WorldWideScience

Sample records for 2d seismic technology

  1. 2D Seismic Reflection Data across Central Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    In a continuing collaboration with the Midwest Geologic Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) on the Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins project, Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco acquired two-dimensional (2D) seismic data in the Illinois Basin. This work included the design, acquisition and processing of approximately 125 miles of (2D) seismic reflection surveys running west to east in the central Illinois Basin. Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco oversaw the management of the field operations (including a pre-shoot planning, mobilization, acquisition and de-mobilization of the field personnel and equipment), procurement of the necessary permits to conduct the survey, post-shoot closure, processing of the raw data, and provided expert consultation as needed in the interpretation of the delivered product. Three 2D seismic lines were acquired across central Illinois during November and December 2010 and January 2011. Traversing the Illinois Basin, this 2D seismic survey was designed to image the stratigraphy of the Cambro-Ordovician sections and also to discern the basement topography. Prior to this survey, there were no regionally extensive 2D seismic data spanning this section of the Illinois Basin. Between the NW side of Morgan County and northwestern border of Douglas County, these seismic lines ran through very rural portions of the state. Starting in Morgan County, Line 101 was the longest at 93 miles in length and ended NE of Decatur, Illinois. Line 501 ran W-E from the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) site to northwestern Douglas County and was 25 miles in length. Line 601 was the shortest and ran N-S past the IBDP site and connected lines 101 and 501. All three lines are correlated to well logs at the IBDP site. Originally processed in 2011, the 2D seismic profiles exhibited a degradation of signal quality below ~400 millisecond (ms) which made

  2. 2D Seismic Data Processing for Straight Lines in the Loess Plateaus in Fuxian of Shanbei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiMinjie; ChenYequan; ZhangHai; PangShangming; DengGuozhen

    2005-01-01

    The crooked seismic lines along valleys were irregular previously in Fuxian of Shanbei,showing an irregular branch in plane, and hard to complete close grids. Therefore, it's difficult to conduct reservoir inversion of 2D seismic data. In 2001, Zhongyuan Oilfield Company carried out the study on field acquisition methods and seismic processing technology in Fuxian. Straight lines were passing through plateaus and formed seismic grids by using flexible geometry with variable linear bins.Data processing involved model-inversion based refraction static correction, surface consistent amplitude compensation, deconvolution, and pre-stack noise attenuation. As the result, seismic data with a high fidelity was provided for the subsequent reservoir predictions, small-amplitude structure interpretation and integrative geologic study. Because all lines were jointed to form grids, comprehensive interpretation of reservoir inversion could be finally implemented by using the pseudo logging method to control lines without wells.

  3. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Wood; A. Wylie; W. Quinlan

    2004-04-01

    One of the main objectives of this demonstration project is to test surface geochemical techniques for detecting trace amounts of light hydrocarbons in pore gases as a means of reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration and production. As part of the project, several field demonstrations were undertaken to assess the validity and usefulness of the microbial surface geochemical technique. The important observations from each of these field demonstrations are briefly reviewed in this annual report. These demonstrations have been successful in identifying the presence or lack of hydrocarbons in the subsurface and can be summarized as follows: (1) The surface geochemistry data showed a fair-to-good microbial anomaly that may indicate the presence of a fault or stratigraphic facies change across the drilling path of the State Springdale & O'Driscoll No.16-16 horizontal demonstration well in Manistee County, Michigan. The well was put on production in December 2003. To date, the well is flowing nearly 100 barrels of liquid hydrocarbons per day plus gas, which is a good well in Michigan. Reserves have not been established yet. Two successful follow-up horizontal wells have also been drilled in the Springdale area. Additional geochemistry data will be collected in the Springdale area in 2004. (2) The surface geochemistry sampling in the Bear Lake demonstration site in Manistee County, Michigan was updated after the prospect was confirmed and production begun; the original subsurface and seismic interpretation used to guide the location of the geochemical survey for the Charlich Fauble re-entry was different than the interpretation used by the operator who ultimately drilled the well. As expected, the anomaly appears to be diminishing as the positive (apical) microbial anomaly is replaced by a negative (edge) anomaly, probably due to the pressure draw-down in the reservoir. (3) The geochemical sampling program over the Vernon Field, Isabella County, Michigan is now

  4. Research of CRP-based irregular 2D seismic acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Hu; Yin Cheng; He Guang-Ming; Chen Ai-Ping; Jing Long-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Seismic exploration in the mountainous areas of western Chinese is extremely diffi cult because of the complexity of the surface and subsurface, which results in shooting difficulties, seismic data with low signal-to-noise ratio, and strong interference. The complexity of the subsurface structure leads to strong scattering of the refl ection points; thus, the curved-line acquisition method has been used. However, the actual subsurface structural characteristics have been rarely considered. We propose a design method for irregular acquisition based on common refl ection points (CRP) to avoid diffi cult-to-shoot areas, while considering the structural characteristics and CRP positions and optimizing the surface-receiving line position. We arrange the positions of the receiving points to ensure as little dispersion of subsurface CRP as possible to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the seismic data. We verify the applicability of the method using actual data from a site in Sichuan Basin. The proposed method apparently solves the problem of seismic data acquisition and facilitates seismic exploration in structurally complex areas.

  5. 2D Time-lapse Seismic Tomography Using An Active Time Constraint (ATC) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    We propose a 2D seismic time-lapse inversion approach to image the evolution of seismic velocities over time and space. The forward modeling is based on solving the eikonal equation using a second-order fast marching method. The wave-paths are represented by Fresnel volumes rathe...

  6. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-02-06

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.

  7. 2D seismic residual statics derived from refraction interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Refraction traveltimes have long been applied for deriving long-wavelength statics solutions. These traveltimes are also applied for the derivation of residual statics, but they must be sufficiently accurate at short wavelengths. In this study, we present a seismic residual statics method that applies interferometric theory to produce four stacked virtual refraction gathers with a significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio. These gathers are composed of forward and backward virtual refraction gathers for receivers and shots. By picking the first arrivals on these four gathers followed by the application of a set of refraction equations, reliable residual statics solutions can be derived. This approach can help deal with noisy data and also avoid using traveltime picks from shot gathers. We demonstrate the approach by applying it to synthetic data as well as real data.

  8. 2D seismic reflection tomography in strongly anisotropic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guangnan; Zhou, Bing; Li, Hongxi; Zhang, Hua; Li, Zelin

    2014-12-01

    Seismic traveltime tomography is an effective method to reconstruct underground anisotropic parameters. Currently, most anisotropic tomographic methods were developed under the assumption of weak anisotropy. The tomographic method proposed here can be implemented for imaging subsurface targets in strongly anisotropic media with a known tilted symmetry axis, since the adopted ray tracing method is suitable for anisotropic media with arbitrary degree. There are three kinds of reflection waves (qP, qSV and qSH waves) that were separately used to invert the blocky abnormal body model. The reflection traveltime tomographiy is developed here because a surface observation system is the most economical and practical way compared with crosswell and VSP. The numerical examples show that the traveltimes of qP reflection wave have inverted parameters {{c}11},{{c}13},{{c}33} \\text{and} {{c}44} successfully. Traveltimes of qSV reflection wave have inverted parameters {{c}11},{{c}33} \\text{and} {{c}44} successfully, with the exception of the {{c}13}, since it is less sensitive than other parameters. Traveltimes of qSH reflection wave also have inverted parameters {{c}44} \\text{and} {{c}66} successfully. In addition, we find that the velocity sensitivity functions (derivatives of phase velocity with respect to elastic moduli parameters) and raypath illuminating angles have a great influence on the qualities of tomograms according to the inversion of theoretical models. Finally, the numerical examples confirm that the reflection traveltime tomography can be applied to invert strongly anisotropic models.

  9. Development of the Borehole 2-D Seismic Tomography Software Using MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, A. D.; Syahputra, A.; Fatkhan, F.; Sule, R.; Hendriyana, A.

    2011-12-01

    We developed 2-D borehole seismic tomography software that we called "EARTHMAX-2D TOMOGRAPHY" to image subsurface physical properties including P-wave and S-wave velocities between two boreholes. We used Graphic User Interface (GUI) facilities of MATLAB programming language to create the software. In this software, we used travel time of seismic waves from source to receiver by using pseudo bending ray tracing method as input for tomography inversion. We can also set up a model parameterization, initial velocity model, ray tracing processes, conduct borehole seismic tomography inversion, and finally visualize the inversion results. The LSQR method was applied to solve of tomography inversion solution. We provided the Checkerboard Test Resolution (CTR) to evaluate the model resolution of the tomography inversion. As validation of this developed software, we tested it for geotechnical purposes. We then conducted data acquisition in the "ITB X-field" that is located on ITB campus. We used two boreholes that have a depth of 39 meters. Seismic wave sources were generated by impulse generator and sparker and then they were recorded by borehole hydrophone string type 3. Later on, we analyzed and picked seismic arrival time as input for tomography inversion. As results, we can image the estimated weathering layer, sediment layer, and basement rock in the field depicted by seismic wave structures. More detailed information about the developed software will be presented. Keywords: borehole, tomography, earthmax-2D, inversion

  10. The feasibility of speeding up 2D seismic migration using a specific processor on a FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alberto Abreo Carrillo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper was aimed at describing the state of the art regarding 2D migration from a software and hardware perspective. It also gives the current state of specific processing using field programmable gate array (FPGA and then concludes with the feasibility of fully implementing 2D seismic migration on a FPGA via a specific processor. Work was used showing performance in different areas of knowledge to gain an overview of the current state of specific processing using FPGAs. As 2D seismic migration employs floating-point data, this article thus compiles several papers showing trends in floating-point operations in both general and specific processors. The information presented in this article led to concluding that FPGAs have a promising future in this area due to oil industry companies having begun to develop their own tools aimed at further optimising field exploration.

  11. 2-D crustal structure of Changbaishan- Tianchi volcanic region determined by seismic traveltime inversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王夫运; 张先康; 杨卓欣

    2002-01-01

    2-D velocity structure and tectonics of the crust and upper mantle is revealed by inversion of seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection traveltimes acquired along the profile L1 in the Changbaishan-Tianchi volcanic region. It is used in this study that seismic traveltime inversion for simultaneous determination of 2-D velocity and interface structure of the crust and upper mantle. The result shows that, under Changbaishan-Tianchi crater, there exists a low-velocity body in the shape of an inverted triangle, and the crustal reflecting boundaries and Moho all become lower by a varying margin of 2~6 km, forming a crustal root which is assumed to be the Changbaishan-Tianchi volcanic system. Finally, we make a comparison between our 2-D velocity model and the result from the studies by using trial-and-error forward modeling with SEIS83.

  12. 2D and 3D numerical modeling of seismic waves from explosion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decade, nonlinear and linear 2D axisymmetric finite difference codes have been used in conjunction with far-field seismic Green's functions to simulate seismic waves from a variety of sources. In this paper we briefly review some of the results and conclusions that have resulted from numerical simulations and explosion modeling in support of treaty verification research at S-CUBED in the last decade. We then describe in more detail the results from two recent projects. Our goal is to provide a flavor for the kinds of problems that can be examined with numerical methods for modeling excitation of seismic waves from explosions. Two classes of problems have been addressed; nonlinear and linear near-source interactions. In both classes of problems displacements and tractions are saved on a closed surface in the linear region and the representation theorem is used to propagate the seismic waves to the far-field

  13. 2-D linear motion system. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) program requires buildings to be decontaminated, decommissioned, and surveyed for radiological contamination in an expeditious and cost-effective manner. Simultaneously, the health and safety of personnel involved in the D and D activities is of primary concern. D and D workers must perform duties high off the ground, requiring the use of manlifts or scaffolding, often, in radiologically or chemically contaminated areas or in areas with limited access. Survey and decontamination instruments that are used are sometimes heavy or awkward to use, particularly when the worker is operating from a manlift or scaffolding. Finding alternative methods of performing such work on manlifts or scaffolding is important. The 2-D Linear Motion System (2-D LMS), also known as the Wall Walker trademark, is designed to remotely position tools and instruments on walls for use in such activities as radiation surveys, decontamination, and painting. Traditional (baseline) methods for operating equipment for these tasks require workers to perform duties on elevated platforms, sometimes several meters above the ground surface and near potential sources of contamination. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS significantly improves health and safety conditions by facilitating remote operation of equipment. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS performed well in a demonstration of its precision, accuracy, maneuverability, payload capacity, and ease of use. Thus, this innovative technology is demonstrated to be a viable alternative to standard methods of performing work on large, high walls, especially those that have potential contamination concerns. The Wall Walker was used to perform a final release radiological survey on over 167 m2 of walls. In this application, surveying using a traditional (baseline) method that employs an aerial lift for manual access was 64% of the total cost of the improved technology. However

  14. 2D seismic tomography of Somma- Vesuvius. Description of the experiment and preliminary results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Milano

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A multidisciplinary project for the investigation of Mt. Vesuvius Structure was started in 1993. The core of the project is represented by a high resolution seismic tomography study by using controlled and natura1 sources. The main research objective is to investigate the feeding system of the vo1cano and to retrieve details of the upper crustal structure in the area. A first 2D using seismic experiment was performed in May 1994, with the aim of studing the feasibility of lIsing tomographic techniques for exploring the vo1cano interiors. Particularly, this experiment was designed to obtain information on the optimal sources-receivers configuration and on the depth extension of the volume sampled by shot-generated seismic waves. 66 three-component seismic stations and 16 single-component analogue instruments were installed by several Italian and French groups to record signals generated by three on-land, underground explosions. Sources and geophones were deployed along a 30-km NW-SE profile passing through the volcano crater. Receivers were placed at an average spacing of 250 m in the middle of the recording line and at 500 m outside. The arrival time data base was complemented by first P and S readings of micro earthquakes which occurred in the recent past within the volcano. The first arrival data set was preliminary used to determine the shallow structure of the volcano by applying Thurber's (1983 tomographic inversion technique. This analysis shows evidence for a high-velocity body which extends vertically from about 400 m below the crater down to at least 3000 m and for a shallow 300-500 m thick low-velocity cover which borders the edifice. Data from the distant shot show evidence for arrivals of deep reflected/converted phases and provide information on the deeper structure under the volcano. The results from the interpretation of 2D data are used for planning a 3D tomographic survey which will be cauied out in 1996.

  15. 2-D crustal Poisson's ratio from seismic travel time inversion in Changbaishan Tianchi volcanic region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi; ZHANG Xian-kang; WANG Fu-yun; DUAN Yong-hong; LAI Xiao-ling

    2005-01-01

    Based on the inversion method of 2D velocity structure and interface, the crustal velocity structures of P-wave and S-wave along the profile L1 are determined simultaneously with deep seismic sounding data in Changbaishan Tianchi volcanic region, and then its Poisson's ratio is obtained. Calculated results show that this technique overcomes some defects of traditional forward calculation method, and it is also very effective to determine Poisson's ratio distribution of deep seismic sounding profile, especially useful for study on volcanic magma and crustal fault zone. Study result indicates that there is an abnormally high Poisson's ratio body that is about 30 km wide and 12 km high in the low velocity region under Tianchi crater. Its value of Poisson's ratio is 8% higher than that of surrounding medium and it should be the magma chamber formed from melted rock with high temperature. There is a high Poisson's ratio zone ranging from magma chamber to the top of crust, which may be the uprise passage of hot substance. The lower part with high Poisson's ratio, which stretches downward to Moho, is possibly the extrusion way of hot substance from the uppermost mantle. The conclusions above are consistent with the study results of both tomographic determination of 3D crustal structure and magnetotelluric survey in this region.

  16. Seismic Physical Modeling Technology and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the seismic physical modeling technology in the CNPC Key Lab of Geophysical Exploration. It includes the seismic physical model positioning system, the data acquisition system, sources, transducers,model materials, model building techniques, precision measurements of model geometry, the basic principles of the seismic physical modeling and experimental methods, and two physical model examples.

  17. Comparative 2D BRT and seismic modeling of CO2 plumes in deep saline reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagrey, Said Attia Al; Strahser, Matthias; Rabbel, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    resolution and anomaly magnitudes are inversely proportional to the host salinity and temperatures and directly proportional to CO2 saturation and reservoir dimensions. The sensitivity of the seismic method to changes in saturation is most pronounced for low CO2 concentrations while the geoelectric method has a higher sensitivity at high concentrations. Acknowledgements: This study is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), EnBW Energie Baden-Württemberg AG, E.ON Energie AG, E.ON Ruhrgas AG, RWE Dea AG, Vattenfall Europe Technology Research GmbH, Wintershall Holding AG and Stadtwerke Kiel AG as part of the CO2-MoPa joint project in the framework of the Special Program GEOTECHNOLOGIEN.

  18. Elastic-Wavefield Seismic Stratigraphy: A New Seismic Imaging Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bob A. Hardage; Milo M. Backus; Michael V. DeAngelo; Sergey Fomel; Khaled Fouad; Robert J. Graebner; Paul E. Murray; Randy Remington; Diana Sava

    2006-07-31

    The purpose of our research has been to develop and demonstrate a seismic technology that will provide the oil and gas industry a better methodology for understanding reservoir and seal architectures and for improving interpretations of hydrocarbon systems. Our research goal was to expand the valuable science of seismic stratigraphy beyond the constraints of compressional (P-P) seismic data by using all modes (P-P, P-SV, SH-SH, SV-SV, SV-P) of a seismic elastic wavefield to define depositional sequences and facies. Our objective was to demonstrate that one or more modes of an elastic wavefield may image stratal surfaces across some stratigraphic intervals that are not seen by companion wave modes and thus provide different, but equally valid, information regarding depositional sequences and sedimentary facies within that interval. We use the term elastic wavefield stratigraphy to describe the methodology we use to integrate seismic sequences and seismic facies from all modes of an elastic wavefield into a seismic interpretation. We interpreted both onshore and marine multicomponent seismic surveys to select the data examples that we use to document the principles of elastic wavefield stratigraphy. We have also used examples from published papers that illustrate some concepts better than did the multicomponent seismic data that were available for our analysis. In each interpretation study, we used rock physics modeling to explain how and why certain geological conditions caused differences in P and S reflectivities that resulted in P-wave seismic sequences and facies being different from depth-equivalent S-wave sequences and facies across the targets we studied.

  19. Combined analysis of 2-D electrical resistivity, seismic refraction and geotechnical investigations for Bukit Bunuh complex crater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in studying impact crater on earth has increased tremendously due to its importance in geologic events, earth inhabitant history as well as economic value. The existences of few shock metamorphism and crater morphology evidences are discovered in Bukit Bunuh, Malaysia thus detailed studies are performed using geophysical and geotechnical methods to verify the type of the crater and characteristics accordingly. This paper presents the combined analysis of 2-D electrical resistivity, seismic refraction, geotechnical SPT N value, moisture content and RQD within the study area. Three stages of data acquisition are made starting with regional study followed by detailed study on West side and East side. Bulk resistivity and p-wave seismic velocity were digitized from 2-D resistivity and seismic sections at specific distance and depth for corresponding boreholes and samples taken. Generally, Bukit Bunuh shows the complex crater characteristics. Standard table of bulk resistivity and p-wave seismic velocity against SPT N value, moisture content and RQD are produce according to geological classifications of impact crater; inside crater, rim/slumped terrace and outside crater

  20. Seismic 2D reflection processing and interpretation of shallow refraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posiva Oy takes care of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. In year 2001 Olkiluoto was selected for the site of final disposal. Currently construction of the underground research facility, ONKALO, is going on at the Olkiluoto site. The aim of this work was to use two-dimensional reflection seismic processing methods to refraction seismic data collected from the ONKALO area in year 2002, and to locate gently dipping reflectors from the stacked sections. Processing was done using mainly open source software Seismic Unix. After the processing, the most distinct two-dimensional reflectors were picked from seismic sections using visualization environment OpendTect. After picking the features from crossing lines were combined into three-dimensional surfaces. Special attention was given for the detection of possible faults and discontinuities. The surfaces were given coordinates and their orientation was adjusted using a geometric procedure, which corresponds roughly a 3D migration, transferred to 3D presentation utility and compared to available geological information. The advantage of this work is to be able to get three-dimensional reflection seismic results from existing data set at only processing costs. Survey lines are also partly located in ONKALO area where extensive surface seismic surveys may not be possible to perform. The applied processing method was successful in detecting the reflectors. Most significant steps were the refraction and residual statics, and deconvolution. Some distinct reflectors can be seen at times 20-200 ms (vertical depths 50-500 m). The signal gets noisier below 200 ms. Reflectors are best visible as coherent phase between the adjacent traces, but do not raise much above the surrounding noise level. Higher amount of traces to be stacked would emphasis the reflections and their continuity more. Reflectors picked on crossing lines match well to borehole observations (KR4, KR7, KR24 and KR38) of fracture zones, and get

  1. Tectonic Inversion Along the Algerian and Ligurian Margins: On the Insight Provided By Latest Seismic Processing Techniques Applied to Recent and Vintage 2D Offshore Multichannel Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenini, L.; Beslier, M. O.; Sage, F.; Badji, R.; Galibert, P. Y.; Lepretre, A.; Dessa, J. X.; Aidi, C.; Watremez, L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies on the Algerian and the North-Ligurian margins in the Western Mediterranean have evidenced inversion-related superficial structures, such as folds and asymmetric sedimentary perched basins whose geometry hints at deep compressive structures dipping towards the continent. Deep seismic imaging of these margins is difficult due to steep slope and superficial multiples, and, in the Mediterranean context, to the highly diffractive Messinian evaporitic series in the basin. During the Algerian-French SPIRAL survey (2009, R/V Atalante), 2D marine multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection data were collected along the Algerian Margin using a 4.5 km, 360 channel digital streamer and a 3040 cu. in. air-gun array. An advanced processing workflow has been laid out using Geocluster CGG software, which includes noise attenuation, 2D SRME multiple attenuation, surface consistent deconvolution, Kirchhoff pre-stack time migration. This processing produces satisfactory seismic images of the whole sedimentary cover, and of southward dipping reflectors in the acoustic basement along the central part of the margin offshore Great Kabylia, that are interpreted as inversion-related blind thrusts as part of flat-ramp systems. We applied this successful processing workflow to old 2D marine MCS data acquired on the North-Ligurian Margin (Malis survey, 1995, R/V Le Nadir), using a 2.5 km, 96 channel streamer and a 1140 cu. in. air-gun array. Particular attention was paid to multiple attenuation in adapting our workflow. The resulting reprocessed seismic images, interpreted with a coincident velocity model obtained by wide-angle data tomography, provide (1) enhanced imaging of the sedimentary cover down to the top of the acoustic basement, including the base of the Messinian evaporites and the sub-salt Miocene series, which appear to be tectonized as far as in the mid-basin, and (2) new evidence of deep crustal structures in the margin which the initial processing had failed to

  2. Modeling seismic wave propagation and amplification in 1D/2D/3D linear and nonlinear unbounded media

    CERN Document Server

    Semblat, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    To analyze seismic wave propagation in geological structures, it is possible to consider various numerical approaches: the finite difference method, the spectral element method, the boundary element method, the finite element method, the finite volume method, etc. All these methods have various advantages and drawbacks. The amplification of seismic waves in surface soil layers is mainly due to the velocity contrast between these layers and, possibly, to topographic effects around crests and hills. The influence of the geometry of alluvial basins on the amplification process is also know to be large. Nevertheless, strong heterogeneities and complex geometries are not easy to take into account with all numerical methods. 2D/3D models are needed in many situations and the efficiency/accuracy of the numerical methods in such cases is in question. Furthermore, the radiation conditions at infinity are not easy to handle with finite differences or finite/spectral elements whereas it is explicitely accounted in the B...

  3. Reconstruction of 2D seismic wavefield from Long-Period Seismogram and Short-Period Seismogram Envelope by Seismic Gradiometry applied to the Hi-net Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Takuto; Nishida, Kiwamu; Takagi, Ryota; Obara, Kazushige

    2016-04-01

    The high-sensitive seismograph network (Hi-net) operated by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) has about 800 stations with average separation of 20 km all over the Japanese archipelago. Although it is equipped with short-period seismometers, we also can observe long-period seismic wave up to 100 s in periods for significantly large earthquakes. In this case, we may treat long-period seismic waves as a 2D wavefield with station separations shorter than wavelength rather than individual traces at stations. In this study, we attempt to reconstruct 2D wavefield and obtain its propagation properties from seismic gradiometry (SG) method. The SG estimates the wave amplitude and its spatial derivative coefficients from discrete station record by the Taylor series approximation with an inverse problem. By using spatial derivatives in horizontal directions, we can obtain properties of propagating wave packet such as the arrival direction, slowness, geometrical spreading and radiation pattern. In addition, by using spatial derivatives together with free-surface boundary condition, we may decompose the vector elastic 2D wavefield estimated by the SG into divergence and rotation components. First, we applied the seismic gradiometry to a synthetic long-period (20-50 s) seismogram dataset computed by numerical simulation in realistic 3D medium at the Hi-net station layout as a feasibility test. We confirmed that the wave amplitude and its spatial derivatives are very well reproduced with average correlation coefficients higher than 0.99 in this period range. Applications to a real large earthquakes show that the amplitude and phase of the wavefield are well reconstructed with additional information of arrival direction and its slowness. The reconstructed wavefield contained a clear contrast in slowness between body and surface waves, regional non-great-circle-path wave propagation which may be attributed to scattering. Slowness

  4. Seismic investigation of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico: Results from 2013 high-resolution 2D and multicomponent seismic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, S. S.; Hart, P. E.; Shedd, W. W.; Frye, M.; Agena, W.; Miller, J. J.; Ruppel, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    In the spring of 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey led a 16-day seismic acquisition cruise aboard the R/V Pelican in the Gulf of Mexico to survey two established gas hydrate study sites. We used a pair of 105/105 cubic inch generator/injector airguns as the seismic source, and a 450-m 72-channel hydrophone streamer to record two-dimensional (2D) data. In addition, we also deployed at both sites an array of 4-component ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) to record P- and S-wave energy at the seafloor from the same seismic source positions as the streamer data. At lease block Green Canyon 955 (GC955), we acquired 400 km of 2-D streamer data, in a 50- to 250-m-spaced grid augmented by several 20-km transects that provide long offsets for the OBS. The seafloor recording at GC955 was accomplished by a 2D array of 21 OBS at approximately 400-m spacing, including instruments carefully positioned at two of the three boreholes where extensive logging-while-drilling data is available to characterize the presence of gas hydrate. At lease block Walker Ridge 313 (WR313), we acquired 450 km of streamer data in a set of 11-km, 150- to 1,000-m-spaced, dip lines and 6- to 8-km, 500- to 1000-m-spaced strike lines. These were augmented by a set of 20-km lines that provide long offsets for a predominantly linear array of 25 400- to 800-m spaced OBS deployed in the dip direction in and around WR313. The 2D data provide at least five times better resolution of the gas hydrate stability zone than the available petroleum industry seismic data from the area; this enables considerably improved analysis and interpretation of stratigraphic and structural features including previously unseen faults and gas chimneys that may have considerable impact on gas migration. Initial processing indicates that the OBS data quality is good, and we anticipate that these data will yield estimates of P- and S-wave velocities, as well as PP (reflected) and PS (converted wave) images beneath each sensor location.

  5. Induced Seismicity Potential of Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzman, Murray

    2013-03-01

    Earthquakes attributable to human activities-``induced seismic events''-have received heightened public attention in the United States over the past several years. Upon request from the U.S. Congress and the Department of Energy, the National Research Council was asked to assemble a committee of experts to examine the scale, scope, and consequences of seismicity induced during fluid injection and withdrawal associated with geothermal energy development, oil and gas development, and carbon capture and storage (CCS). The committee's report, publicly released in June 2012, indicates that induced seismicity associated with fluid injection or withdrawal is caused in most cases by change in pore fluid pressure and/or change in stress in the subsurface in the presence of faults with specific properties and orientations and a critical state of stress in the rocks. The factor that appears to have the most direct consequence in regard to induced seismicity is the net fluid balance (total balance of fluid introduced into or removed from the subsurface). Energy technology projects that are designed to maintain a balance between the amount of fluid being injected and withdrawn, such as most oil and gas development projects, appear to produce fewer seismic events than projects that do not maintain fluid balance. Major findings from the study include: (1) as presently implemented, the process of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas recovery does not pose a high risk for inducing felt seismic events; (2) injection for disposal of waste water derived from energy technologies does pose some risk for induced seismicity, but very few events have been documented over the past several decades relative to the large number of disposal wells in operation; and (3) CCS, due to the large net volumes of injected fluids suggested for future large-scale carbon storage projects, may have potential for inducing larger seismic events.

  6. Using 1 -D and 2-D modelling of ground motion for seismic zonation criteria: results for the city of Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caserta

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The geological information collected in the last years by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica for the city of Rome is used to construct 1- and 2-D models of the nearsurface structure. These models are the basis for the numerical generation of synthetic accelerograms which can simulate the horizontal ground motion (SH waves produced in the different areas of the city by a large (M ? 7 potential earthquake 100 km away in Central Apennines. The proposed methodology yields earthquake engineering parameters (peak ground acceleration and velocity, Arias intensity, energy flux, response spectra whose spatial variations are consistent with the damage distribution caused by the strongest earthquakes felt in Rome during its long history. Based on the macroseismic inforination and the results of the numerical simulations, general criteria for seismic zonation of the city of Rome are proposed.

  7. 2D time-domain finite-difference modeling for viscoelastic seismic wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Na; Zhao, Lian-Feng; Xie, Xiao-Bi; Ge, Zengxi; Yao, Zhen-Xing

    2016-07-01

    Real Earth media are not perfectly elastic. Instead, they attenuate propagating mechanical waves. This anelastic phenomenon in wave propagation can be modeled by a viscoelastic mechanical model consisting of several standard linear solids. Using this viscoelastic model, we approximate a constant Q over a frequency band of interest. We use a four-element viscoelastic model with a tradeoff between accuracy and computational costs to incorporate Q into 2D time-domain first-order velocity-stress wave equations. To improve the computational efficiency, we limit the Q in the model to a list of discrete values between 2 and 1000. The related stress and strain relaxation times that characterize the viscoelastic model are pre-calculated and stored in a database for use by the finite-difference calculation. A viscoelastic finite-difference scheme that is second-order in time and fourth-order in space is developed based on the MacCormack algorithm. The new method is validated by comparing the numerical result with analytical solutions that are calculated using the generalized reflection/transmission coefficient method. The synthetic seismograms exhibit greater than 95 per cent consistency in a two-layer viscoelastic model. The dispersion generated from the simulation is consistent with the Kolsky-Futterman dispersion relationship.

  8. New technologies of 2-D and 3-D modeling for analysis and management of natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremisina, E. N.; Lyubimova, A. V.; Kirpicheva, E. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    For ensuring technological support of research and administrative activity in the sphere of environmental management a specialized modular program complex was developed. The special attention in developing a program complex is focused to creation of convenient and effective tools for creation and visualization 2d and 3D models providing the solution of tasks of the analysis and management of natural resources.

  9. Processing and interpretation of vintage 2D marine seismic data from the outer Hanö Bay area, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopher, Daniel; Juhlin, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    A grid of previously unpublished, vintage 2D marine seismic lines has been processed and interpreted to the east of Hanö Bay, SW Baltic Sea. The 3200 km2 study area lies on the transition between the Hanö Bay Basin to the West and Baltic Synelcise to the East, NE of the Tornquist intra shield tectonic zone. Data from the NA79, NA80 and RW84 surveys were selected for this study from the extensive Oljeprospektering AB (OPAB) Baltic Sea dataset. New processing workflows have been developed for the data which focus on suppressing two significant forms of noise, namely multiple and side scattered noise. Deconvolution in the tau-p domain, parabolic radon demultiple and post stack deconvolution are shown to be effective at attenuating multiple noise, while FK filtering in shot and receiver gathers is effective at removing side scattered noise. The newly processed data were interpreted and a series of maps detailing the structure of the basement, Cambrian and Silurian/Paleozoic horizons were constructed. These maps differ significantly to previously published interpretations of the area. Within the study area, a region of significant Late Carboniferous/Early Permian transtensional faulting and Late Cretaceous inversion is mapped in detail. This structure would have exhibited normal offsets of up to 600 m before inversion with later inverted displacements of up to approximately 200 m in places. This feature appears to extend some 20 km to the SW of the study area to the major fault bounding the Christiansø High. Based on the seismic interpretation, the area appears to have had a similar overall geological history as the adjacent Tornquist Zone to the SW.

  10. Illuminating Asset Value through New Seismic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsberg-Dahl, S.

    2007-05-01

    The ability to reduce risk and uncertainty across the full life cycle of an asset is directly correlated to creating an accurate subsurface image that enhances our understanding of the geology. This presentation focuses on this objective in areas of complex overburden in deepwater. Marine 3D seismic surveys have been acquired in essentially the same way for the past decade. This configuration of towed streamer acquisition, where the boat acquires data in one azimuth has been very effective in imaging areas in fairly benign geologic settings. As the industry has moved into more complicated geologic settings these surveys no longer meet the imaging objectives for risk reduction in exploration through production. In shallow water, we have seen increasing use of ocean bottom cables to meet this challenge. For deepwater, new breakthroughs in technology were required. This will be highlighted through examples of imaging below large salt bodies in the deep water Gulf of Mexico. GoM - Mad Dog: The Mad Dog field is located approximately 140 miles south of the Louisiana coastline in the southern Green Canyon area in water depths between 4100 feet to 6000 feet. The complex salt canopy overlying a large portion of the field results in generally poor seismic data quality. Advanced processing techniques improved the image, but gaps still remained even after several years of effort. We concluded that wide azimuth acquisition was required to illuminate the field in a new way. Results from the Wide Azimuth Towed Streamer (WATS) survey deployed at Mad Dog demonstrated the anticipated improvement in the subsalt image. GoM - Atlantis Field: An alternative approach to wide azimuth acquisition, ocean bottom seismic (OBS) node technology, was developed and tested. In 2001 deepwater practical experience was limited to a few nodes owned by academic institutions and there were no commercial solutions either available or in development. BP embarked on a program of sea trials designed to both

  11. Preliminary 3d depth migration of a network of 2d seismic lines for fault imaging at a Pyramid Lake, Nevada geothermal prospect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frary, R.; Louie, J. [UNR; Pullammanappallil, S. [Optim; Eisses, A.

    2016-08-01

    Roxanna Frary, John N. Louie, Sathish Pullammanappallil, Amy Eisses, 2011, Preliminary 3d depth migration of a network of 2d seismic lines for fault imaging at a Pyramid Lake, Nevada geothermal prospect: presented at American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, Dec. 5-9, abstract T13G-07.

  12. Modelling of a coal seam of the deposit Đurđevik (BiH) by means of 2D reflection seismic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenović, Siniša; Urošević, Milovan; Sretenović, Branislav; Cvetkov, Vesna; Životić, Dragana

    2016-06-01

    A low cost 2D reflection seismic survey was used to map the continuity of the main seams as well as the numerous faults at the Đurđevik sub-bituminous coal deposit (BiH). A 24-channel seismic data acquisition system was available for this survey. The natural high reflectivity of the coal seams and a favourable geometry of seismic profiles enabled the identification and correlation of major faults across the area. Rugged terrain presented challenges to both data acquisition and processing. Stacks of acceptable quality were obtained only after the application of surface consistent statics and careful application of multi-channel filtering. A set of recorded 2D lines was interpreted in a 3D environment. Inferred structural elements disrupting the seam continuity were identified and were in agreement with available drilling results and mine workings. The result of this work was used to reduce mining hazards and also to help optimise mine planning.

  13. Application of Evolutionary Encryption 2D Barcode Generation Technology in Agricultural Product Quality and Safety Traceability System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojun; ZHONG; Zhijie; LAI; Yan; CHEN; Jianxin; QIAN; Xiaocong; HONG; Caiyi; LI

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional(2D) barcode technology is an electronic tagging technology based on combination of computer and optical technology. It is an important way of information collection and input. 2D barcode technology has been widely used in various fields of logistics,production automation,and e-commerce,but it also has brought about a series of safety problems. Based on evolutionary encryption technology,this paper improved algorithm of traditional 2D barcode generation,to improve forgery- proof performance of 2D barcode. This algorithm is applied to agricultural products quality and safety traceability system and the results show that it is effective.

  14. Fast 2D flood modelling using GPU technology - recent applications and new developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Amanda; Lamb, Rob; Waller, Simon; Dunning, Paul

    2010-05-01

    In recent years there has been considerable interest amongst scientists and engineers in exploiting the potential of commodity graphics hardware for desktop parallel computing. The Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) that are used in PC graphics cards have now evolved into powerful parallel co-processors that can be used to accelerate the numerical codes used for floodplain inundation modelling. We report in this paper on experience over the past two years in developing and applying two dimensional (2D) flood inundation models using GPUs to achieve significant practical performance benefits. Starting with a solution scheme for the 2D diffusion wave approximation to the 2D Shallow Water Equations (SWEs), we have demonstrated the capability to reduce model run times in ‘real-world' applications using GPU hardware and programming techniques. We then present results from a GPU-based 2D finite volume SWE solver. A series of numerical test cases demonstrate that the model produces outputs that are accurate and consistent with reference results published elsewhere. In comparisons conducted for a real world test case, the GPU-based SWE model was over 100 times faster than the CPU version. We conclude with some discussion of practical experience in using the GPU technology for flood mapping applications, and for research projects investigating use of Monte Carlo simulation methods for the analysis of uncertainty in 2D flood modelling.

  15. Smooth 2-D ocean sound speed from Laplace and Laplace-Fourier domain inversion of seismic oceanography data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacic, Tanya M.; Jun, Hyunggu; Rosado, Hayley; Shin, Changsoo

    2016-02-01

    In seismic oceanography, processed images highlight small temperature changes, but inversion is needed to obtain absolute temperatures. Local search-based full waveform inversion has a lower computational cost than global search but requires accurate starting models. Unfortunately, most marine seismic data have little associated hydrographic data and the band-limited nature of seismic data makes extracting the long wavelength sound speed trend directly from seismic data inherently challenging. Laplace and Laplace-Fourier domain inversion (LDI) can use rudimentary starting models without prior information about the medium. Data are transformed to the Laplace domain, and a smooth sound speed model is extracted by examining the zero and low frequency components of the damped wavefield. We applied LDI to five synthetic data sets based on oceanographic features and recovered smoothed versions of our synthetic models, showing the viability of LDI for creating starting models suitable for more detailed inversions.

  16. Stochastic joint inversion of 2D seismic and seismoelectric signals in linear poroelastic materials: A numerical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jardani, A.; Revil, A.; Slob, E.C.; Söllner, W.

    2009-01-01

    The interpretation of seismoelectrical signals is a difficult task because coseismic and seismoelectric converted signals are recorded simultaneously and the seismoelectric conversions are typically several orders of magnitude smaller than the coseismic electrical signals. The seismic and seismoelec

  17. An updated interpretation of the Hanö Bay Basin, Baltic Sea, based on recently re-processed vintage 2D seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nicholas; Sopher, Daniel; Juhlin, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    The Hanö Bay Basin is a relatively small, tectonically controlled, Mesozoic basin in the SW Baltic Sea, Northern Europe. In this study a new seismic interpretation has been made of the basin based on re-processed vintage 2D marine seismic data. A large dataset acquired between 1970 and 1984 by Oljeprospektering AB (OPAB) containing seismic lines across the Hanö Bay Basin has recently been made available by the Swedish Geological Survey (SGU). Seismic interpretation studies within the Hanö Bay Basin were last conducted in the mid-1990's. Since this time, computer power and seismic processing methods have advanced. Re-processing of a grid of lines across the Hanö Bay Basin has allowed updated interpretations to be made which more accurately reflect the geological history of the area. Multi channel seismic data from four surveys within the OPAB dataset: NA79, D72, W70 and EA73, along with two wells H1 and H4, were used in this study. An updated interpretation of the pre-Cambrian basement, which exhibits a distinctive, sharply undulating morphology, was undertaken. The basement horizon across parts of the Hanö Bay appears to be very rugose, containing a number of distinctive troughs and peaks that are over 50m in amplitude. Within these basement troughs a set of distinct packages of sediment is observed. These packages are discontinuous and are most prevalent in a small circular area in the central section of the study area. The age of these sediment packages is uncertain, being either early Mesozoic or the erosional remnants of older Paleozoic sediments. Interpretations of the re-processed seismic data indicate, in some areas, that basin fill has occurred in a significantly different way to previous interpretations during the Mesozoic. The model proposed in this study takes into account normal movement on the Christiansø Fault prior to Cretaceous inversion.

  18. Seismic time-lapse monitoring of potential gas hydrate dissociation around boreholes : could it be feasible? A conceptual 2D study linking geomechanical and seismic FD models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecher, I.; Yang, J.; Anderson, R.; Tohidi, B.; MacBeth, C. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Inst. of Petroleum Engineering; Freij-Ayoub, R.; Clennell, B. [CSIRO Petroleum, Bentley, WA (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    Dissociation of gas hydrate to water and potentially overpressured gas around boreholes may pose a hazard for deep-water hydrocarbon production. Strategies to mitigate this risk include monitoring for early detection of dissociation. Seismic methods are especially promising, primarily because of a high sensitivity of P-wave velocity to gas in the pore space of unconsolidated sediments. This paper presented a study that applied commonly used rock physics modeling to predict the seismic response to gas hydrate dissociation with a focus on P-impedance and performed sensitivity tests. The geomechanical model was translated into seismic models. In order to determine which parameters needed to be particularly well calibrated in experimental and modeling studies, the sensitivity of seismic properties to a variation of input parameters was estimated. The seismic response was predicted from dissociating gas hydrates using two-dimensional finite-difference wave-propagation modeling to demonstrate that despite the small predicted lateral extent of hydrate dissociation, its pronounced effect on seismic properties should allow detection with a seismic source on a drilling platform and receivers on the seafloor. The paper described the methods, models, and results of the study. It was concluded that the key factors for predicting the seismic response of sediments to hydrate dissociation were the mode of gas hydrate distribution, gas distribution in the sediments, gas saturation, and pore pressure. 33 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  19. Seismic investigation of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico: 2013 multi-component and high-resolution 2D acquisition at GC955 and WR313

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth S.; Hart, Patrick E.; Shedd, William W.; Frye, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey led a seismic acquisition cruise at Green Canyon 955 (GC955) and Walker Ridge 313 (WR313) in the Gulf of Mexico from April 18 to May 3, 2013, acquiring multicomponent and high-resolution 2D seismic data. GC955 and WR313 are established, world-class study sites where high gas hydrate saturations exist within reservoir-grade sands in this long-established petroleum province. Logging-while-drilling (LWD) data acquired in 2009 by the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrates Joint Industry Project provide detailed characterization at the borehole locations, and industry seismic data provide regional- and local-scale structural and stratigraphic characterization. Significant remaining questions regarding lithology and hydrate saturation between and away from the boreholes spurred new geophysical data acquisition at these sites. The goals of our 2013 surveys were to (1) achieve improved imaging and characterization at these sites and (2) refine geophysical methods for gas hydrate characterization in other locations. In the area of GC955 we deployed 21 ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) and acquired approximately 400 km of high-resolution 2D streamer seismic data in a grid with line spacing as small as 50 m and along radial lines that provide source offsets up to 10 km and diverse azimuths for the OBS. In the area of WR313 we deployed 25 OBS and acquired approximately 450 km of streamer seismic data in a grid pattern with line spacing as small as 250 m and along radial lines that provide source offsets up to 10 km for the OBS. These new data afford at least five times better resolution of the structural and stratigraphic features of interest at the sites and enable considerably improved characterization of lithology and the gas and gas hydrate systems. Our recent survey represents a unique application of dedicated geophysical data to the characterization of confirmed reservoir-grade gas hydrate accumulations.

  20. Development of a 2D silicon strip detector system for mammographic imaging using particle physics technology

    CERN Document Server

    Royle, G J; Speller, R D; Hall, G; Iles, G; Raymond, M; Corrin, E; Stelt, P F; Manthos, N; Triantis, F A

    2002-01-01

    2D silicon strip sensors using particle physics readout technology have been evaluated as mammographic detectors. Two different versions of the APV series of front-end electronics were used that provided different noise levels. The sensors were evaluated using a typical mammography X-ray spectrum. The spatial resolution was evaluated using line pair test patterns and the modulation transfer function (MTF) was measured using the Edge Response Function. Low contrast performance was measured using the TOR(MAX) test object. Limiting spatial resolution of 52 mu m was obtained and an MTF value of 0.1 at 16 lp/mm. The low contrast performance was estimated from 250, 500 mu m and 6 mm diameter objects and was found to be 11.5%, 7% and better than 3.8%, respectively.

  1. Using 1 -D and 2-D modelling of ground motion for seismic zonation criteria: results for the city of Rome

    OpenAIRE

    A. Caserta; L. Malagnini; A. Rovelli; Marra, F

    1995-01-01

    The geological information collected in the last years by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica for the city of Rome is used to construct 1- and 2-D models of the nearsurface structure. These models are the basis for the numerical generation of synthetic accelerograms which can simulate the horizontal ground motion (SH waves) produced in the different areas of the city by a large (M ? 7) potential earthquake 100 km away in Central Apennines. The proposed methodology yields earthquake engineerin...

  2. Experimental comparison of 2D and 3D technology mediated paramedic-physician collaboration in remote emergency medical situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Maurin, Hanna; Cairns, Bruce;

    2006-01-01

    We are investigating the potential of 3D telepresence technology to support collaboration among geographically separated medical personnel in trauma emergency care situations. 3D telepresence technology has the potential to provide richer visual information than current 2D video conferencing tech...

  3. Imaging the Ferron Member of the Mancos Shale formation using reprocessed high-resolution 2-D seismic reflection data: Emery County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    Late in 1982 and early in 1983, Arco Exploration contracted with Rocky Mountain Geophysical to acquired four high-resolution 2-D multichannel seismic reflection lines in Emery County, Utah. The primary goal in acquiring this data was an attempt to image the Ferron Member of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale. Design of the high-resolution 2-D seismic reflection data acquisition used both a short geophone group interval and a short sample interval. An explosive energy source was used which provided an input pulse with broad frequency content and higher frequencies than typical non-explosive Vibroseis?? sources. Reflections produced by using this high-frequency energy source when sampled at a short interval are usually able to resolve shallow horizons that are relatively thin compared to those that can be resolved using more typical oil and gas exploration seismic reflection methods.The U.S. Geological Survey-Energy Resources Program, Geophysical Processing Group used the processing sequence originally applied by Arco in 1984 as a guide and experimented with processing steps applied in a different order using slightly different parameters in an effort to improve imaging the Ferron Member horizon. As with the Arco processed data there are sections along all four seismic lines where the data quality cannot be improved upon, and in fact the data quality is so poor that the Ferron horizon cannot be imaged at all.Interpretation of the seismic and core hole data indicates that the Ferron Member in the study area represent a deltaic sequence including delta front, lower delta plain, and upper delta plain environments. Correlating the depositional environments for the Ferron Member as indicated in the core holes with the thickness of Ferron Member suggests the presence of a delta lobe running from the northwest to the southeast through the study area. The presence of a deltaic channel system within the delta lobe complex might prove to be an interesting conventional

  4. pySeismicFMM: Python based travel time calculation in regular 2D and 3D grids in Cartesian and geographic coordinates using Fast Marching Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkowski, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    Seismic wave travel time calculation is the most common numerical operation in seismology. The most efficient is travel time calculation in 1D velocity model - for given source, receiver depths and angular distance time is calculated within fraction of a second. Unfortunately, in most cases 1D is not enough to encounter differentiating local and regional structures. Whenever possible travel time through 3D velocity model has to be calculated. It can be achieved using ray calculation or time propagation in space. While single ray path calculation is quick it is complicated to find the ray path that connects source with the receiver. Time propagation in space using Fast Marching Method seems more efficient in most cases, especially when there are multiple receivers. In this presentation a Python module pySeismicFMM is presented - simple and very efficient tool for calculating travel time from sources to receivers. Calculation requires regular 2D or 3D velocity grid either in Cartesian or geographic coordinates. On desktop class computer calculation speed is 200k grid cells per second. Calculation has to be performed once for every source location and provides travel time to all receivers. pySeismicFMM is free and open source. Development of this tool is a part of authors PhD thesis. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work via NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  5. The structure and stratigraphy of the sedimentary succession in the Swedish sector of the Baltic Basin: New insights from vintage 2D marine seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopher, Daniel; Erlström, Mikael; Bell, Nicholas; Juhlin, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    We present five interpreted regional seismic profiles, describing the full sedimentary sequence across the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea. The data for the study are part of an extensive and largely unpublished 2D seismic dataset acquired between 1970 and 1990 by the Swedish Oil Prospecting Company (OPAB). The Baltic Basin is an intracratonic basin located in northern Europe. Most of the Swedish sector of the basin constitutes the NW flank of a broad synclinal depression, the Baltic Basin. In the SW of the Swedish sector lies the Hanö Bay Basin, formed by subsidence associated with inversion of the Tornquist Zone during the Late Cretaceous. The geological history presented here is broadly consistent with previously published works. We observe an area between the Hanö Bay and the Baltic Basin where the Palaeozoic strata has been affected by transpression and subsequent inversion, associated with the Tornquist Zone during the late Carboniferous-Early Permian and Late Cretaceous, respectively. We propose that the Christiansø High was a structural low during the Late Jurassic, which was later inverted in the Late Cretaceous. We suggest that a fan shaped feature in the seismic data, adjacent to the Christiansø Fault within the Hanö Bay Basin, represents rapidly deposited, coarse-grained sediments eroded from the inverted Christiansø High during the Late Cretaceous. We identify a number of faults within the deeper part of the Baltic Basin, which we also interpret to be transpressional in nature, formed during the Caledonian Orogeny in the Late Silurian-Early Devonian. East of Gotland a number of sedimentary structures consisting of Silurian carbonate reefs and Ordovician carbonate mounds, as well as a large Quaternary glacial feature are observed. Finally, we use the seismic interpretation to infer the structural and stratigraphic history of the Baltic and Hanö Bay basins within the Swedish sector.

  6. New insights into the structure and stratigraphy of the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea sedimentary Basin from vintage 2D marine seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopher, Daniel; Juhlin, Christopher; Erlström, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    A large dataset originally acquired by the Swedish Oil Prospecting CO. (OPAB) between 1970 and 1990 including 2D marine seismic data, well log data, core data and seismic interpretations has recently been made available by the Swedish Geological Survey (SGU). In this study this dataset has been used to produce a set of regional geoseismic sections across the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea. Regional depth structure maps detailing the deep structure of the basin produced from previous interpretations are also presented. The Baltic Sea Basin is an intra-cratonic basin located in northern Europe. The Swedish sector of the basin is characterised primarily by two structural elements, the Hanö Bay Basin and the Baltic Syneclise. The largest of these, the Baltic Syneclise, is a large synclinal depression formed during the Caledonian Orogeny. The Hanö Bay Basin was formed during the Mesozoic due to subsidence along the Christiansø Fault Zone. The Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea Basin is primarily characterised by a sequence of shallow marine Cambrian sediments overlain by a relatively thin succession of Ordovician marine limestone and marls; these are in turn overlain by a thick layer of marl, siltstone and claystone deposited during the Silurian. Mesozoic sediments are found in the Hanö Bay and outer Hanö Bay area. These were deposited in areas of local subsidence, associated with transtensional tectonics prevalent within and adjacent to the Tornquist Zone, during the Late Carboniferous/Early Permian. Block faulting occurring throughout the Mesozoic also affected sedimentation patterns in the area. In this study a sparse grid of marine seismic reflection profiles have been reprocessed across the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea Basin. These have been interpreted based on the available well data and synthetic seismograms. Several regional seismic profiles were constructed which detail the major structural elements and basin stratigraphy across the Swedish sector. A

  7. Seismic research in support of reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives an overview of various topics related to the seismic analysis of nuclear power plants which are soil structure interaction, analytical methods for equipment analysis with linear or non linear behavior. In addition comments on piping system behavior and experimental analysis will be given. The research which is undertaken in CEA/DMT on these topics will also be described

  8. Insights into Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Study Sites GC955 and WR313 from New Multicomponent and High-Resolution 2D Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, S. S.; Hart, P. E.; Collett, T. S.; Shedd, W. W.; Frye, M.

