WorldWideScience

Sample records for 2x devices

  1. Memristor and selector devices fabricated from HfO2-xNx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, B. J.; McCulloch, D. G.; Ganesan, R.; McKenzie, D. R.; Bilek, M. M. M.; Partridge, J. G.

    2016-04-01

    Monoclinic HfO2-xNx has been incorporated into two-terminal devices exhibiting either memristor or selector operation depending on the controlled inclusion/suppression of mobile oxygen vacancies. In HfO2 memristors containing oxygen vacancies, gradual conductance modulation, short-term plasticity, and long-term potentiation were observed using appropriate voltage-spike stimulation, suggesting suitability for artificial neural networks. Passivation of oxygen vacancies, confirmed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, was achieved in HfO2-xNx films by the addition of nitrogen during growth. Selector devices formed on these films exhibited threshold switching and current controlled negative differential resistance consistent with thermally driven insulator to metal transitions.

  2. MEMS/ECD Method for Making Bi(2-x)Sb(x)Te3 Thermoelectric Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, James; Huang, Chen-Kuo; Ryan, Margaret; Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Herman, Jennifer; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    A method of fabricating Bi(2-x)Sb(x)Te3-based thermoelectric microdevices involves a combination of (1) techniques used previously in the fabrication of integrated circuits and of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and (2) a relatively inexpensive MEMS-oriented electrochemical-deposition (ECD) technique. The present method overcomes the limitations of prior MEMS fabrication techniques and makes it possible to satisfy requirements.

  3. A simple synthesis of Ag{sub 2+x}Se nanoparticles and their thin films for electronic device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, Duc Quy; Dung, Dang Duc; Cho, Sunglae; Kim, Sunwook [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    A simple method to synthesize silver selenide nanoparticles has been proposed. By changing the ratio of Se-oleylamine complex and silver acetate in the reacting mixture at different temperatures, both size and stoichiometry of the silver selenide particles could be successfully controlled. The size of the nanoparticles was adjusted by changing reaction temperatures. The synthesized silver selenide nanoparticles showed size changes from 3 to 10 nm when the corresponding reaction temperatures were 40-100 .deg. C, respectively. In addition to the size change, the stoichiometry of the synthesized nanoparticles (Ag{sub 2+x}Se) could be adjusted by simply varying the ratio of Ag to Se precursors. Through XPS analyses the x value in Ag{sub 2+x}Se was determined, and it changed between 0.54 and −0.03 by varying Ag/Se ratio from 2/0.75 to 2/4. The optical property of the nonstoichiometric Ag{sub 2+x}Se nanoparticles was different from that of stoichiometric Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles, but showed the plasmon absorption of Ag-Ag network. The plasmon absorption was decreased with the increased concentration of the Se precursor. Finally, the Ag{sub 2+x}Se thin film in this work showed large magnetoresistance and successfully applied to prepare high-performance Schottky diode. The Ag{sub 2.06}Se film exhibited the magnetoresistance effect up to 0.9% at only 0.8 T at room temperature. The voltage drop and breakdown voltage of the Schottky diode were 0.5 V and 9.3 V, respectively.

  4. The effect of oxygen vacancies on the electrical properties of TiO2-x Re-RAM switching devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkraouda, Maamar

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this work is to contribute toward an accurate determination of the electronic properties of Resistance random access memory (Re-RAM) using the density functional theory, which is the current state of the art method that employs high accuracy, it can treat a few hundred atoms on medium sized PC. All the fundamental properties are studied as a function of the mole fraction. The density of states arising from vacancy distribution, the electron transport and formation energy are analyzed. Using controllable mole fraction, various intermediate resistance states are induced. Oxygen vacancy has a considerable effect on the electrical properties of most transition metal oxides such as TiOx Re-RAM devices. The presence of oxygen vacancies is linked to the on-state conduction and resistance switching mechanism. Hydrogen is a ubiquitous impurity in most semiconductors, insertion of hydrogen atoms will remove some of defect states which were induced by oxygen vacancies; this will obviously have an effect on the conductive path, because hydrogen in the vacancy site results in the rupture of conductive channel by localizing electrons, the conductivity may decrease in this case.

  5. P2X receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, R Alan

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) activates cell surface P2X and P2Y receptors. P2X receptors are membrane ion channels preferably permeable to sodium, potassium and calcium that open within milliseconds of the binding of ATP. In molecular architecture, they form a unique structural family. The receptor is a trimer, the binding of ATP between subunits causes them to flex together within the ectodomain and separate in the membrane-spanning region so as to open a central channel. P2X receptors have a widespread tissue distribution. On some smooth muscle cells, P2X receptors mediate the fast excitatory junction potential that leads to depolarization and contraction. In the central nervous system, activation of P2X receptors allows calcium to enter neurons and this can evoke slower neuromodulatory responses such as the trafficking of receptors for the neurotransmitter glutamate. In primary afferent nerves, P2X receptors are critical for the initiation of action potentials when they respond to ATP released from sensory cells such as taste buds, chemoreceptors or urothelium. In immune cells, activation of P2X receptors triggers the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1β. The development of selective blockers of different P2X receptors has led to clinical trials of their effectiveness in the management of cough, pain, inflammation and certain neurodegenerative diseases.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. PMID:27377721

  6. P2X receptors in neuroglia

    OpenAIRE

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Pankratov, Yuri; Lalo, Ulyana; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2012-01-01

    Different types of ionotropic P2X purinoceptors are expressed in all major types of neuroglia, where they mediate a variety of physiological and pathological signaling. Cortical astrocytes express specific P2X1/5 heteromeric receptors that are activated by ongoing synaptic transmission and can trigger fast local signaling through elevation in cytoplasmic Ca2+ and Na+ concentrations. Oligodendrocytes express several types of P2X receptors that may control their development and mediate axonal–g...

  7. P2X receptors in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipziger, Jens Georg

    2015-01-01

    P2X receptors are ubiquitously expressed in all epithelial tissues but their functional roles are less well studied. Here we review the current state of knowledge by focusing on functional effects of P2X receptor in secretory and in absorptive tissues. In glandular tissue like the parotid gland...... basolateral P2X receptors stimulate ion secretion via an increase of [Ca2+]i. In absorptive epithelia like the renal tubule P2X receptor stimulation mediates the inhibition of NaCl, Mg2+ and water transport in the thick ascending limb and the distal convoluted tubule, respectively. The underlying signaling...... numerous other aspects ranging from modulation of sound transmission, activation of apoptosis or production of oxygen radicals. Eventually, P2X receptors in epithelia are an understudied issue offering numerous novel and very attractive questions....

  8. J-2X Turbopump Cavitation Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, I. Michael; Butas, John P.; Tyler, Thomas R., Jr.; Aguilar, Robert; Sowers, T. Shane

    2010-01-01

    The J-2X is the upper stage engine currently being designed by Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) for the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). Propellant supply requirements for the J-2X are defined by the Ares Upper Stage to J-2X Interface Control Document (ICD). Supply conditions outside ICD defined start or run boxes can induce turbopump cavitation leading to interruption of J-2X propellant flow during hot fire operation. In severe cases, cavitation can lead to uncontained engine failure with the potential to cause a vehicle catastrophic event. Turbopump and engine system performance models supported by system design information and test data are required to predict existence, severity, and consequences of a cavitation event. A cavitation model for each of the J-2X fuel and oxidizer turbopumps was developed using data from pump water flow test facilities at Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) together with data from Powerpack 1A testing at Stennis Space Center (SSC) and from heritage systems. These component models were implemented within the PWR J-2X Real Time Model (RTM) to provide a foundation for predicting system level effects following turbopump cavitation. The RTM serves as a general failure simulation platform supporting estimation of J-2X redline system effectiveness. A study to compare cavitation induced conditions with component level structural limit thresholds throughout the engine was performed using the RTM. Results provided insight into system level turbopump cavitation effects and redline system effectiveness in preventing structural limit violations. A need to better understand structural limits and redline system failure mitigation potential in the event of fuel side cavitation was indicated. This paper examines study results, efforts to mature J-2X turbopump cavitation models and structural limits, and issues with engine redline detection of cavitation and the use of vehicle-side abort triggers to augment the

  9. J-2X Abort System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Louis M.; Butas, John P.; Aguilar, Robert B.; Sowers, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    The J-2X is an expendable liquid hydrogen (LH2)/liquid oxygen (LOX) gas generator cycle rocket engine that is currently being designed as the primary upper stage propulsion element for the new NASA Ares vehicle family. The J-2X engine will contain abort logic that functions as an integral component of the Ares vehicle abort system. This system is responsible for detecting and responding to conditions indicative of impending Loss of Mission (LOM), Loss of Vehicle (LOV), and/or catastrophic Loss of Crew (LOC) failure events. As an earth orbit ascent phase engine, the J-2X is a high power density propulsion element with non-negligible risk of fast propagation rate failures that can quickly lead to LOM, LOV, and/or LOC events. Aggressive reliability requirements for manned Ares missions and the risk of fast propagating J-2X failures dictate the need for on-engine abort condition monitoring and autonomous response capability as well as traditional abort agents such as the vehicle computer, flight crew, and ground control not located on the engine. This paper describes the baseline J-2X abort subsystem concept of operations, as well as the development process for this subsystem. A strategy that leverages heritage system experience and responds to an evolving engine design as well as J-2X specific test data to support abort system development is described. The utilization of performance and failure simulation models to support abort system sensor selection, failure detectability and discrimination studies, decision threshold definition, and abort system performance verification and validation is outlined. The basis for abort false positive and false negative performance constraints is described. Development challenges associated with information shortfalls in the design cycle, abort condition coverage and response assessment, engine-vehicle interface definition, and abort system performance verification and validation are also discussed.

  10. Optical and infrared properties of tetramethyltetraselenafulvalene [(TMTSF)2X] and tetramethyltetrathiafulvalene [(TMTTF)2X] compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Schelde; Tanner, D. B.; Bechgaard, K.

    1983-01-01

    The electronic structure of the organic conductors bis-tetramethyltetraselenafulvalene-X [(TMTSF)2X] and bis-tetramethyltetrathiafulvalene-X [(TMTTF)2X] has been investigated by means of polarized optical and infrared reflectance measurements. Analysis of plasma edges in reflectance is used to ex...

  11. Representations by $x_1^2+2x_2^2+x_3^2+x_4^2+x_1x_3+x_1x_4+x_2x_4$

    CERN Document Server

    Eum, Ick Sun; Shin, Dong Hwa; Yoon, Dong Sung

    2011-01-01

    Let $r_Q(n)$ be the representation number of a nonnegative integer $n$ by the quaternary quadratic form $Q=x_1^2+2x_2^2+x_3^2+x_4^2+x_1x_3+x_1x_4+x_2x_4$. We prove the identity $r_Q(p^2n)=r_Q(p^2)r_Q(n)/r_Q(1)$ for any prime $p$ different from 13 and any positive integer $n$ prime to $p$, which was conjectured in [Eum et al, A modularity criterion for Klein forms, with an application to modular forms of level 13, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 375 (2011), 28--41]. We explicitly determine $r_Q(n^2)$ for any positive integer $n$, too.

  12. The P2X7 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Torben Madsen; Schwarz, Peter; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases are often multiorganic diseases with manifestations not related directly to the primary affected organ. They are often complicated by a generalized bone loss that subsequently leads to osteoporosis and bone fractures. The exact mechanism for the accompanying bone loss is not...... from an increase in bone resorption and the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta and has been shown to not only mediate the inflammatory response but also to strongly stimulate bone degradation. The purinergic P2X7 receptor is central in the processing of these...... two cytokines and in the initiation of the inflammatory response, and it is a key molecule in the regulation of both bone formation and bone resorption. The aim of this review is therefore to provide evidence-based novel hypotheses of the role of ATP-mediated purinergic signalling via the P2X7...

  13. Development Status of the J-2X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynard, Mike; Vilja, John

    2008-01-01

    In June 2006, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne began development of an engine for use on the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The development program will be completed in December 2012 at the end of a Design Certification Review and after certification testing of two flight configuration engines. A team of over 600 people within NASA and Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne are currently working to prepare for the fall 2008 Critical Design Review (CDR), along with supporting an extensive risk mitigation test program. The J-2X will power the Ares I upper stage and the Ares V earth departure stage (EDS). The initial use will be in the Ares I, used to launch the Orion crew exploration vehicle. In this application, it will power the upper stage after being sent aloft on a Space Shuttle-derived. 5-segment solid rocket booster first stage. In this mission. the engine will ignite at altitude and provide the necessary acceleration force to allow the Orion to achieve orbital velocity. The Ares I upper stage, along with the J-2X. will then be expended. On the Ares V. first stage propulsion is provided by five RS-68B engines and two 5-segment boosters similar to the Ares I configuration. In the Ares V mission. the J-2X is first started to power the EDS and its payload. the Altair lunar lander. into earth orbit, then shut-down and get prepared for its next start. The EDS/Altair will remain in a parking orbit, awaiting rendezvous and docking with Orion. Once the two spacecraft are mated, the J-2X will be restarted to achieve earth departure velocity. After powering the Orion and Altair, the EDS will be expended. By using the J-2X Engine in both applications, a significant infrastructure cost savings is realized. Only one engine development is required, and the sustaining engineering and flight support infrastructures can be combined. There is also flexibility for changing, the production and flight manifest because

  14. Isothermal sintering kinetics of UOsub(2+x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isothermal sintering kinetics of UOsub(2+x) were studied by measuring the densification rate in an optical dilatometer developed for this purpose. The sintering was conducted at constant temperature by using thin UOsub(2+x) compacts with a constant nonstoichiometry. The oxygen partial pressure in the sintering atmosphere was continuously measured by a stabilized ZrO2 solid electrolyte cell, particular attention being paid to the starting conditions of the ideal sintering. An empirical densification rate equation that describes the sintering kinetics within a large range was verified: density range 52 - 83% of the theoretical density, temperature range 1000 degC - 1550 degC, nonstoichiometry range Psub(O2)=10sup(-15.3)-10sup(-8.4)Pa, at 1100 degC, sintering time 12 s - 281 h. The effect of temperature on the sintering rate was compatible with the values reported in the literature for the effect of temperature on the uranium self-diffusion, the determined activation energy being 432 +- 13 kJ/mole. It was also noted that the uranium self-diffusion is suitable as the dominating factor in the sintering kinetics of UOsub(2+x). The rise in temperature from 1000 degC to 1550 degC increased the densification rate constant k 40-fold, and the change in oxygen partial pressure from Psub(O2)=10sup(-15.3) to Psub(O2)=10sup(-8.4) Pa at 1100 degC 4-fold. At 800 degC and at composition UOsub(2.1) a sintering rate was measured that corresponds to the sintering rate of a stoichiometric compact at 1320 degC. With the method applied in the present study and the verified empirical equation, the effect of the various factors on the sintering of the uranium dioxide compacts used as fuel elements can be studied accurately. (author)

  15. Oxygen diffusion in UO2+x and (U,Pu)O2+-x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Anders D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liu, Xiang-Yang [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-03

    In the first part of this report we revisit an earlier study of oxygen diffusion in UO{sub 2+x}, in which we used density functional theory (DFT) calculations to parameterize a kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model. The results from these earlier kMC simulations are reproduced in Fig. 1 and they indicate fairly good agreement with available experiments. This work was later expanded to include a larger temperature range. However, since the publication of this study there have been a number of advancements in DFT methodology for UO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2+x} providing increased accuracy. We have also gained better understanding of the oxygen clustering phenomena occurring in UO{sub 2+x}. For these two reasons, the DFT calculations of the migration barriers of single oxygen interstitials and di-interstitial clusters have been repeated using the LDA+U and GGA+U methodologies. The earlier study used regular GGA and, even though this method captures similar trends as the more advanced LDA+U and GGA+U techniques, it does not fulfill the quantitative requirements set by some applications. Additionally, we have identified a mechanism for the most stable quad-interstitial clusters to migrate and here we calculate the corresponding barriers within both the LDA+U and GGA+U methodologies. The new LDA+U and GGA+U data sets are analyzed in terms of available experiments. In the second part of this report we present initial results for the impact of Pu on oxygen diffusion in UO{sub 2}. The first step in understanding this process is to calculate the binding energies of oxygen vacancies and interstitials to a Pu ion in the UO{sub 2} matrix. Possible diffusion mechanisms are discussed for (U,Pu)O{sub 2-x}, (U,Pu)O{sub 2} and (U,Pu)O{sub 2+x}.

  16. A stronger entanglement monogamy inequality in a 2x2x3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we prove a stronger entanglement monogamy inequality in a 2x2x3 system's pure state |Ψ)ABC. Specifically, we show that the linear entropy of ρA, which is the entanglement between A and BC, is always larger than the sum of the square of concurrence between A and B and the square of concurrence of assistance between A and C. Our proof is based on direct generalizations of the qubit system's results. Our inequality is stronger than the known monogamy inequality of concurrence and shows that the entanglement of assistance always comes from the existing entanglement. However, our inequality also shows that unlike the three-qubit case, in higher dimensional systems the entanglement between A and BC cannot be completely transformed into bipartite entanglement with assistance. Through our proof, we also give some cases when the inequality reduces to an equality.

  17. LTE Radiated Data Throughput Measurements, Adopting MIMO 2x2 Reference Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szini, Istvan Janos; Pedersen, Gert Frølund; Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del;

    2012-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) requires Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna systems. Consequently a new over-the-air (OTA) test methodology need to be created to make proper assessment of LTE devices radiated performance. The antenna specific parameters i.e. total antenna efficiency, gain...... imbalance and correlation coefficient, are essential for a proper MIMO antenna system design. However it can't be use directly to assess the LTE device system performance, since a multiplicity of other factors are involved, e.g. power amplifier load- pull, low noise amplifier source-pull, self interference...... performance, ruling out the LTE devices unknown MIMO 2x2 antenna performance....

  18. P2X receptors: New players in cancer pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessia; Franceschini; Elena; Adinolfi

    2014-01-01

    Pain is unfortunately a quite common symptom for cancer patients. Normally pain starts as an episodic experience at early cancer phases to become chronic in later stages. In order to improve the quality of life of oncological patients, anti-cancer treatments are often accompanied by analgesic therapies. The P2 X receptor are adenosine triphosphate(ATP) gated ion channels expressed by several cells including neurons, cancer and immune cells. Purinergic signaling through P2 X receptors recently emerged as possible common pathway for cancer onset/growth and pain sensitivity. Indeed, tumor microenvironment is rich in extracellular ATP, which has a role in both tumor development and pain sensation. The study of the different mechanisms by which P2 X receptors favor cancer progression and relative pain, represents an interesting challenge to design integrated therapeutic strategies for oncological patients. This review summarizes recent findings linking P2 X receptors and ATP to cancer growth, progression and related pain. Special attention has been paid to the role of P2X2, P2X3, P2X4 and P2X7 in the genesisof cancer pain and to the function of P2X7 in tumor growth and metastasis. Therapeutic implications of the administration of different P2 X receptor blockers to alleviate cancer-associated pain sensations contemporarily reducing tumor progression are also discussed.

  19. Magnetic ground state of UCu 2X 2 (X=Si, Ge) from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Samir F.; Siruguri, Vasudeva; Eyert, Volker

    2006-10-01

    The electronic and magnetic structures of UCu 2X 2 germanide and silicide are revisited in view of existing controversy from experimental findings. From self-consistent calculations carried out within the local spin density functional theory using the augmented spherical wave method, the ground state is found to be ferromagnetic within simple and super cell setups. An analysis of the density of states and the chemical bonding shows the dominant role of Cu 2Ge 2-nearly planar like entities within the crystal lattice.

  20. Inequalities detecting quantum entanglement for 2 x d systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a set of inequalities for detecting quantum entanglement of 2 x d quantum states. For 2 x 2 and 2 x 3 systems, the inequalities give rise to sufficient and necessary separability conditions for both pure and mixed states. For the case of d>3, these inequalities are necessary conditions for separability, which detect all entangled states that are not positive under partial transposition and even some entangled states with positive partial transposition. These inequalities are given by mean values of local observables and present an experimental way of detecting the quantum entanglement of 2 x d quantum states and even multiqubit pure states.

  1. P2X7 Receptors in Neurological and Cardiovascular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D. Skaper

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available P2X receptors are ATP-gated cation channels that mediate fast excitatory transmission in diverse regions of the brain and spinal cord. Several P2X receptor subtypes, including P2X7, have the unusual property of changing their ion selectivity during prolonged exposure to ATP, which results in a channel pore permeable to molecules as large as 900 daltons. The P2X7 receptor was originally described in cells of hematopoietic origin, and mediates the influx of Ca2+ and Na+ and Ca2+ and Na+ ions as well as the release of proinflammatory cytokines. P2X7 receptors may affect neuronal cell death through their ability to regulate the processing and release of interleukin-1, a key mediator in neurodegeneration, chronic inflammation, and chronic pain. Activation of P2X7, a key mediator in neurodegeneration, chronic inflammation, and chronic pain. Activation of P2X7 receptors provides an inflammatory stimulus, and P2X7 receptor-deficient mice have substantially attenuated inflammatory responses, including models of neuropathic and chronic inflammatory pain. Moreover, P2X7 receptor activity, by regulating the release of proinflammatory cytokines, may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. Apoptotic cell death occurs in a number of vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, restenosis, and hypertension, and may be linked to the release of ATP from endothelial cells, P2X7 receptor activation, proinflammatory cytokine production, and endothelial cell apoptosis. In this context, the P2X7 receptor may be viewed as a gateway of communication between the nervous, immune, and cardiovascular systems.

  2. Generalized Measure of Departure from No Three-Factor Interaction Model for 2 x 2 x K Contingency Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Ban

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available For 2 x 2 x K contingency tables, Tomizawa considered a Shannon entropy type measure to represent the degree of departure from a log-linear model of no three-factor interaction (the NOTFI model. This paper proposes a generalization of Tomizawa's measure for 2 x 2 x K tables. The measure proposed is expressed by using Patil-Taillie diversity index or Cressie-Read power-divergence. A special case of the proposed measure includes Tomizawa's measure. The proposed measure would be useful for comparing the degrees of departure from the NOTFI model in several tables.

  3. The role of P2X receptors in bone biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N R; Syberg, S; Ellegaard, M

    2015-01-01

    come from studies on murine knockout models and from pharmacologic studies on cells and animals. More recently, the role of P2X receptors in human bone diseases has been documented. Loss-of-functions polymorphisms in the P2X7 receptorare associated with bone loss and increased fracture risk. Very...

  4. P2X2 and P2X5 Receptors Mediate Bladder Hyperesthesia in ICC in Female Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Mingsen; Zheng, Ji; Yan, Junan; Li, Qianwei; Fang, Qiang; Li, Weibing

    2015-06-01

    This study was set to explore the role of P2X2 and P2X5 as the important molecules in sensory afferent of bladder in female overactive bladder (OAB) patients with the bladder hyperesthesia. Sixty-eight OAB patients admitted in Southwest Hospital affiliated to the Third Military Medical University during September, 2011-December, 2012 were selected and included in the experimental group (OAB group) and 30 healthy volunteers during the same period were included as the control group. We recorded voiding diary and urodynamic results, and immunohistochemistry analysis was used to detect P2X2 and P2X5 receptor in interstitial cell of Caja (ICC) in bladder tissue of female OAB patients and healthy volunteers, to tentatively explore the effect of P2X2 and P2X5 in bladder hyperesthesia. Urodynamic study has important diagnostic value in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of OAB. P2X2 receptor was significantly up-regulated in bladder ICC in OAB group. The blockage of P2X2 receptor could significantly inhibit the contraction of bladder muscle strips, decrease the bladder pressure and the electric discharge of pelvic nerve. PET and urodynamic study showed that micturition desire sense in PAG area of pons in OAB patients was significantly increased compared with the control group. The up-regulation of P2X2 in ICC is an important factor to cause bladder hyperesthesia in OAB patients. PET and urodynamic study indicate that the bladder-originated nervous impulses are important cause of OAB. This study provides a basis for the study of P2X2 receptor in ICC in bladder hyperesthesia of OAB patients.

  5. The role of P2X receptors in bone biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N R; Syberg, S; Ellegaard, M

    2015-01-01

    receptors regulate bone metabolism and especially for the P2X7 receptor an impressive amount of evidence has now documented its expression in osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes as well as important functional roles in proliferation, differentiation, and function of the cells of bone. Key evidence has...... come from studies on murine knockout models and from pharmacologic studies on cells and animals. More recently, the role of P2X receptors in human bone diseases has been documented. Loss-of-functions polymorphisms in the P2X7 receptorare associated with bone loss and increased fracture risk. Very...

  6. Observation of Considerable Upconversion Enhancement Induced by Cu2-xS Plasmon Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Donglei; Liu, Dali; Xu, Wen; Yin, Ze; Chen, Xu; Zhou, Pingwei; Cui, Shaobo; Chen, Zhanguo; Song, Hongwei

    2016-05-24

    Localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) are achieved in heavily doped semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) with appreciable free carrier concentrations. In this paper, we present the photonic, electric, and photoelectric properties of plasmonic Cu2-xS NPs/films and the utilization of LSPRs generated from semiconductor NPs as near-infrared antennas to enhance the upconversion luminescence (UCL) of NaYF4:Yb(3+),Er(3+) NPs. Our results suggest that the LSPRs in Cu2-xS NPs originate from ligand-confined carriers and that a heat treatment resulted in the decomposition of ligands and oxidation of Cu2-xS NPs; these effects led to a decrease of the Cu(2+)/Cu(+) ratio, which in turn resulted in the broadening, decrease in intensity, and red-shift of the LSPRs. In the presence of a MoO3 spacer, the UCL intensity of NaYF4:Yb(3+),Er(3+) NPs was substantially improved and exhibited extraordinary power-dependent behavior because of the energy band structure of the Cu2-xS semiconductor. These findings provide insights into the nature of LSPR in semiconductors and their interaction with nearby emitters and highlight the possible application of LSPR in photonic and photoelectric devices.

  7. Modulation of P2X3 and P2X2/3 Receptors by Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbatko, Anatoly; Foletti, Davide; Poulsen, Kris; Strop, Pavel; Zhu, Guoyun; Hasa-Moreno, Adela; Melton Witt, Jody; Loo, Carole; Krimm, Stellanie; Pios, Ariel; Yu, Jessica; Brown, Colleen; Lee, John K; Stroud, Robert; Rajpal, Arvind; Shelton, David

    2016-06-01

    Purinergic homomeric P2X3 and heteromeric P2X2/3 receptors are ligand-gated cation channels activated by ATP. Both receptors are predominantly expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons, and an increase in extracellular ATP concentration under pathological conditions, such as tissue damage or visceral distension, induces channel opening, membrane depolarization, and initiation of pain signaling. Hence, these receptors are considered important therapeutic targets for pain management, and development of selective antagonists is currently progressing. To advance the search for novel analgesics, we have generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against human P2X3 (hP2X3). We have found that these antibodies produce distinct functional effects, depending on the homomeric or heteromeric composition of the target, its kinetic state, and the duration of antibody exposure. The most potent antibody, 12D4, showed an estimated IC50 of 16 nm on hP2X3 after short term exposure (up to 18 min), binding to the inactivated state of the channel to inhibit activity. By contrast, with the same short term application, 12D4 potentiated the slow inactivating current mediated by the heteromeric hP2X2/3 channel. Extending the duration of exposure to ∼20 h resulted in a profound inhibition of both homomeric hP2X3 and heteromeric hP2X2/3 receptors, an effect mediated by efficient antibody-induced internalization of the channel from the plasma membrane. The therapeutic potential of mAb12D4 was assessed in the formalin, complete Freund's adjuvant, and visceral pain models. The efficacy of 12D4 in the visceral hypersensitivity model indicates that antibodies against P2X3 may have therapeutic potential in visceral pain indications. PMID:27129281

  8. Alaska Gravity Data per 2 x 4 min Cell (96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' gravity density grid for Alaska displays the distribution of about 1.1 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in the National Geodetic Survey...

  9. J-2X Test Articles Using FDM Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ted; Ruf, Joe; Steele, Phil

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a brief history of the J-2X engine, along with detailed description of the material demonstrator and test articles that were created using Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process.

  10. Manipulation of P2X Receptor Activities by Light Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Seong Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available P2X receptors are involved in amplification of inflammatory responses in peripheral nociceptive fibers and in mediating pain-related signals to the CNS. Control of P2X activation has significant importance in managing unwanted hypersensitive neuron responses. To overcome the limitations of chemical ligand treatment, optical stimulation methods of optogenetics and photoswitching achieve efficient control of P2X activation while allowing specificity at the target site and convenient stimulation by light illumination. There are many potential applications for photosensitive elements, such as improved uncaging methods, photoisomerizable ligands, photoswitches, and gold nanoparticles. Each technique has both advantages and downsides, and techniques are selected according to the purpose of the application. Technical advances not only provide novel approaches to manage inflammation or pain mediated by P2X receptors but also suggest a similar approach for controlling other ion channels.

  11. Discovery and Identification of W' and Z' in SU(2) x SU(2) x U(1) Models at the LHC

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Qing-Hong; Li, Zhao; Yu, Jiang-Hao; Yuan, C.-P.

    2012-01-01

    We explore the discovery potential of W' and Z' boson searches for various SU(2) x SU(2) x U(1) models at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), after taking into account the constraints from low energy precision measurements and direct searches at both the Tevatron (1.96 TeV) and the LHC (7 TeV). In such models, the W' and Z' bosons emerge after the electroweak symmetry is spontaneously broken. Two patterns of the symmetry breaking are considered in this work: one is SU(2)_L x SU(2)_2 x U(1)_X to ...

  12. Entanglement of 2xK quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lozinski, A; Zyczkowski, K; Wellens, T; Lozinski, Artur; Buchleitner, Andreas; Zyczkowski, Karol; Wellens, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    We derive an analytical expression for the lower bound of the concurrence of mixed quantum states of composite 2xK systems. In contrast to other, implicitly defined entanglement measures, the numerical evaluation of our bound is straightforward. We explicitly evaluate its tightness for general mixed states of 2x3 systems, and identify a large class of states where our expression gives the exact value of the concurrence.

  13. Work function of bulk-insulating topological insulator Bi2-xSbxTe3-ySey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takane, Daichi; Souma, Seigo; Sato, Takafumi; Takahashi, Takashi; Segawa, Kouji; Ando, Yoichi

    2016-08-01

    Recent discovery of bulk insulating topological insulator (TI) Bi2-xSbxTe3-ySey paved a pathway toward practical device application of TIs. For realizing TI-based devices, it is necessary to contact TIs with a metal. Since the band-bending at the interface dominates the character of devices, knowledge of TIs' work function is of essential importance. We have determined the compositional dependence of the work function in Bi2-xSbxTe3-ySey by high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy. The obtained work-function values (4.95-5.20 eV) track the energy shift of the surface chemical potential seen by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The present result serves as a useful guide for developing TI-based electronic devices.

  14. P2X1 receptors and the endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LS Harrington

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine triphosphate (ATP is now established as a principle vaso-active mediator in the vasculature. Its actions on arteries are complex, and are mediated by the P2X and P2Y receptor families. It is generally accepted that ATP induces a bi-phasic response in arteries, inducing contraction via the P2X and P2Y receptors on the smooth muscle cells, and vasodilation via the actions of P2Y receptors located on the endothelium. However, a number of recent studies have placed P2X1 receptors on the endothelium of some arteries. The use of a specific P2X1 receptor ligand, a, b methylene ATP has demonstrated that P2X1 receptors also have a bi-functional role. The actions of ATP on P2X1 receptors is therefore dependant on its location, inducing contraction when located on the smooth muscle cells, and dilation when expressed on the endothelium, comparable to that of P2Y receptors.

  15. Adsorption of Ag on Ge(100)-(2 x 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, T.; Rosenwinkel, E.; Chiang, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    The initial stages of interface formation of Ag deposited onto Ge(100)-(2 x 1) were studied with high-energy electron diffraction and high-resolution photoemission. The surface core-level energies for clean Ge(100)-(2 x 1) were not changed with the deposition of about one monolayer of Ag, indicating that there was no chemical reaction or atomic intermixing. The Ag nucleated at a coverage of about 1/3 monolayer and showed three-dimensional growth for higher coverages. 13 references, 3 figures.

  16. Electrical Characteristics of TiO(2-x)/TiO2 Resistive Switching Memory Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Kwan-Jun; Kim, Won-You; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2016-06-01

    The rewritable low-power operated nonvolatile resistive random access memory device composed of Al(top)/TiO(2-x)/TiO2/Al(bottom) are demonstrated. The active component, the TiO2 layer of the device, is fabricated by atomic layer deposition. The oxygen vacancy TiO(2-x)/TiO2 layer annealed at 600 degrees C using rapid thermal annealing and it was proven to be in the rutile phase by X-ray diffraction analysis. The device exhibits nonvolatile memory behavior consistent with resistive switching properties, demonstrates an ON/OFF ratio of approximately 1,000:1, requires range of low voltage less than 0.4 V, and is still operational more than 120 times. PMID:27427707

  17. P2X7 receptors in satellite glial cells mediate high functional expression of P2X3 receptors in immature dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purinergic P2X3 receptor (P2X3R expressed in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neuron and the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R expressed in the surrounding satellite glial cell (SGC are two major receptors participating in neuron-SGC communication in adult DRGs. Activation of P2X7Rs was found to tonically reduce the expression of P2X3Rs in DRGs, thus inhibiting the abnormal pain behaviors in adult rats. P2X receptors are also actively involved in sensory signaling in developing rodents. However, very little is known about the developmental change of P2X7Rs in DRGs and the interaction between P2X7Rs and P2X3Rs in those animals. We therefore examined the expression of P2X3Rs and P2X7Rs in postnatal rats and determined if P2X7R-P2X3R control exists in developing rats. Findings We immunostained DRGs of immature rats and found that P2X3Rs were expressed only in neurons and P2X7Rs were expressed only in SGCs. Western blot analyses indicated that P2X3R expression decreased while P2X7R expression increased with the age of rats. Electrophysiological studies showed that the number of DRG neurons responding to the stimulation of the P2XR agonist, α,β-meATP, was higher and the amplitudes of α,β-meATP-induced depolarizations were larger in immature DRG neurons. As a result, P2X3R-mediated flinching responses were much more pronounced in immature rats than those found in adult rats. When we reduced P2X7R expression with P2X7R-siRNA in postnatal and adult rats, P2X3R-mediated flinch responses were greatly enhanced in both rat populations. Conclusions These results show that the P2X7R expression increases as rats age. In addition, P2X7Rs in SGCs exert inhibitory control on the P2X3R expression and function in sensory neurons of immature rats, just as observed in adult rats. Regulation of P2X7R expression is likely an effective way to control P2X3R activity and manage pain relief in infants.

  18. The contribution of valence unstable ytterbium states into kinetic properties of YbNi{sub 2-x}Ge{sub 2+x} and YbCu{sub 2-x}Si{sub 2+x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzhel, B.C. [Department of Physics, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 50 Dragomanow Str., 79005, Lviv (Ukraine)]. E-mail: kuzhelb@org.lviv.net; Shcherba, I.D. [Department of Physics, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 50 Dragomanow Str., 79005, Lviv (Ukraine); Institute of Techniques, Academy of Pedagogy, Podchorozych 2, 30-084, Krakow (Poland); Kravchenko, I.I. [Department of Physics, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118440, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)]. E-mail: kravch@phys.ufl.edu

    2006-11-30

    The intermetalic YbNi{sub 2-x}Ge{sub 2+x} (-0.25>=x>=0.25) and YbCu{sub 2-x}Si{sub 2+x} (-0.20>=x>=0.20) alloy systems (CeGa{sub 2}Al{sub 2} -type crystal structure) were studied by measuring X-ray absorption and diffraction at room temperatures as well as electrical resistivity and thermopower in the 4.2-300K temperature range. The temperature dependence of the contribution of valence unstable Yb ions to the total electrical resistance has been analyzed. The qualitative estimation of this contribution has been performed by utilizing the following equation:{delta}{rho}{sub Yb}(T)={rho}{sub exp}(T)-{rho}{sub YbCu{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}}(T)-{delta}{rho}{sub 4.2K},where {delta}{rho}{sub YbCu{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}}(T) is the temperature dependence of YbCu{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} electrical resistance, {delta}{rho}{sub 4.2}={rho}{sub 4.2}(exp)-{rho}{sub 4.2}(YbCu{sub 2}Ge{sub 2})

  19. Aligned Interference Neutralization and the Degrees of Freedom of the 2x2x2 Interference Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Gou, Tiangao; Jeon, Sang-Woon; Chung, Sae-Young

    2010-01-01

    We show that the 2x2x2 interference channel, i.e., the multihop interference channel formed by concatenation of two 2-user interference channels achieves the min-cut outer bound value of 2 DoF, for almost all values of channel coefficients, for both time-varying or fixed channel coefficients. The key to this result is a new idea, called aligned interference neutralization, that provides a way to align interference terms over each hop in a manner that allows them to be cancelled over the air at the last hop.

  20. Ac Impedance Spectroscopic Studies on Li2xPb2xBaP2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, M.; Selvasekarapandian, S.

    2002-12-01

    The complex diphosphate (P2O7)4- ions have been used as a building blocks in wide variety of crystal phases for a wide spectrum of physical and chemical properties. Lithium barium diphsophate doped with lead {Li2-xPb2xBaP2O7 (x = 0, 0.2 & 0.4)} has been prepared by solid state reaction method The conductivity is found to be decreasing with the doping of lead. The lithium ion dynamics parameters such as hopping frequency and relaxation frequency were calculated from the frequency dependent conductivity and modulus analysis.

  1. 力竭运动对大鼠大脑P2X2、P2X4和P2X6受体表达的影响%Effect of Exhaustive Exercise on the Expression of Brain P2X2,P2X4,and P2X6 Receptors in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周未艾; 李硕; 陈海涛

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨一次和反复力竭游泳运动后大鼠大脑ATP受体P2X之三个亚型P2X2、P2X4和P2X6的时相性变化特点.方法:健康成年雄性SD大鼠68只,分为一次力竭游泳运动组和反复力竭游泳运动组及安静对照组,反复力竭组大鼠每日负重3%体重进行力竭游泳运动,共训练2周.运动组分别于力竭运动后即刻、4小时、12小时和24小时取材,采用实时荧光定量PCR方法测定力竭运动后大鼠P2X2、P2X4和P2X6受体亚型mRNA水平.结果:(1)反复力竭运动后12小时组P2X2相对表达率达到峰值,与反复力竭其它各组及安静对照组、一次力竭12小时组均有显著差异(P<0.01).(2)一次力竭即刻组P2X4相对表达率与安静对照组、4小时组、12小时组比较有显著统计学差异(分别为P< 0.01、P<0.05、P< 0.01).(3)反复力竭运动后12小时组P2X6相对表达率达到峰值.结论:3种受体亚型在一次力竭运动和反复力竭运动后12小时出现峰值或峰值趋势,提示在力竭运动后12小时,这3种P2X受体亚型所参与的中枢神经生理生化活动在此时可能会达到一个活跃期.%Objective The main purpose of this study is to investigate the variation in P2X2,P2X4 and P2X6 receptors in rats brain at different time points after single bout exhaustive exercise and repeated exhaustive exercise. Methods Sixty-eight male SD rats were divided randomly into the single bout exhaustive swimming group (SE), repeated exhausting swimming (RE), and sedentary group (C). The rats in group RE with weight-bearing 3% of body weight swan to exhaustion each day for a total of two weeks. The brain tissue of the rats was removed at 0 hr,4 hr,12 hr and 24 hr after the last exhaustive swimming. The mRNA levels of P2X2,P2X4 and P2X6 receptors in the brain tissue were observed through real-time quantitative PCR method. Results (l)The peak relative expression rate of the P2X2 in the group RE revealed at 12 hr after exhaustive

  2. Thermal expansion of Cr2xFe2-2xMo3O12, Al2xFe2-2xMo3O12 and Al2xCr2-2xMo3O12 solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transition temperature from monoclinic to orthorhombic and the thermal expansion of the orthorhombic phase were investigated for three systems of the family A2M3O12: Cr2xFe2-2xMo3O12, Al2xFe2-2xMo3O12 and Al2xCr2-2xMo3O12. It was possible to obtain a single-phase solid solution in all studied samples (x=0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 and 1). A linear relationship between the transition temperature and the fraction of A3+ cations (x) was observed for each system. In all orthorhombic solid solutions studied here the observed thermal expansion was anisotropic. These anisotropic thermal expansion properties of crystallographic axes a, b and c result in a low positive or near-zero overall linear coefficient of thermal expansion (αl=αV/3). The relationship between the size of A3+ cations in A2M3O12 and the coefficient of thermal expansion is discussed. Near-zero thermal expansion of Cr2Mo3O12 is explained by the behavior of Cr-O and Mo-O bond distances, Cr-Mo non-bond distances and Cr-O-Mo bond angles with increasing temperature, estimated by Rietveld analysis of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data. - Graphical abstract: In this figure, all published overall linear coefficients of thermal expansion for orthorhombic A2M3O12 family obtained through diffraction methods as a function of A3+ cation radii size, together with dilatometric results, are plotted. Our results indicate that Cr2Mo3O12 does not exactly follow the established relationship

  3. Structure stability maps for MLn2X4 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure type data for MLn2X4 (Ln=La-Lu, Sc, Y; M=Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cd, Pb; X=S, Se) compounds are systematized. Structure stability maps are designed and analyzed comparatively. Predictions are made concerning structure formation for unstudied sulfides and selenides. Future applications of the structure stability maps and their integration into databases are outlined

  4. P2X receptor channels in endocrine glands

    OpenAIRE

    Stojilkovic, Stanko S.; Zemkova, Hana

    2013-01-01

    The endocrine system is the system of ductless glands and single cells that synthetize hormones and release them directly into the bloodstream. Regulation of endocrine system is very complex and ATP and its degradable products ADP and adenosine contribute to its regulation acting as extracellular messengers for purinergic receptors. These include P2X receptors, a family of ligand-gated ion channels which expression and roles in endocrine tissues are reviewed here. There are seven mammalian pu...

  5. J-2X Fuel Pump Impeller Seal Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmauch, Preston B.; West, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    The J-2X engine was originally designed for the upper stage of the previously cancelled Crew Launch Vehicle. Although the Crew Launch Vehicle was cancelled the J-2X engine, which is currently undergoing hot-fire testing, may be used on future programs. The J-2X engine is a direct descendent of the J-2 engine which powered the upper stage during the Apollo program. Many changes including a thrust increase from 230K to 294K lbf have been implemented in this engine. The rotor-dynamic stability of the fuel turbopump is highly dependent on the tangential velocity of the fluid as it enters the the front face impeller seal. Rotor-dynamic analysis predicts that a much lower tangential velocity will be required for stability than was needed for previous engines. The geometry at the seal entrance for this engine is very complex and vastly different than previous engines. In order to better determine the fluid dynamics and tangential velocity in this seal several CFD simulations were performed. The results of these simulations show that for this seal geometry a great reduction in the tangential velocity is to be expected. The simulations also provided insight into methods that could be employed to drive the swirl velocity to near zero. Unsteady and time-averaged results of several simulations will be presented.

  6. Oxygen redistribution in (UCe)Osub(2-x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redistribution of oxygen has been investigated in (Usub(0,7)Cesub(0,3))Osub(2-x) mixed oxide subjected to a temperature gradient in laboratory experiments, in order to apply the results to the nuclear fuel (UPu)Osub(2-x). Cylindrical sintered oxide specimens were exposed to temperature up to 13000C with a longitudinal thermal gradient of about 4000C/cm. The most interesting feature of the experimental set-up is a solid-state electrochemical gauge (ThO2 - Y2O3), placed in the cold part of the sample which allows a continuous measurement of the oxygen activity. The experiments showed a fast oxygen migration down the thermal gradient. The calculations performed with a model based on solid-state thermodiffusion are in good agreement with experimental results. The heat of transport Q measured for bare samples reaches (7.2+-0.5)-kcal/mole. When the sample is coated with a tight fitting metallic cladding, an extra term Qe has to be added to the heat of transport Qe. This was interpreted as an electrotransport phenomena. On the same basis, calculations applied to radial oxygen redistribution in (UPu)Osub(2-x) seem to be adequate at least during the first stage of irradiation, taking Q=(20+-5)kcal/mole

  7. ATP, P2X receptors and pain pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Y; Cesare, P; Drew, L; Nikitaki, D; Wood, J N

    2000-07-01

    A role for ATP in nociception and pain induction was proposed on the basis of human psychophysical experiments shortly after the formulation of the purinergic hypothesis. Following the pharmacological definition of distinct P2X and P2Y purinergic receptor subtypes by Burnstock and his collaborators, molecular cloning studies have identified the gene products that underlie the effects of ATP on peripheral sensory neurons. One particular receptor, P2X(3), is of particular interest in the context of pain pathways, because it is relatively selectively expressed at high levels by nociceptive sensory neurons. Evidence that this receptor may play a role in the excitation of sensory neurons has recently been complemented by studies that suggest an additional presynaptic role in the regulation of glutamate release from primary afferent neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. In this brief review, we discuss the present state of knowledge of the role of ATP in pain induction through its action on peripheral P2X receptors.

  8. Electroacupuncture diminishes P2X2 and P2X3 purinergic receptor expression in dorsal root ganglia of rats with visceral hypersensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijun Weng; Luyi Wu; Yuan Lu; Lidong Wang; Linying Tan; Ming Dong; Yuhu Xin

    2013-01-01

    Electroacupuncture at Shangjuxu (ST37) and Tianshu (ST25) can improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension was used to establish a rat model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression in dorsal root ganglia from rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity. Results demonstrated that abdominal withdrawal reflex scores obviously increased following establishment of the model, indicating visceral hypersensitivity. Simultaneously, P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression increased in dorsal root ganglia. After bilateral electroacupuncture at Shangjuxu and Tianshu, abdominal withdrawal reflex scores and P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression decreased in rats with visceral hypersensitivity. These results indicated that electroacupuncture treatment improved visceral hypersensitivity in rats with irritable bowel syndrome by reducing P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression in dorsal root ganglia.

  9. Pt/Ta2 O5 /HfO2- x /Ti resistive switching memory competing with multilevel NAND flash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung Ho; Kim, Kyung Min; Song, Seul Ji; Seok, Jun Yeong; Yoon, Kyung Jean; Kwon, Dae Eun; Park, Tae Hyung; Kwon, Young Jae; Shao, Xinglong; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2015-07-01

    Pt/Ta2 O5 /HfO2- x /Ti resistive switching memory with a new circuit design is presented as a feasible candidate to succeed multilevel-cell (MLC) NAND flash memory. This device has the following characteristics: 3 bit MLC, electroforming-free, self-rectifying, much higher cell resistance than interconnection wire resistance, low voltage operation, low power consumption, long-term reliability, and only an electronic switching mechanism, without an ionic-motion-related mechanism. PMID:25973913

  10. Robust optimization of 2x2 multimode interference couplers with fabrication uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Samee ur; Langelaar, Matthijs; Van Keulen, Fred

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel design-for-manufacture strategy for integrated photonics which specifically addresses the commonly encountered scenario in which probability distributions of the manufacturing variations are not available, however their bounds are known. The best design point for the device, in the presence of these uncertainties, can be found by applying robust optimization. This is performed by minimizing the maximum realizable value of the objective with respect to the uncertainty set so that an optimum is found whose performance is relatively immune to fabrication variations. Instead of applying robust optimization directly on a computationally expensive simulation model of the integrated photonic device, we construct a cheap surrogate model by uniformly sampling the simulated device at different values of the design variables and interpolating the resulting objective using a Kriging metamodel. By applying robust optimization on the constructed surrogate, the global robust optimum can be found at low computational cost. As an illustration of the method's general applicability, we apply the robust optimization approach on a 2x2 multimode interference (MMI) coupler. We robustly minimize the imbalance in the presence of uncertainties arising from variations in the fabricated design geometry. For this example device, we also study the influence of the number of sample points on the quality of the metamodel and on the robust optimization process.

  11. The UC2-x - Carbon eutectic: A laser heating study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manara, D.; Boboridis, K.; Morel, S.; De Bruycker, F.

    2015-11-01

    The UC2-x - carbon eutectic has been studied by laser heating and fast multi-wavelength pyrometry under inert atmosphere. The study has been carried out on three compositions, two of which close to the phase boundary of the UC2-x - C miscibility gap (with C/U atomic ratios 2 and 2.1), and one, more crucial, with a large excess of carbon (C/U = 2.82). The first two compositions were synthesised by arc-melting. This synthesis method could not be applied to the last composition, which was therefore completed directly by laser irradiation. The U - C - O composition of the samples was checked by using a combustion method in an ELTRA® analyser. The eutectic temperature, established to be 2737 K ± 20 K, was used as a radiance reference together with the cubic - tetragonal (α → β) solid state transition, fixed at 2050 K ± 20 K. The normal spectral emissivity of the carbon-richer compounds increases up to 0.7, whereas the value 0.53 was established for pure hypostoichiometric uranium dicarbide at the limit of the eutectic region. This increase is analysed in the light of the demixing of excess carbon, and used for the determination of the liquidus temperature (3220 K ± 50 K for UC2.82). Due to fast solid state diffusion, also fostered by the cubic - tetragonal transition, no obvious signs of a lamellar eutectic structure could be observed after quenching to room temperature. The eutectic surface C/UC2-x composition could be qualitatively, but consistently, followed during the cooling process with the help of the recorded radiance spectra. Whereas the external liquid surface is almost entirely constituted by uranium dicarbide, it gets rapidly enriched in demixed carbon upon freezing. Demixed carbon seems to quickly migrate towards the inner bulk during further cooling. At the α → β transition, uranium dicarbide covers again the almost entire external surface.

  12. The Exponential Diophantine Equation 2x + by = cz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yahui; Li, Xiaoxue

    2014-01-01

    Let b and c be fixed coprime odd positive integers with min{b, c} > 1. In this paper, a classification of all positive integer solutions (x, y, z) of the equation 2x + by = cz is given. Further, by an elementary approach, we prove that if c = b + 2, then the equation has only the positive integer solution (x, y, z) = (1,1, 1), except for (b, x, y, z) = (89,13,1, 2) and (2r − 1, r + 2,2, 2), where r is a positive integer with r ≥ 2. PMID:24959613

  13. The 2X-HI disks of spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Koribalski, B S

    2016-01-01

    The outskirts of galaxies - especially the very extended HI disks of galaxies - are strongly affected by their local environment. I highlight the giant 2X-HI disks of nearby galaxies (M 83, NGC 3621, and NGC 1512), studied as part of the Local Volume HI Survey (LVHIS), their kinematics and relation to XUV disks, signatures of tidal interactions and accretion events, the MHI - DHI relation as well as the formation of tidal dwarf galaxies. - Using multi-wavelength data, I create 3D visualisations of the gas and stars in galaxies, with the shape of their warped disks obtained through kinematic modelling of their HI velocity fields.

  14. Aqueous Rechargeable Alkaline CoxNi2-xS2/TiO2 Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jilei; Wang, Jin; Ku, Zhiliang; Wang, Huanhuan; Chen, Shi; Zhang, Lili; Lin, Jianyi; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2016-01-26

    An electrochemical energy storage system with high energy density, stringent safety, and reliability is highly desirable for next-generation energy storage devices. Here an aqueous rechargeable alkaline CoxNi2-xS2 // TiO2 battery system is designed by integrating two reversible electrode processes associated with OH(-) insertion/extraction in the cathode part and Li ion insertion/extraction in the anode part, respectively. The prototype CoxNi2-xS2 // TiO2 battery is able to deliver high energy/power densities of 83.7 Wh/kg at 609 W/kg (based on the total mass of active materials) and good cycling stabilities (capacity retention 75.2% after 1000 charge/discharge cycles). A maximum volumetric energy density of 21 Wh/l (based on the whole packaged cell) has been achieved, which is comparable to that of a thin-film battery and better than that of typical commercial supercapacitors, benefiting from the unique battery and hierarchical electrode design. This hybrid system would enrich the existing aqueous rechargeable LIB chemistry and be a promising battery technology for large-scale energy storage.

  15. Differential gene expression patterns and colocalization of ATP-gated P2X6/P2X4 ion channels during rat small intestine ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Karla; Gonzalez-Mendoza, David; Berumen, Laura C; Escobar, Jesica E; Miledi, Ricardo; García-Alcocer, Guadulupe

    2016-07-01

    Gene coding for ATP-gated receptor ion channels (P2X1-7) has been associated with the developmental process in various tissues; among these ion channel subtypes, P2X6 acts as a physiological regulator of P2X4 receptor functions when the two receptors form heteroreceptors. The P2X4 receptor is involved in pain sensation, the inflammatory process, and body homeostasis by means of Mg(2+) absorption through the intestine. The small intestine is responsible for the absorption and digestion of nutrients; throughout its development, several gene expressions are induced that are related to nutrients received, metabolism, and other intestine functions. Previous work has shown a differential P2X4 and P2X6 protein distribution in the small intestine of newborn and adult rats; however, it is not well-known at what age the change in the relationship between the gene and protein expression occurs and whether or not these receptors are colocalized. In this work, we evaluate P2X4 and P2X6 gene expression patterns by qPCR from embryonic (E18, P0, P7, P17, P30) to adult age in rat gut, as well as P2X6/P2X4 colocalization using qRT-PCR and confocal immunofluorescence in proximal and distal small intestine sections. The results showed that P2X6 and P2X4 gene expression levels of both receptors decreased at the embryonic-perinatal transition, whereas from ages P17 to P30 (suckling-weaning transition) both receptors increased their gene expression levels. Furthermore, P2X4 and P2X6 proteins were expressed in a different way during rat small intestine development, showing a higher colocalization coefficient at age P30 in both intestine regions. Those results suggest that purinergic receptors may play a role in intestinal maturation, which is associated with age and intestinal region.

  16. Evolutionary Markovian Strategies in 2 x 2 Spatial Games

    CERN Document Server

    Fort, H; Fort, Hugo; Sicardi, Estrella

    2006-01-01

    Evolutionary spatial 2 x 2 games between heterogeneous agents are analyzed using different variants of cellular automata (CA). Agents play repeatedly against their nearest neighbors 2 x 2 games specified by a rescaled payoff matrix with two parameteres. Each agent is governed by a binary Markovian strategy (BMS) specified by 4 conditional probabilities [p_R, p_S, p_T, p_P] that take values 0 or 1. The initial configuration consists in a random assignment of "strategists" among the 2^4= 16 possible BMS. The system then evolves within strategy space according to the simple standard rule: each agent copies the strategy of the neighbor who got the highest payoff. Besides on the payoff matrix, the dominant strategy -and the degree of cooperation- depend on i) the type of the neighborhood (von Neumann or Moore); ii) the way the cooperation state is actualized (deterministically or stochastichally); and iii) the amount of noise measured by a parameter epsilon. However a robust winner strategy is [1,0,1,1].

  17. 10 Years of Car-2-X Communication - a Success Story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischhof, Lars; Ebner, André

    2012-05-01

    For more than ten years, car-2-x communication has been a major topic of research in the scientific community and an important development focus for the automotive industry. First, this article takes a retrospective look at the evolution of car-2-x and the two different communication paradigms: decentralized car-2-car communication and centralized cellular solutions. Afterwards, a comparison of their technical advantages and limitations is presented, respectively. The result shows that in order to implement safety-relevant applications, car-2-car communication has strong advantages compared to cellular technologies but requires high market penetration. However, its introduction solely for safety applications is difficult since the required penetration will not be achieved until several years after initial deployment. Therefore, car-2-car communication must provide a benefit to the customer, even in the phase of market introduction. For this purpose, the article outlines an approach called SODAD (Segment-Oriented Data Abstraction and Dissemination). It offers a possibility to introduce decentralized vehicular applications with early customer benefit, in order to enable safety applications based on car-2-car communication on a long term.

  18. Electric field effect on superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuis, G.; Bollinger, A. T.; Pavuna, D.; Božović, I.

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate a method to tune the carrier concentration of a high temperature superconductor over a wide range, using an applied electric field. Thin film devices were made in an electrical double layer transistor configuration utilizing an ionic liquid. In this way, the surface carrier density in La2-xSrxCuO4 films can be varied between 0.01 and 0.14 carriers per Cu atom with a resulting change in critical temperature of 25 K (˜70% of the maximum critical temperature in this compound). This allows one to study a large segment of the cuprate phase diagram without altering the level of disorder. We used this method [A. T. Bollinger et al., Nature 472, 458-460 (2011)] to study the quantum critical point at the superconductor to insulator phase transition on the underdoped side of superconducting dome, and concluded that this transition is driven by quantum phase fluctuations and Cooper pair delocalization.

  19. SU(2) x SU(2) x U(1) Interpretation on the 750 GeV Diphoton Excess

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Jing

    2016-01-01

    We propose that the SU(2) x SU(2) x U(1) (aka G221) models could provide us a 750 GeV scalar resonance that may account for the diphoton excess observed at the LHC while satisfying present collider constraints. The neutral component of the $SU(2)_R$ scalar multiplet can be identified as the 750 GeV scalar. In the lepto-phobic and fermio-phobic G221 models the new charged gauge boson W' could be light, and we find that the diphoton decay width could be dominated by the loop contribution from the $W'$. To initiate gluon fusion production, it is necessary to extend the G221 symmetry to the Pati-Salam and SO(10) symmetry. We investigate the possibilities that the light colored scalars or vectorlike fermions survive in the SO(10) theory and provide large gluon fusion rate for the diphoton signature. It is possible to test the G221 interpretation by direct searches of W' using the multi-gauge boson production channel at the Run 2 LHC.

  20. Semiconductivity in YBa2 - xSrxCu3Oy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluǧ, A.; Uluǧ, B.; Şener, E.

    1996-08-01

    Structural and electrical properties of YBa2-xSrxCu3Oy prepared under ambient oxygen pressure were systematically investigated for 0≤x≤2.0. Samples with high Sr contents, x≥1.7, showed semiconductive properties with an activation energy of ˜150 meV at high temperature, T≥80 K. At low temperatures, T≤80 K, activation energy dropped to ˜3.00 and ˜0.85 meV for x=1.7-1.8 and x=1.9-2.0, respectively. It is argued that YSr2Cu3Oy is likely to have a tetragonal structure and that the disorder introduced by Sr substitution affects electrical conduction, which involves charge hopping between the CuO chains at high Sr contents.

  1. Comparison of the Giemsa C-banded karyotypes of the three subspecies of Psathyrostachys fragilis, subspp. villosus (2x), secaliformis (2x, 4x), and fragilis (2x) (Poaceae), with notes on chromosome pairing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, I.; Baden, C.

    1994-01-01

    The karyotypes of diploid P. fragilis subsp. villosus (2n = 2x = 14) and tetraploid subsp. secaliformis (2n = 4x = 28) were studied by Giemsa C- and N-banding, and AgNO3 staining and compared with the karyotype of subsp. fragilis (2x). The complements of subsp. villosus and subsp. fragilis were s...

  2. Improvement in efficiency of solar cell by removing Cu2-xSe from CIGS film surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei; Sun Yun; Liu Wei; Li Feng-Yan; Zhou Lin

    2006-01-01

    CIGS thin films are deposited by sputtering and selenization.The synthesis of semiconducting polycrystalline thin films and characteristics of devices based on the CIGS absorbing layers are investigated.Their microstructures are characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy.The results reveal that there exist metallic Cu2-xSe compounds in CIGS film surfaces and the compounds are thought to be responsible for the degradation of the open circuit voltage of solar cells.The optimization of selenization temperature profile and copper content in the precursor surfaces is studied,concluding that the conversion efficiency may be improved by removing metallic Cu2-xSe compounds from the surfaces of CIGS thin films.

