WorldWideScience

Sample records for 2d ir spectroscopy

  1. Hydrogen bond dynamics in alcohols studied by 2D IR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shinokita, Keisuke; Cunha, Ana V.; Jansen, Thomas L C; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast hydrogen-bond dynamics in alcohols are studied by 2D IR spectroscopy and combined molecular dynamics—quantum mechanical simulations on the OH stretching mode. Fast memory loss in *100 fs are attributed to intact hydrogen-bond fluctuations. Stable (at the experimental timescale) hydrogen bo

  2. Hydrophobic hydration of globular proteins studied with 2D-IR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubarych K.J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast 2D-IR spectroscopy of a CO ligand bound to a copper active site of an artificial metalloenzyme is used as a sensitive probe of both the flexibility and the electrostatic environment of the engineered catalyst.

  3. Structure of a model salt bridge in solution investigated with 2D-IR spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Huerta-Viga, Adriana; Amirjalayer, Saeed; Woutersen, Sander

    2013-01-01

    Salt bridges are known to be important for the stability of protein conformation, but up to now it has been difficult to study their geometry in solution. Here we characterize the spatial structure of a model salt bridge between guanidinium (Gdm+) and acetate (Ac-) using two-dimensional vibrational (2D-IR) spectroscopy. We find that as a result of salt bridging the infrared response of Gdm+ and Ac- change significantly, and in the 2D-IR spectrum, salt bridging of the molecules appears as cross peaks. From the 2D-IR spectrum we determine the relative orientation of the transition-dipole moments of the vibrational modes involved in the salt bridge, as well as the coupling between them. In this manner we reconstruct the geometry of the solvated salt bridge.

  4. Structural dynamics inside a functionalized metal–organic framework probed by ultrafast 2D IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Jun; Tamimi, Amr; Fei, Honghan; Pullen, Sonja; Ott, Sascha; Cohen, Seth M.; Fayer, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The structural elasticity of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) is a key property for their functionality. Here, we show that 2D IR spectroscopy with pulse-shaping techniques can probe the ultrafast structural fluctuations of MOFs. 2D IR data, obtained from a vibrational probe attached to the linkers of UiO-66 MOF in low concentration, revealed that the structural fluctuations have time constants of 7 and 670 ps with no solvent. Filling the MOF pores with dimethylformamide (DMF) slows the structural fluctuations by reducing the ability of the MOF to undergo deformations, and the dynamics of the DMF molecules are also greatly restricted. Methodology advances were required to remove the severe light scattering caused by the macroscopic-sized MOF particles, eliminate interfering oscillatory components from the 2D IR data, and address Förster vibrational excitation transfer. PMID:25512539

  5. [Study on the processing of leech by FTIR and 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing-Ning; Wu, Yan-Wen; Ouyang, Jie; Sun, Su-Qin; Chen, Shun-Cong

    2011-04-01

    The chemical differences of traditional Chinese medicine leech before and after processing were analyzed by FTIR and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy. The result showed that the leech was high in protein, with characteristic peaks of amide I, II bands. Comparing the IR spectra of samples, the primary difference was that the characteristic peak of fresh leech was at 1 543 cm(-1), while that of crude and processed leech was at 1 535 cm(-1). A 2D-IR spectrum with heating perturbation was used to track the processing dynamics of leech In the 2D-IR correlation spectra, fresh leech exhibited stronger automatic peaks of the amide I and II bands than that of processed leech, which indicates that the protein components of the fresh leech were more sensitive to heat perturbation than the processed one. Moreover, the result of FTIR and 2D-IR correlation spectra validated that the 3-dimensional structure of protein was damaged and hydrogen bonds were broken after processing, which resulted in the inactivation of protein. The fatty acids and cholesterol components of leech were also oxidized in this process.

  6. Amide I'-II' 2D IR spectroscopy provides enhanced protein secondary structural sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deflores, Lauren P; Ganim, Ziad; Nicodemus, Rebecca A; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2009-03-11

    We demonstrate how multimode 2D IR spectroscopy of the protein amide I' and II' vibrations can be used to distinguish protein secondary structure. Polarization-dependent amide I'-II' 2D IR experiments on poly-l-lysine in the beta-sheet, alpha-helix, and random coil conformations show that a combination of amide I' and II' diagonal and cross peaks can effectively distinguish between secondary structural content, where amide I' infrared spectroscopy alone cannot. The enhanced sensitivity arises from frequency and amplitude correlations between amide II' and amide I' spectra that reflect the symmetry of secondary structures. 2D IR surfaces are used to parametrize an excitonic model for the amide I'-II' manifold suitable to predict protein amide I'-II' spectra. This model reveals that the dominant vibrational interaction contributing to this sensitivity is a combination of negative amide II'-II' through-bond coupling and amide I'-II' coupling within the peptide unit. The empirically determined amide II'-II' couplings do not significantly vary with secondary structure: -8.5 cm(-1) for the beta sheet, -8.7 cm(-1) for the alpha helix, and -5 cm(-1) for the coil.