    2014-12-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey led a seismic acquisition expedition in the Gulf of Mexico, acquiring multicomponent data and high-resolution 2D multichannel seismic (MCS) data at Green Canyon 955 (GC955) and Walker Ridge 313 (WR313). Based on previously collected logging-while-drilling (LWD) borehole data, these gas hydrate study sites are known to include high concentrations of gas hydrate within sand layers. At GC955 our new 2D data reveal at least three features that appear to be fluid-flow pathways (chimneys) responsible for gas migration and thus account for some aspects of the gas hydrate distribution observed in the LWD data. Our new data also show that the main gas hydrate target, a Pleistocene channel/levee complex, has an areal extent of approximately 5.5 square kilometers and that a volume of approximately 3 x 107 cubic meters of this body lies within the gas hydrate stability zone. Based on LWD-inferred values and reasonable assumptions for net sand, sand porosity, and gas hydrate saturation, we estimate a total equivalent gas-in-place volume of approximately 8 x 108 cubic meters for the inferred gas hydrate within the channel/levee deposits. At WR313 we are able to map the thin hydrate-bearing sand layers in considerably greater detail than that provided by previous data. We also can map the evolving and migrating channel feature that persists in this area. Together these data and the emerging results provide valuable new insights into the gas hydrate systems at these two sites.

  9. Research on fine management and visualization of ancient architectures based on integration of 2D and 3D GIS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aimed at ancient architectures which own the characteristics of huge data quantity, fine-grained and high-precise, a 3D fine management and visualization method for ancient architectures based on the integration of 2D and 3D GIS is proposed. Firstly, after analysing various data types and characters of digital ancient architectures, main problems and key technologies existing in the 2D and 3D data management are discussed. Secondly, data storage and indexing model of digital ancient architecture based on 2D and 3D GIS integration were designed and the integrative storage and management of 2D and 3D data were achieved. Then, through the study of data retrieval method based on the space-time indexing and hierarchical object model of ancient architecture, 2D and 3D interaction of fine-grained ancient architectures 3D models was achieved. Finally, take the fine database of Liangyi Temple belonging to Wudang Mountain as an example, fine management and visualization prototype of 2D and 3D integrative digital ancient buildings of Liangyi Temple was built and achieved. The integrated management and visual analysis of 10GB fine-grained model of the ancient architecture was realized and a new implementation method for the store, browse, reconstruction, and architectural art research of ancient architecture model was provided

  10. IAEA specialists' meeting on seismic isolation technology. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Meeting on Seismic Isolation Technology was to provide a forum for review and discussion of seismic isolation technology applicable to thermal and fast reactors. The meeting was conducted consistent with the recommendations of the IAEA Working Group Meeting on Fast Breeder Reactor-Block Antiseismic Design and Verification in October 1987, to augment a coordinated research program with specific recommendations and an assessment of technology in the area of seismic isolation. Seismic isolation has become an attractive means for mitigating the consequences of severe earthquakes. Although the general idea of seismic isolation has been considered since the turn of the century, real practical applications have evolved, at an accelerating pace, over the last fifteen years aided by several key developments: (1) recent advances in hardware developments in the form of reliable elastomer bearings, (2) development of reliable analytical methods for the prediction of dynamic responses of structures (3) construction of large bearing test machines and large shake tables to simulate earthquake effects on structures for validation analytical models and demonstration of performance characteristics, and (4) advances in seismological engineering. Although the applications and developments of seismic isolation technology have mainly benefited commercial facilities and structures, including office buildings, research laboratories, hospitals, museums, bridges, ship loaders, etc., several seismically isolated nuclear facilities were implemented: the four 900 MWe pressurized water reactor units of the Cruas plant in France, the two Framatome units in Koeberg, South Africa, a nuclear waste storage facility in France and a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in England. The scope of this specialists' meeting was to review the state-of-the-art technology related to the performance of seismic isolator elements and systems, performance limits and margins, criteria for the

  11. A pseudo-spectral method for the simulation of poro-elastic seismic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates using domain decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidler, Rolf, E-mail: rsidler@gmail.com [Center for Research of the Terrestrial Environment, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Carcione, José M. [Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), Borgo Grotta Gigante 42c, 34010 Sgonico, Trieste (Italy); Holliger, Klaus [Center for Research of the Terrestrial Environment, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    We present a novel numerical approach for the comprehensive, flexible, and accurate simulation of poro-elastic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates. An important application of this method and its extensions will be the modeling of complex seismic wave phenomena in fluid-filled boreholes, which represents a major, and as of yet largely unresolved, computational problem in exploration geophysics. In view of this, we consider a numerical mesh, which can be arbitrarily heterogeneous, consisting of two or more concentric rings representing the fluid in the center and the surrounding porous medium. The spatial discretization is based on a Chebyshev expansion in the radial direction and a Fourier expansion in the azimuthal direction and a Runge–Kutta integration scheme for the time evolution. A domain decomposition method is used to match the fluid–solid boundary conditions based on the method of characteristics. This multi-domain approach allows for significant reductions of the number of grid points in the azimuthal direction for the inner grid domain and thus for corresponding increases of the time step and enhancements of computational efficiency. The viability and accuracy of the proposed method has been rigorously tested and verified through comparisons with analytical solutions as well as with the results obtained with a corresponding, previously published, and independently benchmarked solution for 2D Cartesian coordinates. Finally, the proposed numerical solution also satisfies the reciprocity theorem, which indicates that the inherent singularity associated with the origin of the polar coordinate system is adequately handled.

  12. The Study on Information Extraction Technology of Seismic Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zuo-wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the information extraction technology of seismic damage assessment and information publishing of earthquake damage. Based on past earthquake experience it was constructed technical flow of earthquake damage assessment rapidly, this study, take Yushu earthquake as example, studies the framework and establishment of the information service system by means of Arc IMS and distributed database technology. It analysis some key technologies, build web publishing architecture of massive remote sensing images. The system implements joint application of remote sensing image processing technology, database technology and Web GIS technology, the result could provide the important basis for earthquake damage assessment, emergency management and rescue mission.

  13. A Discussion on 2D Seismic Prospecting Design and Budgeting%二维地震勘查设计及预算问题的讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海龙; 马彦良; 佟琳; 赵竞赛

    2012-01-01

    Start from the apprehending of 2D seismic prospecting engineering layout and field setup design concepts, pointed out the thinking traps in the three concepts of the "seismic traverse", "seismic full fold profile" and "seismic shot source line" among the design and managerial personnel, analyzed resulting issues in engineering layout and work load statistics, put forward factors and computational formula should be considered to satisfy fold profile controlling. Under the unambiguous exploration extent condition, firstly should consider the target dip angle, the large the dip angle, the larger the edge, the number of shotpoint will be increased along with; secondly should consider the shape of exploration block, a long and narrow block perpendicular to strata dip, the number of shotpoint will be increased greatly in the same way. Then discussed issues should pay attention to in the engineering budgeting, pointed that the multiple receiving channels can not only reduce number of shotpoint greatly, but also provide technical support to improve coverage.%从分析二维地震勘查工程布置和观测系统设计的概念入手,指出了一般设计及管理人员在“地震测线”、“地震满覆盖次数剖面”和“地震激发炮线”三个概念中存在的思维误区,以及由此导致的工程布置和工程量统计等方面存在的问题,提出了在二维地震勘查设计中控制满足满覆盖次数剖面应考虑的因素与计算公式:在明确勘查范围的情况下,一要考虑目的层倾角,地层倾角越大,镶边越大,激发炮点也就随之增加;二要考虑勘查区块形状,与地层倾向垂直的狭长区块同样也会大量增加激发炮点;进而讨论了工程预算应注意的问题,指出多接收道既可大幅减少激发炮点,又可为提高覆盖次数提供技术保障.

  14. Seismic response analysis of a tuff cliff by an effective stress non-linear 2D model approach: an example in Sorrento Peninsula, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Fiore, V.; Angelino, A.; Buonocunto, F. P.; Rapolla, A.; Tarallo, D.

    2009-04-01

    We present a model to describe the behavior of a tuff cliff under the dynamic stress considering a law reference input motion. The studied area is located in the Sorrento Peninsula, a major Quaternary morpho-structural unit of the western flank of Southern Apennines. The peninsula forms a narrow and elevated mountain range (up to 1444 m) that separates two major embayments of the eastern Tyrrhenian margin and is characterized by a carbonate bedrock capped by pyroclastic deposits (i.e. "Campania Ignimbrite"), originated from the Campi Flegrei volcanic district. The occurrence of steep slopes and the high relief energy of the area, along with the marine erosion at the base of the coastal cliff creates favorable conditions for the occurrence of a generalized instability of the slopes that is manifested by tuff rock falls as prevailing landslide phenomena. These events are highly dangerous because of the sudden detachments of conspicuous volumes of rocks with high speed, especially when the rock fall initiates in the upper part of the slopes. Prediction of such landslides is difficult if not accompanied by accurate hydrogeologic and geotechnical monitoring and assessment. The geometry of our model is represented by a tuff cliff of 48 m height, covered by a 8 m thick volcaniclastic layer. At the base of the tuff cliff marine sand deposits occur. The geotechnical parameters used for the analysis were selected from the literature. We have used an effective stress non-linear 2D model to determine the dynamic stress field of our model. The effective stress non-linear algorithm uses the Direct Integration Method to compute the motion and excess pore-water pressures arising from inertial forces at user-defined time steps. The seismic response analysis was performed using the field shear stress generated by synthetic 1-30 Hz band-limited accelerogram. The finite elements mesh considered for the test problem was established by 395 element and 401 nodal point. Our results show a

  15. Development of Seismic Safety Assessment Technology for Containment Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, J.B.; Suh, Y.P.; Lee, J.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This final report is made based on the research results of seismic analysis and seismic margin assessment field, carried out during 3rd stage ('01.4.1{approx}'02.3.31) under financial support of MOST(Ministry of Science and Technology). The objective of this research is to develop the soil - structure interaction analysis technique with high reliability, the main research subjects, performed during 3rd stage are as follows. 1) Preparation of user's guide manual for SSI analysis with high accuracy. 2) Sensitivity analysis of effective shear strain and seismic input motion. 3) Database construction of Hualien earthquake recorded data. (author). 21 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Seismic tomography Technology for the Water Infiltration Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSA Engineering, Inc., conducted seismic tomography surveys in Niche No.3 in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and Alcove No.8 in the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) cross drift as part of the Infiltration Experiment being conducted in Niche No.3. NSA Engineering is a direct support contractor to the Yucca Mountain Project. This report documents the work performed from August 14 through 30, 2000, prior to the beginning of the infiltration experiment. The objective of the seismic tomography survey was to investigate the flow path of water between access drifts and more specifically to (Kramer 2000): (1) Conduct a baseline seismic tomography survey prior to the infiltration experiment; (2) Produce 2-D and 3-D tomographic images of the rock volume between Alcove No.8 and Niche No.3; (3) Correlate tomography results with published structural and lithological features, and with other geophysical data such as ground penetrating radar (GPR); and (4) Results of this survey will form a baseline with which to compare subsequent changes to the rock mass. These changes may be as a result of the water infiltration tests that could be conducted in Alcove No.8 in 2001. The scope of this reported work is to use the velocity tomograms to: (a) assess the structures and lithologic features within the surveyed area and/or volume between the two access drifts; and (b) provide information on the structural state of the rock mass as inferred by the velocity signatures of the rock prior to the beginning of the infiltration experiment

  17. Technology transfer package on seismic base isolation - Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-14

    This Technology Transfer Package provides some detailed information for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors about seismic base isolation. Intended users of this three-volume package are DOE Design and Safety Engineers as well as DOE Facility Managers who are responsible for reducing the effects of natural phenomena hazards (NPH), specifically earthquakes, on their facilities. The package was developed as part of DOE's efforts to study and implement techniques for protecting lives and property from the effects of natural phenomena and to support the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. Volume II contains the proceedings for the Short Course on Seismic Base Isolation held in Berkeley, California, August 10-14, 1992.

  18. Technology transfer package on seismic base isolation - Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-14

    This Technology Transfer Package provides some detailed information for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors about seismic base isolation. Intended users of this three-volume package are DOE Design and Safety Engineers as well as DOE Facility Managers who are responsible for reducing the effects of natural phenomena hazards (NPH), specifically earthquakes, on their facilities. The package was developed as part of DOE's efforts to study and implement techniques for protecting lives and property from the effects of natural phenomena and to support the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. Volume I contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Seismic Base Isolation for Department of Energy Facilities held in Marina Del Rey, California, May 13-15, 1992.

  19. Technology transfer package on seismic base isolation - Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-14

    This Technology Transfer Package provides some detailed information for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors about seismic base isolation. Intended users of this three-volume package are DOE Design and Safety Engineers as well as DOE Facility Managers who are responsible for reducing the effects of natural phenomena hazards (NPH), specifically earthquakes, on their facilities. The package was developed as part of DOE's efforts to study and implement techniques for protecting lives and property from the effects of natural phenomena and to support the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. Volume III contains supporting materials not included in Volumes I and II.

  20. Seismic tomography inversion in the case that sources and receivers are distributed out of a 2-D plane; Shingen jushinten ga nijigen heimennai ni nai baai no danseiha tomography kaiseki ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, T.; Miyazaki, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Rokugawa, S.; Matsushima, J. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ashida, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    In the case where sources and receivers are not distributed on a 2-D plane, seismic tomography inversion was studied. In tomography experiments, the existing wells are generally used. In such case, sources and receivers are frequently not distributed on a 2-D plane. The 2.5-D analysis method including 2-D structure and 3-D ray-tracing was thus developed. This method is featured by less memory necessary for ray-tracing calculation, and the same algorithm for velocity determination as 2-D analysis method. In previous methods, since analysis is generally carried out by projecting sources and receivers on a certain assumed 2-D plane, it can derive correct results in the case of constant velocity and straight ray, however, in the other case, it derives incorrect results. Application of 3-D tomography requires a large amount of memory, and falls into poor convergence because of various parameters. The 2.5-D analysis method can avoid these demerits. This analysis method was applied to the data obtained in Ogiri area, Kagoshima prefecture. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. The Cocos2d-x Application Development Technology Research Based on the Dynamic Scripting Language Lua%基于Lua动态脚本语言Cocos2d-x应用开发的技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马超; 马佳琳

    2015-01-01

    The Lua scripting language technology has brought the new heaven and earth for the development of Coco2d-x.Through the Lua scripting language development Cocos2d-x application,get rid of the tedious code of C/C++ development,makes the development of fast and efficient and can run on multiple platforms at the same time,the Lua scripting language can expand sex,can make it a good integration in the application.At the same time the Lua language become controller in development.Control the application logic and Coco2d-providing display functions of x and cross-platform features.Such development can dynamically modify the client not only bugs,but also dynamic update application content to avoid the update of customer churn.Free,small,fast,easy to transplant the Lua language reduces the development cost and guarantee the application performance.%Lua脚本语言技术给Coco2d-x开发,带来了新的天地.通过Lua脚本语言开发Cocos2d-x应用,摆脱了C/C++开发的繁琐代码,使得开发变得快速高效又能同时在多个平台运行,Lua脚本语言的可拓展性,可以使它很好的集成在应用程序中.同时Lua语言在开发成为控制器.控制应用程序的逻辑而Coco2d-x之提供显示功能和跨平台功能.这样开发不仅可以动态修改客户端BUG,而且还能动态更新应用内容避免了更新带来的客户流失.Lua语言免费、小巧、快速易移植降低了开发成本又保证了应用性能.

  2. Application Results of 3-D Seismic Exploration Technology in Coal Mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shenglin; WU Xizun

    2004-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the development and present situation of China's coal seismic exploration. It focuses on analyzing the important functions of 3-D seismic exploration technology in the designing and production of coal mines, and also the results of its application.

  3. Integrated well log and 2-D seismic data interpretation to image the subsurface stratigraphy and structure in north-eastern Bornu (Chad) basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isyaku, Aminu A.; Rust, Derek; Teeuw, Richard; Whitworth, Malcolm

    2016-09-01

    Structural and stratigraphic mapping within the Bornu Basin in north east Nigeria was commonly carried out using traditional field geological methods. However, such traditional approaches remain inadequate in the semi-arid region characterised by topographically flat areas and lack of continuous bedrock outcrops that are mostly concealed beneath sand cover. Previous studies in the north-eastern part of the basin carried out using ditch cuttings from few wells and disconnected seismic data were largely inadequate and the resulting stratigraphic analyses were more often generalised. This paper presents an integrated structural and stratigraphic study of the basin using combined subsurface geophysical datasets. A Combined Log Pattern (CLP) method is a well log analysis, which utilises various well log data including gamma ray, resistivity, bulk density and sonic logs to identify lithology and stratigraphic boundaries of subsurface formations. This method is applied to constrain the subsurface stratigraphy of the north-eastern part of the Bornu Basin bordering the Lake Chad. In addition to qualitative combined well log analysis, the time-depth relationship of the sonic log and seismic data was quantitatively determined by tying a well with an intersecting seismic section to validate the stratigraphic facies horizons identified. Four well log facies and their environments of deposition were characterised from the combined well log analysis of the different log types. It is discovered that the Cretaceous basement structural features controlled the deposition of overlying formations in the basin. Without intact core data, the shallower wells were discovered to have bottomed over subsurface horst features while deeper wells penetrated into the basal facies contained mainly within the grabens. Main subsurface structural lineaments in the area include NW-SE, NE-SW and NNW-SSE trending faults, which mainly formed the horst and graben features. Some stratigraphic formations

  4. Continent-Wide 2-D Co-Seismic Deformation of the 2015 Mw 8.3 Illapel, Chile Earthquake Derived from Sentinel-1A Data: Correction of Azimuth Co-Registration Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Xu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we mapped the co-seismic deformation of the 2015 Mw 8.3 Illapel, Chile earthquake with multiple Sentinel-1A TOPS data frames from both ascending and descending geometries. To meet the requirement of very high co-registration precision, an improved spectral diversity method was proposed to correct the co-registration slope error in the azimuth direction induced by multiple Sentinel-1A TOPS data frames. All phase jumps that appear in the conventional processing method have been corrected after applying the proposed method. The 2D deformation fields in the east-west and vertical directions are also resolved by combing D-InSAR and Offset Tracking measurements. The results reveal that the east-west component dominated the 2D displacement, where up to 2 m displacement towards the west was measured in the coastal area. Vertical deformations ranging between −0.25 and 0.25 m were found. The 2D displacements imply the collision of the Nazca plate squeezed the coast, which shows good accordance with the geological background of the region.

  5. 2D and 3D imaging of the metamorphic carbonates at Omalos plateau/polje, Crete, Greece by employing independent and joint inversion on resistivity and seismic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangratis Pangratis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A geophysical survey carried out at Omalos plateau in Chania, Western Crete, Greece employed seismic as well as electrical tomography methods in order to image karstic structures and the metamorphic carbonates (Tripali unit and Plattenkalk group which are covered by post-Mesozoic deposits (terra rossa, clays, sands and gravels. The geoelectrical sections image the metamorphic carbonates which exhibit a highly irregular relief. At the central part of the plateau the thickness of post-Mesozoic deposits (terra rossa, clays, sands and gravels ranges from 40-130 m. A 3D resistivity image was generated by inverting resistivity data collected on a grid to the south west at the Omalos plateau. The 3D resistivity image delineated a karstic structure at a depth of 25 to 55 m. On the same grid the depth to the top of the karstified carbonates ranges from 25-70 m. This is also verified on the resistivity sections and seismic velocity sections along lines 5 and 7 of the above mentioned grid which are derived from the cross-gradients joint inversion.

  6. The efficiency of using a seismic base isolation system for a 2D concrete frame founded upon improved soft soil with rigid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, Talal; Donia, Modar

    2016-03-01

    2D finite element models were developed to analyze the effect of improved soft-soil foundation on the efficiency of a base-isolated concrete frame. Static and dynamic analyses were performed for a frame on raft foundation. Non-improved and improved soft-soil foundation using rigid inclusions were considered, as well as the use of high damping rubber bearing as base isolation. Results show that the use of rigid inclusions increases the efficiency of base isolation; base shear is reduced by 38% and maximum acceleration at the top of the frame by 30%.

  7. Aspects of the Quaternary evolution of the Southern Kattegat and the central North Sea based on interpretation of 2D and 3D marine reflection seismic profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carina

    2016-01-01

    system tract (PG I), transgressive system tract (PG II) and highstand system tract (PG III). During early Holocene, the southwestern part of Kattegat was characterized by multiple funnel-shaped estuaries with spits and bars (10.8–9.2 cal. ka BP), connected to the freshwater palaeo-Great Belt channel...... knows as the Dana River. This took place simultaneously with the occurrence and drainage of the Ancylus Lake through the Great Belt. The drainage of the Ancylus Lake was interpreted as non-catastrophic water flow as seismic data shows no evidence of major erosion or delta deposition, which would...... indicate a catastrophic drainage event. With a continuous Holocene sea-level rise back-stepping (landwards retreat) of the coastal systems occurred, followed by flooding of the northern Great Belt threshold and major erosion took place. Rapid sea-level rise preserved the sea floor morphology which...

  8. Lectures on 2D gravity and 2D string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report the following topics: loops and states in conformal field theory; brief review of the Liouville theory; 2D Euclidean quantum gravity I: path integral approach; 2D Euclidean quantum gravity II: canonical approach; states in 2D string theory; matrix model technology I: method of orthogonal polynomials; matrix model technology II: loops on the lattice; matrix model technology III: free fermions from the lattice; loops and states in matrix model quantum gravity; loops and states in the C=1 matrix model; 6V model fermi sea dynamics and collective field theory; and string scattering in two spacetime dimensions

  9. 2D ground motion at a soft viscoelastic layer/hard substratum site in response to SH cylindrical seismic waves radiated by deep and shallow line sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wirgin, A; Wirgin, Armand

    2004-01-01

    We show, essentially by theoretical means, that for a site with the chosen simple geometry and mechanical properties (horizontal, homogeneous, soft viscoelastic layer of infinite lateral extent overlying, and in welded contact with, a homogeneous, hard elastic substratum of half-infinite radial extent, shear-horizontal motion): 1) coupling to Love modes is all the weaker the farther the seismic source (modeled as a line, assumed to lie in the substratum) is from the lower boundary of the soft layer, 2) for a line source close to the lower boundary of the soft layer, the ground response is characterized by possible beating phenomena, and is of significantly-longer duration than for excitation by cylindrical waves radiated by deep sources. Numerical applications of the theory show, for instance, that a line source, located 40m below the lower boundary of a 60m thick soft layer in a hypothetical Mexico City-like site, radiating a SH pulse of 4s duration, produces substantial ground motion during 200s, with marke...

  10. Seismic Prediction While Drilling (SPWD: Looking Ahead of the Drill Bit by Application of Phased Array Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Groh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical exploration is indispensable for planning deep drilling. Usually 2D- or 3D-seismics investigations are applied and, depending on the resulting geologic model for the underground, the drill site and drilling path are determined. In recent years the focus of exploration has shifted towards small-scale geological structures such as local layers and faults. Depending on the source frequencies and the target depth, 2D- or 3D-seismics from surface cannot always resolve such structures in particular at larger depths. In general, signal frequencies of about 30–70 Hz are typical for surface seismic methods. The deeper and smaller the sought-after structures are, the worse will be the resolution. Therefore, borehole seismic measurements like Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP or Seismic While Drilling (SWD have been developed (Fig. 1. For the VSP method geophones are normally integrated in the borehole, while the seismicsource generates seismic waves at the surface. The SWD method uses the drill bit as the seismic source. Hence, the quality of the seismic signals is highly dependent on the drilled rock and the type of drill bit, but even well-suited rock conditions and adequate drilling may not provide sufficient data quality.

  11. Development of seismic technology and reliability based on vibration tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Youichi [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    This paper deals with some of the vibration tests and investigations on the seismic safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Japan. To ensure the reliability of the seismic safety of nuclear power plants, nuclear power plants in Japan have been designed according to the Technical Guidelines for Aseismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants. This guideline has been developed based on technical date base and findings which were obtained from many vibration tests and investigations. Besides the tests for the guideline, proving tests on seismic reliability of operating nuclear power plants equipment and systems have been carried out. In this paper some vibration tests and their evaluation results are presented. They have crucially contributed to develop the guideline. (J.P.N.)

  12. Technological Advancements: Seismic Refraction on the Pajarito Plateau, Northern New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisengard, J. E. (Jennifer E.); Ferguson, J. F. (John F.); Hinz, E. (Emily); Isaacson, J. (John); Gauthier, Rory P.

    2005-01-01

    Geophysical techniques can be used for non-invasive surveys at archaeological sites. Seismic refraction is one such technology that has many potential applications, although it has been under-utilized. It is an inexpensive, efficient way to characterize subsurface deposits, especially at sites in shallow contexts over bedrock. Archaeologists and geophysicists participating in the Summer of Applied Geophysics Experience (SAGE), from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Bandelier National Monument are working together to characterize Ancestral Pueblo (A.D. 1200 to 1600) sites. We present the results from three seismic refraction surveys and provide an overview of how seismic refraction works.

  13. New insights on the subsidence of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta Plain by using 2D multichannel seismic data, gravity and flexural modeling, BanglaPIRE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall, C.; Pickering, J.; Steckler, M. S.; Spiess, V.; Seeber, L.; Paola, C.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Palamenghi, L.; Schwenk, T.

    2015-12-01

    Deltas can subside very fast, yet many deltas remain emergent over geologic time. A large sediment input is often enough to compensate for subsidence and rising sea level to keep many deltas at sea level. This implies a balance between subsidence and sedimentation, both of which may, however, be controlled by independent factors such as sediment supply, tectonic loads and sea-level change. We here examine the subsidence of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD). Located in the NE boundary of the Indian-Eurasian collision zone, the GBD is surrounded by active uplifts (Indo-Burma Fold Belt and the Shillong Massif). The pattern of subsidence from these tectonic loads can strongly vary depending on both loads and lithospheric flexural rigidity, both of which can vary in space and time. Sediment cover changes both the lithostatic pressure and the thermal properties and thus the rigidity of the lithosphere. While sediments are deposited cold, they also insulate the lithosphere, acting as a thermal blanket to increase lower crustal temperatures. These effects are a function of sedimentation rates and may be more important where the lithosphere is thin. At the massive GBD the impact of sedimentation should be considered for properly constraining flexural subsidence. The flexural rigidity of the lithosphere is here modeled by using a yield-stress envelope based on a thermomechanic model that includes geothermal changes associated with sedimentation. Models are constrained by using two different data sets, multichannel seismic data correlated to borehole stratigraphy, and gravity data. This approach allows us to determine the Holocene regional distribution of subsidence from the Hinge Zone to the Bengal Fan and the mass-anomalies associated with the flexural loading. Different end-member scenarios are explored for reproducing the observed land tilting and gravity anomalies. For all scenarios considered, data can be reproduced only if we consider an extremely weak lithosphere and

  14. Seismic protection technology for nuclear power plants. A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic protection systems (SPS) have been developed and used successfully in conventional structures, but their applications in nuclear power plants (NPPs) are scarce. However, valuable research has been conducted worldwide to include SPS in nuclear engineering design. This study aims to provide a state-of-the-art review of SPS in nuclear engineering and to answer four significant research questions: (1) why are SPS not adopted in the nuclear industry and what issues have prevented their deployment? (2) what types of SPS are being considered in nuclear engineering research? (3) what are the strategies for location of SPS within NPPs? and (4) how may SPS provide improved structural performance and safety of NPPs under seismic actions? This review is conducted following the procedures of systematic reviews, where possible. The issues concerning the use of SPS in NPPs are identified: cost, safety, licensing and scarcity of applications. NPPs demand full structural integrity and reactor's safe shutdown during earthquake actions. Therefore, horizontal isolation may be insufficient in active seismic zones and isolation in the vertical direction may be required. Based on the results in this review, it is likely that next generation reactors in seismic zones will include state-of-the-art SPS to achieve full standardised design. (author)

  15. 确定土层自由场地震动的二维简化模型%Simplified 2-D model for determination of free field seismic motion of soil strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张进凡; 戚承志; 潘越峰; 徐琛; 刘旭

    2014-01-01

    为了研究均匀土层自由场地震动的二维简化模型,首先利用弹性波动理论,得到土介质的二维波动方程,采用分离变量法来求解该方程,根据土层上下界面的边界条件确定土层竖向振动的特征频率和振型;根据波沿水平方向向无穷远处传播的衰减特性确定波沿水平方向衰减系数,得到土层自由场自由振动的相对位移的解析解。然后,采用振型叠加法求解强迫振动情况下的波动方程,得出二维情况下均匀土层在地震作用下沿水平方向相对位移的解析解。通过上述计算,得到了土层自由场地震动的二维简化模型。通过具体算例,分别对研究的二维简化模型与一维剪切梁模型进行了比较。比较结果表明,地下土层水平维度对于均匀土层自由场地震动反应的影响很小。%The simplified 2-D model for determination of free field seismic motion of uniform soil strata was studied. Firstly, the two-dimensional wave equation of the soil was obtained with the theory of elastic wave. The method of separation of variables was used to solve the equation. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of vertical vibration of soil were determined by using the boundary conditions of the upper and lower soil interface. According to the wave attenuation properties of wave propagation to infinity,the wave attenuation coefficient along the horizontal di-rection was determined, and the relative displacement analytical solution of free vibration was obtained. Then the forced vibration equation was solved by using the mode superposition method. As a result, the analytical solution of the horizontal relative soil displacement was obtained. Through the above calculations, the simplified 2-D model for determination of free field seismic motion of soil strata was obtained. Finally, the 2-D model was compared with the 1-D shear beam model,and the results show that the horizontal dimension has

  16. Technology of research of hydroturbine unit work using seismic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Liseikin, A. V.; Gromyko, P. V.; Soloviev, V. M.

    2013-05-01

    On August, 17, 2009 one of the most significant accident in hydropower engineering was happened at Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Station. Specialists of Geophysical Survey SB RAS took part in the State Committee on investigation of the accident cause at Sayano-Shushenskaya HPS. It was determined, that the cause of the accident was a break of stud-bolts on the turbine cover. Why stud-bolts did not stand a load? There were assumptions that hydraulic shock provoked the accident. But, if it is so, seismic station "Cheremushky", situated in 4 km away from the HPS, should has a record of this event. First of all, investigating the record, got at the seismic station in the moment of the accident, it was determined that strength of seismic waves, recorded at the moment of the accident, did not exceed strength of waves got at trotyl explosion of 500 g at a distance to 4 km. The version of hydraulic shock was not proved. There were distinguished low-frequency oscillations and it was determined that the hydroturbine unit (HU) had been raised up more then 10 m in height for 10 sec. Analyzing the seismic station records during the period of more than a year before the accident and records of operating modes of different HU, there was determined that oscillations radiated by second (damaged) HU were approximately 1.5 times more intense than oscillations from all other HU. After the accident at Sayano-Shushenskaya HPS hydroturbine units were started in turns: at first there were started hydroturbine units of old construction (3, 4, 5, 6), then HP of new construction (1, 7, 8, 9). We installed 10 - 15 three-component seismic stations in different points around a HU and studied field of seismic oscillations from it's work. It was determined, that HU radiates a set of monochromatic oscillations divisible by speed of rotation equal to 2.381 Hz. Change of these signals amplitude is connected with change of HU operation modes. Research of changes in oscillations spectral

  17. 自动2D-to-3D视频转换技术研究%The Research of Automatic 2D-to-3D Video Conversion Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宇; 李鉴增

    2012-01-01

    Lack of 3D content embarrassed 3D development. 2D images can be converted to 3D by auto- matic 2D -to -3D system,which can make 3D content generating more conveniently and cheaply. Auto- matic 2D- to- 3D processing includes image segmentation, depth extraction, depth fusion and assign- ment, depth image based rendering. This paper presents the methods and algorithm, and then introduces the situation of assessment methods researching for color and depth image based stereo video.%目前3D视频内容不足是制约3D技术发展的重要因素之一,自动2D-to-3D视频系统可以快速且低成本地将二维图像转换成双目立体图像。具有很好的发展前景。自动2D-to-3D视频系统分为图像分割、深度信息提取、深度的融合与分配、立体图像生成等多个部分,本文对自动2D-to-3D系统的各个组成部分的原理与主要算法进行了介绍与分析,最后,还介绍了自动2D-to-3D系统生成的图像客观评价的发展情况。

  18. Application of high-precision 3D seismic technology to shale gas exploration: A case study of the large Jiaoshiba shale gas field in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuqing Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation pattern of the marine shale gas in South China is different from that in North America. The former has generally thin reservoirs and complex preservation conditions, so it is difficult to make a fine description of the structural features of shale formations and to reflect accurately the distribution pattern of high-quality shale by using the conventional 2D and 3D seismic exploration technology, which has an adverse effect on the successful deployment of horizontal wells. In view of this, high-precision 3D seismic prospecting focusing on lithological survey was implemented to make an accurate description of the distribution of shale gas sweet spots so that commercial shale gas production can be obtained. Therefore, due to the complex seismic geological condition of Jiaoshiba area in Fuling, SE Sichuan Basin, the observation system of high-precision 3D seismic acquisition should have such features as wide-azimuth angles, small trace intervals, high folds, uniform vertical and horizontal coverage and long spread to meet the needs of the shale gas exploration in terms of structural interpretation, lithological interpretation and fracture prediction. Based on this idea, the first implemented high-precision 3D seismic exploration project in Jiaoshiba area played an important role in the discovery of the large Jiaoshiba shale gas field. Considering that the high-quality marine shale in the Sichuan Basin shows the characteristics of multi-layer development from the Silurian system to the Cambrian system, the strategy of shale gas stereoscopic exploration should be implemented to fully obtain the oil and gas information of the shallow, medium and deep strata from the high-precision 3D seismic data, and ultimately to expand the prospecting achievements in an all-round way to balance the high upstream exploration cost, and to continue to push the efficient shale gas exploration and development process in China.

  19. Touch-screen technology for the dynamic display of -2D spatial information without vision: promise and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatzky, Roberta L; Giudice, Nicholas A; Bennett, Christopher R; Loomis, Jack M

    2014-01-01

    Many developers wish to capitalize on touch-screen technology for developing aids for the blind, particularly by incorporating vibrotactile stimulation to convey patterns on their surfaces, which otherwise are featureless. Our belief is that they will need to take into account basic research on haptic perception in designing these graphics interfaces. We point out constraints and limitations in haptic processing that affect the use of these devices. We also suggest ways to use sound to augment basic information from touch, and we include evaluation data from users of a touch-screen device with vibrotactile and auditory feedback that we have been developing, called a vibro-audio interface.

  20. Center for Technology, Security, and Policy research faculty conduct study of New Madrid Seismic Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Micale, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Theresa Jefferson and John Harrald, research faculty at the Virginia Tech Center for Technology, Security, and Policy in the National Capital Region recently completed a Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)-funded research project to model the social impacts and disaster response requirements of a 7.7 magnitude catastrophic earthquake on the three segments of the New Madrid Seismic Zone.

  1. Designing in seismic areas in the third millennium: modern technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World Conference on Seismic Isolation, Energy Dissipation and Active Vibrations Control of Structures, which took place in Sendai (Japan) on September 24-26, 2013. Other papers presented at this conference deal with the use of the traditional approach. More updated information on the application of the AS systems became available at the ASSISi 14. World Conference, held in San Diego (California, USA) on September 7-11, 2015. Most SI systems rely on the use of rubber bearings (RBs), such as the High Damping natural Rubber Bearings (HDRBs), Neoprene Bearings (NBs), Lead Rubber Bearings (LRBs), or (especially in Japan) Low Damping Rubber Bearings (LDRBs) in parallel with dampers; in buildings, some plane surfaces steel-Teflon (PTFE) Sliding Devices (SDs) are frequently added to the RBs to support their light parts without unnecessarily stiffening the SI system (which would make it less effective) and (if they are significantly asymmetric in the horizontal plane) to minimize the torsion effects (the effects of the vertical asymmetries are drastically reduced by the quasi 'rigid body motion' of the seismically isolated superstructure). Another type of isolators, which has been used in Italy after the 2009 Abruzzo earthquake, is the so-called Curved Surface Slider (CSS), which derived from the US Friction Pendulum (FPS) and the subsequent German Seismic Isolation Pendulum (SIP). Finally, rolling isolators (in particular Ball Bearings, BBs, and Sphere Bearings) are also applied: they are very effective and find numerous applications (more than 200 in 2013) to protect buildings in Japan, but not in Italy, because there they have been judged to be too expensive (however, they have already been used, even in Italy, to protect precious masterpieces and other contents of museums, as well as costly equipment, including that of operating-rooms in hospitals). It shall be stressed that, to the knowledge of the author, all structures protected by RBs that were located

  2. Research on database realization technology of seismic information system in CTBT verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing CTBT verification technology has become the most important method that makes sure CTBT to be fulfilled conscientiously. The seismic analysis based on seismic information system (SIS) is playing an important rule in this field. Based on GIS, the SIS will be very sufficient and powerful in spatial analysis, topologic analysis and visualization. However, the critical issue to implement the whole system function depends on the performance of SIS DB. Based on the ArcSDE Geodatabase data model, not only have the spatial data and attribute data seamless integrated management been realized with RDBMS ORACLE really, but also the most functions of ORACLE have been reserved. (authors)

  3. Seismic Sleuths: Using Visualization Technology to Teach Middle School Earth Sciences Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, C.; Kilb, D.; Kent, G.; Fisler, S.

    2006-12-01

    Scientists from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) Visualization Center and science educators from the Birch Aquarium at Scripps (BAS) and Aquatic Adventures Science Education Foundation (AASEF) collaborated to create Seismic Sleuths, a field trip experience for 6th graders that introduces concepts in global tectonics and seismicity using data visualization techniques. Designed to teach 6th grade California Earth science content standards, the program emphasizes how scientists gather and use data to understand Earth processes. The Seismic Sleuths field trip program is the culminating event for a four-week, in-school Earth science enrichment program provided to four of San Diego's most underserved middle schools by AASEF. Using data and visualization techniques adopted from the SIO Visualization Center, the fieldtrip experience reinforces concepts taught in the in-school portion of the program. During the 1 1/2 hour field trip program, students rotate through three learning stations that include 1) examination of global topography and seismicity data using an internal projection globe; 2) interactive 3-D visualization (Fledermaus) of earthquake hypocenter data and topography at convergent and divergent plate boundaries; and 3) a working ocean bottom seismometer that is used to demonstrate how seismic data are collected. Data from an evaluation of the program suggest that use of the visualization technology enhances student learning with substantial increases in student knowledge measured in pre- and post-field trip student knowledge surveys.

  4. Investigation on seismic load reduction technology for integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Moon Shik; Kim, Young Soo; Kang, Gyung Mo [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Dynamic responses of the reactor vessel assembly are characterized by analytic methods under the seismic excitation loads which are regulatory that a vibration isolation device is developed to satisfy the dynamic design requirements of the reactor vessel assembly by means of minimizing its responses. Response spectra in terms of subsystems within the reactor vessel assembly are derived incorporating the RVA and the springs as well as the IST. To be able to select optimized spring, a simple lumped model consisting of a mass and a spring and a three degrees of freedom model of vertical, horizontal and rotational motion are constructed with time integration of R-K method or by using Nastran which result in the same results. Out of several springs and their layout alternatives, IDC M32-528-08 is selected as a optimal spring compliable with dynamic design requirement, manufacture and maintenance. Incorporating the RVA, the IST and the selected springs with their nonlinear load-defection relationships, static deflection analysis, eigenmode analysis and nonlinear transient analysis are done. Analyzing the responses, how the IST and the springs affect the RVA in its behaviors is derived. Floor response spectra of the RVA are calculated by finite element modeling of the RVA, the springs and the IST. The effects of the IST on the floor response spectra are identified as meaningful to those high natural frequency subsystems. Floor response spectra are calculated for different levels of damping ratio to be able to applicable for many subsystems.

  5. P-Cable: New High-Resolution 3D Seismic Acquisition Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planke, Sverre; Berndt, Christian; Mienert, Jürgen; Bünz, Stefan; Eriksen, Frode N.; Eriksen, Ola K.

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a new cost-efficient technology for acquisition of high-resolution 3D seismic data: the P-Cable system. This technology is very well suited for deep water exploration, site surveys, and studies of shallow gas and fluid migration associated with gas hydrates or leaking reservoirs. It delivers unparalleled 3D seismic images of subsurface sediment architectures. The P-Cable system consists of a seismic cable towed perpendicular to a vessel's steaming direction. This configuration allows us to image an up to 150 m wide swath of the sub-surface for each sail line. Conventional 3D seismic technology relies on several very long streamers (up to 10 km long streamers are common), large sources, and costly operations. In contrast, the P-Cable system is light-weight and fast to deploy from small vessels. Only a small source is required as the system is made for relatively shallow imaging, typically above the first water-bottom multiple. The P-Cable system is particularly useful for acquisition of small 3D cubes, 10-50 km2, in focus areas, rather than extensive mapping of large regions. The rapid deployment and recovery of the system makes it possible to acquire several small cubes (10 to 30 km2) with high-resolution (50-250 Hz) seismic data in during one cruise. The first development of the P-Cable system was a cooperative project achieved by Volcanic Basin Petroleum Research (VBPR), University of Tromsø, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, and industry partners. Field trials using a 12-streamer system were conducted on sites with active fluid-leakage systems on the Norwegian-Barents-Svalbard margin, the Gulf of Cadiz, and the Mediterranean. The second phase of the development introduced digital streamers. The new P-Cable2 system also includes integrated tow and cross cables for power and data transmission and improved doors to spread the larger cross cable. This digital system has been successfully used during six cruises by the University of Troms

  6. Architecture and critical technologies of seismic information system in CTBT verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xue-feng; SHEN Jun-yi; JIN Ping; ZHENG Jiang-ling; SUN Peng; ZHANG Hui-min; WANG Tong-dong

    2006-01-01

    Seismic monitoring is one of the most important approaches for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring. In order to improve the monitoring capability for low magnitude seismic events, a seismic information system was developed by using the technologies of geographic information system and database. This paper describes the designing and critical technologies of the Seismic Information System in CTBT Verification developed based on ArcGIS and ORACLE platforms. It is a combination of the database storage framework, application programming interface and graphic application software for users to meet their monitoring objectives. Combining the ArcSDE Geodatabase, RDBMS ORACLE and ArcObjects developing technique on COM, not only the multi-sources data has been seamlessly integrated, but also the most functions of ORACLE, for example, consistency, concurrent access, security mechanism, etc, have been reserved. For easy access to the information system we develop two different mechanisms. The first is a menu-driven internal system that is run on NT platforms. The second access mechanism is based on LAN and easily accessible by any web browsers.

  7. The Complementary Nature of Seismic and Infrasound Technologies in Regional Monitoring (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, B. W.; Hayward, C.; Park, J.

    2013-12-01

    Under current CTBTO event detection and location operating conditions, signal detection is a station-centric decision (was an event phase detected at this station?), rather than a global hypothesis test. Currently, infrasound and seismic detection use signal detectors run independently on each technology. It is only after event formation that the observations and inferences are merged. Development of this independent processing is a result of the vastly different signal and noise characteristics of these two waveform technologies. However, for specific signals there may be a utility to a joint seismic-infrasound detector. For example, noise estimates from one technology may help characterize or identify the noise on another technology (wind couples to both infrasound and seismic). Back-projection methods for both seismic and infrasound could easily be combined to produce a common seismo-acoustic detection and associated event location. The opportunity exists to integrate detection and location into a single multi-disciplinary approach. One such example is the ongoing infrasound detection and location procedure that utilizes an adaptive F-detector as input into the Bayesian Infrasonic Source Location (BISL, Modrak et al. 2010) procedure that provides an estimate of source location using assigned prior probabilities based on what is known of the propagation path and on the signal detector estimates (arrival time, phase velocity and azimuth). As the atmospheric model is better defined these priors may be changed, thus linking improved location estimates directly to improvements in atmospheric models. The final step following event location is identification. Seismic and infrasound observations and their interpretation for the recent set of North Korean nuclear explosions in 2006, 2009, and 2013 provide a motivation for multiple disciplinary approach to this step as well. Seismic analysis of these tests have documented that for existing parameterized source models

  8. 二维人脸表情仿真技术研究%Research on simulation technology of 2D facial expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 朱欣娟

    2014-01-01

    A 2D facial expression simulation approach was proposed by giving only one frontal neutral fa-cial expression image as an input data .It predicted the facial feature point offset of expression image through artificial neural network technology .Further the facial expression binary image generation meth-od based on linear interpolation and the facial expression gray image generation method based on facial image feature region deformation were used to achieve the 2D facial expression simulation .Experimental results show that the proposed method can generate realistic and personalized facial expression images in a short time .%提出了一种基于单张正面中性表情人脸图像输入的二维人脸表情仿真方法。该方法基于输入的中性表情人脸图像,采用人工神经网络技术对该人脸其它表情下人脸特征点偏移量进行预测,利用预测结果使用基于线性插值的二值表情图像生成方法以及基于人脸图像特征区域变形的灰度表情图像生成方法实现二维人脸表情仿真。仿真结果表明,该方法可满足对人脸表情图像实时性和个性化的仿真需求,为个性化w eb虚拟人的研究提供技术支持。

  9. Seismic Observation in Deep Boreholes and Its Applications - Workshop Proceedings, Niigata Institute of Technology, Kashiwazaki, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    4 was only 70% that of Unit 2 at the same site. Given these circumstances, JNES initiated the 'Observation and Evaluation Study of Ground Motion Amplification' project by drilling a three-kilometer deep borehole on the premises of the Niigata Institute of Technology, which is located near the Kashiwazaki site, and proposed a series of workshops related to deep underground seismic observation and ground motion evaluation to the Seismic Subgroup of the OECD/NEA/IAGE Group at the April 2010 meeting. The first was held from 24-26 November 2010 as part of the first Kashiwazaki International Symposium on seismic safety, and the second was held on 7 to 9 November 2012. In the second WS, 36 papers were presented by the participants from eight countries including two international organizations, and discussed in three sessions (i.e. observation technology, evaluation of the observed seismic motion and the multipurpose use). Regarding the observation technology session, useful lessons-learned in probe development, setup and maintenance under the challenging conditions posed by great depth were described. This information from SAFORD and Kashiwazaki was thought to be particularly valuable for the planning and operation of similar facilities. As for the seismic observations from a deep borehole, it was identified that such observations are very effective for investigation of the earthquake generating process and are important for detailed understanding of the three-dimensional underground structure. There is not yet much experience with observation and application of a deep borehole, and therefore future developments and achievements are expected. The importance of simple ground motion evaluation technology combined with geophysical exploration was also acknowledged. Examples of multipurpose utilization and the advantage of seismic observations in deep boreholes were discussed. Multipurpose use was discussed not only for seismic design and evaluation of nuclear installations

  10. 2D and 3D documentation of St. Nicolas baroque church for the general reconstruction using laser scanning and photogrammetry technologies combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křemen, Tomáš; Koska, Bronislav

    2013-04-01

    Total reconstruction of a historical object is a complicated process consisting of several partial steps. One of these steps is acquiring high-quality data for preparation of the project documentation. If these data are not available from the previous periods, it is necessary to proceed to a detailed measurement of the object and to create a required drawing documentation. New measurement of the object brings besides its costs also several advantages as complex content and form of drawings exactly according to the requirements together with their high accuracy. The paper describes measurement of the Baroque church by the laser scanning method extended by the terrestrial and air photogrammetry. It deals with processing the measured data and creating the final outputs, which is a 2D drawing documentation, orthophotos and a 3D model. Attention is focused on their problematic parts like interconnection of the measurement data acquired by various technologies, creation of orthophotos and creation of the detailed combined 3D model of the church exterior. Results of this work were used for preparation of the planned reconstruction of the object.

  11. Proceedings of the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 20-22 September, 2005 in Rancho Mirage, California. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  12. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  13. Application of 3 D seismic technology in Puesto Hernandez field, Neuquen Basin, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groba, C.; Mendoza, E.; Musri, D.; Quinteros, J.; Sosa, H.

    1998-07-01

    Puesto Hernandez field, in the Neuquen Basin, Argentina, provides an excellent opportunity to assess the effects of modern 3D Seismic technologies on mature field-development strategies. Perez Company S A is conducting a waterflood project in the Avile Member of the Agrio Formation. A 3D seismic survey conducted in late 1995 resulted in an improved geological model of the Avile Member. This model allowed a better definition of the reservoir limits and structure and explained the presence of water oil contacts where earlier interpretations failed to predict them. A seismic attribute analysis enhanced the areal distribution of h{theta} and helped to detect the location of a gas cap. Using this information an outpost well as driller which revealed a new oil production zone where two horizontal well are now in production. This geological model was input in a numerical simulation model that helped to characterize faults as sealing, partial sealing and channelling, which explained the existence of early breakthroughs and yielded improvements in the design of the injection patterns. (author)

  14. Proceedings of the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2005-09-20

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 20-22 September, 2005 in Rancho Mirage, California. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  15. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2006-09-19

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  16. 2 D seismic sections interpretation for the Xareu field in the Mundau sub-basin (Ceara basin, Northeastern Brazil); Interpretacao de secoes sismicas 2D para o Campo de Xareu na sub-bacia de Mundau (Bacia do Ceara, NE do Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Alex Francisco [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: alex@geologia.ufrn.br; Jardim de Sa, Emanuel Ferraz [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geodinamica e Geofisica; Matos, Renato Marcos Darros de [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Keller Filho, Odilon [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal, RN (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios RN/CE; Lima Neto, Francisco Fontes [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents a reinterpretation of seismic sections of the Xareu Oil Field, located in the central portion of the Mundau Sub-basin (Ceara Basin, Northeast Brazil). These seismic sections were acquired during the 80's and the 90's. Their reinterpretation show that the field is structured by a main arrangement of N W-trending listric normal faults, with associated roll-over structures affecting the rocks of the rift (Mundau Formation) and transitional (Paracuru Formation) sections of the basin. Some of these faults also affect the basal and intermediate layers of the drift section (Ubarana Formation), what denotes their reactivation (or even the formation of new faults). the new interpretation allows a better understanding of the frequency, geometry, orientation, style and kinematic of the faults, important factors in the structural characterization of the Xareu Oil Field. (author)

  17. Impact of technology scaling in SOI back-channel total dose tolerance. A 2-D numerical study using a self-consistent oxide code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new 2-D and 3-D self-consistent code has been developed and is applied to understanding the charge trapping in SOI buried oxide causing back-channel MOS leakage in SOI transistors. Clear indications on scaling trends are obtained with respect to supply voltage and oxide thickness. (authors)

  18. Development of seismic safety assessment technology for SSI systems of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the seismic safety assessment technology developed by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) for soil-structure interaction (SSI) systems of nuclear power plants. In the study, SSI analysis methods were developed and complemented such as the substructure method utilizing a lumped-parameter model and the direct method based on the infinite element and the hyper element. Based on the methods, the computer codes, LUMSSI, KIESSI, HYPER3X were developed. The computer codes FREE and M-SHAKE were also developed for site response analysis. The M-SHAKE is a user-friendly, complemented version of the previously developed code SHAKE. To validate the analysis methodologies and the computer codes, KIESSI, LUMSSI, HYPER3X, and SASSI which had been already installed in the KINS, we are participating in the Hualien LSST project which is an international cooperative research project. For the Hualien LSST, blind prediction and post-correlation analyses for the forced vibration of the test model before and after backfill, and earthquake response analyses were carried out. Earthquake response analysis of the Lotung LSST model in Taiwan, and forced vibration analysis and earthquake response analysis of the test model by TEPSCO, Japan, were also performed by using thee LUMSSI and the KIESSI. The analyses gave satisfactory results. In addition, guidelines for seismic safety assessment of SSI systems were developed in the study through utilizing the SSI analysis results of the test models and performing additional parametric studies. (author). 11 refs., 11 figs

  19. Development of a new seismic-data acquisition station based on system-on-a-programmable-chip technology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Qi-sheng; Deng Ming; Guo Jian; Luo Wei-bing; Wang Qi; Feng Yong-qiang

    2013-01-01

    There has been considerable development of seismic detectors over the last 80 years. However, there is still a need to further develop new earthquake exploration and data acquisition systems with high precision. In particular, for China to keep up with the latest technology of these systems, it is important to be involved in the research and development, instead of importing systems that soon fall behind the latest technology. In this study, the features of system-on-a-programmable-chip (SoPC...

  20. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Wood; W. Quinlan

    2003-01-01

    Presented in this quarterly report is the Case History and Well Summary for the Vernon Field demonstration project in Isabella County, Michigan. This new case history and well summary format organizes and presents the technical and historical details of the Vernon Field demonstration, as well as the field demonstration results and the applicability of these results to other demonstration projects. This format could be duplicated for other demonstration projects and will be used on all subsequent field demonstrations as they near completion. Planning for the annual project meeting in Tampa, Florida has begun. This meeting will be held March 7-9, 2003 at the same site as the last three meetings. The goals of this project were to: (1) test the use of multi-lateral wells to recover bypassed hydrocarbons and (2) to access the potential of using surface geochemistry to reduce drilling risk. Two new demonstration wells, the State-Smock and the Bowers 4-25, were drilled to test the Dundee Formation at Vernon Field for bypassed oil. Neither well was commercial, although both produced hydrocarbon shows. An extensive geochemical survey in the vicinity of Vernon Field, covering much of Isabella County, has produced a base map for interpretation of anomalies in Michigan. Several potential new anomalies were discovered that could be further investigated.