  3. Speciation and unusual reactivity in PuO2+x.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradson, Steven D; Begg, Bruce D; Clark, David L; Den Auwer, Christophe; Espinosa-Faller, Francisco J; Gordon, Pamela L; Hess, Nancy J; Hess, Ryan; Keogh, D Webster; Morales, Luis A; Neu, Mary P; Runde, Wolfgang; Tait, C Drew; Veirs, D Kirk; Villella, Phillip M

    2003-06-16

    Pu L(3) XAFS measurements show that the excess oxygen in single phase PuO(2+)(x)() occurs as oxo groups with Pu-O distances of 1.83-1.91 A. This distance and the energy of the edge (via comparison with a large number of related compounds) are more consistent with a Pu(IV/V) than a Pu(IV/VI) mixture. Analogous to Pu(IV) colloids, although the Pu-Pu pair distribution remains single site even when it shows substantial disorder, the Pu-O distribution can display a number of additional shells at specific distances up to 3.4 A even in high fired materials when no oxo groups are present, implying intrinsic H(+)/OH(-)(/H(2)O). The number of oxo atoms increases when samples are equilibrated with humid air at ambient temperature, indicating that the Pu reactivity in this solid system differs notably from that of isolated complexes and demonstrating the importance of nanoscale cooperative phenomena and total free energy in determining its chemical properties. PMID:12793805

  4. Effects of antidepressants on P2X7 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xiang, Zheng-Hua; Jiang, Chun-Lei; Liu, Wei-Zhi; Shang, Zhi-Lei

    2016-08-30

    Antidepressants including paroxetine, fluoxetine and desipramine are commonly used for treating depression. P2×7 receptors are member of the P2X family. Recent studies indicate that these receptors may constitute a novel potential target for the treatment of depression. In the present study, we examined the action of these antidepressants on cloned rat P2×7 receptors that were stably expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells by using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, and found that paroxetine at a dose of 10µM could significantly reduce the inward currents evoked by the P2×7 receptors agonist BzATP by pre-incubation for 6-12 but not by acute application (10µM) or pre-incubation for 2-6h at a dose of 1µM, 3µM or 10µM paroxetine. Neither fluoxetine nor desipramine had significant effects on currents evoked by BzATP either applied acutely or by pre-incubation at various concentrations. These results suggest that the sensitivity of rat P2×7 receptors to antidepressants is different, which may represent an unknown mechanism by which these drugs exert their therapeutic effects and side effects. PMID:27318632

  5. X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome systems in the Neotropical Gymnotiformes electric fish of the genus Brachyhypopomus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Lima Cardoso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several types of sex chromosome systems have been recorded among Gymnotiformes, including male and female heterogamety, simple and multiple sex chromosomes, and different mechanisms of origin and evolution. The X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y systems identified in three species of this order are considered homoplasic for the group. In the genus Brachyhypopomus, only B. gauderio presented this type of system. Herein we describe the karyotypes of Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus and B. n. sp. FLAV, which have an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system that evolved via fusion between an autosome and the Y chromosome. The morphology of the chromosomes and the meiotic pairing suggest that the sex chromosomes of B. gauderio and B. pinnicaudatus have a common origin, whereas in B . n. sp. FLAV the sex chromosome system evolved independently. However, we cannot discard the possibility of common origin followed by distinct processes of differentiation. The identification of two new karyotypes with an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system in Gymnotiformes makes it the most common among the karyotyped species of the group. Comparisons of these karyotypes and the evolutionary history of the taxa indicate independent origins for their sex chromosomes systems. The recurrent emergence of the X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y system may represent sex chromosomes turnover events in Gymnotiformes.

  6. P2X3, but not P2X1, receptors mediate ATP-activated current in neurons innervating tooth-pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-wei; Chen, Xiao-qing; Tian, Xiang; Chen, Lin; Wu, Yu-xiang; Huang, Dan; Yi, Hui-ling; Yi, Chu-li; Li, Chao-ying

    2013-06-01

    We developed a method that allows us to label nociceptive neurons innervating tooth-pulp in rat trigeminal ganglion neurons using a retrograde fluorescence-tracing method, to record ATP-activated current in freshly isolated fluorescence-labeled neurons and to conduct single cell immunohistochemical staining for P2X1 and P2X3 subunits in the same neuron. Three types of ATP-activated current in these neurons (F, I and S) were recorded. The cells exhibiting the type F current mainly showed positive staining for P2X3, but negative staining for P2X1. The results provide direct and convincing evidence at the level of single native nociceptive neurons for correlation of the characteristics of ATP-activated currents with their composition of P2X1 and P2X3 subunits and cell size. The results also suggest that the P2X3, but not P2X1, is the main subunit that mediates the fast ATP-activated current in nociceptive neurons.

  7. Comparison of ANOVA, McSweeney, Bradley, Harwell-Serlin, and Blair-Sawilowsky Tests in the Balanced 2x2x2 Layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D. Lynn; And Others

    The Type I error and power properties of the 2x2x2 analysis of variance (ANOVA) and tests developed by McSweeney (1967), Bradley (1979), Harwell-Serlin (1989; Harwell, 1991), and Blair-Sawilowsky (1990) were compared using Monte Carlo methods. The ANOVA was superior under the Gaussian and uniform distributions. The Blair-Sawilowsky test was…

  8. Higher twist contributions to the structure functions F{sub 2}(x, Q{sup 2}) and g{sub 2}(x, Q{sup 2})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes; Boettcher, Helmut

    2012-07-15

    We report on recent results on higher twist contributions to the unpolarized structure functions F{sup p,d}{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}) at N{sup 3}LO in the large x region and constraints on the twist-3 contribution to polarized structure function g{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}).

  9. Chronic administration of the selective P2X3, P2X2/3 receptor antagonist, A-317491, transiently attenuates cancer-induced bone pain in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, RR; Nasser, A; Falk, S;

    2012-01-01

    The purinergic P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors are in the peripheral nervous system almost exclusively confined to afferent sensory neurons, where they are found both at peripheral and central synapses. The P2X3 receptor is implicated in both neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, the role of the ......X3 receptor in chronic cancer-induced bone pain is less known. Here we investigated the effect of systemic acute and chronic administration of the selective P2X3, P2X2/3 receptor antagonist (5-[[[(3-Phenoxyphenyl)methyl][(1S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenyl]amino]carbonyl]-1...

  10. Sensitization by extracellular Ca(2+) of rat P2X(5) receptor and its pharmacological properties compared with rat P2X(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, Scott S; Brown, Sean G; Rahman, Mary; Noel, Carole A; Churchill, Linda; Burnstock, Geoffrey; Unwin, Robert J; King, Brian F

    2002-10-01

    The recombinant rat P2X(5) (rP2X(5)) receptor, a poorly understood ATP-gated ion channel, was studied under voltage-clamp conditions and compared with the better understood homomeric rP2X(1) receptor with which it may coexist in vivo. Expressed in defolliculated Xenopus laevis oocytes, rP2X(5) responded to ATP with slowly desensitizing inward currents that, for successive responses, ran down in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) (1.8 mM). Replacement of Ca(2+) with either Ba(2+) or Mg(2+) prevented rundown, although agonist responses were very small, whereas reintroduction of Ca(2+) for short periods of time ( 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)ATP (TNP-ATP) > suramin > reactive blue 2 (RB-2) > diinosine pentaphosphate (Ip(5)I). In contrast, the potency order at rP2X(1) was TNP-ATP = Ip(5)I > PPADS > suramin = RB-2. Thus, the Ca(2+)-sensitized homomeric rP2X(5) receptor is similar in agonist profile to homomeric rP2X(1)-although it can be distinguished from the latter by GTP agonism, antagonist profile, and the modulatory effects of H(+) and Zn(2+) ions.

  11. Atmospheric chemistry of perfluorinated aldehyde hydrates (n-C(x)F(2x+1)CH(OH)2, x = 1, 3, 4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Toft, A.; Nielsen, O.J.;

    2006-01-01

    Smog chamber/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques were used to measure k(Cl+C(x)F(2x+1)CH(OH)(2)) (x = 1, 3, 4) = (5.84 +/- 0.92) x 10(-13) and k(OH+C(x)F(2x+1)CH(OH)(2)) = (1.22 +/- 0.26) x 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) in 700 Torr of N(2) or air at 296 +/- 2 K. The Cl initiated oxida...

  12. Post-translational regulation of P2X receptor channels: modulation by phospholipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe eBernier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available P2X receptor channels mediate fast excitatory signaling by ATP and play major roles in sensory transduction, neuro-immune communication and inflammatory response. P2X receptors constitute a gene family of calcium-permeable ATP-gated cation channels therefore the regulation of P2X signaling is critical for both membrane potential and intracellular calcium homeostasis. Phosphoinositides (PIPn are anionic signaling phospholipids that act as functional regulators of many types of ion channels. Direct PIPn binding was demonstrated for several ligand- or voltage-gated ion channels, however no generic motif emerged to accurately predict lipid-protein binding sites. This review presents what is currently known about the modulation of the different P2X subtypes by phospholipids and about critical determinants underlying their sensitivity to PIPn levels in the plasma membrane.All functional mammalian P2X subtypes tested, with the notable exception of P2X5, have been shown to be positively modulated by PIPn, i.e. homomeric P2X1, P2X2, P2X3, P2X4, and P2X7, as well as heteromeric P2X1/5 and P2X2/3 receptors. Based on various results reported on the aforementioned subtypes including mutagenesis of the prototypical PIPn-sensitive P2X4 and PIPn-insensitive P2X5 receptor subtypes, an increasing amount of functional, biochemical and structural evidence converges on the modulatory role of a short polybasic domain located in the proximal C-terminus of P2X subunits. This linear motif, semi-conserved in the P2X family, seems necessary and sufficient for encoding direct modulation of ATP-gated channels by PIPn. Furthermore, the physiological impact of the regulation of ionotropic purinergic responses by phospholipids on pain pathways was recently revealed in the context of native crosstalks between phospholipase C-linked metabotropic receptors and P2X receptor channels in DRG sensory neurons and microglia.

  13. Selective cation exchange in the core region of Cu2-xSe/Cu2-xS core/shell nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszta, Karol; Gariano, Graziella; Brescia, Rosaria; Marras, Sergio; De Donato, Francesco; Ghosh, Sandeep; De Trizio, Luca; Manna, Liberato

    2015-09-30

    We studied cation exchange (CE) in core/shell Cu2-xSe/Cu2-xS nanorods with two cations, Ag(+) and Hg(2+), which are known to induce rapid exchange within metal chalcogenide nanocrystals (NCs) at room temperature. At the initial stage of the reaction, the guest ions diffused through the Cu2-xS shell and reached the Cu2-xSe core, replacing first Cu(+) ions within the latter region. These experiments prove that CE in copper chalcogenide NCs is facilitated by the high diffusivity of guest cations in the lattice, such that they can probe the whole host structure and identify the preferred regions where to initiate the exchange. For both guest ions, CE is thermodynamically driven as it aims for the formation of the chalcogen phase characterized by the lower solubility under the specific reaction conditions.

  14. Comparison of P2X receptors in rat mesenteric, basilar and septal (coronary) arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, C J; Evans, R J

    2000-07-01

    alpha beta meATP-evoked concentration-dependent, PPADS-sensitive, desensitising, P2X receptor-mediated, constrictions of mesenteric, basilar and septal artery rings with EC(50) values of 1, 1 and 30 microM, respectively. In patch clamp studies on acutely dissociated artery smooth cells alpha beta meATP-evoked transient inward currents (tau approximately 100 ms) with mean current densities of approximately 340, 175 and 120 pA/pF, respectively. P2X(1) receptor immunoreactivity was expressed in mesenteric and basilar arteries and this receptor subunit appears to dominate the P2X receptor phenotype in these vessels. In contrast P2X(1) receptor immunoreactivity was not detected in septal arteries and the alpha beta meATP sensitivity of constriction was not consistent with the involvement of P2X(1) receptors. These results suggest that not all arteries share a common P2X receptor phenotype.

  15. Tsdc and Neutron-Scattering Measurements on Ba1-Xlaxf2+X and Ba1-Xuxf2+2x Solid-Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouwerkerk, M; Veldkamp, F. F.; Andersen, Niels Hessel;

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of the dynamical behaviour of bound interstitial fluoride ions in disordered Ba1−xLaxF2+x and Ba1−xUxF2+2x solid solutions with Thermally Stimulated Depolarisation Current measurements and neutron scattering measurements, and a combination of both techniques. From 10 K to 400 K...... the TSDC spectra showed four reorientation peaks to be present in Ba1−xLaxF2+x, and six in Ba1−xUxF2+2x, along with the relaxation of the macroscopic space charge. The position of a space charge peak shifted to lower temperatures with increasing solute content. The dipolar realaxations were concentration...... invariant. In Ba1−xLaxF2+x neutral associates, L-shaped- and (222)- clusters occur. The present study reveals (212)-clusters to be present in Ba1−xUxF2+2x. The relations between ion dynamics and defect structures are discussed....

  16. Quantum spin liquid and electric quadrupolar states of single crystal Tb2+xTi2-xO7+y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakita, M.; Taniguchi, T.; Edamoto, H.; Takatsu, H.; Kadowaki, H.

    2016-02-01

    The ground states of the frustrated pyrochlore oxide Tb2+xTi2-xO7+y, sensitively depending on the small off-stoichiometry parameter x, have been studied by specific heat measurements using well characterized samples. Single crystal Tb2+xTi2-xO7+y boules grown by the standard floating zone technique are shown to exhibit concentration (x) gradient. This off-stoichiometry parameter is determined by precisely measuring the lattice constant of small samples cut from a crystal boule. Specific heat shows that the phase boundary of the electric quadrupolar state has a dome structure in the x-T phase diagram with the highest Tc ≃ 0.5 K at about x = 0.01. This phase diagram suggests that the putative U(1) quantum spin-liquid state of Tb2+xTi2-xO7+y exists in the range x xc ≃ -0.0025, which is separated from the quadrupolar state via a first-order phase-transition line x = xc.

  17. Novel Protective Role of Endogenous Cardiac Myocyte P2X4 Receptors in Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tiehong; Shen, Jian-bing; Yang, Ronghua; Redden, John; Dodge-Kafka, Kimberly; Grady, James; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Liang, Bruce T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF), despite continuing progress, remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. P2X4 receptors (P2X4R) have emerged as potentially important molecules in regulating cardiac function and as potential targets for HF therapy. Transgenic P2X4R overexpression can protect against HF, but this does not explain the role of native cardiac P2X4R. Our goal is to define the physiological role of endogenous cardiac myocyte P2X4R under basal conditions and during HF induced by myocardial infarction or pressure overload. Methods and Results Mice established with conditional cardiac-specific P2X4R knockout were subjected to left anterior descending coronary artery ligation–induced postinfarct or transverse aorta constriction–induced pressure overload HF. Knockout cardiac myocytes did not show P2X4R by immunoblotting or by any response to the P2X4R-specific allosteric enhancer ivermectin. Knockout hearts showed normal basal cardiac function but depressed contractile performance in postinfarct and pressure overload models of HF by in vivo echocardiography and ex vivo isolated working heart parameters. P2X4R coimmunoprecipitated and colocalized with nitric oxide synthase 3 (eNOS) in wild-type cardiac myocytes. Mice with cardiac-specific P2X4R overexpression had increased S-nitrosylation, cyclic GMP, NO formation, and were protected from postinfarct and pressure overload HF. Inhibitor of eNOS, L-N5-(1-iminoethyl)ornithine hydrochloride, blocked the salutary effect of cardiac P2X4R overexpression in postinfarct and pressure overload HF as did eNOS knockout. Conclusions This study establishes a new protective role for endogenous cardiac myocyte P2X4R in HF and is the first to demonstrate a physical interaction between the myocyte receptor and eNOS, a mediator of HF protection. PMID:24622244

  18. A new role for P2X4 receptors as modulators of lung surfactant secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Miklavc, Pika; Thompson, Kristin E.; Frick, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, P2X receptors have attracted increasing attention as regulators of exocytosis and cellular secretion. In various cell types, P2X receptors have been found to stimulate vesicle exocytosis directly via Ca2+ influx and elevation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Recently, a new role for P2X4 receptors as regulators of secretion emerged. Exocytosis of lamellar bodies (LBs), large storage organelles for lung surfactant, results in a local, fusion-activated Ca2+ entry (FACE)...

  19. Lipopolysaccharide Inhibits the Channel Activity of the P2X7 Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Leiva-Salcedo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R plays an important role during the immune response, participating in several events such as cytokine release, apoptosis, and necrosis. The bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS is one of the strongest stimuli of the immune response, and it has been shown that P2X7R activation can modulate LPS-induced responses. Moreover, a C-terminal binding site for LPS has been proposed. In order to evaluate if LPS can directly modulate the activity of the P2X7R, we tested several signaling pathways associated with P2X7R activation in HEK293 cells that do not express the TLR-4 receptor. We found that LPS alone was unable to induce any P2X7R-related activity, suggesting that the P2X7R is not directly activated by the endotoxin. On the other hand, preapplication of LPS inhibited ATP-induced currents, intracellular calcium increase, and ethidium bromide uptake and had no effect on ERK activation in HEK293 cells. In splenocytes-derived T-regulatory cells, in which ATP-induced apoptosis is driven by the P2X7R, LPS inhibited ATP-induced apoptosis. Altogether, these results demonstrate that LPS modulates the activity of the P2X7R and suggest that this effect could be of physiological relevance.

  20. Lipopolysaccharide Inhibits the Channel Activity of the P2X7 Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva-Salcedo, Elias; Coddou, Claudio; Rodríguez, Felipe E.; Penna, Antonello; Lopez, Ximena; Neira, Tanya; Fernández, Ricardo; Imarai, Mónica; Rios, Miguel; Escobar, Jorge; Montoya, Margarita; Huidobro-Toro, J. Pablo; Escobar, Alejandro; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    The purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) plays an important role during the immune response, participating in several events such as cytokine release, apoptosis, and necrosis. The bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the strongest stimuli of the immune response, and it has been shown that P2X7R activation can modulate LPS-induced responses. Moreover, a C-terminal binding site for LPS has been proposed. In order to evaluate if LPS can directly modulate the activity of the P2X7R, we tested several signaling pathways associated with P2X7R activation in HEK293 cells that do not express the TLR-4 receptor. We found that LPS alone was unable to induce any P2X7R-related activity, suggesting that the P2X7R is not directly activated by the endotoxin. On the other hand, preapplication of LPS inhibited ATP-induced currents, intracellular calcium increase, and ethidium bromide uptake and had no effect on ERK activation in HEK293 cells. In splenocytes-derived T-regulatory cells, in which ATP-induced apoptosis is driven by the P2X7R, LPS inhibited ATP-induced apoptosis. Altogether, these results demonstrate that LPS modulates the activity of the P2X7R and suggest that this effect could be of physiological relevance. PMID:21941410

  1. Loss of P2X7 nucleotide receptor function leads to abnormal fat distribution in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Beaucage, Kim L.; Xiao, Andrew; Pollmann, Steven I.; Grol, Matthew W.; Beach, Ryan J.; Holdsworth, David W.; Sims, Stephen M.; Darling, Mark R.; Dixon, S. Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The P2X7 receptor is an ATP-gated cation channel expressed by a number of cell types. We have shown previously that disruption of P2X7 receptor function results in downregulation of osteogenic markers and upregulation of adipogenic markers in calvarial cell cultures. In the present study, we assessed whether loss of P2X7 receptor function results in changes to adipocyte distribution and lipid accumulation in vivo. Male P2X7 loss-of-function (KO) mice exhibited significantly greater body weigh...

  2. Localization of P2X7 Receptor Immunoreactivity in the Dorsal Root Ganglia of Guinea Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Xuegong; JIANG Ling; XIANG Zhenghua

    2005-01-01

    The P2X7 receptor mRNA and proteins in guinea-pig dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were studied by using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The co-localization of P2X7 receptor with four cytochemical markers, the neurofilament protein NF200, S100, substance P and isolectin B4 (IB4) binding glyco-conjugates, were also examined. It was found that P2X7 receptor immunoreactivity (P2X7R-IR) was present mostly in large- and medium-sized DRG neurons (62 %±9 % and 36 %±6 % respectively in all P2X7R-IR neurons). All the P2X7R-IR neurons were also NF200 and S100 immunopositive. However, in a small number of NF200 or S100 immunopositive neurons no P2X7R-IR was detectable. All the IB4-positive or substance P-immunopositive neurons had no P2X7R-IR. These results demonstrate that P2X7 receptors are expressed in a large subpopulation of DRG neurons and they may play a role in the transduction of specific peripheral sensory signals.

  3. Critical evaluation of P2X7 receptor antagonists in selected seizure models

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Wolfgang; Franke, Heike; Krügel, Ute; Müller, Heiko; Dinkel, Klaus; Lord, Brian; Letavic, Michael A; Henshall, David C.; Engel, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-gated P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a non-selective cation channel which senses high extracellular ATP concentrations and has been suggested as a target for the treatment of neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. The use of P2X7R antagonists may therefore be a viable approach for treating CNS pathologies, including epileptic disorders. Recent studies showed anticonvulsant potential of P2X7R antagonists in certain animal models. To extend this work, we tested three CNS-permeable ...

  4. Immunocytochemical analysis of P2X2 in rat circumvallate taste buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ruibiao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our laboratory has shown that classical synapses and synaptic proteins are associated with Type III cells. Yet it is generally accepted that Type II cells transduce bitter, sweet and umami stimuli. No classical synapses, however, have been found associated with Type II cells. Recent studies indicate that the ionotropic purinergic receptors P2X2/P2X3 are present in rodent taste buds. Taste nerve processes express the ionotropic purinergic receptors (P2X2/P2X3. P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice are not responsive to sweet, umami and bitter stimuli, and it has been proposed that ATP acts as a neurotransmitter in taste buds. The goal of the present study is to learn more about the nature of purinergic contacts in rat circumvallate taste buds by examining immunoreactivity to antisera directed against the purinergic receptor P2X2. Results P2X2-like immunoreactivity is present in intragemmal nerve processes in rat circumvallate taste buds. Intense immunoreactivity can also be seen in the subgemmal nerve plexuses located below the basal lamina. The P2X2 immunoreactive nerve processes also display syntaxin-1-LIR. The immunoreactive nerves are in close contact with the IP3R3-LIR Type II cells and syntaxin-1-LIR and/or 5-HT-LIR Type III cells. Taste cell synapses are observed only from Type III taste cells onto P2X2-LIR nerve processes. Unusually large, “atypical” mitochondria in the Type II taste cells are found only at close appositions with P2X2-LIR nerve processes. P2X2 immunogold particles are concentrated at the membranes of nerve processes at close appositions with taste cells. Conclusions Based on our immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopical studies we believe that both perigemmal and most all intragemmal nerve processes display P2X2-LIR. Moreover, colloidal gold immunoelectron microscopy indicates that P2X2-LIR in nerve processes is concentrated at sites of close apposition with Type II cells. This supports the hypothesis

  5. Targeting of the P2X7 receptor in pancreatic cancer and stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannuzzo, Andrea; Saccomano, Mara; Napp, Joanna; Ellegaard, Maria; Alves, Frauke; Novak, Ivana

    2016-12-01

    The ATP-gated receptor P2X7 (P2X7R) is involved in regulation of cell survival and has been of interest in cancer field. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a deadly cancer and new markers and therapeutic targets are needed. PDAC is characterized by a complex tumour microenvironment, which includes cancer and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), and potentially high nucleotide/side turnover. Our aim was to determine P2X7R expression and function in human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro as well as to perform in vivo efficacy study applying P2X7R inhibitor in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model of PDAC. In the in vitro studies we show that human PDAC cells with luciferase gene (PancTu-1 Luc cells) express high levels of P2X7R protein. Allosteric P2X7R antagonist AZ10606120 inhibited cell proliferation in basal conditions, indicating that P2X7R was tonically active. Extracellular ATP and BzATP, to which the P2X7R is more sensitive, further affected cell survival and confirmed complex functionality of P2X7R. PancTu-1 Luc migration and invasion was reduced by AZ10606120, and it was stimulated by PSCs, but not by PSCs from P2X7(-/-) animals. PancTu-1 Luc cells were orthotopically transplanted into nude mice and tumour growth was followed noninvasively by bioluminescence imaging. AZ10606120-treated mice showed reduced bioluminescence compared to saline-treated mice. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed P2X7R expression in cancer and PSC cells, and in metaplastic/neoplastic acinar and duct structures. PSCs number/activity and collagen deposition was reduced in AZ10606120-treated tumours. PMID:27513892

  6. P2X7 on mouse T cells: one channel, many functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn eRissiek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The P2X7 receptor is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP-gated cation channel that is expressed by several cells of the immune system. P2X7 is best known for its proinflammatory role in promoting inflammasome formation and release of mature IL-1β by innate immune cells. Mounting evidence indicates that P2X7 is also an important regulatory receptor of murine and human T cell functions. Murine T cells express a sensitive splice variant of P2X7 that can be activated either by non-covalent binding of ATP or, in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+, by its covalent ADP-ribosylation catalyzed by the ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferase ARTC2.2. Prolonged activation of P2X7 by either one of these pathways triggers the induction of T cell death. Conversely, lower concentrations of ATP can activate P2X7 to enhance T cell proliferation and production of IL-2. In this review we will highlight the molecular and cellular consequences of P2X7 activation on mouse T cells and its versatile role in T cell homeostasis and activation. Further, we will discuss important differences in the function of P2X7 on human and murine T cells.

  7. The infinite order point on Y~2=X~3-p~3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍伟

    1995-01-01

    The parameterization of the elliptic curve Y2=X2+1 is given by using the modular forms of X(12) Then using class field theory over imaginary quadratic field and Shimura reciprocity, an infinite order point on the curve y2- = x3-p3 is constructed, for prime p=7 (mod 24).

  8. Mobility Patterns Informing V2X Research Projects: Eco-Routing and Electrified Roadway Project Examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, Jeff; Brooker, Aaron; Burton, Evan; Wang, Lijuan; Wood, Eric

    2016-05-19

    Presentation given at an 'Expert Workshop on V2X Enabled Electric Vehicles' hosted at NREL on behalf of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Implementing Agreement for Task 28: Home Grids and V2X Technologies.

  9. P2X7 receptor-deficient mice are susceptible to bone cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, RR; Nielsen, CK; Nasser, A;

    2011-01-01

    The purinergic P2X7 receptor is implicated in both neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and has been suggested as a possible target in pain treatment. However, the specific role of the P2X7 receptor in bone cancer pain is unknown. We demonstrated that BALB/cJ P2X7 receptor knockout (P2X7R KO) mice...... were susceptible to bone cancer pain and moreover had an earlier onset of pain-related behaviours compared with cancer-bearing, wild-type mice. Furthermore, acute treatment with the selective P2X7 receptor antagonist, A-438079, failed to alleviate pain-related behaviours in models of bone cancer pain...... of the P2X7R KO mouse. Further experiments are needed to elucidate the exact role of the P2X7 receptors in bone cancer pain. Pain-related behaviours had an earlier onset in bone cancer-bearing, P2X7 receptor-deficient mice, and treatment with A-438079 failed to alleviate pain-related behaviours....

  10. Stable electrical performance observed in large-scale monolayer WSe2(1-x)S2x with tunable band gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Wang, Wenhui; Fu, Qi; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Jingyu; Xiang, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor materials have attracted broad interest due to their unique structures and physical properties. The stability of the 2D-material-based devices plays a key role in their practical applications. Here, we report the promising stable electrical performance in the large-scale monolayer WSe2(1-x)S2x with a tunable band gap. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was utilized to verify the tunable band gap in the as-grown monolayer with a tuning capability of 120 meV. Gated field effect transistor (FET) performance confirmed the p-type transport behavior in monolayer WSe2(1-x)S2x with a high on/off ratio (>104). Top-gated FET configuration improves the carrier mobility with two orders larger than that in the back-gated FET device. After exposure to air for three months, the device performance manifested excellent stability with no source-drain current drop observed. P-type WSe2(1-x)S2x with a tunable band gap is the ideal complement to n-type tunable monolayers in the application of pn junction-related flexible nanodevices.

  11. Oxygen non-stoichiometries in (Th0.7Ce0.3)O2-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxygen non-stoichiometry in (Th0.7Ce0.3)O2-x oxide solid solutions was investigated from the viewpoint of Ce reduction. The oxygen non-stoichiometry was experimentally determined by means of thermogravimetric analysis as a function of oxygen potential at 1173, 1273 and 1373 K. Features of the isotherms of oxygen non-stoichiometry in (Th0.7Ce0.3)O2-x similar to those in oxygen non-stoichiometric actinide and lanthanide dioxides were observed. The oxygen non-stoichiometry in (Th0.7Ce0.3)O2-x was compared with those of CeO2-x and (U0.7Ce0.3)O2-x. It was concluded that the Ce reduction has some relation to defect forms and their transformations in the solid solutions.

  12. Nb doping effect on TiO2-x films for bolometer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Bong; Kumar Reddy, Y. Ashok; Kang, In-Ku; Lee, Hee Chul

    2016-04-01

    Nb-doped TiO2-x thin films were deposited using a 1 at% niobium doped titanium target by RF reactive magnetron sputtering at various oxygen partial pressures (pO2). The films appeared amorphous in the pO2 range of 4.4-4.7% with resistivity ranging from 0.39 Ω cm to 2.48 Ω cm. Compared to pure TiO2-x films, the resistivity of the Nb-doped TiO2-x films did not change sensitively with the oxygen partial pressure, indicating that the resistivity of the films can be accurately controlled. 1/f noise parameter of Nb-doped TiO2-x films were found to decrease largely while the measured temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of the films was still high. The obtained results indicate that Nb-doped TiO2-x films have great potential as an alternative bolometric material.

  13. P2X purinoceptors as a link between hyperexcitability and neuroinflammation in status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshall, David C; Engel, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    There remains a need for more efficacious treatments for status epilepticus. Prolonged seizures result in the release of ATP from cells which activates the P2 class of ionotropic and metabotropic purinoceptors. The P2X receptors gate depolarizing sodium and calcium entry and are expressed by both neurons and glia throughout the brain, and a number of subtypes are upregulated after status epilepticus. Recent studies have explored the in vivo effects of targeting ATP-gated P2X receptors in preclinical models of status epilepticus, with particular focus on the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). The P2X7R mediates microglial activation and the release of the proepileptogenic inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β. The receptor may also directly modulate neurotransmission and gliotransmission and promote the recruitment of immune cells into brain parenchyma. Data from our group and collaborators show that status epilepticus produced by intraamygdala microinjection of kainic acid increases P2X7R expression in the hippocampus and neocortex of mice. Antagonism of the P2X7R in the model reduced seizure severity, microglial activation and interleukin 1β release, and neuronal injury. Coadministration of a P2X7R antagonist with a benzodiazepine also provided seizure suppression in a model of drug-refractory status epilepticus when either treatment alone was minimally effective. More recently, we showed that status epilepticus in immature rats is also reduced by P2X7R antagonism. Together, these findings suggest that P2X receptors may be novel targets for seizure control and interruption of neuroinflammation after status epilepticus. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus".

  14. Functional polymorphisms in the P2X7 receptor gene are associated with osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, L B; Harsløf, T; Stenkjær, L;

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The P2X(7) receptor is an ATP-gated cation channel. We investigated the effect of both loss-of-function and gain-of-function polymorphisms in the P2X(7) receptor gene on BMD and risk of vertebral fractures and found that five polymorphisms and haplotypes containing three of these poly......UNLABELLED: The P2X(7) receptor is an ATP-gated cation channel. We investigated the effect of both loss-of-function and gain-of-function polymorphisms in the P2X(7) receptor gene on BMD and risk of vertebral fractures and found that five polymorphisms and haplotypes containing three...... of these polymorphisms were associated with BMD and fracture risk. INTRODUCTION: The P2X(7) receptor is an ATP-gated cation channel. P2X(7) receptor knockout mice have reduced total bone mineral content, and because several functional polymorphisms have been identified in the human P2X(7) receptor gene, we wanted...... variant allele, which has been associated with increased receptor function in monocytes, was associated with increased total hip BMD in women. With the exception of His155Tyr for which we found conflicting results in men and women, our results are consistent with the phenotype of the knockout mouse...

  15. Saffron reduces ATP-induced retinal cytotoxicity by targeting P2X7 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Lucia; Cavallero, Anna; Baroni, Debora; Garbati, Patrizia; Prestipino, Gianfranco; Bisti, Silvia; Nobile, Mario; Picco, Cristiana

    2016-03-01

    P2X7-type purinergic receptors are distributed throughout the nervous system where they contribute to physiological and pathological functions. In the retina, this receptor is found in both inner and outer cells including microglia modulating signaling and health of retinal cells. It is involved in retinal neurodegenerative disorders such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Experimental studies demonstrated that saffron protects photoreceptors from light-induced damage preserving both retinal morphology and visual function and improves retinal flicker sensitivity in AMD patients. To evaluate a possible interaction between saffron and P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs), different cellular models and experimental approaches were used. We found that saffron positively influences the viability of mouse primary retinal cells and photoreceptor-derived 661W cells exposed to ATP, and reduced the ATP-induced intracellular calcium increase in 661W cells. Similar results were obtained on HEK cells transfected with recombinant rat P2X7R but not on cells transfected with rat P2X2R. Finally, patch-clamp experiments showed that saffron inhibited cationic currents in HEK-P2X7R cells. These results point out a novel mechanism through which saffron may exert its protective role in neurodegeneration and support the idea that P2X7-mediated calcium signaling may be a crucial therapeutic target in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26739703

  16. P2X receptors mediate ATP-induced primary nociceptive neurone activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland-Ward, P A; Humphrey, P P

    2000-07-01

    ATP-gated P2X ion-channel receptors are localised throughout the mammalian nervous system and have been identified on neurones which participate in conduction of nociceptive information from the periphery to, and within, the CNS. This article briefly reviews recently published research describing the role that ATP and P2X receptors may play in pain perception, highlighting the importance of the P2X(3) receptor in this process. The P2X(3) receptor subunit is almost exclusively expressed on a subset of small and medium diameter sensory neurones innervating cutaneous and visceral tissue. Activation of P2X receptors present on the peripheral terminals of primary afferents results in neuronal depolarisation and, in conscious animals, leads to the manifestation of acute nociceptive behaviour. Recent animal studies have also shown that P2X(3) receptor expression is increased in sensory ganglia following acute neuronal injury, hinting that similar plasticity in the expression of this receptor subtype could underlie the mechanisms involved in a range of conditions characterised by sensory hypersensitivity in man. It is apparent from the evidence available that functional antagonists at specific P2X receptor subtypes could represent an important class of novel analgesic agents.

  17. Lattice instabilities and superconductivity in La2-x(Ba,Sr)xCuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the authors present the result of two experiments on the anomalous physical properties of La2-xBaxCuO4 with x = 0.125. The suppression of a low-temperature tetragonal phase by introduction of Sr in the La2-xBaxCuO4 correlates well with the recovery of 30-K superconductivity. Hydrogenation of La2-xBaxCuO4 revealed that the carrier density, rather than the amount of divalent ions, is an essential parameter which governs the anomaly

  18. Accelerated tumor progression in mice lacking the ATP receptor P2X7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adinolfi, Elena; Capece, Marina; Franceschini, Alessia;

    2015-01-01

    cells. Tumor size and metastatic dissemination were assessed by in vivo calliper and luciferase luminescence emission measurements along with postmortem examination. In P2X7R-deficient mice, tumor growth and metastatic spreading were accelerated strongly, compared with wild-type (wt) mice. Intratumoral...... IL-1β and VEGF release were drastically reduced, and inflammatory cell infiltration was abrogated nearly completely. Similarly, tumor growth was also greatly accelerated in wt chimeric mice implanted with P2X7R-deficient bone marrow cells, defining hematopoietic cells as a sufficient site of P2X7R...

  19. Atmospheric chemistry of n-CxF2x+1CHO (x = 1, 2, 3, 4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, M. D.; Ball, J. C.; Wallington, T. J.;

    2006-01-01

    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the atmospheric fate of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) (x = 1, 2, 3, 4) radicals in 700 Torr O(2)/N(2) diluent at 298 +/- 3 K. A competition is observed between reaction with O(2) to form n-C(x)()F(2)(x)()(+1)C(O)O(2) radicals and decomposition to form n-C(x...... to the atmospheric chemistry of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) radicals and their possible role in contributing to the formation of perfluorocarboxylic acids in the environment....

  20. Color-Space-Based Visual-MIMO for V2X Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Jai-Eun Kim; Ji-Won Kim; Youngil Park; Ki-Doo Kim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the applicability of color-space-based, color-independent visual-MIMO for V2X. We aim to achieve a visual-MIMO scheme that can maintain the original color and brightness while performing seamless communication. We consider two scenarios of GCM based visual-MIMO for V2X. One is a multipath transmission using visual-MIMO networking and the other is multi-node V2X communication. In the scenario of multipath transmission, we analyze the channel capacity numerically and w...

  1. New P2X3 receptor antagonists. Part 1: Discovery and optimization of tricyclic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szántó, Gábor; Makó, Attila; Bata, Imre; Farkas, Bence; Kolok, Sándor; Vastag, Mónika; Cselenyák, Attila

    2016-08-15

    Purinergic P2X3 receptors are trimeric ligand-gated ion channels whose antagonism is an appealing yet challenging and not fully validated drug development idea. With the aim of identification of an orally active, potent human P2X3 receptor antagonist compound that can penetrate the central nervous system, the compound collection of Gedeon Richter was screened. A hit series of tricyclic compounds was subjected to a rapid, two-step optimization process focusing on increasing potency, improving metabolic stability and CNS penetrability. Attempts resulted in compound 65, a potential tool compound for testing P2X3 inhibitory effects in vivo. PMID:27423478

  2. New insights of P2X7 receptor signaling pathway in alveolar functions

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Amarjit

    2013-01-01

    Purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), an ATP-gated cation channel, is unique among all other family members because of its ability to respond to various stimuli and to modulate pro-inflammatory signaling. The activation of P2X7R in immune cells is absolutely required for mature interleukin -1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-18 production and release. Lung alveoli are lined by the structural alveolar epithelial type I (AEC I) and alveolar epithelial type II cells (AEC II). AEC I plays important roles in alv...

  3. A new role for P2X4 receptors as modulators of lung surfactant secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Manfred Frick

    2013-01-01

    In recent years P2X receptors have attracted increasing attention as regulators of exocytosis and cellular secretion. In various cell types P2X receptors have been found to stimulate vesicle exocytosis directly via Ca2+ influx and elevation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Recently, a new role for P2X4 receptors as regulators of secretion emerged. Exocytosis of lamellar bodies (LBs), large storage organelles for lung surfactant, results in a local, fusion-activated Ca2+ entry (FACE) i...

  4. Kinetics of resistive response of SnO2-x thin films in gas environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the gas sensitivity of SnO2-x thin films in oxygen and hydrogen environment are obtained. The films were fabricated by oxidizing metallic tin layers in air at various temperatures. The nonmonotonic kinetics of the resistive response of SnO2-x samples under gas-adsorption conditions is explained by the involvement of 'biographic' electron states (determined by the manufacturing methods and machining of samples), whose density depends on the temperature conditions of manufacturing the SnO2-x film in the adsorbate-semiconductor interaction

  5. Building layered NixCo2x(OH)6x nanosheets decorated three-dimensional Ni frameworks for electrochemical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-Qing; Chen, Gao-Feng; Zhou, Pei-Lin; Li, Nan; Su, Yu-Zhi

    2016-06-01

    To achieve high electrochemical performance in energy storage and conversion devices, transition metal hydroxides electrode materials need enhancing their intrinsic poor conductivity and fully utilizing their unexploited active sites. Accordingly, a simple and effective strategy is developed to synthesize layered NixCo2x(OH)6x nanosheets using dual three-dimensional Ni as structural and conductive support system. Owing to highly electrical conductivity, rich of interconnected ion/electron transport pathways, and robust structure stability, NixCo2x(OH)6x@Ni electrode exhibits remarkably high specific capacitance, excellent rate capability, and superior cycle stability. Moreover, the asymmetric supercapacitor assembled by NixCo2x(OH)6x@Ni and activated carbon/carbon nanotube achieves a large working voltage window of 1.5 V, a high energy density (≈44.2 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 750 W kg-1) and outstanding long-term cycle ability (remaining 100% of the initial Csp after 5000 cycles). Furthermore, the NixCo2x(OH)6x@Ni as an oxygen evolution reaction electrocatalyst shows small onset overpotential (263 mV), low Tafel slope (78 mV dec-1), large anodic current density of 30 mA cm-2 at a low overpotential of 336 mV and prominent electrochemical durability.

  6. Programmable direct current power supply (charger) GBE 2 x 38/4. mod II. Programmierbare Gleichstromversorgung (Ladegeraet) GBE 2 x 38/4. mod II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obstfelder, I. (Benning (Theo) GmbH und Co. KG, Bocholt (Germany))

    1989-01-01

    The configuration and technical data of the microcontroller-controlled 'GBE 2x38/4 mod. II' battery charger is disclosed. Furthermore, the sequence of the charging program, i.e. the procedure for charging a closed battery each, is described. (MM).

  7. Oxygen potential of (Pu, U)O2. 1. Oxygen potential measurement of UO2+X and (Pu0.3U0.7)O2-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio of oxygen to metal is one of important fuel specifications on UO2 and MOX fuels, because it effects on irradiation behavior. Oxygen potential of oxide fuels have been measured by various methods on the purpose of optimization of irradiation behavior and fabrication condition. In this report the oxygen potential of UO2+X and (Pu0.3U0.7)O2-X was measured by thermal gravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). Measurements of oxygen potential were carried out at 800degC, 1000degC and 1200degC in Ar/H2/H2O mixture gas flow. Ratio of O/M was obtained from the weight change of the sample according to the partial oxygen pressure that was controlled by H2/H2O ratio in atmosphere. The partial oxygen pressure in atmosphere was measured by stabilized zirconia oxygen sensor. The experimental results agree approximately to the other works. Thermodynamic data, ΔGo-bar2, ΔHo-bar2, ΔSo-bar2, were evaluated from the experimental data. The oxygen potential of UO2+X, (Pu, U)O2±X and PuO2-X was modeled by lattice defect theory using the data of the literature and this work. The resulting equation well reproduce the large amount of oxygen potential-temperature-composition data for the Pu-U oxide system. (author)

  8. Non-linear effects in performance of 2+2x1/2DOF electro-magnetic dampeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darula, Radoslav; Sorokin, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    The idea to use electromagnetic devices to reduce vibration levels of mechanical systems has been discussed in variety of publications. Some authors use a linearized problem formulation, however, due to the action of an electromagnetic force, the electro-magneto-mechanical system is inherently non...... be described as the one with 2+2x1/2 degrees of freedom. The non-linear vibration problem is solved by means of the classical multiple scales method, where the forced response and stability of alternative regimes at primary resonances and internal resonances are addressed. Furthermore, the role of the damping...... introduced by coupling between electromagnets and the mechanical system is analysed and parameters of electromagnets are tailored to match limitations of the vibration levels....

  9. Structural Insights into Divalent Cation Modulations of ATP-Gated P2X Receptor Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Go; Fujiwara, Yuichiro; Takemoto, Mizuki; Dohmae, Naoshi; Nakada-Nakura, Yoshiko; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Hattori, Motoyuki; Nureki, Osamu

    2016-02-01

    P2X receptors are trimeric ATP-gated cation channels involved in physiological processes ranging widely from neurotransmission to pain and taste signal transduction. The modulation of the channel gating, including that by divalent cations, contributes to these diverse physiological functions of P2X receptors. Here, we report the crystal structure of an invertebrate P2X receptor from the Gulf Coast tick Amblyomma maculatum in the presence of ATP and Zn(2+) ion, together with electrophysiological and computational analyses. The structure revealed two distinct metal binding sites, M1 and M2, in the extracellular region. The M1 site, located at the trimer interface, is responsible for Zn(2+) potentiation by facilitating the structural change of the extracellular domain for pore opening. In contrast, the M2 site, coupled with the ATP binding site, might contribute to regulation by Mg(2+). Overall, our work provides structural insights into the divalent cation modulations of P2X receptors. PMID:26804916

  10. The role of the purinergic P2X7 receptor in inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Adriano G

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The inflammatory process, orchestrated against a variety of injurious stimuli, is composed of three inter-related phases; initiation, propagation and resolution. Understanding the interplay between these three phases and harnessing the beneficial properties of inflammation whilst preventing its damaging effects, will undoubtedly lead to the advent of much needed therapies, particularly in chronic disease states. The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R is increasingly recognised as an important cell surface regulator of several key inflammatory molecules including IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-6. Moreover, as P2X7R-dependent cytokine production is driven by activating the inflammasome, antagonists of this receptor are likely to have therapeutic potential as novel anti-inflammatory therapies. The function of the P2X7R in inflammation, immunity and its potential role in disease will be reviewed and discussed.

  11. Using Decision Trees to Detect and Isolate Leaks in the J-2X

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Full title: Using Decision Trees to Detect and Isolate Simulated Leaks in the J-2X Rocket Engine Mark Schwabacher, NASA Ames Research Center Robert Aguilar, Pratt...

  12. Corneal epithelium expresses a variant of P2X(7 receptor in health and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Mankus

    Full Text Available Improper wound repair of the corneal epithelium can alter refraction of light resulting in impaired vision. We have shown that ATP is released after injury, activates purinergic receptor signaling pathways and plays a major role in wound closure. In many cells or tissues, ATP activates P2X(7 receptors leading to cation fluxes and cytotoxicity. The corneal epithelium is an excellent model to study the expression of both the full-length P2X(7 form (defined as the canonical receptor and its truncated forms. When Ca(2+ mobilization is induced by BzATP, a P2X(7 agonist, it is attenuated in the presence of extracellular Mg(2+ or Zn(2+, negligible in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+, and inhibited by the competitive P2X7 receptor inhibitor, A438079. BzATP enhanced phosphorylation of ERK. Together these responses indicate the presence of a canonical or full-length P2X(7 receptor. In addition BzATP enhanced epithelial cell migration, and transfection with siRNA to the P2X(7 receptor reduced cell migration. Furthermore, sustained activation did not induce dye uptake indicating the presence of truncated or variant forms that lack the ability to form large pores. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analysis revealed a P2X(7 splice variant. Western blots identified a full-length and truncated form, and the expression pattern changed as cultures progressed from monolayer to stratified. Cross-linking gels demonstrated the presence of homo- and heterotrimers. We examined epithelium from age matched diabetic and non-diabetic corneas patients and detected a 4-fold increase in P2X(7 mRNA from diabetic corneal epithelium compared to non-diabetic controls and an increased trend in expression of P2X(7variant mRNA. Taken together, these data indicate that corneal epithelial cells express full-length and truncated forms of P2X(7, which ultimately allows P2X(7 to function as a multifaceted receptor that can mediate cell proliferation and

  13. Fully reconfigurable 2x2 optical cross-connect using tunable wavelength switching modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fenghai; Zheng, Xueyan; Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud;

    2001-01-01

    A modular tunable wavelength switching module is proposed and used to construct 2x2 fully reconfigurable optical cross-connects. Large size optical switch is avoided in the OXC and it is easy to upgrade to more wavelength channels.......A modular tunable wavelength switching module is proposed and used to construct 2x2 fully reconfigurable optical cross-connects. Large size optical switch is avoided in the OXC and it is easy to upgrade to more wavelength channels....

  14. UV Written 2x8 Optical Power Splitter for FTTH Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivero, Massimo; Svalgaard, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    Silica based integrated optical 2x8 power splitters are reported for the first time using UV-writing waveguide fabrication technology. High performance, compactness and low production costs make these components well suited for deployment in FTTH networks.......Silica based integrated optical 2x8 power splitters are reported for the first time using UV-writing waveguide fabrication technology. High performance, compactness and low production costs make these components well suited for deployment in FTTH networks....

  15. Critical Evaluation of P2X7 Receptor Antagonists in Selected Seizure Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Wolfgang; Franke, Heike; Krügel, Ute; Müller, Heiko; Dinkel, Klaus; Lord, Brian; Letavic, Michael A.; Henshall, David C.; Engel, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-gated P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a non-selective cation channel which senses high extracellular ATP concentrations and has been suggested as a target for the treatment of neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. The use of P2X7R antagonists may therefore be a viable approach for treating CNS pathologies, including epileptic disorders. Recent studies showed anticonvulsant potential of P2X7R antagonists in certain animal models. To extend this work, we tested three CNS-permeable P2X7R blocker (Brilliant Blue G, AFC-5128, JNJ-47965567) and a natural compound derivative (tanshinone IIA sulfonate) in four well-characterized animal seizure models. In the maximal electroshock seizure threshold test and the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure threshold test in mice, none of the four compounds demonstrated anticonvulsant effects when given alone. Notably, in combination with carbamazepine, both AFC-5128 and JNJ-47965567 increased the threshold in the maximal electroshock seizure test. In the PTZ-kindling model in rats, useful for testing antiepileptogenic activities, Brilliant Blue G and tanshinone exhibited a moderate retarding effect, whereas the potent P2X7R blocker AFC-5128 and JNJ-47965567 showed a significant and long-lasting delay in kindling development. In fully kindled rats, the investigated compounds revealed modest effects to reduce the mean seizure stage. Furthermore, AFC-5128- and JNJ-47965567-treated animals displayed strongly reduced Iba 1 and GFAP immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA3 region. In summary, our results show that P2X7R antagonists possess no remarkable anticonvulsant effects in the used acute screening tests, but can attenuate chemically-induced kindling. Further studies would be of interest to support the concept that P2X7R signalling plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of epileptic disorders. PMID:27281030

  16. A simple Method To Calculate Transverse Spin Structure Function g2(x,Q^2)

    CERN Document Server

    Tahamtan, Azam; Arash, Firooz

    2012-01-01

    We calculated the spin dependent structure functions g2ww(x,Q^2)in the valon model representation of hadrons. A simple approach is given for the determination of the twist-3 part of g2(x,Q^2) structure function. Thus, enabling to obtain the full transverse struc- ture function, g2(x,Q^2) of proton, neutron and the deuteron.

  17. Inhibitory effect of tetramethylpyrazine on P2X receptor-mediated excitation of nociceptive afferents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang-DongLiang; YunGao; Bao-HuaXu; Song-NiuMu; Chang-ShuiXu

    2004-01-01

    Object: In this study we investigated the effects of intrathecally administered TMP on the acute nociception mediated by the local administration of P2X receptor agonists ( ATP or α,β-meATP) or formalin in mouse hindpaw and the effects of TMP on the current evoked by P2X receptor agonists ( ATP or α, β-meATP) in rat DRG neurons using the whole cell

  18. Genetic Background Strongly Influences the Bone Phenotype of P2X7 Receptor Knockout Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Susanne; Petersen, Solveig; Beck Jensen, Jens-Erik;

    2012-01-01

    The purinergic P2X7 receptor is expressed by bone cells and has been shown to be important in both bone formation and bone resorption. In this study we investigated the importance of the genetic background of the mouse strains on which the P2X7 knock-out models were based by comparing bone status...... of a new BALB/cJ P2X7(-/-) strain with a previous one based on the C57BL/6 strain. Female four-month-old mice from both strains were DXA scanned on a PIXImus densitometer; femurs were collected for bone strength measurements and serum for bone marker analysis. Bone-related parameters that were altered only...... littermates. In conclusion, we have shown that the genetic background of P2X7(-/-) mice strongly influences the bone phenotype of the P2X7(-/-) mice and that P2X7 has a more significant regulatory role in bone remodeling than found in previous studies....

  19. P2X7 receptor-deficient mice are susceptible to bone cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Rie; Nielsen, Christian K.; Nasser, Arafat;

    2011-01-01

    The purinergic P2X7 receptor is implicated in both neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and has been suggested as a possible target in pain treatment. However, the specific role of the P2X7 receptor in bone cancer pain is unknown. We demonstrated that BALB/cJ P2X7 receptor knockout (P2X7R KO) mice...... were susceptible to bone cancer pain and moreover had an earlier onset of pain-related behaviours compared with cancer-bearing, wild-type mice. Furthermore, acute treatment with the selective P2X7 receptor antagonist, A-438079, failed to alleviate pain-related behaviours in models of bone cancer pain...... with and without astrocyte activation (BALB/cJ or C3H mice inoculated with 4T1 mammary cancer cells or NCTC 2472 osteosarcoma cells, respectively), suggesting that astrocytic P2X7 receptors play a negligible role in bone cancer pain. The results support the hypothesis that bone cancer pain is a separate pain state...

  20. New insights of P2X7 receptor signaling pathway in alveolar functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amarjit

    2013-01-01

    Purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), an ATP-gated cation channel, is unique among all other family members because of its ability to respond to various stimuli and to modulate pro-inflammatory signaling. The activation of P2X7R in immune cells is absolutely required for mature interleukin -1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-18 production and release. Lung alveoli are lined by the structural alveolar epithelial type I (AEC I) and alveolar epithelial type II cells (AEC II). AEC I plays important roles in alveolar barrier protection and fluid homeostasis whereas AEC II synthesizes and secrete surfactant and prevents alveoli from collapse. Earlier studies indicated that purinergic P2X7 receptors were specifically expressed in AEC I. However, their implication in alveolar functions has not been explored. This paper reviews two important signaling pathways of P2X7 receptors in surfactant homeostatsis and Acute Lung Injury (ALI). Thus, P2X7R resides at the critical nexus of alveolar pathophysiology. PMID:23634990

  1. A new role for P2X4 receptors as modulators of lung surfactant secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pika eMiklavc

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years P2X receptors have attracted increasing attention as regulators of exocytosis and cellular secretion. In various cell types P2X receptors have been found to stimulate vesicle exocytosis directly via Ca2+ influx and elevation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Recently, a new role for P2X4 receptors as regulators of secretion emerged. Exocytosis of lamellar bodies (LBs, large storage organelles for lung surfactant, results in a local, fusion-activated Ca2+ entry (FACE in alveolar type II epithelial cells. FACE is mediated via P2X4 receptors that are located on the limiting membrane of LBs and inserted into the plasma membrane upon exocytosis of LBs. The localized Ca2+ influx at the site of vesicle fusion promotes fusion pore expansion and facilitates surfactant release. In addition, this inward-rectifying cation current across P2X4 receptors mediates fluid resorption from lung alveoli. It is hypothesized that the concomitant reduction in the alveolar lining fluid facilitates insertion of surfactant into the air-liquid interphase thereby activating it. These findings constitute a novel role for P2X4 receptors in regulating vesicle content secretion as modulators of the secretory output during the exocytic post-fusion phase.

  2. Molecular and functional properties of P2X receptors--recent progress and persisting challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek-Hájek, Karina; Lörinczi, Eva; Hausmann, Ralf; Nicke, Annette

    2012-09-01

    ATP-gated P2X receptors are trimeric ion channels that assemble as homo- or heteromers from seven cloned subunits. Transcripts and/or proteins of P2X subunits have been found in most, if not all, mammalian tissues and are being discovered in an increasing number of non-vertebrates. Both the first crystal structure of a P2X receptor and the generation of knockout (KO) mice for five of the seven cloned subtypes greatly advanced our understanding of their molecular and physiological function and their validation as drug targets. This review summarizes the current understanding of the structure and function of P2X receptors and gives an update on recent developments in the search for P2X subtype-selective ligands. It also provides an overview about the current knowledge of the regulation and modulation of P2X receptors on the cellular level and finally on their physiological roles as inferred from studies on KO mice.

  3. Microwave dielectric properties and microstructure of Ba2-xSm4+2x/3Ti8+yO24+2y ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of barium samarium titanium oxide Ba2-xSm4+2x/3Ti8+yO24+2y (x=0.1, y=0∼2) ceramics (BST) were investigated. The optimum compositions of BST ceramics were synthesized and discussed base on the structure formula of the tungsten-bronze-type crystal phase. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) was used to select the suitable sintering temperatures. The relative dielectric constant of the BST compositions saturated in a range from 63 to 85. Qxf values of 8500-13000 (GHz) were obtained for various y values in dense samples. The temperature coefficient of resonant frequency τf was adjusted from a negative -12 ppm per deg. C value to a positive value 17 ppm per deg. C. X-ray diffraction, SEM and EDS analysis were used to investigate the microstructure and correlate its relationship with microwave dielectric properties of BST ceramics

  4. A solid solution series of atacamite type Ni{sub 2x}Mg{sub 2−2x}Cl(OH){sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bette, Sebastian [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Leipziger Strasse 29, Freiberg 09596 (Germany); Dinnebier, Robert E. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, Stuttgart 70569 (Germany); Röder, Christian [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Leipziger Strasse 23, Freiberg 09596 (Germany); Freyer, Daniela, E-mail: daniela.freyer@chemie.tu-freiberg.de [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Leipziger Strasse 29, Freiberg 09596 (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    For the first time a complete solid solution series Ni{sub 2x}Mg{sub 2−2x}Cl(OH){sub 3} of an atacamite type alkaline main group metal chloride, Mg{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3}, and a transition group metal chloride, Ni{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3}, was prepared and characterized by chemical and thermal analysis as well as by Raman and IR spectroscopy, and high resolution laboratory X-ray powder diffraction. All members of the solid solution series crystallize in space group Pnam (62). The main building units of these crystal structures are distorted, edge-linked Ni/MgO{sub 4}Cl{sub 2} and Ni/MgO{sub 5}Cl octahedra. The distribution of Ni{sup 2+}- and Mg{sup 2+}-ions among these two metal-sites within the solid solution series is discussed in detail. The crystallization of the solid solution phases occurs via an intermediate solid solution series, (Ni/Mg)Cl{sub 2x}(OH){sub 2−2x}, with variable Cl: OH ratio up to the 1:3 ratio according to the formula Ni{sub 2x}Mg{sub 2−2x} Cl(OH){sub 3}. For one isolated intermediate solid solution member, Ni{sub 0.70}Mg{sub 0.30}Cl{sub 0.58}(OH){sub 1.42}, the formation and crystal structure is presented as well. - Graphical abstract: For the first time a complete solid solution series, Ni{sub 2x}Mg{sub 2−2x} Cl(OH){sub 3}, was synthesized and characterized. Structure solution by revealed that Ni{sup 2+} prefers to occupy the Jahn–Teller-like distorted hole, out of two available cation sites. Substitution of Ni{sup 2+} by Mg{sup 2+} in atacamite type Ni{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} results in systematic band shifts in Raman and IR spectra as well as in systematic changes in thermal properties. The α-polymorphs M{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} with M=Mg{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and other divalent transition metal ions, as described in literature, were identified as separate compounds. - Highlights: • First synthesis of solid solution series between main and transition metal chloride. • Ni{sup 2+} prefers to occupy Jahn–Teller-like distorted octahedral holes

  5. Recovery of citrus triploid hybrids by embryo rescue and flow cytometry from 2x x 2x sexual hybridisation and its application to extensive breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleza, P; Juárez, J; Cuenca, J; Ollitrault, P; Navarro, Luis

    2010-09-01

    Seedlessness is one of the most important characteristics for mandarins for the fresh-fruit market and mandarin triploid hybrids have this trait. Citrus triploid plants can be recovered by 2x x 2x sexual hybridisations as a consequence of the formation of unreduced gametes at low frequency. Triploid embryos are found in small seeds that do not germinate under greenhouse conditions. Extensive breeding programs based on this type of hybridisation require very effective methodologies for embryo rescue and ploidy evaluation. In this work, we describe an effective methodology to recover triploid hybrids from 2x x 2x hybridisations based on in vitro embryo rescue and ploidy level determination by means of flow cytometry. The influence of parents and environmental conditions on obtaining triploid hybrids has been analysed. The strongest effect was associated with the genotype of the female parent while a strong interaction was found between the male parent genotype and environmental conditions. The effect of the female parent genotype on the length of the juvenile phase was also demonstrated by observing a large number of progenies over the last 10 years. The methodology described here has enabled us to obtain over 4,000 triploid hybrids so far, of which 13 have been protected in the European Union and two are being extensively planted by citrus growers to establish new commercial plots. These triploid hybrids have been analysed with simple sequence repeats markers to differentiate all the new triploid varieties and their parents, and thus molecular identification will help defend plant breeders' rights.