  7. Rapid discrimination of extracts of Chinese propolis and poplar buds by FT-IR and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Wen; Sun, Su-Qin; Zhao, Jing; Li, Yi; Zhou, Qun

    2008-07-01

    The extract of Chinese propolis (ECP) has recently been adulterated with that of poplar buds (EPB), because most of ECP is derived from the poplar plant, and ECP and EPB have almost identical chemical compositions. It is very difficult to differentiate them by using the chromatographic methods such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). Therefore, how to effectively discriminate these two mixtures is a problem to be solved urgently. In this paper, a rapid method for discriminating ECP and EPB was established by the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra combined with the two-dimensional infrared correlation (2D IR) analysis. Forty-three ECP and five EPB samples collected from different areas of China were analyzed by the FT-IR spectroscopy. All the ECP and EPB samples tested show similar IR spectral profiles. The significant differences between ECP and EPB appear in the region of 3000-2800 cm -1 of the spectra. Based on such differences, the two species were successfully classified with the soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) pattern recognition technique. Furthermore, these differences were well validated by a series of temperature-dependent dynamic FT-IR spectra and the corresponding 2D IR plots. The results indicate that the differences in these two natural products are caused by the amounts of long-chain alkyl compounds (including long-chain alkanes, long-chain alkyl esters and long chain alkyl alcohols) in them, rather than the flavonoid compounds, generally recognized as the bioactive substances of propolis. There are much more long-chain alkyl compounds in ECP than those in EPB, and the carbon atoms of the compounds in ECP remain in an order Z-shaped array, but those in EPB are disorder. It suggests that FT-IR and 2D IR spectroscopy can provide a valuable method for the rapid differentiation of similar natural products, ECP and EPB. The IR spectra could directly reflect the integrated chemical

  8. Probing Intermolecular Interactions in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with 2D IR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummel, Amber

    2014-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment and impact geochemical processes that are critical to sustainable energy resources. For example, asphaltenes exist naturally in geologic formations and their aggregates heavily impact the petroleum economy. Unfortunately, the chemical dynamics that drive asphaltene nanoaggregation processes are still poorly understood. Solvent dynamics and intermolecular interactions such as π-stacking interactions play integral roles in asphaltene nanoaggregation. Linear and nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy including two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2DIR), are well suited to explore these fundamental interactions. Teasing apart the vibrational characteristics in PAHs that model asphaltenic compounds represents an important step towards utilizing 2D IR spectroscopy to understand the intermolecular interactions that are prevalent in asphaltene nanoaggregation. A solar dye, N,N'-Dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide, is used in this work to model aphaltenes. Carbonyl and ring vibrations are used to probe the nanoaggregates of the model compounds. However, the characteristics of these normal modes change as a function of the size of the conjugated ring system. Thus, in order to fully understand the nature of these normal modes, we include a systematic study of a series of quinones. Our investigation employs a combination of 2DIR spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations to explore vibrational coupling in quinones and PAHs. We compare the calculated vibrational characteristics to those extracted from 2DIR spectra. ATK acknowledges the Donors of the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund for support of this research.

  9. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-qin; Zheng, Jing

    2017-03-01

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p = 0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  10. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-Qin; Zheng, Jing

    2017-03-05

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p=0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  11. Structural modifications of Tilia cordata wood during heat treatment investigated by FT-IR and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Froidevaux, Julien; Navi, Parviz; Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela

    2013-02-01

    It is known that heat treatment of wood combined with a low percent of relative humidity causes transformations in the chemical composition of it. The modifications and/or degradation of wood components occur by hydrolysis, oxidation, and decarboxylation reactions. The aim of this study was to give better insights on wood chemical modifications during wood heat treatment under low temperature at about 140 °C and 10% percentage of relative humidity, by infrared, principal component analysis and two dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy. For this purpose, hardwood samples of lime (Tilia cordata) were investigated and analysed. The infrared spectra of treated samples were compared with the reference ones, the most important differences being observed in the "fingerprint" region. Due to the complexity of this region, which have contributions from all the wood constituents the chemical changes during hydro-thermal treatment were examined in detail using principal component analysis and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy. By hydro-thermal treatment of wood results the formation of acetic acid, which catalyse the hydrolysis reactions of hemicelluloses and amorphous cellulose. The cleavage of the β-O-4 linkages and splitting of the aliphatic methoxyl chains from the aromatic lignin ring was also observed. For the first treatment interval, a higher extent of carbohydrates degradation was observed, then an increase of the extent of the lignin degradation also took place.

