximum external quantum efficiency of 1.4%. These data are comparable to those of conventional flexible OLEDs with ITO anode.

  2. Improved C3-4 transfer for treatment of root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk Animal experiments and clinical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zou; Xuecheng Cao; Jing Li; Lifeng Liu; Pingshan Wang; Jinfang Cai

    2012-01-01

    Experimental rats with root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk were treated with the improved C3-4 transfer for neurotization of C5-6. Results showed that Terzis grooming test scores were significantly increased at 6 months after treatment, the latency of C5-6 motor evoked potential was gradually shortened, and the amplitude was gradually increased. The rate of C3 instead of C5 and the C4 + phrenic nerve instead of C6 myelinated nerve fibers crossing through the anastomotic stoma was approximately 80%. Myelinated nerve fibers were arranged loosely but the thickness of the myelin sheath was similar to that of the healthy side. In clinical applications,39 patients with root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk were followed for 6 months to 4.5 years after treatment using the improved C3 instead of C5 nerve root transfer and C4 nerve root and phrenic nerve instead of C6 nerve root transfer. Results showed that the strength of the brachial biceps and deltoid muscles recovered to level III-IV, scapular muscle to level III-IV, latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major muscles to above level III, and the brachial triceps muscle to level 0-III. Results showed that the improved C3-4 transfer for root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk in animal models is similar to clinical findings and that C3-4 and the phrenic nerve transfer for neurotization of C5-6 can innervate the avulsed brachial plexus upper trunk and promote the recovery of nerve function in the upper extremity.

  3. Synthesis, Characterization, and Electropolymerization of Extended Fused-Ring Thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine-Based Terthienyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine L. Konkol

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, characterization, and electropolymerization of a series of extended fused-ring thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine-based terthienyls are reported. The target terthienyls contain a central extended thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine analogue containing 2-thienyl units at the reactive α-positions of the central thiophene. The extended fused-ring thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine analogues studied include acenaphtho[1,2-b]thieno[3,4-e]pyrazine, dibenzo[f,h]thieno[3,4-b]quinoxaline, and thieno[3′,4′:5,6]-pyrazino[2,3-f][1,10]phenanthroline. Comparison of the electrochemical and photophysical properties to simple thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine-based terthienyls and their polymeric analogues are reported in order to provide structure-function relationships within this series of compounds and materials.

  4. 5-(4-Bromophenyl-2-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-3-methylsulfanyl-1-benzofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Dae Choi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C22H15BrO3S, crystallizes with four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The 4-bromophenyl rings are rotated out of the benzofuran planes, with dihedral angles for the four molecules of 20.8 (2, 17.8 (2, 23.5 (4 and 23.9 (4°. The dihedral angles between the 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl ring and the benzofuran plane are 13.5 (2, 7.1 (2, 18.6 (3 and 14.2 (3° in the four molecules. The crystal structure is stabilized by weak nonclassical intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds. The crystal structure also exhibits intermolecular aromatic π–π interactions between the benzene and furan rings and between the 4-bromophenyl and 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl rings from molecules of the same type; the centroid–centroid distances are 3.92 (1 and 3.79 (1, 3.91 (1, 3.77 (1 and 3.77 (1, and 3.79 (1 and 3.75 (1Å in the four molecules.

  5. Gas Sensitivity of Poly (3, 4-ethylene dioxythiophene) Prepared by a Modified LB Film Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Huajing; JIANG Yadong; XU Jianhua; YANG Yajie

    2011-01-01

    An arachidic acid/poly (3, 4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (AA/PEDOT) multilayer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film was prepared by a modified LB film method. The theories were utilized to explain the effects between HCl molecule and LB film. The gas sensitivity mechanism of poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) muitilayer film can be explained by the charge transfer between p system of PEDOT and oxidization HCl system. The gas sensitivity of PEDOT LB film deposited interdigital electrode to HCl was tested. The results showed that film thickness, treating temperature,deposition speed had different influence on film gas sensitivity. The AA/PEDOT film deposited device exhibited nonlinear behavior to HCl gas at lower concentration (20-60 ppm) and linear response behavior at higher gas concentration was observed. The time of the compound LB film of the AA/PEDOT responding to the 30 ppm HCl gas is about 20 seconds, which is far quicker than the time of the film to the PEDOT- PRESS film(about 80 seconds). It is not higher film press to better film. When the film press attains 45 mNs/m, the sensitivity of the AA/PEDOT film on the contrary descends.

  6. A common origin for 3/4- and 2/3-power rules in metabolic scaling

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jinkui

    2015-01-01

    A central debate in biology has been the allometric scaling of metabolic rate. Kleiber's observation that animals' basal metabolic rate scales to the 3/4-power of body mass (Kleiber's rule) has been the prevailing hypothesis in the last eight decades. Increasingly, more evidences are supporting the alternative 2/3-power scaling rule, especially for smaller animals. The 2/3-rule dates back to before Kleiber's time and was thought to originate from the surface to volume relationship in Euclidean geometry. In this study, we show that both the 3/4- and 2/3-scaling rules have in fact one common origin. They are governed by animals' nutrient supply networks-their vascular systems that obey Murray's law. Murray's law describes the branching pattern of energy optimized vascular network under laminar flow. It is generally regarded as being closely followed by blood vessels. Our analysis agrees with experimental observations and recent numerical analyses that showed a curvature in metabolic scaling. When applied to met...

  7. Structurally-driven Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties within Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis; Pavlopoulou, Eleni; Portale, Giuseppe; Kuropatwa, Bryan A.; Dilhaire, Stefan; Fleury, Guillaume; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2016-07-01

    Due to the rising need for clean energy, thermoelectricity has raised as a potential alternative to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Specifically, thermoelectric devices based on polymers could offer an efficient path for near-room temperature energy harvesters. Thus, control over thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers is crucial and, herein, the structural, electrical and thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin films doped with p-toluenesulfonate (Tos) molecules were investigated with regards to thin film processing. PEDOT:Tos thin films were prepared by in-situ polymerization of (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) monomers in presence of iron(III) p-toluenesulfonate with different co-solvents in order to tune the film structure. While the Seebeck coefficient remained constant, a large improvement in the electrical conductivity was observed for thin films processed with high boiling point additives. The increase of electrical conductivity was found to be solely in-plane mobility-driven. Probing the thin film structure by Grazing Incidence Wide Angle X-ray Scattering has shown that this behavior is dictated by the structural properties of the PEDOT:Tos films; specifically by the thin film crystallinity combined to the preferential edge-on orientation of the PEDOT crystallites. Consequentially enhancement of the power factor from 25 to 78.5 μW/mK2 has been readily obtained for PEDOT:Tos thin films following this methodology.

  8. Crystal Structure and Substrate Specificity of Drosophila 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine Decarboxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Ding, H; Robinson, H; Christensen, B; Li, J

    2010-01-01

    3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase (DDC), also known as aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, catalyzes the decarboxylation of a number of aromatic L-amino acids. Physiologically, DDC is responsible for the production of dopamine and serotonin through the decarboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan, respectively. In insects, both dopamine and serotonin serve as classical neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or neurohormones, and dopamine is also involved in insect cuticle formation, eggshell hardening, and immune responses. In this study, we expressed a typical DDC enzyme from Drosophila melanogaster, critically analyzed its substrate specificity and biochemical properties, determined its crystal structure at 1.75 Angstrom resolution, and evaluated the roles residues T82 and H192 play in substrate binding and enzyme catalysis through site-directed mutagenesis of the enzyme. Our results establish that this DDC functions exclusively on the production of dopamine and serotonin, with no activity to tyrosine or tryptophan and catalyzes the formation of serotonin more efficiently than dopamine. The crystal structure of Drosophila DDC and the site-directed mutagenesis study of the enzyme demonstrate that T82 is involved in substrate binding and that H192 is used not only for substrate interaction, but for cofactor binding of drDDC as well. Through comparative analysis, the results also provide insight into the structure-function relationship of other insect DDC-like proteins.

  9. Thermodynamic properties of 9-methylcarbazole and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9-methylcarbazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, W.V.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Chirico, R.D.

    1991-04-01

    Removal of carbazole and its derivatives from heavy petroleum has proved to be particularly difficult using present technology. Studies have shown carbazole and its alkyl-homologs are the dominant nitrogen-containing components in clarified slurry oils, thereby indicating their low reactivity and/or formation during cat-cracking processes. The results reported here will point the way to the development of new methods of nitrogen removal from carbazole and its derivatives. Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties are reported for 9-methylcarbazole and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9-methylcarbazole. For studies on 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9-methylcarbazole experimental methods included combustion calorimetry, adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, vibrating-tube densitometry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). Adiabatic heat-capacity and combustion calorimetric studies were reported previously for 9-methylcarbazole. Vapor pressures by comparative ebulliometry and inclined-piston gauge manometry, and heat-capacities for the liquid phase by d.s.c. are reported here. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gas for both compounds for selected temperatures between 298.15 K and near 700 K. The Gibbs energies of formation will be used in a subsequent report in thermodynamic calculations to study the reaction pathway of the initial hydrogenation step in the carbazole/H{sub 2} hydrodenitrogenation network. 52 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Cytotoxic 3,4,5-trimethoxychalcones as mitotic arresters and cell migration inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salum, Lívia B.; Altei, Wanessa F.; Chiaradia, Louise D.; Cordeiro, Marlon N.S.; Canevarolo, Rafael R.; Melo, Carolina P.S.; Winter, Evelyn; Mattei, Bruno; Daghestani, Hikmat N.; Santos-Silva, Maria Cláudia; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia B.; Yunes, Rosendo A.; Yunes, José A.; Andricopulo, Adriano D.; Day, Billy W.; Nunes, Ricardo J.; Vogt, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Based on classical colchicine site ligands and a computational model of the colchicine binding site on beta tubulin, two classes of chalcone derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of tubulin assembly and toxicity in human cancer cell lines. Docking studies suggested that the chalcone scaffold could fit the colchicine site on tubulin in an orientation similar to that of the natural product. In particular, a 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl ring adjacent to the carbonyl group appeared to benefit the ligand-tubulin interaction, occupying the same subcavity as the corresponding moiety in colchicine. Consistent with modeling predictions, several 3,4,5-trimethoxychalcones showed improved cytotoxicity to murine acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells compared with a previously described parent compound, and inhibited tubulin assembly in vitro as potently as colchicine. The most potent chalcones inhibited the growth of human leukemia cell lines at nanomolar concentrations, caused microtubule destabilization and mitotic arrest in human cervical cancer cells, and inhibited human breast cancer cell migration in scratch wound and Boyden chamber assays. PMID:23524161

  11. Functional analysis of {alpha}1,3/4-fucosyltransferase VI in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Qiya; Guo, Bin; Wang, Yingming; Wu, Jun; Jiang, Wenjun; Zhao, Shenan [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Qiao, Shouyi, E-mail: syqiao@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Yanhua, E-mail: yanhuawu@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human FUT6 is up-regulated in HCC tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of FUT6 promotes G0/G1-S transition and cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FUT6 confers a growth advantage in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FUT6 suppresses p21 expression through modulating PI3K/Akt signaling. -- Abstract: The {alpha}1,3/4-fucosyltransferases (FUT) subfamily are key enzymes in cell surface antigen synthesis during various biological processes. A novel role of FUTs in tumorigenesis has been discovered recently, however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized FUT6, a member of {alpha}1,3/4-FUT subfamily, in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In HCC tissues, the expression levels of FUT6 and its catalytic product SLe{sup x} were significantly up-regulated. Overexpression of FUT6 in HCC cells enhanced S-phase cell population, promoted cell growth and colony formation ability. Moreover, subcutaneously injection of FUT6-overexpressing cells in nude mice promoted cell growth in vivo. In addition, elevating FUT6 expression markedly induced intracellular Akt phosphorylation, and suppressed the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitor p21. Bath application of the PI3K inhibitor blocked FUT6-induced Akt phosphorylation, p21 suppression and cell proliferation. Our results suggest that FUT6 plays an important role in HCC growth by regulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  12. Synthesis and antitubercular evaluation of imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun M. Patel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a series of imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole derivatives 5(a–j were synthesized and characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral technique. The compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain by using Alamar Blue susceptibility test as part of the TAACF TB screening program under direction of the US National Institutes of Health, the NIAID division. Among the tested compounds, 2-(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl-6-(4-nitrophenylimidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole (5f has shown the highest (98% inhibitory activity with MIC of 3.14 μg/ml as compared to other tested compounds. Further, some potent compounds were also assessed for their cytotoxic activity against a mammalian Vero cell line using MTT assay. The results reveal that these compounds exhibit anti-tubercular activity at non-cytotoxic concentrations.

  13. Pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoxalines. A new class of cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Miguel A; Montoya, María E; Zarranz, Belén; Jaso, Andrés; Aldana, Ignacio; Leclerc, Sophie; Meijer, Laurent; Monge, Antonio

    2002-07-01

    Protein kinases are involved in most physiological processes and in numerous diseases. Therefore, inhibitors of protein kinases have therefore a wide therapeutic potential. While screening for inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK's) and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), we identified pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoxalines as sub-micromolar inhibitors of CDK1/cyclin B. A preliminary structure-activity relationship study suggests that this family of compounds can be optimized to inhibit CDK's and GSK-3. Compounds were tested for their anti-proliferative activity and the results show that several of them displayed a significant inhibitory effect on CDK1/cyclin B. The most active compound (1) was also tested against the brain kinases CDK5/p25 and GSK-3, and proved to be a good inhibitor of both of them. On the contrary, none of the compounds showed any activity in the CDC25 phosphatase assay. As an additional approach, affinity chromatography on immobilized pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoxalines will be used to identify the intracellular targets of this family of compounds.

  14. Photocrosslinkable Star Polymers via RAFT-Copolymerizations with N-Ethylacrylate-3,4-dimethylmaleimide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Vana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Z-RAFT-star copolymerization of n-butyl acrylate (BA and N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAm, respectively, with N-ethylacrylate-3,4-dimethylmaleimide (1.1, a monomer carrying a UV-reactive unit that undergoes photocrosslinking. Addition of 1.1 slows down the polymerization rate both for BA and for NIPAm polymerization. Double star formation due to radical attack to the 3,4-dimethylmaleimide moiety was found in the case of BA. Dead polymer formation, presumably due to aminolysis as side-reaction, was pronounced in the NIPAm system. These two effects broadened the molar mass distributions, but did not impede the formation of functional star polymers. The composition of the copolymers as well as the reactivity ratios for the applied comonomers were determined via NMR spectroscopy (BA-co-1.1 r1.1 = 2.24 rBA = 0.95; NIPAm-co-1.1 r1.1 = 0.96 rNIPAm = 0.05. In both cases, the comonomer is consumed preferably in the beginning of the polymerization, thus forming gradient copolymer stars with the UV-reactive units being located in the outer sphere.

  15. Synthesis of Polythiophene/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Nanocomposites and Their Application in Thermoelectric Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Kim, Yong Seok; Kim, Jung Hyun

    2014-09-01

    Polythiophene/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PTh/PEDOT) nanocomposites with luminescent characteristics and high thermoelectric (TE) performance were successfully synthesized by two-step oxidative polymerization in aqueous medium. First, PTh nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by use of FeCl3/H2O2 as catalyst/oxidant system with poly(4-styrene sulfonic acid) (PSSA) as surfactant. PTh/PEDOT nanocomposites were then synthesized by in situ oxidative polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) on the surface of PTh NPs. The composition of the nanocomposites was controlled by varying the concentration of EDOT. Electron microscopy imaging and dynamic light scattering experiments confirmed the nanocomposites had a PTh core and a PEDOT shell/matrix. Finally, the TE performance of the PTh/PEDOT nanocomposites was investigated. The electrical conductivity and power factor of the nanocomposites were found to increase from 0.0001 S/cm to 475 S/cm and from 0.001 μW/mK2 to 22.9 μW/mK2, respectively, at the optimum PEDOT concentration.

  16. THERMALLY STABLE POLYMERS CONTAINING 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE UNITS OBTAINED FROM HUISGEN REACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Mansoori; G.Barghian; B.Koohi-Zargar; Gh.Imanzadeh; M.Zamanloo

    2012-01-01

    Thermally stable polymers containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole units have been synthesized through Huisgen reaction of thc aromatic/aliphatic bis-tetrazole compounds with the aromatic/aliphatic bis-acid chlorides in pyridine as solvent.The obtained polymers are insoluble or slightly soluble even in polar aprotic solvents such as DMSO and DMF.Relatively high inherent viscosity values (0.61-1.33 dL/g,in 0.125% H2SO4 at 25℃) were observed for these compounds.Thermal analyses of the polymers using DSC and TGA techniques showed that the polymers have improved thermal stabilities.The glass transition temperature has not been observed in the fully aromatic polymers,but the polymers obtained from 5-[6-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)hexyl]-1H-tetrazole (Ⅳ) showed very clear Tg.A model reaction was also investigated and the resulting bis-1,3,4-oxadiazole compound was characterized by conventional spectroscopy methods.

  17. The Discriminative Properties of N-ETHYL-3,4-METHYLENE Dioxyamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boja, John William

    The goal of this dissertation was to gain insight into the discriminative effects of N-ethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDE). In order to examine the possibility that MDE acts via both serotonergic and dopaminergic mechanisms, MDE was administered to three groups of rats trained to discriminate either (1) the serotonergic agent norfenfluramine from vehicle, (2) norfenfluramine from the dopaminergic agent amphetamine or (3) amphetamine from vehicle. The results of these discrimination studies are evidence that MDE expresses serotonergic and dopaminergic properties in a temporal pattern in which MDE initially activates the serotonergic system, followed by dopaminergic system activation. To examine additional discriminative effects of MDE, a separate group of rats was trained to discriminate 2.0 mg/kg MDE from vehicle. Various drugs were administrated to these animals to determine their similarity or dissimilarity to MDE. The results of this study are additional evidence as to a dual serotonergic/dopaminergic mediation for MDE. In addition, the related drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine produced similar effects but this drug was more potent and possessed a longer duration of action than MDE. Subsequently, administration of the known serotonergic synthesis inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) to the MDE trained rats reduced, but did not totally eliminate, MDE discrimination. This indicates that either reduced serotonin levels are still sufficient for MDE discrimination or that MDE discrimination is not solely mediated by serotonin. These experiments evidence a serotonergic/dopaminergic discriminative stimulus for MDE.