  6. P2X receptor-mediated ATP purinergic signaling in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang LH

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lin-Hua JiangSchool of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, United KingdomAbstract: Purinergic P2X receptors are plasma membrane proteins present in a wide range of mammalian cells where they act as a cellular sensor, enabling cells to detect and respond to extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP, an important signaling molecule. P2X receptors function as ligand-gated Ca2+-permeable cationic channels that open upon ATP binding to elevate intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and cause membrane depolarization. In response to sustained activation, P2X receptors induce formation of a pore permeable to large molecules. P2X receptors also interact with distinct functional proteins and membrane lipids to form specialized signaling complexes. Studies have provided compelling evidence to show that such P2X receptor-mediated ATP-signaling mechanisms determine and regulate a growing number and diversity of important physiological processes, including neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and cytokine release. There is accumulating evidence to support strong causative relationships of altered receptor expression and function with chronic pain, inflammatory diseases, cancers, and other pathologies or diseases. Numerous high throughput screening drug discovery programs and preclinical studies have thus far demonstrated the proof of concepts that the P2X receptors are druggable targets and selective receptor antagonism is a promising therapeutics approach. This review will discuss the recent progress in understanding the mammalian P2X receptors with respect to the ATP-signaling mechanisms, physiological and pathophysiological roles, and development and preclinical studies of receptor antagonists.Keywords: extracellular ATP, ion channel, large pore, signaling complex, chronic pain, inflammatory diseases

  7. Point mutation in the mouse P2X7 receptor affects intercellular calcium waves in astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia O Suadicani

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Purinergic P2 receptors and gap junctions are two groups of proteins involved in the transmission of ICWs (intercellular calcium waves) between astrocytes. The extent to which ICWs spread among these glial cells depends on the amount of ATP released, which can occur through membrane channels, as well as other pathways. Our previous studies have shown that the pore-forming P2X7R (P2X7 receptor) contributes to the amplification of ICW spread by providing sites of ATP release through Panx1 (Pannexin1) channels. To gain insight into the signal transduction events mediating this response we compared the properties of the P2X7R–Panx1 complex in astrocytes from a mouse strain (C57Bl/6) containing a naturally occurring point mutation (P451L) in the C-terminus of the P2X7R to that of non-mutated receptors (Balb/C mice). Electrophysiological, biochemical, pharmacological and fluorescence imaging techniques revealed that the P451L mutation located in the SH3 domain (a Src tyrosine kinase-binding site) of the C-terminus of the P2X7R attenuates Panx1 currents, ATP release and the distance of ICW spread between astrocytes. Similar results were obtained when using the Src tyrosine inhibitor (PP2) and a membrane-permeant peptide spanning the P451L mutation of the P2X7R of the C57Bl6 astrocytes. These results support the participation of a tyrosine kinase of the Src family in the initial steps mediating the opening of Panx1 channels following P2X7R stimulation and in the transmission of calcium signals among astrocytes.

  8. Antidepressants inhibit P2X4 receptor function: a possible involvement in neuropathic pain relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tozaki-Saitoh Hidetoshi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropathic pain is characterized by pain hypersensitivity to innocuous stimuli (tactile allodynia that is nearly always resistant to known treatments such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or even opioids. It has been reported that some antidepressants are effective for treating neuropathic pain. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. We have recently demonstrated that blocking P2X4 receptors in the spinal cord reverses tactile allodynia after peripheral nerve injury in rats, implying that P2X4 receptors are a key molecule in neuropathic pain. We investigated a possible role of antidepressants as inhibitors of P2X4 receptors and analysed their analgesic mechanism using an animal model of neuropathic pain. Results Antidepressants strongly inhibited ATP-mediated Ca2+ responses in P2X4 receptor-expressing 1321N1 cells, which are known to have no endogenous ATP receptors. Paroxetine exhibited the most powerful inhibition of calcium influx via rat and human P2X4 receptors, with IC50 values of 2.45 μM and 1.87 μM, respectively. Intrathecal administration of paroxetine produced a striking antiallodynic effect in an animal model of neuropathic pain. Co-administration of WAY100635, ketanserin or ondansetron with paroxetine induced no significant change in the antiallodynic effect of paroxetine. Furthermore, the antiallodynic effect of paroxetine was observed even in rats that had received intrathecal pretreatment with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, which dramatically depletes spinal 5-hydroxytryptamine. Conclusion These results suggest that paroxetine acts as a potent analgesic in the spinal cord via a mechanism independent of its inhibitory effect on serotonin transporters. Powerful inhibition on P2X4 receptors may underlie the analgesic effect of paroxetine, and it is possible that some antidepressants clinically used in patients with neuropathic pain show antiallodynic effects, at least in part

  9. [Effect of P2X7 receptor knock-out on bone cancer pain in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Liu, Hui-Zhu; Zhang, Yu-Qiu

    2016-06-25

    Cancer pain is one of the most common symptoms in patients with late stage cancer. Lung, breast and prostate carcinoma are the most common causes of pain from osseous metastasis. P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is one of the subtypes of ATP-gated purinergic ion channel family, predominately distributed in microglia in the spinal cord. Activation of P2X7Rs in the spinal dorsal horn has been associated with release of proinflammatory cytokines from glial cells, causing increased neuronal excitability and exaggerated nociception. Mounting evidence implies a critical role of P2X7R in inflammatory and neuropathic pain. However, whether P2X7R is involved in cancer pain remains controversial. Here we established a bone cancer pain model by injecting the Lewis lung carcinoma cells into the femur bone marrow cavity of C57BL/6J wild-type mice (C57 WT mice) and P2X7R knockout mice (P2rx7(-/-) mice) to explore the role of P2X7R in bone cancer pain. Following intrafemur carcinoma inoculation, robust mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in C57 WT mice were developed on day 7 and 14, respectively, and persisted for at least 28 days in the ipsilateral hindpaw of the affected limb. CatWalk gait analysis showed significant decreases in the print area and stand phase, and a significant increase in swing phase in the ipsilateral hindpaw on day 21 and 28 after carcinoma cells inoculation. Histopathological sections (hematoxylin and eosin stain) showed that the bone marrow of the affected femur was largely replaced by invading tumor cells, and the femur displayed medullary bone loss and bone destruction on day 28 after inoculation. Unexpectedly, no significant changes in bone cancer-induced hypersensitivity of pain behaviors were found in P2rx7(-/-) mice, and the changes of pain-related values in CatWalk gait analysis even occurred earlier in P2rx7(-/-) mice, as compared with C57 WT mice. Together with our previous study in rats that blockade of P2X7R significantly alleviated bone cancer

  10. Room-temperature associative adsorption and thermal dissociative desorption of trifluorobenzene on Si(100)2x1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaojing; Leung, K. T.

    2004-03-01

    Functionalization of Si(100) has been extensively investigated in ultra-high vacuum and in solutions for its potential applications in molecular devices and chemical sensors. Aromatic molecules are good candidates because of their rich chemical properties, low cost and widespread use in industry. In the present work, trifluorobenzene (TFB) is used to study the effects of halogen substitution on benchmark molecules such as benzene and ethylene. Unlike halogenated ethylenes that exhibit dissociative adsorption at room temperature (RT), TFB is found to adsorb on Si(100) 2x1 associatively at RT and to undergo partial dissociation at a higher substrate temperature. Molecular desorption states at 380 K, 430K and 520K have also been observed in our temperature programmed desorption experiment, which is consistent with the desorption patterns of benzene and toluene. Additional desorption species of C6H6, SiF2 and F2 occurring over the same temperature range indicate a thermally driven dissociation process. Furthermore, ab initio calculation (with full geometry optimization) shows that selective adsorption occurs at the 2,5 position of the ring , which may be used for patterning of molecular devices on Si(100).

  11. Structural, electronic and optical properties of AgXY{sub 2}(X = Al, Ga, In and Y = S, Se, Te)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Saeed; Din, Haleem Ud [Materials Modeling Lab, Department of Physics, Islamia College University, Peshawar (Pakistan); Murtaza, G., E-mail: murtaza@icp.edu.pk [Materials Modeling Lab, Department of Physics, Islamia College University, Peshawar (Pakistan); Ouahrani, T. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, B.P. 119, Université de Tlemcen, Tlemcen 13000 (Algeria); Khenata, R., E-mail: khenata_rabah@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique, Université de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Naeemullah [Department of Physics, G.D.C. Darra Adam Khel, F.R. Kohat, KPK (Pakistan); Bin Omran, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-12-25

    Highlights: • The compounds are studied by FP-LAPW method within mBJ approximation. • All of the studied materials show isotropic behavior. • All the compounds show direct band gap nature. • Bonding nature is mostly covalent among the studied compounds. • High absorption peaks and reflectivity ensures there utility in optoelectronic devices. - Abstract: The structural, electronic and optical properties of the ternary semiconducting compounds AgXY{sub 2} (X = Al, Ga, In and Y = S, Se, Te) in Heusler and chalcopyrite crystal phases have been investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) based on the full potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The calculated lattice constant and band gap values for AgXY{sub 2} in chalcopyrite phase are in good agreement with the available experimental data. Band structure calculations are performed using modified Becke–Johnson (mBJ) method which match closely with experimental data and yield better band gaps rather than those obtained by using generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and Engel–Vosko generalized gradient approximation (EV–GGA). Decrease in band gap is observed by changing cations X and Y from the top to bottom of periodic table. Chemical bonding trends are predicted through charge density plots and quantified by Bader’s analysis. Optical properties reveal that these compounds are suitable candidates for optoelectronic devices in the visible and ultraviolet (UV) regions.

  12. The evolution of P2X7 antagonists with a focus on CNS indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Jason C; Bhattacharya, Anindya; Letavic, Michael A; Savall, Brad M

    2016-08-15

    The P2X7 receptor is an ATP-gated nonselective cation channel that has been linked to a number of inflammatory diseases. Activation of the P2X7 receptor by elevated levels of ATP results in the release of proinflammatory cytokines and elevated levels of these cytokines has been associated with a variety of disease states. A number of research groups in both industry and academia have explored the identification of P2X7R antagonists as therapeutic agents. Much of this early effort focused on the treatment of diseases related to peripheral inflammation and resulted in several clinical candidates, none of which were advanced to market. The emerging role of the P2X7 receptor in neuroinflammation and related diseases has resulted in a shift in medicinal chemistry efforts toward the development of centrally penetrant antagonists. This review will highlight the biology supporting the role of P2X7 in diseases related to neuroinflammation and review the recent medicinal chemistry efforts to identify centrally penetrant antagonists. PMID:27426304

  13. The J-2X Fuel Turbopump - Turbine Nozzle Low Cycle Fatigue Acceptance Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Lakiesha V.; Duke, Gregory C.; Newman, Wesley R.; Reynolds, David C.

    2011-01-01

    The J-2X Fuel Turbopump (FTP) turbine, which drives the pump that feeds hydrogen to the J-2X engine for main combustion, is based on the J-2S design developed in the early 1970 s. Updated materials and manufacturing processes have been incorporated to meet current requirements. This paper addresses an analytical concern that the J-2X Fuel Turbine Nozzle Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) analysis did not meet safety factor requirements per program structural assessment criteria. High strains in the nozzle airfoil during engine transients were predicted to be caused by thermally induced stresses between the vane hub, vane shroud, and airfoil. The heritage J-2 nozzle was of a similar design and experienced cracks in the same area where analysis predicted cracks in the J-2X design. Redesign options that did not significantly impact the overall turbine configuration were unsuccessful. An approach using component tests and displacement controlled fracture mechanics analysis to evaluate LCF crack initiation and growth rate was developed. The results of this testing and analysis were used to define the level of inspection on development engine test units. The programmatic impact of developing crack initiation/growth rate/arrest data was significant for the J-2X program. Final Design Certification Review acceptance logic will ultimately be developed utilizing this test and analytical data.

  14. Visualization of the trimeric P2X2 receptor with a crown-capped extracellular domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mio, Kazuhiro; Kubo, Yoshihiro; Ogura, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Tomomi; Sato, Chikara

    2005-11-25

    The P2X2 purinergic receptor permeates cationic ions in response to stimulation by ATP and mediates fast synaptic transmission. Here, we purified the P2X2 receptor using baculovirus-Sf9 cell expression system and observed its structure using electron microscopy. The FLAG-tagged P2X2 receptor, which has intact ion channel function, was purified to be a single peak by affinity purification and gel filtration chromatography. It was confirmed to be a trimer by introducing cross-linking. Negatively stained P2X2 protein images were homogeneous and picked up by automated pick-up programs, aligned, and classified using the modified growing neural gas network method. Similarly oriented projections were averaged to decrease the signal-to-noise ratio. These images demonstrate an inverted three-sided pyramid with the dimensions of 215 A in height and 200 A in side length. It is composed of a high-density trunk and a stain-permeable swollen extracellular domain of a crown-shaped structure. The internal cavities and constituent segments were clearly demonstrated in both the raw images and the averaged images. The threefold symmetrical top view demonstrates the first visual evidence of the trimeric composition of the P2X receptor family. PMID:16219297

  15. Theoretical investigation of superconductivity in MgB2-xCx alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gargee; Sharma, Smita

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we investigated the superconducting properties of MgB2-xCx alloys where x is the concentration (0.0, 0.03, 0.11 and 0.20). The superconducting state parameters, namely, the electron-phonon coupling strength (λ), Coulomb pseudopotential (μ*), transition temperature (Tc), isotope effect exponent (α) and interaction strength (NoV) of MgB2-xCx alloys have been investigated in the BCS-Eliashberg-McMillan framework, as modified for MgB2-xCx alloys. Pseudo ions with average properties have been considered to replace different types of ions in the system. It is observed that all the superconducting parameters go on decreasing as the concentration of C is increased. The magnitudes of λ and Tc indicate that MgB2-xCx is strong-to-intermediate coupling superconductor. It is also observed that Tc is composition dependent. Present computations yield almost linear variation of Tc with concentration x of C in the MgB2-xCx system, which is in agreement with the experimental data. A linear Tc equation is proposed by fitting the present results.

  16. Synthesis and magnetic characterization of Sr-based Ni{sub 2}X-type hexaferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamishima, K., E-mail: kamisima@fms.saitama-u.ac.jp; Mashiko, T.; Kakizaki, K.; Sakai, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Watanabe, K. [Biomolecular Characterization Unit, Center of Sustainable Resource Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Abe, H. [Advanced Electronic Materials Center, National Institute of Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    We have investigated the synthesis conditions, and the magnetic properties of the Sr{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}X-type hexagonal ferrite, Sr{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Fe{sub 28}O{sub 46}. The Sr{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}X-type hexaferrite was synthesized at 1240{sup ∘}C. The spontaneous magnetization at 5 K was 44.2 μ{sub B}/f.u., suggesting that most of the Ni{sup 2+} ions are at the up-spin octahedral sites in the spinel-structure blocks within the model of a Néel-type collinear ferrimagnetic structure. The Curie temperature of the Sr{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}X-type hexaferrite was estimated to be T{sub C}[Sr{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}X] = 472{sup ∘}C. This is consistent with the difference of the block stacking structures of SrM-type, Sr{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}X-type, SrNi{sub 2}W-type, and nickel spinel ferrites.

  17. Oxygen potential and lattice parameter measurements in (U,Ce)Osub(2-x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been carried out on (U, Ce)Osub(2-x) to assist the understanding of oxygen behaviour in the fast reactor fuel (U, Pu)Osub(2-x). Oxygen potentials at 1123 K and lattice parameters after rapid cooling to room temperature have been determined as functions of O/M ratio for (Ce/U+Ce) ratios of 0.148 and 0.282. The results show some similarities between the two mixed oxides, but also important differences. The Markin-McIver rule, that oxygen potential at a given temperature is a function only of the supposed plutonium valence, does not apply with cerium. Simple cluster models are basically inconsistent with experimental data and a complex cluster model requires further development before it can account for the oxygen potential behaviour of (U, Ce)Osub(2-x). The ratio of lattice parameter change to O/M ratio change in Usub(1-y)Cesub(y)Osub(2-x) is not strongly dependent on y and averages 0.30 A, slightly greater than the corresponding value for Usub(1-y)Pusub(y)Osub(2-x). A transition to a room-temperature two-phase structure occurs at an O/M ratio of about 1.985 for γ = 0.282. (orig.)

  18. Atmospheric chemistry of n-CxF2x+1CHo (x=1,3,4): Mechanism of the CxF2x+1C(O)O-2+HO2 reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Stenby, C; Nielsen, OJ;

    2004-01-01

    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the gas-phase reaction of CxF2x+1C(O)O-2 (x = 1, 3, 4) with HO2 radicals in 700 Torr of air, or O-2, diluent at 296 +/- 2 K. The reactions proceed by three pathways leading to formation of CxF2x+1C(O)OOH and O-2, C2F2x+1C(O)OH and O-3, or CxF2x+1C(O...

  19. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  20. Concentration device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A concentration device (2) for filter filtration concentration of particles (4) from a volume of a fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises a filter (8) configured to filter particles (4) of a predefined size in the volume of the fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises...

  1. Design and Fabrication Development of J-2X Engine Metallic Nozzle Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopicz, C.; Gradl, P.

    2015-01-01

    Maximized rocket engine performance is in part derived from expanding combustion gasses through the rocket nozzle. For upper stage engines the nozzles can be quite large. On the J-2X engine, an uncooled extension of a regeneratively cooled nozzle is used to expand the combustion gasses to a targeted exit pressure which is defined by an altitude for the desired maximum performance. Creating a J-2X nozzle extension capable of surviving the loads of test and flight environments while meeting engine system performance requirements required development of new processes and facilities. Meeting the challenges of the development resulted in concurrent J-2X nozzle extension design and fabrication. This paper describes how some of the design and fabrication challenges were resolved.

  2. Electroacupuncture at He-Mu points reduces P2X 4 receptor expression in visceral hypersensitivity***

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinxin Guo; Jianqiao Fang; Jifei Chen; Yuan Lu; Luyi Wu; Zhijun Weng; Ling Yang; Yuhu Xin; Xianming Lin; Yi Liang

    2013-01-01

    Electroacupuncture at Shangjuxu (ST37) and Tianshu (ST25) was reported to improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension was utilized to generate a rat model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome. Results showed that abdominal withdrawal reflex scores noticeably increased after model establishment. Simultaneously, P2X 4 receptor immu-reactivity significantly increased in the colon and spinal cord. Electroacupuncture and pinaverium bromide therapy both markedly decreased abdominal withdrawal reflex scores in rats with visceral hypersensitivity, and significantly decreased P2X 4 receptor immunoreactivity in the colon and spinal cord. These data suggest that electroacupuncture treatment can improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats with irritable bowel syndrome by diminishing P2X 4 receptor immunoreactivity in the colon and spinal cord.

  3. Electroacupuncture at He-Mu points reduces P2X4 receptor expression in visceral hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinxin; Chen, Jifei; Lu, Yuan; Wu, Luyi; Weng, Zhijun; Yang, Ling; Xin, Yuhu; Lin, Xianming; Liang, Yi; Fang, Jianqiao

    2013-08-01

    Electroacupuncture at Shangjuxu (ST37) and Tianshu (ST25) was reported to improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension was utilized to generate a rat model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome. Results showed that abdominal withdrawal reflex scores noticeably increased after model establishment. Simultaneously, P2X4 receptor immureactivity significantly increased in the colon and spinal cord. Electroacupuncture and pinaverium bromide therapy both markedly decreased abdominal withdrawal reflex scores in rats with visceral hypersensitivity, and significantly decreased P2X4 receptor immunoreactivity in the colon and spinal cord. These data suggest that electroacupuncture treatment can improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats with irritable bowel syndrome by diminishing P2X4 receptor immunoreactivity in the colon and spinal cord. PMID:25206515

  4. Preparation of Bi2-xSbxTe3 thermoelectric films by electrodeposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Bi2-xSbxTe3 thermoelectric films were electrochemically deposited from the solution containing Bi3+, HTeO2+and SbO+.ESEM (environmental scanning electron microscope) investigations indicated that the crystalline state of Bi2-xSbxTe3 films transformed from equiaxed crystal to dendritic crystal with the negative shift of deposition potential. XRD and EDS were used to characterize the structure and composition of the electrodeposited films. The Seebeck coefficient and the temperature dependence of the resistance of Bi2-xSbxTe3 films were measured. The results showed that the composition of the film electrodeposited at -0.5 V is Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 with the largest Seebeck coefficient of 213 μV·K-1.

  5. Component Testing of the J-2X Augmented Spark Igniter (ASI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Robin J.; Peters, Warren T.; Gaspar, Kenny C.; Hauger, Katherine; Kwapisz, Mike J.

    2013-01-01

    In support of the development of the J-2X engine, 201 low pressure, liquid oxygen / liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) J-2X Augmented Spark Igniter (ASI) subsystem ignition tests were conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The main objective of these tests was to start the ASI within the anticipated J-2X engine start box, as well as outside of it, to check for ignition margin. The setup for the J-2X ASI component testing simulated, as much as possible, the tank-head start-up configuration of the ASI within the J-2X Engine. The ignition tests were divided into 124 vacuum start tests to simulate altitude start on a flight engine, and 77 sea-level start tests to simulate the first set of ground tests for the J-2X Engine at Stennis Space Center (SSC). Other ignition parameters that were varied included propellant tank pressures, oxidizer temperature entering the ASI oxidizer feedline, oxidizer valve timing, spark igniter condition (new versus damaged), and oxidizer and fuel feedline orifice sizes. Propellant blowdowns using venturis sized to simulate the ASI resistance allowed calculation of transient propellant mass flow rates as well as global mixture ratio for all ignition tests. Global mixture ratio within the ASI at the time of ignition varied from 0.2 to 1.2. Detailed electronics data obtained from an instrumented ignition lead allowed characterization of the breakdown voltage, sustaining voltage and energy contained in each spark as the ASI propellants ignited. Results indicated that ignition always occurred within the first five sparks when both propellants were present in the ASI chamber.

  6. Planning for Plume Diagnostics for Ground Testing of J-2X Engines at the SSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    SaintCyr, William W.; Tejwani, Gopal D.; McVay, Gregory P.; Langford, Lester A.; SaintCyr, William W.

    2010-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) is the premier test facility for liquid rocket engine development and certification for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Therefore, it is no surprise that the SSC will play the most prominent role in the engine development testing and certification for the J-2X engine. The Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne J-2X engine has been selected by the Constellation Program to power the Ares I Upper Stage Element and the Ares V Earth Departure Stage in NASA s strategy of risk mitigation for hardware development by building on the Apollo program and other lessons learned to deliver a human-rated engine that is on an aggressive development schedule, with first demonstration flight in 2010 and human test flights in 2012. Accordingly, J-2X engine design, development, test, and evaluation is to build upon heritage hardware and apply valuable experience gained from past development and testing efforts. In order to leverage SSC s successful and innovative expertise in the plume diagnostics for the space shuttle main engine (SSME) health monitoring,1-10 this paper will present a blueprint for plume diagnostics for various proposed ground testing activities for J-2X at SSC. Complete description of the SSC s test facilities, supporting infrastructure, and test facilities is available in Ref. 11. The A-1 Test Stand is currently being prepared for testing the J-2X engine at sea level conditions. The A-2 Test Stand is currently being used for testing the SSME and may also be used for testing the J-2X engine at sea level conditions in the future. Very recently, ground-breaking ceremony for the new A-3 rocket engine test stand took place at SSC on August 23, 2007. A-3 is the first large - scale test stand to be built at the SSC since the A and B stands were constructed in the 1960s. The A-3 Test Stand will be used for testing J-2X engines under vacuum conditions simulating high altitude operation at approximately 30,480 m (100,000 ft

  7. Eugenol Inhibits ATP-induced P2X Currents in Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hai Ying; Lee, Byung Ky; Kim, Joong Soo; Jung, Sung Jun; Oh, Seog Bae

    2008-01-01

    Eugenol is widely used in dentistry to relieve pain. We have recently demonstrated voltage-gated Na+ and Ca2+ channels as molecular targets for its analgesic effects, and hypothesized that eugenol acts on P2X3, another pain receptor expressed in trigeminal ganglion (TG), and tested the effects of eugenol by whole-cell patch clamp and Ca2+ imaging techniques. In the present study, we investigated whether eugenol would modulate 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-induced currents in rat TG neurons and P2X3-e...

  8. Gluon contribution to the structure function $g_{2}(x,Q^{2})$

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, V M; Manashov, A N

    2001-01-01

    We calculate the one-loop twist-3 gluon contribution to the flavor-singlet structure function g_2(x,Q^2) in polarized deep-inelastic scattering and find that it is dominated by the contribution of the three-gluon operator with the lowest anomalous dimension (for each moment N). The similar property was observed earlier for the nonsinglet distributions, although the reason is in our case different. The result is encouraging and suggests a simple evolution pattern of g_2(x,Q^2) in analogy with the conventional description of twist-2 parton distributions.

  9. On Some Expansion Theorems Involving Confluent Hypergeometric $_{2}F_{2}(x)$ Polynomial

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, Yashoverdhan; Fatawat, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Rathie and K{\\i}l{\\i}\\c{c}man (2014) employed Kummer-type transformation for $_{2}F_{2}(a, d+1; b, d; x)$ to develop certain classes of expansions theorems for $_{2}F_{2}(x)$ hypergeometric polynomial. Our aim is to deduce Kummer-type transformation for $_{2}F_{2}(a, d+2; b, d; x)$ and utilize it to develop some new expansion theorems for the confluent hypergeometric $_{2}F_{2}(x)$ polynomial. We also obtain a well-known result given by Kim et al. (Integral Transforms Spec. Funct. 2...

  10. Truncated Moments of Nonsinglet Parton Distributions in the double logarithmic $ln^2x$ approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Kotlorz, D

    2004-01-01

    The method of truncated Mellin moments in a solving QCD evolution equations of the nonsinglet structure functions $F_2^{NS}(x,Q^2)$ and $g_1^{NS}(x,Q^2)$ is presented. All calculations are performed within double logarithmic $ln^2x$ approximation. An equation for truncated moments which incorporates $ln^2x$ effects is formulated and solved for the unintegrated structure function $f^{NS}(x,Q^2)$. The contribution to the Bjorken sum rule coming from the region of very small $x$ is quantified. Further possible improvement of this approach is also discussed.

  11. Characterisation of ATP analogues to cross-link and label P2X receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Agboh, Kelvin C.; Andrew J. Powell; Evans, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    P2X receptors are a distinct family of ATP-gated ion channels with a number of physiological roles ranging from smooth muscle contractility to the regulation of blood clotting. In this study we determined whether the UV light-reactive ATP analogues 2-azido ATP, ATP azidoanilide (ATP-AA) and 2′,3′-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP (BzATP) can be used to label the ATP binding site of P2X1 receptors. These analogues were agonists, and in patch clamp studies evoked inward currents from HEK293 cells stably...

  12. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of Yb3+ in Ca1-XYbXF2+X crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, M.; Goutaudier, C.; Guyot, Y.; Lebbou, K.; Fukuda, T.; Boulon, G.

    2004-11-01

    Ca1-XYbXF2+X crystals were grown by two different methods: simple melting under CF{4} atmosphere and laser heated pedestal growth (LHPG) method under Ar atmosphere. Spectroscopic characterization has been carried out to separate different crystallographic site in Ca1-XYbXF2+X crystals and to identify Stark's levels of Yb3+ transitions. Experimental decay time dependence of Yb3+ concentration was analyzed by using concentration gradient fiber in order to understand concentration quenching mechanisms. Energy transfer to unexpected rare earth impurities observed by up-conversion emission spectra in visible region under IR Yb3+ ion pumping seems to be an efficient process.

  13. Study of the spin-glass transition in FeCr{sub 2x}In{sub 2-2x}S{sub 4} thiospinel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goya, G.F. E-mail: goya@macbeth.if.usp.br; Rechenberg, H.R.; Sagredo, V

    2001-05-01

    The spin-glass (SG) transition in Fe(In{sub 2-2x}Cr{sub 2x})S{sub 4} thiospinel with x=0.1 and 0.3 has been studied by susceptibility and Moessbauer measurements. It is found that iron in the system is partially inverted, with {approx}80% high-spin Fe{sup 2+} iron at octahedral sites. AC susceptibility data show a spin-glass-like transition at T{sub SG}=10 K that depends on the driving frequency f, following a Vogel-Fulcher law. Below T{sub SG}, the splitting of Zeeman levels yields a complex Moessbauer spectrum, which was fitted using a full {sup 57}Fe-nuclear Hamiltonian with quadrupolar and magnetic interactions. The reduced magnetic hyperfine field b(T)=B(T)/B{sub S} is well described by a Langevin function L(x), with T{sub C}=12.8(3) K and B{sub S}=16.8(3) T.

  14. 关于Mordell方程y^2=x^3+k%On the MordeU Equation y^2=x^3+k

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管训贵

    2011-01-01

    Let l,l1 ,l2 ,... ,ls be some integer, and n be a positive integer,and n1 ,n2 ,…… ,ns be some nonnegative integer. In this paper, using some elementary number theory methods, we prove that if k satisfies either k=(4l+2)^3-Пi=1^s(4li+1)^2ni或k=(4l+3)^3-2^2nПi=1^s(4li+1)^2nithen the Mordell y^2=x^3+k equation has no integral solution.%设l,l1,l2,…,ls为任意整数,n为正整数,n1,n2,…,ns为任意非负整数.用初等数论方法证明了:如果k满足k=(4l+2)^3-Пi=1^s(4li+1)^2ni或k=(4l+3)^3-2^2nПi=1^s(4li+1)^2ni,则Mordell方程y^2=x^3+k无整数解.

  15. Structural determination of new solid solutions [Y2-x Mx ][Sn2-x Mx ]O7-3x/2 (M = Mg or Zn by Rietveld method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Douma

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available New [Y2-x Mx][Sn2-x Mx]O7-3x/2 (0 ≤x≤ 0.30 for M = Mg and 0 ≤x≤ 0.36 for M = Zn solid solutions with the pyrochlore structure were synthesized via high-temperature solid-state reaction method. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD patterns and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectra showed that these materials are new non-stoichiometric solid solutions with the pyrochlore type structure. The structural parameters for the solids obtained were successfully determined by Rietveld refinement based on the analysis of the PXRD diagrams. Lattice parameter (a of these solid solutions decreases when x increases in both series. All samples obtained have the pyrochlore structure Fd-3m, no. 227 (origin at center -3m with M2+ (M = Mg2+ or Zn2+ cations in Y3+ and Sn4+ sites, thus creating vacancies in the anionic sublattice.

  16. Structure cristalline du composé Hg3-xSbx(S+Se2+xI2-x (x ≃ 0.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kars

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the mercury chalcohalide Hg3-xSbx(S+Se2+xI2-x (x ≃ 0.1 (mercury antimony sulfide selenide iodide, were grown by a chemical transport reaction. The structure contains three independent A (Hg/Sb atoms; each atom is strongly covalently bonded with two X (Se/S atoms to form approximately linear X–A–X units. The X–A–X units link to form A4X4 rings, which are combined into infinite crankshaft-type bands running along the [100] direction. Four equatorial E (I/X = Se,S atoms at relatively long distances complete the distorted octahedral coordination of A (Hg/Sb. The crystal under investigation was twinned by non-merohedry with a refined twin domain fraction of 0.814 (6:0.186 (6. The structure is isotypic with Hg3Se2I2 [Beck & Hedderich (2000. J. Solid State Chem. 151, 73–76], but the current determination reveals a coupled substitution, with partial replacement of Hg+2 by Sb+3, balanced by the equivalent substitution of I−1 by S−2 and Se−2. Bond-valence calculations are consistent with this relative substitution model.

  17. Structure cristalline du composé Hg3-x Sb x (S+Se)2+x I2-x (x ≃ 0.1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kars, Mohammed; Herrero, Adrian Gómez; Roisnel, Thierry; Rebbah, Allaoua; Otero-Diáz, L Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Single crystals of the mercury chalcohalide Hg3-x Sb x (S+Se)2+x I2-x (x ≃ 0.1) (mercury anti-mony sulfide selenide iodide), were grown by a chemical transport reaction. The structure contains three independent A (Hg/Sb) atoms; each atom is strongly covalently bonded with two X (Se/S) atoms to form approximately linear X-A-X units. The X-A-X units link to form A 4 X 4 rings, which are combined into infinite crankshaft-type bands running along the [100] direction. Four equatorial E (I/X = Se,S) atoms at relatively long distances complete the distorted octa-hedral coordination of A (Hg/Sb). The crystal under investigation was twinned by non-merohedry with a refined twin domain fraction of 0.814 (6):0.186 (6). The structure is isotypic with Hg3Se2I2 [Beck & Hedderich (2000 ▸). J. Solid State Chem. 151, 73-76], but the current determination reveals a coupled substitution, with partial replacement of Hg(+2) by Sb(+3), balanced by the equivalent substitution of I(-1) by S(-2) and Se(-2). Bond-valence calculations are consistent with this relative substitution model. PMID:27006793

  18. Lack of a Functioning P2X7 Receptor Leads to Increased Susceptibility to Toxoplasmic Ileitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Miller

    Full Text Available Oral infection of C57BL/6J mice with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii leads to a lethal inflammatory ileitis.Mice lacking the purinergic receptor P2X7R are acutely susceptible to toxoplasmic ileitis, losing significantly more weight than C57BL/6J mice and exhibiting much greater intestinal inflammatory pathology in response to infection with only 10 cysts of T. gondii. This susceptibility is not dependent on the ability of P2X7R-deficient mice to control the parasite, which they accomplish just as efficiently as C57BL/6J mice. Rather, susceptibility is associated with elevated ileal concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive nitrogen intermediates and altered regulation of elements of NFκB activation in P2X7R-deficient mice.Our data support the thesis that P2X7R, a well-documented activator of pro-inflammatory cytokine production, also plays an important role in the regulation of intestinal inflammation.

  19. Color-Space-Based Visual-MIMO for V2X Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jai-Eun; Kim, Ji-Won; Park, Youngil; Kim, Ki-Doo

    2016-04-23

    In this paper, we analyze the applicability of color-space-based, color-independent visual-MIMO for V2X. We aim to achieve a visual-MIMO scheme that can maintain the original color and brightness while performing seamless communication. We consider two scenarios of GCM based visual-MIMO for V2X. One is a multipath transmission using visual-MIMO networking and the other is multi-node V2X communication. In the scenario of multipath transmission, we analyze the channel capacity numerically and we illustrate the significance of networking information such as distance, reference color (symbol), and multiplexing-diversity mode transitions. In addition, in the V2X scenario of multiple access, we may achieve the simultaneous multiple access communication without node interferences by dividing the communication area using image processing. Finally, through numerical simulation, we show the superior SER performance of the visual-MIMO scheme compared with LED-PD communication and show the numerical result of the GCM based visual-MIMO channel capacity versus distance.

  20. Structural Insights into Divalent Cation Modulations of ATP-Gated P2X Receptor Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Kasuya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available P2X receptors are trimeric ATP-gated cation channels involved in physiological processes ranging widely from neurotransmission to pain and taste signal transduction. The modulation of the channel gating, including that by divalent cations, contributes to these diverse physiological functions of P2X receptors. Here, we report the crystal structure of an invertebrate P2X receptor from the Gulf Coast tick Amblyomma maculatum in the presence of ATP and Zn2+ ion, together with electrophysiological and computational analyses. The structure revealed two distinct metal binding sites, M1 and M2, in the extracellular region. The M1 site, located at the trimer interface, is responsible for Zn2+ potentiation by facilitating the structural change of the extracellular domain for pore opening. In contrast, the M2 site, coupled with the ATP binding site, might contribute to regulation by Mg2+. Overall, our work provides structural insights into the divalent cation modulations of P2X receptors.

  1. 2x40 Gbit/s Polarization Division Multiplexing With Bit Slot Synchronization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jens; C.; Rasmussen; George; Ishikawa; Tamio; Saito

    2003-01-01

    Polarization division multiplexing (PDM) can double the spectral efficiency of an optical transmission system. By means of simulation, the 2x40Gbit/s NRZ PDM system performance under polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and chromatic dispersion has been investigated. To realize the best performance, the bit slots of the two channels should be synchronized.

  2. Growth and Electronic Properties of Ag Nanoparticles on Reduced CeO2-x(111) Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan-dan Kong; Yong-he Pan; Guo-dong Wang; Hai-bin Pan; Jun-fa Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Ag nanoparticles grown on reduced CeO2-x thin films have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and resonant photoelectron spectroscopy of the valence band to understand the effect of oxygen vacancies in the CeO2-x thin films on the growth and interfacial electronic properties of Ag.Ag grows as three-dimensional particles on the CeO2-x(111) surface at 300 K.Compared to the fully oxidized ceria substrate surface,Ag favors the growth of smaller particles with a larger particle density on the reduced ceria substrate surface,which can be attributed to the nucleation of Ag on oxygen vacancies.The binding energy of Ag3d increases when the Ag particle size decreases,which is mainly attributed to the final-state screening.The interfacial interaction between Ag and CeO2-x(111) is weak.The resonant enhancement of the 4f level of Ce3+ species in RPES indicates a partial Ce4+→Ce3+ reduction after Ag deposited on reduced ceria surface.The sintering temperature of Ag on CeO 1.85 (111) surface during annealing is a little higher than that of Ag on CeO2 (111) surface,indicating that Ag nanoparticles are more stable on the reduced ceria surface.

  3. Procrastination and the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Framework in Malaysian Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Rajalakshmi; Mamat, Norul Hidayah Bt; Mellor, David; Rizzuto, Laura; Kolar, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated academic procrastination in the context of the 2 x 2 goal achievement theoretical framework within a population of 450 Malaysian undergraduate students, aged 18 to 25 years. Participants completed the Achievement Goal Questionnaire and the Tuckman Procrastination Test. Approach dimensions of both the mastery and…

  4. The P2X7 Receptor Supports Both Life and Death in Fibrogenic Pancreatic Stellate Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haanes, Kristian; Schwab, Albrecht; Novak, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    The pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) have complex roles in pancreas, including tissue repair and fibrosis. PSCs surround ATP releasing exocrine cells, but little is known about purinergic receptors and their function in PSCs. Our aim was to resolve whether PSCs express the multifunctional P2X7...... fibrosis and cancer....

  5. Sensing arterial CO(2) levels: a role for medullary P2X receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyer, K M; Thomas, T

    2000-07-01

    ATP has been shown to act as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. In this review, evidence is presented to indicate that when ATP is micro-injected into the ventrolateral medulla (VLM) of the rat, changes in respiratory activity are elicited. These effects, and accompanying changes in heart rate and blood pressure are mediated by P2X purinoreceptors. Immunocytochemistry indicates a prevalence of P2X(2) and P2X(6) purinoreceptors in this region of the medulla. The P2 purinoceptor antagonists, suramin and PPADS blunt the respiratory responses to changes in arterial CO(2) levels when micro-injected into the VLM. This effect is shown electrophysiologically to be mediated by purinoreceptors located primarily on respiratory neurones of the VLM including the Bötzinger complex. As the effects of agonist activation of P2X(2) purinoceptors expressed in HEK293 cells and Xenopus oocytes are potentiated by lowering pH, these data imply that the central respiratory response to CO(2) depends in part on the pH sensitivity of purinoreceptors located on inspiratory neurones. The implications for respiratory activity and control are discussed.

  6. Dispersive excitations in the high-temperature superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N.B.; McMorrow, D.F.; Rønnow, H.M.;

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution neutron scattering experiments on optimally doped La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO(4) (x=0.16) reveal that the magnetic excitations are dispersive. The dispersion is the same as in YBa(2)Cu(3)O(6.85), and is quantitatively related to that observed with charge sensitive probes. The associated veloc...

  7. Molecular mechanism of ATP binding and ion channel activation in P2X receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Motoyuki; Gouaux, Eric (Oregon HSU)

    2012-10-24

    P2X receptors are trimeric ATP-activated ion channels permeable to Na{sup +}, K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}. The seven P2X receptor subtypes are implicated in physiological processes that include modulation of synaptic transmission, contraction of smooth muscle, secretion of chemical transmitters and regulation of immune responses. Despite the importance of P2X receptors in cellular physiology, the three-dimensional composition of the ATP-binding site, the structural mechanism of ATP-dependent ion channel gating and the architecture of the open ion channel pore are unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of the zebrafish P2X4 receptor in complex with ATP and a new structure of the apo receptor. The agonist-bound structure reveals a previously unseen ATP-binding motif and an open ion channel pore. ATP binding induces cleft closure of the nucleotide-binding pocket, flexing of the lower body {beta}-sheet and a radial expansion of the extracellular vestibule. The structural widening of the extracellular vestibule is directly coupled to the opening of the ion channel pore by way of an iris-like expansion of the transmembrane helices. The structural delineation of the ATP-binding site and the ion channel pore, together with the conformational changes associated with ion channel gating, will stimulate development of new pharmacological agents.

  8. Electronic decal: a security function based on V2X communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapik, Peter; Schoch, Elmar; Kargl, Frank

    2013-01-01

    New technologies such as vehicle-to-X (V2X) communication and advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are on the rise. They are mainly used to increase road safety as well as traffic efficiency and to provide customers with infotainment features. However, these new technologies also provide the op

  9. (TMTSF)2X materials and structural implications for low-dimensional polymeric and disordered molecular semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Martin Meedom; Krebs, Frederik C

    2000-01-01

    The structural characteristics and the relation to the electronic properties of three types of molecular materials are discussed. In TMTSF2X salts a triclinic unit cell it suggested to be important in avoiding a 2k(F) Peierls distortion. In polythiophenes appropriate ordering of microcrystallites...

  10. Unbalanced 2 x 2 factorial designs and the interaction effect : A troublesome combination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsheer, Johannes A.; Van Wittenboer, Godfried Den

    2015-01-01

    In this power study, ANOVAs of unbalanced and balanced 2 x 2 datasets are compared (N = 120). Datasets are created under the assumption that H1 of the effects is true. The effects are constructed in two ways, assuming: 1. contributions to the effects solely in the treatment groups; 2. contrasting co

  11. Microfluidic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  12. Co-Expression of Wild-Type P2X7R with Gln460Arg Variant Alters Receptor Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Aprile-Garcia

    Full Text Available The P2X7 receptor is a member of the P2X family of ligand-gated ion channels. A single-nucleotide polymorphism leading to a glutamine (Gln by arginine (Arg substitution at codon 460 of the purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R has been associated with mood disorders. No change in function (loss or gain has been described for this SNP so far. Here we show that although the P2X7R-Gln460Arg variant per se is not compromised in its function, co-expression of wild-type P2X7R with P2X7R-Gln460Arg impairs receptor function with respect to calcium influx, channel currents and intracellular signaling in vitro. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation and FRET studies show that the P2X7R-Gln460Arg variant physically interacts with P2X7R-WT. Specific silencing of either the normal or polymorphic variant rescues the heterozygous loss of function phenotype and restores normal function. The described loss of function due to co-expression, unique for mutations in the P2RX7 gene so far, explains the mechanism by which the P2X7R-Gln460Arg variant affects the normal function of the channel and may represent a mechanism of action for other mutations.

  13. Physical and electrical properties of band-engineered SiO2/(TiO2) x (SiO2)1- x stacks for nonvolatile memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jinho; Na, Heedo; Mok, In-Su; Kim, Jonggi; Lee, Kyumin; Sohn, Hyunchul

    2012-09-01

    In our study, the physical properties of (TiO2) x (SiO2)1- x , including band-gap, band-offset, and thermal stability and the electrical properties of band-engineered SiO2/(TiO2) x (SiO2)1- x tunnel barrier stacks, including the tunneling current and charge-trapping characteristics for applications to nonvolatile memory devices were investigated. It was observed that the band-gap and band-offset of (TiO2) x (SiO2)1- x can be controlled by adjustment in the composition of the (TiO2) x (SiO2)1- x films. Ti-silicate film with TiO2:SiO2 cycle ratio of 1:5 was maintained in an amorphous phase, even after annealing at 950 °C. The tunneling current of the band-engineered SiO2/(TiO2) x (SiO2)1- x stacked tunnel barrier was larger than that of a single SiO2 barrier under a higher external bias, while the tunneling current of a SiO2/(TiO2) x (SiO2)1- x stacked tunnel barrier under a lower external bias was smaller. Charge-trapping tests showed that the voltage shift for SiO2/(TiO2) x (SiO2)1- x is slightly larger than that for single SiO2.

  14. Computational study on the characteristics of the interaction in naphthalene...(H2X)n=1,2 (X = O,S) clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaleiro-Lago, Enrique M; Rodríguez-Otero, Jesús; Peña-Gallego, Angeles

    2008-07-17

    The characteristics of the interaction between the pi cloud of naphthalene and up to two H2O or H2S molecules were studied. Calculations show that clusters formed by naphthalene and one H2O or H2S molecule have similar geometric features, and also present similar interaction energies. Our best estimates for the interaction energy amount to -2.95 and -2.92 kcal/mol for H2O and H2S, respectively, as obtained with the CCSD(T) method. Calculations at the MP2 level employing large basis sets should be avoided because they produce highly overestimated interaction energies, especially for hydrogen sulfide complexes. The MPWB1K functional, however, provides values pretty similar to those obtained with the CCSD(T) method. Although the magnitude of the interaction is similar with both H2X molecules, its nature is somewhat different: the H2O complex presents electrostatic and dispersion contributions of similar magnitude, whereas for H2S the interaction is dominated by dispersion. In clusters containing two H2X molecules several minima were characterized. In water clusters, the total interaction energy is dominated by the presence of a O-H...O hydrogen bond and, as a consequence, structures where this contact is present are the most stable. However, clusters containing H2S show structures with no interaction between H2S moieties which are as stable as the hydrogen bonded ones, because they allow an optimal H2S...naphthalene interaction, which is stronger than the S-H...S contact. Therefore it is possible that in larger polycycles hydrogen sulfide molecules will be spread onto the surface maximizing S-H...pi interactions rather than aggregated, forming H2S clusters.

  15. Optimized effective potential model for the double perovskites Sr2-xYxVMoO6 and Sr2-xYxVTcO6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to explore half-metallic properties of the double perovskites Sr2-xYxVMoO6 and Sr2-xYxVTcO6, we construct an effective low-energy model, which describes the behavior of the t2g states of these compounds. All parameters of such a model are derived rigorously on the basis of first-principles electronic structure calculations. In order to solve this model, we employ the optimized effective potential method and treat the correlation interactions in the random phase approximation. Although correlation interactions considerably reduce the intraatomic exchange splitting in comparison with the Hartree-Fock approach, this splitting still substantially exceeds the typical values obtained in the local-spin-density approximation (LSDA), which alters many predictions based on the LSDA. Our main results are summarized as follows. (i) All ferromagnetic states are expected to be half-metallic. However, their energies are generally higher than those of the ferrimagnetic ordering between V and Mo/Tc sites (except Sr2VMoO6). (ii) All ferrimagnetic states are metallic (except fully insulating Y2VTcO6) and no half-metallic antiferromagnetism has been found. (iii) Moreover, many of the ferrimagnetic structures appear to be unstable with respect to the spin-spiral alignment. Thus, the true magnetic ground state of these systems is expected to be more complex. In addition, we discuss several methodological issues related to nonuniqueness of the effective potential for the half-metallic and magnetic insulating states.

  16. Alteration of P2X3 expression in dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve ligation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoxing Zhou; Lesi Xie; Qiben Wang; Qingping Yu; Xiaofu Liu; Qiumei Liu; Wei Peng; Zhicheng Zeng

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The expressions of P2X3 receptor in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after different peripheral nerve injuries are diverse. It indicates the different roles of P2X3 in different models-caused neuropathologic pains.OBJECTIVE: To observe the expressions of P2X3 in corresponding DRG after sciatic nerve ligation in rats.DESIGN: Controlled observation experiment.SETTING: Department of Morphology, Hunan Traditional Chinese Medical College; Department of Human Anatomy and Neurobiology, Xiangya Medical College, Central South University.MATERIALS: Thirty-five healthy adult SD rats of clean grade an d either gender, weighing (200±20) g,were involved. According to the random digits table, the involved rats were randomized into 3 groups:normal group (n =5), sham-operated group (n =5) and experimental group (n =25). The experimental group were subdivided into 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 days groups according to different surviving time after operation, 5 rats at each time point. Polyclonal rabbit anti-P2X3 antibody (ABCAM company); biotinylated goat anti-rabbit IgG (Zhongshanjingqiao Biotechnical Co., Ltd., Beijing); Motic fluorescence microscope (Motic, Germany).METHODS: The experiments were carried out in the Department of Human Anatomy and Neurobiology,Xiangya Medical College, Central South University from June to December 2006. ① Rats of experimental group were created into models by ligation of right sciatic nerve according to the method of Seltzer et al. Left sciatic nerve was used as self-control. As for rats in the sham-operated group, ligation of sciatic nerve was omitted, but other procedures were the same as those in the experimental group. Rats of normal group were untouched. ② Rats of the normal group and sham-operated group survived for 14 days separately, and those of experimental group survived for corresponding time. After being deeply anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of over-dose sodium pentobarbital, the rats of experimental group were transcardially

  17. Effect of P2X(7) receptor knockout on exocrine secretion of pancreas, salivary glands and lacrimal glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Jans, Ida M; Wohlfahrt, Louise

    2010-01-01

    the P2X(7) receptors affect fluid secretion in pancreas, salivary glands and tear glands. We monitored gland secretions in in vivo preparations of wild-type and P2X(7)(-/-) (Pfizer) mice stimulated with pilocarpine. In cell preparations from pancreas, parotid and lacrimal glands we measured ATP release...... and intracellular Ca(2+) activity using Fura-2. The data showed that pancreatic secretion and salivary secretions were reduced in P2X(7)(-/-) mice, and in contrast, tear secretion was increased in P2X(7)(-/-) mice. The secretory phenotype was also dependent on the sex of the animal, such that males were more...

  18. Effect of P2X4R on airway inflammation and airway remodeling in allergic airway challenge in mice

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, HONGXIA; Xia, Qingqing; FENG, XIAOQIAN; CAO, FANGYUAN; Yu, Hang; SONG, YINLI; NI, XIUQIN

    2015-01-01

    P2X4 receptor (P2X4R) is the most widely expressed subtype of the P2XRs in the purinergic receptor family. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a ligand for this receptor, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. ATP-P2X4R signaling is involved in pulmonary vascular remodeling, and in the proliferation and differentiation of airway and alveolar epithelial cell lines. However, the role of P2X4R in asthma remains to be elucidated. This aim of the present study was to investigate the effects ...

  19. A P2X receptor from the tardigrade species Hypsibius dujardini with fast kinetics and sensitivity to zinc and copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaxter Mark L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthologs of the vertebrate ATP gated P2X channels have been identified in Dictyostelium and green algae, demonstrating that the emergence of ionotropic purinergic signalling was an early event in eukaryotic evolution. However, the genomes of a number of animals including Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, both members of the Ecdysozoa superphylum, lack P2X-like proteins, whilst other species such as the flatworm Schistosoma mansoni have P2X proteins making it unclear as to what stages in evolution P2X receptors were lost. Here we describe the functional characterisation of a P2X receptor (HdP2X from the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini demonstrating that purinergic signalling is preserved in some ecdysozoa. Results ATP (EC50 ~44.5 μM evoked transient inward currents in HdP2X with millisecond rates of activation and desensitisation. HdP2X is antagonised by pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4' disulfonic acid (IC50 15.0 μM and suramin (IC50 22.6 μM and zinc and copper inhibit ATP-evoked currents with IC50 values of 62.8 μM and 19.9 μM respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that unlike vertebrate P2X receptors, extracellular histidines do not play a major role in coordinating metal binding in HdP2X. However, H306 was identified as playing a minor role in the actions of copper but not zinc. Ivermectin potentiated responses to ATP with no effect on the rates of current activation or decay. Conclusion The presence of a P2X receptor in a tardigrade species suggests that both nematodes and arthropods lost their P2X genes independently, as both traditional and molecular phylogenies place the divergence between Nematoda and Arthropoda before their divergence from Tardigrada. The phylogenetic analysis performed in our study also clearly demonstrates that the emergence of the family of seven P2X channels in human and other mammalian species was a relatively recent evolutionary event that occurred subsequent

  20. Haemolysis induced by α-toxin from Staphylococcus aureus requires P2X receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skals, Marianne Gerberg; Leipziger, Jens Georg; Prætorius, Helle

    2011-01-01

    -forming bacterial toxins. In this context, it is essential to know whether this is specific to HlyA-induced cell damage or if other bacterial pore-forming toxins involve purinergic signals to orchestrate haemolysis. Here, we investigate if the haemolysis produced by α-toxin from Staphylococcus aureus involves P2...... receptor activation. We observed that α-toxin-induced haemolysis is completely blocked by the unselective P2 receptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid. Moreover, several selective blockers of P2X1 and P2X7 ionotropic receptors abolished haemolysis in murine and equine...... erythrocytes. Inhibitors of pannexin channels partially reduced the α-toxin induced lysis. Thus, we conclude that α-toxin, similar to HlyA from E. coli produces cell damage by specific activation of a purinergic signalling cascade. These data indicate that pore-forming toxins in general require purinergic...

  1. Maximizing Entropy of Pickard Random Fields for 2x2 Binary Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of maximizing the entropy of two-dimensional (2D) Pickard Random Fields (PRF) subject to constraints. We consider binary Pickard Random Fields, which provides a 2D causal finite context model and use it to define stationary probabilities for 2x2 squares, thus...... allowing us to calculate the entropy of the field. All possible binary 2x2 constraints are considered and all constraints are categorized into groups according to their properties. For constraints which can be modeled by a PRF approach and with positive entropy, we characterize and provide statistics...... of the maximum PRF entropy. As examples, we consider the well known hard square constraint along with a few other constraints....

  2. Synthesis and characterization of Cu/SiO 2- x composite nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, A. Z.; Wang, Y. G.; Zhang, Z.

    2003-05-01

    Copper/silica-based nanostructures with different morphologies and microstructures have been synthesized on Si wafer by thermal evaporation of CuO and SiO powders in an argon-hybridized hydrogen ambient at high temperatures. Systematically studies by scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun and transmission electron microscopy show that the composite nanowires have a core-shell structure with an average diameter of ˜120 nm and lengths of several hundred nanometers to several ten microns. Electron diffraction pattern and electron energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis reveal that the core coincides with copper and the shell corresponds to amorphous silicon oxide with chemical composition SiO 2- x (0≦ x≦0.5). Besides the Cu/SiO 2- x nanowires, many other nanostructures such as octpous-, pine-, and chain-like structures have also been found. The growth mechanisms of these products were briefly discussed.

  3. Thermal expansion properties of Lu2-x FexMo3O12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Mei-Mei; Peng Jie; Zu Yong; Liu Rong-Deng; Hu Zhong-Bo; Liu Yun-Tao; Chen Dong-Feng

    2012-01-01

    The structures and thermal expansion properties of Lu2-xFex Mo3O12 have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD).XRD patterns at room temperature indicate that componnds Lu2 xFexMo3O12 with x ≤ 1.3 exhibit an orthorhombic structure with space group Pnca;compounds with x =1.5 and 1.7 have a monoclinic structure with space group P21/a.Studies on thermal expansion properties show that the linear thermal expansion coefficients of orthorhombic phase vary from negative to positive with increasing Fe content.Attempts to make zero thermal expansion materials indicate that zero thermal expansion can be observed in Lu1.3Feo.7Mo3O12 in the temperature range of 200-400°C.

  4. Evolution equation for the structure function g_2(x,Q^2)

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, V M; Manashov, A N

    2001-01-01

    We perform an extensive study of the scale dependence of flavor-singlet contributions to the structure function g_2(x,Q^2) in polarized deep-inelastic scattering. We find that the mixing between quark-antiquark-gluon and three-gluon twist-3 operators only involves the three-gluon operator with the lowest anomalous dimension and is weak in other cases. This means, effectively, that only those three-gluon operators with the lowest anomalous dimension for each moment are important, and allows to formulate a simple two-component parton-like description of g_2(x,Q^2) in analogy with the conventional description of twist-2 parton distributions. The similar simplification was observed earlier for the nonsinglet distributions, although the reason is in our case different.

  5. Dynamical optical properties of La2-xSrxCuO4 cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M. L.; Rast, S.; Onellion, M.; Ren, Y.; Zhang, X.; Luepke, G.; Perakis, I.; Abrecht, M.; Ariosa, D.; Pavuna, D.; Zeng, X. H.; Weidong, Si; Xi, X. X.

    2001-03-01

    We present pump-probe optical reflectivity measurements on underdoped, optimally doped and overdoped La2-xSrxCuO4 thin films grown on SrTiO3.[1] We find qualitative changes of the reflectivity with temperature, in particular below and above the superconducting transition temperature. We have measured YBa2Cu3O7-x and NdBa2Cu3O7-y thin films for comparison and present these comparative results. The La2-xSrxCuO4 data indicate the existence of two subsystems within the material. The two subsystems are electronic (or optically active), interact, and they transfer energy between them. We discuss our reasoning on these points. 1. M.L. Schneider et.al., submitted

  6. On the Number of Chiral Generations in Z2 X Z2 Orbifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Donagi, R; Donagi, Ron; Faraggi, Alon E.

    2004-01-01

    The data from collider experiments and cosmic observatories indicates the existence of three light matter generations. In some classes of string compactifications the number of generations is related to a topological quantity, the Euler characteristic. However, these do not explain the existence of three generations. In a class of free fermionic string models, related to the Z2 X Z2 orbifold compactification, the existence of three generations is correlated with the existence of three twisted sectors in this class of compactifications. However, the three generation models are constructed in the free fermionic formulation and their geometrical correspondence is not readily available. In this paper we classify quotients of the Z2 X Z2 orbifold by additional symmetric shifts on the three complex tori. We show that three generation vacua are not obtained in this manner, indicating that the geometrical structures underlying the free fermionic models are more esoteric.

  7. 77Se-NMR study of quasi-one dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF)2X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasi-one dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF)2X with octahedral anions X = PF6, AsF6, and SbF6 have been studied by NMR measurements at the Se-sites which are substantially responsible for conductivity in this system. Close resemblances in the temperature dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 and the evolution of internal field in the SDW state were observed in the three measured compounds. The existence of the sub-phases in the SDW phase of all these compounds, which is evidenced by T1 but not from spectrum measurements, indicates that this is a common feature among (TMTSF)2X system with an incommensurate SDW wave number and is associated with dynamic property rather than static one.

  8. Status on the Verification of Combustion Stability for the J-2X Engine Thrust Chamber Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiano, Matthew; Hinerman, Tim; Kenny, R. Jeremy; Hulka, Jim; Barnett, Greg; Dodd, Fred; Martin, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Development is underway of the J -2X engine, a liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen rocket engine for use on the Space Launch System. The Engine E10001 began hot fire testing in June 2011 and testing will continue with subsequent engines. The J -2X engine main combustion chamber contains both acoustic cavities and baffles. These stability aids are intended to dampen the acoustics in the main combustion chamber. Verification of the engine thrust chamber stability is determined primarily by examining experimental data using a dynamic stability rating technique; however, additional requirements were included to guard against any spontaneous instability or rough combustion. Startup and shutdown chug oscillations are also characterized for this engine. This paper details the stability requirements and verification including low and high frequency dynamics, a discussion on sensor selection and sensor port dynamics, and the process developed to assess combustion stability. A status on the stability results is also provided and discussed.

  9. Chemisorption of aromatic molecules on Si(100)-2x1. An HREELS study

    CERN Document Server

    Alkunshalie, T

    1998-01-01

    HREELS has been used to investigate the growth of ultra-thin organic film on Si(100)-2x1 by reactive coupling of polyimide precursors. 1,4- phenylenediamine and pyromelltic dianhydride were sequentially dosed on clean Si(100)-2x1 under ultra high vacuum conditions. The interfacial imidisation was initiated by thermal curing at 200 deg C. To simplify the analysis of the vibrational data, model compounds benzoic acid, aniline and phthalic anhydride were characterised first. HREEL spectra show that the model compounds absorb through dissociation of the functional group. The spectra also show that an oligimide chain has been formed which stands upright on the surface. The oligomer chain bonds to the silicon surface via a Si-(NH)-C linkage.

  10. Investigation on the electrochemical behaviours of Mg2-xCrxNi negative electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A series of Mg2-xCrxNi alloy powder has been produced by combination of solid-state diffusion with mechanicalgrinding (MG). X-ray diffraction patterns show that the alloy powders have an amorphous structure and great increase in thespecific surface. Electrochemical detection results indicate that the partial substitution of Mg by Cr in Mg2Ni alloy improvesthe cycle life of this alloy greatly, which gets up to 100 cycles at 200 mA/g mass discharge current, keeping its mass dis-charge capacity over 200 mA@h/g. In the meanwhile, partial replacement of Mg by Cr also increases the mass discharge ca-pacity compared with Mg2Ni alloy. With the increasing of mass discharge current and content of Cr in Mg2-xCrxNi, the cyclelife of the alloys are increased and the decay of mass discharge capacity slows down.