  12. Earle K. Plyler Prize for Molecular Spectroscopy and Dynamics Lecture: 2D IR Spectroscopy of Peptide Conformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2012-02-01

    Descriptions of protein and peptide conformation are colored by the methods we use to study them. Protein x-ray and NMR structures often lead to impressions of rigid or well-defined conformations, even though these are dynamic molecules. The conformational fluctuations and disorder of proteins and peptides is more difficult to quantify. This presentation will describe an approach toward characterizing and quantifying structural heterogeneity and disorder in peptides using 2D IR spectroscopy. Using amide I vibrational spectroscopy, isotope labeling strategies, and computational modeling based on molecular dynamics simulations and Markov state models allows us to characterize distinct peptide conformers and conformational variation. The examples illustrated include the beta-hairpin tripzip2 and elastin-like peptides.

  13. Phase-Resolved Heterodyne-Detected Transient Grating Enhances the Capabilities of 2D IR Echo Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Geun Young; Kim, Yung Sam

    2017-02-09

    2D IR echo spectroscopy, with high sensitivity and femtosecond time resolution, enables us to understand structure and ultrafast dynamics of molecular systems. Application of this experimental technique on weakly absorbing samples, however, had been limited by the precise and unambiguous phase determination of the echo signals. In this study, we propose a new experimental scheme that significantly increases the phase stability of the involved IR pulses. We have demonstrated that the incorporation of phase-resolved heterodyne-detected transient grating (PR-HDTG) spectroscopy greatly enhances the capabilities of 2D IR spectroscopy. The new experimental scheme has been used to obtain 2D IR spectra on weakly absorbing azide ions (N3(-)) in H2O (absorbance ∼0.025), free of phase ambiguity even at large waiting times. We report the estimated spectral diffusion time scale (1.056 ps) of azide ions in aqueous solution from the 2D IR spectra and the vibrational lifetime (750 ± 3 fs) and the reorientation time (1108 ± 24 fs) from the PR-HDTG spectra.

  14. 2D IR spectroscopy at 100 kHz utilizing a Mid-IR OPCPA laser source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Bradley M; Tracy, Kathryn M; Gerrity, Michael; Brown, Susannah; Krummel, Amber T

    2016-02-22

    We present a 100 kHz 2D IR spectrometer. The system utilizes a ytterbium all normal dispersion fiber oscillator as a common source for the pump and seed beams of a MgO:PPLN OPCPA. The 1030 nm OPCPA pump is generated by amplification of the oscillator in cryocooled Yb:YAG amplifiers, while the 1.68 μm seed is generated in a OPO pumped by the oscillator. The OPCPA outputs are used in a ZGP DFG stage to generate 4.65 μm pulses. A mid-IR pulse shaper delivers pulse pairs to a 2D IR spectrometer allowing for data collection at 100 kHz.

  15. Study on antibacterial alginate-stabilized copper nanoparticles by FT-IR and 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-Visurraga J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Judith Díaz-Visurraga,1,2 Carla Daza,2 Claudio Pozo,2 Abraham Becerra,2 Carlos von Plessing,1,2 Apolinaria García31Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion; 2Research Center of Advanced Polymers (CIPA, CONICYT REGIONAL/CIPA R08C1002; 3Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepción, ChileBackground: The objective of this study was to clarify the intermolecular interaction between antibacterial copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs and sodium alginate (NaAlg by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and to process the spectra applying two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR correlation analysis. To our knowledge, the addition of NaAlg as a stabilizer of copper nanoparticles has not been previously reported. It is expected that the obtained results will provide valuable additional information on: (1 the influence of reducing agent ratio on the formation of copper nanoparticles in order to design functional nanomaterials with increased antibacterial activity, and (2 structural changes related to the incorporation of Cu NPs into the polymer matrix.Methods: Cu NPs were prepared by microwave heating using ascorbic acid as reducing agent and NaAlg as stabilizing agent. The characterization of synthesized Cu NPs by ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, electron diffraction analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and semiquantitative analysis of the weight percentage composition indicated that the average particle sizes of Cu NPs are about 3–10 nm, they are spherical in shape, and consist of zerovalent Cu and Cu2O. Also, crystallite size and relative particle size of stabilized Cu NPs were calculated by XRD using Scherrer’s formula and FT from the X-ray diffraction data. Thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, FT-IR, second-derivative spectra, and 2D-IR correlation analysis were applied to