  18. Organic impurity profiling of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) synthesised from catechol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, Erin; Shimmon, Ronald; McDonagh, Andrew M

    2015-03-01

    This work examines the organic impurity profile of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) that has been synthesised from catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene), a common chemical reagent available in industrial quantities. The synthesis of MDMA from catechol proceeded via the common MDMA precursor safrole. Methylenation of catechol yielded 1,3-benzodioxole, which was brominated and then reacted with magnesium allyl bromide to form safrole. Eight organic impurities were identified in the synthetic safrole. Safrole was then converted to 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone (MDP2P) using two synthetic methods: Wacker oxidation (Route 1) and an isomerisation/peracid oxidation/acid dehydration method (Route 2). MDMA was then synthesised by reductive amination of MDP2P. Thirteen organic impurities were identified in MDMA synthesised via Route 1 and eleven organic impurities were identified in MDMA synthesised via Route 2. Overall, organic impurities in MDMA prepared from catechol indicated that synthetic safrole was used in the synthesis. The impurities also indicated which of the two synthetic routes was utilised.

  19. Global transcriptomic response of Anoxybacillus sp. SK 3-4 to aluminum exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jia Chun; Thevarajoo, Suganthi; Selvaratnam, Chitra; Goh, Kian Mau; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir; Ibrahim, Zaharah; Chong, Chun Shiong

    2017-02-01

    Anoxybacillus sp. SK 3-4 is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium and a member of family Bacillaceae. We had previously reported that the strain is an aluminum resistant thermophilic bacterium. This is the first report to provide a detailed analysis of the global transcriptional response of Anoxybacillus when the cells were exposed to 600 mg L(-1) of aluminum. The transcriptome was sequenced using Illumina MiSeq sequencer. Total of 708 genes were differentially expressed (fold change >2.00) with 316 genes were up-regulated while 347 genes were down-regulated, in comparing to control with no aluminum added in the culture. Based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, the majority of genes encoding for cell metabolism such as glycolysis, sulfur metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism were up-regulated; while most of the gene associated with tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) and valine, leucine and isoleucine metabolism were down-regulated. In addition, a significant number of the genes encoding ABC transporters, metal ions transporters, and some stress response proteins were also differentially expressed following aluminum exposure. The findings provide further insight and help us to understand on the resistance of Anoxybacillus sp. SK 3-4 toward aluminium.

  20. The acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on oxidative stress in rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oxidative stress and oxygen free radicals are thought to play an important role in acute effects of a number of neurotoxic processes. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy, a ring substituted amphetamine derivate, has attracted a great deal of media attention in recent years due to its widespread abuse as recreational drug by the young generation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on oxidative stress parameters (index of lipid peroxidation - ILP, superoxide radicals O2-, superoxide dismutase - SOD and glutathione - GSH in frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus in Wistar rats. Materials and methods The study included 40 male Wistar rats (200-250 g, housed 4 per cage having free access to food and water. MDMA was dissolved in distillated water and administered peroraly at 5, 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg. 8 hours following MDMA, the rats were killed by decapitation, their brains were rapidly removed and the brain structures were dissected out on ice and analyzed biochemically. Results Acute peroral administration of a single dose (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg resulted in increase of ILP, O2-, SOD and decrease of GSH. Conclusion The results obtained in the present study suggest that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in MDMA-induced neurotoxicity and that the mechanism of MDMA neurotoxycity may vary between brain regions.

  1. Crystal structure of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase of riboflavin biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, D.-I.; Calabrese, J.C.; Wawrzak, Z.; Viitanen, P.V.; Jordan, D.B. (DuPont); (NWU)

    2010-03-05

    3,4-Dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase catalyzes a commitment step in the biosynthesis of riboflavin. On the enzyme, ribulose 5-phosphate is converted to 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate and formate in steps involving enolization, ketonization, dehydration, skeleton rearrangement, and formate elimination. The enzyme is absent in humans and an attractive target for the discovery of antimicrobials for pathogens incapable of acquiring sufficient riboflavin from their hosts. The homodimer of 23 kDa subunits requires Mg{sup 2+} for activity. The first three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was determined at 1.4 {angstrom} resolution using the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method on Escherichia coli protein crystals containing gold. The protein consists of an {alpha} + {beta} fold having a complex linkage of {beta} strands. Intersubunit contacts are mediated by numerous hydrophobic interactions and three hydrogen bond networks. A proposed active site was identified on the basis of amino acid residues that are conserved among the enzyme from 19 species. There are two well-separated active sites per dimer, each of which comprise residues from both subunits. In addition to three arginines and two threonines, which may be used for recognizing the phosphate group of the substrate, the active site consists of three glutamates, two aspartates, two histidines, and a cysteine which may provide the means for general acid and base catalysis and for coordinating the Mg{sup 2+} cofactor within the active site.

  2. 合成2,3,4-三甲氧基苯甲酸的新工艺%NEW SYNTHESIS PROCESS FOR 2,3,4-TRIMETHOXYBENZOIC ACID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝永兵; 赵万胜; 董燕敏; 赵燕; 陈兴权; 赵天生

    2011-01-01

    2,3,4-Trimethoxybenzic acid (TMBA) was prepared from pyrogallic acid (PA) through a new route, namely etherification, bromination, cyanogenation, and then hydrolysis. PA reacted with dimethyl carbonate with an ionic liquid as catalyst. The yield of the obtained 1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene reached 92 %. 1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene converted to 2,3,4-trimethoxy bromobenzene with NBS. The yield of the obtained 2,3,4-trimethoxy bromobenzene was 92.2 % based on 1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene. 2,3,4-trimethoxy bromobenzene reacted with cuprous cyanide in the presence of DMF as solvent. The yield of the obtained 2,3,4-trimethoxy cyanobenzene was69.5%. TMBA was prepared by hydrolysis and acidification with the yield of 80%. The total yield of TMBA by this route was 47.2% based on PA.%实验以焦性没食子酸为原料,经醚化、溴代、氰化和水解等合成2,3,4-三甲氧基苯甲酸.在醚化过程中,以离子液体为催化剂,碳酸二甲酯为甲基化试剂,合成连三苯甲醚,收率为92%;连三苯甲醚经NBS溴代反应,合成2,3,4-三甲氧基溴苯,收率为92.2%;2,3,4-三甲氧基溴苯与氰化亚铜反应,合成2,3,4-三甲氧基苯腈,收率为69.5%;2,3,4-三甲氧基苯腈水解合成2,3,4-三甲氧基苯甲酸,收率为80%.

  3. 76 FR 68619 - National Entrepreneurship Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8747 of November 1, 2011 National Entrepreneurship Month, 2011 By the... companies, and through events like Global Entrepreneurship Week, which begins on November 14, we can ensure... November 2011 as National Entrepreneurship Month. I call upon all Americans to commemorate this month...

  4. 75 FR 1263 - National Mentoring Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... Mentoring Month, 2010 Proclamation 8471--National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month, 2010 #0... who give generously of themselves by mentoring young Americans. As tutors, coaches, teachers... mentorship. During this month, I encourage Americans to give back by mentoring young people in...

  5. Biochemical and histological responses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.B.; Evans, R.E.; Lockhart, W.L. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Freshwater Inst.; Delorme, P.D.; Ward, F.J. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Dept. of Zoology; Muir, D.C.G. [Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario (Canada). National Water Research Inst.

    1998-01-01

    Rainbow trout were given an intraperitoneal injection of corn oil containing 0 or 8.8 nmol (3 {micro}g) [{sup 14}C]2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (P{sub 5}CDF)/kg and were then held on a light cycle that induced spawning 10 months later. At 5- to 6-week intervals, blood samples were collected to monitor plasma levels of 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}), testosterone (T), thyroxine (T{sub 4}), 3,5,3{prime}-triiodo-L-thyronine (T{sub 3}), and calcium; packed cell volume (PCV); and differential blood cell counts. Fish were sacrificed after spawning to examine tissue P{sub 5}CDF concentration, liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), liver vitamins (retinoids and tocopherol), histology (liver, thyroid), and growth parameters. The P{sub 5}CDF injections produced tissue 2,3.7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalent concentrations comparable to those reported in salmonids from contaminated areas. Highest P{sub 5}CDF concentrations occurred in gut and liver, but muscle accounted for the greatest proportion of the dose. Plasma hormone and calcium concentrations followed predicted seasonal patterns in both control and exposed fish. PCV was unchanged by repeated blood sampling but differential blood cell counts showed adaptive responses to blood removal. The P{sub 5}CDF exposure caused transient reductions in circulating lymphocytes and elevated EROD. Additionally, P{sub 5}CDF increased liver size and depleted retinoid stores in male fish. Liver histology, somatic growth, and gonadal development were unaltered by P{sub 5}CDF during the first reproductive cycle after exposure.

  6. Synthesis of 3- [ 1- (4-Ethoxyphenyl)-5-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl ]-6- substituted- s-triazolo [ 3,4- b ] -1,3,4-thiadiazoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Heng-Shan; WANG Bin

    2003-01-01

    @@ Several 3- [ 1- (4-ethoxyphenyl)-5-methyl- 1,2, 3-triazol-4-yl ]-6-substituted-s-triazolo [ 3,4- b ]- 1,3,4-thiadia zoles have been synthesized and the structures of these compounds were established by MS, IR and 1H NMR spectral data.

  7. Cicloadições [3+4] via cátions oxialílicos: aplicações em sínteses orgânicas [3+4]Cycloadditions via oxyallyl cations: applications in organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Jacinto Demuner

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Several methodologies for the generation of oxyallyl cations from polybromoketones and other substrates are discussed. The mechanistic aspect of the [3+4] cycloaddition reaction between these cations and dienes leading to the formation of seven membered ring carbocyclic compounds is presented. Finally, some synthetic applications of the [3+4] cycloaddition are shown.

  8. The mechanism of unexpected reduction of dimethyl pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylate to 1,2,3,4-tetrahydrofuro[3,4-b]-pyridin-5(7H)-one with sodium borohydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Bo Tang; Qing Jian Zhang; De Quan Yu

    2012-01-01

    An unexpected reduction of dimethyl pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylate to 1,2,3,4-tetrahydrofuro[3,4-b]pyridin-5(7H)-one with sodium borohydride in ethanol and tetrahydrofuran,respectively,is described,a hypothetic mechanism for the unusual reductive product is proposed.

  9. 1, 3-Dipolar cycloaddition reactions: Synthesis of 5-benzyl-1-(2',4'-dibromophenyl)-3-(4"-substituted phenyl)-3a,4,6,6a-tetrahydro-1, 5-pyrrolo[3,4-]pyrazole-4,6-dione derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manpreet Kaur; Baldev Singh; Baljit Singh

    2013-11-01

    1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of nitrilimines 3 with -benzyl maleimide 4 has provided 5-benzyl-1-(2',4'-dibromophenyl)-3-(4"-substituted phenyl)-3a,4,6,6a-tetrahydro-1,5-pyrrolo[3,4-]pyrazole-4,6-dione derivatives 5 in excellent yield as the only isomer through a concerted pathway.

  10. The Feasibility of Predicting Nino 3.4 Index Using a Sparse Approximation Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, X.; Li, T.; Gu, Y.; Zhang, A.

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) is one of the principle factors that have significant influence on global climate variability. Due to large mass and great thermal capacity of the oceans, oceanic conditions change relatively slowly and dominant patterns are thus easy to detect. Most of the current research on SSTA make use of PCA methods like EOF or SVD. Though such methods are effective in reducing dimensions, it is always hard to give a physical interpretation of the results and difficult to distinguish the minor eigenvectors from noises. Instead of finding patterns, we put forward a framework for the direct prediction of SSTAs, using a sparse approximation method, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso), to reduce the noises in global SST observation. Global SSTA time series in 5°×5° resolution were used to fit each target SSTA vector and the lasso method was utilized to avoid over-fitting. Taking the Nino 3.4 Index as an example, the predictability of the lasso model was studied and the results showed a relatively satisfying prediction skill in terms of correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error compared with the results obtained from LDEO 5. Moreover, by taking other climate variables into consideration, we discovered a stable relation between the Nino 3.4 Index and the sea-ice extent anomaly in South Pole at a lead time of around 2 years. In addition, the bootstrapping method was used to resample the coefficients in the sparse regression model so that we could study their statistical property. 14 regressors were reserved suggesting 10 potential indices which have relatively strong relations with the Nino 3.4 Index. Some of the potential indices corresponded well to known climate indices while the rest indicated an undiscovered index in tropical oceans of eastern South America. In conclusion, the lasso method approved its feasibility in climate prediction at a relatively low computation cost, and

  11. Resistance Analyses of HCV NS3/4A Protease and NS5B Polymerase from Clinical Studies of Deleobuvir and Faldaprevir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Kristi L.; Sarrazin, Christoph; Nelson, David R.; Scherer, Joseph; Sha, Nanshi; Marquis, Martin; Côté-Martin, Alexandra; Vinisko, Richard; Stern, Jerry O.; Mensa, Federico J.; Kukolj, George

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aim The resistance profile of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) agents used in combination is important to guide optimal treatment regimens. We evaluated baseline and treatment-emergent NS3/4A and NS5B amino-acid variants among HCV genotype (GT)-1a and -1b-infected patients treated with faldaprevir (HCV protease inhibitor), deleobuvir (HCV polymerase non-nucleoside inhibitor), and ribavirin in multiple clinical studies. Methods HCV NS3/4A and NS5B population sequencing (Sanger method) was performed on all baseline plasma samples (n = 1425 NS3; n = 1556 NS5B) and on post-baseline plasma samples from patients with virologic failure (n = 113 GT-1a; n = 221 GT-1b). Persistence and time to loss of resistance-associated variants (RAVs) was estimated using Kaplan–Meier analysis. Results Faldaprevir RAVs (NS3 R155 and D168) and deleobuvir RAVs (NS5B 495 and 496) were rare (90%). Virologic relapse was associated with RAVs in both NS3 and NS5B (53% GT-1b; 52% GT-1b); some virologic relapses had NS3 RAVs only (47% GT-1a; 17% GT-1b). Median time to loss of GT-1b NS5B P495 RAVs post-treatment (5 months) was less than that of GT-1b NS3 D168 (8.5 months) and GT-1a R155 RAVs (11.5 months). Conclusion Faldaprevir and deleobuvir RAVs are more prevalent among virologic failures than at baseline. Treatment response was not compromised by common NS3 polymorphisms; however, alanine at NS5B amino acid 499 at baseline (wild-type in GT-1a, polymorphism in GT-1b) may reduce response to this deleobuvir-based regimen. PMID:27494410

  12. Biodegradation of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl by Sinorhizobium meliloti NM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomi; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yongming; Dick, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    A rhizobial strain, Sinorhizobium meliloti NM, could use 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloro-biphenyl (PCB 77) as the sole carbon and energy source for growth in mineral salt medium. The degradation efficiency of PCB 77 by strain NM and the bacterial growth increased with a decrease in PCB 77 concentration (5-0.25mgL(-1)). The addition of secondary carbon sources, phenolic acids and one surfactant influenced PCB 77 degradation, rhizobial growth and biofilm formation. The highest degradation efficiency was observed in the presence of caffeic acid. Benzoate and chloride ions were detected as the PCB 77 metabolites. The up-regulation of benzoate metabolism-related gene expression was also observed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. This report is the first to demonstrate Sinorhizobium using coplanar tetrachlorobiphenyl as a sole carbon and energy source, indicating the potential wide benefit to the field of rhizobia-assisted bioremediation.

  13. Source of 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene in asphaltenes from the Tarim Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanglu, Jia; Ping'an, Peng; Chiling, Yu; Zhongyao, Xiao

    2007-07-01

    1-Alkyl-2,3,6-trimethylbenzenes and a high relative amount of 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene (TTMB) have been previously detected in the marine oils and asphaltenes in the oils from the Tarim Basin. In the present study, the stable carbon isotopic compositions of TTMB and n-alkanes in the pyrolysates of asphaltenes in the marine oils from the northern Tarim Basin and Silurian tar sands from the Tarim Basin were determined. TTMB has stable carbon isotopic compositions in the range from -23‰ to -24‰ and are about 12‰ more enriched in 13C than concomitant n-alkanes (-35‰ to -37‰) in the pyrolysates. The results indicate a contribution from green sulfur bacteria ( Chlorobiaceae) to TTMB. Thus, the depositional environments of the source rocks for the marine oils and the bitumen in tar sands from the Tarim Basin are characterized by periods of euxinic conditions within the photic zone.

  14. Design of benzothiazole-1,3,4-thiadiazole conjugates: synthesis and anticonvulsant evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Nadeem; Ahuja, Priya; Malik, Sachin; Arya, Satish K

    2013-11-01

    Various 2-[(6-substituted-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)amino]-N-[5-substituted-phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl]acetamides were synthesized with a prospective exploration of "lead hopping", using pharmacophoric elements for in vivo anticonvulsant activity. This yielded three potent candidates (5i, 5t, and 5u) in the preliminary screening employing the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and the subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) test, showing minimal neurotoxicity. Their quantitative study indicated an increase of nearly 2-10 times for the MES test and 7- to 67-fold for the scPTZ test in the protective index, the keystone in drug discovery for anticonvulsant activity.