  11. Chemisorption of aromatic molecules on Si(100)-2x1. An HREELS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkunshalie, T

    1998-07-01

    HREELS has been used to investigate the growth of ultra-thin organic film on Si(100)-2x1 by reactive coupling of polyimide precursors. 1,4- phenylenediamine and pyromelltic dianhydride were sequentially dosed on clean Si(100)-2x1 under ultra high vacuum conditions. The interfacial imidisation was initiated by thermal curing at 200 deg C. To simplify the analysis of the vibrational data, model compounds benzoic acid, aniline and phthalic anhydride were characterised first. HREEL spectra show that the model compounds absorb through dissociation of the functional group. The spectra also show that an oligimide chain has been formed which stands upright on the surface. The oligomer chain bonds to the silicon surface via a Si-(NH)-C linkage. (author)

  12. Magnetocaloric effect in a cluster-glass system Ho5Pd2-xNix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoizumi, Saori; Kitazawa, Hideaki; Morita, Kengo; Tamaki, Akira

    2016-02-01

    In order to investigate the effect of chemical pressure on the large magnetocaloric effect in Ho5 Pd2, we conducted X-ray diffraction, magnetization, and specific heat measurements on Ho5Pd2-xNix(0≤ x ≤ 1.0) rare-earth intermetallic compounds. The linear x dependence of the lattice constant a suggests that Ni is replaced with Pd in the case of Ho5Pd2-xNix (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5). The spin-glass transition temperature Tg and paramagnetic Curie temperature θP indicate a weak oscillatory x dependence. However, the magnetic entropy change —ΔSm and the relative cooling power (RCP) are rapidly suppressed with increasing x. These large reductions in —ΔSm and RCP cannot be explained only in terms of normal Ruderman-Kittel- Kasuya-Yoshida (RKKY)-type indirect exchange interactions.

  13. Multiple Exhaust Nozzle Effects on J-2X Gas Generator Outlet Impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, R. Jeremy; Muss, Jeffrey; Hulka, James R.; Casiano, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The current test setup of the J-2X gas generator system uses a multiple nozzle configuration to exhaust hot gases to drive the propellant supply turbines. Combustion stability assessment of this gas generator design requires knowledge of the impedance effects the multiple nozzle configuration creates on the combustion chamber acoustic modes. Parallel work between NASA and Sierra Engineering is presented, showing two methods used to calculate the effective end impedance resulting from multiple nozzle configurations. The NASA method is a simple estimate of the effective impedance using the long wavelength approximation. Sierra Engineering has developed a more robust numerical integration method implemented in ROCCID to accommodate for multiple nozzles. Analysis using both methods are compared to J-2X gas generator test data collected over the past year.

  14. Synthesis and growth mechanism of dendritic Cu{sub 2-x}Se microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippo, Emanuela, E-mail: emanuela.filippo@unisalento.it [Department of Material Science, University of Salento I, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Manno, Daniela; Serra, Antonio [Department of Material Science, University of Salento I, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dendritic crystalline Cu{sub 2-x}Se microstructures were obtained by thermal annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CuSe powder was used as starting material and substrate for the growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each dendrite is composed of a long central trunk with secondary branches. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lateral branches grow in parallel at about 60 Degree-Sign respect to the central trunk. - Abstract: Dendritic crystalline copper selenides Cu{sub 2-x}Se microstructures with various dimensions have been fabricated in large scale through thermal treatment of CuSe powder in argon flow, without any catalyst. The CuSe powder grains were used as both reagents and substrates for the growth of the Cu{sub 2-x}Se dendrites. The synthesized microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area diffraction pattern and Raman spectroscopy. Each individual dendrite was mainly composed of a long central trunk with secondary lateral branches. The length of the main trunk was in the range 10-30 {mu}m, the width of the secondary branch lay in the range 1-5 {mu}m. The trunk was about 1-2 {mu}m in diameter while the lateral branches were about 0.4-0.8 {mu}m in diameter. The lateral branches grew in parallel and kept about 60 Degree-Sign with respect to the central trunk. A possible growth mechanism has been also proposed to account the growth of these Cu{sub 2-x}Se dendritic microstructures.

  15. AdS2xS2 as an exact heterotic string background

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando, Domenico

    2005-01-01

    An exact heterotic string theory on an AdS2xS2 background supported by an electromagnetic flux is found as a marginal deformation of an SL(2,R)xSU(2) WZW model. Based on a talk given at NATO Advanced Study Institute and EC Summer School on String Theory: from Gauge Interactions to Cosmology, Cargese, Corsica, France, 7 Jun - 19 Jun 2004.

  16. P2X antagonists inhibit styryl dye entry into hair cells

    OpenAIRE

    Crumling, Mark A.; Tong, Mingjie; Aschenbach, Krista L.; Liu, Li Qian; Pipitone, Christine M.; Duncan, R Keith

    2009-01-01

    The styryl pyridinium dyes, FM1-43 and AM1-43, are fluorescent molecules that can permeate the mechanotransduction channels of hair cells, the sensory receptors of the inner ear. When these dyes are applied to hair cells, they enter the cytoplasm rapidly, resulting in a readily detectable increase in intracellular fluorescence that is often used as a molecular indication of mechanotransduction channel function. However, such dyes can also permeate the ATP receptor, P2X2. Therefore, we explore...

  17. Valence Fluctuations in La2-xSrxCuO4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, R.A. de; Gutfreund, H.; Weger, M.

    1987-01-01

    Ab-initio electronic band structure calculations are presented for the perovskite La2CuO4 and for this material doped with Sr for a supercell of composition La3SrCu2O8. This material is close to the high Tc superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4 discovered recently. The Sr doping gives rise to strong valence f

  18. The oxygen defect chemistry of La2-xSrxCuO4-x/2+δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports equilibrium oxygen stoichiometry of La2-xSrxCuO4±y (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, and 1.0) determined by TGA at temperatures between 800 and 1050 degrees C and oxygen partial pressures between 1 and 10-4 atmospheres. The changes in oxygen content with temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and strontium concentration are evaluated in terms of a defect model

  19. Elastic neutron diffuse scattering in Zr(Ca, Y)O2-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elastic neutron diffuse scattering has been measured in cubic Zr(Ca, Y)O2-x at room temperature. The very high diffuse scattering (up to 70 Laue) is explained mostly by the oxygen displacements along directions, and by Ca displacements along . The weak short-range order contribution strongly suggests that oxygen vacancies tend to place as second rather than at first neighbours of a Ca stabilizing ion

  20. Electroacupuncture at He-Mu points reduces P2X4 receptor expression in visceral hypersensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xinxin; Chen, Jifei; Lu, Yuan; Wu, Luyi; Weng, Zhijun; Yang, Ling; Xin, Yuhu; Lin, Xianming; Liang, Yi; Fang, Jianqiao

    2013-01-01

    Electroacupuncture at Shangjuxu (ST37) and Tianshu (ST25) was reported to improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension was utilized to generate a rat model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome. Results showed that abdominal withdrawal reflex scores noticeably increased after model establishment. Simultaneously, P2X4 receptor immureactivity significantly increased in the colon and spinal cord. Electroacupuncture and pinaverium bromide therapy bot...

  1. Cluster spin glass behavior of Li[Li(1/3-x/3)Mn(2/3-2x/3)Cox]O2(x=0.1)%Li[Li(1/3-x/3)Mn(2/3-2x/3)Cox]O2(x=O.1)的团簇自旋玻璃态行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高春歌; 王丽萍; 陈红; 王春忠

    2011-01-01

    采用柠檬酸盐法制备了六方层状结构的Li[Li(1/3-x/3)Mn(2/3-2x/3)Cox]O2(x=0.1)材料.体系在高温区呈现顺磁态,通过拟合Curie-Weiss定律得到Curie和Weiss常数分别为1.70(2)m3 K/mol和-22(3)K.该材料的磁化率曲线在低温区表现出不可逆转变行为,并且这种不可逆转变行为也受到外加磁场的调制.结合Almeida-Thouless(AT)线分析,可以确定Li[Li0.3Mn0.6Co0.1]O2呈现团簇自旋玻璃态行为.%Li[Li(1/3-x/3)Mn(2/3-2X/3)Cox]O2(x = 0. 1) was prepared by citrate precursor method and show paramagnetism during high-temperature region. By fitting Curie-Weiss law, the Curie and Weiss constant are obtained to be 1. 70(2)m3 K/mol and - 22(3) K,respectively. The susceptibility shows irreversibility behavior at low temperature and this irreversibility behavior is suppressed by applied fields. Together with Almeida-Thouless (AT), Cluster spin glass behavior is suggested to be the ground state of Li[Li0.3Mn0.6Co0.1]O2.

  2. Blow up for a 2x2 strictly hyperbolic system arising from chemical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bourdarias, Christian; Junca, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    We consider a 2x2 hyperbolic system of conservation laws modeling heat less adsorption of a gaseous mixture with two species and infinite exchange kinetics, close to the system of Chromatography. In this model the velocity is not constant because the sorption effect is taken in account. Our aim is to construct a solution with a velocity which blows up at the characteristic boundary. This phenomenon only occurs in particular but physically relevant cases.

  3. Water adsorption on O(2x2)/Ru(0001) from STM experiments andfirst-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera-Sanfelix, P.; Sanchez-Portal, D.; Mugarza, A.; Shimizu,T.K.; Salmeron, M.; Arnau, A.

    2007-10-15

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study of water adsorption on Ru(0001) pre-covered with 0.25 monolayers (ML) of oxygen forming a (2 x 2) structure. Several structures were analyzed by means of Density Functional Theory calculations for which STM simulations were performed and compared with experimental data. Up to 0.25 monolayers the molecules bind to the exposed Ru atoms of the 2 x 2 unit cell via the lone pair orbitals. The molecular plane is almost parallel to the surface with its H atoms pointing towards the chemisorbed O atoms of the 2 x 2 unit cell forming hydrogen bonds. The existence of these additional hydrogen bonds increases the adsorption energy of the water molecule to approximately 616 meV, which is {approx}220 meV more stable than on the clean Ru(0001) surface with a similar configuration. The binding energy shows only a weak dependence on water coverage, with a shallow minimum for a row structure at 0.125 ML. This is consistent with the STM experiments that show a tendency of the molecules to form linear rows at intermediate coverage. Our calculations also suggest the possible formation of water dimers near 0.25 ML.

  4. The Grid Density Dependence of the Unsteady Pressures of the J-2X Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmauch, Preston B.

    2011-01-01

    The J-2X engine was originally designed for the upper stage of the cancelled Crew Launch Vehicle. Although the Crew Launch Vehicle was cancelled the J-2X engine, which is currently undergoing hot-fire testing, may be used on future programs. The J-2X engine is a direct descendent of the J-2 engine which powered the upper stage during the Apollo program. Many changes including a thrust increase from 230K to 294K lbf have been implemented in this engine. As part of the design requirements, the turbine blades must meet minimum high cycle fatigue factors of safety for various vibrational modes that have resonant frequencies in the engine's operating range. The unsteady blade loading is calculated directly from CFD simulations. A grid density study was performed to understand the sensitivity of the spatial loading and the magnitude of the on blade loading due to changes in grid density. Given that the unsteady blade loading has a first order effect on the high cycle fatigue factors of safety, it is important to understand the level of convergence when applying the unsteady loads. The convergence of the unsteady pressures of several grid densities will be presented for various frequencies in the engine's operating range.

  5. Thermodynamic stabilities of MO2+x(s) (M = U, Np, Pu and Am), pourbaix diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental solubilities of the hydrated amorphous freshly precipitated M(OH)z(am) and MO2(OH)z(am) compounds are often used as an upper limit for the safety assessments of deep waste repositories, since these compounds slowly transform to less soluble ones, as typically M(OH)4(am) to MO2(cr). Solubility (vs. redox potential) at pH=8, and E-pH predominance diagrams are plotted in aqueous solutions at 25degC by using thermodynamic data recently selected by the NEA-TDB review, or estimated by using classical chemical analogies for the non-redox reactions. The solubilities and relative stabilities are also calculated for the MO2+x(s) crystalline compounds of known stabilities: U4O9(s), U3O7(s), U3O8(s) and Np2O5(s) where 2+x = 2.25, 2.33, 2.67 and 2.5 respectively. The stabilities of the other MO2+x(s) compounds are estimated by analogy: M4O9(s) (M=U, Np, Pu), M3O7(s) and M3O8(s) (M=U, Pu), and M2O5(s) (M=Np, Am) are predicted to be more stable (i.e. less soluble), than the amorphous hydroxides. However their precipitation have never been observed at room temperature possibly for kinetic reasons or difficulties in interpreting solubility experiments. (author)

  6. Magnetic behavior of RMn2+xAl10-x (R=La,Gd) crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefat, Athena S.; Li, Bin; Bud'Ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2007-11-01

    The crystallographic and magnetic properties of the solution grown RMn2+xAl10-x ( R=Gd and La) crystals with tetragonal (P4/nmm) structure are investigated. For these, single-crystal x-ray diffraction results have shown the preferential occupation of excess manganese on the aluminum 8i crystallographic site. Due to excess Mn, there is evidence of local-moment magnetism in LaMn2+xAl10-x and their random distribution is thought to be responsible for the magnetic correlations below ˜50K and the spin-glass behavior below ˜3K . For GdMn2+xAl10-x , the extra manganese influences temperature below which the sample enters into a state with a net ferromagnetic component: TC≈16K for GdMn2.21(4)Al9.79(4) and 25.5K for GdMn2.39(2)Al9.61(2) . Assuming a linear dependence between TC and excess Mn concentration, the fully stoichiometric and ordered GdMn2Al10 should have TC≈5K .

  7. Low-x contribution to the Bjorken sum rule within double logarithmic $ln^2x$ approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Kotlorz, D; Kotlorz, Dorota; Kotlorz, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The small-$x$ contributions to the Bjorken sum rule within double logarithmic $ln^2x$ approximation for different input parametrisations $g_1^{NS}(x,Q_0^2)$ are presented. Analytical solutions of the evolution equations for full and truncated moments of the unintegrated structure function $f^{NS}(x,Q^2)$ are used. Theoretical predictions for $\\int_{0}^{0.003} g_1^{NS}(x,Q^2=10) dx$ are compared with the SMC small-$x$ data. Rough estimation of the slope $\\lambda$, controlling the small-$x$ behaviour of $g_1^{NS}\\sim x^{-\\lambda}$ from the SMC data is performed. Double logarithmic terms $\\sim (\\alpha_s ln^2x)^n$ become leading when $x\\to 0$ and imply the singular behaviour of $g_1^{NS}\\sim x^{-0.4}$. This seems to be confirmed by recent experimental SMC and HERMES data. Advantages of the unified $ln^2x$+LO DGLAP approach and the crucial role of the running coupling $\\alpha_s=\\alpha_s(Q^2/z)$ at low-$x$ are also discussed.

  8. P2X7 receptor-mediated analgesia in cancer-induced bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; D. Schwab, Samantha; Frøsig-Jørgensen, Majbrit;

    2015-01-01

    to low intensity or electrical stimulation. In contrast, A839977 had no effect on the tested parameters in naïve or sham animals. In awake animals, 40mg/kg A839977 (i.p) significantly reduced both early and late stage pain behavior. In contrast, no effect was observed in sham or vehicle-treated animals....... The results suggest that the P2X7R is involved in the mechanisms of cancer-induced bone pain, and that P2X7R antagonism might be a useful analgesic target. No effect was observed in sham or naïve animals, indicating that the P2X7R-mediated effect is state-dependent, and might therefore be an advantageous......Pain is a common and debilitating complication for cancer patients significantly compromising their quality of life. Cancer-induced bone pain involves a complex interplay of molecular events, including mechanisms observed in inflammatory and neuropathic pain states, but also changes unique...

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of LiCoxMn2-xO4 Cathode Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yaochun; DAI Yongnian; YANG Bin; MA Wenhui; Takayuki Watanabe

    2007-01-01

    LiCoxMn2-xO4 cathode materials for lithium ion batteries were synthesized by mechanical activation-solid state reaction at 750℃ for 24 h in air atmosphere, and their crystal structure, morphology, element composition and electrochemical performance were characterized with XRD, SEM, ICP-AES and charge-discharge test. The experimental results show that all samples have a single spinel structure, well formed crystal shape and uniformly particle size distribution. The lattice parameters of LiCoxMa2-xO4 decrease and the average oxidation states of manganese ions increase with an increase in Co content. Compared with pure LiMn2O4, the LiCoxMn2-xO4(x=0.03-0.12) samples show a lower special capacity, but their cycling life are improved. The capacity loss of LiCo0.09Mn1.91O4 and LiCo0.12Mn1.88O4 is only 0.95% ,respectively, after the 20th cycle. The improvement of the cycle performance is attributed to the substitution of Co at the Mn sites in the spinel structure, which suppresses the Jahn-Teller distortion and improves the structural stability.

  10. The Cellular Prion Protein Prevents Copper-Induced Inhibition of P2X4 Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón A. Lorca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the physiological function of the cellular prion protein (PrPC remains unknown, several evidences support the notion of its role in copper homeostasis. PrPC binds Cu2+ through a domain composed by four to five repeats of eight amino acids. Previously, we have shown that the perfusion of this domain prevents and reverses the inhibition by Cu2+ of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP-evoked currents in the P2X4 receptor subtype, highlighting a modulatory role for PrPC in synaptic transmission through regulation of Cu2+ levels. Here, we study the effect of full-length PrPC in Cu2+ inhibition of P2X4 receptor when both are coexpressed. PrPC expression does not significantly change the ATP concentration-response curve in oocytes expressing P2X4 receptors. However, the presence of PrPC reduces the inhibition by Cu2+ of the ATP-elicited currents in these oocytes, confirming our previous observations with the Cu2+ binding domain. Thus, our observations suggest a role for PrPC in modulating synaptic activity through binding of extracellular Cu2+.

  11. Ferroelectric devices

    CERN Document Server

    Uchino, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Updating its bestselling predecessor, Ferroelectric Devices, Second Edition assesses the last decade of developments-and setbacks-in the commercialization of ferroelectricity. Field pioneer and esteemed author Uchino provides insight into why this relatively nascent and interdisciplinary process has failed so far without a systematic accumulation of fundamental knowledge regarding materials and device development.Filling the informational void, this collection of information reviews state-of-the-art research and development trends reflecting nano and optical technologies, environmental regulat

  12. PELATIHAN LARI SIRKUIT 2 X 10 MENIT DAN PELATIHAN LARI KONTINYU 2 X 10 MENIT DAPAT MENINGKATKAN VO2 MAX TAEKWONDOIN PUTRA KABUPATEN MANGGARAI - NTT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Sesilia Noy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available VO2 max is very important in everyday life, so as to facilitate any physicalactivity, specially for athletes in order to achieve maximum performance. In aneffort to increase VO2 max training should be carried out regularly, measured andplanned. This study aims to determine the increase in VO2 max through circuittraining run and run continuously. The sample is taekwondoin son Manggarai-NTTwith an average age of 15 years. This study is an experimental study with the studydesign used was Randomized Pre and Post Test Group desigen. With a totalsample of 7 people in each group. Samples were randomly selected. Treatmentgroup 1 (KP1 given training run circuit 2 x 10 minute and Treatment Group 2(KP2 are given continuous training run 2 x 10 minute. Training carried out for 6weeks with a frequency of four times a week starting at 17:00 to 18:00 pm locatedat Frans Sales Lega Airport Manggarai-NTT. The analysis showed an increase inVO2 max was significantly (p <0.05 against both groups fled. In both groups thecircuit run by Pulse Oxymeter and Norma Cooper an increase in VO2 max with p<0.05, as well as a continuous run either by Pulse Oxymeter and Norma Cooperwith an increase in VO2 max value of p <0.05. The results of this analysis meansthat either the training or circuit training run run continuously to improve VO2max. Based on a comparison of test data by an independent test after training inboth groups either by Pulse Oxymeter and Norma Cooper in get p values > 0.05, orthere is no significant difference. Based on these results it can be concluded thatthe run circuit training and continuous training run together can increase VO2 maxand there was no significant difference. The results of this study are expected toincrease the knowledge of coaches, teachers and taekwondoin to perform trainingon a regular basis and are also expected to do similar research that examines VO2max with different training.

  13. Gas phase UV and IR absorption spectra of CxF2x+1CHO (x=1-4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashikawa, Y; Kawasaki, M; Waterland, RL;

    2004-01-01

    The UV and IR spectra of CxF2x+1 CHO (x = 1-4) were investigated using computational and experimental techniques. CxF2x+1CHO (x = 1-4) have broad UV absorption features centered at 300-310 nm. The maximum absorption cross-section increases significantly and shifts slightly to the red with increas...

  14. P2X7 receptor-mediated PARP1 activity regulates astroglial death in the rat hippocampus following status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yang eKim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP1 plays a regulatory role in apoptosis, necrosis, and other cellular processes after injury. Recently, we revealed that PARP1 regulates the differential neuronal/astroglial responses to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE in the distinct brain regions. In addition, P2X7 receptor (P2X7R, an ATP-gated ion channel, activation accelerates astroglial apoptosis, while it attenuates clasmatodendrosis (lysosome-derived autophagic astroglial death. Therefore, we investigated whether P2X7R regulates regional specific astroglial PARP1 expression/activation in response to SE. In the present study, P2X7R activation exacerbates SE-induced astroglial apoptosis, while P2X7R inhibition attenuates it accompanied by increasing PARP1 activity in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus following SE. In the CA1 region, however, P2X7R inhibition deteriorates SE-induced clasmatodendrosis via PARP1 activation following SE. Taken together, our findings suggest that P2X7R function may affect SE-induced astroglial death by regulating PARP1 activation/expression in regional-specific manner. Therefore, the selective modulation of P2X7R-mediated PARP1 functions may be a considerable strategy for controls in various types of cell deaths.

  15. The effect of deuteration on the transition into a charge ordered state of (TMTTF)2X salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From dielectric permittivity measurements, we show that deuteration yields a large increase of the transition temperature for the charge ordered state of (TMTTF)2X (X = AsF6, SbF6, ReO4) salts. We propose an explanation of this phenomenon, suggesting that deuteration induces a modification of the (TMTTF)2X crystal unit cell. (letter to the editor)

  16. Hierarchical self-assembly of designed 2x2-alpha-helix bundle proteins on Au(111) surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wackerbarth, Hainer; Tofteng, A.P.; Jensen, K.J.;

    2006-01-01

    , respectively. The 2 x 2-alpha-helix bundle protein adlayers were imaged by in situ STM. The images indicated a dense monolayer according with the voltammetric data. No long-range order could be detected, but two clearly distinct STM contrasts were assigned to 2 x 2-alpha-helix bundle protein molecules oriented...

  17. Understanding RuO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O/carbon nanofibre composites as supercapacitor electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pico, F.; Rojas, R.M.; Amarilla, J.M.; Rojo, J.M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Cantoblanco, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Ibanez, J. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CSIC, Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Lillo-Rodenas, M.A.; Linares-Solano, A. [MCMA, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2008-01-21

    Composites made from RuO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O particles supported on carbon nanofibres (CNF) have been prepared for supercapacitor electrodes. CNF, produced by Grupo Antolin Ing. SA. using a floating catalyst procedure was treated either in HCl or in HNO{sub 3}. Then the composites were obtained by impregnation of CNF with an aqueous RuCl{sub 3}.0.5H{sub 2}O solution followed by filtering and alkali solution treatment. Heat treatment at 150 C for 2 h was done. Specific capacitance of the composites has been measured and discussed on the basis of their RuO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O content and RuO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O particle size. The composites having RuO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O contents below 11 wt% show RuO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O particles, which grow from 2 to 4 nm as the RuO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O content increases. The specific capacitance of supported RuO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O, which can be very high (up to 840 F g{sup -1}), decreases as the RuO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O content increases and RuO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O particles grow. The composites having RuO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O contents above 11 wt% show RuO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O particles of nearly constant size (4 nm); the effect of increasing the RuO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O content is to increase the amount of particles but not the size of the particles. In these composites the specific capacitance of supported RuO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O is nearly constant (440 F g{sup -1}) and close to bare RuO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O (460 F g{sup -1}). (author)

  18. Development of the Functional Flow Block Diagram for the J-2X Rocket Engine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas; Stoller, Sandra L.; Greene, WIlliam D.; Christenson, Rick L.; Bowen, Barry C.

    2007-01-01

    The J-2X program calls for the upgrade of the Apollo-era Rocketdyne J-2 engine to higher power levels, using new materials and manufacturing techniques, and with more restrictive safety and reliability requirements than prior human-rated engines in NASA history. Such requirements demand a comprehensive systems engineering effort to ensure success. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne system engineers performed a functional analysis of the engine to establish the functional architecture. J-2X functions were captured in six major operational blocks. Each block was divided into sub-blocks or states. In each sub-block, functions necessary to perform each state were determined. A functional engine schematic consistent with the fidelity of the system model was defined for this analysis. The blocks, sub-blocks, and functions were sequentially numbered to differentiate the states in which the function were performed and to indicate the sequence of events. The Engine System was functionally partitioned, to provide separate and unique functional operators. Establishing unique functional operators as work output of the System Architecture process is novel in Liquid Propulsion Engine design. Each functional operator was described such that its unique functionality was identified. The decomposed functions were then allocated to the functional operators both of which were the inputs to the subsystem or component performance specifications. PWR also used a novel approach to identify and map the engine functional requirements to customer-specified functions. The final result was a comprehensive Functional Flow Block Diagram (FFBD) for the J-2X Engine System, decomposed to the component level and mapped to all functional requirements. This FFBD greatly facilitates component specification development, providing a well-defined trade space for functional trades at the subsystem and component level. It also provides a framework for function-based failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), and a

  19. Heavy metals modulate the activity of the purinergic P2X4 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To further characterize the nature of the regulatory metal-binding sites of the rat P2X4 receptor, several transition heavy metals were tested to examine their ability to mimic the facilitator action of zinc or the inhibitory action of copper. cDNA coding for the rat P2X4 receptor was injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes; the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique was used to measure and quantify the ATP-evoked currents in the absence or presence of the metals. Cadmium facilitated the ATP-gated currents in a reversible and voltage-independent manner; maximal potentiation occurred within less than 1 min. Cadmium displaced leftward, in a concentration-dependent manner, the ATP concentration-response curve. In contrast, mercury reduced the ATP-gated currents in a reversible, time, and concentration manner. Maximal inhibition occurred after about 5 min of metal application. Cobalt also augmented the ATP-evoked currents, but its action was long lasting and did not reverse even after 45 min of metal washout. Other metals such as lead, nickel, manganese, silver, or gallium did not significantly alter the ATP-gated currents. The co-application of cadmium plus zinc or mercury plus copper caused additive effects. Mutation of H140 by alanine (H140A) augmented both the cadmium-induced facilitation and the mercury-induced inhibition. In contrast, the H241A mutant showed characteristics indistinguishable from the wild type. The H286A mutant showed a normal cadmium-induced potentiation, but an increased mercury inhibition. Out of the metals examined, only cadmium mimicked closely the action of zinc, evidencing commonalities. While mercury mimicked the action of copper, both metals apparently interact at distinct metal-binding sites. The present findings allow us to infer that heavy metals modulate the P2X4 receptor by acting in at least three separate metal-binding sites

  20. Correlation between Urothelial Differentiation and Sensory Proteins P2X3, P2X5, TRPV1, and TRPV4 in Normal Urothelium and Papillary Carcinoma of Human Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Sterle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminal differentiation of urothelium is a prerequisite for blood-urine barrier formation and enables normal sensory function of the urinary bladder. In this study, urothelial differentiation of normal human urothelium and of low and high grade papillary urothelial carcinomas was correlated with the expression and localization of purinergic receptors (P2X3, and P2X5 and transient receptor potential vanilloid channels (TRPV1, and TRPV4. Western blotting and immunofluorescence of uroplakins together with scanning electron microscopy of urothelial apical surface demonstrated terminal differentiation of normal urothelium, partial differentiation of low grade carcinoma, and poor differentiation of high grade carcinoma. P2X3 was expressed in normal urothelium as well as in low grade carcinoma and in both cases immunolabeling was stronger in the superficial cells. P2X3 expression decreased in high grade carcinoma. P2X5 expression was detected in normal urothelium and in high grade carcinoma, while in low grade carcinoma its expression was diminished. The expression of TRPV1 decreased in low grade and even more in high grade carcinoma when compared with normal urothelium, while TRPV4 expression was unchanged in all samples. Our results suggest that sensory proteins P2X3 and TRPV1 are in correlation with urothelial differentiation, while P2X5 and TRPV4 have unique expression patterns.

  1. Electronic specific heat in BaFe$_{2-x}$Ni$_x$As$_2$

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Dongliang; Xie, Tao; Lu, Xingye; Ren, Cong; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Rui; Dai, Pengcheng; Yang, Yi-Feng; Luo, Huiqian; Li, Shiliang

    2016-01-01

    We have systematically studied the low-temperature specific heat of the BaFe$_{2-x}$Ni$_x$As$_2$ single crystals covering the whole superconducting dome. Using the nonsuperconducting heavily overdoped x = 0.3 sample as a reference for the phonon contribution to the specific heat, we find that the normal-state electronic specific heats in the superconducting samples may have a nonlinear temperature dependence, which challenges previous results in the electron-doped Ba-122 iron-based supercondu...

  2. Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect in TbCo2-xFex compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Jun-Ding; Shen Bao-Gen; Sun Ji-Rong

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect in TbCo2-xFex compounds are studied by DC magnetic measurement. With increasing content of Fe, the entropy changes decrease slightly, though the Curie temperature is tuned from 231 K (x = 0) to 303 K (x = 0.1). Magnetic entropies of TbCo2 compound are calculated by using mean field approximation (MFA). Results estimated by using Maxwell relation are consistent with that of MFA calculation. It si shown that the entropy changes are mainly derived from the magnetic entropy change. The lattice has almost no contribution to the entropy change in the vicinity of phase transition.

  3. Some photoelectrochemical (PEC) measurements on WS/sub x/Se/sub 2-x/ single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tungsten sulfo-selenide single crystals have been employed in the present study for the fabrication of photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar cells. These WS/sub x/Se/sub 2-x/(O≤chi≤2) single crystals were grown by direct vapour transport technique. In the solar cells, as grown crystals are used as photocathodes with another electrode of platinum grid. While studying the spectral response, variation in the band gap (E/sub g/) with composition is noticed. Flat band potential measurements have also been carried out to characterize the cell. Usual results are observed in the present investigation

  4. Experimental surface charge density of the Si (100)-2x1H surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciston, J.; Marks, L.D.; Feidenhans'l, R.;

    2006-01-01

    We report a three-dimensional charge density refinement from x-ray diffraction intensities of the Si (100) 2x1H surface. By paying careful attention to parameterizing the bulk Si bonding, we are able to locate the hydrogen atoms at the surface, which could not be done previously. In addition, we...... are able to partially refine the local charge density at the surface. We find experimentally an increased, slightly localized bond density of approximately 0.31 electrons between each Si atom pair at the surface. Both the atomic positions and the charge density are in remarkably good agreement with density...

  5. Defect and transport properties of nanocrystalline CeO2-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that unique defect thermodynamics and transport properties result for oxides of a few nanometers crystallite size. Fully-dense CeO2-x polycrystals of ∼10 nm grain size were synthesized, and their electrical properties compared with those of samples coarsened from the same material. The nanocrystals showed reduced grain boundary resistance, 104 higher electronic conductivity, and less than one-half the heat of reduction of its coarse-grained counterpart. These properties are attributed to a dominant role of interfacial defect formation. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  6. Blow up at the hyperbolic boundary for a 2x2 system arising from chemical engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Bourdarias, Christian; Gisclon, Marguerite; Junca, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    We consider an initial boundary value problem for a 2x2 system of conservation laws modeling heatless adsorption of a gaseous mixture with two species and instantaneous exchange kinetics, close to the system of Chromatography. In this model the velocity is not constant because the sorption effect is taken into account. Exchanging the roles of the x, t variables we obtain a strictly hyperbolic system with a zero eigenvalue. Our aim is to construct a solution with a velocity which blows up at t...

  7. Charge and anion ordering phase transitions in (TMTTF){sub 2}X salt conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nad, F. [Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperatures, laboratoire associe a l' Universite Joseph Fourier, CNRS, BP 166, Grenoble (France); Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Monceau, P. [Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperatures, laboratoire associe a l' Universite Joseph Fourier, CNRS, BP 166, Grenoble (France); Carcel, C.; Fabre, J.M. [Heterochimie et Materiaux Organiques, ENSCM/ESA, Montpellier (France)

    2001-07-23

    We report measurements of the low frequency conductivity and dielectric permittivity of quasi-one-dimensional organic (TMTTF){sub 2}X salts with non-centrosymmetrical anions X=ReO{sub 4} and SCN. We show that the 'structureless transition' at 227.5 K in (TMTTF){sub 2}ReO{sub 4} is due to charge ordering and has a ferroelectric character. The anion ordering transition strongly affects the dielectric response: it suppresses the polarizability in (TMTTF){sub 2}ReO{sub 4} and induces probably an antiferroelectric state in (TMTTF){sub 2}SCN. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  8. Transverse spin structure function g2(x ,Q2) in the valon model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Z. Alizadeh; Tahamtan, A.; Taghavi-Shahri, F.; Arash, F.; Zomorrodian, M. E.

    2015-07-01

    The spin dependent structure function, g2w w, is calculated in the valon model. A simple approach is given for the determination of the twist-3 part of g2¯(x ,Q2) in Mellin space, thus enabling us to obtain the full transverse structure function g2(x ,Q2) for the proton, neutron, and deuteron. In light of the new data, we have further calculated the transversely polarized structure function of g23He(x ,Q2) . Our results are checked against the experimental data and nice agreements are observed.

  9. Electronic Origins of Large Thermoelectric Power Factor of LaOBiS2-xSex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Atsuhiro; Nishiate, Hirotaka; Lee, Chul-Ho; Miura, Osuke; Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu

    2016-07-01

    We have examined the electrical transport properties of densified LaOBiS2-xSex, which constitutes a new family of thermoelectric materials. The power factor increases with increasing concentration of Se, i.e., Se substitution leads to an enhanced electrical conductivity, without suppression of the Seebeck coefficient. Hall measurements reveal that the carrier mobility increases with decreasing carrier concentration as Se doping, which is responsible for the low electrical resistivity and large absolute values of the Seebeck coefficient in the system.

  10. Superconductivity in layered ZrP2-x Se x with PbFCl-type structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Shigeyuki; Fujihisa, Hiroshi; Hase, Izumi; Yanagi, Yousuke; Kawashima, Kenji; Oka, Kunihiko; Gotoh, Yoshito; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki; Iyo, Akira; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Kito, Hijiri

    2016-05-01

    We performed a systematic study of the crystal structure, physical properties, and electronic structure of PbFCl-type ZrP2-x Se x (0.3 ≤ x ≤ 0.9). We successfully synthesized single-phase polycrystalline samples for the Se substitution range of 0.4 ≤ x ≤ 0.8. The crystal structure of the compound is characterized by the alternate stacking of a two-dimensional P square net and a Zr-(P1-x Se x ) network. ZrP2-x Se x exhibits a dome-like superconductivity phase diagram and has a maximum superconducting transition temperature (T c) of 6.3 K for x ≈ 0.6. Resistivity and Hall measurements indicated that electron-phonon scattering plays a dominant role and that electron-type carriers dominate charge transport. Specific heat measurements confirmed that ZrP2-x Se x exhibits bulk superconductivity. Further, the value of the specific heat jump at T c (ΔC/γT c ≈ 1.35) is in keeping with the BCS weak-coupling model. These facts suggest a rather conventional pairing mechanism in ZrP2-x Se x . The x dependence of T c can be explained on the basis of the density of states (DOS) for x ≤ 0.7, whereas the decrease in T c with an increase in the DOS for x = 0.8 needs further investigation. One possible reason for the suppression of superconductivity is that the PbFCl-type structure becomes unstable for x ≥ 0.8. The results of electronic structure calculations agree reasonably well with those of the experimental observations, suggesting that the Zrd band plays a primary role in determining the physical properties. Further, the calculations predict a significant change in the Fermi-surface topology for x ≥ 0.8 this is a probable reason for the decrease in T c as well as the instability of the PbFCl-type structure.

  11. Characterization of P2x-receptors in rabbit isolated ear artery.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, S. E.; Wood, B E; Leff, P.

    1990-01-01

    1. The isolated central ear artery of the rabbit contracts in response to adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and analogues, effects proposed to be mediated by stimulation of P2x-receptors. We have extended the characterization of the purinoceptor in this tissue by examining the effects of a series of receptor agonists. The study was designed in such a way as to avoid factors which normally limit attempts to classify receptors on the basis of agonist potency orders. 2. D-alpha, beta-methylene ATP...

  12. Fabrication of submicron La2-xSrxCuO4 intrinsic Josephson junction stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Yuimaru; Takahide, Yamaguchi; Tanaka, Takayoshi; Ueda, Shinya; Ishii, Satoshi; Tsuda, Shunsuke; Islam, ATM Nazmul; Tanaka, Isao; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2011-02-01

    Intrinsic Josephson junction (IJJ) stacks of cuprate superconductors have potential to be implemented as intrinsic phase qubits working at relatively high temperatures. We report success in fabricating submicron La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO) IJJ stacks carved out of single crystals. We also show a new fabrication method in which argon ion etching is performed after focused ion beam etching. As a result, we obtained an LSCO IJJ stack in which resistive multibranches appeared. It may be possible to control the number of stacked IJJs with an accuracy of a single IJJ by developing this method.

  13. Fabrication of submicron La$_{2-x}$Sr$_{x}$CuO$_{4}$ intrinsic Josephson junction stacks

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Yuimaru; Takahide, Yamaguchi; Tanaka, Takayoshi; Ueda, Shinya; Ishii, Satoshi; Tsuda, Shunsuke; Islam, A. T. M. Nazmul; Tanaka, Isao; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Intrinsic Josephson junction (IJJ) stacks of cuprate superconductors have potential to be implemented as intrinsic phase qubits working at relatively high temperatures. We report success in fabricating submicron La$_{2-x}$Sr$_{x}$CuO$_{4}$ (LSCO) IJJ stacks carved out of single crystals. We also show a new fabrication method in which argon ion etching is performed after focused ion beam etching. As a result, we obtained an LSCO IJJ stack in which resistive multi-branches appeared. It may be p...

  14. (CuAlTe2)x(2ZnTe)1-x solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (CuAlTe2)x(2ZnTe)1-x solid solutions were synthesized by single-temperature method over the all interval of concentrations. As it was established by X-ray diffraction the solid solutions were crystallized at 0.7 2 - 2ZnTe system, as was used for growing large-block crystals of the solid solutions by means of directional crystallization of melt (horizontal variant), was developed on the data of X-ray diffraction and differential thermal assays. It is determined that elementary lattice parameters vary linearly depending on x, microhardness - with maximum, and width of forbidden zone - with minimum for equimolar composition

  15. 2 x 2 TeV mu(superscript +) mu (superscript) collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, N.V.; Noble, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    The scenarios for high-luminosity 2 x 2 TeV and 250 x 250 GeV {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} colliders are presented. Having a high physics potential, such a machine has specific physics and technical advantages and disadvantages when compared with an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. Parameters for the candidate designs and the basic components - proton source, pion production and decay channel, cooling, acceleration and collider storage ring - are considered. Attention is paid to the areas mostly affecting the collider performance: targetry, energy spread, superconducting magnet survival, detector backgrounds, polarization, environmental issues. 13 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Surface core-level shifts for Ge(100)-(2 x 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, T.; Rosenwinkel, E.; Chiang, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    Using surface-sensitive photoemission techniques, Ge 3d core-level binding energies for surface atoms of Ge(100)-(2 x 1) are found to be smaller than the bulk values by 0.41 eV. The surface atoms with shifted core-level binding energies correspond to one full (100) atomic layer. A surface core-exciton resonance is observed in the partial-yield measurements. The empty surface state involved in this excitonic transition, without binding-energy correction, is located at the valence-band maximum. 14 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  17. Surface core-level shifts for Ge(100)-(2 x 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, T.; Rosenwinkel, E.; Chiang, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    Using surface-sensitive photoemission techniques, Ge 3d core-level binding energies for surface atoms of Ge(100)-(2 x 1) are found to be smaller than the bulk values by 0.41 eV. The surface atoms with shifted core-level binding energies correspond to one full (100) atomic layer. A surface core-exciton resonance is observed in the partial-yield measurements. The empty surface state involved in this excitonic transition, without binding-energy correction, is located at the valence-band maximum.

  18. Ventricular assist device

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAD; RVAD; LVAD; BVAD; Right ventricular assist device; Left ventricular assist device; Biventricular assist device; Heart pump; Left ventricular assist system; LVAS; Implantable ventricular assist device

  19. Controllable conversion of plasmonic Cu2-xS nanoparticles to Au2S by cation exchange and electron beam induced transformation of Cu2-xS-Au2S core/shell nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianliang; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Dewei; Swihart, Mark T

    2014-08-01

    Self-doped Cu2-xS nanocrystals (NCs) were converted into monodisperse Cu2-xS-Au2S NCs of tunable composition, including pure Au2S, by cation exchange. The near-infrared (NIR) localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) was dampened and red-shifted with increasing Au content. Cation exchange was accompanied by elimination of cation vacancies and a change in crystal structure. Partially exchanged Cu2-xS-Au2S core/shell structures evolved to dumbbell-like structures under electron irradiation in the transmission electron microscope (TEM).

  20. Separating device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, T.P.R.

    2001-01-01

    A sorting device (1) suitable for sorting wire from a waste stream, comprising a body (2) that moves when in use, and provided with spikes or similar projections. The body is embodied as a rotatable roll (2), which oscillates axially during its rotation. The roll is coupled to an oscillation engine

  1. Printing Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.J.; Markies, P.R.; Zuilhof, H.

    2014-01-01

    An ink jetprinting device includes a pressure chamber formed by a plurality of wall segments, a first aperture extending through a wall segment and communicating with an ink jet orifice and a second aperture extending through a wall segment and communicating with an ink supply duct. The pressure cha

  2. Electrochemical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Patrick G.; Einstein, Harry; Bellows, Richard J.

    1988-01-12

    A tunnel protected electrochemical device features channels fluidically communicating between manifold, tunnels and cells. The channels are designed to provide the most efficient use of auxiliary power. The channels have a greater hydraulic pressure drop and electrical resistance than the manifold. This will provide a design with the optimum auxiliary energy requirements.

  3. Stratification devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2008-01-01

    results in longer operation periods and improved utilization of the solar collector. Thermal stratification can be achieved, for example by using inlet stratification devices at all inlets to the storage tank. This paper presents how thermal stratification is established and utilized by means of inlet...

  4. The role of p2x7 receptor in infectious inflammatory diseases and the influence of ectonucleotidases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Morandini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purinergic receptor P2X ligand-gated ion channel 7 (P2X7 is ubiquitously expressed in almost all tissues and organs of the body with the highest distribution in the immune cells of monocyte-macrophage origin. Classically, P2X7 receptor is involved in apoptotic cell death, and it is well known that extracellular ATP ligation to this purinergic receptor serves as an important secondary stimulus, which is also considered as danger signal for the interleukin (IL-1β cleavage and secretion from pro-inflammatory cells. More recently, however, there has been substantial evidence of additional roles for the P2X7 receptor, both in innate immune response and as an adaptive link, including T-cell activation in a chronic state of inflammation. Also, compelling evidences have revealed an important role for ectonucleotidases as ATP-consuming enzymes in the control and fine-tuning of P2X7 function by regulating the time, concentration, and availability of ATP during infection-driven inflammation. This review focuses on the current evidences for P2X7 receptor involvement in the initial stages of inflammation, as well as for its role in acute and chronic stages of infection. Here, we also highlight the role of ectonucleotidase family in the control of P2X7 function, including the initial and resolution phases of inflammation.

  5. Effect of P2X7 receptor knockout on AQP-5 expression of type I alveolar epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Ebeling

    Full Text Available P2X7 receptors, ATP-gated cation channels, are specifically expressed in alveolar epithelial cells. The pathophysiological function of this lung cell type, except a recently reported putative involvement in surfactant secretion, is unknown. In addition, P2X7 receptor-deficient mice show reduced inflammation and lung fibrosis after exposure with bleomycin. To elucidate the role of the P2X7 receptor in alveolar epithelial type I cells we characterized the pulmonary phenotype of P2X7 receptor knockout mice by using immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and real-time RT PCR. No pathomorphological signs of fibrosis were found. Results revealed, however, a remarkable loss of aquaporin-5 protein and mRNA in young knockout animals. Additional in vitro experiments with bleomycin treated precision cut lung slices showed a greater sensitivity of the P2X7 receptor knockout mice in terms of aquaporin-5 reduction as wild type animals. Finally, P2X7 receptor function was examined by using the alveolar epithelial cell lines E10 and MLE-12 for stimulation experiments with bleomycin. The in vitro activation of P2X7 receptor was connected with an increase of aquaporin-5, whereas the inhibition of the receptor with oxidized ATP resulted in down regulation of aquaporin-5. The early loss of aquaporin-5 which can be found in different pulmonary fibrosis models does not implicate a specific pathogenetic role during fibrogenesis.

  6. P2X7 receptor-mediated calcium dynamics in HEK293 cells: experimental characterization and modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Garbo, A.; Alloisio, S.; Nobile, M.

    2012-04-01

    The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) induces ionotropic Ca2 + signalling in different cell types. It plays an important role in the immune response and in the nervous system. Here, the mechanisms underlying intracellular Ca2 + variations evoked by 3‧-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl-ATP (BzATP), a potent agonist of the P2X7R, in transfected HEK293 cells, are investigated both experimentally and theoretically. We propose a minimal model of P2X7R that is capable of reproducing, qualitatively and quantitatively, the experimental data. This approach was also adopted for the P2X7R variant, which lacks the entire C-terminus tail (trP2X7R). Then we introduce a biophysical model describing the Ca2 + dynamics in HEK293. Our model gives an account of the ionotropic Ca2 + influx evoked by BzATP on the basis of the kinetics model of P2X7R. To explain the complex Ca2 + responses evoked by BzATP, the model predicted that an impairment in Ca2 + extrusion flux through the plasma membrane is a key factor for Ca2 + homeostasis in HEK293 cells.

  7. Neutron Powder Diffraction Studies of Ca2-xSrxCoWO6 Double Perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A series of double perovskite compounds of A2-xSrxCoWO6 (A = Ca, Ba) were synthesized and the room- and variable-temperature structural phase transitions have been studied by synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction techniques. These studies demonstrated that the symmetry increases as the average size of the A-site cation increases. These transitions are associated with the gradual reduction and ultimately removal of the octahedral tiles of the BO6 octahedra. Temperature dependent structural studies have been undertaken for selected samples. The transition to cubic is continuous in the three Ca doped samples studied as a function of temperature, Ca2-xSrxCoWO6 x = 1.8, 1.7, 1.6, however in each case analysis of the spontaneous strain shows the transition to be tricritical rather than second order in nature. Where observed the temperature induced P21/n to I4/m transition is first order as required by symmetry. (authors)>>>>

  8. Water Induced Surface Reconstruction of the Oxygen (2x1) covered Ru(0001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Sabine; Cabrera-Sanfelix, Pepa; Stass, Ingeborg; Sanchez-Portal, Daniel; Arnau, Andres; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-08-06

    Low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) were used to study the adsorption of water on a Ru(0001) surface covered with half monolayer of oxygen. The oxygen atoms occupy hcp sites in an ordered structure with (2x1) periodicity. DFT predicts that water is weakly bound to the unmodified surface, 86 meV compared to the ~;;200 meV water-water H-bond. Instead, we found that water adsorption causes a shift of half of the oxygen atoms from hcp sites to fcc sites, creating a honeycomb structure where water molecules bind strongly to the exposed Ru atoms. The energy cost of reconstructing the oxygen overlayer, around 230 meV per displaced oxygen atom, is more than compensated by the larger adsorption energy of water on the newly exposed Ru atoms. Water forms hydrogen bonds with the fcc O atoms in a (4x2) superstructure due to alternating orientations of the molecules. Heating to 185 K results in the complete desorption of the water layer, leaving behind the oxygen honeycomb structure, which is metastable relative to the original (2x1). This stable structure is not recovered until after heating to temperatures close to 260K.

  9. Novel TaPO5−xN2x/3 oxynitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Tantalum-based nitridophosphate powders TaPO5−xN2x/3 containing 9.1 (yellow) and 12.8 (orange) nitrogen wt.%, respectively. Highlights: ► Synthesis of novel tantalum-based nitridophosphates. ► Amorphous oxide and oxynitride powders. ► Colored oxynitride phases. ► High specific surface area powders. - Abstract: A series of novel nitrided tantalophosphates has been prepared by nitridation of X-ray amorphous TaPO5 precursors under ammonia flow. By varying the nitridation temperature, amorphous TaPO5−xN2x/3 (1.6 2 g−1, (ii) yellow to orange colors depending on nitrogen contents and (iii) formation of a solid solution with variable nitrogen and oxygen contents. The precursors and corresponding oxynitrides have been characterized by several techniques including X-ray diffraction, oxygen/nitrogen elemental analyses, BET analysis, UV–vis spectrophotometry, thermal analysis, SEM, DRIFT and NMR analyses.

  10. Moessbauer studies of GdFe{sub 2-x}Hf{sub x} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Omari, I. A., E-mail: ialomari@yahoo.com; Gismelseed, A.; Widatallah, H.; Elzain, M.; Al-Rawas, A.; Yousif, A. [Sultan Qaboos University, Department of Physics (Oman)

    2008-11-15

    GdFe{sub 2-x}Hf{sub x} alloys, where x = 0, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.30, are produced by arc-melting of pure elements. The samples are investigated by x-ray diffraction and Fe{sup 57} Moessbauer spectroscopy at 78 K and 300 K. We find that the alloy system GdFe{sub 2-x}Hf{sub x} have the single phase cubic Cu{sub 2}Mg type structure in the whole concentration range. Moessbauer spectroscopic results show that all the samples studied are magnetically ordered at 78 K, and at room temperature. The room temperature spectra are fitted with two magnetic components where the direction of magnetization is along the [111] while the spectra at 78 K are fitted with four magnetic subspectra indicating a complex direction of magnetization for all samples under investigation. The average magnetic hyperfine field and the average isomer shift are found to decrease almost linearly with increasing the Hf concentration at 78 K and 300 K due to the replacement of Fe by nonmagnetic Hf.

  11. Mössbauer studies of GdFe2 - x Hf x alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, I. A.; Gismelseed, A.; Widatallah, H.; Elzain, M.; Al-Rawas, A.; Yousif, A.

    2008-11-01

    GdFe2 - x Hf x alloys, where x = 0, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.30, are produced by arc-melting of pure elements. The samples are investigated by x-ray diffraction and Fe57 Mössbauer spectroscopy at 78 K and 300 K. We find that the alloy system GdFe2 - x Hf x have the single phase cubic Cu2Mg type structure in the whole concentration range. Mössbauer spectroscopic results show that all the samples studied are magnetically ordered at 78 K, and at room temperature. The room temperature spectra are fitted with two magnetic components where the direction of magnetization is along the [111] while the spectra at 78 K are fitted with four magnetic subspectra indicating a complex direction of magnetization for all samples under investigation. The average magnetic hyperfine field and the average isomer shift are found to decrease almost linearly with increasing the Hf concentration at 78 K and 300 K due to the replacement of Fe by nonmagnetic Hf.

  12. Nonstoichiometry and defect characteristics of La2-xSrxCuO4-∂

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermogravimetric analysis has been carried out on La2-xSrxCuO4-∂ (O ≤ x ≤ 1.0) from 923 K to 1,323 K under oxygen partial pressures from 105 to 10 Pa. It was found that the oxygen content of the compounds is corresponding to the nominal stoichiometry of the formula La2-xSrxCuO4-∂ at the temperature of 1,323 K and oxygen partial pressure of about 10 Pa. The oxygen content is always higher than that of this nominal stoichiometric formula at lower temperatures and/or higher oxygen partial pressures. The oxygen partial enthalpies and entropies at different x and ∂ values were deduced from these results. The SrO activity in this compound was measured with a solid electrochemical technique using a fluoride electrolyte. The defect chemistry regarding the existence of Cu3+ and/or O- in the compound will be discussed based on these experimental results

  13. Theoretical aspects of charge correlations in θ-(BEDT-TTF2X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Kuroki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A review is given on the theoretical studies of charge correlations in θ-(BEDT-TTF2X. Various studies show that within a purely electronic model on the θ-type lattice with on-site U and nearest neighbor Vp and Vc interactions, the diagonal stripe, c-axis three-fold, and the vertical stripe charge correlations are favored in the regime VpVc, respectively. In the realistic parameter regime of Vp~Vc, there is competition between the c-axis three fold state and diagonal stripe state. Since these are different from the experimentally observed a-axis three fold and the horizontal stripe charge correlations, additional effects have to be included in order to understand the experiments. The electron–lattice coupling, which tends to distort the lattice into the θd-type, is found to favor the horizontal stripe state, suggesting that the occurrence of this stripe ordering in the actual materials may not be of purely electronic origin. On the other hand, distant electron–electron interactions have to be considered in order to understand the a-axis three fold correlation, whose wave vector is close to the nesting vector of the Fermi surface. These studies seem to suggest that the minimal model to understand the charge correlation in θ-(BEDT-TTF2X may be more complicated than expected. Future problems regarding the competition between different types of charge correlations are discussed.

  14. Regulation of the P2X7R by microRNA-216b in human breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Luming [Department of Breast and Thyroid, Jinan Military General Hospital, Jinan 250031, Shandong Province (China); Zhang, Xukui [Department of General Surgery, Jinan Military General Hospital, Jinan 250031, Shandong Province (China); Yang, Feng [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai 200011 (China); Zhu, Jian; Zhou, Peng; Yu, Fang; Hou, Lei; Xiao, Lei; He, Qingqing [Department of Breast and Thyroid, Jinan Military General Hospital, Jinan 250031, Shandong Province (China); Wang, Baocheng, E-mail: wangbaocheng4w4@163.com [Department of Oncology, Jinan Military General Hospital, Jinan 250031, Shandong Province (China)

    2014-09-12

    Highlights: • We suggest the expression level of miR-216b and P2X7R in breast cancer tissues and cell lines. • We demonstrated that miR-216b directly targets and inhibits P2X7R. • We suggested miR-216b can attenuate ATP/P2X7R signaling pathways and induced Bcl-2/caspase-3 pathway. - Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women around the world. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying breast cancer pathogenesis are only partially understood. Here, in this study, we found that P2X7R was up-regulated and miR-216b was down-regulated in breast cancer cell lines and tissues. Using bioinformatic analysis and 3′UTR luciferase reporter assay, we determined P2X7R can be directly targeted by miR-216b, which can down-regulate endogenous P2X7R mRNA and protein levels. Ectopic expression of miR-216b mimics leads to inhibited cell growth and apoptosis, while blocking expression of the miR-216b results in increased cell proliferation. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that knockdown of P2X7R promotes apoptosis in breast cancer cells through down-regulating Bcl-2 and increasing the cleavage caspase-3 protein level. Finally, we confirmed that down-regulation of miR-216b in breast cancer is inversely associated with P2X7R expression level. Together, these findings establish miR-216b as a novel regulator of P2X7R and a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer.

  15. Nonmetallic behavior of out-of-plane conduction in La 2- xSr xCuO 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goko, T.; Nakamura, F.; Kikugawa, N.; Uno, Y.; Sakita, S.; Fujita, T.

    1997-08-01

    Pressure effect on the out-of-plane and in-plane resistivities has been investigated for single-crystalline La 2- xSr xCuO 4 with x = 0.145 and 0.25. The out-of-plane conduction for optimally-doped La 2- xSr xCuO 4 is explained in terms of a hopping process between the CuO 2 planes which have anomalous coherent conduction. For highly-doped La 2- xSr xCuO 4, the out-of-plane conduction is approaching a coherene metallic regime.

  16. Hypoxia induced amoeboid microglial cell activation in postnatal rat brain is mediated by ATP receptor P2X4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of amoeboid microglial cells (AMC and its related inflammatory response have been linked to the periventricular white matter damage after hypoxia in neonatal brain. Hypoxia increases free ATP in the brain and then induces various effects through ATP receptors. The present study explored the possible mechanism in ATP induced AMC activation in hypoxia. Results We first examined the immunoexpression of P2X4, P2X7 and P2Y12 in the corpus callosum (CC and subependyma associated with the lateral ventricles where both areas are rich in AMC. Among the three purinergic receptors, P2X4 was most intensely expressed. By double immunofluorescence, P2X4 was specifically localized in AMC (from P0 to P7 but the immunofluorescence in AMC was progressively diminished with advancing age (P14. It was further shown that P2X4 expression was noticeably enhanced in P0 day rats subjected to hypoxia and killed at 4, 24, 72 h and 7 d versus their matching controls by double labeling and western blotting analysis. P2X4 expression was most intense at 7 d whence the inflammatory response was drastic after hypoxia. We then studied the association of P2X4 with cytokine release in AMC after hypoxic exposure. In primary microglial cells exposed to hypoxia, IL-1β and TNF-α protein levels were up-regulated. Blockade of P2X4 receptor with 2', 3'-0-(2, 4, 6-Trinitrophenyl adenosine 5'-triphosphate, a selective P2X1-7 blocker resulted in partial suppression of IL-1β (24% vs hypoxic group and TNF-α expression (40% vs hypoxic group. However, pyridoxal phosphate-6-azo (benzene-2, 4-disulfonic acid tetrasodium salt hydrate, a selective P2X1-3, 5-7 blocker did not exert any significant effect on the cytokine expression. Conclusions It is concluded that P2X4 which is constitutively expressed by AMC in postnatal rats was enhanced in hypoxia. Hypoxia induced increase in IL-1β and TNF-α expression was reversed by 2', 3'-0-(2, 4, 6-Trinitrophenyl adenosine

  17. Chovanite, Pb15−2xSb14+2xS36Ox (x ~ 0.2), a new sulphosalt species from the Low Tatra Mountains, Western Carpathians, Slovakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topa, Dan; Sejkora, Jirí; Makovicky, Emil;

    2012-01-01

    exceed detection limits; chlorine is absent and oxygen was not measured. Structural formula is Pb15−2xSb14+2xS36Ox (Z = 4) for which the above mean of microprobe measurement data and the structure refinement give the value of x equal to ~0.2. Density (calc.) is 7.14 g/cm3. Crystal system is monoclinic...

  18. "Distinvar" device

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    The alignment of one of the accelerator magnets being checked by the AR Division survey group. A "distinvar" device, invented by the group, using calibrated invar wires stretched between the fixed survey pillar (on the left) and a fixed point on the magnet. In two days it is thus possible to measure the alignment of the 100 magnets with an accuracy better than 1/10.

