WorldWideScience

Sample records for 3-4 months post-surgery

  1. Prevalence and risk of depressive symptoms 3-4 months post-surgery in a nationwide cohort study of Danish women treated for early stage breast-cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Zachariae, Robert; Jensen, Anders Bonde;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of depressive symptoms are generally found among cancer patients, but results from existing studies vary considerably with respect to prevalence and proposed risk factors. PURPOSE: To study the prevalence of depressive symptoms and major depression 3-4 months following...

  2. Sleeping body temperatures in 3-4 month old infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Wailoo, M P; Petersen, S A; Whittaker, H.; Goodenough, P

    1989-01-01

    Rectal, skin, and ambient temperatures were continuously recorded overnight from 3-4 month old normal infants in their home cots under conditions of room temperature and wrapping chosen freely by parents. It was found that rectal temperature was above 37 degrees C when infants were put down, but fell rapidly to 36.4 degrees C within one and a half hours, then stabilised for a few hours before rising steadily. This pattern was tied more closely to the time of putting down than time of day. The...

  3. Immunogenicity and safety of a pentavalent acellular pertussis combined vaccine including diphtheria, tetanus, inactivated poliovirus and conjugated Haemophilus Influenzae type b polysaccharide for primary vaccination at 2, 3, 4 or 3, 4, 5 months of age in infants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong Cheng; Li, Feng Xiang; Li, Yan Ping; Hou, Qi Ming; Li, Chang Gui; Li, Ya Nan; Chen, Fu Sheng; Hu, Xue Zhong; Su, Wen Bin; Zhang, Shu Min; Fang, Han Hua; Ye, Qiang; Zeng, Tian De; Liu, Tao Xuan; Li, Xiu Bi; Huang, Yun Neng; Deng, Man Ling; Zhang, Yan Ping; Ortiz, Esteban

    2011-02-24

    The aim was to demonstrate the immunogenicity and safety of a DTaP-IPV//PRP-T combined vaccine (Pentaxim(®)) compared to individual vaccines in infants in the People's Republic of China. Infants (N=792) were randomly assigned to receive DTaP-IPV//PRP-T at 2, 3 and 4 months of age (Group A) or 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group B), or DTaP (Wuhan Institute of Biological Products), PRP-T (Act-Hib(®)) and IPV (Imovax(®) Polio) at 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group C). Antibody titers were measured pre- and 1 month after the third vaccination; non-inferiority analyses were performed for seroprotection/seroconversion (SP/SC) rates. Safety was assessed 1 month after the primary series. SP/SC rates for the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine were high and non-inferior to the controls. Reactogenicity was low for each group and no hypotonic hyporesponsive episode or seizure was reported. In conclusion, the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine was highly immunogenic, non-inferior to the commercially available control vaccines and had a good safety profile for both primary administration schedules.

  4. Biliary tree and cholecyst: post surgery imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valek, Vlastimil [Department of Radiology, University Hopistal Brno, Jihlavska 20, 63900 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: v.valek@fnrbno.cz; Kala, Zdenek [Department of Surgery, University Hospital Brno, Jihlavska 20, 63900 Brno (Czech Republic); Kysela, Petr [Department of Surgery, University Hospital Brno, Jihlavska 20, 63900 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2005-03-01

    Recently, with improvements in surgical techniques there has been a substantial reduction in the incidence of biliary complications of hepatobiliary surgery. Nevertheless, bile duct injuries and other post-cholecystectomy complications are a serious problem and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Early complications may include bile duct injury caused by mistakenly placed clips, erroneous cutting of bile ducts based on misinterpretation of biliary anatomy, periductal bile leakage that causes edema, fibrosis and secondary stricturing, and ischemia due to injury to the right hepatic artery. Bile duct strictures are the most common of the late complications and can develop a few months or many years after surgery. Early detection and accurate diagnosis have a fundamental importance for the successful treatment of these complications. Therefore, early and meaningful application of the imaging methods immediately after detection of the first symptoms is essential. Peroperative ultrasound and direct iodine contrast application into the biliary tree (operative cholangiography) are highly important for immediate visualization of the complications during surgery. Ultrasound can be used to aid in identification of ductal structures and the cholangiogram should be obtained to document the anatomy. Plain abdominal film could be made in the patients in poor clinical conditions after biliary surgery. Oral cholecystography has largely been replaced by ultrasonography (US) for evaluation of cholelithiasis and complications like post-cholecystectomy fluid collections. The same methodology replaced the conventional intravenous cholangiography. Nowadays computed tomography (CT), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRCP) and ultrasound (US) have essential roles as primary imaging modalities after biliary tree and gallbladder surgery in the evaluation of associated complications and residual biliary stones. We review the role

  5. Twelve-month, 12 km resolution North American WRF-Chem v3.4 air quality simulation: performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Tessum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present results from and evaluate the performance of a 12-month, 12 km horizontal resolution year 2005 air pollution simulation for the contiguous United States using the WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry meteorology and chemical transport model (CTM. We employ the 2005 US National Emissions Inventory, the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM, and the Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe (MADE with a volatility basis set (VBS secondary aerosol module. Overall, model performance is comparable to contemporary modeling efforts used for regulatory and health-effects analysis, with an annual average daytime ozone (O3 mean fractional bias (MFB of 12% and an annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5 MFB of −1%. WRF-Chem, as configured here, tends to overpredict total PM2.5 at some high concentration locations and generally overpredicts average 24 h O3 concentrations. Performance is better at predicting daytime-average and daily peak O3 concentrations, which are more relevant for regulatory and health effects analyses relative to annual average values. Predictive performance for PM2.5 subspecies is mixed: the model overpredicts particulate sulfate (MFB = 36%, underpredicts particulate nitrate (MFB = −110% and organic carbon (MFB = −29%, and relatively accurately predicts particulate ammonium (MFB = 3% and elemental carbon (MFB = 3%, so that the accuracy in total PM2.5 predictions is to some extent a function of offsetting over- and underpredictions of PM2.5 subspecies. Model predictive performance for PM2.5 and its subspecies is in general worse in winter and in the western US than in other seasons and regions, suggesting spatial and temporal opportunities for future WRF-Chem model development and evaluation.

  6. Scapula alata in early breast cancer patients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of post-surgery short-course image-guided radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaenssens Nele

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scapula alata (SA is a known complication of breast surgery associated with palsy of the serratus anterior, but it is seldom mentioned. We evaluated the risk factors associated with SA and the relationship of SA with ipsilateral shoulder/arm morbidity in a series of patients enrolled in a trial of post-surgery radiotherapy (RT. Methods The trial randomized women with completely resected stage I-II breast cancer to short-course image-guided RT, versus conventional RT. SA, arm volume and shoulder-arm mobility were measured prior to RT and at one to three months post-RT. Shoulder/arm morbidities were computed as a post-RT percentage change relative to pre-RT measurements. Results Of 119 evaluable patients, 13 (= 10.9% had pre-RT SA. Age younger than 50 years old, a body mass index less than 25 kg/m2, and axillary lymph node dissection were significant risk factors, with odds ratios of 4.8 (P = 0.009, 6.1 (P = 0.016, and 6.1 (P = 0.005, respectively. Randomization group was not significant. At one to three months’ post-RT, mean arm volume increased by 4.1% (P = 0.036 and abduction decreased by 8.6% (P = 0.046 among SA patients, but not among non-SA patients. SA resolved in eight, persisted in five, and appeared in one patient. Conclusion The relationship of SA with lower body mass index suggests that SA might have been underestimated in overweight patients. Despite apparent resolution of SA in most patients, pre-RT SA portended an increased risk of shoulder/arm morbidity. We argue that SA warrants further investigation. Incidentally, the observation of SA occurring after RT in one patient represents the second case of post-RT SA reported in the literature.

  7. Treatment of a post surgery defect of the lower lip: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lauro, A E; Abbate, D; Dell'angelo, B; Di Lauro, F; Sammartino, G

    2010-01-01

    We present the clinical case of a patient, CT of 35 years who came to our observation for the appearance of a recurrent mucocele on the lower lip. The mucocele or retention cyst is a benign lesion of minor salivary glands characterized by swelling, which can vary from a few millimeters to several centimeters, as determined by retention of secretion due to partial or total obstruction of an excretory duct. Current thinking is that the mucocele is formed due to traumatic events or inflammatory, malformation of the excretory duct or parenchyma of the minor salivary glands. Once framed the patient from a clinical point of view we performed surgery, which provides complete enucleation of the lesion by about 7 mm. The clinical suspicion was confirmed by histological diagnosis as extraductal mucocele. After about six months after surgery, at complete healing, resulted a residual imperfections with a loss of substance in the area. To eliminate this defect, poorly tolerated by the patient, we decided to use a filler of hyaluronic acid, which, although it is an absorbable material, results in an excellent appearance and does not expose to complications like the use of inducible permanent. PMID:21217631

  8. Knee extension and flexion muscle power after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon graft or hamstring tendons graft: a cross-sectional comparison 3 years post surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageberg, Eva; Roos, Harald P; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Thomeé, Roland; Roos, Ewa M

    2009-02-01

    Hamstring muscles play a major role in knee-joint stabilization after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Weakness of the knee extensors after ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon (PT) graft, and in the knee flexors after reconstruction with hamstring tendons (HT) graft has been observed up to 2 years post surgery, but not later. In these studies, isokinetic muscle torque was used. However, muscle power has been suggested to be a more sensitive and sport-specific measures of strength. The aim was to study quadriceps and hamstring muscle power in patients with ACL injury treated with surgical reconstruction with PT or HT grafts at a mean of 3 years after surgery. Twenty subjects with PT and 16 subjects with HT grafts (mean age at follow up 30 years, range 20-39, 25% women), who were all included in a prospective study and followed the same goal-based rehabilitation protocol for at least 4 months, were assessed with reliable, valid, and responsive tests of quadriceps and hamstring muscle power at 3 years (SD 0.9, range 2-5) after surgery. The mean difference between legs (injured minus uninjured), the hamstring to quadriceps (H:Q, hamstring divided by quadriceps) ratio, and the limb symmetry index (LSI, injured leg divided by uninjured and multiplied by 100) value, were used for comparisons between the groups (analysis of variance). The mean difference between the injured and uninjured legs was greater in the HT than in the PT group for knee flexion power (-21.3 vs. 7.7 W, p = 0.001). Patients with HT graft had lower H:Q ratio in the injured leg than the patients with PT graft (0.63 vs. 0.77, p = 0.012). They also had lower LSI for knee flexion power than those in the PT group (88 vs. 106%, p knee extension power. The lower hamstring muscle power, and the lower hamstring to quadriceps ratio in the HT graft group than in the PT graft group 3 years (range 2-5) after ACL reconstruction, reflect imbalance of knee muscles after reconstruction with HT graft that

  9. How traumatic is breast cancer? Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and risk factors for severe PTSS at 3 and 15 months after surgery in a nationwide cohort of Danish women treated for primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Maja; Christensen, Søren; Jensen, Anders Bonde;

    2011-01-01

    also completed a follow-up questionnaire 15-months post-surgery. Data on pre-cancer demographic-, socioeconomic-, and psychiatric status were obtained from national registries. The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group and surgical departments provided information on disease variables, treatment...... for primary breast cancer. Methods: Sixty-eight percent of all Danish women receiving surgery for primary breast cancer between October 2001 to March 2004 completed a questionnaire 3 months post-surgery (n=3343), which included the Impact of Event Scale (IES). Ninety-four percent of the disease-free women......, and comorbidity. Results: At 3 months post-surgery, 20.1% had IES total-scores (³35) suggesting Severe PTSS, compared to 14.3% at 15 months. Forty-eight percent with Severe PTSS at 3 months also had scores above the cut-off at 15 months. Main predictors of Severe PTSS at 15 months were low social status, previous...

  10. Osteochondritis dissecans of the condyles of the femur displayed by NMR imaging: Primary diagnosis and post-surgery follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, H.; Skalej, M.; Hoentzsch, D.

    1988-02-01

    Twenty-three patients have been examined by NMR imaging for osteochondritis dissecans of the knee joint, eight of them prior to surgery, and fifteen for post-surgery follow-up control after refixation or bone cartilage grafting. A 1.5 Tesla magnetom with a flat surface coil has been used. The morphology of the different stages observed in the NMR images is explained, and the findings are compared with the results obtained by other methods. NMR imaging is shown to be the best method especially for follow-up controls after refixation or bone cartilage grafting, so that arthroscopy for control purposes can be limited to therapeutical indications.

  11. Anti-HLA sensitization after kidney allograft nephrectomy: changes one year post-surgery and beneficial effect of intravenous immunoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matignon, Marie; Leibler, Claire; Moranne, Olivier; Salomon, Laurent; Charron, Dominique; Lang, Philippe; Jacquelinet, Christian; Suberbielle, Caroline; Grimbert, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of anti-HLA sensitization at the time of and following allograft nephrectomy may help clinicians to define better both the indications for nephrectomy and preventive therapeutic strategies. We carried out a retrospective analysis of anti-HLA antibodies in 63 clinically indicated nephrectomies (baseline and three and 12 months after) according to the time elapsed since transplantation (six months) and clinical background. An intervention study included 10 patients without donor-specific antibodies (DSA) at the time of nephrectomy treated with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (1.5 g/kg). Early nephrectomies were performed in 15 patients (24%). Among the late nephrectomies, 14 patients (22%) were asymptomatic and 34 (54%) had graft intolerance syndrome (GIS). At baseline, anti-HLA sensitization was significantly lower in the early and late asymptomatic groups than in the GIS group, but increased considerably within the three months following surgery. In the group of 10 patients treated with IVIG, only the number of class I non-DSA increased in the three months after surgery, whereas in the control group (N = 13), all anti-HLA variables increased significantly. All patients undergoing a clinically indicated allograft nephrectomy become highly sensitized within the 12 months after surgery. In patients without DSA before nephrectomy, high doses of IVIG may prevent anti-HLA sensitization. PMID:27140447

  12. Knee extension and flexion muscle power after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon graft or hamstring tendons graft: a cross-sectional comparison 3 years post surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ageberg, Eva; Roos, Harald; Silbernagel, Karin;

    2008-01-01

    to 2 years post surgery, but not later. In these studies, isokinetic muscle torque was used. However, muscle power has been suggested to be a more sensitive and sport-specific measures of strength. The aim was to study quadriceps and hamstring muscle power in patients with ACL injury treated......, and the limb symmetry index (LSI, injured leg divided by uninjured and multiplied by 100) value, were used for comparisons between the groups (analysis of variance). The mean difference between the injured and uninjured legs was greater in the HT than in the PT group for knee flexion power (-21.3 vs. 7.7 W, p...... = 0.001). Patients with HT graft had lower H:Q ratio in the injured leg than the patients with PT graft (0.63 vs. 0.77, p = 0.012). They also had lower LSI for knee flexion power than those in the PT group (88 vs. 106%, p

  13. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 3.4 Section..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.4 Compensation. (a) Compensation. This term...) Disability compensation. (1) Basic entitlement for a veteran exists if the veteran is disabled as the...

  14. The metabolite 3,4,3',4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB) exerts a higher ecotoxicity than the parent compounds 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) and propanil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hongxia; Kuckelkorn, Jochen; Nüßer, Leonie Katharina; Floehr, Tilman; Hennig, Michael Patrick; Roß-Nickoll, Martina; Schäffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2016-05-01

    3,4,3',4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB) is not commercially manufactured but formed as an unwanted by-product in the manufacturing of 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) or metabolized from the degradation of chloranilide herbicides, like propanil. While a considerable amount of research has been done concerning the toxicological and ecotoxicological effects of propanil and 3,4-DCA, limited information is available on TCAB. Our study examined the toxicity of TCAB in comparison to its parent compounds propanil and 3,4-DCA, using a battery of bioassays including in vitro with aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated activity by the 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay and micro-EROD, endocrine-disrupting activity with chemically activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) as well as in vivo with fish embryo toxicity (FET) assays with Danio rerio. Moreover, the quantitative structure activity response (QSAR) concepts were applied to simulate the binding affinity of TCAB to certain human receptors. It was shown that TCAB has a strong binding affinity to the AhR in EROD and micro-EROD induction assay, with the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) of 8.7×10(-4) and 1.2×10(-5), respectively. TCAB presented to be a weak endocrine disrupting compound with a value of estradiol equivalence factor (EEF) of 6.4×10(-9) and dihydrotestosterone equivalency factor (DEF) of 1.1×10(-10). No acute lethal effects of TCAB were discovered in FET test after 96h of exposure. Major sub-lethal effects detected were heart oedema, yolk malformation, as well as absence of blood flow and tail deformation. QSAR modelling suggested an elevated risk to environment, particularly with respect to binding to the AhR. An adverse effect potentially triggering ERβ, mineralocorticoid, glucocorticoid and progesterone receptor activities might be expected. Altogether, the results obtained suggest that TCAB exerts a higher toxicity than both propanil and 3,4-DCA. This should be considered when assessing the

  15. Magnetic moments of lanthanide 3-, 4-nitrobenzoates and 3,4-dinitrobenzoates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic moments for lanthanide 3-nitro and 4-nitrobenzoates were determined at 298 K and those for 3,4-dinitrobenzoates of rare earth elements over the temperature range 77 - 296 K. The complexes of 3,4-dinitrobenzoates of rare earth were found to obey the Curie-Weiss law. The values of μ calculated for all complexes (except that for europium 3,4-dinitrobenzoates) are close to those obtained for Ln3+ ions by Hund and Van Vleck. The results reveal that irrespective of the kind of ligands (3-nitro, 4-nitro or 3,4-dinitrobenzoates) no influence of their field on lanthanide ions occurs. (author)

  16. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer JS

    2013-01-01

    Jerrold S Meyer Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behavior Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA Abstract: Ecstasy is a widely used recreational drug that usually consists primarily of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Most ecstasy users consume other substances as well, which complicates the interpretation of research in this field. The positively rated effects of MDMA consumption include euphoria, arousal, enhanced mood, increased sociability, and heighten...

  17. KinoHaptics: An Automated, Wearable, Haptic Assisted, Physio-therapeutic System for Post-surgery Rehabilitation and Self-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajanna, Vijay; Vo, Patrick; Barth, Jerry; Mjelde, Matthew; Grey, Trevor; Oduola, Cassandra; Hammond, Tracy

    2016-03-01

    A carefully planned, structured, and supervised physiotherapy program, following a surgery, is crucial for the successful diagnosis of physical injuries. Nearly 50 % of the surgeries fail due to unsupervised, and erroneous physiotherapy. The demand for a physiotherapist for an extended period is expensive to afford, and sometimes inaccessible. Researchers have tried to leverage the advancements in wearable sensors and motion tracking by building affordable, automated, physio-therapeutic systems that direct a physiotherapy session by providing audio-visual feedback on patient's performance. There are many aspects of automated physiotherapy program which are yet to be addressed by the existing systems: a wide classification of patients' physiological conditions to be diagnosed, multiple demographics of the patients (blind, deaf, etc.), and the need to pursue patients to adopt the system for an extended period for self-care. In our research, we have tried to address these aspects by building a health behavior change support system called KinoHaptics, for post-surgery rehabilitation. KinoHaptics is an automated, wearable, haptic assisted, physio-therapeutic system that can be used by a wide variety of demographics and for various physiological conditions of the patients. The system provides rich and accurate vibro-haptic feedback that can be felt by the user, irrespective of the physiological limitations. KinoHaptics is built to ensure that no injuries are induced during the rehabilitation period. The persuasive nature of the system allows for personal goal-setting, progress tracking, and most importantly life-style compatibility. The system was evaluated under laboratory conditions, involving 14 users. Results show that KinoHaptics is highly convenient to use, and the vibro-haptic feedback is intuitive, accurate, and has shown to prevent accidental injuries. Also, results show that KinoHaptics is persuasive in nature as it supports behavior change and habit building

  18. Patient-Reported Outcomes Following Breast Reconstruction Surgery and Therapeutic Mammoplasty: Prospective Evaluation 1 Year Post-Surgery with BREAST-Q Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Laxmi; Busheri, Laleh; Dixit, Santosh; Patel, Chaula; Dhar, Upendra; Koppiker, Chaitanyanand

    2015-12-01

    Breast Cancer (BC) treatment leads to mutilation and destruction of breast shape with negative effects on body image and self-esteem.One of the main goals of reconstructive and oncoplastic breast surgery is to satisfy patients and improve their quality of life (QoL).Therefore, it is important to assess the patient experience post-surgery by means of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) that focus on the patient's perception of the surgery and surgical care, as well as psychosocial well-being and physical functioning. The objective of the current study was to identify predictors of patient satisfaction such as breast appearance including implant type in a selective sample of women who underwent breast reconstruction surgery using implants. Participants in this prospective study were women, (age 26-75 years) that were newly diagnosed with breast carcinoma. All consecutive patients who underwent breast reconstruction between January 2013 and October 2014 were asked to complete the BREAST-Q questionnaire 1 year after surgery. 120 patients underwent unilateral breast reconstruction using implant. While 38 patients underwent reconstruction with opposite breast reduction symmertization, 27 patients underwent therapeutic mammoplasty. The response rate for BREAST-Q questionnaire completion was 98 % with 147 out of 150 study participants completed the questionnaire. From the data collected from 147 patients, the responses could be distributed into 4 distinct groups based on the reconstruction outcomes namely "very much satisfied" (93 %) or "definitely and mostly satisfied" (94 %) or "satisfied" with the outcome (88 %) or "definitely agree on having reconstruction rather than the alternative of having no breast "(91 %).The results showed significant improvement in all four areas that were evaluated after surgery namely satisfaction with the appearance of the breasts, psychosocial, sexual and physical well-being. While the reconstruction surgery had an overall

  19. Monthly errors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2006 monthly average statistical metrics for 2m Q (g kg-1) domain-wide for the base and MODIS WRF simulations against MADIS observations. This dataset is...

  20. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer JS

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jerrold S Meyer Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behavior Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA Abstract: Ecstasy is a widely used recreational drug that usually consists primarily of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA. Most ecstasy users consume other substances as well, which complicates the interpretation of research in this field. The positively rated effects of MDMA consumption include euphoria, arousal, enhanced mood, increased sociability, and heightened perceptions; some common adverse reactions are nausea, headache, tachycardia, bruxism, and trismus. Lowering of mood is an aftereffect that is sometimes reported from 2 to 5 days after a session of ecstasy use. The acute effects of MDMA in ecstasy users have been attributed primarily to increased release and inhibited reuptake of serotonin (5-HT and norepinephrine, along with possible release of the neuropeptide oxytocin. Repeated or high-dose MDMA/ecstasy use has been associated with tolerance, depressive symptomatology, and persisting cognitive deficits, particularly in memory tests. Animal studies have demonstrated that high doses of MDMA can lead to long-term decreases in forebrain 5-HT concentrations, tryptophan hydroxylase activity, serotonin transporter (SERT expression, and visualization of axons immunoreactive for 5-HT or SERT. These neurotoxic effects may reflect either a drug-induced degeneration of serotonergic fibers or a long-lasting downregulation in 5-HT and SERT biosynthesis. Possible neurotoxicity in heavy ecstasy users has been revealed by neuroimaging studies showing reduced SERT binding and increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in several cortical and/or subcortical areas. MDMA overdose or use with certain other drugs can also cause severe morbidity and even death. Repeated use of MDMA may lead to dose escalation and the development of dependence, although such dependence is usually not as profound as is seen with many other drugs of abuse

  1. (E-3-(4-Bromophenyl-1-(3,4-dichlorophenylprop-2-en-1-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Kant

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The molecule of the title compound, C15H9BrCl2O, is shown to be the E isomer, with the 3,4-dichlorobenzoyl and p-bromophenyl substituents in trans positions with respect to the chalcone olefin bond. The molecule is non-planar, the two aromatic rings forming a dihedral angle of 49.58 (1°.

  2. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  3. The dyslipidemia-associated SNP on the APOA1/C3/A5 gene cluster predicts post-surgery poor outcome in Taiwanese breast cancer patients: a 10-year follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-surgery therapies are given to early-stage breast cancer patients due to the possibility of residual micrometastasis, and optimized by clincopathological parameters such as tumor stage, and hormone receptor/lymph node status. However, current efficacy of post-surgery therapies is unsatisfactory, and may be varied according to unidentified patient genetic factors. Increases of breast cancer occurrence and recurrence have been associated with dyslipidemia, which can attribute to other known risk factors of breast cancer including obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Thus we reasoned that dyslipidemia-associated nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the APOA1/C3/A5 gene cluster may predict breast cancer risk and tumor progression. We analyzed the distribution of 5 selected APOA1/C3/A5 SNPs in recruited Taiwanese breast cancer patients (n=223) and healthy controls (n=162). The association of SNP (APOA1 rs670) showing correlation with breast cancer with baseline and follow-up parameters was further examined. APOA1 rs670 A allele carriage was higher in breast cancer patients than controls (59.64% vs. 48.77%, p=0.038). The rs670 A allele carrying patients showed less favorable baseline phenotype with positive lymph nodes (G/A: OR=3.32, 95% CI=1.77-6.20, p<0.001; A/A: OR=2.58, 95% CI=1.05-6.32, p=0.039) and negative hormone receptor expression (A/A: OR=4.85, 95%CI=1.83-12.83, p=0.001) in comparison to G/G carriers. Moreover, rs670 A/A carrying patients had higher risks in both tumor recurrence (HR=3.12, 95% CI=1.29-7.56, p=0.012) and mortality (HR=4.36, 95% CI=1.52-12.47, p=0.006) than patients with no A alleles after adjustments for associated baseline parameters. Furthermore, the prognostic effect of rs670 A/A carriage was most evident in lymph node-negative patients, conferring to the highest risks of recurrence (HR=4.98, 95% CI=1.40-17.70, p=0.013) and mortality (HR=9.87, 95%CI=1.60-60.81, p=0.014) than patients with no A alleles. APOA1 rs670 A/A carriage showed

  4. Experiments R285-3/4/5 (ILAS 3/4/5). Activity calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the irradiation experiments ILAS 3/4/5 a number of different austenitic stainless steel types and three types of vanadium samples for advanced nuclear systems will be irradiated at a temperature of 300 C up to dpa (displacements per atom) levels of 2.5 dpa for the steel samples and up to 6 dpa for the vanadium samples. In this report the results of the activity calculations of the sample holder material and of the different types of sample materials are presented. The activity of the holder material is calculated for the vertical average of the irradiation position. The activities of the sample materials are given for the vertical maximum of the irradiation position. A relation is given to convert these data to any vertical sample position. Also the changes in chemical composition of the different sample materials, due to nuclide transmutation, are given in this report. (orig.)

  5. Prevalence of use study for amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-ethylamphetamine (MDEA) in military entrance processing stations (MEPS) specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klette, Kevin L; Kettle, Aaron R; Jamerson, Matthew H

    2006-06-01

    The Roche Abuscreen Onlinetrade mark Amphetamine immunoassay (IA), modified to include sodium periodate, and the Microgenics DRI Ecstasy IA were used to determine the prevalence of amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in urine specimens from applicants seeking to join the United States Armed Forces. Over a 4-month period, a total of 85,658 specimens were IA screened using the Department of Defense 500 ng/mL administrative cutoff level for AMP and MDMA. All presumptively positive specimens were confirmed using a solid-phase extraction procedure coupled with simultaneous analysis of AMP, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, and MDEA by fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using the same cutoff levels as the IA. The Roche Online Amphetamine IA identified 216 specimens as presumptively positive; of these, 70 specimens confirmed positive for AMP and 87 specimens confirmed positive for AMP and/or MAMP, resulting in a confirmation rate of 73%. The Microgenics DRI Ecstasy IA identified eight specimens as presumptively positive; of these, five specimens confirmed positive for MDMA and/or MDA, resulting in a confirmation rate of 63%. The total use prevalence for AMP, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, and/or MDEA in military entrance processing stations specimens over the testing period was determined to be 0.19%.

  6. Long-term functional duration of immune responses to HCV NS3/4A induced by DNA vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlén, G; Holmström, F; Gibbs, A; Alheim, M; Frelin, L

    2014-08-01

    We have investigated the ability of hepatitis C virus non-structural (NS) 3/4A-DNA-based vaccines to activate long-term cell-mediated immune responses in mice. Wild-type and synthetic codon optimized (co) NS3/4A DNA vaccines have previously been shown to be immunogenic in mice, rabbits and humans, although we have very poor knowledge about the longevity of the immune responses primed. We therefore analyzed the functionality of primed NS3/4A-specific immune responses in BALB/c (H-2(d)) and/or C57BL/6J (H-2(b)) mice 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12 and 16 months after the last immunization. Mice were immunized one, two, three or four times using gene gun delivery to the skin or by intramuscular administration. Immunological responses after immunization were monitored by protection against in vivo challenge of NS3/4A-expressing syngeneic tumor cells. In addition, functionality of the NS3/4A-specific T cells was analyzed by a standard cytotoxicity assay. First, we identified a new unique murine H-2(d)-restricted NS3/4A cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope, which enabled us to study the epitope-specific immune responses. Our results show that the coNS3/4A vaccine was highly immunogenic by determination of interferon-γ/tumor necrosis factor-α production and lytic cytotoxic T cells, which could efficiently inhibit in vivo tumor growth. Importantly, we showed that one to four monthly immunizations protected mice from tumor development when challenged up to 16 months after the last immunization. When determining the functionality of NS3/4A-specific T cells in vitro, we showed detectable lytic activity up to 12 months after the last immunization. Thus, NS3/4A-based DNA vaccines activate potent cellular immune responses that are present and function in both BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice up to 12-16 months after the last immunization. The induction of long-term immunity after NS3/4A DNA immunization has not been shown previously and supports the use of NS3/4A in hepatitis C virus vaccine

  7. 5所三级医院术后疼痛管理质量评价分析%Evaluation and analysis for post-surgery pain management quality at five tertiary hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童莺歌; 刘敏君; 刘冬华; 王宏伟; 田素明

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解我国三级医院的术后疼痛管理质量现状及美国疼痛学会推荐的急性疼痛管理质量评价体系在我国的适用情况.方法 应用美国疼痛学会推荐的评价体系,通过问卷调查和查阅病历,对我国5所三级医院的术后疼痛管理质量现状进行分析.结果 被调查医院在记录疼痛状况、应用工具记录疼痛强度、采取恰当的镇痛疗法、应用非药物镇痛措施和疼痛管理结果上存在不足之处;急性疼痛服务组和无急性疼痛服务组在疼痛管理质量上存在差异,两组活动、情绪和睡眠受疼痛影响程度分别为3.12±2.82和5.16±2.07(P<0.05).结论 我国三级医院在术后疼痛管理过程和结果两方面均存在不足之处;已开展急性疼痛服务的医院在术后疼痛管理质量上优于未开展急性疼痛服务的医院.美国疼痛学会推荐的评价体系科学、灵敏,实用性和可操作性强,适用性广,适用于我国医院急性疼痛管理质量的评价.%Objective To learn the present pain management quality at tertiary hospitals in China and the application of the quality evaluation system for acute pain management quality recommended by American Pain Society.Methods Analyzing the present pain management at five tertiary hospitals in China by using the evaluation system recommended by American Pain Society,questionnaires and medical records reading.Results The hospitals were found with setbacks in describing pains,recording pains with tools,using the right pain controls,using non-drug pain control measures and pain management outcomes; differences were found between the acute pain service group and non-acute pain service group in pain management quality,as the pain impacts of both groups on activities,emotion and sleep were 3.12±2.82 and 5.16±2.07 (P<0.05) respectively.Conclusion Setbacks exist in both the process and outcomes of post-surgery pain management at these hospitals; those with acute pain

  8. 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Based Anticancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, researchers like medicinal chemists in the field of medicinal chemistry have widely utilized the 1,3,4-thiadiazole nucleus to investigate its biological and pharmacological effects. This heterocyclic structure has demonstrated various bioactivities such as antifungal, antimicrobial, antiviral, antileishmanial, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antiepileptic, and anticancer effects among others. Anticancer activity is one of its promising effect as five membered heterocyclic rings have widely been investigated by researchers in the recent years. Herein, we reviewed the chemical structures bearing 1,3,4-thiadiazole template exerting anticancer activity. PMID:27484056

  9. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE : A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachwani Mukesh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole is a highly privileged structure the derivatives of which exhibit a wide range of biological activities including antibacterial, antitubercular, vasodialatory, antifungal, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, hypolipidemic, anticancer and ulcerogenic activities. Resistance to number of antimicrobial agents among a variety of clinically significant species of bacteria is becoming increasingly important global problem. The search for new antimicrobial agents will consequently always remain as an important and challenging task for medicinal chemists. This Review has basic information about 1,3,4-oxadiazole and its antimicrobial activity work for further development in this field.

  10. Reliability of poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Lillemose, Michael; Hansen, Thomas Steen;

    2007-01-01

    We report on the experimentally observed reliability of the piezoresistive effect in strained poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDT). PEDT is an intrinsic conductive polymer which can be patterned by conventional Cleanroom processing, and thus presents a promising material for all-polymer Microsy......We report on the experimentally observed reliability of the piezoresistive effect in strained poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDT). PEDT is an intrinsic conductive polymer which can be patterned by conventional Cleanroom processing, and thus presents a promising material for all...

  11. Squaroglitter: A 3,4-Connected Carbon Net

    KAUST Repository

    Prasad, Dasari L. V. K.

    2013-08-13

    Theoretical calculations are presented on a new hypothetical 3,4-connected carbon net (called squaroglitter) incorporating 1,4 cyclohexadiene units. The structure has tetragonal space group P4/mmm (No. 123) symmetry. The optimized geometry shows normal distances, except for some elongated bonds in the cyclobutane ring substructures in the network. Squaroglitter has an indirect bandgap of about 1.0 eV. The hypothetical lattice, whose density is close to graphite, is more stable than other 3,4-connected carbon nets. A relationship to a (4,4)nanotube is explored, as is a potential threading of the lattice with metal needles. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  12. Synthesis of Novel Biologically Active s-Triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazole Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN,Yi-Feng

    2004-01-01

    @@ Heterocycles bearing a symmetrical triazole or 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring system are reported to show a broad spectrum of biological activities.[1,2] The 1,2,4-triazole nucleus has been recently incorporated into a wide variety of therapeutically interesting drugs including H1/H2 histamine receptor blockers, cholinesterase active agents, CNS stimulants, antianxiety and sedatives[3] Coumarins are nowadays an important group of organic compounds that used as bactericides, fungicides,anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, anti-HIV and antitumour agents.[4,5] Keeping in view the biological importance of the above mentioned heterocyclic compounds and in continuation of our search for biologically active nitrogen and sulphur heterocycles, a series of s-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives was synthesized.

  13. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-based glucose biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kros, A.; Nolte, R.J.M. [Nijmegen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Organic Chemistry; Hoevell, S.W.F.M. van [TNO Nutrition and Food Research Inst., Zeist (Netherlands); Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M. [Eindhoven Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Lab. of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry

    2001-10-16

    Amperometric biosensors for the recognition of glucose oxidase (GOx) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) have for the first time been fabricated and are presented in this communication. This biosensor has potential applications for long-term glucose measurements, e.g., in the treatment of diabetes. (orig.)

  14. (E-Isopropyl 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenylacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hui Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C12H14O4, a derivative of caffeic acid [(E-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-2-propenoic acid], an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond forms an S(5 ring. In the crystal, intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds link molecules into chains propagating in [110].

  15. 41 CFR 60-3.4 - Information on impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 3-UNIFORM GUIDELINES ON EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 60-3.4 Information... culture regardless of race), whites (Caucasians) other than Hispanic, and totals. The race, sex, and... agencies will consider the general posture of the user with respect to equal employment opportunity for...

  16. Alterações lipídicas em pacientes com câncer colorretal em fase pós-operatória: ensaio clínico randomizado e duplo-cego com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus Lipidic alterations in patients with colorectal cancer in post-surgery phase: a randomized and double-blind clinical trial with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Costa Fortes

    2008-09-01

    -blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial carried out at the Federal District Base Hospital, for six months. Samples of 56 enrolled patients, stadiums phase I, II and III, divided in two groups: placebo group and group supplemented with Agaricus sylvaticus (30mg/kg/day. Results were analyzed with Microsoft Excel 2003 and SPSS 14.0 programs, with p = 0.05. RESULTS: The Agaricus sylvaticus group had initial total cholesterol levels of 207.36±52.67mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein of 120.79±44.02mg/dL and triglycerides of 181.64±187.52mg/dL. After six months of supplementation it was observed a reduction 191.11±39.72mg/dL (p = 0.01, 103.08±39.20mg/dL (p = 0.0001 and 168.04±146.91mg/dL (p = 0.18, respectively. In the placebo group it was observed not-significant increase of total cholesterol levels (p = 0.08 and significant increase of low-density lipoprotein (p = 0.01 and triglycerides (p = 0.0001. No significant statistically alterations were observed in the levels of high-density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoprotein in both groups. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that the dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus may significantly improve the lipidic profile of colorectal cancer patients in post-surgery phase.

  17. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 3-(4-Ethoxyphenyl)-6-(phenoxymethyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Xin-Xiang; LIU Miao-Chang; XIAO Hong-Ping; ZHANG An-Jiang; ZHANG Li-Xue

    2007-01-01

    The title compound C18H16N4O2S has been synthesized by the reaction of 4-amino-3-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole with phenoxyacetic acid in phospho- rus oxychloride, and characterized by IR, NMR spectra and elemental analysis. Its structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 1.4903(3), b = 1.5230(2), c = 0.9615(16) nm, Z = 4, V = 1.7769(5) nm3, Dc = 1.317 g/cm3, ( = 0.201 mm-1, F(000) = 736, R = 0.0795 and wR = 0.2233. In the title compound, all rings are essentially planar.

  18. Total Synthesis of Six 3,4-Unsubstituted Coumarins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Gao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe a new methodology for the total synthesis of 3,4-unsubstituted coumarins from commercially available starting materials. Six examples were prepared, including five naturally occurring coumarins—7-hydroxy-6,8-dimethoxy-coumarin (isofraxidin, 7-hydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin (scopoletin, 6,7,8-trimethoxy-coumarin, 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (scoparone, and 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin (daphnetin and one synthetic coumarin, 7-hydroxy-6-ethoxycoumarin. Moreover, five important o-hydroxybenzaldehyde intermediates were also obtained, namely 2,4-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, 2,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde, 5-ethoxy-2,4-dihydroxy-benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde, and 2-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxy-benzaldehyde. The method developed herein involves just three or four steps and allows for the rapid synthesis of these important molecules in excellent yields. This is the first synthesis of 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin and 7-hydroxy-6-ethoxycoumarin.

  19. Study on the Synthesisof 3,4, 5-Trimethoxytol uene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The 3,4,5-trimethoxytoluene(TMT) was systhesized using p-cresol by three steps including bromina-tion, methoxylation, and methylation with an overall yield of 84%. The structure of TMT was identified byNMR, GC/MS and IR. “One-pot”method was used in methoxylation and methylation for economical and conve-nient consideration. The mechanism for the methoxylation of 2,6-dibromo-4-methylphenol was discussed.

  20. Developmental effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Skelton, Matthew R.; Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V.

    2008-01-01

    ± 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a chemical derivative of amphetamine that has become a popular drug of abuse and has been shown to deplete serotonin in the brains of users and animals exposed to it. To date, most studies have investigated the effects of MDMA on adult animals. With a majority of users of MDMA being young adults, the chances of the users becoming pregnant and exposing the fetuses to MDMA are also a concern. Evidence to date has shown that developmental exposure to...

  1. 3,4-Diaminopyridinium 2-carboxy-4,6-dinitrophenolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Hemamalini

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, C5H8N3+·C7H3N2O7−, the pyridine N atom of the 3,4-diaminopyridine molecule is protonated. The 3,5-dinitrosalicylate anion shows whole-molecule disorder over two orientations with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.875 (4: 0.125 (4. In the crystal, the cations and anions are connected by intermolecular N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  2. Stereoselective Synthesis of 2,3,4,6-Tetrasubstituted Tetrahydropyrans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Jun-Fang; WU Yang-Jie; Véronique Micheletb; Jean-Pierre Genêt b

    2003-01-01

    @@ The construction of stereodefined, highly substituted tetrahydropyrans has attracted a lot of interest over the years since they constitute ubiquitous fragments of numerous biologically active natural products.[1] During the course of our synthetic studies toward ambruticin, a fascinating antibiotic[2] which came back in the front scene with three recent total synthesis, [3] we have been interested in the synthesis of 2,3,4,6-tetrasubstituted tetrahydropyrans 5 (Scheme 1). [4] Moreover, this kind of subunit is found to be embedded in several other natural products such as lasonolide A, polycavernoside A, ratjadone, or concanamycin A.

  3. AGR 3/4 Irradiation Test Final As Run Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin, Blaise P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Several fuel and material irradiation experiments have been planned for the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program (referred to as the INL ART TDO/AGR fuel program hereafter), which supports the development and qualification of tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel for use in HTGRs. The goals of these experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination and safety testing (INL 05/2015). AGR-3/4 combined the third and fourth in this series of planned experiments to test TRISO coated low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide fuel. This combined experiment was intended to support the refinement of fission product transport models and to assess the effects of sweep gas impurities on fuel performance and fission product transport by irradiating designed-to-fail fuel particles and by measuring subsequent fission metal transport in fuel-compact matrix material and fuel-element graphite. The AGR 3/4 fuel test was successful in irradiating the fuel compacts to the burnup and fast fluence target ranges, considering the experiment was terminated short of its initial 400 EFPD target (Collin 2015). Out of the 48 AGR-3/4 compacts, 42 achieved the specified burnup of at least 6% fissions per initial heavy-metal atom (FIMA). Three capsules had a maximum fuel compact average burnup < 10% FIMA, one more than originally specified, and the maximum fuel compact average burnup was <19% FIMA for the remaining capsules, as specified. Fast neutron fluence fell in the expected range of 1.0 to 5.5×1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV) for all compacts. In addition, the AGR-3/4 experiment was globally successful in keeping the

  4. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  5. Ultraporous poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) for nanometric electrochemical supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrathin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) have been prepared by electropolymerization on steel and indium-tin oxide (ITO) substrates under identical experimental conditions. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy indicate that the substrate affects dramatically both the morphology and topography of films when the polymerization times are very short. An ultraporous three-dimensional network involving ultrathin sticks with a fiber-like morphology was formed on ITO. Asymmetric and symmetric supercapacitors have been fabricated by assembling electrodes of PEDOT deposited on ITO and steel. The specific capacitance, electrochemical stability, supercapacitor behavior and Coulombic efficiency measured for devices with an ITO/steel configuration were similar to those reported for advanced PEDOT-inorganic hybrid composites. Furthermore, the performance of the ITO/steel assembly is higher than those determined for symmetric supercapacitors derived from two identical electrodes of PEDOT deposited on steel or on ITO. The unique properties of the asymmetric supercapacitors have been attributed to the ultraporous structure of the ultrathin films deposited on ITO, which is not significantly perturbed when the device is submitted to a very high number of consecutive oxidation–reduction processes, and the different electroactivities of the two electrodes. - Highlights: ► Ultrathin poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films show fiber-like morphology. ► The porosity of ultrathin PEDOT films induces a very high electrochemical stability. ► Asymmetric supercapacitors made of ultrathin PEDOT behave like hybrid nanocomposites.

  6. 3, 4-methylenedioximethamphetamin reverses anxiety induced by chronic mild stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Andrea León A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the effects of subchronic 3, 4 methylenedioximethamphetamine (MDMA on the elevated plusmaze, a widely used animal model of anxiety. Rats exposed to a mild chronic stress (MCS protocol received intracerebroventricular microinjections of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI – fluoxetine (2.0 ug/ul or MDMA, (2.0 ug/ul for seven days. On the eighth day rats were tested in the elevated plus-maze. Our results showed that sub chronic MDMA interacted with MCS leading to a decrease in anxiety related behaviors including: percentage of open arms entries (F [2, 26] = 4.00; p = 0.031, time spent in the open arms (F [2, 26] = 3.656; p = 0.040 and time spent in the open arms extremities (F [2, 26] = 5.842; p = 0.008. These results suggest a potential effect of MDMA in the reversion of the emotional significance of aversive stimuli.