  16. Characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy of a carbosilane dendrimer with peripheral ammonium groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina, E-mail: cpopescu@icmpp.ro [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry (Romania); Gomez, Rafael; Mata, Fco Javier de la; Rasines, Beatriz [Universidad de Alcala, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica (Spain); Simionescu, Bogdan C. [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry (Romania)

    2013-06-15

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 2D correlation spectroscopy were used to study the microstructural changes occurring on heating of a new carbosilane dendrimer with peripheral ammonium groups. Temperature-dependent spectral variations in the 3,010-2,710, 1,530-1,170, and 1,170-625 cm{sup -1} regions were monitored during the heating process. The dependence, on temperature, of integral absorptions and position of spectral bands was established and the spectral modifications associated with molecular conformation rearrangements, allowing molecular shape changes, were found. Before 180 Degree-Sign C, the studied carbosilane dendrimer proved to be stable, while at higher temperatures it oxidizes and Si-O groups appear. 2D IR correlation spectroscopy gives new information about the effect of temperature on the structure and dynamics of the system. Synchronous and asynchronous spectra indicate that, at low temperature, conformational changes of CH{sub 3} and CH{sub 3}-N{sup +} groups take place first. With increasing temperature, the intensity variation of the CH{sub 2}, C-N, Si-C and C-C groups from the dendritic core is faster than that of the terminal units. This indicates that, with increasing temperature, the segments of the dendritic core obtain enough energy to change their conformation more easily as compared to the terminal units, due to their internal flexibility.

  17. Polarization shaping in the mid-IR and polarization-based balanced heterodyne detection with application to 2D IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Chris T; Strasfeld, David B; Zanni, Martin T

    2009-08-17

    We demonstrate amplitude, phase and polarization shaping of femtosecond mid-IR pulses using a germanium acousto-optical modulator by independently shaping the frequency-dependent amplitudes and phases of two orthogonally polarized pulses which are then collinearly overlapped using a wire-grid polarizer. We use a feedback loop to set and stabilize the relative phase of the orthogonal pulses. We have also used a wire-grid polarizer to implement polarization-based balanced heterodyne detection for improved signal-to-noise of 2D IR spectra collected in a pump-probe geometry. Applications include coherent control of molecular vibrations and improvements in multidimensional IR spectroscopy.

  18. Investigation on the overlapping bands of syndiotactic polystyrene by using 2D-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qianhong; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Chunbo; Yang, Jian; Wang, Dujin

    2016-11-01

    In this work, WAXD and FTIR spectroscopy were utilized to investigate the phase transition of syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) from amorphous phase to mesophase during the isothermal annealing process at 130 °C. Two dimensional (2D) correlation infrared spectroscopy was applied to reveal the sub-bands from the highly overlapping bands. The ∼900 cm-1 band is shown to be composed of two sub-bands. One band located around 906 cm-1 corresponds to the amorphous phase, another peak that occurs around 900 cm-1 is associated with mesophase. The trans-planar conformation band at 1223 cm-1 turns out to consist of two bands which might be related to trans-planar conformation with different sequence lengths.

  19. Vibrational dynamics and solvatochromism of the label SCN in various solvents and hemoglobin by time dependent IR and 2D-IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wilderen, Luuk J G W; Kern-Michler, Daniela; Müller-Werkmeister, Henrike M; Bredenbeck, Jens