  19. The J-2X Upper Stage Engine: From Heritage to Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, THomas

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Global Exploration Strategy requires safe, reliable, robust, efficient transportation to support sustainable operations from Earth to orbit and into the far reaches of the solar system. NASA selected the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle to provide that transportation. Guiding principles in creating the architecture represented by the Ares vehicles were the maximum use of heritage hardware and legacy knowledge, particularly Space Shuttle assets, and commonality between the Ares vehicles where possible to streamline the hardware development approach and reduce programmatic, technical, and budget risks. The J-2X exemplifies those goals. It was selected by the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) as the upper stage propulsion for the Ares I Upper Stage and the Ares V Earth Departure Stage (EDS). The J-2X is an evolved version ofthe historic J-2 engine that successfully powered the second stage of the Saturn I launch vehicle and the second and third stages of the Saturn V launch vehicle. The Constellation architecture, however, requires performance greater than its predecessor. The new architecture calls for larger payloads delivered to the Moon and demands greater loss of mission reliability and numerous other requirements associated with human rating that were not applied to the original J-2. As a result, the J-2X must operate at much higher temperatures, pressures, and flow rates than the heritage J-2, making it one of the highest performing gas generator cycle engines ever built, approaching the efficiency of more complex stage combustion engines. Development is focused on early risk mitigation, component and subassembly test, and engine system test. The development plans include testing engine components, including the subscale injector, main igniter, powerpack assembly (turbopumps, gas generator and associated ducting and structural mounts), full-scale gas generator, valves, and control software with hardware

  20. Protein kinase A regulation of P2X(4) receptors: requirement for a specific motif in the C-terminus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David A; Yule, David I

    2010-02-01

    The P2X purinergic receptor sub-family of ligand-gated ion channels are subject to protein kinase modulation. We have previously demonstrated that P2X(4)R signaling can be positively regulated by increasing intracellular cAMP levels. The molecular mechanism underlying this effect was, however, unknown. The present study initially addressed whether protein kinase A (PKA) activation was required. Subsequently a mutational approach was utilized to determine which region of the receptor was required for this potentiation. In both DT-40 3KO and HEK-293 cells transiently expressing P2X(4)R, forskolin treatment enhanced ATP-mediated signaling. Specific PKA inhibitors prevented the forskolin-induced enhancement of ATP-mediated inward currents in P2X(4)R expressing HEK-293 cells. To define which region of the P2X(4)R was required for the potentiation, mutations were generated in the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail. It was determined that a limited region of the C-terminus, consisting of a non-canonical tyrosine based sorting motif, was required for the effects of PKA. Of note, this region does not harbor any recognizable PKA phosphorylation motifs, and no direct phosphorylation of P2X(4)R was detected, suggesting that PKA phosphorylation of an accessory protein interacts with the endocytosis motif in the C-terminus of the P2X(4)R. In support of this notion, using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRF)\\ P2X(4)-EGFP was shown to accumulate at/near the plasma membrane following forskolin treatment. In addition, disrupting the endocytosis machinery using a dominant-negative dynamin construct also prevented the PKA-mediated enhancement of ATP-stimulated Ca(2+) signals. Our results are consistent with a novel mechanism of P2XR regulation, whereby PKA activity, without directly phosphorylating P2X(4)R, markedly enhances ATP-stimulated P2X(4)R currents and hence cytosolic Ca(2+) signals. This may occur at least in part, by altering the trafficking of a population of

  1. P2X7 receptor of rat dorsal root ganglia is involved in the effect of moxibustion on visceral hyperalgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shuangmei; Shi, Qingming; Zhu, Qicheng; Zou, Ting; Li, Guilin; Huang, An; Wu, Bing; Peng, Lichao; Song, Miaomiao; Wu, Qin; Xie, Qiuyu; Lin, Weijian; XIE, Wei; Wen, Shiyao; Zhang, Zhedong

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease often display visceral hypersensitivity. Visceral nociceptors after inflammatory stimulation generate afferent nerve impulses through dorsal root ganglia (DRG) transmitting to the central nervous system. ATP and its activated-purinergic 2X7 (P2X7) receptor play an important role in the transmission of nociceptive signal. Purinergic signaling is involved in the sensory transmission of visceral pain. Moxibustion is a therapy applying...

  2. The stoichiometry of P2X2/6 receptor heteromers depends on relative subunit expression levels

    OpenAIRE

    Barrera, Nelson P.; Henderson, Robert M.; Murrell-Lagnado, Ruth D.; Edwardson, J Michael

    2007-01-01

    Fast synaptic transmission involves the operation of ionotropic receptors, which are often composed of at least two types of subunit. We have developed a method, based on atomic force microscopy imaging to determine the stoichiometry and subunit arrangement within ionotropic receptors. We showed recently that the P2X(2) receptor for ATP is expressed as a trimer but that the P2X(6) subunit is unable to oligomerize. In this study we addressed the subunit stoichiometry of heteromers containing b...

  3. The First CNS-Active Carborane: A Novel P2X7 Receptor Antagonist with Antidepressant Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Relative to other polycyclic frameworks (1–3), a carborane cage (4 and Cs·5) exerts a significant biological effect as an inhibitor of the purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) which allows one to target depression in vivo and thus demonstrate, for the first time, that a carborane has the capacity to modify CNS activity. PMID:24689484

  4. Endosome-mediated retrograde axonal transport of P2X3 receptor signals in primary sensory neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Qiao Chen; BinWang; Chengbiao Wu; Jin Pan; Bo Yuan; Yuan-Yuan Su; Xing-Yu Jiang; Xu Zhang; Lan Bao

    2012-01-01

    Neurotrophins and their receptors adopt signaling endosomes to transmit retrograde signals.However,the mechanisms of retrograde signaling for other ligand/receptor systems are poorly understood.Here,we report that the signals of the purinergic (P)2X3 receptor,an ATP-gated ion channel are retrogradely transported in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron axons.We found that Rab5,a small GTPase,controls the early sorting of P2X3 receptors into endosomes,while Rab7 mediates the fast retrograde transport of P2X3 receptors.Intraplantar injection and axonal application into the microfluidic chamber of α,β-methylene-ATP (α,β-MeATP),a P2X selective agonist,enhanced the endocytosis and retrograde transport of P2X3 receptors.The α,β-MeATP-induced Ca2+ influx activated a pathway comprised of protein kinase C,rat sarcoma viral oncogene and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK),which associated with endocytic P2X3 receptors to form signaling endosomes.Disruption of the lipid rafts abolished the α,β-MeATP-induced ERK phosphorylation,endocytosis and retrograde transport of P2X3 receptors.Furthermore,treatment of peripheral axons with α,β-MeATP increased the activation level of ERK and cAMP response element-binding protein in the cell bodies of DRG neurons and enhanced neuronal excitability.Impairment of either microtubule-based axonal transport in vivo or dynein function in vitro blocked α,β-MeATP-induced retrograde signals.These results indicate that P2X3 receptor-activated signals are transmitted via retrogradely transported endosomes in primary sensory neurons and provide a novel signaling mechanism for ligand-gated channels.

  5. Effect of structure and phase composition on the properties of BixSb2-xTe3 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation into structures and phase composition of BixSb2-xTe-3 films, into dependence of KT tensosensitivity coefficient, resistance temperature coefficient (RTC) on thermodynamic parameters of film production and substrate type, as well as, investigation into effect of doping of BixSb2-xTex film initial batch by acceptor impurities on Rt and RTC represent the aim of the paper

  6. A measurement of the proton structure function F$_{2}$(x,Q$^{2}$)

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, T; Andreev, V; Andrieu, B; Appuhn, R D; Arpagaus, M; Aïd, S; Babaev, A; Baranov, P S; Barrelet, E; Bartel, Wulfrin; Barth, Monique; Bassler, U; Beck, H P; Behrend, H J; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Bergstein, H; Bernardi, G; Bernet, R; Bertrand-Coremans, G H; Besançon, M; Beyer, R; Bizot, J C; Blobel, Volker; Borras, K; Botterweck, F; Boudry, V; Braemer, A; Brasse, F W; Braunschweig, W; Brisson, V; Bruncko, Dusan; Brune, C R; Buchholz, R; Buniatian, A Yu; Burke, S; Burton, M; Buschhorn, G W; Bán, J; Bähr, J; Büngener, L; Bürger, J; Büsser, F W; Campbell, A J; Carli, T; Charles, F; Chernyshov, V; Clarke, D; Clegg, A B; Clerbaux, B; Colombo, M G; Contreras, J G; Cormack, C; Coughlan, J A; Courau, A; Coutures, C; Cozzika, G; Criegee, L; Cussans, D G; Cvach, J; Dagoret, S; Dainton, J B; Danilov, M V; Dau, W D; Daum, K; David, M; De Wolf, E A; Deffur, E; Del Buono, L; Delcourt, B; Di Nezza, P; Dollfus, C; Dowell, John D; Dreis, H B; Droutskoi, A; Duboc, J; Duhm, H; Düllmann, D; Dünger, O; Ebert, J; Ebert, T R; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichenberger, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, Franz; Eisenhandler, Eric F; Ellison, R J; Elsen, E E; Erdmann, M; Erdmann, W; Erlichmann, H; Evrard, E; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Feeken, D; Felst, R; Feltesse, Joel; Ferencei, J; Ferrarotto, F; Flamm, K; Fleischer, M; Flieser, M; Flügge, G; Fomenko, A; Fominykh, B A; Forbush, M; Formánek, J; Foster, J M; Franke, G; Fretwurst, E; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gabathuler, K; Gamerdinger, K; Garvey, J; Gayler, J; Gebauer, M; Gellrich, A; Genzel, H; Gerhards, R; Goerlach, U; Gogitidze, N; Goldberg, M; Goldner, D; González-Pineiro, B; Gorelov, I V; Goritchev, P A; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T J; Grindhammer, G; Gruber, A; Gruber, C; Grässler, Herbert; Grässler, R; Görlich, L; Haack, J; Haidt, Dieter; Hajduk, L; Hamon, O; Hampel, M; Hanlon, E M; Hapke, M; Haynes, W J; Heatherington, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Herynek, I; Hess, M F; Hildesheim, W; Hill, P; Hiller, K H; Hilton, C D; Hladky, J; Hoeger, K C; Horisberger, R P; Hudgson, V L; Huet, Patrick; Hufnagel, H; Höppner, M; Hütte, M; Ibbotson, M; Itterbeck, H; Jabiol, M A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacobsson, C; Jaffré, M; Janoth, J; Jansen, T; Johannsen, K; Johnson, D P; Johnson, L; Jung, H; Jönsson, L B; Kalmus, Peter I P; Kant, D; Kaschowitz, R; Kasselmann, P; Kathage, U; Katzy, J M; Kaufmann, H H; Kazarian, S; Kenyon, Ian Richard; Kermiche, S; Keuker, C; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Knies, G; Ko, W; Kolanoski, H; Kole, F; Kolya, S D; Korbel, V; Korn, M; Kostka, P; Kotelnikov, S K; Krasny, M W; Krehbiel, H; Krämerkämper, T; Krücker, D; Krüger, U P; Krüner-Marquis, U; Kubenka, J P; Kuhlen, M; Kurca, T; Kurzhöfer, J; Kuznik, B; Köhler, T; Köhne, J H; Küster, H; Lacour, D; Lamarche, F; Lander, R; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lanius, P; Laporte, J F; Lebedev, A; Leverenz, C; Levonian, S; Ley, C; Lindner, A; Lindström, G; Linsel, F; Lipinski, J; List, B; Loch, P; Lohmander, H; Lubimov, V; López, G C; Lüke, D; Magnussen, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mani, S; Maracek, R; Marage, P; Marks, J; Marshall, R; Martens, J; Martin, R D; Martyn, H U; Martyniak, J; Masson, S; Mavroidis, A; Maxfield, S J; McMahon, S J; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Mercer, D; Merz, T; Meyer, C A; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Mikocki, S; Milstead, D; Moreau, F; Morris, J V; Mroczko, E; Murín, P; Müller, G; Müller, K; Nagovitsin, V; Nahnhauer, R; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Newton, D; Neyret, D; Nguyen, H K; Nicholls, T C; Niebergall, F; Niebuhr, C B; Nisius, R; Nowak, G; Noyes, G W; Nyberg-Werther, M; Oakden, M N; Oberlack, H; Obrock, U; Olsson, J E; Panaro, E; Panitch, A; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peppel, E; Phillips, J P; Pichler, C; Pitzl, D; Pope, G; Prell, S; Prosi, R; Pérez, E; Raupach, F; Reimer, P; Reinshagen, S; Ribarics, P; Rick, Hartmut; Riech, V; Riedlberger, J; Riess, S; Rietz, M; Rizvi, E; Robertson, S M; Robmann, P; Roloff, H E; Roosen, R; Rosenbauer, K; Rostovtsev, A A; Rouse, F; Royon, C; Rusakov, S V; Rybicki, K; Rylko, R; Rädel, G; Rüter, K; Sahlmann, N; Sankey, D P C; Savitsky, M M; Schacht, P; Schiek, S; Schleper, P; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, G; Schröder, V; Schuhmann, E; Schwab, B; Schwind, A; Schöning, A; Seehausen, U; Sefkow, F; Seidel, M; Sell, R; Semenov, A A; Shekelian, V I; Shevyakov, I; Shooshtari, H; Shtarkov, L N; Siegmon, G; Siewert, U; Sirois, Y; Skillicorn, Ian O; Smirnov, P; Smith, J R; Soloviev, Yu V; Spiekermann, J; Spitzer, H; Starosta, R; Steenbock, M; Steffen, P; Steinberg, R; Stella, B; Stephens, K; Stier, J; Stiewe, J; Strachota, J; Straumann, U; Struczinski, W; Stösslein, U; Sutton, J P; Sánchez, E; Tapprogge, Stefan; Taylor, R E; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, G; Truöl, P; Turnau, J; Tutas, J; Uelkes, P; Usik, A; Valkár, S; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Esch, P; Van Mechelen, P; Vartapetian, A H; Vazdik, Ya A; Vecko, M; Verrecchia, P; Villet, G; Wacker, K; Wagener, A; Wagener, M; Walker, I W; Walther, A; Weber, G; Weber, M; Wegener, D; Wegner, A; Wellisch, H P; West, L R; Willard, S; Winde, M; Winter, G G; Wright, A E; Wulff, N; Wünsch, E; Yiou, T P; Zarbock, D; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A S; Zimmer, M; Zimmermann, W; Zomer, F; Zuber, K; Zácek, J; de Roeck, A; von Schlippe, W; Niebergall, Friedrich

    1995-01-01

    A measurement of the proton structure function F_{\\!2}(x,Q^2) is reported for momentum transfer squared Q^2 between 4.5 GeV^2 and 1600 GeV^2 and for Bjorken x between 1.8\\cdot10^{-4} and 0.13 using data collected by the HERA experiment H1 in 1993. It is observed that F_{\\!2} increases significantly with decreasing x, confirming our previous measurement made with one tenth of the data available in this analysis. The Q^2 dependence is approximately logarithmic over the full kinematic range covered. The subsample of deep inelastic events with a large pseudo-rapidity gap in the hadronic energy flow close to the proton remnant is used to measure the "diffractive" contribution to F_{\\!2}.

  7. Nuclear medium modification of the F{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}) structure function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajjad Athar, M., E-mail: sajathar@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 002 (India); Ruiz Simo, I.; Vicente Vacas, M.J. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia - CSIC, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2011-05-01

    We study the nuclear effects in the electromagnetic structure function F{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}) in the deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering process by taking into account Fermi motion, binding, pion and rho meson cloud contributions. Calculations have been done in a local density approximation using relativistic nuclear spectral functions which include nucleon correlations. The ratios R{sub F}{sub 2}{sup A}(x,Q{sup 2})=(2F{sub 2}{sup A}(x,Q{sup 2}))/(AF{sub 2}{sup D}(x,Q{sup 2})) are obtained and compared with recent JLab results for light nuclei with special attention to the slope of the x distributions. This magnitude shows a non-trivial A dependence and it is insensitive to possible normalization uncertainties. The results have also been compared with some of the older experiments using intermediate mass nuclei.

  8. Spin-state crossover in multiferroic Ca3Co2-xMnxO6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, R.; Yi, H.-T.; Chandra, P.; Cheong, S.-W.; Kiryukhin, V.

    2010-03-01

    Ca3Co2-xMnxO6 (x˜0.96) is a multiferroic with spin-chains of alternating Co2+ and Mn4+ ions. The spin state of Co2+ remains unresolved due to a discrepancy between high-temperature x-ray absorption (S=(3)/(2)) and low-temperature neutron (S=(1)/(2)) measurements. Using a combination of magnetic modeling and crystal-field analysis, we show that the existing low temperature data cannot be reconciled within a high spin scenario by invoking spin-orbit or Jahn-Teller distortions. To unify the experimental results, we propose a spin-state crossover with specific experimental predictions.

  9. Ranked solutions of the matric equation A1X1=A2X2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Duane Porter

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Let GF(pz denote the finite field of pz elements. Let A1 be s×m of rank r1 and A2 be s×n of rank r2 with elements from GF(pz. In this paper, formulas are given for finding the number of X1,X2 over GF(pz which satisfy the matric equation A1X1=A2X2, where X1 is m×t of rank k1, and X2 is n×t of rank k2. These results are then used to find the number of solutions X1,…,Xn, Y1,…,Ym, m,n>1, of the matric equation A1X1…Xn=A2Y1…Ym.

  10. Ranked solutions of the matric equation A1X1=A2X2

    OpenAIRE

    A. Duane Porter; Nick Mousouris

    1980-01-01

    Let GF(pz) denote the finite field of pz elements. Let A1 be s×m of rank r1 and A2 be s×n of rank r2 with elements from GF(pz). In this paper, formulas are given for finding the number of X1,X2 over GF(pz) which satisfy the matric equation A1X1=A2X2, where X1 is m×t of rank k1, and X2 is n×t of rank k2. These results are then used to find the number of solutions X1,…,Xn, Y1,…,Ym, m,n>1, of the matric equation A1X1…Xn=A2Y1…Ym.

  11. Downregulation of adenosine and P2X receptor-mediated cardiovascular responses in heart failure rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Sun, X Y; Erlinge, D;

    2000-01-01

    Neurohormonal changes in congestive heart failure (CHF) include an enhanced peripheral sympathetic nerve activity which results in increased release of noradrenaline, neuropeptide Y and ATP. To examine if such changes in CHF would modulate peripheral pre- and postsynaptic receptors of ATP and its...... effects mediated by the endothelial P2Y receptors are unaffected in CHF. Moreover, the adenosine-mediated inhibitory effects on heart rate and blood pressure were also attenuated in the CHF rats. The most important changes in adenosine and P2-receptor function induced by ischaemic CHF were the reduced...... pressor effect mediated by the P2X receptor and the increased heart rate due to an attenuated inhibitory effect of adenosine....

  12. Prototipado de un sistema WiMax MIMO 2x2 (I) - Emisor

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto Alonso, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    El presente proyecto consiste en el diseño de un emisor para el estándar IEEE 802.16d-2004 utilizando MIMO 2x2, OFDM (Multiplexado por División en Frecuencias Ortogonales) en la capa física y BPSK (Modulación Binaria por Salto de Fase) para la modulación de datos, empleando una plataforma de desarrollo sobre FPGA basada en Simulink®, la cual proporciona un alto nivel de abstracción en el diseño de los modelos. Todo ello, como respuesta al creciente interés que las comunicaciones inalámbricas ...

  13. The structure of the Pd(110)(2x1)-CO surface

    CERN Document Server

    Kittel, M; Polcik, M; Bradshaw, A M; Toomes, R L; Woodruff, D P; Rotenberg, E

    2002-01-01

    The structure of the Pd(110)(2x1)-CO ordered adsorption phase has been determined by scanned-energy mode photoelectron diffraction. The CO molecules are adsorbed close to short-bridge sites with alternating tilts along the close-packed surface rows. This local geometry is consistent with that found in previous theoretical total energy calculations and an earlier X-ray photoelectron diffraction study, but is in direct contradiction to the results of an earlier quantitative low energy electron diffraction investigation. While the best-fit model structure involves some twist of the CO molecules out of the mirror planes of the surface creating a surface phase of p1g1 symmetry, the more symmetric p2mg falls within the estimated limits of precision of the analysis.

  14. The magnetism and CMR effect in FeCr2-xGaxS4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The magnetism and CMR effects of FeCr2-xGaxS4 materials without double-exchange interaction are studied in this paper. The experimental results show that the ferromagnetism of system is strengthened and Tc is raised because the substitution of Ga for Cr ions destroys the interaction among Cr spins in Cr sub-lattice. But the amplitude of PM-FM phase transition decreases gradually with increasing Ga content. The electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements indicate that at temperatures below Tc, the spins in both Fe sub-lattice and Cr sub-lattice are ferromagnetic, while the spins between two sub-lattices are in AFM arrangement. For undoped sample, the macro magnetic moment of Fe sub-lattice and that of Cr sub-lattice cancel out each other. After doping, the net ferromagnetism is introduced at temperatures below Tc; thus the peak temperature of MR curve increases and the value of MR decreases.

  15. The solid solution Lu2-xScxSiO5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monoclinic silicates Lu2SiO5 and Sc2SiO5 (Y2SiO5 type, space groupC2/c) forma solid solution Lu2-xScxSiO5. Samples with x = 0.5, 0.8, 1.0 were synthesized ceramically from Lu2O3, Sc2O3, and SiO2. The structures of three crystals with x = 0.88, 0.77, and 0.50 were refined on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The rare earth (RE) atoms occupy two crystallographically different 8 f sites with oxygen coordination numbers (CN) of 6 (RE2) and 7 (RE1). Refinements of the occupancy parameters showed Lu/Sc mixing for both sites with a strong preference of the smaller scandium atoms for CN6. (orig.)

  16. Turbine Design and Analysis for the J-2X Engine Turbopumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Bogdan; Tran, Ken; Dorney, Daniel J.; Schmauch, Preston

    2008-01-01

    Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center are developing the advanced upper stage J-2X engine based on the legacy design of the J-2/J-2S family of engines which powered the Apollo missions. The cryogenic propellant turbopumps have been denoted as Mark72-F and Mark72-0 for the fuel and oxidizer side, respectively. Special attention is focused on preserving the essential flight-proven design features while adapting the design to the new turbopump configuration. Advanced 3-D CFD analysis has been employed to verify turbine aero performance at current flow regime boundary conditions and to mitigate risks associated with stresses. A limited amount of redesign and overall configuration modifications allow for a robust design with performance level matching or exceeding requirement.

  17. AgGaSe2xTe2(1-x) solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large-block crystals of the ternary compounds AgGaTe2, AgGaSe2 and solid solutions AgGaSe2xTe2(1-x) were grown by the Bridgman method (flat variation). The composition of the prepared crystals was determined by microprobe X-ray spectral analysis, the structure and lattice parameters - by X-ray diffraction. The temperatures of phase transformations were examined by differential thermal analysis, the phase diagram of the AgGaTe2 - AgGaSe2 system was constructed and its thermodynamic analysis was performed. The microhardness (H) of the pointed compounds and solid solutions was measured and its concentration dependence was constructed. It is shown that the curve has maximum

  18. The impact of a 2 X CO2 climate on lightning-caused fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin; Rind, David

    1994-01-01

    Future climate change could have significant repercussions for lightning-caused wildfires. Two empirical fire models are presented relating the frequency of lightning fires and the area burned by these fires to the effective precipitation and the frequency of thunderstorm activity. One model deals with the seasonal variations in lightning fires, while the second model deals with the interannual variations of lightning fires. These fire models are then used with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model to investigate possible changes in fire frequency and area burned in a 2 X CO2 climate. In the United States, the annual mean number of lightning fires increases by 44%, while the area burned increases by 78%. On a global scale, the largest increase in lightning fires can be expected in untouched tropical ecosystems where few natural fires occur today.

  19. The J-2X Upper Stage Engine: From Design to Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    NASA is well on its way toward developing a new generation of launch vehicles to support of national space policy to retire the Space Shuttle fleet, complete the International Space Station, and return to the Moon as the first step in resuming this nation s exploration of deep space. The Constellation Program is developing the launch vehicles, spacecraft, surface systems, and ground systems to support those plans. Two launch vehicles will support those ambitious plans the Ares I and Ares V. (Figure 1) The J-2X Upper Stage Engine is a critical element of both of these new launchers. This paper will provide an overview of the J-2X design background, progress to date in design, testing, and manufacturing. The Ares I crew launch vehicle will lift the Orion crew exploration vehicle and up to four astronauts into low Earth orbit (LEO) to rendezvous with the space station or the first leg of mission to the Moon. The Ares V cargo launch vehicle is designed to lift a lunar lander into Earth orbit where it will be docked with the Orion spacecraft, and provide the thrust for the trans-lunar journey. While these vehicles bear some visual resemblance to the 1960s-era Saturn vehicles that carried astronauts to the Moon, the Ares vehicles are designed to carry more crew and more cargo to more places to carry out more ambitious tasks than the vehicles they succeed. The government/industry team designing the Ares rockets is mining a rich history of technology and expertise from the Shuttle, Saturn and other programs and seeking commonality where feasible between the Ares crew and cargo rockets as a way to minimize risk, shorten development times, and live within the budget constraints of its original guidance.

  20. Impaired P2X signalling pathways in renal microvascular myocytes in genetic hypertension

    KAUST Repository

    Gordienko, Dmitri V.

    2014-12-16

    Aims P2X receptors (P2XRs) mediate sympathetic control and autoregulation of renal circulation triggering preglomerular vasoconstriction, which protects glomeruli from elevated pressures. Although previous studies established a casual link between glomerular susceptibility to hypertensive injury and decreased preglomerular vascular reactivity to P2XR activation, the mechanisms of attenuation of the P2XR signalling in hypertension remained unknown. We aimed to analyse molecular mechanisms of the impairment of P2XR signalling in renal vascular smooth muscle cells (RVSMCs) in genetic hypertension. Methods and results We compared the expression of pertinent genes and P2XR-linked Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ release mechanisms in RVSMCs of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and their normotensive controls, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. We found that, in SHR RVSMCs, P2XR-linked Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) are both significantly reduced. The former is due to down-regulation of the P2X1 subunit. The latter is caused by a decrease of the SR Ca2+ load. The SR Ca2+ load reduction is caused by attenuated Ca2+ uptake via down-regulated sarco-/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2b and elevated Ca2+ leak from the SR via ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. Spontaneous activity of these Ca2+-release channels is augmented due to up-regulation of RyR type 2 and elevated IP3 production by up-regulated phospholipase C-β1. Conclusions Our study unravels the cellular and molecular mechanisms of attenuation of P2XR-mediated preglomerular vasoconstriction that elevates glomerular susceptibility to harmful hypertensive pressures. This provides an important impetus towards understanding of the pathology of hypertensive renal injury.

  1. Pressure induced magneto-structural phase transitions in layered RMn2X2 compounds (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Shane; Wang, Jianli; Campbell, Stewart; Hofmann, Michael; Dou, Shixue

    2014-05-01

    We have studied a range of pseudo-ternaries derived from the parent compound PrMn2Ge2, substituting for each constituent element with a smaller one to contract the lattice. This enables us to observe the magneto-elastic transitions that occur as the Mn-Mn nearest neighbour distance is reduced and to assess the role of Pr on the magnetism. Here, we report on the PrMn2Ge2-xSix, Pr1-xYxMn2Ge2, and PrMn2-xFexGe2 systems. The pressure produced by chemical substitution in these pseudo-ternaries is inherently non-uniform, with local pressure variations dependent on the local atomic distribution. We find that concentrated chemical substitution on the R or X site (e.g., in Pr0.5Y0.5Mn2Ge2 and PrMn2Ge0.8Si1.2) can produce a separation into two distinct magnetic phases, canted ferromagnetic and canted antiferromagnetic, with a commensurate phase gap in the crystalline lattice. This phase gap is a consequence of the combination of phase separation and spontaneous magnetostriction, which is positive on transition to the canted ferromagnetic phase and negative on transition to the canted antiferromagnetic phase. Our results show that co-existence of canted ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases depends on chemical pressure from the rare earth and metalloid sites, on local lattice strain distributions and on applied magnetic field. We demonstrate that the effects of chemical pressure bear close resemblance to those of mechanical pressure on the parent compound.

  2. Transient heat transfer behavior during reflood phase in a 2x2 ballooned rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coolability of the ballooned region is entirely different with that of the normal ones. Therefore, in this study, the transient heat transfer behavior during the reflood phase of ballooned fuel rods was experimentally investigated in a 2x2 rod bundle test facility. The coolability depends greatly on the blockage characteristics (blockage ratio, blockage length, blockage shape, and blockage configuration) and the system conditions of the test facility (flow, system pressure, and inlet temperature). Among them, the blockage ratio effect on the coolabiltiy is carefully examined varying the reflood rate in the present study, since the blockage ratio plays a significant role on the coolability under the low reflood rate condition (2.5 cm/s). The test results were analyzed with the transient temperature profiles of the fuel rods and the local heat transfer coefficient calculated using a 1-D cylindrical coordinates FVM (Finite-Volume-Method) code. Forced reflood tests with various reflood rates were performed to understand the transient heat transfer behavior and to investigate the influence of the blockage ratio on the coolability in the 2x2 rod bundle test facility. The transient temperature profiles and the local heat transfer coefficients at the upstream and downstream region of the blockage simulator were examined for non-blockage, 90% blockage, and 62% blockage conditions. In the downstream region, the coolability was greatly enhanced except for a low reflood rate (1.0 cm/s). In the upstream region, the cooling performance decreased smoothly with decreasing the reflood rate. When the reflood rate is 1.0 cm/s, the coolabilities at the both upstream and downstream region were significantly reduced regardless of the blockage ratio. As a conclusion, the coolability at the low reflood rate (1.0 cm/s) should be carefully examined with the droplet behavior as a future work

  3. Study on Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of HfO{sub 2}/xGnP Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Guk; Lee, Seung Won; Kim, Ji Hyun; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    It is important parameter for optimum design and safety analysis of a nuclear system. This is because the thermal conductivity of fuels significantly affects the internal energy of the nuclear fuel by heat transfer through the coolant. Therefore, the safety analysis using fuel thermal conductivity is necessary for the prediction of thermalhydraulic behavior. If exfoliated graphene nanoplate (xGnP) is mixed in UO{sub 2} fuel, it is chemically stable and its thermal conductivity will be enhanced. Advantages of xGnP are a high thermal conductivity and a low absorption cross section. In present work, HfO{sub 2} is selected as a substitute of UO{sub 2} due to the similar density of HfO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}. HfO{sub 2}/xGnP composites were made by adding 10 vol. % of xGnP having a high thermal conductivity and the thermal conductivity of HfO{sub 2}/xGnP composites were measured by LFA 447 NanoFlash. The hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) . 10 vol. % exfoliated graphite nanoplate (xGnP) composite ceramics was produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and oxidative sintering at high temperature. The result of thermal conductivity of HIP sintering was increased by adding xGnP powder. Oxidative sintering was decreased the thermal conductivity because of oxidation between oxygen and carbon in xGnP. But HIP sintering was not effect of oxidation due to vacuum condition in can. In this paper the result of thermal conductivity showed the possibility of enhanced fuel pellet.

  4. P2X7 receptor predicts postoperative cancer-specific survival of patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Liu, Yidong; Xu, Le; An, Huimin; Chang, Yuan; Yang, Yuanfeng; Zhang, Weijuan; Xu, Jiejie

    2015-09-01

    The P2X7 receptor, an ATP-gated plasma membrane ion channel, is involved in inflammation, apoptosis and cell proliferation, and thereby plays a crucial role during oncogenic transformation in various malignancies. This study aims to evaluate the impact of P2X7 receptor expression on postoperative cancer-specific survival of patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). A total of 273 patients with ccRCC undergoing nephrectomy at a single institution were retrospectively enrolled in this study, among which 86 patients died of this disease and six patients died of other causes. Clinicopathologic features and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were recorded. P2X7 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in clinical specimens. Kaplan-Meier method with log rank test was performed to compare survival curves. Cox regression models were used to evaluate the prognostic values of variables on CSS. Concordance index was calculated to assess prognostic accuracy of prognostic models. Median follow-up period was 90 months (range, 11-120 months). Intratumoral P2X7 expression was significantly lower than peritumoral tissues (P independent prognostic factor for CSS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.693; P = 0.034). The prognostic accuracy of TNM stage, UISS and SSIGN scoring models was improved when intratumoral P2X7 expression was added. Intratumoral P2X7 expression is a potential independent adverse prognostic indicator for postoperative CSS of patients with ccRCC. PMID:26179886

  5. Nickel deficiency in RENi2-xP2 (RE=La, Ce, Pr). Combined crystallographic and physical property studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Eric D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ronning, Filip [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, Joe D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sarrao, John L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bobev, S [U. OF DE; Xia, S [U. OF DE

    2008-01-01

    Large single crystals from RENi{sub 2-x}P{sub 2} (RE = La, Ce, Pr) were synthesized from the pure elements using Sn as a metal flux, and their structures were established by X-ray crystallography. The title compounds were confirmed to crystallize in the body-centered tetragonal ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} structure type (space group I4/mmm (No. 139); Pearson's symbol tI10), but with a significant stoichiometry breadth with respect to the transition metal. Systematic synthetic work, coupled with accurate structure refinements indicated strong correlation between the degree of Ni-deficiency and the reaction conditions. For four different PrNi{sub 2-x}P{sub 2} (x {le} 0.5) samples, temperature dependent dc magnetization measurements indicated typical local moment 4f-magnetism and a stable Pr{sup 3+} ground state. Field-dependent heat capacity data confirmed a ferromagnetic order at low temperature, and the variations of T{sub c} with the concentration of Ni defects are discussed. LaNi{sub 2-x}P{sub 2}, as expected was found to be Pauli-like paramagnetic in the studied temperature regime, while the Ce-analog CeNi{sub 2-x}P{sub 2} (x = 0.28(1)) showed the characteristics of a mixed valent Ce{sup 3+}/Ce{sup 4+} system with a possible Kondo temperature on the order of 230 K.

  6. Electrooptical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, C. E.

    1980-03-01

    This report covers work carried out with support of the Department of the Air Force during the period 1 October 1979 through 31 March 1980. A part of this support was provided by the Rome Air Development Center. CW operation at temperatures up to 55 C has been achieved for GaInAsP/InP double-heterostructure (DH) lasers emitting at 1.5 micrometers, which were grown without a GaInAsP buffer layer. These devices are of interest for use as sources in fiber-optics communications systems, since the lowest transmission loss reported for fused-silica optical fibers occurs at 1.55 micrometers. Surface passivation techniques developed for InP and GaInAsP avalanche photodiodes have resulted in reductions of dark current as large as four orders of magnitude, to values as low as .0000016 A/sq cm at 0.9 V(b) where V(b) is the breakdown voltage. Devices consisting entirely of InP have been passivated with plasma-deposited Si3N4, and those with a GaInAsP layer but with the p-n junction in InP have been passivated with polyimide. Neither of these techniques successfully reduces dark currents in devices with the p-n junction in the GaInAsP, but a film of photoresist sprayed with SF6 as the propellant has given excellent results. The electrical characteristics in InP ion implanted with Sn, Ge, Si, and C have been investigated. All of these column IV elements yielded n-type conductivity and Sn, Ge, and Si showed high electrical activation; however, implanted C was found to have a net electrical activation of only about 5 percent.

  7. On the System of Diophantine Equations x+1 =3pqu2 and x2-x+1 =3v2%关于Diophantine方程组x+1=3pqu2,x2-x+1=3v2的整数解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管训贵

    2015-01-01

    设p,q是互异的奇素数,p≡q≡1 (mod 6),主要利用递归序列、Pell方程和四次Diophantine方程解的性质证明了Diophantine方程组x+1=3 pqu2,x2-x+1=3v2除开pq=7×13有非平凡解外,仅有平凡解.

  8. Scalable devices

    KAUST Repository

    Krüger, Jens J.

    2014-01-01

    In computer science in general and in particular the field of high performance computing and supercomputing the term scalable plays an important role. It indicates that a piece of hardware, a concept, an algorithm, or an entire system scales with the size of the problem, i.e., it can not only be used in a very specific setting but it\\'s applicable for a wide range of problems. From small scenarios to possibly very large settings. In this spirit, there exist a number of fixed areas of research on scalability. There are works on scalable algorithms, scalable architectures but what are scalable devices? In the context of this chapter, we are interested in a whole range of display devices, ranging from small scale hardware such as tablet computers, pads, smart-phones etc. up to large tiled display walls. What interests us mostly is not so much the hardware setup but mostly the visualization algorithms behind these display systems that scale from your average smart phone up to the largest gigapixel display walls.

  9. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To absorb fabrication errors in radial toroidal coils and a spacer and completely fill the gap between them by the provision of an expansion device between the coils and the supporting spacer by injecting fillers of a predetermined composition. Constitution: An expansion device comprising an expansion plate, packings inserted into grooves formed in the outer circumference of the expansion plate and a recessed pressure receiving plate is inserted between the wall surface of radial toroidal coils and a spacer for maintaining the gap between the toroidal coils. Then, filler comprising polyester resin and glass beads incorporated therein is injected from an injection aperture of the recessed pressure receiving plate having an exhaust aperture at the upper part. The filler is solidified and enables the fabrication error in the coils and the spacer to be absorbed. Since the gap between the coils and the spacer is completely filled, the tumbling force of the coils can surely be transmitted by way of the spacer to upper and lower racks. (Moriyama, K.)

  10. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  11. Understanding the role of P2X7 in affective disorders – are glial cells the major players?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne eStokes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders has been linked to biomarkers of inflammation generating a theory of major depressive disorder as an inflammatory disease and infection and autoimmunity as major risk factors for schizophrenia. The idea of pro-inflammatory cytokines altering behavior is now well accepted however many questions remain. Microglia can produce a plethora of inflammatory cytokines and these cells appear to be critical in the link between inflammatory changes and depressive disorders. Microglia play a known role in sickness behavior which has many components of depressive-like behavior such as social withdrawal, sleep alterations, and anorexia. Numerous candidate genes have been identified for psychiatric disorders in the last decade. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human P2X7 gene have been linked to bipolar disorder, depression, and to the severity of depressive symptoms. P2X7 is a ligand-gated cation channel expressed on microglia with lower levels found on astrocytes and on some neuronal populations. In microglia P2X7 is a major regulator of pro-inflammatory cytokines of the interleukin-1 family. Genetic deletion of P2X7 in mice is protective for depressive behavior in addition to inflammatory responses. P2X7-/- mice have been shown to demonstrate anti-depressive-like behavior in forced swim and tail suspension behavioral tests and stressor-induced behavioral responses were blunted. Both neurochemical (norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine and inflammatory changes have been observed in the brains of P2X7-/- mice. This review will discuss the recent evidence for involvement of P2X7 in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and propose mechanisms by which altered signaling through this ion channel may affect the inflammatory state of the brain.

  12. Integrin-mediated transactivation of P2X7R via hemichannel-dependent ATP release stimulates astrocyte migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Alvaro; Lagos-Cabré, Raúl; Kong, Milene; Cárdenas, Areli; Burgos-Bravo, Francesca; Schneider, Pascal; Quest, Andrew F G; Leyton, Lisette

    2016-09-01

    Our previous reports indicate that ligand-induced αVβ3 integrin and Syndecan-4 engagement increases focal adhesion formation and migration of astrocytes. Additionally, ligated integrins trigger ATP release through unknown mechanisms, activating P2X7 receptors (P2X7R), and the uptake of Ca(2+) to promote cell adhesion. However, whether the activation of P2X7R and ATP release are required for astrocyte migration and whether αVβ3 integrin and Syndecan-4 receptors communicate with P2X7R via ATP remains unknown. Here, cells were stimulated with Thy-1, a reported αVβ3 integrin and Syndecan-4 ligand. Results obtained indicate that ATP was released by Thy-1 upon integrin engagement and required the participation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), phospholipase-C gamma (PLCγ) and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3R). IP3R activation leads to increased intracellular Ca(2+), hemichannel (Connexin-43 and Pannexin-1) opening, and ATP release. Moreover, silencing of the P2X7R or addition of hemichannel blockers precluded Thy-1-induced astrocyte migration. Finally, Thy-1 lacking the integrin-binding site did not stimulate ATP release, whereas Thy-1 mutated in the Syndecan-4-binding domain increased ATP release, albeit to a lesser extent and with delayed kinetics compared to wild-type Thy-1. Thus, hemichannels activated downstream of an αVβ3 integrin-PI3K-PLCγ-IP3R pathway are responsible for Thy-1-induced, hemichannel-mediated and Syndecan-4-modulated ATP release that transactivates P2X7Rs to induce Ca(2+) entry. These findings uncover a hitherto unrecognized role for hemichannels in the regulation of astrocyte migration via P2X7R transactivation induced by integrin-mediated ATP release. PMID:27235833

  13. PLASMA DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W.R.

    1961-08-22

    A device is described for establishing and maintaining a high-energy, rotational plasma for use as a fast discharge capacitor. A disc-shaped, current- conducting plasma is formed in an axinl magnetic field and a crossed electric field, thereby creating rotational kinetic enengy in the plasma. Such energy stored in the rotation of the plasma disc is substantial and is convertible tc electrical energy by generator action in an output line electrically coupled to the plasma volume. Means are then provided for discharging the electrical energy into an external circuit coupled to the output line to produce a very large pulse having an extremely rapid rise time in the waveform thereof. (AE C)

  14. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) for Test Stand and J-2X Engine: Core Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Jorge F.; Schmalzel, John L.; Aguilar, Robert; Shwabacher, Mark; Morris, Jon

    2008-01-01

    ISHM capability enables a system to detect anomalies, determine causes and effects, predict future anomalies, and provides an integrated awareness of the health of the system to users (operators, customers, management, etc.). NASA Stennis Space Center, NASA Ames Research Center, and Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne have implemented a core ISHM capability that encompasses the A1 Test Stand and the J-2X Engine. The implementation incorporates all aspects of ISHM; from anomaly detection (e.g. leaks) to root-cause-analysis based on failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), to a user interface for an integrated visualization of the health of the system (Test Stand and Engine). The implementation provides a low functional capability level (FCL) in that it is populated with few algorithms and approaches for anomaly detection, and root-cause trees from a limited FMEA effort. However, it is a demonstration of a credible ISHM capability, and it is inherently designed for continuous and systematic augmentation of the capability. The ISHM capability is grounded on an integrating software environment used to create an ISHM model of the system. The ISHM model follows an object-oriented approach: includes all elements of the system (from schematics) and provides for compartmentalized storage of information associated with each element. For instance, a sensor object contains a transducer electronic data sheet (TEDS) with information that might be used by algorithms and approaches for anomaly detection, diagnostics, etc. Similarly, a component, such as a tank, contains a Component Electronic Data Sheet (CEDS). Each element also includes a Health Electronic Data Sheet (HEDS) that contains health-related information such as anomalies and health state. Some practical aspects of the implementation include: (1) near real-time data flow from the test stand data acquisition system through the ISHM model, for near real-time detection of anomalies and diagnostics, (2) insertion of the J-2X

  15. Activation of P2X7 receptors in the midbrain periaqueductal gray of rats facilitates morphine tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhi; Li, You-Yan; Sun, Meng-Jie

    2015-08-01

    Opiates such as morphine exhibit analgesic effect in various pain models, but repeated and chronic morphine administration may develop resistance to antinociception. The purinergic signaling system is involved in the mechanisms of pain modulation and morphine tolerance. This study aimed to determine whether the P2X7 receptor in the ventrolateral midbrain periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is involved in morphine tolerance. Development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effect of morphine was induced in normal adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats through subcutaneous injection of morphine (10mg/kg). The analgesic effect of morphine (5mg/kg, i.p.) was assessed by measuring mechanical withdrawal thresholds (MWTs) in rats with an electronic von Frey anesthesiometer. The expression levels and distribution of the P2X7 receptor in the vlPAG was evaluated through Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. The acute effects of intra-vlPAG injection of the selective P2X7 receptor agonist Bz-ATP, the selective P2X7 receptor antagonist A-740003, or antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS ODN) targeting the P2X7 receptor on morphine-treated rats were also observed. Results demonstrated that repeated morphine administration decreased the mechanical pain thresholds. By contrast, the expression of the P2X7 receptor protein was up-regulated in the vlPAG in morphine tolerant rats. The percent changes in MWT were markedly but only transiently attenuated by intra-vlPAG injection of Bz-ATP (9nmol/0.3μL) but elevated by A-740003 at doses of 10 and 100nmol/0.3μL. AS ODN (15nmol/0.3μL) against the P2X7 receptor reduced the development of chronic morphine tolerance in rats. These results suggest that the development of antinociceptive tolerance to morphine is partially mediated by activating the vlPAG P2X7 receptors. The present data also suggest that the P2X7 receptors may be a therapeutic target for improving the analgesic effect of morphine in treatments of pain when morphine tolerance

  16. Association of P2X7 receptor polymorphisms with bone mineral density and osteoporosis risk in a cohort of Dutch fracture patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesselius, A; Bours, M J L; Henriksen, Z;

    2013-01-01

    The P2X(7) receptor is thought to be involved in bone physiology in a pro-osteogenic manner. Therefore, we examined associations between genetic variations in the P2X(7) receptor gene and bone mineral density (BMD). We found an association between four non-synonymous polymorphism of the human P2X...

  17. Prediction of formation enthalpies for Al2X-type intermetallics using back-propagation neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → An ANN was built to predict the formation enthalpies of Al2X-type intermetallics. → The values predicted by the ANN agree with experiments well to typically within 10%. → The method comparison suggests that our ANN method is superior to Miedema's model. → Some trends of formation enthalpies for Al2X-type intermetallics were observed. - Abstract: A back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN) was established to predict the formation enthalpies of Al2X-type intermetallics as a function of some physical parameters. These physical parameters include the electronegativity difference, the electron density difference, the atomic size difference, and the electron-atom ratio (e/a). The values calculated by the ANN method agree with experiments well to typically within 10%, indicating that the well-trained back-propagation (BP) neural network is feasible, and can precisely predict the formation enthalpies of Al2X-type intermetallics. The method comparison based on the predicted formation enthalpies suggests that our ANN method is superior to Miedema's model. Some trends of formation enthalpies for Al2X-type intermetallics were also observed from the ANN.

  18. Preparation and characterization of LiAlxMn2-xO4 for a supercapacitor in aqueous electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Xue; Ye Chen; Mi-lin Zhang; Yong-de Yan

    2009-01-01

    LiAlxMn2-xO4 (0≤x≤0.5) was synthesized by high temperature solid-state reaction.The structure and morphology of LiAl/Mn2-xO4 were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The results indicate that all samples show spinel phase.The polyhedral particles turn to club-shaped,then change to small spherical,and finally become agglomerates with increasing Al content.The supercapacitive performances of LiAlxMn2-xO4 were studied by means of galvanostatic charge-discharge,cyclic voltammetry,and alternating current (AC) impedance in 2 mol.L-l (NH4)2SO4 aqueous solution.The results show that LiAlxMn2-xO4 represents rectangular shape performance in the potential range of 0-1 V.The capacity and cycle perform-ance can be improved by doping Al.The composition of x=0.1 has the maximum special capacitance of 160 F.g-1,which is 1.37 times that of LiMn2O4 electrode.The capacitance loss of LiAlxMn2-xO4 with x=0.1 is only about 14% after 100 cycles.

  19. Sodium manganese oxide nanobelts with a 2 x 4 tunnel structure: one-step hydrothermal synthesis and electrocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiong; Yang, Wensheng; Chen, Xu; Ma, Yanwei

    2009-10-01

    Sodium manganese oxide nanobelts with a 2 x 4 tunnel structure (Na-2 x 4) have been one-step hydrothermally synthesized at 200 degrees C for a relatively short time (16 h). The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The Na-2 x 4 tunnel manganese oxide nanobelts have the thickness of about 20 nm, the width with ranges from 50 to 200 nm and the length up to several micrometers. The synthetic temperature is critical to the crystal structure of the final products and Na-birnessite is obtained at 120 degrees C. The electrocatalytic activities of the above products are studied for oxygen reduction reaction in aqueous basic medium. The Na-2 x 4 tunnel manganese oxide nanobelts exhibit higher oxygen reduction activity (12.8 mA cm(-2) or 9.09 A g(-1)) than that of Na-birnessite (5.6 mA cm(-2) or 3.98 A g(-1)) at -0.44 V. The Na-2 x 4 tunnel manganese oxide nanobelts could be potentially used as air electrode materials for catalytic reduction of O2 in alkaline fuel cells and metal/air batteries. PMID:19908465

  20. Direct proof of static charge stripe correlations in La2-xBaxCuO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. M.; Thampy, V.; Mazzoli, C.; Barbour, A.; Gu, G.; Hill, J. P.; Tranquada, J. M.; Dean, M. P. M.; Wilkins, S. B.

    The nature of charge stripe order in the cuprates, and in particular whether the stripes are static or dynamic, is a key issue in understanding the relationship between stripes and superconductivity. In La2-xBaxCuO4 (LBCO) a low temperature structural distortion is widely believed to pin stripes into fixed, static domains, but such an assertion has never been directly verified. We performed resonant soft x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) to probe the charge order Bragg peak of 1/8 doped LBCO. At low temperatures, we observe time-independent x-ray speckle patterns persisting for more than three hours, proving the static nature of the stripes and we go on to discuss how stripe order melts with increasing temperature. Our results demonstrate that the combination of XPCS with diffraction limited light sources such as the National Synchrotron Light Source II can probe the dynamics of even subtle order parameters such as stripes in the cuprates. Work performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory was supported by the US Department of Energy, Division of Materials Science, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. Use of the National Synchrotron Light Source II was supported under Contract No. DE-SC0012704.

  1. Blue TiO2-x/SiO2 nanoparticles by laser pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composite TiSiOC nanoparticles with Ti/Si ratio varying in a very large range were prepared by laser pyrolysis of a gas-spray mixture of silane and titanium tetra-isopropoxide. The as-formed nanoparticle batches exhibit intense blue colours, varying from dark to light blue while the Ti/Si ratio increases. This blue colour is attributed to the formation of sub-stoichiometric TiO2-xcompounds induced by the presence of reducing agents such as silicon-based radicals and carbon atoms in the reaction medium. The blue colour of the powders is stable for several months at room temperature in normal atmospheric conditions. Elemental analysis, specific surface area and pycnometry measurements, as well as Photon Correlation Spectroscopy allow determining the chemical composition and size of the as-synthesized nanoparticles as a function of the Ti/Si ratio. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and IR spectroscopy have been used to analyse their chemical organisation, nanostructure and morphology. Mean grain size is found around 20 nm. The nanoparticles exhibit a core-shell structure TiO2-x/SiO2, with a core made of titania, surrounded by an amorphous shell, mainly of silica. Crystallites of anatase are present in the core with size increasing with the Ti/Si ratio. Annealing under air at 800 deg. C induces the removal of carbon and the crystallisation of the powders with light beige to white colours

  2. Photoelectric properties of defect chalcogenide HgGa2X4 (x=S, Se, Te)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ramesh; Dwivedi, Shalini; Sharma, Yamini

    2016-05-01

    We present results of ab initio study of ordered vacancy compounds of mercury. The electronic structure, charge density, optical and transport properties of the semiconductor family HgGa2X4 (X=S, Se, Te) are calculated using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method which is based on the density functional theory. A direct bandgap is observed in these compounds, which reduces in the order S>Se>Te. From the density of states it is observed that there is strong hybridization of Hg-d, Ga-d and X-p states. The optical properties show a red shift with increasing size and atomic no. of the chalcogenide atoms. We have also reported the transport properties of mercury thiogallates for the first time. The selenide compound exhibits n-type nature whereas HgGa2S4 and HgGa2Te4 show p-type behavior. The power factor and ZT for the HGS increases at low temperatures, the figure of merit is highest for HgGa2Se4 (1.17) at 19 K.

  3. MULTI-LOOP CONTROL DESIGN IN MULTIVARIABLE (2X2 CONTINUOUS STIRRED TANK REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With this study, the design and tuning of multi-loop for multivariable (2x2 CSTR will be made in order to achieve optimum CSTR control performance. This study used Bequette model reactor and MATLAB software and is expected to be able to cope with disturbances in the reactor so that the reactor system is able to stabilize quickly despite the distractions. In this study, the design will be made using multi-loop approach, along with PI controller as the next step. Then, BLT and auto-tune tuning method will be used in PI controller and given disturbances to both of tuning method. The controller performances are then compared. Results of the study are then analyzed for discussions and conclusions. Results from this study have shown that in terms of disturbance rejection, BLT is better than auto-tune based on comparison between both of controller performances. For IAE for the case of temperature, BLT is 30% better than auto-tune, but it is almost the same for the case of concentration. For settling time for the case of concentration, BLT is 30% better than auto-tune, and for the case of temperature, BLT is 18% better than auto-tune. For rise time for the case of concentration and temperature, BLT is 30% better than auto-tune.

  4. Anomalous magnetoresistance behavior of superconducting Nd2-xCexCuO4-y single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetoresistance measurements on a superconducting Nd2-xCexCuO4-y single crystal with Tc∼7 K were made with magnetic fields H applied parallel (H parallel c) and perpendicular (H perpendicular to c) to the tetragonal c-axis. For H parallel c, the resistive superconductive transition curves exhibit a double transition at low temperatures and high magnetic fields. This double resistive transition has a maximum near T∼1.1 K, followed by an extremely sharp transition into the superconducting state. For applied fields of 1 kOe, the resistivity first goes to zero, increases again to a finite value and then goes through a second transition. In this region, the resistivity exhibits non-ohmic behavior for low current densities and ohmic behavior for larger measuring currents. The resistivity for H perpendicular to c does not exhibit any anomalous behavior or a maximum for 0≤H≤60 kOe and 4 K≤T≤7 K. ((orig.))

  5. Implementation of a spike-based Perceptron learning rule using TiO2-x memristors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham eMostafa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity plays a crucial role in allowing neural networks to learn and adapt to various input environments. Neuromorphic systems need to implement plastic synapses to obtain basic 'cognitive' capabilities such as learning. One promising and scalable approach for implementing neuromorphic synapses is to use nano-scale memristors as synaptic elements. In this paper we propose a hybrid CMOS-memristor system comprising CMOS neurons interconnected through TiO$_{2-x}$ memristors, and spike-based learning circuits that modulate the conductance of the memristive synapse elements according to a spike-based Perceptron plasticity rule. We highlight a number of advantages for using this spike-based plasticity rule as compared to other forms of spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP rules. We provide experimental proof-of-concept results with two silicon neurons connected through a memristive synapse that show how the CMOS plasticity circuits can induce stable changes in memristor conductances, giving rise to increased synaptic strength after a potentiation episode and to decreased strength after a depression episode.

  6. Implementation of a spike-based perceptron learning rule using TiO2-x memristors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Hesham; Khiat, Ali; Serb, Alexander; Mayr, Christian G; Indiveri, Giacomo; Prodromakis, Themis

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity plays a crucial role in allowing neural networks to learn and adapt to various input environments. Neuromorphic systems need to implement plastic synapses to obtain basic "cognitive" capabilities such as learning. One promising and scalable approach for implementing neuromorphic synapses is to use nano-scale memristors as synaptic elements. In this paper we propose a hybrid CMOS-memristor system comprising CMOS neurons interconnected through TiO2-x memristors, and spike-based learning circuits that modulate the conductance of the memristive synapse elements according to a spike-based Perceptron plasticity rule. We highlight a number of advantages for using this spike-based plasticity rule as compared to other forms of spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) rules. We provide experimental proof-of-concept results with two silicon neurons connected through a memristive synapse that show how the CMOS plasticity circuits can induce stable changes in memristor conductances, giving rise to increased synaptic strength after a potentiation episode and to decreased strength after a depression episode. PMID:26483629

  7. Influence of oxygen partial pressure on defect concentrations and on oxygen diffusion in UO2+x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hyper-stoichiometric uranium dioxide (UO2+x) is stable over a wide range of temperature and compositions. Such variations of composition and the eventual presence of doping elements or impurities lead to a variation of anionic and electronic defect concentrations. Moreover, many properties of this material are affected by its composition modifications, in particular their atomic transport properties. Firstly we developed a point defect model to evaluate the dependence of the electronic and oxygen defect concentrations upon temperature, equilibrium oxygen partial pressure and impurity content. The physical constants of the model, in particular the equilibrium constants of the defect formation reactions were determined from deviation from stoichiometry and electrical conductivity measurements of literature. This work enabled us to interpret our measures of conductivity, oxygen chemical and self- diffusion coefficients. From a quantitative standpoint, the analysis of our experimental results allows to evaluate the oxygen interstitial diffusion coefficient but also its formation energy. Moreover, an estimate of oxygen di-interstitial formation energy is also provided. Presence of oxygen clusters leads oxygen self- and chemical diffusion to decrease. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy characterization shows the presence of the same defect in the entire deviation from stoichiometry studied, confirming the approach used to develop the model. (author)

  8. Exploring the charge-ordering transition in (TMTTF){sub 2}X via thermal expansion measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Mariano de, E-mail: mariano@physik.uni-frankfurt.d [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, SFB/TRR 49, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Hofmann, Daniel [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, SFB/TRR 49, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Foury-Leylekian, Pascale; Moradpour, Alec; Pouget, Jean-Paul [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris Sud, CNRS UMR 8502, 91405 Orsay (France); Lang, Michael [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, SFB/TRR 49, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-06-01

    We report results of high-resolution measurements of the c{sup *}-axis expansivity ({alpha}{sub c}{sup *}) at the charge-ordering (CO) transition for the quasi-1D (TMTTF){sub 2}X compounds with X=SbF{sub 6} and Br and make a comparison with previous results for the X=PF{sub 6} and AsF{sub 6} salts. For X=SbF{sub 6}, due to the screening of the long-range Coulomb forces, a sharp {lambda}-type anomaly is observed at T{sub CO}, which contrasts with the step-like mean-field anomaly at T{sub CO} for PF{sub 6} and AsF{sub 6}, where CO occurs in the Mott-Hubbard charge-localized regime. For the latter two salts, a negative contribution to {alpha}{sub c}{sup *} is observed above T{sub CO}. This feature is assigned to the anions' rigid-unit modes, which become inactive for T

  9. Ploidy Variation in Hybrids from Interploid 3x X 2x Crosses in Musa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osuji, JO.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrids were obtained after in vitro germination of embryos from interploid crosses between triploid 'French' plantain cultivars (Musa spp. AAB group 'Ntanga 2' and 'Bobby Tannap' with diploid banana (Ivlusa acuminata subsp. burmannicoidesj 'Calcutta 4'. Cross-pollinated bunches were harvested at full maturity and ripened with acetylene in a room for 4 days. Seeds were extracted from peeled ripe fruits by squashing. Embryos from the seeds were excised aseptically after 2 days and germinated in vitro. Seedlings were subsequently planted in early evaluation trials after acclimatising in the greenhouse. Chromosome counts were carried out on root tips of mature and maiden suckers to determine ploidy levels using a modified squashing technique. Counts showed that two of the hybrids were aneuploids (trisomies with somatic chromosome number of 2n = 2x + 1 = 23, one hybrid was diploid while the other two were tetraploids. Tetraploids are the most promising hybrids for the genetic improvement of plantains. Diploids are valuable material for further improvement of the plantain genome at this ploidy level. Trisomies provide means for further characterisation of the Musa genome and physical gene mapping in plantain and banana.

  10. First passage times in M2[X ]|G |1 |R queue with hysteretic overload control policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechinkin, Alexander V.; Razumchik, Rostislav R.; Zaryadov, Ivan S.

    2016-06-01

    One of the reported approaches towards the solution of overload problem in networks of SIP servers is the implementation of multi-level hysteretic control of arrivals in SIP servers. Each level, being the parameter of the policy, specifies operation mode of SIP server i.e. it implicitly indicates what SIP server must do with the arriving packets. The choice of parameters' values is not guided by standards and is usually left for the network owner. In general, all operation modes of the considered policy can be grouped into two groups: normal mode (when all arriving packets are accepted) and congested mode (when part or all arriving packets are being dropped). Such grouping may serve as the criteria for choosing parameters' values of the policy: pick those values which minimize SIP server sojourn time in congested mode. In this short note we propose some analytical results which facilitate the solution of stated minimization problem. The considered mathematical model of SIP server is the queueing system M2[X ]|G |1 |R with batch arrivals and bi-level hysteretic control policy, which specifies three operation modes: normal (customers both flows are accepted), overload (only customers from one flow are accepted), discard (customers from both flows are blocked/lost)). The switching between modes can occur only on service completions. Analytical method allowing computation of stationary sojourn times in different operation modes (as well as first passage times between modes) is presented in brief. Numerical example is given.

  11. Validation of MATRA-S Low Flow Predictions Using PNL 2x6 Mixed Convection Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Kyong-Won; Kwon, Hyuk; Kim, Seong-Jin; Hwang, Dae-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The MATRA-S, a subchannel analysis code has been used to thermal-hydraulic design of SMART core. As the safety enhancement is getting important more and more, some features of the MATRA-S code are required to be validated in order to be applied to nonnominal operating conditions in addition to its applicability to reactor design under normal operating conditions. The MATRA-S code has two numerical schemes, SCHEME for implicit application and XSCHEM for explicit one. The implicit scheme had been developed under assumptions that the axial flow is larger enough than the crossflow. Under certain conditions, especially low flow and low pressure operating conditions, this implicit SCHEME oscillates or becomes unstable numerically and then MATRA-S fails to obtain good solution. These demerits were known as common in implicit schemes of many COBRA families. Efforts have been exerted to resolve these limitations in SCHEME of the MATRA-S such as a once through marching scheme against the multi-pass marching scheme and an adaptive multi-grid method. These remedies can reduce the numerically unstable range for SCHEME but some unstable regions still remain. The XSCHEM, an explicit scheme of MATRA-S was validated using the PNL 2x6 rod bundle flow transient test. The explicit scheme agreed with implicit scheme for steady state calculations. And it showed its capability to predict low flow conditions such as negative flow and recirculation flow.