  1. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Wood; T.J. Bornhorst; S.D. Chittick; William B. Harrison; W. Quinlan; E. Taylor

    2001-07-31

    A principal goal of the Budget Period I was to demonstrate that surface geochemistry could be used to locate bypassed hydrocarbons in old fields. This part of the program was successful. A surface geochemical survey, employing 5 different techniques, was carried out in the Spring and Summer of 2000 and a demonstration well, the State Vernon & Smock 13-23 HD1 (permit number: PN 53945) was drilled in Vernon Township, Isabella County, Michigan in the late fall of 2000. A demonstration well was selected and drilled based on geologic considerations and surface geochemistry. Over 460 soil samples were collected and analyzed over the drill site. A good anomaly was detected near the proposed well site and the demonstration well, the Smock 13-23, was drilled to a depth of 3157 feet by November 17, 2000. Two laterals were drilled, and hydrocarbons were located in a zone approximately 175 feet in length. However, it was determined that the pay zone was too small and difficult reservoir conditions (water production) prevented putting the well in production. The Smock 13-23 was shut in and abandoned January 15, 2001. A post-mortem determined that the main reason the well was not economic was because the zone was nearly completely flushed by earlier recovery operations. The post mortem also revealed the presence of an unmapped shale plug crossing the first lateral. It appears that this shale was detected by the geochemical survey, but its significance was not appreciated at the time. It is possible that sections of the well were faulty, ''porposing'' up and down so as to create water blockages. We are continuing to use the Vernon Field and the demonstration well to calibrate the geochemical data. Eventually, this study may provide a standard site that can be used to test and calibrate geochemical anomalies, something that does not presently exist. A postmortem report on the well, including the geology and geochemistry used to site the well, is presented in Appendix I. Five geochemical techniques have been tested in Phase I. These include surface iodine, microbial, enzyme leaching, soil gas and subsurface iodine. We are most comfortable with the results of the microbial surveys but feel that direct measurement of soil gas is the best method if analytical difficulties can be overcome. The reason the microbial surveys are presently favored is because they provide a logical, consistent picture that is easy to interpret and easy to explain. This in turn is because the microbial anomaly is manifested as an ''apical'' as opposed to an ''edge'' or ''halo'' anomaly. Several lessons were learned during Phase I activities. The main one was that surface geochemistry could locate anomalies over old fields such as Vernon. We also learned that horizontal drilling has advantages and disadvantages in situations such as this. On the plus side, it does provide a means to probe for pockets of bypassed oil, but it is expensive relative to vertical (or slant wells?) and is difficult to control in a narrow pay zone. We tentatively conclude that horizontal wells do not provide a cost-effective solution in this setting and suggest that geochemical anomalies be investigated via a single vertical well or multiple vertical wells.

  2. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTRY, MI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Wood; A. Wylie; W. Quinlan

    2004-04-01

    The principal objective of this demonstration project is to test surface geochemical techniques for detecting trace amounts of light hydrocarbons in pore gases as a means of reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration and production. A major part of the remaining project will focus on using surface geochemistry to delineate prospects. A Niagaran reef field geochemical survey, the Bagley Prospect area in Otsego County, Michigan is scheduled to take place this summer. Previous wells drilled in Bagley Prospect area in the early 1970's and in place in late 2002 and early 2003 resulted in discoveries and numerous hydrocarbon shows in the Brown Niagaran reservoir interval. The Bagley region is still considered an area of interest by the industry and appears ripe for a geochemical survey. Our industry partner is interested in a possible test in the Bagley prospect because subsurface geophysical and geological interpretation indicates the presence of structures. Anomalous production and pressure data further suggest the region is not yet well understood and should not be considered mature. The most recent well, the Bagley 1-22A sidetrack, was unsuccessful at locating a new reef culmination to the south of the original vertical well and did not encounter hydrocarbon shows. The sidetrack and well were plugged and abandoned. The proposed geochemical survey will concentrate on areas away from the Bagley 1-22A to the north and west but will include the entire prospect so that the existing data can be used in interpretations. Bagley appears to offer a unique combination of potential and data for a geochemical study that focuses on looking for new oil in an area that has exhausted traditional geologic and geophysical methods. The Bear Lake pinnacle reef trend in Manistee County, Michigan, is also scheduled for further geochemical work this summer. Industry interest, mostly by small companies, is picking up in this area and it is also ripe for targeted geochemical surveys for the same reasons cited above.

  3. 2-D scanning technology in passive terahertz imaging%被动太赫兹成像二维扫描技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢巍; 侯丽伟; 潘鸣

    2014-01-01

    It is inevitable to use 2-D scanning in wide-Field of View(FOV) terahertz imaging due to the restriction of terahertz detector(lack of pixels and hardly integrated to large-scale plane array). The 45° mirror could be used in passive terahertz 2-D scanning imaging for its advantages in dimension, stability and scanning Field of View. The principle of 2-D scanning imaging using 45° mirror is analyzed in detail. A new method with horizontal scanning by rotating around axis Zand vertical stepping by rotating around axis Yis proposed. The scanning trace is calculated, the margin FOV distortion is about 3.2%. The method is validated by the imaging experiment and image is acquired in wide-Field of View.%太赫兹成像受探测器像元数少和无法进行大规模面阵集成的限制,大视场成像不可避免地要用到二维扫描。45º镜具有尺寸小,稳定性好,幅宽大等特点,可以用来实现被动太赫兹二维扫描成像。详细分析了45º镜扫描成像的工作原理和扫描方式,提出了绕Z轴摆动实现水平扫描,绕Y轴摆动实现垂直步进的扫描方案,计算了扫描轨迹,边沿视场成像畸变约3.2%,并通过成像实验对扫描方案进行了验证,得到了大视场下的被动太赫兹二维扫描图像。

  4. Graphical technologies, innovation and aesthetics in the video game industry: a case study of the shift from 2d to 3d graphics in the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Arsenault

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of a research project currently in progress at the Université de Montréal (Québec, Canada. Funded by the FQRSC (Fonds de recherche Québec – Société et Culture / Quebec Fund for Research – Society and Culture for a three-year period (from May 2012 to May 2015, the project studies the transition from 2D to 3D graphics in gaming during the 1990s

  5. Fracture detection, mapping, and analysis of naturally fractured gas reservoirs using seismic technology. Final report, November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Many basins in the Rocky Mountains contain naturally fractured gas reservoirs. Production from these reservoirs is controlled primarily by the shape, orientation and concentration of the natural fractures. The detection of gas filled fractures prior to drilling can, therefore, greatly benefit the field development of the reservoirs. The objective of this project was to test and verify specific seismic methods to detect and characterize fractures in a naturally fractured reservoir. The Upper Green River tight gas reservoir in the Uinta Basin, Northeast Utah was chosen for the project as a suitable reservoir to test the seismic technologies. Knowledge of the structural and stratigraphic geologic setting, the fracture azimuths, and estimates of the local in-situ stress field, were used to guide the acquisition and processing of approximately ten miles of nine-component seismic reflection data and a nine-component Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP). Three sources (compressional P-wave, inline shear S-wave, and cross-line, shear S-wave) were each recorded by 3-component (3C) geophones, to yield a nine-component data set. Evidence of fractures from cores, borehole image logs, outcrop studies, and production data, were integrated with the geophysical data to develop an understanding of how the seismic data relate to the fracture network, individual well production, and ultimately the preferred flow direction in the reservoir. The multi-disciplinary approach employed in this project is viewed as essential to the overall reservoir characterization, due to the interdependency of the above factors.

  6. Activated sludge model No. 2d, ASM2d

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) presents a model for biological phosphorus removal with simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in activated sludge systems. ASM2d is based on ASM2 and is expanded to include the denitrifying activity of the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs...

  7. Study of seismic hazard mitigation at different time scales: applications and technological development

    OpenAIRE

    Caccavale, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Earthquakes, weak or strong, represent always a psychological and emotional stress for people, but also a strong socio-economic impact for the affected area. The earthquake generation, the propagation of seismic waves, the seismic waves modification due to the propagation media and the interaction between seismic wave and human structures, are the main topics of different research disciplines. In the last years a wide interdisciplinary research program (physics, seismology, mathematics, geolo...

  8. Seismic design technology for Breeder Reactor structures. Volume 3: special topics in reactor structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, D.P. (ed)

    1983-04-01

    This volume is divided into six chapters: analysis techniques, equivalent damping values, probabilistic design factors, design verifications, equivalent response cycles for fatigue analysis, and seismic isolation. (JDB)

  9. Seismic design technology for Breeder Reactor structures. Volume 3: special topics in reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is divided into six chapters: analysis techniques, equivalent damping values, probabilistic design factors, design verifications, equivalent response cycles for fatigue analysis, and seismic isolation

  10. Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy of 2-D Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Li, Mingda; Vishwanath, Suresh; Yan, Rusen; Xiao, Shudong; Xing, Huili; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela; Zhang, Qin

    Recent research has shown the great benefits of using 2-D materials in the tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET), which is considered a promising candidate for the beyond-CMOS technology. The on-state current of TFET can be enhanced by engineering the band alignment of different 2D-2D or 2D-3D heterostructures. Here we present the internal photoemission spectroscopy (IPE) approach to determine the band alignments of various 2-D materials, in particular SnSe2 and WSe2, which have been proposed for new TFET designs. The metal-oxide-2-D semiconductor test structures are fabricated and characterized by IPE, where the band offsets from the 2-D semiconductor to the oxide conduction band minimum are determined by the threshold of the cube root of IPE yields as a function of photon energy. In particular, we find that SnSe2 has a larger electron affinity than most semiconductors and can be combined with other semiconductors to form near broken-gap heterojunctions with low barrier heights which can produce a higher on-state current. The details of data analysis of IPE and the results from Raman spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements will also be presented and discussed.

  11. Seismic design technology for breeder reactor structures. Volume 4. Special topics in piping and equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, D.P.

    1983-04-01

    This volume is divided into five chapters: experimental verification of piping systems, analytical verification of piping restraint systems, seismic analysis techniques for piping systems with multisupport input, development of floor spectra from input response spectra, and seismic analysis procedures for in-core components. (DLC)

  12. Seismic design technology for breeder reactor structures. Volume 4. Special topics in piping and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is divided into five chapters: experimental verification of piping systems, analytical verification of piping restraint systems, seismic analysis techniques for piping systems with multisupport input, development of floor spectra from input response spectra, and seismic analysis procedures for in-core components

  13. Avoiding whales and wellheads: technology lightens impact of marine seismic on fragile Arctic ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, S.

    2001-09-01

    To minimize environmental impact, Anderson Exploration Ltd and WesternGeco are using new technologies that include state-of-the-art satellite systems for tracking whales, icebergs, ships and aircraft, and a pollutant-free means of keeping the streamers, or marine recording cables, from sinking. Using WesternGeco's satellite-based vehicle tracking system (VTS), ground personnel at a base camp can instantaneously determine the whereabouts of the icebreaker {sup G}eco Snapper' and the company's two vessels surveying the ocean floor. In the air, the VTS tracks the flight paths and altitudes of WesternGeco's Bell 212 helicopter and Twin Otter planes used to monitor whales and icebergs. From the bridge of the Geco Snapper, using GPS units located on the six air gun arrays and the three marine streamers which extend four kms behind the vessel, data are recorded in real time on the positions of the data acquisition equipment relative to the vessel and relative to water depth or proximity to the sea floor. The Geco Snapper has been retrofitted with the VTS equipment in preparation for its participation in a project for acquiring what may be the first-ever seismic survey in the frigid waters of the Beaufort Sea. Instead of being filled with gasoline, the streamers trailing the vessel are foam-filled, consequently, they are extremely safe and environmentally friendly.

  14. Enabling Technology for the Exploration of the Arctic Ocean - Multi Channel Seismic Reflection data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, B.; Anderson, R.; Chayes, D. N.; Goemmer, S.; Oursler, M.

    2009-12-01

    Great advances in mapping the Arctic Ocean have recently been made through the relatively routine acquisition of multibeam data from icebreakers operating on various cruise. The USCGC Healy, the German icebreaker Polarstern, the Canadian icebreaker Amundsen and the Swedish icebreaker Oden all routinely collect multibeam data, even while in heavy ice pack. This increase in data has substantially improved our knowledge of the form of the Arctic Ocean seafloor. Unfortunately, it is not possible to routinely collect Multi Channel Seismic Reflection (MCS) data while underway in the ice pack. Our inability to simply collect these data restricts how we understand many of the features that segment the basin by depriving us of the historical information that can be obtained by imaging the stratigraphy. Without these data, scientific ocean drilling, the ultimate ground truth for Marine Geology, cannot be done. The technology and expertise to collect MCS must be adapted for the particular circumstances of the Arctic Ocean. While MCS data have been collected in the Arctic Ocean, the procedures have relied on icebreakers towing equipment. Since icebreakers follow the path of least resistance through the pack, data are acquired in locations that are not scientifically optimal and rarely in the relatively straight lines necessary for optimal processing. Towing in the ice pack is also difficult, inefficient and puts this equipment at substantial risk of crushing or loss. While icebreakers are one means to collect these data, it is time to conduct a systematic evaluation of the costs and benefits of different platforms for MCS data acquisition. This evaluation should enable collection of high-quality data set at selected locations to solve scientific problems. Substantial uncertainties exist about the relative capabilities, costs and limitations for acquisition of MCS data from various platforms in the Arctic Ocean. For example; - Is it possible to collect multi-channel seismic

  15. Application of Cutting-Edge 3D Seismic Attribute Technology to the Assessment of Geological Reservoirs for CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Liner; Jianjun Zeng; Po Geng Heather King Jintan Li; Jennifer Califf; John Seales

    2010-03-31

    The goals of this project were to develop innovative 3D seismic attribute technologies and workflows to assess the structural integrity and heterogeneity of subsurface reservoirs with potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration. Our specific objectives were to apply advanced seismic attributes to aide in quantifying reservoir properies and lateral continuity of CO{sub 2} sequestration targets. Our study area is the Dickman field in Ness County, Kansas, a type locality for the geology that will be encountered for CO{sub 2} sequestration projects from northern Oklahoma across the U.S. midcontent to Indiana and beyond. Since its discovery in 1962, the Dickman Field has produced about 1.7 million barrels of oil from porous Mississippian carbonates with a small structural closure at about 4400 ft drilling depth. Project data includes 3.3 square miles of 3D seismic data, 142 wells, with log, some core, and oil/water production data available. Only two wells penetrate the deep saline aquifer. Geological and seismic data were integrated to create a geological property model and a flow simulation grid. We systematically tested over a dozen seismic attributes, finding that curvature, SPICE, and ANT were particularly useful for mapping discontinuities in the data that likely indicated fracture trends. Our simulation results in the deep saline aquifer indicate two effective ways of reducing free CO{sub 2}: (a) injecting CO{sub 2} with brine water, and (b) horizontal well injection. A tuned combination of these methods can reduce the amount of free CO{sub 2} in the aquifer from over 50% to less than 10%.

  16. From 2D Lithography to 3D Patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zeijl, H.W.; Wei, J.; Shen, C.; Verhaar, T.M.; Sarro, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Lithography as developed for IC device fabrication is a high volume high accuracy patterning technology with strong 2 dimensional (2D) characteristics. This 2D nature makes it a challenge to integrate this technology in a 3 dimensional (3D) manufacturing environment. This article addresses the perfo

  17. Optical modulators with 2D layered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhipei; Martinez, Amos; Wang, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that 2D layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this Review, we cover the state of the art of optical modulators based on 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as 2D heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon and fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at the future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms, such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.

  18. Proceedings of the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, N. Jill [Editor

    1999-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, held 21-24 September 1999 in Las Vegas, Nevada. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  19. 2D-hahmoanimaation toteuttamistekniikat

    OpenAIRE

    Smolander, Aku

    2009-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan erilaisia 2D-hahmoanimaation toteuttamistekniikoita. Aluksi luodaan yleiskatsaus animoinnin historiaan ja tekniikoihin piirtämisestä mallintamiseen. Alkukatsauksen jälkeen tutkitaan 2D-hahmon suunnittelua ja liikkeitä koskevia sääntöjä. Hahmoanimaation liikkeissä huomionarvoisia asioita ovat muun muassa ajastus, liioittelu, ennakointi ja painovoima. Seuraavaksi perehdytään itse 2D-hahmoanimaation toteuttamistekniikoihin. Tavoitteena on selvittää, tutkia ja vertailla ...

  20. Wireless D2D communication technology based on Android and JXTA protocol model%一种基于Android和JXTA协议模型的无线D2D通信技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨杰; 卢选民; 李成福

    2012-01-01

    移动通信系统的快速发展使得频谱资源日益紧缺.D2D通信是一种在系统的控制下,允许终端之间通过复用小区资源直接进行通信的新型技术.它能减少小区网络的负载,还能支持新型的小范围点对点数据通信,是未来绿色通信发展的趋势.针对这一新型的通信技术,提出了基于Android OS平台,以JXTA协议为模型的无线D2D通信技术,使得移动终端之间能够进行通信与资源共享,并通过网络实验验证了其有效性.%The rapid development of mobile communication system makes spectrum resources increasingly scarce. D2D is a new communication technology,which is under the control of a system, allowing the terminal to directly reuse the area's resources. It can reduce the load of network, and support the new point-to-point communication of small ranges. It is the trend of the green communication. In response to this new technology, this paper proposed the D2D communication based on the Android operating system, JXTA protocol as a model, so that these terminals can communicate and share resources. Finally the network experiments proved its effectiveness.

  1. Efficient 2d full waveform inversion using Fortran coarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Donghyun; Kim, ahreum; Ha, Wansoo

    2016-04-01

    We developed a time-domain seismic inversion program using the coarray feature of the Fortran 2008 standard to parallelize the algorithm. We converted a 2d acoustic parallel full waveform inversion program with Message Passing Interface (MPI) to a coarray program and examined performance of the two inversion programs. The results show that the speed of the waveform inversion program using the coarray is slightly faster than that of the MPI version. The standard coarray lacks features for collective communication; however, it can be improved in following standards since it is introduced recently. The parallel algorithm can be applied for 3D seismic data processing.

  2. 2D-Tasks for Cognitive Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Hernandez, Ruth; Martinez Moreno, Jose Maria; García Molina, A.; Ferrer Celma, S.; Solana Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Carrion, R.; Fernandez Casado, E.; Pérez Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Gomez Pulido, A.; Anglès Tafalla, C.; Cáceres Taladriz, César; Ferre Vergada, M.; Roig Rovira, Teresa; Garcia Lopez, P.; Tormos Muñoz, Josep M.

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychological Rehabilitation is a complex clinic process which tries to restore or compensate cognitive and behavioral disorders in people suffering from a central nervous system injury. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Biomedical Engineering play an essential role in this field, allowing improvement and expansion of present rehabilitation programs. This paper presents a set of cognitive rehabilitation 2D-Tasks for patients with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI). These t...

  3. Seismic Technology Adapted to Analyzing and Developing Geothermal Systems Below Surface-Exposed High-Velocity Rocks Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardage, Bob A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; DeAngelo, Michael V. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Ermolaeva, Elena [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Hardage, Bob A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Remington, Randy [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Sava, Diana [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Wagner, Donald [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Wei, Shuijion [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology

    2013-02-01

    The objective of our research was to develop and demonstrate seismic data-acquisition and data-processing technologies that allow geothermal prospects below high-velocity rock outcrops to be evaluated. To do this, we acquired a 3-component seismic test line across an area of exposed high-velocity rocks in Brewster County, Texas, where there is high heat flow and surface conditions mimic those found at numerous geothermal prospects. Seismic contractors have not succeeded in creating good-quality seismic data in this area for companies who have acquired data for oil and gas exploitation purposes. Our test profile traversed an area where high-velocity rocks and low-velocity sediment were exposed on the surface in alternating patterns that repeated along the test line. We verified that these surface conditions cause non-ending reverberations of Love waves, Rayleigh waves, and shallow critical refractions to travel across the earth surface between the boundaries of the fast-velocity and slow-velocity material exposed on the surface. These reverberating surface waves form the high level of noise in this area that does not allow reflections from deep interfaces to be seen and utilized. Our data-acquisition method of deploying a box array of closely spaced geophones allowed us to recognize and evaluate these surface-wave noise modes regardless of the azimuth direction to the surface anomaly that backscattered the waves and caused them to return to the test-line profile. With this knowledge of the surface-wave noise, we were able to process these test-line data to create P-P and SH-SH images that were superior to those produced by a skilled seismic data-processing contractor. Compared to the P-P data acquired along the test line, the SH-SH data provided a better detection of faults and could be used to trace these faults upward to the boundaries of exposed surface rocks. We expanded our comparison of the relative value of S-wave and P-wave seismic data for geothermal

  4. Seismic design technology for breeder reactor structures. Volume 1. Special topics in earthquake ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is divided into twelve chapters: seismic hazard analysis procedures, statistical and probabilistic considerations, vertical ground motion characteristics, vertical ground response spectrum shapes, effects of inclined rock strata on site response, correlation of ground response spectra with intensity, intensity attenuation relationships, peak ground acceleration in the very mean field, statistical analysis of response spectral amplitudes, contributions of body and surface waves, evaluation of ground motion characteristics, and design earthquake motions

  5. Seismic design technology for breeder reactor structures. Volume 1. Special topics in earthquake ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, D.P.

    1983-04-01

    This report is divided into twelve chapters: seismic hazard analysis procedures, statistical and probabilistic considerations, vertical ground motion characteristics, vertical ground response spectrum shapes, effects of inclined rock strata on site response, correlation of ground response spectra with intensity, intensity attenuation relationships, peak ground acceleration in the very mean field, statistical analysis of response spectral amplitudes, contributions of body and surface waves, evaluation of ground motion characteristics, and design earthquake motions. (DLC)

  6. Accretion Disks Phase Transitions 2-D or not 2-D?

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, M A; Igumenshchev, I V; Abramowicz, Marek Artur; Bjornsson, Gunnlaugur; Igumenshchev, Igor V.

    2000-01-01

    We argue that the proper way to treat thin-thick accretion-disk transitions should take into account the 2-D nature of the problem. We illustrate the physical inconsistency of the 1-D vertically integrated approach by discussing a particular example of the convective transport of energy.

  7. Controllable and Observable Polynomial Description for 2D Noncausal Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Boudellioua

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional state-space systems arise in applications such as image processing, iterative circuits, seismic data processing, or more generally systems described by partial differential equations. In this paper, a new direct method is presented for the polynomial realization of a class of noncausal 2D transfer functions. It is shown that the resulting realization is both controllable and observable.

  8. SES2D user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SES2D is an interactive graphics code designed to generate plots of equation of state data from the Los Alamos National Laboratory Group T-4 computer libraries. This manual discusses the capabilities of the code. It describes the prompts and commands and illustrates their use with a sample run

  9. Computational 2D Materials Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Filip Anselm; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2015-01-01

    , and comparison is made with different density functional theory descriptions. Pitfalls related to the convergence of GW calculations for two-dimensional (2D) materials are discussed together with possible solutions. The monolayer band edge positions relative to vacuum are used to estimate the band alignment...

  10. Aero Fighter - 2D Gaming

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    Designing and developing quality based computer game is always a challenging task for developers. In this paper I briefly discuss aero fighting war game based on simple 2D gaming concepts and developed in C & C++ programming languages, using old bitmapping concepts. Going into the details of the game development, I discuss the designed strategies, flow of game and implemented prototype version of game, especially for beginners of game programming.

  11. 2D-animaatiotuotannon optimointi

    OpenAIRE

    Saturo, Reetta

    2015-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on tutkia 2D-animaatiotuotannon optimoinnin mahdollisuuksia tiukan tuotantoaikataulun vaatimuksissa. Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan kahta asiakasprojektia, jotka on toteutettu pienellä tuotantotiimillä. Työkaluna animaatioissa on käytetty pääosin Adoben After Effects -ohjelmistoa. Tutkielman alussa esitellään animaatiotuotannot, joiden tuloksena syntyi kaksi lyhyttä mainoselokuvaa. Sen jälkeen käydään läpi animaatioelokuvan tuotantoprosessia vaiheittain ja tark...

  12. Head First 2D Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Fallow), Stray

    2009-01-01

    Having trouble with geometry? Do Pi, The Pythagorean Theorem, and angle calculations just make your head spin? Relax. With Head First 2D Geometry, you'll master everything from triangles, quads and polygons to the time-saving secrets of similar and congruent angles -- and it'll be quick, painless, and fun. Through entertaining stories and practical examples from the world around you, this book takes you beyond boring problems. You'll actually use what you learn to make real-life decisions, like using angles and parallel lines to crack a mysterious CSI case. Put geometry to work for you, and

  13. Analysis of Seismic Fortification Technology Applied to Houses at Railway Station%铁路站房抗震设防的技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱瑞

    2014-01-01

    The seismic fortification required that railway sta- tions should have the ability of seismic fortification regardless of what geographical environment they are in. This paper ma- inly described the importance of the seismic fortification of railway station, and analyzed the concrete technology of seis- mic fortification of railway station.%铁路站房的抗震设防工作要求不管是处于什么地理环境下的铁路站房都应该具备抗震设防能力。本文主要讲述了铁路站房抗震设防的重要性,并对铁路站房抗震设防做出了具体的技术分析。

  14. Subtle traps prediction using sequence stratigraphy and 3D seismic technology: A case study from Qikou depression in Huanghua basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Ning-bo; DAI Ta-gen; PENG Sheng-lin

    2005-01-01

    Forecasting subtle traps by sequence stratigraphy and 3D seismic data is a sensitive topic in hydrocarbon exploration. Research on subtle traps by geophysical data is the most popular and difficult. Based on the sufficiently drilling data, log data, core data and 3D seismic data, sediment sequence of Qikou depression, Huanghua basin was partitioned by using sequence stratigraphy theory. Each sediment sequence system mode was built. Sediment faces of subtle traps were pointed out. Dominating factors forming subtle traps were analyzed. Sandstone seismic rock physics and its response were studied in Tertiary System. Sandstone geophysical response and elastic modulus vary laws with pressure, temperature, porosity, depth were built. Experimental result and practice shows that it is possible using seismic information forecasting subtle traps. Integrated using geology, log, drilling data, special seismic processing technique, interpretation technique, high precision horizon calibration technique, 3D seismic visualizing interpretation, seismic coherence analysis, attribute analysis, logging-constrained inversion, time frequency analysis, subtle trapsobject is identified and interpreted. Finally, advantage object of subtle trap in this area was determined. Bottomland sand stratigraphic and lithologic reservoirs in Qinan slope zone have been founded by means of high resolution 3D seismic data field technique, high resolution 3D seismic data processing technique and seismic wave impendence inversion technique.

  15. Pareto joint inversion of 2D magnetotelluric and gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miernik, Katarzyna; Bogacz, Adrian; Kozubal, Adam; Danek, Tomasz; Wojdyła, Marek

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution, the first results of the "Innovative technology of petrophysical parameters estimation of geological media using joint inversion algorithms" project were described. At this stage of the development, Pareto joint inversion scheme for 2D MT and gravity data was used. Additionally, seismic data were provided to set some constrains for the inversion. Sharp Boundary Interface(SBI) approach and description model with set of polygons were used to limit the dimensionality of the solution space. The main engine was based on modified Particle Swarm Optimization(PSO). This algorithm was properly adapted to handle two or more target function at once. Additional algorithm was used to eliminate non- realistic solution proposals. Because PSO is a method of stochastic global optimization, it requires a lot of proposals to be evaluated to find a single Pareto solution and then compose a Pareto front. To optimize this stage parallel computing was used for both inversion engine and 2D MT forward solver. There are many advantages of proposed solution of joint inversion problems. First of all, Pareto scheme eliminates cumbersome rescaling of the target functions, that can highly affect the final solution. Secondly, the whole set of solution is created in one optimization run, providing a choice of the final solution. This choice can be based off qualitative data, that are usually very hard to be incorporated into the regular inversion schema. SBI parameterisation not only limits the problem of dimensionality, but also makes constraining of the solution easier. At this stage of work, decision to test the approach using MT and gravity data was made, because this combination is often used in practice. It is important to mention, that the general solution is not limited to this two methods and it is flexible enough to be used with more than two sources of data. Presented results were obtained for synthetic models, imitating real geological conditions, where

  16. 煤田地震勘探技术的应用研究%Application research on coalfield seismic survey technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武程

    2015-01-01

    Taking relevant coalfield survey technology experience,the paper introduces basic concept,development status and application of coalfield seismic survey technology,and mainly explores its future development trend,which will be some help for continuously improving coalfield seismic survey technology level.%以煤田地震勘探技术的相关经验为基础,介绍了煤田地震勘探技术的基本概念、发展现状与应用情况,并着重探讨了该勘探技术的未来发展趋势,有利于煤田地震勘探技术水平的不断提高。

  17. Imaging in 2D media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, S. N.

    2015-10-01

    Stacking by CDP technique is inapplicable for processing of data from bottom seismic stations or acoustic sonobuoys. In addition, big amount of unknown velocity and structural parameters of the real layered medium do not allow these parameters to be defined by standard processing methods. Local sloped stacking is proposed for simultaneous obtaining the stacked tracks, travel time curve of a chosen wave, and the first derivative of this travel time curve. The additionally defined parameters are second derivative of this travel time curve and integrated average of squared travel time curve. These data are sufficient to reduce the amount of unknown parameters (down to one-two for each boundary) when layer-by-layer top-to-bottom processing. As a result, the stable estimates of velocity parameters of the layered (isotropic or anisotropic) medium can be obtained and stacked tracks obtained by local sloped staking can be transformed into boundaries in the time and depth sections.

  18. FY 1995 report on verification of geothermal exploration technology. Development of fracture reservoir exploration technology (development of seismic exploration); 1995 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsunado kensho chosa. Danretsugata choryuso tansaho kaihatsu (danseiha riyo tansaho kaihatsu) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report provides the development of new exploration technology using elastic waves, such as reflection seismic survey, VSP, and seismic tomography, for precisely characterizing subsurface fractures in geothermal reservoirs. In order to investigate and improve the effective data acquisition and analysis methods for detecting a fault type of fractures, an experiment of a seismic tomography method was conducted using wells drilled in the Ogiri geothermal field, Aira-gun, Kagoshima Prefecture. An experiment of propagation characteristics of piezo type underground seismic source in the volcanic field was also conducted as a trend survey of underground seismic sources. The fracture type in the model field was systematically analyzed by measuring the core samples obtained in the demonstration test field through remanence measurement, fluid inclusion measurement, and zircon measurement using test equipment, and by analyzing results obtained from cores and results of seismic tomography obtained from the wells. Based on these results, the effectiveness and practical application of exploration methods using elastic waves were investigated. 80 refs., 250 figs., 49 tabs.

  19. 2D SIMPLIFIED SERVO VALVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A novel pilot stage valve called simplified 2D valve, which utilizes both rotary and linear motions of a single spool, is presented.The rotary motion of the spool incorporating hydraulic resistance bridge, formed by a damper groove and a crescent overlap opening, is utilized as pilot to actuate linear motion of the spool.A criterion for stability is derived from the linear analysis of the valve.Special experiments are designed to acquire the mechanical stiffness, the pilot leakage and the step response.It is shown that the sectional size of the spiral groove affects the dynamic response and the stiffness contradictorily and is also very sensitive to the pilot leakage.Therefore, it is necessary to establish a balance between the static and dynamic characteristics in deciding the structural parameters.Nevertheless, it is possible to sustain the dynamic response at a fairly high level, while keeping the leakage of the pilot stage at an acceptable level.

  20. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-06-24

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.

  1. Novel approach for improving signal to noise ratio of seismic images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凤; 李金宗; 李冬冬

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach of digital image processing technology is applied to improve SNR of seismic images. At first,we analyze the characters of line-like texture in seismic images, and then a preprocessing method named 2 D tracing horizon filtering is designed. After that, the technology of optical flow analysis is adopted to calculate the displacement vectors of adjacent pixels between neighboring seismic images. At last, the novel image accumulation algorithms are proposed, which are applied to greatly improve SNR and definition of seismic images. The experimental results show that SNR of seismic section images with SNR of about 20 dB and 17 dB are increased 8 dB~9 dB under keeping signal energy 67%~80% by processing section images and 3dB~4dB under keeping signalenergy 80~90% by processing horizontal slice images. Thereby, the proposed novel approaches are very helpful to the correct seismic interpretation and have very important significance for seismic exploring.

  2. Synergizing Crosswell Seismic and Electromagnetic Techniques for Enhancing Reservoir Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-11-18

    Increasing complexity of hydrocarbon projects and the request for higher recovery rates have driven the oil-and-gas industry to look for a more-detailed understanding of the subsurface formation to optimize recovery of oil and profitability. Despite the significant successes of geophysical techniques in determining changes within the reservoir, the benefits from individually mapping the information are limited. Although seismic techniques have been the main approach for imaging the subsurface, the weak density contrast between water and oil has made electromagnetic (EM) technology an attractive complement to improve fluid distinction, especially for high-saline water. This crosswell technology assumes greater importance for obtaining higher-resolution images of the interwell regions to more accurately characterize the reservoir and track fluid-front developments. In this study, an ensemble-Kalman-based history-matching framework is proposed for directly incorporating crosswell time-lapse seismic and EM data into the history-matching process. The direct incorporation of the time-lapse seismic and EM data into the history-matching process exploits the complementarity of these data to enhance subsurface characterization, to incorporate interwell information, and to avoid biases that may be incurred from separate inversions of the geophysical data for attributes. An extensive analysis with 2D and realistic 3D reservoirs illustrates the robustness and enhanced forecastability of critical reservoir variables. The 2D reservoir provides a better understanding of the connection between fluid discrimination and enhanced history matches, and the 3D reservoir demonstrates its applicability to a realistic reservoir. History-matching enhancements (in terms of reduction in the history-matching error) when incorporating both seismic and EM data averaged approximately 50% for the 2D case, and approximately 30% for the 3D case, and permeability estimates were approximately 25

  3. Multienzyme Inkjet Printed 2D Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdor, Efrat; Shemesh, Shay; Magdassi, Shlomo; Mandler, Daniel

    2015-08-19

    The use of printing to produce 2D arrays is well established, and should be relatively facile to adapt for the purpose of printing biomaterials; however, very few studies have been published using enzyme solutions as inks. Among the printing technologies, inkjet printing is highly suitable for printing biomaterials and specifically enzymes, as it offers many advantages. Formulation of the inkjet inks is relatively simple and can be adjusted to a variety of biomaterials, while providing nonharmful environment to the enzymes. Here we demonstrate the applicability of inkjet printing for patterning multiple enzymes in a predefined array in a very straightforward, noncontact method. Specifically, various arrays of the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx), invertase (INV) and horseradish peroxidase (HP) were printed on aminated glass surfaces, followed by immobilization using glutardialdehyde after printing. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was used for imaging the printed patterns and to ascertain the enzyme activity. The successful formation of 2D arrays consisting of enzymes was explored as a means of developing the first surface confined enzyme based logic gates. Principally, XOR and AND gates, each consisting of two enzymes as the Boolean operators, were assembled, and their operation was studied by SECM. PMID:26214072

  4. Learn Unity for 2D game development

    CERN Document Server

    Thorn, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The only Unity book specifically covering 2D game development Written by Alan Thorn, experience game developer and author of seven books on game programming Hands-on examples of all major aspects of 2D game development using Unity

  5. Recent developments in 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials for sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Padmanathan Karthick; Late, Dattatray J.; Morgan, Hywel; Rout, Chandra Sekhar

    2015-08-01

    Two dimensional layered inorganic nanomaterials (2D-LINs) have recently attracted huge interest because of their unique thickness dependent physical and chemical properties and potential technological applications. The properties of these layered materials can be tuned via both physical and chemical processes. Some 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials like MoS2, WS2 and SnS2 have been recently developed and employed in various applications, including new sensors because of their layer-dependent electrical properties. This article presents a comprehensive overview of recent developments in the application of 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials as sensors. Some of the salient features of 2D materials for different sensing applications are discussed, including gas sensing, electrochemical sensing, SERS and biosensing, SERS sensing and photodetection. The working principles of the sensors are also discussed together with examples.

  6. Seismic engineering -- 1996. PVP-volume 340

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 37 papers in this volume have been arranged under the following topical sections: advanced methods in seismic engineering (7 papers); high level dynamic response of piping systems (5); equipment seismic qualification (6); soil structure interaction (3); advanced seismic technology in Asian countries (8); developments in seismic codes and standards (8); and a panel discussion on the review of current issues by the Special Working Group on seismic rules. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  7. Korea-Japan Joint Research on Development of Seismic Capacity Evaluation and Enhancement Technology Considering Near-Fault Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choun, Young Sun; Choi, In Kil; Kim, Min Kyu [KAERI, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Ohtori, Yasuki; Shiba, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Masato [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2005-12-15

    Several recent improved methods for the EGFM are introduced in order to avoid artificial holes seen in the synthetic acceleration spectrum. Furthermore evaluation of input ground motions at Wolsung NPP are performed by varying the source parameters that may control the high-frequency wave radiation and the deviation of the synthetic motions are revealed. The PSHA case studies for four NPP sites (Wolsung, Kori, Uljin, Younggwang) are performed. In the analysis, site-specific attenuation equations developed for Korean NPP sites are employed, and the seismic hazards for the target sites are evaluated in the case where the four kind of seismic source models are considered. Moreover, the PSHA for Wolsung and Younggwang are conducted by using the site-specific attenuation equation with the index of response spectra and the uniform hazard spectra are evaluated for the two sites. The supporting tool for seismic response analysis and the evaluation tool for evaluating annual probability of failure were integrated in the frame of the seismic risk assessment system. Then, the tools were applied to the seismic risk assessment of the conventional EDG and isolated EDG. General information such as earthquake parameters and regional distribution of seismic intensity is summarized on the 2005 West Off Fukuoka earthquake. Then, the observed strong motion records in Japan and Korea sites are compiled, and regional distribution of peak accelerations are represented. Moreover, the peak accelerations of the records are compared with the values estimated from the existing attenuation equations.

  8. CALIBRATION OF SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne D. Pennington; Horacio Acevedo; Aaron Green; Joshua Haataja; Shawn Len; Anastasia Minaeva; Deyi Xie

    2002-10-01

    productive and non-productive subfacies, and we developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines. The Teal South data set has provided a surprising set of results, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. Additional results were found using the public-domain Waha and Woresham-Bayer data set, and some tests of technologies were made using 2D seismic lines from Michigan and the western Pacific ocean.

  9. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne D. Pennington

    2002-09-29

    developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines. The Teal South data set has provided a surprising set of results, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. Additional results were found using the public-domain Waha and Woresham-Bayer data set, and some tests of technologies were made using 2D seismic lines from Michigan and the western Pacific ocean.

  10. Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (rediscovery of various two dimensional (2D materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.

  11. Surface modelling for 2D imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Lieng, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Vector graphics provides powerful tools for drawing scalable 2D imagery. With the rise of mobile computers, of different types of displays and image resolutions, vector graphics is receiving an increasing amount of attention. However, vector graphics is not the leading framework for creating and manipulating 2D imagery. The reason for this reluctance of employing vector graphical frameworks is that it is difficult to handle complex behaviour of colour across the 2D domain. ...

  12. Perspectives for Spintronics in 2D Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Han

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (re)discovery of various two dimensional (2D) materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.

  13. UNITS IN $F_2D_{2p}$

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Kuldeep; Khan, Manju

    2012-01-01

    Let $p$ be an odd prime, $D_{2p}$ be the dihedral group of order 2p, and $F_{2}$ be the finite field with two elements. If * denotes the canonical involution of the group algebra $F_2D_{2p}$, then bicyclic units are unitary units. In this note, we investigate the structure of the group $\\mathcal{B}(F_2D_{2p})$, generated by the bicyclic units of the group algebra $F_2D_{2p}$. Further, we obtain the structure of the unit group $\\mathcal{U}(F_2D_{2p})$ and the unitary subgroup $\\mathcal{U}_*(F_...

  14. 2D Barcode for DNA Encoding

    CERN Document Server

    Purcaru, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a solution for endcoding/decoding DNA information in 2D barcodes. First part focuses on the existing techniques and symbologies in 2D barcodes field. The 2D barcode PDF417 is presented as starting point. The adaptations and optimizations on PDF417 and on DataMatrix lead to the solution - DNA2DBC - DeoxyriboNucleic Acid Two Dimensional Barcode. The second part shows the DNA2DBC encoding/decoding process step by step. In conclusions are enumerated the most important features of 2D barcode implementation for DNA.

  15. 2D Barcode for DNA Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Purcaru

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a solution for endcoding/decoding DNA information in 2D barcodes. First part focuses on the existing techniques and symbologies in 2D barcodes field. The 2D barcode PDF417 is presented as starting point. The adaptations and optimizations on PDF417 and on DataMatrix lead to the solution – DNA2DBC – DeoxyriboNucleic Acid Two Dimensional Barcode. The second part shows the DNA2DBC encoding/decoding process step by step. In conclusions are enumerated the most important features of 2D barcode implementation for DNA.

  16. Reproducibility in Seismic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Verdejo O.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the field of exploration seismology, there is interest at national level of integrating reproducibility in applied, educational and research activities related to seismic processing and imaging. This reproducibility implies the description and organization of the elements involved in numerical experiments. Thus, a researcher, teacher or student can study, verify, repeat, and modify them independently. In this work, we document and adapt reproducibility in seismic processing and imaging to spread this concept and its benefits, and to encourage the use of open source software in this area within our academic and professional environment. We present an enhanced seismic imaging example, of interest in both academic and professional environments, using Mexican seismic data. As a result of this research, we prove that it is possible to assimilate, adapt and transfer technology at low cost, using open source software and following a reproducible research scheme.

  17. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables

  18. Port Adriano, 2D-Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Jensen, Palle Meinert

    This report present the results of 2D physical model tests (length scale 1:50) carried out in a waveflume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU).......This report present the results of 2D physical model tests (length scale 1:50) carried out in a waveflume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU)....

  19. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan

    2005-06-24

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.

  20. Seismic design technology for breeder reactor structures. Volume 2. Special topics in soil/structure interaction analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is divided into six chapters: definition of seismic input ground motion, review of state-of-the-art procedures, analysis guidelines, rock/structure interaction analysis example, comparison of two- and three-dimensional analyses, and comparison of analyses using FLUSH and TRI/SAC Codes

  1. UPLAND EROSION MODELING WITH CASC2D-SED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre JULIEN; Rosalía ROJAS

    2002-01-01

    Developed at Colorado State University, CASC2D-SED is a physically-based model simulating the hydrologic response of a watershed to a distributed rainfall field. The time-dependent processes include:precipitation, interception, infiltration, surface runoff and channel routing, upland erosion, transport and sedimentation. CASC2D-SED is applied to Goodwin Creek, Mississippi. The watershed covers 21 km2and has been extensively monitored both at the outlet and at several internal locations by the ARS-NSL at Oxford, MS. The model has been calibrated and validated using rainfall data from 16 meteorological stations, 6 stream gauging stations and 6 sediment gauging stations. Sediment erosion/deposition rates by size fraction are predicted both in space and time. Geovisualization, a powerful data exploration technique based on GIS technology, is used to analyze and display the dynamic output time series generated by the CASC2D-SED model.

  2. 2D nanostructures for water purification: graphene and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervin, Saoirse; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Pillai, Suresh C

    2016-08-18

    Owing to their atomically thin structure, large surface area and mechanical strength, 2D nanoporous materials are considered to be suitable alternatives for existing desalination and water purification membrane materials. Recent progress in the development of nanoporous graphene based materials has generated enormous potential for water purification technologies. Progress in the development of nanoporous graphene and graphene oxide (GO) membranes, the mechanism of graphene molecular sieve action, structural design, hydrophilic nature, mechanical strength and antifouling properties and the principal challenges associated with nanopore generation are discussed in detail. Subsequently, the recent applications and performance of newly developed 2D materials such as 2D boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, graphyne, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), tungsten chalcogenides (WS2) and titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) are highlighted. In addition, the challenges affecting 2D nanostructures for water purification are highlighted and their applications in the water purification industry are discussed. Though only a few 2D materials have been explored so far for water treatment applications, this emerging field of research is set to attract a great deal of attention in the near future. PMID:27506268

  3. 2D materials for nanophotonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhang, Shuang; Pei, Jiajie; Lu, Yuerui

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have become very important building blocks for electronic, photonic, and phononic devices. The 2D material family has four key members, including the metallic graphene, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layered semiconductors, semiconducting black phosphorous, and the insulating h-BN. Owing to the strong quantum confinements and defect-free surfaces, these atomically thin layers have offered us perfect platforms to investigate the interactions among photons, electrons and phonons. The unique interactions in these 2D materials are very important for both scientific research and application engineering. In this talk, I would like to briefly summarize and highlight the key findings, opportunities and challenges in this field. Next, I will introduce/highlight our recent achievements. We demonstrated atomically thin micro-lens and gratings using 2D MoS2, which is the thinnest optical component around the world. These devices are based on our discovery that the elastic light-matter interactions in highindex 2D materials is very strong. Also, I would like to introduce a new two-dimensional material phosphorene. Phosphorene has strongly anisotropic optical response, which creates 1D excitons in a 2D system. The strong confinement in phosphorene also enables the ultra-high trion (charged exciton) binding energies, which have been successfully measured in our experiments. Finally, I will briefly talk about the potential applications of 2D materials in energy harvesting.

  4. Fuzzy Dynamic Analysis of a 2D Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Štemberk

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the dynamic analysis of a 2D concrete frame with uncertainties which are an integral part of any real structure. The uncertainties can be modeled by a stochastic or a fuzzy approach. The fuzzy approach is used and the influence of uncertain input data (modulus of elasticity and density on output data is studied. Fuzzy numbers are represented by ?-cuts. In order to reduce the volume of computation in the fuzzy approach, the response surface function concept is applied. In this way the natural frequencies and mode shapes described by fuzzy numbers are obtained. The results of fuzzy dynamic analysis can be used, e.g., in seismic design of structures based on the response spectrum. 

  5. 2D seismostratigraphic inversion applied to a thin reservoir characterization; Inversao sismoestratigrafica 2D aplicada a caracterizacao de um reservatorio delgado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Antonio Carlos de Almeida

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to estimate thin reservoir properties even without counting on a good quality and a homogeneous database. Following a regional geological setting, well data such as logs, reports, cores had led to an interpretation of the depositional model in which the sandstone interval is inserted as an filling an incised valley system. This knowledge is essential to provide elements for a final work judgement. The main geological properties were then extracted from logs. The geophysical approach has counted on a 1D modeling of the main well acoustic parameters and a 2D Seismostratigraphic Inversion with a {alpha} priori acoustic impedance, which was able to enhance the frequency content of the original data. After the interpretation of the inverted data, seismic attributes were then extracted. A multivariate statistics was performed in order to establish which correlations between geological and seismic would be carried forward. An Ordinary Kriging was applied to the 2D seismic attributes. The External Drift Kriging was used to derive maps of the geological properties with the constraint of seismic variables. The final geological properties maps are similar in shape and coherent with the depositional model proposed. (author)

  6. NIR Assignment of Magnolol by 2D-COS Technology and Model Application Huoxiangzhengqi Oral Liduid%厚朴酚近红外光谱的2D-COS解析及其在藿香正气口服液模型中应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴艳玲; 吴志生; 史新元; 潘晓宁; 彭严芳; 乔延江

    2015-01-01

    以氘代氯仿为溶剂,以中药化学标准品厚朴酚为载体,采用二维相关光谱(Tow‐dimensional corre‐lation spectroscopy ,2D‐COS)技术,采集近红外光谱(near infrared spectroscopy ,NIR),由氘代氯仿纯溶剂与厚朴酚原始光谱的二维相关同步谱可知,厚朴酚在1365~1455,1600~1720,2000~2181和2275~2465 nm处有特征吸收,其中1440 nm为酚基O—H伸缩振动基频的一级倍频谱带,1679 nm为芳基C—H及与芳基相连的甲基C—H伸缩振动一级倍频谱带,2117,2304,2339和2370 nm为芳基C— H伸缩振动、弯曲振动和变形振动的组合频,2445 nm为芳基相连的甲基C—H弯曲振动基频二级倍频谱带,这些波段为厚朴酚的特征归属。以藿香正气口服液复杂体系为载体,以厚朴酚光谱解析的特征波段与间隔偏最小二乘(interval partial least squares ,iPLS)和组合间隔偏最小二乘(synergy interval partial least squares ,Si‐PLS )筛选的特征波段分别建立偏最小二乘(partial least squares ,PLS )定量模型,模型的决定系数 R2cal和 R2pre均大于0.99,校正均方根误差(root mean of square error of calibration ,RMSEC),交叉验证均方根误差(root mean of square error of cross validation ,RMSECV)和预测均方根误差(root mean of square error of predic‐tion ,RMSEP)均较小。结果表明,2D‐COS技术解析厚朴酚所得波段建立的定量模型与iPLS和SiPLS波段筛选的模型均相对稳定,这使定量模型的波段选择更具有解释性。该研究为中药化学成分N IR光谱解析特征波段的归属提供方法参考,同时为N IR建模波段筛选提供借鉴和指导。%Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy assignment of Magnolol was performed using deuterated chloroform solvent and two‐dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D‐COS) technology .According to the synchronous spectra of deuterated chloroform solvent

  7. Constraints on mantle convection from seismic tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kárason, H.; Hilst, R.D. van der

    2000-01-01

    Since the advent of global seismic tomography some 25 years ago, advances in technology, seismological theory, and data acquisition have allowed spectacular progress in our ability to image seismic heterogeneity in Earth's mantle. We briefly review some concepts of seismic tomography, such as parame

  8. Compressing and Coding Method of Seismic Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵学军; 郑宇; 宁书年; 郭俊霞; 岳俊梅

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at the characteristics of the seismic exploration signals, the paper studies the image coding technology, the coding standard and algorithm, brings forward a new scheme of admixing coding for seismic data compression. Based on it, a set of seismic data compression software has been developed.

  9. 2D supergravity in p+1 dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, H.; Lindstrom, U.

    1998-01-01

    We describe new $N$-extended 2D supergravities on a $(p+1)$-dimensional (bosonic) space. The fundamental objects are moving frame densities that equip each $(p+1)$-dimensional point with a 2D ``tangent space''. The theory is presented in a $[p+1, 2]$ superspace. For the special case of $p=1$ we recover the 2D supergravities in an unusual form. The formalism has been developed with applications to the string-parton picture of $D$-branes at strong coupling in mind.

  10. 2D Barcode for DNA Encoding

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Purcaru; Cristian Toma

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a solution for endcoding/decoding DNA information in 2D barcodes. First part focuses on the existing techniques and symbologies in 2D barcodes field. The 2D barcode PDF417 is presented as starting point. The adaptations and optimizations on PDF417 and on DataMatrix lead to the solution – DNA2DBC – DeoxyriboNucleic Acid Two Dimensional Barcode. The second part shows the DNA2DBC encoding/decoding process step by step. In conclusions are enumerated the most important features ...

  11. Exploration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennevik, H.C. [Saga Petroleum A/S, Forus (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    The paper evaluates exploration technology. Topics discussed are: Visions; the subsurface challenge; the creative tension; the exploration process; seismic; geology; organic geochemistry; seismic resolution; integration; drilling; value creation. 4 refs., 22 figs.

  12. 2D Saturable Absorbers for Fibre Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I. Woodward

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D nanomaterials are an emergent and promising platform for future photonic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we review recent progress demonstrating the application of 2D nanomaterials as versatile, wideband saturable absorbers for Q-switching and mode-locking fibre lasers. We focus specifically on the family of few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides, including MoS2, MoSe2 and WS2.

  13. Beltrami States in 2D Electron Magnetohydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Shivamoggi, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the Hamiltonian formulations along with the Poisson brackets for two-dimensional (2D) electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) flows are developed. These formulations are used to deduce the Beltrami states for 2D EMHD flows. In the massless electron limit, the EMHD Beltrami states reduce to the force-free states, though there is no force-free Beltrami state in the general EMHD case.