  15. Cytotoxic 3,4-seco-Atisane Diterpenoids from Croton barorum and Croton goudotii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonandrasana, Olga L; Raharinjato, Fanja H; Rajaonarivelo, Mialy; Dumontet, Vincent; Martin, Marie-Thérèse; Bignon, Jérôme; Rasoanaivo, Philippe

    2010-10-22

    In a screening program directed to the discovery of new anticancer agents from Madagascan plants, ethyl acetate extracts of Croton barorum and C. goudotii showed strong cytotoxic activity, with 100% inhibition at 10 μg/mL in a primary screen using the murine lymphocytic leukemia P388 cell line. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two new 3,4-seco-atisane diterpenoids, crotobarin (1) and crotogoudin (2). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation. Compounds 1 and 2 produced a net progression in the number of cells arrested at the G2/M growth stage in the cell cycle of the K562 human leukemia cell line at 4 μM.

  16. On the carriers of the 3.4-micrometer absorption and emission bands, and their evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Papoular, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Based on the results of chemical analysis and simulation of kerogens and immature coals, a large number of chemical structures carrying the 3.4-mum feature were studied by means of computer simulation codes. Further selection criteria were the integrated strength of the absorption lines in the aliphatic stretchings wavelength band, weak IR activity in the aromatic stretching band and absence of notable activity outside the astronomical UIBs (Unidentified Infrared Bands). Most of the structures that were retained can be classed as branched, short and oxygen-bridged CH_{2} chains, and naphtenic chains. Combinations of their absorption spectra deliver spectra comparable to those observed in the sky. Absorption spectra were derived from Normal Mode Analysis. Emission spectra of the same structures were computed by monitoring their overall dipole moment as they vibrate freely in vacuum after excitation. These spectra were then combined in suitable proportions, together with those of aromatic structures, so as to s...

  17. Structural and thermodynamic properties of new pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyridazinones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frizzo, Clarissa P., E-mail: clarissa.frizzo@yahoo.com.br [Núcleo de Química de Heterociclos (NUQUIMHE), Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Santa Maria, UFSM, CEP: 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Villetti, Marcos A. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Santa Maria, UFSM, CEP: 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Tier, Aniele Z.; Gindri, Izabelle M.; Buriol, Lilian; Rosa, Fernanda A. [Núcleo de Química de Heterociclos (NUQUIMHE), Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Santa Maria, UFSM, CEP: 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Claramunt, Rosa M.; Sanz, Dionisia [Departamento de Química Orgánica y Bio-Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Martins, Marcos A.P. [Núcleo de Química de Heterociclos (NUQUIMHE), Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Santa Maria, UFSM, CEP: 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2013-12-20

    Highlights: • New 4-substituted-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyridazinones were synthesized. • Kinetic parameters were determined by Friedmam and Ozawa–Flynn–Wall (OFW) methods. • Compound 2a was more stable than the 2d independent of the model used. • Degradation reaction of 2a and 2d occurs in a single-step. • Amorphous content of 2a and 2d was 48% and 74%, respectively. - Abstract: This work describes the synthesis of new 4-substituted-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyridazinones (R = C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, 4-F-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}, benzofur-2-yl, CF{sub 3}, 4-NO{sub 2}-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}) from the reaction of dicarbonylpyrazoles with hydrazine hydrate. Solid and solution-state NMR were used to unequivocally assign the structure and identification of the byproduct formed when R = 4-NO{sub 2}-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}. Geometrical features and the intermolecular interactions of compounds were described using single crystal X-ray diffraction. The thermal behavior of the compounds was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Kinetic parameters, such as the activation energy (E{sub a}) and pre-exponential factor (A), were determined as a function of the conversion degree for the thermal decomposition of two compounds, by using the isoconversional methods of Friedman and Ozawa–Flynn–Wall (OFW). The results showed that the E{sub a} for thermal decomposition of compound with R = CF{sub 3} is always higher than for compound with R = C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, independent of the model used (Friedman or OFW), indicating that the former is more stable than the latter. Furthermore, the E{sub a} values for compounds with R = C{sub 6}H{sub 5} and CF{sub 3} are practically constant for all α values from 0.1 to 0.9, indicating the existence of a single-step degradation reaction. The kinetics results also reveal the linear dependence of E{sub a} on the pre-exponential factor. In addition, the 4-substituted-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyridazinones studied have two types of thermal

  18. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 3,4-Bis(azidoacetamino) furazan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李战雄; 唐松青; 刘金涛; 孙杰

    2003-01-01

    3,4-Bis(azidoacetamino)furazan (DAZAF) was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR and MS as an energetic compound. The crystal structure of the title compound was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction with the following data: C6H6N10O3, monoclinic, P21/n, Z = 4, a = 8.402(3), b = 15.146(3), c = 9.247(3) A。, β = 111.09(2)o, V = 1098.0(6) A。3, Mr = 266.18, Dc = 1.610 g/cm3, F(000) = 544, μ =1.34 cm-1, R = 0.037 and wR = 0.044 for 2136 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I)). Intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonds were identified between the O and H atoms of two intramolecular acetylamino groups and two intermolecular acetylamino groups, respectively.

  19. Band Gap, Molecular Energy and Electrochromic Characterization of Electrosynthesized Hydroxymethyl 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, Thien Thanh; Tran, Tri Quoc; Le, Hai Viet; Ho, Vu Anh Pham; Tran, Lam Dai

    2017-03-01

    Hydroxymethyl functionalized 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT-MeOH) monomer was synthesized according to a previously reported procedure. Electropolymerization of EDOT-MeOH was performed in acetonitrile (ACN) containing tetrabutylammonium perchlorate (Bu4NClO4) as the supporting electrolyte by chronoamperometry on platinum (Pt) and fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass substrates. The resulting conjugated polymer (PEDOT-MeOH) was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and UV-Vis spectrophotometer techniques. The polymer showed a deep HOMO energy level of -5.31 eV with a very low band gap of 1.54 eV. Spectroelectrochemical study revealed that the PEDOT-MeOH has interesting electrochromic properties.

  20. Preliminary evidence of motor impairment among polysubstance 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine users with intact neuropsychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousman, Chad A; Cherner, Mariana; Emory, Kristen T; Barron, Daniel; Grebenstein, Patricia; Atkinson, J Hampton; Heaton, Robert K; Grant, Igor

    2010-11-01

    Neuropsychological disturbances have been reported in association with use of the recreational drug "ecstasy," or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), but findings have been inconsistent. We performed comprehensive neuropsychological testing examining seven ability domains in 21 MDMA users (MDMA+) and 21 matched control participants (MDMA-). Among MDMA+ participants, median [interquartile range] lifetime MDMA use was 186 [111, 516] doses, with 120 [35-365] days of abstinence. There were no significant group differences in neuropsychological performance, with the exception of the motor speed/dexterity domain in which 43% of MDMA+ were impaired compared with 5% of MDMA- participants (p = .004). Motor impairment differences were not explained by use of other substances and were unrelated to length of abstinence or lifetime number of MDMA doses. Findings provide limited evidence for neuropsychological differences between MDMA+ and MDMA- participants with the exception of motor impairments observed in the MDMA+ group. However, replication of this finding in a larger sample is warranted.

  1. Hydrogen-bonded Supramolecular Hydrogels Derived from 3,3',4,4'-Benzophenonetetracarboxylic Acid and Hydroxylpyridines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG, Yujiang; TANG, Liming; WANG, Li; YU, Jian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, four gelators (defined as G1--G4) were prepared from 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid (BPTA) and para-hydroxylpyridine or meta-hydroxylpyridine at molar ratios 1 : 2 and 1 : 4 respectively, and characterized by ~1H NMR, IR, UV-Vis spectra and elemental analysis. Due to the amphiphilic features, all the gelators were able to gel water via cooling their aqueous solution under different stimulations. The structure of the assembling fibers and the macroscopic properties of the gels were investigated by multiple techniques. The results indicated that the minimum gelator concentration (MGC) increased by the order of G1, G2, G3 and G4, while the gel-to-sol dissociation temperature (T_(gel)) decreased by the same order, which were explained from the assembling structures of the gels.

  2. The ecstasy and the agony; compression studies of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Lauren E; Delori, Amit; Hutchison, Ian B; Nic Daeid, Niamh; Sutcliffe, Oliver B; Oswald, Iain D H

    2015-02-01

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a Class A substance that is usually found in a tableted form. It is only observed in one orthorhombic polymorph under ambient conditions. It shows slight positional disorder around the methlyenedioxy ring which persists during compression up to 6.66 GPa. The crystal quality deteriorates above 6.66 GPa where the hydrostatic limit of the pressure-transmitting medium is exceeded. The structure undergoes anisotropic compression with the a-axis compressing the greatest (12% cf. 4 and 10% for the b- and c-axes, respectively). This is due to the pattern of the hydrogen bonding which acts like a spring and allows the compression along this direction.

  3. Multi-Physics Simulation of Wood Drying in COMSOL Multiphysics 3.4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoval-Torres Sadoth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the numerical simulation of drying of Pinus pesudostrobus wood is presented by using a phenomenological model. The model is developed by considering the heat and mass balance in the representative elementary volume (REV, which involves the solid, liquid and gas phases. We obtained a system of partial differential equations which was solved by numerical factorization by using COMSOL multiphysics 3.4. Three primary variables were solved: the moisture content, the temperature, and the dry-air mass. The numerical results were compared against experimental data and the semi-empirical model. Our results are satisfactory; we describe the drying kinetics, the moisture distribution within the wood, the dry-air mass evolution and the temperature profiles.

  4. Characterization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate conductive polymer microelectrodes for transmitter detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon T.; Vreeland, Richard F.; Heien, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    applications such as capillary electrophoresis, high-performance liquid chromatography, and constant potential amperometry at living cells. Band electrodes with widths down to 3 μm were fabricated on polymer substrates using UV lithographic methods. The electrodes are electrochemically stable in a range......In this paper we investigate the physical and electrochemical properties of micropatterned poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate (PEDOT:tosylate) microelectrodes for neurochemical detection. PEDOT:tosylate is a promising conductive polymer electrode material for chip-based bioanalytical...... between −200 mV and 700 mV vs. Ag/AgCl and show a relatively low resistance. A wide range of transmitters is shown to oxidize readily on the electrodes. Kinetic rate constants and half wave potentials are reported. The capacitance per area was found to be high (1670 ± 130 μF cm−2) compared to other thin...

  5. Band Gap, Molecular Energy and Electrochromic Characterization of Electrosynthesized Hydroxymethyl 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, Thien Thanh; Tran, Tri Quoc; Le, Hai Viet; Ho, Vu Anh Pham; Tran, Lam Dai

    2016-12-01

    Hydroxymethyl functionalized 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT-MeOH) monomer was synthesized according to a previously reported procedure. Electropolymerization of EDOT-MeOH was performed in acetonitrile (ACN) containing tetrabutylammonium perchlorate (Bu4NClO4) as the supporting electrolyte by chronoamperometry on platinum (Pt) and fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass substrates. The resulting conjugated polymer (PEDOT-MeOH) was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and UV-Vis spectrophotometer techniques. The polymer showed a deep HOMO energy level of -5.31 eV with a very low band gap of 1.54 eV. Spectroelectrochemical study revealed that the PEDOT-MeOH has interesting electrochromic properties.

  6. Anisotropic laser properties of Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 disordered crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lisha; Xu, Honghao; Pan, Zhongben; Han, Wenjuan; Chen, Xiaowen; Liu, Junhai; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin

    2016-08-01

    A study is carried out experimentally on the anisotropy in the laser action of Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 disordered crystal, demonstrated with the output coupling changed over a wide range from 0.5% to 40%. Complex polarization state variation with output coupling and evolution with pump power are observed in the laser operation achieved with a- and c-cut crystal samples. A maximum output power of 8.2 W is produced at wavelengths around 1043 nm, with an incident pump power of 24.9 W, the optical-to-optical efficiency being 33%. The polarized absorption and emission cross section spectra are also presented.

  7. Adsorption and desorption characteristics of methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and pseudoephedrine in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Raktim; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Kirkbride, K Paul; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-06-01

    This work presents, for the first time, information on the adsorption-desorption characteristics of illicit drugs and precursors in soils and an estimation of their potential bioavailability. The experiment was conducted using a batch equilibrium technique for the parent drugs methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and the precursor pseudoephedrine in three South Australian soils varying in physiochemical properties. The individual compounds exhibited different adsorption mechanisms in the test soils, and the results fitted better with the Freundlich isotherm model (r (2) ≥ 0.99). The maximum adsorption capacity was recorded for pseudoephedrine (2,000 μg g(-1)). However, pseudoephedrine recorded lower organic carbon normalized adsorption coefficient values (pseudoephedrine to be the most mobile compound in the soils under study, to have the highest availability for degradation of the three compounds, and to have the highest susceptibility to biotic degradation in test soils.

  8. Synthesis and pharmacological activities of some new 5-substituted-2-mercapto-1,3,4-oxadiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha R Desai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, various 5-β-[(N-benzenesulphony/tosyl-4-(un substituted anilino]ethyl-2-mercapto-1,3,4-oxadiazole (4a-f, with sulphonamide moiety at the side chain have been synthesised. The structures of the newly synthesised compounds have been established on the basis of their spectral data and elemental analysis. All the compounds were screened for antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Bacillus cirroflagellosus, Aspergillus niger. Colletotrichum capsici and antituberclosis activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain. Only two compounds 4b (73% and 4e (54%, have shown moderate antituberculosis activity. All the compounds have shown moderate antiinflamatory activity and least ulcerogenecity. Most of the compounds have shown significant analgesic activity (64.20-120.72% in comparison with the standard, Aspirin (49.39% In the MES method, however only compound 4a, exhibited a protection of 33.33%, and others failed to protect.

  9. Interspecies In Vitro Evaluation of Stereoselective Protein Binding for 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Raihana Wan Aasim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abuse of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA is becoming more common worldwide. To date, there is no information available on stereoselectivity of MDMA protein binding in humans, rats, and mice. Since stereoselectivity plays an important role in MDMA’s pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, in this study we investigated its stereoselectivity in protein binding. The stereoselective protein binding of rac-MDMA was investigated using two different concentrations (20 and 200 ng/mL in human plasma and mouse and rat sera using an ultrafiltration technique. No significant stereoselectivity in protein binding was observed in both human plasma and rat serum; however, a significant stereoselective binding (p<0.05 was observed in mouse serum. Since the protein binding of MDMA in mouse serum is considerably lower than in humans and rats, caution should be exercised when using mice for in vitro studies involving MDMA.

  10. Silica-gel Catalyzed Facile Synthesis of 3,4-Dihydropyrimidinones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Sameer; Aware, Umesh; Patil, Amit; Rohera, Vinita; Jain, Mukul; Patel, Pankaj [Zydus Research Centre, Sarkhej-Bavla N.H., Ahmedabad (India); Ghate, Manjunath [Nirma University, Ahmedabad (India)

    2012-02-15

    We have developed a mild and highly effective procedure for the one-pot synthesis of substituted dihydropyrimidinones in high yields using silica gel as a green, highly efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst. Our approach can be applied to the preparation of a wide range of synthetic analogues for structure-activity studies. Investigations in this direction are ongoing. The pyrimidinone ring is a basic substructure of numerous biologically active alkaloids and pharmaceutical products. These cores are regarded as one of the most important groups of drug-like scaffolds. 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones above are known to exhibit variety of pharmacological activity such as calcium channel modulation, mitotic kinesin Eg5 inhibition, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activity, etc.

  11. Hydrogen Deuteride to 3.4 Megabar Mixed Isotopes and New Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ranga; Noked, Ori; Silvera, Isaac

    We present infrared absorption studies of solid hydrogen deuteride to pressures as high as 3.4 megabar in a diamond anvil cell and temperatures in the range 5 to 295 K. Above 198 GPa the sample transforms to a mixture of , and, interpreted as a process of dissociation and recombination.Three new phases-lines are observed, two of which differ remarkably from those of the high-pressure homonuclear species, but none are metallic. The time-dependent spectral changes are analyzed to determine the molecular concentrations as a function of time.y. The NSF, Grant DMR-1308641 and the DOE Stockpile Stewardship Academic Alliance Program, Grant DE-FG52-10NA29656 supported this research.

  12. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGIC PROPERTIES OF SOME 1-(ALCHYLPHENYL-3-(4-(3-(PYRIDIN-2-ILACRYLOYLPHENYLTHIOUREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Popusoi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describe the synthesis of some 1-(alchylaril-3-(4-(3-pyridin-2-il acryloylphenylthiourea obtained by condensation of 2-pyridincarboxaldehide with some derivatives of 4-acetylphenilthioureas in basic medium or by addition of aliphatic and aromatic amines to the correspondingisothiocyanatopropenones. 12 new compounds were obtained and their biological properties were analysed. The substituted thioureas by pyridine radicals, morpholine and phenol show a maximum bacteriostatic activity for Gram positive microorganisms like: Staphylococcus Aureus and Enterococcus Faecalis at the minimum inhibitory concentration 9.37-37.5 μM. Antifungal activity for Candida Albicans, Aspergillus Niger, AspergillusFumigatus, Penicillium is weak, in minimum inhibitory concentration 600->600 μM. The leukemia activity like inhibitor (HL-60, is 84-96.9% at the concentration 10-5mol/l and 15- 20% and at the concentrations 10-6, 10-7mol/l.

  13. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Comparative Study of a New Organic Material 3,4-Diaminobenzophenone Semihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Ben Rhaiem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The new organic 3,4-diaminobenzophenone semihydrate (34ABPH is grown by slow evaporation method. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group: C2. The unit cell dimensions are (8 Å, (2 Å, (10 Å, and β = 99.40 (2° with . The crystal structure analysis reveals that the C13H12N2O molecules chains are organized into a double ribbon in the (b,c plane. The structural components interact by N–H⋯O and O–H⋯O hydrogen bonds, building up a two-dimensional network. The presence of functional groups in the molecular structure is confirmed by the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA confirms the presence of the water molecule.