  12. Structural and electronic properties of silicene on MgX2 (X = Cl, Br, and I)

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2014-07-23

    Silicene is a monolayer of Si atoms in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice, being expected to be compatible with current Si-based nanoelectronics. The behavior of silicene is strongly influenced by the substrate. In this context, its structural and electronic properties on MgX2 (X = Cl, Br, and I) have been investigated using first-principles calculations. Different locations of the Si atoms are found to be energetically degenerate because of the weak van der Waals interaction with the substrates. The Si buckling height is below 0.55 Å, which is close to the value of free-standing silicene (0.49 Å). Importantly, the Dirac cone of silicene is well preserved on MgX2 (located slightly above the Fermi level), and the band gaps induced by the substrate are less than 0.1 eV. Application of an external electric field and stacking can be used to increase the band gap. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  13. Two-dimensional Ni(OH)2-XS2 (X = Mo and W) heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhen-Kun; Tong, Chuan-Jia; Geng, Wei; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Liu, Li-Min

    2015-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures have received a lot of attention because of their wide applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In this work, the electronic structures and optical properties of nickel hydroxides (Ni(OH)2) and transition metal dichalcogenides (XS2, X = Mo, W) heterostructures are studied by hybrid density functional theory. The results reveal that all the considered Ni(OH)2-XS2 heterostructures are indirect semiconductors with a band gap of 0.040-0.825 eV. Additionally, the AB stacked Ni(OH)2-XS2 heterostructures are more stable than the AA stacked one. Interestingly, the complete electron-hole separation is found in the Ni(OH)2-XS2 heterostructure, and its conduction band minimum and valence band maximum are located on the XS2 and Ni(OH)2 layers, respectively. Besides, the optical absorption peaks of Ni(OH)2-XS2 heterostructures are mainly located within the visible light region. These fascinating electronic structures and optical absorption of the Ni(OH)2-XS2 heterostructures make them promising candidates for applications in 2D optoelectronics.

  14. Physical properties of (GaAs)1-x(Ge2)x: Influence of growth direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (GaAs)1-x(Ge2)x metastable alloys were epitaxially grown on (001), (111), (112), and (113) GaAs by rf magnetron sputtering. A different long-range order parameter behavior with Ge concentration is observed for each growth direction. This provides a direct evidence that growth direction affects the long-range order-disorder transition exhibited by these alloys. The epitaxial growth of these alloys was modeled by a Monte Carlo simulation. The good agreement between the experimental and modeled long-range order parameter evidences that atomic ordering in these alloys is ruled mainly by growth direction and the avoidance of the formation of 'wrong' atomic pairs of As-As and Ga-Ga, and not by thermodynamic factors. On the other hand, measurements of the optical gap and Raman scattering, show that the optical properties are governed by near-neighbor correlations and therefore by their short-range order. Hence, the substrate orientation and the long-range order have negligible effect on the optical properties. Fitting the experimental data of the optical gap, we obtained linear expressions that show the fundamental gap behavior with Ge concentration of some of these alloys at room temperature. For 00(x)=1.43-2.99x eV and E0(x)=0.45+0.35x eV, respectively

  15. Measurement-based Evaluation of the Impact of Large Vehicle Shadowing on V2X Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Ignacio; Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Lauridsen, Mads;

    2016-01-01

    Upcoming applications, such as autonomous vehicles, will pose strict requirements on the vehicular networks. In order to provide these new services reliably, an accurate understanding of propagation in the vehicular scenarios is needed. In this context, this paper presents a measurement-based eva......Upcoming applications, such as autonomous vehicles, will pose strict requirements on the vehicular networks. In order to provide these new services reliably, an accurate understanding of propagation in the vehicular scenarios is needed. In this context, this paper presents a measurement......-based evaluation of large vehicle shadowing at 5.8 GHz in V2X scenarios. The receiver antenna height is fixed to average vehicular height (1.5 m), while the transmitter antennas are located at different heights (1.5, 5, and 7 m) in order to investigate both V2V and V2I scenarios. A truck was used to obstruct...... the measurements, showing a good match with a RMSE of 4.1 dB. Based on both measurements and ray-tracing data, a simple deterministic shadowing model, useful for implementation in system level simulators, is presented, as a first step towards a more dynamic and scalable shadowing model....

  16. Frustrated spin correlations in diluted spin ice Ho2-xLaxTi2O7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlers, Georg; Ehlers, G.; Mamontov, E.; Zamponi, M.; Faraone, A.; Qiu, Y.; Cornelius, A.L.; Booth, C.H.; Kam, K.C.; Le Toquin, R.; Cheetham, A.K.; Gardner, J.S.

    2008-04-30

    We have studied the evolution of the structural properties as well as the static and dynamic spin correlations of spin ice Ho2Ti2O7, where Ho was partially replaced by non-magnetic La. The crystal structure of diluted samples Ho2-xLaxTi2O7 was characterized by x-ray and neutron diffraction and by Ho L-III-edge and Ti K-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements. It is found that the pyrochlore structure remains intact until about x = 0.3, but a systematic increase in local disorder with increasing La concentration is observed in the EXAFS data, especially from the Ti K edge.Quasi-elastic neutron scattering and ac susceptibility measurements show that, in x<= 0.4 samples at temperatures above macroscopic freezing, the spin -spin correlations are short ranged and dynamic in nature. The main difference with pure spin ice in the dynamics is the appearance of a second, faster, relaxation process.

  17. Effects of a 2X gravity environment on the ultrastructure of the gerbil parathyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannes, P. L.; Hayes, T. G.

    1975-01-01

    A number of studies concerning the effects of hypergravity on bone have shown increases in bone mass or bone dimensions. Correlative studies, which could provide clues to the mechanism for such a response, have been lacking. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ultrastructure of parathyroid glands of Mongolian gerbils exposed to a continuous 2 X gravity force for 60 d. It was found that the experimental animals had parathyroid glands which had a greater percentage of chief cells in the active stage of their secretory cycle when compared with control animals. This result was interpreted to indicate an increase in parathyroid gland secretory activity and, hence, an increase in parathyroid hormone release. It was suggested that increased parathyroid secretory activity was necessary to maintain serum calcium levels of hypergravity animals within normal limits. Cellular forms resembling water clear cells and highly compact, degenerating cells were described in experimental animals but not in controls. Areas suggestive of cellular dissolution and disorganization were also reported in experimental parathyroids.

  18. Mellin moments of heavy flavor contributions to F_2(x,Q^2) at NNLO

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the calculation of fixed moments of the O(a_s^3) heavy flavor contributions to the Wilson coefficients of the structure function F_2(x,Q^2) in the limit Q^2 >> m^2, neglecting power corrections. The massive Wilson coefficients in the asymptotic region are given as convolutions of massive operator matrix elements (OMEs) and the known light flavor Wilson coefficients. The former derive from the twist--2 operators emerging in the light--cone--expansion and are calculated at the 3--loop level for fixed moments. We also compute the massive OMEs which are needed to evaluate heavy flavor parton distributions in the variable flavor number scheme to the same order. All contributions to the Wilson coefficients and OMEs but the genuine constant terms at O(a_s^3) of the OMEs are derived in terms of quantities, which are known for general values in the Mellin variable N. For the OMEs A_{Qg}^(3), A_{qg,Q}^(3) and A_{gg,Q}^(3) the moments N = 2 to 10, for A_{Qq}^{(3), PS} to N = 12, and for A_{...

  19. Influence of Quasi-Bi-Stripe Charge Order on the Resistivity and Magnetism in a Bilayer Manganite La$_{2-2x}$Sr$_{1+2x}$Mn$_{2}$O$_{7}$

    OpenAIRE

    Kubota, M.; Oohara, Y.; Yoshizawa, H.; Fujioka, H.; Shimizu, K.; Hirota, K.; Moritomo, Y.; Endoh, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The charge ordering in the bilayer manganite system La$_{2-2x}$Sr$_{1+2x}$Mn$_{2}$O$_{7}$ with $0.30 \\le x \\le 0.50$ has been studied by neutron diffraction. The charge order is characterized by the propagation vector parallel to the [1 0 0] direction (MnO$_2$ direction), but the correlation length is short-ranged and extremely anisotropic, being $\\sim 0.02a^{*}$ and $\\sim 0.2a^{*}$ parallel and perpendicular to the modulation direction, respectively. The observed charge order can be viewed a...

  20. Exchange integrals in the helimagnetic phase of ZnCr2xAl2-2xS4 (0.85 ≤ x ≤ 1): A neutron diffraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spinel solid solutions ZnCr2xAl2-2xS4 have been studied by neutron diffraction experiments. They show a helimagnetic phase in the concentration range: 0.85 ≤ x ≤ 1. The helix angle decreases as x is decreased. In this paper, the three first exchange integrals and their evolution with x are obtained. The disappearance of the long range order is shown to be due to the large decrease of the ferromagnetic in-plane interaction. The results are extended to obtain the fourth exchange integral. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs, 4 tabs

  1. 方程 utt=a2(utt+(2)/(x)ux) 的 Cauchy 问题的相容性%THE CONSISTENCY OF CAUCHY PROBLEMS IN EQUATION utt=a2(utt+(2)/(x)ux)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德朋

    2001-01-01

    本文就形如 utt=a2(utt+(2)/(x)ux) 的 Cauchy 问题进行了讨论,得到其相容性条件和古典解的存在性定理,进而对于更一般的一类形如 autt+2butt+cutt+(2)/(x)(aux+bux)=0(a、b、c是常量,且b2-ac>0)的方程得到类似结果.

  2. The Special Solutions for the Equation ut=(eu(ux)2)x+P(u)ux+Q(u)%关于方程ut=(eu(ux)2)x+P(u)ux+Q(u)的一种解法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈改珠

    2010-01-01

    研究了带有源项的非线性反应扩散方程ut=(eu(ux)2)x+P(u)ux+Q(U)特殊情况的解.利用二阶广义条件对称η=uxx+H(u)u2x+G(u)ux+F(u) 的方法,其中H(u),G(u),F(u)分别是u的光滑函数.得到了上述方程的几个解.该方法也可以用来解决其他偏微分方程.

  3. Growth mechanisms and origin of localized surface plasmon resonance coupled exciton effects in Cu2_xS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savariraj, Dennyson A.; Kim, Hee-Je; Viswanathan, Kodakkal K.; Vijayakumar, M.; Prabakar, Kandasamy

    2016-02-15

    Cu2-xS thin films prepared by template free single step wet chemical method on fluorine doped tin oxide substrate without any surfactant exhibts localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) coupled exciton effects. Cu2-xS thin films of unique surface morphology and free carrier density due to copper vacancy is controlled by the growth temperature and time. These selectively grown Cu2-xS thin films possess tunable band gap (2.6 - 1.4 eV) due to quantum size effect. Eventhough, all the samples show satellite peak in the X-ray photoelectron spectra due to Cu vacancies, only the samples with higher oxygen concentration show LSPR in the near infrared region.

  4. The SU(2)xSU(2) sector in the string dual of N=6 superconformal Chern-Simons theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the string dual of the recently constructed N=6 superconformal Chern-Simons theory of Aharony, Bergman, Jafferis and Maldacena (ABJM theory). We focus in particular on the SU(2)xSU(2) sector. We find a sigma-model limit in which the resulting sigma-model is two Landau-Lifshitz models added together. We consider a Penrose limit for which we can approach the SU(2)xSU(2) sector. Finally, we find a new Giant Magnon solution in the SU(2)xSU(2) sector corresponding to one magnon in each SU(2). We put these results together to find the full magnon dispersion relation and we compare this to recently found results for ABJM theory at weak coupling

  5. The SU(2)xSU(2) sector in the string dual of N=6 superconformal Chern-Simons theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grignani, Gianluca [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Perugia, I.N.F.N. Sezione di Perugia, Via Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)], E-mail: grignani@pg.infn.it; Harmark, Troels [Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)], E-mail: harmark@nbi.dk; Orselli, Marta [Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)], E-mail: orselli@nbi.dk

    2009-03-21

    We examine the string dual of the recently constructed N=6 superconformal Chern-Simons theory of Aharony, Bergman, Jafferis and Maldacena (ABJM theory). We focus in particular on the SU(2)xSU(2) sector. We find a sigma-model limit in which the resulting sigma-model is two Landau-Lifshitz models added together. We consider a Penrose limit for which we can approach the SU(2)xSU(2) sector. Finally, we find a new Giant Magnon solution in the SU(2)xSU(2) sector corresponding to one magnon in each SU(2). We put these results together to find the full magnon dispersion relation and we compare this to recently found results for ABJM theory at weak coupling.

  6. Thermal and Electric Properties of the FeAs2-xSbx (x=0, 1, or 2) Marcasite Compounds from First Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Semi; Orabi, Rabih Al Rahal Al; Wee, Daehyun

    2016-04-01

    Thermoelectric energy conversion has been considered as one piece of the future solution to the energy crisis for a long time. In thermoelectric energy conversion, thermoelectric materials, which exhibit strong coupling between heat flow and electric current, are used to convert thermal energy into electrical energy and vice versa. Hence, thermoelectric devices can be potential and present applications for both thermoelectric generation and cooling system. There are significant demands for thermoelectric materials that can be used for environment-friendly cooling applications that need to be met. A few recent studies reported thermoelectric properties of the FeAs2-xSbx (x=0, 1, or 2) marcasite compounds, which has a potential for becoming a good thermoelectric material for low-temperature cooling applications. The compound can be more environment-friendly and more economically viable than other competing materials, for the composition does not involve rare and expensive element like Te or Pt. In this study, we investigate thermoelectric properties of the FeAs2-xSbx (x=0, 1, or 2) marcasite compounds by first-principles calculations in order to demonstrate the feasibility for the use in practical cooling applications. Electronic band structures and density of states are constructed from DFT (density functional theory) calculations, from which electrical properties, including the Seebeck coefficient and the electrical conductivity, are estimated. At the same time, vibrational characteristics are investigated through DFPT (density functional perturbation theory) calculations, from which the thermal conductivity is estimated using semiempirical formulae and the Grüneissen parameters of the compound obtained at the level of the QHA (quasi-harmonic approximation).

  7. Laser device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2007-07-10

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  8. Valproic acid attenuates microgliosis in injured spinal cord and purinergic P2X4 receptor expression in activated microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Hsin; Wang, Chih-Yen; Chen, Po-See; Wang, Jing-Wen; Chuang, De-Maw; Yang, Chung-Shi; Tzeng, Shun-Fen

    2013-05-01

    Peripheral injection with a high dose of valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, into animals with mild or moderate spinal cord injury (SCI) for 1 week can reduce spinal cord tissue loss and promote hindlimb locomotor recovery. A purinergic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) receptor subtype, P2X4 receptor (P2X4 R), has been considered as a potential target to diminish SCI-associated inflammatory responses. In this study, using a minipump-based infusion system, we found that intraspinal infusion with VPA for 3 days into injured spinal cord significantly improved hindlimb locomotion of rats with severe SCI induced by a 10-g NYU impactor dropping from the height of 50 mm onto the spinal T9/10 segment. The neuronal fibers in the injured spinal cord tissues were significantly preserved in VPA-treated rats compared with those observed in vehicle-treated animals. Moreover, the accumulation of microglia/macrophages and astrocytes in the injured spinal cord was attenuated in the animal group receiving VPA infusion. VPA also significantly reduced P2X4 R expression post-SCI. Furthermore, in vitro study indicated that VPA, but not the other HDAC inhibitors, sodium butyrate and trichostatin A (TSA), caused downregulation of P2X4 R in microglia activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-triggered signaling was involved in the effect of VPA on the inhibition of P2X4 R gene expression. In addition to the findings from others, our results also provide important evidence to show the inhibitory effect of VPA on P2X4 R expression in activated microglia, which may contribute to reduction of SCI-induced gliosis and subsequently preservation of spinal cord tissues. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Prostaglandin E2 potentiation of P2X3 receptor mediated currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Li-Yen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 is a well-known inflammatory mediator that enhances the excitability of DRG neurons. Homomeric P2X3 and heteromeric P2X2/3 receptors are abundantly expressed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons and participate in the transmission of nociceptive signals. The interaction between PGE2 and P2X3 receptors has not been well delineated. We studied the actions of PGE2 on ATP-activated currents in dissociated DRG neurons under voltage-clamp conditions. PGE2 had no effects on P2X2/3 receptor-mediated responses, but significantly potentiated fast-inactivating ATP currents mediated by homomeric P2X3 receptors. PGE2 exerted its action by activating EP3 receptors. To study the mechanism underlying the action of PGE2, we found that the adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin and the membrane-permeable cAMP analogue, 8-Br-cAMP increased ATP currents, mimicking the effect of PGE2. In addition, forskolin occluded the enhancement produced by PGE2. The protein kinase A (PKA inhibitors, H89 and PKA-I blocked the PGE2 effect. In contrast, the PKC inhibitor, bisindolymaleimide (Bis did not change the potentiating action of PGE2. We further showed that PGE2 enhanced α,β-meATP-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia and the enhancement was blocked by H89. These observations suggest that PGE2 binds to EP3 receptors, resulting in the activation of cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and leading to an enhancement of P2X3 homomeric receptor-mediated ATP responses in DRG neurons.

  10. A compact plasmonic MOS-based 2x2 electro-optic switch

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Chenran; Soref, Richard A; Sorger, Volker J

    2015-01-01

    We report on a three-waveguide electro-optic switch for compact photonic integrated circuits and data routing applications. The device features a plasmonic metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) mode for enhanced light-matter-interactions. The switching mechanism originates from a capacitor-like design where the refractive index of the active medium, Indium-Tin-Oxide, is altered via shifting the plasma frequency due to carrier accumulation inside the waveguide-based MOS structure. This light manipulation mechanism controls the transmission direction of transverse magnetic polarized light into either a CROSS or BAR waveguide port. The extinction ratio of 18 dB (7) dB for the CROSS (BAR) state, respectively, is achieved via a gating voltage bias. The ultrafast broadband fJ/bit device allows for seamless integration with Siliconon- Insulator platforms to for low-cost manufacturing.

  11. Effects of protein deprivation and re-feeding on P2X_2 receptors in enteric neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rúbia; Misawa; Priscila; Azevedo; Girotti; Márcia; Sanae; Mizuno; Edson; Aparecido; Liberti; John; Barton; Furness; Patricia; Castelucci

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effects of malnutrition and refeeding on the P2X2 receptor,nitric oxide synthase(NOS),calretinin,calbindin and choline acetyltransferase(ChAT) in neurons of the rat ileum.METHODS:We analyzed the co-localization,numbers and sizes of P2X2-expressing neurons in relation to NOS-immunoreactive(IR),calbindin-IR,ChAT-IR,and calretinin-IR neurons of the myenteric and submucosal plexus.The experimental groups consisted of:(1) rats maintained on normal feed throughout pregnancy until 42 d post-...

  12. Thermal expansion measurement of (U,Pu)O2-x in oxygen partial pressure-controlled atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masato; Ikusawa, Yoshihisa; Sunaoshi, Takeo; Nelson, Andrew T.; McClellan, Kenneth J.

    2016-02-01

    Thermal expansion of U0.7Pu0.3O2-x (x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03) and U0.52Pu0.48O2.00 was investigated by a unique dilatometry which measured in an oxygen partial pressure-controlled atmosphere. The oxygen partial pressure was controlled to hold a constant oxygen-to-metal ratio in the (U,Pu)O2-x during the measurement. Thermal expansion slightly increased with the decrease in oxygen-to-metal ratio. We proposed a relationship to describe thermal expansion as a function of temperature, O/M and Pu content.

  13. Effects of toxic cellular stresses and divalent cations on the human P2X7 cell death receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Dutot, Mélody; Liang, Hong; Pauloin, Thierry; Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Baudouin, Christophe; Warnet, Jean-Michel; Rat, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate responses to toxic cellular stresses in different human ocular epithelia. Methods Reactivity with a specific anti-P2X7 antibody was studied using confocal fluorescence microscopy on conjunctival, corneal, lens, and retinal cell lines as well as using impression cytology on human ocular cells. Activation of the P2X7 receptor by selective agonists (ATP and benzoylbenzoyl-ATP) and inhibition by antagonists (oATP, KN-62, and PPADS) were evaluat...

  14. Dynamic and kinetic aspects of the adsorption of acrylonitrile on Si(001)-2x1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), photoelectron and photoabsorption spectroscopies, we have examined how acrylonitrile (H2C=CH-C≡N) reacts with the Si(001)-2x1 surface for coverages ranging from ∼1012 molecules/cm2 to ∼1014 molecules/cm2. At 300 K, in the very low coverage regime (below 1013 molecules/cm2), filled- and empty-state STM images show that the molecule bridges, via its β carbon and nitrogen ends, two silicon dangling bonds, across the trench separating two dimer rows. A cumulative-double-bond unit (C=C=N) is formed. The 300 K STM image results from the dynamic flipping of the molecule between two equivalent equilibrium positions, which can be seen when the molecular motion is slowed down at 80 K. For coverages larger than 1013 molecules/cm2, for which STM does not show ordered adsorption any more, the adsorption kinetics were observed in real-time using valence band photoemission and resonant Auger yield, associated with N 1s x-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS). At 300 K, these techniques point to a situation more complex than the one explored by STM at very low coverage. Three species (cyano-bonded, vinyl-bonded, and cumulative-double-bond species) are detected. Their distribution does not vary with increasing coverage. All dimerization-related surface states are quenched at saturation. The uptake rates versus coverage relationship points to the presence of a mobile precursor. Finally, the paper discusses a possible mechanism leading to the formation of cross-trench C=C=N unit at low coverage, and the reasons why the product branching ratio changes with increasing coverage

  15. Thermodynamic Properties of κ-(BEDT-TTF2X Salts: Electron Correlations and Superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Nakazawa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat capacity measurements of κ-(BEDT-TTF2X (BEDT-TTF: Bis(ethylendithio tetrathiafulvalene, X: counteranions which are classified as two-dimensional (2D dimer-Mott system are reported. At first, we explain structural and electronic features originated from rigid dimerization in donor arrangement in 2D layers. The antiferromagnetic Mott insulating phase located at low-pressure region in the phase diagram shows vanishing γ electronic heat capacity coefficient in the heat capacity, which claims opening of a charge-gap in this insulating state. Then, a systematic change of the γ around the Mott boundary region is reported in relation to the glass freezing of ethylene dynamics. The thermodynamic parameters determined by ∆Cp/γTc of 10 K class superconductors, κ-(BEDT-TTF2Cu(NCS2 and κ-(BEDT-TTF2Cu[N(CN2]Br demonstrate that a rather large gap with a strong coupling character appears around the Fermi-surface. On the other hand, the low temperature heat capacity clearly shows a picture of nodal-gap structure due to an anisotropic pairing. The comparison with lower Tc compounds in the κ-type structure is also performed so as to discuss overall features of the κ-type superconductors. The heat capacity measurements of hole-doped systems containing mercury in the counteranions show an anomalous enhancement of γ, which is consistent with the T1−1 of NMR experiments etc. The results of heat capacity measurements under high pressures are also reported.

  16. Adsorption and reaction of acetylene and ethylene on the Si(001)2x1 surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic structures and the thermal reaction of chemisorbed C2H2 and C2H4 on the Si(001)2x1 surface have been investigated by carbon K-edge near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) using synchrotron radiation. The bonding and antibonding states due to the interaction of the molecules and the Si surface atoms are identified by detailed polarization-dependent UPS and NEXAFS measurements, respectively. These bonding and antibonding states are shown to originate from the hybridization between the occupied Si dangling bonds and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (πC-C*) of C2H2 and C2H4 double-σ-bonded on the top of the Si dimer. The thermal evolution of mainly C2H2 is investigated in detail for a wide temperature range of 60-1500 K from the condensation to the surface alloy formation. The coexistence of the physisorbatelike and the chemisorbed molecular species is observed at 70-90 K for C2H2 and C2H4, for the coverages greater than ∼0.25 monolayer (ML). The πC-C* resonance of those physisorbatelike C2H4 species in NEXAFS exhibits an unusual polarization dependence indicating adsorption with their molecular planes aligned perpendicular to the surface. The dissociation of C2H2 chemisorbates is shown to occur at 600-700 K as observed by UPS. After the dissociation of molecules, the atomic hydrogen adsorbates are identified by the monohydridelike surface resonance states in the UP spectra at 800-950 K. Most of the Si dangling bonds are passivated by, at least partly, the hydrogen adsorbates at this stage. At ∼1000 K, the desorption of hydrogen occurs, which accompanies the appearance of a broad SiC-like feature in the UP spectra at ∼3 eV below Fermi level

  17. String theory in the Penrose limit of AdS2xS2 spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The string theory in the Penrose limit of AdS2xS2 is investigated. The specific Penrose limit is the background known as the Nappi-Witten spacetime, which is a plane-wave background with an axion field. The string theory on it is given as the Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten (WZNW) model on nonsemi-simple group H4. It is found that, in the past literature, an important type of irreducible representations of the corresponding algebra, h4, were missed. We present these 'new' representations, which have the type of continuous series representations. All three types of representations of the previous literature can be obtained from the new representations by setting the momenta in the theory to special values. Then we realized the affine currents of the WZNW model in terms of four bosonic free fields and constructed the spectrum of the theory by acting the negative frequency modes of free fields on the ground level states in the h4 continuous series representation. The spectrum is shown to be free of ghosts, after the Virasoro constraints are satisfied. In particular we argued that there is no need for constraining one of the longitudinal momenta to have unitarity. The tachyon vertex operator, that correspond to a particular state in the ground level of the string spectrum, is constructed. The operator products of the vertex operator with the currents and the energy-momentum tensor are shown to have the correct forms, with the correct conformal weight of the vertex operator

  18. Procedures to characterize and study P2Z/P2X7 purinoceptor: flow cytometry as a promising practical, reliable tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihei Oscar Kenji

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of P2Z/P2X7 purinoceptor in different cell types is well established. This receptor is a member of the ionotropic P2X receptor family, which is composed by seven cloned receptor subtypes (P2X1 - P2X7. Interestingly, the P2Z/P2X7 has a unique feature of being linked to a non-selective pore which allows the passage of molecules up to 900 Da depending on the cell type. Early studies of P2Z/P2X7 purinoceptor were exclusively based on classical pharmacological studies but the recent tools of molecular biology have enriched the analysis of the receptor expression. The majority of assays and techniques chosen so far to study the expression of P2Z/P2X7 receptor explore directly or indirectly the effects of the opening of P2Z/P2X7 linked pore. In this review we describe the main techniques used to study the expression and functionality of P2Z/P2X7 receptor. Additionally, the increasing need and importance of a multifunctional analysis of P2Z/P2X7 expression based on flow cytometry technology is discussed, as well as the adoption of a more complete analysis of P2Z/P2X7 expression involving different techniques.

  19. P2X4 receptors control the fate and survival of activated microglia%P2X4受体对活化的小胶质细胞的调控作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vázquez-Villoldo N; Domercq M; Martín A; Llop J; Gómez-Vallejo V; Matute C

    2014-01-01

    小胶质细胞是中枢神经系统内的免疫细胞,当脑组织出现损伤时,小胶质细胞被激活,对脑组织起到保护作用。在自身免疫性脑脊髓炎模型大鼠和视神经脊髓炎患者体内,均观察到在脊髓炎性病灶及小胶质细胞内,P2X4受体表达上调。本课题组进行在体和离体实验,用LPS活化小胶质细胞,观察P2X4受体在小胶质细胞炎性反应中的作用。膜片钳检测显示,在LPS激活的小胶质细胞内,P2X4受体活性增加。P2X4受体阻断剂可显著降低小胶质细胞的膜皱缩、TNFα的分泌、细胞形态的改变及LPS导致的小胶质细胞死亡。在体研究显示,LPS髓内注射后会诱发炎性反应,迅速导致小胶质细胞丢失;给予P2X4受体阻断剂可显著减少小胶质细胞的丢失,而P2X4受体激活剂则可显著增加小胶质细胞的丢失。海马齿状回的小胶质细胞特别容易被LPS诱导的炎症反应激活。注射LPS后2 h,位于海马齿状回的小胶质细胞即被激活,大约24 h后死亡,P2X4受体阻断剂可减少LPS诱导的小胶质细胞活化和死亡。上述数据提示,P2X4受体对于小胶质细胞的激活和存活有重要的调控作用。%Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, responds to brain disarrange-ments by becoming activated to contend with brain damage. Here we show that the expression of P2X4 receptors is upregulated in inflammatory foci and in activated microglia in the spinal cord of rats with experimental au-toimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as well as in the optic nerve of multiple sclerosis patients. To study the role of P2X4 receptors in microgliosis, we activated microglia with LPS in vitro and in vivo. We observed that P2X4 receptor activity in vitro was increased in LPS-activated microglia as assessed by patch-clamp recordings. In ad-dition, P2X4 receptor blockade significantly reduced microglial membrane ruffling, TNF

  20. Theoretical study on photon-phonon coupling at (001)-(2 x 1) surfaces of Ge and {alpha}-Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Sanchez, F.L. [Escuela de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma ' ' Benito Juarez' ' de Oaxaca, Av. Universidad S/N, Ex-Hacienda de Cinco Senores, Ciudad Universitaria, Oaxaca de Juarez, Oax., 68120 (Mexico); Perez-Rodriguez, F. [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. J-48, Puebla, Pue. 72570 (Mexico)

    2011-06-15

    We present a study of the far-infrared reflectance anisotropy spectra for (001) surfaces of Ge and {alpha}-Sn in the (2 x 1) asymmetric dimer geometry, which exhibit a resonance structure associated with the excitation of surface phonon modes. We have employed a theoretical formalism, based on the adiabatic bond-charge model (ABCM), for computing the far-infrared reflectance anisotropy spectra. In comparison with previous theoretical results for silicon and diamond surfaces, the resonance structure in the reflectance anisotropy spectrum for Ge(001)-(2 x 1) turns out to be similar to that observed in the spectrum for the Si(001)-(2 x 1) surface, whereas the spectrum for {alpha}-Sn(001)-(2 x 1) surface is noticeably different from the others. We have established a trend of far-infrared reflectance anisotropy spectra for IV(001) surfaces: the weaker dimer strength, the stronger resonances of low-frequency surface phonons. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Neuronal CCL21 up-regulates microglia P2X4 expression and initiates neuropathic pain development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biber, Knut; Tsuda, Makoto; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Tsukamoto, Keiko; Toyomitsu, Emika; Masuda, Takahiro; Boddeke, Hendrikus; Inoue, Kazuhide

    2011-01-01

    Up-regulation of P2X4 receptors in spinal cord microglia is crucial for tactile allodynia, an untreatable pathological pain reaction occurring after peripheral nerve injury. How nerve injury in the periphery leads to this microglia reaction in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord is not yet understood

  2. Electrophysiological evidence of P2X2 receptor expression in the neurons of intracardiac and paratracheal ganglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Bei; NI Xin; HAN Hong; BURNSTOCK Geoffrey

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the expression of P2X receptors on rat intracardiac and paratracheal ganglion neurons. Methods: For preparation of intracardiac neurons, hearts were excised, the atria were separated and the medial region containing intracardiac ganglia was isolated and cut into pieces. For preparation of paratracheal neurons, the tracheas were removed and the superficial membranous layer containing paratracheal ganglia was rapidly isolated. Intracardiac and paratracheal ganglion neurons were dissociated after digestion by collagenase and trypsin. Whole-cell patch clamp recording was used to identify the pharmacological properties of P2X receptors in cultured neurons. Results:Neurons from these two ganglia responded to ATP with a rapidly activating, sustained inward current. Αβ-meATP failed to evoke any responses in paratracheal ganglion neurons while a few of intracardiac ganglion neurons responded to αβ-meATP with a tiny sustained inward current. ADP and UTP had no effect on intracardiac neurons. Lowering pH potentiated ATP responses in neurons from these two ganglia whereas increasing pH inhibited ATP responses. Co-application of Zn2+ potentiated ATP responses in intracardiac and paratracheal ganglion neurons. Conclusion: The receptor subtypes involved in intracardiac and paratracheal ganglia appear to be homomeric P2X2, while heteromeric P2X2/3 could not be completely excluded from intracardiac neurons.

  3. Compact Hybrid Subsystem of 16 Channel Optical Demultiplexer, 2x2 Switches, Optical Power Monitors and Control Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenichiro; Takahashi; Toshihiko; Kishimoto; Shintaro; Mouri; Youichi; Hata; Hideaki; Yusa; Mitsuaki; Tamura; Kazuhito; Saito; Hisao; Maki

    2003-01-01

    A compact hybrid subsystem of 16channel optical demultiplexer, 2x2 switches, optical power monitors and control circuit board is developed. The subsystem is able to add or drop arbitrary optical channels and monitor the optical power level by software commands. The size of the subsystem is 170x200x30(mm).

  4. Studies on the EPR g factors for the oxygenated and nonoxygenated BaCuO{sub 2+x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yong-Kun, E-mail: ykcheng166@126.com; Wu, Shao-Yi; Ding, Chang-Chun; Zhang, Li-Juan

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The EPR spectra and local structures are studied for Cu{sup 2+} in BaCuO{sub 2+x} systems. • Cu{sup 2+} suffers axial elongations and planar distance variations of Jahn–Teller nature. • Ligand contributions are important and considered due to obvious covalency. • Lower Δg′ than Cu{sup 2+} in R123 systems may help to distinguish BaCuO{sub 2+x} EPR spectra from hosts. - Abstract: The EPR g factors for the oxygenated and nonoxygenated BaCuO{sub 2+x} are theoretically studied from the perturbation formulas of the g factors for an orthorhombically elongated octahedral 3d{sup 9} complex based on the cluster approach. The relative axial elongation ratios (≈1% and 0.6%) along c axis and the relative planar bond length variations (≈6.9% and 8.9%) are found for the oxygenated and nonoxygenated systems, respectively. The above local orthorhombic distortions of the Jahn–Teller nature around Cu{sup 2+} can suitably account for the axial and perpendicular anisotropies of the observed g factors. The present studies can be useful to understand the influences of this parasitic phase BaCuO{sub 2+x} on the EPR behaviours and superconductivity of the R123 high T{sub c} superconductors.

  5. Neutron diffraction and TSDC on Ba1−xUxF2+2x solid electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouwerkerk, M.; Andersen, N. H.; Veldkamp, F. F.;

    1986-01-01

    The defect structure of fluorite-type Ba1−xUxF2+2x solid solutions, which exhibit fast fluoride ion conductivity, has been investigated by quasi-elastic diffuse neutron scattering (QDNS) experiments, and thermally stimulated depolarisation current (TSDC) measurements. A comparison with model...

  6. P2X7受体敲除对小鼠骨癌痛的影响%Effect of P2X7 receptor knock-out on bone cancer pain in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵欣; 刘慧珠; 张玉秋

    2016-01-01

    癌痛是临床晚期恶性肿瘤患者常见的临床表现之一.其中,以肺癌、乳腺癌和前列腺癌等骨转移引起疼痛尤为严重.P2X7受体是ATP门控离子通道型嘌呤能受体的一个亚型,在脊髓背角主要表达在胶质细胞.P2X7受体激活可以促进胶质细胞释放多种炎症介质,介导脊髓中枢敏化.该受体在炎症痛及神经病理性疼痛中的作用已多有报道,但在癌痛中的作用尚有争议.本研究采用C57BL/6J小鼠股骨骨髓腔内接种Lewis肺癌细胞所诱导的骨癌痛小鼠模型,分析对比了野生型小鼠和P2X7受体基因敲除(P2rx7-/-)小鼠骨癌痛的发生、发展.野生型C57BL/6J小鼠股骨骨髓腔内接种Lewis肺癌细胞后,患侧后肢分别在第7和14天开始出现明显的触诱发痛和热痛过敏,并呈进行性加重;CatWalk步态分析显示骨癌第21和28天,小鼠患侧脚印面积明显减小,站立时相持续时间缩短,举步时相持续时间显著延长;组织病理学结果显示受累骨骨髓腔有大量肿瘤细胞浸润,骨髓质正常结构消失,伴有髓质骨和皮质骨的破坏.与研究设计时的预期相反,P2rx 7-/-小鼠接种瘤细胞后,患肢痛行为检测结果与野生型小鼠相似,甚至在CatWalk步态分析检测值变化发生的时间上较野生小鼠有所提前.这与本研究组前期在大鼠骨癌痛模型观察到的阻断P2X7受体明显对抗骨癌痛的结果完全不同,提示P2X7受体在大、小鼠骨癌痛中可能发挥不同的作用,并再次提示疾病动物模型上的研究结果与人类疾病机理之间还存在巨大差异.%Cancer pain is one of the most common symptoms in patients with late stage cancer.Lung,breast and prostate carcinoma are the most common causes of pain from osseous metastasis.P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is one of the subtypes ofATP-gated pudnergic ion channel family,predominately distributed in microglia in the spinal cord.Activation of P2X7Rs in the spinal dorsal horn has been

  7. RuO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O/NiO composites as electrodes for electrochemical capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pico, Fernando [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, c/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Ibanez, Joaquin [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CSIC, Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Centeno, Teresa A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, c/Francisco Pintado Fe 26, Apartado 73, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Pecharroman, Carlos [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, c/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Rojas, Rosa M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, c/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Amarilla, Jose M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, c/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Rojo, Jose M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, c/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: jmrojo@icmm.csic.es

    2006-06-05

    RuO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O/NiO composites having RuO{sub 2} contents in the range 0-100 wt.% have been prepared by a co-precipitation method. Structural, microstructural and textural transformations after heating the as-prepared composites at 200 and 600 deg. C have been followed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. At 200 deg. C the composites are made of micrometric particles in which nanometric crystallites of the two oxides are aggregated. The composites show microporosity (0.02-0.10 cm{sup 3}/g), mesoporosity (0.07-0.12 cm{sup 3}/g) and relatively high specific surface area (62-309 m{sup 2}/g). At 600 deg. C the composites are fully dehydrated and RuO{sub 2} has crystallized and segregated. Microporosity and mesoporosity as well as specific surface area are strongly decreased. Specific capacitance and specific surface area of the composites heated at 200 and 600 deg. C have been measured and discussed on the basis of the RuO{sub 2} content. For comparison the specific capacitance and specific surface area of mixtures of NiO and RuO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O (or RuO{sub 2}) have been taken as references. The higher specific capacitance of the 200 deg. C-heated composites compared to the 600 deg. C-heated ones is due to the higher specific surface area of the former and the higher pseudocapacitance of RuO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O compared to RuO{sub 2}. The discussion reported in this work can be applied to other composites such as RuO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O/carbon and RuO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O/other oxides.

  8. Preparation of ZnO:CeO2-x thin films by AP-MOCVD: Structural and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of columnar CeO2, ZnO and ZnO:CeO2-x films on quartz and AA6066 aluminum alloy substrates by economic atmospheric pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (AP-MOCVD) is reported. A novel and efficient combination of metal acetylacetonate precursors as well as mild operating conditions were used in the deposition process. The correlation among crystallinity, surface morphology and optical properties of the as-prepared films was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The synthesized films showed different crystallographic orientations depending on the ZnO and CeO2 lattice mismatch, cerium content and growth rate. The CeO2 films synthesized in this work showed plate-like compact structures as a result of the growth process typical of CVD. Both pure and ZnO:CeO2-x films were obtained with a hexagonal structure and highly preferred orientation with the c-axis perpendicular to both substrates under the optimal deposition conditions. The microstructure was modified from dense, short round columns to round structures with cavities ('rose-flower-like' structures) and the typical ZnO morphology by controlling the cerium doping the film and substrate nature. High optical transmittance (>87%) was observed in the pure ZnO films. As for the ZnO:CeO2-x films, the optical transmission was decreased and the UV absorption increased, which subsequently was affected by an increase in cerium content. This paper assesses the feasibility of using ZnO:CeO2-x thin films as UV-absorbers in industrial applications. - Graphical abstract: TEM micrographs and their corresponding SAED pattern obtained for the as-deposited ZnO-CeO2-x thin films for a Zn/Ce metallic ratio 16:9.

  9. Preparation of Cu2-xS Nanotubes and Their Surface Photovoltaic Properties%Cu2-xS纳米管的制备及其表面光电性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖鑫; 杨峰; 蒲明华; 赵勇

    2011-01-01

    为了研究CuS纳米材料在光电领域中的应用,采用水热法合成Cu2-xS纳米管,用X射线衍射仪、扫描电镜表征产物的结构和形貌.在25℃下测试了Cu2-xS纳米管的光吸收性能,利用紫外可见吸收光谱、表面光电压谱和场诱导表面光电压谱,研究其表面光电性质及光伏响应随电场变化的规律.结果表明:合成的Cu2-xS纳米管外径为325~675 nm,管壁厚为70~125 nm,长度为10~20μm;在300~800 nm紫外可见光谱范围内,存在两个吸收区域,场诱导表面光电压谱表明所制备的样品为n-型半导体.%In order to explore the photoelectric applications of CuS materials, copper sulfide (Cu2-xS) nanotubes were prepared via hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology of the Cu2-xS were characterized with X-ray diffraction ( XRD) and scanning electron microscopy ( SEM ). The surface optoelectronic properties of the products and their photovoltaic properties in varying electric field were investigated by UV-vis spectrophotometer, surface photovoltage spectrum ( SPS) , and field-induced surface photovoltage spectroscopy ( FISPS). The results show that the outer diameter, thickness, and length of the nanotubes are 325-675 nm, 70-125 nm, and 10-20 μm, respectively. There are two absorption areas in the wavelength range of 300-800 nm according to the UV-vis spectrum. The FISPS shows that the copper sulfide (Cu2-xS) nanotubes are n-type semiconductor.

  10. Preparation and antibacterial properties of nano-TiO2-xNx film%纳米TiO2-xNx薄膜的制备及抗菌性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 曹宝成; 王育华; 刘斌

    2012-01-01

    Objective To prepare a nano-TiO2 film and characterize its antibacterial properties for dental application. Methods The TiO2-xNx, antibacterial film was prepared by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The crystal structure and surface morphology of the film were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and EDS, and the antibacterial properties of the film against common dental pathogenic bacteria were evaluated. Results The TiO2-xNx antibacterial film presented with an anatase phase with a mass ratio of nitrogen of 0.13% and compact and smooth surface. Antibacterial assay of the film showed a resistance rate of 97.79% against Streptococcus mutatis, 49.42% against Actinomyces viscosus, and 96.84% against Candida albicans. Conclusion The nano-TiO2-xNx film shows strong antibacterial effects against common dental pathogenic bacteria and can be used as a novel antibacterial dental material.%目的 利用TiO2的抗菌特性,开发一种能够应用于口腔的无机抗菌材料.方法 采用射频磁控溅射法在医用不锈钢表面制备TiO2xNx薄膜,用XRD、SEM、EDS等测试手段表征薄膜的结构、形貌、组成,并通过覆膜法利用口腔常见致病菌考察TiO2-xNx薄膜的抗菌性能.结果 纳米TiO22-xNx抗菌薄膜为锐钛矿相结构,氮元素质量比为0.13%,表面结构均匀致密,对变形链球菌、粘性放线菌及白色念珠菌的抗菌率分别为97.79%、49.42%和96.84%.结论 纳米TiO2-xNx抗菌薄膜对口腔常见致病菌具有较强的抗菌效果,可作为一种新型抗菌剂应用于口腔临床.

  11. New multiferroics BiFe{sub 1−2x}Al{sub x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} nanoparticles: Synthesis and evaluation of various structural, physical, electrical, dielectric and magnetic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Bashir [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Mahmood, Azhar [Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University, Bahawalpur (Pakistan); Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem, E-mail: naeembzu@bzu.edu.pk [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Malana, Muhammad Aslam; Najam-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ehsan, Muhammad Fahad [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Warsi, Muhammad Farooq [Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University, Bahawalpur (Pakistan); Shakir, Imran, E-mail: mshakir@ksu.edu.sa [Deanship of scientific research, College of Engineering, King Saud University, PO Box 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); BK 21 Physics Research Division, Department of Energy Science, Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-25

    Graphical abstract: Nanostructures multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3} and its derivatives BiFe{sub 1−2x}Al{sub x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} in the range of 30–50 nm were fabricated by wet chemical route exhibited very high coercivity values and relatively small values of saturation magnetization and retentivity. -- Highlights: • New nanostructured derivatives of BiFeO{sub 3} were prepared by cheap method. • The rhombohedral structures of BiFe{sub 1−2x}Al{sub x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} were established. • The electrical resistivity was increased from 8 × 10{sup 8} to 48 × 10{sup 8} ohm cm. • The magnetic properties of the materials also enhanced by the substituents. -- Abstract: Nanostructures multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3} and its derivatives BiFe{sub 1−2x}Al{sub x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} are synthesized by a simple co-precipitation route. FTIR and XRD data confirms the rhombohedral structure and crystallite size is found in the range of 30–50 nm. The surface morphology change from round shaped particles to sheets form. The electrical resistivity is increased while the dielectric parameters decreased with the substituents. The BiFeO{sub 3} shows week ferromagnetic behavior and have high coercivity (Hc = 2590.3 G). The coercivity decreased from 2.59 × 10{sup 3} to 0. 211 × 10{sup 3} G with the increase in Al–Mn contents, while the saturation magnetization is found to increase from 0.030 to 0.056 emu g{sup −1} up to x = 0.3 and then decreased. The measured electrical, dielectric and magnetic parameters suggest that these materials can be utilized for fabricating the nano-devices working at very high frequencies as well as in data storage electronics devices.

  12. A Remark on Euler’s Generating Polynomial 2x2+pq%关于Euler生成多项多2x2+pq的一个注记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷晓斌; 黄丹丹

    2011-01-01

    Let Ω( n ) be the number of prime factors (counting multiplicity) of the positive integer n. Put EK = max {Ω(2x2 + pq):x ∈ Z ∩ [0,pq- 1]}. In this paper, it is proved that an imaginary quadratic field K = Q(√(- 2pq)), where p,q are different odd positive primes, has class group isomorphic to Z/2Z (○+) Z/2Z if and only if Ek = 2.%假设Ω(n)为正整数n的素因子个数,K=Q(√(- 2pq)),p,q互不相同的奇素数,为虚二次域,记EK=max{Ω(2x2+pq);x∈z ∩[0,pq-1]}.本文证明了Cl(K)≌Z/2Z(○+)Z/2Z当且仅当EK=2.

  13. Infrared criminalistic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibin, Igor S.; Savkov, E. V.; Popov, Pavel G.

    1996-12-01

    We are presenting the devices of near-IR spectral range in this report. The devices may be used in criminalistics, in bank business, in restoration works, etc. the action principle of these devices is describing briefly.

  14. Intrauterine devices (IUD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007635.htm Intrauterine devices (IUD) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small plastic T-shaped device used ...

  15. Medical Device Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    A medical device is any product used to diagnose, cure, or treat a condition, or to prevent disease. They ... may need one in a hospital. To use medical devices safely Know how your device works. Keep ...

  16. The gas sensitive material Cr (2-x) Ti (x) O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Dirk

    Chromium titanium oxide (CTO) is a recently discovered gas sensor material that is capable of detecting small concentrations of toxic or flammable gases in air with stability of performance over the short and long-term and minor influences of variations of humidity. CTO is the first new material to be successfully commercialised in large-volume manufacture for sensing of hydrocarbons, VOCs, hydrogen and carbon monoxide at low (ppm) concentrations in air since the introduction of SnO2 for this purpose in the 1960s. The main focus of this thesis lies in the systematic investigation of this material in order to develop a detailed theoretical understanding of the gas response mechanism. CTO was prepared by solid-state reaction of Cr2O3 and TiO2 in air at 1000C. It crystallises in a solid solution with the general formula Cr2-xTixO3. The phase limit is at x ~ 0.3-0.4. Above the phase limit a 2-phase mixture with CrTiO3 is found. Substitution of Ti strongly decreases the electrical conductivity of the porous bodies studied. This effect, and the surface segregation of Ti, controls the gas sensor behaviour. Atomistic simulations have been performed on the (0001) and (1012) face to assess defect models for pure- and titanium doped Cr2O3. In the absence of titanium, one stable defect is a CrVI - Vcr" pair, which segregates to the (0001) surface and contributes to the relatively high p-type conductivity shown by finely porous bodies of Cr2O3 at elevated temperature; with titanium addition, a stable defect, segregated on both of the investigated surfaces, is the complex (TiIV)3Vcr". The proportion of surface CrVI is decreased. Surface studies of Cr2O3 have been performed extensively in the literature because it adsorbs oxygen and catalyses combustion of hydrocarbons. Whilst Cr2O3 shows a good combustion rate of CO to CO2 but only a small gas response, titanium doped Cr2O3 behaves the opposite way. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the chromium 2p3/2 core states show a

  17. NACA Aircraft on Lakebed - D-558-2, X-1B, and X-1E

    Science.gov (United States)

    1955-01-01

    Early NACA research aircraft on the lakebed at the High Speed Research Station in 1955: Left to right: X-1E, D-558-2, X-1B There were four versions of the original Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Supersonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on January 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On October 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager, became the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound, reaching about 700 miles per hour (Mach 1.06) and an altitude of 43,000 feet. The number 2 X-1 was modified and redesignated the X-1E. The modifications included adding a conventional canopy, an ejection seat, a low-pressure fuel system

  18. In search of selective P2 receptor ligands: interaction of dihydropyridine derivatives at recombinant rat P2X(2) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, K A; Kim, Y C; King, B F

    2000-07-01

    1,4-Dihydropyridines are regarded as privileged structures for drug design, i.e. they tend to bind to a wide variety of receptor sites. We have shown that upon appropriate manipulation of the substituent groups on a 1,4-dihydropyridine template, high affinity and selectivity for the A(3) subtype of adenosine receptors ('P1 receptors') may be attained. In the present study we have begun to extend this approach to P2 receptors which are activated by ATP and other nucleotides. Nicardipine, a representative dihydropyridine, used otherwise as an L-type calcium channel blocker, was shown to be an antagonist at recombinant rat P2X(2) (IC(50)=25 microM) and P2X(4) (IC(50) approximately 220 microM) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Thus, this class of compounds represents a suitable lead for enhancement of affinity through chemical synthesis. In an attempt to modify the 1,4-dihydropyridine structure with a predicted P2 receptor recognition moiety, we have replaced one of the ester groups with a negatively charged phosphonate group. Several 4-phenyl-5-phosphonato-1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives, MRS 2154 (2, 6-dimethyl), MRS 2155 (6-methyl-2-phenyl), and MRS 2156 (2-methyl-6-phenyl), were synthesized through three component condensation reactions. These derivatives were not pure antagonists of the effects of ATP at P2X(2) receptors, rather were either inactive (MRS 2156) or potentiated the effects of ATP in a concentration-dependent manner (MRS 2154 in the 0.3-10 microM range and MRS 2155 at >1 microM). Antagonism of the effects of ATP at P2X(2) receptor superimposed on the potentiation was also observed at >10 microM (MRS 2154) or 0.3-1 microM (MRS 2155). Thus, while a conventional dihydropyridine, nicardipine, was found to antagonize rat P2X(2) receptors ninefold more potently than P2X(4) receptors, the effects of novel, anionic 5-phosphonate analogues at the receptor were more complex.

  19. In search of selective P2 receptor ligands: interaction of dihydropyridine derivatives at recombinant rat P2X2 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Kim, Yong-Chul; King, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    1,4-Dihydropyridines are regarded as privileged structures for drug design, i.e. they tend to bind to a wide variety of receptor sites. We have shown that upon appropriate manipulation of the substituent groups on a 1,4-dihydropyridine template, high affinity and selectivity for the A3 subtype of adenosine receptors (‘P1 receptors’) may be attained. In the present study we have begun to extend this approach to P2 receptors which are activated by ATP and other nucleotides. Nicardipine, a representative dihydropyridine, used otherwise as an L-type calcium channel blocker, was shown to be an antagonist at recombinant rat P2X2 (IC50 = 25 μM) and P2X4 (IC50 ~ 220 μM) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Thus, this class of compounds represents a suitable lead for enhancement of affinity through chemical synthesis. In an attempt to modify the 1,4-dihydropyridine structure with a predicted P2 receptor recognition moiety, we have replaced one of the ester groups with a negatively charged phosphonate group. Several 4-phenyl-5-phosphonato-1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives, MRS 2154 (2,6-dimethyl), MRS 2155 (6-methyl-2-phenyl), and MRS 2156 (2-methyl-6-phenyl), were synthesized through three component condensation reactions. These derivatives were not pure antagonists of the effects of ATP at P2X2 receptors, rather were either inactive (MRS 2156) or potentiated the effects of ATP in a concentration-dependent manner (MRS 2154 in the 0.3–10 μM range and MRS 2155 at >1 μM). Antagonism of the effects of ATP at P2X2 receptor superimposed on the potentiation was also observed at >10 μM (MRS 2154) or 0.3–1 μM (MRS 2155). Thus, while a conventional dihydropyridine, nicardipine, was found to antagonize rat P2X2 receptors ninefold more potently than P2X4 receptors, the effects of novel, anionic 5-phosphonate analogues at the receptor were more complex. PMID:10869714

  20. Implantable electronic medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Implantable Electronic Medical Devices provides a thorough review of the application of implantable devices, illustrating the techniques currently being used together with overviews of the latest commercially available medical devices. This book provides an overview of the design of medical devices and is a reference on existing medical devices. The book groups devices with similar functionality into distinct chapters, looking at the latest design ideas and techniques in each area, including retinal implants, glucose biosensors, cochlear implants, pacemakers, electrical stimulation t

  1. Resistance Fluctuation Spectroscopy of Charge Stripes and Intertwined Orders in the Phase Diagram of La2-xBaxCuO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Adam; Fizari, Mounir; Hamilton, David; Wells, Azton; Lane, Justin; Chung, So Ra; Sellappan, Pathikumar; Kriven, Waltraud; van Harlingen, Dale

    The unusual phase diagram of La2-xBaxCuO4 (LBCO) near x=1/8 doping suggests a complex intertwined relationship between high-temperature superconductivity, charge stripes, spin order, and phase coherence. The charge stripe state's short-range conductance anisotropy may be observable as fluctuations in resistance. In thin film LBCO devices grown by pulsed laser deposition, our time-resolved resistance measurements have revealed an onset of resistance noise at dopings and critical temperatures consistent with charge stripes. The phase diagram of LBCO is explored by comparing the noise onset signature of charge order to measurements of superconductivity, the Hall effect, and other phenomena. I will briefly discuss the relevance of our results in LBCO thin films and crystals to a proposed ''pair-density-wave'' state near x=1/8. This research was supported by the DOE-BES under Grant DE-SC0012368, through the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. SRC was sponsored by NSF-REU 13-59126.

  2. Ultraefficient Themoelectric Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermoelectric (TE) devices already found a wide range of commercial, military and aerospace applications. However, at present commercially available TE devices...

  3. The purinergic receptor P2X7 role in control of Dengue virus-2 infection and cytokine/chemokine production in infected human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Gladys; de A Lindenberg, Carolina; Fernandes-Santos, Caroline; Gandini, Mariana; Petitinga Paiva, Fabienne; Coutinho-Silva, Robson; F Kubelka, Claire

    2016-07-01

    Purinergic signaling has a crucial role in intracellular pathogen elimination. The P2X7 purinergic receptor (P2X7R), once activated by ATP, leads to pro-inflammatory responses including reactive oxygen species production. ATP can be released by injured cells, as endogenous danger signals. Dengue fever may evolve to a severe disease, leading to hypovolemic shock and coagulation dysfunctions as a result of a cytokine storm. Our aim was to evaluate the role of P2X7R activation during Dengue virus (DENV) infection. Extracellular ATP inhibited viral load in pretreated monocytes, as measured by NS1 secretion and by decrease in DENV(+) P2X7(+) cell frequencies, suggesting that P2X7R is involved in the antiviral response. Nitric oxide (NO) has anti-DENV properties and is decreased after DENV infection. NO production after ATP stimulation is abrogated by KN62 treatment, a specific P2X7R inhibitor, indicating that P2X7R likely is acting in the virus containment process. Additionally, TNF, CXCL8, CCL2 and CXCL10 factors that are associated with dengue severity were modulated by the P2X7R activation. We conclude that P2X7R is directly involved in the modulation of the antiviral and inflammatory process that occurs during DENV infection in vitro, and may have an important role in patient recovery in a first moment. PMID:26969484

  4. P2X7 receptor activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 independently of Ca2+ influx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amstrup, Jan; Novak, Ivana

    2003-01-01

    P2X7 nucleotide receptors modulate a spectrum of cellular events in various cells including epithelia, such as exocrine pancreas. Although the pharmacology and channel properties of the P2X7 receptors have been studied intensively, signal transduction pathways are relatively unknown. In this study...... we applied a heterologous expression system of rat P2X7 receptors in HEK-293 cells. We followed the receptor expression and function using the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) tag, activation of intracellular proteins and increases in cellular Ca2+. EGFP-P2X7 receptors localized...

  5. High-temperature Thermoelectric Properties of Cu-substituted Bi2Ba2Co2-xCuxOy Oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haoshan Hao; Huizhi Yan; Yongtao Liu; Xing Hu

    2011-01-01

    Cu-substituted Bi2Ba2Co2-xCuxOy (0.0≤x≤0.4) samples were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method and the effect of Cu substitution on the microstructure and thermoelectric properties were investigated. The partial substitution of Cu for Co in Bi2Ba2Co2-xCuxOy led to an increase in the electrical conductivity because of an increase in the hole concentration and grain size of sintered bodies. In addition,Cu substitution led to an increase in Seebeck coefficients while kept the thermal conductivity unchanged. The highest thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT value) was obtained in x=0.4 sample and the value was 1.5 times as large as that of Cu-free sample at 873 K.

  6. Evidence for two coupled subsystems in the superconducting state of La2-xSrxCuO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, S.; Schneider, M. L.; Onellion, M.; Zeng, X. H.; Si, Weidong; Xi, X. X.; Abrecht, M.; Ariosa, D.; Pavuna, D.; Ren, Y. H.; Lüpke, G.; Perakis, I.

    2001-12-01

    We used a pump-probe technique to measure the transient change of optical reflectivity of both La2-xSrxCuO4, of various dopings, and slightly underdoped YBa2Cu3O7-x and NdBa2Cu3O7-x thin films. For the La2-xSrxCuO4 films, our data demonstrate the coexistence, in the superconducting state, of two coupled subsystems with different relaxation times and different contributions to the optical reflectivity. One subsystem is associated with the superconducting phase. By contrast, the data from YBa2Cu3O7-x and NdBa2Cu3O7-x shows that the coupling between the two subsystems is weak or absent.

  7. Three-dimensional dispersion induced by extreme tensile strain in La2-xSrxCuO4 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloetta, D.; Ariosa, D.; Cancellieri, C.; Abrecht, M.; Mitrovic, S.; Pavuna, D.

    2006-07-01

    The electronic band structure probed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on thin epitaxial La2-xSrxCuO4 films under extreme tensile strain shows anomalous features compatible with c -axis dispersion. This result is in striking contrast with the usual quasi-two-dimensional (2D) dispersion observed up to now in most superconducting cuprates, including relaxed and compressively strained La2-xSrxCuO4 films grown under the same conditions. The data were analyzed using a 3D tight-binding dispersion for a body-centered-tetragonal lattice. We relate the enhancement of the c -axis dispersion to the significant displacement of the apical oxygen induced by epitaxial strain.

  8. Relation of structure, magnetism, doping and pressure in AFe2-xTxAs2 (T=Co,Rh,Ru)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an overview of our recent investigations on the SrFe2-xTxAs2 (T=Co,Ru,Rh) compounds. In our joint experimental and theoretical study, we report the influence of hydrostatic pressure and substitution at the Fe site on the magneto-structural and superconducting transitions. The magnetism is weakened upon the application of pressure as indicated by resistivity, X-ray data and density functional band structure calculations. Similar to substitution on the Sr site, substitutions on the Fe-site quench the magnetic transition and induce bulk superconductivity with Tc up to 20 K for ambient pressure and up to 27 K for underdoped SrFe2-xCoxAs2 for pressures of 2.6GPa. In our analysis, we attempt to disentangle the interplay of charge doping and structural changes induced by the substitution and by external pressure.