  14. Glitter in a 2D monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Ming; Dornfeld, Matthew; Frauenheim, Thomas; Ganz, Eric

    2015-10-21

    We predict a highly stable and robust atomically thin gold monolayer with a hexagonal close packed lattice stabilized by metallic bonding with contributions from strong relativistic effects and aurophilic interactions. We have shown that the framework of the Au monolayer can survive 10 ps MD annealing simulations up to 1400 K. The framework is also able to survive large motions out of the plane. Due to the smaller number of bonds per atom in the 2D layer compared to the 3D bulk we observe significantly enhanced energy per bond (0.94 vs. 0.52 eV per bond). This is similar to the increase in bond strength going from 3D diamond to 2D graphene. It is a non-magnetic metal, and was found to be the global minima in the 2D space. Phonon dispersion calculations demonstrate high kinetic stability with no negative modes. This 2D gold monolayer corresponds to the top monolayer of the bulk Au(111) face-centered cubic lattice. The close-packed lattice maximizes the aurophilic interactions. We find that the electrons are completely delocalized in the plane and behave as 2D nearly free electron gas. We hope that the present work can inspire the experimental fabrication of novel free standing 2D metal systems.

  15. 2d index and surface operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadde, Abhijit; Gukov, Sergei

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes the 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and under CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in = 2 super-conformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d = 2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools developed in the first half of the paper. The superconformal index in the presence of surface defect is expected to be invariant under generalized S-duality. We demonstrate that it is indeed the case. In doing so the Seiberg-type duality of the 2d theory plays an important role.

  16. Optimal implicit 2-D finite differences to model wave propagation in poroelastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzá, Reymundo; Iturrarán-Viveros, Ursula; Parra, Jorge O.

    2016-08-01

    Numerical modeling of seismic waves in heterogeneous porous reservoir rocks is an important tool for the interpretation of seismic surveys in reservoir engineering. We apply globally optimal implicit staggered-grid finite differences (FD) to model 2-D wave propagation in heterogeneous poroelastic media at a low-frequency range (computational cost will not be as expensive while maintaining the accuracy. Here, we compute weights for the optimal implicit FD scheme to attain an accuracy of γ = 10-8. The implicit spatial differentiation involves solving tridiagonal linear systems of equations through Thomas' algorithm.

  17. 2-D DOA Estimation Based on 2D-MUSIC%基于2D-MUSIC算法的DOA估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康亚芳; 王静; 张清泉; 行小帅

    2014-01-01

    This paper discussed the performance of classical two-dimensional DOA estimation with 2D-MUSIC, based on the mathematical model of planar array and 2D-MUSIC DOA estimation, Taking uniform planar array for example, comput-er simulation experiment was carried for the effect of three kinds of different parameters on 2-D DOA estimation, and the simulation results were analyzed. And also verification test about the corresponding algorithm performance under the differ-ent parameters was discussed.%利用经典的2D-MUSIC算法对二维阵列的DOA估计进行了研究,在平面阵列数学模型以及2D-MUSIC算法的DOA估计模型基础上,以均匀平面阵列为例,对3种不同参数的DOA估计进行了计算机仿真,分析了仿真结果。得出了在不同参数变化趋势下DOA估计的相应变化情况。

  18. 2D digital imaging for cracks mapping of Cultural Heritage in emergency condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Russo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The digital photography represents not only an immediate medium for data communication, but also an effective instrument for surveying and monitoring the architectural buildings. In this context, 2D images allow to acquire multi-scale geometrical and material data in a few time. This peculiarity makes this technique very suitable for the survey of cracks distribution in emergency condition, for example immediately after an earthquake. Referring to this specific application, the article suggests a process of 2D images acquisition, data management and representation for surveying crack distribution inside an historical building in Ferrara, Palazzo Renata di Francia, seriously damaged by the seismic events happened in May 2012.

  19. 2d Index and Surface operators

    CERN Document Server

    Gadde, Abhijit

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in N=2 superconformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d N=2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools de...

  20. Latest Development of Marine Braodband Seismic Acquisition Technology%海上宽频地震采集技术新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余本善; 孙乃达

    2015-01-01

    海上宽频地震采集技术不但能改善盐下、玄武岩下等深层构造成像,还能提高薄层、隐蔽圈闭、特殊岩性体等难识别油区成像品质,因而能有效提高地震资料的解释精度,降低勘探风险。近年来市场的迫切需求极大地推动了海上宽频地震采集技术的快速发展,国外相继出现了倾斜电缆采集、上下双缆采集、双检电缆采集、四分量拖缆采集等多种采集方法,国内在这一研究领域尚处于起步阶段。本文通过介绍上述几种技术的基本原理及效果,以期对国内相关研究起到参考和指导作用。%Marine broadband seismic acquisition technology not only improves the pre-salt and pre-basalt geological imaging precision but also raises the imaging quality of dififcult-to-identify reservoirs, such as thin layers, subtle traps and special lithologic bodies, thus effectively improving interpretation precision of seismic data and lowering the risks for exploration. The strong market demand has stimulated development of marine broadband seismic acquisition technology in recent years. A number of acquisition methods appeared abroad, such as slant streamers, over-under streamers, hydrophone-vertical geophone (dual sensor) streamers and multi-component towed streamers. However, the domestic research is still in its preliminary stage in this area. This paper is focused on the fundamental principles of the above-stated technologies, aiming to offer references for the related study at home.

  1. A Brief Talk about the Technology of Seismic Exploration on Shale Gas%浅谈页岩气地震勘探技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王万合

    2014-01-01

    This article tells us basic understanding about shale gas,and proposes us several aspects should be focused on about the technology of seismic exploration in shale gas, that is structure for shale area, reservoir calibration, the thickness forecast and depth calculation, optimalizes, analyses,and extracts sensitive properties about shale gas. Then obtains the relationship between seismic data volume and shale gas reservoirs, So as to achieve the prediction of“The dessert”on shale gas.%本文讲述了对页岩气的基本认识,提出了页岩气地震勘探勘探应着重解决的几个方面,即寻找页岩区构造,储层标定,页岩的厚度预测和埋深计算,并对页岩气敏感属性进行优选、分析和提取,获得页岩气藏与地震数据体间的相互关系,从而实现对页岩气“甜点”的预测。

  2. Automatic Contour Extraction from 2D Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis GIOANNIS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a method for automatic contour extraction from a 2D image. Material and Method: The method is divided in two basic parts where the user initially chooses the starting point and the threshold. Finally the method is applied to computed tomography of bone images. Results: An interesting method is developed which can lead to a successful boundary extraction of 2D images. Specifically data extracted from a computed tomography images can be used for 2D bone reconstruction. Conclusions: We believe that such an algorithm or part of it can be applied on several other applications for shape feature extraction in medical image analysis and generally at computer graphics.

  3. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W., E-mail: cwdomier@ucdavis.edu; Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tobias, B. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  4. Seismic Prediction While Drilling (SPWD): Seismic exploration ahead of the drill bit using phased array sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksch, Katrin; Giese, Rüdiger; Kopf, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    In the case of drilling for deep reservoirs previous exploration is indispensable. In recent years the focus shifted more on geological structures like small layers or hydrothermal fault systems. Beside 2D- or 3D-seismics from the surface and seismic measurements like Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) or Seismic While Drilling (SWD) within a borehole these methods cannot always resolute this structures. The resolution is worsen the deeper and smaller the sought-after structures are. So, potential horizons like small layers in oil exploration or fault zones usable for geothermal energy production could be failed or not identified while drilling. The application of a device to explore the geology with a high resolution ahead of the drill bit in direction of drilling would be of high importance. Such a device would allow adjusting the drilling path according to the real geology and would minimize the risk of discovery and hence the costs for drilling. Within the project SPWD a device for seismic exploration ahead of the drill bit will be developed. This device should allow the seismic exploration to predict areas about 50 to 100 meters ahead of the drill bit with a resolution of one meter. At the GFZ a first prototype consisting of different units for seismic sources, receivers and data loggers has been designed and manufactured. As seismic sources four standard magnetostrictive actuators and as receivers four 3-component-geophones are used. Every unit, actuator or geophone, can be rotated in steps of 15° around the longitudinal axis of the prototype to test different measurement configurations. The SPWD prototype emits signal frequencies of about 500 up to 5000 Hz which are significant higher than in VSP and SWD. An increased radiation of seismic wave energy in the direction of the borehole axis allows the view in areas to be drilled. Therefore, every actuator must be controlled independently of each other regarding to amplitude and phase of the source signal to

  5. Seismic testing of models and fragments of seismic isolated structures of NPS buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report states the bases of original methodology and results of model and full-scale seismic testing on 3-component seismic platforms (load-carrying capacity up to 500 t). For simulation of loads and shakes of elements of structures of seismic isolated buildings on the structure of the stands the technology of buried underground explosions was used. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Discussion on the Application of 3D Animation Technology in 2D Animation%三维动画技术在二维动画中的应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢景峰

    2014-01-01

    With the development of computer technology, a combination of two-dimensional and three-dimensional animation techniques, whose re-spective strengths and advantages greatly have enhanced animation visual effects and artistic expression, has been used in many two-di-mensional animation films, instead of using single two-dimensional animation technique. According to combine the styles and techniques of the current primary animation, analyzes the development of two-dimensional animation and three dimensional animationas as well as the limitations to the presentation and visuals of two-dimensional animation. Through the analysis of advantages of three dimensional car-toon technology, describes how to combine the technology of two-dimensional animation and three-dimensional animation in the integra-tion process. Gives opinion about the prospects of two-dimensional animation and three-dimensional in the future.%随着计算机技术的发展,在许多二维动画片中不再采用单一的二维动画技术,而是采用了二维和三维结合应用的动画技术,通过各自的长处和优势大大提高动画片的视觉效果和艺术表现力。结合当前主流动画风格以及技术来分析二维动画和三维动画的发展,阐述二维动画在表现形式和视觉效果上的局限性。通过分析三维动画技术的优势,重点探讨二维动画技术和三维动画技术在相互融合过程的实现方法,提出未来二维动画发展的见解与思路。

  7. Seismic Creep

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seismic creep is the constant or periodic movement on a fault as contrasted with the sudden erupture associated with an earthquake. It is a usually slow deformation...

  8. Horns Rev II, 2-D Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter

    This report present the results of 2D physical model tests carried out in the shallow wave flume at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU), on behalf of Energy E2 A/S part of DONG Energy A/S, Denmark. The objective of the tests was: to investigate the combined influence of the pile...

  9. 2D PIM Simulation Based on COMSOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xinbo; Cui, Wanzhao; Wang, Jingyu;

    2011-01-01

    Passive intermodulation (PIM) is a problematic type of nonlinear distortion en- countered in many communication systems. To analyze the PIM distortion resulting from ma- terial nonlinearity, a 2D PIM simulation method based on COMSOL is proposed in this paper. As an example, a rectangular waveguide...

  10. Baby universes in 2d quantum gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Ambjorn, J.; S. Jain; G. Thorleifsson

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the fractal structure of $2d$ quantum gravity, both for pure gravity and for gravity coupled to multiple gaussian fields and for gravity coupled to Ising spins. The roughness of the surfaces is described in terms of baby universes and using numerical simulations we measure their distribution which is related to the string susceptibility exponent $\\g_{string}$.

  11. Seismic hazard determination of nuclear facilities in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic safety management strategy and seismic risk management strategy are in the Czech Republic based on the real seismic hazard knowledge and on the use of preventive measures (technological and organisational) that at a strong earthquake occurrence mitigate or even avert severe earthquake impacts. To be able to reduce a seismic risk we must know site seismic hazard, site, facility and technology seismic vulnerabilities. By legal rules and seismic design code in force we require: - determining the real site seismic hazard corresponding to time periods 100 and 10 000 years, determining the NPP seismic risk in dependence on NPP type and local conditions, - adhering the defined professional principles and procedures at site evaluation, designing, construction and operation, using the construction procedures, technical measures (materials, structural elements, equipment etc.) and operation procedures that reduce seismic vulnerability during construction and operation, - preparing the set of organisational measures for the case of strong earthquake occurrence. (authors)

  12. BGP Started Shooting Its Largest Oversea Seismic Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ At 5 a.m. on November 1, 2005 of Beijing time, BGP (Bureau of Geophysical Prospecting)formally began shooting the S-51 3D seismic acquisition project in Saudi Arabia, its largest oversea seismic survey project to date. At the same time, the SRAK 2D seismic survey project was also started in the country. These two projects mark the construction of BGP's another large oversea production base.

  13. Seismic interpretation of circular geological structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, S.A. [Amerada Hess Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    1999-08-01

    3D seismic data provide images of geological features which are approximately circular in plan view but whose shape and origin may be possible to constrain using 2D seismic data. As 3D seismic data become more commonly employed in hydrocarbon exploration, the number of demonstrably 'circular' structures will increase. At least ten different geological processes can result in seismically resolvable 'circular' structures in sedimentary basins. These include salt/shale diapirs, salt withdrawal basins, polygonal fault blocks, dissolution collapse hollows, breccia pipes, calderas, gas pockmarks, bioherms, sand volcanoes, pull-aparts, impact craters and tectonic folds. Geometrical and geological criteria for each are summarized to facilitate identification of such features should they be encountered in the course of a 3D seismic interpretation. Certain types of geological feature have distinctive properties, others are less straightforward to recognize on the basis of individual criteria. (Author)

  14. Brownfield site investigation: a new technology for the detection of large objects based on passive seismic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytharouli, S.; Aspray, T. J.; Grojean, Q.; Steirou, E.

    2013-12-01

    In assessing brownfield sites for redevelopment, intrusive investigations are carried out to assess contamination, geology and hydrogeology. Such investigations are expensive, requiring the hire of expensive equipment, which incur standing charges when not in use. In addition, they provide information for discrete sample ';windows'. Non-intrusive methods have the ability to gather information across an entire area. Methods including electrical resistivity/conductivity and ground penetrating radar (GRP), and have been applied to brownfield sites. Their ability in detecting pollution e.g. buried canisters, is often restricted due to unfavourable on-site conditions e.g. GRP is not useful in cases where a layer of clay or reinforced concrete is present. This study is focused on the use, for the first time, of short period seismometers as an alternative, non-intrusive, passive seismic method to detect the presence of objects buried under the ground surface even when on-site conditions are not favourable. We used five low detection threshold seismometers with a flat response within the frequency range 1 - 80 Hz. We conducted experiments both in the lab and in the field. Three series of lab experiments were conducted in sand, under controlled conditions, using ambient noise as the only source of generating seismic waves. Results revealed that there is a distinct difference in the amplitude of the power density spectra of the recorded signals in cases where objects e.g. concrete block, polystyrene block, wood, were present. To validate these results in field scale, we conducted a series of experiments that took place in Heriot-Watt University campus on a field for which we had information for the subsurface from an electromagnetic survey. We used the same monitoring equipment to try and detect the presence of a 6m long PVC pipe buried 0.5m below the ground surface. Results were consistent with those obtained from lab experiments. This supports our initial hypothesis on the

  15. 2-D geometrical analysis of deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineering structures such as dams, bridges, high rise buildings, etc. are subject to deformation. Deformation survey is therefore necessary to determine the magnitude and direction of such movements for the purpose of safety assessment. In this study, a strategy for two-step analyses for deformation survey rising the two dimensional (2-D) geodetic method has been developed, consisting of independent least squares estimation (LSE) of each epoch followed by deformation detection. Important aspects on LSE include global and local testing. In deformation detection, the following aspects were implemented; datum definition by the user. determination of stable datum points, geometrical analysis of deformation and graphic presentation. The developed strategy has been implemented in three computer programs, COMPUT, DEFORM and STRANS. Tests carried out with simulated and known data show that the developed strategy and programs are applicable for 2-D geometrical detection of deformation. (Author)

  16. 2D photonic-crystal optomechanical nanoresonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makles, K; Antoni, T; Kuhn, A G; Deléglise, S; Briant, T; Cohadon, P-F; Braive, R; Beaudoin, G; Pinard, L; Michel, C; Dolique, V; Flaminio, R; Cagnoli, G; Robert-Philip, I; Heidmann, A

    2015-01-15

    We present the optical optimization of an optomechanical device based on a suspended InP membrane patterned with a 2D near-wavelength grating (NWG) based on a 2D photonic-crystal geometry. We first identify by numerical simulation a set of geometrical parameters providing a reflectivity higher than 99.8% over a 50-nm span. We then study the limitations induced by the finite value of the optical waist and lateral size of the NWG pattern using different numerical approaches. The NWG grating, pierced in a suspended InP 265-nm thick membrane, is used to form a compact microcavity involving the suspended nanomembrane as an end mirror. The resulting cavity has a waist size smaller than 10 μm and a finesse in the 200 range. It is used to probe the Brownian motion of the mechanical modes of the nanomembrane. PMID:25679837

  17. Robust and resistant 2D shape alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Eiriksson, Hrafnkell

    2001-01-01

    We express the alignment of 2D shapes as the minimization of the norm of a linear vector function. The minimization is done in the \\$l\\_1\\$, \\$l\\_2\\$ and the \\$l\\_\\$\\backslash\\$infty\\$ norms using well known standard numerical methods. In particular, the \\$l\\_1\\$ and the \\$l\\_\\$\\backslash\\$infty\\......We express the alignment of 2D shapes as the minimization of the norm of a linear vector function. The minimization is done in the \\$l\\_1\\$, \\$l\\_2\\$ and the \\$l\\_\\$\\backslash\\$infty\\$ norms using well known standard numerical methods. In particular, the \\$l\\_1\\$ and the \\$l......\\_\\$\\backslash\\$infty\\$ norm alignments are formulated as linear programming problems. The linear vector function formulation along with the different norms results in alignment methods that are both resistant from influence from outliers, robust wrt. errors in the annotation and capable of handling missing datapoints...

  18. Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek

    2010-04-01

    Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.

  19. 2D materials: Graphene and others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Suneev Anil; Singh, Amrinder Pal; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-05-01

    Present report reviews the recent advancements in new atomically thick 2D materials. Materials covered in this review are Graphene, Silicene, Germanene, Boron Nitride (BN) and Transition metal chalcogenides (TMC). These materials show extraordinary mechanical, electronic and optical properties which make them suitable candidates for future applications. Apart from unique properties, tune-ability of highly desirable properties of these materials is also an important area to be emphasized on.

  20. Seismic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For better understanding of the specification for seismic instrumentation of a nuclear power plant, the lecture gives some fundamental remarks to the seismic risk in the Federal Republic of Germany and to the data characterizing an earthquake event. Coming from the geophysical properties of an earthquake, the quantities are explained which are used in the design process of nuclear power plants. This process is shortly described in order to find the requirements for the specification of the seismic instrumentation. In addition the demands of licensing authorities are given. As an example the seismic instrumentation of KKP-1, BWR, is shown. The paper deals with kind and number of instruments, their location in the plant and their sensitivity and calibration. Final considerations deal with the evaluation of measured data and with plant operation after an earthquake. Some experience concerning the earthquake behaviour of equipment not designed to withstand earthquake loads is mentioned. This experience has initiated studies directed to quantification of the degree of conservatism of the assumptions in the seismic design of nuclear power plants. A final garget of these studies are more realistic design rules. (RW)

  1. Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lien, Derhsien

    2015-02-11

    When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.

  2. Resolving 2D Amorphous Materials with Scanning Probe Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burson, Kristen M.; Buechner, Christin; Lewandowski, Adrian; Heyde, Markus; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    Novel two-dimensional (2D) materials have garnered significant scientific interest due to their potential technological applications. Alongside the emphasis on crystalline materials, such as graphene and hexagonal BN, a new class of 2D amorphous materials must be pursued. For amorphous materials, a detailed understanding of the complex structure is necessary. Here we present a structural study of 2D bilayer silica on Ru(0001), an insulating material which is weakly coupled to the substrate. Atomic structure has been determined with a dual mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) sensor in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) at low temperatures, revealing a network of different ring sizes. Liquid AFM measurements with sub-nanometer resolution bridge the gap between clean UHV conditions and the environments that many material applications demand. Samples are grown and characterized in vacuum and subsequently transferred to the liquid AFM. Notably, the key structural features observed, namely nanoscale ring networks and larger holes to the substrate, show strong quantitative agreement between the liquid and UHV microscopy measurements. This provides direct evidence for the structural stability of these silica films for nanoelectronics and other applications. KMB acknowledges support from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

  3. 3D seismic experiment in difficult area in Japan; Kokunai nanchiiki ni okeru sanjigen jishin tansa jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minegishi, M.; Nakagami, K.; Tanaka, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-05-27

    Difficult area in this context means an exploration-difficult area supposed to store oil/gas but retarded in exploration for the lack of knowledge about the geological structure due to poor quality of available seismic survey records. Discussed in this paper is a survey conducted into an area covering the southern part of Noshiro-shi, Akita-ken, and Yamamoto-cho, Yamamoto-gun, Akita-ken. An area size suitable for data collection at a target depth of 2500m is determined using an interpretation structure compiled on the basis of available well data and 2D seismic survey data. The plan for siting shock points and receiving points is modified case by case as restrictive factors come to the surface (resulting from the complicated hilly terrain, presence of pipes for agricultural water, etc.). The peculiarities of seismic waves in the terrain are studied through the interpretation of the available well data and 2D seismic survey data for the construction of a 3D velocity model for the confirmation of the appropriateness of the plan for siting shock points and receiving points. Efforts are exerted through enhanced coordination with the contractor to acquire data so that a technologically best design may be won within the limits of the budget. The quality of the data obtained from this experiment is in general better than those obtained from previous experiments, yet many problems remain to be settled in future studies about exploration-difficult areas. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Seismic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Quittmeyer

    2006-09-25

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes the efforts to develop and confirm seismic ground motion inputs used for preclosure design and probabilistic safety 'analyses and to assess the postclosure performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As part of the effort to develop seismic inputs, the TWP covers testing and analyses that provide the technical basis for inputs to the seismic ground-motion site-response model. The TWP also addresses preparation of a seismic methodology report for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The activities discussed in this TWP are planned for fiscal years (FY) 2006 through 2008. Some of the work enhances the technical basis for previously developed seismic inputs and reduces uncertainties and conservatism used in previous analyses and modeling. These activities support the defense of a license application. Other activities provide new results that will support development of the preclosure, safety case; these results directly support and will be included in the license application. Table 1 indicates which activities support the license application and which support licensing defense. The activities are listed in Section 1.2; the methods and approaches used to implement them are discussed in more detail in Section 2.2. Technical and performance objectives of this work scope are: (1) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for preclosure design analyses, provide site-specific seismic design acceleration response spectra for a range of damping values; strain-compatible soil properties; peak motions, strains, and curvatures as a function of depth; and time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement). Provide seismic design inputs for the waste emplacement level and for surface sites. Results should be consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground

  5. 液体粘滞阻尼器配合双曲面球型支座在大跨连续梁桥中的减隔震研究%Research on Seismic Isolation Technology of Fluid Viscous Damper with Double Spherical Seismic Bearing in Large-span Continuous Girder Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健宁; 虞庐松

    2016-01-01

    大跨度连续梁桥由于上部结构惯性力较大,导致传统延性抗震设计方法很难满足桥梁抗震性能需求,减隔震技术是解决这一问题的有效途径之一。采用液体粘滞阻尼器配合双曲面球型减隔震支座对某高烈度大跨连续梁桥进行了减隔震设计,结果表明:液体粘滞阻尼器减震效果明显,但固定墩地震力较大仍难以满足要求;采用双曲面球型减隔震支座,除边墩受地震力明显增大外其余墩较均匀的分担了地震荷载,墩身抗震性能充分发挥,且其具备自复位功能震后修复难度较低;液体粘滞阻尼器配合双曲面球型减隔震支座时减震效果明显优于仅设置阻尼器,且前者具备一定的自复位功能,与设置双曲面球型支座相比前者解决了边墩的抗震问题。本桥减隔震设计中此方法最优,该方法可为高烈度区大跨连续梁桥的抗震设计和抗震加固提供参考。%Because the inertial force of the superstructure of the large-span continuous girder bridge is larger,the traditional ductility seismic design method cannot meet the needs of seismic performance of bridge seismic design.The seismic isolation technology is one of the effective ways to solve the problem,so a large-span continuous girder bridge in a high intensity seismic area is taken as an example for seismic isolation design by adopting the fluid viscous damper with double spherical seismic bearing.The results show that the damping effect is obvious after using the damper,but it is still difficult to meet the requirements.In addition,it is hard to repair after the earthquake without the self-resetting function.After using the double spherical seismic bearing, the rest piers are increased to uniformly bear the earthquake load besides the side pier and give full play to the seismic behavior,and they are easy to repair after the earthquake with the self-re-setting function.However,when using fluid

  6. 物联网技术在浙江省地震台站设备管理中的应用%Application of the internet of things technology in the equipment management of the seismic stations in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈吉锋; 陈军辉; 张帆

    2015-01-01

    According to the status that seismic stations have increased while the shortage is existed in equipment management, we designed an intelligent management system, which was based on the technology of radio frequency identifi cation (RFID) and modern communication technology, to achieve the real-time monitoring and inventory of seismic equipment. Compared with the traditional management situation,this system can ensure the equipment management accurate and effi cient operation of seismic stations, at the same time, it helps to provide evidence for the analysis of the seismic equipment failure.%针对目前浙江省地震监测台站不断增多,地震设备管理存在严重不足的现状,设计一种基于射频识别(RFID)技术及现代通信技术的地震设备物联网化智能管理系统,实现对台站设备从采购、仓储、安装、维修、报废等整个生命周期的实时监控与盘点。与传统资产管理模式相比,该系统能确保地震台站设备管理精确和高效运行,并可为地震台站设备故障原因分析提供依据。

  7. Seismic surveying for coal mine planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, B. [CMTE/CSIRO Exploration and Mining, Kenmore, Qld. (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    More and more coal in Australia is extracted by underground mining methods especially by longwall mining. These methods can be particularly sensitive to relatively small-scale structural discontinuities and variations in roof and floor rock character. Traditionally, information on these features has been obtained through drilling. However, this is an expensive process and its relevance is limited to the immediate neighbourhood of the boreholes. Seismic surveying, especially by 3D seismic, is an alternative tool for geological structure delineation. It is one of the most effective geophysical methods available for identification of geological structures such as faults, folds, washouts, seam splits and thickness changes which are normally associated with potential mining hazards. Seismic data even can be used for stratigraphic identification. The information extracted from seismic data can be integrated into mine planning and design. In this paper, computer aided interpretation techniques for maximising the information from seismic data are demonstrated and the ability of seismic reflection methods to resolve localised geological features illustrated. Both synthetic and real seismic data obtained in recent 2D and 3D seismic surveys from Australian coal mines are used. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Astor Pass Seismic Surveys Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, John [UNR; Pullammanappallil, Satish [Optim; Faulds, James; Eisses, Amy; Kell, Annie; Frary, Roxanna; Kent, Graham

    2011-08-05

    In collaboration with the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe (PLPT), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) and Optim re-processed, or collected and processed, over 24 miles of 2d seismic-reflection data near the northwest corner of Pyramid Lake, Nevada. The network of 2d land surveys achieved a near-3d density at the Astor Pass geothermal prospect that the PLPT drilled during Nov. 2010 to Feb. 2011. The Bureau of Indian Affairs funded additional seismic work around the Lake, and an extensive, detailed single-channel marine survey producing more than 300 miles of section, imaging more than 120 ft below the Lake bottom. Optim’s land data collection utilized multiple heavy vibrators and recorded over 200 channels live, providing a state-of-the-art reflection-refraction data set. After advanced seismic analysis including first-arrival velocity optimization and prestack depth migration, the 2d sections show clear fault-plane reflections, in some areas as deep as 4000 ft, tying to distinct terminations of the mostly volcanic stratigraphy. Some lines achieved velocity control to 3000 ft depth; all lines show reflections and terminations to 5000 ft depth. Three separate sets of normal faults appear in an initial interpretation of fault reflections and stratigraphic terminations, after loading the data into the OpendTect 3d seismic visualization system. Each preliminary fault set includes a continuous trace more than 3000 ft long, and a swarm of short fault strands. The three preliminary normal-fault sets strike northerly with westward dip, northwesterly with northeast dip, and easterly with north dip. An intersection of all three fault systems documented in the seismic sections at the end of Phase I helped to locate the APS-2 and APS-3 slimholes. The seismic sections do not show the faults connected to the Astor Pass tufa spire, suggesting that we have imaged mostly Tertiary-aged faults. We hypothesize that the Recent, active faults that produced the tufa through hotspring

  9. Limit theorems for 2D invasion percolation

    CERN Document Server

    Damron, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We prove limit theorems and variance estimates for quantities related to ponds and outlets for 2D invasion percolation. We first exhibit several properties of a sequence (O(n)) of outlet variables, the n-th of which gives the number of outlets in the box centered at the origin of side length 2^n. The most important of these properties describe the sequence's renewal structure and exponentially fast mixing behavior. We use these to prove a central limit theorem and strong law of large numbers for (O(n)). We then show consequences of these limit theorems for the pond radii and outlet weights.

  10. Interparticle attraction in 2D complex plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kompaneets, Roman; Ivlev, Alexei V

    2015-01-01

    Complex (dusty) plasmas allow experimental studies of various physical processes occurring in classical liquids and solids by directly observing individual microparticles. A major problem is that the interaction between microparticles is generally not molecular-like. In this Letter, we propose how to achieve a molecular-like interaction potential in laboratory 2D complex plasmas. We argue that this principal aim can be achieved by using relatively small microparticles and properly adjusting discharge parameters. If experimentally confirmed, this will make it possible to employ complex plasmas as a model system with an interaction potential resembling that of conventional liquids.

  11. Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovács, Anikó Zsuzsa [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly-Thege Miklós str. 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Hartmann, Peter [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly-Thege Miklós str. 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics and Engineering Research (CASPER), One Bear Place 97310, Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798 (United States); Donkó, Zoltán [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly-Thege Miklós str. 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Physics Department, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 20467 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates.

  12. Extrinsic curvature induced 2-d gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Viswanathan, K S

    1993-01-01

    Abtract: 2-dimensional fermions are coupled to extrinsic geometry of a conformally immersed surface in ${\\bf R}^3$ through gauge coupling. By integrating out the fermions, we obtain a WZNW action involving extrinsic curvature of the surface. Restricting the resulting effective action to surfaces of $h\\sqrt g=1$, an explicit form of the action invariant under Virasaro symmetry is obtained. This action is a sum of the geometric action for the Virasaro group and the light-cone action of 2-d gravity plus an interaction term. The central charges of the theory in both the left and right sectors are calculated.

  13. 2-d Simulations of Test Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2004-01-01

    using both a Newton and Bingham model for characterisation of the rheological properties of the concrete. From the results, it is expected that both the slump flow and L-box can be simulated quite accurately when the model is extended to 3-d and the concrete is characterised according to the Bingham...... approach is presented by showing initial results from 2-d simulations of the empirical test methods slump flow and L-box. This method assumes a homogeneous material, which is expected to correspond to particle suspensions e.g. concrete, when it remains stable. The simulations have been carried out when...... model....

  14. Instant HTMl5 2D platformer

    CERN Document Server

    Temple, Aidan

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. The step-by-step approach taken by this book will show you how to develop a 2D HTML5 platformer-based game that you will be able to publish to multiple devices.This book is great for anyone who has an interest in HTML5 games development, and who already has a basic to intermediate grasp on both the HTML markup and JavaScript programming languages. Therefore, due to this requirement, the book will not discuss the inner workings of either of these languages but will instead attempt to

  15. Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.

    OpenAIRE

    Mutlu, Z; Wu, RJ; Wickramaratne, D.; Shahrezaei, S; Liu, C; Temiz, S; Patalano, A; M Ozkan; Lake, RK; Mkhoyan, KA; Ozkan, CS

    2016-01-01

    Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2...

  16. Interparticle Attraction in 2D Complex Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompaneets, Roman; Morfill, Gregor E.; Ivlev, Alexei V.

    2016-03-01

    Complex (dusty) plasmas allow experimental studies of various physical processes occurring in classical liquids and solids by directly observing individual microparticles. A major problem is that the interaction between microparticles is generally not molecularlike. In this Letter, we propose how to achieve a molecularlike interaction potential in laboratory 2D complex plasmas. We argue that this principal aim can be achieved by using relatively small microparticles and properly adjusting discharge parameters. If experimentally confirmed, this will make it possible to employ complex plasmas as a model system with an interaction potential resembling that of conventional liquids.

  17. Intermediate depth seismicity - a reflection seismic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberland, C.; Rietbrock, A.

    2004-12-01

    During subduction the descending oceanic lithosphere is subject to metamorphic reactions, some of them associated with the release of fluids. It is now widely accepted, that these reactions and associated dehydration processes are directly related with the generation of intermediate depth earthquakes (dehydration embrittlement). However, the structure of the layered oceanic plate at depth and the location of the earthquakes relative to structural units of the subducting plate (sources within the oceanic crust and/or in the upper oceanic mantle lithosphere?) are still not resolved yet. This is in mainly due to the fact that the observational resolution needed to address these topics (in the range of only a few kilometers) is hardly achieved in field experiments and related studies. Here we study the wavefields of intermediate depth earthquakes typically observed by temporary networks in order to assess their high-resolution potential in resolving structure of the down going slab and locus of seismicity. In particular we study whether the subducted oceanic Moho can be detected by the analysis of secondary phases of local earthquakes (near vertical reflection). Due to the irregular geometry of sources and receivers we apply an imaging technique similar to diffraction stack migration. The method is tested using synthetic data both based on 2-D finite difference simulations and 3-D kinematic ray tracing. The accuracy of the hypocenter location and onset times crucial for the successful application of stacking techniques (coherency) was achieved by the use of relatively relocated intermediate depth seismicity. Additionally, we simulate the propagation of the wavefields at larger distance (wide angle) indicating the development of guided waves traveling in the low-velocity waveguide associated with the modeled oceanic crust. We also present application on local earthquake data from the South American subduction zone.

  18. Seismic Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Don L.; Dziewonski, Adam M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes how seismic tomography is used to analyze the waves produced by earthquakes. The information obtained from the procedure can then be used to map the earth's mantle in three dimensions. The resulting maps are then studied to determine such information as the convective flow that propels the crustal plates. (JN)

  19. Seismic Symphonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strinna, Elisa; Ferrari, Graziano

    2015-04-01

    The project started in 2008 as a sound installation, a collaboration between an artist, a barrel organ builder and a seismologist. The work differs from other attempts of sound transposition of seismic records. In this case seismic frequencies are not converted automatically into the "sound of the earthquake." However, it has been studied a musical translation system that, based on the organ tonal scale, generates a totally unexpected sequence of sounds which is intended to evoke the emotions aroused by the earthquake. The symphonies proposed in the project have somewhat peculiar origins: they in fact come to life from the translation of graphic tracks into a sound track. The graphic tracks in question are made up by copies of seismograms recorded during some earthquakes that have taken place around the world. Seismograms are translated into music by a sculpture-instrument, half a seismograph and half a barrel organ. The organ plays through holes practiced on paper. Adapting the documents to the instrument score, holes have been drilled on the waves' peaks. The organ covers about three tonal scales, starting from heavy and deep sounds it reaches up to high and jarring notes. The translation of the seismic records is based on a criterion that does match the highest sounds to larger amplitudes with lower ones to minors. Translating the seismogram in the organ score, the larger the amplitude of recorded waves, the more the seismogram covers the full tonal scale played by the barrel organ and the notes arouse an intense emotional response in the listener. Elisa Strinna's Seismic Symphonies installation becomes an unprecedented tool for emotional involvement, through which can be revived the memory of the greatest disasters of over a century of seismic history of the Earth. A bridge between art and science. Seismic Symphonies is also a symbolic inversion: the instrument of the organ is most commonly used in churches, and its sounds are derived from the heavens and

  20. Bottom-up design of 2D organic photocatalysts for visible-light driven hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To design two-dimensional (2D) organocatalysts, three series of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are constructed using bottom-up strategies, i.e. molecular selection, tunable linkage, and functionalization. First-principles calculations are performed to confirm their photocatalytic activity under visible light. Two of our constructed 2D COF models (B1 and C3) are identified as a sufficiently efficient organocatalyst for visible light water splitting. The controllable construction of such COFs from suitable organic subunit, linkage, and functional groups paves the way for correlating band edge alignments and geometry parameters of 2D organic materials. Our theoretical prediction not only provides essential insights into designing 2D-COF photocatalysts for water splitting, but also sparks other technological applications for 2D organic materials. (paper)

  1. WFR-2D: an analytical model for PWAS-generated 2D ultrasonic guided wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents WaveFormRevealer 2-D (WFR-2D), an analytical predictive tool for the simulation of 2-D ultrasonic guided wave propagation and interaction with damage. The design of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems and self-aware smart structures requires the exploration of a wide range of parameters to achieve best detection and quantification of certain types of damage. Such need for parameter exploration on sensor dimension, location, guided wave characteristics (mode type, frequency, wavelength, etc.) can be best satisfied with analytical models which are fast and efficient. The analytical model was constructed based on the exact 2-D Lamb wave solution using Bessel and Hankel functions. Damage effects were inserted in the model by considering the damage as a secondary wave source with complex-valued directivity scattering coefficients containing both amplitude and phase information from wave-damage interaction. The analytical procedure was coded with MATLAB, and a predictive simulation tool called WaveFormRevealer 2-D was developed. The wave-damage interaction coefficients (WDICs) were extracted from harmonic analysis of local finite element model (FEM) with artificial non-reflective boundaries (NRB). The WFR-2D analytical simulation results were compared and verified with full scale multiphysics finite element models and experiments with scanning laser vibrometer. First, Lamb wave propagation in a pristine aluminum plate was simulated with WFR-2D, compared with finite element results, and verified by experiments. Then, an inhomogeneity was machined into the plate to represent damage. Analytical modeling was carried out, and verified by finite element simulation and experiments. This paper finishes with conclusions and suggestions for future work.

  2. Comments on Thermalization in 2D CFT

    CERN Document Server

    de Boer, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We revisit certain aspects of thermalization in 2D CFT. In particular, we consider similarities and differences between the time dependence of correlation functions in various states in rational and non-rational CFTs. We also consider the distinction between global and local thermalization and explain how states obtained by acting with a diffeomorphism on the ground state can appear locally thermal, and we review why the time-dependent expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor is generally a poor diagnostic of global thermalization. Since all 2D CFTs have an infinite set of commuting conserved charges, generic initial states might be expected to give rise to a generalized Gibbs ensemble rather than a pure thermal ensemble at late times. We construct the holographic dual of the generalized Gibbs ensemble and show that, to leading order, it is still described by a BTZ black hole. The extra conserved charges, while rendering $c < 1$ theories essentially integrable, therefore seem to have little effect o...

  3. Photocurrent spectroscopy of 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobden, David

    Confocal photocurrent measurements provide a powerful means of studying many aspects of the optoelectronic and electrical properties of a 2D device or material. At a diffraction-limited point they can provide a detailed absorption spectrum, and they can probe local symmetry, ultrafast relaxation rates and processes, electron-electron interaction strengths, and transport coefficients. We illustrate this with several examples, once being the photo-Nernst effect. In gapless 2D materials, such as graphene, in a perpendicular magnetic field a photocurrent antisymmetric in the field is generated near to the free edges, with opposite sign at opposite edges. Its origin is the transverse thermoelectric current associated with the laser-induced electron temperature gradient. This effect provides an unambiguous demonstration of the Shockley-Ramo nature of long-range photocurrent generation in gapless materials. It also provides a means of investigating quasiparticle properties. For example, in the case of graphene on hBN, it can be used to probe the Lifshitz transition that occurs due to the minibands formed by the Moire superlattice. We also observe and discuss photocurrent generated in other semimetallic (WTe2) and semiconducting (WSe2) monolayers. Work supported by DoE BES and NSF EFRI grants.

  4. The Key Problem of Service-based Integration of 2D GIS and 3D Visuliation Technology and Its Solution%服务式2D、3D结合GIS的核心问题及其解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宇林军; 潘影

    2011-01-01

    3D GIS是GIS的发展方向,其研究尚处于基础理论阶段,目前,市场上还不存在成熟的真3D GIS.2D、3D结合是实现3D GIS的一条有效途径.服务式2D、3D结合GIS则是存服务式构架下实现2D GIS与三维可视化技术的无缝结合,即由GIS服务器提供传统的2D GIS服务,客户端提供用户界面及2D、3D数据融合渲染等功能.实现服务式2D、3D结合GIS的核心是如何在网络条件下,进行大规模数据传输及客户端2D、3D数据的实时融合渲染.本文针对此核心问题提出了基于C/S框架的2D、3D结合GIS系统构架,其核心包括基于LOD(Level of Detail)模型的客户端渲染构架及基于双缓存机制的数据服务构架.本文基于此系统构架开发了一个原型系统,使用ArcGIS Engine开发了GIS服务端,在World Wind开源软件的基础上,实现了三维客户端.二维GIS服务端为二维客户端提供基本的GIS服务,如查询,缓存区分析等.系统运行结果表明该服务式构架解决了服务式2D、3D结合GIS的关键问题,为进一步构建应用系统奠定了基础.该系统构架亦适用于B/S构架.实践证明在此框架的基础上通过将客户端封装为Web控件可实现基于B/S构架的服务式2D、3D结合.%3D GIS will be the next generation of geographic information system (GIS). Ideally, 3D GIS should be developed based on good theoretical foundation. Currently, many researches have been carried out both by academic groups and commercial sector to develop 3D GIS application. So far, there is no ideal 3D GIS product available on market partly due to the complicated topology of spatial objects in 3D environment, inappropriate spatial data structures and hardware limitation. Studies carried out indicated that the integration of 3D visualization technology with current 2D GIS applications could be an alternative for realizing 3D GIS. One obvious benefit of such combination is that it can take advantages of both technologies

  5. PARAMETERS OF KAMCHATKA SEISMICITY IN 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim A. Saltykov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes seismicity of Kamchatka for the period of 2008 and presents 2D distribution of background seismicity parameters calculated from data published in the Regional Catalogue of Kamchatka Earthquakes. Parameters under study are total released seismic energy, seismic activity A10, slope of recurrence graph γ, parameters of RTL, ΔS and Z-function methods, and clustering of earthquakes. Estimations of seismicity are obtained for a region bordered by latitude 50.5–56.5N, longitude 156E–167E, with depths to 300 km. Earthquakes of energy classes not less than 8.5 as per the Fedotov’s classification are considered. The total seismic energy released in 2008 is estimated. According to a function of annual seismic energy distribution, an amount of seismic energy released in 2008 was close to the median level (Fig. 1. Over 2/3 of the total amount of seismic energy released in 2008 resulted from three largest earthquakes (МW ≥ 5.9. About 5 percent of the total number of seismic events are comprised of grouped earthquakes, i.e. aftershocks and swarms. A schematic map of the largest earthquakes (МW ≥ 5.9 and grouped seismic events which occurred in 2008 is given in Fig. 2; their parameters are listed in Table 1. Grouped earthquakes are excluded from the catalogue. A map showing epicenters of independent earthquakes is given in Fig. 3. The slope of recurrence graph γ and seismic activity A10 is based on the Gutenberg-Richter law stating the fundamental property of seismic process. The recurrence graph slope is calculated from continuous exponential distribution of earthquakes by energy classes. Using γ is conditioned by observations that in some cases the slope of the recurrence graph decreases prior to a large earthquake. Activity A10 is calculated from the number of earthquakes N and recurrence graph slope γ. Average slopes of recurrence graph γ and seismic activity A10 for the area under study in 2008 are calculated; our

  6. Antenna-coupled microbolometer based uncooled 2D array and camera for 2D real-time terahertz imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, F.; Meilhan, J.; Gidon, S.; Lasfargues, G.; Lalanne Dera, J.; Ouvrier-Buffet, J. L.; Pocas, S.; Rabaud, W.; Guellec, F.; Dupont, B.; Martin, S.; Simon, A. C.

    2013-09-01

    CEA-Leti has developed a monolithic large focal plane array bolometric technology optimized for 2D real-time imaging in the terahertz range. Each pixel consists in a silicon microbolometer coupled to specific antennas and a resonant quarter-wavelength cavity. First prototypes of imaging arrays have been designed and manufactured for optimized sensing in the 1-3.5THz range where THz quantum cascade lasers are delivering high optical power. NEP in the order of 1 pW/sqrt(Hz) has been assessed at 2.5 THz. This paper reports the steps of this development, starting from the pixel level, to an array associated monolithically to its CMOS ROIC and finally a stand-alone camera. For each step, modeling, technological prototyping and experimental characterizations are presented.

  7. Locality constraints and 2D quasicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plausible assumption that long-range interactions between atoms are negligible in a quasicrystal leaks to the study of tilings that obey constraints on the local configurations of tiles. The theory of such constraints (called matching rules) for 2D quasicrystal tilings is reviewed here. Different types of matching rules are defined and examples of tilings obeying them are given where known. The role of tile decoration is discussed and is shown to be significant in at least two cases (octagonal and dodecagonal duals of periodic 4-grids and 6-grids). A new result is introduced: a constructive procedure is described for generating weak matching rules for tilings with N-fold symmetry, for any N that is either a prime number or twice a prime number. The physics associated with weak matching rules, results on local growth rules, and the case of icosahedral symmetry are all briefly discussed. (author). 29 refs, 4 figs

  8. 2D Cooling of Magnetized Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilera, Deborah N; Miralles, Juan A

    2007-01-01

    Context: Many thermally emitting isolated neutron stars have magnetic fields larger than 10^{13}G. A realistic cooling model should be reconsidered including the presence of high magnetic fields. Aims: We investigate the effects of anisotropic temperature distribution and Joule heating on the cooling of magnetized neutron stars. Methods: The 2D heat transfer equation with anisotropic thermal conductivity tensor and including all relevant neutrino emission processes is solved for realistic models of the neutron star interior and crust. Results: The presence of the magnetic field affects significantly the thermal surface distribution and the cooling history during both, the early neutrino cooling era and the late photon cooling era. Conclusions: There is a huge effect of the Joule heating on the thermal evolution of strongly magnetized neutron stars. Magnetic fields and Joule heating play a key role in maintaining magnetars warm for a long time. Moreover, this effect is also important for intermediate field neu...

  9. Alignment free characterization of 2D gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Morten Hannibal; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Jørgensen, Jan Friis

    2015-01-01

    Fast characterization of 2-dimensional gratings is demonstrated using a Fourier lens optical system and a differential optimization algorithm. It is shown that both the grating specific parameters such as the basis vectors and the angle between them and the alignment of the sample, such as the rotation of the sample around the x-, y-, and z-axis, can be deduced from a single measurement. More specifically, the lattice vectors and the angle between them have been measured, while the corrections of the alignment parameters are used to improve the quality of the measurement, and hence reduce the measurement uncertainty. Alignment free characterization is demonstrated on both a 2D hexagonal grating with a period of 700 nm and a checkerboard grating with a pitch of 3000 nm. The method can also be used for both automatic alignment and in-line characterization of gratings.

  10. Area preserving diffeomorphisms and 2-d gravity

    CERN Document Server

    La, H S

    1995-01-01

    Area preserving diffeomorphisms of a 2-d compact Riemannian manifold with or without boundary are studied. We find two classes of decompositions of a Riemannian metric, namely, h- and g-decomposition, that help to formulate a gravitational theory which is area preserving diffeomorphism (SDiffM-) invariant but not necessarily diffeomorphism invariant. The general covariance of equations of motion of such a theory can be achieved by incorporating proper Weyl rescaling. The h-decomposition makes the conformal factor of a metric SDiffM-invariant and the rest of the metric invariant under conformal diffeomorphisms, whilst the g-decomposition makes the conformal factor a SDiffM scalar and the rest a SDiffM tensor. Using these, we reformulate Liouville gravity in SDiffM invariant way. In this context we also further clarify the dual formulation of Liouville gravity introduced by the author before, in which the affine spin connection is dual to the Liouville field.

  11. Graphene suspensions for 2D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soots, R. A.; Yakimchuk, E. A.; Nebogatikova, N. A.; Kotin, I. A.; Antonova, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    It is shown that, by processing a graphite suspension in ethanol or water by ultrasound and centrifuging, it is possible to obtain particles with thicknesses within 1-6 nm and, in the most interesting cases, 1-1.5 nm. Analogous treatment of a graphite suspension in organic solvent yields eventually thicker particles (up to 6-10 nm thick) even upon long-term treatment. Using the proposed ink based on graphene and aqueous ethanol with ethylcellulose and terpineol additives for 2D printing, thin (~5 nm thick) films with sheet resistance upon annealing ~30 MΩ/□ were obtained. With the ink based on aqueous graphene suspension, the sheet resistance was ~5-12 kΩ/□ for 6- to 15-nm-thick layers with a carrier mobility of ~30-50 cm2/(V s).

  12. Numerical Evaluation of 2D Ground States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkovska, Natalia

    2016-02-01

    A ground state is defined as the positive radial solution of the multidimensional nonlinear problem \\varepsilon propto k_ bot 1 - ξ with the function f being either f(u) =a|u|p-1u or f(u) =a|u|pu+b|u|2pu. The numerical evaluation of ground states is based on the shooting method applied to an equivalent dynamical system. A combination of fourth order Runge-Kutta method and Hermite extrapolation formula is applied to solving the resulting initial value problem. The efficiency of this procedure is demonstrated in the 1D case, where the maximal difference between the exact and numerical solution is ≈ 10-11 for a discretization step 0:00025. As a major application, we evaluate numerically the critical energy constant. This constant is defined as a functional of the ground state and is used in the study of the 2D Boussinesq equations.

  13. Metrology for graphene and 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the

  14. A Low-noise front-end circuit for 2D cMUT arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Güler, Ülkühan; Guler, Ulkuhan; Bozkurt, Ayhan

    2006-01-01

    cMUT technology enables 2D array design with front-end electronic integration through flip-chip bonding or cMUT-on-CMOS process. The size of a 2D array element is constrained in both dimensions due to the aperture sampling criteria, and therefore should be less than or equal to the half of the wavelength in both dimensions. Considering large parasitic capacitances introduced by the interconnections, such small transducer elements necessitate integrated low noise frontends for achieving accept...

  15. Time-lapse seismic within reservoir engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenziel, T.

    2003-01-01

    Time-lapse 3D seismic is a fairly new technology allowing dynamic reservoir characterisation in a true volumetric sense. By investigating the differences between multiple seismic surveys, valuable information about changes in the oil/gas reservoir state can be captured. Its interpretation involves d

  16. Pliocene paleoenvironment evolution as interpreted from 3D-seismic data in the southern North Sea, Dutch offshore sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, G.; Wong, T.E.

    2008-01-01

    A high-resolution 3D-seismic survey from the Dutch offshore sector has been interpreted and subsequently correlated with existing regional seismo-stratigraphic concepts derived from conventional 2D-seismic data sets. The interpreted 13 seismic units have been related to a newly established chrono-st

  17. Updated Colombian Seismic Hazard Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraso, J.; Arcila, M.; Romero, J.; Dimate, C.; Bermúdez, M. L.; Alvarado, C.

    2013-05-01

    The Colombian seismic hazard map used by the National Building Code (NSR-98) in effect until 2009 was developed in 1996. Since then, the National Seismological Network of Colombia has improved in both coverage and technology providing fifteen years of additional seismic records. These improvements have allowed a better understanding of the regional geology and tectonics which in addition to the seismic activity in Colombia with destructive effects has motivated the interest and the need to develop a new seismic hazard assessment in this country. Taking advantage of new instrumental information sources such as new broad band stations of the National Seismological Network, new historical seismicity data, standardized global databases availability, and in general, of advances in models and techniques, a new Colombian seismic hazard map was developed. A PSHA model was applied. The use of the PSHA model is because it incorporates the effects of all seismic sources that may affect a particular site solving the uncertainties caused by the parameters and assumptions defined in this kind of studies. First, the seismic sources geometry and a complete and homogeneous seismic catalog were defined; the parameters of seismic rate of each one of the seismic sources occurrence were calculated establishing a national seismotectonic model. Several of attenuation-distance relationships were selected depending on the type of seismicity considered. The seismic hazard was estimated using the CRISIS2007 software created by the Engineering Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México -UNAM (National Autonomous University of Mexico). A uniformly spaced grid each 0.1° was used to calculate the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and response spectral values at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3.0 seconds with return periods of 75, 225, 475, 975 and 2475 years. For each site, a uniform hazard spectrum and exceedance rate curves were calculated. With the results, it is

  18. Analysis and Research on the Seismic Performance of Adobe Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Xu

    2015-01-01

    According to the bearing structure, building materials and process, this paper adobe housing will be divided into Adobe bearing wall, brick wall, hybrid bearing housing and bearing timber frame house. Research shows that, different types of housing distribution has regional and age characteristics, seismic performance is different, but there are different seismic safety problems; in order to improve the seismic capacity of rural houses, we need to accelerate the implementation of rural residential earthquake safety project, speed up the reconstruction of the demolition reconstruction and seismic reinforcement work, to carry out research on seismic technology houses, promote rural seismic residential.