  7. 2′,3,4,4′-Tetramethoxychalcone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes H. van Tonder

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound [systematic name: 1-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenylprop-2-en-1-one], C19H20O5, the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 26.88 (5°. One of the methoxy groups is twisted slightly away from the plane [C—O—C—C torsion angle = −12.8 (3°] while the others are almost co-planer [C—O—C—C torsion angles = −3.2 (3, 2.6 (3 and −3.6 (3°]. The crystal packing is stabilized by intermolecular C—H...O interactions. A weak intramolecular C—H...O interaction occurs.

  8. Heterologous production of two unusual acyclic carotenoids, 1,1'-dihydroxy-3,4-didehydrolycopene and 1-hydroxy-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydrolycopene by combination of the crtC and crtD genes from Rhodobacter and Rubrivivax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Sabine; Takaichi, Shinichi; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2002-07-17

    Acyclic hydroxy carotenoids were produced from lycopene and 3,4-didehydrolycopene in Escherichia coli by combining different carotenogenic genes including the carotene hydratase gene crtC and the carotene 3,4-desaturase gene crtD. The genes originated either from Rhodobacter species or Rubrivivax gelatinosus. It was shown that the product of crtD from Rubrivivax unlike the one from Rhodobacter is able to convert 1-HO-3,4-didehydrolycopene to 1-HO-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydrolycopene (=3,4,3',4'-tetradehydro-1,2-dihydro-psi,psi-caroten-1-ol). Thus, only when the desaturase from Rubrivivax is expressed can this novel carotenoid be obtained. In the presence of crtC from Rubrivivax, another carotenoid 1,1'-(HO)(2)-3,4-didehydrolycopene (=3,4-didehydrolycopene-1,2,1',2'-tetrahydro-psi,psi-caroten-1,1'-diol) not found in a non-transgenic organism before is formed in E. coli. Its accumulation under these conditions and its absence when crtC from Rubrivivax is replaced by the corresponding gene from Rhodobacter is discussed. The function of the different crtC and crtD genes in the pathway leading to the individual carotenoids is outlined. Since 1,1'-(HO)(2)-3,4-didehydrolycopene could not be produced in substantial amounts and 1-HO-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydrolycopene has not been described before, their structural characteristics were determined for the definite assignment of their identity. This included spectral properties, determination of relative molecular mass as well as the number of hydroxy groups by mass spectroscopy and NMR spectroscopy for 1,1'-(HO)(2)-3,4-didehydrolycopene.

  9. Hispanic Heritage Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    Hispanic heritage month is from September 15 to October 15. One problem that arises when grouping people into categories such as Hispanic or Latino is stereotyping, stereotypes can be promoted or used in this Hispanic month to promote a greater understanding of Latino cultures.

  10. Progress report, 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  11. Progress report, 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  12. Birth Month Affects Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and…

  13. [Monograph for 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC)--HBM values for the sum of metabolites 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4 CBHC) in the urine of adults and children. Statement of the HBM Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The substance 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC, CAS-No. 36861-47-9 as well as 38102-62-4) is used as UV-filter in cosmetics, mainly in sunscreen lotions. National as well as European evaluations are available for the substance, especially from the Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (SCCP). The SCCP did not derive a TDI-value, but used for a MoS assessment a NOAEL of 25 mg/(kg bw · d) based on effects on the thyroid gland of rats in a subchronic study with oral administration. Newer studies, however, indicate lower NOAEL values, leading to tolerable daily intakes of 0,01 mg/kg bw. The HBM Commission established for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) HBM-I values of 0,09 mg/l urine for adults and 0,06 mg/l urine for children. HBM-I values for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4CBHC) were set at 0,38 mg/l urine for adults and 0,25 mg/l urine for children. The rounded HBM-I value for the sum of metabolites 3-4CBC und 3-4CBHC is accordingly 0,5 mg/l urine for adults and 0,3 mg/l urine for children. PMID:26721474

  14. Characteristics of pregnant women who use ecstasy (3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, E; Karimi-Tabesh, L; Koren, G

    2001-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of pregnant women who use Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA), and to identify reproductive risk factors associated with this group of women. Prospective, observational study. Pregnant women who have contacted the Motherisk Alcohol and Substance Use Helpline at The Hospital for Sick Children, in Toronto, about exposure to drugs, chemicals, infection or radiation. All inquiries from December 1998 to October 2000 concerning pregnant women who reported use of MDMA, and control cases of women not exposed to MDMA selected within the same week of the MDMA callers. Age, maternal demographics, pregnancy characteristics, patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use, psychological/emotional status, sexually transmitted disease, MDMA method and pattern of use, and adverse drug reactions after ingestion of MDMA. The 132 pregnant women who used MDMA were significantly younger (mean 23.2 vs. 31.2 years, Palcohol (66.4% vs. 37.3%, Ppsilocybin were used more frequently among the MDMA sample. Over a third of MDMA users reported psychiatric/emotional problems, including 6.5% with a clinically diagnosed condition that was being treated with medication and/or counseling. Pregnant women who use MDMA tend to be young, single, and report psychological morbidity, and have a clustering of risk factors that may compromise the pregnancy and fetus. Smoking, heavy alcohol intake, and polydrug use, combined with a higher than expected rate of unplanned pregnancies, increases the risk of fetal exposure to potentially harmful substances. It is important to account for the range of confounding risk factors among women who use MDMA in order to define possible direct effects of MDMA in pregnancy.

  15. Subtask 3.4 - Fischer - Tropsch Fuels Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strege, Joshua; Snyder, Anthony; Laumb, Jason; Stanislowski, Joshua; Swanson, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Under Subtask 3.4, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) examined the opportunities and challenges facing FischerTropsch (FT) technology in the United States today. Work was completed in two distinct budget periods (BPs). In BP1, the EERC examined the technical feasibility of using modern warm-gas cleanup techniques for FT synthesis. FT synthesis is typically done using more expensive and complex cold-gas sweetening. Warm-gas cleanup could greatly reduce capital and operating costs, making FT synthesis more attractive for domestic fuel production. Syngas was generated from a variety of coal and biomass types; cleaned of sulfur, moisture, and condensables; and then passed over a pilot-scale FT catalyst bed. Laboratory and modeling work done in support of the pilot-scale effort suggested that the catalyst was performing suboptimally with warm-gas cleanup. Long-term trends showed that the catalyst was also quickly deactivating. In BP3, the EERC compared FT catalyst results using warm-gas cleanup to results using cold-gas sweetening. A gas-sweetening absorption system (GSAS) was designed, modeled, and constructed to sweeten syngas between the gasifier and the pilot-scale FT reactor. Results verified that the catalyst performed much better with gas sweetening than it had with warm-gas cleanup. The catalyst also showed no signs of rapid deactivation when the GSAS was running. Laboratory tests in support of this effort verified that the catalyst had deactivated quickly in BP1 because of exposure to syngas, not because of any design flaw with the pilot-scale FT reactor itself. Based on these results, the EERC concludes that the two biggest issues with using syngas treated with warm-gas cleanup for FT synthesis are high concentrations of CO{sub 2} and volatile organic matter. Other catalysts tested by the EERC may be more tolerant of CO{sub 2}, but volatile matter removal is critical to ensuring long-term FT catalyst operation. This subtask was funded through

  16. CESM Lakes Monthly

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains monthly aggregates of 2D near-surface fields from the WRF model simulations labeled "default" (using WRF default approach to setting lake...

  17. Oceanographic Monthly Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Monthly Summary contains sea surface temperature (SST) analyses on both regional and ocean basin scales for the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans....

  18. Lightship Monthly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily Weather Observations (Monthly Form 1001) from lightship stations in the United States. Please see the 'Surface Weather Observations (1001)' library for more...

  19. Accuracy of Fall Prediction in Parkinson Disease: Six-Month and 12-Month Prospective Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P. Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We analyzed the ability of four balance assessments to predict falls in people with Parkinson Disease (PD prospectively over six and 12 months. Materials and Methods. The BESTest, Mini-BESTest, Functional Gait Assessment (FGA, and Berg Balance Scale (BBS were administered to 80 participants with idiopathic PD at baseline. Falls were then tracked for 12 months. Ability of each test to predict falls at six and 12 months was assessed using ROC curves and likelihood ratios (LR. Results. Twenty-seven percent of the sample had fallen at six months, and 32% of the sample had fallen at 12 months. At six months, areas under the ROC curve (AUC for the tests ranged from 0.8 (FGA to 0.89 (BESTest with LR+ of 3.4 (FGA to 5.8 (BESTest. At 12 months, AUCs ranged from 0.68 (BESTest, BBS to 0.77 (Mini-BESTest with LR+ of 1.8 (BESTest to 2.4 (BBS, FGA. Discussion. The various balance tests were effective in predicting falls at six months. All tests were relatively ineffective at 12 months. Conclusion. This pilot study suggests that people with PD should be assessed biannually for fall risk.

  20. Análise pré e pós-operatória da capacidade funcional e qualidade de vida de pacientes portadores de Osteoartrose de quadril submetidos à Artroplastia Total Pre- and Post-Surgery analysis of functional capacity and quality of life of patienst with Osteoarthritis submitted to Total Hip Artroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lislei Jorge Patrizzi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a capacidade funcional da articulação do quadril e a qualidade de vida de pacientes portadores de osteoartrose submetidos à artroplastia total. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados 12 pacientes através do questionário Harris Hip Score (modificado/ escala de 0-95 pontos e goniometria no pré e pós-operatório de artroplastia total de quadril. RESULTADOS: a amplitude de movimento mostrou-se incompleta em todos os arcos de movimento no pré-operatório. No pós-operatório os valores aumentaram significativamente na flexão (p=0,007, extensão (p=0,02, abdução (p=0,001, rotação medial (p=0,0002 e lateral (p=0,01, apenas o aumento do movimento de adução de quadril não foi significativo (p=0,08. A medida do escore obtido através do questionário no pré-operatório foi 39,7 pontos e no pós-operatório 74,1 pontos (POBJECTIVE: To evaluate the functional capacity of the hip articulation and the quality of life of patients with osteoarthritis submitted to total artroplasty. METHODS: 12 patients were assessed through the questionnaire Harris Hip Score (modified/scale of 0-95 points and goniometry in the pre- and post-surgery of total hip artroplasty. RESULTS: The pre-surgery questionnaire score was 39.7 and in the post-surgery the average score reached 74.1 points (p = 0.000001. The range of motion of the hip was incomplete in all the movement arches in the pre-surgery, but in the post-surgery this value increased significantly in flexion (p = 0.007, extension (p = 0.02, abduction (p = 0.001, medial rotation (p = 0.0002 and lateral rotation (p = 0.01; only the aduction movement was not significantly increased (p = 0.08. CONCLUSIONS: Total hip artroplasty reliefs patients pain, improves daily life activities and increases the hip range of motion; patients, however, relate fear and insecurity in the accomplishment of those activities.

  1. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts(air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables (7Be, 95Zr and 95Nb, 103Ru, 131I, 137Cs, 140Ba and 140La, 90Sr, 106Ru and 106Rh, 226Ra, 54Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented

  2. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts (air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables (7Be, 95Zr and 95Nb, 103Ru, 131I, 137Cs, 140Ba and 140La, 90Sr, 106Ru and 104Rh, 226Ra, 54Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented

  3. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts (air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables (7Be, 95Zr and 95Nb, 103Ru, 131I, 137Cs, 140Ba and 140La, 90Sr, 106Ru and 106Rh, 226Ra, 54Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented

  4. Monthly Cotton Economic Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Cotton prices drifted sideways last month. A Index values ranged between 80 and 86 cents/lb. In the New York futures market, there was some volatility associated with the expiration of the July contract. However, prices for the most actively traded December contract were range-bound, generally holding to levels between 68 and 74 cents/lb.

  5. Monthly energy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  6. Monthly Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-28

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief ``energy plugs`` (reviews of EIA publications) are included, as well.

  7. Photos of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Congratulations to Adele Rimoldi, ATLAS physicist from Pavia, who ran her first marathon in New York last month. Adele completed the 42.2 km in a time of 4:49:19. She sure makes it look easy!!! The ATLAS pixel service quarter panel in SR1

  8. Monthly report, March 1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-04-18

    This document is the March 1969 monthly report for Hanford Categories C-57 and C-65. It contains information on reactor plant operation, fuel and target fabrication, technical activities, and irradation services at the Hanford Production and Irradiation reactors. The document features a discussion of the 300 area environmental control program.

  9. Simultaneous polysubstance use among Danish 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and hallucinogen users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Cecilie L; Christoffersen, Maria; Okholm, Mads;

    2012-01-01

    To describe patterns of simultaneous polysubstance use (SPU) among Danish 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) ("Ecstasy") and hallucinogen users.......To describe patterns of simultaneous polysubstance use (SPU) among Danish 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) ("Ecstasy") and hallucinogen users....

  10. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  11. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  12. Monthly Cotton Economic Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Cotton prices remained range-bound over the last month. Prices for the March futures contract on the New York exchange traded between 93 and 100 cents/lb. Over the same time period, values for the A Index ranged between 99 and 104 cents/lb. After the release of this month's USDA report, March futures moved lower, closing near 90 cents/lb.

  13. Monthly Cooton Economic Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    After two months of range-bound trading, cotton prices shifted lower in late November. The March New York futures contract fell through important support near 94 cents/Ib and briefly dropped below 88 cents/ Ib before appearing to have established a new range between 90 and 94 cents/lb. An Index values also declined and fell below 100 cents/Ib for the first time since September 2010.

  14. Improved C3-4 transfer for treatment of root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Lin; Cao, Xuecheng; Li, Jing; Liu, Lifeng; Wang, Pingshan; Cai, Jinfang

    2012-01-01

    Experimental rats with root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk were treated with the improved C3-4 transfer for neurotization of C5-6. Results showed that Terzis grooming test scores were significantly increased at 6 months after treatment, the latency of C5-6 motor evoked potential was gradually shortened, and the amplitude was gradually increased. The rate of C3 instead of C5 and the C4 + phrenic nerve instead of C6 myelinated nerve fibers crossing through the anastomotic stoma was...

  15. 1,3,4,6,7,9-Hexamethylbenzo[1,2-c:3,4-c':5,6-c'']trithiophene: a twisted heteroarene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao-Ting; Tai, Chia-Cheng; Lin, Wei-Chih; Baldridge, Kim K

    2009-07-01

    1,3,4,6,7,9-Hexamethylbenzo[1,2-c:3,4-c':5,6-c'']trithiophene (C-Me) was prepared by palladium-catalyzed methylations of the corresponding hexabromide C-Br. The twisted structure of C-Me has been confirmed by X-ray crystal analysis. The physical properties of twisted C-Me and planar benzo[1,2-c:3,4-c':5,6-c'']trithiophene (C-H) were studied and compared. Crystal structures are compared to computational structures determined using density functional theory, with both the M06-2X and B3PW91 functionals.

  16. Monthly Cotton Economic Leffer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    After attempting to move higher in mid-March, cotton prices !Lave since retreated, The mostactively traded May New York futures contract increased from levels near 87 cents/tb to those near 94 cents/lb. In more recent trading, prices fell back to a range between 88 and 91 cents/lb. Values for the A Index followed those in the futures market, climbing to a level above 103 cents/Ib before decreasing to levels near 100 cents/lb. Over the past month, the general pattern in daily price movement has been inverse to that of the U.S. dollar.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  18. The monthly sky guide

    CERN Document Server

    Ridpath, Ian

    2006-01-01

    In full colour throughout, the seventh edition of Ian Ridpath and Wil Tirion's famous guide to the night sky is fully revised and updated for planet positions and forthcoming eclipses up to the end of the year 2011. The book contains a chapter on the main sights visible in each month of the year, and is an easy-to-use companion to the night sky. It will help you to identify prominent stars, constellations, star clusters, nebulae and galaxies, to watch out for meteor showers, and to follow the movement of the four brightest planets. Most of the sights described are visible to the naked eye and

  19. Preparation of QTi4.3-4Graghite Composite by Semi-solid Casting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng; DU Yunhui; LIU Hanwu; ZENG Daben; BA Limin

    2005-01-01

    The electromagnetic-mechanical stirring technology was employed for preparing QTi4.3-4 graghite composite slurry, and QTi4.3-4 graghite composite with uniform distribution of graphite particles was prepared using the semi-solid casting technology successfully. The structure of this QTi4.3-4 graghite composite was studied and the condition for uniform distribution of graphite particles was got. The experimental results show that there exists a linear relationship between the solid fraction aud the stirring temperature of QTi4.3-4 graphite slurry. With the decreasing of stirring temperature, the solid fraction of QTi4.3-4 graghite slurry increases constantly. In casting, with the iucreasing of solid fraction of QTi4.3-4graghite slurry, the agglomeration of graphite particles is removed gradually. When the solid fraction is higher than 40% , graphite particles can distribute evenly in QTi4.3-4 graghite composite.

  20. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some novel fused heterocyclic 1,2,4-triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish K. Sahu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, the synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of 1,2,4-triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine including different pharmacophores are aimed at. In this study, a series of 6-aryl-3- (3,4 -dialkoxyphenyl-7H -[1,2,4]triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine (7a-7k was synthesized by condensing 4-amino-5-(3,4-dialkoxyphenyl-4H-[1,2,4]- triazole-3-thiol (6 with various aromatic carboxylic acids in the presence of phenacyl bromides through one-pot reaction. Eleven fused heterocyclic derivatives were successfully synthesized. The structures of these newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1 H NMR and mass spectroscopic studies. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial evaluation. Some of the compounds exhibited promising antimicrobial activity. From the present study it may be concluded that synthesized compounds are fruitful in terms of their structural novelty and marked biological activities. These compounds could be further modified to develop potential and safer antifungal agents.

  1. Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. C. Venema

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative. The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide trend was added.

    Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii the error in linear trend estimates and (iii traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve

  2. Determinants of polychlorinated biphenyl levels in plasma from 42-month-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fidler, [No Value; Huisman, M; Boersma, ER

    1998-01-01

    We report on the PCB levels in plasma from 42-month-old children and the factors that determine these levels. We measured the levels of the PCB congeners 118 (2,4,5-3'4' pentachlorobiphenyl (CB)), 138 (2,3,4-2'4'5'hexaCB), 153 (2,4,5-2'4'5'hexaCB), and 180 (2,3,4,5-2'4'5'heptaCB) in cord plasma, bre

  3. An Examination of the Hadley Sea-Surface Temperature Time Series for the Nino 3.4 Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    The Hadley sea-surface temperature (HadSST) dataset is investigated for the interval 1871-2008. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the degree of success in identifying and characterizing El Nino (EN) southern (ENSO) extreme events, both EN and La Nina (LN) events. Comparisons are made against both the Southern Oscillation Index for the same time interval and with published values of the Oceanic Nino Index for the interval since 1950. Some 60 ENSO extreme events are identified in the HadSST dataset, consisting of 33 EN and 27 LN events. Also, preferential associations are found to exist between the duration of ENSO extreme events and their maximum anomalous excursion temperatures and between the recurrence rate for an EN event and the duration of the last known EN event. Because the present ongoing EN is a strong event, it should persist 11 months or longer, inferring that the next EN event should not be expected until June 2012 or later. Furthermore, the decadal sum of EN-related months is found to have increased somewhat steadily since the decade of 1920-1929, suggesting that the present decade (2010-2019) possibly will see about 3-4 EN events, totaling about 37 +/- 3 EN-related months (i.e., months that meet the definition for the occurrence of an EN event).

  4. Effects of 3,4-Dichloroaniline on Testicle Enzymes as Biological Markers in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo ZHANG; SEN LIN

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of 3,4-dichlomaniline (3,4-DCA) on activities of testicle enzymes as biological markers in rats. Methods Fifty male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10). One group was left untreated and used as a solvent control (administered orally by corn oil), while the other 4 groups were treated with 3, 4-DCA. Corn oil was used as a solvent, and 3,4-DCA was diluted into tested concentrations (39, 81, 170, and 357 mg/kg). All the groups orally administered 3,4-DCA or corn oil, once a day for 4 weeks. The testicle tissue was homogenized in a 0.1 mol/L potassium phosphate buffer (0.1 mol/L, pH 7.2). The crude homogenate was centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 5 rain at 4 ℃. The supematant obtained was used as an enzyme extract for determination of the enzyme activities. Results Compared with the control, the activities of ALP, ACE and SDH were increased significantly at a lower level of 3,4-DCA, and decreased at a higher level of 3, 4-DCA, whreas the activities of LDH, LDH-X, and G6PDH were inhibited significantly with the increased 3,4-DCA concentration. Organ coefficient "organ weight/total body weight × 100" of testis, liver, and spleen increased significantly with the increased 3,4-DCA concentration. These results suggest that 3,4-DCA toxicity to the male reproductive system was associated with the activities of testicular enzymes which are the sensitive biochemical endpoints reflecting 3,4-DCA toxicity to the male reproductive system. Conclusion 3,4-DCA has toxicity to the reproductive system in male rats.

  5. Ineffectiveness of 3,4-diaminopyridine as a therapy for type C botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, L.S.; Price, J.I.

    1987-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins inhibit acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions. Agents stimulating neurotransmitter efflux, such as 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP), could be useful for botulism therapy. Treatment with 3,4-DAP (8 mg/kg hourly, beginning 3 hr after toxin injection) failed to increase the survival times of mice receiving 10, 20 or 40 LD50 type C, but did prolong the survival of those receiving 20 LD50 type A. This difference in 3,4-DAP efficacy may reflect variations in the molecular mechanism of action of types A and C botulinum neurotoxins.

  6. COSMIC monthly progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of May 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are summarized. Nine articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: (1) WFI - Windowing System for Test and Simulation; (2) HZETRN - A Free Space Radiation Transport and Shielding Program; (3) COMGEN-BEM - Composite Model Generation-Boundary Element Method; (4) IDDS - Interactive Data Display System; (5) CET93/PC - Chemical Equilibrium with Transport Properties, 1993; (6) SDVIC - Sub-pixel Digital Video Image Correlation; (7) TRASYS - Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (HP9000 Series 700/800 Version without NASADIG); (8) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (VAX VMS Version); and (9) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (UNIX Version). Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and dissemination are also described along with a budget summary.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  8. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  9. Synthesis of 1-Substituted Carbazolyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro- and Carbazolyl-3,4-dihydro-β-carboline Analogs as Potential Antitumor Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Wang Chern

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of 1-substituted carbazolyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro- and carbazolyl-3,4-dihydro-b-carboline analogs have been synthesized and evaluated for antitumor activity against human tumor cells including KB, DLD, NCI-H661, Hepa, and HepG2/A2 cell lines. Among these, compounds 2, 6, 7, and 9 exhibited the most potent and selective activity against the tested tumor cells. As for inhibition of topoisomerase II, compounds 1–14 and 18 showed better activity than etoposide. Among them, compounds 3, 4, 7, 9, and 10 exhibited potent activity. The structure and activity relationship (SAR study revealed correlation between carbon numbers of the side chain and biological activities. The molecular complex with DNA for compound 2 was proposed.

  10. 3,4-DGE is cytotoxic and decreases HSP27/HSPB1 in podocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Poveda, Jonay; Sanz, Ana Belen; Carrasco, Susana; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Selgas, Rafael; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto

    2014-03-01

    Hyperglycemia is the key driver of diabetic complications and increased concentrations of glucose degradation products. The study of peritoneal dialysis solution biocompatibility has highlighted the adverse biological effects of glucose degradation products. Recently, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE) was identified as the most toxic glucose degradation product in peritoneal dialysis fluids. In addition, 3,4-DGE is present in high-fructose corn syrup, and its precursor 3-deoxyglucosone is increased in diabetes. The role of 3,4-DGE in glomerular injury had not been addressed. We studied the effects of 3,4-DGE on cultured human podocytes and in vivo in mice. 3,4-DGE induced apoptosis in podocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. 3,4-DGE promoted the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and activation of caspase-3. While high glucose concentrations increased the levels of the podocyte intracellular antiapoptotic protein HSP27/HSPB1, 3,4-DGE decreased the expression of podocyte HSP27/HSPB1. Apoptosis induced by 3,4-DGE was caspase-dependent and could be prevented by the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. Antagonism of Bax by a Ku-70-derived peptide also prevented apoptosis. Intravenous administration of 3,4-DGE to healthy mice resulted in a decreased expression of HSP27/HSPB1 and caspase-3 activation in whole kidney and in podocytes in vivo. In conclusion, 3,4-DGE induces apoptotic cell death in cultured human podocytes, suggesting a potential role in glomerular injury resulting from metabolic disorders. PMID:24337777

  11. Get effective polyclonal antisera in one month

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    According to the traditional immunization procedure, after the first injection of the sample A (emulsion of aimed antigen and Freund's complete adjuvant) to immunize rabbit, successive injections of the sample B (emulsion of aimed antigen and Freund's incomplete adjuvant) were followed every 2-4 weeks. In general,high titer of the corresponding polyclonal antisera will be observed after 4-5 injections of sample B in 3-4months. This report presents a simply modified procedure that was able to stimulate the antisera formation in one month and achieve enough avidity to satisfy either Western blot or immunohistochemistry analysis.It just applied an additional injection of the sample A to the rabbit at the 3rd day after the primary immunization injection. You could gain the high titer of the antisera right after the first sample B injection in one month. This method has produced the desired results in three different recombinant antigens with different molecular weight (5.9 KD-55 KD) expressed from prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells.

  12. Synthesis and thermolysis of oxo chloro-2-ethyl-1.3.4-thiadiazole rhenium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to synthesis and thermolysis of oxo chloro-2-ethyl-1.3.4-thiadiazole rhenium complex. The synthesis method of oxo chloro-2-ethyl-1.3.4-thiadiazole rhenium complex is elaborated. The kinetics of its thermolysis process is studied. The thermodynamic functions of thermolysis process are evaluated.

  13. Dissecting Oct3/4-regulated gene networks in embryonic stem cells by expression profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Matoba

    Full Text Available POU transcription factor Pou5f1 (Oct3/4 is required to maintain ES cells in an undifferentiated state. Here we show that global expression profiling of Oct3/4-manipulated ES cells delineates the downstream target genes of Oct3/4. Combined with data from genome-wide chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays, this analysis identifies not only primary downstream targets of Oct3/4, but also secondary or tertiary targets. Furthermore, the analysis also reveals that downstream target genes are regulated either positively or negatively by Oct3/4. Identification of a group of genes that show both activation and repression depending on Oct3/4 expression levels provides a possible mechanism for the requirement of appropriate Oct3/4 expression to maintain undifferentiated ES cells. As a proof-of-principle study, one of the downstream genes, Tcl1, has been analyzed in detail. We show that Oct3/4 binds to the promoter region of Tcl1 and activates its transcription. We also show that Tcl1 is involved in the regulation of proliferation, but not differentiation, in ES cells. These findings suggest that the global expression profiling of gene-manipulated ES cells can help to delineate the structure and dynamics of gene regulatory networks.

  14. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF... reports of injury or damage. A person may not knowingly give any false or fictitious report concerning...

  15. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dialkoxybenzene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labanauskas, L; Brukstus, A; Udrenaite, E; Bucinskaite, V; Susvilo, I; Urbelis, G

    2005-03-01

    New 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dialkoxybenzene derivatives 17-31 were synthesized by the acylation of amines 9-16 with acyl chlorides. Amines 9-16 were obtained from aryl ketones 1-8. Aryl ketones 1-8 were synthesized by the acylation of corresponding aromatic compounds. As it was preliminary predicted by PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substance) program, all 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dimethoxy- and 3,4-diethoxybenzene derivatives possess anti-inflammatory activity. Activity of compounds 18, 19, 21, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29 was similar to that of acetylsalicylic acid or ibuprofen however their acute toxicity was less than that of mentioned anti-inflammatory drugs. A series of 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dimethoxybenzene, 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-diethoxybenzene and 6-acylaminoalkyl-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxine derivatives have been synthesized. These compounds possess moderate or strong anti-inflammatory activity and low toxicity.

  16. Electronic Services Monthly MI Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This electronic services monthly MI report contains monthly MI data for most public facing online online applications such as iClaim, electronic access, Mobile wage...

  17. Synthesis and Properties of N, N'-Bis (difuroxano [3,4-b: 3',4'-d]phenyl)oxalic Amide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Jian-Long; L(U),Lian-Ying; OU,Yu-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    N,N'-Bis(difuroxano[3,4-b:3',4'-d]phenyl)oxalic amide was synthesized via acylation, nitration, azidation, and pyrolysis-denitrogenation from the starting materials of oxalyl chloride and 3,5-dichloroaniline, under mild reaction conditions, with the yields of 81.0%, 82.0%, 86.0% and 81.7% respectively. The title compound and its precursors were characterized by 1H NMR, IR, MS, and elemental analysis. The title compound has a density of 1.92 g·cm-3 by a suspension method, a standard formation enthalpy of 979 kJ·mol 1 calculated by Gaussian programs, a detonation velocity of 8.17 km·s-1, and a detonation pressure of 31 GPa obtained by Kamlet Equation. The thermal decomposition reactions of the title compound at different heating rates were tested by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The kinetics parameters of the pyrolysis of the compound were calculated by Kissinger's method.The values of apparent activation energy (Ea) and pre-exponential constant (A) were 226.7 kJ·mol-1 and 1023.17 s-1 respectively. It was presupposed that N,N'-bis(difuroxano[3,4-b:3',4'-d]phenyl)oxalic amide would be a promising high energetic explosive with low sensitivity.

  18. Monthly energy review, August 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review for the month of August 1997, presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  19. Boronic, diboronic, and α-amino-boronic acids derived from 1-ethynyl-3, 4-dimethoxybenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was undertaken with the intention of synthesizing (α-amino-β-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethylboronic acid. Unfortunately, the goal could not be attained since the isolation of the target compound could not be achieved though some information suggested its existence in the final product. The methods of synthesis used in the second half of the attempted preparation are described here (compounds in the first half have been published elsewhere). In this procedure, (β-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)) ethenylboronic acid is esterified and azeotropic distillation is conducted to provide diethyl (β-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)) ethenylboronate. This compound is dissolved in diglyme and diborane gas is introduced. The hydroboration product is then subjected to amination with hydroxylamine-0-sulfonic acid. (β-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)) ethyl-α, α-diboronic acid is obtained from the residue of acetone extraction. The acetone extract is concentrated to a solid caramel, from which (α-borono-β-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)) ethylammonium tetraphenylborate is formed. Conversion from the tetraphenylborate salt to (α-amino-β-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)) ethylboronic acid hydrochloride is attempted by the double decomposition RH BPh4 + CsCl -- RH Cl + CsBPh4. The product is subjected to demethylation and treated with sodium tetraphenylborate to precipitate (α-borono-β-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)) ethylammonium tetraphenylborate. Conversion of this to the target compound is tried by double decomposition. (Nogami, K.)

  20. Analysis of common cause failure in Wolsong 2/3/4 NPPs PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolsong 2/3/4 Nuclear Power Plants (WS 2/3/4 NPPs) are CANDU 6 type Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) being built in Wolsong site of Korea by Korea Power Electric Corporation (KEPCO). WS 2/3/4 NPPs are designed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL). AECL performs Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for these NPPs. In this PSA, however, the effect of Common Cause Failure (CCF) is not analyzed due to the limitation of CANDU reliability data. Since the CCF is regarded as one of the most dominant contributors to the total core damage frequency (CDF) in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) PSA. KEPCO and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) initiated WS 2/3/4 NPPs Level 2 PSA which includes the CCF analysis and detailed HRA. In WS 2/3/4 NPPs Level 2 PSA, the authors reviewed the CCF data used in PWR PSA, and applied these data for WS 2/3/4 NPPs Level 2 PSA. The MGL method is implemented for the CCF analysis of WS 2/3/4 NPPs. The analyzed results show that the effect of CCF is not negligible in CANDU PSA as well as in PWR PSA. So the CCF data of CANDU plants should be collected and incorporated into CANDU PSA

  1. Synthesis and Thermal Behavior of a Fused, Tricyclic 1,2,3,4-Tetrazine Ring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, David E; Bottaro, Jeffery C; Petrie, Mark; Parrish, Damon A

    2015-10-26

    This study presents the synthesis and characterization of a fused, tricyclic 1,2,3,4-tetrazine ring system. The molecule is synthesized in a three-step process from 5,5'-dinitro-bis,1,2,4-triazole via a di-N-amino compound. Oxidation to form the azo-coupled fused tricyclic 1,2,3,4-tetrazine is achieved using tert-butyl hypochlorite as the oxidant. The di-N-amino compound and the desired fused tricyclic 1,2,3,4-triazine display interesting thermal behavior and are predicted to be high-performance energetic materials.

  2. Synthesis of 1,3,4-Thiadiazole, 1,3,4-Thiadiazine, 1,3,6-Thiadiazepane and Quinoxaline Derivatives from Symmetrical Dithiobiureas and Thioureidoethylthiourea Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abou-Zied

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Reactions of N,N`-disubstituted hydrazinecarbothioamides 8a-c and substituted thioureidoethylthioureas 9a-c with 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (chloranil, 10a and 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-1,4-benzoquinone (bromanil, 10b to form N,N`-disubstituted [1,3,4]thiadiazole-2,5-diamines 11a-c, 6,7-dichloro-3-substituted amino-1H-benzo[1,3,4]- thiadiazine-5,8-diones 12a-c, 2,3,7,8-tetrahalothianthrene-1,4,6,9-tetraones 13a,b, 5,6,8- trihalo-7-oxo-3,7-dihydro-2H-quinoxaline-1-carbothioic acid substituted amides 14a-c, 15a-c and 7-substituted imino-[1,3,6]thiadiazepane-3-thiones 16a-c are reported. Rationales for the observed conversions are presented.

  3. Synthesis of 1,3,4-Thiadiazole, 1,3,4-Thiadiazine, 1,3,6-Thiadiazepane and Quinoxaline Derivatives from Symmetrical Dithiobiureas and Thioureidoethylthiourea Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Abou-Zied, A.; K. El-Shaieb; A. Mourad; Hassan, A

    2005-01-01

    Reactions of N,N`-disubstituted hydrazinecarbothioamides 8a-c and substituted thioureidoethylthioureas 9a-c with 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (chloranil, 10a) and 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-1,4-benzoquinone (bromanil, 10b) to form N,N`-disubstituted [1,3,4]thiadiazole-2,5-diamines 11a-c, 6,7-dichloro-3-substituted amino-1H-benzo[1,3,4]- thiadiazine-5,8-diones 12a-c, 2,3,7,8-tetrahalothianthrene-1,4,6,9-tetraones 13a,b, 5,6,8- trihalo-7-oxo-3,7-dihydro-2H-quinoxaline-1-carbothioic acid substit...

  4. Synthesis under Microwave Irradiation and Crystal Structure of 4-(3,4-Methylenedioxylphenyl)-6-methyl- 5-ethoxycaronyl-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(H)-one

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Shu-Jiang; FANG Fang; JIANG Hong; ZHU Song-Lei; LI Tuan-Jie; ZHANG Xiao-Jing; SHI Da-Qing

    2004-01-01

    The title compound 4-(3,4-methylenedioxylphenyl)-6-methyl-5-ethoxycaronyl-3,4- dihydropyrimidin-2(H)-one (C15H16N2O5) has been synthesized and determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal is of triclinic, space group Pī with a = 7.580(1), b = 7.920(2), c = 13.168(4)(A。),α = 96.44(2),β = 96.71(2), γ = 109.81(2)°, V = 728.8(3) (A。)3, Z = 2, Mr = 304.30, Dc = 1.387 g/cm3, F(000) = 320, μ(MoKα) = 0.105 mm-1 (λ = 0.71073(A。)), R = 0.0446 and wR = 0.1205. In the molecule the pyrimidine ring adopts a boat conformation.

  5. Microwave Induced Synthesis of 3-Aryl-6-( 6-/8-substituted 4-chloroquinoline-3-yl) - s - triazolo [ 3,4- b ] - 1,3,4- thiadiazoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO,Ren-Zhong(乔仁忠); HUI,Xin-Ping(惠新平); XU,Peng-Fei(许鹏飞); ZHANG,Zi-Yi(张自义); CHENG,Dong-Liang(程东亮)

    2001-01-01

    The condensation of 4-amino-3-aryl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-tria-zoles (1a-f) with 6-/8-substituted 1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-quino-line-3-carboxylic acids (2a-d) in the presence of phosphorus oxychloride on refluxing or under microwave irradiation gave twenty four novel 3-aryl-6-(6-/8-substituted 4-chloroquinoline-3-yl)-s-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazoles (4a-x), Consid-erable increase in the reaction rate has been observed with improved yields under microwave irradiation. The structures of the compounds synthesized were determined by elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR and MS spectra. Their spectral properties and the reaction mechanism were also discussed. The preliminary biological test showed that some of compounds had moderate antibacterial activities.

  6. [Pd4(μ3-SbMe3)4(SbMe3)4]: A Pd(0) Tetrahedron with μ3-Bridging Trimethylantimony Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Sophie L; Krämer, Tobias; Levason, William; Light, Mark E; Macgregor, Stuart A; Reid, Gillian

    2016-06-01

    The palladium(II) chlorostibine complex [PdCl2(SbMe2Cl)2]2 has a dimeric structure in the solid state, stabilized by hyper-coordination at the Lewis amphoteric Sb centers. Reaction with 8 equiv of MeLi forms [Pd4(μ3-SbMe3)4(SbMe3)4], whose structure comprises a tetrahedral Pd(0) core with four terminal SbMe3 ligands and four μ3-SbMe3 ligands, one capping each triangular Pd3 face. Density functional theory calculations, supported by energy decomposition analysis and the natural orbitals for chemical valence scheme, highlight significant donor and acceptor orbital contributions to the bonding between both the terminal and the bridging SbMe3 ligands and the Pd4 core.

  7. Electrical conductivity in 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhidride (PTCDA): Električna prevodnost v 3,4,9,10 perilendianhidrid tetrakarboksilni kislini (PTCDA):

    OpenAIRE

    Bratina, Gvido; Brownell, John Nimly; Hudej, Robert; Zavrtanik, Marko

    2001-01-01

    The transient photoresponse in 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride was examined in metal/organic semiconductor/metal heterostructures. Electron-hole pairs are generated within the structure for fields higher than 5 X 10sup4 V/cm as a consequence of the exciton dissociation. The mobility of the electrons perpendicular to the molecular layers increases with the applied electric field and saturates for fields higher than 5 X 10sup4 V/cm.

  8. Adjustable Intragastric Balloons: A 12-Month Pilot Trial in Endoscopic Weight Loss Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Machytka; P. Klvana; A. Kornbluth; S. Peikin; L.E.M. Mathus-Vliegen; C. Gostout; G. Lopez-Nava; S. Shikora; J. Brooks

    2011-01-01

    Intragastric balloons are associated with (1) early period intolerance, (2) diminished effect within 3-4 months, and (3) bowel obstruction risk mandating removal at 6 months. The introduction of an adjustable balloon could improve comfort and offer greater efficacy. A migration prevention function,

  9. Uma síntese alternativa para o (±-1,2,3,4-tetraidro-{9H-pirido-[3,4-b]}-indol An alternative synthesis of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9H-pyrido-[3,4-b]-indole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arildo José Braz de Oliveira

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available O 1,2,3,4-tetraidro-9H-pirido-[3,4-b]-indol, um composto com propriedades tranqüilizantes, foi preparado a partir do 3-indol-acetaldeído e triptamina através de uma reação de condensação de Pictet-Spengler. Os dados físicos e espectrais do composto são apresentados.The 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9H-pyrido-[3,4-b]-indole, a compound with tranquillizing properties, was prepared in 16% overall yield from the 3-indole-acetaldehyde and tryptamine by applying the classical Pictet-Spengler condensation. Physical and spectroscopic data for such compound are presented.

  10. Re-examination of the "3/4-law" of Metabolism

    CERN Document Server

    Dodds, P S; Weitz, J S; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Rothman, Daniel H.; Weitz, Joshua S.

    2000-01-01

    We examine the scaling law $B \\propto M^{\\alpha}$ which connects organismal metabolic rate $B$ with organismal mass $M$, where $\\alpha$ is commonly held to be 3/4. Since simple dimensional analysis suggests $\\alpha=2/3$, we consider this to be a null hypothesis testable by empirical studies. We re-analyze data sets for mammals and birds compiled by Heusner, Bennett and Harvey, Bartels, Hemmingsen, Brody, and Kleiber, and find little evidence for rejecting $\\alpha=2/3$ in favor of $\\alpha=3/4$. For mammals, we find a possible breakdown in scaling for larger masses reflected in a systematic increase in $\\alpha$. We also review theoretical justifications of $\\alpha=3/4$ based on dimensional analysis, nutrient-supply networks, and four-dimensional biology. We find that present theories for $\\alpha=3/4$ require assumptions that render them unconvincing for rejecting the null hypothesis that $\\alpha=2/3$.

  11. Human reliability analysis in Wolsong 2/3/4 nuclear power plants probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for Wolsong(WS) 2/3/4 nuclear power plant(NPPs) in design stage is performed using the methodologies being equivalent to PWR PSA. Accident sequence evaluation program (ASEF) human reliability analysis (HRA) procedure and technique for human error rate prediction (THERP) are used in HRA of WS 2/3/4 NPPs PSA. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the procedure and methodology of HRA in WS 2/3/4 NPPs PSA. Also, this paper describes the interim results of importance analysis for human actions modeled in WS 2/3/4 PSA and the findings and recommendations of administrative control of secondary control area from the view of human factors

  12. Identification of a Kir3.4 Mutation in Congenital Long QT Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yanzong; Yang, Yiqing; Liang, Bo;

    2010-01-01

    , 49 individuals) with autosomal-dominant LQTS was clinically evaluated. Genome-wide linkage analysis was performed by using polymorphic microsatellite markers to map the genetic locus, and positional candidate genes were screened by sequencing for mutations. The expression pattern and functional...... characteristics of the mutated protein were investigated by western blotting and patch-clamp electrophysiology. The genetic locus of the LQTS-associated gene was mapped to chromosome 11q23.3-24.3. A heterozygous mutation (Kir3.4-Gly387Arg) was identified in the G protein-coupled, inwardly rectifying potassium...... channel subunit Kir3.4, encoded by the KCNJ5 gene. The Kir3.4-Gly387Arg mutation was present in all nine affected family members and absent in 528 ethnically matched controls. Western blotting of human cardiac tissue demonstrated significant Kir3.4 expression levels in the cardiac ventricles. Heterologous...

  13. Magnetic phase transitions in new multiferroic SmCr3(BO3)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical spectra, as well as thermal and magnetic properties, of the compound SmCr3(BO3)4, both pure and doped with 1% erbium, have been investigated in a wide temperature range. It has been found that SmCr3(BO3)4 undergoes a cascade of phase transitions at temperatures (7.8±0.5) K, (6.7±0.5) K, and (4.3±0.2) K

  14. New 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers from Croton micans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateu, Elsa; Chavez, Katiuska; Riina, Ricarda; Compagnone, Reinaldo S; Delle Monache, Franco; Suárez, Alírica I

    2012-01-01

    From the stems of Croton micans Sw., five new 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers: micansinoic acid (1), isomicansinoic acid (2), and the dimethyl (3), monomethyl (4) and monoethyl ester (5) of micansinoic acid were isolated. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation, mainly 1D and 2D NMR experiments and MS. These compounds are the first 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers from a Croton species. PMID:22428229

  15. N-[(9-Ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-ylmethylene]-3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohamed Asiri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, N-[(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-ylmethylene]-3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-amine has been synthesized by reaction of 9-ethyl-9H-carbazole-3-carbaldehyde with 5-amino-3,4-dimethylisoxazole in the presence of acetic acid in ethanol. The structure of this new compound was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and EI-MS spectral analysis.