  9. Ferroelectricity-modulated resistive switching in Pt/Si:HfO2/HfO2-x /Pt memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Jiang; Xianghao, Du; Zuyin, Han

    2016-08-01

    It is investigated for the effect of a ferroelectric Si:HfO2 thin film on the resistive switching in a stacked Pt/Si:HfO2/highly-oxygen-deficient HfO2-x /Pt structure. Improved resistance performance was observed. It was concluded that the observed resistive switching behavior was related to the modulation of the width and height of a depletion barrier in the HfO2-x layer, which was caused by the Si:HfO2 ferroelectric polarization field effect. Reliable switching reproducibility and long data retention were observed in these memory cells, suggesting their great potential in non-volatile memories applications with full compatibility and simplicity. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11374182), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (No. ZR2012FQ012), and the Jinan Independent Innovation Projects of Universities (No. 201303019).

  10. Magnetism and associated exchange bias in Ni2-xCoxMn1.4Ga0.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapai, Ramakanta; Khan, Mahmud

    2016-04-01

    A series of Ni2-xCoxMn1.4Ga0.6 Heusler alloys have been systematically investigated by x-ray diffraction, dc magnetization, and ac susceptibility measurements. For all Co concentration, the alloys exhibit the L10 martensitic structure at room temperature. Interestingly, Co doping simultaneously causes a reduction in the ferromagnetic exchange interaction and enhancement of magnetic anisotropy in Ni2-xCoxMn1.4Ga0.6. Exchange bias effects under both zero field cooled and field cooled condition have been observed in all alloys for xground state from spin glass to super spin glass. The experimental results are explained considering the atomic radii of Ni and Co and the fundamental magnetic interactions in Heusler alloys.

  11. Stratigraphic model deposit Ofi Inf SDZ-2X A1, Jun in block in Orinoco Oil belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the Stratigraphic model deposit O fi I nf SDZ-2X A1, Junin block in Orinoco Oil belt.This model was based on a chrono stratigraphic interpretation and was defined the correlation between the main and secondary surfaces. The wells of the study area pass through the Cambrian, Cretaceous and Miocene sediments. The last is more interesting for the study because of the stratigraphic and sand body surface presence

  12. Electric conductivity of Ba1-xHoxF2+x solid solution with fluorite-like structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigations of electric conductivity of Ba1-xHoxF2+x (0.09≤x≤0.20) solid solution with fluorite structure in the 293 - 300K temperature range are performed. It has been found that the crystal conductivity of the BaF2 - HoF3 system is caused practically by temperature independent concentration of F- ions moving in a hopping way

  13. Exhaustive swimming differentially inhibits P2X1 receptor- and α1-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in isolated rat arteries

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lu; Wu, Tao; Wei, Cong; Han, Jian-Ke; Jia, Zhen-Hua; Wu, Yi-Ling; Ren, Lei-ming

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of exhaustive swimming exercise on P2X1 receptor- and α1-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction of different types of arteries in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: the sedentary control group (SCG) and the exhaustive swimming exercise group (ESEG). The rats in the ESEG were subjected to a swim to exhaustion once a day for 2 weeks. Internal carotid, caudal, pulmonary, mesenteric arteries and aorta were dissected out. Isometric vasoconst...

  14. Effect of ATP on intracellular pH in pancreatic ducts involves P2X7 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Katerine L; Novak, Ivana

    2003-01-01

    Pancreatic acini release ATP, which can stimulate HCO3--secreting ducts that express purinergic receptors from both P2X and P2Y families. The aim of this study was to investigate whether extracellular ATP affects HCO3- or H+ transport across the plasma membrane of intralobular ducts, and determine...... unmasked by cellular acidosis. Presumably, ATP alone does not stimulate HCO3- secretion in pancreatic ducts....

  15. Search for improved surface treatment procedures in fabrication of HgI/sub 2/ X-ray spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, A.; Burger, A.; Nissenbaum, J. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). School of Applied Science and Technology); Schieber, M. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). School of Applied Science and Technology; EG and G, Inc., Santa Barbara, CA (USA)); Burshtein, Z. (Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba. Nuclear Research Center-Negev)

    1983-07-15

    The influence of various fabrication parameters on the surface quality of HgI/sub 2/ X-ray spectrometers has been studied in detail. Exposure of etched HgI/sub 2/ to ambient atmosphere for proportional 24 h may reduce the electron surface recombination velocity by almost an order of magnitude. Reduction of the etching solution temperature (KI in water) to about 0/sup 0/C and an increase of the KI concentration to proportional 20 wt.% are also important.

  16. Search for improved surface treatment procedures in fabrication of HgI/sub 2/ x-ray spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, A.; Burger, A.; Nissenbaum, J.; Schieber, M.; Burshtein, Z.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of various fabrication parameters on the surface quality of HgI/sub 2/ x-ray spectrometers was studied in detail. Exposure of etched HgI/sub 2/ to ambient atmosphere for approx. 24 hours may reduce the electron surface recombination velocity by almost an order of magnitude. Reduction of the etching solution temperature (KI in water) to about 0/sup 0/C and an increase of the KI concentration to approx. 20 wt % are also important.

  17. Composition dependence of the band gap of CuInSsub(2x)Sesub(2(1-x))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The composition dependence of the band gap of CuInSsub(2x)Sesub(2(1-x)) solid solutions is studied by aid of infrared transmission spectra recorded at 77 K and 293 K. In the wavelength-modulated experiments the band gap was determined by the position of the maximum in the dI/dlambda spectrum and was found to change linearly with composition

  18. NiCr (x) Fe2-x O-4 as cathode materials for electrochemical reduction of NO (x)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bræstrup, Frantz Radzik; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Solid solutions of spinel-type oxides with the composition NiCr x Fe2-x O4 (x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0) were prepared with the glycine–nitrate combustion synthesis. Four-point DC resistivity measurements show an increase in the conductivity as more Cr is introduced into the structure, whereas...

  19. Structural and Thermoelectronic Properties of Chalcopyrite MgSiX2 (X = P, As, Sb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocak, B.; Ciftci, Y. O.; Surucu, G.

    2016-08-01

    We have explored the structural, electronic, optical, and mechanical properties of the magnesium-based chalcopyrites MgSiP2, MgSiAs2, and MgSiSb2 using density functional theory with five different generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functionals: Perdew-Wang (1991), Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof, revised Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof, modified Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof for solids, and Armiento-Mattson (2005) as well as the local density approximation. Change of the constituent element from P to Sb significantly affected the lattice constants, elastic constants, and thermal and dielectric properties. Our theoretically computed results are in reasonable agreement with experiments and other theoretical calculations. The electronic band structure results imply that all three considered compounds are semiconductors. MgSiP2 has the highest value of elastic constants, and bulk and shear moduli compared with the other two binary chalcopyrites. Furthermore, the optical response in terms of the dielectric functions, optical reflectivity, refractive index, extinction coefficient, and electron energy loss of the compounds were also investigated in the energy range from 0 eV to 15 eV. The calculated optical results reveal optical polarization anisotropy for all three compounds, making them useful for optoelectronic device applications. Moreover, specific focus is also given to quantify the dependence of various thermal properties on finite pressure/temperature within the quasiharmonic approximation.

  20. Integrated MSM-FET photoreceiver fabricated on MOCVD grown Hg2-xCdxTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on progress in the monolithic integration of a metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) detector and transimpedance amplifier and of a photoconductive detector (PCD) with a metal-semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) in Hg1-xCdxTe. The layers of CdTe/n-type Hg1-xCdxTe were grown by MOCVD on semi-insulating GaAs substrates (20 misoriented 100). Fabrication of the devices was by an FET planar process; with a standard lift-off used to form Schottky metallization on both the interdigitated electrodes of the MSM detector (2 μm width, 2 μm spacing) and the gate of the MESFETs (5μm length, 100μm width). The MSM photodetectors exhibited breakdown voltages in the range 60 to 80V, a dark current of 10na at 5V bias, and responsivities of >1.0 A/W measured at 40V using CW 1.3 μm illumination

  1. The Evolution of the Hidden Order Phase in URu2-xRexSi2 under Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, J. R.; Butch, N. P.; Yukich, B. T.; Maple, M. B.

    2007-03-01

    The heavy fermion compound URu2Si2 exhibits three distinct ordered states as a function of temperature and pressure: ``hidden order'' (HO), in which the order parameter has yet to be identified; antiferromagnetism (AFM), which seemingly develops out of the HO state at P function of pressure in the URu2-xRexSi2 system could provide clues to or constraints on the elusive order parameter of this HO phase. To this end, oriented single crystal samples of URu2-xRexSi2 with small values of x have been synthesized and investigated under nearly hydrostatic pressure via electrical resistivity measurements. While the SC in URu2-xRexSi2 is rapidly suppressed with Re concentration, the HO phase persists up to x ~ 0.1. The pressure dependence of the HO phase in this concentration range will be discussed along with possible consequences to the ordered states. This research was sponsored by the U.S. DOE under Research Grant No. DE-FG02-04ER46105 and by the U.S. NNSA under the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances program through DOE Research Grant No. DE-FG52-03NA00068.

  2. Competition between Band Filling and Steric Effect in Ordered Double Perovskites Sr2-xLaxMnMoO6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The ordered double perovskites, Sr2-xLaxMnMoO6, were prepared by sol-gel reaction. Structural, magnetic, and electrical properties were investigated for a series of ordered double perovskites Sr2-xLaxMnMoO6 (0≤x≤1). The compounds have a monoclinic structure (space group P21/n) and the cell volume expands monotonically with La doping. The TC and the magnetic moment rise and the cusp-like transition temperature below which the magnetic frustration occurs shifts to high temperature as x increases. With La doping, electrical resistivity of Sr2-xLaxMnMoO6 decreases only at low doping levels (x≤0.2); while at high doping levels (0.8≤x≤1), electrical resistivity tends to increase greatly. The results suggest that the competition between band filling effect and steric effect coexists in the whole doping range, and the formation of ferrimagnetic interactions is not simply at the expense of antiferromagnetic interactions.

  3. The P2X7 receptor regulates cell survival, migration and invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannuzzo, Andrea; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig; Novak, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is presently one of the cancers with the worst survival rates and least effective treatments. Moreover, total deaths due to PDAC are predicted to increase in the next 15 years. Therefore, novel insights into basic mechanism of PDAC development...... and therapies are needed. PDAC is characterized by a complex microenvironment, in which cancer and stromal cells release different molecules, such as ATP. ATP can be transported and/or exocytosed from active cancer cells and released from dying cells in the necrotic core of the cancer. We hypothesized that one...... of the ATP receptors, the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) could be an important player in PDAC behaviour. METHODS: We determined the expression (real time PCR and Western blot) and localization (immunofluorescence) of P2X7R in human PDAC cell lines (AsPC-1, BxPC-3, Capan-1, MiaPaCa-2, Panc-1) and a "normal" human...

  4. Heat Treatment of Nd1+xBa2-xCu3O7-δ Superconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊占国; 司平占; 苏大和

    2003-01-01

    Two kinds of Nd1+xBa2-xCu3O7-δ, the sintered samples and zone melted samples, were treated in pure Ar at 950 ℃. The substitution of Nd ions for Ba ions in the Nd1+xBa2-xCu3O7-δ before and after the heat treatment was investigated by XRD. In order to know the effects of heat treatment, the Tc and Jc of samples with and without the heat treatment in Ar were comparatively studied. The results show that the substitution of Nd for Ba decreases, whereas Tc and Jc increase after the treatment. The Nd1+xBa2-xCu3O7-δ samples were oxygenated in pure oxygen at 300 ℃. Based on the XRD spectra it was found that the samples with x<0.4 can transform from tetragonal phase into orthorhombic phase after the oxygenation, whereas in the sample with x>0.4 no phase transition occurs even after a long time oxygenation.

  5. Implantable CMOS Biomedical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko Noda

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of recent research on our implantable CMOS biomedical devices are reviewed. Topics include retinal prosthesis devices and deep-brain implantation devices for small animals. Fundamental device structures and characteristics as well as in vivo experiments are presented.

  6. Hip supporting device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for limiting movements in one or more anatomical joints, such as a device for limiting movement in the human hip joint after hip replacement surgery. This is provided by a device for limiting movement in the human hip joint, said device comprising: at least...

  7. Multiple roles of the extracellular vestibule amino acid residues in the function of the rat P2X4 receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos B Rokic

    Full Text Available The binding of ATP to trimeric P2X receptors (P2XR causes an enlargement of the receptor extracellular vestibule, leading to opening of the cation-selective transmembrane pore, but specific roles of vestibule amino acid residues in receptor activation have not been evaluated systematically. In this study, alanine or cysteine scanning mutagenesis of V47-V61 and F324-N338 sequences of rat P2X4R revealed that V49, Y54, Q55, F324, and G325 mutants were poorly responsive to ATP and trafficking was only affected by the V49 mutation. The Y54F and Y54W mutations, but not the Y54L mutation, rescued receptor function, suggesting that an aromatic residue is important at this position. Furthermore, the Y54A and Y54C receptor function was partially rescued by ivermectin, a positive allosteric modulator of P2X4R, suggesting a rightward shift in the potency of ATP to activate P2X4R. The Q55T, Q55N, Q55E, and Q55K mutations resulted in non-responsive receptors and only the Q55E mutant was ivermectin-sensitive. The F324L, F324Y, and F324W mutations also rescued receptor function partially or completely, ivermectin action on channel gating was preserved in all mutants, and changes in ATP responsiveness correlated with the hydrophobicity and side chain volume of the substituent. The G325P mutant had a normal response to ATP, suggesting that G325 is a flexible hinge. A topological analysis revealed that the G325 and F324 residues disrupt a β-sheet upon ATP binding. These results indicate multiple roles of the extracellular vestibule amino acid residues in the P2X4R function: the V49 residue is important for receptor trafficking to plasma membrane, the Y54 and Q55 residues play a critical role in channel gating and the F324 and G325 residues are critical for vestibule widening.

  8. SORPTION OF ARSENATE AND ARSENITE ON RUO2 X H2O: ANALYSIS OF SORBED PHASE OXIDATION STATE BY XANES IN ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE ACTIVITY REPORT 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sorption reactions of arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) on RuO2 x H2O were examined by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) to elucidate the solid state speciation of sorbed As. At all pH values studied (pH 4-8), RuO2 x H

  9. The penultimate arginine of the carboxy terminus determines slow desensitisation in a P2X receptor from the cattle tick Boophilus microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    P2X ion channels have been functionally characterised from a range of eukaryotes. Whilst these receptors can be broadly classified into fast and slow desensitising, the molecular mechanisms underlying current desensitisation are not fully understood. Here we describe the characterisation of a P2X ch...

  10. Car2x with software defined networks, network functions virtualization and supercomputers technical and scientific preparations for the Amsterdam Arena telecoms fieldlab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer R.J.; Cushing R.; De Laat C.; Jackson P.; Klous S.; Koning R.; Makkes M.X.; Meerwijk A.

    2015-01-01

    In the invited talk 'Car2x with SDN, NFV and supercomputers' we report about how our past work with SDN [1, 2] allows the design of a smart mobility fieldlab in the huge parking lot the Amsterdam Arena. We explain how we can engineer and test software that handle the complex conditions of the Car2X

  11. Preparation of nano-Cr2-xAlxO3 (x = 0-1) solid solution powders by using citrate-dispersant method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of nano-Cr2-xAlxO3 (x = 0-1) solid solution powders were prepared by sol-gel-chelating processing with citrate-dispersant method. The crystalline structure and size of the Cr2-xAlxO3 powders were determined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It was demonstrated that the crystalline size of the Cr2-xAlxO3 powders decreases from 33 nm to 13 nm with an increase in the amount of Al2O3 substitution. The aluminum in the lattice of the Cr2-xAlxO3 can effectively prevent the crystalline growth of the Cr2-xAlxO3 powders during calcining at higher temperature.

  12. Expression of the ATP-gated P2X7 Receptor on M Cells and Its Modulating Role in the Mucosal Immune Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sae-Hae; Lee, Ha-Yan; Jang, Yong-Suk

    2015-02-01

    Interactions between microbes and epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract are closely associated with regulation of intestinal mucosal immune responses. Recent studies have highlighted the modulation of mucosal immunity by microbe-derived molecules such as ATP and short-chain fatty acids. In this study, we undertook to characterize the expression of the ATP-gated P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) on M cells and its role in gastrointestinal mucosal immune regulation because it was poorly characterized in Peyer's patches, although purinergic signaling via P2X7R and luminal ATP have been considered to play an important role in the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we present the first report on the expression of P2X7R on M cells and characterize the role of P2X7R in immune enhancement by ATP or LL-37. PMID:25713508

  13. P2X2 Receptor Terminal Field Demarcates a "Transition Zone" for Gustatory and Mechanosensory Processing in the Mouse Nucleus Tractus Solitarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breza, Joseph M; Travers, Susan P

    2016-07-01

    Peripheral gustatory neurons express P2X2 purinergic receptors and terminate in the rostral portion of the nucleus tractus solitarius (rNTS), but a relationship between the P2X2 terminal field and taste evoked activity has not been established. Additionally, a portion of somatosensory neurons from the trigeminal nerve, which are devoid of P2X2 expression, also terminate in the lateral rNTS. We hypothesized that P2X2 receptor expression on afferent nerve endings could be used as an anatomical tool for segregating gustatory from mechanosensory responsive regions in the mouse rNTS. C57BL/6 mice were used to record extracellular activity from neurons within the rNTS and the laterally adjacent reticular formation and trigeminal nucleus. Histological reconstruction of electrolytic lesions indicated that gustatory activity coincided with electrode tracks that traversed through P2X2 terminal fields. Gustatory recordings made more rostral in the rNTS had receptive fields located in the anterior oral cavity (AO), whereas gustatory recordings made more caudal in the rNTS had receptive fields located in the posterior oral cavity (PO). Mechanosensory neurons with AO receptive fields were recorded near the lateral border of the P2X2 terminal field and became numerous on electrode tracks made lateral to the P2X2 terminal field. In contrast, mechanosensory responses with PO receptive fields were recorded within the P2X2 terminal field along with gustatory activity and transitioned to mechanosensory only outside the P2X2 terminal field. Collectively, our results indicate that the lateral border of the P2X2 terminal field, demarcates a faithful "transition zone," where AO responses transition from gustatory to mechanosensory. PMID:27131102

  14. Dispersion of the second harmonic generation from CdGa2X4 (X = S, Se) defect chalcopyrite: DFT calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nonlinear optical properties of CdGa2X4 (X = S, Se) were investigated. • The compounds have large uniaxial anisotropy and large negative birefringence. • The second order susceptibility and the first hyperpolarizability were calculated. • CdGa2Se4 posses huge second harmonic generation. - Abstract: All electron full potential linear augmented plane wave method was used for calculating the nonlinear optical susceptibilities of CdGa2X4 (X = S, Se) within the framework of density functional theory. The exchange correlation potential was solved by recently developed modified Becke and Johnson (mBJ) approximation. The crystal structure of CdGa2S4 and CdGa2Se4 reveals a large uniaxial dielectric anisotropy ensuing the birefringence of −0.036 and −0.066 which make it suitable for second harmonic generation. The second order susceptibility |χijk(2)(ω)| and microscopic first hyperpolarizability βijk(ω) were calculated. The calculated |χ123(2)(ω)| and |χ312(2)(ω)| static values for the dominant components found to be 18.36 pm/V and 22.23 pm/V for CdGa2S4 and CdGa2Se4. Both values shifted to be 60.12 pm/V and 108.86 pm/V at λ = 1064 nm. The calculated values of β123(ω) is 6.47 × 10−30 esu at static limit and 12.42 × 10−30 esu at λ = 1064 nm for CdGa2S4, whereas it is 8.82 × 10−30 esu at static limit and 20.51 × 10−30 esu at λ = 1064 nm for CdGa2Se4. The evaluation of second order susceptibilities and first hyperpolarizabilties suggest that CdGa2X4 possess huge second harmonic generation

  15. Exhaustive swimming differentially inhibits P2X1 receptor- and α1-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in isolated rat arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu LI; Tao WU; Cong WEI; Jian-ke HAN; Zhen-hua JIA; Yi-ling WU; Lei-ming REN

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the effects of exhaustive swimming exercise on P2X1 receptor- and α1-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction of different types of arteries in rats.Methods:Male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups:the sedentary control group (SCG) and the exhaustive swimming exercise group (ESEG).The rats in the ESEG were subjected to a swim to exhaustion once a day for 2 weeks.Internal carotid,caudal,pulmonary,mesenteric arteries and aorta were dissected out.Isometric vasoconstrictive responses of the arteries to α,β-methylene ATP (α,β-MeATP) or noradrenaline (NA) were recorded using a polygraph.Results:The exhaustive swimming exercise did not produce significant change in the EC5o values of α,β-MeATP or NA in vasoconstrictive response of most of the arteries studied.The exhaustive swimming exercise inhibited the vasoconstrictive responses to P2X1 receptor activation in the internal carotid artery,whereas it reduced the maximal vasoconstrictive responses to α1-adrenoceptor stimulation in the caudal,pulmonary,mesenteric arteries and aorta.The rank order of the reduction of the maximal vasoconstriction was as follows:mesenteric,pulmonary,caudal,aorta.Conclusion:Exhaustive swimming exercise differentially affects the P2X1 receptor- and α1-adrenoceptor-regulated vasoconstriction in internal carotid artery and peripheral arteries.The ability to preserve purinergic vasoconstriction in the peripheral arteries would be useful to help in maintenance of the basal vascular tone during exhaustive swimming exercise.

  16. NLRP3 inflammasome as a target of berberine in experimental murine liver injury: interference with P2X7 signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivoli, Elisa; Cappon, Andrea; Milani, Stefano; Piombanti, Benedetta; Provenzano, Angela; Novo, Erica; Masi, Alessio; Navari, Nadia; Narducci, Roberto; Mannaioni, Guido; Moneti, Gloriano; Oliveira, Claudia P; Parola, Maurizio; Marra, Fabio

    2016-10-01

    Berberine (BRB) is commonly used in herbal medicine, but its mechanisms of action are poorly understood. In the present study, we tested BRB in steatohepatitis induced by a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet, in acute acetaminophen intoxication and in cultured murine macrophages. BRB markedly improved parameters of liver injury and necroinflammation induced by the MCD diet, although increased mortality was observed by mechanisms independent of bacterial infections or plasma levels of BRB. The MCD diet induced up-regulation of all components of the NLRP3 (NACHT, LRR and PYD domain-containing protein 3) inflammasome, and increased hepatic levels of mature IL-1β (interleukin 1β). All of these parameters were significantly reduced in mice treated with BRB. In mice administered an acetaminophen overdose, a model dependent on inflammasome activation, BRB reduced mortality and ALT (alanine aminotransferase) elevation, and limited the expression of inflammasome components. In vitro, LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in RAW264.7 murine macrophages was markedly decreased by pre-incubation with BRB. BRB significantly limited the activation of the purinergic receptor P2X7, involved in the late phases of inflammasome activation. Upon P2X7 knockdown, the ability of BRB to block LPS-induced secretion of IL-1β was lost. These data indicate that administration of BRB ameliorates inflammation and injury in two unrelated murine models of liver damage. We demonstrate for the first time that BRB interferes with activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway in vivo and in vitro, through a mechanism based on interference with activation of P2X7, a purinergic receptor involved in inflammasome activation. PMID:27439970

  17. Effect of synthesis route on structural, morphological properties of Ce0.8Y0.2-xLaxO2 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, the solid solutions with a chemical composition of Ce0.8Y0.2-xLaxO2 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2) were synthesized via two routes, by hydrothermal method using NaOH as precipitating agent at 230°C for 15 h and by the sol–gel process using citric acid as chelating agent. Compounds have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques for appropriate characterization of the distinct thermal events occurring during synthesis. All the compounds crystallize in cubic fluorite structure. The ceria lattice expands depending on the ionic radii of the dopant cations, as indicated by X-ray diffraction study. The sol–gel oxide Ce0.8Y0.1La0.1O2 exhibits a good thermal stability compared with hydrothermal oxide. The microstructure of oxides synthesized by sol–gel showed porosity which increased with the lanthanum La3+ contents and on the other side the hydrothermal method gives single crystal oxides. (author)

  18. The magnetic phase diagram of the spin-chain system Ca{sub 2+x}Y{sub 2-x}Cu{sub 5}O{sub 10-{delta}}: Oxygen hole-doping corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Keeseong [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1600, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)], E-mail: kspark@physics.utexas.edu; Lee, Yong J.; Markert, John T. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1600, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Recently, the antiferromagnetic transition temperature in the coupled spin-chain system Ca{sub 2+x}Y{sub 2-x}Cu{sub 5}O{sub 10-{delta}} was found to decrease with increasing x and disappear around x = 1.4 [K. Kubo, S. Kurogi, Y. Koike, T. Nishizaki, N. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. B 71 (2005) 104413]. We report the results of X-ray diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, and iodometric titration measurements, and find that such behavior corresponds to oxygen-deficient specimens. We propose that the correct phase diagram is a function of both cation doping and oxygen content, with hole concentration p = (x - 2{delta}) per formula unit. We find that the true phase transition occurs just below p = 1.0, corresponding to a hole concentration of 0.20 per copper. For example, for x = 1.00, the single crystals of Kubo et al. (2005) correspond to our polycrystalline specimens with {delta} = 0.37 (p = 0.26), a very large oxygen-defect effect. Such a composition has only a slightly suppressed Neel temperature, while for our fully oxygenated x = 1.00 samples, the antiferromagnetic transition is completely suppressed.

  19. Nonadiabatic dynamics of O(1D) + N2(X1Σg+) → O(3P) + N2(X1Σg+) on three coupled potential surfaces: symmetry, Coriolis, spin-orbit, and Renner-Teller effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defazio, Paolo; Gamallo, Pablo; Petrongolo, Carlo

    2012-02-01

    We present the spin-orbit (SO) and Renner-Teller (RT) quantum dynamics of the spin-forbidden quenching O((1)D) + N(2)(X(1)Σ(g)(+)) → O((3)P) + N(2)(X(1)Σ(g)(+)) on the N(2)O X(1)A', ã(3)A", and b(3)A' coupled PESs. We use the permutation-inversion symmetry, propagate coupled-channel (CC) real wavepackets, and compute initial-state-resolved probabilities and cross sections σ(j(0)) for the ground vibrational and the first two rotational states of N(2), j(0) = 0 and 1. Labeling symmetry angular states by j and K, we report selection rules for j and for the minimum K value associated with any electronic state, showing that ã(3)A" is uncoupled in the centrifugal-sudden (CS) approximation at j(0) = 0. The dynamics is resonance-dominated, the probabilities are larger at low K, σ(j(0)) decrease with the collision energy and increase with j(0), and the CS σ(0) is lower than the CC one. The nonadiabatic interactions play different roles on the quenching dynamics, because the X(1)A'-b(3)A' SO effects are those most important while the ã(3)A"-b(3)A' RT ones are negligible.

  20. A-site compositional effects in Ga-doped hollandite materials of the form BaxCsyGa2x+yTi8-2x-yO16: implications for Cs immobilization in crystalline ceramic waste forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Wen, Yi; Grote, Rob; Amoroso, Jake; Shuller Nickles, Lindsay; Brinkman, Kyle S

    2016-01-01

    The hollandite structure is a promising crystalline host for Cs immobilization. A series of Ga-doped hollandite BaxCsyGa2x+yTi8-2x-yO16 (x = 0, 0.667, 1.04, 1.33; y = 1.33, 0.667, 0.24, 0) was synthesized through a solid oxide reaction method resulting in a tetragonal hollandite structure (space group I4/m). The lattice parameter associated with the tunnel dimension was found to increases as Cs substitution in the tunnel increased. A direct investigation of cation mobility in tunnels using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was conducted to evaluate the ability of the hollandite structure to immobilize cations over a wide compositional range. Hollandite with the largest tunnel size and highest aspect ratio grain morphology resulting in rod-like microstructural features exhibited the highest ionic conductivity. The results indicate that grain size and optimized Cs stoichiometry control cation motion and by extension, the propensity for Cs release from hollandite. PMID:27273791

  1. Frequency upconversion luminescence in Yb3+-sensitized Er3+- and Pr3+-codoped PbGeO3:PbF2:xF2 (x = Mg, Ba) glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alexandre O.; Gouveia-Neto, Artur; Bueno, Luciano A.

    2016-01-01

    The optical properties and energy-transfer upconversion luminescence of Er3+- and Pr3+/Yb3+-codoped PbGeO3-PbF2-xF2 (x=Mg, Ba) glass and glass-ceramic under infrared excitation at 975 nm is investigated. In Er3+/Yb3+-codoped samples, green (525 and 550 nm) and red (662 nm) luminescence corresponding to the H2→I4, S4→I4 e F4→I4, respectively, was readily observed. In the Pr3+/Yb3+-codoped system, emission peaks around 485, 530, 610, and 645, which were ascribed to the P03-HJ3 (J=4,5,6) and P03-FJ3 (J=2,3,4) transitions, respectively, were observed. The population of the praseodymium P03 emitting level was accomplished through a combination of ground-state absorption of Yb ions at F2, energy-transfer Yb3+(F2)-Pr3+(H43), and excited-state absorption of Pr ions provoking the G41-P03 transition. The dependence of the upconversion emission on glass composition, pump power, and doping contents was also examined. Glassy and glass-ceramic samples were compared in order to determine the system with better luminescence efficiency.

  2. Electrochemical performance of mixed valence Na3V2O2x(PO4)2F3-2x/C as cathode for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serras, Paula; Palomares, Verónica; Goñi, Aintzane; Kubiak, Pierre; Rojo, Teófilo

    2013-11-01

    A composite made of a mixed-valence sodium-vanadium fluorophosphate and 6.4% wt. carbon, Na3V2O2x(PO4)2F3-2x/C (0 oxidation state of vanadium in the phase. Morphological and texture analyses showed that carbon forms a network surrounding the particles, leading to a mesoporous composite with a high specific area of 67 m2 g-1. Electrochemical characterization conducted in Swagelok cells by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling indicated that sodium extraction/insertion proceeds through a complex mechanism in two voltage pseudo-plateaux at 3.6 and 4.1 V vs. Na/Na+. Rate capability of the material ranges from specific capacities of 100 mAh g-1 at C/20 to 75 mAh g-1 at 5C. Cycling stability at 1C showed coulombic efficiency higher than 99% and capacity retention of 95% after 200 cycles.

  3. Optical properties of GaSb(001)-c(2 x 6): The role of surface antisite defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Conor; Del Sole, Rodolfo [Department of Physics, CNR-INFM-SMC, Roma (Italy); European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF), University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Roma (Italy); Magri, Rita [Centro S3-CNR-Istituto di Nanoscienze, Modena (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy)

    2010-08-15

    We consider the formation of surface antisite defects on a previously proposed model for the GaSb(001)-c(2 x 6) surface. Based on ab initio total energy calculations, we show how these defects stabilize the otherwise metallic surface and how their formation is driven by the excess charge associated with the Sb-rich surface conditions. The surface-sensitive optical technique of reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy is shown to be crucial for detecting the defects, and computation of spectra yields a good agreement with experiment when defects are included in the surface reconstruction. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Atomistic Calculations of the Effect of Minor Actinides on Thermodynamic and Kinetic Properties of UO{sub 2{+-}x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deo, Chaitanya; Adnersson, Davis; Battaile, Corbett; uberuaga, Blas

    2012-10-30

    The team will examine how the incorporation of actinide species important for mixed oxide (MOX) and other advanced fuel designs impacts thermodynamic quantities of the host UO{sub 2} nuclear fuel and how Pu, Np, Cm and Am influence oxygen mobility. In many cases, the experimental data is either insufficient or missing. For example, in the case of pure NpO2, there is essentially no experimental data on the hyperstoichiometric form it is not even known if hyperstoichiometry NpO{sub 2{+-}x} is stable. The team will employ atomistic modeling tools to calculate these quantities

  5. Nanofabrication of PTCDA molecular chains on rutile TiO2(011)-(2 x 1) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) on a rutile TiO2(011)-(2 x 1) surface is studied using ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy. The self-assembly process is dominated by the fine interplay between the lateral intermolecular interactions and the binding to the substrate. By means of temperature-induced change in the adsorption configuration and the activation of diffusion, the molecules are assembled into one-dimensional chains oriented along the (011 bar) crystallographic direction.

  6. Pentosan polysulfate preserves renal microvascular P2X1 receptor reactivity and autoregulatory behavior in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhengrong; Singletary, Sean T; Cha, Haword; Van Beusecum, Justin P; Cook, Anthony K; Pollock, Jennifer S; Pollock, David M; Inscho, Edward W

    2016-03-15

    Inflammation contributes to ANG II-associated impairment of renal autoregulation and microvascular P2X1 receptor signaling, but its role in renal autoregulation in mineralocorticoid-induced hypertension is unknown. Autoregulatory behavior was assessed using the blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephron preparation. Hypertension was induced in uninephrectomized control rats (UNx) by subcutaneous implantation of a DOCA pellet plus administration of 1% NaCl in the drinking water (DOCA-salt) for 3 wk. DOCA-salt rats developed hypertension that was unaltered by anti-inflammatory treatment with pentosan polysulfate (DOCA-salt+PPS) but was suppressed with "triple therapy" (hydrochlorothiazide, hydralazine, and reserpine; DOCA-salt+TTx). Baseline arteriolar diameters were similar across all groups. UNx rats exhibited pressure-dependent vasoconstriction with diameters declining to 69 ± 2% of control at 170 mmHg, indicating intact autoregulation. DOCA-salt treatment significantly blunted this pressure-mediated vasoconstriction. Diameters remained between 91 ± 4 and 98 ± 3% of control over 65-170 mmHg, indicating impaired autoregulation. In contrast, pressure-mediated vasoconstriction was preserved in DOCA-salt+PPS and DOCA-salt+TTx rats, reaching 77 ± 7 and 75 ± 3% of control at 170 mmHg, respectively. ATP is required for autoregulation via P2X1 receptor activation. ATP- and β,γ-methylene ATP (P2X1 receptor agonist)-mediated vasoconstriction were markedly attenuated in DOCA-salt rats compared with UNx (P < 0.05), but significantly improved by PPS or TTx (P < 0.05 vs. DOCA-salt) treatment. Arteriolar responses to adenosine and UTP (P2Y2 receptor agonist) were unaffected by DOCA-salt treatment. PPS and TTx significantly reduced MCP-1 and protein excretion in DOCA-salt rats. These results support the hypothesis that hypertension triggers inflammatory cascades but anti-inflammatory treatment preserves renal autoregulation in DOCA-salt rats, most likely by normalizing renal

  7. Strain-controlled switch between ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism in 1T-CrX2 (X = Se, Te) monolayers

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, H. Y.; Lu, W. J.; Shao, D. F.; Liu, Y.; Sun, Y. P.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the strain-induced switch between ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) orderings in 1T-CrX2 (X = Se, Te) monolayers based on the first-principles calculations. The CrSe2 and CrTe2 monolayers without strains are found to be AFM and FM, respectively. Under the biaxial tensile strain, the CrSe2 monolayer tends to be FM when the strain is larger than 2%. The FM state is further stabilized when the strain is increased. Moreover, the CrSe2 monolayer changes to be half-metalli...

  8. User centered HMI development applying the V-ISO model for collaborative car-2-x driver assistance systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bischoff, Sven; Diederichs, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new application of the innovative V-ISO model, a combination of the V-model and the ISO 9241-210, is described for an automotive Human Machine Interface (HMI). The HMI is developed for two innovative car-2-x communication based applications, which are improving energy efficiency and traffic safety. The applications support social and collaborative driver-to-driver communication. By following the indicative steps of the V-ISO Model a HMI concept could be successfully developed ...

  9. Deformations of constant mean curvature 1/2 surfaces in H2xR with vertical ends at infinity

    CERN Document Server

    Cartier, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    We study constant mean curvature 1/2 surfaces in H2xR that admit a compactification of the mean curvature operator. We show that a particular family of complete entire graphs over H2 admits a structure of infinite dimensional manifold and deduce a result on the possible behaviors at infinity. Deforming non degenerate constant mean curvature 1/2 annuli, we provide a large class of (non rotational) examples and construct annuli (possibly embedded) without axis, namely with two vertical, asymptotically rotational, non aligned ends.

  10. Investigation of combined free and forced convection in a 2 x 6 rod bundle during controlled flow transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.M.; Khan, E.U.

    1980-10-01

    An experimental study was performed to obtain local fluid velocity and temperature measurements in the mixed (combined free and forced) convection regime for specific flow coastdown transients. A brief investigation of steady-state flows for the purely free-convection regime was also completed. The study was performed using an electrically heated 2 x 6 rod bundle contained in a flow housing. In addition a transient data base was obtained for evaluating the COBRA-WC thermal-hydraulic computer program (a modified version of the COBRA-IV code).

  11. Low-Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of PtSb2- x Te x for Cryogenic Peltier Cooling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Spencer; Morelli, Donald

    2015-06-01

    PtSb2 is a potential material for cryogenic Peltier cooling applications because of its semimetal character with a high Seebeck coefficient and low electrical resistivity. To investigate the effects of n-type doping we studied PtSb2- x Te x with x between 0 and 0.04. A clear doping effect was observed, and the power factor was maximized for samples with x = 0.005, 0.02, and 0.04. If thermal conductivity reduction techniques can be used, this material may be a promising candidate for cryogenic Peltier cooling applications.

  12. Electronic structure of ZrS{sub x}Se{sub 2-x} by density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghafari, Ailakbar; Moustafa, Mohamed; Janowitz, Christoph; Dwelk, Helmut; Manzke, Recardo [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Bouchani, Arash [Physics Department, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    The electronic properties of the ZrS{sub x}Se{sub 2-x} (x varies between zero and two) semiconductors have been calculated by density functional theory (using the Wien2K code) employing the full potential Hamiltonian within the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) method. The results obtained for the end members of the series, i.e. ZrS{sub 2} and ZrSe{sub 2} reveal that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum are located at {gamma} and between {gamma} and K respectively which is in agreement with our photoemission experimental data. Trends in the electronic structure for the whole substitution series are discussed.

  13. Local Atomic Structure of Martensitic Ni$_{2+x}$Mn$_{1-x}$Ga: An EXAFS Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bhobe, P. A.; Priolkar, K. R.; Sarode, P R

    2006-01-01

    The local atomic structure of Ni$_{2+x}$Mn$_{1-x}$Ga with 0 $\\le$ $x$ $\\le$ 0.16 alloys was explored using Mn and Ga K-edge Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) measurement. Inorder to study the atomic re-arrangements that occur upon martensitic transformation, room temperature and low temperature EXAFS were recorded. The changes occurring in the L2$_1$ unit cell and the bond lengths obtained from the analysis enables us to determine the modulation amplitudes over which the consti...

  14. Preparation and characterization of Cu2-xZn1+ySnS4 for thin films solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    D'Angelo Bandres, Renato

    2015-01-01

    CZTS non-stoichiometric thin films [Cu2-xZn1+xSnS4)] for solar cells applications have been successfully deposited on glass substrates using two different types of synthesis and two effective non vacuum deposition methods: as is dip-coating into a sol or drop-wise ink spin-coating. The first synthesis (dip coating) is a two-solution sol-gel, where the first solution is composed of metal salts dissolved in methanol and the second thiourea dissolved in ethylene glycol. As a tin source, tin chlo...

  15. Macroscopic quantum tunneling and phase diffusion in a La2-xSrxCuO4 intrinsic Josephson junction stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Yuimaru; Sboychakov, A. O.; Nori, Franco; Takahide, Y.; Ueda, S.; Tanaka, I.; Islam, A. T. M. N.; Takano, Y.

    2012-10-01

    We performed measurements of switching current distribution in a submicrometer La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO) intrinsic Josephson junction (IJJ) stack in a wide temperature range. The escape rate saturates below approximately 2 K, indicating that the escape event is dominated by a macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) process with a crossover temperature T*≈2K. We applied the theory of MQT for IJJ stacks, taking into account dissipation and the phase retrapping effect in the LSCO IJJ stack. The theory is in good agreement with the experiment both in the MQT and in the thermal activation regimes.

  16. Synthesis and thermophysical properties of solid solutions CuInSe2xTe2(1-x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large-block crystals of CuInSe2, CuInTe2 ternary compounds and CuInSe2xTe2(1-x) solid solutions were prepared by two-temperature method. It is determined that dependence between thermal expansion coefficient and composition of solid solution is linear and dependence of thermal conductivity has minimum. It is demonstrated that Debye temperature decreases while root-mean-square dynamic displacements of atoms increase in crystal lattice with increasing content of tellurium atoms in solid solutions

  17. Rhetorical Devices in English Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芃

    2011-01-01

    In order to achieve persuasive and convincing effects,rhetorical devices are frequently applied in English advertisements.The paper classifies rhetorical devices into four basic categories: phonetic devices,lexical devices,syntactic devices and figures of

  18. Lack of neuroprotection in the absence of P2X7 receptors in toxin-induced animal models of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittel Ágnes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies indicate a role of P2X7 receptors in processes that lead to neuronal death. The main objective of our study was to examine whether genetic deletion or pharmacological blockade of P2X7 receptors influenced dopaminergic cell death in various models of Parkinson's disease (PD. Results mRNA encoding P2X7 and P2X4 receptors was up-regulated after treatment of PC12 cells with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine (MPTP. P2X7 antagonists protected against MPTP and rotenone induced toxicity in the LDH assay, but failed to protect after rotenone treatment in the MTT assay in PC12 cells and in primary midbrain culture. In vivo MPTP and in vitro rotenone pretreatments increased the mRNA expression of P2X7 receptors in the striatum and substantia nigra of wild-type mice. Basal mRNA expression of P2X4 receptors was higher in P2X7 knockout mice and was further up-regulated by MPTP treatment. Genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of P2X7 receptors did not change survival rate or depletion of striatal endogenous dopamine (DA content after in vivo MPTP or in vitro rotenone treatment. However, depletion of norepinephrine was significant after MPTP treatment only in P2X7 knockout mice. The basal ATP content was higher in the substantia nigra of wild-type mice, but the ADP level was lower. Rotenone treatment elicited a similar reduction in ATP content in the substantia nigra of both genotypes, whereas reduction of ATP was more pronounced after rotenone treatment in striatal slices of P2X7 deficient mice. Although the endogenous amino acid content remained unchanged, the level of the endocannabinoid, 2-AG, was elevated by rotenone in the striatum of wild-type mice, an effect that was absent in mice deficient in P2X7 receptors. Conclusions We conclude that P2X7 receptor deficiency or inhibition does not support the survival of dopaminergic neurons in an in vivo or in vitro models of PD.

  19. Alerts and Notices (Devices)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... powered, Hand-held Lasers Used for Pointing or Entertainment 12/16/10 Medical Device Safety Archive The ... About FDA Contact FDA Browse by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting ...

  20. Insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying mammalian P2X7 receptor functions and contributions in diseases, revealed by structural modeling and single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Hua eJiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs, a member of the ionotropic P2X receptor family with distinctive functional properties, play an important part in mediating extracellular ATP signaling in health and disease. A clear delineation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the key receptor properties, such as ATP-binding, ion permeation, and large pore formation of the mammalian P2X7Rs, is still lacking, but such knowledge is crucial for a better understanding of their physiological functions and contributions in diseases and for development of therapeutics. The recent breakthroughs in determining the atomic structures of the zebrafish P2X4.1R in the closed and ATP-bound open states have provided the long-awaited structural information. The human P2RX7 gene is abundant with non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (NS-SNPs, which generate a repertoire of human P2X7Rs with point mutations. Characterizations of the NS-SNPs identified in patients of various disease conditions and the resulting mutations have informed previously unknown molecular mechanisms determining the mammalian P2X7R functions and diseases. In this review, we will discuss the new insights into such mechanisms provided by structural modeling and recent functional and genetic linkage studies of NS-SNPs.

  1. A study of magnetoplumbite-type (M-type) cobalt-titanium-substituted barium ferrite, BaCo{sub x}Ti{sub x}Fe{sub 12-2x}O{sub 19} (x = 1-6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teh, G.B. [Department of Bioscience and Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, 53300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)], E-mail: tehgb@mail.utar.edu.my; Saravanan, N. [Department of Bioscience and Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, 53300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jefferson, D.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    Cobalt(II)-titanium(IV)-substituted barium ferrite forming the chemical formula of BaCo{sub x}Ti{sub x}Fe{sub 12-2x}O{sub 19} (x = 1-6) have been investigated using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The specimen of magnetoplumbite (M-type) Co-Ti-substituted BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} were synthesised via sol-gel method using ethylene glycol as precursor. Significant increase in line broadening of the XRD patterns were observed indicating the decrease of particle sizes due to the Co(II)-Ti(IV) substitution. BaCo{sub 3}Ti{sub 3}Fe{sub 6}O{sub 19} showed the highest coercivity but moderate saturation and remnant magnetisations. HRTEM imaging showed that Co(II)-Ti(IV) substitution in the system of BaCo{sub x}Ti{sub x}Fe{sub 12-2x}O{sub 19} (x = 1-6) produced no drastic change in the structure of the M-type ferrites. Most of the M-types crystals examined by HRTEM displayed a long axis perpendicular to the c-axis of the M-type structure. Disordered crystals showing the intergrowth between Co-Ti-substituted barium ferrite and the spinel-structured iron oxide were detected.

  2. Synthesis of rod and lath-shaped CuSe and tremella-shaped Cu{sub 2-x}Se nanostructures at room temperature, and their optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Pengfei, E-mail: hpf-hqx@shu.edu.cn [Shanghai University, Laboratory for Microstructures (China); Cao Yali [Xinjiang University, Institute of Applied Chemistry (China)

    2012-02-15

    The research for tunable synthesis and characterization techniques is important for the investigation of nanomaterials. Herein we developed old precipitation reaction for the morphology- and phase-tunable synthesis of copper selenides nanostructures at room temperature, avoiding tedious preparation of selenium precursors, such as selenite or selenosulfate. The molar ratio of Cu{sup 2+} and Se sources served the function of a switch for selectively synthesis of stoichiometric CuSe and non-stoichiometric Cu{sub 2-x}Se. Nanorod and lath-like CuSe formed with excess of selenium source, while tremella-shaped Cu{sub 2-x}Se responded to the 1:1 of Cu{sup 2+}/Se or excess of copper source. The structures of nanocrystals, especially the lifelike surface, were characterized in detail by electron microscopy techniques, such as STEM. Novel nanostructures put up the excellent absorption properties in the visible light region, respectively, and could bear potential applications in solar cell devices in the future. This strategy offered a convenient, mild and energy-efficient route for the preparation of other mental chalcogenides nanocrystals with different morphologies or tunable phases.

  3. Development of Medical Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Limaye, Dnyanesh

    2016-01-01

    The medical devices sector helps save lives by providing innovative health care solutions regarding diagnosis, prevention, monitoring, treatment, and alleviation. Medical devices are classified into 1 of 3 categories in the order of increasing risk: Class I, Class II, and Class III.1 Medical devices are distinguished from drugs for regulatory purposes based on mechanism of action. Unlike drugs, medical devices operate via physical or mechanical means and are not dependent on metabolism to acc...

  4. Smart devices are different

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stisen, Allan; Blunck, Henrik; Bhattacharya, Sourav;

    2015-01-01

    research results. This is due to variations in training and test device hardware and their operating system characteristics among others. In this paper, we systematically investigate sensor-, device- and workload-specific heterogeneities using 36 smartphones and smartwatches, consisting of 13 different...... device models from four manufacturers. Furthermore, we conduct experiments with nine users and investigate popular feature representation and classification techniques in HAR research. Our results indicate that on-device sensor and sensor handling heterogeneities impair HAR performances significantly...

  5. Heterostructures and quantum devices

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1994-01-01

    Heterostructure and quantum-mechanical devices promise significant improvement in the performance of electronic and optoelectronic integrated circuits (ICs). Though these devices are the subject of a vigorous research effort, the current literature is often either highly technical or narrowly focused. This book presents heterostructure and quantum devices to the nonspecialist, especially electrical engineers working with high-performance semiconductor devices. It focuses on a broad base of technical applications using semiconductor physics theory to develop the next generation of electrical en

  6. Surface Plasmons and Optical Properties of TiO2/X(X = Au and Ag) Nanostructure Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolanvari, A.; Sadeghi, H.; Norouzi, R.; Ranjgar, A.

    2013-09-01

    TiO2/X(X = Au and Ag) nanolayers are fabricated by depositing TiO2 films using rf magnetron sputtering on thin quartz substrates embedded with Au and Ag nanoparticles. Enhancement of light absorption of the nanostructural layers is observed. These plasmonic and non-plasmonic materials are ordered in geometric arrangements with dimensions that are fractions of the wavelength of light. The light absorption enhancement of synthesized structure in comparison to TiO2 is originated from near-field enhancement caused by the plasmonic effect of metallic nanoparticles, which can be demonstrated by the optical absorption spectra. We show that plasmon modes can exist for the infrared region of the optical spectrum. Also, we analyze the optical properties of the metal-insulator films, in order to clarify the role of metal inclusions in the TiO2 dielectric matrix. Optical band gaps of the nanolayer films are calculated by using Tauc's relation, and the n values of optical band gaps with the variation composition are found from 1.80 to 3.69 eV. Band gap narrowing and absorption in the visible spectral region induced by the incorporation of TiO2/X(X=Au and Ag) nanolayers enable the design of nanostructured thin films to be achieved for photocatalysts and solar energy converters.

  7. Magnetic ordering in electronically phase-separated La2-xSrxCuO4+y: Neutron diffraction experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udby, Linda; Andersen, Niels Hessel; Chou, F.C.;

    2009-01-01

    We present results of magnetic neutron diffraction experiments on the codoped superoxygenated La2-xSrxCuO4+y (LSCO+O) system with x=0.09. We find that the magnetic phase is long-range ordered incommensurate antiferromagnetic with a Neacuteel temperature T-N coinciding with the superconducting...... ordering temperature T-c=40 K. The incommensurability value is consistent with a hole doping of n(h)approximate to 1>8 but in contrast to nonsuperoxygenated La2-xSrxCuO4 with hole doping close to n(h)approximate to 18 the magnetic-order parameter is not field dependent. We attribute this to the magnetic...... order being fully developed in LSCO+O as in the spin and charge ordered "stripe" compounds La1.48Nd0.40Sr0.12CuO4 and La7/8Ba1/8CuO4....

  8. Comprehensive Forced Response Analysis of J2X Turbine Bladed-Discs with 36- Degree Variation in CFD Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, David; Christensen, Eric; Brown, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    At NASA/MSFC, Structural Dynamics personnel continue to perform advanced analysis for the turbomachinery in the J2X Rocket Engine, which is under consideration for the new Space Launch System. One of the most challenging analyses in the program is predicting turbine blade structural capability. Resonance was predicted by modal analysis, so comprehensive forced response analyses using high fidelity cyclic symmetric finite element models were initiated as required. Analysis methodologies up to this point have assumed the flow field could be fully described by a sector, so the loading on every blade would be identical as it travelled through it. However, in the J2X the CFD flow field varied over the 360 deg of a revolution because of the flow speeds and tortuous axial path. MSFC therefore developed a complex procedure using Nastran Dmap's and Matlab scripts to apply this circumferentially varying loading onto the cyclically symmetric structural models to produce accurate dynamic stresses for every blade on the disk. This procedure is coupled with static, spin, and thermal loading to produce high cycle fatigue safety factors resulting in much more accurate analytical assessments of the blades.

  9. Origin of Photoluminescence and XAFS Study of (ZnS)1-x(AgInS2)x Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M Jagadeeswara; Shibata, Tomohiro; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Nag, Angshuman

    2014-01-01

    Donor-Acceptor transition was previously suggested as a mechanism for luminescence in (ZnS)1-x(AgInS2)x nanocrystals. Here we show the participation of delocalized valence/conduction band in the luminescence. Two emission pathways are observed: Path-1 involves transition between a delocalized state and a localized state exhibiting higher energy and shorter lifetime (∼25 ns) and Path-2 (donor-acceptor) involves two localized defect states exhibiting lower emission energy and longer lifetime (>185 ns). Surprisingly, Path-1 dominates (82% for x = 0.33) for nanocrystals with lower x, in sharp difference with prior assignment. Luminescence peak blue shifts systematically by 0.57 eV with decreasing x because of this large contribution from Path-1. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) study of (ZnS)1-x(AgInS2)x nanocrystals shows larger AgS4 tetrahedra compared with InS4 tetrahedra with Ag-S and In-S bond lengths 2.52 and 2.45 Å respectively, whereas Zn-S bond length is 2.33 Å along with the absence of second nearest-neighbor Zn-S-metal correlation.

  10. Evaluation of some Newly Developed Diploid Hybrids and their Breeding Value in 4x-2x Crosses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The narrow genetic base in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. ) limits the progress in cultivar development.The rich diploid germplasm in the origin center of potato provide a unique resource for improvement of tetraploid potatoes. Seven newly developed diploid hybrids with 2n pollen production, all of which have S.phureja background,were developed and evaluated for their value in potato breeding. They were crossed as male parnets to six tetraploid Solanum tuberosum cultivars,and seeds in large quantity from eleven crosses were obtained. Main agronomic traits ,such as tuber yield ,tuber number,mean tuber weight ,tuber shape ,eye depth, skin smoothness, flesh color, and specific gravity, were measured for 4x-2x tetraploid progenies in seedling generation ,and their parents as well. All of the diploid hybrids had some merit for specific traits and the DH39 was more promising ;high specific gravity trait in some diploid hybrids was successfully introgressed into tetroploid progenies via 4x-2x crosses. These diploid hybrids have potential value in potato breeding.

  11. Separation and determination of rare earth elements by Dowex 2-X8 resin using sodium trimetaphosphate as elution agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungur, S K; Akseli, A

    2000-04-01

    The distribution coefficients of rare earth elements and thorium with Dowex 2-X8, 200-400 mesh, a strongly basic anion-exchange resin, have been determined regarding four different concentrations of sodium trimetaphosphate (3 x 10(-3), 5 x 10(-3), 7 x 10(-3) and 0.01 M). The separation of the rare earths and thorium obtained from an Australian monazite has been investigated by anion-exchange chromatography with sodium trimetaphosphate concentration gradient on a Dowex 2-X8 ion-exchange columns. The order of elution of the elements was the reverse of the order of elution of the same elements on Dowex 1 resin. The elution was investigated using 5 mg and 250 mg samples. In the separation of 5 mg samples, all elements were separated in 29 min. It has been seen that the elution peaks are narrow, tailing effects are very small, Dy and Y are well separated. Qualitative and quantitative determinations were realized by spectrofluorometry. PMID:10817370

  12. Compositional and Temperature Dependence of the Optical Energy GAP for Layered TlInS(2-x)Sex Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed crystals of TlInS(2-x)Sex system for 0.0≤x≤1.0 were grown using directional freezing method. The effect of composition and temperature on the optical energy gap for TlInS(2-x)Sex layered crystals were investigated in the temperature range of 10-300 K. The variation of the optical absorption coefficient with energy for the each composition near the band edge was analysed by Elliot's model and compositional dependence of the band gap energies were obtained. For the interpretation of the phase transition (PT) of grown crystals, temperature dependent optical pseudogap E*g was used instead of the optical band gap due to the complex nature of the band edge at the low absorption coefficients. The pseudogap plots having singularities for the compositions of 0.0≤x≤0.2 were associated with PT in the investigated temperature region. However, no singularities were observed for the compositions of 0.4 ≤x≤1.0 , thus confirming the absence of PT in the temperature interval under investigation

  13. Compositional and temperature evolution of crystal structure of new thermoelectric compound LaOBiS2-xSex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Y.; Miura, A.; Nishida, A.; Miura, O.; Tadanaga, K.; Kumada, N.; Lee, C. H.; Magome, E.; Moriyoshi, C.; Kuroiwa, Y.

    2016-04-01

    We examined the crystal structure of the new thermoelectric material LaOBiS2-xSex, whose thermoelectric performance is enhanced by Se substitution, by using powder synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement. The emergence of metallic conductivity and enhancement of the thermoelectric power factor of LaOBiS2-xSex can be explained with the higher in-plane chemical pressure caused by the increase of Se concentration at the in-plane Ch1 site (Ch = S, Se). High-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements for optimally substituted LaOBiSSe revealed anomalously large atomic displacement parameters (Uiso) for Bi and Ch atoms in the BiCh2 conduction layers. The anisotropic analysis of the atomic displacement parameters (U11 and U33) for the in-plane Bi and Ch1 sites suggested that Bi atoms exhibit large atomic displacement along the c-axis direction above 300 K, which could be the origin of the low thermal conductivity in LaOBiSSe. The large Bi vibration along the c-axis direction could be related to in-plane rattling, which is a new strategy for attaining low thermal conductivity and phonon-glass-electron-crystal states.

  14. Optic phonon bandwidth and lattice thermal conductivity: The case of L i2X (X =O , S, Se, Te)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Lindsay, L.; Parker, D. S.

    2016-06-01

    We examine the lattice thermal conductivities (κl) of L i2X (X =O ,S ,Se ,Te ) using a first-principles Peierls-Boltzmann transport methodology. We find low κl values ranging between 12 and 30 W m-1K-1 despite light Li atoms, a large mass difference between constituent atoms, and tightly bunched acoustic branches, all features that give high κl in other materials including BeSe (630 W m-1K-1 ), BeTe (370 W m-1K-1 ), and cubic BAs (3170 W m-1K-1 ). Together these results suggest a missing ingredient in the basic guidelines commonly used to understand and predict κl. Unlike typical simple systems (e.g., Si, GaAs, SiC), the dominant resistance to heat-carrying acoustic phonons in L i2Se and L i2Te comes from interactions of these modes with two optic phonons. These interactions require significant bandwidth and dispersion of the optic branches, both present in L i2X materials. These considerations are important for the discovery and design of new materials for thermal management applications and give a more comprehensive understanding of thermal transport in crystalline solids.

  15. Biphasic MO2+x-M3O8-z domain of the U-Pu-O phase diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strach, Michal; Belin, Renaud C; Richaud, Jean-Christophe; Rogez, Jacques

    2015-09-21

    The reduction of six mixed-oxide samples containing 14, 24, 35, 46, 54, and 62 mol % Pu was studied in situ by X-ray diffraction. The samples were first oxidized in air and subsequently reduced in a controlled atmosphere corresponding to a stoichiometric composition with an O/M = 2.00. After oxidation, we observed two structures, one cubic and one orthorhombic, MO2+x and M3O8-z. The two phases were subsequently reduced back to their stoichiometric O/M = 2.00 in a controlled atmosphere. The plutonium contents of the two resulting cubic structures differed from the initial one. We conclude that strong cation transport took place during oxidation, according to the shape of the tie lines in the biphasic MO2+x/M4O9-M3O8-z domain. The resulting overall O/M after oxidation was estimated. We propose the shape of the tie lines in the aforementioned biphasic domain and suggest a maximal plutonium solubility in the M3O8 structure at 8 ± 2 mol % (Pu/U + Pu) at 1573 K. PMID:26360606

  16. Full mass range analysis of the QED effective action for an O(2)xO(3) symmetric field

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadiniaz, Naser; Raya, Alfredo; Schubert, Christian

    2013-01-01

    An interesting class of background field configurations in quantum electrodynamics (QED) are the O(2)xO(3) symmetric fields, originally introduced by S.L. Adler in 1972. Those backgrounds have some instanton-like properties and yield a one-loop effective action that is highly nontrivial, but amenable to numerical calculation. Here, we use the recently developed "partial-wave-cutoff method" for a full mass range numerical analysis of the effective action for the "standard" O(2)xO(3) symmetric field, modified by a radial suppression factor. At large mass, we are able to match the asymptotics of the physically renormalized effective action against the leading two mass levels of the inverse mass expansion. For small masses, with a suitable choice of the renormalization scheme we obtain stable numerical results even in the massless limit. We analyze the N - point functions in this background and show that, even in the absence of the radial suppression factor, the two-point contribution to the effective action is t...