  19. Seismic stimulation for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pride, S.R.; Flekkoy, E.G.; Aursjo, O.

    2008-07-22

    The pore-scale effects of seismic stimulation on two-phase flow are modeled numerically in random 2D grain0pack geometries. Seismic stimulation aims to enhance oil production by sending seismic waves across a reservoir to liberate immobile patches of oil. For seismic amplitudes above a well-defined (analytically expressed) dimensionless criterion, the force perturbation associated with the waves indeed can liberate oil trapped on capillary barriers and get it flowing again under the background pressure gradient. Subsequent coalescence of the freed oil droplets acts to enhance oil movement further because longer bubbles overcome capillary barriers more efficiently than shorter bubbles do. Poroelasticity theory defines the effective force that a seismic wave adds to the background fluid-pressure gradient. The lattice-Boltzmann model in two dimensions is used to perform pore-scale numerical simulations. Dimensionless numbers (groups of material and force parameters) involved in seismic stimulation are defined carefully so that numerical simulations can be applied to field-scale conditions. Using the analytical criteria defined in the paper, there is a significant range of reservoir conditions over which seismic stimulation can be expected to enhance oil production.

  20. Seismic Isolation Working Meeting Gap Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justin Coleman; Piyush Sabharwall

    2014-09-01

    The ultimate goal in nuclear facility and nuclear power plant operations is operating safety during normal operations and maintaining core cooling capabilities during off-normal events including external hazards. Understanding the impact external hazards, such as flooding and earthquakes, have on nuclear facilities and NPPs is critical to deciding how to manage these hazards to expectable levels of risk. From a seismic risk perspective the goal is to manage seismic risk. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components (SSCs)). There are large uncertainties associated with evolving nature of the seismic hazard curves. Additionally there are requirements within DOE and potential requirements within NRC to reconsider updated seismic hazard curves every 10 years. Therefore opportunity exists for engineered solutions to manage this seismic uncertainty. One engineered solution is seismic isolation. Current seismic isolation (SI) designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefit of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed, in the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 4 standard, to be released in 2014, for Light Water Reactors (LWR) facilities using commercially available technology. However, there is a lack of industry application to the nuclear industry and uncertainty with implementing the procedures outlined in ASCE-4. Opportunity exists to determine barriers associated with implementation of current ASCE-4 standard language.

  1. Optimal 25-Point Finite-Difference Subgridding Techniques for the 2D Helmholtz Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an optimal 25-point finite-difference subgridding scheme for solving the 2D Helmholtz equation with perfectly matched layer (PML. This scheme is second order in accuracy and pointwise consistent with the equation. Subgrids are used to discretize the computational domain, including the interior domain and the PML. For the transitional node in the interior domain, the finite difference equation is formulated with ghost nodes, and its weight parameters are chosen by a refined choice strategy based on minimizing the numerical dispersion. Numerical experiments are given to illustrate that the newly proposed schemes can produce highly accurate seismic modeling results with enhanced efficiency.

  2. Face recognition method based on 2D-PCA and 2D-LDA%基于2D-PCA和2D-LDA的人脸识别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温福喜; 刘宏伟

    2007-01-01

    提出了基于2D-PCA、2D-LDA两种特征采用融合分类器的人脸识别方法.首先提取人脸图像的2D-PCA和2D-LDA特征,对不同特征在决策层对分类器进行融合.在ORL人脸库上的试验结果表明,分类器决策层融合方法在识别性能上优于2D-PCA和2D-LDA,更具有鲁棒性.

  3. Analysis list: Kmt2d [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Kmt2d Adipocyte,Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Kmt2d....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Kmt2d.5.tsv http://dbarchiv...e.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Kmt2d.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Kmt2d....Adipocyte.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Kmt2d.Pluripo

  4. Analysis list: KMT2D [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available KMT2D Blood,Digestive tract + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/KM...T2D.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/KMT2D.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosc...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/KMT2D.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/KMT2D.Blo...od.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/KMT2D.Digestive_tract

  5. 2D manifold-independent spinfoam theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of background-independent quantization procedures have recently been employed in 4D nonperturbative quantum gravity. We investigate and illustrate these techniques and their relation in the context of a simple 2D topological theory. We discuss canonical quantization, loop or spin network states, path integral quantization over a discretization of the manifold, spin foam formulation and the fully background-independent definition of the theory using an auxiliary field theory on a group manifold. While several of these techniques have already been applied to this theory by Witten, the last one is novel: it allows us to give a precise meaning to the sum over topologies, and to compute background-independent and, in fact, 'manifold-independent' transition amplitudes. These transition amplitudes play the role of Wightman functions of the theory. They are physical observable quantities, and the canonical structure of the theory can be reconstructed from them via a C* algebraic GNS construction. We expect an analogous structure to be relevant in 4D quantum gravity

  6. Ion Transport in 2-D Graphene Nanochannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Quan; Foo, Elbert; Duan, Chuanhua

    2015-11-01

    Graphene membranes have recently attracted wide attention due to its great potential in water desalination and selective molecular sieving. Further developments of these membranes, including enhancing their mass transport rate and/or molecular selectivity, rely on the understanding of fundamental transport mechanisms through graphene membranes, which has not been studied experimentally before due to fabrication and measurement difficulties. Herein we report the fabrication of the basic constituent of graphene membranes, i.e. 2-D single graphene nanochannels (GNCs) and the study of ion transport in these channels. A modified bonding technique was developed to form GNCs with well-defined geometry and uniform channel height. Ion transport in such GNCs was studied using DC conductance measurement. Our preliminary results showed that the ion transport in GNCs is still governed by surface charge at low concentrations (10-6M to 10-4M). However, GNCs exhibits much higher ionic conductances than silica nanochannels with the same geometries in the surface-charge-governed regime. This conductance enhancement can be attributed to the pre-accumulation of charges on graphene surfaces. The work is supported by the Faculty Startup Fund (Boston University, USA).

  7. Intermittency in 2D soap film turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Cerbus, R T

    2013-01-01

    The Reynolds number dependency of intermittency for 2D turbulence is studied in a flowing soap film. The Reynolds number used here is the Taylor microscale Reynolds number R_{\\lambda}, which ranges from 20 to 800. Strong intermittency is found for both the inverse energy and direct enstrophy cascades as measured by (a) the pdf of velocity differences P(\\delta u(r)) at inertial scales r, (b) the kurtosis of P(\\partial_x u), and (c) the scaling of the so-called intermittency exponent \\mu, which is zero if intermittency is absent. Measures (b) and (c) are quantitative, while (a) is qualitative. These measurements are in disagreement with some previous results but not all. The velocity derivatives are nongaussian at all R_{\\lambda} but show signs of becoming gaussian as R_{\\lambda} increases beyond the largest values that could be reached. The kurtosis of P(\\delta u(r)) at various r indicates that the intermittency is scale dependent. The structure function scaling exponents also deviate strongly from the Kraichn...

  8. 2D DIGITAL SIMPLIFIED FLOW VALVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruan Jian; Li Sheng; Pei Xiang; Burton R; Ukrainetz P; Bitner D

    2004-01-01

    The 2D digital simplified flow valve is composed of a pilot-operated valve designed with both rotary and linear motions of a single spool,and a stepper motor under continual control.How the structural parameters affect the static and dynamic characteristics of the valve is first clarified and a criterion for stability is presented.Experiments are designed to test the performance of the valve.It is necessary to establish a balance between the static and dynamic characteristics in deciding the structural parameters.Nevertheless,it is possible to maintain the dynamic response at a fairly high level,while keeping the leakage of the pilot stage at an acceptable level.One of the features of the digital valve is stage control.In stage control the nonlinearities,such as electromagnetic saturation and hysteresis,are greatly reduced.To a large extent the dynamic response of the valve is decided by the executing cycle of the control algorithm.

  9. Resolution Independent 2D Cartoon Video Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSF. Fayaza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel system for vectorizing 2D raster cartoon. The output videos are the resolution independent, smaller in file size. As a first step, input video is segment to scene thereafter all processes are done for each scene separately. Every scene contains foreground and background objects so in each and every scene foreground background classification is performed. Background details can occlude by foreground objects but when foreground objects move its previous position such occluded details exposed in one of the next frame so using that frame can fill the occluded area and can generate static background. Classified foreground objects are identified and the motion of the foreground objects tracked for this simple user assistance is required from those motion details of foreground object’s animation generated. Static background and foreground objects segmented using K-means clustering and each and every cluster’s vectorized using potrace. Using vectored background and foreground object animation path vector video regenerated.

  10. 2D and 3D heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    2014-03-01

    Exponential increases in the amount of data that need to be sensed, communicated, and processed are continuing to drive the complexity of our computing, networking, and sensing systems. High degrees of integration is essential in scalable, practical, and cost-effective microsystems. In electronics, high-density 2D integration has naturally evolved towards 3D integration by stacking of memory and processor chips with through-silicon-vias. In photonics, too, we anticipate highdegrees of 3D integration of photonic components to become a prevailing method in realizing future microsystems for information and communication technologies. However, compared to electronics, photonic 3D integration face a number of challenges. This paper will review two methods of 3D photonic integration --- fs laser inscription and layer stacking, and discuss applications and future prospects.

  11. Identification of novel CYP2D7-2D6 hybrids: non-functional and functional variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gaedigk

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphic expression of CYP2D6 contributes to the wide range of activity observed for this clinically important drug metabolizing enzyme. In this report we describe novel CYP2D7/2D6 hybrid genes encoding non-functional and functional CYP2D6 protein and a CYP2D7 variant that mimics a CYP2D7/2D6 hybrid gene. Five kb long PCR products encompassing the novel genes were entirely sequenced. A quantitative assay probing in different gene regions was employed to determine CYP2D6 and 2D7 copy number variations and the relative position of the hybrid genes within the locus was assessed by long-range PCR. In addition to the previously known CYP2D6*13 and *66 hybrids, we describe three novel non-functional CYP2D7-2D6 hybrids with gene switching in exon 2 (CYP2D6*79, intron 2 (CYP2D6*80 and intron 5 (CYP2D6*67. A CYP2D7-specific T-ins in exon 1 causes a detrimental frame shift. One subject revealed a CYP2D7 conversion in the 5’-flanking region of a CYP2D6*35 allele, was otherwise unaffected (designated CYP2D6*35B. Finally, three DNAs revealed a CYP2D7 gene with a CYP2D6-like region downstream of exon 9 (designated CYP2D7[REP6]. Quantitative copy number determination, sequence analyses and long-range PCR mapping were in agreement and excluded the presence of additional gene units. Undetected hybrid genes may cause over-estimation of CYP2D6 activity (CYP2D6*1/*1 vs *1/hybrid, etc, but may also cause results that may interfere with the genotype determination. Detection of hybrid events, ‘single’ and tandem, will contribute to more accurate phenotype prediction from genotype data.

  12. The algorithm of decomposing superimposed 2-D Poisson processes and its application to the extracting earthquake clustering pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴韬; 周成虎; 杨明; 骆剑承; 李全林

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at the complexity of seismic gestation mechanism and spatial distribution, we hypothesize that the seismic data are composed of background earthquakes and anomaly earthquakes in a certain temporal-spatial scope. Also the background earthquakes and anomaly earthquakes both satisfy the 2-D Poisson process of different parameters respectively. In the paper, the concept of N-th order distance is introduced in order to transform 2-D superimposed Poisson process into 1-D mixture density function. On the basis of choosing the distance, mixture density function is decomposed to recognize the anomaly earthquakes through genetic algorithm. Combined with the temporal scanning of C value, the algorithm is applied to the recognition on spatial pattern of foreshock anomalies by examples of Songpan and Longling sequences in the southwest of China.

  13. Finite state models of constrained 2d data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers a class of discrete finite alphabet 2D fields that can be characterized using tools front finite state machines and Markov chains. These fields have several properties that greatly simplify the analysis of 2D coding methods.......This paper considers a class of discrete finite alphabet 2D fields that can be characterized using tools front finite state machines and Markov chains. These fields have several properties that greatly simplify the analysis of 2D coding methods....

  14. Development of 2D casting process CAD system based on PDF/image files

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Hongtao; Zhou Jianxin; Wang Lin; Liao Dunming; Tao Qing

    2014-01-01

    A casting process CAD is put forward to design and draw casting process. The 2D casting process CAD, most of the current systems are developed based on one certain version of the AutoCAD system. However the application of these 2D casting process CAD systems in foundry enterprises are restricted because they have several deficiencies, such as being overly dependent on the AutoCAD system, and some part files based on PDF format can not be opened directly. To overcome these deficiencies, for the first time an innovative 2D casting process CAD system based on PDF and image format file has been proposed, which breaks through the traditional research and application notion of the 2D casting process CAD system based on AutoCAD. Several key technologies of this system such as coordinate transformation, CAD interactive drawing, file storage, PDF and image format files display, and image recognition technologies were described in detail. A practical 2D CAD casting process system named HZCAD2D(PDF) was developed, which is capable of designing and drawing the casting process on the part drawing based on the PDF format directly, without spending time on drawing the part produced by AutoCAD system. Final y, taking two actual castings as examples, the casting processes were drawn using this system, demonstrating that this system can significantly shorten the cycle of casting process designing.

  15. Seismic Network Deployment Preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Allen Husker; Igor Stubailo; Monica Kohler; Paul Davis

    2003-01-01

    Technological and scientific preparations are occurring for the development of a multi-hop radio-linked seismic array (MHRLSA) of 50 broadband stations (GURALP 3ts) and its first few deployments. A ruggedized data relay device (DRD) is being fabricated using Intel’¡Çs new low power, small form factor stargate motherboard. A DRD will be placed at each node of the array and configured as a local area network (LAN) with station spacing up to 10 km. The objective is to use protocols that have bee...

  16. Polynomial solution of 2D Kalman-Bucy filtering problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebek, M.

    1992-01-01

    The 2D version of the Kalman-Bucy filtering problem is formulated and then solved via 2D polynomial methods. The optimal filter is restricted to be a linear causal system. The design procedure is shown to consist of one 2D spectral factorization equation only. In fact, it works for n-D signals (n>2)

  17. Polynomial solution of 2D Kalman-Bucy filtering problem

    OpenAIRE

    Sebek, M.

    1992-01-01

    The 2D version of the Kalman-Bucy filtering problem is formulated and then solved via 2D polynomial methods. The optimal filter is restricted to be a linear causal system. The design procedure is shown to consist of one 2D spectral factorization equation only. In fact, it works for n-D signals (n>2) as well.

  18. Manufacture of a 2D optical fiber array coupler with micrometer precision for laser radar applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the manufacture of a 2D-fiber array coupler using UV-LIGA technology for the precise positioning of a two-dimensional (2D) optical fiber array. The precision of the alignment of the eight-by-eight fiber array was demonstrated to be less than 2 μm. The average concentricity error of the fibers to the positioning holes of the array coupler had a minimum and maximum error of 1.7 µm and 6.5 μm, respectively. The 2D fiber array coupler can fulfill the coupling and transmission requirements of 2D light spots for laser radar applications. The method developed here can easily be extended to the manufacture of larger arrays. (paper)

  19. Reprocessing seismic data: better results below diabase sills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makler, Marisa [Halliburton Servicos Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pellizzon, Marcela

    2008-07-01

    The effect of the diabase sills in the seismic data processing has been studied in the last twenty years. These rocks strongly influence the exploratory activities in a basin, because the diabase disturbs the sign and generates multiple and spherical divergence, increasing the exploratory risk in these areas. In the present work a method of 2D seismic reprocessing will be presented using Prestack Kirchhoff Time Migration in an older seismic data of Solimoes basin. The objective of this paper is to show the high results on the reprocessing seismic data below the diabase sills. The 2D lines processed give relevant improvement of the quality of signal, showing better the faults zones and preserving the geological structures than the older data. (author)

  20. FEM-2D, 2-D MultiGroup Diffusion in X-Y Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: FEM-2D solves the two-dimensional diffusion equation in x-y geometry. This is done by the finite elements method. 2 - Method of solution: FEM-2D uses triangular elements with first and second order Lagrange approximations. The systems equations are formulated in multigroup form and solved by Cholesky procedure which operates only on nonzero elements. Various acceleration techniques are available for the outer iteration. Fluxes along various lines and rates in arbitrary zones may be output. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The code uses variable dimensioning. Thus, the problem size is restricted by the largest array which usually is the systems matrix. Fluxes of all groups are kept in memory. This might become another restrictive data set for a large number of groups. The validity of the results is restricted by the approximations used. FEM-2D requires a finite element net which allows the approximation of fluxes by at most parabolas. The node distribution should be more dense in areas of heavy flux changes (near absorbers or the reflector)

  1. 2D-DCT的FPGA实现%Implementation of 2D-DCT using FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭前岗; 潘磊; 周西峰

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an implementation for 2D-DCT using FPGA. It replaces the adders and multipliers with distributed arithmetic which is based on lookup tables, This design reduces resources and improves the operation speed. The simulation results show that the datas transformed by 2D-DCT are consistent with expectations, which is significant for the digital image and video compression.%设计了采用FPGA来实现2D—DCT的方案,对于其中的关键部分——乘加运算,给出了基于查找表的分布式算法。整个设计节省了资源,提高了运算速度。仿真结果表明,经LC-2D-DCT变换后的数据与期望值总体上是一致的,这对于数字图像和视频压缩的研究有一定的意义。

  2. Diacritical Seismic Signatures for Complex Geological Structures: Case Studies from Shushan Basin (Egypt) and Arkoma Basin (USA)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Fattah, Mohamed I.; Hamed A. Alrefaee

    2014-01-01

    Seismic reflection techniques show an imperative role in imaging complex geological structures and are becoming more acceptable as data interpreting tools in 2D/3D view. These subsurface geological structures provide complex seismic signature due to their geometrical behavior. Consequently, it is extremely difficult to interpret these seismic sections in terms of subsurface configuration. The main goal of this paper is to introduce seismic attributes as a powerful tool to interpret complex ge...

  3. Correlated Electron Phenomena in 2D Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Joseph G.

    In this thesis, I present experimental results on coherent electron phenomena in layered two-dimensional materials: single layer graphene and van der Waals coupled 2D TiSe2. Graphene is a two-dimensional single-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms first derived from bulk graphite by the mechanical exfoliation technique in 2004. Low-energy charge carriers in graphene behave like massless Dirac fermions, and their density can be easily tuned between electron-rich and hole-rich quasiparticles with electrostatic gating techniques. The sharp interfaces between regions of different carrier densities form barriers with selective transmission, making them behave as partially reflecting mirrors. When two of these interfaces are set at a separation distance within the phase coherence length of the carriers, they form an electronic version of a Fabry-Perot cavity. I present measurements and analysis of multiple Fabry-Perot modes in graphene with parallel electrodes spaced a few hundred nanometers apart. Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) TiSe2 is part of the family of materials that coined the term "materials beyond graphene". It contains van der Waals coupled trilayer stacks of Se-Ti-Se. Many TMD materials exhibit a host of interesting correlated electronic phases. In particular, TiSe2 exhibits chiral charge density waves (CDW) below TCDW ˜ 200 K. Upon doping with copper, the CDW state gets suppressed with Cu concentration, and CuxTiSe2 becomes superconducting with critical temperature of T c = 4.15 K. There is still much debate over the mechanisms governing the coexistence of the two correlated electronic phases---CDW and superconductivity. I will present some of the first conductance spectroscopy measurements of proximity coupled superconductor-CDW systems. Measurements reveal a proximity-induced critical current at the Nb-TiSe2 interfaces, suggesting pair correlations in the pure TiSe2. The results indicate that superconducting order is present concurrently with CDW in

  4. Stability Test for 2-D Continuous-Discrete Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Models of 2-D continuous-discrete systems are introduced, which can be used to describe some complex systems. Different from classical 2-D continuous systems or 2-D discrete systems, the asymptotic stability of the continuous-discrete systems is determined by Hurwitz-Schur stability (hybrid one) of 2-D characteristic polynomials of the systems. An algebraic algorithm with simpler test procedure for Hurwitz-Schur stability test of 2-D polynomials is developed. An example to illustrate the applications of the test approach is provided.

  5. Analysis list: Mef2d [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Mef2d Muscle + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Mef2d.1.ts...v http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Mef2d.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Mef2d....10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Mef2d.Muscle.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Muscle.gml ...

  6. Continuous recording of seismic signals in Alpine permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, H.; Krainer, K.; Staudinger, M.; Brückl, E.

    2009-04-01

    Over the past years various geophysical methods were applied to study the internal structure and the temporal variation of permafrost whereof seismic is of importance. For most seismic investigations in Alpine permafrost 24-channel equipment in combination with long data and trigger cables is used. Due to the harsh environment source and geophone layouts are often limited to 2D profiles. With prospect for future 3D-layouts we introduce an alternative of seismic equipment that can be used for several applications in Alpine permafrost. This study is focussed on controlled and natural source seismic experiments in Alpine permafrost using continuous data recording. With recent data from an ongoing project ("Permafrost in Austria") we will highlight the potential of the used seismic equipment for three applications: (a) seismic permafrost mapping of unconsolidated sediments, (b) seismic tomography in rock mass, and (c) passive seismic monitoring of rock falls. Single recording units (REFTEK 130, 6 channels) are used to continuously record the waveforms of both the seismic signals and a trigger signal. The combination of a small number of recording units with different types of geophones or a trigger allow numerous applications in Alpine permafrost with regard to a high efficiency and flexible seismic layouts (2D, 3D, 4D). The efficiency of the light and robust seismic equipment is achieved by the simple acquisition and the flexible and fast deployment of the (omni-directional) geophones. Further advantages are short (data and trigger) cables and the prevention of trigger errors. The processing of the data is aided by 'Seismon' which is an open source software project based on Matlab® and MySQL (see SM1.0). For active-source experiments automatic stacking of the seismic signals is implemented. For passive data a program for automatic detection of events (e.g. rock falls) is available which allows event localization. In summer 2008 the seismic equipment was used for the

  7. CYP2D7 sequence variation interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K Riffel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35 which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696 SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe

  8. Korea-Japan Joint Research on Development of Seismic Capacity Evaluation and Enhancement Technology Considering Near-Fault Effect (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choun, Young Sun; Choi, In Kil; Kim, Min Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ohtori, Yasuki; Shiba, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Masato [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-12-15

    We compiled the results of the source analysis obtained under the collaboration research. Recent construction scheme for source modeling adopted in Japan is described, and strong-motion prediction is performed assuming the scenario earthquakes occurring in the Ulsan fault system, Korea. Finally Qs values beneath the Korean inland crust are estimated using strong-motion records in Korea from the 2005 Off West Fukuoka earthquake (M7.0). Probabilistic seismic hazard for four NPP sites in Korea are evaluated, in which the site specific attenuation equations with Index SA developed for NPP sites are adopted. Furthermore, the uniform hazard spectra for the four NPP sites in Korea are obtained by conducting the PSHA by using the attenuation equations with the index of response spectra and seismic source model cases with maximum weights. The supporting tools for seismic response analysis, the evaluation tool for evaluating annual probability of failure, and system analysis program were developed for the collaboration. The tools were verified with theoretical results, the results written in the reference document of EQESRA, and so forth. The system analysis program was applied for the investigation of the effect of improving the seismic capacity of equipment. We evaluated the annual probability of failure of isolated and non-isolated EDG at Younggwang NPP site as the results of the collaboration. The input ground motion for generating the seismic fragility curve was determined based on the seismic hazard analysis. It was found that the annual probability of failure of isolated EDG is lower than that of non-isolated EDG.

  9. SEISMIC MODELING ENGINES PHASE 1 FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRUCE P. MARION

    2006-02-09

    Seismic modeling is a core component of petroleum exploration and production today. Potential applications include modeling the influence of dip on anisotropic migration; source/receiver placement in deviated-well three-dimensional surveys for vertical seismic profiling (VSP); and the generation of realistic data sets for testing contractor-supplied migration algorithms or for interpreting AVO (amplitude variation with offset) responses. This project was designed to extend the use of a finite-difference modeling package, developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, to the advanced applications needed by industry. The approach included a realistic, easy-to-use 2-D modeling package for the desktop of the practicing geophysicist. The feasibility of providing a wide-ranging set of seismic modeling engines was fully demonstrated in Phase I. The technical focus was on adding variable gridding in both the horizontal and vertical directions, incorporating attenuation, improving absorbing boundary conditions and adding the optional coefficient finite difference methods.

  10. Clustering analysis of seismicity and aftershock identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaliapin, Ilya; Gabrielov, Andrei; Keilis-Borok, Vladimir; Wong, Henry

    2008-07-01

    We introduce a statistical methodology for clustering analysis of seismicity in the time-space-energy domain and use it to establish the existence of two statistically distinct populations of earthquakes: clustered and nonclustered. This result can be used, in particular, for nonparametric aftershock identification. The proposed approach expands the analysis of Baiesi and Paczuski [Phys. Rev. E 69, 066106 (2004)10.1103/PhysRevE.69.066106] based on the space-time-magnitude nearest-neighbor distance eta between earthquakes. We show that for a homogeneous Poisson marked point field with exponential marks, the distance eta has the Weibull distribution, which bridges our results with classical correlation analysis for point fields. The joint 2D distribution of spatial and temporal components of eta is used to identify the clustered part of a point field. The proposed technique is applied to several seismicity models and to the observed seismicity of southern California.

  11. Seismic imaging in laboratory trough laser Doppler vibrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Daniel; Poydenot, Valier; Garambois, Stéphane; Diaz, Julien; Bordes, Clarisse; Rolando, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Mimic near-surface seismic field measurements at a small scale, in the laboratory, under a well-controlled environment, may lead to a better understanding of wave propagation in complex media such as in geological materials. Laboratory experiments can help in particular to constrain and refine theoretical and numerical modelling of physical phenomena occurring during seismic propagation, in order to make a better use of the complete set of measurements recorded in the field. We have developed a laser Doppler vibrometer (laser interferometry) platform designed to measure non-contact seismic displacements (or velocities) of a surface. This technology enables to measure displacements as small as a tenth of a nanometer on a wide range of frequencies, from a few tenths to a few megahertz. Our experimental set-up is particularly suited to provide high-density spatial and temporal records of displacements on the edge of any vibrating material. We will show in particular a study of MHz wave propagation (excited by piezoelectric transducers) in cylindrical cores of typical diameter size around 10 cm. The laser vibrometer measurements will be first validated in homogeneous materials cylinders by comparing the measurements to a direct numerical simulation. Special attention will be given to the comparison of experimental versus numerical amplitudes of displacements. In a second step, we will conduct the same type of study through heterogeneous carbonate cores, possibly fractured. Tomographic images of velocity in 2D slices of the carbonate core will be derived based upon on the time of first arrival. Preliminary attempts of tomographic attenuation maps will also be presented based on the amplitudes of first arrivals. Experimental records will be confronted to direct numerical simulations and tomographic images will be compared to x-ray scanner imaging of the cylindrical cores.

  12. Functional characterization of a first avian cytochrome P450 of the CYP2D subfamily (CYP2D49.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Cai

    Full Text Available The CYP2D family members are instrumental in the metabolism of 20-25% of commonly prescribed drugs. Although many CYP2D isoforms have been well characterized in other animal models, research concerning the chicken CYP2Ds is limited. In this study, a cDNA encoding a novel CYP2D enzyme (CYP2D49 was cloned from the chicken liver for the first time. The CYP2D49 cDNA contained an open reading frame of 502 amino acids that shared 52%-57% identities with other CYP2Ds. The gene structure and neighboring genes of CYP2D49 are conserved and similar to those of human CYP2D6. Additionally, similar to human CYP2D6, CYP2D49 is un-inducible in the liver and expressed predominantly in the liver, kidney and small intestine, with detectable levels in several other tissues. Metabolic assays of the CYP2D49 protein heterologously expressed in E. coli and Hela cells indicated that CYP2D49 metabolized the human CYP2D6 substrate, bufuralol, but not debrisoquine. Moreover, quinidine, a potent inhibitor of human CYP2D6, only inhibited the bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation activity of CYP2D49 to a negligible degree. All these results indicated that CYP2D49 had functional characteristics similar to those of human CYP2D6 but measurably differed in the debrisoquine 4'-hydroxylation and quinidine inhibitory profile. Further structure-function investigations that employed site-directed mutagenesis and circular dichroism spectroscopy identified the importance of Val-126, Glu-222, Asp-306, Phe-486 and Phe-488 in keeping the enzymatic activity of CYP2D49 toward bufuralol as well as the importance of Asp-306, Phe-486 and Phe-488 in maintaining the conformation of CYP2D49 protein. The current study is only the first step in characterizing the metabolic mechanism of CYP2D49; further studies are still required.

  13. 浅层弯线地震勘探采集与处理技术%Shallow Seismic Prospecting Data Acquisition and Processing Technology of Crooked-line Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强正阳; 卢育霞; 陈永明; 马海

    2013-01-01

    In the collection of shallow seismic prospecting data, limitations of local geological conditions prevent measurements along a straight line. To obtain high-quality seismic data, crooked - line seismic exploration can avoid obstacles and adapt to local geological conditions for shot-point and receiver. However, due to the dispersion of offset, which influences the superposition of common reflection bin gathers and the authenticity of seismic profiles, and the shallow seismic data, acquisition and processing technology are ineffective in the crooked-line method. Therefore, it is necessary to control the quality in crooked-line seismic data acquisition and processing. During crooked-line data collection, the discrete common midpoint should be controlled within the allowable range to meet the condition of common reflection bin stacking in time and space. At some areas of large curvature, the common midpoints exceeding the range of discrete conditions should be eliminated, and the selective superposition should maintain the concurrency of each stack gathers in common bins. In the processing of shallow seismic prospecting data, the number of receivers is fewer, and the fold of data is lower than the petroleum seismic data. Therefore, time and space stack conditions of common reflection bins should be fully considered prior to the processing of shallow seismic prospecting data. Compared with regular straight-line seismic prospecting data processing, crooked-line seismic data processing is essentially the same in processing methods, processes, and parameter selection. The most fundamental difference is superposition. Crooked-line seismic data processing includes a common reflection bin stack in which several neighboring reflection points add up as a common reflection bin, while the straight-line is a common reflection point (CRP) stack. For this reason, the crooked-line's common reflection bins gathers are not strictly common reflection point gathers. Larger common

  14. A simple model for 2D image upconversion of incoherent light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple theoretical model for 2 dimensional (2-D) image up-conversion of incoherent light. While image upconversion has been known for more than 40 years, the technology has been hindered by very low conversion quantum efficiency (~10-7). We show that our implementation compared to pr...

  15. 2D and 3D CMOS MAPS with high performance pixel-level signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traversi, Gianluca, E-mail: gianluca.traversi@unibg.i [University of Bergamo and INFN Pavia, Via Marconi 5, Dalmine 24044 (Italy); Gaioni, Luigi; Manghisoni, Massimo [University of Bergamo and INFN Pavia, Via Marconi 5, Dalmine 24044 (Italy); Ratti, Lodovico [University of Pavia and INFN Pavia (Italy); Re, Valerio [University of Bergamo and INFN Pavia, Via Marconi 5, Dalmine 24044 (Italy)

    2011-02-01

    Deep N-well (DNW) MAPS have been developed in the last few years with the aim of building monolithic sensors with similar functionalities as hybrid pixels systems. These devices have been fabricated in a planar (2D) 130 nm CMOS technology. The triple-well structure available in such an ultra-deep submicron technology is exploited by using the deep N-well as the charge-collecting electrode. This paper intends to discuss the design features and measurement results of the last prototype (Apsel5T chip) recently fabricated in a 2D 130 nm CMOS technology. Recent advances in microelectronics industry have made 3D integrated circuits an option for High Energy Physics experiments. A 3D version of the Apsel5T chip has been designed in a 130 nm CMOS, two-layer, vertically integrated technology. The main features of this new 3D monolithic detector are presented in this paper.

  16. Cost reduction through improved seismic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past decade, many significnt seismic technology developments have been accomplished by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) programs. Both base technology and major projects, such as the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) plant, have contributed to seismic technology development and validation. Improvements have come in the areas of ground motion definitions, soil-structure interaction, and structural analysis methods and criteria for piping, equipment, components, reactor core, and vessels. Examples of some of these lessons learned and technology developments are provided. Then, the highest priority seismic technology needs, achievable through DOE actions and sponsorship are identified and discussed. Satisfaction of these needs are expected to make important contributions toward cost avoidances and reduced capital costs of future liquid metal nuclear plants. 23 references, 12 figures

  17. Maximizing entropy of image models for 2-D constrained coding

    OpenAIRE

    Forchhammer, Søren; Danieli, Matteo; Burini, Nino; Zamarin, Marco; Ukhanova, Ann

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers estimating and maximizing the entropy of two-dimensional (2-D) fields with application to 2-D constrained coding. We consider Markov random fields (MRF), which have a non-causal description, and the special case of Pickard random fields (PRF). The PRF are 2-D causal finite context models, which define stationary probability distributions on finite rectangles and thus allow for calculation of the entropy. We consider two binary constraints and revisit the hard square const...

  18. Sparse Non-negative Matrix Factor 2-D Deconvolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel N.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the non-negative matrix factor 2-D deconvolution (NMF2D) model, which decomposes a matrix into a 2-dimensional convolution of two factor matrices. This model is an extension of the non-negative matrix factor deconvolution (NMFD) recently introduced by Smaragdis (2004). We derive...... and prove the convergence of two algorithms for NMF2D based on minimizing the squared error and the Kullback-Leibler divergence respectively. Next, we introduce a sparse non-negative matrix factor 2-D deconvolution model that gives easy interpretable decompositions and devise two algorithms for computing...

  19. The application of PDA and 2D bar code in material fuel storage management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper extends a management system based on PDA and 2D bar code technology, system design and solutions concerned with domestic transfer, storehouse entry and setting, transfer among storehouses, physical inventory are described as well. The system fits business processes well and optimizes data acquisition and processing effectively by u sing the following key technologies: bar code material and paste stand under radioactive conditions, two dimensional storage space emulation, information cascade protection. (authors)

  20. Probabilistic seismic demand analysis of nonlinear structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shome, Nilesh

    Recent earthquakes in California have initiated improvement in current design philosophy and at present the civil engineering community is working towards development of performance-based earthquake engineering of structures. The objective of this study is to develop efficient, but accurate procedures for probabilistic analysis of nonlinear seismic behavior of structures. The proposed procedures help the near-term development of seismic-building assessments which require an estimation of seismic demand at a given intensity level. We also develop procedures to estimate the probability of exceedance of any specified nonlinear response level due to future ground motions at a specific site. This is referred as Probabilistic Seismic Demand Analysis (PSDA). The latter procedure prepares the way for the next stage development of seismic assessment that consider the uncertainties in nonlinear response and capacity. The proposed procedures require structure-specific nonlinear analyses for a relatively small set of recorded accelerograms and (site-specific or USGS-map-like) seismic hazard analyses. We have addressed some of the important issues of nonlinear seismic demand analysis, which are selection of records for structural analysis, the number of records to be used, scaling of records, etc. Initially these issues are studied through nonlinear analysis of structures for a number of magnitude-distance bins of records. Subsequently we introduce regression analysis of response results against spectral acceleration, magnitude, duration, etc., which helps to resolve these issues more systematically. We illustrate the demand-hazard calculations through two major example problems: a 5story and a 20-story SMRF building. Several simple, but quite accurate closed-form solutions have also been proposed to expedite the demand-hazard calculations. We find that vector-valued (e.g., 2-D) PSDA estimates demand hazard more accurately. This procedure, however, requires information about 2

  1. Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program - GSHAP legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Danciu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program - or simply GSHAP, when launched, almost two decades ago, aimed at establishing a common framework to evaluate the seismic hazard over geographical large-scales, i.e. countries, regions, continents and finally the globe. Its main product, the global seismic hazard map was a milestone, unique at that time and for a decade have served as the main reference worldwide. Today, for most of the Earth’s seismically active regions such Europe, Northern and Southern America, Central and South-East Asia, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, the GSHAP seismic hazard map is outdated. The rapid increase of the new data, advance on the earthquake process knowledge, technological progress, both hardware and software, contributed all in updates of the seismic hazard models. We present herein, a short retrospective overview of the achievements as well as the pitfalls of the GSHAP. Further, we describe the next generation of seismic hazard models, as elaborated within the Global Earthquake Model, regional programs: the 2013 European Seismic Hazard Model, the 2014 Earthquake Model for Middle East, and the 2015 Earthquake Model of Central Asia. Later, the main characteristics of these regional models are summarized and the new datasets fully harmonized across national borders are illustrated for the first time after the GSHAP completion.

  2. Klassifikation von Standardebenen in der 2D-Echokardiographie mittels 2D-3D-Bildregistrierung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeir, Christoph; Subramanian, Navneeth

    Zum Zweck der Entwicklung eines Systems, das einen unerfahrenen Anwender von Ultraschall (US) zur Aufnahme relevanter anatomischer Strukturen leitet, untersuchen wir die Machbarkeit von 2D-US zu 3D-CT Registrierung. Wir verwenden US-Aufnahmen von Standardebenen des Herzens, welche zu einem 3D-CT-Modell registriert werden. Unser Algorithmus unterzieht sowohl die US-Bilder als auch den CT-Datensatz Vorverarbeitungsschritten, welche die Daten durch Segmentierung auf wesentliche Informationen in Form von Labein für Muskel und Blut reduzieren. Anschließend werden diese Label zur Registrierung mittels der Match-Cardinality-Metrik genutzt. Durch mehrmaliges Registrieren mit verschiedenen Initialisierungen ermitteln wir die im US-Bild sichtbare Standardebene. Wir evaluierten die Methode auf sieben US-Bildern von Standardebenen. Fünf davon wurden korrekt zugeordnet.

  3. Improving the Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting of CO{sub 2} Sequestered in Geologic Systems with Multicomponent Seismic Technology and Rock Physics Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, Engin; DeAngelo, Michael; Hardage, Bob; Sava, Diana; Sullivan, Charlotte; Wagner, Donald

    2012-12-31

    Research done in this study showed that P-SV seismic data provide better spatial resolution of geologic targets at our Appalachian Basin study area than do P-P data. This finding is important because the latter data (P-P) are the principal seismic data used to evaluate rock systems considered for CO{sub 2} sequestration. The increase in P-SV{sub 1} resolution over P-P resolution was particularly significant, with P-SV{sub 1} wavelengths being approximately 40-percent shorter than P-P wavelengths. CO{sub 2} sequestration projects across the Appalachian Basin should take advantage of the increased resolution provided by converted-shear seismic modes relative to P-wave seismic data. In addition to S-wave data providing better resolution of geologic targets, we found S-wave images described reservoir heterogeneities that P-P data could not see. Specifically, a channel-like anomaly was imaged in a key porous sandstone interval by P-SV{sub 1} data, and no indication of the feature existed in P-P data. If any stratigraphic unit is considered for CO{sub 2} storage purposes, it is important to know all heterogeneities internal to the unit to understand reservoir compartmentalization. We conclude it is essential that multicomponent seismic data be used to evaluate all potential reservoir targets whenever a CO{sub 2} storage effort is considered, particularly when sequestration efforts are initiated in the Appalachian Basin. Significant differences were observed between P-wave sequences and S- wave sequences in data windows corresponding to the Oriskany Sandstone, a popular unit considered for CO{sub 2} sequestration. This example demonstrates that S-wave sequences and facies often differ from P-wave sequences and facies and is a principle we have observed in every multicomponent seismic interpretation our research laboratory has done. As a result, we now emphasis elastic wavefield seismic stratigraphy in our reservoir characterization studies, which is a science based on the

  4. Studies on seismic waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海明; 陈晓非

    2003-01-01

    The development of seismic wave study in China in the past four years is reviewed. The discussion is divided into several aspects, including seismic wave propagation in laterally homogeneous media, laterally heterogeneous media, anisotropic and porous media, surface wave and seismic wave inversion, and seismic wave study in prospecting and logging problems. Important projects in the current studies on seismic wave is suggested as the development of high efficient numerical methods, and applying them to the studies of excitation and propagation of seismic waves in complex media and strong ground motion, which will form a foundation for refined earthquake hazard analysis and prediction.

  5. 2D Four-Channel Perfect Reconstruction Filter Bank Realized with the 2D Lattice Filter Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel orthogonal 2D lattice structure is incorporated into the design of a nonseparable 2D four-channel perfect reconstruction filter bank. The proposed filter bank is obtained by using the polyphase decomposition technique which requires the design of an orthogonal 2D lattice filter. Due to constraint of perfect reconstruction, each stage of this lattice filter bank is simply parameterized by two coefficients. The perfect reconstruction property is satisfied regardless of the actual values of these parameters and of the number of the lattice stages. It is also shown that a separable 2D four-channel perfect reconstruction lattice filter bank can be constructed from the 1D lattice filter and that this is a special case of the proposed 2D lattice filter bank under certain conditions. The perfect reconstruction property of the proposed 2D lattice filter approach is verified by computer simulations.

  6. Advanced Seismic While Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

    2008-06-30

    . An APS Turbine Alternator powered the SeismicPULSER{trademark} to produce two Hz frequency peak signals repeated every 20 seconds. Since the ION Geophysical, Inc. (ION) seismic survey surface recording system was designed to detect a minimum downhole signal of three Hz, successful performance was confirmed with a 5.3 Hz recording with the pumps running. The two Hz signal generated by the sparker was modulated with the 3.3 Hz signal produced by the mud pumps to create an intense 5.3 Hz peak frequency signal. The low frequency sparker source is ultimately capable of generating selectable peak frequencies of 1 to 40 Hz with high-frequency spectra content to 10 kHz. The lower frequencies and, perhaps, low-frequency sweeps, are needed to achieve sufficient range and resolution for realtime imaging in deep (15,000 ft+), high-temperature (150 C) wells for (a) geosteering, (b) accurate seismic hole depth, (c) accurate pore pressure determinations ahead of the bit, (d) near wellbore diagnostics with a downhole receiver and wired drill pipe, and (e) reservoir model verification. Furthermore, the pressure of the sparker bubble will disintegrate rock resulting in an increased overall rates of penetration. Other applications for the SeismicPULSER{trademark} technology are to deploy a low-frequency source for greater range on a wireline for Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiling (RVSP) and Cross-Well Tomography. Commercialization of the technology is being undertaken by first contacting stakeholders to define the value proposition for rig site services utilizing SeismicPULSER{trademark} technologies. Stakeholders include national oil companies, independent oil companies, independents, service companies, and commercial investors. Service companies will introduce a new Drill Bit SWD service for deep HTHP wells. Collaboration will be encouraged between stakeholders in the form of joint industry projects to develop prototype tools and initial field trials. No barriers have been identified

  7. 2D wave-front shaping in optical superlattices using nonlinear volume holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Hong, Xu-Hao; Lu, Rong-Er; Yue, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Chao; Qin, Yi-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Nonlinear volume holography is employed to realize arbitrary wave-front shaping during nonlinear processes with properly designed 2D optical superlattices. The concept of a nonlinear polarization wave in nonlinear volume holography is investigated. The holographic imaging of irregular patterns was performed using 2D LiTaO3 crystals with fundamental wave propagating along the spontaneous polarization direction, and the results agree well with the theoretical predictions. This Letter not only extends the application area of optical superlattices, but also offers an efficient method for wave-front shaping technology.

  8. An Incompressible 2D Didactic Model with Singularity and Explicit Solutions of the 2D Boussinesq Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Dongho; Constantin, Peter; Wu, Jiahong

    2014-09-01

    We give an example of a well posed, finite energy, 2D incompressible active scalar equation with the same scaling as the surface quasi-geostrophic equation and prove that it can produce finite time singularities. In spite of its simplicity, this seems to be the first such example. Further, we construct explicit solutions of the 2D Boussinesq equations whose gradients grow exponentially in time for all time. In addition, we introduce a variant of the 2D Boussinesq equations which is perhaps a more faithful companion of the 3D axisymmetric Euler equations than the usual 2D Boussinesq equations.

  9. Seismic Isolation Studies and Applications for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic isolation, which is being used worldwide for buildings, is a well-known technology to protect structures from destructive earthquakes. In spite of the many potential advantages of a seismic isolation, however, the applications of a seismic isolation to nuclear facilities have been very limited because of a lack of sufficient knowledge about the isolation practices. The most important advantage of seismic isolation applications in nuclear power plants is that the safety and reliability of the plants can be remarkably improved through the standardization of the structures and equipment regardless of the seismic conditions of the sites. The standardization of structures and equipment will reduce the capital cost and design/construction schedule for future plants. Also, a seismic isolation can facilitate decoupling of the design and development for equipment, piping, and components due to the use of the generic in-structure response spectra associated with the standardized plant. Moreover, a seismic isolation will improve the plant safety margin against the design basis earthquake (DBE) as well as a beyond design basis seismic event due to its superior seismic performance. A number of seismic isolation systems have been developed and tested since 1970s, and some of them have been applied to conventional structures in several countries of high seismicity. In the nuclear field, there have been many studies on the applicability of such seismic isolation systems, but the application of a seismic isolation is very limited. Currently, there are some discussions on the application of seismic isolation systems to nuclear facilities between the nuclear industries and the regulatory agencies in the U.S.. In the future, a seismic isolation for nuclear facilities will be one of the important issues in the nuclear industry. This paper summarizes the past studies and applications of a seismic isolation in the nuclear industry

  10. Seismic risk perception test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The perception of risks involves the process of collecting, selecting and interpreting signals about uncertain impacts of events, activities or technologies. In the natural sciences the term risk seems to be clearly defined, it means the probability distribution of adverse effects, but the everyday use of risk has different connotations (Renn, 2008). The two terms, hazards and risks, are often used interchangeably by the public. Knowledge, experience, values, attitudes and feelings all influence the thinking and judgement of people about the seriousness and acceptability of risks. Within the social sciences however the terminology of 'risk perception' has become the conventional standard (Slovic, 1987). The mental models and other psychological mechanisms which people use to judge risks (such as cognitive heuristics and risk images) are internalized through social and cultural learning and constantly moderated (reinforced, modified, amplified or attenuated) by media reports, peer influences and other communication processes (Morgan et al., 2001). Yet, a theory of risk perception that offers an integrative, as well as empirically valid, approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing". To understand the perception of risk is necessary to consider several areas: social, psychological, cultural, and their interactions. Among the various research in an international context on the perception of natural hazards, it seemed promising the approach with the method of semantic differential (Osgood, C.E., Suci, G., & Tannenbaum, P. 1957, The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press). The test on seismic risk perception has been constructed by the method of the semantic differential. To compare opposite adjectives or terms has been used a Likert's scale to seven point. The test consists of an informative part and six sections respectively dedicated to: hazard; vulnerability (home and workplace); exposed value (with reference to

  11. Behavior of thermal breaks under seismic loads

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Thanh Huyen

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays sustainable constructions imply an objective of energetic performances by reducing the level of thermal conduction. The thermal-break elements, an innovative technological element is under study in several countries in Europe. If the thermal benefits have already been proved, the mechanical effects of such a wall-slab connection in a building for the seismic risk have not been assessed. To evaluate the building seismic vulnerability modifications due to these thermal breaks, experime...

  12. Symmetries and solvable models for evaporating 2D black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Muñoz, José Luis; Navarro-Salas, José; Navarro Navarro, Miguel; Talavera, C. F.

    1997-01-01

    We study the evaporation process of a 2D black hole in thermal equilibrium when the ingoing radiation is suddenly switched off. We also introduce global symmetries of generic 2D dilaton gravity models which generalize the extra symmetry of the CGHS model. © Elsevier Science B.V

  13. New Type of 2-D Laser Doppler Vibrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The fundamentals and method of 2-D laser Doppler vibrometer are introduced.The factors influencing the measuring accuracy are analyzed. Moreover, the circuit for signal processing is designed. The vibrating amplitude and frequency of 2-D vibration in wider range can be measured simultaneously in non-contact means,the measuring results are accurate.

  14. Statische verweking talud: Handleiding Windows versie SLIQ2D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ham, G.

    2009-01-01

    SLIQ2D is een quasi-2D computerprogramma waarmee het optreden voorspeld kan worden van een verwekingsvloeiing ofwel een instabiliteit van een onderwatertalud ten gevolge van verweking, gegeven de taludhelling, relatieve dichtheid en materiaaleigenschappen van het zand. Dit programma is in 1994 door

  15. Cascading Constrained 2-D Arrays using Periodic Merging Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Laursen, Torben Vaarby

    2003-01-01

    We consider a method for designing 2-D constrained codes by cascading finite width arrays using predefined finite width periodic merging arrays. This provides a constructive lower bound on the capacity of the 2-D constrained code. Examples include symmetric RLL and density constrained codes....... Numerical results for the capacities are presented....

  16. The relation between Euclidean and Lorentzian 2D quantum gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambjørn, J.; Correia, J.; Kristjansen, C.; Loll, R.

    2006-01-01

    Starting from 2D Euclidean quantum gravity, we show that one recovers 2D Lorentzian quantum gravity by removing all baby universes. Using a peeling procedure to decompose the discrete, triangulated geometries along a one-dimensional path, we explicitly associate with each Euclidean space-time a (gen

  17. Van der Waals stacked 2D layered materials for optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Wang, Qixing; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhuo; Wee, Andrew T. S.

    2016-06-01

    The band gaps of many atomically thin 2D layered materials such as graphene, black phosphorus, monolayer semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides and hBN range from 0 to 6 eV. These isolated atomic planes can be reassembled into hybrid heterostructures made layer by layer in a precisely chosen sequence. Thus, the electronic properties of 2D materials can be engineered by van der Waals stacking, and the interlayer coupling can be tuned, which opens up avenues for creating new material systems with rich functionalities and novel physical properties. Early studies suggest that van der Waals stacked 2D materials work exceptionally well, dramatically enriching the optoelectronics applications of 2D materials. Here we review recent progress in van der Waals stacked 2D materials, and discuss their potential applications in optoelectronics.

  18. Underlay of low-rate machine-type D2D links on downlink cellular links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno K.; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    Wireless cellular networks feature two emerging technological trends: direct Device-to-Device (D2D) communications and Machine-Type Communications (MTC). MTC devices (MTDs) pose new challenges to the cellular network, such as low transmission power and massive access that can lead to overload...... of the radio interface. In this paper we explore the opportunity opened by D2D links for supporting Low-rate Low-power MTDs that are connected to a nearby device, such as an on-body MTD connected to a mobile phone that acts as a relay towards the Base Station (BS). The low-rate requirement for this D2D...... connection allows underlay operation with Successive Interference Cancellation (SIC) during the cellular downlink transmissions. We consider different ways to use SIC and investigate the trade-off between, on one hand, the achieved rate for the downlink cellular users and, on the other hand, the outage...

  19. Can Full Duplex reduce the discovery time in D2D Communication?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gatnau, Marta; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Mahmood, Nurul Huda;

    2016-01-01

    Device-to-device (D2D) communication is considered as one of the key technologies to support new types of services, such as public safety and proximity-based applications. D2D communication requires a discovery phase, i.e., the node awareness procedure prior to the communication phase. Conventional...... half duplex transmission may not be sufficient to provide fast discovery and cope with the strict latency targets of future 5G services. On the other hand, in-band full duplex, by allowing simultaneous transmission and reception, may complete the discovery phase faster. In this paper, the potential of...... full duplex in providing fast discovery for the next 5th generation (5G) system supporting D2D communication is investigated. A design for such system is presented and evaluated via simulations, showing that full duplex can accelerate the discovery phase by supporting a higher transmission probability...

  20. VIDEO OBJECT SEGMENTATION BY 2-D MESH-BASED MOTION ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Video object extraction is a key technology in content-based video coding. A novel video object extracting algorithm by two Dimensional (2-D) mesh-based motion analysis is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a 2-D mesh fitting the original frame image is obtained via feature detection algorithm.Then, higher order statistics motion analysis is applied on the 2-D mesh representation to get an initial motion detection mask. After post-processing, the final segmenting mask is quickly obtained. And hence the video object is effectively extracted. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm combines the merits of mesh-based segmenting algorithms and pixel-based segmenting algorithms, and hereby achieves satisfactory subjective and objective performance while dramatically increasing the segmenting speed.

  1. Influence of stress releasing ratio and boundary scope on 2D FEM simulate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-ming; LIU Xiang-feng; HE Feng

    2008-01-01

    Give constrains of costs and technology in analysis,actual practice of 2D FEM is widely popular and demanded.In order to take advantage of 2D FEM to simulate 3Dstress state,the concept of stress releasing ratio was generally introduced to represent the 3D constraint effect.For example,the simulation analysis of tunnel excavation is based on the measured actual deformation to provide stress releasing ratio.In the engineering of open excavation,the construction is,most of the case,targeted on alluvial deposit with relatively soft stratum.However,the 2D FEM simulation lacks a clear and rational basis in how to represent the effects of 3D constraint.Thus,in order to investigate the problem above,the author analyzed same engineering using both 2D and 3D individually,and compared the corresponding results.Based on the 3D analysis,factors including the relationship between the model's scope,stress releasing ratio,and construction condition of 2D analysis were also examined.