    2014-09-28

    We investigated the characteristics of the thiocyanate (SCN) functional group as a probe of local structural dynamics for 2D-IR spectroscopy of proteins, exploiting the dependence of vibrational frequency on the environment of the label. Steady-state and time-resolved infrared spectroscopy are performed on the model compound methylthiocyanate (MeSCN) in solvents of different polarity, and compared to data obtained on SCN as a local probe introduced as cyanylated cysteine in the protein bovine hemoglobin. The vibrational lifetime of the protein label is determined to be 37 ps, and its anharmonicity is observed to be lower than that of the model compound (which itself exhibits solvent-independent anharmonicity). The vibrational lifetime of MeSCN generally correlates with the solvent polarity, i.e. longer lifetimes in less polar solvents, with the longest lifetime being 158 ps. However, the capacity of the solvent to form hydrogen bonds complicates this simplified picture. The long lifetime of the SCN vibration is in contrast to commonly used azide labels or isotopically-labeled amide I and better suited to monitor structural rearrangements by 2D-IR spectroscopy. We present time-dependent 2D-IR data on the labeled protein which reveal an initially inhomogeneous structure around the CN oscillator. The distribution becomes homogeneous after 5 picoseconds so that spectral diffusion has effectively erased the 'memory' of the CN stretching frequency. Therefore, the 2D-IR data of the label incorporated in hemoglobin demonstrate how SCN can be utilized to sense rearrangements in the local structure on a picosecond timescale.

  20. 2D IR spectroscopy of histidine: probing side-chain structure and dynamics via backbone amide vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ayanjeet; Tucker, Matthew J; Gai, Feng

    2014-07-17

    It is well known that histidine is involved in many biological functions due to the structural versatility of its side chain. However, probing the conformational transitions of histidine in proteins, especially those occurring on an ultrafast time scale, is difficult. Herein we show, using a histidine dipeptide as a model, that it is possible to probe the tautomer and protonation status of a histidine residue by measuring the two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectrum of its amide I vibrational transition. Specifically, for the histidine dipeptide studied, the amide unit of the histidine gives rise to three spectrally resolvable amide I features at approximately 1630, 1644, and 1656 cm(-1), respectively, which, based on measurements at different pH values and frequency calculations, are assigned to a τ tautomer (1630 cm(-1) component) and a π tautomer with a hydrated (1644 cm(-1) component) or dehydrated (1656 cm(-1) component) amide. Because of the intrinsic ultrafast time resolution of 2D IR spectroscopy, we believe that the current approach, when combined with the isotope editing techniques, will be useful in revealing the structural dynamics of key histidine residues in proteins that are important for function.

  1. Computational Amide I 2D IR Spectroscopy as a Probe of Protein Structure and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppert, Mike; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2016-05-01

    Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy of amide I vibrations is increasingly being used to study the structure and dynamics of proteins and peptides. Amide I, a primarily carbonyl stretching vibration of the protein backbone, provides information on secondary structures as a result of vibrational couplings and on hydrogen-bonding contacts when isotope labeling is used to isolate specific sites. In parallel with experiments, computational models of amide I spectra that use atomistic structures from molecular dynamics simulations have evolved to calculate experimental spectra. Mixed quantum-classical models use spectroscopic maps to translate the structural information into a quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian for the spectroscopically observed vibrations. This allows one to model the spectroscopy of large proteins, disordered states, and protein conformational dynamics. With improvements in amide I models, quantitative modeling of time-dependent structural ensembles and of direct feedback between experiments and simulations is possible. We review the advances in developing these models, their theoretical basis, and current and future applications.

  2. Azide-water intermolecular coupling measured by 2-color 2D IR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perakis F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present 2-color two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy of intermolecular coupling between azide ions and their solvation shell water molecules. The cross-peak between azide asymmetric stretch vibration and the OD-stretch vibration is a result of low- probability uphill population transfer. Narrow bleach/excited state absorption peak shows selectivity to solvation shell water molecules only and the characteristics of the cross-peak suggest that the solvation shell hydrogen bond potential has similar anharmonic properties as the hydrogen bond in ice Ih. Population and depopulation of the excited state of the OD-stretch vibration happen on 150 fs and 1.7 ps timescales, respectively, with early manifesting heating effects that limit the selectivity to population times up to 1 ps.

  3. [Identification and analysis of genuine and false Flos Rosae Rugosae by FTIR and 2D correlation IR spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Fang; Sun, Su-qin; Yan, Wen-rong; Niu, Shi-jie; Li, Xian-en