  16. n-Propyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranoside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Mönch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (2R,3R,4S,5R,6R-2-(acetoxymethyl-6-propoxytetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triyl triacetate], C17H26O10, was formed by a Koenigs–Knorr reaction of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-d-glucopyranosyl bromide and n-propanol. The central ring adopts a chair conformation. The crystal does not contain any significant interactions such as hydrogen bonds.

  17. Left behind by birth month

    OpenAIRE

    Solli, Ingeborg

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing comprehensive administrative from Norway I investigate birth month effects on school performance at age 16, educational achievement at age 19 and 25 and earnings at age 30. I demonstrate that the oldest children in class have a substantially higher 10th grade GPA than their younger peers. The birth month differences are similar across gender, but stronger for less advantaged children. The birth month effects are robust to controlling for sibling fixed effects. On longer term outcome...

  18. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Perceived Infant Outcomes at 18-24 months: Neural and Psychological Correlates of Parental Thoughts and Actions Assessed during the First Month Postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilyoung eKim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The first postpartum months constitute a critical period for parents to establish an emotional bond with their infants. Neural responses to infant-related stimuli have been associated with parental sensitivity. However, the associations among these neural responses, parenting, and later infant outcomes for mothers and fathers are unknown. In the current longitudinal study, we investigated the relationships between parental thoughts/actions and neural activation in mothers and fathers in the neonatal period with infant outcomes at the toddler stage. At the first month postpartum, mothers (n=21 and fathers (n=19 underwent a neuroimaging session during which they listened to their own and unfamiliar baby’s cry. Parenting-related thoughts/behaviors were assessed by interview twice at the first month and 3-4 months postpartum and infants’ socioemotional outcomes were reported by mothers and fathers at 18-24 months postpartum. In mothers, higher levels of anxious thoughts/actions about parenting at the first month postpartum, but not at 3-4 months postpartum, were associated with infant’s low socioemotional competencies at 18-24 months. Anxious thoughts/actions were also associated with heightened responses in the motor cortex and reduced responses in the substantia nigra to own infant cry sounds. On the other hand, in fathers, higher levels of positive perception of being a parent at the first month postpartum, but not at 3-4 months postpartum, were associated with higher infant socioemotional competencies at 18-24 months. Positive thoughts were associated with heightened responses in the auditory cortex and caudate to own infant cry sounds. The current study provides evidence that parental thoughts are related to concurrent neural responses to their infants at the first month postpartum as well as their infant’s future socioemotional outcome at 18-24 months. Parent differences suggest that anxious thoughts in mothers and positive thoughts in

  19. Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR) replaces the Cost Distribution Report (CDR). The MPCR provides summary information about Veterans Affairs operational costs,...

  20. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  1. Monthly energy review, January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Major activities covered include production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  2. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  3. Natural gas monthly, August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article is on US Natural Gas Imports and Exports 1994.

  4. Changes in cortical relative power in patients submitted to a tendon transfer: a pre and post surgery study Alterações na potência relativa cortical em pacientes submetidos a transferência de tendão: estudo pré e pós-cirurgico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Guilherme Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is analyze possible modifications in the cerebral cortex, through quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG in patients submitted to a tendon transfer procedure (posterior tibialis by the Srinivasan's technique. Four subjects (2 men and 2 women, 49.25 age average (SD±21.4 were studied. All subjects have been through surgical procedure due to leprosy and had, at least, two years of drop foot condition. The qEEG measured the electrocortical activity (relative power between 8 and 25 Hz frequencies pre and post surgery. A paired t test analyzed all data (pO objetivo deste estudo é analisar possíveis modificações no córtex cerebral, através da electrencefalografia quantitativa (EEGq, em pacientes submetidos a um procedimento de transferência de tendão (tibial posterior pela técnica de Srinivasan. Quatro sujeitos (2 homens e 2 mulheres, com média de idade de 49,25 anos (±21,4 DP foram estudados. Todos os sujeitos realizaram o procedimento cirúrgico devido a hanseníase e tinham, pelo menos, dois anos de pé caído. O EEGq mediu a atividade electrocortical (potencia relativa entre freqüências de 8 e 25 Hz, no pré e pós-operatório. Um teste t pareado analisou todos os dados (p<0,05. Os resultados mostram alterações significativas na potência relativa em alfa, nos elétrodos F7 (p=0,01 e F8 (p=0,021. Baseados em recentes achados na literatura, podemos concluir que o procedimento de transferência de tendão sugere alterações eletrocorticais sensíveis às freqüên-cias específicas do EEGq.

  5. Natural gas monthly, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  6. Natural gas monthly, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  7. Natural gas monthly, December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  8. Monthly energy review, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 75 tabs.

  9. Monthly energy review: April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This monthly report presents an overview of energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. A section is also included on international energy. The feature paper which is included each month is entitled ``Energy equipment choices: Fuel costs and other determinants.`` 37 figs., 59 tabs.

  10. U.S. Monthly Extremes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GIS U.S. Monthly Extremes is a web based product that is extracted from the U.S. COOP Summary of the Month dataset (DSI-3220). This is meteorological data from the...

  11. Natural gas monthly, February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  12. Monthly energy review, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  13. Monthly energy review, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  14. Monthly energy review, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 74 tabs.

  15. Monthly energy review, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 36 figs., 61 tabs.

  16. Monthly energy review, February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  17. Monthly energy review, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  18. Monthly energy review, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  19. Monthly energy review, November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 91 tabs.

  20. Monthly energy review, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs. 73 tabs.

  1. Monthly Energy Review, February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-26

    This monthly publication presents an overview of EIA`s recent monthly energy statistics, covering the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief descriptions (`energy plugs`) on two EIA publications are presented at the start.

  2. Post-Surgery Codeine Puts Kids at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Médicos Dispositivos que Emiten Radiación Fraude en la Salud Medicamentos Nutrición Productos Veterinarios Productos de Tabaco Salud Infantil Salud de la Mujer Suplementos Dietéticos Vacunas, ...

  3. Highly Efficient and Stable Novel NanoBiohybrid Catalyst to Avert 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid Pollutant in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rasel; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    The present study reported for the first time covalent immobilization of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (3,4-POD) onto functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (F-MWCNT) for degrading the toxic 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHBA) pollutant in water. The F-MWCNTs had a maximum 3,4-POD loading of 1060 μg/mg. Immobilized 3,4 POD had 44% of relative structural changes to its free configurations. Nevertheless, >90% of relative activity and about 50% of catalytic efficiency were retained to the free enzyme. Immobilized 3,4-POD demonstrated higher alkaline stability and thermostability than the free 3,4-POD. The free and immobilized 3,4-POD lost 82% and 66% of relative activities, respectively after 180 min of incubations at 90 °C. Excellent shelf-life was observed for the immobilized 3,4-POD with residual activity of 56% compared with 41% and 39% of the free 3,4-POD at 4 °C and 25 °C over 30 days storage. Immobilized 3,4-POD showed >60% of catalytic activity retention even after ten-cycle uses, defraying the expenses of free 3,4-POD productions for long term uses. Finally, the immobilized 3,4-POD removed 71% of 3,4-DHBA from water in <4 h, paving its future application for water purification with reduced costs and time. PMID:27721429

  4. Novel lanthanide complexes constructed from 3, 4-dimethoxybenzoic acid: crystal structures, spectrum and thermochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Xiao-Xia; Wu, Jun-Chen [Testing and Analysis Center, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); College of Chemistry & Material Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Ren, Ning, E-mail: ningren9@163.com [College of Chemical engineering & Material, Handan College, Handan 056005 (China); Zhao, Chun-Li [Raoyang High School of Hebei, Raoyang 053900 (China); Zhang, Jian-Jun, E-mail: jjzhang6@126.com [Testing and Analysis Center, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); College of Chemistry & Material Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Zong, Guang-Cai; Gao, Jie [Testing and Analysis Center, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); College of Chemistry & Material Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China)

    2015-09-10

    Graphical abstract: Four novel lanthanide coordination polymers [Ln(3,4-DMOBA){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·H{sub 2}O·C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH (Ln = Sm(1), Tb(2), Dy(3), Ho(4); 3,4-DMOBA = 3, 4-dimethoxybenzoate) have been hydrothermal synthesized and characterized. Single crystal structures indicates 1 D stucture of the title complexes are linked by hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional (3-D) structure. Complex 2 exhibits the characteristic emission of Tb{sup 3+} ion({sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 6-3}). The investigation of TG-FTIR and IR spectra of the evolved gases shows uncoordinated water and ethanol molecules tend to lose firstly, and then 3,4-DMOBA ligands begin to decompose. - Highlights: • Four lanthanide coordination polymers were synthesized and characterized. • 1-D chain structures of the title complexes are are linked by hydrogen bonds to form a 3-D structures. • Thermal decomposition processes of the title complexes were studied using TG-FTIR techniques. • IR spectra of evolved gases in thermal decomposition process were obtained and analyzed. - Abstract: Four novel lanthanide complexes [Ln(3,4-DMOBA){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·H{sub 2}O·C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH (Ln = Sm(1), Tb(2), Dy(3), Ho(4); 3,4-DMOBA = 3, 4-dimethoxybenzoate) have been hydrothermal synthesized and characterized. Structural analyses reveal that adjacent lanthanide ions are connected by 3,4-DMOBA ligands adopting bridging bidentate mode to generate one-dimensional (1-D) structure with the uncoordinated water and ethanol molecules. 1-D structures are linked by hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional (3-D) structure, which is rarely observed in lanthanide carboxylic acids complexes. Under the radiation of UV light, complex 2 exhibits the characteristic emission of Tb{sup 3+} ion ({sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 6-3}). The thermal decomposition mechanism is investigated by TG-FTIR technology. IR spectra of the evolved gases show that the uncoordinated water and ethanol

  5. Mechanism of 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde electropolymerization at carbon paste electrodes : catalytic detection of NADH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delbem Maria Flávia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic voltammetry was used to study 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (3,4-DHB electropolymerization processes on carbon paste electrodes. The characteristics of the electropolymerized films were highly dependent on pH, anodic switching potential, scan rate, 3,4-DHB concentrations and number of cycles. Film stability was determined in citrate/phosphate buffer solutions at the same pH used during the electropolymerization process. The best conditions to prepare carbon paste modified electrodes were pH 7.8; 0.0 <= Eapl <= 0.25 V; 10 mV s-1; 0.25 mmol L-1 3,4-DHB and 10 scans. These carbon paste modified electrodes were used for NADH catalytic detection at 0.23 V in the range 0.015 <= [NADH] <= 0.21 mmol L-1. Experimental data were used to propose a mechanism for the 3,4--DHB electropolymerization processes, which involves initial phenoxyl radical formation.

  6. High cervical C3-4 ′disc′ compression associated with basilar invagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel Atul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old male had torticollis and short neck since birth. He presented with symptom of progressive quadriparesis over a two-year period. Investigations revealed basilar invagination with marked rotation in the craniovertebral region and relatively large C3-4 region osteophytes. Serial MRI over two years showed persistent signal opposite C3-4 disc space suggestive of cord compression. Although the cord was humped over the odontoid process, there was no clear radiological evidence that the cord was compromised at this level. During surgery, instability was identified only at the craniovertebral region and not at the level of C3-4. Distraction of the lateral masses of atlas and axis and fixation using interarticular spacers and bone graft and direct screw implantation in the lateral mass of the atlas and pars of the axis resulted in reduction of the basilar invagination and of atlantoaxial dislocation. The patient had marked clinical recovery, despite the fact that no direct procedure was done for C3-4 disc decompression. The case suggests that C3-4 disc changes could be secondary to primary instability at the craniovertebral junction.

  7. Influence of southern oscillation and SSTs over Nino-3.4 region on the winter monsoon rainfall over coastal Andhra Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O S R U Bhanu Kumar; C V Naidu; S R L Rao

    2004-09-01

    An analysis of the mean monthly data of 124 years reveals that the relationship between the Southern Oscillation Index in September and the winter monsoon rainfall (WMR) over Coastal Andhra Pradesh (CAP) is variable and non-stationary. In the recent four decades, however, SOI (Sept) is negatively and significantly correlated with CAP WMR. A similar analysis is performed using 50 years of mean monthly SSTs over Nino-3.4 region in August and September and CAP WMR to detect a possible relationship and there is a striking positive relation between them. In both of the above cases, the September signal is more significant in the recent four decades than for the other months and seasons for probable prediction of CAP WMR. Finally, to examine the influence of SO on the winter monsoon rainfall, a non-parametric test "Mann-Whitney Rank Statistics" test has been applied to the rainfall associated with extreme positive and negative SOI events.

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popat B. Mohite

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In attempt to find new pharmacologically active molecules, we report here the synthesis and in vitro antimicrobial activities of various novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole containing 5-phenyltetrazole. The Schiff bases were obtained by condensation 2-(5-phenyl-1H-tetrazol-1-ylacetohydrazide with various aromatic aldehydes. Cyclocondensation of Schiff’s bases with acetic anhydride results in 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives. The structures of the newly synthesized 1,3,4-oxadiazole were confirmed by FT-IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral data. The antimicrobial activity was determined by MIC method. All the compounds exhibited weak to potent antimicrobial activity. Some derivatives bearing a methoxy group exhibited very good antimicrobial activity at conc. of 62.5 µg/mL.

  9. Synthesis of 1,2-bis[2-methyl-5(3,4-difluorophenyl)-3-thienyl] perfluorocyclopentene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taiqi LIU; Liyan YANG; Jianxiang YU

    2008-01-01

    2,Methylthiophene (1) was treated at 0℃ with liquid bromine to form 3,5,dibromo,2,methylthiophene (2) which reacted with tributyl borate to give 2,methyl,3,bromo,5,boronate thiophene (3) at,78℃. Treatment of 3 with 3,4,difluorobrombenzene gave 2,methyl,3,bromo,5,(3,4,difluorophenyl)thiophene (4). Finally,a novel photochromic dithienylethene compound,1,2,bis [2,methyl,5(3,4,difluorophenyl),3,thienyl]perfluorocyclopentene (DT,1),was synthesized by the reaction of 4 with perfluorocyclopentene at,78℃. The compound (DT,1)was characterized by IR,NMR,MS,elemental analysis and its photochromic behavior was also discussed.

  10. Luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers synthesized via in-situ hydrolysis of dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Natalie E.; Einkauf, Jeffrey D.; Clark, Jessica M.; Corcoran, Eric J.; Karram, Joseph P.; Kent, Charles A.; Eugene, Vadine E.; Chan, Benny C.; de Lill, Daniel T.

    2015-05-01

    Dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate undergoes hydrolysis under hydrothermal conditions with lanthanide (Ln) ions to form two-dimensional coordination polymers, [Ln(C6H2O5)(C6H3O5)(H2O)]n (Ln=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu). The resulting materials exhibit luminescent properties with quantum yields and lifetimes for the Eu(III) and Tb(III) compounds of 1.1±0.3% and 0.387±0.0001 ms, and 3.3±0.8% and 0.769±0.006 ms, respectively. Energy values for the singlet and triplet states were determined for dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate and 3,4-furandicarboxylic acid. Excited state dynamics and structural features are examined to explicate the reported quantum yields. A series of other FDC structures is briefly presented.

  11. Time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy of UO2(CO3)3(4-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E C; Cho, H-R; Baik, M H; Kim, H; Cha, W

    2015-11-21

    The objective of the present study is to examine the luminescence characteristics of UO2(CO3)3(4-) in detail using time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy. The peak wavelengths and lifetime of UO2(CO3)3(4-) were determined at room temperature using the two excitation laser wavelengths of 266 and 448 nm. The peak wavelengths in the luminescence spectrum exhibited hypsochromic shifts compared with those of UO2(2+). The lifetime determined from several samples containing various uranium concentrations was 8.9 ± 0.8 ns. Explanations for the hindrance to the observation of the luminescence spectrum of UO2(CO3)3(4-) in previous investigations are discussed. The representative experimental parameters, which might interrupt the measurement of weak luminescence, are the insertion delay time of the detection device, the overlapped luminescence of the background materials and the primary inner filter effect in the sample solution.

  12. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  13. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  14. Natural gas monthly, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``US natural gas imports and exports-1995``. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  15. Yersinia enterocolitica palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 - a successful group of emerging zoonotic pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höper Dirk

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-pathogenic Y. enterocolitica ssp. enterocolitica caused several human outbreaks in Northern America. In contrast, low pathogenic Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 is responsible for sporadic cases worldwide with asymptomatic pigs being the main source of infection. Genomes of three Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 human isolates (including the completely sequenced Y11 German DSMZ type strain were compared to the high-pathogenic Y. enterocolitica ssp. enterocolitica 8081 O:8/1B to address the peculiarities of the O:3/4 group. Results Most high-pathogenicity-associated determinants of Y. enterocolitica ssp. enterocolitica (like the High-Pathogenicity Island, yts1 type 2 and ysa type 3 secretion systems are absent in Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 genomes. On the other hand they possess alternative putative virulence and fitness factors, such as a different ysp type 3 secretion system, an RtxA-like and insecticidal toxins, and a N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc PTS system (aga-operon. Horizontal acquisition of two prophages and a tRNA-Asn-associated GIYep-01 genomic island might also influence the Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 pathoadaptation. We demonstrated recombination activity of the PhiYep-3 prophage and the GIYep-01 island and the ability of the aga-operon to support the growth of the Y. enterocolitica ssp. enterocolitica O:8/1B on GalNAc. Conclusions Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 experienced a shift to an alternative patchwork of virulence and fitness determinants that might play a significant role in its host pathoadaptation and successful worldwide dissemination.

  16. Nitrative DNA damage and Oct3/4 expression in urinary bladder cancer with Schistosomahaematobium infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ning [Faculty of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie (Japan); Thanan, Raynoo [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie (Japan); Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Kobayashi, Hatasu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Hammam, Olfat; Wishahi, Mohamed; Leithy, Tarek El [Departments of Pathology and Urology, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza (Egypt); Hiraku, Yusuke [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Amro, EL-Karef [Department of Pathology and Matrix Biology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Oikawa, Shinji [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Ohnishi, Shiho [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie (Japan); Murata, Mariko [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan); Kawanishi, Shosuke, E-mail: kawanisi@suzuka-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie (Japan); Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie (Japan)

    2011-10-22

    Highlights: {yields} Oct3/4-positive cells increase in Schistosoma haematobium (SH)-associated bladder cancer. {yields} iNOS-dependent DNA lesion, 8-nitroguanine, was formed in Oct3/4-positive cells. {yields} 8-Nitroguanine formed in stem-like cells plays a role in SH-induced carcinogenesis. {yields} Mutant stem cells may participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis. -- Abstract: To investigate whether mutant stem cells participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis, we performed immunohistochemical analysis to examine nitrative and oxidative DNA lesions (8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG) and a stem cell marker Oct3/4 in bladder tissues obtained from cystitis and bladder cancer patients infected with Schistosomahaematobium (S. haematobium). We also detected the expression of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which lead to 8-nitroguanine formation. The staining intensity of 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG was significantly higher in bladder cancer and cystitis tissues than in normal tissues. iNOS expression was colocalized with NF-{kappa}B in 8-nitroguanine-positive tumor cells from bladder cancer patients. Oct3/4 expression was significantly increased in cells from S. haematobium-associated bladder cancer tissues in comparison to normal bladder and cancer tissues without infection. Oct3/4 was also expressed in epithelial cells of cystitis patients. Moreover, 8-nitroguanine was formed in Oct3/4-positive stem cells in S. haematobium-associated cystitis and cancer tissues. In conclusion, inflammation by S.haematobium infection may increase the number of mutant stem cells, in which iNOS-dependent DNA damage occurs via NF-{kappa}B activation, leading to tumor development.

  17. Sodium samarium tetrakis(polyphosphate), NaSm(PO3)4

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Zhao; Lina Zhang; Feifei Li

    2010-01-01

    NaSm(PO3)4 has been prepared by solid state reactions. It belongs to type II of the structural family of MILnIII(PO3)4 compounds (MI = alkali metal and LnIII = rare earth metal) and is composed of ∞(PO3)n]n− polyphosphate chains with a repeating unit of four PO4 tetrahedra. The chains extend parallel to [100] and share O atoms with irregular SmO8 polyhedra, forming a three-dimensional framework which delimits tunnels occupied by Na+ cations in a distorted octahedral enviro...

  18. Photophysical characterization of 2,3-difunctionalized thieno[3,4-b]pyrazines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, S.C. E-mail: seth.rasmussen@ndsu.nodak.edu; Sattler, D.J.; Mitchell, K.A.; Maxwell, John

    2004-08-01

    In order to better understand the optical properties of polythieno[3,4-b]pyrazine materials, the photophysical characteristics of a series of monomeric 2,3-difunctionalized thieno[3,4-b]pyrazines (where R=H, CH{sub 3}, C{sub 6}H{sub 13}, C{sub 8}H{sub 17}, C{sub 10}H{sub 21}, C{sub 12}H{sub 25}, and Ph) have been studied. Characterization of the room temperature UV-vis and fluorescence spectra, including solvent and pH dependence, are presented and compared to the related species isothianaphthene and quinoxaline.

  19. Synthesis, characterization, and crystal structure of 2-iodo-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolev, Iliyan N.; Petrova, Svetlana P.; Nikolova, Rositsa P.; Dimowa, Louiza T.; Shivachev, Boris L.

    2013-02-01

    This work describes the synthesis of 2-iodo-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid. The combination of iodine and silver trifluoroacetate (AgTFA) reagents was used successfully for the iodination of 3,4,5-trimetoxybenzoic acid. To improve the efficiency of the synthetic process a significant modification on the experimental design was also performed. The main structural features of the obtained aryl iodide were investigated by a single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.

  20. Development of intelligent ECT system for 3/4 inch SG tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intelligent ECT system for 7/8 inch tubes has been qualified as official method for inspection of Steam Generator tubes in Japan since 2003. We have developed Intelligent ECT system for 3/4 inch outer diameter tubes, which is applicable for full length inspection of all tubes in Steam Generator. We have carried out the verification test on passage, scanning speed, detectability of various defects performance of auto screening, effectiveness of filtering, and accuracy of depth sizing of wears. Totally we have confirmed the performance of Intelligent ECT system for 3/4 inch tubes is equivalent to that of Intelligent ECT system for 7/8 inch tubes. (author)

  1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of β -aroylpropionic acid based 1,3,4-oxadiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, two new series, 1-(4-benzylphenyl-3-(5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl-1-propanone and 1-(4-ethylphenyl-3-(5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl-1-propanone from β-(4-benzylbenzoylpropionic acid and β-(4-ethylbenzoylpropionic acid, respectively, were synthesized and tested for antiinflammatory, analgesic, lipid peroxidation, ulcerogenic and antibacterial actions. A fair number of compounds were found to have good antiinflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema test, while a few compounds showed significant antibacterial activity. The newly synthesized compounds showed very low ulcerogenic action.

  2. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenyl esters as antiseptics for fibrous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanenko, N.I.; Ryakhovskaya, A.I.; Romanenko, O.A.; Garifullina, K.R.

    1983-09-10

    Wastes containing tri- and tetrachlorobenzenes are obtained during production of di- and trichlorobenzenes. One way of utilizing these wastes is conversion into di- and trichlorophenols by saponification. Chlorination of a mixture of di- and trichlorophenols converts it into 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol with high yields (95-96 wt. %). The uses of tetrachlorophenol are limited by its strong specific odor and volatility. The possibility of obtaining esters of 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol and saturated aliphatic C/sub 2/-C/sub 12/ monocarboxylic acids, which have good antiseptic properties in relation to fibrous materials are described.

  3. Interleukin 2 promotes growth and cytolytic activity in human T3+4-8- thymocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    de la Hera, A; Toribio, M L; Marquez, C; C. Martinez

    1985-01-01

    Human thymocytes bearing T3 but neither T4 nor T8 antigens (T3+4-8- cells) were obtained after negative selection of thymocytes, either fresh or cultured in medium containing recombinant interleukin 2 (IL-2), by treatment with Na1/34, OKT4A and B9.4 monoclonal antibodies (which recognize T6, T4, and T8 antigens, respectively) and complement. Quantitative flow cytometry showed a 98% pure population of T3+4-8- lymphocytes, which included proliferating cells. The growth and maturation requiremen...

  4. Synthesis of 3-{4-[4-(Benzylideneaminobenzenesulfonyl]- phenyl}-2-phenylquinazolin-4(3H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Manohar Babu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the synthesis of a Schiff base, 3-{4-[4-(benzylideneamino benzenesulfonyl]phenyl}-2-phenylquinazolin-4(3H-one from a novel quinazolinone, 3-[4-(4 aminobenzenesulfonylphenyl]-2-phenylquinazolin-4(3H-one. The quinazolinone was prepared by reacting 2-phenyl-4H-3,1 benzoxazin-4-one with dapsone. The structure of the synthesized Schiff base is confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS and elemental analysis.-

  5. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Asma Agrebi; Fatma Allouche; Hamadi Fetoui; Fakher Chabchoub

    2014-01-01

    Several new pyrazolopyrimidine compounds were achieved from aminocyanopyarazole 1. The starting material 1 was initially coupled with orthoester at refluxed with various primary amines, ammonia, hydrazines and hydroxylamine to furnish a series of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines. The reaction of imidate 2a-b with hydrazide derivatives led to the formation of pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-c]pyrimidines. Some of the synthesized compounds 3a and 4c were evaluated for the...

  6. Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of 5,6-2H-[1,2,4]-Triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazine Derivatives%5,6-2H-1,2,4-三唑[3,4-b][1,3,4]噻二嗪衍生物的合成及抗癌活性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑玉国; 薛伟; 郭晴晴; 卢平; 王贞超; 袁凯

    2011-01-01

    A series of 4-(substituted-3-phenylideneamino)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thiones (3) were synthesized by the condensation reaction of 4-amino-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione (2) with various substituted benzaldehydes.Alkylation of 3 with alkyl halides afforded [1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-6][1,3,4]thiadiazme derivatives 4.Their structures were confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR spectra and elemental analyses.Preliminary bioassay indicated that some compounds posed antitumor activity to human prostate cancer cell line (PC3) in vitro by microculture tetrazolium (MTT) method.The antiproliferation activity of compound 4a to PC3 cells at the concentration of 10 μmol·L-1 was 75.9%.%取代苯甲醛与4-氨基-5-(3,4,5-三甲氧基苯基)-1,2,4-三唑-3-硫酮(2)缩合生成5-(3,4,5-三甲氧基苯基)-4-取代苯基亚胺基-1,2,4-三唑-3-硫酮(3),再烷基加成化为新型5,6-2H-1,2,4-三唑[3,4-b][1,3,4]噻二嗪衍生物4.化合物结构经1HNMR 13C NMR,IR以及元素分析确认.采用噻唑兰(MTT)比色法进行化合物抑制人体前列腺癌细胞(PC3)体外活性测试,结果表明所合成的化合物具有不同程度的抑制PC3活性,其中化合物4a在10μmol·L-1浓度下对PC3的抑制率为75.9%.

  7. Monthly energy review, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This document presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Activities covered include: U.S. production, consumption, trade, stock, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  8. Monthly energy review, August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  9. Monthly energy review, May 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a monthly report of Energy Information Administration on production, consumption, stocks, imports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. International energy data is also presented. 47 figs., 67 tabs

  10. Monthly Energy Review, July 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-07-27

    The Monthly Energy Review is prepared by the Energy Information Administration. Topics discussed include: Energy Overview, Energy Consumption, Petroleum, Natural Gas, Oil and Gas Resource Development, Coal, Electricity, Nuclear Energy, Energy Prices, International Energy. (VC)

  11. Monthly energy review, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-26

    This publication presents information for the month of August, 1993 on the following: Energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices, and international energy.

  12. The comparison of compensatory sweating after T2-4 and T3-4 endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy for the treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis.%T2-4与T3-4交感神经链切断治疗手足多汗症术后代偿性出汗比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠国; 黄邵洪; 谷力加; 廖洪映; 张健; 李昀; 蔡松旺

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare compensatory sweating after T2-4 and T3-4 endoscopic thoracic sympathecto-my for the treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis, and thus to investigate the potential mechanism of the occurrence of compensatory sweating. Methods; One hundred and forty-six patients with primary palmar hyperhidrosis were divided into two groups; 66 with T2-4 sympathectomy (T2-4 group) and 80 with T3-4 sympathectomy (T3-4 group). The effects of operation, compensatory sweating location and severity one day and 6 months after operation were compared. Results; The effective rate was 100% , and the most common compensatory sweating locations were on the back and the chest The compensatory sweating incidence was 39% and 21% respectively in T2-4 and T3-4 group with significant difference ( P < 0. 05 ). There were 2 cases of severe compensatory sweating in T2-4 group, and T3-4 group without severe case 1 day after operation. The compensatory sweating incidence was 24% and 11 % respectively , with significant difference ( P < 0. 05). There was 1 case of severe compensatory sweating in T2-4 group, and T3-4 group without severe case 6 months after operation. Conclusion; Lowering the level of sympathectomy for primary palmar hyperhidrosis results in less compensatory sweeting. T3-4 sympathectomy is an ideal operation method to reduce compensatory sweating.%目的:通过比较胸腔镜下T2-4与T3-4交感神经链切断治疗手足多汗症术后代偿性出汗发生情况,探讨其发生的可能机制.方法:手足多汗症患者146例,按不同手术方式分为T2-4组(行T2-4水平交感神经链切断术,共66例)与T3-4组(行T3-4水平交感神经链切断术,共80例).比较两组术后第1日、第6个月手术效果以及代偿性出汗发生部位和严重程度.结果:术后两组手汗治愈率100%,最常见代偿性出汗部位是背部和胸部.术后第1日T2-4组代偿性出汗发生率明显高于T3-4组(39%对比21%,P<0.05),T2-4组出现2

  13. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  14. Natural gas monthly, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  15. Natural gas monthly, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  16. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  17. Natural Gas Monthly, March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  18. Natural gas monthly, September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  19. Monthly energy review, April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy data. A brief summary of the monthly and historical comparison data is provided in Section 1 of the report. A highlight section of the report provides an assessment of summer 1997 motor gasoline price increases.

  20. Monthly energy review, August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  1. Monthly energy review, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  2. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  3. Natural gas monthly, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  4. Highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) enwrapped Sb2S3 nanorods for flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, B Narsimha; Deepa, Melepurath; Joshi, Amish G

    2014-02-01

    Composites of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole) or PEDOP and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) or PEDOT enwrapped Sb2S3 nanorods have been synthesized for the first time for use as supercapacitor electrodes. Hydrothermally synthesized Sb2S3 nanorods, several microns in length and 50-150 nm wide, offer high surface area and serve as a scaffold for coating conducting polymers, and are a viable alternative to carbon nanostructures. Fibrillar morphologies are achieved for the PEDOP-Sb2S3 and PEDOT-Sb2S3 films in contrast to the regular granular topologies attained for the neat polymers. The remarkably high nanoscale (∼5 S cm(-1)) conductivity of the Sb2S3 nanorods enables facile electron transport in the composites. We constructed asymmetric supercapacitors using the neat polymer or composite and graphite as electrodes. High specific capacitances of 1008 F g(-1) and 830 F g(-1) (at 1 A g(-1)), enhanced power densities (504 and 415 W kg(-1)) and excellent cycling stability (88 and 85% capacitance retention at the end of 1000 cycles) are delivered by the PEDOP-Sb2S3 and PEDOT-Sb2S3 cells relative to the neat polymer cells. A demonstration of a light emitting diode illumination using a light-weight, flexible, supercapacitor fabricated with PEDOP-Sb2S3 and carbon-fiber cloth shows the applicability of Sb2S3 enwrapped conducting polymers as sustainable electrodes for ultra-thin supercapacitors. PMID:24343566

  5. Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-few walled carbon nanotube (PEDOT-FWCNT) nanocomposite based thin films for Schottky diode application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transparent, conductive films of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-few walled carbon nanotube (PEDOT-FWCNT) nanocomposite were synthesized by in-situ oxidative polymerization and investigated for their Schottky diode property. The prepared films were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), surface resistivity, cyclic voltametery, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). SEM reveals the formation of homogeneous and adhesive polymer films while HRTEM confirms the uniform wrapping of polymer chains around the nanotube walls for PEDOT-FWCNT film. Improved thermal stability, conductivity and charge storage property of PEDOT in the presence of FWCNT is observed. Among different compositions, 5 wt. % of FWCNT is found to be optimum with sheet resistance and transmittance of 500 Ω sq−1 and 77%, respectively. Moreover, the electronic and junction properties of polymer films were studied and compared by fabricating sandwich type devices with a configuration of Al/PEDOT or PEDOT-FWCNT nanocomposite/indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. The measured current density-voltage characteristics show typical rectifying behavior for both configurations. However, enhanced rectification ratio and higher forward current density is observed in case of PEDOT-FWCNT based Schottky diode. Furthermore, reliability test depicts smaller hysteresis effect and better performance of PEDOT-FWCNT based diodes. - Highlights: • Single step synthesis of PEDOT and PEDOT-FWCNT nanocomposites films via in-situ oxidative polymerization. • Thermal, electrical and electrochemical properties of films show positive effect of FWCNT on PEDOT films. • Schottky diodes based on metal Al/PEDOT or PEDOT-FWCNT composites/ITO glass are fabricated. • Improved electrical characteristics with better reliability is achieved for PEDOT-FWCNT based diodes

  6. Methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) induce differential cytotoxic effects in bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Cuevas, Elvis; Lantz, Susan M; Rice, Kenner C; Gannon, Brenda M; Fantegrossi, William E; Gonzalez, Carmen; Paule, Merle G; Ali, Syed F

    2016-08-26

    Designer drugs such as synthetic psychostimulants are indicative of a worldwide problem of drug abuse and addiction. In addition to methamphetamine (METH), these drugs include 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) and commercial preparations of synthetic cathinones including 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), typically referred to as "bath salts." These psychostimulants exert neurotoxic effects by altering monoamine systems in the brain. Additionally, METH and MDMA adversely affect the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB): there are no current reports on the effects of MDPV on the BBB. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of METH, MDMA and MDPV on bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells (bBMVECs), an accepted in vitro model of the BBB. Confluent bBMVEC monolayers were treated with METH, MDMA and MDPV (0.5mM-2.5mM) for 24h. METH and MDMA increased lactate dehydrogenase release only at the highest concentration (2.5mM), whereas MDPV induced cytotoxicity at all concentrations. MDMA and METH decreased cellular proliferation only at 2.5mM, with similar effects observed after MDPV exposures starting at 1mM. Only MDPV increased reactive oxygen species production at all concentrations tested whereas all 3 drugs increased nitric oxide production. Morphological analysis revealed different patterns of compound-induced cell damage. METH induced vacuole formation at 1mM and disruption of the monolayer at 2.5mM. MDMA induced disruption of the endothelial monolayer from 1mM without vacuolization. On the other hand, MDPV induced monolayer disruption at doses ≥0.5mM without vacuole formation; at 2.5mM, the few remaining cells lacked endothelial morphology. These data suggest that even though these synthetic psychostimulants alter monoaminergic systems, they each induce BBB toxicity by different mechanisms with MDPV being the most toxic. PMID:27320055

  7. Preparation and Luminescence Characteristics of Ca3Y2(BO3)4:Eu3+ Phosphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Pan-Lai; YANG Zhi-Ping; WANG Zhi-Jun; Guo Qing-Lin

    2007-01-01

    Ca3Y2(BO3)4:Eu3+ phosphor is synthesized by high temperature solid-state reaction method, and the luminescence characteristics are investigated. The emission spectrum exhibits two strong red emissions at 613 and 621 nm corresponding to the electric dipole 5 Do-7F2 transition of Eu3+ under 365 nm excitation, the reason is that Eu3+ substituting for y3+ occupies the non-centrosymmetric position in the crystal structure of Ca3Y2 (BO3 )4. The excitation spectrum for 613 nm indicates that the phosphor can be effectively excited by ultraviolet (UV) (254 nm,365nm and 400nm) and blue (470nm) light. The effect of Eu3+ concentration on the emission intensity of Ca3Y2 (BO3 )4:Eu3+ phosphor is measured, the result shows that the emission intensities increase with increasing Eu3+ concentration, then decrease. The CIE colour coordinates of Ca3Y2(BO3)4:Eu3+ phosphor is (0.639, 0.357) at 15mol% Eu3+.

  8. Ethanol co-administration moderates 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine effects on human physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, G.J.H.; Kramers, C.; Sweep, F.C.G.J.; Willemsen, J.J.; Touw, D.J.; Schoemaker, R.C.; Van Gerven, J.M.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verkes, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol is frequently used in combination with 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Both drugs affect cardiovascular function, hydration and temperature regulation, but may have partly opposing effects. The present study aims to assess the acute physiologic effects of (co-) administration of M

  9. Increased oxytocin concentrations and prosocial feelings in humans after ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, G J H; Sweep, F C G J; van der Steen, R; Hermsen, R; Donders, A R T; Touw, D J; van Gerven, J M A; Buitelaar, J K; Verkes, R J

    2009-01-01

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or "ecstasy") is a recreationally used drug with remarkable and characteristic prosocial effects. In spite of abundant attention in the scientific literature, the mechanism of its prosocial effects has not been elucidated in humans. Recently, research in anima

  10. 39 CFR 3.4 - Matters reserved for decision by the Governors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE BOARD OF GOVERNORS (ARTICLE III) § 3.4 Matters reserved for decision by the Governors. The...) Appointment and removal of the Inspector General under 39 U.S.C. 202(e). (j) Exercise of the authority of the... research special postage stamp under 39 U.S.C. 414 and any semipostal stamp under 39 U.S.C. 416....

  11. Synthesis and antifungal activity of natural product-based 6-alkyl-2 3 4 5-tetrahydropyridines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven 6-alkyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridines (5a–5g) that mimic the natural products piperideines that were recently identified in the fire ant venom have been synthesized. Compounds 5c–5g with the C-6 alkyl chain lengths from C14 to C18 showed varying degrees of antifungal activities, with 5e (6-hexa...

  12. Biocatalytic acylation of sugar alcohols by 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croitoru, R.; Fitigau, F.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Frissen, A.E.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Enzymatic synthesis of aromatic esters of four different sugar alcohols (xylitol, arabitol, mannitol, and sorbitol) with 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid was performed in organic solvent medium, using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase (Novozyme 435), and molecular sieves for control of the wate

  13. Schisanlactone G,a new 3,4-seco-lanostane triterpenoid from Schisandra sphenanthera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Ren; Guo Jun Luo; Hong Mei Li; Zhao Yuan Wu; Hai Zhou Li; Rong Tao Li

    2009-01-01

    A new 3,4-seco-lanostane triterpenoid,schisanlactone G (1),was isolated from the fruits of Schisandra sphenanthera.Its structure was established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis.2009 Rong Tao Li.Published by Elsevier B.V.on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society.All fights reserved.

  14. Virginia Tech gets $3.4 million for Gulf oil spill study on plovers

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Researchers from Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment have received a $3.4 million grant from the U.S. Department of the Interior to study the effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico on piping plovers.

  15. SAC on a Niagara T3-4 Server: Lessons and Experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Grelck; R. Douma

    2011-01-01

    The Sparc T3-4 server provides up to 512 concurrent hardware threads, a degree of concurrency that is unprecedented in a single server system. This paper reports on how the automatically parallelising compiler of the data-parallel functional array language SAC copes with up to 512 execution units. W

  16. Synthesis of novel pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidinone derivatives as cytotoxic inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameur Rahmouni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Various α-fonctionalized iminoethers 2 were easily prepared from ethyl 5-amino-3-substituted-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate 1. The reaction of iminoethers 2 with ammonia afforded 3-substitued-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidin-4(5H-ones 3 which were also synthesized by the addition of formamide to ethyl 5-amino-3-substituted-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate 1. The 5-amino-3-substitued-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4(5H-ones 4 were obtained from hydrazonolysis of iminoethers 2. Otherwise, the condensation of these intermediates 2 with a series of some primary amines and hydroxylamine led respectively, to the corresponding 3,5-disubstitued-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4(5H-ones 5 and the 3-substitued-5-hydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidin-4-(5H-ones 6. The synthesized compounds 1-6 were completely characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and HRMS. Some synthesized compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic effect using the Human cervical adenocarcinoma Hela cell line.

  17. Pharmacological Studies of p, N-(3, 4-Methylenedioxy phenyl Benzoic Acid (RRL-1364 - Part-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahanukar Sharadini

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed pharmacological investigations of p-N-(3, 4-methylene dioxy phenyl benzoic acid revealed marked hypotensive action which was dose dependent and most marked in cats; it was absent in rats. Atropine could block this hypotensive action, thus suggest-ing cholinomimetic mechanism. Further studies indicated that the hypotension produced was central and possibly medullary in origin.

  18. 1-(4-Chlorophenyl-3-(3,4-dimethylphenylprop-2-en-1-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Guo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C17H15ClO, was prepared from 3,4-dimethylbenzaldehyde and 4-chlorohypnone by Aldol condensation. The dihedral angle formed by the two benzene rings is 48.91 (8°. Only van der Waals forces affect the packing.

  19. 1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-(3,4-dimethylphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Guo

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C17H15ClO, was prepared from 3,4-dimethylbenzaldehyde and 4-chlorohypnone by Aldol condensation. The dihedral angle formed by the two benzene rings is 48.91 (8)°. Only van der Waals forces affect the packing.

  20. QSAR analysis of antitumor activities of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastija, Vesna; Bajić, Miroslav; Stolić, Ivana; Krstulović, Luka; Jukić, Marijana; Glavaš-Obrovac, Ljubica

    2015-12-01

    QSAR analysis was performed for the antitumor activity of 27 derivatives of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene against six carcinoma cell lines. The best models were obtained with surface area (SAG) in combination with lipohilicity (log P) as descriptors. Results have shown that molecules with smaller solvent accessible surface area and higher lipophilicy should have higher biological activity against carcinoma cell.

  1. Treatment Implications for Young Adult Users of MDMA (3,4-Methylenedyoxymethamphetamine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Brian J.; Elifson, Kirk W.; Sterk, Claire E.

    2006-01-01

    Young adults' 3,4-methylenedyoxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use is a national public health concern. Although research on the epidemiology of MDMA use has increased, inquiry into intervention and treatment is needed. The authors examine results from an epidemiological investigation from a clinical perspective and provide suggestions for clinicians…

  2. Synthesis of 3-Phenyl-6-formyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,3-benzoxazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Chao RAN; Qiao TIAN; Yi GU

    2006-01-01

    A novel benzoxazine monomer containing aldehyde group, 3-phenyl-6-formyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1, 3-benzoxazine (Ald-B), was synthesized via the Mannich condensation of formaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and aniline. Its structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR). The side reaction in the synthesis is discussed.