  2. Distributed Control of Heat Conduction in Thermal Inductive Materials with 2D Geometrical Isomorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yu Chou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study we provided analytical and experimental evidence that some materials are able to store entropy-flow, of which the heat-conduction behaves as standing waves in a bounded region small enough in practice. In this paper we continue to develop distributed control of heat conduction in these thermal-inductive materials. The control objective is to achieve subtle temperature distribution in space and simultaneously to suppress its transient overshoots in time. This technology concerns safe and accurate heating/cooling treatments in medical operations, polymer processing, and other prevailing modern day practices. Serving for distributed feedback, spatiotemporal H ∞ /μ control is developed by expansion of the conventional 1D-H ∞ /μ control to a 2D version. Therein 2D geometrical isomorphism is constructed with the Laplace-Galerkin transform, which extends the small-gain theorem into the mode-frequency domain, wherein 2D transfer-function controllers are synthesized with graphical methods. Finally, 2D digital-signal processing is programmed to implement 2D transfer-function controllers, possibly of spatial fraction-orders, into DSP-engine embedded microcontrollers.

  3. Quantitative Seismic Amplitude Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dey, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Seismic Value Chain quantifies the cyclic interaction between seismic acquisition, imaging and reservoir characterization. Modern seismic innovation to address the global imbalance in hydrocarbon supply and demand requires such cyclic interaction of both feed-forward and feed-back processes. Cur

  4. Robotization in Seismic Acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquière, G.; Berkhout, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The amount of sources and detectors in the seismic method follows "Moore’s Law of seismic data acquisition", i.e., it increases approximately by a factor of 10 every 10 years. Therefore automation is unavoidable, leading to robotization of seismic data acquisition. Recently, we introduced a new sour

  5. Targeted fluorescence imaging enhanced by 2D materials: a comparison between 2D MoS2 and graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Donghao; Ji, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Yue; Cao, Jun; Zheng, Hu; Liu, Lin; Zang, Yi; Li, Jia; Chen, Guo-Rong; James, Tony D; He, Xiao-Peng

    2016-08-01

    Here we demonstrate that 2D MoS2 can enhance the receptor-targeting and imaging ability of a fluorophore-labelled ligand. The 2D MoS2 has an enhanced working concentration range when compared with graphene oxide, resulting in the improved imaging of both cell and tissue samples. PMID:27378648

  6. Barren Acidic Soil Assessment using Seismic Refraction Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajudin, S. A. A.; Abidin, M. H. Z.; Madun, A.; Zawawi, M. H.

    2016-07-01

    Seismic refraction method is one of the geophysics subsurface exploration techniques used to determine subsurface profile characteristics. From past experience, seismic refraction method is commonly used to detect soil layers, overburden, bedrock, etc. However, the application of this method on barren geomaterials remains limited due to several reasons. Hence, this study was performed to evaluate the subsurface profile characteristics of barren acidic soil located in Ayer Hitam, Batu Pahat, Johor using seismic refraction survey. The seismic refraction survey was conducted using ABEM Terraloc MK 8 (seismograph), a sledge hammer weighing 7 kg (source) and 24 units of 10 Hz geophones (receiver). Seismic data processing was performed using OPTIM software which consists of SeisOpt@picker (picking the first arrival and seismic configureuration data input) and SeisOpt@2D (generating 2D image of barren acidic soil based on seismic velocity (primary velocity, Vp) distribution). It was found that the barren acidic soil profile consists of three layers representing residual soil (Vp= 200-400 m/s) at 0-2 m, highly to completely weathered soil (Vp= 500-1800 m/s) at 3-8 m and shale (Vp= 2100-6200 m/s) at 9-20 m depth. Furthermore, result verification was successfully done through the correlation of seismic refraction data based on physical mapping and the geological map of the study area. Finally, it was found that the seismic refraction survey was applicable for subsurface profiling of barren acidic soil as it was very efficient in terms of time, cost, large data coverage and sustainable.

  7. Using Rock Physics to Improve Qp Quantification in Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y.; Dvorkin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Our goal is to accurately estimate attenuation from seismic data using model regularization in the seismic inversion workflow. One way to achieve this goal is by finding an analytical relation linking Vp to Qp. We derive such an approximate closed-form equation by establishing that the key parameter affecting Vp in clean partially saturated gas sand is porosity, while the two key parameters affecting Qp are porosity and water saturation. We find a simple equation that relates the dry-rock compressional modulus MDry to that of the mineral frame and porosity by using just one adjustable coefficient. Then we use a theoretical model relating Qp at partial saturation to MDry, porosity, and water saturation. Finally, by using these two relations, we find a closed-form transform between Qp and Vp at fixed water saturation. This relation is tested on well data from a clean clastic gas reservoir. Next we create a 2D synthetic gas reservoir section populated with Qp and Vp and generate respective synthetic seismograms. The goal now is to invert this synthetic seismic section for Qp. If we use standard seismic inversion based solely on seismic data, the inverted attenuation model has low resolution, incorrect position, and is distorted. However, adding our relation between velocity and attenuation, we obtain an attenuation model very close to the original section. This method is tested on a 2D real seismic data from GOM. The resulting Qp model matches the geological shape of an absorption body interpreted from seismic section. By using this Qp model in seismic migration, we make the seismic events below the high-absorption layer clearly visible, with improved frequency content and coherency of the events.

  8. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  9. Interpreting the interseismic deformation of the Altotiberina Fault (central Italy through 2D modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Finocchio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Altotiberina low-angle normal fault in central Italy has been a focus of many recent studies. Although the existence of this fault has long been known, its seismicity and relationship to other faults are still debated. We present a 2D elastoplastic finite-element model that reproduces the interseismic deformation of the Altotiberina Fault. The model predictions are compared to observed geodetic velocities, stress orientations and geological data. The influence of the Altotiberina Fault on interseismic evolution is tested by building several models with different boundary conditions. The best model is 180 km long, 40 km deep and contains two layers with different rheological parameters, two ramps, two faults and four freely slipping segments. The main factors contributing to the large-scale interseismic deformation include basal traction, rheology and the Altotiberina Fault itself, whereas the local, small-scale variations are due to two secondary high-angle faults.

  10. Imaging the Jakarta Basin with Seismic Ambient Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Erdinc; Cummins, Phil; Pandhu, Rakhindro; Murjaya, Jaya; Irsyam, Masyhur; Pranata, Bayu

    2014-05-01

    Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, is one of the most populous cities in the world with a population over 28 million including the metro area. In July 2012, 8 short period and broadband seismic stations were deployed progressively to record seismic noise at 36 different locations in Jakarta for a duration of 31 days. The recorded seismic noise is then cross-correlated between the simultaneously operated stations for retrieving the inter-station Green's functions. The traveltimes of Rayleigh wave Green's functions measured at different periods are later inverted with nonlinear tomography. The results mark the presence of a very low velocity body due to the alluvial deposits, which cover most of the Jakarta area. In October 2013, we deployed 52 broadband stations across Jakarta with a typical station spacing of 2 km for a duration of 4 months. We divide the city to 3 sectors, which each area was covered by a dense deployment each subsequent month. The recorded noise is used in high-resolution 2D Bayesian tomography to map the 2D seismic velocity model of the city. The resulting models will be used in estimating the seismic amplification and other seismic hazards of the city.

  11. Introduction to game physics with Box2D

    CERN Document Server

    Parberry, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Written by a pioneer of game development in academia, Introduction to Game Physics with Box2D covers the theory and practice of 2D game physics in a relaxed and entertaining yet instructional style. It offers a cohesive treatment of the topics and code involved in programming the physics for 2D video games. Focusing on writing elementary game physics code, the first half of the book helps you grasp the challenges of programming game physics from scratch, without libraries or outside help. It examines the mathematical foundation of game physics and illustrates how it is applied in practice thro

  12. Maximizing entropy of image models for 2-D constrained coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Danieli, Matteo; Burini, Nino;

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers estimating and maximizing the entropy of two-dimensional (2-D) fields with application to 2-D constrained coding. We consider Markov random fields (MRF), which have a non-causal description, and the special case of Pickard random fields (PRF). The PRF are 2-D causal finite...... £ 2 squares contains all 0s or all 1s. The maximum values of the entropy for the constraints are estimated and binary PRF satisfying the constraint are characterized and optimized w.r.t. the entropy. The maximum binary PRF entropy is 0.839 bits/symbol for the no uniform squares constraint. The entropy...

  13. The NH$_2$D hyperfine structure revealed by astrophysical observations

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, F.; Coudert, L. H.; Punanova, A.; Harju, J.; Faure, A.; Roueff, E.; Sipilä, O.; Caselli, P.; Güsten, R.; Pon, A.; Pineda, J E

    2016-01-01

    The 1$_{11}$-1$_{01}$ lines of ortho and para--NH$_2$D (o/p-NH$_2$D), respectively at 86 and 110 GHz, are commonly observed to provide constraints on the deuterium fractionation in the interstellar medium. In cold regions, the hyperfine structure due to the nitrogen ($^{14}$N) nucleus is resolved. To date, this splitting is the only one which is taken into account in the NH$_2$D column density estimates. We investigate how the inclusion of the hyperfine splitting caused by the deuterium (D) n...

  14. Kalman Filter for Generalized 2-D Roesser Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Mei; ZOU Yun

    2007-01-01

    The design problem of the state filter for the generalized stochastic 2-D Roesser models, which appears when both the state and measurement are simultaneously subjected to the interference from white noise, is discussed. The wellknown Kalman filter design is extended to the generalized 2-D Roesser models. Based on the method of "scanning line by line", the filtering problem of generalized 2-D Roesser models with mode-energy reconstruction is solved. The formula of the optimal filtering, which minimizes the variance of the estimation error of the state vectors, is derived. The validity of the designed filter is verified by the calculation steps and the examples are introduced.

  15. Optimization and practical implementation of ultrafast 2D NMR experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz H. K. Queiroz Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast 2D NMR is a powerful methodology that allows recording of a 2D NMR spectrum in a fraction of second. However, due to the numerous non-conventional parameters involved in this methodology its implementation is no trivial task. Here, an optimized experimental protocol is carefully described to ensure efficient implementation of ultrafast NMR. The ultrafast spectra resulting from this implementation are presented based on the example of two widely used 2D NMR experiments, COSY and HSQC, obtained in 0.2 s and 41 s, respectively.

  16. Materials for Flexible, Stretchable Electronics: Graphene and 2D Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Choi, Kyoungjun; Lee, Bora; Kim, Yuna; Hong, Byung Hee

    2015-07-01

    Recently, 2D materials have been intensively studied as emerging materials for future electronics, including flexible electronics, photonics, and electrochemical energy storage devices. Among representative 2D materials (such as graphene, boron nitride, and transition metal dichalcogenides) that exhibit extraordinary properties, graphene stands out in the flexible electronics field due to its combination of high electron mobility, high thermal conductivity, high specific surface area, high optical transparency, excellent mechanical flexibility, and environmental stability. This review covers the synthesis, transfer, and characterization methods of graphene and 2D materials and graphene's application to flexible devices as well as comparison with other competing materials.

  17. Optimization and practical implementation of ultrafast 2D NMR experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz Junior, Luiz H. K., E-mail: professorkeng@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSC), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Universidade Federal de Goias (UFGO), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSC), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Giraudeau, Patrick [Universite de Nantes (France). CNRS, Chimie et Interdisciplinarite: Synthese, Analyse, Modelisation

    2013-09-01

    Ultrafast 2D NMR is a powerful methodology that allows recording of a 2D NMR spectrum in a fraction of second. However, due to the numerous non-conventional parameters involved in this methodology its implementation is no trivial task. Here, an optimized experimental protocol is carefully described to ensure efficient implementation of ultrafast NMR. The ultrafast spectra resulting from this implementation are presented based on the example of two widely used 2D NMR experiments, COSY and HSQC, obtained in 0.2 s and 41 s, respectively. (author)

  18. 2D electron cyclotron emission imaging at ASDEX Upgrade (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classen, I. G. J. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Boom, J. E.; Vries, P. C. de [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Suttrop, W.; Schmid, E.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Schneider, P. A. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tobias, B.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Donne, A. J. H. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Jaspers, R. J. E. [Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Park, H. K. [POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Munsat, T. [University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The newly installed electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade provides measurements of the 2D electron temperature dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution. An overview of the technical and experimental properties of the system is presented. These properties are illustrated by the measurements of the edge localized mode and the reversed shear Alfven eigenmode, showing both the advantage of having a two-dimensional (2D) measurement, as well as some of the limitations of electron cyclotron emission measurements. Furthermore, the application of singular value decomposition as a powerful tool for analyzing and filtering 2D data is presented.

  19. Hydrates in the California Borderlands: 2D CSEM inversion results from towed and seafloor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannberg, P. K.; Constable, S.; Key, K.

    2013-12-01

    Methane hydrate, an ice-like solid clathrate of methane and water, forms in shallow continental slope sediments, and is both a potential energy source and geologic hazard. Traditionally, methane hydrate presence is inferred from a seismically detected bathymetry tracking velocity inversion, known as the bottom-simulating reflector (BSR). However the BSR is an indicator of free gas at the base of the hydrate stability zone, and not an indicator of hydrate. As such, seismic methods are limited in their capacity to identify and quantify hydrate presence and concentration. Controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) methods are sensitive to, and are able to directly detect, the presence of electrically resistive methane hydrate and free gas. Additionally, because shallow resistors can mimic deeper resistors in seafloor instruments, understanding the shallow sediment structure can inform deeper crustal modeling. We conducted two CSEM surveys in the San Nicolas Basin, located 150km west of San Diego where a BSR was identified from legacy seismics. Both surveys were conducted using a deep-towed EM transmitter followed by 4 towed 3-axis electric field receivers spaced every 200 m from 400-1000 m behind the transmitter. Either a half-hertz or quarter-hertz modified square wave was transmitted on a 200 ampere, 100 m dipole that was flown between 50 and 100m above the seafloor. The short transmitter-receiver offset allows resolution of shallow structure (less than 1km below seafloor), while the longer transmitter-seafloor receiver resolves deeper structure. Between the two surveys, 27 seafloor receivers were deployed and ~150km of lines were towed, including 5 transects of the basin coincident with legacy seismic lines, and a short-offset repeatability study. Initial 1D modeling showed the presence of a resistor coincident with the BSR. Further 2D inversions using the MARE2DEM inversion program were run for the towed array. These inversions show a 4 ohm-m resistor in the central

  20. Exploiting Lateral Resolution of Near-Surface Seismic Refraction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Derecke Palmer

    2009-01-01

    The 1D τ-p inversion algorithm is widely employed to generate starting models with most computer programs that implement refraction tomography. However, this algorithm emphasizes the vertical resolution of many layers, and as a result, it frequently fails to detect even large lateral variations in seismic velocities, such as the decreases that are indicative of shear zones. This study presents a case that demonstrates the failure of the 1D τ-p inversion algorithm to define or even detect a major shear zone that is 50 m or ten stations wide. Furthermore, the majority of refraction tomography programs parameterize the seismic velocities within each layer with vertical velocity gradients. By contrast, the 2D generalized reciprocal method (GRM) inversion algorithms emphasize the lateral resolution of individual layers. This study demonstrates the successful detection and definition of the 50-m wide shear zone with the GRM inversion algorithms. The existence of the shear zone is corroborated by a 2D analysis of the head wave amplitudes and by numerous closely spaced orthogonal seismic profiles carried out as part of a later 3D refraction investigation. Furthermore, a 1D analysis of the head wave amplitudes indicates that a reversal in the seismic velocities, rather than vertical velocity gradients, occurs in the weathered layers. While all seismic refraction operations should aim to provide as accurate depth estimates as is practical, the major conclusion reached in this study is that refraction Inversion algorithms that emphasize the lateral resolution of individual layers generate more useful results for geotechnical and environmental applications. The advantages of the Improved lateral resolution are obtained with 2D profiles in which the structural features can be recognized from the magnitudes of the variations in the seismic velocities. Furthermore, the spatial patterns obtained with 3D investigations facilitate the recognition of structural features that do not

  1. CYP2D6 genotype dependent oxycodone metabolism in postoperative patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike M Stamer

    functionally active CYP2D6 alleles had an impact on oxycodone metabolism. The genotype also impacted analgesic consumption, thereby causing variation of equianalgesic doses piritramide : oxycodone. Different analgesic needs by genotypes were met by PCA technology in this postoperative cohort.

  2. Orbifold Reduction and 2d (0,2) Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, Sebastian; Seong, Rak-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Orbifold Reduction, a new method for generating $2d$ $(0,2)$ gauge theories associated to D1-branes probing singular toric Calabi-Yau 4-folds starting from $4d$ $\\mathcal{N}=1$ gauge theories on D3-branes probing toric Calabi-Yau 3-folds. The new procedure generalizes dimensional reduction and orbifolding. In terms of T-dual configurations, it generates brane brick models starting from brane tilings. Orbifold reduction provides an agile approach for generating $2d$ $(0,2)$ theories with a brane realization. We present three practical applications of the new algorithm: the connection between $4d$ Seiberg duality and $2d$ triality, a combinatorial method for generating theories related by triality and a $2d$ $(0,2)$ generalization of the Klebanov-Witten mass deformation.

  3. Emerging and potential opportunities for 2D flexible nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weinan; Park, Saungeun; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-05-01

    The last 10 years have seen the emergence of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and black phosphorus (BP) among the growing portfolio of layered van der Waals thin films. Graphene, the prototypical 2D material has advanced rapidly in device, circuit and system studies that has resulted in commercial large-area applications. In this work, we provide a perspective of the emerging and potential translational applications of 2D materials including semiconductors, semimetals, and insulators that comprise the basic material set for diverse nanosystems. Applications include RF transceivers, smart systems, the so-called internet of things, and neurotechnology. We will review the DC and RF electronic performance of graphene and BP thin film transistors. 2D materials at sub-um channel length have so far enabled cut-off frequencies from baseband to 100GHz suitable for low-power RF and sub-THz concepts.

  4. Double resonance rotational spectroscopy of CH2D+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töpfer, Matthias; Jusko, Pavol; Schlemmer, Stephan; Asvany, Oskar

    2016-09-01

    Context. Deuterated forms of CH are thought to be responsible for deuterium enrichment in lukewarm astronomical environments. There is no unambiguous detection of CH2D+ in space to date. Aims: Four submillimetre rotational lines of CH2D+ are documented in the literature. Our aim is to present a complete dataset of highly resolved rotational lines, including millimetre (mm) lines needed for a potential detection. Methods: We used a low-temperature ion trap and applied a novel IR-mm-wave double resonance method to measure the rotational lines of CH2D+. Results: We measured 21 low-lying (J ≤ 4) rotational transitions of CH2D+ between 23 GHz and 1.1 THz with accuracies close to 2 ppb.

  5. 2D gels still have a niche in proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Le Bihan, Marie-Catherine; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid advance of MS-based proteomics one might think that 2D gel-based proteomics is dead. This is far from the truth. Current research has shown that there are still a number of places in the field of protein and molecular biology where 2D gels still play a leading role. The aim...... of this review is to highlight some of these applications. Examples from our own research as well as from other published works are used to illustrate the 2D gel driven research in the areas of: 1) de novo sequencing and protein identification from organisms with no or incomplete genome sequences available; 2......) alternative detection methods for modification specific proteomics; 3) identification of protein isoforms and modified proteins. With an example of the glycoprotein TIMP-1 protein we illustrate the unique properties of 2D gels for the separation and characterisation of multiply modified proteins. We also show...

  6. Technical Review of the UNET2D Hydraulic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, William A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richmond, Marshall C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-05-18

    The Kansas City District of the US Army Corps of Engineers is engaged in a broad range of river management projects that require knowledge of spatially-varied hydraulic conditions such as velocities and water surface elevations. This information is needed to design new structures, improve existing operations, and assess aquatic habitat. Two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged numerical hydraulic models are a common tool that can be used to provide velocity and depth information. Kansas City District is currently using a specific 2D model, UNET2D, that has been developed to meet the needs of their river engineering applications. This report documents a tech- nical review of UNET2D.

  7. Illumination Compensation for 2-D Barcode Recognition Basing Morphologic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hua Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of image quality has been highly demanded in digital imaging systems. This study presents a novel illumination normalization approach for 2-D barcode recognition under varying lighting conditions. MMs (Morphological transformations are employed to original images using big scale multiple SEs (structuring elements. Then we make use of entropy to fuse images. The performance of proposed methodology is illustrated through the processing of images with different kinds of 2-D barcodes under different backgrounds. The experimental results show that this approach can process different kinds of 2-D barcodes under varying lighting conditions adaptively. Compared with other conventional methods, our proposed approach does a better job in processing 2-D barcode under non-uniform illumination.

  8. Modeling of two-storey precast school building using Ruaumoko 2D program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid, N. H.; Tarmizi, L. H.; Ghani, K. D. [Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    The long-distant earthquake loading from Sumatra and Java Island had caused some slight damages to precast and reinforced concrete buildings in West Malaysia such as cracks on wall panels, columns and beams. Subsequently, the safety of existing precast concrete building is needed to be analyzed because these buildings were designed using BS 8110 which did not include the seismic loading in the design. Thus, this paper emphasizes on the seismic performance and dynamic behavior of precast school building constructed in Malaysia under three selected past earthquakes excitations ; El Centro 1940 North-South, El Centro East-West components and San Fernando 1971 using RUAUMOKO 2D program. This program is fully utilized by using prototype precast school model and dynamic non-linear time history analysis. From the results, it can be concluded that two-storey precast school building has experienced severe damage and partial collapse especially at beam-column joint under San Fernando and El Centro North-South Earthquake as its exceeds the allowable inter-storey drift and displacement as specified in Eurocode 8. The San Fernando earthquake has produced a massive destruction to the precast building under viscous damping, ξ = 5% and this building has generated maximum building displacement of 435mm, maximum building drift of 0.68% and maximum bending moment at 8458kNm.

  9. Modeling of two-storey precast school building using Ruaumoko 2D program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-distant earthquake loading from Sumatra and Java Island had caused some slight damages to precast and reinforced concrete buildings in West Malaysia such as cracks on wall panels, columns and beams. Subsequently, the safety of existing precast concrete building is needed to be analyzed because these buildings were designed using BS 8110 which did not include the seismic loading in the design. Thus, this paper emphasizes on the seismic performance and dynamic behavior of precast school building constructed in Malaysia under three selected past earthquakes excitations ; El Centro 1940 North-South, El Centro East-West components and San Fernando 1971 using RUAUMOKO 2D program. This program is fully utilized by using prototype precast school model and dynamic non-linear time history analysis. From the results, it can be concluded that two-storey precast school building has experienced severe damage and partial collapse especially at beam-column joint under San Fernando and El Centro North-South Earthquake as its exceeds the allowable inter-storey drift and displacement as specified in Eurocode 8. The San Fernando earthquake has produced a massive destruction to the precast building under viscous damping, ξ = 5% and this building has generated maximum building displacement of 435mm, maximum building drift of 0.68% and maximum bending moment at 8458kNm

  10. Implicit adaptive mesh refinement for 2D reduced resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Bobby; Chacón, Luis; Pernice, Michael

    2008-10-01

    An implicit structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) solver for 2D reduced magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is described. The time-implicit discretization is able to step over fast normal modes, while the spatial adaptivity resolves thin, dynamically evolving features. A Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method is used for the nonlinear solver engine. For preconditioning, we have extended the optimal "physics-based" approach developed in [L. Chacón, D.A. Knoll, J.M. Finn, An implicit, nonlinear reduced resistive MHD solver, J. Comput. Phys. 178 (2002) 15-36] (which employed multigrid solver technology in the preconditioner for scalability) to SAMR grids using the well-known Fast Adaptive Composite grid (FAC) method [S. McCormick, Multilevel Adaptive Methods for Partial Differential Equations, SIAM, Philadelphia, PA, 1989]. A grid convergence study demonstrates that the solver performance is independent of the number of grid levels and only depends on the finest resolution considered, and that it scales well with grid refinement. The study of error generation and propagation in our SAMR implementation demonstrates that high-order (cubic) interpolation during regridding, combined with a robustly damping second-order temporal scheme such as BDF2, is required to minimize impact of grid errors at coarse-fine interfaces on the overall error of the computation for this MHD application. We also demonstrate that our implementation features the desired property that the overall numerical error is dependent only on the finest resolution level considered, and not on the base-grid resolution or on the number of refinement levels present during the simulation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the tool on several challenging problems.

  11. Self-leveling 2D DPN probe arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaheim, Jason R.; Val, Vadim; Solheim, Ed; Bussan, John; Fragala, J.; Nelson, Mike

    2010-02-01

    Dip Pen Nanolithography® (DPN®) is a direct write scanning probe-based technique which operates under ambient conditions, making it suitable to deposit a wide range of biological and inorganic materials. Precision nanoscale deposition is a fundamental requirement to advance nanoscale technology in commercial applications, and tailoring chemical composition and surface structure on the sub-100 nm scale benefits researchers in areas ranging from cell adhesion to cell-signaling and biomimetic membranes. These capabilities naturally suggest a "Desktop Nanofab" concept - a turnkey system that allows a non-expert user to rapidly create high resolution, scalable nanostructures drawing upon well-characterized ink and substrate pairings. In turn, this system is fundamentally supported by a portfolio of MEMS devices tailored for microfluidic ink delivery, directed placement of nanoscale materials, and cm2 tip arrays for high-throughput nanofabrication. Massively parallel two-dimensional nanopatterning is now commercially available via NanoInk's 2D nano PrintArray™, making DPN a high-throughput (>3×107 μm2 per hour), flexible and versatile method for precision nanoscale pattern formation. However, cm2 arrays of nanoscopic tips introduce the nontrivial problem of getting them all evenly touching the surface to ensure homogeneous deposition; this requires extremely precise leveling of the array. Herein, we describe how we have made the process simple by way of a selfleveling gimbal attachment, coupled with semi-automated software leveling routines which bring the cm^2 chip to within 0.002 degrees of co-planarity. This excellent co-planarity yields highly homogeneous features across a square centimeter, with standard deviation. We have engineered the devices to be easy to use, wire-free, and fully integrated with both of our patterning tools: the DPN 5000, and the NLP 2000.

  12. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlock, K.M.; Tanner, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.). Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($6 billion), 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion), and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion) earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes), emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions specify the

  13. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Tanner

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.. Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($ 6 billion, 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion, and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes, emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions

  14. Fabrication of integrated bimorphs with self aligned tips for optical switching in 2-d photonic crystal waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakkalakkal Abdulla, S.M.; Kauppinen, L.J.; Dijkstra, M.; Boer, de M.J.; Berenschot, E.; Ridder, de R.M.; Krijnen, G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the fabrication technology for a novel class of photonic devices. This technology integrates silicon 2-D photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides and electrostatically actuated bimorph cantilevers with tips that are self-aligned relative to the holes of the PhC. The bimorph cantilevers

  15. 2d quantum gravity and black hole formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum integral of generic 2d quantum gravity can be performed exactly. The equivalence of dilaton theories to 2d theories with torsion and the use of a light cone gauge are crucial. Scalar matter can be treated perturbatively. A generalization of the Polyakov action emerges. For scattering of scalars in a flat background already in the tree approximation for the first time the intermediate formation of a black hole is observed in an ab initio quantum gravity computation

  16. Excitation of 2D plasmons in Cs/W(110)

    CERN Document Server

    Benemanskaya, G V; Frank-Kamenetskaya, G E

    2001-01-01

    One studied the evolution of surface photoemission spectra for Cs/W(110) system at metastable Cs coatings exceeding monolayer. One showed possibility to observe 2D plasmons by means of threshold photoemission spectroscopy. One detected three photoemission peaks characterized by complicated behavior depending on Cd adsorption dose. The nature of peaks may be related to plasmon photoinduced excitation in quasi-2D Cs clusters, surface Cs plasmon and interface Cs-W plasmon

  17. The Branching of Graphs in 2-d Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, M. G.

    1996-01-01

    The branching ratio is calculated for three different models of 2d gravity, using dynamical planar phi-cubed graphs. These models are pure gravity, the D=-2 Gaussian model coupled to gravity and the single spin Ising model coupled to gravity. The ratio gives a measure of how branched the graphs dominating the partition function are. Hence it can be used to estimate the location of the branched polymer phase for the multiple Ising model coupled to 2d gravity.

  18. Illumination Compensation for 2-D Barcode Recognition Basing Morphologic

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Hua Li; Yi-Wen Wang; Yi Chen; Meng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of image quality has been highly demanded in digital imaging systems. This study presents a novel illumination normalization approach for 2-D barcode recognition under varying lighting conditions. MMs (Morphological transformations) are employed to original images using big scale multiple SEs (structuring elements). Then we make use of entropy to fuse images. The performance of proposed methodology is illustrated through the processing of images with different kinds of 2-D barcode...

  19. Collins Model and Phase Diagram of 2D Ternary System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Chuan-Mei; CHEN Li-Rong

    2004-01-01

    The Collins model is introduced into the two-dimensional (2D) alternative ternary system having the Lennard-Jones (L-J) potential. The Gibbs free energy of this ternary system is calculated, and according to thermodynamic theory, a group of equations that determine the solid-liquid diagram of ternary system are derived, some isothermal sectional diagrams of the 2D ternary system are obtained. The results are quite similar to the behavior of three-dimensional substances.

  20. Technique of Embedding Depth Maps into 2D Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazutake Uehira; Hiroshi Unno; Youichi Takashima

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new technique that is used to embed depth maps into corresponding 2-dimensional (2D) images. Since a 2D image and its depth map are integrated into one type of image format, they can be treated as if they were one 2D image. Thereby, it can reduce the amount of data in 3D images by half and simplify the processes for sending them through networks because the synchronization between images for the left and right eyes becomes unnecessary. We embed depth maps in the quantized discrete cosine transform (DCT) data of 2D images. The key to this technique is whether the depth maps could be embedded into 2D images without perceivably deteriorating their quality. We try to reduce their deterioration by compressing the depth map data by using the differences from the next pixel to the left. We assume that there is only one non-zero pixel at most on one horizontal line in the DCT block because the depth map values change abruptly. We conduct an experiment to evaluate the quality of the 2D images embedded with depth maps and find that satisfactory quality could be achieved.

  1. High Resolution Seismic Reflection Survey for Coal Mine: fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khukhuudei, M.; Khukhuudei, U.

    2014-12-01

    High Resolution Seismic Reflection (HRSR) methods will become a more important tool to help unravel structures hosting mineral deposits at great depth for mine planning and exploration. Modern coal mining requires certainly about geological faults and structural features. This paper focuses on 2D Seismic section mapping results from an "Zeegt" lignite coal mine in the "Mongol Altai" coal basin, which required the establishment of major structure for faults and basement. HRSR method was able to detect subsurface faults associated with the major fault system. We have used numerical modeling in an ideal, noise free environment with homogenous layering to detect of faults. In a coal mining setting where the seismic velocity of the high ranges from 3000m/s to 3600m/s and the dominant seismic frequency is 100Hz, available to locate faults with a throw of 4-5m. Faults with displacements as seam thickness detected down to several hundred meter beneath the surface.

  2. Understanding the interaction between energetic ions and freestanding graphene towards practical 2D perforation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheim, Jakob; Wyss, Roman M.; Shorubalko, Ivan; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2016-04-01

    We report experimentally and theoretically the behavior of freestanding graphene subjected to bombardment of energetic ions, investigating the capability of large-scale patterning of freestanding graphene with nanometer sized features by focused ion beam technology. A precise control over the He+ and Ga+ irradiation offered by focused ion beam techniques enables investigating the interaction of the energetic particles and graphene suspended with no support and allows determining sputter yields of the 2D lattice. We found a strong dependency of the 2D sputter yield on the species and kinetic energy of the incident ion beams. Freestanding graphene shows material semi-transparency to He+ at high energies (10-30 keV) allowing the passage of >97% He+ particles without creating destructive lattice vacancy. Large Ga+ ions (5-30 keV), in contrast, collide far more often with the graphene lattice to impart a significantly higher sputter yield of ~50%. Binary collision theory applied to monolayer and few-layer graphene can successfully elucidate this collision mechanism, in great agreement with experiments. Raman spectroscopy analysis corroborates the passage of a large fraction of He+ ions across graphene without much damaging the lattice whereas several colliding ions create single vacancy defects. Physical understanding of the interaction between energetic particles and suspended graphene can practically lead to reproducible and efficient pattern generation of unprecedentedly small features on 2D materials by design, manifested by our perforation of sub-5 nm pore arrays. This capability of nanometer-scale precision patterning of freestanding 2D lattices shows the practical applicability of focused ion beam technology to 2D material processing for device fabrication and integration.We report experimentally and theoretically the behavior of freestanding graphene subjected to bombardment of energetic ions, investigating the capability of large-scale patterning of

  3. A commentary on multi-component seismic technology in the 84th SEG annual meeting%第84届SEG年会多分量地震技术评述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽霞; 杨春; 王赟; 张智

    2016-01-01

    综合分析2014年度美国SEG年会上多分量地震技术方面的学术论文,不难发现:在多波地震偏移成像研究中,叠前时间偏移仍是实际应用的主要方法;相比于 PS折射波初至拾取,径向-道域变换的射线路径一致性静校正方法效果更好;全波形反演在四维地震应用中具有诱人的前景,基于纵波反射系数的流体因子反演方法在稳定性、准确性方面显示出很大的优势,有望产生实际的应用效果。多分量地震技术的发展特点可归纳为“一批亮点,一个重点”,即:页岩的岩石物理实验与数值模拟分析、地震波的低频衰减气溶机理、六分量矢量波场特征的研究、多组多尺度裂缝系统的响应特征是该领域研究的亮点;综合利用海洋四分量压制鬼波及径向波、去除海底多次波、提高纵波的信噪比是海洋多分量地震技术发展的重点。%Through analysis of papers about multi-component seismic technology presented in the 84th SEG annual meeting, it is easy to find out that prestack time migration is still the major method used in multi-component migration imaging. Compared with the method based on S-wave refraction, static correction method using the radial-trace domain transform for ray path consistency can get the real reflection interface, the application of the full waveform inversion in 4D seismics has attractive perspective. Based on the advantages of stability and accuracy of the fluid factor of longitudinal wave, it is hopeful to produce practical effect. The development characteristics of the multi-component seismics can be summarized as “a lot of highlight spots and one emphasis”, the highlight spots include rock physical experiment and numerical simulation of shale, aerosol mechanism of low frequency attenuation of seismic wave, research on the characteristics six-component vector wave field, research on response characteristics of multi-group and

  4. 2D Traveling Wave Array Employing a Trapezoidal Dielectric Wedge for Beam Steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Nicholas K.; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranada, Felix A.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation addresses the progress made so far in the development of an antenna array with reconfigurable transmission line feeds connecting each element in series. In particular, 2D traveling wave array employing trapezoidal Dielectric Wedge for Beam Steering will be discussed. The presentation includes current status of the effort and suggested future work. The work is being done as part of the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist's Space Technology Research Fellowship (NSTRF).

  5. Angola Seismicity MAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, F. A. P.; Franca, G.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this job was to study and document the Angola natural seismicity, establishment of the first database seismic data to facilitate consultation and search for information on seismic activity in the country. The study was conducted based on query reports produced by National Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics (INAMET) 1968 to 2014 with emphasis to the work presented by Moreira (1968), that defined six seismogenic zones from macro seismic data, with highlighting is Zone of Sá da Bandeira (Lubango)-Chibemba-Oncócua-Iona. This is the most important of Angola seismic zone, covering the epicentral Quihita and Iona regions, geologically characterized by transcontinental structure tectono-magmatic activation of the Mesozoic with the installation of a wide variety of intrusive rocks of ultrabasic-alkaline composition, basic and alkaline, kimberlites and carbonatites, strongly marked by intense tectonism, presenting with several faults and fractures (locally called corredor de Lucapa). The earthquake of May 9, 1948 reached intensity VI on the Mercalli-Sieberg scale (MCS) in the locality of Quihita, and seismic active of Iona January 15, 1964, the main shock hit the grade VI-VII. Although not having significant seismicity rate can not be neglected, the other five zone are: Cassongue-Ganda-Massano de Amorim; Lola-Quilengues-Caluquembe; Gago Coutinho-zone; Cuima-Cachingues-Cambândua; The Upper Zambezi zone. We also analyzed technical reports on the seismicity of the middle Kwanza produced by Hidroproekt (GAMEK) region as well as international seismic bulletins of the International Seismological Centre (ISC), United States Geological Survey (USGS), and these data served for instrumental location of the epicenters. All compiled information made possible the creation of the First datbase of seismic data for Angola, preparing the map of seismicity with the reconfirmation of the main seismic zones defined by Moreira (1968) and the identification of a new seismic

  6. The Application of the Reinforcement Technology in the Improvement of House Seismic Performance in Xinjiang Province%植筋加固技术在提高新疆民居抗震性能中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静

    2014-01-01

    目前,新疆存在着很多老旧简易的砌体结构建筑,而且处于地震多发区,这对人们的生命安全造成严重威胁。文章介绍了植筋加固技术的定义、施工流程和注意事项等,对提高新疆民居抗震性具有一定的指导意义。%At present, there are many old simple buildings of masonry structure in Xinjiang, and they are in the earthquake prone zone, which poses a serious threat to people’s life safety. This paper introduced the definition, construction process and the mat ers needing at ention of reinforcement technology, wh-ich has certain guiding significance for improving the seismic performance of dwel ings in Xinjiang.

  7. National Prociency Testing Result of CYP2D6*10 Genotyping for Adjuvant Tamoxifen Therapy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guigao; Zhang, Kuo; Yi, Lang; Han, Yanxi; Xie, Jiehong; Li, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Tamoxifen has been successfully used for treating breast cancer and preventing cancer recurrence. Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) plays a key role in the process of metabolizing tamoxifen to its active moiety, endoxifen. Patients with variants of the CYP2D6 gene may not receive the full benefit of tamoxifen treatment. The CYP2D6*10 variant (the most common variant in Asians) was analyzed to optimize the prescription of tamoxifen in China. To ensure referring clinicians have accurate information for genotype-guided tamoxifen treatment, the Chinese National Center for Clinical Laboratories (NCCL) organized a national proficiency testing (PT) to evaluate the performance of laboratories providing CYP2D6*10 genotyping. Ten genomic DNA samples with CYP2D6 wild-type or CYP2D6*10 variants were validated by PCR-sequencing and sent to 28 participant laboratories. The genotyping results and pharmacogenomic test reports were submitted and evaluated by NCCL experts. Additional information regarding the number of samples tested, the accreditation/certification status, and detecting technology was also requested. Thirty-one data sets were received, with a corresponding analytical sensitivity of 98.2% (548/558 challenges; 95% confidence interval: 96.7-99.1%) and an analytic specificity of 96.5% (675/682; 95% confidence interval: 97.9-99.5%). Overall, 25/28 participants correctly identified CYP2D6*10 status in 10 samples; however, two laboratories made serious genotyping errors. Most of the essential information was included in the 20 submitted CYP2D6*10 test reports. The majority of Chinese laboratories are reliable for detecting the CYP2D6*10 variant; however, several issues revealed in this study underline the importance of PT schemes in continued external assessment and provision of guidelines. PMID:27603206

  8. Sparse Non-negative Tensor 2D Deconvolution (SNTF2D) for multi channel time-frequency analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel N.

    2006-01-01

    We recently introduced two algorithms for sparse non-negative matrix factor 2-D deconvolution (SNMF2D) that are useful for single channel source separation and music transcription. We here extend this approach to the analysis of the log-frequency spectrograms of a multichannel recording. The model...... algorithms are demonstrated to successfully identify the components of both artificially generated as well as real stereo music....

  9. Anisotropic seismic-waveform inversion: Application to a seismic velocity model from Eleven-Mile Canyon in Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gao, Kai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sabin, Andrew [Geothermal Program Office, China Lake, CA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Accurate imaging and characterization of fracture zones is crucial for geothermal energy exploration. Aligned fractures within fracture zones behave as anisotropic media for seismic-wave propagation. The anisotropic properties in fracture zones introduce extra difficulties for seismic imaging and waveform inversion. We have recently developed a new anisotropic elastic-waveform inversion method using a modified total-variation regularization scheme and a wave-energy-base preconditioning technique. Our new inversion method uses the parameterization of elasticity constants to describe anisotropic media, and hence it can properly handle arbitrary anisotropy. We apply our new inversion method to a seismic velocity model along a 2D-line seismic data acquired at Eleven-Mile Canyon located at the Southern Dixie Valley in Nevada for geothermal energy exploration. Our inversion results show that anisotropic elastic-waveform inversion has potential to reconstruct subsurface anisotropic elastic parameters for imaging and characterization of fracture zones.

  10. Research Review on Seismic Retrofit of Earthquake-damage RC Structure by Using Energy Dissipation Technology%震损钢筋混凝土结构减震加固研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 翁大根; 彭林海

    2012-01-01

    震损钢筋混凝土结构如何考虑损伤影响以进行减震加固设计是值得研究的问题.本文介绍了国内外相关建筑加固与减震设计的系列标准规范,基于震损结构的各种加固工况探讨了减震加固技术的适用范围,概括了国内外有关消能减震加固技术的发展及其应用于震损结构加固的研究现状,简述了灾后震损结构进行减震加固的几种设计方法,并列出了部分典型的减震加固工程实例.最后,在已有研究的基础上,指出了现阶段震损结构减震加固研究中仍存在的一些问题.%In the design process of earthquake-damaged RC buildings retrofitted with added damping system, how to take the structural damage influences into account is deemed to be a key issue worthy of further research. Pursuant to this, some standards and codes related to seismic retrofit and energy dissipating design of buildings around the world are introduced, and the scope for application of energy dissipation technology to seismic retrofit is discussed based on various retrofitting measures towards earthquake-damaged structures. Moreover, the research status of damping retrofit technology and its application to seismic retrofit of earthquake-damaged structures are summarized, and several retrofitting design methods of earthquake-damaged structures using added damping system are stated, as well as numbers of typical engineering samples. In the end, some questions in current research on retrofit of earthquake-damaged structures with added damping system are pointed out.

  11. 3D seismic data interpretation technology and its application in Qintong depress in North Jiangsu basin%三维地震解释技术及其在苏北盆地溱潼凹陷的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓东; 黄薇漪; 卢占武

    2013-01-01

    反射地震剖面是进行精准油气勘探的手段之一,对勘探目标的精确定位,要求不断提高和发展三维地震资料解释技术.本文以苏北盆地溱潼凹陷的地震解释为例,验证了切片、方差体检测、正演模型、三维可视化及平衡剖面等地震解释技术组合的效果.解释成果刻画出溱潼凹陷古近系是由上、下两个构造层序叠合的、复式层序地层格架,由北向南可划分出北部缓斜坡带、中央深洼带、南部断坡带等沉积古地理单元,为有利油气聚集相带的预测奠定了坚实的基础.%Reflection seismic profile is one of the most accurate methods of oil and gas exploration.Precise positioning of the exploration targets requires improving and developing 3D seismic data interpretation technology.As an example,some technologies,such as slicing,the variance body detection,forward modeling,3D visualization and balanced section are used to interpret 3D seismic profiles in Qintong depression in Subei Basin.Results of interpretation show that the Paleogene stratigraphic framework of Qintong depression is a superimposed and duplex sequence made up of the upper and lower tectonic sequences.From north to south,the depression can be divided into northern slow slope belt,the central deep depression belt and the south ramp belt as sedimentary palaeogeographic unit.This research laid a solid foundation for forecasting favorable oil and gas accumulation phase.

  12. Numerical simulation of ( T 2, T 1) 2D NMR and fluid responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mao-Jin; Zou, You-Long; Zhang, Jin-Yan; Zhao, Xin

    2012-12-01

    One-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D NMR) logging technology is limited for fluid typing, while two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) logging can provide more parameters including longitudinal relaxation time ( T 1) and transverse relaxation time ( T 2) relative to fluid types in porous media. Based on the 2D NMR relaxation mechanism in a gradient magnetic field, echo train simulation and 2D NMR inversion are discussed in detail. For 2D NMR inversion, a hybrid inversion method is proposed based on the damping least squares method (LSQR) and an improved truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) algorithm. A series of spin echoes are first simulated with multiple waiting times ( T W s) in a gradient magnetic field for given fluid models and these synthesized echo trains are inverted by the hybrid method. The inversion results are consistent with given models. Moreover, the numerical simulation of various fluid models such as the gas-water, light oil-water, and vicious oil-water models were carried out with different echo spacings ( T E s) and T W s by this hybrid method. Finally, the influences of different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) on inversion results in various fluid models are studied. The numerical simulations show that the hybrid method and optimized observation parameters are applicable to fluid typing of gas-water and oil-water models.

  13. GAME THEORY BASED INTERFERENCE CONTROL AND POWER CONTROL FOR D2D COMMUNICATION IN CELLULAR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa-Bin Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the current development of mobile communication services, people need personal communication of high speed, excellent service, high quality and low latency,however, limited spectrum resources become the most important factor to hamper improvement of cellular systems. As big amount of data traffic will cause greater local consumption of spectrum resources, future networks are required to have appropriate techniques to better support such forms of communication. D2D (Device-to-device communication technology in a cellular network makes full use of spectrum resources underlaying, reduces the load of the base station, minimizes transmit power of the terminals and the base stations, thereby enhances the overall throughput of the networks. Due to the use of multiplexing D2D UE (User equipment resources and spectrum, and the interference caused by the sharing of resources between adjacent cells, it has become a major factor affecting coexisting of cellular subscribers and D2D users. When D2D communication multiplexes the uplink resources, the base-stations are easily to be disturbed; when the downlink resources are multiplexed, the users of downlink are susceptible to interference. In order to build a high-efficient mobile network, we can meet the QoS requirements by controlling the power to suppress the interference between the base station and a terminal user.

  14. KOREAN MOBILE OPERATORS' VALUE MAP FOR LTE D2D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisiya Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Managing the wireless data traffic is a main concern for mobile network operators in Information of Things (IoT environment. Long Term Evolution Device to Device (LTE D2D is regarding as a solution for the spectrum problem. It will bring an impact on providers and the whole mobile environment. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the role of key players, who share spectrum with mobile operators, and to present the value map of relationship among Korean mobile operators and other key players in LTE D2D discovery (commercial channel, as complicated relationships of key players are expected. Then, this study suggests scenario for ‘Targeted Advertising’ service of LTE D2D. LTE D2D is early discussion stage and scenario has limitation of specific business model. However, results of this study are significant for the present stage and provide implications for future researches on strategies for LTE D2D environment.

  15. Failure Mechanism of True 2D Granular Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Cuong T; Fukagawa, R

    2015-01-01

    Most previous experimental investigations of two-dimensional (2D) granular column collapses have been conducted using three-dimensional (3D) granular materials in narrow horizontal channels (i.e., quasi-2D condition). Our recent research on 2D granular column collapses by using 2D granular materials (i.e., aluminum rods) has revealed results that differ markedly from those reported in the literature. We assume a 2D column with an initial height of h0 and initial width of d0, a defined as their ratio (a =h0/d0), a final height of h , and maximum run-out distance of d . The experimental data suggest that for the low a regime (a 0.65), the ratio of a to (d-d0)/d0, h0/h , or d/d0 is expressed by power-law relations. In particular, the following power-function ratios (h0/h=1.42a^2/3 and d/d0=4.30a^0.72) are proposed for every a >0.65. In contrast, the ratio (d-d0)/d0=3.25a^0.96 only holds for 0.651.5. In addition, the influence of ground contact surfaces (hard or soft beds) on the final run-out distance and destru...

  16. The NH$_2$D hyperfine structure revealed by astrophysical observations

    CERN Document Server

    Daniel, F; Punanova, A; Harju, J; Faure, A; Roueff, E; Sipilä, O; Caselli, P; Güsten, R; Pon, A; Pineda, J E

    2016-01-01

    The 1$_{11}$-1$_{01}$ lines of ortho and para--NH$_2$D (o/p-NH$_2$D), respectively at 86 and 110 GHz, are commonly observed to provide constraints on the deuterium fractionation in the interstellar medium. In cold regions, the hyperfine structure due to the nitrogen ($^{14}$N) nucleus is resolved. To date, this splitting is the only one which is taken into account in the NH$_2$D column density estimates. We investigate how the inclusion of the hyperfine splitting caused by the deuterium (D) nucleus affects the analysis of the rotational lines of NH$_2$D. We present 30m IRAM observations of the above mentioned lines, as well as APEX o/p-NH$_2$D observations of the 1$_{01}$-0$_{00}$ lines at 333 GHz. The hyperfine spectra are first analyzed with a line list that only includes the hyperfine splitting due to the $^{14}$N nucleus. We find inconsistencies between the line widths of the 1$_{01}$-0$_{00}$ and 1$_{11}$-1$_{01}$ lines, the latter being larger by a factor of $\\sim$1.6$\\pm0.3$. Such a large difference is...

  17. Ultrafast 2D NMR: An Emerging Tool in Analytical Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudeau, Patrick; Frydman, Lucio

    2014-06-01

    Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy is widely used in chemical and biochemical analyses. Multidimensional NMR is also witnessing increased use in quantitative and metabolic screening applications. Conventional 2D NMR experiments, however, are affected by inherently long acquisition durations, arising from their need to sample the frequencies involved along their indirect domains in an incremented, scan-by-scan nature. A decade ago, a so-called ultrafast (UF) approach was proposed, capable of delivering arbitrary 2D NMR spectra involving any kind of homo- or heteronuclear correlation, in a single scan. During the intervening years, the performance of this subsecond 2D NMR methodology has been greatly improved, and UF 2D NMR is rapidly becoming a powerful analytical tool experiencing an expanded scope of applications. This review summarizes the principles and main developments that have contributed to the success of this approach and focuses on applications that have been recently demonstrated in various areas of analytical chemistry—from the real-time monitoring of chemical and biochemical processes, to extensions in hyphenated techniques and in quantitative applications.

  18. 2D materials for photon conversion and nanophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.

    2015-09-01

    The field of two-dimensional (2D) materials has the potential to enable unique applications across a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum. While 2D-layered materials hold promise for next-generation photon-conversion intrinsic limitations and challenges exist that shall be overcome. Here we discuss the intrinsic limitations as well as application opportunities of this new class of materials, and is sponsored by the NSF program Designing Materials to Revolutionize and Engineer our Future (DMREF) program, which links to the President's Materials Genome Initiative. We present general material-related details for photon conversion, and show that taking advantage of the mechanical flexibility of 2D materials by rolling MoS2/graphene/hexagonal boron nitride stack to a spiral solar cell allows for solar absorption up to 90%.

  19. Graphene based 2D-materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniselvam, Thangavelu; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-09-01

    Ever-increasing energy demands and the depletion of fossil fuels are compelling humanity toward the development of suitable electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices to attain a more sustainable society with adequate renewable energy and zero environmental pollution. In this regard, supercapacitors are being contemplated as potential energy storage devices to afford cleaner, environmentally friendly energy. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including 2D graphene and its inorganic analogues (transition metal double layer hydroxides, chalcogenides, etc), as potential electrodes for the development of supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in using these graphene-based 2D materials as potential electrodes for supercapacitors. In addition, future research trends including notable challenges and opportunities are also discussed.

  20. Simultaneous 2D Strain Sensing Using Polymer Planar Bragg Gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rosenberger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the application of polymer planar Bragg gratings for multi-axial strain sensing and particularly highlight simultaneous 2D strain measurement. A polymer planar Bragg grating (PPBG fabricated with a single writing step in bulk polymethylmethacrylate is used for measuring both tensile and compressive strain at various angles. It is shown that the sensitivity of the PPBG strongly depends on the angle between the optical waveguide into which the grating is inscribed and the direction along which the mechanical load is applied. Additionally, a 2D PPBG fabricated by writing two Bragg gratings angularly displaced from each other into a single polymer platelet is bonded to a stainless steel plate. The two reflected wavelengths exhibit different sensitivities while tested toward tensile and compressive strain. These characteristics make 2D PPBG suitable for measuring multi-axial tensile and compressive strain.

  1. Cluster algebras in Scattering Amplitudes with special 2D kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Marcus A C

    2013-01-01

    We study the cluster algebra of the kinematic configuration space $Conf_n(\\mathbb{P}^3)$ of a n-particle scattering amplitude restricted to the special 2D kinematics. We found that the n-points two loop MHV remainder function found in special 2D kinematics depend on a selection of \\XX-coordinates that are part of a special structure of the cluster algebra related to snake triangulations of polygons. This structure forms a necklace of hypercubes beads in the corresponding Stasheff polytope. Furthermore in $n = 12$, the cluster algebra and the selection of \\XX-coordinates in special 2D kinematics replicates the cluster algebra and the selection of \\XX-coordinates of $n=6$ two loop MHV amplitude in 4D kinematics.