    2009-09-01

    The genuine and false Flos Rosae Rugosae (Flos Rosae Chinensis and Flos Rosa multiflora) were examined in terms of their differences by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with two-dimensional (2D) correlation IR spectroscopy. The three species were shown very similar in FTIR spectra. The peak of 1318 cm(-1) of genuine Flos Rosae Rugosae is not obvious but this peak could be found sharp in Flos Rosae Chinensis and Flos Rosa multiflora. Generally, the second derivative IR spectrum can clearly enhance the spectral resolution. Flos Rosae Rugosae and Flos rosae Chinensis have aromatic compounds distinct fingerprint characteristics at 1 617 and 1 618 cm(-1), respectively. Nevertheless, FlosRosa multiflora has the peak at 1612 cm(-1). There is a discrepancy of 5 to 6 cm(-1). FlosRosa multiflora has glucide's distinct fingerprint characteristics at 1 044 cm(-1), but Flos Rosae Rugosae and Flos Rosae Chinensis don't. The second derivative infrared spectra indicated different fingerprint characteristics. Three of them showed aromatic compounds with autopeaks at 1620, 1560 and 1460 cm(-1). Flos Rosae Chinensis and Flos Rosa multiflora have the shoulder peak at 1660 cm(-1). In the range of 850-1250 cm(-1), three of them are distinct different, Flos Rosae Rugosae has the strongest autopeak, Flos Rosae Chinensis has the feeble autopeak and Flos Rosa multiflora has no autopeak at 1050 cm(-1). In third-step identification, the different contents of aromatic compounds and glucide in Flos Rosae Rugosae, Flos Rosae Chinensis and Flos Rosa multiflora were revealed. It is proved that the method is fast and effective for distinguishing and analyzing genuine Flos Rosae Rugosae and false Flos Rosae Rugosae (Flos Rosae Chinensis and Flos Rosa multiflora).

  4. Unraveling the dynamics and structure of functionalized self-assembled monolayers on gold using 2D IR spectroscopy and MD simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chang; Yuan, Rongfeng; Pfalzgraff, William C; Nishida, Jun; Wang, Lu; Markland, Thomas E; Fayer, Michael D

    2016-05-03

    Functionalized self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are the focus of ongoing investigations because they can be chemically tuned to control their structure and dynamics for a wide variety of applications, including electrochemistry, catalysis, and as models of biological interfaces. Here we combine reflection 2D infrared vibrational echo spectroscopy (R-2D IR) and molecular dynamics simulations to determine the relationship between the structures of functionalized alkanethiol SAMs on gold surfaces and their underlying molecular motions on timescales of tens to hundreds of picoseconds. We find that at higher head group density, the monolayers have more disorder in the alkyl chain packing and faster dynamics. The dynamics of alkanethiol SAMs on gold are much slower than the dynamics of alkylsiloxane SAMs on silica. Using the simulations, we assess how the different molecular motions of the alkyl chain monolayers give rise to the dynamics observed in the experiments.

  5. 2D IR spectroscopy reveals the role of water in the binding of channel-blocking drugs to the influenza M2 channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Ayanjeet, E-mail: ayanjeet@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: gai@sas.upenn.edu; Gai, Feng, E-mail: ayanjeet@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: gai@sas.upenn.edu; Hochstrasser, Robin M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Wang, Jun; DeGrado, William F. [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Moroz, Yurii S.; Korendovych, Ivan V. [Department of Chemistry, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States); Zanni, Martin [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-06-21

    Water is an integral part of the homotetrameric M2 proton channel of the influenza A virus, which not only assists proton conduction but could also play an important role in stabilizing channel-blocking drugs. Herein, we employ two dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy and site-specific IR probes, i.e., the amide I bands arising from isotopically labeled Ala30 and Gly34 residues, to probe how binding of either rimantadine or 7,7-spiran amine affects the water dynamics inside the M2 channel. Our results show, at neutral pH where the channel is non-conducting, that drug binding leads to a significant increase in the mobility of the channel water. A similar trend is also observed at pH 5.0 although the difference becomes smaller. Taken together, these results indicate that the channel water facilitates drug binding by increasing its entropy. Furthermore, the 2D IR spectral signatures obtained for both probes under different conditions collectively support a binding mechanism whereby amantadine-like drugs dock in the channel with their ammonium moiety pointing toward the histidine residues and interacting with a nearby water cluster, as predicted by molecular dynamics simulations. We believe these findings have important implications for designing new anti-influenza drugs.