  14. Pyrazolo[3,4-h]quinolines promising photosensitizing agents in the treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, Virginia; Parrino, Barbara; Carbone, Anna; Montalbano, Alessandra; Salvador, Alessia; Brun, Paola; Vedaldi, Daniela; Diana, Patrizia; Cirrincione, Girolamo; Barraja, Paola

    2015-09-18

    A new series of pyrazolo[3,4-h]quinolines, heteroanalogues of angelicin was conveniently prepared with a broad substitution pattern. A large number of derivatives was obtained and the cellular photocytotoxicity was evaluated in vitro against 5 different human tumor cell lines with GI50 values reaching the nanomolar level (14.52-0.04 μM). Selected compounds were able to photoinduce a massive cell death with the involvement of mitochondria. Their photodamage cellular targets were proteins and lipids and they did not cause any kind of DNA photodamage. This latter event is of considerable importance in the modulation of long term side effects, generally associated with the use of classical furocoumarins.

  15. Synthesis of a new class of pyrrolo[3,4-h]quinazolines with antimitotic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, Virginia; Montalbano, Alessandra; Carbone, Anna; Parrino, Barbara; Diana, Patrizia; Cirrincione, Girolamo; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Brun, Paola; Issinger, Olaf-Georg; Tisi, Silvia; Primac, Irina; Vedaldi, Daniela; Salvador, Alessia; Barraja, Paola

    2014-03-03

    A new series of pyrrolo[3,4-h]quinazolines was conveniently prepared with a broad substitution pattern. A large number of derivatives was obtained and the cellular cytotoxicity was evaluated in vitro against 5 different human tumor cell lines with GI₅₀ values reaching the low micromolar level (1.3-19.8 μM). These compounds were able to induce cell death mainly by apoptosis through a mitochondrial dependent pathway. Selected compounds showed antimitotic activity and a reduction of tubulin polymerization in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, they showed anti-angiogenic properties since reduced in vitro endothelial cell migration and disrupted HUVEC capillary-like tube network in Matrigel.

  16. Cutaneous vasoconstriction contributes to hyperthermia induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) in conscious rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, N P; Blessing, W W

    2001-11-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "Ecstasy") increases body temperature. This process could be associated with increased cutaneous blood flow, as normally occurs with exercise-induced hyperthermia. Alternatively, an MDMA-induced fall in cutaneous blood flow could contribute to the hyperthermia by diminishing normal heat transfer from the body to the environment. We investigated these possibilities by administering MDMA (1.5-6 mg/kg, i.v.) to conscious freely moving rabbits, determining effects on body temperature, cutaneous blood flow (measured by a Doppler ultrasonic probe that was chronically implanted around the ear pinna artery), and other cardiovascular parameters. MDMA caused a dose-dependent increase in body temperature (from 38.3 +/- 0.3 to 41.2 +/- 0.4 degrees C after 6 mg/kg; p mechanism whereby MDMA causes hyperthermia. Reversal of cutaneous vasoconstriction by appropriate pharmacological means could be of therapeutic benefit in humans suffering from life-threatening hyperthermia induced by MDMA.

  17. Increased oxytocin concentrations and prosocial feelings in humans after ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, G J H; Sweep, F C G J; van der Steen, R; Hermsen, R; Donders, A R T; Touw, D J; van Gerven, J M A; Buitelaar, J K; Verkes, R J

    2009-01-01

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or "ecstasy") is a recreationally used drug with remarkable and characteristic prosocial effects. In spite of abundant attention in the scientific literature, the mechanism of its prosocial effects has not been elucidated in humans. Recently, research in animals has suggested that the neuropeptide oxytocin may induce these effects. In a double blind, randomized, crossover, and placebo-controlled study in 15 healthy volunteers we assessed blood oxytocin and MDMA concentrations and subjective prosocial effects after oral administration of 100 mg MDMA or placebo. MDMA induced a robust increase of blood oxytocin concentrations and an increase of subjective prosocial feelings. Within subjects, the variations in these feelings were significantly and positively correlated with variation in oxytocin levels, and the correlations between these feelings and oxytocin were significantly stronger than those between these feelings and blood MDMA levels. MDMA induces oxytocin release in humans, which may be involved in the characteristic prosocial effects of ecstasy.

  18. New Paradigms for Developing Peta-scalable Codes Workshop - May 3-4, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Levine

    2005-04-30

    On May 3 & 4, 2004, sixty-two of North America's finest computational scientists gathered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to discuss the future of high-performance computing. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense and the Hewlett-Packard Corporation, New Methods for Developing Peta-scalable Codes introduced the tools and techniques that will be required to efficiently exploit the next generation of supercomputers. This workshop provided an opportunity for computational scientists to consider parallel programming methods other than the currently prevalent one in which they explicitly and directly manage all parallelism via MPI. Specifically, the question is how best to program the upcoming generation of computer systems that will use massive parallelism and complex memory hierarchies to reach from the terascale into the petascale regime over the next five years. The presentations, by leading computer scientists, focused on languages, runtimes and libraries, tool collections and I/O methods.

  19. Electrochemical grafting of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) into a titanium dioxide nanotube host network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janáky, Csaba; Bencsik, Gábor; Rácz, Arpád; Visy, Csaba; de Tacconi, Norma R; Chanmanee, Wilaiwan; Rajeshwar, Krishnan

    2010-08-17

    This study focuses on electrodeposition for infiltrating in situ a conducting polymer such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) into a host titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanotube array (NTA) framework. The TiO(2) NTA was electrosynthesized on titanium foil in turn by anodization in a fluoride-containing medium. The PEDOT layer was electrografted into the TiO(2) NTA framework using a two-step potentiostatic growth protocol in acetonitrile containing supporting electrolyte. The nanoscopic features of oligomer/polymer infiltration and deposition in the NTA interstitial voids were monitored by field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Systematic changes in the nanotube inner diameter and the wall thickness afforded insights into the evolution of the TiO(2)NTA/PEDOT hybrid assembly. This assembly was subsequently characterized by UV-visible diffuse reflectance, cyclic voltammetry, and photoelectrochemical measurements. These data serve as a prelude to further use of these hybrids in heterojunction solar cells.

  20. Improvement in freezing phenomenon of Parkinson's disease after DL-threo-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylserine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogawa,Norio

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available A 77-year-old man with Parkinson's disease of long standing, under treatment with L-DOPA and benserazide, was administered DL-threo-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylserine (DL-threo-DOPS, a precursor of norepinephrine, for 10 days. With this administration the patient's freezing phenomenon was remarkably improved, and his dysarthria also showed improvement. When DL-threo-DOPS was suspended, the frozen gait returned on the third day to almost the former level, even though he continued to receive L-DOPA and benserazide. After administration of DL-threo-DOPS, the CSF level of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG, a major metabolite of norepinephrine, was 127.5% of the pretreatment level. These observations suggest that DL-threo-DOPS can pass through the blood-brain barrier and change to norepinephrine, and that DL-threo-DOPS may be beneficial in the treatment of the freezing phenomenon of Parkinson's disease.

  1. "Utuslah Aku": Eksposisi Yunus Pasal 3-4 Tentang Pengutusan Nabi Yunus Berdasarkan Perspektif Allah Menyesal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peniel C.D. Maiaweng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available mereka yang seharusnya dipanggilTuhan untuk pergi ke Niniwe (1:1-2, tetapi melarikan diri ke Tarsis (1:4-14, dan saat ini sedang berdoa dalam perut ikan besar dengankebingungannya (Yun. 2:1-9, akan kembali kepada panggilannya, yaituberbalik arah menuju ke Niniwe (3:1-2, untuk melaksanakanpelayanannya (3:4-9, karena Allah yang memanggil, walaupun Iadisebut Allah yang menyesal, tetapi Ia adalah Allah yang menyerukananugerah, Allah menerima pertobatan, dan diakui dalam pemberitaanPerjanjian Lama. Sebagai Allah yang menyesal, Ia adalah Allah yangterbuka terhadap orang-orang yang belum diselamatkan; Ia adalah Allahyang berdaulat untuk melakukan yang terbaik bagi manusia; Ia adalahAllah yang Mahatahu yang mengantisipasi segala perubahan sikap hidupmanusia di masa yang akan datang; Ia adalah Allah yang konsistenterhadap firman yang telah dinyatakan-Nya; dan Ia adalah Allah yangkonsisten terhadap sifat-sifat-Nya, sebagai Allah yang penyayang danpengasih serta panjang sabar dan berlimpah kasihs setia (4:2.

  2. Poly[(μ5-5-carboxylatotetrahydrofuran-2,3,4-tricarboxylic acidsodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The search for the novel metal-organic frameworks (MOFs materials using tetrahydrofuran-2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid (THFTCA as a versatile multi-carboxyl ligand, lead to the synthesis and the structure determination of the title compound, [Na(H3THFTCA] or [Na(C8H7O9]n, which was obtained by a solution reaction at room temperature. The ligand is mono-deprotonated, coordinating five sodium ions through one furan oxygen atom and six carboxyl oxygen atoms. The sodium ion exhibits a distorted pentagonal-bipyramidal NaO7 geometry consisting of seven O atoms derived from five surrounding ligands. Two adjacent pentagonal bipyramids share an O—O edge, forming a dinuclear sodium cluster. Finally, these clusters are effectively linked by the carboxyl groups of THFTCA ligands, forming a firm metal organic framework and O—H...O hydrogen bonds contribute to the crystal packing.

  3. All-textile flexible supercapacitors using electrospun poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laforgue, Alexis [Functional Polymer Systems Group, Industrial Materials Institute, National Research Council Canada, 75, de Mortagne Blvd, Boucherville, Quebec J4B 6Y4 (Canada)

    2011-01-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanofibers were obtained by the combination of electrospinning and vapor-phase polymerization. The fibers had diameters around 350 nm, and were soldered at most intersections, providing a strong dimensional stability to the mats. The nanofiber mats demonstrated very high conductivity (60 {+-} 10 S cm{sup -1}, the highest value reported so far for polymer nanofibers) as well as improved electrochemical properties, due to the ultraporous nature of the electrospun mats. The mats were incorporated into all-textile flexible supercapacitors, using carbon cloths as the current collectors and electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membranes as the separator. The textile layers were stacked and embedded in a solid electrolyte containing an ionic liquid and PVDF-co-HFP as the host polymer. The resulting supercapacitors were totally flexible and demonstrated interesting and stable performances in ambient conditions. (author)

  4. All-textile flexible supercapacitors using electrospun poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforgue, Alexis

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanofibers were obtained by the combination of electrospinning and vapor-phase polymerization. The fibers had diameters around 350 nm, and were soldered at most intersections, providing a strong dimensional stability to the mats. The nanofiber mats demonstrated very high conductivity (60 ± 10 S cm -1, the highest value reported so far for polymer nanofibers) as well as improved electrochemical properties, due to the ultraporous nature of the electrospun mats. The mats were incorporated into all-textile flexible supercapacitors, using carbon cloths as the current collectors and electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membranes as the separator. The textile layers were stacked and embedded in a solid electrolyte containing an ionic liquid and PVDF-co-HFP as the host polymer. The resulting supercapacitors were totally flexible and demonstrated interesting and stable performances in ambient conditions.

  5. Geodynamo, solar wind, and magnetopause 3.4 to 3.45 billion years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarduno, John A; Cottrell, Rory D; Watkeys, Michael K; Hofmann, Axel; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Mamajek, Eric E; Liu, Dunji; Sibeck, David G; Neukirch, Levi P; Usui, Yoichi

    2010-03-05

    Stellar wind standoff by a planetary magnetic field prevents atmospheric erosion and water loss. Although the early Earth retained its water and atmosphere, and thus evolved as a habitable planet, little is known about Earth's magnetic field strength during that time. We report paleointensity results from single silicate crystals bearing magnetic inclusions that record a geodynamo 3.4 to 3.45 billion years ago. The measured field strength is approximately 50 to 70% that of the present-day field. When combined with a greater Paleoarchean solar wind pressure, the paleofield strength data suggest steady-state magnetopause standoff distances of < or = 5 Earth radii, similar to values observed during recent coronal mass ejection events. The data also suggest lower-latitude aurora and increases in polar cap area, as well as heating, expansion, and volatile loss from the exosphere that would have affected long-term atmospheric composition.

  6. New Developments in Electrochemical Sensors Based on Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-Modified Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Lupu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing demand for continuous, fast, selective, and sensitive monitoring of key analytes and parameters in the control of diseases and health monitoring, foods quality and safety, and quality of the environment. Sensors based on electrochemical transducers represent very promising tools in this context. Conducting polymers (CPs have drawn considerable interest in recent years because of their potential applications in different fields such as in sensors, electrochemical displays, and in catalysis. Among the organic conducting polymers, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT and its derivatives have attracted particular interest due to their high stability and high conductivity. This paper summarizes mainly the recent developments in the use of PEDOT-based composite materials in electrochemical sensors.

  7. Bent Shaped 1,3,4-Oxadiazole/Thiadiazole heterocyclic rings containing liquid crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chinnaiyan Selvarasu; Palaninathan Kannan

    2015-10-01

    Two series of bent shaped 1,3,4-oxadiazole/thiadiazole heterocyclic ring containing liquid crystalline (LC) compounds were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H, 13C-NMR and ESI-Mass spectro-scopic techniques. Liquid crystal properties were investigated by polarized optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. All the compounds exhibited mesophases such as nematic, smectic A and smectic C phases. The liquid crystalline effects were ascertained by changing the central atom in the heterocyclic ring and by increasing the length of the terminal alkyloxy chains which bring considerable improvements on the mesomorphic properties. The absorption and emission spectral studies of all the compounds were investigated and confirmed.

  8. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase and 3,4-(±)-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Joseph M.; Cholanians, Aram B.; Lizarraga, Lucina E.; Lau, Serrine S.; Monks, Terrence J.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism of 3,4-(±)-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is necessary to elicit its neurotoxic effects. Perturbations in phase I and phase II hepatic enzymes can alter the neurotoxic profile of systemically administered MDMA. In particular, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) plays a critical role in determining the fraction of MDMA that is converted to potentially neurotoxic metabolites. Thus, cytochrome P450 mediated demethylenation of MDMA, or its N-demethylated metabolite, 3,4-(±)-methylenedioxyamphetamine, give rise to the catechols, N-methyl-α-methyldopamine and α-methyldopamine, respectively. Methylation of these catechols by COMT limits their oxidation and conjugation to glutathione, a process that ultimately gives rise to neurotoxic metabolites. We therefore determined the effects of modulating COMT, a critical enzyme involved in determining the fraction of MDMA that is converted to potentially neurotoxic metabolites, on MDMA-induced toxicity. Pharmacological inhibition of COMT in the rat potentiated MDMA-induced serotonin deficits and exacerbated the acute MDMA-induced hyperthermic response. Using a genetic mouse model of COMT deficiency, in which mice lack a functional COMT gene, such mice displayed greater reductions in dopamine concentrations relative to their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Neither WT nor COMT deficient mice were susceptible to MDMA-induced decreases in serotonin concentrations. Interestingly, mice devoid of COMT were far more susceptible to the acute hyperthermic effects of MDMA, exhibiting greater increases in body temperature that ultimately resulted in death. Our findings support the view that COMT plays a pivotal role in determining the toxic response to MDMA. PMID:24591155

  9. Bacterial Sugar 3,4-Ketoisomerases: Structural Insight into Product Stereochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoden, James B; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Gilbert, Michel; Salinger, Ari J; Holden, Hazel M

    2015-07-28

    3-Acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose (Fuc3NAc) and 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (Qui3NAc) are unusual sugars found on the lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacteria and on the S-layers of Gram-positive bacteria. The 3,4-ketoisomerases, referred to as FdtA and QdtA, catalyze the third steps in the respective biosynthetic pathways for these sugars. Whereas both enzymes utilize the same substrate, the stereochemistries of their products are different. Specifically, the hydroxyl groups at the hexose C-4' positions assume the "galactose" and "glucose" configurations in the FdtA and QdtA products, respectively. In 2007 we reported the structure of the apoform of FdtA from Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus, which was followed in 2014 by the X-ray analysis of QdtA from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum as a binary complex. Both of these enzymes belong to the cupin superfamily. Here we report a combined structural and enzymological study to explore the manner in which these enzymes control the stereochemistry of their products. Various site-directed mutant proteins of each enzyme were constructed, and their dTDP-sugar products were analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. In addition, the kinetic parameters for these protein variants were measured, and the structure of one, namely, the QdtA Y17R/R97H double mutant form, was determined to 2.3-Å resolution. Finally, in an attempt to obtain a model of FdtA with a bound dTDP-linked sugar, the 3,4-ketoisomerase domain of a bifunctional enzyme from Shewanella denitrificans was cloned, purified, and crystallized in the presence of a dTDP-linked sugar analogue. Taken together, the results from this investigation demonstrate that it is possible to convert a "galacto" enzyme into a "gluco" enzyme and vice versa.

  10. Novel 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles as anti-inflammatory drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ega Durgashivaprasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring is a versatile moiety with a wide range of pharmacological properties. The present work deals with the synthesis and evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of two novel 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (OSD and OPD. Materials and Methods: Carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema was employed as an acute model of inflammation. For evaluating sub-acute anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced inflammation in rat air pouch was employed. Complete Freund′s adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats was used as a model of chronic inflammation. To evaluate in vitro anti-inflammatory activity, lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were used. Results: OSD (100 mg/kg reduced carrageen-induced paw edema by 60%, and OPD (100 mg/kg produced a modest 32.5% reduction. OSD also reduced leukocyte influx and myeloperoxidase in carrageenan-induced rat air pouch model. In complete Freund′s adjuvant-induced arthritis model, both OSD and OPD (200 mg/kg for 14 days reduced paw edema and NO levels. In LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, OSD and OPD inhibited formation of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species, with OPD showing a better activity in comparison to OSD. Conclusions: OSD was the better of the two compounds in in vivo models of inflammation. The o-phenol substitution at position 2 of oxadiazole ring in OSD may be responsible for its better in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. The ability of the compounds to inhibit LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediator release suggests an anti-inflammatory mechanism targeting LPS-TLR4-NF-κB signalling pathway, which needs to be explored in detail. The disparate efficacy in vitro and in vivo also requires in-depth evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of these novel oxadiazoles.