  3. 食管贲门癌术后胃瘫32例临床诊治体会%Thoughts on diagnosis and treatment of 32 cases of post-surgery subtotal gastroparesis on gastrectomy and esophagectomy can-cer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶一勤; 李道航; 沙纪名; 胡海峰

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review the diagnosis and treatment of gastroparesis after esophagectomy. Methods Retrospectively ana-lyzed 32 cases of clinical data between 1991 and 2007 with post-surgery subtotal Gastroparesis on gastrectomy & esophagectomy patients. Re-sults Gastroparesis in these patients caused the undesirable symptoms of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, bloating and early satiety and there is lcase of death due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. The upper gastrointestinal radiography showed a decrease in gastric motility, and no stomach obstruction. The rest of the cases had curative effects through the reduction of gastric pressure, maintenance of hydro electrolytic bal-ance and nutritional supplement, and application of prokinetic drugs. Conclusion The diagnosis of gastroparesis mainly depends on the clini-cal appearances, chest CT Scan and GI. When the gastroparesis is confirmed, the patient should be treated with conservative methods, such as the application of internal nutrition, prokinetic agents.%目的 总结食管、贲门癌术后胃瘫临床诊治经验.方法 对1991年至2007年食管癌、贲门癌术后发生胃瘫的32例患者的治疗过程和效果进行回顾性分析.结果 所有患者主要表现为胃潴留,无明显腹痛,肛门排气大多正常.消化道造影可见胃蠕动差,吻合口通畅.CT显示胸腔胃明显增大以及大量胃液潴留.本组病例中1例患者死于绿脓杆菌性肺炎.其余所有病例经胃肠减压,肠内营养支持,维持水电解质平衡,以及用促进胃肠动力药物的应用等措施使病情均得以缓解出院.结论 食管癌、贲门癌术后胃瘫的诊断主要依据临床表现、消化道造影及胸CT等检查.排除机械性梗阻的存在后应积极采取肠内营养及胃肠动力促进剂等综合治疗,可以治愈.

  4. Coerência espectral do eletrencefalograma em pacientes submetidos a transposição tendinosa: estudo pré e pós-operatório EEG spectral coherence at patients submitted to tendon transfer surgery: study pre and post surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Guilherme Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A transferência tendinosa do músculo tibial posterior é intervenção cirúrgica bastante utilizada na ortopedia para correção do pé caído por seqüela de hanseníase. Poucos modelos propuseram investigações mais significativas sobre os fenômenos plásticos cerebrais nas transferências tendinosas. O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a coerência espectral (CE na Eletroencefalografia (EEG em pacientes submetidos a transferência do tendão do tibial posterior pela técnica de Srinivasan através da EEG quantitativa (EEGq. A amostra foi composta de quatro sujeitos com pé caído devido a seqüela de hanseníase. Os parâmetros de CE do EEG foram quantificados no momento pré e pós-operatório. Os resultados mostraram que houve efeito principal para o fator momento, significativo, no par de eletrodos C3-CZ, com aumento da coerência. Entretanto, os achados da ANOVA não revelaram interação significativa entre bandas versus momento. A recuperação funcional promovida por tal cirurgia parece gerar alterações corticais.Tendon transfer of the tibiliais posterior muscle is a surgical intervention widely employed in orthopedics for the correction of drop foot caused by leprosy. However, few models have proposed a thorough investigation of the brain plasticity phenomenon during tendon transfer. Thus, the present study aimed at analyzing EEG spectral coherence (SC in patients submitted to tendon transfer of the tibiliais posterior muscle by Srinivasan’s technique and quantitative EEG (EEGq. The sample consisted of four subjects with drop foot caused by leprosy. The SC parameter was evaluated in two experimental moments: pre and post-surgery. Results demonstrated a main moment effect for the C3-CZ electrode pair. Specifically, a significant increase in coherence values was observed. However, the ANOVA did not indicate a significant band/moment interaction. It can be assumed that coherence augmentation indicates that functional

  5. Natural gas monthly, April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Estimates extend through April 1998 for many data series. The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, feature articles are presented designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This issue contains the special report, ``Natural Gas 1997: A Preliminary Summary.`` This report provides information on natural gas supply and disposition for the year 1997, based on monthly data through December from EIA surveys. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  6. Electric power monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Statistics by company and plant are published on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  7. Electric power monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the U.S., Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. This April 1994 issue contains 1993 year-end data and data through January 1994.

  8. Electric power monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  9. Electric power monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  10. PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is a regulator of myosin-X localization and filopodia formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plantard, Laure; Arjonen, Antti; Lock, John G;

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] is a key regulator of cell signaling that acts by recruiting proteins to the cell membrane, such as at the leading edge during cell migration. Here, we show that PtdIns (3,4,5)P3 plays a central role in filopodia formation via the bindi...

  11. 29 CFR 3.4 - Submission of weekly statements and the preservation and inspection of weekly payroll records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inspection of weekly payroll records. 3.4 Section 3.4 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND... STATES § 3.4 Submission of weekly statements and the preservation and inspection of weekly payroll... subcontractor, within seven days after the regular payment date of the payroll period, to a representative of...

  12. Uncertainty Quantification of Calculated Temperatures for the AGR 3/4 Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Binh Thi-Cam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) irradiation experiments are being conducted within the Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The main objectives of the fuel experimental campaign are to provide the necessary data on fuel performance to support fuel process development, qualify a fuel design and fabrication process for normal operation and accident conditions, and support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes (PLN 3636, “Technical Program Plan for INL Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office/Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program”). The AGR 3/4 test was inserted in the Northeast Flux Trap position in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) core at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in December 2011 and successfully completed irradiation in mid-April 2014, resulting in irradiation of the tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel for 369.1 effective full-power days (EFPDs) during approximately 2.4 calendar years. The AGR 3/4 data, including the irradiation data and calculated results, were qualified and stored in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). To support the U.S. TRISO fuel performance assessment and to provide data for validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, the daily as run thermal analysis has been performed separately on each of twelve AGR 3/4 capsules for the entire irradiation as discussed in ECAR-2807, “AGR 3/4 Daily As Run Thermal Analyses”. The ABAQUS code’s finite element-based thermal model predicts the daily average volume average (VA) fuel temperature (FT), peak FT, and graphite matrix, sleeve, and sink temperature in each capsule. The JMOCUP simulation codes were also created to perform depletion calculations for the AGR 3/4 experiment (ECAR-2753, “JMOCUP As-Run Daily Physics Depletion Calculation for the AGR 3/4 TRISO Particle Experiment in ATR

  13. Uncertainty Quantification of Calculated Temperatures for the AGR 3/4 Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) irradiation experiments are being conducted within the Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The main objectives of the fuel experimental campaign are to provide the necessary data on fuel performance to support fuel process development, qualify a fuel design and fabrication process for normal operation and accident conditions, and support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes (PLN 3636, 'Technical Program Plan for INL Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office/Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program'). The AGR 3/4 test was inserted in the Northeast Flux Trap position in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) core at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in December 2011 and successfully completed irradiation in mid-April 2014, resulting in irradiation of the tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel for 369.1 effective full-power days (EFPDs) during approximately 2.4 calendar years. The AGR 3/4 data, including the irradiation data and calculated results, were qualified and stored in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). To support the U.S. TRISO fuel performance assessment and to provide data for validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, the daily as run thermal analysis has been performed separately on each of twelve AGR 3/4 capsules for the entire irradiation as discussed in ECAR-2807, 'AGR 3/4 Daily As Run Thermal Analyses'. The ABAQUS code's finite element-based thermal model predicts the daily average volume average (VA) fuel temperature (FT), peak FT, and graphite matrix, sleeve, and sink temperature in each capsule. The JMOCUP simulation codes were also created to perform depletion calculations for the AGR 3/4 experiment (ECAR-2753, 'JMOCUP As-Run Daily Physics Depletion Calculation for the AGR 3/4 TRISO Particle

  14. Electric power monthly, April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-07

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  15. Electric power monthly, May 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-25

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  17. Natural gas monthly, October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article in this issue is a special report, ``Comparison of Natural Gas Storage Estimates from the EIA and AGA.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  18. Electric power monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  19. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-06

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  20. Monthly energy review, July 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 75 tabs.

  1. Monthly energy review, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  2. Electric power monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  3. Natural gas monthly, March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas analysis and geographic information systems.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  4. Natural gas monthly, October 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  5. Electric power monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  6. Electric power monthly, November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended

  7. Synthesis of New [1,2,4]Triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazines and Study of Their Anti-Candidal and Cytotoxic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashooq Ahmad Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New triazolothiadiazine derivatives 5a–h were synthesized from 4-amino-3-(4-pyridyl-5-mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazole (3 with substituted aryl hydrazonoyl chlorides 4a–h. The compounds were tested in vitro against eleven Candida species and compared with standard drug ketoconazole. Among these compounds, the compounds bearing p-chlorophenyl 5e, p-methoxyphenyl 5c, phenyl 5a, and p-sulphonamidophenyl 5g substituents on triazolothiadiazine system were found to be the most effective derivatives against Candida species. Compound 5e was the most effective compound against C. parapsilosis (ATCC 22019, C. albicans (ATCC 66027, C. specie [blood] 12810, and C. specie [urine] 300 with MIC value of 6.25 μg/mL, whereas ketoconazole exhibits the inhibitory activity with MIC value of 3–30 μg/mL against all tested strains. It was clear that there is a positive correlation between anti-Candidal activity and p-chlorophenyl substitution on triazolothiadiazine ring. All the synthesized compounds were also investigated for their potential cytotoxicity on noncancer cell line (MCF-12 using WST-1 assay. Three compounds 5d, 5a, and 5h were found to have the same IC50 value as that of standard drug ketoconazole against noncancer cell line MCF-12 (IC50 ≥ 1.0 × 105 μg/mL.

  8. Development of full power risk monitoring system for nuclear power plant for UCN 3, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, RIA/R has been widely used which reduce costs by optimizing resources. One of essential RIAs is the development of computerized risk monitoring system which can evaluated the risk in real time using the plant configuration information such as basic event of inoperable equipments and environmental variables. KAERI has developed the full power risk monitoring system (DynaRM) for the UCN 3,4 NPPs. In order to develop UCN 3,4 full power risk monitoring system PSA model for risk monitor should be developed with reflecting the changes of plant configuration from the beginning of plant operation. As a risk monitor system, two main modules have been developed to monitor the current risk of the plant and to assist the maintenance schedule decision making

  9. 1-取代-1,2,3,4-四氢-9H-吡啶并[3,4-b]吲哚-3-羧酸甲酯的合成及表征%Synthesis and Characterization of 1-Substituted - 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro -9H-Pyrido[3,4-b]Indole-3-Carboxylic Acid Methyl Ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马养民; 李延超; 郭会

    2012-01-01

    以L-色氨酸甲酯盐酸盐为起始原料,经过Pictet-Spengler反应,再通过结晶诱导不对称转化(CIAT)过程,最后用饱和碳酸钠溶液脱除盐酸后高效选择性的得到1-取代-1,2,3,4-四氢-9H-吡啶并[3,4-b]吲哚-3-羧酸甲酯,目标产物通过重结晶或者柱层析方法纯化,所有化合物的结构均经元素分析,IR,1H NMR,13C NMR确证.

  10. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Herbicidal Activities of 2-Cyanoacrylates Containing 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Moieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tingting; Miao Wenke; Wu Shanshan; Bing Guifang; Zhang Xin; Qin Zhenfang; Yu Haibo; Qin Xue; Fang Jianxin

    2011-01-01

    Three series of novel 2-cyanoacrylates 7a-7f, 9a-9f, 10a-10f containing 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring moieties were synthesized as herbicidal inhibitors of photosystem Ⅱ (PS Ⅱ) electron transportation. Their structures were clearly verified by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analysis (or HRMS analysis) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Bioassay showed that a suitable group at the 3-position of acrylates was essential for high herbicidal activ-ity. In particular, compound 7e showed the best herbicidal activities and gave 100% inhibitory activity against rape and amaranth pigweed at a dose of 1.5 kg/ha. Introduction of substituent with higher polarity such as sulfinyl or sulfonyl to the 5-position of 1,3,4-thiadiazole decreased herbicidal activities.

  11. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activities of Novel Imidazo[2,1-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal F. M. Atta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 2-Amino-5-(2-aryl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl-1,3,4-thiadiazoles 2-4 have been synthesized by the reaction of 2-aryl-2H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylic acids 1 with thiosemicarbazide. Their reaction with phenacyl (p-substituted phenacyl bromides led to formation of the respective 6-aryl-2-(2-aryl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-ylimidazo[2,1-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazoles 5. Reactivity of the latter fused ring towards reaction with different electrophilic reagents afforded the corresponding 5-substituted derivatives 6-8. The structure of the above compounds was confirmed from their spectral characteristics. Some of these compounds were found to possess slight to moderate activity against the microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli.

  12. A Convenient Synthesis of Benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrazine-1,3-dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-wei; ZHAO Xiu-xiu; LIN Zhi-hui; PANG Si-ping; SUN Cheng-hui; LI Sheng-hua

    2013-01-01

    Benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrazine-1,3-dioxide was synthesized from 2-bromonitrobenzene,which is converted to 2-bromo-1-( tert-butyl-NNO-azoxy)benzene by a three-step standem reaction. Amination of 2-bromo-1-( tert-butyl-NNO-azoxy)benzene with aqueous ammonia using Cu2 O as the catalyst yielded 2-amino-1-(tert-butyl-NNO-azoxy)benzene,that was cyclized with nitration agents N2O5 or NO2BF4 to give benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrazine-1,3-dioxide. A mild and convenient route was developed. Moreover,the target compound was identified by 1 H NMR,13 C NMR,IR, MS-EI and elemental analysis.

  13. Synthesis and crystal structure of sodium praseodymium polyphosphate, NaPr(PO3)4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Horchani-Naifer; J.Amami; M.Ferid

    2009-01-01

    Reaction of Na2CO3, Pr6O11 and H3PO4 gave the sodium praseodymium polyphosphate NaPr(PO3)4. The title compound crystallized in the monoclinic P21/n space group with a=0.9965(4) nm, b=1.31437(4) nm, c=0.72271(3) nm,β=90.429(3)°, V=0.9465(4) nm3, Z=4, R=0.0493 and wR=0.1266 for 1855 independent reflections. The structure of NaPr(PO3)4 consisted of PrO8 polyhedra sharing oxygen atoms with phosphoric group PO4 to form a three-dimensional framework, delimiting intersecting tunnels in which the sodium ion was located. Each Na+ ion was bonded to seven oxygen atoms.

  14. Crystal structure of 2-(1,3-dioxoindan-2-ylisoquinoline-1,3,4-trione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Murad Ghalib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title isoquinoline-1,3,4-trione derivative, C18H9NO5, the five-membered ring of the indane fragment adopts an envelope conformation with the nitrogen-substituted C atom being the flap. The planes of the indane benzene ring and the isoquinoline-1,3,4-trione ring make a dihedral angle of 82.06 (6°. In the crystal, molecules are linked into chains extending along the bc plane via C—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions, enclosing R22(8 and R22(10 loops. The chains are further connected by π–π stacking interations, with centroid-to-centroid distances of 3.9050 (7 Å, forming layers parallel to the b axis.

  15. Coordination Compounds Based on 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-isoquinoline-3-carboxylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Svobodová

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Syntheses of 2,6-bis[((3S-3-(methoxycarbonyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-ylcarbonyl]pyridine and its coordination compounds with Cu2+, Co2+, Co3+, or Fe3+ are described. By means of 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra it was proved that 2,6-bis[((3S-3-(methoxycarbonyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-ylcarbonyl]pyridine as well as its coordination compound with Co3+ exist in the form of a mixture of three conformers, differing in the conformations at the two amide groups present. The prepared coordination compounds were tested in the enantioselective catalysis of the nitroaldol addition of nitromethane with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde or 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, and in the Michael addition of ethyl 2-oxocyclohexanecarboxylate to but-3-en-2-one.

  16. SYNTHESIS OF SOLUBLE POLY(3,4-DIHYDROXY-o-TOLYLENE): REDOX POLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sa(a)d Moulay; Fatima M'zyène

    2006-01-01

    Conventional chloromethylation, paraformaldehyde/hydrogen chloride in acetic acid medium, was applied to 1,2-dimethoxybenzene. Chloroform-soluble poly(3,4-dimethoxy-o-tolylene) was obtained with an intrinsic viscosity of 0.034 dL g-1. The polymer was evaluated as a condensation redox polymer precursor formed by a Friedel-Crafts reaction.Cleavage of the methoxy groups present in this polymer resulted in poly(3,4-dihydroxy-o-tolylene) which manifested a great air-oxidation resistance. The redox property of the latter polymer was found to be 1017 mV by potentiometric titration with 0.05 N ceric ammonium nitrate at 25℃. This midpotential was compared to that of catechol, a monomeric analogue, under the same titration conditions.

  17. The causality between the rapid rotation of a sunspot and an X3.4 flare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Li Yan; Zhong-Quan Qu; Cheng-Lin Xu; Zhi-Ke Xue; De-Fang Kong

    2009-01-01

    Using multi-wavelength data of Hinode, the rapid rotation of a sunspot in ac-tive region NOAA 10930 is studied in detail. We found extraordinary counterclockwise rotation of the sunspot with positive polarity before an X3.4 flare. From a series of vector magnetograms, it is found that magnetic force lines are highly sheared along the neu-tral line accompanying the sunspot rotation. Furthermore, it is also found that sheared loops and an inverse S-shaped magnetic loop in the corona formed gradually after the sunspot rotation. The X3.4 flare can be reasonably regarded as a result of this movement. A detailed analysis provides evidence that sunspot rotation leads to magnetic field linestwisting in the photosphere. The twist is then transported into the corona and triggers flares.

  18. Application of stochastic variational method to 3-4 body systems with realistic nuclear force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohbayashi, Yoshihide [Niigata Univ. (Japan); Varga, K.; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki

    1997-05-01

    SVM (stochastic variational method) was applied to simulate triton and alpha with realistic nuclear force such as Reid V8 (RV8), Argonne V6, V8 (AV6 and aV8). 3-4 body systems were solved by about 300-400 dimensions and the results were agreed with the most accurate solution. Convergence of energy of 3-4 body systems was rapid by using AV6 and AV8 potential, but it was slow by RV8 with strong repulsive force core. The energy values using SVM and GFMC were almost same. Number of dimension to convert the energy of triton was decreased by refinement. (S.Y.)

  19. Crystal structure of tetraethylammonium chloride 3,4,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodobenzene

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmine Viger-Gravel; Ilia Korobkov; Bryce, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Equimolar quantities of tetraethylammonium chloride (Et4NCl) and 3,4,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodobenzene (o-DITFB or o-C6F4I2) have been co-crystallized in a solution of dichloromethane yielding a pure halogen-bonded compound, 3,4,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodobenzene–tetraethyl ammonium chloride (2/1), Et4N+·Cl−·2C6F4I2, in the form of translucent needles. [(Et4NCl)(o-C6F4I2)2] packs in the C2/c space group. The asymmetric unit includes one molecule of DITFB, one Et4N+ cation located on a twofold ...

  20. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of N-(unsubstituted-N-(3,4-Methylenedioxyphenylmethylarylsulfonamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *Aziz-ur-Rehman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonamides belong to an active group with biological activities and these activities can be enhanced by introducing heterocyclic moiety. N-((3,4-methylenedioxyphenylmethyl arylsulfonamides (3a-f were synthesized by gearing up (3,4-methylenedioxyphenylmethyl amine (1 and arylsulfonyl chlorides (2a-f in a weak basic aqueous medium. The target molecules, 6a-f and 7a-f were yielded by the reaction of 3a-f with ethyl iodide (4 and 4-flourobenzyl chloride (5 respectively in a weak basic aprotic polar medium. Structural analysis of the synthesized molecules was processed through the spectral data of IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and EIMS. All the synthesized molecules were evaluated for the antibacterial activity and remained moderately better inhibitors.

  1. The subchronic effects of 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine on oxidative stress in rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the subchronic effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on several oxidative stress markers: index of lipid peroxidation (ILP, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, superoxide radical (O2.- levels, and reduced glutathione (GSH levels in the frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus of the rat. The study included 64 male Wistar rats (200-250g. The animals were treated per os with of 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA every day for 15 days. The subchronic administration of MDMA resulted in an increase in ILP, SOD and O2.-, and a decrease in GSH, from which we conclude that oxidative stress was induced in rat brain.

  2. Poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene as an entrapment support for amperometric enzyme sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano, Silvia; Tran-Minh, Canh; Piro, Benoît; Anh Dang, Lan; Chau Pham, Minh; Vittori, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    International audience A conducting polymer of poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDT) was used as a matrix for entrapment of enzymes onto a platinum electrode surface in order to construct amperometric biosensors. Glucose oxidase (GOD) was used as an example, and it was entrapped in the polymer during the electrochemical polymerization. Glucose in oxygenated solutions was tested by amperometric measurements at +650 mV (vs. SCE) in a batch system. The influence of several experimental param...

  3. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) neurotoxicity in rats: a reappraisal of past and present findings

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Michael H.; Wang, Xiaoying; Rothman, Richard B.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a widely abused illicit drug. In animals, high-dose administration of MDMA produces deficits in serotonin (5-HT) neurons (e.g., depletion of forebrain 5-HT) that have been interpreted as neurotoxicity. Whether such 5-HT deficits reflect neuronal damage is a matter of ongoing debate. Objective The present paper reviews four specific issues related to the hypothesis of MDMA neurotoxicity in rats: (1) the effects of MDMA on monoamine neurons,...

  4. NEURAL AND CARDIAC TOXICITIES ASSOCIATED WITH 3,4-METHYLENEDIOXYMETHAMPHETAMINE (MDMA)

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Michael H.; Rothman, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    (±)-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a commonly abused illicit drug which affects multiple organ systems. In animals, high-dose administration of MDMA produces deficits in serotonin (5-HT) neurons (e.g., depletion of forebrain 5-HT) that have been viewed as neurotoxicity. Recent data implicate MDMA in the development of valvular heart disease (VHD). The present paper reviews several issues related to MDMA-associated neural and cardiac toxicities. The hypothesis of MDMA neurotoxicit...

  5. Zingiber Officinale Alters 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rat Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Dabaghian, Fataneh; Nejhadi, Akram; Fallah-huseini, Hassan; Choopani, Samira; Shekarriz, Nima; Molavi, Nima; Basirat, Arghavan; Mohammadzadeh Kazorgah, Farzaneh; Samzadeh-Kermani, Alireza; Soleimani Asl, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The spice Zingiber officinale or ginger possesses antioxidant activity and neuroprotective effects. The effects of this traditional herbal medicine on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) induced neurotoxicity have not yet been studied. The present study considers the effects of Zingiber officinale on MDMA-induced spatial memory impairment and apoptosis in the hippocampus of male rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 21 adult male Sprague Dawley rats (200-250...

  6. Discriminative Stimulus Effects of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine and Its Enantiomers in Mice: Pharmacokinetic Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Fantegrossi, William E.; Murai, Naoki; Mathúna, Brian Ó.; Pizarro, Nieves; de la Torre, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a drug of abuse with mixed stimulant- and hallucinogen-like effects. The aims of the present studies were to establish discrimination of S(+)-MDMA, R(-)-MDMA, or their combination as racemic MDMA in separate groups of mice to assess cross-substitution tests among all three compounds, to determine the time courses of the training doses, to assess pharmacokinetic variables after single injections and after cumulative dosing, an...

  7. Endocrine and Neurochemical Effects of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine and Its Stereoisomers in Rhesus Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Murnane, K.S.; Fantegrossi, W. E.; Godfrey, J. R.; Banks, M L; Howell, L L

    2010-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is an amphetamine derivative that elicits complex biological effects in humans. One plausible mechanism for this phenomenon is that racemic MDMA is composed of two stereoisomers that exhibit qualitatively different pharmacological effects. In support of this, studies have shown that R(−)-MDMA tends to have hallucinogen-like effects, whereas S(+)-MDMA tends to have psychomotor stimulant-like effects. However, relatively little is known about whether the...

  8. ACTIONS OF 3,4-METHYLENEDIOXYMETHAMPHETAMINE (MDMA) ON CEREBRAL DOPAMINERIC, SEROTONERGIC AND CHOLINERGIC NEURONS

    OpenAIRE

    Gudelsky, Gary A.; Yamamoto, Bryan K.

    2007-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is an amphetamine derivative and a popular drug of abuse that exhibits mild hallucinogenic and rewarding properties and engenders feelings of connectedness and openness. The unique psychopharmacological profile of this drug of abuse most likely is derived from the property of MDMA to promote the release of dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) in multiple brain regions. The present review highlights primarily data from studies employing in vivo microdialysis t...

  9. Preliminary evidence of motor impairment among polysubstance 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine users with intact neuropsychological functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Bousman, Chad A.; Cherner, Mariana; Emory, Kristen T; BARRON, DANIEL; Grebenstein, Patricia; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Heaton, Robert K.; Grant, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychological disturbances have been reported in association with use of the recreational drug “ecstasy,” or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), but findings have been inconsistent. We performed comprehensive neuropsychological testing examining seven ability domains in 21 MDMA users (MDMA+) and 21 matched control participants (MDMA−). Among MDMA+ participants, median [interquartile range] lifetime MDMA use was 186 [111, 516] doses, with 120 [35–365] days of abstinence. There were ...

  10. The role of norephinephrine in the pharmacology of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy")

    OpenAIRE

    Hysek, Cédric Marc

    2013-01-01

    The amphetamine derivative 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is a widely used recreational drug, which produces strong psychological effects such as increased empathy and sociability. MDMA inhibits the uptake of and releases serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine via an interaction with the respective monoamine transporter. While the role of serotonin in the human pharmacology of MDMA has been well described, the role of norepinephrine in the mediation of the effect of MDMA i...

  11. Interactions between bupropion and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Yasmin; Rickli, Anna; Schaffner, Antonia; Duthaler, Urs; Grouzmann, Eric; Hysek, Cédric M.; Liechti, Matthias E

    2015-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "ecstasy") is a popular recreational drug. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of dopamine in the psychotropic effects of MDMA using bupropion to inhibit the dopamine and norepinephrine transporters through which MDMA releases dopamine and norepinephrine by investigating. The pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between bupropion and MDMA in 16 healthy subjects were investigated using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cro...

  12. Nonlinear Pharmacokinetics of (±)3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and Its Pharmacodynamic Consequences in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Concheiro, Marta; Baumann, Michael H.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Rothman, Richard B.; Marrone, Gina F.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a widely abused illicit drug that can cause severe and even fatal adverse effects. However, interest remains for its possible clinical applications in posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety treatment. Preclinical studies to determine MDMA’s safety are needed. We evaluated MDMA’s pharmacokinetics and metabolism in male rats receiving 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg s.c. MDMA, and the associated pharmacodynamic consequences. Blood was collected via jugular ca...

  13. Significant Electronic Thermal Transport in the Conducting Polymer Poly(3,4‐ethylenedioxythiophene)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weathers, Annie; Khan, Zia Ullah; Brooke, Robert;

    2015-01-01

    Suspended microdevices are employed to measure the in-plane electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient of suspended poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin films. The measured thermal conductivity is higher than previously reported for PEDOT and generally increases...... with the electrical conductivity. The increase exceeds that predicted by the Wiedemann–Franz law for metals and can be explained by significant electronic thermal transport in PEDOT....

  14. Electrical conductivity in 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhidride (PTCDA)

    OpenAIRE

    Bratina, Gvido; Hudej, Robert; Zavrtanik, Marko; Brownell, John Nimly

    2015-01-01

    The transient photoresponse in 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride was examined in metal/organic semiconductor/metal heterostructures. Electron-hole pairs are generated within the structure for fields higher than 5 X 10[sup]4 V/cm as a consequence of the exciton dissociation. The mobility of the electrons perpendicular to the molecular layers increases with the applied electric field and saturates for fields higher than 5 X 10[sup]4 V/cm.

  15. Early effects of inhaled 239Pu(NO3)4 aerosols in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs given a single inhalation exposure to 239Pu(NO3)4, and observed for life-span dose-effect relationship, died from radiation pneumonitis (4 of 5) at the highest dosage level, 14 to 25 mo postexposure. There were also indications in these dogs of radiation osteosis, characterized by peritrabecular fibrosis. Leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia and decreased numbers of circulating monocytes and eosinophils occurred at the two highest dosage levels, as previously reported

  16. Der Einfluss von Bodeneigenschaften auf die Wirkung des Nitrifikationshemmstoffes 3,4 - Dimethylpyrazole - Phosphat

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    The influence of soil properties, inhibitor concentration, soil matric potential and application form on the nitrification inhibitory effect of 3,4-dimethylpyrazole-phosphate (DMPP) has been investigated. Based on short - term incubation experiments, the inhibitor effect was higher in sandy soils compared with loamy soils. The influence of soil parameters on the relative nitrite formation were best described by a multiple regression model including the sand fraction, soil H+-concentration...

  17. Electric-field-induced linear birefringence in TmAl3(BO3)4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashchenko, M I; Bedarev, V A; Merenkov, D N; Gnatchenko, S L; Bezmaternykh, L N; Sukhachev, A L; Temerov, V L

    2016-04-20

    The linear birefringence induced by the electric field was first detected in a TmAl3(BO3)4 single crystal. The electric field dependence of the birefringence was investigated. The estimation of the electro-optical coefficient of the material gives ≈1.5×10-10  cm/V for a wavelength 632.8 nm. PMID:27140114

  18. Polymerization of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) around living neural cells

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson-Burns, Sarah M.; Hendricks, Jeffrey L.; Foster, Brian; Povlich, Laura K.; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Martin, David C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe interactions between neural cells and the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) toward development of electrically conductive biomaterials intended for direct, functional contact with electrically-active tissues such as the nervous system, heart, and skeletal muscle. We introduce a process for polymerizing PEDOT around living cells and describe a neural cell-templated conducting polymer coating for microelectrodes and a hybrid conducting polymer-...

  19. Synthesis and Evaluation of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) Coated Magnesium for Nerve Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Sebaa, Meriam Amel

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to develop conductive, biodegradable, mechanically strong, and biocompatible nerve conduits, pure magnesium (Mg) was used as the biodegradable substrate material to provide strength while the conductive polymer, poly(3,4ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was used as a conductive coating material to control Mg degradation and improve cytocompatibility of Mg substrates. A series of electrochemical deposition conditions were explored to produce a uniform, consistent PEDOT coating on M...

  20. Syntheses of 3,4-benzotropolones by ring-closing metatheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arican, Deniz; Brückner, Reinhard

    2013-06-01

    Ortho-lithiated styrenes or ortho-lithiated benzaldehyde dimethyl acetals were added to 2,2-dimethoxypent-4-enals 7. The resulting alcohols were carried on to the aromatic dienones 10. These were ring-closed by olefin metathesis. Hydrolysis of the dimethyl ketal moiety and enolization provided the 3,4-benzotropolones 5. Overall, this access comprises 4-6 steps and totaled a 22-81% yield.

  1. {2,2′-[Pyridine-3,4-diylbis(nitrilomethylidyne]diphenolato}zinc(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Sheng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Zn(C19H13N3O2], has been synthesized by the reaction of Zn(ClO42·6H2O and the tetradentate Schiff base ligand 2,2′-[pyridine-3,4-diylbis(nitrilomethylidyne]diphenol (L. The coordination geometry of the ZnII ion is slightly distorted square-planar, formed by two N atoms and two O atoms from the L ligand.

  2. 2-[3-(4-Methoxyphenyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl]phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C22H18N2O2, was derived from 1-(2-hydroxyphenyl-3-(4-methoxyphenylpropane-1,3-dione. The central pyrazole ring forms dihedral angles of 16.83 (5, 48.97 (4 and 51.68 (4°, respectively, with the methoxyphenyl, phenyl and hydroxyphenyl rings. The crystal packing is stabilized by O—H...N hydrogen bonding.

  3. A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Nupur Jaiswal; Arvind Kumar Singh; Deepika Singh; Tanveer Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Heterocyclic compounds possess diverse biological properties that has lead to intense study and research of these compounds. One of these compounds is oxadiazole which has been found to exhibit various pharmacological activities. Oxadiazole is a five membered heterocyclic ring which is a versatile lead compound for designing potent bioactive agents. It exists in four isomeric forms. Out of its four isomers 1, 3, 4-oxadizole exhibited a wide range of biological activities which includes antib...

  4. New 3,4-seco-Grayanane Diterpenoids from the Flowers of Pieris japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lang; Li, Yanping; Li, Hongmei; Liu, Dan; Li, Rongtao

    2016-01-01

    Three new 3,4-seco-grayanane diterpenoids, neopierisoids D-F (2-4), and a new natural one, neopierisoid C (1), were isolated from the flowers of Pieris japonica. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including one and two dimensional (1- and 2D)-NMR, as well as high resolution-electron ionization (HR-EI)-MS. PMID:27477663

  5. Optical properties of undoped and Yb3+-doped YAl3(BO3)4 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of nominally undoped and Yb3+-doped (7 at %) YAl3(BO3)4 crystals have been measured in the visible range at temperatures from 20 to 400 deg C. The refractive indices are found to increase with temperature. The thermo-optic coefficients are on the order of ∼10-6. The temperature dependences of the refractive indices show a number of anomalies, suggestive of an incommensurate staircase-like system for the crystal

  6. Synthesis of Furazano[3,4-e]-1,2,3,4-tetrazine-1,3-dioxide%呋咱并[3,4-e]-1,2,3,4-四嗪-1,3-二氧化物(FTDO)的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董琳琳; 张光全; 池钰; 范桂娟; 何玲; 陶国宏; 黄明

    2012-01-01

    Furazano[3,4-e]-1 ,2 ,3 ,4-tetrazine-1 ,3-dioxide( FTDO) has been synthesized in the work. Firstly, diaminoglyoxime (DAG) was obtained via the one-step reaction of glyoxal with hydroxylammonium chloride. 3 ,4-Diaminofurazan ( DAF) was obtained by the dehydration reaction of DAG. Then the oxidation of DAF using 30% H2O2 gave 3-amino-4-nitrosofurazan( ANF), and 3-amino-4-( tert-butyl) azoxyfurazan was prepared after the treatment of ANF with tert-butyl-N, N-dibromide in dichlorometh-ane. Finally, FTDO was obtained by the nitration and cyclization of 3-amino-4-(tert-butyl) azoxyfurazan with nitronium tetraflu-orobrate ( NO2BF4) in acetonitrile with the total yield of 1 8% . The structures of FTDO and its intermediates were characterized by IR and NMR.%以乙二醛和盐酸羟胺为原料,合成了二氨基乙二肟(DAG),经过脱水成环得到3,4-二氨基呋咱(DAF),再在30%的双氧水作用下氧化得到亚硝基氨基呋咱(ANF),ANF与N,N-二溴叔丁基胺缩合得到3-氨基-4-(叔丁基氧化偶氮基)呋咱,最后经四氟硼酸銷(NO2BF4)硝化成环得目标产物FTDO,总收率18%(基于DAF),并对其进行了红外和核磁表征.

  7. STD Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-19

    April is National STD Awareness Month. STDs can affect anyone. Many STDs don't have symptoms so it's important to get tested.  Created: 4/19/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 4/19/2011.

  8. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  9. Monthly energy review, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-24

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  10. Monthly energy review, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review contains statistical data on the following: energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. In addition, an energy overview is provided, and, for the April issue, Energy use and carbon emissions; Some international comparisons.

  11. Monthly energy review, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  12. Monthly energy review, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum,natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal metric conversion factors.

  13. Electric power monthly, March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-20

    This report for March 1995, presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  14. Periodic progress report, 12 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the first 12 months of the project started with the establishment of the cutting theory for the cutting of heavy sections (phase 1). Phase 2 comprises the design of the first laboratory version cutting head with optics, nozzle systems and interfaces for the various...

  15. Monthly energy review, February 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monthly Energy Review presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities

  16. Celebrating White Cane Awareness Month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Judy; McGraw, Jane M.

    1995-01-01

    White Cane Awareness Month was created to teach the public that the long cane is a tool for maintaining independence and dignity and a symbol of freedom, not of pity or helplessness. Public relations materials were developed, including a demonstration for television stations on use of the long cane and a quiz to distribute at information booths.…

  17. Electric Power Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-12

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost in fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 12 refs., 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  18. Monthly energy review, November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monthly publication contains statistical data on energy resources in the United States. Petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy are covered. Additional sections include an energy overview, energy consumption, oil and gas resource development and energy prices. This issue includes features on energy-related housing characteristics and the propane-provider fleet

  19. Monthly energy review, April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report presents an overview of monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. International energy and thermal metric conversion factors are included.

  20. Monthly energy review, November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. International energy and thermal and metric conversion factors are included.

  1. Monthly energy review, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-25

    The Monthly Energy Review provides an overview of the production, distribution, and consumption of energy derived from petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. It also discusses oil and gas resource development, energy prices, and issues relevant to international energy markets.

  2. Monthly energy review, July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document presents an overview of the recent monthly energy statistics from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Statistical data covers activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels , nuclear energy, and electricity. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  3. Monthly energy review, December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monthly publication contains statistical data on energy resources in the United States. Petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy are covered. Additional sections include an energy overview, energy consumption, oil and gas resource development and energy prices. This issue includes a market assessment of alternative-fuel vehicles in the Atlanta private fleet for 1994

  4. Prediction of Malaysian monthly GDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hin, Pooi Ah; Ching, Soo Huei; Yeing, Pan Wei

    2015-12-01

    The paper attempts to use a method based on multivariate power-normal distribution to predict the Malaysian Gross Domestic Product next month. Letting r(t) be the vector consisting of the month-t values on m selected macroeconomic variables, and GDP, we model the month-(t+1) GDP to be dependent on the present and l-1 past values r(t), r(t-1),…,r(t-l+1) via a conditional distribution which is derived from a [(m+1)l+1]-dimensional power-normal distribution. The 100(α/2)% and 100(1-α/2)% points of the conditional distribution may be used to form an out-of sample prediction interval. This interval together with the mean of the conditional distribution may be used to predict the month-(t+1) GDP. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), estimated coverage probability and average length of the prediction interval are used as the criterions for selecting the suitable lag value l-1 and the subset from a pool of 17 macroeconomic variables. It is found that the relatively better models would be those of which 2 ≤ l ≤ 3, and involving one or two of the macroeconomic variables given by Market Indicative Yield, Oil Prices, Exchange Rate and Import Trade.

  5. Monthly energy review, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-29

    The Monthly Energy Review provides information on production, distribution, consumption, prices, imports, and exports for the following US energy sources: petroleum; petroleum products; natural gas; coal; electricity; and nuclear energy. The section on international energy contains data for world crude oil production and consumption, petroleum stocks in OECD countries, and nuclear electricity gross generation.

  6. Natural gas monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-03

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  7. Monthly energy review, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-26

    The Monthly Energy Review presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities.

  8. Natural gas monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-05

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

  9. Monthly energy review, December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides data on monthly energy use and fossil fuels. The following sections are included: Highlights: Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1985--1990; Highlights: assessment of energy use in multibuilding facilities; energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices; and international energy

  10. Monthly energy review, April 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monthly Energy Review contains statistical data on the following: energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. In addition, an energy overview is provided, and, for the April issue, Energy use and carbon emissions; Some international comparisons

  11. Prenatal exposure to alcohol and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) alters adult hippocampal neurogenesis and causes enduring memory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Juan J; Ferrer-Donato, Agueda

    2014-01-01

    Recreational drug use among pregnant women is a source of concern due to potential harmful effects of drug exposure on prenatal and infant development. The simultaneous abuse of ecstasy [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] and alcohol is prevalent among young adults, including young expectant mothers. Here, we used a rat model to study the potential risks associated with exposure to alcohol and MDMA during pregnancy. Pregnant rats received alcohol, MDMA, or both alcohol and MDMA by gavage at E13 through E15 twice daily. Female offspring treated prenatally with the combination of alcohol and MDMA, but not those exposed to either drug separately, showed at 3 months of age decreased exploratory activity and impaired working memory function. Prenatal treatment with the combination of alcohol and MDMA decreased proliferation of neuronal precursors in the adult dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, as measured by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine labelling, and adult neurogenesis, assessed by quantifying doublecortin expression. These results provide the first evidence that the simultaneous abuse of alcohol and ecstasy during pregnancy, even for short periods of time, may cause significant abnormalities in neurocognitive development.

  12. Crystal structure and infrared spectrum of thallium holmium polyphosphate, TIHo(PO3)4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karima Horchani-Naifer; Jaouher Amami; Mokhtar Ferid

    2008-01-01

    Crystals of thallium-holmium polyphosphate TIHo(PO3)4 were grown by flux method technique and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Structure of TIHo(PO3)4 was solved for the first time, and it crystallized in the monoclinic P21/n space group with the following unit-cell dimensions: a=1.02225(3) nm, b=0.88536(2) nm, c=1.09541(4) nm, β=105.888(1)°, V=0.95354(5) nm3 and Z=4. The crystal structure was solved from 2174 independent reflections with final R1(F2)=0.0442 and Rw(F<2)=0.0861 refined with 164 parameters. The atomic arrangement could be described as a long chain polyphosphate organization. Holmium atoms had eighffold coordination. The structure of T1Ho(PO3)4 consisted of HoO8 polyhedra sharing oxygen atoms with phosphoric group PO4. Infrared spectrum was investigated at room temperature in the frequencies range, 350-4000 cm-1, showing some characteristic vibration bands of infinite chain structure of PO4 tetrahedra linked by bridging oxygen.

  13. Acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibitor activity of some novel pyrazinamide condensed 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Elumalai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new series of some novel pyrazinamide condensed 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidines was prepared by reacting of N-(3-oxobutanoylpyrazine-2-carboxamide with urea/thiourea and appropriate aldehyde in the presence of catalytic amount of laboratory made p-toluenesulfonic acid as an efficient catalyst. Confirmation of the chemical structure of the synthesized compounds (4a–l was substantiated by TLC, different spectral data IR, 1H NMR, mass spectra and elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for acetyl and butyl cholinesterase (AChE and BuChE inhibitor activity. The titled compounds exhibited weak, moderate or high AChE and BuChE inhibitor activity. Especially, compound (4l showed the best AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity of all the 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine derivatives, with an IC50 value of 0.11 μM and 3.4 μM.

  14. Inelastic Neutron Scattering on Multiferroics NdFe3(BO3)4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Shohei; Soda, Minoru; Itoh, Shinichi; Yokoo, Tetsuya; Ohgushi, Kenya; Kawana, Daichi; Masuda, Takatsugu

    Inelastic neutron scattering experiment is performed on single crystals of multiferroics NdFe3(11BO3)4 to explore the magnetic excitations. Fe-centered dispersive excitation with the band width of 5 meV is observed along the crystallographic c∗ direction and that of 3 meV is along the a∗ direction. The energy gap of 0.57 meV due to an axial-type anisotropy is ob- served at the AF zone center. The energy of Nd-centered flat excitation is 1 meV. Furthermore, anticrossing of the Fe- and Nd-centered excitations is observed, meaning the existence of the f -d coupling, i.e., the interaction between the Nd3+ and Fe3+ moments. Spin-wave analysis on the observed neutron spectrum revealed the underlying magnetic Hamiltonian in NdFe3(11BO3)4. Discussion on the axial-type anisotropy in the ab - plane based on the magnetic model leads to the conclusion that the anisotropy of the Nd3+ ion plays a main role in the determination of the structures of both magnetic moment and electric polarization in NdFe3(BO3)4.

  15. Lack of Evidence for 3/4 Scaling of Metabolism in Terrestrial Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Tao LI; Xing-Guo HAN; Jian-Guo WU

    2005-01-01

    Scaling, as the translation of information across spatial, temporal, and organizational scales, is essential to predictions and understanding in all sciences and has become a central issue in ecology. A large body of theoretical and empirical evidence concerning allometric scaling in terrestrial individual plants and plant communities has been constructed around the fractal volume-filling theory of West, Brown, and Enquist (the WBE model). One of the most thought-provoking findings has been that the metabolic rates of plants, like those of animals, scale with their size as a 3/4 power law. The earliest, single most-important study cited in support of the application of the WBE model to terrestrial plants claims that whole-plant resource use in terrestrial plants scales as the 3/4 power of total mass, as predicted by the WBE model.However, in the present study we show that empirical data actually do not support such a claim. More recent studies cited as evidence for 3/4 scaling also suffer from several statistical and data-related problems. Using a forest biomass dataset including 1 266 plots of 17 main forest types across China, we explored the scaling exponents between tree productivity and tree mass and found no universal value across forest stands. We conclude that there is not sufficient evidence to support the existence of a single constant scaling exponent for the metabolism-biomass relationship for terrestrial plants.