  6. Synthesis, structure and temperature-depended 2D IR correlation spectroscopy of an organo-bismuth benzoate with 1,10-phenanthroline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan-Qiong; Zhong, Jie-Cen; Liu, Le-Hui; Qiu, Xing-Tai; Chen, Yi-Ping

    2016-11-01

    An organo-bismuth benzoate with phen as auxiliary ligand, [Bi(phen)(C6H5COO)(C6H4COO)] (1) (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) has been hydrothermally synthesized from bismuth nitrate, 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid with phen as auxiliary ligand and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, PXRD, IR spectra, TG analyses, temperature-depended 2D-IR COS (two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy). Interestingly, benzoate anions in 1 came from the desulfuration reaction of 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid under hydrothermal condition. Compound 1 is a discrete organo-bismuth compound with benzoate and phen ligands. The offset face-to-face π-π stacking interactions and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the isolate complex into a 3D supramolecular network. The temperature-depended 2D-IR COS indicates that the stretching vibrations of Cdbnd C/Cdbnd N of aromatic rings and Cdbnd O bonds are sensitive to the temperature change.

  7. A strongly absorbing class of non-natural labels for probing protein electrostatics and solvation with FTIR and 2D IR spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woys, Ann Marie; Mukherjee, Sudipta S; Skoff, David R; Moran, Sean D; Zanni, Martin T

    2013-05-02

    A series of non-natural infrared probes is reported that consist of a metal-tricarbonyl modified with a -(CH2)n- linker and cysteine-specific leaving group. They can be site-specifically attached to proteins using mutagenesis and similar protocols for EPR spin labels, which have the same leaving group. We characterize the label's frequencies and lifetimes using 2D IR spectroscopy in solvents of varying dielectric. The frequency range spans 10 cm(-1), and the variation in lifetimes ranges from 6 to 19 ps, indicating that these probes are very sensitive to their environments. Also, we attached probes with -(CH2)-, -(CH2)3-, and -(CH2)4- linkers to ubiquitin at positions 6 and 63 and collected spectra in aqueous buffer. The frequencies and lifetimes were correlated for 3C and 4C linkers, as they were in the solvents, but did not correlate for the 1C linker. We conclude that lifetime measures solvation, whereas frequency reflects the electrostatics of the environment, which in the case of the 1C linker is a measure of the protein electrostatic field. We also labeled V71C α-synuclein in buffer and membrane-bound. Unlike most other infrared labels, this label has extremely strong cross sections and thus can be measured with 2D IR spectroscopy at sub-millimolar concentrations. We expect that these labels will find use in studying the structure and dynamics of membrane-bound, aggregated, and kinetically evolving proteins for which high signal-to-noise at low protein concentrations is imperative.

  8. Solvation of fluoro-acetonitrile in water by 2D-IR spectroscopy: A combined experimental-computational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazade, Pierre-André; Das, Akshaya K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Tran, Halina; Kläsi, Felix; Hamm, Peter [Department of Chemistry, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr. 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Bereau, Tristan [Max-Planck-Institut für Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Meuwly, Markus, E-mail: m.meuwly@unibas.ch [Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    The solvent dynamics around fluorinated acetonitrile is characterized by 2-dimensional infrared spectroscopy and atomistic simulations. The lineshape of the linear infrared spectrum is better captured by semiempirical (density functional tight binding) mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics simulations, whereas force field simulations with multipolar interactions yield lineshapes that are significantly too narrow. For the solvent dynamics, a relatively slow time scale of 2 ps is found from the experiments and supported by the mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics simulations. With multipolar force fields fitted to the available thermodynamical data, the time scale is considerably faster—on the 0.5 ps time scale. The simulations provide evidence for a well established CF–HOH hydrogen bond (population of 25%) which is found from the radial distribution function g(r) from both, force field and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations.

  9. Parallel β-sheet vibrational couplings revealed by 2D IR spectroscopy of an isotopically labeled macrocycle: quantitative benchmark for the interpretation of amyloid and protein infrared spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woys, Ann Marie; Almeida, Aaron M; Wang, Lu; Chiu, Chi-Cheng; McGovern, Michael; de Pablo, Juan J; Skinner, James L; Gellman, Samuel H; Zanni, Martin T