  11. A new two-dimensional manganese(II) coordination polymer based on thiophene-3,4-dicarboxylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Xia; Shang, Li-Li; Li, Zhao-Hao; Zhao, Bang-Tun

    2014-07-01

    A novel manganese coordination polymer, poly[(μ5-thiophene-3,4-dicarboxylato)manganese(II)], [Mn(C6H2O4S)]n, was synthesized hydrothermally using 3,4-thiophenedicarboxylate (3,4-tdc(2-)) as the organic linker. The asymmetric unit of the complex contains an Mn(2+) cation and one half of a deprotonated 3,4-tdc(2-) anion, both residing on a twofold axis. Each Mn(2+) centre is six-coordinated by O atoms of bridging/chelating carboxylate groups from five 3,4-tdc(2-) anions, forming a slightly distorted octahedron. The Mn(2+) centres are bridged by 3,4-tdc(2-) anions to give an infinite two-dimensional layer which incorporates one-dimensional Mn-O gridlike chains, and in which the 3,4-tdc(2-) anion adopts a novel hexadentate chelating and μ5-bridging coordination mode. The fully deprotonated 3,4-tdc(2-) anion exhibits unexpected efficiency as a ligand towards the Mn(2+) centres, which it coordinates through all of its carboxylate O atoms to provide the novel coordination mode. The IR spectrum of the complex is also reported.

  12. LHC News : The 39th and final repaired dipole magnet was lowered into Sector 3-4 and installed

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Multimedia Productions

    2009-01-01

    The 39th and final repaired dipole magnet was lowered into Sector 3-4 and installed on Thursday 16 April. This is the last of the LHC’s easily recognizable 15-metre-long blue superconducting dipoles required for the 3-4 repair. Interviews with Hervé Prin, Member of the LHC reconstruction team, Caterina Bertone, Magnet transport leader

  13. Synaptic PI(3,4,5)P3 Is Required for Syntaxin1A Clustering and Neurotransmitter Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khuong, T.M.; Habets, R.L.; Kuenen, S.; Witkowska, A.; Kasprowicz, J.; Swerts, J.; Jahn, R.; Bogaart, G. van den; Verstreken, P.

    2013-01-01

    PI(3,4,5)P3 is a low-abundance lipid thought to play a role in the regulation of synaptic activity; however, the mechanism remains obscure. We have constructed novel split Venus-based probes and used superresolution imaging to localize PI(3,4,5)P3 at Drosophila larval neuromuscular synapses. We find

  14. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Novel Diorganotin(Ⅳ) Complex Containing 3,4-Difluorobenzohydroxamato Ligand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Mei SHANG; Ji Zhou WU; Qing Shan LI

    2006-01-01

    A new five-coordinate mixed-ligand compound, di-n-butyl(3,4-difluorobenzoxy)-(3,4-difluorobenzohydroxamato)tin(Ⅳ) 1 was synthesized and characterized by IR, 1H, 13C, 19Sn NMR spectra and single crystal X-ray diffraction technique.

  15. Hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease inhibits complement activation by cleaving complement component 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichi Mawatari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is mediated in part by viral proteins that abrogate the host immune response, including the complement system, but the precise mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated whether HCV proteins are involved in the fragmentation of complement component 4 (C4, composed of subunits C4α, C4β, and C4γ, and the role of HCV proteins in complement activation. METHODS: Human C4 was incubated with HCV nonstructural (NS 3/4A protease, core, or NS5. Samples were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and then subjected to peptide sequencing. The activity of the classical complement pathway was examined using an erythrocyte hemolysis assay. The cleavage pattern of C4 in NS3/4A-expressing and HCV-infected cells, respectively, was also examined. RESULTS: HCV NS3/4A protease cleaved C4γ in a concentration-dependent manner, but viral core and NS5 did not. A specific inhibitor of NS3/4A protease reduced C4γ cleavage. NS3/4A protease-mediated cleavage of C4 inhibited classical pathway activation, which was abrogated by a NS3/4A protease inhibitor. In addition, co-transfection of cells with C4 and wild-type NS3/4A, but not a catalytic-site mutant of NS3/4A, produced cleaved C4γ fragments. Such C4 processing, with a concomitant reduction in levels of full-length C4γ, was also observed in HCV-infected cells expressing C4. CONCLUSIONS: C4 is a novel cellular substrate of the HCV NS3/4A protease. Understanding disturbances in the complement system mediated by NS3/4A protease may provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying persistent HCV infection.

  16. Study on the Synthesis of Di(3,4-methyl) Benzylidene Sorbitol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Dong-mei; Li Ji-chun; Zhang Zhi-xi; Wang Xiao-qiang

    2004-01-01

    Di (3,4-methyl) benzylidene sorbitol (briefly referred as" DMDBS "), used as transparency nucleating agent in crystallinity polyolefin kind resin, can dramaticly reduce the haze of plastic products, improving their quality in transparency, resin's rigidity, heat resistant temperature and modulus of bending. DMDBS, having these characteristics, has been widely used as polyolefin processing auxiliary.With the presence of hydrophobicity organic solvent and lower alcohol, the nucleating agent of DMDBS can be synthesized by one mole sorbitol and two mole 3,4-dimethyl benzaldehyde, during which the aldehyde and six hydroxyl of sorbitol condensate. The chemical reaction equation can be expressed as:To thoroughly inspect the characters of the reaction, a series of experiments is carried out in 14 liter agitator, with temperature at 75 ℃, and agitation velocity at 375r/min. From the result of the experiments, it can be concluded:The 3,4-dimethyl benzaldehyde/sorbitol(B/S) has influence on the reaction. When B/S is 2, the target product's yield can reach 98.79%. However the product's yield will descend definitely, if B/S is reduced or increased.Catalyst is the second effective element. When the acid catalyst is little, the reaction is slow.Increasing the use level of the acid catalyst can accelerate the reaction. However, we find overdose of the acid catalyst will yield more by-product tri-condensation. So there is an optimal use level range of the acid catalyst. From the experiments, we find the use level of the acid catalyst between 1.2% and 1.5% is acceptable, and we choose 1.3%.The third effective affecting element is reaction time. With the reaction temperature at 75℃, B/S at 2, the use level of the acid catalyst at 1.3%, when the reaction time reaches 2 hours, the product's yield is below 80%, as the reaction time increases to 6 hours, the product's yield peaks to 98.79%. If we keep increasing reaction time, however, the product's yield will not increase further

  17. AGR-3/4 Irradiation Test Train Disassembly and Component Metrology First Look Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stempien, John Dennis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Francine Joyce [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Winston, Philip Lon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The AGR-3/4 experiment was designed to study fission product transport within graphitic matrix material and nuclear-grade graphite. To this end, this experiment consisted of 12 capsules, each fueled with 4 compacts containing UCO TRISO particles as driver fuel and 20 UCO designed-to-fail (DTF) fuel particles in each compact. The DTF fuel was fabricated with a thin pyrocarbon layer which was intended to fail during irradiation and provide a source of fission products. These fission products could then migrate through the compact and into the surrounding concentric rings of graphitic matrix material and/or nuclear graphite. Through post-irradiation examination (PIE) of the rings (including physical sampling and gamma scanning) fission product concentration profiles within the rings can be determined. These data can be used to elucidate fission product transport parameters (e.g. diffusion coefficients within the test materials) which will be used to inform and refine models of fission product transport. After irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) had been completed in April 2014, the AGR-3/4 experiment was shipped to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) for inspection, disassembly, and metrology. The AGR-3/4 test train was received at MFC in two separate shipments between February and April 2015. Visual examinations of the test train exterior did not indicate dimensional distortion, and only two small discolored areas were observed at the bottom of Capsules 8 and 9. No corresponding discoloration was found on the inside of these capsules, however. Prior to disassembly, the two test train sections were subject to analysis via the Precision Gamma Scanner (PGS), which did not indicate that any gross fuel relocation had occurred. A series of specialized tools (including clamps, cutters, and drills) had been designed and fabricated in order to carry out test train disassembly and recovery of capsule components (graphite

  18. 荨麻中3,4-二香草基四氢呋喃的提取及纯化%Extraction and Purification of 3,4-Two Vanillyl Tetrahydrofuran in Nettle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静辉; 刘玲; 姚德坤; 黄运生

    2016-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to extract and purify 3,4-two vanillyl tetrahydrofuran in nettle, to lay a good basis for further research on the function mechanism. [ Method] Using alcohol aqueous solution for reflux extraction, the method and conditions for adsorption and sepa-ration of 3,4-two vanillyl tetrahydrofuran in nettle with macroporous adsorption resin were studied, ultrafiltration membrane purification tech-nology was adopted for purification. [Result] X-5 macroporous adsorption resin had better adsorption ability to 3,4-two vanillyl tetrahydro-furan;when ethanol concentration was 60%, the desorption effect was best, after the purification of the ultrafiltration membrane, purity of 3, 4-two vanillyl tetrahydrofuran in nettle could up to 85. 3%. [Conclusion] Using X-5 macroporous resin and ultrafiltration membrane purifi-cation technology can effectively extract 3,4- two vanillyl tetrahydrofuran in nettle, the study provides basis for research of 3,4- two vanillyl tetrahydrofuran in nettle.%[目的]研究荨麻中3,4-二香草基四氢呋喃的提取以及纯化,为进一步研究荨麻中3,4-二香草基四氢呋喃的作用机制奠定基础。[方法]采用醇水溶液回流提取,研究大孔吸附树脂吸附和分离狭叶荨麻提取液中3,4-二香草基四氢呋喃的方法和条件,并采用超滤膜纯化技术对其进行纯化。[结果]X-5大孔吸附树脂对3,4-二香草基四氢呋喃有较好的吸附能力;乙醇浓度为60%时解吸效果最好,解析液浓缩,超滤膜纯化重结晶后,荨麻中3,4-二香草基四氢呋喃纯度可达85.3%。[结论]采用X-5大孔吸附树脂以及超滤膜纯化技术可有效地提取荨麻中3,4-二香草基四氢呋喃,为今后荨麻中有效成分的研究与开发应用提供理论依据。

  19. Synthesis of Chiral 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Thioether Derivatives%手性1,3,4-噁二唑硫醚衍生物的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马银剑; 朱虹; 李学强

    2007-01-01

    以5-取代-2-巯基-1,3,4-噁二唑为亲核试剂,与手性5-烷氧基-3,4-二溴-2(5H)-呋喃酮发生Michael反应,合成了6种新的手性1,3,4-噁二唑硫醚衍生物(产率55%~67%),其结构经1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR和HR-MS确证.

  20. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors prevent 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced 5-HT deficits in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerta, Elena; Hervias, Isabel; Goñi-Allo, Beatriz; Lasheras, Berta; Jordan, Joaquin; Aguirre, Norberto

    2009-02-01

    Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are often used in combination with club drugs such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy). We investigated the consequences of such combination in the serotonergic system of the rat. Oral administration of sildenafil citrate (1.5 or 8 mg/kg) increased brain cGMP levels and protected in a dose-dependent manner against 5-hydroxytryptamine depletions caused by MDMA (3 x 5 mg/kg, i.p., every 2 h) in the striatum, frontal cortex and hippocampus without altering the acute hyperthermic response to MDMA. Intrastriatal administration of the protein kinase G (PKG) inhibitor, KT5823 [(9S, 10R, 12R)-2,3,9,10,11,12-Hexahydro-10-methoxy-2,9-dimethyl-1-oxo-9,12-epoxy-1H-diindolo[1,2,3-fg:3',2',1'-kl]pyrrolo[3,4-i][1,6]benzodiazocine-10-carboxylic acid, methyl ester)], suppressed sildenafil-mediated protection. By contrast, the cell permeable cGMP analogue, 8-bromoguanosine cyclic 3',5'-monophosphate, mimicked sildenafil effects further suggesting the involvement of the PKG pathway in mediating sildenafil protection. Because mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) channels are a target for PKG, we next administered the specific mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) channel blocker, 5-hydroxydecanoic acid, 30 min before sildenafil. 5-hydroxydecanoic acid completely reversed the protection afforded by sildenafil, thereby implicating the involvement of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. Sildenafil also increased Akt phosphorylation, and so the possible involvement of the Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)/sGC signalling pathway was analysed. Neither the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, wortmannin, nor the selective eNOS inhibitor, L-N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine dihydrochloride, reversed the protection afforded by sildenafil, suggesting that Akt/eNOS/sGC cascade does not participate in the protective mechanisms. Our data also show that the protective effect of sildenafil can be extended to vardenafil, another PDE5

  1. Synaptic PI(3,4,5)P3 is required for Syntaxin1A clustering and neurotransmitter release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuong, Thang Manh; Habets, Ron L P; Kuenen, Sabine; Witkowska, Agata; Kasprowicz, Jaroslaw; Swerts, Jef; Jahn, Reinhard; van den Bogaart, Geert; Verstreken, Patrik

    2013-03-20

    PI(3,4,5)P3 is a low-abundance lipid thought to play a role in the regulation of synaptic activity; however, the mechanism remains obscure. We have constructed novel split Venus-based probes and used superresolution imaging to localize PI(3,4,5)P3 at Drosophila larval neuromuscular synapses. We find the lipid in membrane domains at neurotransmitter release sites, where it concentrates with Syntaxin1A, a protein essential for vesicle fusion. Reducing PI(3,4,5)P3 availability disperses Syntaxin1A clusters and increasing PI(3,4,5)P3 levels rescues this defect. In artificial giant unilamellar vesicles, PI(3,4,5)P3 also induces Syntaxin1A domain formation and this clustering, in vitro and in vivo, is dependent on positively charged residues in the Syntaxin1A-juxtamembrane domain. Functionally, reduced PI(3,4,5)P3 causes temperature-sensitive paralysis and reduced neurotransmitter release, a phenotype also seen in animals expressing a Syntaxin1A with a mutated juxtamembrane domain. Thus, our data indicate that PI(3,4,5)P3, based on electrostatic interactions, clusters Syntaxin1A at release sites to regulate neurotransmitter release.

  2. Regulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3/Akt signalling by inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eramo, Matthew J; Mitchell, Christina A

    2016-02-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) generated lipid signals, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and PtdIns(3,4)P2, are both required for the maximal activation of the serine/threonine kinase proto-oncogene Akt. The inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases (5-phosphatases) hydrolyse the 5-position phosphate from the inositol head group of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 to yield PtdIns(3,4)P2. Extensive work has revealed several 5-phosphatases inhibit PI3K-driven Akt signalling, by decreasing PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 despite increasing cellular levels of PtdIns(3,4)P2. The roles that 5-phosphatases play in suppressing cell proliferation and transformation are slow to emerge; however, the 5-phosphatase PIPP [proline-rich inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase; inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (INPP5J)] has recently been identified as a putative tumour suppressor in melanoma and breast cancer and SHIP1 [SH2 (Src homology 2)-containing inositol phosphatase 1] inhibits haematopoietic cell proliferation. INPP5E regulates cilia stability and INPP5E mutations have been implicated ciliopathy syndromes. This review will examine 5-phosphatase regulation of PI3K/Akt signalling, focussing on the role PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 5-phosphatases play in developmental diseases and cancer.

  3. Up-regulation of the Kv3.4 potassium channel subunit in early stages of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Ester; Noé, Véronique; Casadó, Vicent; Mallol, Josefa; Gomez-Isla, Teresa; Lluis, Carmen; Ferrer, Isidre; Ciudad, Carlos J; Franco, Rafael

    2004-11-01

    Gene expression throughout the different stages of Alzheimer's disease was analysed in samples from cerebral cortex. The gene encoding the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv3.4 was already overexpressed in early stages of the disease, and in advanced stages Kv3.4 was present at high levels in neurodegenerative structures. This subunit regulates delayed-rectifier currents, which are primary determinants of spike repolarization in neurones. In unique samples from a patient with Alzheimer's disease whose amount of amyloid plaques was decreased by beta amyloid immunization, Kv3.4 was overexpressed. The channel subunit was expressed in the neuropil, in the remaining conventional plaques in the frontal cortex and in collapsed plaques in the orbitary cortex. Therefore, amyloid deposition in plaques does not seem to be responsible for the increase in Kv3.4 levels. Nevertheless, Kv3.4 up-regulation is related to amyloid pathology, given that transgenic mice with the Swedish mutation of amyloid precursor protein showed increased expression of Kv3.4. Up-regulation of voltage-gated potassium channel subunits alters potassium currents in neurones and leads to altered synaptic activity that may underlie the neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer's disease. Thus, Kv3.4 likely represents a novel therapeutic target for the disease.

  4. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. (comp.)

    1991-01-01

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  5. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  6. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, November 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation; tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  7. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, November 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. (comp.)

    1991-01-01

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation; tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  8. Fuels Preparation Department monthly report, October 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-11-07

    This report describes the operation of the fuels preparation department for the month of October, 1960. Manufacturing, process development, employee relations, financial operations, and plant improvements are discussed.

  9. Fuels Preparation Department monthly report, January 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-02-28

    This report describes the operation of the fuels preparation department for the month of January, 1958. Manufacturing, employee relations, process development, plant improvements, and financial operations are described.

  10. Optimization of the thermoelectric figure of merit in the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubnova, Olga; Khan, Zia Ullah; Malti, Abdellah; Braun, Slawomir; Fahlman, Mats; Berggren, Magnus; Crispin, Xavier

    2011-06-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) transform a heat flow into electricity. Thermoelectric materials are being investigated for electricity production from waste heat (co-generation) and natural heat sources. For temperatures below 200 °C, the best commercially available inorganic semiconductors are bismuth telluride (Bi(2)Te(3))-based alloys, which possess a figure of merit ZT close to one. Most of the recently discovered thermoelectric materials with ZT>2 exhibit one common property, namely their low lattice thermal conductivities. Nevertheless, a high ZT value is not enough to create a viable technology platform for energy harvesting. To generate electricity from large volumes of warm fluids, heat exchangers must be functionalized with TEGs. This requires thermoelectric materials that are readily synthesized, air stable, environmentally friendly and solution processable to create patterns on large areas. Here we show that conducting polymers might be capable of meeting these demands. The accurate control of the oxidation level in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) combined with its low intrinsic thermal conductivity (λ=0.37 W m(-1) K(-1)) yields a ZT=0.25 at room temperature that approaches the values required for efficient devices.