  2. 2D growth processes: SLE and Loewner chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Michel [Service de Physique Theorique de Saclay, CE-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France) and Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France)]. E-mail: michel.bauer@cea.fr; Bernard, Denis [Service de Physique Theorique de Saclay, CE-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France) and Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France)]. E-mail: denis.bernard@cea.fr

    2006-10-15

    This review provides an introduction to two dimensional growth processes. Although it covers a variety of processes such as diffusion limited aggregation, it is mostly devoted to a detailed presentation of stochastic Schramm-Loewner evolutions (SLE) which are Markov processes describing interfaces in 2D critical systems. It starts with an informal discussion, using numerical simulations, of various examples of 2D growth processes and their connections with statistical mechanics. SLE is then introduced and Schramm's argument mapping conformally invariant interfaces to SLE is explained. A substantial part of the review is devoted to reveal the deep connections between statistical mechanics and processes, and more specifically to the present context, between 2D critical systems and SLE. Some of the remarkable properties of SLE are explained, together with the tools for computing with it. This review has been written with the aim of filling the gap between the mathematical and the physical literature on the subject.

  3. Design and Realization of Dynamic Obstacle on URWPSSim2D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Simulation system is charged with the strategy validation and dual team meets, and as the 2-dimensional simulation platform for underwater robotic fish game, URWPGSim2D is the assigned platform for Chinese underwater robot contest and Robot cup underwater program. By now on URWPGSim2D, there is only static obstacles,thus short of changeableness. In order to improve the changeableness and innovation of robotic fish contest, to extend the space for the programming of contest strategy, and to increase the interest, this paper study the design of dynamic obstacles on URWPGSim2D, and design and implement two kinds of dynamic obstacles, which are the evadible dynamic obstacle and the forcing dribbling obstacle.  

  4. 2D bifurcations and Newtonian properties of memristive Chua's circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszalek, W.; Podhaisky, H.

    2016-01-01

    Two interesting properties of Chua's circuits are presented. First, two-parameter bifurcation diagrams of Chua's oscillatory circuits with memristors are presented. To obtain various 2D bifurcation images a substantial numerical effort, possibly with parallel computations, is needed. The numerical algorithm is described first and its numerical code for 2D bifurcation image creation is available for free downloading. Several color 2D images and the corresponding 1D greyscale bifurcation diagrams are included. Secondly, Chua's circuits are linked to Newton's law φ ''= F(t,φ,φ')/m with φ=\\text{flux} , constant m > 0, and the force term F(t,φ,φ') containing memory terms. Finally, the jounce scalar equations for Chua's circuits are also discussed.

  5. 海洋拖缆地震资料关键问题分析及处理对策%The Key Question Analysis and Processing Technologies Research in Two-dimensional Marine Seismic Data Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈见伟; 庄锡进; 胡冰; 王兆旗; 张金陵

    2012-01-01

    As the complex topography in the South China Sea region, sea-bottom undulation, complex channels , high-dip structure, are maken a very poor seismic data quality. It could not satisfy the comprehensive seismic interpretation and geological research needs. The raw data of seismic acquisition are mainly in the following problems : ①streamer drift; ②serious surge noise; ③severe multiple wave interference, makes the seismic data processing a big problem. Conventional two-dimensional seismic data processing methods can not solve the problem of deep imaging. The drift of the streamer is focused on, used pseudo three-dimensional processing ideas ; First, three-dimensional griding of the original data; Second, regularization processing after the data on the grid; Third step, select the offset uniform distribution line re-merged back into a two-dimensional survey line, makes the coverage number uniform, reduces the total impact of cmp horizontal divergence,and is useful for the noise and multiple waves suppression, but also is conducive to the result of image processing. The final results show the effectiveness of this method, compared to the conventional treatment, those key technologies indeed improve the quelities of seimic data imaging.%南海地区的海底地貌复杂,起伏落差大,水道复杂、高角度构造发育,造成长期以来在该地区所获得的地震资料品质普遍偏低,不能满足后期地震解释及地质综合研究的需要.采集的原始地震资料主要存在以下问题:①拖缆漂移严重,羽角大;②涌浪噪声干扰强;③多次波发育严重,给处理带来很大的困难.常规的二维地震处理方法不能很好地解决中、深部成像问题.重点针对拖缆漂移问题,采用伪三维处理思路.首先,对原始数据进行三维网格化.其次,对网格化后的数据进行规则化处理.第三步,选取偏移距分布均匀的线段重新合并回一条二维测线.最终CDP道集内偏

  6. The seismic monitoring network of Mt. Vesuvius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Orazi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mt. Vesuvius (southern Italy is one of the most hazardous volcanoes in the world. Its activity is currently characterized by moderate seismicity, with hypocenters located beneath the crater zone with depth rarely exceeding 5 km and magnitudes generally less than 3. The current configuration of the seismic monitoring network of Mt. Vesuvius consists of 18 seismic stations and 7 infrasound microphones. During the period 2006-2010 a seismic array with 48 channels was also operative. The station distribution provides appropriate coverage of the area around the volcanic edifice. The current development of the network and its geometry, under conditions of low seismic noise, allows locating seismic events with M<1. Remote instruments continuously transmit data to the main acquisition center in Naples. Data transmission is realized using different technological solutions based on UHF, Wi-Fi radio links, and TCP/IP client-server applications. Data are collected in the monitoring center of the Osservatorio Vesuviano (Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Naples section, which is equipped with systems for displaying and analyzing signals, using both real-time automatic and manual procedures. 24-hour surveillance allows to immediately communicate any significant anomaly to the Civil Protection authorities.

  7. W$_{\\infty}$ structures of 2D string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, K J

    1996-01-01

    The Ward identities of the W_{\\infty} symmetry in 2D string theory in the tachyon background are studied in the continuum approach. Comparing the solutions with the matrix model results, it is verified that 2D string amplitudes are different from the matrix model amplitudes only by the external leg factors even in higher genus. This talk is based on the recent work [1] and also [2] for the c_M <1 model. (Talk given at the workshop on ``Frontiers in Quantum Field Theory'', Osaka, Japan, December 1995.)

  8. CH2D+, the Search for the Holy Grail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roueff, Evelyne; Gerin, Maryvonne; Lis, Dariusz C.; Wootten, Alwyn; Marcelino, Nuria; Cernicharo, Jose; Tercero, Belen

    2013-10-01

    CH2D+, the singly deuterated counterpart of CH3+, offers an alternative way to mediate formation of deuterated species at temperatures of several tens of Kelvin, as compared to the release of deuterated species from grains. We report a longstanding observational search for this molecular ion, whose rotational spectroscopy is not yet completely secure. We summarize the main spectroscopic properties of this molecule and discuss the chemical network leading to the formation of CH2D+, with explicit account of the ortho/para forms of H2, H3+, and CH3+. Astrochemical models support the presence of this molecular ion in moderately warm environments at a marginal level.

  9. Isotropic 2D quadrangle meshing with size and orientation control

    KAUST Repository

    Pellenard, Bertrand

    2011-12-01

    We propose an approach for automatically generating isotropic 2D quadrangle meshes from arbitrary domains with a fine control over sizing and orientation of the elements. At the heart of our algorithm is an optimization procedure that, from a coarse initial tiling of the 2D domain, enforces each of the desirable mesh quality criteria (size, shape, orientation, degree, regularity) one at a time, in an order designed not to undo previous enhancements. Our experiments demonstrate how well our resulting quadrangle meshes conform to a wide range of input sizing and orientation fields.

  10. Design of the LRP airfoil series using 2D CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahle, Frederik; Bak, Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and wind tunnel testing of a high-Reynolds number, high lift airfoil series designed for wind turbines. The airfoils were designed using direct gradient- based numerical multi-point optimization based on a Bezier parameterization of the shape, coupled to the 2D...... Navier-Stokes flow solver EllipSys2D. The resulting airfoils, the LRP2-30 and LRP2-36, achieve both higher operational lift coefficients and higher lift to drag ratios compared to the equivalent FFA-W3 airfoils....

  11. EEG simulation by 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubany, Adam, E-mail: adamku@bgu.ac.i [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Mhabary, Ziv; Gontar, Vladimir [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: ANN of 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators is explored for EEG simulation. An inverse problem solution (PRCGA) is proposed. Good matching between the simulated and experimental EEG signals has been achieved. - Abstract: An artificial neuronal network composed by 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators is explored for brain waves (EEG) simulation. For the inverse problem solution a parallel real-coded genetic algorithm (PRCGA) is proposed. In order to conduct thorough comparison between the simulated and target signal characteristics, a spectrum analysis of the signals is undertaken. A good matching between the theoretical and experimental EEG signals has been achieved. Numerical results of calculations are presented and discussed.

  12. Self-dual Strings and 2D SYM

    CERN Document Server

    Hosomichi, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    We study the system of M2-branes suspended between parallel M5-branes using ABJM model with a natural half-BPS boundary condition. For small separation between M5-branes, the worldvolume theory is shown to reduce to a 2D N=(4,4) super Yang-Mills theory with some similarity to q-deformed Yang-Mills theory. The gauge coupling is related to the position of the branes in an interesting manner. The theory is considerably different from the 2D theory proposed for multiple "M-strings". We make a detailed comparison of elliptic genus of the two descriptions and find only a partial agreement.

  13. 2D-ACAR investigations of PPT aramid fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2D-ACAR spectra of PPT (poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide)) fibres which contain structural elongated open spaces in the crystallographic unit cell show a p-Ps peak with an elliptical cross-section and side lobes. Peak broadening suggests dimensions of ∝14-17 by 7-9 A for the open spaces and indicates some penetration of Ps into the interlayer spacing. The side lobes can be related to projected reciprocal lattice points and indicate Ps delocalization. 2D-ACAR has also been used to study the evolution of water release from the open spaces. (orig.)

  14. EEG simulation by 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → ANN of 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators is explored for EEG simulation. → An inverse problem solution (PRCGA) is proposed. → Good matching between the simulated and experimental EEG signals has been achieved. - Abstract: An artificial neuronal network composed by 2D interconnected chaotic oscillators is explored for brain waves (EEG) simulation. For the inverse problem solution a parallel real-coded genetic algorithm (PRCGA) is proposed. In order to conduct thorough comparison between the simulated and target signal characteristics, a spectrum analysis of the signals is undertaken. A good matching between the theoretical and experimental EEG signals has been achieved. Numerical results of calculations are presented and discussed.

  15. Quantum process tomography by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachón, Leonardo A. [Grupo de Física Atómica y Molecular, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Marcus, Andrew H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Oregon Center for Optics, Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States); Aspuru-Guzik, Alán [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter Γ of the doubly excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed.

  16. CH2D+, the Search for the Holy Grail

    CERN Document Server

    Roueff, E; Lis, D C; Wootten, A; Marcelino, N; cernicharo, J; Tercero, B

    2013-01-01

    CH2D+, the singly deuterated counterpart of CH3+, offers an alternative way to mediate formation of deuterated species at temperatures of several tens of K, as compared to the release of deuterated species from grains. We report a longstanding observational search for this molecular ion, whose rotational spectroscopy is not yet completely secure. We summarize the main spectroscopic properties of this molecule and discuss the chemical network leading to the formation of CH2D+, with explicit account of the ortho/para forms of H2, H3+ and CH3+. Astrochemical models support the presence of this molecular ion in moderately warm environments at a marginal level.

  17. GENERALIZED VARIATIONAL OPTIMAZATION ANALYSIS FOR 2-D FLOW FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Si-xun; XU Ding-hua; LAN Wei-ren; TENG Jia-jun

    2005-01-01

    The Variational Optimization Analysis Method (VOAM) for 2-D flow field suggested by Sasaki was reviewed first. It is known that the VOAM can be used efficiently in most cases. However, in the cases where there are high frequency noises in 2-D flow field, it appears to be inefficient. In the present paper, based on Sasaki's VOAM, a Generalized Variational Optimization Analysis Method (GVOAM) was proposed with regularization ideas, which could deal well with flow fields containing high frequency noises. A numerical test shows that observational data can be both variationally optimized and filtered, and therefore the GVOAM is an efficient method.

  18. QSAR Models for P-450 (2D6) Substrate Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Tine; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Jensen, Gunde Egeskov;

    2009-01-01

    drugs and other chemicals. A training set of 747 chemicals primarily based on in vivo human data for the CYP isoenzyme 2D6 was collected from the literature. QSAR models focusing on substrate/non substrate activity were constructed by the use of MultiCASE, Leadscope and MDL quantitative structure......Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) is a large group of enzymes that possess an essential function in metabolising different exogenous and endogenous compounds. Humans have more than 50 different genes encoding CYP enzymes, among these a gene encoding for the CYP isoenzyme 2D6, a CYP able to metabolise...

  19. SKIMO: corto de animación 2D

    OpenAIRE

    VALERO BALLESTER, AIDA AMPARO

    2015-01-01

    El siguiente Trabajo Final de Grado llamado “Skimo” consiste en un teaser de animación 2D enfocado a ser finalizado el próximo año durante la realización del Diploma en Animación de personajes 2D del Máster de animación. Realizado en solitario como reto personal durante el curso presente, siendo la primera vez que trabajaba la animación. Para este proyecto he realizado toda la preproducción (layout, animática, storyboard, diseño de personajes, fondos, etc), animación en pape...

  20. Transmission properties of 2D metamaterial photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Salazar, Jorge; Porras-Montenegro, Nelson

    2014-03-01

    By using the finite difference time domain technique, we have performed a theoretical study of the transmission properties in 2D photonic crystals composed by circular cilyndrical metamaterial rods. Numerical transmission spectra was compared with its corresponding photonic band structure in the case of an infinite periodic 2D array obtaining a very good agreement. On the other hand, we have characterized the corresponding symmetries for this system and the results were compared with its corresponding conventional plasmonic metamaterial counterpart. J.R. M-S is funded by the Colombian Agency COLCIENCIAS.

  1. Nomenclature for human CYP2D6 alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, A K; Brockmöller, J; Broly, F; Eichelbaum, M; Evans, W E; Gonzalez, F J; Huang, J D; Idle, J R; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Ishizaki, T; Jacqz-Aigrain, E; Meyer, U A; Nebert, D W; Steen, V M; Wolf, C R; Zanger, U M

    1996-06-01

    To standardize CYP2D6 allele nomenclature, and to conform with international human gene nomenclature guidelines, an alternative to the current arbitrary system is described. Based on recommendations for human genome nomenclature, we propose that alleles be designated by CYP2D6 followed by an asterisk and a combination of roman letters and arabic numerals distinct for each allele with the number specifying the key mutation and, where appropriate, a letter specifying additional mutations. Criteria for classification as a separate allele and protein nomenclature are also presented. PMID:8807658

  2. A seismic design of nuclear reactor building structures applying seismic isolation system in a seismicity region-a feasibility case study in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Tetsuo [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, Tomofumi; Sato, Kunihiko [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Jimbo, Masakazu [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama (Japan); Imaoka, Tetsuo [Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd., Hitachi (Japan); Umeki, Yoshito [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    A feasibility study on the seismic design of nuclear reactor buildings with application of a seismic isolation system is introduced. After the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake in Japan of 1995, seismic isolation technologies have been widely employed for commercial buildings. Having become a mature technology, seismic isolation systems can be applied to NPP facilities in areas of high seismicity. Two reactor buildings are discussed, representing the PWR and BWR buildings in Japan, and the application of seismic isolation systems is discussed. The isolation system employing rubber bearings with a lead plug positioned (LRB) is examined. Through a series of seismic response analyses using the so-named standard design earthquake motions covering the design basis earthquake motions obtained for NPP sites in Japan, the responses of the seismic isolated reactor buildings are evaluated. It is revealed that for the building structures examined herein: (1) the responses of both isolated buildings and isolating LRBs fulfill the specified design criteria; (2) the responses obtained for the isolating LRBs first reach the ultimate condition when intensity of motion is 2.0 to 2.5 times as large as that of the design-basis; and (3) the responses of isolated reactor building fall below the range of the prescribed criteria.

  3. The Effects of Heterogeneities on Seismic Wave Propagation in the Climax Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, C. H.; Snelson, C. M.; White, R. L.; Emmitt, R. F.; Barker, D. L.; Abbott, R. E.; Bonal, N. D.

    2011-12-01

    . The focus of this study is two-fold: (1) the geophone array that was focused over the SPE shot and (2) a high-resolution seismic profile that was recently acquired at the field site. The geophone array was placed radially around the SPE shot in five directions with 100m spacing and out to a distance of 2km. The high-resolution profile was about 475m in length with station and shot spacing of 5m using a 7000lb mini-vibe as a source. In both data sets, the first arrivals will be used to develop velocity models. For the geophone array, 1-D P-wave velocity models will be developed to determine an average apparent velocity of the Climax Stock. The high-resolution data will be used to develop a 2-D P-wave velocity model along the seismic profile. This is in an effort to elucidate the water table in more detail and provide additional information on the near-surface structure. These results will be used in the overall modeling effort to fully characterize the test bed and develop a physics-based model to simulate seismic energy from the SPE events. This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. Seismic Catalogue and Seismic Network in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belizaire, D.; Benito, B.; Carreño, E.; Meneses, C.; Huerfano, V.; Polanco, E.; McCormack, D.

    2013-05-01

    The destructive earthquake occurred on January 10, 2010 in Haiti, highlighted the lack of preparedness of the country to address seismic phenomena. At the moment of the earthquake, there was no seismic network operating in the country, and only a partial control of the past seismicity was possible, due to the absence of a national catalogue. After the 2010 earthquake, some advances began towards the installation of a national network and the elaboration of a seismic catalogue providing the necessary input for seismic Hazard Studies. This paper presents the state of the works carried out covering both aspects. First, a seismic catalogue has been built, compiling data of historical and instrumental events occurred in the Hispaniola Island and surroundings, in the frame of the SISMO-HAITI project, supported by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) and Developed in cooperation with the Observatoire National de l'Environnement et de la Vulnérabilité of Haiti (ONEV). Data from different agencies all over the world were gathered, being relevant the role of the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico seismological services which provides local data of their national networks. Almost 30000 events recorded in the area from 1551 till 2011 were compiled in a first catalogue, among them 7700 events with Mw ranges between 4.0 and 8.3. Since different magnitude scale were given by the different agencies (Ms, mb, MD, ML), this first catalogue was affected by important heterogeneity in the size parameter. Then it was homogenized to moment magnitude Mw using the empirical equations developed by Bonzoni et al (2011) for the eastern Caribbean. At present, this is the most exhaustive catalogue of the country, although it is difficult to assess its degree of completeness. Regarding the seismic network, 3 stations were installed just after the 2010 earthquake by the Canadian Government. The data were sent by telemetry thought the Canadian System CARINA. In 2012, the Spanish IGN together

  5. A robust phase information extraction using 2-D quadrature filtering (monogenic and 2D-Log Gabor and modified HD for matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Aydi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The human iris recognition system is an attractive technology for identity authentication. This technology benefits from random variations in the features of the iris. Usually, an iris recognition system has 4 modules: segmentation, normalization, feature extraction and iris templates matching. This work is mainly focused on iris texture analysis and templates matching which are 2 essential processes in the iris recognition system. The proposed approach extracts robust phase information using filtering (both monogenic and 2D log Gabor. Then, two types of distance measures such as modified HD and Jaccard distances are chosen as metrics for recognition. We comparatively evaluate the performance of the proposed method and the fractal analysis using CASIA-V3.0 iris image databases. The obtained results with monogenic and 2D-Log Gabor filters were highly promising and led to significantly improved performance in speed and accuracy. With dissimilarity modified Hamming distance; we improved the accuracy of the iris recognition system, with a FAR equal to 3% and a speed at least 8 times..

  6. The Impact of Interactivity on Comprehending 2D and 3D Visualizations of Movement Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Fereshteh; Rufiange, Sebastien; Hossain, Zahid; Ventura, Quentin; Irani, Pourang; McGuffin, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    GPS, RFID, and other technologies have made it increasingly common to track the positions of people and objects over time as they move through two-dimensional spaces. Visualizing such spatio-temporal movement data is challenging because each person or object involves three variables (two spatial variables as a function of the time variable), and simply plotting the data on a 2D geographic map can result in overplotting and occlusion that hides details. This also makes it difficult to understand correlations between space and time. Software such as GeoTime can display such data with a three-dimensional visualization, where the 3rd dimension is used for time. This allows for the disambiguation of spatially overlapping trajectories, and in theory, should make the data clearer. However, previous experimental comparisons of 2D and 3D visualizations have so far found little advantage in 3D visualizations, possibly due to the increased complexity of navigating and understanding a 3D view. We present a new controlled experimental comparison of 2D and 3D visualizations, involving commonly performed tasks that have not been tested before, and find advantages in 3D visualizations for more complex tasks. In particular, we tease out the effects of various basic interactions and find that the 2D view relies significantly on "scrubbing" the timeline, whereas the 3D view relies mainly on 3D camera navigation. Our work helps to improve understanding of 2D and 3D visualizations of spatio-temporal data, particularly with respect to interactivity.

  7. CYP2D6基因与药物代谢%CYP2D6 gene and drug metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施安国

    2003-01-01

    细胞色素P-450(CYP)中的CYP2D6酶在抗抑郁药、安定药及某些抗心律失常药的代谢中起重要作用,CYP2D6基因位于22号常染色体上为隐性遗传,CYP2D6基因呈多态性约有70余种等位基因变异型,也存在特异人群差别,因而导致所编码的酶活性不同,这些数据有助于理解药物代谢的个体差异、有助于预测药物之间的相互作用.

  8. Seismic velocity structure and spatial distribution of reflection intensity off the Boso Peninsula, Central Japan, revealed by an ocean bottom seismographic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Akihiro; Sato, Toshinori; Shinohara, Masanao; Mochizuki, Kimihiro; Yamada, Tomoaki; Uehira, Kenji; Shinbo, Takashi; Machida, Yuuya; Hino, Ryota; Azuma, Ryosuke

    2016-04-01

    Off the Boso Peninsula, central Japan, where the Sagami Trough is in the south and the Japan Trench is in the east, there is a triple junction where the Pacific plate (PAC), the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) and the Honshu island arc (HIA) meet each other. In this region, the PAC subducts beneath the PHS and the HIA, and the PHS subducts beneath the HIA. Due to the subduction of 2 oceanic plates, numerous seismic events took place in the past. In order to understand these events, it is important to image structure of these plates. Hence, many researchers attempted to reveal the substructure from natural earthquakes and seismic experiments. Because most of the seismometers are placed inland area and the regular seismicity off Boso is inactive, it is difficult to reveal the precise substructure off Boso area using only natural earthquakes. Although several marine seismic experiments using active sources were conducted, vast area remains unclear off Boso Peninsula. In order to improve the situation, a marine seismic experiment, using airgun as an active source, was conducted from 30th July to 4th of August, 2009. The survey line has 216 km length and 20 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) were placed on it. We estimated 2-D P-wave velocity structure from the airgun data using the PMDM (Progressive Model Development Method; Sato and Kenett, 2000) and the FAST (First Arrival Seismic Tomography ; Zelt and Barton, 1998). Furthermore, we identified the probable reflection phases from the data and estimated the location of reflectors using Travel time mapping method (Fujie et al. 2006). We found some reflection phases from the data, and the reflectors are located near the region where P-wave velocity is 5.0 km/s. We interpret that the reflectors indicate the plate boundary between the PHS and the HIA. The variation of the intensity of reflection along the upper surface of PHS seems to be consistent with the result from previous reflection seismic experiment conducted by Kimura et

  9. Deblending of seismic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahdad, A.

    2012-01-01

    Seismic imaging is one of the most common geophysical techniques for hydrocarbon exploration. Seismic acquisition is a trade-off between economy and quality. In conventional acquisition, the time intervals between successively firing sources are large enough to avoid interference in time. To obtain

  10. Influence of Isotope Effects on Product Polarizations of N(2D)+D2,N(2D)+H2 and N(2D)+HD Reactive Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Shan-shan; CHU Tian-shu

    2012-01-01

    To figure out the influence of isotope effect on product polarizations of the N(2D)+D2 reactive system and its isotope variants,quasi-classical trajectory(QCT) calculation was performed on Ho's potential energy surfacc(PES) of 2A" state.Product polarizations such as product distributions ofP(θr),P(φr) and P(θr,φr),as well as the generalized polarization-dependent differential cross sections(PDDCSs) were discussed and compared in detail among the four product channels of the title reactions.Both the intermolecular and intramolecular isotope effects were proved to be influential on product polarizations.

  11. Wilson loop in 2d noncommutative gauge theories

    OpenAIRE

    Valtancoli, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    We reconsider the perturbative expansion of the Wilson loop in 2d noncommutative gauge theories, using an improved integration method. For the class of maximally crossed diagrams in the $\\theta \\to \\infty$ limit we find an intriguing formula, easily generalizable to all orders in perturbation theory.

  12. The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: Preliminary Results

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, S.

    1997-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations for a new survey of 250 000 galaxy redshifts are underway, using the 2dF instrument at the AAT. The input galaxy catalogue and commissioning data are described. The first result from the preliminary data is a new estimate of the galaxy luminosity function at =0.1.

  13. H on He: sticking and 2d-superfluidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sticking coefficient, which governs the sticking time τs, is discussed for high surface-coverage conditions. We point out that τs must remain large compared to a characteristic vortex diffusion time, if the system is to display 2d-superfluidity

  14. 2D Static Light Scattering for Dairy Based Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke

    Throughout this thesis we investigate a recently introduced optical technique denoted 2D static light scattering (2DSLS). The technique is remote sensing, non-invasive, highly flexible, and appears to be well suited for in-line process control. Moreover, the output signal contains contributions...

  15. CFD code comparison for 2D airfoil flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Méndez, B.; Muñoz, A.;

    2016-01-01

    The current paper presents the effort, in the EU AVATAR project, to establish the necessary requirements to obtain consistent lift over drag ratios among seven CFD codes. The flow around a 2D airfoil case is studied, for both transitional and fully turbulent conditions at Reynolds numbers of 3 × ...

  16. Fiber Drawn 2D Polymeric Photonic Crystal THz Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecher, Matthias; Jansen, Christian; Ahmadi-Boroujeni, Mehdi;

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report on different polymeric 2D photonic crystal filters for THz frequencies which are fabricated by a standard fiber drawing technique. The bandstop filters were simulated and designed by the generalized multipole technique (GMT). The frequency and angle dependent transmission...

  17. Horns Rev II, 2D-Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Brorsen, Michael

    This report is an extension of the study presented in Lykke Andersen and Brorsen, 2006 and includes results from the irregular wave tests, where Lykke Andersen & Brorsen, 2006 focused on regular waves. The 2D physical model tests were carried out in the shallow wave flume at Dept. of Civil...

  18. 2D InP photonic crystal fabrication process development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rong, B.; Van der Drift, E.; Van der Heijden, R.W.; Salemink, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a reliable process to fabricate high quality 2D air-hole and dielectric column InP photonic crystals with a high aspect ratio on a STS production tool using ICP N2+Cl2 plasma. The photonic crystals have a triangular lattice with lattice constant of 400 nm and air-hole and dielectri

  19. Interactive Exploratory Visualization of 2D Vector Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isenberg, Tobias; Everts, Maarten H.; Grubert, Jens; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present several techniques to interactively explore representations of 2D vector fields. Through a set of simple hand postures used on large, touch-sensitive displays, our approach allows individuals to custom-design glyphs (arrows, lines, etc.) that best reveal patterns of the unde

  20. CANONICAL COMPUTATIONAL FORMS FOR AR 2-D SYSTEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROCHA, P; WILLEMS, JC

    1990-01-01

    A canonical form for AR 2-D systems representations is introduced. This yields a method for computing the system trajectories by means of a line-by-line recursion, and displays some relevant information about the system structure such as the choice of inputs and initial conditions.

  1. Resolution deconvolution method applied to 2D-ACAR measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An inexpensive way to achieve high resolution 2D-ACAR measurements is to utilize resolution deconvolution techniques. We developed a resolution deconvolution method which avoids noise amplification and is applicable to the 3D reconstruction method using Fourier-Bessel transforms. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. The toroidal Hausdorff dimension of 2d Euclidean quantum gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjorn, Jan; Budd, Timothy George

    2013-01-01

    The lengths of shortest non-contractible loops are studied numerically in 2d Euclidean quantum gravity on a torus coupled to conformal field theories with central charge less than one. We find that the distribution of these geodesic lengths displays a scaling in agreement with a Hausdorff dimensi...

  3. 2D kinematics of simulated disc merger remnants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jesseit, Roland; Naab, Thorsten; Peletier, Reynier F.; Burkert, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    We present a 2D kinematic analysis for a sample of simulated binary disc merger remnants with mass ratios 1:1 and 3:1. For the progenitor discs we used pure stellar models as well as models with 10 per cent of their mass in gas. A multitude of phenomena also observed in real galaxies are found in th

  4. High resolution 2D image upconversion of incoherent light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    An optimized method for continuous wave 2-dimensional (2-D) upconversion of incoherent or thermal light is demonstrated and quantified. Using standard resolution targets a resolution of 200×1000 pixels is obtained. The suggested method is viewed in scope of modern CCD cameras operating in the nea...

  5. A VARIATIONAL MODEL FOR 2-D MICROPOLAR BLOOD FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Ji-huan

    2003-01-01

    The micropolar fluid model is an essential generalization of the well-established Navier-Stokes model in the sense that it takes into account the microstructure of the fluid.This paper is devolted to establishing a variational principle for 2-D incompressible micropolar blood flow.

  6. NKG2D ligands mediate immunosurveillance of senescent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiv, Adi; Burton, Dominick G A; Moshayev, Zhana; Vadai, Ezra; Wensveen, Felix; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Golani, Ofra; Polic, Bojan; Krizhanovsky, Valery

    2016-02-01

    Cellular senescence is a stress response mechanism that limits tumorigenesis and tissue damage. Induction of cellular senescence commonly coincides with an immunogenic phenotype that promotes self-elimination by components of the immune system, thereby facilitating tumor suppression and limiting excess fibrosis during wound repair. The mechanisms by which senescent cells regulate their immune surveillance are not completely understood. Here we show that ligands of an activating Natural Killer (NK) cell receptor (NKG2D), MICA and ULBP2 are consistently up-regulated following induction of replicative senescence, oncogene-induced senescence and DNA damage - induced senescence. MICA and ULBP2 proteins are necessary for efficient NK-mediated cytotoxicity towards senescent fibroblasts. The mechanisms regulating the initial expression of NKG2D ligands in senescent cells are dependent on a DNA damage response, whilst continuous expression of these ligands is regulated by the ERK signaling pathway. In liver fibrosis, the accumulation of senescent activated stellate cells is increased in mice lacking NKG2D receptor leading to increased fibrosis. Overall, our results provide new insights into the mechanisms regulating the expression of immune ligands in senescent cells and reveal the importance of NKG2D receptor-ligand interaction in protecting against liver fibrosis. PMID:26878797

  7. ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research

  8. 2D signature for detection and identification of drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Shen, Jingling; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhou, Qingli; Shi, Yulei

    2011-06-01

    The method of spectral dynamics analysis (SDA-method) is used for obtaining the2D THz signature of drugs. This signature is used for the detection and identification of drugs with similar Fourier spectra by transmitted THz signal. We discuss the efficiency of SDA method for the identification problem of pure methamphetamine (MA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and Ketamine.

  9. Computational study of interfaces and edges of 2D materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farmanbar Gelepordsari, M.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its intriguing properties has given birth to the field of two-dimensional (2D) materials. These materials are characterized by a strong covalent bonding between the atoms within a plane, but weak, van derWaals, bonding between the planes. Such materials can be isolated

  10. Seismic SMHD -- Rotational Sensor Development and Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, Darren [Applied Technology Associates; Pierson, Bob [Applied Technology Associates; Brune, Bob [Consultant

    2016-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Applied Technology Associates (ATA) are funding development and deployment of a new generation of rotational sensors for validation of rotational seismic applications. The sensors employ Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles with broadband response, high dynamic range, low noise floor, proven ruggedness, and high repeatability. This paper presents current status of sensor development and deployment opportunities.

  11. Lessons learned from the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake and future seismic technologies. Seismic evaluation and retrofit technology of existing railway RC frame viaducts; Hanshin/Awaji Daishinsai no kyoukun to kongo no taishin gijutsu. RC ramen kokakyo no taishin shindan to hokyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T.; Matsumoto, N. [Railway Technical Research Inst., Kokubunji, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    Seismic evaluation and reinforcement method for rigid frame bridges which have suffered great damages from the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake as well as related future problems are discussed. Earthquake of the same magnitude as that of the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake is assumed, and the antiseismatic target is set to the strength which can withstand the collapse of structures. For viaducts judged by seismic evaluation as requiring antiseismatic reinforcement, effective and efficient construction method is selected, and reinforcement design is made to improve the antiseismatic performance which satisfies the antiseismatic target. The procedure for antiseismatic reinforcement design of the existing viaducts may be different according to the employed reinforcement method, but the checking method is the same as that for new structures. The same kind of analytical model as that used for seismic evaluation is used for structural analysis. As the methods for retrofitting column members of rigid frame bridges, lining methods using steel plates, fiber sheet, RC, and resin have been proposed. It is advisable to investigate carefully the corrosion resistance, weather proof, and alkali resistance for each retrofitting method. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. 2D molybdenum disulphide (2D-MoS2) modified electrodes explored towards the oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley-Neale, Samuel J.; Fearn, Jamie M.; Brownson, Dale A. C.; Smith, Graham C.; Ji, Xiaobo; Banks, Craig E.

    2016-08-01

    Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets (2D-MoS2) have proven to be an effective electrocatalyst, with particular attention being focused on their use towards increasing the efficiency of the reactions associated with hydrogen fuel cells. Whilst the majority of research has focused on the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER), herein we explore the use of 2D-MoS2 as a potential electrocatalyst for the much less researched Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). We stray from literature conventions and perform experiments in 0.1 M H2SO4 acidic electrolyte for the first time, evaluating the electrochemical performance of the ORR with 2D-MoS2 electrically wired/immobilised upon several carbon based electrodes (namely; Boron Doped Diamond (BDD), Edge Plane Pyrolytic Graphite (EPPG), Glassy Carbon (GC) and Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPE)) whilst exploring a range of 2D-MoS2 coverages/masses. Consequently, the findings of this study are highly applicable to real world fuel cell applications. We show that significant improvements in ORR activity can be achieved through the careful selection of the underlying/supporting carbon materials that electrically wire the 2D-MoS2 and utilisation of an optimal mass of 2D-MoS2. The ORR onset is observed to be reduced to ca. +0.10 V for EPPG, GC and SPEs at 2D-MoS2 (1524 ng cm-2 modification), which is far closer to Pt at +0.46 V compared to bare/unmodified EPPG, GC and SPE counterparts. This report is the first to demonstrate such beneficial electrochemical responses in acidic conditions using a 2D-MoS2 based electrocatalyst material on a carbon-based substrate (SPEs in this case). Investigation of the beneficial reaction mechanism reveals the ORR to occur via a 4 electron process in specific conditions; elsewhere a 2 electron process is observed. This work offers valuable insights for those wishing to design, fabricate and/or electrochemically test 2D-nanosheet materials towards the ORR.Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets

  13. 2D Active Antenna Array Design for FD-MIMO System and Antenna Virtualization Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tzanidis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Full dimension MIMO (FD-MIMO is one of the key technologies presently studied in the 3GPP for the next generation long-term evolution advanced (LTE-A systems. By incorporating FD-MIMO into LTE/LTE-A systems, it is expected that system throughput will be drastically improved beyond what is possible in conventional LTE systems. This paper presets details on the 2D active antenna array design for FD-MIMO systems supporting 32 antenna elements. The FD-MIMO system allows for dynamic and adaptive precoding to be performed jointly across all antennas thus achieving more directional transmissions in the azimuth and elevation domains simultaneously, to a larger number of users. Finally, we discuss 2D antenna array port virtualization techniques for creating beams with wide coverage, necessary for broadcasting signals to all users within a sector, such as the CRS (Common Reference Signal.

  14. Flap Gap Oscillatory Blowing on 2D and 2.5D Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin NAE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we present preliminary results obtained in developing an active flow control system for highlift systems at advanced TRL level. The work is based on theoretical and experimental workperformed in AVERT EU FP6 project where the oscillatory flap gap blowing system was designedand tested on a INCAS F15 2D wing model. Pressure data and global loads have been recorded fora complex evaluation of the basic flow control mechanism. In 2.5D test cases this work has beenextended so that the proposed system may be selected as a mature technology in the JTI Clean Sky,Smart Fixed Wing Aircraft ITD. For this goal, new experimental setup was used and also updatedelectronics for the blowing system have been introduces. This was complemented by a newextension for the data acquisition system and visualization tools. Finally global correlations forbasic lift increments have been compared with the reference 2D case and analysed with respect tothe system efficiency.

  15. Microstructure and mechanical properties of 2D woven Grf/Al composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun-he; WU Gao-hui; CHEN Guo-qin; XIU Zi-yang; ZHANG Qiang; WANG Chun-yu

    2006-01-01

    A 2D woven graphite fibers reinforced aluminum matrix composite with 50%Grf (volume fraction) was fabricated by the squeeze-casting technology, and its microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. The results show that the composite is dense, the graphite fibers are distributed uniformly in the composite. TEM observation indicates the bonding between fiber and matrix is good and little interfacial reaction is found in the Grf/Al composite. This is attributed to the better stability of graphite fiber and the fabrication process minimizing the contact time between fiber with matrix at high temperatures. The 2D woven Grf/Al composite exhibites better mechanical properties with tensile strength, bending strength and elastic modulus of 366.2, 519.7 and 110.7 GPa, respectively. SEM images suggeste that the fracture is irregular and some pulled-out fibers are found, which indicats that the high strength of fiber is not degraded.

  16. 层间隔震技术在某地铁上盖高层建筑中的应用%Story isolation of seismic technology in a subway cover the application of the high-rise building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱冬飞; 习志强

    2015-01-01

    结合某工程实例,对层间隔震技术在高层建筑中的应用做了详细阐述。采用软件PKPM和ETABS分别建立模型,并运用ETABS对该结构进行动力时程分析。通过对隔震结构与非隔震结构的计算结果进行分析可知,采用隔震技术后,剪力和倾覆力矩以及层间位移角显著减小,降低了地震对结构的反应。从而进一步为层间隔震技术在类似的建筑中的广泛应用提供了一个良好的实例。%Based on engineering, the application of story isolation technology in the high-rise building is presented. The model made by PKPM and ETABS structure analysis software, The model time history analysis of the structure is investigated by ETABS. By isolation and the isolation of the structure of the calculation result is analyzed. After using story isolation technology, shear force and overturning moment and interlayer displacement angle is greatly reduced. Thus significantly reduce the seismic response of the structure .Further, the accuracy of calculation analysis and the security of story isolation structure are verified.

  17. Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin

    2016-10-01

    Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d-p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule—CN—noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology.

  18. Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin

    2016-10-26

    Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d-p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule-CN-noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology. PMID:27541575

  19. Efficient big data assimilation through sparse representation: A 3D benchmark case study in seismic history matching

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Xiaodong; Jakobsen, Morten; Nævdal, Geir

    2016-01-01

    In a previous work \\citep{luo2016sparse2d_spej}, the authors proposed an ensemble-based 4D seismic history matching (SHM) framework, which has some relatively new ingredients, in terms of the type of seismic data in choice, the way to handle big seismic data and related data noise estimation, and the use of a recently developed iterative ensemble history matching algorithm. In seismic history matching, it is customary to use inverted seismic attributes, such as acoustic impedance, as the observed data. In doing so, extra uncertainties may arise during the inversion processes. The proposed SHM framework avoids such intermediate inversion processes by adopting amplitude versus angle (AVA) data. In addition, SHM typically involves assimilating a large amount of observed seismic attributes into reservoir models. To handle the big-data problem in SHM, the proposed framework adopts the following wavelet-based sparse representation procedure: First, a discrete wavelet transform is applied to observed seismic attribu...

  20. Sampling Number Effects in 2D and Range Imaging of Range-gated Acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Seong-Ouk; Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Cho, Jai-Wan; Jeong, Kyung-Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we analyzed the number effects of sampling images for making a 2D image and a range image from acquired RGI images. We analyzed the number effects of RGI images for making a 2D image and a range image using a RGI vision system. As the results, 2D image quality was not much depended on the number of sampling images but on how much well extract efficient RGI images. But, the number of RGI images was important for making a range image because range image quality was proportional to the number of RGI images. Image acquiring in a monitoring area of nuclear industry is an important function for safety inspection and preparing appropriate control plans. To overcome the non-visualization problem caused by airborne obstacle particles, vision systems should have extra-functions, such as active illumination lightening through disturbance airborne particles. One of these powerful active vision systems is a range-gated imaging system. The vision system based on the range-gated imaging system can acquire image data from raining or smoking environments. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra-short exposure time to only get the illumination light. Here, the illuminant illuminates objects by flashing strong light through airborne disturbance particles. Thus, in contrast to passive conventional vision systems, the RGI active vision technology robust for low-visibility environments.

  1. Seismic texture classification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinther, R.

    1997-12-31

    The seismic texture classification method, is a seismic attribute that can both recognize the general reflectivity styles and locate variations from these. The seismic texture classification performs a statistic analysis for the seismic section (or volume) aiming at describing the reflectivity. Based on a set of reference reflectivities the seismic textures are classified. The result of the seismic texture classification is a display of seismic texture categories showing both the styles of reflectivity from the reference set and interpolations and extrapolations from these. The display is interpreted as statistical variations in the seismic data. The seismic texture classification is applied to seismic sections and volumes from the Danish North Sea representing both horizontal stratifications and salt diapers. The attribute succeeded in recognizing both general structure of successions and variations from these. Also, the seismic texture classification is not only able to display variations in prospective areas (1-7 sec. TWT) but can also be applied to deep seismic sections. The seismic texture classification is tested on a deep reflection seismic section (13-18 sec. TWT) from the Baltic Sea. Applied to this section the seismic texture classification succeeded in locating the Moho, which could not be located using conventional interpretation tools. The seismic texture classification is a seismic attribute which can display general reflectivity styles and deviations from these and enhance variations not found by conventional interpretation tools. (LN)

  2. Prediction of gas hydrate saturation throughout the seismic section in Krishna Godavari basin using multivariate linear regression and multi-layer feed forward neural network approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, Y.; Nair, R.R.; Singh, H.; Datta, P.; Jaiswal, P.; Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.

    Stepwise linear regression, multi-layer feed forward neural (MLFN) network method was used to predict the 2D distribution of P-wave velocity, resistivity, porosity, and gas hydrate saturation throughout seismic section NGHP-01 in the Krishna...

  3. 2D-2D tunneling field-effect transistors using WSe2/SnSe2 heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tania; Tosun, Mahmut; Hettick, Mark; Ahn, Geun Ho; Hu, Chenming; Javey, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Two-dimensional materials present a versatile platform for developing steep transistors due to their uniform thickness and sharp band edges. We demonstrate 2D-2D tunneling in a WSe2/SnSe2 van der Waals vertical heterojunction device, where WSe2 is used as the gate controlled p-layer and SnSe2 is the degenerately n-type layer. The van der Waals gap facilitates the regulation of band alignment at the heterojunction, without the necessity of a tunneling barrier. ZrO2 is used as the gate dielectric, allowing the scaling of gate oxide to improve device subthreshold swing. Efficient gate control and clean interfaces yield a subthreshold swing of ˜100 mV/dec for >2 decades of drain current at room temperature, hitherto unobserved in 2D-2D tunneling devices. The subthreshold swing is independent of temperature, which is a clear signature of band-to-band tunneling at the heterojunction. A maximum switching ratio ION/IOFF of 107 is obtained. Negative differential resistance in the forward bias characteristics is observed at 77 K. This work bodes well for the possibilities of two-dimensional materials for the realization of energy-efficient future-generation electronics.

  4. Novel Hydrogen-bonded Three-dimensional Supramolecular Architectures Containing 2D Honeycomb Networks or 2D Grids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dong-Sheng; ZHOU Cai-Hua; WANG Yao-Yu; FU Feng; WU Ya-Pan; QI Guang-Cai; SHI Qi-Zhen

    2006-01-01

    Two new supramolecular complexes, [Cu(H2dhbd)(3-pyOH)(H2O)]2·3-pyOH·2H2O (1) and [Cu2(dhbd)(dpa)2-(H2O)]·6H2O (2) (H4dhbd=2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid, 3-pyOH=3-hydroxypyridine, dpa=2,2'-dipyridylamine),have been synthesized in aqueous solution and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses,H-O hydrogen bonds, the cyclic dinuclear units in 1 together with four adjacent neighbors are connected into a 2D honeycomb network encapsulating free 3-pyOH ligands. Unexpectedly, the water-dimers are fixed in interlayers of 2D honeycomb network and act as hydrogen-bond bridging to further extend these 2D networks into 3D hydrogen-bonded framework. Complex 2 includes interesting 2D grids constructed from chiral dinuclear units through cules into three dimension with channels. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements for both complexes indicate the presence of weak antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between adjacent copper(Ⅱ) ions.

  5. Absorption and scattering 2-D volcano images from numerically calculated space-weighting functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Ibañez, Jesus; Prudencio, Janire; Bianco, Francesca; De Siena, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Short-period small magnitude seismograms mainly comprise scattered waves in the form of coda waves (the tail part of the seismogram, starting after S waves and ending when the noise prevails), spanning more than 70 per cent of the whole seismogram duration. Corresponding coda envelopes provide important information about the earth inhomogeneity, which can be stochastically modeled in terms of distribution of scatterers in a random medium. In suitable experimental conditions (i.e. high earth heterogeneity), either the two parameters describing heterogeneity (scattering coefficient), intrinsic energy dissipation (coefficient of intrinsic attenuation) or a combination of them (extinction length and seismic albedo) can be used to image Earth structures. Once a set of such parameter couples has been measured in a given area and for a number of sources and receivers, imaging their space distribution with standard methods is straightforward. However, as for finite-frequency and full-waveform tomography, the essential problem for a correct imaging is the determination of the weighting function describing the spatial sensitivity of observable data to scattering and absorption anomalies. Due to the nature of coda waves, the measured parameter couple can be seen as a weighted space average of the real parameters characterizing the rock volumes illuminated by the scattered waves. This paper uses the Monte Carlo numerical solution of the Energy Transport Equation to find approximate but realistic 2-D space-weighting functions for coda waves. Separate images for scattering and absorption based on these sensitivity functions are then compared with those obtained with commonly used sensitivity functions in an application to data from an active seismic experiment carried out at Deception Island (Antarctica). Results show that these novel functions are based on a reliable and physically grounded method to image magnitude and shape of scattering and absorption anomalies. Their

  6. Accelerometer Sensor Specifications to Predict Hydrocarbon Using Passive Seismic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Md Khir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ambient seismic ground noise has been investigated in several surveys worldwide in the last 10 years to verify the correlation between observed seismic energy anomalies at the surface and the presence of hydrocarbon reserves beneath. This is due to the premise that anomalies provide information about the geology and potential presence of hydrocarbon. However a technology gap manifested in nonoptimal detection of seismic signals of interest is observed. This is due to the fact that available sensors are not designed on the basis of passive seismic signal attributes and mainly in terms of amplitude and bandwidth. This is because of that fact that passive seismic acquisition requires greater instrumentation sensitivity, noise immunity, and bandwidth, with active seismic acquisition, where vibratory or impulsive sources were utilized to receive reflections through geophones. Therefore, in the case of passive seismic acquisition, it is necessary to select the best monitoring equipment for its success or failure. Hence, concerning sensors performance, this paper highlights the technological gap and motivates developing dedicated sensors for optimal solution at lower frequencies. Thus, the improved passive seismic recording helps in oil and gas industry to perform better fracture mapping and identify more appropriate stratigraphy at low frequencies.

  7. A new passive seismic method based on seismic interferometry and multichannel analysis of surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Xia, Jianghai; Xu, Yixian; Xu, Zongbo; Pan, Yudi

    2015-06-01

    We proposed a new passive seismic method (PSM) based on seismic interferometry and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) to meet the demand for increasing investigation depth by acquiring surface-wave data at a low-frequency range (1 Hz ≤ f ≤ 10 Hz). We utilize seismic interferometry to sort common virtual source gathers (CVSGs) from ambient noise and analyze obtained CVSGs to construct 2D shear-wave velocity (Vs) map using the MASW. Standard ambient noise processing procedures were applied to the computation of cross-correlations. To enhance signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the empirical Green's functions, a new weighted stacking method was implemented. In addition, we proposed a bidirectional shot mode based on the virtual source method to sort CVSGs repeatedly. The PSM was applied to two field data examples. For the test along Han River levee, the results of PSM were compared with the improved roadside passive MASW and spatial autocorrelation method (SPAC). For test in the Western Junggar Basin, PSM was applied to a 70 km long linear survey array with a prominent directional urban noise source and a 60 km-long Vs profile with 1.5 km in depth was mapped. Further, a comparison about the dispersion measurements was made between PSM and frequency-time analysis (FTAN) technique to assess the accuracy of PSM. These examples and comparisons demonstrated that this new method is efficient, flexible, and capable to study near-surface velocity structures based on seismic ambient noise.

  8. Key Technologies and Construction of Seismic Data Service System Based on WebGIS%基于WebGIS的地震数据服务系统建设及关键技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵曦; 姬建中; 常俊; 孙哲

    2014-01-01

    随着社会经济和信息化技术的快速发展,面向社会提供更为便捷有效的信息共享服务已成为政府和民众的普遍所需。在总结分析以往地震数据服务中存在的不足和问题的基础上,介绍了WebGIS在构建地震数据服务方面的优势和特点,并就基于WebGIS的地震数据服务系统的设计思路和主要功能,以及基于浏览器的大规模地震目录数据的地图发布、地震事件波形数据的快速读取和可视化展示、连续观测数据的图形化动态展示等关键技术进行说明和讨论。最后基于陕西省地震监测数据,建立了基于WebGIS的陕西省地震观测数据服务系统。%With the rapid development of social economy and information technology,providing more conven-ient and effective information sharing service to the community has become widely needed by the government and people.Based on summarizing and analyzing the problems and deficiencies of the previous seismic data in the serv-ice,advantages and characteristics of WebGIS in the construction of earthquake data services are introduced,Some related key technologies are meanwhile described and discussed,including the design idea and main functions of seismic data service system based on WebGIS,fast reading and visual display of earthquake waveform data,and the dynamic graphical display of continuous observation data.Finally,according to earthquake monitoring data of Shaanxi Province,a WebGIS-based Shaanxi earthquake observation data service system is built.

  9. Diacritical Seismic Signatures for Complex Geological Structures: Case Studies from Shushan Basin (Egypt and Arkoma Basin (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed I. Abdel-Fattah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic reflection techniques show an imperative role in imaging complex geological structures and are becoming more acceptable as data interpreting tools in 2D/3D view. These subsurface geological structures provide complex seismic signature due to their geometrical behavior. Consequently, it is extremely difficult to interpret these seismic sections in terms of subsurface configuration. The main goal of this paper is to introduce seismic attributes as a powerful tool to interpret complex geological structures in different geological settings. In order to image these complex geological features, multiple seismic attributes such as coherence and curvature have been applied to the seismic data generated over the Shushan Basin (Egypt and Arkoma Basin (USA. Each type of geological structure event usually generates a unique seismic “signature” that we can recognize and identify by using these seismic attributes. In Shushan Basin (Egypt, they provide a framework and constraint during the interpretation and can help prevent mistakes during a 3D structural modeling. In Arkoma Basin (USA, the seismic attributes results provide useful information for broader analyses of the complex structural relations in the region where the Ouachita orogenic belt intersects with the southern Oklahoma aulacogen. Finally, complex geological structures provide dramatically diacritical seismic signatures that can be easily interpreted by collaborating conventional seismic interpretation techniques with multiple seismic attributes.