  16. Theoretical study of an energetic material di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Computations by density functional theory (DFT method are performed on a series of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives with different substituents and linkages. The heat of formation (HOF is predicted by the designed isodesmic reactions. The predicted results reveal that –N3 and –NN– groups are effective structural units for increasing the HOF values of the di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The HOMO–LUMO gap is affected by the substituents and linkage groups. Detonation performance is evaluated using the Kamlet–Jacobs approach based on the calculated density and HOF. The results indicate that –NO2, –NF2, –NH–, –NH–NH– and –NN– groups are helpful for enhancing the detonation properties of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The bond dissociation energy and bond order of the weakest bonds are analyzed to investigate their stability. It is observed that the –CH2–, –CH2–CH2– and –CHCH– groups are effective structural units for improving the stabilities of these derivatives. Considering the detonation performance and the stability, five compounds are screened as the potential candidates for high energy density materials.

  17. Theoretical study of an energetic material di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua ZHOU; Zhong-liang MA; Jian-long WANG; Dong WANG

    2014-01-01

    Computations by density functional theory (DFT) method are performed on a series of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives with different sub-stituents and linkages. The heat of formation (HOF ) is predicted by the designed isodesmic reactions. The predicted results reveal that eN3 and eN]Ne groups are effective structural units for increasing the HOF values of the di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The HOMOeLUMO gap is affected by the substituents and linkage groups. Detonation performance is evaluated using the KamleteJacobs approach based on the calculated density and HOF. The results indicate that eNO2, eNF2, eNHe, eNHeNHe and eN]Ne groups are helpful for enhancing the detonation properties of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The bond dissociation energy and bond order of the weakest bonds are analyzed to investigate their stability. It is observed that the eCH2e, eCH2eCH2e and eCH]CHe groups are effective structural units for improving the stabilities of these derivatives. Considering the detonation performance and the stability, five compounds are screened as the potential candidates for high energy density materials.

  18. POLYAMIDES WITH PENDANT 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE AND PYRIDINE MOIETIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yagoub Mansoori; Behzad Koohi-Zargar; Hemayat Shekaari; Mohammad Reza Zamanloo; Gholam Hassan Imanzadeh

    2012-01-01

    A novel aromatic diamine,2-(5-(3,5-diaminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-yl)pyridine (POBD),containing a pyridine ring and a 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety,was synthcsized.It was used in a polycondensation with various aromatic and aliphatic diacid chlorides to generate a series of new aromatic polyamides with pendant 1,3,4-oxadiazole groups.The prepared polyamides were characterized by IR,elemental analysis and through the synthesis of model compounds.Thermophysical properties of the synthesized polyamides have been studied by DSC,TGA and inherent viscosity measurements.Relatively high inherent viscosity values (0.76-1.62 dL/g,in 0.125% H2SO4 at 25℃) were observed for these compounds.Number average molecular weight (Mn) of the polymers was measured by vapor phase osmometry (VPO).The introduction of bulky side chains in the structure of aromatic polyamides led to increased solubility of these polymers in common polar and aprotic solvents,such as DMF,DMSO,NMP and DMAc,which allowed thin films to be cast from polymer solutions.The highest molecular weight (Mn =51190) was observed for polymer (Ⅸ),which was prepared from pyridine-2,6-dichlorocarbonyl.

  19. Probing magnetostructural correlations in multiferroic HoA l3(BO3) 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Yu, T.; Chen, Z.; Nelson, C. S.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.; Abeykoon, A. M. M.; Tyson, T. A.

    2015-09-01

    The system HoA l3(BO3) 4 has recently been found to exhibit a large magnetoelectric effect. To understand the mechanism, macroscopic and atomic level properties of HoA l3(BO3) 4 were explored by temperature and magnetic field dependent heat capacity measurements, pressure and temperature dependent x-ray diffraction measurements, as well as temperature and magnetic field dependent x-ray absorption fine structure measurements. The experimental work was complemented by density functional theory calculations. An anomalous change in the structure is found in the temperature range where large magnetoelectric effects occur. No significant structural change or distortion of the Ho O6 polyhedra is seen to occur with magnetic field. However, the magnetic field dependent structural measurements reveal enhanced correlation between neighboring Ho O6 polyhedra. This observed response is seen to saturate near 3 T. A qualitative atomic level description of the mechanism behind the large electric polarization induced by magnetic fields in the general class of RA l3(BO3) 4 systems (R = rare earth) is developed.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  1. Electric power monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels. Data on quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels lag data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the US, Census division, and State level tables. However, for purposes of comparison, plant-level data are presented for the earlier month.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  3. Monthly energy review, March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Energy production during December 1997 totaled 5.9 quadrillion Btu, a 2.8 percent increase from the level of production during December 1996. Coal production increased 9.5 percent, natural gas production increased 3.9 percent, and production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids decreased 1.1 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.9 percent from the level of production during December 1996.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  5. Natural gas monthly, October 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-05

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. 16 figs., 33 tabs.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  7. Natural Gas Monthly August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. Explanatory notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication.

  8. Natural gas monthly, August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This analysis presents the most recent data on natural gas prices, supply, and consumption from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The presentation of the latest monthly data is followed by an update on natural gas markets. The markets section examines the behavior of daily spot and futures prices based on information from trade press, as well as regional, weekly data on natural gas storage from the American Gas Association (AGA). This {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} closes with a special section comparing and contrasting EIA and AGA storage data on a monthly and regional basis. The regions used are those defined by the AGA for their weekly data collection effort: the Producing Region, the Consuming Region East, and the Consuming Region West. While data on working gas levels have tracked fairly closely between the two data sources, differences have developed recently. The largest difference is in estimates of working gas levels in the East consuming region during the heating season.

  9. Natural gas monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-25

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The NGM also features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  10. Monthly energy review, December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-21

    This publication presents an overview of EIA`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. An energy preview of alternative fuel providers vehicle fleet surveys is included. The publication is intended for use by members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  11. Monthly energy review, October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Information is also provided for oil and gas resource development. International energy statistics are given for petroleum production, consumption, and stocks, and for nuclear electricity gross generation. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  12. Mineral of the month: magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium, often confused with last month’s mineral of the month manganese, is valued primarily because of its light weight and high strength-to-weight ratio. Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element and constitutes about 2 percent of the Earth’s crust. It is the third most plentiful element dissolved in seawater, with a concentration averaging 0.13 percent. Magnesium is found in over 60 minerals, and also is recovered from seawater, wells, and lake brines and bitterns.

  13. Electric power monthly, May 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and Stage agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities in Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  14. Electric Power monthly, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  15. Natural gas monthly, March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  16. Electric power monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-20

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  17. Natural gas monthly, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly contains estimates for March 1999 for many natural gas data series at the national level. Estimates of national natural gas prices are available through December 1998 for most series. Highlights of the data contained in this issue are listed below. Preliminary data indicate that the national average wellhead price for 1998 declined to 16% from the previous year ($1.96 compared to $2.32 per thousand cubic feet). At the end of March, the end of the 1998--1999 heating season, the level of working gas in underground natural gas storage facilities is estimated to be 1,354 billion cubic feet, 169 billion cubic feet higher than at the end of March 1998. Gas consumption during the first 3 months of 1999 is estimated to have been 179 billion cubic feet higher than in the same period in 1998. Most of this increase (133 billion cubic feet) occurred in the residential sector due to the cooler temperatures in January and February compared to the same months last year. According to the National Weather Service, heating degree days in January 1999 were 15% greater than the previous year while February recorded a 5% increase.

  18. Electric power monthly, January 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels

  19. Electric Power Monthly, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-13

    The EPM is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 40 tabs.

  20. Electric power monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-26

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  1. Electric power monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-16

    The Electric Power Monthly (EMP) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  2. Inhibition of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) metabolism leads to marked decrease in 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA) formation but no change in serotonin neurotoxicity: Implications for mechanisms of neurotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Melanie; Yuan, Jie; Adrian, Concepcion Maldonado; McCann, Una D.; Ricaurte, George A.

    2011-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)’s O-demethylenated metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA), has been hypothesized to serve as a precursor for the formation of toxic catechol thioether metabolites (e.g. 5-N-acetylcystein-S-yl-HHMA) that mediate 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) neurotoxicity. To further test this hypothesis, HHMA formation was blocked with dextromethorphan (DXM), which competitively inhibits cytochrome P450 enzyme-mediated O-demethylenation of MDMA to H...

  3. [Assessment of the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, J-J; Legros, H; Janin, Fr; Dourmap, N; Costentin, J

    2004-09-01

    This work was carried out in order to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL). This aldehyde is formed from dopamine (DA) by monoamine oxidases (MAO) and is mainly oxidised to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid by brain aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH), or eventually reduced to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol by aldose/aldehyde reductases. In vitro, catecholaminergic SH-SY5Y cells were incubated with DA and disulfiram (DSF), an irreversible inhibitor of ALDH. As evidenced by MTT assays, a 24-h treatment with 10(-4) M DA and/or 10(-6) M DSF followed by a 24-h incubation in a drug-free medium evidenced that the toxicity of each of these drugs was potentiated by the second drug. HPLC measurements demonstrated that this drug association induced an early DOPAL production that could result in a delayed cell toxicity. For in vivo studies, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with L-DOPA-benserazide, which increases the production of DOPAL by MAO, and DSF. An acute injection of DSF (100mg/kg i.p.) and L-DOPA/benserazide (100mg/kg+25mg/kg, 24h later) significantly increased the DOPAL striatal level. However, a 30-day treatment with DSF (100mg/kg i.p., once every two days) and L-DOPA/benserazide (100mg/kg+25mg/kg, twice a day) did not affect both indexes used to assess the integrity of the nigro-striatal dopaminergic terminals (i.e. the striatal content in DA and the binding to the vesicular monoamine transporter on striatal membranes). These results do not support the hypothesis of a DOPAL toxicity and argue against the toxicity of L-DOPA therapy.

  4. Chiral 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ones as highly selective FAAH inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jayendra Z; Parkkari, Teija; Laitinen, Tuomo; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Saario, Susanna M; Savinainen, Juha R; Navia-Paldanius, Dina; Cipriano, Mariateresa; Leppänen, Jukka; Koshevoy, Igor O; Poso, Antti; Fowler, Christopher J; Laitinen, Jarmo T; Nevalainen, Tapio

    2013-11-14

    In the present study, identification of chiral 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ones as potent and selective FAAH inhibitors has been described. The separated enantiomers showed clear differences in the potency and selectivity toward both FAAH and MAGL. Additionally, the importance of the chirality on the inhibitory activity and selectivity was proven by the simplification approach by removing a methyl group at the 3-position of the 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-one ring. The most potent compound of the series, the S-enantiomer of 3-(1-(4-isobutylphenyl)ethyl)-5-methoxy-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3H)-one (JZP-327A, 51), inhibited human recombinant FAAH (hrFAAH) in the low nanomolar range (IC50 = 11 nM), whereas its corresponding R-enantiomer 52 showed only moderate inhibition toward hrFAAH (IC50 = 0.24 μM). In contrast to hrFAAH, R-enantiomer 52 was more potent in inhibiting the activity of hrMAGL compared to S-enantiomer 51 (IC50 = 4.0 μM and 16% inhibition at 10 μM, respectively). The FAAH selectivity of the compound 51 over the supposed main off-targets, MAGL and COX, was found to be >900-fold. In addition, activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) indicated high selectivity over other serine hydrolases. Finally, the selected S-enantiomers 51, 53, and 55 were shown to be tight binding, slowly reversible inhibitors of the hrFAAH.

  5. Crystal structure of Ag2(μ-SCN)2(NH3)4

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Thomas G.; Florian Kraus

    2016-01-01

    Di-μ-thiocyanato-bis[diamminesilver(I)], [Ag2(μ-SCN)2(NH3)4], was synthesized by the reaction of AgSCN with anhydrous liquid ammonia. In the binuclear molecule, the AgI atom is coordinated by two ammine ligands and the S atom of one thiocyanate ligand. Two of these [Ag(SCN)(NH3)2] units are bridged by the S atoms of the thiocyanate anions at longer distances, leading to a dimer with point group symmetry C2. The distance between the AgI atoms in the dimer is at 3.0927 (6) Å within the range of...

  6. Tolerance to 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in Rats Exposed to Single High-Dose Binges

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Michael H.; Clark, Robert D; Franken, Frederick H.; Rutter, John J.; Rothman, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or Ecstasy) stimulates the transporter-mediated release of monoamines, including serotonin (5-HT). High-dose exposure to MDMA causes persistent 5-HT deficits (e.g., depletion of brain 5-HT) in animals, yet the functional and clinical relevance of such deficits are poorly defined. Here we examine functional consequences of MDMA-induced 5-HT depletions in rats. Male rats received binges of 3 ip injections of MDMA or saline, one injection every 2 h; MDMA w...

  7. Characterization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate conductive polymer microelectrodes for transmitter detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon T.; Vreeland, Richard F.; Heien, Michael L.;

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the physical and electrochemical properties of micropatterned poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate (PEDOT:tosylate) microelectrodes for neurochemical detection. PEDOT:tosylate is a promising conductive polymer electrode material for chip-based bioanalytical...... applications such as capillary electrophoresis, high-performance liquid chromatography, and constant potential amperometry at living cells. Band electrodes with widths down to 3 μm were fabricated on polymer substrates using UV lithographic methods. The electrodes are electrochemically stable in a range...

  8. Recognizability of the Simple $K_n$-Groups ($n=3, 4$)

    OpenAIRE

    Khosravi, Behrooz; Khosravi, Bahman; Khosravi, Behnam

    2008-01-01

    Let $G$ be a finite group. Based on the prime graph of $G$, the order of $G$ can be divided into a product of co-prime positive integers. These integers are called order components of $G$ and the set of order components is denoted by $OC(G)$. Some non-abelian simple groups are known to be uniquely determined by their order components. In this paper we discuss the recognizability of simple $K_n$-groups ($n=3, 4$) by their order components.

  9. The Electrochemical Degradation of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Films Electrodeposited from Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Láng, Gyözö G.; Ujvári, Mária; Vesztergom, Soma; Kondratiev, Veniamin; Gubicza, Jenö; Szekeres, Krisztina J.

    2016-09-01

    In this review, results of recent studies on the electrochemical stability and degradation properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) films are summarized, with particular emphasis on the structural changes induced by overoxidation and electrochemical degradation. The most important electrodeposition methods for the preparation of PEDOT films in surfactant free aqueous media have also been summarized, and several experimental techniques suitable for monitoring the degradation process have been discussed. Morphological changes in PEDOT films during overoxidation have been analyzed. Overoxidation mechanisms proposed in the literature have been surveyed.

  10. 3.4 Gbit/s visible optical wireless transmission based on RGB LED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, G; Khalid, A M; Choudhury, P; Corsini, R; Ciaramella, E

    2012-12-10

    In this paper, we experimentally realized a gigabit-class indoor visible light communication system using commercially available RGB White LED and exploiting an optimized DMT modulation. We achieved data rate of 1.5 Gbit/s with single channel and 3.4 Gbit/s by implementing WDM transmission at standard illumination levels. In both experiments, the resulting bit error ratios were below the FEC limit. To the best of our knowledge, these values are the highest ever achieved in VLC systems.

  11. 2,3,4,5-Tetrafluorobenzoic acid–4,4′-bipyridine (2/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zhu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 2C7H2F4O2·C10H8N2, contains one molecule of 2,3,4,5-tetrafluorobenzoic acid (tfb and half of a centrosymmetric 4,4′-bipyridine molecule. Intermolecular O—H...N hydrogen bonds link two tfb molecules and one 4,4′-bipyridine molecule into a trimer. Weak intermolecular C—H...F interactions assemble these trimers into a three-dimensional network structure.

  12. 2,3,4,5-Tetrafluorobenzoic acid–4,4′-bipyridine (2/1)

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohui Zhu

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 2C7H2F4O2·C10H8N2, contains one molecule of 2,3,4,5-tetrafluorobenzoic acid (tfb) and half of a centrosymmetric 4,4′-bipyridine molecule. Intermolecular O—H...N hydrogen bonds link two tfb molecules and one 4,4′-bipyridine molecule into a trimer. Weak intermolecular C—H...F interactions assemble these trimers into a three-dimensional network structure.

  13. Three-Photon Absorption and Upconversion Fluorescence Properties of Series 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei; LU Chang-Gui; QIAN Ying; LIU Chang; WANG Zhu-Yuan; CUI Yi-Ping

    2008-01-01

    @@ A newly synthesized 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives have been studied using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser system.The series molecules present strong three-photon absorption and frequency upconversion fluorescence at wavelengths from 1205nm to 1575nm.Furthermore,there is no proportional relationship between three-photon absorption cross sections and the chemical structure transformation from monomer,dimer to trimer.Effective charge-transfer distance by π-conjugation bonds may be the contributing factor.In the experimental design,the far-field intensity distribution of femtosecond laeer beam has been taken into account.

  14. Na + concentration dependence of intermolecular distance in 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Kazuhito

    2010-01-01

    We have discussed the Na + concentration dependence of the intermolecular distance of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) dimers in aqueous solution of NaOH. We have particularly focused on the S10-S00 transition of the PTCDA dimers which is sensitive to the intermolecular distance and we have found that the S10 state is split for the higher lying sublevel and the lower lying sublevel with the increase of the Na + concentrations. From the energy shift of the lower lying sublevel, we have estimated the intermolecular distance of the PTCDA dimer, that changes from 7.5 to 4.9 Å by the Na + concentration.

  15. 2-Isobutyl-6-(4-methoxyphenylimidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H17N3OS, the dihedral angle between the statistically planar imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole fused-ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.002 Å and the methyoxbenzene ring is 4.52 (6°. In the crystal, molecules are arranged into columns and stacked down the a axis. The crystal structure is stabilized by weak C—H...π and π–π interactions [centroid–centroid separations = 3.6053 (8 and 3.7088 (7 Å].

  16. Pyrrolodiazines. 4. Structure and chemistry of 3,4-dihydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine

    OpenAIRE

    Minguez Ortega, José Miguel; Castellote Álvaro, María Isabel; Vaquero López, Juan José; García Navío, José Luis; Álvarez-Builla Gómez, Julio; Castaño González, Obis Dionisio; Andrés, José L. de

    1997-01-01

    The structure of 3,4-dihydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine and its N-protonated form is studied by ab initio calculations. Examples of the reactivity of this poorly studied system are presented in which it is shown that the imino moiety does not react with dienes but does undergo inter- and intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions by reaction of azomethine ylides of this bicyclic system with suitable dipolarophiles. Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia Centro de Computación de Galixia (CESGA)

  17. The effects of trace elements, cations, and environmental conditions on protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Scaramal da Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenanthracene is a highly toxic organic compound capable of contaminating water and soils, and biodegradation is an important tool for remediating polluted environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of trace elements, cations, and environmental conditions on the activity of the protocatechol 3,4-dioxygenase (P3,4O enzyme produced by the isolate Leifsonia sp. in cell-free and immobilized extracts. The isolate was grown in Luria Bertani broth medium (LB amended with 250 mg L-1 of phenanthrene. Various levels of pH (4.0-9.0, temperature (5-80 °C, time (0-90 min, trace elements (Cu2+, Hg2+ and Fe3+, and cations (Mg2+, Mn2+, K+ and NH4+ were tested to determine which conditions optimized enzyme activity. In general, the immobilized extract exhibited higher enzyme activity than the cell-free extract in the presence of trace elements and cations. Adding iron yielded the highest relative activity for both cell-free and immobilized extracts, with values of 16 and 99 %, respectively. Copper also increased enzyme activity for both cell-free and immobilized extracts, with values of 8 and 44 %, respectively. Enzyme activity in the phosphate buffer was high across a wide range of pH, reaching 80 % in the pH range between 6.5 and 8.0. The optimum temperatures for enzyme activity differed for cell-free and immobilized extracts, with maximum enzyme activity observed at 35 ºC for the cell-free extract and at 55 ºC for the immobilized extract. The cell-free extract of the P3,4O enzyme exhibited high activity only during the first 3 min of incubation, when it showed 50 % relative activity, and dropped to 0 % after 60 min of incubation. By contrast, activity in the immobilized extract was maintained during 90 min of incubation. This isolate has important characteristics for phenanthrene biodegradation, producing high quantities of the P3,4O enzyme that forms part of the most important pathway for PAH biodegradation.

  18. Synthesis and biological activities of pyrazolo[3,4-g]quinoxaline derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavara, Laurent; Saugues, Emmanuelle; Alves, Georges; Debiton, Eric; Anizon, Fabrice; Moreau, Pascale

    2010-11-01

    The synthesis of new pyrazolo[3,4-g]quinoxaline derivatives, as well as their Pim kinases (Pim-1, Pim-2, Pim-3) inhibitory potencies and in vitro antiproliferative activities toward a human fibroblast primary culture and three human solid cancer cell lines (PA1, PC3 and DU145) are described. The results obtained in this preliminary structure-activity relationship study have pointed out that most of the compounds in this series exhibited interesting in vitro Pim-3 kinase inhibitory potencies. Moreover, some of the tested compounds have demonstrated favorable antiproliferative potencies.

  19. Structure and lattice dynamics of PrFe3(BO3)4: Ab initio calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshev, V. A.; Nikiforov, A. E.; Petrov, V. P.

    2016-06-01

    The crystal structure and phonon spectrum of PrFe3(BO3)4 are ab initio calculated in the context of the density functional theory. The ion coordinates in the unit cell of a crystal and the lattice parameters are evaluated from the calculations. The types and frequencies of the fundamental vibrations, as well as the line intensities of the IR spectrum, are determined. The elastic constants of the crystal are calculated. A "seed" frequency of the vibration strongly interacting with the electron excitation on the praseodymium ion is obtained for low-frequency A 2 mode. The calculated results are in agreement with the known experimental data.

  20. Synthesis and Bioassay of a New Class of Furanyl-1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galila A. Yacout

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase enzyme is a monophenol monoxygenase enzyme, which plays an important role in human as a rate limiting step enzyme for different specific metabolic pathways, as well as its useful application in industry and agriculture. So this study was carried out to test the effect of newly prepared compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazoles with different substituted groups on tyrosinase enzyme activity, hoping to use them in the treatment of some diseases arising from tyrosinase activity disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, autism, attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder, and cancer.

  1. Synthesis and Application of 3-(4-Hydroxyphenylimino)indolin-2-one as Corrosion Inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A isatin Schiff base, 3-(4-hydroxyphenylimino)indolin-2-one, was synthesized and analyzed by NMR and MS. The inhibition and the mechanism of the title compound on the corrosion of high protective Q235A steel in HCl solution were screened and discussed. The results indicated that it can inhibit the corrosion with moderate inhibition efficiency in different conditions, and the inhibition mechanism of the corrosion inhibiting may be mainly contributed to the adsorption. Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that extracts are mixed-type inhibitors. While the title compound was companied with hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and 1,4-dihydroxy-2-butyne(BOZ), the inhibition efficiency was enhanced effectively. (author)

  2. Analysis of spectrophotometric observations of Venus in the 3-4 micron region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martonchik, J. V.; Beer, R.

    1975-01-01

    Spectrophotometric data of Venus in the 3-4 micron region are analyzed in the context of current ideas concerning cloud properties. The results show that a homogeneous cloud model, using a unimodal particle size distribution compatible with the results of previous polarization studies, cannot satisfactorily explain the infrared observations. Assuming a composition of 75% H2SO4, agreement is possible if an upper layer of smaller particles is added to the homogeneous cloud. This inhomogeneous cloud structure, however, is not in agreement with the polarization results. Other models, involving bimodal particle size distributions, were also unsuccessful in explaining both sets of observations in a consistent manner.

  3. Synthesis and antimicrobial properties of 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogs containing dibenzosuberone moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moger, Manjunath [Mangalore University, Karnataka (India). Department of Chemistry; Satam, Vijay; Paniraj, A.S.; Gopinath, Vadiraj S.; Hindupur, Rama Mohan; Pati, Hari N., E-mail: hari.pati@advinus.com [Advinus Therapeutics Ltd., 21 and 22, Phase II, Peenya Industrial Area, Karnataka (India); Govindaraju, Darshan Raj C. [Department of Bio-Medicinal Research, Vidya Herbs Pvt. Ltd., Karnataka (India)

    2014-01-15

    A series of ten novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogs containing dibenzosuberone moiety were synthesized using linear as well as convergent synthesis approach. All the compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry, infrared (IR), {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR) spectroscopies and elemental analysis. These compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among ten analogs, four compounds, namely, 8a, 8d, 8e and 8j were found to be highly active antibacterial and antifungal agents (author)

  4. Flexible organic light-emitting diodes with poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene as transparent anode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The flexible oragnic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) fabricated on poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene/poly- styrenesulfonate (PEDOT/PSS) coated substrates were demonstrated. How the fabricating processes and the device structure will affect the device performance was studied and the atomic force microscopy was employed to analyze the mophorlogy of the conducting polymer anode. Under optimized conditions, flexible OLEDs with PEDOT anode showed the brightness up to 2760 cd/m2 and maximum external quantum efficiency of 1.4%. These data are comparable to those of conventional flexible OLEDs with ITO anode.

  5. Atmospheric chemistry of n-CxF2x+1CHO (x = 1, 2, 3, 4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, M. D.; Ball, J. C.; Wallington, T. J.;

    2006-01-01

    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the atmospheric fate of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) (x = 1, 2, 3, 4) radicals in 700 Torr O(2)/N(2) diluent at 298 +/- 3 K. A competition is observed between reaction with O(2) to form n-C(x)()F(2)(x)()(+1)C(O)O(2) radicals and decomposition to form n-C(x...... to the atmospheric chemistry of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) radicals and their possible role in contributing to the formation of perfluorocarboxylic acids in the environment....

  6. 1,3,4-Oxadiazole-containing histone deacetylase inhibitors: anticancer activities in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Sergio; Trisciuoglio, Daniela; De Luca, Teresa; Nebbioso, Angela; Labella, Donatella; Lenoci, Alessia; Bigogno, Chiara; Dondio, Giulio; Miceli, Marco; Brosch, Gerald; Del Bufalo, Donatella; Altucci, Lucia; Mai, Antonello

    2014-07-24

    We describe 1,3,4-oxadiazole-containing hydroxamates (2) and 2-aminoanilides (3) as histone deacetylase inhibitors. Among them, 2t, 2x, and 3i were the most potent and selective against HDAC1. In U937 leukemia cells, 2t was more potent than SAHA in inducing apoptosis, and 3i displayed cell differentiation with a potency similar to MS-275. In several acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines, as well as in U937 cells in combination with doxorubicin, 3i showed higher antiproliferative effects than SAHA. PMID:24972008

  7. Evaluation of Bcl-2 Family Gene Expression in Hippocampus of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine Treated Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed Hashemi-Nasl; Mohammad Taghi Joghataei; Alireza Samzadeh-Kermani; Seyed Behnamedin Jameie; Mansoure Soleimani; Ali Samadikuchaksaraei; Mohammad Hassan Farhadi; Kazem Mousavizadeh; Sara Soleimani Asl; Mehdi Mehdizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is an illicit, recreational drug that causes cellular death and neurotoxicity. This study evaluates the effects of different doses of MDMA on the expression of apoptosis–related proteins and genes in the hippocampus of adult rats. Materials and Methods: In this expremental study,a total of 20 male Sprague Dawley rats (200-250 g ) were treated with MDMA (0, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg i.p. twice daily) for 7 days. Seven days after the last administration...

  8. Synthesis and nonlinear optical characterization of new 1,3,4-oxadiazoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Chandrakantha; Arun M Isloor; Reji Philip; M Mohesh; Prakash Shetty; A M Vijesh

    2011-07-01

    A new series of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives containing 2-fluoro-4-methoxy phenyl were synthesized by refluxing mixture of acid hydrazide 3 with different aromatic carboxylic acids (a–e) in phosphorous oxychloride. These newly synthesized compounds were characterized by NMR, mass spectral, and IR spectral studies, and also by C, H, N analyses. The open-aperture z-scan experiment was employed to measure the optical nonlinearity of the samples at 532 nm, using 5 ns laser pulses. The measurements indicate that compound 4a, which contains Bromine, behaves as an optical limiter at this wavelength, with potential applications in optoelectronics.

  9. [Substrate specificity of carotenoid 3',4'-desaturase from Deinococcus radiodurans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zongtao; Tian, Bing; Shen, Shaochuan; Hu, Yuejin

    2010-10-01

    To examine the substrate specificity of carotenoid 3',4'-desaturase (DR2250) from Deinococcus radiodurans, we amplified the dr2250 gene by using PCR methods. The PCR products were digested by Hind III-BamH I and ligated into the vector pUC19, yielding recombinant vector pUC-CRTD. We analyzed the carotenoids of E. coli transformants containing pACCRT-EBI(Eu) and (or) pRK-CRTC and (or) pUC-CRTD. Our results demonstrated that DR2250 had substrate specificity on the carotenoids with hydroxyl group at C1 (1').

  10. Design, synthesis and cytotoxic activity of some novel compounds containing pyrazolo[3,4-]pyrimidines nucleus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manal M Kandeel; Sameha M Roshdy; Eman K A Abdelall; Mohamed A Abdelgawad; Phoebe F Lamie

    2013-09-01

    Novel pyrazolo[3,4-]pyrimidines were designed and synthesized as antitumour agents against human breast cancer adenoma (MCF-7). Molecular modelling and pharmacological screening were performed against breast cancer cell line and also certain synthetic pathways were developed in order to introduce functionality onto C6 and N5 positions of pyrimidine moiety. Surprisingly, all the test compounds showed IC50 lower than that of the standard olomoucine I, especially compounds 4b, 8a, 10b, 11a and b, which showed IC50 between 0.009 and 0.004 M.

  11. Sterically Stabilized Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Colloidal Dispersions Doped with Different Sulfonic Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tie Jun WANG; Ping CHEN; Xiu Jie HU; Shu Yun ZHOU

    2006-01-01

    The preparation of sterically stabilized poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene)(PEDOT)colloidal dispersions doped with different sulfonic acids is described. Three different sulfonic acids, i.e., p-toluenesulfonic acid, β-naphthalenesuffonic acid and D-camphor-10-sulfonic acid are used, facilitating the preparation of sterically stable PEDOT colloidal particles. The influences of the dopants and concentration of polymeric stabilizer on the yields, morphologies and electrical properties of the resultant colloidal particles were investigated. The colloidal particles with the size ranging from 172 to 334 nm have been obtained in good yields. The compressed pellet conductivity was as high as 4.5 Scm-1.

  12. 5-Bromo-N3-[(E-(6-bromopyridin-2-ylmethylidene]pyridine-3,4-diamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjian Cai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C11H8Br2N4, is a Schiff base obtained from 6-bromopicolinaldehyde and 5-bromopyridine-3,4-diamine. The molecule has an E configuration about the C=N bond and the dihedral angle between the two pyridine rings is 14.02 (1°. The observed conformation is stabilised by an intramolecular N—H...N hydrogen bond. In the crystal, molecules are stacked along the b axis and are linked through N—H...N hydrogen bonds into chains along the c axis.

  13. Vibrational spectra of ketamine hydrochloride and 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in terahertz range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangqin; Shen, Jingling; Jia, Yan

    2007-07-01

    The terahertz spectrum of ketamine hydrochloride at room temperature, in the range of 0.2-2.6THz, has been measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS). Full-geometry optimizations and frequency calculations using the density functional theory (DFT) are also applied to predict the absorption spectra of ketamine hydrochloride and 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). The results of the simulation show qualitative agreement with the experimental data especially for MDMA, and the observed spectra features are assigned based on the DFT calculation. The results suggest that use of the terahertz TDS technique can be an effective method for the detection and inspection of illicit drugs.

  14. Improved C3-4 transfer for treatment of root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk Animal experiments and clinical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zou; Xuecheng Cao; Jing Li; Lifeng Liu; Pingshan Wang; Jinfang Cai

    2012-01-01

    Experimental rats with root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk were treated with the improved C3-4 transfer for neurotization of C5-6. Results showed that Terzis grooming test scores were significantly increased at 6 months after treatment, the latency of C5-6 motor evoked potential was gradually shortened, and the amplitude was gradually increased. The rate of C3 instead of C5 and the C4 + phrenic nerve instead of C6 myelinated nerve fibers crossing through the anastomotic stoma was approximately 80%. Myelinated nerve fibers were arranged loosely but the thickness of the myelin sheath was similar to that of the healthy side. In clinical applications,39 patients with root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk were followed for 6 months to 4.5 years after treatment using the improved C3 instead of C5 nerve root transfer and C4 nerve root and phrenic nerve instead of C6 nerve root transfer. Results showed that the strength of the brachial biceps and deltoid muscles recovered to level III-IV, scapular muscle to level III-IV, latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major muscles to above level III, and the brachial triceps muscle to level 0-III. Results showed that the improved C3-4 transfer for root avulsion of the brachial plexus upper trunk in animal models is similar to clinical findings and that C3-4 and the phrenic nerve transfer for neurotization of C5-6 can innervate the avulsed brachial plexus upper trunk and promote the recovery of nerve function in the upper extremity.

  15. Synthesis, Characterization, and Electropolymerization of Extended Fused-Ring Thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine-Based Terthienyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine L. Konkol

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, characterization, and electropolymerization of a series of extended fused-ring thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine-based terthienyls are reported. The target terthienyls contain a central extended thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine analogue containing 2-thienyl units at the reactive α-positions of the central thiophene. The extended fused-ring thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine analogues studied include acenaphtho[1,2-b]thieno[3,4-e]pyrazine, dibenzo[f,h]thieno[3,4-b]quinoxaline, and thieno[3′,4′:5,6]-pyrazino[2,3-f][1,10]phenanthroline. Comparison of the electrochemical and photophysical properties to simple thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine-based terthienyls and their polymeric analogues are reported in order to provide structure-function relationships within this series of compounds and materials.

  16. The acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on oxidative stress in rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oxidative stress and oxygen free radicals are thought to play an important role in acute effects of a number of neurotoxic processes. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy, a ring substituted amphetamine derivate, has attracted a great deal of media attention in recent years due to its widespread abuse as recreational drug by the young generation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on oxidative stress parameters (index of lipid peroxidation - ILP, superoxide radicals O2-, superoxide dismutase - SOD and glutathione - GSH in frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus in Wistar rats. Materials and methods The study included 40 male Wistar rats (200-250 g, housed 4 per cage having free access to food and water. MDMA was dissolved in distillated water and administered peroraly at 5, 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg. 8 hours following MDMA, the rats were killed by decapitation, their brains were rapidly removed and the brain structures were dissected out on ice and analyzed biochemically. Results Acute peroral administration of a single dose (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg resulted in increase of ILP, O2-, SOD and decrease of GSH. Conclusion The results obtained in the present study suggest that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in MDMA-induced neurotoxicity and that the mechanism of MDMA neurotoxycity may vary between brain regions.

  17. Photocrosslinkable Star Polymers via RAFT-Copolymerizations with N-Ethylacrylate-3,4-dimethylmaleimide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Vana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Z-RAFT-star copolymerization of n-butyl acrylate (BA and N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAm, respectively, with N-ethylacrylate-3,4-dimethylmaleimide (1.1, a monomer carrying a UV-reactive unit that undergoes photocrosslinking. Addition of 1.1 slows down the polymerization rate both for BA and for NIPAm polymerization. Double star formation due to radical attack to the 3,4-dimethylmaleimide moiety was found in the case of BA. Dead polymer formation, presumably due to aminolysis as side-reaction, was pronounced in the NIPAm system. These two effects broadened the molar mass distributions, but did not impede the formation of functional star polymers. The composition of the copolymers as well as the reactivity ratios for the applied comonomers were determined via NMR spectroscopy (BA-co-1.1 r1.1 = 2.24 rBA = 0.95; NIPAm-co-1.1 r1.1 = 0.96 rNIPAm = 0.05. In both cases, the comonomer is consumed preferably in the beginning of the polymerization, thus forming gradient copolymer stars with the UV-reactive units being located in the outer sphere.

  18. Preparation of 3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3',4'-epoxycyclohexane carboxylate with phase transfer catalysis method%相转移催化法制备3,4-环氧基环己基甲酸-3',4'-环氧基环己基甲酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储进昌; 李乐; 章亚东

    2009-01-01

    采用磷钨杂多酸季铵盐为相转移催化剂,以过氧化氢为氧源,由3-环己烯甲酸-3'-环己烯甲酯(简称A)环氧化反应合成3,4-环氧基环己基甲酸-3',4'-环氧基环己基甲酯(简称AOO).考察了溶剂的种类、催化剂用量(质量)、反应物料比、反应温度、反应时间等因素对反应的影响.得到了适宜的合成反应条件,即以60 mmol A计,1,2-二氯乙烷30 mL,nA ∶nH2O2=1∶2.5,催化剂质量1.4 g,温度65℃,时间60 min.在该反应条件下,A的平均转化率在99%以上,产品AOO的平均产率为93.5%.产物经红外光谱、质谱分析证实为目标产物.

  19. Organic impurity profiling of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) synthesised from catechol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, Erin; Shimmon, Ronald; McDonagh, Andrew M

    2015-03-01

    This work examines the organic impurity profile of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) that has been synthesised from catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene), a common chemical reagent available in industrial quantities. The synthesis of MDMA from catechol proceeded via the common MDMA precursor safrole. Methylenation of catechol yielded 1,3-benzodioxole, which was brominated and then reacted with magnesium allyl bromide to form safrole. Eight organic impurities were identified in the synthetic safrole. Safrole was then converted to 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone (MDP2P) using two synthetic methods: Wacker oxidation (Route 1) and an isomerisation/peracid oxidation/acid dehydration method (Route 2). MDMA was then synthesised by reductive amination of MDP2P. Thirteen organic impurities were identified in MDMA synthesised via Route 1 and eleven organic impurities were identified in MDMA synthesised via Route 2. Overall, organic impurities in MDMA prepared from catechol indicated that synthetic safrole was used in the synthesis. The impurities also indicated which of the two synthetic routes was utilised.

  20. Infrared 3-4 Micron Spectroscopic Investigations of a Large Sample of Nearby Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, M; Maloney, P R; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Maloney, Philip R.

    2006-01-01

    We present infrared L-band (3-4 micron) nuclear spectra of a large sample of nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs).ULIRGs classified optically as non-Seyferts (LINERs, HII-regions, and unclassified) are our main targets. Using the 3.3 micron polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission and absorption features at 3.1 micron due to ice-covered dust and at 3.4 micron produced by bare carbonaceous dust, we search for signatures of powerful active galactic nuclei (AGNs) deeply buried along virtually all lines-of-sight. The 3.3 micron PAH emission, the signatures of starbursts, is detected in all but two non-Seyfert ULIRGs, but the estimated starburst magnitudes can account for only a small fraction of the infrared luminosities. Three LINER ULIRGs show spectra typical of almost pure buried AGNs, namely, strong absorption features with very small equivalent-width PAH emission. Besides these three sources, 14 LINER and 3 HII ULIRGs' nuclei show strong absorption features whose absolute optical depths sugg...

  1. THERMALLY STABLE POLYMERS CONTAINING 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE UNITS OBTAINED FROM HUISGEN REACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Mansoori; G.Barghian; B.Koohi-Zargar; Gh.Imanzadeh; M.Zamanloo

    2012-01-01

    Thermally stable polymers containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole units have been synthesized through Huisgen reaction of thc aromatic/aliphatic bis-tetrazole compounds with the aromatic/aliphatic bis-acid chlorides in pyridine as solvent.The obtained polymers are insoluble or slightly soluble even in polar aprotic solvents such as DMSO and DMF.Relatively high inherent viscosity values (0.61-1.33 dL/g,in 0.125% H2SO4 at 25℃) were observed for these compounds.Thermal analyses of the polymers using DSC and TGA techniques showed that the polymers have improved thermal stabilities.The glass transition temperature has not been observed in the fully aromatic polymers,but the polymers obtained from 5-[6-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)hexyl]-1H-tetrazole (Ⅳ) showed very clear Tg.A model reaction was also investigated and the resulting bis-1,3,4-oxadiazole compound was characterized by conventional spectroscopy methods.

  2. Crystal Structure and Substrate Specificity of Drosophila 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine Decarboxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Ding, H; Robinson, H; Christensen, B; Li, J

    2010-01-01

    3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase (DDC), also known as aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, catalyzes the decarboxylation of a number of aromatic L-amino acids. Physiologically, DDC is responsible for the production of dopamine and serotonin through the decarboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan, respectively. In insects, both dopamine and serotonin serve as classical neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or neurohormones, and dopamine is also involved in insect cuticle formation, eggshell hardening, and immune responses. In this study, we expressed a typical DDC enzyme from Drosophila melanogaster, critically analyzed its substrate specificity and biochemical properties, determined its crystal structure at 1.75 Angstrom resolution, and evaluated the roles residues T82 and H192 play in substrate binding and enzyme catalysis through site-directed mutagenesis of the enzyme. Our results establish that this DDC functions exclusively on the production of dopamine and serotonin, with no activity to tyrosine or tryptophan and catalyzes the formation of serotonin more efficiently than dopamine. The crystal structure of Drosophila DDC and the site-directed mutagenesis study of the enzyme demonstrate that T82 is involved in substrate binding and that H192 is used not only for substrate interaction, but for cofactor binding of drDDC as well. Through comparative analysis, the results also provide insight into the structure-function relationship of other insect DDC-like proteins.

  3. System analysis for application of operation at reduced temperature in YGN 3,4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary Water Stress Corrosion Craking(PWSCC) is one of the main reason threatening the integrity of steam generator(SG). The rate of PWSCC increases logarithmically with the temperature of reactor coolant. In order to delay the replacement of SG and save the O and M cost, it is decided to apply Operation at Reduced Temperature(ORT) in YGN 3,4 which is equipped with In-600 SG tube and is operating with the highest coolant temperature in the world. In this study, the system performance of YGN 3,4 is analyzed by sensitivity analysis to decide the operating condition of ORT. The F612 deg of hot-leg coolant temperature which can maintain the 100% of reactor power without the modification of Turbine-Generator(TG) hardware is selected as the economical initial operating condition for ORT. Considering the possibility of power uprating and the experience of ORT application at Palo Verde plants, the F611 deg of hot-leg coolant temperature is decided as the analysis condition for ORT

  4. The Discriminative Properties of N-ETHYL-3,4-METHYLENE Dioxyamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boja, John William

    The goal of this dissertation was to gain insight into the discriminative effects of N-ethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDE). In order to examine the possibility that MDE acts via both serotonergic and dopaminergic mechanisms, MDE was administered to three groups of rats trained to discriminate either (1) the serotonergic agent norfenfluramine from vehicle, (2) norfenfluramine from the dopaminergic agent amphetamine or (3) amphetamine from vehicle. The results of these discrimination studies are evidence that MDE expresses serotonergic and dopaminergic properties in a temporal pattern in which MDE initially activates the serotonergic system, followed by dopaminergic system activation. To examine additional discriminative effects of MDE, a separate group of rats was trained to discriminate 2.0 mg/kg MDE from vehicle. Various drugs were administrated to these animals to determine their similarity or dissimilarity to MDE. The results of this study are additional evidence as to a dual serotonergic/dopaminergic mediation for MDE. In addition, the related drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine produced similar effects but this drug was more potent and possessed a longer duration of action than MDE. Subsequently, administration of the known serotonergic synthesis inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) to the MDE trained rats reduced, but did not totally eliminate, MDE discrimination. This indicates that either reduced serotonin levels are still sufficient for MDE discrimination or that MDE discrimination is not solely mediated by serotonin. These experiments evidence a serotonergic/dopaminergic discriminative stimulus for MDE.