  17. Rigour and Rigidity: Systematics on particle physics D6-brane models on Z(2)xZ(6)

    CERN Document Server

    Ecker, Jill; Staessens, Wieland

    2014-01-01

    We launch a systematic search for phenomenologically appealing string vacua with intersecting D-branes on the promising T6/Z(2)xZ(6)xOR orientifold with discrete torsion. The number of independent background lattices is reduced from six to two by new symmetries. The occurrence of USp(2N) and SO(2N) versus U(N) gauge groups is classified as well as D-branes without matter in the adjoint and/or symmetric representation. Supersymmetric fractional D6-branes allowing for RR tadpole cancellation are fully classified in terms of all possible values of the one complex structure modulus inherited from the underlying six-torus. We then systematically investigate the conditions for three particle generations at pairwise intersections of two D6-branes. Global SU(5) GUT models on T6/Z(2)xZ(6)xOR are excluded by demanding three generations and no exotic matter in the 15 representation. Two prototypes of global Pati-Salam models with a mild amount of vector-like exotic matter are found.

  18. Thermodynamic and mechanical properties of Ce1-xHfxO2 (x=0-0.10) solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal expansion and mechanical properties of Ce1-xHfxO2 (x=0-0.10) solid solutions were measured from 100 to 850 K by TMA and from 180 to 303 K by ultrasonic pulse methods, as a function of temperature and hafnium concentration. Using these measured values and reported specific heat capacities (Cp) at 298.15 K, Grueneisen parameters (γ) of Ce1-xHfxO2 were calculated from the thermodynamic relation γ=3αVKa/Cp. Then heat capacities Cp of Ce1-xHfxO2 (x=0-0.10) at temperatures from 150 to 800 K were calculated by using the equation Cp=3αVKa/γ. The calculated Cp of undoped CeO2 was in reasonable agreement with the reported value over a wide temperature range. Thus, it seems to be reasonable to derive heat capacities of Ce1-xHfxO2 solid solutions as well as CeO2 by using this method

  19. Functional expression of P2X family receptors in macrophages is affected by microenvironment in mouse T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shayan; Feng, Wenli; Yang, Xiao; Yang, Wanzhu; Ru, Yongxin; Liao, Jinfeng; Wang, Lina; Lin, Yongmin; Ren, Qian [State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300020 (China); Zheng, Guoguang, E-mail: zhengggtjchn@aliyun.com [State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300020 (China); Center for Stem Cell Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730 (China)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • We study the impact of leukemic microenvironment on P2X family receptors in Mφs. • Bone marrow and spleen Mφs are studied in Notch1-induced mouse leukemia model. • Increased expression of P2X7R is found in Mφs during the development of leukemia. • Elevated P2X7R-mediated calcium response is found in Mφs at late stage of leukemia. • More apoptotic Mφs are found in bone marrow and spleen at late stage of leukemia. - Abstract: Nucleotides are important players in intercellular signaling communication network. P2X family receptors (P2XRs) are ATP-gated plasma membrane ion channels with diverse biological functions. Macrophages are important components in the microenvironment of hematopoiesis participating in both physiological and pathological processes. However, the role of P2XRs in macrophages in leukemia has not been established. Here we investigated expression pattern and functions of P2XRs in macrophages from bone marrow (BM) and spleen of Notch1-induced T-ALL mice. Real-time PCR showed that P2XRs except P2X5R were expressed in BM and spleen macrophages. Furthermore, with the development of leukemia, the expression of P2X7R increased in both BM and spleen macrophages whereas expression of P2X1R increased in spleen macrophages. Live cell imaging recoding the Ca{sup 2+} response demonstrated that P2X7R expressed in macrophages was functional. TUNEL and electron microscopy analysis found that apoptotic macrophages were frequently observed in BM and spleen at late stage of leukemia, which was partly contributed by the activation of overexpressed P2X7R. Our results suggested that the intercellular communication mediated by nucleotides might orchestrate in the pathological process of leukemia and could be a potential target for the treatment of leukemia.

  20. Cloning of a Potato Proteinase Inhibitor Gene PINII-2x from Diploid Potato (Solanum phurejia L.) and Transgenic Investigation of Its Potential to Confer Insect Resistance in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Yun Bu; Liang Wu; Shi-Hu Yang; Jian-Min Wan

    2006-01-01

    Both cDNA and a genomic DNA fragment encoding a new potato proteinase inhibitor Ⅱ were isolated from a diploid potato IVP101 (Solanum phurejia L.) and named PINⅡ-2x. Nucleotide sequencing confirmed that the DNA fragment of PINⅡ-2xwas 580 bp, including a 115-bp intron and two exons. The deduced PINⅡ-2x protein contained an intact signal peptide and two active sites. The PINⅡ-2x gene and its deduced PINⅡ-2x protein had 88% and 93% homology with another tetraploid potato proteinase inhibitor Ⅱ, respectively. Northern blotting analysis indicated that the mRNA of PINⅡ-2x gene was wound induced in potato leaves. Binary vector pNAR301 and pNAR302 were constructed for rice transformation, in which the PINⅡ-2x cDNA was driven,respectively, by rice actin I promoter (Actl) and maize ubiquitin promoter (Ubil). Via an Agrobacteriummediated method, these two constructs were transferred into japonica rice cv. Xiushui 63. PCR and Southern blotting analysis for transgenic rice revealed the integration of the PINⅡ-2x gene. Northern blotting analysis also confirmed transcripts of the PINⅡ-2x gene in transgenic rice plants. Insect bioassays using stripe stem borer (Chilo suppressalis Walker) demonstrated that the average weight and body length of larvae in transgenic plants were only nearly 50% and 61% of those of larvae in control plants, respectively.These results indicate that the PINⅡ-2x gene should be an effective insect-resistance gene and could be valuable for application in crop breeding for insect resistance.

  1. Involvement of P2X7 receptor signaling on regulating the differentiation of Th17 cells and type II collagen-induced arthritis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhi-Dan; Zhang, Ya-Yuan; Guo, Yi-Hong; Huang, Na; Ma, Hui-Hui; Huang, Hui; Yu, Hai-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-17 producing T helper (Th17) cells are major effector cells in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) has emerged as a potential site in the regulation of inflammation in RA but little is known of its functional role on the differentiation of Th17 cells. This study investigates the in vitro and in vivo effects of P2X7R on Th17 cell differentiation during type II collagen (CII) induced experimental arthritis model. In CII-treated dendritic cells (DCs) and DC/CD4+ T coculture system, pretreatment with pharmacological antagonists of P2X7R (Suramin and A-438079) caused strong inhibition of production of Th17-promoting cytokines (IL-1β, TGF-β1, IL-23p19 and IL-6). Exposure to CII induced the elevation of mRNAs encoding retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor α and γt, which were abolished by pretreatment with P2X7R antagonists. Furthermore, blocking P2X7R signaling abolished the CII-mediated increase in IL-17A. Blockade of P2X7R remarkably inhibited hind paw swelling and ameliorated pathological changes in ankle joint of the collagen-induced arthritis mice. Thus, we demonstrated a novel function for P2X7R signaling in regulating CII-induced differentiation of Th17 cells. P2X7R signaling facilitates the development of the sophisticated network of DC-derived cytokines that favors a Th17 phenotype. PMID:27775097

  2. Functional expression of P2X family receptors in macrophages is affected by microenvironment in mouse T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We study the impact of leukemic microenvironment on P2X family receptors in Mφs. • Bone marrow and spleen Mφs are studied in Notch1-induced mouse leukemia model. • Increased expression of P2X7R is found in Mφs during the development of leukemia. • Elevated P2X7R-mediated calcium response is found in Mφs at late stage of leukemia. • More apoptotic Mφs are found in bone marrow and spleen at late stage of leukemia. - Abstract: Nucleotides are important players in intercellular signaling communication network. P2X family receptors (P2XRs) are ATP-gated plasma membrane ion channels with diverse biological functions. Macrophages are important components in the microenvironment of hematopoiesis participating in both physiological and pathological processes. However, the role of P2XRs in macrophages in leukemia has not been established. Here we investigated expression pattern and functions of P2XRs in macrophages from bone marrow (BM) and spleen of Notch1-induced T-ALL mice. Real-time PCR showed that P2XRs except P2X5R were expressed in BM and spleen macrophages. Furthermore, with the development of leukemia, the expression of P2X7R increased in both BM and spleen macrophages whereas expression of P2X1R increased in spleen macrophages. Live cell imaging recoding the Ca2+ response demonstrated that P2X7R expressed in macrophages was functional. TUNEL and electron microscopy analysis found that apoptotic macrophages were frequently observed in BM and spleen at late stage of leukemia, which was partly contributed by the activation of overexpressed P2X7R. Our results suggested that the intercellular communication mediated by nucleotides might orchestrate in the pathological process of leukemia and could be a potential target for the treatment of leukemia

  3. Photovoltaic device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleereman, Robert; Lesniak, Michael J.; Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K.; Boven, Michelle L.

    2015-11-24

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  4. Photovoltaic device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleereman, Robert J; Lesniak, Michael J; Keenihan, James R; Langmaid, Joe A; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K; Boven, Michelle L

    2015-01-27

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  5. Organic photosensitive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Barry P; Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-11-26

    The present invention generally relates to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices. More specifically, it is directed to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices having a photoactive organic region containing encapsulated nanoparticles that exhibit plasmon resonances. An enhancement of the incident optical field is achieved via surface plasmon polariton resonances. This enhancement increases the absorption of incident light, leading to a more efficient device.

  6. P2X7 receptor blockade protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice by decreasing the activities of inflammasome components, oxidative stress and caspase-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Fahuan; Cao, Xuejiao [Department of Nephrology, Xinqiao Hospital, PLA, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China); Zhai, Zhifang [Department of Dermatology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Gang Huang [Department of Medical Genetics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 430038 (China); Du, Xiang; Wang, Yiqin; Zhang, Jingbo; Huang, Yunjian; Zhao, Jinghong [Department of Nephrology, Xinqiao Hospital, PLA, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China); Hou, Weiping, E-mail: hwp0518@aliyun.com [Department of Nephrology, Xinqiao Hospital, PLA, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Nephrotoxicity is a common complication of cisplatin chemotherapy and thus limits the use of cisplatin in clinic. The purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R) plays important roles in inflammation and apoptosis in some inflammatory diseases; however, its roles in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remain unclear. In this study, we first assessed the expression of P2X7R in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice, and then we investigated the changes of renal function, histological injury, inflammatory response, and apoptosis in renal tissues after P2X7R blockade in vivo using an antagonist A-438079. Moreover, we measured the changes of nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing proteins (NLRP3) inflammasome components, oxidative stress, and proapoptotic genes in renal tissues in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity after treatment with A-438079. We found that the expression of P2X7R was significantly upregulated in the renal tubular epithelial cells in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity compared with that of the normal control group. Furthermore, pretreatment with A-438079 markedly attenuated the cisplatin-induced renal injury while lightening the histological damage, inflammatory response and apoptosis in renal tissue, and improved the renal function. These effects were associated with the significantly reduced levels of NLRP3 inflammasome components, oxidative stress, p53 and caspase-3 in renal tissues in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. In conclusions, our studies suggest that the upregulated activity of P2X7R might play important roles in the development of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, and P2X7R blockade might become an effective therapeutic strategy for this disease. - Highlights: • The P2X7R expression was markedly upregulated in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. • P2X7R blockade significantly attenuated the cisplatin-induced renal injury. • P2X7R blockade reduced activities of NLRP3 inflammasome components in renal tissue. • P2X7R blockade

  7. The NTS-DBL2X region of VAR2CSA Induces cross-reactive antibodies that inhibit adhesion of several Plasmodium falciparum isolates to chondroitin sulfate A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigey, Pascal; Gnidehou, Sédami; Doritchamou, Justin;

    2011-01-01

    -adapted parasite lines and field isolates expressing VAR2CSA. Competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to analyze functional resemblance between antibodies induced in animals and those naturally acquired by immune multigravidae. Results. Antibodies targeting the N-terminal sequence (NTS......) up to DBL2X (NTS-DBL2X) efficiently blocked parasite adhesion to chondroitin sulfate A in a manner similar to that of antibodies raised against the entire VAR2CSA extracellular domain. Interestingly, naturally acquired antibodies and those induced by vaccination against NTS-DBL2X target overlapping...

  8. Carbonitride based phosphors and light emitting devices using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanqiang; Tian, Yongchi; Romanelli, Michael Dennis

    2013-08-20

    Disclosed herein is a novel group of carbidonitride phosphors and light emitting devices which utilize these phosphors. In certain embodiments, the present invention is directed to a novel family of carbidonitride-based phosphors expressed as follows: Ca.sub.1-xAl.sub.x-xySi.sub.1-x+xyN.sub.2-x-xyC.sub.xy:A; (1) Ca.sub.1-x-zNa.sub.zM(III).sub.x-xy-zSi.sub.1-x+xy+zN.sub.2-x-xyC.sub.xy:- A; (2) M(II).sub.1-x-zM(I).sub.zM(III).sub.x-xy-zSi.sub.1-x+xy+zN.sub.2-x- -xyC.sub.xy:A; (3) M(II).sub.1-x-zM(I).sub.zM(III).sub.x-xy-zSi.sub.1-x+xy+zN.sub.2-x-xy-2w/- 3C.sub.xyO.sub.w-v/2H.sub.v:A; and (4) M(II).sub.1-x-zM(I).sub.zM(III).sub.x-xy-zSi.sub.1-x+xy+zN.sub.2-x-xy-2w/- 3-v/3C.sub.xyO.sub.wH.sub.v:A, (4a) wherein 0xy+z, and 0

  9. Implementation of complementary resistive switch for image matching through back-to-back connection of ITO/TiO{sub 2-x}/TiO{sub 2}/ITO memristors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Jin; Kim, Sung-Jin; Cho, Kyoungrok [College of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 52 Naesudong-ro, Cheongju, 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Eshraghian, Kamran [College of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 52 Naesudong-ro, Cheongju, 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); iDataMap Corporation, 198 Green Hill Road, Eastwood, South Australia, 5063 (Australia)

    2014-08-15

    Nanoscale memristive structures realized through combination of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) processing technologies have paved the way for efficient adoption of memory constructs such as ReRAM crossbar essential for mapping of new and emerging architectures. A noticeable drawback of the crossbar architecture is the existence of sneak-path currents between adjacent cells. Varieties of approaches including the complementary resistive switch (CRS) architecture offered as possible solution. This paper presents a memristor with heterojunction architecture ITO/TiO{sub 2-x}/TiO{sub 2}/ITO and implements CRS by anti-serial (back-to-back) connection of two memristive devices. For the application of this concept, implementation of an imaging search engine based on Hamming distance measure simply highlights the versatility of this novel technology. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Thermography of electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfilova S. P.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of application of thermography to diagnose the electronic devices is analyzed in the article. Typical faults of electronic devices which can be found by means of thermography are given. Advantages of noncontact thermal inspection in comparison with the contact one are described. Some features of thermography of electronic devices are considered. Thermography apparatus is viewed and some pieces of advice about choosing it for electronic devices diagnosis are given. An example of the thermographic method for checking the electronic devices is provided. The main features of software used in thermography and its significance are described.

  11. FLUIDICS DEVICE FOR ASSAY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for use in performing assays on standard laboratory solid supports whereon chemical entities are attached. The invention furthermore relates to the use of such a device and a kit comprising such a device. The device according to the present invention is a......, when operatively connected, one or more chambers (21) comprising the chemical entities (41), the inlet(s) (5) and outlet(s) (6) and chambers (21) being in fluid connection. The device further comprise means for providing differing chemical conditions in each chamber (21)....

  12. Optical plasma microelectronic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Forati, Ebrahim; Dill, Thyler; Sievenpiper, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The semiconductor channel in conventional microelectronic devices was successfully replaced with an optically triggered gas plasma channel. The combination of DC and laser-induced gas ionizations controls the conductivity of the channel, enabling us to realize different electronic devices such as transistors, switches, modulators, etc. A special micro-scale metasurface was used to enhance the laser-gas interaction, as well as combining it with DC ionization properly. Optical plasma devices benefit form the advantages of plasma/vacuum electronic devices while preserving most of the integrablity of semiconductor based devices.

  13. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Kevin L.

    1997-01-01

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors.

  14. Arsenic induces NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase I by disrupting the Nrf2 x Keap1 x Cul3 complex and recruiting Nrf2 x Maf to the antioxidant response element enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoqing; Chen, Michael G; Lin, Gary X; Ma, Qiang

    2006-08-18

    The ubiquitous toxic metalloid arsenic elicits pleiotropic adverse and adaptive responses in mammalian species. The biological targets of arsenic are largely unknown at present. We analyzed the signaling pathway for induction of detoxification gene NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase (Nqo1) by arsenic. Genetic and biochemical evidence revealed that induction required cap 'n' collar basic leucine zipper transcription factor Nrf2 and the antioxidant response element (ARE) of Nqo1. Arsenic stabilized Nrf2 protein, extending the t(1/2) of Nrf2 from 21 to 200 min by inhibiting the Keap1 x Cul3-dependent ubiquitination and proteasomal turnover of Nrf2. Arsenic markedly inhibited the ubiquitination of Nrf2 but did not disrupt the Nrf2 x Keap1 x Cul3 association in the cytoplasm. In the nucleus, arsenic, but not phenolic antioxidant tert-butylhydroquinone, dissociated Nrf2 from Keap1 and Cul3 followed by dimerization of Nrf2 with a Maf protein (Maf G/Maf K). Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that Nrf2 and Maf associated with the endogenous Nqo1 ARE enhancer constitutively. Arsenic substantially increased the ARE occupancy by Nrf2 and Maf. In addition, Keap1 was shown to be ubiquitinated in the cytoplasm and deubiquitinated in the nucleus in the presence of arsenic without changing the protein level, implicating nuclear-cytoplasmic recycling of Keap1. Our data reveal that arsenic activates the Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway through a distinct mechanism from that by antioxidants and suggest an "on-switch" model of Nqo1 transcription in which the binding of Nrf2 x Maf to ARE controls both the basal and inducible expression of Nqo1. PMID:16785233

  15. SISTEMA DE CROMOSSOMOS SEXUAIS MÚLTIPLOS X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y NA MOSCA-DAS-FRUTAS Anastrepha sororcula (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Regina de Araújo Moura Cunha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sistemas de cromossomos sexuais simples estão difundidos entre os Tephritidae do gênero Anastrepha. Espécies deste gênero apresentam enorme importância pelo impacto que causam em frutíferas cultivadas, sobretudo no nordeste do Brasil. Análises citogenéticas desenvolvidas em Anastrepha sororcula, através da análise da estrutura cariotípica e bandamento C revelaram a presença de um sistema de cromossomos sexuais múltiplos do tipo X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y nesta espécie. Enquanto as fêmeas apresentam um cariótipo homomórfico com 2n=12, os machos possuem 2n=11, onde se destaca um grande cromossomo Y despareado. O nível de divergência cariotípica da espécie A. sororcula do nordeste, com a presença de um sistema de cromossomos sexuais múltiplos, em relação às regiões central e sudeste do Brasil, podem indicar a ocorrência de impedimentos reprodutivos entre os exemplares das duas áreas e que possivelmente, como outros exemplos que existem neste gênero, A. sororcula constitua um complexo de espécies ainda não inteiramente definido. Palavras-chave: Alossomos, peste agrícola, citogenética de insetos, heterocromatina. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n2p1-4

  16. Radiation emitting devices regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Emitting Devices Regulations are the regulations referred to in the Radiation Emitting Devices Act and relate to the operation of devices. They include standards of design and construction, standards of functioning, warning symbol specifications in addition to information relating to the seizure and detention of machines failing to comply with the regulations. The radiation emitting devices consist of the following: television receivers, extra-oral dental x-ray equipment, microwave ovens, baggage inspection x-ray devices, demonstration--type gas discharge devices, photofluorographic x-ray equipment, laser scanners, demonstration lasers, low energy electron microscopes, high intensity mercury vapour discharge lamps, sunlamps, diagnostic x-ray equipment, ultrasound therapy devices, x-ray diffraction equipment, cabinet x-ray equipment and therapeutic x-ray equipment

  17. Fabrication and characterization of all-oxide heterojunction p-CuAlO2+x/n-Zn1-xAlxO transparent diode for potential application in 'invisible electronics'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transparent p-n heterojunction diodes have been fabricated by p-type copper aluminum oxide (p-CuAlO2+x) and n-type aluminum doped zinc oxide (n-Zn1-xAlxO) thin films on glass substrates. The n-layers are deposited by sol-gel-dip-coating process from zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH3COO)2.2H2O) and aluminum nitrate (Al(NO3)3.9H2O). Al concentration in the nominal solution is taken as 1.62 at %. P-layers are deposited onto the ZnO:Al-coated glass substrates by direct current sputtering process from a prefabricated CuAlO2 sintered target. The sputtering is performed in oxygen-diluted argon atmosphere with an elevated substrate temperature. Post-deposition oxygen annealing induces excess oxygen within the p-CuAlO2+x films, which in turn enhances p-type conductivity of the layers. The device characterization shows rectifying current-voltage characteristics, confirming the proper formation of the p-n junction. The turn-on voltage is obtained around 0.8 V, with a forward-to-reverse current ratio around 30 at ± 4 V. The diode structure has a total thickness of 1.1 μm and the optical transmission spectra of the diode show almost 60% transmittance in the visible region, indicating its potential application in 'invisible electronics'. Also the cost-effective procedures enable the large-scale production of these transparent diodes for diverse device applications

  18. Novel Synthesis and High Pressure Behavior of Na0.3CoO2 x 1.3 H2O and Related Phases

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sangmoon; Lee, Yongjae; Moodenbaugh, Arnie; Vogt, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    We have prepared powder samples of NaxCoO2 x yH2O using a new synthesis route. Superconductivity was observed in Na0.3CoO2 x 1.3H2O between 4 and 5K as indicated by the magnetic susceptibility. The bulk compressibilities of Na0.3CoO2 x 1.3H2O, Na0.3CoO2 x 0.6H2O and Na0.3CoO2 were determined using a diamond anvil cell and synchrotron powder diffraction. Chemical changes occurring under pressure when using different pressure transmitting media are discussed and further transport measurements a...

  19. Homodimeric anoctamin-1, but not homodimeric anoctamin-6, is activated by calcium increases mediated by the P2Y1 and P2X7 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Michaela; Klapperstück, Manuela; Kendzierski, Thomas; Detro-Dassen, Silvia; Panning, Anna; Schmalzing, Günther; Markwardt, Fritz

    2015-10-01

    The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a ligand-gated ion channel that conducts Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) when activated by extracellular ATP. In various cell types, such as secretory epithelia, the P2X7R is co-expressed with Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) channels of the TMEM16/anoctamin family. Here, we studied whether the P2X7R and TMEM16A/anoctamin-1 (Ano1) or TMEM16F/anoctamin-6 (Ano6) interact functionally and physically, using oocytes of Xenopus laevis and Ambystoma mexicanum (Axolotl) for heterologous expression. As a control, we co-expressed anoctamin-1 with the P2Y1 receptor (P2Y1R), which induces the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores via activating phospholipase C through coupling to Gαq. We found that co-expression of anoctamin-1 with the P2Y1R resulted in a small transient increase in Cl(-) conductance in response to ATP. Co-expression of anoctamin-1 with the P2X7R resulted in a large sustained increase in Cl(-) conductance via Ca(2+) influx through the ATP-opened P2X7R in Xenopus and in Axolotl oocytes, which lack endogenous Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) channels. P2Y1R- or P2X7R-mediated stimulation of Ano1 was primarily functional, as demonstrated by the absence of a physically stable interaction between Ano1 and the P2X7R. In the pancreatic cell line AsPC-1, we found the same functional Ca(2+)-dependent interaction of P2X7R and Ano1. The P2X7R-mediated sustained activation of Ano1 may be physiologically relevant to the time course of stimulus-secretion coupling in secretory epithelia. No such increase in Cl(-) conductance could be elicited by activating the P2X7 receptor in either Xenopus oocytes or Axolotl oocytes co-expressing Ano6. The lack of function of Ano6 can, at least in part, be explained by its poor cell-surface expression, resulting from a relatively inefficient exit of the homodimeric Ano6 from the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:25592660

  20. Functional properties of heteromeric P2X(1/5) receptors expressed in HEK cells and excitatory junction potentials in guinea-pig submucosal arterioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surprenant, A; Schneider, D A; Wilson, H L; Galligan, J J; North, R A

    2000-07-01

    P2X receptors are ATP-gated cation channels; they form as homomers or heteromers from a family of seven related subunits. In particular, heteromeric channels comprising P2X(2) and P2X(3) subunits, or P2X(1) and P2X(5) subunits, show distinctive physiological and pharmacological properties in heterologous expression systems. There is substantial evidence that one of the native P2X receptors in sensory neurones corresponds to the P2X(2/3) heteromer, but there is no evidence for P2X(1/5) heteromers in native tissue. We recorded currents in response to activation of heteromeric P2X(1/5) receptors expressed in HEK293 cells to characterize further their functional properties. The ATP concentration-response curve had a threshold concentration of 1 nM, and a Hill slope of one. TNP-ATP was a weak partial agonist, and a non-competitive antagonist which inhibited maximal ATP currents by 60%. Increasing or decreasing pH from 7.3 shifted the ATP concentration-response curves to the right by fivefold and decreased the maximum current by 40%. Calcium permeability was lower than that observed for other P2X receptors (P(Ca)/P(Na) ratio=1.1). The nanomolar sensitivity of this receptor revealed a steady release of ATP from HEK293 cells, providing an extracellular concentration which ranged from 3 to 300 nM. Noradrenaline (0.3-30 microM) increased ATP-evoked currents by 35%; this facilitation occurred within 20 ms. We also recorded excitatory junction potentials (EJPs) from guinea-pig submucosal arterioles. EJPs were inhibited by suramin and PPADS (IC(50)s of 0.2 microM and 20 microM) but TNP-ATP (0.1-10 microM) inhibited EJPs by <30%. Noradrenaline (0.3-30 microM in the presence of phentolamine and propranolol) decreased EJPs in control preparations but facilitated EJPs by 5-20% in submucosal arterioles from reserpinized guinea-pigs. These properties are discussed in relation to P2X receptors underlying EJPs at autonomic neuroeffector junctions.

  1. Homodimeric anoctamin-1, but not homodimeric anoctamin-6, is activated by calcium increases mediated by the P2Y1 and P2X7 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Michaela; Klapperstück, Manuela; Kendzierski, Thomas; Detro-Dassen, Silvia; Panning, Anna; Schmalzing, Günther; Markwardt, Fritz

    2015-10-01

    The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a ligand-gated ion channel that conducts Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) when activated by extracellular ATP. In various cell types, such as secretory epithelia, the P2X7R is co-expressed with Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) channels of the TMEM16/anoctamin family. Here, we studied whether the P2X7R and TMEM16A/anoctamin-1 (Ano1) or TMEM16F/anoctamin-6 (Ano6) interact functionally and physically, using oocytes of Xenopus laevis and Ambystoma mexicanum (Axolotl) for heterologous expression. As a control, we co-expressed anoctamin-1 with the P2Y1 receptor (P2Y1R), which induces the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores via activating phospholipase C through coupling to Gαq. We found that co-expression of anoctamin-1 with the P2Y1R resulted in a small transient increase in Cl(-) conductance in response to ATP. Co-expression of anoctamin-1 with the P2X7R resulted in a large sustained increase in Cl(-) conductance via Ca(2+) influx through the ATP-opened P2X7R in Xenopus and in Axolotl oocytes, which lack endogenous Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) channels. P2Y1R- or P2X7R-mediated stimulation of Ano1 was primarily functional, as demonstrated by the absence of a physically stable interaction between Ano1 and the P2X7R. In the pancreatic cell line AsPC-1, we found the same functional Ca(2+)-dependent interaction of P2X7R and Ano1. The P2X7R-mediated sustained activation of Ano1 may be physiologically relevant to the time course of stimulus-secretion coupling in secretory epithelia. No such increase in Cl(-) conductance could be elicited by activating the P2X7 receptor in either Xenopus oocytes or Axolotl oocytes co-expressing Ano6. The lack of function of Ano6 can, at least in part, be explained by its poor cell-surface expression, resulting from a relatively inefficient exit of the homodimeric Ano6 from the endoplasmic reticulum.

  2. Combined use of gamma irradiation and the bioinsecticide, DIPEL 2X, in controlling larvae of the indian meal moth, ``Plodia interpunctella`` (Huebner) (``Lepidipthera phycitidae``)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatowicz, S. [Szkola Glowna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The bioinsecticide DIPEL 2X irradiated with doses of gamma radiation up to 2.0 kGy preserves its insecticidal efficiency against larvae of the Indian meal moth, ``Plodia interpunctella`` (Huebner). The amount of DIPEL 2X-treated food taken in by larvae irradiated with 0.1-0.7 kGy is sufficient for bringing about the death of these larvae. (author). 20 refs, 8 figs, 3 tabs.

  3. Effects of magnetic field on the cuprate high-Tc superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lake, B.; Aeppli, G.; Christensen, N.B.;

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses neutron scattering measurements on the cuprate, high transition temperature superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO) in an applied magnetic field. LSCO is a type-II superconductor and magnetic flux can penetrate the material via the formation of vorticies. Phase coherent......-c in zero field, and is significantly enhanced by application of a magnetic field; phase coherent superconductivity is then established within the anti- ferromagnetic phase at T-irr. (C) 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim....... superconductivity characterized by zero resistance is suppressed to the lower field-dependent irreversibility temperature (T-irr(H)) and occurs when the vortices freeze into a lattice. Because superconductivity is destroyed within the vortex cores, an investigation of the vortex state provides information about...

  4. Importance of interlayer effects for T{sub c} in {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}X superconductors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, J.; Lang, M.; Schlueter, J. A.; Geiser, U.; Schweitzer, D.

    2000-08-22

    We report high-resolution measurements of the linear thermal-expansion coefficient perpendicular to the conducting planes, {alpha}{perpendicular}(T), on single crystals of the superconductors {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}X with X=I{sub 3}, CU(NCS){sub 2} and Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br. For all three compounds we find pronounced negative phase-transition anomalies at {Tc}. Using the Ehrenfest relation, the uniaxial-pressure coefficients of {Tc} can be determined. We find that interlayer effects are of crucial importance for {Tc} in this class of materials. Regarding also interlayer effects we compare our results with recent theories addressing the p-T phase diagram.

  5. Quantum and classical magnetoresistance oscillations in the electron-doped cuprate superconductor Nd2-xCexCuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamentals of high-temperature superconductivity have not been understood completely, yet. Compared to most of the hole-doped cuprates, the electron-doped compound Nd2-xCexCuO4 (NCCO) is rather simple and has a lower critical temperature Tc. By applying sufficiently high magnetic fields superconductivity is suppressed and the normal-conducting state can be accessed for even lowest temperatures. In pulsed and steady field experiments we observed Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) and angle-dependent magnetoresistance oscillations (AMRO) for a series of NCCO single crystals in the range of x=0.14-0.17. Starting from optimal doping up to the higher edge of the superconducting region our results provided clear evidence for the existence of a translational symmetry breaking. Here we report on how it develops towards the underdoped side and give an explanation for the AMRO arising only for overdoped samples in very high fields.

  6. A theoretical study of the carbenoids LiCH2X (X = Cl, Br, I) cyclopropanation reaction with ketene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xing Hui Zhang; Fu Long Zhang; Zhi Yuan Geng

    2010-05-01

    A computational study for the [2 + 1] addition of the lithium carbenoids LiCH2X (X = Cl, Br, I) with ketene have been investigated by means of the B3LYP hybrid density functional method. All the reactions examined displayed similar concerted mechanisms for the cyclopropanation of these reagents. The lithium carbenoids react with ketene via an asynchronous attack on one CH2 or C group of ketene with relatively low barrier to reaction in the range of 25.34-33.74 kJ/mol in THF solvent. The trend of the lithium carbenoids reaction barrier with ketene is LiCH2Cl < LiCH2Br < LiCH2I. The results show that the reactions could be highly chemical reactivity with low barriers and could be favoured in experiment. The reactions could proceed easily at lower temperature. The computational results are briefly compared to other carbenoid reactions and related species.

  7. Scaling of the anomalous Hall current in Fe100−x(SiO2)x films

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, W. J.

    2011-05-20

    To study the origin of the anomalous Hall effect, Fe100−x(SiO2)x granular films with a volume fraction of SiO2 (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 40.51) were fabricated using cosputtering. Hall and longitudinal resistivities were measured in the temperature range of 5–350 K with magnetic fields up to 5 T. As x increased from 0 to 40.51, the anomalous Hall resistivity and longitudinal resistivity increased by about four and three orders in magnitude, respectively. Analysis of the results revealed that the normalized anomalous Hall conductivity is a constant for all of the samples, which may suggest a scattering-independent anomalous Hall conductivity in Fe.

  8. Low reproducibility of 2 x 24-hour continuous esophageal pH monitoring in infants and children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Kruse-Andersen, Søren; Husby, Steffen

    2003-01-01

    the degree of reproducibility to endoscopic evidence of mucosal injury. Upper endoscopy and 2 x 24-hr consecutive pH monitoring were performed in 30 infants and children referred for gastroesophageal reflux disease. The monitoring was performed without dietary or activity restrictions in order to assess...... reflux parameters in a near-normal physiologic setting. The NASPGHAN criteria for pathological reflux index (RI, % fraction of time with pH ... was noted in the association between pH monitoring and macroscopic esophageal mucosal changes between the two recordings days. In conclusion, a considerable intraindividual variability in reflux parameters was observed between the measurements from day 1 to day 2. This physiologic variability should...

  9. Intercellular calcium signaling occurs between human osteoblasts and osteoclasts and requires activation of osteoclast P2X7 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas R; Henriksen, Zanne; Sørensen, Ole;

    2002-01-01

    Signaling between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is important in bone homeostasis. We previously showed that human osteoblasts propagate intercellular calcium signals via two mechanisms: autocrine activation of P2Y receptors, and gap junctional communication. In the current work we identified...... mechanically induced intercellular calcium signaling between osteoblasts and osteoclasts and among osteoclasts. Intercellular calcium responses in osteoclasts required P2 receptor activation but not gap junctional communication. Pharmacological studies and reverse transcriptase-PCR amplification demonstrated...... that human osteoclasts expressed functional P2Y1 receptors, but, unexpectedly, desensitization of P2Y1 did not block calcium signaling to osteoclasts. We also found that osteoclasts expressed functional P2X7 receptors and showed that pharmacological inhibition of these receptors blocked calcium signaling...

  10. The novel heavy-fermion system Nd{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyka, N. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Loewenhaupt, M. [Technische Univ., Dresden (Germany); Metz, A. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering experiments are reported in the heavy fermion state of Nd{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4}. A complex magnetic response has been observed in zero field that can be divided into contributions from correlated Nd spins (inelastic, q-dependent; reminiscent of the spin waves in Nd{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}) and from independent, slowly relaxing Nd spins (quasi-elastic, q-independent). An applied magnetic field of H > 3 Tesla gives rise to different correlations in Q - {omega} space than in zero field. Field dependent specific heat and {mu}SR experiments can be better understood in the light of these INS results. The experiments were performed on a single crystal at T {<=} 0.1 K with applied magnetic fields of H = 0 - 6 Tesla at the IN14 spectrometer. (author). 6 refs.

  11. Low-x contribution to the Bjorken sum rule within unified $ln^2x+$LO DGLAP approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Kotlorz, D

    2004-01-01

    The small-$x$ contributions to the Bjorken sum rule within unified picture $ln^2x+$LO DGLAP for different input parametrisations $g_1^{NS}(x,Q_0^2)$ are presented. Theoretical predictions for $\\int_{0}^{0.003} g_1^{NS}(x,Q^2=10) dx$ are compared with the SMC small-$x$ data. Rough estimation of the slope $\\lambda$, controlling the small-$x$ behaviour of $g_1^{NS}\\sim x^{-\\lambda}$ from the obtained results and SMC data is performed. The crucial role of the running coupling $\\alpha_s=\\alpha_s(Q^2/z)$ at low-$x$ is taken into account.

  12. Surface impedance of BaFe2-xNixAs2 in the radio frequency range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbassi Abdellatif

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We report measurements of the temperature dependence of the surface impedance in superconducting BaFe1.93Ni0.07As2 crystals using the radiofrequency reflection technique in the 52-xNixAs2 has attracted much interest. For a Ni doping level of 7% the superconducting phase transition is found around 20K. The temperature dependence of the superconducting penetration depth was determined.

  13. Magnetoresistance of superconducting single crystals of the electron-doped compound Nd2-xCexCuO4-y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetoresistance measurements on superconducting Nd2-xCexCuO4-y single crystals with Tc varying from 7 to 19 K were made with magnetic fields H applied parallel (H parallel c) and perpendicular (H perpendicular c) to the tetragonal c axis. For H parallel c, the resistive superconductive transition curves gradually develop structure at low temperatures and high magnetic fields as Tc decreases. For the crystals with Tc approx-lt 11 K, this structure evolves into a double resistive transition with a resistivity maximum near T∼1.1 K, followed by an extremely sharp transition into the superconducting state. In this region, the resistivity exhibits non-Ohmic behavior for low current densities and Ohmic behavior for larger measuring currents. The resistivity for H perpendicular c does not exhibit any anomalous behavior or a maximum. The irreversibility line inferred from these measurements is sample dependent

  14. A periodic point-based method for the analysis of Nash equilibria in 2 x 2 symmetric quantum games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a novel method of looking at Nash equilibria in 2 x 2 quantum games. Our method is based on a mathematical connection between the problem of identifying Nash equilibria in game theory, and the topological problem of the periodic points in nonlinear maps. To adapt our method to the original protocol designed by Eisert et al (1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 3077-80) to study quantum games, we are forced to extend the space of strategies from the initial proposal. We apply our method to the extended strategy space version of the quantum Prisoner's dilemma and find that a new set of Nash equilibria emerge in a natural way. Nash equilibria in this set are optimal as Eisert's solution of the quantum Prisoner's dilemma and include this solution as a limit case.

  15. University of Maryland at College Park (UMCP) 2 x 4 Loop Test Facility: Annual report for 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiMarzo, M.; Hsu, Y.Y.; Lin, W.K.; Massoud, M.; Cunno, C.J.; Munno, F.J.; Pertmer, G.; Popp, M.; Sallet, D.W.; Wang, Z.Y.

    1987-03-01

    The efforts for the year 1985 of the investigators of University of Maryland on UMCP 2 x 4 LOOP facility is presented in this annual report to USNRC. These efforts include: additional work on the facility; theoretical investigation; and experimental investigation. The report is prepared in three chapters and seven appendices. A brief description of the facility including the final design details are presented in chapter one. Chapter two includes the theoretical basis for the experimental investigation which is followed by chapter three which contains the details of experiments, test results, and final conclusions. The appendices contain additional details about the topics discussed in the chapters. The name of the contributor(s), for clarification, is shown in the parenthesis following the title of each section.

  16. High-temperature thermoelectric properties of the β-As2-xBixTe3 solid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaney, J.-B.; Delaizir, G.; Piarristeguy, A.; Monnier, J.; Alleno, E.; Lopes, E. B.; Gonçalves, A. P.; Pradel, A.; Dauscher, A.; Candolfi, C.; Lenoir, B.

    2016-10-01

    Bi2Te3-based compounds are a well-known class of outstanding thermoelectric materials. β-As2Te3, another member of this family, exhibits promising thermoelectric properties around 400 K when appropriately doped. Herein, we investigate the high-temperature thermoelectric properties of the β-As2-xBixTe3 solid solution. Powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy experiments showed that a solid solution only exists up to x = 0.035. We found that substituting Bi for As has a beneficial influence on the thermopower, which, combined with extremely low thermal conductivity values, results in a maximum ZT value of 0.7 at 423 K for x = 0.017 perpendicular to the pressing direction.

  17. Cobalt-doping effects in single crystalline and polycrystalline EuFe2-xCoxAs2 compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A series of Co-doped EuFe2-xCoxAs2 compounds were prepared in both of single crystalline and polycrystalline forms.The Co-doping effects on the crystal structure,electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility were systematically studied.Superconductivity was found in polycrystalline Co-doped samples from zero resistivity effects,with the highest onset superconducting transition temperature at 26 K in the optimum doped EuFe1.84Co0.16As2 compound.While due to the stronger competition between the superconducting order and the Eu2+ magnetic order,the zero resistivity effect is absent in the Co-doped single crystal samples.

  18. An x-ray diffraction and magnetic susceptibility study of YbxY2-xO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycrystalline samples of the new semimagnetic semiconductor YbxY2-xO3 (x=0.06, 0.12, 0.25, 0.39, 1.00, 1.40, 1.80) were obtained by ceramic technology. An x-ray diffraction experiment was performed on all of the samples at room temperature. These data provided the basis for Rietveld refinements. The refinements showed that Yb3+ ions preferentially occupy the 24d position. The lattice constants and the mean cation - anion distances decrease linearly with the Yb3+-ion concentration. The inverse magnetic susceptibilities for all of the samples depend linearly on the temperature for 4K1eff is deduced. The Curie-Weiss paramagnetic temperatures θ(x) obtained from the low-temperature region depend linearly on the concentration x. Over the whole experimental region 4K2eff and energy gap ΔW of the first excited doublet were deduced. (author)

  19. Silicene/germanene on MgX2(X = Cl, Br, and I) for Li-ion battery applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2016-03-15

    Silicene is a promising electrode material for Li-ion batteries due to its high Li capacity and low Li diffusion barrier. Germanene is expected to show a similar performance due to its analogous structural and electronic properties. However, the performance of both the materials will be determined by the substrate, since freestanding configurations are unstable. We propose Si/MgX2 and Ge/MgX2 (X = Cl, Br, and I) as suitable hybrid structures, based on first-principles calculations. We find that Li will not cluster and that the Li capacity is very high (443 and 279 mA h g-1 for silicene and germanene on MgCl2, respectively). Sandwich structures can be used to further enhance the performance. Low diffusion barriers of less than 0.3 eV are predicted for all the hybrid structures. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  20. Magnetic correlations in La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 from NQR relaxation and specific heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsa, F.; Rigamonti, A.

    1991-01-01

    La-139 and Cu-63 Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) relaxation measurements in La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 for x ranging from 0 up to 0.3, with particular emphasis on the effect of doping on the Cu(2+) magnetic correlations and dynamics, are reviewed. In the low doping limit, x less than or equal to 0.05, the results can be interpreted consistently in terms of a simple phenomenological 'two-fluids' model whereby the effect of thermally-activated mobile O(2p) holes is the one of disrupting locally the Cu(2+) spin correlations. For x greater than or equal to 0.1, the results indicate the onset, as T approaches T(sub c)(+), of a strong coupling between Cu(2+) spins and the Fermi liquid of O(2p) holes leading to the apparent disappearance of localized Cu(2+) moment in connection with the opening of a superconducting gap.

  1. Measurement of the energetics of metal film growth on a semiconductor: Ag/ Si(100)-2x1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, D.E.; Ranney, J.T.; Larsen, Jane Hvolbæk;

    2001-01-01

    The first direct calorimetric measurements of the energetics of metal film growth on a semiconductor surface are presented. The heat of adsorption of Ag on Si(100)-(2 x 1) at 300 K decreases from similar to 347 to 246 kJ/mol with coverage in the first monolayer (ML) due to overlap of substrate...... strain from nearby Ag islands. It then rises quickly toward the bulk sublimation enthalpy (285 kJ/mol) as 3D particles grow. A wetting layer grows to 1.0 ML, but is metastable above similar to0.55 ML and dewets when kinetics permit. This may be common when adsorbate islands induce a large strain in the...

  2. Pentalanthanum zinc diplumbide, La5Zn1−xPb2+x (x ≃ 0.6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Oshchapovsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The title non-stoichiometric pentalanthanum zinc diplumbide, La5Zn1−xPb2+x (x ≃ 0.6, was prepared from the elements in an evacuated silica ampoule. It adopts the Nb5Sn2Si-type structure (space group I4/mcm, Pearson symbol tI32, a ternary ordered superstructure of the W5Si3 type. Among the four independent crystallographic positions, three are fully occupied by La (Wyckoff 16k, La (4b, and Pb (8h and one is occupied by a statistical mixture [occupancy ratio 0.394 (12:0.606 (12] of Zn and Pb (4a. The structure is constructed by face-sharing 10-vertex polyhedra around the unmixed Pb sites. These fragments enclose channels of trans-face-sharing tetragonal antiprisms occupied by the disordered Zn and Pb sites.

  3. Atomic and electronic structure of the Si(001)2x1-K chemisorption system at monolayer coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It has been well established that the chemisorption of potassium on the Si (001) 2x1 surface leads to the so-called 'double-layer model' at one monolayer coverage. The plane wave pseudopotential density functional programs VASP and fhi98md have been used to optimise the geometry of this double-layer model. The resulting geometry has been found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental results. To identify the surface states of this double-layer model in the vicinity of the Fermi energy we have calculated the modulus squared of each wavefunction integrated over the surface unit cell. We have also calculated charge density contour plots over various planes containing the surface silicon and potassium atoms. The theoretically predicted dispersion of both the occupied and unoccupied surface states has been found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental data

  4. Low-Temperature Specific Heat of the Underdoped La2-xSrxCuO4 Single Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-Yong; YANG Hai-Peng; LU Xi-Feng; ZHOU Fang; WEN Hai-Hu

    2004-01-01

    @@ We report the low-temperature specific heat of La2-xSrxCuO4 (x = 0.063) single crystals before and after annealing in the temperature region of 2-10 K and magnetic fields up to 12 T. The data confirm the √H dependence of the linear term coefficient γpredicted for d-wave paring in the Volovik theory at T = 0 K. However, the data do not satisfy the proposed Simon-Lee scaling law at finite temperatures, i.e. CDOs/ (T2) = f(T/ √H), where f is an unknown scaling function and CDos is the extra specific heat contributed by the nodal quasiparticles due to the Doppler effect. Possible reasons for this failure are presented.

  5. Superlattice origin of incommensurable density waves in $La__{2-x}Ae_xCuO4$ (Ae = Ba, Sr)

    CERN Document Server

    Bucher, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    In line with the Coulomb-oscillator model of superconductivity, loop currents of excited 3s electrons from O^2- ions, passing in the CuO2 plane through nuclei of nearest-neighbor oxygen quartets, create the antiferromagnetic phase of undoped copper oxides. Holes, introduced by alkaline-earth doping of La2CuO4, destroy the loop currents, thereby weakening antiferromagnetism until it disappears at doping x = 0.02. Further doping of La_2-xAe_xCuO4 gives rise to incommensurate free-hole density waves whose wavelength is determined by the spacing of a doping superlattice. Modulating the ordering of the ions' magnetic moments, the charge-density wave, of incommensurability 2 delta, causes a magnetic density wave of incommensurability delta. The formula derived for delta(x) is in excellent agreement with data from X-ray diffraction and neutron scattering.

  6. Influence of growth direction on order-disorder transition in (GaAs)1-x(Si2)x alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (GaAs)1-x(Si2)x metastable alloys were epitaxially grown on (001), (111), (110), and (112) GaAs. Single-crystal alloys were obtained for Si concentrations in the range 0≤x≤0.43. At higher concentrations the Si segregated. The long-range order parameter, for each growth direction studied, was determined as a function of Si concentration by high-resolution x-ray diffraction. The behavior of this parameter with Si concentration is influenced by growth direction. This fact provides direct evidence that the substrate geometry affects the atomic ordering of these alloys. The results obtained from these alloys provide additional support to the validity of the proposal that the growth direction influences the order-disorder transition observed in other alloys of this kind

  7. Phase transition changes in Bi4CexV2-xO11-(x/2)-δ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of Bi4CexV2-xO11-(x/2)-δ were prepared by the conventional solid-state reactions. The phase transition changes were studied by combining results obtained from high temperature X-ray powder diffraction (HT-XRPD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and conductivity measurements. For x = 0.15 composition, the phase transitions; α ↔ β and β ↔ γ were clearly evident in the temperature ranges 423-450 and 533-550 deg. C, respectively. Although no subtle change in variation of the unit cell parameters was observed for x = 0.25 composition, the Arrhenius plot and DTA thermogram showed evidence of γ' ↔ γ phase transition in the temperature range 450-500 deg. C

  8. Optimum Lithium-Ion Conductivity in Cubic Li7 xLa3Hf2 xTaxO12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dr Asha [University of Texas, Austin; Murugan, Dr Ramaswamy [Pondicherry University, Puducherry India; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL; Bridges, Craig A [ORNL; Nakanishi, Masahiro [ORNL; Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL; Han, Kee Sung [ORNL; Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W [ORNL; Xie, Dr Hui [University of Texas, Austin; Mullins, Dr C Buddie [University of Texas, Austin; Goodenough, J. B. [University of Texas, Austin

    2012-01-01

    The nominal Li concentration giving a maximum room temperature Li-ion conductivity {sigma}{sub Li} {approx_equal} 3.45 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} with an E{sub a} {approx_equal} 0.438 eV in the system Li{sub 7-x}La{sub 3}Hf{sub 2-x}Ta{sub x}O{sub 12} fired in an alumina crucible at 1130 C for 48 h occurs in the narrow range of x = 0.45 {+-} 0.05. The samples were prepared by solid-state reaction and characterized by XRD, SEM, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and {sup 7}Li MAS NMR measurements.

  9. Characterization of intrinsic Josephson junctions for La 2- xSr xCuO 4 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Y.; Mizugaki, Y.; Nakajima, K.; Yamashita, T.; Watauchi, S.; Tanaka, I.

    2002-02-01

    We have fabricated c-axis micro-bridges of La 2- xSr xCuO 4 (LSCO) single crystals in order to characterize the LSCO intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs). The current-voltage characteristics of the micro-bridges exhibited a large hysteresis with a voltage jump of the order 0.5-3 V and no multiple branching structures. A superconducting energy gap was clearly observed on the quasi-particle branch and showed BCS-like temperature dependence. In addition, the temperature dependence of the critical current of the IJJ was in good agreement with the theoretical curves for superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson junctions. These results demonstrate that the IJJs of LSCO are characterized as stacked series SIS junctions.

  10. Comprehensive Forced Response Analysis of J2X Turbine Bladed-Discs with 360 Degree Variation in CFD Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, David; Christensen, Eric; Brown, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The temporal frequency content of the dynamic pressure predicted by a 360 degree computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a turbine flow field provides indicators of forcing function excitation frequencies (e.g., multiples of blade pass frequency) for turbine components. For the Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne J-2X engine turbopumps, Campbell diagrams generated using these forcing function frequencies and the results of NASTRAN modal analyses show a number of components with modes in the engine operating range. As a consequence, forced response and static analyses are required for the prediction of combined stress, high cycle fatigue safety factors (HCFSF). Cyclically symmetric structural models have been used to analyze turbine vane and blade rows, not only in modal analyses, but also in forced response and static analyses. Due to the tortuous flow pattern in the turbine, dynamic pressure loading is not cyclically symmetric. Furthermore, CFD analyses predict dynamic pressure waves caused by adjacent and non-adjacent blade/vane rows upstream and downstream of the row analyzed. A MATLAB script has been written to calculate displacements due to the complex cyclically asymmetric dynamic pressure components predicted by CFD analysis, for all grids in a blade/vane row, at a chosen turbopump running speed. The MATLAB displacements are then read into NASTRAN, and dynamic stresses are calculated, including an adjustment for possible mistuning. In a cyclically symmetric NASTRAN static analysis, static stresses due to centrifugal, thermal, and pressure loading at the mode running speed are calculated. MATLAB is used to generate the HCFSF at each grid in the blade/vane row. When compared to an approach assuming cyclic symmetry in the dynamic flow field, the current approach provides better assurance that the worst case safety factor has been identified. An extended example for a J-2X turbopump component is provided.

  11. Electronic Absorption Spectroscopy of H2X (X=O, Te, Po): Theoretical Teatment of Spin-Orbit Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chérif A. A. Ndoye; Chantal Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The electronic spectroscopy of H2X (X=O, Te, Po) was investigated by means of spinorbit configuration interaction (EPCISO) and restricted active space state interaction (SORASSI). The transition energies to the low-lying singlet and triplet states of H2O, in which the SO interaction is zero, compare rather well with the experimental data as well as to other theoretical values. The theoretical electronic absorption spectrum is characterized by three allowed transitions A1B1 (2px (O)→σ*g//3s(O)), B1 A1 (σg→σ*g/3s(O)) and A1 B2 (σg→σ*u) calculated at 7.68, 9.94, and 11.72 eV, respectively. The theoretical absorption spectra of H2X (X=Te, Po) are shifted to the red with the A1B1 (npx(X)→σ*g) states calculated at 5.06 eV (H2Te) and 4.40 eV (H2Po) and the A1B2 (σg→σ*u) states calculated at 7.89 eV (H2Te) and 7.77 eV (H2Po). The largest SO splitting amounts to 0.34 eV and is found for the lowest a3A1 of H2Po. In H2Te the SO effects are still negligible with a maximum splitting of 0.04 eV for the lowest a3B2. The two methods lead to comparable results but the EPCISO approach depends strongly on the reference wavefunction.

  12. The ionic conductivity and defect structure of fluorite-type solid solutions Basub(1-x)Usub(x)Fsub(2+2x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal growth and the characterization of the solid solutions Msub(1-x)Usub(x)Fsub(2+2x) (M = Ca, Sr, Ba and Pb) are described. X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence methods have been utilized to determine the U4+ content of the solid solutions. The incorporation of UF4 in PbF2 is found to have a stabilizing effect on the β-PbF2 (fluorite) structure. A study of the conductivity properties of Basub(1-x)Usub(x)Fsub(2+2x) and of Pbsub(1-x)Usub(x)Fsub(2+2x) is presented. The effect of an anion excess on the diffuse phase transition and the specific heat anomaly of single crystals Msub(1-x)Usub(x)Fsub(2+2x) was studied with impedance spectroscopy and calorimetric measurements. Finally, a study of the fluorite-type solid solutions Basub(1-x)Lasub(x)Fsub(2+x) and Basub(1-x)Usub(x)Fsub(2+2x) using the Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Current (TSDC) technique is presented. (Auth.)

  13. Study on structure and magnetic entropy changes of Ce2-xPrxFe16.5Co0.5 alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Xichun; ZENG Dechang; LUO Zhijian

    2006-01-01

    A series of Ce2-xPrxFe16.5Co0.5 alloys were preparedby arc melting under purified argon atmosphere. The structure and magnetic entropy changes in Ce2-xPrxFe16.5Co0.5 alloys were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction pattern and MPMS XL-7 magnetometer. The experimental results show that the crystal structure of Ce2-xPrxFe16.5Co0.5 alloys keeps in TH2Zn17-type rhombohedral, and the Curie temperature of Ce2-xPrxFe16.5Co0.5 alloys can be shifted to room temperature around by a composition adjustment. The magnetic entropy changes (-ΔSM) in Ce2-xPrxFe16.5Co0.5 alloys are relatively large, and a platform of magnetic entropy changes appearsnear the temperature TC. Ce2-xPrxFe16.5Co0.5 alloys are the potential working media for magnetic refrigeration with their stable chemical properties and especially low price.

  14. New Intermetallic Ternary Phosphide Chalcogenide AP2-xXx (A = Zr, Hf; X = S, Se) Superconductors with PbFCl-Type Crystal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitô, Hijiri; Yanagi, Yousuke; Ishida, Shigeyuki; Oka, Kunihiko; Gotoh, Yoshito; Fujihisa, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki; Iyo, Akira; Eisaki, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    We have synthesized a series of intermetallic ternary phosphide chalcogenide superconductors, AP2-xXx (A = Zr, Hf; X = S, Se), using the high-pressure synthesis technique. These materials have a PbFCl-type crystal structure (space group P4/nmm) when x is greater than 0.3. The superconducting transition temperature Tc changes systematically with x, yielding dome-like phase diagrams. The maximum Tc is achieved at approximately x = 0.7, at which point the Tc is 6.3 K for ZrP2-xSex (x = 0.75), 5.5 K for HfP2-xSex (x = 0.7), 5.0 K for ZrP2-xSx (x = 0.675), and 4.6 K for Hfp2-xSx (x = 0.5). They are typical type-II superconductors and the upper and lower critical fields are estimated to be 2.92 T at 0 K and 0.021 T at 2 K for ZrP2-xSex (x = 0.75), respectively.

  15. Organic Light-Emitting Devices with Extended Operating Lifetimes on Plastic Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Michael (Universal Display Corporation); Michalski, L (Universal Display Corporation); Rajan, K (Universal Display); Rothman, M A.(Universal Display); Silvernail, J A.(Universal Display); Brown, Julie J.(Universal Display Corporation); Burrows, Paul E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Graff, Gordon L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Gross, Mark E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Martin, Peter M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Hall, Michael G.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Mast, Eric S.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Bonham, Charles C.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Bennett, Wendy D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Zumhoff, Mac R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2001-11-01

    We fabricate long-lived organic light emitting devices using a 175-micrometer thick polyethylene terephthalte substrate coated with an organic-inorganic multilayered barrier film. To assess the permeability of the plastic substrate, a glass lid and epoxy seal are used to encapsulate the display in order to compare the rate of degradation to glass-based devices. The observed permeating rate of water vapor through the plastic substrate was estimated to be 2 x 10-6 g/m squared/day. Driven at 2.5 mA/cm squared, we measure a device lifetime of 3800 hours from an initial luminance of 425 cd/m squared.

  16. Smart portable rehabilitation devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leahey Matt

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of current portable orthotic devices and rehabilitative braces provide stability, apply precise pressure, or help maintain alignment of the joints with out the capability for real time monitoring of the patient's motions and forces and without the ability for real time adjustments of the applied forces and motions. Improved technology has allowed for advancements where these devices can be designed to apply a form of tension to resist motion of the joint. These devices induce quicker recovery and are more effective at restoring proper biomechanics and improving muscle function. However, their shortcoming is in their inability to be adjusted in real-time, which is the most ideal form of a device for rehabilitation. This introduces a second class of devices beyond passive orthotics. It is comprised of "active" or powered devices, and although more complicated in design, they are definitely the most versatile. An active or powered orthotic, usually employs some type of actuator(s. Methods In this paper we present several new advancements in the area of smart rehabilitation devices that have been developed by the Northeastern University Robotics and Mechatronics Laboratory. They are all compact, wearable and portable devices and boast re-programmable, real time computer controlled functions as the central theme behind their operation. The sensory information and computer control of the three described devices make for highly efficient and versatile systems that represent a whole new breed in wearable rehabilitation devices. Their applications range from active-assistive rehabilitation to resistance exercise and even have applications in gait training. The three devices described are: a transportable continuous passive motion elbow device, a wearable electro-rheological fluid based knee resistance device, and a wearable electrical stimulation and biofeedback knee device. Results Laboratory tests of the devices

  17. Mechanical CPR devices

    OpenAIRE

    Halperin, Henry; Carver, David J.

    2010-01-01

    It is recognized that the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an important predictor of outcome from cardiac arrest. Mechanical chest-compression devices provide an alternative to manual CPR. Physiological and animal data suggest that mechanical chest-compression devices are more effective than manual CPR. Consequently, there has been much interest in the development of new techniques and devices to improve the efficacy of CPR. This review will consider the evidence ...

  18. Optical fibre nanowire devices

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Fei

    2008-01-01

    The Optical Fibre Nanowire (OFN) is a potential building block in future micro- and nano-photonic device since it offers a number of unique optical and mechanical properties. In this thesis, the background and fundamental features of nanowires are introduced; the theory, design and demonstration of novel nanowire devices are discussed. At first, a short adiabatic taper tip is manufactured, and it is used as optical tweezers for trapping 1?m microspheres. Then, the most important devic...

  19. Sensor sentinel computing device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damico, Joseph P.

    2016-08-02

    Technologies pertaining to authenticating data output by sensors in an industrial environment are described herein. A sensor sentinel computing device receives time-series data from a sensor by way of a wireline connection. The sensor sentinel computing device generates a validation signal that is a function of the time-series signal. The sensor sentinel computing device then transmits the validation signal to a programmable logic controller in the industrial environment.

  20. Establishment Registration & Device Listing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This searchable database contains establishments (engaged in the manufacture, preparation, propagation, compounding, assembly, or processing of medical devices...