  11. 4-Bromo-2-((E-{4-[(3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-ylsulfamoyl]phenyl}iminiomethylphenolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Ullah Khan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C18H16BrN3O4S, is a Schiff base ligand of 5-bromosalicylaldehyde and sulfisoxazole [or N-(3,4-dimethyl-5-isoxazolsulfanilamide]. The present structure is a zwitterion and is a more precise reinterpretation of the structure which was originally reported by Hämäläinen, Lehtinen & Turpeinen [Arch. Pharm. (1986, 319, 415–420]. The two aromatic rings which make π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distance 3.7538 (18 Å] through intermolecular interactions. There is also a C—Br...π interaction [3.6333 (15 Å] with the heterocyclic ring. An intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond also exists. Dimers are formed due to intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonding. Intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonding links a methyl C atom and the phenolate O atom. The dimers are linked by C—H...N hydrogen bonds, where the C atom is from the Schiff base group and the N atom is of five-membered heterocyclic ring.

  12. The ANGPTL3-4-8 model, a molecular mechanism for triglyceride trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ren

    2016-04-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a rate-limiting enzyme for hydrolysing circulating triglycerides (TG) into free fatty acids that are taken up by peripheral tissues. Postprandial LPL activity rises in white adipose tissue (WAT), but declines in the heart and skeletal muscle, thereby directing circulating TG to WAT for storage; the reverse is true during fasting. However, the mechanism for the tissue-specific regulation of LPL activity during the fed-fast cycle has been elusive. Recent identification of lipasin/angiopoietin-like 8 (Angptl8), a feeding-induced hepatokine, together with Angptl3 and Angptl4, provides intriguing, yet puzzling, insights, because all the three Angptl members are LPL inhibitors, and the deficiency (overexpression) of any one causes hypotriglyceridaemia (hypertriglyceridaemia). Then, why does nature need all of the three? Our recent data that Angptl8 negatively regulates LPL activity specifically in cardiac and skeletal muscles suggest an Angptl3-4-8 model: feeding induces Angptl8, activating the Angptl8-Angptl3 pathway, which inhibits LPL in cardiac and skeletal muscles, thereby making circulating TG available for uptake by WAT, in which LPL activity is elevated owing to diminished Angptl4; the reverse is true during fasting, which suppresses Angptl8 but induces Angptl4, thereby directing TG to muscles. The model suggests a general framework for how TG trafficking is regulated.

  13. Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Santa Fe Bone Symposium, August 3-4, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewiecki, E Michael; Bilezikian, John P; Cooper, Cyrus; Hochberg, Marc C; Luckey, Marjorie M; Maricic, Michael; Miller, Paul D

    2008-01-01

    The Eighth Annual Santa Fe Bone Symposium convened August 3-4, 2007, in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA, immediately preceded by the Research Symposium in Metabolic Bone Disease and Osteoporosis Update for Endocrine Fellows, and followed by the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) Bone Densitometry Course. The symposium faculty consists of internationally recognized experts in osteoporosis and metabolic bone disease who presented state-of-the-art research data and late-breaking developments in the fields of osteoporosis, metabolic bone disease, and assessment of skeletal health. The presentations and numerous interactive discussions that followed focused on applying what is known from clinical trials, knowledge of bone pathophysiology, and the mechanisms of action of therapeutic interventions, to making real-world patient management decisions. Topics included an update on reimbursement issues for bone density testing in the United States, a report on the 2007 ISCD Pediatric and Adult Position Development Conferences, present and future therapeutic concepts, new paradigms for fracture risk assessment and intervention thresholds, evaluation for secondary causes of osteoporosis, nonvertebral fracture risk reduction-medical evidence and clinical practice, epidemiological insights into the prevention of osteoporotic fractures, osteonecrosis of the jaw facts and fictions, and osteomalacia. Presented here are short essays based on the key clinical presentations of the 2007 Santa Fe Bone Symposium.

  14. Reactions of organyl and silyl alanes with 1,3,4,5,6-pentamethyl-2-aminoborazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Maomin; Duesler, Eileen N; Nöth, Heinrich; Paine, Robert T

    2010-03-15

    The reactions of (Me(3)Si)(3)Al, Me(3)Al, Et(3)Al, and i-Bu(3)Al with 1,3,4,5,6-pentamethyl-2-aminoborazine have been examined. An amine alane adduct (Me(3)Si)(3)Al.NH(2)B(3)(Me)(2)N(3)Me(3) (1) and several elimination products [(Me(3)Si)(2)AlN(H)B(3)(Me)(2)N(3)Me(3)](2) (2), [(Me(3)SiAl)(4)(Me(3)SiN)(3)NH] (3), [Me(2)AlN(H) B(3)(Me)(2)N(3)Me(3)](2) (4), [Et(2)AlN(H) B(3)(Me)(2)N(3)Me(3)](2) (5), and [i-Bu(2)AlN(H) B(3)(Me)(2)N(3)Me(3)](2) (6) have been isolated. Compounds 1, 2, 4-6 have been spectroscopically characterized, and single crystal X-ray diffraction structure determinations have been completed for 1-4 and 6. The molecular chemistry provides insight into the reaction of Me(3)Al and 1,3,5-N-trimethyl-2,4,6-B-triaminoborazine that, upon pyrolysis, produces AlN/BN composite ceramic materials.

  15. Facilitation and disruption by mescaline and 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine of shock avoidance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, D A; Bridger, W H

    1977-04-29

    The effects of mescaline hydrochloride (4.95-79.2 mg/kg i.p.) and its non-hallucinogenic analogue 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine hydrochloride (DMPEA) (12.5-100 mg/kg i.p.) on shock avoidance in a shuttlebox were studied in male Long-Evans rats trained to high (above 88%, good performers) or low (below 6%, poor performers) stable base-line avoidance rates. In good performers, mescaline and DMPEA caused a dose-dependent decrease in avoidance rate (ED 50's 44.6 and 39.2 mg/kg, respectively) without affecting presession (5-min adaptation period) or intertrial shuttlebox crossings. In poor performers, mescaline caused a dose-dependent increase in avoidance rate (ED 50 = 24.8 mg/kg) and intertrial crossings, without affecting presession crossings. The results suggest that mescaline, but not DMPEA, has dual facilitative and disruptive effects on avoidance behavior at similar dose ranges. The facilitative, but not the disruptive, effect may be related to changes in motor activity.

  16. Scaffold Hopping Toward Agomelatine: Novel 3, 4-Dihydroisoquinoline Compounds as Potential Antidepressant Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ang, Wei; Long, Haiyue; Chang, Ying; Li, Zicheng; Zhou, Liangxue; Yang, Tao; Deng, Yong; Luo, Youfu

    2016-10-01

    A scaffold-hopping strategy toward Agomelatine based on in silico screening and knowledge analysis was employed to design novel antidepressant agents. A series of 3, 4-dihydroisoquinoline compounds were selected for chemical synthesis and biological assessment. Three compounds (6a-1, 6a-2, 6a-9) demonstrated protective effects on corticosterone-induced lesion of PC12 cells. Compound 6a-1 also displayed low inhibitory effects on the growth of HEK293 and L02 normal cells and it was further evaluated for its potential antidepressant effects in vivo. The forced swim test (FST) results revealed that compound 6a-1 remarkably reduced the immobility time of rats and the open field test (OFT) results indicated a better general locomotor activity of the rats treated with compound 6a-1 than those with Agomelatine or Fluoxetine. Mechanism studies implied that compound 6a-1 can significantly reduce PC12 cell apoptosis by up-regulation of GSH and down-regulation of ROS in corticosterone-induced lesion of PC12 cells. Meanwhile, the down-regulation of calcium ion concentration and up-regulation of BDNF level in PC12 cells may account for the neuroprotective effects. Furthermore, compound 6a-1 can increase cell survival and cell proliferation, promote cell maturation in the rat hippocampus after chronic treatment. The acute toxicity data in vivo indicated compound 6a-1 exhibited less hepatotoxicity than Agomelatine.

  17. Optimal performance of NdAl3(BO3)4 nanocrystals random lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, André L.; Maia, Lauro J. Q.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; de Araújo, Cid B.

    2016-12-01

    Resonant pumping associated with the influence of the quantum-defect between the excitation and the emitted laser photons allow optimal performance of neodymium ions (Nd3+) based random lasers (RLs), as demonstrated here for the first time. The RL emission at 1063.5 nm due to the Nd3+ transition 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 in a powder consisting of NdAl3(BO3)4 nanocrystals, was investigated by exciting the powder at 690 nm, 750 nm, 810 nm, and 884 nm in resonance with the Nd3+ transitions from the ground state (4I9/2) to the 4F9/2, {4F7/2,4S3/2}, {4F5/2,4H9/2}, and 4F3/2 states, respectively. Although the Nd3+ absorption cross-section at 884 nm is smaller than those centered at 810 and 750 nm, excitation at 884 nm, that is in resonance with the emitting level, provided the smaller excitation pulse energy threshold and the larger slope efficiency due to the lower quantum defect.

  18. Evaluation of Bcl-2 Family Gene Expression in Hippocampus of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Hashemi-Nasl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA is an illicit, recreational drugthat causes cellular death and neurotoxicity. This study evaluates the effects of differentdoses of MDMA on the expression of apoptosis–related proteins and genes in the hippocampusof adult rats.Materials and Methods: In this expremental study,a total of 20 male Sprague Dawley rats(200-250 g were treated with MDMA (0, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg i.p. twice daily for 7 days. Sevendays after the last administration of MDMA, the rats were killed. Bax and Bcl-2 genesin addition to protein expressions were detected by western blot and reverse transcriptionpolymerasechain reaction (RT-PCR.Results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA andp≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Our results showed that MDMA caused dose dependent up-regulation of Baxand down-regulation of Bcl-2 in the hippocampus. There was a significant alteration inbcl-2 and bax genes density.Conclusion: Changes in apoptosis-related proteins and respective genes relating to Baxand Bcl-2 might be involved in the molecular mechanism of MDMA-induced apoptosis.

  19. Facile Synthetic Method and Crystal Structure of 2, 3, 3', 4'-Biphenyltetracarboxylic Dianhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Shi-xu; GAO Guo-wei; YANG Mei-jia; CHEN Hua; WU Di-feng; MEN Jian

    2012-01-01

    A facile method for the synthesis of 2,3,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride(a-BPDA)was reported,which comprises the steps of the dehalogenative coupling of dimethyl 4-chlorophthalate(4-DMCP)and dimethyl3-chlorophthalate(3-DMCP)catalyzed by low-cost(Ph3P)2NiCl2,the hydrolysis of tetra-ester and the dehydration of tetra-acid.In contrast to the conventional methods,this method has the advantage of low cost,convenient manipulation,available condition,high purity and good overall yield.Moreover,the single crystal structure of a-BPDA was analyzed by X-ray diffraction method.The X-ray data suggest that a-BPDA is a rigid,non-coplanar and non-linear structure.It contains three crystallographically independent molecules,in which the dihedral angles of the two linked phenyl rings are 44.75(4)°,46.37(3)° and 42.32(3)°,respectively.The title molecule is governed by a stronger intermolecular interaction in contrast to van der Waals interaction because of the special positions of anhydride groups.

  20. Cell cycle specificity of cytogenetic damage induced by 3,4-epoxy-1- butene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kligerman, A D; Doerr, C L; Tennant, A H

    1999-07-21

    3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), a primary metabolite of butadiene, is a direct-acting "S-dependent" genotoxicant that can induce sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosome aberrations (CAs) in cycling cells in vitro. However, EB is almost inactive when splenic or peripheral blood lymphocytes are exposed at the G(0) stage of the cell cycle. To investigate whether repair of DNA lesions is responsible for the lack of cytogenetic responses seen after G(0) treatments, we used cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) to inhibit DNA polymerization during DNA repair. If enough repairable lesions are present, double-strand breaks should accumulate and form chromosome-type ("S-independent") deletions and exchanges. This is exactly what occurred. EB induced chromosome deletions and dicentrics at the first division following treatment, when the EB exposure was followed by ara-C. Without ara-C treatment, there was no induction of CAs. These experiments indicate that the relatively low levels of damage induced by EB in G(0) lymphocytes are removed by DNA repair prior to DNA synthesis and thus, before the production of SCEs or chromatid-type aberrations.

  1. CalcHEP 3.4 for collider physics within and beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, Alexander; Pukhov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We present version 3.4 of the CalcHEP software package which is designed for effective evaluation and simulation of high energy physics collider processes at parton level. The main features of CalcHEP are the computation of Feynman diagrams, integration over multi-particle phase space and event simulation at parton level. The principle attractive key-points along these lines are that it has: a) an easy startup even for those who are not familiar with CalcHEP; b) a friendly and convenient graphical user interface; c) the option for a user to easily modify a model or introduce a new model by either using the graphical interface or by using an external package with the possibility of cross checking the results in different gauges; d) a batch interface which allows to perform very complicated and tedious calculations connecting production and decay modes for processes with many particles in the final state. With this features set, CalcHEP can efficiently perform calculations with a high level of automation from a...

  2. 3,4-Disubstituted polyalkylthiophenes for high-performance thin-film transistors and photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Sangwon; Verploegen, Eric; Hong, Sanghyun; Mondal, Rajib; Hoke, Eric T; Toney, Michael F; McGehee, Michael D; Bao, Zhenan

    2011-10-26

    We demonstrate that poly(3,4-dialkylterthiophenes) (P34ATs) have comparable transistor mobilities (0.17 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) and greater environmental stability (less degradation of on/off ratio) than regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophenes) (P3ATs). Unlike poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), P34ATs do not show a strong and distinct π-π stacking in X-ray diffraction. This suggests that a strong π-π stacking is not always necessary for high charge-carrier mobility and that other potential polymer packing motifs in addition to the edge-on structure (π-π stacking direction parallel to the substrate) can lead to a high carrier mobility. The high charge-carrier mobilities of the hexyl and octyl-substituted P34AT produce power conversion efficiencies of 4.2% in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices. An enhanced open-circuit voltage (0.716-0.771 eV) in P34AT solar cells relative to P3HT due to increased ionization potentials was observed.

  3. 3,4-Disubstituted Polyalkylthiophenes for High-Performance Thin-Film Transistors and Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Ko, Sangwon

    2011-10-26

    We demonstrate that poly(3,4-dialkylterthiophenes) (P34ATs) have comparable transistor mobilities (0.17 cm2 V-1 s-1) and greater environmental stability (less degradation of on/off ratio) than regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophenes) (P3ATs). Unlike poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), P34ATs do not show a strong and distinct π-π stacking in X-ray diffraction. This suggests that a strong π-π stacking is not always necessary for high charge-carrier mobility and that other potential polymer packing motifs in addition to the edge-on structure (π-π stacking direction parallel to the substrate) can lead to a high carrier mobility. The high charge-carrier mobilities of the hexyl and octyl-substituted P34AT produce power conversion efficiencies of 4.2% in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices. An enhanced open-circuit voltage (0.716-0.771 eV) in P34AT solar cells relative to P3HT due to increased ionization potentials was observed. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  4. Structural changes during the overoxidation of electrochemically deposited poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ujvari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical, mechanical and morphological properties of thin poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene (PEDOT films deposited on gold were investigated in aqueous sulfuric acid and sodium sulphate solutions. At sufficiently positive electrode potentials overoxidation of the polymer took place and resulted in morphological changes and structure evolution. These effects were monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction. Significant changes in the film stress caused by overoxidation were detected by using the electrochemical bending beam method. Results of the EIS measurements proved that the charge transfer process at the metal/film interface is more hindered in case of the degraded film. According to SEM images the overoxidation/degradation of PEDOT films can result in random-like but quite well-ordered arrays of islands and trench-like structures. The diffraction peaks of PEDOT became sharper and more intensive during the subsequent oxidation cycles indicating an increase in the degree of crystallinity of the polymer.

  5. Electrochromic enhancement of latent fingerprints by poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Hillman, A Robert

    2012-06-28

    Spatially selective electrodeposition of poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) thin films on metallic surfaces is shown to be an effective means of visualizing latent fingerprints. The technique exploits the fingerprint deposit as an insulating mask, such that electrochemical processes (here, polymer deposition) may only take place on deposit-free areas of the surface between the ridges of the fingerprint deposit; the end result is a negative image of the fingermark. Use of a surfactant (sodium dodecylsulphate, SDS) to solubilise the EDOT monomer allows the use of an aqueous electrolyte. Electrochemical (coulometric) data provide a total assay of deposited material, yielding spatially averaged film thicknesses, which are commensurate with substantive filling of the trenches between fingerprint deposit ridges, but not overfilling to the extent that the ridge detail is covered. This is confirmed by optical microscopy and AFM images, which show continuous polymer deposition within the trenches and good definition at the ridge edges. Stainless steel substrates treated in this manner and transferred to background electrolyte (aqueous sulphuric acid) showed enhanced fingerprints when the contrast between the polymer background and fingerprint deposit was optimised using the electrochromic properties of the PEDOT films. The facility of the method to reveal fingerprints of various ages and subjected to plausible environmental histories was demonstrated. Comparison of this enhancement methodology with commonly used fingerprint enhancement methods (dusting with powder, application of wet powder suspensions and cyanoacrylate fuming) showed promising performance in selected scenarios of practical interest.