  5. 5-(4-Bromophenyl-2-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-3-methylsulfanyl-1-benzofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Dae Choi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C22H15BrO3S, crystallizes with four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The 4-bromophenyl rings are rotated out of the benzofuran planes, with dihedral angles for the four molecules of 20.8 (2, 17.8 (2, 23.5 (4 and 23.9 (4°. The dihedral angles between the 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl ring and the benzofuran plane are 13.5 (2, 7.1 (2, 18.6 (3 and 14.2 (3° in the four molecules. The crystal structure is stabilized by weak nonclassical intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds. The crystal structure also exhibits intermolecular aromatic π–π interactions between the benzene and furan rings and between the 4-bromophenyl and 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl rings from molecules of the same type; the centroid–centroid distances are 3.92 (1 and 3.79 (1, 3.91 (1, 3.77 (1 and 3.77 (1, and 3.79 (1 and 3.75 (1Å in the four molecules.

  6. Structurally-driven Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties within Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis; Pavlopoulou, Eleni; Portale, Giuseppe; Kuropatwa, Bryan A.; Dilhaire, Stefan; Fleury, Guillaume; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2016-07-01

    Due to the rising need for clean energy, thermoelectricity has raised as a potential alternative to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Specifically, thermoelectric devices based on polymers could offer an efficient path for near-room temperature energy harvesters. Thus, control over thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers is crucial and, herein, the structural, electrical and thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin films doped with p-toluenesulfonate (Tos) molecules were investigated with regards to thin film processing. PEDOT:Tos thin films were prepared by in-situ polymerization of (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) monomers in presence of iron(III) p-toluenesulfonate with different co-solvents in order to tune the film structure. While the Seebeck coefficient remained constant, a large improvement in the electrical conductivity was observed for thin films processed with high boiling point additives. The increase of electrical conductivity was found to be solely in-plane mobility-driven. Probing the thin film structure by Grazing Incidence Wide Angle X-ray Scattering has shown that this behavior is dictated by the structural properties of the PEDOT:Tos films; specifically by the thin film crystallinity combined to the preferential edge-on orientation of the PEDOT crystallites. Consequentially enhancement of the power factor from 25 to 78.5 μW/mK2 has been readily obtained for PEDOT:Tos thin films following this methodology.

  7. Crystal structure and substrate specificity of Drosophila 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase (DDC, also known as aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, catalyzes the decarboxylation of a number of aromatic L-amino acids. Physiologically, DDC is responsible for the production of dopamine and serotonin through the decarboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan, respectively. In insects, both dopamine and serotonin serve as classical neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or neurohormones, and dopamine is also involved in insect cuticle formation, eggshell hardening, and immune responses. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we expressed a typical DDC enzyme from Drosophila melanogaster, critically analyzed its substrate specificity and biochemical properties, determined its crystal structure at 1.75 Angstrom resolution, and evaluated the roles residues T82 and H192 play in substrate binding and enzyme catalysis through site-directed mutagenesis of the enzyme. Our results establish that this DDC functions exclusively on the production of dopamine and serotonin, with no activity to tyrosine or tryptophan and catalyzes the formation of serotonin more efficiently than dopamine. CONCLUSIONS: The crystal structure of Drosophila DDC and the site-directed mutagenesis study of the enzyme demonstrate that T82 is involved in substrate binding and that H192 is used not only for substrate interaction, but for cofactor binding of drDDC as well. Through comparative analysis, the results also provide insight into the structure-function relationship of other insect DDC-like proteins.

  8. Crystal structure of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase of riboflavin biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, D.-I.; Calabrese, J.C.; Wawrzak, Z.; Viitanen, P.V.; Jordan, D.B. (DuPont); (NWU)

    2010-03-05

    3,4-Dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase catalyzes a commitment step in the biosynthesis of riboflavin. On the enzyme, ribulose 5-phosphate is converted to 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate and formate in steps involving enolization, ketonization, dehydration, skeleton rearrangement, and formate elimination. The enzyme is absent in humans and an attractive target for the discovery of antimicrobials for pathogens incapable of acquiring sufficient riboflavin from their hosts. The homodimer of 23 kDa subunits requires Mg{sup 2+} for activity. The first three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was determined at 1.4 {angstrom} resolution using the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method on Escherichia coli protein crystals containing gold. The protein consists of an {alpha} + {beta} fold having a complex linkage of {beta} strands. Intersubunit contacts are mediated by numerous hydrophobic interactions and three hydrogen bond networks. A proposed active site was identified on the basis of amino acid residues that are conserved among the enzyme from 19 species. There are two well-separated active sites per dimer, each of which comprise residues from both subunits. In addition to three arginines and two threonines, which may be used for recognizing the phosphate group of the substrate, the active site consists of three glutamates, two aspartates, two histidines, and a cysteine which may provide the means for general acid and base catalysis and for coordinating the Mg{sup 2+} cofactor within the active site.

  9. A common origin for 3/4- and 2/3-power rules in metabolic scaling

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jinkui

    2015-01-01

    A central debate in biology has been the allometric scaling of metabolic rate. Kleiber's observation that animals' basal metabolic rate scales to the 3/4-power of body mass (Kleiber's rule) has been the prevailing hypothesis in the last eight decades. Increasingly, more evidences are supporting the alternative 2/3-power scaling rule, especially for smaller animals. The 2/3-rule dates back to before Kleiber's time and was thought to originate from the surface to volume relationship in Euclidean geometry. In this study, we show that both the 3/4- and 2/3-scaling rules have in fact one common origin. They are governed by animals' nutrient supply networks-their vascular systems that obey Murray's law. Murray's law describes the branching pattern of energy optimized vascular network under laminar flow. It is generally regarded as being closely followed by blood vessels. Our analysis agrees with experimental observations and recent numerical analyses that showed a curvature in metabolic scaling. When applied to met...

  10. Improving the Thermoelectric Properties of Polyaniline by Introducing Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Yang; Liu, Cheng Yan; Miao, Lei; Gao, Jie; Chen, Yu

    2016-03-01

    By using the parent monomers, 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene and aniline, a series of nanocomposites consisting of different mass ratios of polyaniline (PANI) to poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) have been successfully prepared in hydrochloric acid solution through oxidative polymerization, then redoped with p-toluenesulfonic acid ( p-TSA). Firstly, PEDOT nanoparticles were fabricated via chemical oxidation polymerization in reverse (water-in-oil) microemulsions. Then, PANI-doped PEDOT nanoparticles were formed by oxidative polymerization of aniline to form PANI/PEDOT nanofibers. The resulting nanostructured components were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a series of spectroscopic methods. The presence of PEDOT increased the room-temperature electrical conductivity of the PANI/PEDOT nanocomposites by more than two orders of magnitude in comparison with the parent PANI. Moreover, the PANI/PEDOT nanocomposites showed better thermoelectric properties than PANI. Different concentrations of p-TSA also affected the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the nanocomposites. With increasing temperature, both the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient increased.

  11. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Agrebi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Several new pyrazolopyrimidine compounds were achieved from aminocyanopyarazole 1. The starting material 1 was initially coupled with orthoester at refluxed with various primary amines, ammonia, hydrazines and hydroxylamine to furnish a series of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines. The reaction of imidate 2a-b with hydrazide derivatives led to the formation of pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-c]pyrimidines. Some of the synthesized compounds 3a and 4c were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and nociceptive activities. We start by studing the toxicity of these two molecules by measuring the corresponding DL50. The DL50 of 3a and 4c are estimated to 1333.2mg / kg and 1593.5mg / kg respectively. Pharmacological evaluation showed that compounds 3a and 4c at doses (5.5-22.2 mg / Kg, i.p exhibited anti-inflammatory activities compared to Ibuprofen (150 mg / Kg, i.p, used as a refer ence drug. Further, our study showed that the injection of derived pyrazolopyrimidines on hyperthermic animal leads to a decrease in temperature after 1 hours of treatment compared to paracetamol used as reference. In addition, the injection of derived pyrazolopyrimidines at different doses contains a potent nociceptive activity. This effect is dose-dependent compared to aspirin.

  12. Gas Sensitivity of Poly (3, 4-ethylene dioxythiophene) Prepared by a Modified LB Film Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Huajing; JIANG Yadong; XU Jianhua; YANG Yajie

    2011-01-01

    An arachidic acid/poly (3, 4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (AA/PEDOT) multilayer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film was prepared by a modified LB film method. The theories were utilized to explain the effects between HCl molecule and LB film. The gas sensitivity mechanism of poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) muitilayer film can be explained by the charge transfer between p system of PEDOT and oxidization HCl system. The gas sensitivity of PEDOT LB film deposited interdigital electrode to HCl was tested. The results showed that film thickness, treating temperature,deposition speed had different influence on film gas sensitivity. The AA/PEDOT film deposited device exhibited nonlinear behavior to HCl gas at lower concentration (20-60 ppm) and linear response behavior at higher gas concentration was observed. The time of the compound LB film of the AA/PEDOT responding to the 30 ppm HCl gas is about 20 seconds, which is far quicker than the time of the film to the PEDOT- PRESS film(about 80 seconds). It is not higher film press to better film. When the film press attains 45 mNs/m, the sensitivity of the AA/PEDOT film on the contrary descends.

  13. Structurally-driven Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties within Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis; Pavlopoulou, Eleni; Portale, Giuseppe; Kuropatwa, Bryan A.; Dilhaire, Stefan; Fleury, Guillaume; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Due to the rising need for clean energy, thermoelectricity has raised as a potential alternative to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Specifically, thermoelectric devices based on polymers could offer an efficient path for near-room temperature energy harvesters. Thus, control over thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers is crucial and, herein, the structural, electrical and thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin films doped with p-toluenesulfonate (Tos) molecules were investigated with regards to thin film processing. PEDOT:Tos thin films were prepared by in-situ polymerization of (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) monomers in presence of iron(III) p-toluenesulfonate with different co-solvents in order to tune the film structure. While the Seebeck coefficient remained constant, a large improvement in the electrical conductivity was observed for thin films processed with high boiling point additives. The increase of electrical conductivity was found to be solely in-plane mobility-driven. Probing the thin film structure by Grazing Incidence Wide Angle X-ray Scattering has shown that this behavior is dictated by the structural properties of the PEDOT:Tos films; specifically by the thin film crystallinity combined to the preferential edge-on orientation of the PEDOT crystallites. Consequentially enhancement of the power factor from 25 to 78.5 μW/mK2 has been readily obtained for PEDOT:Tos thin films following this methodology. PMID:27470637

  14. Serotonergic Neurotoxic Thioether Metabolites of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”): Synthesis, Isolation and Characterization of Diastereoisomers

    OpenAIRE

    Pizarro, Nieves; de la Torre, Rafael; Joglar, Jesús; Okumura, Noriko; Perfetti, Ximena; Lau, Serrine S.; Monks, Terrence J.

    2008-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is a synthetic recreational drug of abuse that produces long-term toxicity associated with the degeneration of serotonergic nerve terminals. In various animal models direct administration of MDMA into the brain fails to reproduce the serotonergic neurotoxicity, implying a requirement for the systemic metabolism and bioactivation of MDMA. Catechol-thioether metabolites of MDMA, formed via oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxymetamphetamine and 3,4-dihydro...

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed costs of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  16. Monthly energy review, September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Information is also provided on international energy, including petroleum production, consumption, and stocks and nuclear electricity gross generation. This issues provides a brief industry overview and a detailed analysis of the spring 1996 gasoline price runup, crude oil supply issues, U.S. crude oil imports, petroleum stocks, futures markets, refining cash margin trends, and the financial performance of U.S. refining and marketing firms. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-10

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-25

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 49 tabs.

  1. PENGEMBANGAN KREATIVITAS DAN MINAT BELAJAR ANAK USIA 3-4 TAHUN MELALUI PERMAINAN KONSTRUKTIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiq Roni Indira Astriya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengembangkan kreativitas dan minat belajar anak usia 3-4 tahun melalui permainan konstruktif yakni bermain balok dan play dough di TK Izzul Islam Maraqitta’limat dalam memperbaiki proses pembelajaran dengan beberapa perlakuan dalam siklus. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian tindakan kelas dengan tahap perencanaan, tindakan, observasi dan refleksi. Subjek penelitian sebanyak 11 anak. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya peningkatan kreativitas anak pada siklus III yakni ada 7 anak pada kriteria BSB. Artinya tujuh anak tersebut mampu menyelesaikan tugasnya tepat waktu membuat bangunan dengan cukup rapi, menggunakan lebih dari 6 ragam bentuk dan ukuran balok, mengungkapkan ide sebelum bermain balok maupun play dough, menceritakan bangunannya secara detail, membuat bangunan dengan ide dan cara sendiri. Mampu membuat lebih dari 7 bentuk dari adonan tepung dengan ide dan cara sendiri, menggunakan 5-6 cetakan kue beragam, menghiasinya dengan hiasan kue dan menceritakan semua hasil karyanya. Sedangkan minat belajar anak ada 7 anak pada kriteria BSB. Artinya tujuh anak tersebut menyukai kegiatan bermain balok dan play dough, melakukannya dengan cukup senang, bersemangat dan aktif, memperhatikan penjelasan dan mendengar perintah, arahan dari guru, mencari tahu kegiatan belajar, dan masuk kelas atas keinginan sendiri dan mandiri serta mengikuti kegiatan pembelajaran sampai selesai. Kata Kunci: kreativitas, minat belajar, usia 3-4 tahun, permainan konstrukif, bermain balok, play dough (bermain adonan.   DEVELOPING 3-4 YEAR OLD CHILDREN’S CREATIVITY AND LEARNING INTERESTS THROUGH CONSTRUCTIVE PLAY Abstract The purpose of this reasearch is to develop creativity and interest in learning of children aged 3-4 years through constructive play using blocks and dough in kindergarten Izzul Islam Maraqitta'limat Wanasaba. This was classroom action research with the planning, action, observation and reflection stages. This

  2. Monthly energy review, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This publication contains statistical information and data analysis of energy production and consumption within the major energy industries of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy and oil and gas resource development. Energy production during October 1993 totaled 5.5-quadrillion Btu, a 3.0 percent decrease from the level of production during October 1992. Coal production decreased 5.6 percent, petroleum production decreased 3.4 percent, and natural gas production increased 1.9 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.0 percent from the level of production during October 1992. Energy consumption during October 1993 totaled 6.7 quadrillion Btu, 0.9 percent above the level of consumption during October 1992. Natural gas consumption increased 6.5 percent, coal consumption rose 2.9 percent, and petroleum consumption was down 1.3 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 5.5 percent from the level of 1 year earlier.

  3. Monthly energy review, January 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication contains statistical information and data analysis of energy production and consumption within the major energy industries of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy and oil and gas resource development. Energy production during October 1993 totaled 5.5-quadrillion Btu, a 3.0 percent decrease from the level of production during October 1992. Coal production decreased 5.6 percent, petroleum production decreased 3.4 percent, and natural gas production increased 1.9 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.0 percent from the level of production during October 1992. Energy consumption during October 1993 totaled 6.7 quadrillion Btu, 0.9 percent above the level of consumption during October 1992. Natural gas consumption increased 6.5 percent, coal consumption rose 2.9 percent, and petroleum consumption was down 1.3 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 5.5 percent from the level of 1 year earlier

  4. Solid-Phase Synthesis of 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Derivatives via Desulfurative Cyclization of Thiosemicarbazide Intermediate Resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seung-Ju; Choe, Ji-Hye; Gong, Young-Dae

    2016-08-01

    A 1,3,4-thiadiazole library was constructed by solid-phase organic synthesis. The key step of this solid-phase synthesis involves the preparation of polymer-bound 2-amido-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole resin by the cyclization of thiosemicarbazide resin using p-TsCl as the desulfurative agent, followed by the functionalization of the resin by alkylation, acylation, alkylation/acylation, and Suzuki coupling reactions. Both the alkylation and acylation reactions chemoselectively occurred at the 2-amide position of 2-amido-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole resin and the 5-amine position of 2-amido-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole resin, respectively. Finally, these functionalized 1,3,4-thiadiazole resins were treated with trifluoroacetic acid in dichloromethane, affording diverse 1,3,4-thiadiazole analogs in high yields and purities. The 1,3,4-thiadiazole analogs show a different distribution of physicochemical and biological properties compared with our previously constructed 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole libraries in a range of orally available drug properties. PMID:27362292

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  6. Best pictures of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    The last sector of the Big Muon Wheels was brought to the cavern in the morning of September 20... ... installed on one of the Big Muon Wheels during the same afternoon... ... just in time to sqeeze lots of people in between two of the all-completed Big Muon Wheels on the 21st of September to celebrate the installation of the last sector. Installation of the first ATLAS small wheel in building 191 on September 10. Some of the people involved in the construction and installation of the chambers on the first ATLAS small wheel in building 191 celebrating its completion on September 20. After hearing that the rock band The Police played in Geneva last month, Muriel got inspired and decided to become a rock star, just like one of her favorites, Keith Richards from the Rolling Stones. Special accomplishment of the month: (top) Martina Hurwitz (#908) and Monica Dunford (680), both from the Chicago University group, completed the Lausanne Marathon on October 21 in 4h 4...

  7. The mechanism of unexpected reduction of dimethyl pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylate to 1,2,3,4-tetrahydrofuro[3,4-b]-pyridin-5(7H)-one with sodium borohydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Bo Tang; Qing Jian Zhang; De Quan Yu

    2012-01-01

    An unexpected reduction of dimethyl pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylate to 1,2,3,4-tetrahydrofuro[3,4-b]pyridin-5(7H)-one with sodium borohydride in ethanol and tetrahydrofuran,respectively,is described,a hypothetic mechanism for the unusual reductive product is proposed.

  8. Cicloadições [3+4] via cátions oxialílicos: aplicações em sínteses orgânicas [3+4]Cycloadditions via oxyallyl cations: applications in organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Jacinto Demuner

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Several methodologies for the generation of oxyallyl cations from polybromoketones and other substrates are discussed. The mechanistic aspect of the [3+4] cycloaddition reaction between these cations and dienes leading to the formation of seven membered ring carbocyclic compounds is presented. Finally, some synthetic applications of the [3+4] cycloaddition are shown.

  9. Synthesis of 3- [ 1- (4-Ethoxyphenyl)-5-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl ]-6- substituted- s-triazolo [ 3,4- b ] -1,3,4-thiadiazoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Heng-Shan; WANG Bin

    2003-01-01

    @@ Several 3- [ 1- (4-ethoxyphenyl)-5-methyl- 1,2, 3-triazol-4-yl ]-6-substituted-s-triazolo [ 3,4- b ]- 1,3,4-thiadia zoles have been synthesized and the structures of these compounds were established by MS, IR and 1H NMR spectral data.

  10. 1, 3-Dipolar cycloaddition reactions: Synthesis of 5-benzyl-1-(2',4'-dibromophenyl)-3-(4"-substituted phenyl)-3a,4,6,6a-tetrahydro-1, 5-pyrrolo[3,4-]pyrazole-4,6-dione derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manpreet Kaur; Baldev Singh; Baljit Singh

    2013-11-01

    1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of nitrilimines 3 with -benzyl maleimide 4 has provided 5-benzyl-1-(2',4'-dibromophenyl)-3-(4"-substituted phenyl)-3a,4,6,6a-tetrahydro-1,5-pyrrolo[3,4-]pyrazole-4,6-dione derivatives 5 in excellent yield as the only isomer through a concerted pathway.

  11. Conformal Postoperative Radiotherapy in Patients With Positive Resection Margins and/or pT3-4 Prostate Adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellavita, Rita, E-mail: ritabellavita@libero.it [Institute of Radiation Oncology, General Hospital and Perugia University, Perugia (Italy); Massetti, Michela [Institute of Radiation Oncology, General Hospital and Perugia University, Perugia (Italy); Abraha, Iosief [Regional Health Authority of Umbria, General Hospital and Perugia University, Perugia (Italy); Lupattelli, Marco [Institute of Radiation Oncology, General Hospital and Perugia University, Perugia (Italy); Mearini, Luigi [Urology Department, General Hospital and Perugia University, Perugia (Italy); Falcinelli, Lorenzo; Farneti, Alessia; Palumbo, Isabella [Institute of Radiation Oncology, General Hospital and Perugia University, Perugia (Italy); Porena, Massimo [Urology Department, General Hospital and Perugia University, Perugia (Italy); Aristei, Cynthia [Institute of Radiation Oncology, General Hospital and Perugia University, Perugia (Italy)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcome and toxicity of high-dose conformal radiotherapy (RT) after radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: Between August 1998 and December 2007, 182 consecutive patients with positive resection margins and/or pT3-4, node-negative prostate adenocarcinoma underwent postoperative conformal RT. The prescribed median dose to the prostate/seminal vesicle bed was 66.6 Gy (range 50-70). Hormone therapy (a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue and/or antiandrogen) was administered to 110/182 (60.5%) patients with high-risk features. Biochemical relapse was defined as an increase of more than 0.2 ng/mL over the lowest postoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value measured on 3 occasions, each at least 2 weeks apart. Results: Median follow-up was 55.6 months (range 7.6-141.9 months). The 3- and 5-year probability of biochemical relapse-free survival were 87% and 81%, respectively. In univariate analysis, more advanced T stages, preoperative PSA values {>=}10 ng/mL, and RT doses <70 Gy were significant factors for biochemical relapse. Pre-RT PSA values >0.2 ng/mL were significant for distant metastases. In multivariate analysis, risk factors for biochemical relapse were higher preoperative and pre-RT PSA values, hormone therapy for under 402 days and RT doses of <70 Gy. Higher pre-RT PSA values were the only independent predictor of distant metastases. Acute genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities occurred in 72 (39.6%) and 91 (50%) patients, respectively. There were 2 cases of Grade III GI toxicity but no cases of Grade IV. Late GU and GI toxicities occurred in 28 (15.4%) and 14 (7.7%) patients, respectively: 11 cases of Grade III toxicity: 1 GI (anal stenosis) and 10 GU, all urethral strictures requiring endoscopic urethrotomy. Conclusions: Postoperative high-dose conformal RT in patients with high-risk features was associated with a low risk of biochemical relapse as well as minimal morbidity.

  12. The Feasibility of Predicting Nino 3.4 Index Using a Sparse Approximation Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, X.; Li, T.; Gu, Y.; Zhang, A.

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) is one of the principle factors that have significant influence on global climate variability. Due to large mass and great thermal capacity of the oceans, oceanic conditions change relatively slowly and dominant patterns are thus easy to detect. Most of the current research on SSTA make use of PCA methods like EOF or SVD. Though such methods are effective in reducing dimensions, it is always hard to give a physical interpretation of the results and difficult to distinguish the minor eigenvectors from noises. Instead of finding patterns, we put forward a framework for the direct prediction of SSTAs, using a sparse approximation method, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso), to reduce the noises in global SST observation. Global SSTA time series in 5°×5° resolution were used to fit each target SSTA vector and the lasso method was utilized to avoid over-fitting. Taking the Nino 3.4 Index as an example, the predictability of the lasso model was studied and the results showed a relatively satisfying prediction skill in terms of correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error compared with the results obtained from LDEO 5. Moreover, by taking other climate variables into consideration, we discovered a stable relation between the Nino 3.4 Index and the sea-ice extent anomaly in South Pole at a lead time of around 2 years. In addition, the bootstrapping method was used to resample the coefficients in the sparse regression model so that we could study their statistical property. 14 regressors were reserved suggesting 10 potential indices which have relatively strong relations with the Nino 3.4 Index. Some of the potential indices corresponded well to known climate indices while the rest indicated an undiscovered index in tropical oceans of eastern South America. In conclusion, the lasso method approved its feasibility in climate prediction at a relatively low computation cost, and

  13. 3&4D Geomodeling Applied to Mineral Resources Exploration - A New Tool for Targeting Deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Jean-Jacques; Mejia, Pablo; Caumon, Guillaume; Collon-Drouaillet, Pauline

    2013-04-01

    3 & 4D geomodeling, a computer method for reconstituting the past deformation history of geological formations, has been used in oil and gas exploration for more than a decade for reconstituting fluid migration. It begins nowadays to be applied for exploring with new eyes old mature mining fields and new prospects. We describe shortly the 3&4D geomodeling basic notions, concepts, and methodology when applied to mineral resources assessment and modeling ore deposits, pointing out the advantages, recommendations and limitations, together with new challenges they rise. Several 3D GeoModels of mining explorations selected across Europe will be presented as illustrative case studies which have been achieved during the EU FP7 ProMine research project. It includes: (i) the Cu-Au porphyry deposits in the Hellenic Belt (Greece); (ii) the VMS in the Iberian Pyrite Belt including the Neves Corvo deposit (Portugal) and (iii) the sediment-hosted polymetallic Cu-Ag (Au, PGE) Kupferschiefer ore deposit in the Foresudetic Belt (Poland). In each case full 3D models using surfaces and regular grid (Sgrid) were built from all dataset available from exploration and exploitation including geological primary maps, 2D seismic cross-sections, and boreholes. The level of knowledge may differ from one site to another however those 3D resulting models were used to pilot additional field and exploration works. In the case of the Kupferschiefer, a sequential restoration-decompaction (4D geomodeling) from the Upper Permian to Cenozoic was conducted in the Lubin- Sieroszowice district of Poland. The results help in better understanding the various superimposed mineralization events which occurred through time in this copper deposit. A hydro-fracturing index was then calculated from the estimated overpressures during a Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene up-lifting, and seems to correlate with the copper content distribution in the ore-series. These results are in agreement with an Early Paleocene

  14. Resistance Analyses of HCV NS3/4A Protease and NS5B Polymerase from Clinical Studies of Deleobuvir and Faldaprevir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Kristi L.; Sarrazin, Christoph; Nelson, David R.; Scherer, Joseph; Sha, Nanshi; Marquis, Martin; Côté-Martin, Alexandra; Vinisko, Richard; Stern, Jerry O.; Mensa, Federico J.; Kukolj, George

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aim The resistance profile of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) agents used in combination is important to guide optimal treatment regimens. We evaluated baseline and treatment-emergent NS3/4A and NS5B amino-acid variants among HCV genotype (GT)-1a and -1b-infected patients treated with faldaprevir (HCV protease inhibitor), deleobuvir (HCV polymerase non-nucleoside inhibitor), and ribavirin in multiple clinical studies. Methods HCV NS3/4A and NS5B population sequencing (Sanger method) was performed on all baseline plasma samples (n = 1425 NS3; n = 1556 NS5B) and on post-baseline plasma samples from patients with virologic failure (n = 113 GT-1a; n = 221 GT-1b). Persistence and time to loss of resistance-associated variants (RAVs) was estimated using Kaplan–Meier analysis. Results Faldaprevir RAVs (NS3 R155 and D168) and deleobuvir RAVs (NS5B 495 and 496) were rare (90%). Virologic relapse was associated with RAVs in both NS3 and NS5B (53% GT-1b; 52% GT-1b); some virologic relapses had NS3 RAVs only (47% GT-1a; 17% GT-1b). Median time to loss of GT-1b NS5B P495 RAVs post-treatment (5 months) was less than that of GT-1b NS3 D168 (8.5 months) and GT-1a R155 RAVs (11.5 months). Conclusion Faldaprevir and deleobuvir RAVs are more prevalent among virologic failures than at baseline. Treatment response was not compromised by common NS3 polymorphisms; however, alanine at NS5B amino acid 499 at baseline (wild-type in GT-1a, polymorphism in GT-1b) may reduce response to this deleobuvir-based regimen. PMID:27494410

  15. 胚胎干细胞分化的重要分子开关:Oct-3/4%The Important Molecular Switches of the Embryonic Stem Cells: Oct-3/4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丹; 潘增祥; 王锋

    2005-01-01

    POU(Pit-Oct-Unc)域转录因子Oct-3/4已成为小鼠、人、猕猴等哺乳动物体内多能性胚胎干细胞的标志物.在小鼠胚胎发育过程中,Oct-3/4基因只在全能和多能细胞中表达.研究Oct-3/4表达部位及作用机制已成为研究胚胎形成过程及细胞分化过程的必要手段.本文综述了Oct-3/4的表达特性及人、牛、猪、小鼠之间Oct-3/4的结构差异,并详细的描述了其作用机制.

  16. Conditional Generation of Monthly Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, U.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.

    2006-12-01

    Monthly precipitation models can be used in basin-wide modeling to develop long-term strategies for water resources planning and management and to estimate the change of water yield due to climate change. Such precipitation models are especially important for effective management of river basins in developing countries such as the upper Blue Nile River basin of Ethiopia where the water resource utilization is limited. Many studies have been previously performed to preserve historical temporal and spatial structures when generating precipitation series. The main focus of those studies was to preserve the historical statistics. Other important factors to be considered are transition and spatial correlations. A few recent studies attempted to preserve transition as well as the statistics of historical record. These studies provided satisfactory results while showing the difficulty and complexity of computations in their methods. The conditional generation method (CGM) that can preserve both historical temporal and spatial structures is presented in this study. Because the CGM is driven from the historical conditional probabilities occurring given amounts of precipitation between two successive months or two stations, it is computationally simple and reliable, i.e., parameterization, inverse matrix, or optimum band width is not required. The CGM was applied to reproducing the precipitation pattern of the upper Blue Nile River basin in Ethiopia using monthly precipitation data of 10 stations to demonstrate its applicability. Comparing to the method of inverse transformation of cumulative distribution functions of the gamma distribution and nonparametric kernel estimator with variable band width selected from the goodness-of-fit tests, the CGM showed improved performance, especially in representing the transition characteristics. The CGM also generated the historical spatial correlations between the stations with acceptable accuracy. The results suggested that the CGM

  17. Anisotropic laser properties of Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 disordered crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lisha; Xu, Honghao; Pan, Zhongben; Han, Wenjuan; Chen, Xiaowen; Liu, Junhai; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin

    2016-08-01

    A study is carried out experimentally on the anisotropy in the laser action of Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 disordered crystal, demonstrated with the output coupling changed over a wide range from 0.5% to 40%. Complex polarization state variation with output coupling and evolution with pump power are observed in the laser operation achieved with a- and c-cut crystal samples. A maximum output power of 8.2 W is produced at wavelengths around 1043 nm, with an incident pump power of 24.9 W, the optical-to-optical efficiency being 33%. The polarized absorption and emission cross section spectra are also presented.

  18. Molecular and Crystal Structure of 1-(4-Chlorophenyl)- 3- (4-Nitrophenyl)- 1-Triazene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德纯; 费正皓; 张艳秋; 郁开北

    2000-01-01

    The title compound, 1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-(4-Nitrophenyl)-1-Tri-azene, crystallized in the orthorhombic system, space group Pbca, with a= 13. 793(2), b=10. 843(2), c=16. 851(2)A , V=2520. 2(7) A Dc=1. 458g/cma, Z=8,C12H9ClN4O2, Mr= 276.68, μ(MoKa) = 0. 306mm-1, F(000) = 1136. The structure was refined to R=0. 0372, wR=0. 0786 for 1216 reflections (I>2σ(I)). The title molecule has trans geometry about the central triazenyl linkage. The dihedral angle between the two phenyl rings is only 5.8(2)°. They are also nearly coplanar with the triand form the zigzag chains. The polar molecular chains are antiparallelly stacked throughπ …π interactions. The interstack int eraction is mainly van der Waals force.

  19. Hydrogen Deuteride to 3.4 Megabar Mixed Isotopes and New Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ranga; Noked, Ori; Silvera, Isaac

    We present infrared absorption studies of solid hydrogen deuteride to pressures as high as 3.4 megabar in a diamond anvil cell and temperatures in the range 5 to 295 K. Above 198 GPa the sample transforms to a mixture of , and, interpreted as a process of dissociation and recombination.Three new phases-lines are observed, two of which differ remarkably from those of the high-pressure homonuclear species, but none are metallic. The time-dependent spectral changes are analyzed to determine the molecular concentrations as a function of time.y. The NSF, Grant DMR-1308641 and the DOE Stockpile Stewardship Academic Alliance Program, Grant DE-FG52-10NA29656 supported this research.

  20. Lattice and magnetic excitations in NdFe3(BO3)4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Ricardo

    We measured the temperature dependent polarized infrared spectra of multiferroic NdFe3(BO3)4. The spectra is mostly temperature independent except for the lowest energy phonon in the hexagonal plane. This phonon splits into two at around 60 K, a temperature sensibly larger than the system Néel temperature of 31 K. X-ray scattering indicates that the lattice parameters have an anomaly at the same temperature that the phonon splits. Using inelastic neutron scattering we looked for magnetic excitations that could explain be coupled to phonons. Momentum and energy dispersion curves around the magnetic Bragg peaks show magnetic excitations at energies comparable to the split phonon. We will discuss these results in terms of magnetic fluctuations and activation of Brillouin zone boundary modes.

  1. Antibacterial and Enzyme Inhibition Study of Hydrazone Derivatives Bearing 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rasool

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial and lipoxygenase enzyme inhibition activities of two series of compounds have been investigated in the presented work. The 4-methyl/hydroxy benzoic acids (1a & 1b were used as starting materials to prepare corresponding esters (2a & 2b, hydrazides (3a & 3b, 5-(4-methylphenyl/4-hydroxyphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-thiols (4a & 4b, S-substituted esters (5a & 5b and acetohydrazides (6a & 6b. The acetohydrazones, 8a-i & 9a-i, were synthesized by stirring 6a & 6b with mono(disubstituted phenylcarboxaldehydes (7a-i in methanol. The data of IR, 1H-NMR and EIMS spectral techniques well confirmed the structural formulae of synthesized compounds. The molecules of 4-methyl series rendered the better results than those of 4-hydroxy series.

  2. Silica-gel Catalyzed Facile Synthesis of 3,4-Dihydropyrimidinones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Sameer; Aware, Umesh; Patil, Amit; Rohera, Vinita; Jain, Mukul; Patel, Pankaj [Zydus Research Centre, Sarkhej-Bavla N.H., Ahmedabad (India); Ghate, Manjunath [Nirma University, Ahmedabad (India)

    2012-02-15

    We have developed a mild and highly effective procedure for the one-pot synthesis of substituted dihydropyrimidinones in high yields using silica gel as a green, highly efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst. Our approach can be applied to the preparation of a wide range of synthetic analogues for structure-activity studies. Investigations in this direction are ongoing. The pyrimidinone ring is a basic substructure of numerous biologically active alkaloids and pharmaceutical products. These cores are regarded as one of the most important groups of drug-like scaffolds. 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones above are known to exhibit variety of pharmacological activity such as calcium channel modulation, mitotic kinesin Eg5 inhibition, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activity, etc.

  3. Multi-Physics Simulation of Wood Drying in COMSOL Multiphysics 3.4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoval-Torres Sadoth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the numerical simulation of drying of Pinus pesudostrobus wood is presented by using a phenomenological model. The model is developed by considering the heat and mass balance in the representative elementary volume (REV, which involves the solid, liquid and gas phases. We obtained a system of partial differential equations which was solved by numerical factorization by using COMSOL multiphysics 3.4. Three primary variables were solved: the moisture content, the temperature, and the dry-air mass. The numerical results were compared against experimental data and the semi-empirical model. Our results are satisfactory; we describe the drying kinetics, the moisture distribution within the wood, the dry-air mass evolution and the temperature profiles.

  4. On the carriers of the 3.4-micrometer absorption and emission bands, and their evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Papoular, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Based on the results of chemical analysis and simulation of kerogens and immature coals, a large number of chemical structures carrying the 3.4-mum feature were studied by means of computer simulation codes. Further selection criteria were the integrated strength of the absorption lines in the aliphatic stretchings wavelength band, weak IR activity in the aromatic stretching band and absence of notable activity outside the astronomical UIBs (Unidentified Infrared Bands). Most of the structures that were retained can be classed as branched, short and oxygen-bridged CH_{2} chains, and naphtenic chains. Combinations of their absorption spectra deliver spectra comparable to those observed in the sky. Absorption spectra were derived from Normal Mode Analysis. Emission spectra of the same structures were computed by monitoring their overall dipole moment as they vibrate freely in vacuum after excitation. These spectra were then combined in suitable proportions, together with those of aromatic structures, so as to s...

  5. Cholest-5-en-3β-yl 3-(4-ethoxyphenylprop-2-enoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Bugenhagen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C38H56O3, there are two symmetry-independent molecules that differ in the rotation angle along the C—O bond between the 3-(4-ethoxyphenylprop-2-enoate and cholest-5-en-3β-yl groups by 169.3 (3°. In both molecules, steroid ring B adopts a half-chair conformation, rings A and C adopt a chair conformation and ring D exists in an envelope form. The two symmetry-independent molecules pack in the crystal into separate layers parallel to (-102 with their long axis parallel to the [201] direction. Short intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...π contacts are observed.

  6. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 3,4-Bis(azidoacetamino) furazan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李战雄; 唐松青; 刘金涛; 孙杰

    2003-01-01

    3,4-Bis(azidoacetamino)furazan (DAZAF) was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR and MS as an energetic compound. The crystal structure of the title compound was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction with the following data: C6H6N10O3, monoclinic, P21/n, Z = 4, a = 8.402(3), b = 15.146(3), c = 9.247(3) A。, β = 111.09(2)o, V = 1098.0(6) A。3, Mr = 266.18, Dc = 1.610 g/cm3, F(000) = 544, μ =1.34 cm-1, R = 0.037 and wR = 0.044 for 2136 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I)). Intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonds were identified between the O and H atoms of two intramolecular acetylamino groups and two intermolecular acetylamino groups, respectively.

  7. Mini hydro electric power stations Lukar 1,2,3,4: Public enterprise (JP) Komunalec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of the Public enterprises in improving entire living conditions of the citizens, not only by its services towards the citizenship such as: water supplying and public hygiene but the opportunity to produce the electric power by the Mini hydro electric-power stations built on the main city water supply pipes. The paper presents experiences of building the mini hydro electric power stations Lukar 1,2,3,4. The successful completion of this project should be a motivation for building more electric power stations because there are great water potential in the Republic of Macedonia i.e. there have been recorded more than a hundred places suitable for construction of power electric stations. This will contribute not only for clean ecological energy but will have a direct influence on the total economic development of the Republic of Macedonia. (Author)

  8. The ecstasy and the agony; compression studies of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Lauren E; Delori, Amit; Hutchison, Ian B; Nic Daeid, Niamh; Sutcliffe, Oliver B; Oswald, Iain D H

    2015-02-01

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a Class A substance that is usually found in a tableted form. It is only observed in one orthorhombic polymorph under ambient conditions. It shows slight positional disorder around the methlyenedioxy ring which persists during compression up to 6.66 GPa. The crystal quality deteriorates above 6.66 GPa where the hydrostatic limit of the pressure-transmitting medium is exceeded. The structure undergoes anisotropic compression with the a-axis compressing the greatest (12% cf. 4 and 10% for the b- and c-axes, respectively). This is due to the pattern of the hydrogen bonding which acts like a spring and allows the compression along this direction.

  9. Thermal Degradation Behaviour of Ni(II Complex of 3,4-Methylenedioxaphenylaminoglyoxime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Karapınar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal degradation behaviour of the Ni(II complex of 3,4-methylenedioxaphenylaminoglyoxime was investigated by TG, DTA, and DTG at a heating rate of 10°C min−1 under dinitrogen. The acquired experimental data shows that the complex is thermally stable up to 541 K. The pyrolytic decomposition process occurs by melting metal complex and metal oxide remains as final product. The energies of the reactions involved and the mechanism of decomposition at each stage have been examined. The values of kinetic parameters such as activation energy (E, preexponential factor (A and thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (ΔH, entropy (ΔS, and Gibbs free energy (ΔG are also evaluated.

  10. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical electronic structure investigations of 3,4-dihydrocoumarin and 3-methylcoumarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivazhagan, M.; Kavitha, R.; Subhasini, V. P.

    2014-09-01

    A complete vibrational analysis of 3,4-dihydrocoumarin and 3-methylcoumarin have been performed according to SQM force field method based on ab initio and DFT calculation 6-311++G(d,p) basis set and their frequencies are compared. The influences of carbon-oxygen bond and methyl group to the vibrational frequencies of the title compounds have been discussed. The pronounced decrease of the lone pair orbital occupancy and the molecular stabilization energy show the hyperconjugation interaction from the NBO analysis. Calculations of molecular orbital geometry show that the visible absorption maxima of DHC and 3MC correspond to the electron transition between frontier orbitals such as translation from HOMO to LUMO. Gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO) 1H and 13C chemical shift calculations have been calculated. Area of high, neutral and low electrostatic potential is determined for DHC and 3MC.

  11. Adsorption and desorption characteristics of methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and pseudoephedrine in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Raktim; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Kirkbride, K Paul; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-06-01

    This work presents, for the first time, information on the adsorption-desorption characteristics of illicit drugs and precursors in soils and an estimation of their potential bioavailability. The experiment was conducted using a batch equilibrium technique for the parent drugs methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and the precursor pseudoephedrine in three South Australian soils varying in physiochemical properties. The individual compounds exhibited different adsorption mechanisms in the test soils, and the results fitted better with the Freundlich isotherm model (r (2) ≥ 0.99). The maximum adsorption capacity was recorded for pseudoephedrine (2,000 μg g(-1)). However, pseudoephedrine recorded lower organic carbon normalized adsorption coefficient values (pseudoephedrine to be the most mobile compound in the soils under study, to have the highest availability for degradation of the three compounds, and to have the highest susceptibility to biotic degradation in test soils.

  12. Hydrogen-bonded Supramolecular Hydrogels Derived from 3,3',4,4'-Benzophenonetetracarboxylic Acid and Hydroxylpyridines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG, Yujiang; TANG, Liming; WANG, Li; YU, Jian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, four gelators (defined as G1--G4) were prepared from 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid (BPTA) and para-hydroxylpyridine or meta-hydroxylpyridine at molar ratios 1 : 2 and 1 : 4 respectively, and characterized by ~1H NMR, IR, UV-Vis spectra and elemental analysis. Due to the amphiphilic features, all the gelators were able to gel water via cooling their aqueous solution under different stimulations. The structure of the assembling fibers and the macroscopic properties of the gels were investigated by multiple techniques. The results indicated that the minimum gelator concentration (MGC) increased by the order of G1, G2, G3 and G4, while the gel-to-sol dissociation temperature (T_(gel)) decreased by the same order, which were explained from the assembling structures of the gels.

  13. Flexible electrochromic device based on poly (3,4-(2,2-dimethylpropylenedioxy)thiophene)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Chao; Taya, Minoru [Center of Intelligent Materials and Systems, University of Washington, Box 352600, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Xu Chunye [Center of Intelligent Materials and Systems, University of Washington, Box 352600, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)], E-mail: Chunye@u.washington.edu

    2008-12-30

    In this study, the design, fabrication and characterization of a flexible electrochromic device based on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic is discussed. The working electrochromic material film was poly (3,4-(2,2-dimethylpropylenedioxy)thiophene) (PProDOT-Me{sub 2}), while the counter layer of the device was vanadium oxide titanium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2}) composite film, which serves as an ion storage layer. A solution type electrolyte was used as the ionic transport layer and was sandwiched between the working and counter layers. The device exhibited tuneable light transmittance between transparent and deep blue color, with a maximum contrast ratio at 580 nm wavelength. Other important properties, such as switching speed, life time, and coloration efficiency have been improved.