  10. Efficiency of Pareto joint inversion of 2D geophysical data using global optimization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miernik, Katarzyna; Bogacz, Adrian; Kozubal, Adam; Danek, Tomasz; Wojdyła, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Pareto joint inversion of two or more sets of data is a promising new tool of modern geophysical exploration. In the first stage of our investigation we created software enabling execution of forward solvers of two geophysical methods (2D magnetotelluric and gravity) as well as inversion with possibility of constraining solution with seismic data. In the algorithm solving MT forward solver Helmholtz's equations, finite element method and Dirichlet's boundary conditions were applied. Gravity forward solver was based on Talwani's algorithm. To limit dimensionality of solution space we decided to describe model as sets of polygons, using Sharp Boundary Interface (SBI) approach. The main inversion engine was created using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm adapted to handle two or more target functions and to prevent acceptance of solutions which are non - realistic or incompatible with Pareto scheme. Each inversion run generates single Pareto solution, which can be added to Pareto Front. The PSO inversion engine was parallelized using OpenMP standard, what enabled execution code for practically unlimited amount of threads at once. Thereby computing time of inversion process was significantly decreased. Furthermore, computing efficiency increases with number of PSO iterations. In this contribution we analyze the efficiency of created software solution taking under consideration details of chosen global optimization engine used as a main joint minimization engine. Additionally we study the scale of possible decrease of computational time caused by different methods of parallelization applied for both forward solvers and inversion algorithm. All tests were done for 2D magnetotelluric and gravity data based on real geological media. Obtained results show that even for relatively simple mid end computational infrastructure proposed solution of inversion problem can be applied in practice and used for real life problems of geophysical inversion and interpretation.

  11. Security Issues for 2D Barcodes Ticketing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Toma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a solution for endcoding/decoding access to the subway public transportation systems. First part of the paper is dedicated through section one and two to the most used 2D barcodes used in the market – QR and DataMatrix. The sample for DataMatrix is author propietary and the QR sample is from the QR standard [2]. The section three presents MMS and Digital Rights Management topics used for issuing the 2D barcodes tickets. The second part of the paper, starting with section four shows the architecture of Subway Ticketing Systems and the proposed procedure for the ticket issuing. The conclusions identify trends of the security topics in the public transportation systems.

  12. Characterization of steady solutions to the 2D Euler equation

    CERN Document Server

    Izosimov, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Steady fluid flows have very special topology. In this paper we describe necessary and sufficient conditions on the vorticity function of a 2D ideal flow on a surface with or without boundary, for which there exists a steady flow among isovorticed fields. For this we introduce the notion of an antiderivative (or circulation function) on a measured graph, the Reeb graph associated to the vorticity function on the surface, while the criterion is related to the total negativity of this antiderivative. It turns out that given topology of the vorticity function, the set of coadjoint orbits of the symplectomorphism group admitting steady flows with this topology forms a convex polytope. As a byproduct of the proposed construction, we also describe a complete list of Casimirs for the 2D Euler hydrodynamics: we define generalized enstrophies which, along with circulations, form a complete set of invariants for coadjoint orbits of area-preserving diffeomorphisms on a surface.

  13. TRO-2D - A code for rational transonic aerodynamic optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, W. H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Features and sample applications of the transonic rational optimization (TRO-2D) code are outlined. TRO-2D includes the airfoil analysis code FLO-36, the CONMIN optimization code and a rational approach to defining aero-function shapes for geometry modification. The program is part of an effort to develop an aerodynamically smart optimizer that will simplify and shorten the design process. The user has a selection of drag minimization and associated minimum lift, moment, and the pressure distribution, a choice among 14 resident aero-function shapes, and options on aerodynamic and geometric constraints. Design variables such as the angle of attack, leading edge radius and camber, shock strength and movement, supersonic pressure plateau control, etc., are discussed. The results of calculations of a reduced leading edge camber transonic airfoil and an airfoil with a natural laminar flow are provided, showing that only four design variables need be specified to obtain satisfactory results.

  14. Simulation of corium concrete interaction in 2D geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranga, M. [IRSN, DPAM, F-13115 St Paul Les Durance (France); Spindler, B.; Dufour, E. [CEA Grenoble, DEN, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Dimov, Dimitar [Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res and Nucl Energy, NPPSAL, BU-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Atkhen, Kresna [EDF, SEPTEN, F-69628 Villeurbanne (France); Foit, Jerzy [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Garcia-Martin, M. [Univ Politecn Madrid, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Sevon, Tuomo [Tech Res Ctr Finland VTT, FI-02044 Helsinki (Finland); Schmidt, W. [AREVA, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Spengler, C. [Gesell Anlagen and Reaktorsicherheit GRS mbH, D-50667 Cologne (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Benchmarking work was recently performed for the issue of molten corium concrete interaction (MCCI). A synthesis is given here. It concerns first the 2D CCI-2 test with a homogeneous pool and a limestone concrete, which was used for a blind benchmark. Secondly, the COMET-L2 and COMET-L3 2D experiments in a stratified configuration were used as a post-test (L2) and a blind-test (L3) benchmark. More details are given here for the recent benchmark considering a matrix of four reactor cases, with both a homogeneous and a stratified configuration, and with both a limestone and a siliceous concrete. A short overview is given on the different models used in the codes, and the consistency between the benchmark actions on experiments and reactor situations is discussed. Finally, the major uncertainties concerning MCCI are also pointed out. (authors)

  15. 2D/3D Program work summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2D/3D Program was carried out by Germany, Japan and the United States to investigate the thermal-hydraulics of a PWR large-break LOCA. A contributory approach was utilized in which each country contributed significant effort to the program and all three countries shared the research results. Germany constructed and operated the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF), and Japan constructed and operated the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF) and the Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF). The US contribution consisted of provision of advanced instrumentation to each of the three test facilities, and assessment of the TRAC computer code against the test results. Evaluations of the test results were carried out in all three countries. This report summarizes the 2D/3D Program in terms of the contributing efforts of the participants, and was prepared in a coordination among three countries. US and Germany have published the report as NUREG/IA-0126 and GRS-100, respectively. (author)

  16. Functionalized 2D atomic sheets with new properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Qian; Jena, Puru

    2011-03-01

    Due to the unique atomic structure and novel physical and chemical properties, graphene has sparked tremendous theoretical and experimental efforts to explore other 2D atomic sheets like B-N, Al-N, and Zn-O, where the two components offer much more complexities and flexibilities in surface modifications. Using First principles calculations based on density functional theory, we have systematically studied the semi- and fully-decorated 2D sheets with H and F and Cl. We have found that the electronic structures and magnetic properties can be effectively tuned, and the system can be a direct or an indirect semiconductor or even a half-metal, and the system can be made ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, or magnetically degenerate depending upon how the surface is functionalized. Discussions are made for the possible device applications.

  17. 2D-immunoblotting analysis of Sporothrix schenckii cell wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Ruiz-Baca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We utilized two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting (2D-immunoblotting with anti-Sporothrix schenckii antibodies to identify antigenic proteins in cell wall preparations obtained from the mycelial and yeast-like morphologies of the fungus. Results showed that a 70-kDa glycoprotein (Gp70 was the major antigen detected in the cell wall of both morphologies and that a 60-kDa glycoprotein was present only in yeast-like cells. In addition to the Gp70, the wall from filament cells showed four proteins with molecular weights of 48, 55, 66 and 67 kDa, some of which exhibited several isoforms. To our knowledge, this is the first 2D-immunoblotting analysis of the S. schenckii cell wall.

  18. Defect Dynamics in Active 2D Nematic Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decamp, Stephen; Redner, Gabriel; Hagan, Michael; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2014-03-01

    Active materials are assemblies of animate, energy-consuming objects that exhibit continuous dynamics. As such, they have properties that are dramatically different from those found in conventional materials made of inanimate objects. We present a 2D active nematic liquid crystal composed of bundled microtubules and kinesin motor proteins that exists in a dynamic steady-state far from equilibrium. The active nematic exhibits spontaneous binding and unbinding of charge +1/2 and -1/2 disclination defects as well as streaming of +1/2 defects. By tuning ATP concentration, we precisely control the amount of activity, a key parameter of the system. We characterize the dynamics of streaming defects on a large, flat, 2D interface using quantitative polarization light microscopy. We report fundamental characteristics of the active nematics such as defect velocities, defect creation and annihilation rates, and emergent length scales in the system.

  19. Wave propagation in pantographic 2D lattices with internal discontinuities

    CERN Document Server

    Madeo, A; Neff, P

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper we consider a 2D pantographic structure composed by two orthogonal families of Euler beams. Pantographic rectangular 'long' waveguides are considered in which imposed boundary displacements can induce the onset of traveling (possibly non-linear) waves. We performed numerical simulations concerning a set of dynamically interesting cases. The system undergoes large rotations which may involve geometrical non-linearities, possibly opening the path to appealing phenomena such as propagation of solitary waves. Boundary conditions dramatically influence the transmission of the considered waves at discontinuity surfaces. The theoretical study of this kind of objects looks critical, as the concept of pantographic 2D sheets seems to have promising possible applications in a number of fields, e.g. acoustic filters, vascular prostheses and aeronautic/aerospace panels.

  20. Bulk correlation functions in 2D quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kostov, I K

    2005-01-01

    We compute bulk 3- and 4-point tachyon correlators in the 2d Liouville gravity with non-rational matter central charge c<1, following and comparing two approaches. The continuous CFT approach exploits the action on the tachyons of the ground ring generators deformed by Liouville and matter ``screening charges''. A by-product general formula for the matter 3-point OPE structure constants is derived. We also consider a ``diagonal'' CFT of 2D quantum gravity, in which the degenerate fields are restricted to the diagonal of the semi-infinite Kac table. The discrete formulation of the theory is a generalization of the ADE string theories, in which the target space is the semi-infinite chain of points.

  1. Planar maps, circle patterns and 2d gravity

    CERN Document Server

    David, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Via circle pattern techniques, random planar triangulations (with angle variables) are mapped onto Delaunay triangulations in the complex plane. The uniform measure on triangulations is mapped onto a conformally invariant spatial point process. We show that this measure can be expressed as: (1) a sum over 3-spanning-trees partitions of the edges of the Delaunay triangulations; (2) the volume form of a K\\"ahler metric over the space of Delaunay triangulations, whose prepotential has a simple formulation in term of ideal tessellations of the 3d hyperbolic space; (3) a discretized version (involving finite difference complex derivative operators) of Polyakov's conformal Fadeev-Popov determinant in 2d gravity; (4) a combination of Chern classes, thus also establishing a link with topological 2d gravity.

  2. A SUBARRAY-SYNTHESIS BASED 2D DOA ESTIMATION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Wenlong; Jiang Wei; Li Zengfu; Shang Yong; Xiang Haige

    2006-01-01

    In some satellite communications, we need to perform Direction Of Arrival (DOA) angle estimation under the restriction that the number of receivers is less than that of the array elements in an array antenna.To solve the conundrum, a method named subarray-synthesis-based Two-Dimensional DOA (2D DOA) angle estimation is proposed. In the method, firstly, the array antenna is divided into a series of subarray antennas based on the total number of receivers; secondly, the subarray antennas' output covariance matrices are estimated; thirdly, an equivalent covariance matrix is synthesized based on the subarray output covariance matrices; then 2D DOA estimation is performed. Monte Carlo simulations showed that the estimation method is effective.

  3. 2D Models for Dust-driven AGB Star Winds

    CERN Document Server

    Woitke, P

    2006-01-01

    New axisymmetric (2D) models for dust-driven winds of C-stars are presented which include hydrodynamics with radiation pressure on dust, equilibrium chemistry and time-dependent dust formation with coupled grey Monte Carlo radiative transfer. Considering the most simple case without stellar pulsation (hydrostatic inner boundary condition) these models reveal a more complex picture of the dust formation and wind acceleration as compared to earlier published spherically symmetric (1D) models. The so-called exterior $\\kappa$-mechanism causes radial oscillations with short phases of active dust formation between longer phases without appreciable dust formation, just like in the 1D models. However, in 2D geometry, the oscillations can be out-of-phase at different places above the stellar atmosphere which result in the formation of dust arcs or smaller caps that only occupy a certain fraction of the total solid angle. These dust structures are accelerated outward by radiation pressure, expanding radially and tangen...

  4. Estimating 2-D Vector Velocities Using Multidimensional Spectrum Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Niels; Løvstakken, Lasse; Torp, Hans;

    2008-01-01

    new velocity estimators for finding both the axial and lateral velocity components. The estimators essentially search for the plane in the 3-D Fourier space, where the integrated power spectrum is largest. The first uses the 3-D Fourier transform to find the power spectrum, while the second uses......Wilson (1991) presented an ultrasonic wide-band estimator for axial blood flow velocity estimation through the use of the 2-D Fourier transform. It was shown how a single velocity component was concentrated along a line in the 2-D Fourier space, where the slope was given by the axial velocity....... Later, it was shown that this approach could also be used for finding the lateral velocity component by also including a lateral sampling. A single velocity component would then be concentrated along a plane in the 3-D Fourier space, tilted according to the 2 velocity components. This paper presents 2...

  5. Simulation of corium concrete interaction in 2D geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benchmarking work was recently performed for the issue of molten corium concrete interaction (MCCI). A synthesis is given here. It concerns first the 2D CCI-2 test with a homogeneous pool and a limestone concrete, which was used for a blind benchmark. Secondly, the COMET-L2 and COMET-L3 2D experiments in a stratified configuration were used as a post-test (L2) and a blind-test (L3) benchmark. More details are given here for the recent benchmark considering a matrix of four reactor cases, with both a homogeneous and a stratified configuration, and with both a limestone and a siliceous concrete. A short overview is given on the different models used in the codes, and the consistency between the benchmark actions on experiments and reactor situations is discussed. Finally, the major uncertainties concerning MCCI are also pointed out. (authors)

  6. A brief review of the 2d/4d correspondences

    CERN Document Server

    Tachikawa, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    An elementary introduction to the 2d/4d correspondences is given. After quickly reviewing the 2d q-deformed Yang-Mills theory and the Liouville theory, we will introduce 4d theories obtained by coupling trifundamentals to SU(2) gauge fields. We will then see concretely that the supersymmetric partition function of these theories on S^3 x S^1 and on S^4 is given respectively by the q-deformed Yang-Mills theory and the Liouville theory. After giving a short discussion on how this correspondence may be understood from the viewpoint of the 6d N=(2,0) theory, we conclude the review by enumerating future directions. Most of the technical points will be referred to more detailed review articles.

  7. The Seismic Wavefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, B. L. N.

    2002-12-01

    The two volumes of The Seismic Wavefield are a comprehensive guide to the understanding of seismograms in terms of physical propagation processes within the Earth. The focus is on the observation of earthquakes and man-made sources on all scales, for both body waves and surface waves. Volume I provides a general introduction and a development of the theoretical background for seismic waves. Volume II looks at the way in which observed seismograms relate to the propagation processes. Volume II also discusses local and regional seismic events, global wave propagation, and the three-dimensional Earth.

  8. TRENT2D WG: a smart web infrastructure for debris-flow modelling and hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Nadia; Rosatti, Giorgio; Zugliani, Daniel; Rizzi, Alessandro; Piffer, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Mountain regions are naturally exposed to geomorphic flows, which involve large amounts of sediments and induce significant morphological modifications. The physical complexity of this class of phenomena represents a challenging issue for modelling, leading to elaborate theoretical frameworks and sophisticated numerical techniques. In general, geomorphic-flows models proved to be valid tools in hazard assessment and management. However, model complexity seems to represent one of the main obstacles to the diffusion of advanced modelling tools between practitioners and stakeholders, although the UE Flood Directive (2007/60/EC) requires risk management and assessment to be based on "best practices and best available technologies". Furthermore, several cutting-edge models are not particularly user-friendly and multiple stand-alone software are needed to pre- and post-process modelling data. For all these reasons, users often resort to quicker and rougher approaches, leading possibly to unreliable results. Therefore, some effort seems to be necessary to overcome these drawbacks, with the purpose of supporting and encouraging a widespread diffusion of the most reliable, although sophisticated, modelling tools. With this aim, this work presents TRENT2D WG, a new smart modelling solution for the state-of-the-art model TRENT2D (Armanini et al., 2009, Rosatti and Begnudelli, 2013), which simulates debris flows and hyperconcentrated flows adopting a two-phase description over a mobile bed. TRENT2D WG is a web infrastructure joining advantages offered by the software-delivering model SaaS (Software as a Service) and by WebGIS technology and hosting a complete and user-friendly working environment for modelling. In order to develop TRENT2D WG, the model TRENT2D was converted into a service and exposed on a cloud server, transferring computational burdens from the user hardware to a high-performing server and reducing computational time. Then, the system was equipped with an

  9. 2DBase: 2D-PAGE database of Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayendran, Chandran; Burgemeister, Sebastian; Friehs, Karl; Niehaus, Karsten; Flaschel, Erwin

    2007-01-01

    We present a web-based integrated proteome database, termed 2DBase of Escherichia coli which was designed to store, compare, analyse, and retrieve various information obtained by 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The main objectives of this database are (1) to provide the features for query and data-mining applications to access the stored proteomics data (2) to efficiently compare the specific protein spots present in the comparable proteome maps and (3) to analyse...

  10. 2D and 3D Traveling Salesman Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxhimusa, Yll; Carpenter, Edward; Catrambone, Joseph; Foldes, David; Stefanov, Emil; Arns, Laura; Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2011-01-01

    When a two-dimensional (2D) traveling salesman problem (TSP) is presented on a computer screen, human subjects can produce near-optimal tours in linear time. In this study we tested human performance on a real and virtual floor, as well as in a three-dimensional (3D) virtual space. Human performance on the real floor is as good as that on a…

  11. An inverse design method for 2D airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhi-Yong; Cui, Peng; Zhang, Gen-Bao

    2010-03-01

    The computational method for aerodynamic design of aircraft is applied more universally than before, in which the design of an airfoil is a hot problem. The forward problem is discussed by most relative papers, but inverse method is more useful in practical designs. In this paper, the inverse design of 2D airfoil was investigated. A finite element method based on the variational principle was used for carrying out. Through the simulation, it was shown that the method was fit for the design.

  12. Vertical heterostructures based on graphene and other 2D materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonova, I. V. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Recent advances in the fabrication of vertical heterostructures based on graphene and other dielectric and semiconductor single-layer materials, including hexagonal boron nitride and transition-metal dichalcogenides, are reviewed. Significant progress in this field is discussed together with the great prospects for the development of vertical heterostructures for various applications, which are associated, first of all, with reconsideration of the physical principles of the design and operation of device structures based on graphene combined with other 2D materials.

  13. How to use 2D gel electrophoresis in plant proteomics.

    OpenAIRE

    Rabilloud, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    International audience Two-dimensional electrophoresis has nurtured the birth of proteomics. It is however no longer the exclusive setup used in proteomics, with the development of shotgun proteomics techniques that appear more fancy and fashionable nowadays.Nevertheless, 2D gel-based proteomics still has valuable features, and sometimes unique ones, which make it often an attractive choice when a proteomics strategy must be selected. These features are detailed in this chapter, as is the ...

  14. Submicrometric 2D ratchet effect in magnetic domain wall motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castán-Guerrero, C., E-mail: ccastan@unizar.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Herrero-Albillos, J. [Fundación ARAID, E-50004 Zaragoza (Spain); Centro Universitario de la Defensa, E-50090 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Sesé, J. [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Laboratorio de Microscopías Avanzadas, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Bartolomé, J.; Bartolomé, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Hierro-Rodriguez, A.; Valdés-Bango, F.; Martín, J.I.; Alameda, J.M. [Dpto. Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); CINN (CSIC – Universidad de Oviedo – Principado de Asturias), Asturias (Spain); García, L.M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    Strips containing arrays of submicrometric triangular antidots with a 2D square periodicity have been fabricated by electron beam lithography. A clear ratchet effect of 180° domain wall motion under a varying applied field parallel to the walls has been observed. The direction is determined by the direction of the triangle vertices. In contrast, no ratchet effect is observed when the antidot array is constituted by symmetric rhomb-shaped antidots.

  15. Spin dependent 2D ACAR measurements in gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spin dependent momentum density of Gd was studied by two dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D ACAR) measurements, using the spin polarized positron technique. The ''reduced momentum density'' and the ''reduced spin density'' density'' in k space for planes within the first Brillouin zone have been obtained, and qualitative agreement with a model proposed by Mattocks and Young to explain their de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) measurements is found. (Auth.)

  16. Rule Based Selection of 2D Urban Area Map Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Jagdish Lal Raheja; Umesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of cartographic generalization is to represent a particular situation adapted to the needs of its users, with adequate legibility of the representation and perceptional congruity with the real situation. In this paper, a simple approach is presented for the selection process of building ground plans that are represented as 2D line, square and polygon segments. It is based on simple selection process from the field of computer graphics. It is important to preserve the overall chara...

  17. Random 2D Composites and the Generalized Method of Schwarz

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Mityushev

    2015-01-01

    Two-phase composites with nonoverlapping inclusions randomly embedded in matrix are investigated. A straightforward approach is applied to estimate the effective properties of random 2D composites. First, deterministic boundary value problems are solved for all locations of inclusions, that is, for all events of the considered probabilistic space C by the generalized method of Schwarz. Second, the effective properties are calculated in analytical form and averaged over C. This method is relat...

  18. Physical degrees of freedom in 2-D string field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, N; Sakai, Norisuke; Tanii, Yoshiaki

    1992-01-01

    States in the absolute (semi-relative) cohomology but not in the relative cohomology are examined through the component decomposition of the string field theory action for the 2-D string. It is found that they are auxiliary fields without kinetic terms, but are important for instance in the master equation for the Ward-Takahashi identities. The ghost structure is analyzed in the Siegel gauge, but it is noted that the absolute (semi-relative) cohomology states are lost.

  19. Contributions to statistical image segmentation and 2D pattern Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Derrode, Stéphane

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation follows 9 years of my research activities, including 7 years as an assistant professor at the École Centrale Marseille and as a researcher into the Multidimensional Signal Processing Group of Institut Fresnel (CNRS UMR 6133). Works which I present explore some aspects of the statistical segmentation of images for applications in space imagery and the invariant description of 2D shapes for object recognition in video imagery. More precisely, the first part of the manuscript s...

  20. Conformal field theory and 2D critical phenomena. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Review of the recent developments in the two-dimensional conformal field theory and especially its applications to the physics of 2D critical phenomena is given. It includes the Ising model, the Potts model. Minimal models, corresponding to theories invariant under higher symmetries, such as superconformal theories, parafermionic theories and theories with current and W-algebras are also discussed. Non-hamiltonian approach to two-dimensional field theory is formulated. 126 refs

  1. Comparison Between 2-D and 3-D Stiffness Matrix Model Simulation of Sasw Inversion for Pavement Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Atmaja P. Rosidi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW method is a non-destructive in situ seismic technique used to assess and evaluate the material stiffness (dynamic elastic modulus and thickness of pavement layers at low strains. These values can be used analytically to calculate load capacities in order to predict the performance of pavement system. The SASW method is based on the dispersion phenomena of Rayleigh waves in layered media. In order to get the actual shear wave velocities, 2-D and 3-D models are used in the simulation of the inversion process for best fitting between theoretical and empirical dispersion curves. The objective of this study is to simulate and compare the 2-D and 3-D model of SASW analysis in the construction of the theoretical dispersion curve for pavement structure evaluation. The result showed that the dispersion curve from the 3-D model was similar with the dispersion curve of the actual pavement profile compared to the 2-D model. The wave velocity profiles also showed that the 3-D model used in the SASW analysis is able to detect all the distinct layers of flexible pavement units.

  2. Observations of 2D Doppler backscattering on MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, D A; Freethy, S J; Huang, B K; Shevchenko, V F; Vann, R G L

    2015-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) diagnostic has conducted proof-of-principle 2D Doppler backscattering (DBS) experiments on MAST. SAMI actively probes the plasma edge using a wide (+-40 degrees vertical and horizontal) and tuneable (10-35.5 GHz) beam. The Doppler backscattered signal is digitised in vector form using an array of eight Vivaldi PCB antennas. This allows the receiving array to be focused in any direction within the field of view simultaneously to an angular range of 6-24 degrees FWHM at 10-34.5 GHz. This capability is unique to SAMI and is an entirely novel way of conducting DBS experiments. In this paper the feasibility of conducting 2D DBS experiments is explored. Initial measurements of phenomena observed on conventional DBS experiments are presented; such as momentum injection from neutral beams and an abrupt change in power and turbulence velocity coinciding with the onset of H-mode. In addition, being able to carry out 2D DBS imaging allows a measurement of magnetic pitch an...

  3. 2D Non-Abelian Theory: Some Novel Features

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivas, N; Kureel, B K; Malik, R P

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism, we discuss some novel features of a two (1+1)-dimensional (2D) non-Abelian 1-form gauge theory (without any interaction with matter fields). Besides the usual off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommutating (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations, we discuss the off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommutating (anti-)co-BRST symmetry transformations for this specific 2D theory. Particularly, we lay emphasis on the existence of the coupled (but equivalent) Lagrangian densities of the 2D non-Abelian theory in view of the presence of (anti-)co-BRST symmetry transformations where we pin-point some novel features associated with the Curci-Ferrari (CF) type restrictions. We demonstrate that these CF-type restrictions can be incorporated into the (anti-)co-BRST invariant Lagrangian densities through the fermionic Lagrange multipliers which carry specific ghost numbers. The modified versions of the Lagrangian densities respect some precise and perf...

  4. Photonic crystals to enhance light extraction from 2D materials

    CERN Document Server

    Noori, Yasir J; Roberts, Jonathan; Woodhead, Christopher; Bernardo-Gavito, Ramon; Tovee, Peter; Young, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    We propose a scheme for coupling 2D materials to an engineered cavity based on a defective rod type photonic crystal lattice. We show results from numerical modelling of the suggested cavity design, and propose using the height profile of a 2D material transferred on top of the cavity to maximise coupling between exciton recombination and the cavity mode. The photonic structure plays a key role in enhancing the launch efficiency, by improving the directionality of the emitted light to better couple it into an external optical system. When using the photonic structure, we measured an increase in the extraction ratio by a factor of 3.4. We investigated the variations in the flux spectrum when the radius of the rods is modified, and when the 2D material droops to a range of different heights within the cavity. We found an optimum enhancement when the rods have a radius equal to 0.165 times the lattice constant, this enhancement reduces when the radius is reduced or increased. Finally, we discuss the possible use...

  5. On the effective shear speed in 2D phononic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Kutsenko, A A; Norris, A N; Poncelet, O

    2011-01-01

    The quasistatic limit of the antiplane shear-wave speed ('effective speed') $c$ in 2D periodic lattices is studied. Two new closed-form estimates of $c$ are derived by employing two different analytical approaches. The first proceeds from a standard background of the plane wave expansion (PWE). The second is a new approach, which resides in $\\mathbf{x}$-space and centers on the monodromy matrix (MM) introduced in the 2D case as the multiplicative integral, taken in one coordinate, of a matrix with components being the operators with respect to the other coordinate. On the numerical side, an efficient PWE-based scheme for computing $c$ is proposed and implemented. The analytical and numerical findings are applied to several examples of 2D square lattices with two and three high-contrast components, for which the new PWE and MM estimates are compared with the numerical data and with some known approximations. It is demonstrated that the PWE estimate is most efficient in the case of densely packed stiff inclusio...

  6. Hope for slow positron 2D-ACAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron is trapped by the hole type defect (localized) and vanished by pair annihilation with the electron. Atomic hole, cluster of atomic hole and complex materials of impurity can be detected by using this property of positron. The positron annihilation method determined the fine structure of hole and the electron structure. 2D-ACAR of positron trapped in defect gives the detailed distribution of momentum (the two-dimension map integrated in the direction of γ-annihilation) of positron and electron localized in the hole. It makes possible the detailed comparison with the calculation results of the first principle theory. The results of 2D-ACAR of cluster and hole in Si showed that about 60% positrons were trapped and annihilated by divacancy and 40% of it were vanished from the perfect crystal unless trapping. Very interest results were found that 2D-ACAR of neutral divacancy was very isotropic and that of negative divacancy (-1 or -2) was isotropic, too. (M.N.)

  7. Design Application Translates 2-D Graphics to 3-D Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Fabric Images Inc., specializing in the printing and manufacturing of fabric tension architecture for the retail, museum, and exhibit/tradeshow communities, designed software to translate 2-D graphics for 3-D surfaces prior to print production. Fabric Images' fabric-flattening design process models a 3-D surface based on computer-aided design (CAD) specifications. The surface geometry of the model is used to form a 2-D template, similar to a flattening process developed by NASA's Glenn Research Center. This template or pattern is then applied in the development of a 2-D graphic layout. Benefits of this process include 11.5 percent time savings per project, less material wasted, and the ability to improve upon graphic techniques and offer new design services. Partners include Exhibitgroup/Giltspur (end-user client: TAC Air, a division of Truman Arnold Companies Inc.), Jack Morton Worldwide (end-user client: Nickelodeon), as well as 3D Exhibits Inc., and MG Design Associates Corp.

  8. A 2-D ECE Imaging Diagnostic for TEXTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Deng, B. H.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, H. Lu, Jr.

    2002-11-01

    A true 2-D extension to the UC Davis ECE Imaging (ECEI) concept is under development for installation on the TEXTOR tokamak in 2003. This combines the use of linear arrays with multichannel conventional wideband heterodyne ECE radiometers to provide a true 2-D imaging system. This is in contrast to current 1-D ECEI systems in which 2-D images are obtained through the use of multiple plasma discharges (varying the scanned emission frequency each discharge). Here, each array element of the 20 channel mixer array measures plasma emission at 16 simultaneous frequencies to form a 16x20 image of the plasma electron temperature Te. Correlation techniques can then be applied to any pair of the 320 image elements to study both radial and poloidal characteristics of turbulent Te fluctuations. The system relies strongly on the development of low cost, wideband (2-18 GHz) IF detection electronics for use in both ECE Imaging as well as conventional heterodyne ECE radiometry. System details, with a strong focus on the wideband IF electronics development, will be presented. *Supported by U.S. DoE Contracts DE-FG03-95ER54295 and DE-FG03-99ER54531.

  9. Inversions for MT data in 2D symmetrical anisotropic media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chang-fu; LIN Chang-you; SUN Chong-chi; LI Qing-he

    2005-01-01

    In the paper, a 2D symmetrical anisotropic medium whose strike agrees with one of the horizontal principal axes is considered to develop a corresponding inversion technique. In the specified conditions, if we assume an equivalent conductivity anisotropy in both the vertical and dipping directions, i.e., σzz=σyy, the differential equations obtained are formally the same as that for TE and TM modes in the 2D isotropic geoelectrical media. The same inversion technique as that in the 2D isotropic media can be employed to obtain the anisotropic conductivities. It means that the TE and TM inversion results in the isotropic media can be respectively thought as the resistivities in the two principal directions of the symmetrically anisotropic media, which has offered a new approach and a theoretical guidance for interpreting magnetotelluric data. And the inversion technique developed here is used to test the magnetotelluric data in the area of Tianzhu and Yongdeng in Gansu Province, so that the crust anisotropic geoelectrical structures in this region can be obtained.

  10. F-theory and 2d (0, 2) theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura; Weigand, Timo

    2016-05-01

    F-theory compactified on singular, elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds gives rise to two-dimensional gauge theories preserving N = (0 , 2) supersymmetry. In this paper we initiate the study of such compactifications and determine the dictionary between the geometric data of the elliptic fibration and the 2d gauge theory such as the matter content in terms of (0 , 2) superfields and their supersymmetric couplings. We study this setup both from a gauge-theoretic point of view, in terms of the partially twisted 7-brane theory, and provide a global geometric description based on the structure of the elliptic fibration and its singularities. Global consistency conditions are determined and checked against the dual M-theory compactification to one dimension. This includes a discussion of gauge anomalies, the structure of the Green-Schwarz terms and the Chern-Simons couplings in the dual M-theory supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Furthermore, by interpreting the resulting 2d (0 , 2) theories as heterotic worldsheet theories, we propose a correspondence between the geometric data of elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds and the target space of a heterotic gauged linear sigma-model (GLSM). In particular the correspondence between the Landau-Ginsburg and sigma-model phase of a 2d (0 , 2) GLSM is realized via different T-branes or gluing data in F-theory.

  11. MAGNUM-2D computer code: user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, R.L.; Kline, N.W.; Ekblad, K.J.; Baca, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Information relevant to the general use of the MAGNUM-2D computer code is presented. This computer code was developed for the purpose of modeling (i.e., simulating) the thermal and hydraulic conditions in the vicinity of a waste package emplaced in a deep geologic repository. The MAGNUM-2D computer computes (1) the temperature field surrounding the waste package as a function of the heat generation rate of the nuclear waste and thermal properties of the basalt and (2) the hydraulic head distribution and associated groundwater flow fields as a function of the temperature gradients and hydraulic properties of the basalt. MAGNUM-2D is a two-dimensional numerical model for transient or steady-state analysis of coupled heat transfer and groundwater flow in a fractured porous medium. The governing equations consist of a set of coupled, quasi-linear partial differential equations that are solved using a Galerkin finite-element technique. A Newton-Raphson algorithm is embedded in the Galerkin functional to formulate the problem in terms of the incremental changes in the dependent variables. Both triangular and quadrilateral finite elements are used to represent the continuum portions of the spatial domain. Line elements may be used to represent discrete conduits. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. New era in Gulf of Mexico seismic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, H.; Brune, R. [TGS-Calibre Geophysical Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The 1990s have seen tremendous changes in seismic activity in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Until the 1980s, seismic surveys in the GOM, particularly 3-D, were almost always proprietary. From 1990 to 1993, activity shifted so that now nearly all seismic surveys are non-exclusive 3-D, available for license by any operator. An obvious motivation for this shift was the reduced costs to E and P companies. Technical reasons also motivated this shift. Larger surveys have halos sufficient to image steeper dips and deeper targets, and allow analysis of complex regional geologic settings. This paper briefly summarizes the new technologies, trends in 3-D usage, ocean bottom cabling, data processing, data quality, and navigational tracking systems.

  13. Cytochrome P450-2D6 Screening Among Elderly Using Antidepressants (CYSCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-09

    Depression; Depressive Disorder; Poor Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant; Intermediate Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant; Ultrarapid Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant

  14. Seismic waveform modeling over cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cong; Friederich, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    With the fast growing computational technologies, numerical simulation of seismic wave propagation achieved huge successes. Obtaining the synthetic waveforms through numerical simulation receives an increasing amount of attention from seismologists. However, computational seismology is a data-intensive research field, and the numerical packages usually come with a steep learning curve. Users are expected to master considerable amount of computer knowledge and data processing skills. Training users to use the numerical packages, correctly access and utilize the computational resources is a troubled task. In addition to that, accessing to HPC is also a common difficulty for many users. To solve these problems, a cloud based solution dedicated on shallow seismic waveform modeling has been developed with the state-of-the-art web technologies. It is a web platform integrating both software and hardware with multilayer architecture: a well designed SQL database serves as the data layer, HPC and dedicated pipeline for it is the business layer. Through this platform, users will no longer need to compile and manipulate various packages on the local machine within local network to perform a simulation. By providing users professional access to the computational code through its interfaces and delivering our computational resources to the users over cloud, users can customize the simulation at expert-level, submit and run the job through it.

  15. Research on seismic stress triggering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万永革; 吴忠良; 周公威; 黄静; 秦立新

    2002-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews basic theory of seismic stress triggering. Recent development on seismic stress triggering has been reviewed in the views of seismic static and dynamic stress triggering, application of viscoelastic model in seismic stress triggering, the relation between earthquake triggering and volcanic eruption or explosion, other explanation of earthquake triggering, etc. And some suggestions for further study on seismic stress triggering in near future are given.

  16. Designing 2D and 3D network-on-chip architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Tatas, Konstantinos; Soudris, Dimitrios; Jantsch, Axel

    2014-01-01

    This book covers key concepts in the design of 2D and 3D Network-on-Chip interconnect.  It highlights design challenges and discusses fundamentals of NoC technology, including architectures, algorithms and tools.  Coverage focuses on topology exploration for both 2D and 3D NoCs, routing algorithms, NoC router design, NoC-based system integration, verification and testing, and NoC reliabilty.  Case studies are used to illuminate new design methodologies.  ·         Describes essential theory, practice and state-of-the-art applications of 2D and 3D Network-on-Chip interconnect; ·         Enables readers to exploit parallelism in processor architecture, with interconnect design that is efficient in terms of energy and performance; ·         Covers topics not available in other books, such as NoC and distributed memory organization, dynamic memory management and abstract data type support in many-core platforms, and distributed hierarchical power management.

  17. Developing Mobile BIM/2D Barcode-Based Automated Facility Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cheng Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Facility management (FM has become an important topic in research on the operation and maintenance phase. Managing the work of FM effectively is extremely difficult owing to the variety of environments. One of the difficulties is the performance of two-dimensional (2D graphics when depicting facilities. Building information modeling (BIM uses precise geometry and relevant data to support the facilities depicted in three-dimensional (3D object-oriented computer-aided design (CAD. This paper proposes a new and practical methodology with application to FM that uses an integrated 2D barcode and the BIM approach. Using 2D barcode and BIM technologies, this study proposes a mobile automated BIM-based facility management (BIMFM system for FM staff in the operation and maintenance phase. The mobile automated BIMFM system is then applied in a selected case study of a commercial building project in Taiwan to verify the proposed methodology and demonstrate its effectiveness in FM practice. The combined results demonstrate that a BIMFM-like system can be an effective mobile automated FM tool. The advantage of the mobile automated BIMFM system lies not only in improving FM work efficiency for the FM staff but also in facilitating FM updates and transfers in the BIM environment.

  18. Estimation of reliability of seismic and electromagnetic monitoring in seismic active areas by diffraction tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Troyan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the algorithms and results of the numerical simulation of the solution of a 2-D inverse problem on the restoration of seismic parameters and electrical conductivity of local inhomogeneities by the diffraction tomography method based upon the first order Born approximation. The direct problems for the Lame and Maxwell equations are solved by the finite difference method. Restoration of inhomogeneities which are not very weak is implemented with the use of a small number of receivers (source-receiver pairs.

  19. FlaME: Flash Molecular Editor - a 2D structure input tool for the web

    OpenAIRE

    Dallakian Pavel; Haider Norbert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background So far, there have been no Flash-based web tools available for chemical structure input. The authors herein present a feasibility study, aiming at the development of a compact and easy-to-use 2D structure editor, using Adobe's Flash technology and its programming language, ActionScript. As a reference model application from the Java world, we selected the Java Molecular Editor (JME). In this feasibility study, we made an attempt to realize a subset of JME's functionality i...

  20. Wide area 2D/3D imaging development, analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Langmann, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Imaging technology is an important research area and it is widely utilized in a growing number of disciplines ranging from gaming, robotics and automation to medicine. In the last decade 3D imaging became popular mainly driven by the introduction of novel 3D cameras and measuring devices. These cameras are usually limited to indoor scenes with relatively low distances. Benjamin Langmann introduces medium and long-range 2D/3D cameras to overcome these limitations. He reports measurement results for these devices and studies their characteristic behavior. In order to facilitate the application o

  1. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halle, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

  2. Progresses in the Analysis of Stochastic 2D Cellular Automata: a Study of Asynchronous 2D Minority

    CERN Document Server

    Regnault, Damien; Thierry, Éric

    2007-01-01

    Cellular automata are often used to model systems in physics, social sciences, biology that are inherently asynchronous. Over the past 20 years, studies have demonstrated that the behavior of cellular automata drastically changed under asynchronous updates. Still, the few mathematical analyses of asynchronism focus on one-dimensional probabilistic cellular automata, either on single examples or on specific classes. As for other classic dynamical systems in physics, extending known methods from one- to two-dimensional systems is a long lasting challenging problem. In this paper, we address the problem of analysing an apparently simple 2D asynchronous cellular automaton: 2D Minority where each cell, when fired, updates to the minority state of its neighborhood. Our experiments reveal that in spite of its simplicity, the minority rule exhibits a quite complex response to asynchronism. By focusing on the fully asynchronous regime, we are however able to describe completely the asymptotic behavior of this dynamics...

  3. Exposure to seismic survey alters blue whale acoustic communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, Lucia; Clark, Christopher W

    2010-02-23

    The ability to perceive biologically important sounds is critical to marine mammals, and acoustic disturbance through human-generated noise can interfere with their natural functions. Sounds from seismic surveys are intense and have peak frequency bands overlapping those used by baleen whales, but evidence of interference with baleen whale acoustic communication is sparse. Here we investigated whether blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) changed their vocal behaviour during a seismic survey that deployed a low-medium power technology (sparker). We found that blue whales called consistently more on seismic exploration days than on non-exploration days as well as during periods within a seismic survey day when the sparker was operating. This increase was observed for the discrete, audible calls that are emitted during social encounters and feeding. This response presumably represents a compensatory behaviour to the elevated ambient noise from seismic survey operations. PMID:19776059

  4. Development and Evaluation of 2-D and 3-D Exocentric Synthetic Vision Navigation Display Concepts for Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, J. J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Sweeters, Jason L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications that will help to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. The paper describes experimental evaluation of a multi-mode 3-D exocentric synthetic vision navigation display concept for commercial aircraft. Experimental results evinced the situation awareness benefits of 2-D and 3-D exocentric synthetic vision displays over traditional 2-D co-planar navigation and vertical situation displays. Conclusions and future research directions are discussed.

  5. 2D or not 2D: the effect of dimensionality on the dynamics of fingering convection at low Prandtl number

    CERN Document Server

    Garaud, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Fingering convection (otherwise known as thermohaline convection) is an instability that occurs in stellar radiative interiors in the presence of unstable compositional gradients. Numerical simulations have been used in order to estimate the efficiency of mixing induced by this instability. However, fully three-dimensional (3D) computations in the parameter regime appropriate for stellar astrophysics (i.e. low Prandtl number) are prohibitively expensive. This raises the question of whether two-dimensional (2D) simulations could be used instead to achieve the same goals. In this work, we address this issue by comparing the outcome of 2D and 3D simulations of fingering convection at low Prandtl number. We find that 2D simulations are never appropriate. However, we also find that the required 3D computational domain does not have to be very wide: the third dimension need only contain a minimum of two wavelengths of the fastest-growing linearly unstable mode to capture the essentially 3D dynamics of small-scale f...

  6. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  7. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274])

  8. Cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2, PAP2d, with two different transcripts PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liyun; Gu, Shaohua; Sun, Yaqiong; Zheng, Dan; Wu, Qihan; Li, Xin; Dai, Jianfeng; Dai, Jianliang; Ji, Chaoneng; Xie, Yi; Mao, Yumin

    2005-04-01

    This study reports the cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 isoform cDNAs (PAP2d) from the foetal brain cDNA library. The PAP2d gene is localized on chromosome 1p21.3. It contains six exons and spans 112 kb of the genomic DNA. By large-scale cDNA sequencing we found two splice variants of PAP2d, PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 1722 bp in length and spans an open reading frame from nucleotide 56 to 1021, encoding a 321aa protein. The PAP2d_v2 cDNA is 1707 bp in length encoding a 316aa protein from nucleotide 56-1006. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 15 bp longer than the PAP2d_v2 cDNA in the terminal of the fifth exon and it creates different ORF. Both of the proteins contain a well-conserved PAP2 motif. The PAP2d_v1 is mainly expressed in human brain, lung, kidney, testis and colon, while PAP2d_v2 is restricted to human placenta, skeletal muscle, and kidney. The two splice variants are co-expressed only in kidney. PMID:16010976

  9. Cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2, PAP2d, with two different transcripts PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liyun; Gu, Shaohua; Sun, Yaqiong; Zheng, Dan; Wu, Qihan; Li, Xin; Dai, Jianfeng; Dai, Jianliang; Ji, Chaoneng; Xie, Yi; Mao, Yumin

    2005-04-01

    This study reports the cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 isoform cDNAs (PAP2d) from the foetal brain cDNA library. The PAP2d gene is localized on chromosome 1p21.3. It contains six exons and spans 112 kb of the genomic DNA. By large-scale cDNA sequencing we found two splice variants of PAP2d, PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 1722 bp in length and spans an open reading frame from nucleotide 56 to 1021, encoding a 321aa protein. The PAP2d_v2 cDNA is 1707 bp in length encoding a 316aa protein from nucleotide 56-1006. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 15 bp longer than the PAP2d_v2 cDNA in the terminal of the fifth exon and it creates different ORF. Both of the proteins contain a well-conserved PAP2 motif. The PAP2d_v1 is mainly expressed in human brain, lung, kidney, testis and colon, while PAP2d_v2 is restricted to human placenta, skeletal muscle, and kidney. The two splice variants are co-expressed only in kidney.

  10. Seismic phases from the Moho and its implication on the ultra-slow spreading ridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jiazheng; ZHAO Minghui; QIU Xuelin; LI Jiabiao; RUAN Aiguo

    2013-01-01

    The Moho interface provides critical evidence for crustal thickness and the mode of oceanic crust accretion. The seismic Moho interface has not been identified yet at the magma-rich segments (46°-52°E) of the ultra-slow spreading Southwestern Indian Ridge (SWIR). This paper firstly deduces the characteristics and do-mains of seismic phases based on a theoretical oceanic crust model. Then, topographic correction is carried out for the OBS record sections along Profile Y3Y4 using the latest OBS data acquired from the detailed 3D seismic survey at the SWIR in 2010. Seismic phases are identified and analyzed, especially for the reflected and refracted seismic phases from the Moho. A 2D crustal model is finally established using the ray tracing and travel-time simulation method. The presence of reflected seismic phases at Segment 28 shows that the crustal rocks have been separated from the mantle by cooling and the Moho interface has already formed at zero age. The 2D seismic velocity structure across the axis of Segment 28 indicates that detachment faults play a key role during the processes of asymmetric oceanic crust accretion.

  11. Quantitative seismic interpretation: Applying rock physics tools to reduce interpretation risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Chen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Seismic data analysis is one of the key technologies for characterizing reservoirs and monitoring subsurface pore fluids. While there have been great advances in 3D seismic data processing, the quantitative interpretation of the seismic data for rock properties still poses many challenges. This book demonstrates how rock physics can be applied to predict reservoir parameters, such as lithologies and pore fluids, from seismically derived attributes, as well as how the multidisciplinary combination of rock physics models with seismic data, sedimentological information, and stochastic techniques can lead to more powerful results than can be obtained from a single technique.

  12. Design of 2-D DCT IP Soft Core Based on Loeffler's Algorithm%基于Loeffler算法的2-D DCT IP软核设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宝增; 牛力; 刘志明

    2011-01-01

    提出一种基于Loeffler算法的2-D DCT IP软核设计方法.用移位和加法运算代替乘法运算.为减少芯片占用面积,对乘法系数采用CSD编码,1-D DCT复用技术;为提高电路的速度,采用流水线结构,优化转置矩阵. 基于上述算法,设计了用Verilog HDL 语言描述的IP软核. 对软核进行了编译、综合、布局布线和后仿真,验证了算法的正确性. 实验结果显示最高工作频率可以达到139.43 MHz,能够满足视频图像压缩的实时性要求.%This paper presents a design of 2-D DCT IP soft core based on Loeffler's algorithm. We make use of the shifter and addition operations to replace the multiplication operations. In order to save hardware resources, the multiplication factors are coded by CSD, and the technology of 1-D DCT reusing is taken; In order to improve the circuit speed, the pipelining technology is taken, and optimize the transposed matrices is adopted. Based on abovementioned algorithms the IP soft core with Verilog HDL is obtained. For the IP soft core, we made the compiling,synthesis, layout and post simulation, so the correctness of the design is verified. The experiment shows that design has a maximum frequency of 139. 43 MHz, which can satisfy the requirement of real-time video image compression.

  13. Seismicity in Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Monika; Gestermann, Nicolai; Plenefisch, Thomas; Bönnemann, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Northern Germany is a region of low tectonic activity, where only few and low-magnitude earthquakes occur. The driving tectonic processes are not well-understood up to now. In addition, seismic events during the last decade concentrated at the borders of the natural gas fields. The source depths of these events are shallow and in the depth range of the gas reservoirs. Based on these observations a causal relationship between seismicity near gas fields and the gas production is likely. The strongest of these earthquake had a magnitude of 4.5 and occurred near Rotenburg in 2004. Also smaller seismic events were considerably felt by the public and stimulated the discussion on the underlying processes. The latest seismic event occurred near Langwedel on 22nd November 2012 and had a magnitude of 2.8. Understanding the causes of the seismicity in Northern Germany is crucial for a thorough evaluation. Therefore the Seismological Service of Lower Saxony (NED) was established at the State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) of Lower Saxony in January 2013. Its main task is the monitoring and evaluation of the seismicity in Lower Saxony and adjacent areas. Scientific and technical questions are addressed in close cooperation with the Seismological Central Observatory (SZO) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). The seismological situation of Northern Germany will be presented. Possible causes of seismicity are introduced. Rare seismic events at greater depths are distributed over the whole region and probably are purely tectonic whereas events in the vicinity of natural gas fields are probably related to gas production. Improving the detection threshold of seismic events in Northern Germany is necessary for providing a better statistical basis for further analyses answering these questions. As a first step the existing seismic network will be densified over the next few years. The first borehole station was installed near Rethem by BGR

  14. Anomalous Hall Effect in a 2D Rashba Ferromagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ado, I A; Dmitriev, I A; Ostrovsky, P M; Titov, M

    2016-07-22

    Skew scattering on rare impurity configurations is shown to dominate the anomalous Hall effect in a 2D Rashba ferromagnet. The mechanism originates in scattering on rare impurity pairs separated by distances of the order of the Fermi wavelength. The corresponding theoretical description goes beyond the conventional noncrossing approximation. The mechanism provides the only contribution to the anomalous Hall conductivity in the most relevant metallic regime and strongly modifies previously obtained results for lower energies in the leading order with respect to impurity strength. PMID:27494487

  15. Localized moving breathers in a 2-D hexagonal lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Marin, J L; Russell, F M

    1997-01-01

    We show for the first time that highly localized in-plane breathers can propagate in specific directions with minimal lateral spreading in a model 2-D hexagonal non-linear lattice. The lattice is subject to an on-site potential in addition to longitudinal nonlinear inter-particle interactions. This study investigates the prediction that stable breather-like solitons could be formed as a result of energetic scattering events in a given layered crystal and would propagate in atomic-chain directions in certain atomic planes. This prediction arose from a long-term study of previously unexplained dark lines in natural crystals of muscovite mica.

  16. Novel 2D representation of vibration for local damage detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Żak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new 2D representation for local damage detection is presented. It is based on a vibration time series analysis. A raw vibration signal is decomposed via short-time Fourier transform and new time series for each frequency bin are differentiated to decorrelate them. For each time series, autocorrelation function is calculated. In the next step ACF maps are constructed. For healthy bearing ACF map should not have visible horizontal lines indicating damage. The method is illustrated by analysis of real data containing signals from damaged bearing and healthy for comparison.

  17. Slow positron beam experiment using 2D-ACAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a γ-incident position detector using the position sensitive photomultiplier R3941. The equipment is set up five meters apart from the sample and used for the experiment by the continuous spectrum positron. If the sample with width 2 mm were measured, the resolving power became about 1.2 m rad and the average coincidence counter coefficiency about 50 cps by radiation source 1GBq 22Na. A positronium emission spectroscopy is explained as the experimental example of a combination of low-energy position beam and 2D-ACAR. (S.Y.)

  18. 2-D ACAR measurements of Ni3A1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with a detailed study of the electronic structure and stability of the aluminides (Ni,Fe)3Al, 2-D ACAR positron annihilation measurements were made on a Ni3Al single crystal to study the Fermi surface. The results for Ni3Al have been compared with results for pure Ni. Strong similarities were found for the electronic structures of these materials. Theoretical calculations of the Fermi surface for Ni3Al are in good agreement with the experimental results. The Γ16 sheet, not previously observed in any experiment, has now been observed for the first time in Ni3Al. 14 refs., 10 figs

  19. Informatiivisen 2D-animaation suunnittelu ja toteutus

    OpenAIRE

    Inkinen, Jaakko

    2015-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on tutkia animaatiota infografiikan välineenä. Produktiivinen työ on informatiivisen 2D-animaation suunnittelu ja toteutus. Työn toimeksiantajana on Carea, eli Kymenlaakson sairaanhoito- ja sosiaalipalvelujen kuntayhtymä. Animaation tarkoituksena on informoida potilaita omista mahdollisuuksistaan vaikuttaa hoitonsa turvallisuuteen, ja lopullinen tuotos tulee näkymään sekä internetissä että Kymenlaakson keskussairaalassa sijaitsevilta näytöiltä. Työ toteutetaan ...

  20. Topology-Preserving Rigid Transformation of 2D Digital Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Phuc; Passat, Nicolas; Kenmochi, Yukiko; Talbot, Hugues

    2014-02-01

    We provide conditions under which 2D digital images preserve their topological properties under rigid transformations. We consider the two most common digital topology models, namely dual adjacency and well-composedness. This paper leads to the proposal of optimal preprocessing strategies that ensure the topological invariance of images under arbitrary rigid transformations. These results and methods are proved to be valid for various kinds of images (binary, gray-level, label), thus providing generic and efficient tools, which can be used in particular in the context of image registration and warping. PMID:26270925