  6. Protective effect of 3,4-methylenedioxyphenol (sesamol) on stress-related mucosal disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Dur-Zong; Chen, Yi-Wei; Chu, Pei-Yi; Periasamy, Srinivasan; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2013-01-01

    Stress-related mucosal disease (SRMD) causes considerable morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. 3,4-Methylenedioxyphenol (sesamol) has been reported to have potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sesamol on water immersion restraint- (WIR-) induced SRMD in rats. Rat gastric ulcer and hemorrhage were induced by WIR. Rats were pretreated orally with various doses of sesamol (0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg, resp.) 30 min before WIR. Gastric mucosal ulceration, hemoglobin, lipid peroxidation, mucus secretion, proinflammatory cytokines, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB levels were determined 4 h after WIR. In addition, the infiltration of neutrophil and macrophage into gastric mucosa was also determined after WIR. Water immersion restraint increased gastric mucosal ulcer and hemorrhage, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 levels but failed to affect mucosal lipid peroxidation and mucus secretion compared with non-WIR. Sesamol significantly decreased gastric ulceration and hemorrhage and inhibited mucosal TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 production and NF-κB activity in WIR-treated rats. In addition, increased myeloperoxidase and CD68 levels in gastric mucosa were found in WIR-treated rats compared to non-WIR rats. Sesamol did not affect myeloperoxidase but decreased CD68 levels in mucosa in WIR-treated rats. Sesamol may protect against SRMD by inhibiting gastric mucosal proinflammatory cytokines in rats.

  7. Pulse Responses of the Conducting Polymer Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): Poly(styrenesulfonate)-Based Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fei; Li, Xiaojun; Li, Sizhao; Chang, Chiating; Hu, Yuandong

    2017-03-01

    Pulse responses were studied for the heterojunctions within the structure of Ti/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/Ti. The pulse response was found to resemble that of the action potential after the pulse width was modulated to a time scale of nanoseconds. Using the pulse as a stimulation protocol to simulate synaptic plasticity produced spike rate-dependent plasticity-like phenomena. Thus, the application scope of this conducting polymer-based memristor can be extended from a time scale of milliseconds to one of nanoseconds, depending on the requirement of neuromorphic circuits. Current oscillations were observed with a period within 100 ns. The mechanisms of the behavior response were analyzed according to memristor protocol. An interface barrier is thought to primarily account for the origin of the capacitive feature and the charge q, i.e., one of the basic characteristic of the memristor. The chain structure of this conducting polymer should primarily account for the origin of its inductive feature and the flux φ, i.e., another basic characteristic of the memristor.

  8. The protein oxidation product 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) mediates oxidative DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, B; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Dean, R T

    1998-01-01

    A major product of hydroxy-radical addition to tyrosine is 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) which has reducing properties. Protein-bound DOPA (PB-DOPA) has been shown to be a major component of the stable reducing species formed during protein oxidation under several conditions. The aim...... of other protein-bound oxidation products. The formation of two oxidation products of DNA, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8oxodG) and 5-hydroxy-2'-deoxycytidine (5OHdC), were studied with a novel HPLC using gradient elution and an electrochemical detection method, which allowed the detection of both...... DNA modifications in a single experiment. We found that exposure of calf thymus DNA to DOPA or PB-DOPA resulted in the formation of 8oxodG and 5OHdC, with the former predominating. The formation of these DNA oxidation products by either DOPA or PB-DOPA depended on the presence of oxygen, and also...

  9. Presentations from 'The Bolund Experiment: Workshop' 3-4th December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechmann, A.

    2010-08-15

    The Bolund experiment is a measuring campaign from a complex terrain performed in 2007 and 2008 where high frequency data from 35 anemometers provides a unique database designed to validate micro-scale flow models. Since no systematic comparison of micro-scale models existed it was decided to challenge micro-scale modelers to simulate the wind over Bolund and compare the results systematically. Since the Bolund measurements had not been published the comparison could be made blindly, i.e. the participants would not have prior knowledge of the measurement results. To broaden the types of models participating, modelers were invited worldwide from research institutes, universities and industry. More than 40 groups participated in the blind comparison with well over 50 model predictions and the blind comparison therefore gives an overview of the accuracy of micro-scale models anno 2010. On the 3-4 December 2009, 80 specialists in modeling of wind over complex terrain met at a Risoe DTU workshop where the model predictions and the Bolund measurements were revealed. During the workshop, interesting presentations were given about different flow modeling approaches. This report contains copies of the slide presentations given at the workshop. (LN)

  10. QSAR Studies on the COX-2 Inhibition by 3,4-Diarylcycloxazolones Based on MEDV Descriptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树深; 崔世海; 尹大强; 施蕴渝; 王连生

    2003-01-01

    Selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) might avoid the side effects of current available nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs while retaining their therapeutic efficacy. A novel variable selection and modeling method based on prediction is developed to construct the quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) between the molecular electronegativity distance vector (MEDV) based on 13 atomic types and the biological activities of a set of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory molecules, 3,4-diarylcycloxazolones (DAA) plus indomethacin,naproxen, and celecoxib. Using multiple linear regression, a 5-variable linear model is developed with the calibrated correlation coefficient of 0.9271 and root mean square error of 0.17 in modeling stage and the validated correlation coefficient of 0.9030 and root mean square error of 0.20 in leave-one-out validation step, respectively. To further test the predictive ability of the model, 20 DAA compounds are picked up to construct a training set which is used to build a QSAR model and then the model is employed to predict the biological activities of the balance compounds. The predicted correlation coefficient and root mean square error are 0.9332 and 0.19, respectively.

  11. Theoretical study on molecular packing and electronic structure of bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    The molecular aggregation structure of 5,5′-bis(naphthalen-2-yl)-2,2′-bi(1,3,4-oxadiazole) (BOXD-NP) was studied by computing the intermolecular interaction potential energy surface (PES) at density functional theory level based on a dimer model. All B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP and M062x functionals can yield a reliable isolated molecular geometry. The conformation of BOXD-NP obtained with all methods is perfectly planar, indicating good conjugation ability between oxadiazole and naphthalene rings. The vibrational frequencies of BOXD-NP were also calculated using the B3LYP/6-311+G∗∗ method, which showed great consistency with the experimental observations and makes the assignments of the IR spectra more solid. It was revealed that the lowest excited state of BOXD-NP should be assigned as a highly allowed π-π∗ state by TD-DFT calculation. Considering the non-covalent interactions in molecular aggregates, the M062x functional was applied in the construction of the PES. Besides the packing structure found in the crystals, PES also predicted several stable structures, indicating that PES has great ability in guiding molecular self-assembly. Symmetry Adapted Perturbation Theory (SAPT) analysis on these energy-minimum molecular stacking structures revealed that London dispersion forces are the strongest attractive component in the binding. This journal is

  12. 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine upregulates p75 neurotrophin receptor protein expression in the rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaomin Wang; Zugui Peng; Weihong Kuang; Hanyu Zheng; Jiang Long; Xue Wang

    2012-01-01

    The p75 neurotrophin receptor, which is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, facilitates apoptosis during development and following central nervous system injury. Previous stu-dies have shown that programmed cell death is likely involved in the neurotoxic effects of 3, 4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA), because MDMA induces apoptosis of immor-talized neurons through regulation of proteins belonging to the Bcl-2 family. In the present study, intraperitoneal injection of different doses of MDMA (20, 50, and 100 mg/kg) induced significant behavioral changes, such as increased excitability, increased activity, and irritability in rats. Moreover, changes exhibited dose-dependent adaptation. Following MDMA injection in rat brain tissue, the number of apoptotic cells dose-dependently increased and p75 neurotrophin receptor expression significantly increased in the prefrontal cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus. These findings confirmed that MDMA induced neuronal apoptosis, and results suggested that this effect was related by upregulated protein expression of the p75 neurotrophin receptor.

  13. Effects of (± 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA on Sleep and Circadian Rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Una D. McCann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abuse of stimulant drugs invariably leads to a disruption in sleep-wake patterns by virtue of the arousing and sleep-preventing effects of these drugs. Certain stimulants, such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, may also have the potential to produce persistent alterations in circadian regulation and sleep because they can be neurotoxic toward brain monoaminergic neurons involved in normal sleep regulation. In particular, MDMA has been found to damage brain serotonin (5-HT neurons in a variety of animal species, including nonhuman primates, with growing evidence that humans are also susceptible to MDMA-induced brain 5-HT neurotoxicity. 5-HT is an important modulator of sleep and circadian rhythms and, therefore, individuals who sustain MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity may be at risk for developing chronic abnormalities in sleep and circadian patterns. In turn, such abnormalities could play a significant role in other alterations reported in abstinent in MDMA users (e.g., memory disturbance. This paper will review preclinical and clinical studies that have explored the effects of prior MDMA exposure on sleep, circadian activity, and the circadian pacemaker, and will highlight current gaps in knowledge and suggest areas for future research.

  14. Ethanol co-administration moderates 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine effects on human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, G J H; Kramers, C; Sweep, F C G J; Willemsen, J J; Touw, D J; Schoemaker, R C; van Gerven, J M A; Buitelaar, J K; Verkes, R J

    2010-02-01

    Alcohol is frequently used in combination with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Both drugs affect cardiovascular function, hydration and temperature regulation, but may have partly opposing effects. The present study aims to assess the acute physiologic effects of (co-) administration of MDMA and ethanol over time. A four-way, double blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study in 16 healthy volunteers (9 male and 7 female) between the ages of 18 and 29. MDMA (100 mg) was given orally and blood ethanol concentration was maintained at pseudo-steady state levels of 0.6 per thousand by a three-hour 10% intravenous ethanol clamp. Cardiovascular function, temperature and hydration measures were recorded throughout the study days. Ethanol did not significantly affect physiologic function, with the exception of a short lasting increase in heart rate. MDMA potently increased heart rate and blood pressure and induced fluid retention as well as an increase in temperature. Co-administration of ethanol with MDMA did not affect cardiovascular function compared to the MDMA alone condition, but attenuated the effects of MDMA on fluid retention and showed a trend for attenuation of MDMA-induced temperature increase. In conclusion, co-administration of ethanol and MDMA did not exacerbate physiologic effects compared to all other drug conditions, and moderated some effects of MDMA alone.

  15. 1,3,4-Tri-O-acetyl-2-N-(trifluoroacetyl-β-l-fucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. McCutcheon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H18F3NO8, was produced through conjugation of 1,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-2-azidodeoxy-α,β-l-fucose with trifluoroacetyl chloride in the presence of bis(diphenylphosphinoethane in tetrahydrofuran at room temperature. The X-ray crystal structure reveals that the β-anomer of the product mixture crystallizes from ethyl acetate/hexanes. The compound exists in a typical chair conformation with the maximum possible number of substituents, four out of five, located in the sterically preferred equatorial positions. The major directional force facilitating packing of the molecules are N—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the amide moieties of neighboring molecules, which connect molecules stacked along the a-axis direction into infinite strands with a C11(4 graph-set motif. Formation of the strands is assisted by a number of weaker C—H...O interactions involving the methine and methyl H atoms. These strands are connected through further C—H...O and C—H...F interactions into a three dimensional network

  16. Biological Activities of 2, 5-Disubstituted – 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARVIND K. SINGH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The heterocyclic compound has been known for several years and investigations in field have been indentified due to the large no. of uses & application in most diverse area. Heterocyclic compounds has been an interesting area for the study of synthesis and biological activity of novel oxadiazole derivatives for a long time.Oxadiazole are the major compound of heterocyclic nucleus for the development of new drugs and the drugs of oxadiazole were the first effective chemotherapeutic agent to be employed systemically for the prevention & cure of bacterial infection. Oxadiazole have accelerated interest in various field like medicinal chemistry, polymer industry, etc. Literature survey reveals that the compound are well known to have a no. of broad spectrum biological activities like as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, anticancer, antitubercular,anti-diabetic, antihelmintic, analgesic etc.Therefore, the synthesis of new 2,5-di-substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives that possess a promising biological activity for the future development to get a safer & effective compounds

  17. Mechanism of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy)-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Upreti, Vijay V; Yu, Li-Rong; Lee, Insong J; Ye, Xiaoying; Eddington, Natalie D; Veenstra, Timothy D; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2008-09-01

    Despite numerous reports citing the acute hepatotoxicity caused by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (ecstasy), the underlying mechanism of organ damage is poorly understood. We hypothesized that key mitochondrial proteins are oxidatively modified and inactivated in MDMA-exposed tissues. The aim of this study was to identify and investigate the mechanism of inactivation of oxidatively modified mitochondrial proteins, prior to the extensive mitochondrial dysfunction and liver damage following MDMA exposure. MDMA-treated rats showed abnormal liver histology with significant elevation in plasma transaminases, nitric oxide synthase, and the level of hydrogen peroxide. Oxidatively modified mitochondrial proteins in control and MDMA-exposed rats were labeled with biotin-N-maleimide (biotin-NM) as a sensitive probe for oxidized proteins, purified with streptavidin-agarose, and resolved using 2-DE. Comparative 2-DE analysis of biotin-NM-labeled proteins revealed markedly increased levels of oxidatively modified proteins following MDMA exposure. Mass spectrometric analysis identified oxidatively modified mitochondrial proteins involved in energy supply, fat metabolism, antioxidant defense, and chaperone activities. Among these, the activities of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolases, and ATP synthase were significantly inhibited following MDMA exposure. Our data show for the first time that MDMA causes the oxidative inactivation of key mitochondrial enzymes which most likely contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent liver damage in MDMA-exposed animals.

  18. Polydipsia as another mechanism of hyponatremia after 'ecstasy' (3,4 methyldioxymethamphetamine) ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brvar, Miran; Kozelj, Gordana; Osredkar, Josko; Mozina, Martin; Gricar, Marko; Bunc, Matjaz

    2004-10-01

    Acute symptomatic hyponatremia after ecstasy (3,4 methyldioxymethamphetamine; MDMA) ingestion is well documented and has been attributed to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). We report the case of an 18-year-old woman who took five tablets of ecstasy in a suicide attempt and drank 1700 ml water at the Emergency Department (ED). The laboratory findings obtained 5 h after ingestion showed a serum sodium concentration of 130 mmol/l, plasma osmolality of 264 mOsm/kg, urinary osmolality of 335 mOsm/kg and natriuresis of 101 mmol/l. The plasma arginine vasopressin level by radioimmunoassay was 33.7 pmol/l 5 h after ingestion. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay confirmed MDMA in blood samples, with serum concentrations of 0.87 mg/l on arrival. This case report strongly suggests that MDMA reduces serum sodium levels through the dual pathways of SIADH and polydipsia. Accordingly, we believe that hyponatremia may be prevented in ED patients after MDMA ingestion by the early restriction of water intake.

  19. Autotoxicity and Allelopathy of 3,4-Dihydroxyacetophenone Isolated from Picea schrenkiana Needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Hui Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided fractionation of the diethyl ether fraction of a water extract of Picea schrenkiana needles led to the isolation of the phenolic compound 3,4-dihydroxy- acetophenone (DHAP. The allelopathic effects of DHAP were evaluated under laboratory conditions on P. schrenkiana, rice (Oryza sativa L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L., radish (Raphanus sativus L., lettuce (Latuca sativa L., cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. and mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.. DHAP significantly inhibited seed germination and seedling growth of P. schrenkiana at concentrations of 2.5 mM and 0.5 mM (p < 0.05. Soil analysis revealed that P. schrenkiana forest soils contained exceptionally high DHAP concentrations (mean = 0.51 ± 0.03 mg/g dry soil, sufficient to inhibit natural P. schrenkiana recruitment. DHAP also exhibited strong allelopathic potential. It significantly inhibited wheat and lettuce seed germination at concentrations of 1 mM and 0.5 mM (p < 0.05. The active compound also completely inhibited root growth of the six test species at high concentrations. Our results suggest a dual role of DHAP, both as an allelochemical and as an autotoxicant. The potential for a single plant needle-leached compound to influence both inter- and intra-specific interactions emphasized the complex effects that plant secondary metabolites might have on plant population and community structure.

  20. Characterization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate conductive polymer microelectrodes for transmitter detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Simon T; Vreeland, Richard F; Heien, Michael L; Taboryski, Rafael

    2012-04-21

    In this paper we investigate the physical and electrochemical properties of micropatterned poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate (PEDOT:tosylate) microelectrodes for neurochemical detection. PEDOT:tosylate is a promising conductive polymer electrode material for chip-based bioanalytical applications such as capillary electrophoresis, high-performance liquid chromatography, and constant potential amperometry at living cells. Band electrodes with widths down to 3 μm were fabricated on polymer substrates using UV lithographic methods. The electrodes are electrochemically stable in a range between -200 mV and 700 mV vs. Ag/AgCl and show a relatively low resistance. A wide range of transmitters is shown to oxidize readily on the electrodes. Kinetic rate constants and half wave potentials are reported. The capacitance per area was found to be high (1670 ± 130 μF cm(-2)) compared to other thin film microelectrode materials. Finally, we use constant potential amperometry to measure the release of transmitters from a group of PC 12 cells. The results show how the current response decreases for a series of stimulations with high K(+) buffer.

  1. Growth and Characteristics of Nd3+: GdAl3(BO3)4 Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Chao-Yang(涂朝阳); ZHU Zhao-Jie(朱昭捷); LI Jian-Fu(李坚富); WU Bai-Chang(吴柏昌); BRENIER Alain

    2003-01-01

    Nd3+:GdAl3(BO3)4 (NGAB) crystal with the size of 30 mm was grown from the solvent system of K2O-Gd2O3-MoO3-B2O3 by combining accelerated seed rotation technology with medium seeded solution growth (MSSG) method, and its crystal structure has been determined by X-ray powder diffraction. It crystallizes in the trigonal system, space group R32 with a = 9.2734(2),c = 7.2438(1) A, V = 538 A3, Z = 3 and Dc = 4.379 g/cm3. The absorption and emission spectra of NGAB in the function of σ and π polarizations at room temperature have been measured. UV generation tuneable in 378~382 nm, green (531 nm) generation and blue generation tuneable in 436~443 nm as well as red (669 nm) generation by self-frequency changing were obtained with the output of 105, 119.5, 445 and 19μJ/pulse, respectively, when the crystal was pumped by a dye laser.