  14. All-textile flexible supercapacitors using electrospun poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laforgue, Alexis [Functional Polymer Systems Group, Industrial Materials Institute, National Research Council Canada, 75, de Mortagne Blvd, Boucherville, Quebec J4B 6Y4 (Canada)

    2011-01-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanofibers were obtained by the combination of electrospinning and vapor-phase polymerization. The fibers had diameters around 350 nm, and were soldered at most intersections, providing a strong dimensional stability to the mats. The nanofiber mats demonstrated very high conductivity (60 {+-} 10 S cm{sup -1}, the highest value reported so far for polymer nanofibers) as well as improved electrochemical properties, due to the ultraporous nature of the electrospun mats. The mats were incorporated into all-textile flexible supercapacitors, using carbon cloths as the current collectors and electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membranes as the separator. The textile layers were stacked and embedded in a solid electrolyte containing an ionic liquid and PVDF-co-HFP as the host polymer. The resulting supercapacitors were totally flexible and demonstrated interesting and stable performances in ambient conditions. (author)

  15. All-textile flexible supercapacitors using electrospun poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforgue, Alexis

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanofibers were obtained by the combination of electrospinning and vapor-phase polymerization. The fibers had diameters around 350 nm, and were soldered at most intersections, providing a strong dimensional stability to the mats. The nanofiber mats demonstrated very high conductivity (60 ± 10 S cm -1, the highest value reported so far for polymer nanofibers) as well as improved electrochemical properties, due to the ultraporous nature of the electrospun mats. The mats were incorporated into all-textile flexible supercapacitors, using carbon cloths as the current collectors and electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membranes as the separator. The textile layers were stacked and embedded in a solid electrolyte containing an ionic liquid and PVDF-co-HFP as the host polymer. The resulting supercapacitors were totally flexible and demonstrated interesting and stable performances in ambient conditions.

  16. New Paradigms for Developing Peta-scalable Codes Workshop - May 3-4, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Levine

    2005-04-30

    On May 3 & 4, 2004, sixty-two of North America's finest computational scientists gathered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to discuss the future of high-performance computing. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense and the Hewlett-Packard Corporation, New Methods for Developing Peta-scalable Codes introduced the tools and techniques that will be required to efficiently exploit the next generation of supercomputers. This workshop provided an opportunity for computational scientists to consider parallel programming methods other than the currently prevalent one in which they explicitly and directly manage all parallelism via MPI. Specifically, the question is how best to program the upcoming generation of computer systems that will use massive parallelism and complex memory hierarchies to reach from the terascale into the petascale regime over the next five years. The presentations, by leading computer scientists, focused on languages, runtimes and libraries, tool collections and I/O methods.

  17. The protein oxidation product 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) mediates oxidative DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, B; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Dean, R T

    1998-01-01

    of the present work was to investigate whether DOPA, and especially PB-DOPA, can mediate oxidative damage to DNA. We chose to generate PB-DOPA using mushroom tyrosinase, which catalyses the hydroxylation of tyrosine residues in protein. This permitted us to study the reactions of PB-DOPA in the virtual absence......A major product of hydroxy-radical addition to tyrosine is 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) which has reducing properties. Protein-bound DOPA (PB-DOPA) has been shown to be a major component of the stable reducing species formed during protein oxidation under several conditions. The aim...... on the presence and on the concentration of transition metal ions, with copper being more effective than iron. The yields of 8oxodG and 5OHdC increased with DOPA concentration in proteins. Thus PB-DOPA was able to promote further radical-generating events, which then transferred damage to other biomolecules...

  18. Adsorption and desorption characteristics of methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and pseudoephedrine in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Raktim; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Kirkbride, K Paul; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-06-01

    This work presents, for the first time, information on the adsorption-desorption characteristics of illicit drugs and precursors in soils and an estimation of their potential bioavailability. The experiment was conducted using a batch equilibrium technique for the parent drugs methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and the precursor pseudoephedrine in three South Australian soils varying in physiochemical properties. The individual compounds exhibited different adsorption mechanisms in the test soils, and the results fitted better with the Freundlich isotherm model (r (2) ≥ 0.99). The maximum adsorption capacity was recorded for pseudoephedrine (2,000 μg g(-1)). However, pseudoephedrine recorded lower organic carbon normalized adsorption coefficient values (soils under study, to have the highest availability for degradation of the three compounds, and to have the highest susceptibility to biotic degradation in test soils. PMID:24838127

  19. Sorption of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl by microplastics: A case study of polypropylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Zhiwei; Wang, Jundong; Peng, Jinping; Xie, Qilai; Huang, Ying; Gao, Yifan

    2016-09-15

    Though plastics show good chemical inertness, they could sorb polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other toxic pollutants from the surrounding environment. Thus, ingestion of microplastics by marine organisms potentially enhances the transport and bioavailability of toxic chemicals. However, there is lack of studies on the sorption capacity, mechanism and factors affecting the sorption behavior. Here, sorption of PCBs by microplastics in the simulated seawater was studied using the batch oscillation equilibration technique, in which polypropylene (PP) and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77) acted as model plastic and PCB, respectively. Factors including particle size, temperature and solution environment were investigated. Results showed that, equilibrium sorption time is about 8h and sorption capacity increase with decreasing particle size and temperature. Different sorption capacity in three solution environments was observed. Equilibrium data in three solution environments fitted very well to the Langmuir sorption model, indicating chemical sorption is the predominant mechanism. PMID:27230985

  20. Bent Shaped 1,3,4-Oxadiazole/Thiadiazole heterocyclic rings containing liquid crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chinnaiyan Selvarasu; Palaninathan Kannan

    2015-10-01

    Two series of bent shaped 1,3,4-oxadiazole/thiadiazole heterocyclic ring containing liquid crystalline (LC) compounds were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H, 13C-NMR and ESI-Mass spectro-scopic techniques. Liquid crystal properties were investigated by polarized optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. All the compounds exhibited mesophases such as nematic, smectic A and smectic C phases. The liquid crystalline effects were ascertained by changing the central atom in the heterocyclic ring and by increasing the length of the terminal alkyloxy chains which bring considerable improvements on the mesomorphic properties. The absorption and emission spectral studies of all the compounds were investigated and confirmed.

  1. U of T to proceed with installation of $3.4-m Flu-Ace system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-09-05

    The University of Toronto has awarded Thermal Energy a contract to install a $3.4-million Flu-Ace air pollution control and heat recovery system into its district heating plant. The new system will transform the heating plant into the most energy efficient and technologically advanced combined power plant and district heating plant of its size. The system is unique in that it combines heat recovery and air pollution control. It recovers up to 90 per cent of the heat normally lost in hot chimney flue gases. This reduces emissions of greenhouse gases, acid gases, nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons and particulates. The U of T project will be the thirteenth and the largest system built by Thermal Energy.

  2. Poly[(μ5-5-carboxylatotetrahydrofuran-2,3,4-tricarboxylic acidsodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The search for the novel metal-organic frameworks (MOFs materials using tetrahydrofuran-2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid (THFTCA as a versatile multi-carboxyl ligand, lead to the synthesis and the structure determination of the title compound, [Na(H3THFTCA] or [Na(C8H7O9]n, which was obtained by a solution reaction at room temperature. The ligand is mono-deprotonated, coordinating five sodium ions through one furan oxygen atom and six carboxyl oxygen atoms. The sodium ion exhibits a distorted pentagonal-bipyramidal NaO7 geometry consisting of seven O atoms derived from five surrounding ligands. Two adjacent pentagonal bipyramids share an O—O edge, forming a dinuclear sodium cluster. Finally, these clusters are effectively linked by the carboxyl groups of THFTCA ligands, forming a firm metal organic framework and O—H...O hydrogen bonds contribute to the crystal packing.

  3. Preconditioning with ethyl 3,4-dihydroxy benzoate augments aerobic respiration in rat skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimker C

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Charu Nimker, Deependra Pratap Singh, Deepika Saraswat, Anju Bansal Experimental Biology Division, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Defense Research and Development Organisation, Timarpur, Delhi, India Abstract: Muscle respiratory capacity decides the amount of exertion one's skeletal muscle can undergo, and endurance exercise is believed to increase it. There are also certain preconditioning methods by which muscle respiratory and exercise performance can be enhanced. In this study, preconditioning with ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (EDHB, a prolyl hydroxylase domain enzyme inhibitor, has been investigated to determine its effect on aerobic metabolism and bioenergetics in skeletal muscle, thus facilitating boost in physical performance in a rat model. We observed that EDHB supplementation increases aerobic metabolism via upregulation of HIF-mediated GLUT1 and GLUT4, thus enhancing glucose uptake in muscles. There was also a twofold rise in the activity of enzymes of tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and glycolysis, ie, hexokinase and phosphofructokinase. There was an increase in citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase activity, resulting in the rise in the levels of ATP due to enhanced Krebs cycle activity as substantiated by enhanced acetyl-CoA levels in EDHB-treated rats as compared to control group. Increased lactate dehydrogenase activity, reduced expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1, and increase in monocarboxylate transporter 4 suggest transport of lactate from muscle to blood. There was a concomitant decrease in plasma lactate, which might be due to enhanced transport of lactate from blood to the liver. This was further supported by the rise in liver pyruvate levels and liver glycogen levels in EDHB-supplemented rats as compared to control rats. These results suggest that EDHB supplementation leads to improved physical performance due to the escalation of aerobic respiration quotient, ie, enhanced muscle

  4. Stark effect in the J = 3 4 microwave line of tert-butyl chloride molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierszal, S.; Mis-Kuzminska, E.; Stankowski, J.; Galica, J.

    1984-03-01

    Stark effect in the J = 3 - 4 transition spectrum of the tert-butyl chloride has been investigated. The perturbation of the rotational levels by combined effect of the quadrupole and an intermediate electric fields was calculated and used for identify the Stark components. The rotational spectrum of tert-butyl chloride /CH 3/ 3CCl is characterised by the rotational constants A = 4518.70 MHz[1] and B = 3017.85 MHz, dipole moment U= 2.12 D, and quadrupole interaction constant eqQ = -67.58 MHz [2,3]. The energy of rotational states of the tert-butyl chloride molecule is described by the Hamiltonian ? where H 0 is the unperturbed rotational energy, H Q that of interaction of the angular momentum and quadrupole moment of the chlorine nucleus, and H E the Stark energy. Since H Q ˜ H E for the electric field strengths applied during the present investigation, we are dealing with the case of intermediate fields. To solve the problem theoretically we had recourse to the representation in F-space and calculated the energy for the perturbation H Q + H E as done by Low and Townes [4]. The theoretical distances of the Stark components from the absorption line of tert-butyl chloride for various electric field strengths at J = 3 - 4 and ΔM F = 0 is shown in Fig. 1a and 1b. We applied the theoretically calculated distances of the Stark components from the absorption line of /CH 3/ 3CCl as function of the electric field strength as well as the relative intensities of the components in order to interpret our experimental results concerning the Stark effect.

  5. Novel 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles as anti-inflammatory drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ega Durgashivaprasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring is a versatile moiety with a wide range of pharmacological properties. The present work deals with the synthesis and evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of two novel 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (OSD and OPD. Materials and Methods: Carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema was employed as an acute model of inflammation. For evaluating sub-acute anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced inflammation in rat air pouch was employed. Complete Freund′s adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats was used as a model of chronic inflammation. To evaluate in vitro anti-inflammatory activity, lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were used. Results: OSD (100 mg/kg reduced carrageen-induced paw edema by 60%, and OPD (100 mg/kg produced a modest 32.5% reduction. OSD also reduced leukocyte influx and myeloperoxidase in carrageenan-induced rat air pouch model. In complete Freund′s adjuvant-induced arthritis model, both OSD and OPD (200 mg/kg for 14 days reduced paw edema and NO levels. In LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, OSD and OPD inhibited formation of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species, with OPD showing a better activity in comparison to OSD. Conclusions: OSD was the better of the two compounds in in vivo models of inflammation. The o-phenol substitution at position 2 of oxadiazole ring in OSD may be responsible for its better in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. The ability of the compounds to inhibit LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediator release suggests an anti-inflammatory mechanism targeting LPS-TLR4-NF-κB signalling pathway, which needs to be explored in detail. The disparate efficacy in vitro and in vivo also requires in-depth evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of these novel oxadiazoles.

  6. Stennis observes Women's History Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    NASA John C. Stennis Space Center employees observed Women's History Month on March 17 with a panel discussion that featured accomplished women of the facility. The gathering featured (l to r): Pam Covington, manager of the NASA Office of External Affairs at Stennis; Mary Jones, assistant chief of staff with the Navy Meterology & Oceanography Command; and Lauren Underwood, senior research scientist with Science Systems and Applications, Inc. In addition to the panel discussion, the Stennis Diversity Council and Patriot Technologies also hosted a pair of 'lunch-and-learn' sessions focused on women's issues and history. The luncheons featured videos on Sally Hemings, the slave widely recognized as the mistress of President Thomas Jefferson; and several mothers of U.S. presidents.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  8. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Novel Diorganotin(Ⅳ) Complex Containing 3,4-Difluorobenzohydroxamato Ligand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Mei SHANG; Ji Zhou WU; Qing Shan LI

    2006-01-01

    A new five-coordinate mixed-ligand compound, di-n-butyl(3,4-difluorobenzoxy)-(3,4-difluorobenzohydroxamato)tin(Ⅳ) 1 was synthesized and characterized by IR, 1H, 13C, 19Sn NMR spectra and single crystal X-ray diffraction technique.

  9. Synthesis and Biological Activity of 2,5-Bisubstituted Derivatives of 1,3,4-Thiadiazol-2,5-dithiol

    OpenAIRE

    Zhivotova, T. S.; Bakirova, R. E.; Fazylov, S. D.; S. K. Kabieva; Kryazheva, T. V.

    2013-01-01

    By reaction of 1,3,4-thiadiazol-2,5-dithiol with different organohalogens, chlorides of carboxylic acids, acrylic acid derivatives, alkaloids, and secondary amines, various derivatives of 2,5-bi-substituted 1,3,4-thiadiazole were synthesized, and biological properties of some of them were studied.

  10. Synthesis and Biological Activity of 2,5-Bisubstituted Derivatives of 1,3,4-Thiadiazol-2,5-dithiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Zhivotova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By reaction of 1,3,4-thiadiazol-2,5-dithiol with different organohalogens, chlorides of carboxylic acids, acrylic acid derivatives, alkaloids, and secondary amines, various derivatives of 2,5-bi-substituted 1,3,4-thiadiazole were synthesized, and biological properties of some of them were studied.

  11. LHC News : The 39th and final repaired dipole magnet was lowered into Sector 3-4 and installed

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Multimedia Productions

    2009-01-01

    The 39th and final repaired dipole magnet was lowered into Sector 3-4 and installed on Thursday 16 April. This is the last of the LHC’s easily recognizable 15-metre-long blue superconducting dipoles required for the 3-4 repair. Interviews with Hervé Prin, Member of the LHC reconstruction team, Caterina Bertone, Magnet transport leader

  12. 42 CFR 408.20 - Monthly premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Monthly premiums. 408.20 Section 408.20 Public... PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Amount of Monthly Premiums § 408.20 Monthly premiums. (a) Statutory provisions. (1) The law established a monthly premium of $3 for the initial period of the...

  13. Effects of 3, 4-Dihydroxyacetophenone on Cytosolic Calcium in Pulmonary Artery Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cells during Acute Hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farmanullah Wazir; WANG Dixun(王迪浔); HU Qinghua(胡清华)

    2004-01-01

    The effects of 3, 4-Dihydroxyacetophenone (3, 4-DHAP) on cytosolic free calcium[Ca2+ ]i in pulmonary artery endothelia (PAECs) and smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) during acute hypoxia were studied. Porcine pulmonary artery endothelial and smooth muscle cells (PASMCs)were cultured primarily, and they were divided into 4 groups: groups incubated under normoxia or hypoxia and those with or without treatment with 3, 4-DHAP. The [Ca2+ ]i of both PAECs and PASMCs was measured by determining the fluorescence of fura 2 AM on spetrofluorometer. Our results showed that hypoxia caused significant elevation of [Ca2+ ]i, in both PAECs and PASMCs,3, 4-DHAP could attenuate the hypoxic elevation of [Ca2+ ]i only in PASMCs but not in PAECs. It is concluded that 3, 4-DHAP decreases the hypoxic elevation of [Ca2+ ]i in PASMCs. This might contribute to its inhibitory effect on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

  14. Hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease inhibits complement activation by cleaving complement component 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichi Mawatari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is mediated in part by viral proteins that abrogate the host immune response, including the complement system, but the precise mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated whether HCV proteins are involved in the fragmentation of complement component 4 (C4, composed of subunits C4α, C4β, and C4γ, and the role of HCV proteins in complement activation. METHODS: Human C4 was incubated with HCV nonstructural (NS 3/4A protease, core, or NS5. Samples were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and then subjected to peptide sequencing. The activity of the classical complement pathway was examined using an erythrocyte hemolysis assay. The cleavage pattern of C4 in NS3/4A-expressing and HCV-infected cells, respectively, was also examined. RESULTS: HCV NS3/4A protease cleaved C4γ in a concentration-dependent manner, but viral core and NS5 did not. A specific inhibitor of NS3/4A protease reduced C4γ cleavage. NS3/4A protease-mediated cleavage of C4 inhibited classical pathway activation, which was abrogated by a NS3/4A protease inhibitor. In addition, co-transfection of cells with C4 and wild-type NS3/4A, but not a catalytic-site mutant of NS3/4A, produced cleaved C4γ fragments. Such C4 processing, with a concomitant reduction in levels of full-length C4γ, was also observed in HCV-infected cells expressing C4. CONCLUSIONS: C4 is a novel cellular substrate of the HCV NS3/4A protease. Understanding disturbances in the complement system mediated by NS3/4A protease may provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying persistent HCV infection.

  15. Grignard Metathesis Polymerization and Properties of 1,1-Disubstituted-2,5-dibromo-3,4-diphenylsiloles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Tae [Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Grignard metathesis polymerizations of 1,1-disubstituted-2,5-dibromo-3,4-diphenylsiloles such as 1,1-dimethyl-2,5-dibromo-3,4-diphenylsilole, 1,1-diethyl-2,5-dibromo-3,4-diphenylsilole, 1,1-diisopropyl-2,5-dibromo-3,4-diphenylsilole, and 1,1-dihexyl-2,5-dibromo-3,4-diphenylsilole were performed to yield poly(1,1-disubstituted-3,4-diphenyl-2,5-silole)s containing fluorescent aromatic chromophore groups such as phenyl and silole in the polymer main chain: poly(1,1-dimethyl-3,4-diphenyl-2,5-silole), poly(1,1-diethyl-3,4-diphenyl-2,5-silole), poly(1,1-diisopropyl-3,4-diphenyl-2,5-silole), and poly(1,1-dihexyl-3,4-diphenyl-2,5-silole), respectively. The obtained materials are highly soluble in common organic solvents such as chloroform and tetrahydrofuran. Fourier-transform infrared spectra of all the polymers have characteristic C=C stretching frequencies at 1620-1628 cm{sup -1}. The prepared organosilicon polymers exhibit strong absorption maximum peaks at 273-293 nm in the tetrahydrofuran solution, showing a red- shift of 18-34 nm relative to those of the monomer, strong excitation maximum peaks at 276-303 nm, and strong fluorescence emission maximum bands at 350-440 nm. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that most of the polymers are stable up to 200 .deg. C with a weight loss of 6-16% in nitrogen.

  16. 荨麻中3,4-二香草基四氢呋喃的提取及纯化%Extraction and Purification of 3,4-Two Vanillyl Tetrahydrofuran in Nettle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静辉; 刘玲; 姚德坤; 黄运生

    2016-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to extract and purify 3,4-two vanillyl tetrahydrofuran in nettle, to lay a good basis for further research on the function mechanism. [ Method] Using alcohol aqueous solution for reflux extraction, the method and conditions for adsorption and sepa-ration of 3,4-two vanillyl tetrahydrofuran in nettle with macroporous adsorption resin were studied, ultrafiltration membrane purification tech-nology was adopted for purification. [Result] X-5 macroporous adsorption resin had better adsorption ability to 3,4-two vanillyl tetrahydro-furan;when ethanol concentration was 60%, the desorption effect was best, after the purification of the ultrafiltration membrane, purity of 3, 4-two vanillyl tetrahydrofuran in nettle could up to 85. 3%. [Conclusion] Using X-5 macroporous resin and ultrafiltration membrane purifi-cation technology can effectively extract 3,4- two vanillyl tetrahydrofuran in nettle, the study provides basis for research of 3,4- two vanillyl tetrahydrofuran in nettle.%[目的]研究荨麻中3,4-二香草基四氢呋喃的提取以及纯化,为进一步研究荨麻中3,4-二香草基四氢呋喃的作用机制奠定基础。[方法]采用醇水溶液回流提取,研究大孔吸附树脂吸附和分离狭叶荨麻提取液中3,4-二香草基四氢呋喃的方法和条件,并采用超滤膜纯化技术对其进行纯化。[结果]X-5大孔吸附树脂对3,4-二香草基四氢呋喃有较好的吸附能力;乙醇浓度为60%时解吸效果最好,解析液浓缩,超滤膜纯化重结晶后,荨麻中3,4-二香草基四氢呋喃纯度可达85.3%。[结论]采用X-5大孔吸附树脂以及超滤膜纯化技术可有效地提取荨麻中3,4-二香草基四氢呋喃,为今后荨麻中有效成分的研究与开发应用提供理论依据。

  17. Synthesis and in vitro study of [1,3,4]thiadiazol-2yl-3,3a,5,6-tetrahydro-2H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]thiazoles as antimicrobial agents

    OpenAIRE

    Nareshvarma Seelam; Shrivastava, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of 3,5-diphenyl-6-(5-p-toly1-[1,3,4] thiadiazol-2yl)-3,3a,5,6 tetrahydro-2H pyrazolo[3,4-d]thiazole 6ag were synthesized by the reaction of chalcone derivatives of [1,3,4] thiadiazol-2-yl)-thiazolidin-4-one 5a–g with hydrazine hydrate. The chemical structures of these compounds were confirmed by IR, NMR (1H & 13C) and mass spectral studies. Synthesized compounds 6a–g were evaluated for their antimicrobial and anti-tubercular activities. Some of the compounds exhibited well antimicro...

  18. AGR-3/4 Irradiation Test Train Disassembly and Component Metrology First Look Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stempien, John Dennis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Francine Joyce [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Winston, Philip Lon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The AGR-3/4 experiment was designed to study fission product transport within graphitic matrix material and nuclear-grade graphite. To this end, this experiment consisted of 12 capsules, each fueled with 4 compacts containing UCO TRISO particles as driver fuel and 20 UCO designed-to-fail (DTF) fuel particles in each compact. The DTF fuel was fabricated with a thin pyrocarbon layer which was intended to fail during irradiation and provide a source of fission products. These fission products could then migrate through the compact and into the surrounding concentric rings of graphitic matrix material and/or nuclear graphite. Through post-irradiation examination (PIE) of the rings (including physical sampling and gamma scanning) fission product concentration profiles within the rings can be determined. These data can be used to elucidate fission product transport parameters (e.g. diffusion coefficients within the test materials) which will be used to inform and refine models of fission product transport. After irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) had been completed in April 2014, the AGR-3/4 experiment was shipped to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) for inspection, disassembly, and metrology. The AGR-3/4 test train was received at MFC in two separate shipments between February and April 2015. Visual examinations of the test train exterior did not indicate dimensional distortion, and only two small discolored areas were observed at the bottom of Capsules 8 and 9. No corresponding discoloration was found on the inside of these capsules, however. Prior to disassembly, the two test train sections were subject to analysis via the Precision Gamma Scanner (PGS), which did not indicate that any gross fuel relocation had occurred. A series of specialized tools (including clamps, cutters, and drills) had been designed and fabricated in order to carry out test train disassembly and recovery of capsule components (graphite

  19. Study on the Synthesis of Di(3,4-methyl) Benzylidene Sorbitol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Dong-mei; Li Ji-chun; Zhang Zhi-xi; Wang Xiao-qiang

    2004-01-01

    Di (3,4-methyl) benzylidene sorbitol (briefly referred as" DMDBS "), used as transparency nucleating agent in crystallinity polyolefin kind resin, can dramaticly reduce the haze of plastic products, improving their quality in transparency, resin's rigidity, heat resistant temperature and modulus of bending. DMDBS, having these characteristics, has been widely used as polyolefin processing auxiliary.With the presence of hydrophobicity organic solvent and lower alcohol, the nucleating agent of DMDBS can be synthesized by one mole sorbitol and two mole 3,4-dimethyl benzaldehyde, during which the aldehyde and six hydroxyl of sorbitol condensate. The chemical reaction equation can be expressed as:To thoroughly inspect the characters of the reaction, a series of experiments is carried out in 14 liter agitator, with temperature at 75 ℃, and agitation velocity at 375r/min. From the result of the experiments, it can be concluded:The 3,4-dimethyl benzaldehyde/sorbitol(B/S) has influence on the reaction. When B/S is 2, the target product's yield can reach 98.79%. However the product's yield will descend definitely, if B/S is reduced or increased.Catalyst is the second effective element. When the acid catalyst is little, the reaction is slow.Increasing the use level of the acid catalyst can accelerate the reaction. However, we find overdose of the acid catalyst will yield more by-product tri-condensation. So there is an optimal use level range of the acid catalyst. From the experiments, we find the use level of the acid catalyst between 1.2% and 1.5% is acceptable, and we choose 1.3%.The third effective affecting element is reaction time. With the reaction temperature at 75℃, B/S at 2, the use level of the acid catalyst at 1.3%, when the reaction time reaches 2 hours, the product's yield is below 80%, as the reaction time increases to 6 hours, the product's yield peaks to 98.79%. If we keep increasing reaction time, however, the product's yield will not increase further

  20. Monthly Energy Review, February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Energy production during November 1997 totaled 5.6 quadrillion Btu, a 0.3-percent decrease from the level of production during November 1996. Natural gas production increased 2.8 percent, production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids decreased 1.7 percent, and coal production decreased 1.6 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 1.1 percent from the level of production during November 1996. Energy consumption during November 1997 totaled 7.5 quadrillion Btu, 0.1 percent above the level of consumption during November 1996. Consumption of natural gas increased 1.5 percent, consumption of coal fell 0.3 percent, while consumption of petroleum products decreased 0.2 percent. Consumption of all other forms of energy combined decreased 0.8 percent from the level 1 year earlier. Net imports of energy during November 1997 totaled 1.7 quadrillion Btu, 8.6 percent above the level of net imports 1 year earlier. Net imports of petroleum increased 6.3 percent, and net imports of natural gas were up 1.2 percent. Net exports of coal fell 17.8 percent from the level in November 1996.

  1. Natural gas monthly, November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through November for many data series, and through August for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the most recent data estimates are: (1) Preliminary estimates of dry natural gas production and total consumption available through November 1997 indicate that both series are on track to end the year at levels close to those of 1996. Cumulative dry production is one-half percent higher than in 1996 and consumption is one-half percent lower. (2) Natural gas production is estimated to be 52.6 billion cubic feet per day in November 1997, the highest rate since March 1997. (3) After falling 8 percent in July 1997, the national average wellhead price rose 10 percent in August 1997, reaching an estimated $2.21 per thousand cubic feet. (4) Milder weather in November 1997 compared to November 1996 has resulted in significantly lower levels of residential consumption of natural gas and net storage withdrawls than a year ago. The November 1997 estimates of residential consumption and net withdrawls are 9 and 20 percent lower, respectively, than in November 1996.

  2. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  5. Natural gas monthly, January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This publication, the Natural Gas Monthly, presents the most recent data on natural gas supply, consumption, and prices from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Of special interest in this issue are two articles summarizing reports recently published by EIA. The articles are {open_quotes}Natural Gas Productive Capacity{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Outlook for Natural Gas Through 2015,{close_quotes} both of which precede the {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} section. With this issue, January 1997, changes have been made to the format of the Highlights section and to several of the tabular and graphical presentations throughout the publication. The changes to the Highlights affect the discussion of developments in the industry and the presentation of weekly storage data. An overview of the developments in the industry is now presented in a brief summary followed by specific discussions of supply, end-use consumption, and prices. Spot and futures prices are discussed as appropriate in the Price section, together with wellhead and consumer prices.

  6. Oct3/4 directly regulates expression of E2F3a in mouse embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells, derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, have a characteristic cell cycle with truncated G1 and G2 phases. Recent findings that suppression of Oct3/4 expression results in a reduced proliferation rate of ES cells suggest the involvement of Oct3/4 in the regulation of ES cell growth, although the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we identified E2F3a as a direct target gene of Oct3/4 in ES cells. Oct3/4 directly bound to the promoter region of the E2F3a gene and positively regulated expression of E2F3a in mouse ES cells. Suppression of E2F3a activity by E2F6 overexpression led to the reduced proliferation in ES cells, which was relieved by co-expression of E2F3a. Furthermore, cell growth retardation caused by loss of Oct3/4 was rescued by E2F3a expression. These results suggest that Oct3/4 upregulates E2F3a expression to promote ES cell growth. - Highlights: • Oct3/4 positively regulates E2F3a expression in ES cells. • Oct3/4 binds to the promoter region of the E2F3a gene. • Overexpression of E2F6, an inhibitor of E2F3a, reduces ES cell growth. • E2F3a recovers growth retardation of ES cells caused by Oct3/4 reduction

  7. Oct3/4 directly regulates expression of E2F3a in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai, Dai; Ueda, Atsushi; Akagi, Tadayuki; Yokota, Takashi; Koide, Hiroshi, E-mail: hkoide@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2015-04-10

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells, derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, have a characteristic cell cycle with truncated G1 and G2 phases. Recent findings that suppression of Oct3/4 expression results in a reduced proliferation rate of ES cells suggest the involvement of Oct3/4 in the regulation of ES cell growth, although the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we identified E2F3a as a direct target gene of Oct3/4 in ES cells. Oct3/4 directly bound to the promoter region of the E2F3a gene and positively regulated expression of E2F3a in mouse ES cells. Suppression of E2F3a activity by E2F6 overexpression led to the reduced proliferation in ES cells, which was relieved by co-expression of E2F3a. Furthermore, cell growth retardation caused by loss of Oct3/4 was rescued by E2F3a expression. These results suggest that Oct3/4 upregulates E2F3a expression to promote ES cell growth. - Highlights: • Oct3/4 positively regulates E2F3a expression in ES cells. • Oct3/4 binds to the promoter region of the E2F3a gene. • Overexpression of E2F6, an inhibitor of E2F3a, reduces ES cell growth. • E2F3a recovers growth retardation of ES cells caused by Oct3/4 reduction.

  8. Effects of (± 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA on Sleep and Circadian Rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Una D. McCann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abuse of stimulant drugs invariably leads to a disruption in sleep-wake patterns by virtue of the arousing and sleep-preventing effects of these drugs. Certain stimulants, such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, may also have the potential to produce persistent alterations in circadian regulation and sleep because they can be neurotoxic toward brain monoaminergic neurons involved in normal sleep regulation. In particular, MDMA has been found to damage brain serotonin (5-HT neurons in a variety of animal species, including nonhuman primates, with growing evidence that humans are also susceptible to MDMA-induced brain 5-HT neurotoxicity. 5-HT is an important modulator of sleep and circadian rhythms and, therefore, individuals who sustain MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity may be at risk for developing chronic abnormalities in sleep and circadian patterns. In turn, such abnormalities could play a significant role in other alterations reported in abstinent in MDMA users (e.g., memory disturbance. This paper will review preclinical and clinical studies that have explored the effects of prior MDMA exposure on sleep, circadian activity, and the circadian pacemaker, and will highlight current gaps in knowledge and suggest areas for future research.

  9. 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine upregulates p75 neurotrophin receptor protein expression in the rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaomin Wang; Zugui Peng; Weihong Kuang; Hanyu Zheng; Jiang Long; Xue Wang

    2012-01-01

    The p75 neurotrophin receptor, which is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, facilitates apoptosis during development and following central nervous system injury. Previous stu-dies have shown that programmed cell death is likely involved in the neurotoxic effects of 3, 4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA), because MDMA induces apoptosis of immor-talized neurons through regulation of proteins belonging to the Bcl-2 family. In the present study, intraperitoneal injection of different doses of MDMA (20, 50, and 100 mg/kg) induced significant behavioral changes, such as increased excitability, increased activity, and irritability in rats. Moreover, changes exhibited dose-dependent adaptation. Following MDMA injection in rat brain tissue, the number of apoptotic cells dose-dependently increased and p75 neurotrophin receptor expression significantly increased in the prefrontal cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus. These findings confirmed that MDMA induced neuronal apoptosis, and results suggested that this effect was related by upregulated protein expression of the p75 neurotrophin receptor.

  10. Evaluation of Bcl-2 Family Gene Expression in Hippocampus of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Hashemi-Nasl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA is an illicit, recreational drugthat causes cellular death and neurotoxicity. This study evaluates the effects of differentdoses of MDMA on the expression of apoptosis–related proteins and genes in the hippocampusof adult rats.Materials and Methods: In this expremental study,a total of 20 male Sprague Dawley rats(200-250 g were treated with MDMA (0, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg i.p. twice daily for 7 days. Sevendays after the last administration of MDMA, the rats were killed. Bax and Bcl-2 genesin addition to protein expressions were detected by western blot and reverse transcriptionpolymerasechain reaction (RT-PCR.Results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA andp≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Our results showed that MDMA caused dose dependent up-regulation of Baxand down-regulation of Bcl-2 in the hippocampus. There was a significant alteration inbcl-2 and bax genes density.Conclusion: Changes in apoptosis-related proteins and respective genes relating to Baxand Bcl-2 might be involved in the molecular mechanism of MDMA-induced apoptosis.

  11. Involvement of autophagy upregulation in 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('ecstasy')-induced serotonergic neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, I-Hsun; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Kao, Tzu-Jen; Lin, Yang-Yi; Weng, Shao-Ju; Yen, Ting-Yin; Chen, Lih-Chi; Huang, Yuahn-Sieh

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that autophagy plays pathogenetic roles in cerebral ischemia, brain trauma, and neurodegenerative disorders. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) is an illicit drug that causes long-term serotonergic neurotoxicity in the brain. Apoptosis and necrosis have been implicated in MDMA-induced neurotoxicity, but the role of autophagy in MDMA-elicited serotonergic toxicity has not been investigated. The present study aimed to examine the contribution of autophagy to neurotoxicity in serotonergic neurons in in vitro and in vivo animal models challenged with MDMA. Here, we demonstrated that in cultured rat serotonergic neurons, MDMA exposure induced LC3B-densely stained autophagosome formation, accompanying by a decrease in neurite outgrowth. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) significantly attenuated MDMA-induced autophagosome accumulation, and ameliorated MDMA-triggered serotonergic neurite damage and neuron death. In contrast, enhanced autophagy flux by rapamycin or impaired autophagosome clearance by bafilomycin A1 led to more autophagosome accumulation in serotonergic neurons and aggravated neurite degeneration. In addition, MDMA-induced autophagy activation in cultured serotonergic neurons might be mediated by serotonin transporter (SERT). In an in vivo animal model administered MDMA, neuroimaging showed that 3-MA protected the serotonin system against MDMA-induced downregulation of SERT evaluated by animal-PET with 4-[(18)F]-ADAM, a SERT radioligand. Taken together, our results demonstrated that MDMA triggers upregulation of autophagy in serotonergic neurons, which appears to be detrimental to neuronal growth. PMID:26610922

  12. 4-Bromo-2-((E-{4-[(3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-ylsulfamoyl]phenyl}iminiomethylphenolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Ullah Khan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C18H16BrN3O4S, is a Schiff base ligand of 5-bromosalicylaldehyde and sulfisoxazole [or N-(3,4-dimethyl-5-isoxazolsulfanilamide]. The present structure is a zwitterion and is a more precise reinterpretation of the structure which was originally reported by Hämäläinen, Lehtinen & Turpeinen [Arch. Pharm. (1986, 319, 415–420]. The two aromatic rings which make π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distance 3.7538 (18 Å] through intermolecular interactions. There is also a C—Br...π interaction [3.6333 (15 Å] with the heterocyclic ring. An intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond also exists. Dimers are formed due to intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonding. Intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonding links a methyl C atom and the phenolate O atom. The dimers are linked by C—H...N hydrogen bonds, where the C atom is from the Schiff base group and the N atom is of five-membered heterocyclic ring.

  13. QSAR Studies on the COX-2 Inhibition by 3,4-Diarylcycloxazolones Based on MEDV Descriptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树深; 崔世海; 尹大强; 施蕴渝; 王连生

    2003-01-01

    Selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) might avoid the side effects of current available nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs while retaining their therapeutic efficacy. A novel variable selection and modeling method based on prediction is developed to construct the quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) between the molecular electronegativity distance vector (MEDV) based on 13 atomic types and the biological activities of a set of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory molecules, 3,4-diarylcycloxazolones (DAA) plus indomethacin,naproxen, and celecoxib. Using multiple linear regression, a 5-variable linear model is developed with the calibrated correlation coefficient of 0.9271 and root mean square error of 0.17 in modeling stage and the validated correlation coefficient of 0.9030 and root mean square error of 0.20 in leave-one-out validation step, respectively. To further test the predictive ability of the model, 20 DAA compounds are picked up to construct a training set which is used to build a QSAR model and then the model is employed to predict the biological activities of the balance compounds. The predicted correlation coefficient and root mean square error are 0.9332 and 0.19, respectively.

  14. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 10-(3,4-Dichlorophenymethylidyne)-9,10-dihydrofluorene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Fu; LI Yun-Pan; ZHOU Hong-Yan; TIAN Da-Ting; HU Wei-Bing

    2011-01-01

    A novel compound of 10-(3,4-dichlorophenymethylidyne)-9,10-dihydrofluorene (C20H12Cl2, Mr = 323.20) was synthesized via Knoevenagel reaction under microwave irradiation (500 w) within short reaction time (8 min), giving a high yield of product (87%). Its structure was determined by IR, 1H NMR, MS, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction. The crystal of the new compound is of monoclinic system, space group P21/c with a = 12.8781(13), b = 16.5067(16), c = 7.4656(7), β = 103.567(2)o, V = 1542.7(3)3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.392 g/cm3, μ = 0.413 mm-1, F(000) = 664, R = 0.0569 and wR = 0.1342 for 3355 observed reflections with I 2σ(I). The crystal structure involves a conjugated system which shows an olefin structure.

  15. Transcriptomic configuration of mouse brain induced by adolescent exposure to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amphetamine derivative (±)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) is a synthetic amphetamine analogue used recreationally to obtain an enhanced affiliative emotional response. MDMA is a potent monoaminergic neurotoxin with the potential to damage brain serotonin and/or dopamine neurons. As the majority of MDMA users are young adults, the risk that users may expose the fetus to MDMA is a concern. However, the majority of studies on MDMA have investigated the effects on adult animals. Here, we investigated whether long-term exposure to MDMA, especially in adolescence, could induce comprehensive transcriptional changes in mouse brain. Transcriptomic analysis of mouse brain regions demonstrated significant gene expression changes in the cerebral cortex. Supervised analysis identified 1028 genes that were chronically dysregulated by long-term exposure to MDMA in adolescent mice. Functional categories most represented by this MDMA characteristic signature are intracellular molecular signaling pathways of neurotoxicity, such as, the MAPK signaling pathway, the Wnt signaling pathway, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, long-term potentiation, and the long-term depression signaling pathway. Although these resultant large-scale molecular changes remain to be studied associated with functional brain damage caused by MDMA, our observations delineate the possible neurotoxic effects of MDMA on brain function, and have therapeutic implications concerning neuro-pathological conditions associated with MDMA abuse.

  16. Structural and Theoretical Investigation of Anhydrous 3,4,5-Triacetoxybenzoic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Paulo S; Almeida, Leonardo R; Araújo Neto, João H; Medina, Ana Carolina Q D; Menezes, Antonio C S; Sousa, José E F; Oliveira, Solemar S; Camargo, Ademir J; Napolitano, Hamilton B

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of anhydrous form of 3,4,5-Triacetoxybenzoic acid (TABA) is reported. Single crystal X-ray diffraction, Thermal analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and DFT calculations were applied for TABA characterization. This anhydrous phase crystallizes in the triclinic [Formula: see text] space group (Z' = 1) and its packing shows a supramolecular motif in a classical [Formula: see text] ring formed by acid-acid groups association. The phase stability is accounted in terms of supramolecular architecture and its thermal behaviour. Conformation search at B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,p) level of theory shows the existence of three stable conformers and the most stable conformation was found experimentally. The reactivity of TABA was investigated using the molecular orbital theory and molecular electrostatic potential. The calculation results were used to simulate the infrared spectrum. There is a good agreement between calculated and experimental IR spectrum, which allowed the assignment of the normal vibrational modes. PMID:27355378

  17. Caffeine enhances astroglia and microglia reactivity induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('ecstasy') in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairnar, Amit; Plumitallo, Antonio; Frau, Lucia; Schintu, Nicoletta; Morelli, Micaela

    2010-05-01

    Several reports suggest that 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) induces neurotoxic effects and gliosis. Since recreational use of MDMA is often associated with caffeinated beverages, we investigated whether caffeine interferes with MDMA-induced astroglia and microglia activation, thus facilitating its neurotoxicity. MDMA (4 x 20 mg/kg) was acutely administered to mice alone or in combination with caffeine (10 mg/kg). CD11b and GFAP immunoreactivity were evaluated as markers of microglia and astroglia activation in the substantia nigra pars-compacta (SNc) and striatum. MDMA was associated with significantly higher CD11b and GFAP immunoreactivity in striatum, whereas only CD11b was significantly higher than vehicle in SNc. Caffeine potentiated the increase in CD11b and GFAP in the striatum but not in the SNc of MDMA-treated mice. The abuse of MDMA is a growing worldwide problem; the results of this study suggest that combination of MDMA plus caffeine by increasing glial activation might have harmful health consequences. PMID:19882200

  18. 3,4-Disubstituted Polyalkylthiophenes for High-Performance Thin-Film Transistors and Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Ko, Sangwon

    2011-10-26

    We demonstrate that poly(3,4-dialkylterthiophenes) (P34ATs) have comparable transistor mobilities (0.17 cm2 V-1 s-1) and greater environmental stability (less degradation of on/off ratio) than regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophenes) (P3ATs). Unlike poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), P34ATs do not show a strong and distinct π-π stacking in X-ray diffraction. This suggests that a strong π-π stacking is not always necessary for high charge-carrier mobility and that other potential polymer packing motifs in addition to the edge-on structure (π-π stacking direction parallel to the substrate) can lead to a high carrier mobility. The high charge-carrier mobilities of the hexyl and octyl-substituted P34AT produce power conversion efficiencies of 4.2% in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices. An enhanced open-circuit voltage (0.716-0.771 eV) in P34AT solar cells relative to P3HT due to increased ionization potentials was observed. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Facile Synthetic Method and Crystal Structure of 2, 3, 3', 4'-Biphenyltetracarboxylic Dianhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Shi-xu; GAO Guo-wei; YANG Mei-jia; CHEN Hua; WU Di-feng; MEN Jian

    2012-01-01

    A facile method for the synthesis of 2,3,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride(a-BPDA)was reported,which comprises the steps of the dehalogenative coupling of dimethyl 4-chlorophthalate(4-DMCP)and dimethyl3-chlorophthalate(3-DMCP)catalyzed by low-cost(Ph3P)2NiCl2,the hydrolysis of tetra-ester and the dehydration of tetra-acid.In contrast to the conventional methods,this method has the advantage of low cost,convenient manipulation,available condition,high purity and good overall yield.Moreover,the single crystal structure of a-BPDA was analyzed by X-ray diffraction method.The X-ray data suggest that a-BPDA is a rigid,non-coplanar and non-linear structure.It contains three crystallographically independent molecules,in which the dihedral angles of the two linked phenyl rings are 44.75(4)°,46.37(3)° and 42.32(3)°,respectively.The title molecule is governed by a stronger intermolecular interaction in contrast to van der Waals interaction because of the special positions of anhydride groups.

  20. Preparation and characterization of electropolymerized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) thin films with different dopant anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Toshiaki; Tomeoku, Hiroya; Takashiri, Masayuki

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the structural and thermoelectric properties poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films with several dopants (counter ions, ClO4, PF6, and BF4), synthesised by electropolymerization. We first performed cyclic voltammetry analysis to determine the optimum synthesis conditions of the PEDOT thin films. We found that the surface morphology of the PEDOT thin films was dependent on the type of the dopant. The PF6-doped PEDOT (PEDOT:PF6) thin films showed a dense structure, and the PEDOT:ClO4 thin films showed a highly porous microstructure. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy showed that all the PEDOT thin films showed similar chemical structures and the p-type state. Regarding their thermoelectric properties, the electrical conductivity of the all the doped PEDOT thin films increased as the dopant concentration increased, with the PEDOT:PF6 thin films showing the highest value. On the other hand, the Seebeck coefficient of the PEDOT thin films with all the dopants decreased as the dopant concentration increased, with the PEDOT:BF4 thin films achieving the highest value. As a result, the PEDOT:BF4 thin films exhibited the highest power factor of 0.75 µW/(m·K2) at a dopant concentration of 1.0 M. We think that the PEDOT microstructure produced using the different types of dopant may affect the thermoelectric properties.

  1. Raman scattering in multiferroic SmFe3(BO3)4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschanskii, A. V.; Fomin, V. I.; Gudim, I. A.

    2016-06-01

    Raman spectrum of single-crystal SmFe3(BO3)4 was studied in the frequency range from 3 to 1500 cm-1 at temperatures 10-300 K. All the A1 and E phonon modes predicted by the group theory for a given symmetry of the crystal were observed. The magnitudes of splitting between the LO and TO components of polar E phonons were determined. It was found that under the transition to a magnetically ordered phase, the behavior of the intensity of the line corresponding to the A1 vibrational mode is anomalous. It was shown that at low temperatures the spectrum of two-magnon excitations has a complex shape and is observed with both nondiagonal and diagonal components of the scattering tensor. This complex shape reflects the features in the density of states of the magnetic branches. An estimate of the magnon energy Em at the Brillouin zone boundary gave ˜47 cm-1. The structure of the ground multiplet 6H5/2 of a Sm+3 ion in paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic states as well as the effect of the magnetic phase transition on it were studied. Electron-phonon interaction for the electronic excitation at 225 cm-1 was revealed.

  2. Graphene Nanosheets/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Nanotubes Composite Materials for Electrochemical Biosensing Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Novel composite materials contain 2D rGO nanosheets and 1D PEDOT nanotubes. • 3D nanocomposite film effectively improved the sensitivity for analyte detection. • The rGO/PEDOT NTs film shows good catalytic activities toward hydrazine and H2O2. • The rGO/PEDOT NTs film also exhibits high selectivity from the interference test. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Abstract: In this study, we developed the novel composite materials containing reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanotubes (PEDOT NTs) for electrochemical biosensing applications. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy suggested that the rGO nanosheets cover the substrate uniformly, and the PEDOT NTs act as a conducting bridge to connect the rGO sheets. By combining the two materials, it's expected to enhance the conductivity of the film and improve the surface coverage. We applied the rGO/PEDOT NTs composite for electrochemical detection of hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide; noticeable improvements in electrochemical activity and reactivity were observed compared to those of the pristine rGO and PEDOT NTs electrodes. This may be attributed to the better surface coverage of the rGO/PEDOT NTs modified electrode with superior conductivity. Furthermore, interference tests indicate that the rGO/PEDOT NTs composite film exhibits high selectivity toward the analyte. The rGO/PEDOT NTs composite thus provides a potential platform for biosensing applications

  3. Electrochromic enhancement of latent fingerprints by poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Hillman, A Robert

    2012-06-28

    Spatially selective electrodeposition of poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) thin films on metallic surfaces is shown to be an effective means of visualizing latent fingerprints. The technique exploits the fingerprint deposit as an insulating mask, such that electrochemical processes (here, polymer deposition) may only take place on deposit-free areas of the surface between the ridges of the fingerprint deposit; the end result is a negative image of the fingermark. Use of a surfactant (sodium dodecylsulphate, SDS) to solubilise the EDOT monomer allows the use of an aqueous electrolyte. Electrochemical (coulometric) data provide a total assay of deposited material, yielding spatially averaged film thicknesses, which are commensurate with substantive filling of the trenches between fingerprint deposit ridges, but not overfilling to the extent that the ridge detail is covered. This is confirmed by optical microscopy and AFM images, which show continuous polymer deposition within the trenches and good definition at the ridge edges. Stainless steel substrates treated in this manner and transferred to background electrolyte (aqueous sulphuric acid) showed enhanced fingerprints when the contrast between the polymer background and fingerprint deposit was optimised using the electrochromic properties of the PEDOT films. The facility of the method to reveal fingerprints of various ages and subjected to plausible environmental histories was demonstrated. Comparison of this enhancement methodology with commonly used fingerprint enhancement methods (dusting with powder, application of wet powder suspensions and cyanoacrylate fuming) showed promising performance in selected scenarios of practical interest.

  4. Flammable gas production in Land 2 and Land 3/4 radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological, radiolytic and microbiological sources of gas are considered in relation to Land 2 and Land 3/4 type radioactive waste repositories. Geological sources are potentially the most troublesome and it is concluded that site investigation work should be designed to detect gas trap structures, reservoir lithologies or source rocks. Known source and reservoir lithologies should not be considered as suitable for the siting of waste repositories. Radiolytic and microbiological sources will depend on waste characteristics. A detailed review of the literature on radiolytic gas generation is presented and conclusions from this work indicate that water in waste and matrix should be kept to a minimum. Similarly, the level of radioactivity stored in each waste container should be kept to the minimum compatible with the storage design. Microbiological gas sources will be reduced by maintaining the cellulose content of the waste at a minimum. It is suggested that the removal of organics from the waste stream would be beneficial in terms of potential gas production. (author)

  5. Scaffold Hopping Toward Agomelatine: Novel 3, 4-Dihydroisoquinoline Compounds as Potential Antidepressant Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ang, Wei; Long, Haiyue; Chang, Ying; Li, Zicheng; Zhou, Liangxue; Yang, Tao; Deng, Yong; Luo, Youfu

    2016-10-01

    A scaffold-hopping strategy toward Agomelatine based on in silico screening and knowledge analysis was employed to design novel antidepressant agents. A series of 3, 4-dihydroisoquinoline compounds were selected for chemical synthesis and biological assessment. Three compounds (6a-1, 6a-2, 6a-9) demonstrated protective effects on corticosterone-induced lesion of PC12 cells. Compound 6a-1 also displayed low inhibitory effects on the growth of HEK293 and L02 normal cells and it was further evaluated for its potential antidepressant effects in vivo. The forced swim test (FST) results revealed that compound 6a-1 remarkably reduced the immobility time of rats and the open field test (OFT) results indicated a better general locomotor activity of the rats treated with compound 6a-1 than those with Agomelatine or Fluoxetine. Mechanism studies implied that compound 6a-1 can significantly reduce PC12 cell apoptosis by up-regulation of GSH and down-regulation of ROS in corticosterone-induced lesion of PC12 cells. Meanwhile, the down-regulation of calcium ion concentration and up-regulation of BDNF level in PC12 cells may account for the neuroprotective effects. Furthermore, compound 6a-1 can increase cell survival and cell proliferation, promote cell maturation in the rat hippocampus after chronic treatment. The acute toxicity data in vivo indicated compound 6a-1 exhibited less hepatotoxicity than Agomelatine.

  6. Facilitation and disruption by mescaline and 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine of shock avoidance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, D A; Bridger, W H

    1977-04-29

    The effects of mescaline hydrochloride (4.95-79.2 mg/kg i.p.) and its non-hallucinogenic analogue 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine hydrochloride (DMPEA) (12.5-100 mg/kg i.p.) on shock avoidance in a shuttlebox were studied in male Long-Evans rats trained to high (above 88%, good performers) or low (below 6%, poor performers) stable base-line avoidance rates. In good performers, mescaline and DMPEA caused a dose-dependent decrease in avoidance rate (ED 50's 44.6 and 39.2 mg/kg, respectively) without affecting presession (5-min adaptation period) or intertrial shuttlebox crossings. In poor performers, mescaline caused a dose-dependent increase in avoidance rate (ED 50 = 24.8 mg/kg) and intertrial crossings, without affecting presession crossings. The results suggest that mescaline, but not DMPEA, has dual facilitative and disruptive effects on avoidance behavior at similar dose ranges. The facilitative, but not the disruptive, effect may be related to changes in motor activity.

  7. Growth and Characteristics of Nd3+: GdAl3(BO3)4 Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Chao-Yang(涂朝阳); ZHU Zhao-Jie(朱昭捷); LI Jian-Fu(李坚富); WU Bai-Chang(吴柏昌); BRENIER Alain

    2003-01-01

    Nd3+:GdAl3(BO3)4 (NGAB) crystal with the size of 30 mm was grown from the solvent system of K2O-Gd2O3-MoO3-B2O3 by combining accelerated seed rotation technology with medium seeded solution growth (MSSG) method, and its crystal structure has been determined by X-ray powder diffraction. It crystallizes in the trigonal system, space group R32 with a = 9.2734(2),c = 7.2438(1) A, V = 538 A3, Z = 3 and Dc = 4.379 g/cm3. The absorption and emission spectra of NGAB in the function of σ and π polarizations at room temperature have been measured. UV generation tuneable in 378~382 nm, green (531 nm) generation and blue generation tuneable in 436~443 nm as well as red (669 nm) generation by self-frequency changing were obtained with the output of 105, 119.5, 445 and 19μJ/pulse, respectively, when the crystal was pumped by a dye laser.

  8. Synthesis and Evaluation of New 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Derivatives as Antinociceptive Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıntop, Mehlika Dilek; Can, Özgür Devrim; Demir Özkay, Ümide; Kaplancıklı, Zafer Asım

    2016-01-01

    In the current work, new 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives were synthesized and investigated for their antinociceptive effects on nociceptive pathways of nervous system. The effects of these compounds against mechanical, thermal and chemical stimuli were evaluated by tail-clip, hot-plate and acetic acid-induced writhing tests, respectively. In addition, activity cage was performed to assess the locomotor activity of animals. The obtained data indicated that compounds 3b, 3c, 3d, 3e, 3g and 3h increased the reaction times of mice both in the hot-plate and tail-clip tests, indicating the centrally mediated antinociceptive activity of these compounds. Additionally, the number of writhing behavior was significantly decreased by the administration of compounds 3a, 3c, 3e and 3f, which pointed out the peripherally mediated antinociceptive activity induced by these four compounds. According to the activity cage tests, compounds 3a, 3c and 3f significantly decreased both horizontal and vertical locomotor activity of mice. Antinociceptive behavior of these three compounds may be non-specific and caused by possible sedative effect or motor impairments. PMID:27490523

  9. Chiral recognition of alanine across modified carbon electrodes with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos, E. [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica S.C., P.O. Box 064, C.P. 76700 Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico); Chemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, P.O. Box 14-740, C.P. 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: ebustos@cideteq.mx; Godinez, Luis A. [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica S.C., P.O. Box 064, C.P. 76700 Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico); Rangel-Reyes, G.; Juaristi, E. [Chemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, P.O. Box 14-740, C.P. 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-11-01

    3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) was covalently grafted onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by the formation of an amine cation radical in the electro-oxidation of the amino-containing compound. Cyclic voltammetric experiments proved that the DOPA was formed on the GCE as a monolayer. Its electron transfer over the GCE surface at different pH values was studied by cyclic voltammetry. Changes in solution pH resulted in the variation of the charge state of the terminal group and the surface pK{sub a} was estimated on the basis of these results. Because of electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged groups on the electrode surface and the alanine (Ala) in solution, the modified electrode was used as an enantioselective sensor. The peak current for D(+) or L(-)DOPA over the modified electrode decreased as a result of the chiral recognition across the blocking interaction with the respective enantiomer of L(-) or D(+)Ala. The recognition was verified with the protection of L(-)DOPA with a Fmoc group.

  10. Mephedrone, methylone and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) induce conditioned place preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Louise; Andersson, Mikael; Kronstrand, Robert; Kugelberg, Fredrik C

    2014-11-01

    During the last decade, there has been a worldwide increase in popularity and abuse of synthetic cathinones. Common ingredients of the so-called bath salts include mephedrone, methylone and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). Relatively little information about the pharmacology and addiction potential of these drugs is available. We used the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to explore the reinforcing effects of three different synthetic cathinones. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether mephedrone, methylone and MDPV induce CPP in mice. The secondary aims were to investigate a possible dose-response CPP and whether the synthetic cathinones induce higher CPP than amphetamine at equal dose. C57BL/6 mice were conditioned to mephedrone, methylone, MDPV and amphetamine at doses of 0.5, 2, 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg (i.p.). During the conditioning, the mice received two training sessions per day for 4 days. All four tested drugs showed a significant place preference compared with controls. Mice conditioned with MDPV (5 and 10 mg/kg) displayed a greater preference score compared to mice conditioned with amphetamine (5 and 10 mg/kg). Our findings show that mephedrone, methylone and MDPV produce CPP equal or higher than amphetamine strongly suggesting addictive properties. Given the public health concern of abuse, future pharmacological studies are necessary to fully understand the effects of these drugs.

  11. Improving the performance of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) for brain-machine interface applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Himadri S; Knaack, Gretchen L; Charkhkar, Hamid; McHail, Daniel G; Kastee, Jemika S; Dumas, Theodore C; Peixoto, Nathalia; Rubinson, Judith F; Pancrazio, Joseph J

    2014-06-01

    Conducting polymers, especially poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) based materials, are important for developing highly sensitive and microscale neural probes. In the present work, we show that the conductivity and stability of PEDOT can be significantly increased by switching the widely used counter anion poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) to the smaller tetrafluoroborate (TFB) anion during the electrodeposition of the polymer. Time-dependent impedance measurements of polymer modified implantable microwires were conducted in physiological buffer solutions under accelerated aging conditions and the relative stability of PEDOT:PSS and PEDOT:TFB modified microwires was compared over time. This study was also extended to carbon nanotube (CNT) incorporated PEDOT:PSS which, according to some reports, is claimed to enhance the stability and electrical performance of the polymer. However, no noticeable difference was observed between PEDOT:PSS and CNT:PEDOT:PSS in our measurements. At the biologically relevant frequency of 1kHz, PEDOT:TFB modified microwires exhibit approximately one order of magnitude higher conductivity and demonstrate enhanced stability over both PEDOT:PSS and CNT:PEDOT:PSS modified microwires. In addition, PEDOT:TFB is not neurotoxic and we show the proof-of-concept for both in vitro and in vivo neuronal recordings using PEDOT:TFB modified microelectrode arrays and chronic electrodes, respectively. Our findings suggest that PEDOT:TFB is a promising conductive polymer coating for the recording of neural activities. PMID:24576579

  12. Crystal structure of ethyl 2-(diethoxyphosphoryl-2-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenylacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Schubert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C17H27O8P, was prepared by Michaelis–Arbuzov reaction of ethyl 2-bromo-2-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenylacetate and triethyl phosphite. Such compounds rarely crystallize, but single crystals were recovered after the initial oil was left for approximately 10 years. The bond angle of the sp3-hybridized C atom connecting the benzene derivative with the phospho unit is widened marginally [112.5 (2°]. The terminal P—O bond length of 1.464 (2 Å clearly indicates a double bond, whereas the two O atoms of the ethoxy groups connected to the phosphorous atom have bond lengths of 1.580 (2 Å and 1.581 (3 Å. The three methoxy groups emerge out of the benzene-ring plane due to steric hindrance [C—C—O—C torsion angles = −179.9 (3°, −52.9 (4° and 115.3 (4°]. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of C—H...O=P hydrogen bonds generate R22(14 loops. The chosen crystal was modelled as a non-merohedral twin.

  13. Photophysical properties and semiempirical calculations of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic tetramethylester (PTME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Daly, Samy A; Awad, Mohamed K; Abdel-Halim, Shakir T; Dowidar, Dina A

    2008-12-01

    The spectral behavior and fluorescence quantum yield of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic tetramethylester (PTME) have been measured in different solvents. Both electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra are not sensitive to medium polarity. The dye exhibits high fluorescence quantum yield and high photostable. Crystalline solid of PTME gives excimer-like emission at 530 nm. The laser activity of PTME has been investigated. The dye solution in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) gives laser emission around 480 nm upon excitation by 337.1 nm nitrogen laser pulse. The excitation energy transfer from 7-dimethylamino-4-methylcoumarine (DMC) to PTME has also has been studied and the value of energy transfer rate constant, k(ET), and critical transfer distance, R(0) indicate a Förster-type mechanism. The photodecomposition of PTME in chloromethane solvents has been also studied. We applied semiempirical MO calculations using (PM3 and ZINDO-CI) calculations to explain the geometric and electronic behaviors of the PTME molecule in both ground and excited states and make a correlation with the experimental observations. PMID:18436473

  14. 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine upregulates p75 neurotrophin receptor protein expression in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaomin; Peng, Zugui; Kuang, Weihong; Zheng, Hanyu; Long, Jiang; Wang, Xue

    2012-04-25

    The p75 neurotrophin receptor, which is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, facilitates apoptosis during development and following central nervous system injury. Previous studies have shown that programmed cell death is likely involved in the neurotoxic effects of 3, 4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA), because MDMA induces apoptosis of immortalized neurons through regulation of proteins belonging to the Bcl-2 family. In the present study, intraperitoneal injection of different doses of MDMA (20, 50, and 100 mg/kg) induced significant behavioral changes, such as increased excitability, increased activity, and irritability in rats. Moreover, changes exhibited dose-dependent adaptation. Following MDMA injection in rat brain tissue, the number of apoptotic cells dose-dependently increased and p75 neurotrophin receptor expression significantly increased in the prefrontal cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus. These findings confirmed that MDMA induced neuronal apoptosis, and results suggested that this effect was related by upregulated protein expression of the p75 neurotrophin receptor. PMID:25722682

  15. Immunohistochemical features of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene-induced rat gingival lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramot, Yuval; Vered, Marilena; Malarkey, David E; Hooth, Michelle J; Painter, J Todd; Dayan, Dan; Clayton, Natasha; Masinde, Tiwanda; Nyska, Abraham

    2012-06-01

    Gingival lesions of squamous hyperplasia, cystic keratinizing hyperplasia (CKH), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) can be induced in rats treated by chronic gavage with 10-100 mg/kg 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene. We evaluated gingival squamous hyperplasia (GSH), CKH, and SCC for the immunohistochemical pattern of expression of carcinogenesis-associated markers. The 3 types of lesions and controls were stained with proliferation markers (proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA] and cyclin-D1), tumor-suppressor markers (β-catenin and mammary serine protease inhibitor [maspin]) and stroma-related markers (α-smooth muscle actin [SMA] and osteonectin/SPARC). The lesions had common immunohistochemical characteristics that differed in their expression patterns among the various diagnoses. PCNA and cyclin-D1 expression was higher in GSH, CKH, and SCC than in controls. The normal membranous expression of β-catenin was lower in GSH, and almost absent in CKH and SCC. Maspin expression was similar in GSH and controls, whereas both CKH and SCC showed decreased expression. SMA and/or osteonectin/SPARC were seen in stromal cells in CKH and SCC. Collectively, there appears to be a progression from hyperplastic and cystic lesions toward malignancy based on the morphological changes, supported by the expression of carcinogenesis-associated proteins. The exact sequence of events leading to SCC remains to be defined in a time-dependent manner.

  16. 1,3,4-Tri-O-acetyl-2-N-(trifluoroacetyl-β-l-fucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. McCutcheon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H18F3NO8, was produced through conjugation of 1,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-2-azidodeoxy-α,β-l-fucose with trifluoroacetyl chloride in the presence of bis(diphenylphosphinoethane in tetrahydrofuran at room temperature. The X-ray crystal structure reveals that the β-anomer of the product mixture crystallizes from ethyl acetate/hexanes. The compound exists in a typical chair conformation with the maximum possible number of substituents, four out of five, located in the sterically preferred equatorial positions. The major directional force facilitating packing of the molecules are N—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the amide moieties of neighboring molecules, which connect molecules stacked along the a-axis direction into infinite strands with a C11(4 graph-set motif. Formation of the strands is assisted by a number of weaker C—H...O interactions involving the methine and methyl H atoms. These strands are connected through further C—H...O and C—H...F interactions into a three dimensional network

  17. Micro-structured electrochromic device based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in consumer electronics, e.g. smartphones, tablet PCs or compact cameras, demand the development of very compact, active, optical microsystems. Because of their low power consumption, low operation voltage and cheap fabrication, voltage-controlled electrochromic devices (ECDs) based on polymer materials are promising candidates. However, the broad application of ECDs is still hindered by crucial technological obstacles. In this paper, we address two main issues: the structuring of the electrochromic material (ECM) and its underlying transparent conductive electrode on a microscale and additionally, the assembly of the ECD as an electrochemical cell with the challenges of airtight sealing, appropriate chemical stability, electrical insulation and the necessity of defining a compartment to hold the liquid electrolyte inside the cell. We first introduce a technological sequence consisting of batch processes (UV lithography and dry and wet etching) to render the microscale structuring of the ECM possible. Furthermore, we exploit the outstanding properties of the thick film dry photoresist Ordyl SY 300 to complete the assembly of ECDs with single-layer technology. As a proof of principle, we present the first results of an ECD device based on a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) material that works as an aperture stop with three coaxial segments, each individually controlled by an external voltage. (paper)

  18. Theoretical study on molecular packing and electronic structure of bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    The molecular aggregation structure of 5,5′-bis(naphthalen-2-yl)-2,2′-bi(1,3,4-oxadiazole) (BOXD-NP) was studied by computing the intermolecular interaction potential energy surface (PES) at density functional theory level based on a dimer model. All B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP and M062x functionals can yield a reliable isolated molecular geometry. The conformation of BOXD-NP obtained with all methods is perfectly planar, indicating good conjugation ability between oxadiazole and naphthalene rings. The vibrational frequencies of BOXD-NP were also calculated using the B3LYP/6-311+G∗∗ method, which showed great consistency with the experimental observations and makes the assignments of the IR spectra more solid. It was revealed that the lowest excited state of BOXD-NP should be assigned as a highly allowed π-π∗ state by TD-DFT calculation. Considering the non-covalent interactions in molecular aggregates, the M062x functional was applied in the construction of the PES. Besides the packing structure found in the crystals, PES also predicted several stable structures, indicating that PES has great ability in guiding molecular self-assembly. Symmetry Adapted Perturbation Theory (SAPT) analysis on these energy-minimum molecular stacking structures revealed that London dispersion forces are the strongest attractive component in the binding. This journal is

  19. Honeycomb-structured porous poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite layers on a gold electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzyczmonik, Paweł, E-mail: pawel@chemia.uni.lodz.pl [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Team of Electroanalysis and Electrochemistry, University of Lodz, Tamka 12, 91-403 Lodz (Poland); Socha, Ewelina; Skrzypek, Sławomira [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Team of Electroanalysis and Electrochemistry, University of Lodz, Tamka 12, 91-403 Lodz (Poland); Soliwoda, Katarzyna; Celichowski, Grzegorz; Grobelny, Jarosław [Department of Materials Technology and Chemistry, University of Lodz, Pomorska 163, 90-236 Lodz (Poland)

    2014-08-28

    Three microstructured electrodes modified with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were obtained. One electrode was modified with PEDOT doped with poly(4-lithium styrenesulfonic acid) (PSSLi), the second one with a PEDOT + polyacrylic acid composite doped with PSSLi, and the third one with a PEDOT + anthranilic acid composite doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid). The three electrodes were prepared using templates of polystyrene latex spheres (PS). The templates were deposited on the electrode using our dip-coating-like technique that we developed by optimizing key parameters, such as PS and sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration, angle of inclination, and decantation rate. The structure of the templates was verified by optical microscopy. A conducting polymer layer was obtained by electropolymerization from appropriate monomer solutions. In the final stage, the template was dissolved in toluene and the morphology of the resulting honeycomb-structure was examined by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods. The electrochemical properties of the electrodes were tested by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. - Highlights: • We developed microstructured electrodes based on conducting composites. • We obtained three composites with PEDOT, polyacrylic acid and anthranilic acid. • All structures were obtained on a polystyrene template via electropolymerization. • SDS surfactant plays a key role during template deposition process.

  20. 1-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl-2-[(E-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylidene]hydrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchada Chantrapromma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecules of the title compound, C16H16N4O7, are not planar with a dihedral angle of 5.50 (11° between the substituted benzene rings. The two meta-methoxy groups of the 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzene moiety lie in the plane of the attached ring [Cmethyl–O–C–C torsion angles −0.1 (4° and −3.7 (3°] while the para-methoxy substituent lies out of the plane [Cmethyl—O—C—C, −86.0 (3°]. An intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond involving the 2-nitro substituent generates an S(6 ring motif. In the crystal structure, molecules are linked by weak C—H...O interactions into screw chains, that are arranged into a sheet parallel to the bc plane. These sheets are connected by π–π stacking interactions between the nitro and methoxy substituted aromatic rings with a centroid–centroid separation of 3.9420 (13 Å. C—H...π contacts further stabilize the two-dimensional network.

  1. Presentations from 'The Bolund Experiment: Workshop' 3-4th December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechmann, A.

    2010-08-15

    The Bolund experiment is a measuring campaign from a complex terrain performed in 2007 and 2008 where high frequency data from 35 anemometers provides a unique database designed to validate micro-scale flow models. Since no systematic comparison of micro-scale models existed it was decided to challenge micro-scale modelers to simulate the wind over Bolund and compare the results systematically. Since the Bolund measurements had not been published the comparison could be made blindly, i.e. the participants would not have prior knowledge of the measurement results. To broaden the types of models participating, modelers were invited worldwide from research institutes, universities and industry. More than 40 groups participated in the blind comparison with well over 50 model predictions and the blind comparison therefore gives an overview of the accuracy of micro-scale models anno 2010. On the 3-4 December 2009, 80 specialists in modeling of wind over complex terrain met at a Risoe DTU workshop where the model predictions and the Bolund measurements were revealed. During the workshop, interesting presentations were given about different flow modeling approaches. This report contains copies of the slide presentations given at the workshop. (LN)

  2. Structural changes during the overoxidation of electrochemically deposited poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ujvari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical, mechanical and morphological properties of thin poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene (PEDOT films deposited on gold were investigated in aqueous sulfuric acid and sodium sulphate solutions. At sufficiently positive electrode potentials overoxidation of the polymer took place and resulted in morphological changes and structure evolution. These effects were monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction. Significant changes in the film stress caused by overoxidation were detected by using the electrochemical bending beam method. Results of the EIS measurements proved that the charge transfer process at the metal/film interface is more hindered in case of the degraded film. According to SEM images the overoxidation/degradation of PEDOT films can result in random-like but quite well-ordered arrays of islands and trench-like structures. The diffraction peaks of PEDOT became sharper and more intensive during the subsequent oxidation cycles indicating an increase in the degree of crystallinity of the polymer.

  3. Optimization of the thermoelectric figure of merit in the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubnova, Olga; Khan, Zia Ullah; Malti, Abdellah; Braun, Slawomir; Fahlman, Mats; Berggren, Magnus; Crispin, Xavier

    2011-06-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) transform a heat flow into electricity. Thermoelectric materials are being investigated for electricity production from waste heat (co-generation) and natural heat sources. For temperatures below 200 °C, the best commercially available inorganic semiconductors are bismuth telluride (Bi(2)Te(3))-based alloys, which possess a figure of merit ZT close to one. Most of the recently discovered thermoelectric materials with ZT>2 exhibit one common property, namely their low lattice thermal conductivities. Nevertheless, a high ZT value is not enough to create a viable technology platform for energy harvesting. To generate electricity from large volumes of warm fluids, heat exchangers must be functionalized with TEGs. This requires thermoelectric materials that are readily synthesized, air stable, environmentally friendly and solution processable to create patterns on large areas. Here we show that conducting polymers might be capable of meeting these demands. The accurate control of the oxidation level in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) combined with its low intrinsic thermal conductivity (λ=0.37 W m(-1) K(-1)) yields a ZT=0.25 at room temperature that approaches the values required for efficient devices.

  4. Structure stability and configuration evolution of Aln (n=3, 4, 6, 13, 19) clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Ping; LI Guifa; ZHENG Caixing; HAN Shaochang; LIU Rangsu

    2006-01-01

    Using a first-principles pseudo-potential plane wave method, the geometrical and electronic structures of Aln (n=3, 4, 6, 13, 19) clusters with different configurations have been calculated. Several parameters such as the binding energy Eb and the HOMO-LUMO energy gap △EH-L have been adopted to characterize and analyze the structure stability of these clusters, and their configuration evolutions are also investigated by linear synchronous transit (LST) method. It is demonstrated that the stable configurations of Al3, Al4, Al6, Al13, Al19 clusters are triangle, rhombus, octahedron, icosahedron and double icosahedron, respectively. For Al6 and Al19 clusters there are metastable structures of parallelogram and octahedron, respectively, whereas in the Al3, Al4 and Al13 clusters, no metastable configuration is validated. There exist a large energy gap and a low energy barrier between the octahedron and the parallelogram of the Al6 cluster, so the transformation from its metastable to stable structures is rather easy. By contrast, a small energy gap and a high energy barrier between the stable and metastable structures of Al19 cluster mean its configuration evolution from the octahedron to the double icosahedron occurs hardly, therefore the metastable octahedron configuration of Al19 cluster can be extensively detected in experiments and simulations.

  5. Contractile effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on the human internal mammary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sónia; Carvalho, Félix; Fernandes, Eduarda; Antunes, Manuel J; Cotrim, Maria Dulce

    2016-08-01

    Since the late 1980s numerous reports have detailed adverse reactions to the use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) associated with cardiovascular collapse and sudden death, following ventricular tachycardia and hypertension. For a better understanding of the effects of MDMA on the cardiovascular system, it is critical to determine their effects at the vasculature level, including the transporter or neurotransmitter systems that are most affected at the whole range of drug doses. With this purpose in mind, the aim of our study was to evaluate the contractile effect of MDMA in the human internal mammary artery, the contribution of SERT for this effect and the responsiveness of this artery to 5-HT in the presence of MDMA. We have also studied the possible involvement of 5-HT2 receptors on the MDMA contractile effect in this human blood vessel using ketanserin. Our results showed that MDMA contracted the studied human's internal mammary artery in a SERT-independent form, through activation of 5-HT2A receptors. Considering the high plasma concentrations achieved in heavy users or in situations of acute exposure to drugs, this effect is probably involved in the cardiovascular risk profile of this psychostimulant, especially in subjects with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. PMID:27079619

  6. Effects of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine on Patient Utterances in a Psychotherapeutic Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Vicka Rael; Pisano, Vincent D; Halpern, John H

    2016-07-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) administered as an adjunct to talk therapy influences patient speech content and increases improvement in treatment-resistant posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data came from the recordings of Mithoefer et al. (2011). In the third therapeutic session studied, patients were assigned, double blind, to an MDMA or a placebo group. Condition-blind scorers listened to therapy recordings and scored utterances where patients initiated topics that were empathic (regarding others' emotions), entactic (requesting or appreciating physical touch), or ensuic (describing a change in their sense of themselves). Patients who received MDMA produced high levels of ensuic, empathic, and entactic utterances compared with those who received the placebo. Interrater discourse scoring was reliable. The relationship between the number of scored utterances and the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale scores measuring PTSD severity after the treatment was significant, and reanalysis grouped bimodally into "many" or "few" such utterances remained significant. MDMA assisted these patients in having meaningful and disorder-resolving thoughts and discourse in talk therapy. PMID:26998697

  7. Structural and Theoretical Investigation of Anhydrous 3,4,5-Triacetoxybenzoic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo S Carvalho

    Full Text Available A comprehensive investigation of anhydrous form of 3,4,5-Triacetoxybenzoic acid (TABA is reported. Single crystal X-ray diffraction, Thermal analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and DFT calculations were applied for TABA characterization. This anhydrous phase crystallizes in the triclinic [Formula: see text] space group (Z' = 1 and its packing shows a supramolecular motif in a classical [Formula: see text] ring formed by acid-acid groups association. The phase stability is accounted in terms of supramolecular architecture and its thermal behaviour. Conformation search at B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,p level of theory shows the existence of three stable conformers and the most stable conformation was found experimentally. The reactivity of TABA was investigated using the molecular orbital theory and molecular electrostatic potential. The calculation results were used to simulate the infrared spectrum. There is a good agreement between calculated and experimental IR spectrum, which allowed the assignment of the normal vibrational modes.

  8. Synthesis, antimicrobial and antiinflammatory activity of 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagalakshmi G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (3a-o have been synthesized by the condensation of 4-methoxybenzohydrazide (1 with different aromatic acids (2a-o in presence of phosphoryl chloride. The structural assignment of this compound (3a-o has been made on the basis of elemental analysis, UV, IR, 1 H NMR and mass spectral data. The synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro growth inhibiting activity against different strains of bacteria and fungi viz., Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus subtilis , Bacillus megaterium , Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Shigella dysenteriae , Candida albicans , Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus were compared with the standard antibiotics such as chloramphenicol (50 µg/ml and griseofulvin (50 µg/ml using well agar diffusion technique. Compounds 3e, 3g, 3h and 3m exhibits highest antibacterial activity and compounds 3d, 3g and 3h showed better antifungal activity. The synthesized compounds (3a-o were screened for their in vitro antiinflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema. Compounds 3f and 3i were found to be most active compound of this series, which shows 46.42% and 50% inflammation inhibitory activity, whereas standard drug phenylbutazone exhibit 53.57% antiinflammatory activity at a dose of 50 mg/kg po.

  9. Unraveling the Order and Disorder in Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/Poly(styrenesulfonate) Nanofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian

    2015-08-03

    Conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) exhibits a tunable conductivity ranging from 0.1 to 4380 S·cm–1 under different doping and/or dedoping strategies. However, the dependence of macroscopic electrical properties on the evolution of the microstructure is not clearly understood. This is the first study that systematically investigated the spatial arrangement of the ordered and disordered phases in PEDOT/PSS nanofilms by bright-field (BF), high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and element-thickness mapping. Our observations clarify how amorphous PSS hinders electrical transport at various length scales in the PEDOT/PSS films. Moreover, the mechanism for an enhancement in 3 orders of magnitude in electrical conductivity was proved by TEM investigation, which is mainly due to a more uniform dispersion by dedoping that opens PEDOT nanoparticle clusters in PEDOT/PSS films. Our microstructural and electrical studies show that the change in spatial arrangement and interaction of small PEDOT domains plays a considerable role in the final electron transport.

  10. CalcHEP 3.4 for collider physics within and beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, Alexander; Pukhov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We present version 3.4 of the CalcHEP software package which is designed for effective evaluation and simulation of high energy physics collider processes at parton level. The main features of CalcHEP are the computation of Feynman diagrams, integration over multi-particle phase space and event simulation at parton level. The principle attractive key-points along these lines are that it has: a) an easy startup even for those who are not familiar with CalcHEP; b) a friendly and convenient graphical user interface; c) the option for a user to easily modify a model or introduce a new model by either using the graphical interface or by using an external package with the possibility of cross checking the results in different gauges; d) a batch interface which allows to perform very complicated and tedious calculations connecting production and decay modes for processes with many particles in the final state. With this features set, CalcHEP can efficiently perform calculations with a high level of automation from a...

  11. Ferroelastic phase transitions by 14N NMR spectra in [N(CH3)4]2CoCl4 and [N(CH3)4]2ZnCl4 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ae Ran

    2016-09-01

    Changes in the structural geometry of [N(CH3)4]2BCl4 (B=Co and Zn) crystals near the phase transition temperatures were studied by analyzing the 14N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. Two physically inequivalent a-N(1)(CH3)4 and b-N(2)(CH3)4 groups were observed in these spectra. Abrupt changes in the resonance frequency and splitting of 14N NMR signals near the phase transition temperatures were attributed to structural phase transitions, and the primary mechanism of these phase transitions exhibited ferroelastic characteristics. In addition, ferroelasticity of [N(CH3)4]2BCl4 was identified at low temperatures using optical polarizing microscopy.

  12. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 1-(3-fluorophenyl)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)thiourea

    OpenAIRE

    Aamer Saeed; Uzma Shaheen; Michael Bolte

    2011-01-01

    The title thiourea was synthesized by reaction of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl isothiocyante with 3-fluoroaniline. The 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl isothiocyante was produced in situ by reaction of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl chloride with ammonium thiocyanate in dry acetonitrile. The structure was confirmed by the spectroscopic, elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction data. It crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with unit cell dimensions a = 13.0966(9), b = 16.6460(13), c = 7....

  13. A novel series of 2,5-disubstituted 1,3,4-thiadiazoles as potential anticonvulsant agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harish Rajak; Chinmay K. Behera; Rajesh S. Pawar; Pradeep K. Singour; Murli Dhar Kharya

    2010-01-01

    In pursuit for better antiepileptic drug and the importance of semicarbazones and 2,5-disubstituted 1,3,4-thiadiazoles as anticonvulsant pharmacophore, a series of novel N-({5-[(6-methyl-1-benzofuran-3-yl)methyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl}carba-mothioyl)-2/3/4-substitutedbenzamide were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity. The findings of the present studies confirmed that the pharmacophore model with four binding sites is crucial for anticonvuisant activity. Structure-activity relationships among synthesized compounds were also established.

  14. Quercetin 3,3',4'-tri-O-beta-D-glucopyranosides from leaves of Eruca sativa (Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerle, B; Michel, K; Balázs, B; Schreier, P; Tóth, G

    2001-06-01

    Three new quercetin 3,3',4'-tri-O-beta-D-glucopyranosides isolated from leaves of Eruca sativa (Mill.) were identified as quercetin 3,3',4'-tri-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3'-(6-sinapoyl-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-3,4'-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and quercetin 3-(2-sinapoyl-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-3'-(6-sinapoyl-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The structures were established by one- and two-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectra as well as b

  15. Synthesis of spiro[pyrazolo[3,4-] pyridine-4,3'-indoline] and spiro [benzo[ℎ]pyrazolo[3,4-]quinoline-4,3'-indoline] derivatives using wet cyanuric chloride under solvent-free conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhikui Yin; Limin Yang; Liqiang Wu

    2013-05-01

    A simple and efficient synthesis of spiro[pyrazolo[3,4-]pyridine-4,3'-indoline] and spiro[benzo[ℎ] pyrazolo[3,4-]quinoline-4,3'-indoline] derivatives has been accomplished by the one-pot condensation of isatins, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-1-pyrazol-5- amine and Meldrum’s acid or 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone in the presence of wet cyanuric chloride as a catalyst under solvent-free conditions.

  16. Design of acid-responsive polymeric nanoparticles for 7,3',4'-trihydroxyisoflavone topical administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang PH

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pao-Hsien Huang,1,* Stephen Chu-Sung Hu,2,3,* Chiang-Wen Lee,4,5 An-Chi Yeh,6 Chih-Hua Tseng,7 Feng-Lin Yen1,8,9 1Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 2Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 3Department of Dermatology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, 4Research Center for Industry of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Kweishan, Taoyuan, 5Department of Nursing, Division of Basic Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chia-Yi, 6Department of Cosmetics and Fashion Styling, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung, 7School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 8Lipid Science and Aging Research Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 9Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: 7,3',4'-Trihydroxyisoflavone (734THIF is a secondary metabolite of daidzein and has been recently found to possess antioxidant, melanin inhibition, and skin cancer chemopreventive activities. However, the poor water solubility of 734THIF impedes its absorption and skin penetration and, therefore, limits its pharmacological effects when applied topically to the skin. We seek to use the nanoprecipitation method to prepare optimal eudragit E100 (EE–polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-loaded 734THIF nanoparticles (734N to improve its physicochemical properties and thereby increase its water solubility, skin penetration, and biological activities. EE–PVA-loaded 734THIF nanoparticles (734N were prepared, and their morphology and particle size were evaluated using a particle size analyzer and by electron microscopy. The drug loading and encapsulation efficiencies and in vitro solubility were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Hydrogen

  17. Material Property Correlations: Comparisons between FRAPCON-3.4, FRAPTRAN 1.4, and MATPRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luscher, Walter G.; Geelhood, Kenneth J.

    2010-08-01

    Sections 3 and 4, respectively. In addition to describing the material property correlations used in the subroutines of FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN, this report also provides a variety of comparisons between material property correlations and data. Although they are frequently identical, comparisons are made between the material property correlations used in the FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN codes. Comparisons are also made between the material property correlations used in MATPRO, a compilation of fuel and cladding material property correlations with an extensive history of used with various fuel performance and severe accident codes. For a number of reasons, consistency between the material property correlations in FRAPCON-3, FRAPTRAN, and MATPRO has never been complete. However, the current versions of FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN use a relatively consistent set of correlations for the properties that are used by both codes. The material property correlations in the most recent version of MATPRO are documented in Volume 4 of NUREG/CR-6150. In addition to comparison of the various correlations, correlation-to-data comparisons are also made with FRAPCON-3, FRAPTRAN, and MATPRO. All comparisons made in this report are based on the material property correlations used in the most recent version of the FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN codes, FRAPCON-3.4 and FRAPTRAN 1.4. The source code for each material property correlation discussed will be provided for FRAPCON-3.4 and FRAPTRAN 1.4 (see appendix) as well as a range of applicability and an estimate of uncertainty where possible.

  18. CalcHEP 3.4 for collider physics within and beyond the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Alexander; Christensen, Neil D.; Pukhov, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    We present version 3.4 of the CalcHEP software package which is designed for effective evaluation and simulation of high energy physics collider processes at parton level. The main features of CalcHEP are the computation of Feynman diagrams, integration over multi-particle phase space and event simulation at parton level. The principle attractive key-points along these lines are that it has: (a) an easy startup and usage even for those who are not familiar with CalcHEP and programming; (b) a friendly and convenient graphical user interface (GUI); (c) the option for the user to easily modify a model or introduce a new model by either using the graphical interface or by using an external package with the possibility of cross checking the results in different gauges; (d) a batch interface which allows to perform very complicated and tedious calculations connecting production and decay modes for processes with many particles in the final state. With this features set, CalcHEP can efficiently perform calculations with a high level of automation from a theory in the form of a Lagrangian down to phenomenology in the form of cross sections, parton level event simulation and various kinematical distributions. In this paper we report on the new features of CalcHEP 3.4 which improves the power of our package to be an effective tool for the study of modern collider phenomenology. Program summaryProgram title: CalcHEP Catalogue identifier: AEOV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 78535 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 818061 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C. Computer: PC, MAC, Unix Workstations. Operating system: Unix. RAM: Depends on process under study

  19. An unexpected reaction of cyanothioacetamide: Novel preparation of pyrazolo[3,4-b]-pyridine derivatives under MWI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Sen Fan; Xia Wang; Xiao Yan Li

    2008-01-01

    An unexpected multi-component reaction of cyanothioacetamide with aldehyde and aminopyrazole under MWI was reported. Through this reaction, a series of pyrazolo[3,4-b]-pyridine derivatives was prepared in high yields via simple operational procedure.

  20. [Correction of psychophysical development of preschool children 3-4 year old with movement disorders by means of Bobath therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Bukhovets, B. O.

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with the definition of efficiency application means Bobath therapy as main correction psychophysical development method of preschool age 3 -4 years children, who have movement disorders.