  2. Unraveling the Order and Disorder in Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/Poly(styrenesulfonate) Nanofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian

    2015-08-03

    Conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) exhibits a tunable conductivity ranging from 0.1 to 4380 S·cm–1 under different doping and/or dedoping strategies. However, the dependence of macroscopic electrical properties on the evolution of the microstructure is not clearly understood. This is the first study that systematically investigated the spatial arrangement of the ordered and disordered phases in PEDOT/PSS nanofilms by bright-field (BF), high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and element-thickness mapping. Our observations clarify how amorphous PSS hinders electrical transport at various length scales in the PEDOT/PSS films. Moreover, the mechanism for an enhancement in 3 orders of magnitude in electrical conductivity was proved by TEM investigation, which is mainly due to a more uniform dispersion by dedoping that opens PEDOT nanoparticle clusters in PEDOT/PSS films. Our microstructural and electrical studies show that the change in spatial arrangement and interaction of small PEDOT domains plays a considerable role in the final electron transport.

  3. Mephedrone, methylone and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) induce conditioned place preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Louise; Andersson, Mikael; Kronstrand, Robert; Kugelberg, Fredrik C

    2014-11-01

    During the last decade, there has been a worldwide increase in popularity and abuse of synthetic cathinones. Common ingredients of the so-called bath salts include mephedrone, methylone and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). Relatively little information about the pharmacology and addiction potential of these drugs is available. We used the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to explore the reinforcing effects of three different synthetic cathinones. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether mephedrone, methylone and MDPV induce CPP in mice. The secondary aims were to investigate a possible dose-response CPP and whether the synthetic cathinones induce higher CPP than amphetamine at equal dose. C57BL/6 mice were conditioned to mephedrone, methylone, MDPV and amphetamine at doses of 0.5, 2, 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg (i.p.). During the conditioning, the mice received two training sessions per day for 4 days. All four tested drugs showed a significant place preference compared with controls. Mice conditioned with MDPV (5 and 10 mg/kg) displayed a greater preference score compared to mice conditioned with amphetamine (5 and 10 mg/kg). Our findings show that mephedrone, methylone and MDPV produce CPP equal or higher than amphetamine strongly suggesting addictive properties. Given the public health concern of abuse, future pharmacological studies are necessary to fully understand the effects of these drugs.

  4. Extended Cold Molecular Gas Reservoirs in z~3.4 Submillimeter Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Riechers, Dominik A; Walter, Fabian; Carilli, Christopher L; Bertoldi, Frank

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of spatially resolved CO(1-0) emission in the z~3.4 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) SMM J09431+4700 and SMM J13120+4242, using the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA). SMM J09431+4700 is resolved into the two previously reported millimeter sources H6 and H7, separated by ~30kpc in projection. We derive CO(1-0) line luminosities of L'(CO 1-0) = (2.49+/-0.86) and (5.82+/-1.22) x 10^10 K km/s pc^2 for H6 and H7, and L'(CO 1-0) = (23.4+/-4.1) x 10^10 K km/s pc^2 for SMM J13120+4242. These are ~1.5-4.5x higher than what is expected from simple excitation modeling of higher-J CO lines, suggesting the presence of copious amounts of low-excitation gas. This is supported by the finding that the CO(1-0) line in SMM J13120+4242, the system with lowest CO excitation, appears to have a broader profile and more extended spatial structure than seen in higher-J CO lines (which is less prominently seen in SMM J09431+4700). Based on L'(CO 1-0) and excitation modeling, we find M_gas = 2.0-4.3 and 4.7-12.7 x 1...

  5. Autotoxicity and allelopathy of 3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone isolated from Picea schrenkiana needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiao; Li, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Qiang; Pan, Cun-De; Jiang, De-An; Wang, G Geoff

    2011-10-24

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the diethyl ether fraction of a water extract of Picea schrenkiana needles led to the isolation of the phenolic compound 3,4-dihydroxy- acetophenone (DHAP). The allelopathic effects of DHAP were evaluated under laboratory conditions on P. schrenkiana, rice (Oryza sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.). DHAP significantly inhibited seed germination and seedling growth of P. schrenkiana at concentrations of 2.5 mM and 0.5 mM (p < 0.05). Soil analysis revealed that P. schrenkiana forest soils contained exceptionally high DHAP concentrations (mean = 0.51 ± 0.03 mg/g dry soil), sufficient to inhibit natural P. schrenkiana recruitment. DHAP also exhibited strong allelopathic potential. It significantly inhibited wheat and lettuce seed germination at concentrations of 1 mM and 0.5 mM (p < 0.05). The active compound also completely inhibited root growth of the six test species at high concentrations. Our results suggest a dual role of DHAP, both as an allelochemical and as an autotoxicant. The potential for a single plant needle-leached compound to influence both inter- and intra-specific interactions emphasized the complex effects that plant secondary metabolites might have on plant population and community structure.

  6. The Prosocial Effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): Controlled Studies in Humans and Laboratory Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilar-Britt, Philip; Bedi, Gillinder

    2015-01-01

    Users of ±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ‘ecstasy’) report prosocial effects such as sociability and empathy. Supporting these apparently unique social effects, data from controlled laboratory studies indicate that MDMA alters social feelings, information processing, and behavior in humans, and social behavior in rodents. Here, we review this growing body of evidence. In rodents, MDMA increases passive prosocial behavior (adjacent lying) and social reward while decreasing aggression, effects that may involve serotonin 1A receptor mediated oxytocin release interacting with vasopressin receptor 1A. In humans, MDMA increases plasma oxytocin and produces feelings of social affiliation. It decreases identification of negative facial expressions (cognitive empathy) and blunts responses to social rejection, while enhancing responses to others’ positive emotions (emotional empathy) and increasing social approach. Thus, consistent with drug folklore, laboratory administration of MDMA robustly alters social processing in humans and increases social approach in humans and animals. Effects are consistent with increased sociability, with mixed evidence about enhanced empathy. These neurobiologically-complex prosocial effects likely motivate recreational ecstasy use. PMID:26408071

  7. Chiral recognition of alanine across modified carbon electrodes with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos, E. [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica S.C., P.O. Box 064, C.P. 76700 Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico); Chemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, P.O. Box 14-740, C.P. 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: ebustos@cideteq.mx; Godinez, Luis A. [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica S.C., P.O. Box 064, C.P. 76700 Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico); Rangel-Reyes, G.; Juaristi, E. [Chemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, P.O. Box 14-740, C.P. 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-11-01

    3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) was covalently grafted onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by the formation of an amine cation radical in the electro-oxidation of the amino-containing compound. Cyclic voltammetric experiments proved that the DOPA was formed on the GCE as a monolayer. Its electron transfer over the GCE surface at different pH values was studied by cyclic voltammetry. Changes in solution pH resulted in the variation of the charge state of the terminal group and the surface pK{sub a} was estimated on the basis of these results. Because of electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged groups on the electrode surface and the alanine (Ala) in solution, the modified electrode was used as an enantioselective sensor. The peak current for D(+) or L(-)DOPA over the modified electrode decreased as a result of the chiral recognition across the blocking interaction with the respective enantiomer of L(-) or D(+)Ala. The recognition was verified with the protection of L(-)DOPA with a Fmoc group.

  8. Synthesis, antimicrobial and antiinflammatory activity of 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagalakshmi G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (3a-o have been synthesized by the condensation of 4-methoxybenzohydrazide (1 with different aromatic acids (2a-o in presence of phosphoryl chloride. The structural assignment of this compound (3a-o has been made on the basis of elemental analysis, UV, IR, 1 H NMR and mass spectral data. The synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro growth inhibiting activity against different strains of bacteria and fungi viz., Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus subtilis , Bacillus megaterium , Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Shigella dysenteriae , Candida albicans , Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus were compared with the standard antibiotics such as chloramphenicol (50 µg/ml and griseofulvin (50 µg/ml using well agar diffusion technique. Compounds 3e, 3g, 3h and 3m exhibits highest antibacterial activity and compounds 3d, 3g and 3h showed better antifungal activity. The synthesized compounds (3a-o were screened for their in vitro antiinflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema. Compounds 3f and 3i were found to be most active compound of this series, which shows 46.42% and 50% inflammation inhibitory activity, whereas standard drug phenylbutazone exhibit 53.57% antiinflammatory activity at a dose of 50 mg/kg po.

  9. Honeycomb-structured porous poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite layers on a gold electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzyczmonik, Paweł, E-mail: pawel@chemia.uni.lodz.pl [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Team of Electroanalysis and Electrochemistry, University of Lodz, Tamka 12, 91-403 Lodz (Poland); Socha, Ewelina; Skrzypek, Sławomira [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Team of Electroanalysis and Electrochemistry, University of Lodz, Tamka 12, 91-403 Lodz (Poland); Soliwoda, Katarzyna; Celichowski, Grzegorz; Grobelny, Jarosław [Department of Materials Technology and Chemistry, University of Lodz, Pomorska 163, 90-236 Lodz (Poland)

    2014-08-28

    Three microstructured electrodes modified with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were obtained. One electrode was modified with PEDOT doped with poly(4-lithium styrenesulfonic acid) (PSSLi), the second one with a PEDOT + polyacrylic acid composite doped with PSSLi, and the third one with a PEDOT + anthranilic acid composite doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid). The three electrodes were prepared using templates of polystyrene latex spheres (PS). The templates were deposited on the electrode using our dip-coating-like technique that we developed by optimizing key parameters, such as PS and sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration, angle of inclination, and decantation rate. The structure of the templates was verified by optical microscopy. A conducting polymer layer was obtained by electropolymerization from appropriate monomer solutions. In the final stage, the template was dissolved in toluene and the morphology of the resulting honeycomb-structure was examined by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods. The electrochemical properties of the electrodes were tested by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. - Highlights: • We developed microstructured electrodes based on conducting composites. • We obtained three composites with PEDOT, polyacrylic acid and anthranilic acid. • All structures were obtained on a polystyrene template via electropolymerization. • SDS surfactant plays a key role during template deposition process.

  10. 3,4-Phenylenedioxythiophene (PheDOT) Based Hole-Transporting Materials for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Chen, Bai-Xue; Zhang, Fang-Shuai; Yu, Hui-Juan; Ma, Shuang; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Shao, Guang; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2016-04-05

    Two new electron-rich molecules based on 3,4-phenylenedioxythiophene (PheDOT) were synthesized and successfully adopted as hole-transporting materials (HTMs) in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). X-ray diffraction, absorption spectra, photoluminescence spectra, electrochemical properties, thermal stabilities, hole mobilities, conductivities, and photovoltaic parameters of PSCs based on these two HTMs were compared with each other. By introducing methoxy substituents into the main skeleton, the energy levels of PheDOT-core HTM were tuned to match with the perovskite, and its hole mobility was also improved (1.33×10(-4)  cm(2)  V(-1)  s(-1) , being higher than that of spiro-OMeTAD, 2.34×10(-5)  cm(2)  V(-1)  s(-1)). The PSC based on MeO-PheDOT as HTM exhibits a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 18.31 mA cm(-2) , an open-circuit potential (Voc ) of 0.914 V, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.636, yielding an encouraging power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.64 % under AM 1.5G illumination. These results give some insight into how the molecular structures of HTMs affect their performances and pave the way for developing high-efficiency and low-cost HTMs for PSCs.

  11. Novel pyrazole integrated 1,3,4-oxadiazoles: synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningaiah, Srikantamurthy; Bhadraiah, Umesha K; Doddaramappa, Shridevi D; Keshavamurthy, Shubakara; Javarasetty, Chethan

    2014-01-01

    A novel series of 2-(5-methyl-1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazoles 7(a-m) were synthesized either by cyclization of N'-benzoyl-5-methyl-1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbohydrazide 4a using POCl3 at 120°C or by oxidative cyclization of hydrazones derived from various arylaldehyde and (E)-N'-benzylidene-5-methyl-1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbohydrazide 5(a-d) using chloramine-T as oxidant. Newly synthesized compounds were characterized by analytical and spectral (IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and LC-MS) methods. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity and were compared with standard drugs. The compounds demonstrated potent to weak antimicrobial activity. Among the synthesized compounds, compound 7m emerged as an effective antimicrobial agent, while compounds 7d, 7f, 7i and 7l showed good to moderate activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the compounds was in the range of 20-50μgmL(-1) against bacteria and 25-55μgmL(-1) against fungi. The title compounds represent a novel class of potent antimicrobial agents.

  12. Oct3/4 directly regulates expression of E2F3a in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai, Dai; Ueda, Atsushi; Akagi, Tadayuki; Yokota, Takashi; Koide, Hiroshi, E-mail: hkoide@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2015-04-10

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells, derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, have a characteristic cell cycle with truncated G1 and G2 phases. Recent findings that suppression of Oct3/4 expression results in a reduced proliferation rate of ES cells suggest the involvement of Oct3/4 in the regulation of ES cell growth, although the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we identified E2F3a as a direct target gene of Oct3/4 in ES cells. Oct3/4 directly bound to the promoter region of the E2F3a gene and positively regulated expression of E2F3a in mouse ES cells. Suppression of E2F3a activity by E2F6 overexpression led to the reduced proliferation in ES cells, which was relieved by co-expression of E2F3a. Furthermore, cell growth retardation caused by loss of Oct3/4 was rescued by E2F3a expression. These results suggest that Oct3/4 upregulates E2F3a expression to promote ES cell growth. - Highlights: • Oct3/4 positively regulates E2F3a expression in ES cells. • Oct3/4 binds to the promoter region of the E2F3a gene. • Overexpression of E2F6, an inhibitor of E2F3a, reduces ES cell growth. • E2F3a recovers growth retardation of ES cells caused by Oct3/4 reduction.

  13. A novel series of 2,5-disubstituted 1,3,4-thiadiazoles as potential anticonvulsant agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harish Rajak; Chinmay K. Behera; Rajesh S. Pawar; Pradeep K. Singour; Murli Dhar Kharya

    2010-01-01

    In pursuit for better antiepileptic drug and the importance of semicarbazones and 2,5-disubstituted 1,3,4-thiadiazoles as anticonvulsant pharmacophore, a series of novel N-({5-[(6-methyl-1-benzofuran-3-yl)methyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl}carba-mothioyl)-2/3/4-substitutedbenzamide were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity. The findings of the present studies confirmed that the pharmacophore model with four binding sites is crucial for anticonvuisant activity. Structure-activity relationships among synthesized compounds were also established.

  14. Quercetin 3,3',4'-tri-O-beta-D-glucopyranosides from leaves of Eruca sativa (Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerle, B; Michel, K; Balázs, B; Schreier, P; Tóth, G

    2001-06-01

    Three new quercetin 3,3',4'-tri-O-beta-D-glucopyranosides isolated from leaves of Eruca sativa (Mill.) were identified as quercetin 3,3',4'-tri-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3'-(6-sinapoyl-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-3,4'-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and quercetin 3-(2-sinapoyl-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-3'-(6-sinapoyl-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The structures were established by one- and two-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectra as well as b

  15. Spectroscopy of RFe3(BO3)4 multiferroics: phase transitions, spin-phonon interaction, coupled electron-phonon modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, M. N.

    2016-12-01

    Review of the work performed in the author's laboratory is given, on high-resolution Fourier spectroscopy studies of multiferroics from the family of rare-earth iron borates with the structure of the natural mineral huntite. For these multiferroics, we reveal spectral signatures of interactions between electronic, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom. We have observed and investigated coupled electron-phonon modes in PrFe3(BO3)4 and TbFe3(BO3)4. The structure of the magnetically ordered phase of EuFe3(BO3)4 is determined.

  16. Synthesis of spiro[pyrazolo[3,4-] pyridine-4,3'-indoline] and spiro [benzo[ℎ]pyrazolo[3,4-]quinoline-4,3'-indoline] derivatives using wet cyanuric chloride under solvent-free conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhikui Yin; Limin Yang; Liqiang Wu

    2013-05-01

    A simple and efficient synthesis of spiro[pyrazolo[3,4-]pyridine-4,3'-indoline] and spiro[benzo[ℎ] pyrazolo[3,4-]quinoline-4,3'-indoline] derivatives has been accomplished by the one-pot condensation of isatins, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-1-pyrazol-5- amine and Meldrum’s acid or 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone in the presence of wet cyanuric chloride as a catalyst under solvent-free conditions.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of new 3-(4,5-dihydro-5-arylisoxazol-3-yl-4-hydroxyquinolin-2(1H-ones and 3-(4-styrylisoxazolo[4,5-c]quinolin-4(5H-one derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sarveswari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The 4-hydroxy-3-(3-arylacryloylquinolin-2(1H-ones were synthesized from 3-acetyl-4-hydroxyquinolin-2(1H-one by microwave assisted synthesis, which in turn converted into their corresponding 3-(4,5-dihydro-5-arylisoxazol-3-yl-4-hydroxyquinolin-2(1H-ones and 3-(4-styrylisoxazolo[4,5-c]quinolin-4(5H-one derivatives.

  18. Hanford Works monthly report, March 1949

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prout, G.R.

    1949-04-19

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of March 1949. This report takes each division (e.g. manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month. (MB)

  19. 75 FR 81083 - National Mentoring Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8619 of December 21, 2010 National Mentoring Month, 2011 By the President of... challenging times and support their journey into adulthood. During National Mentoring Month, we honor these.... Effective mentoring programs can result in better school attendance, positive student attitudes, and...

  20. Breastfeeding and neurological outcome at 42 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patandin, S; Weisglas-Kuperus, N; Touwen, BCL; Boersma, ER

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of early feeding mode on the neurological condition at 42 months. For this purpose, healthy pregnant women were recruited in Groningen and Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Children were healthy and born at term. At 42 months, the children were neurologically examined by