    2012-11-21

    Infrared spectroscopy is playing an important role in the elucidation of amyloid fiber formation, but the coupling models that link spectra to structure are not well tested for parallel β-sheets. Using a synthetic macrocycle that enforces a two stranded parallel β-sheet conformation, we measured the lifetimes and frequency for six combinations of doubly (13)C═(18)O labeled amide I modes using 2D IR spectroscopy. The average vibrational lifetime of the isotope labeled residues was 550 fs. The frequencies of the labels ranged from 1585 to 1595 cm(-1), with the largest frequency shift occurring for in-register amino acids. The 2D IR spectra of the coupled isotope labels were calculated from molecular dynamics simulations of a series of macrocycle structures generated from replica exchange dynamics to fully sample the conformational distribution. The models used to simulate the spectra include through-space coupling, through-bond coupling, and local frequency shifts caused by environment electrostatics and hydrogen bonding. The calculated spectra predict the line widths and frequencies nearly quantitatively. Historically, the characteristic features of β-sheet infrared spectra have been attributed to through-space couplings such as transition dipole coupling. We find that frequency shifts of the local carbonyl groups due to nearest neighbor couplings and environmental factors are more important, while the through-space couplings dictate the spectral intensities. As a result, the characteristic absorption spectra empirically used for decades to assign parallel β-sheet secondary structure arises because of a redistribution of oscillator strength, but the through-space couplings do not themselves dramatically alter the frequency distribution of eigenstates much more than already exists in random coil structures. Moreover, solvent exposed residues have amide I bands with >20 cm(-1) line width. Narrower line widths indicate that the amide I backbone is solvent

  10. The pH-Dependent Picosecond Structural Dynamics in the Distal Pocket of Nitrophorin 4 Investigated by 2D IR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mark; Brookes, Jennifer F.; Montfort, William R.; Khalil, Munira

    2013-01-01

    Nitrophorin 4 (NP4) belongs to a family of pH-sensitive, nitric oxide (NO) transporter proteins which undergo a large structural change from a closed to an open conformation at high pH to allow for NO delivery. Measuring the pH-dependent structural dynamics in NP4–NO around the ligand binding site is crucial for developing a mechanistic understanding of NO binding and release. In this study we use coherent two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy to measure picosecond structural dynamics sampled by the nitrosyl stretch in NP4–NO as a function of pH at room temperature. Our results show that both the closed and open conformers of the protein are present at low (pD 5.1) and high (pD 7.9) pH conditions. The closed and open conformers are characterized by two frequencies of the nitrosyl stretching vibration labeled A0 and A1, respectively. Analysis of the 2D IR lineshapes reveals that at pD 5.1, the closed conformer experiences structural fluctuations arising from solvation dynamics on a ∼3 ps timescale. At pD 7.9, both the open and closed conformers exhibit fluctuations on a ∼1 ps timescale. At both pD conditions, the closed conformers maintain a static distribution of structures within the experimental time window of 100 ps. This is in contrast to the open conformer, which is able to interconvert among its sub-states on a ∼100 ps timescale. Our results directly measure the timescales of solvation dynamics in the distal pocket, the flexibility of the open conformation at high pH, and the rigidity of the closed conformers at both pH conditions. We discuss how the pH dependent equilibrium structural fluctuations of the nitrosyl ligand measured in this study are related to the uptake and delivery of nitric oxide in Nitrophorin 4. PMID:23885811

  11. Selection of the NIR region for a regression model of the ethanol concentration in fermentation process by an online NIR and mid-IR dual-region spectrometer and 2D heterospectral correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishii, Takashi; Genkawa, Takuma; Watari, Masahiro; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2012-01-01

    A new selection procedure of an informative near-infrared (NIR) region for regression model building is proposed that uses an online NIR/mid-infrared (mid-IR) dual-region spectrometer in conjunction with two-dimensional (2D) NIR/mid-IR heterospectral correlation spectroscopy. In this procedure, both NIR and mid-IR spectra of a liquid sample are acquired sequentially during a reaction process using the NIR/mid-IR dual-region spectrometer; the 2D NIR/mid-IR heterospectral correlation spectrum is subsequently calculated from the obtained spectral data set. From the calculated 2D spectrum, a NIR region is selected that includes bands of high positive correlation intensity with mid-IR bands assigned to the analyte, and used for the construction of a regression model. To evaluate the performance of this procedure, a partial least-squares (PLS) regression model of the ethanol concentration in a fermentation process was constructed. During fermentation, NIR/mid-IR spectra in the 10000 - 1200 cm(-1) region were acquired every 3 min, and a 2D NIR/mid-IR heterospectral correlation spectrum was calculated to investigate the correlation intensity between the NIR and mid-IR bands. NIR regions that include bands at 4343, 4416, 5778, 5904, and 5955 cm(-1), which result from the combinations and overtones of the C-H group of ethanol, were selected for use in the PLS regression models, by taking the correlation intensity of a mid-IR band at 2985 cm(-1) arising from the CH(3) asymmetric stretching vibration mode of ethanol as a reference. The predicted results indicate that the ethanol concentrations calculated from the PLS regression models fit well to those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. Thus, it can be concluded that the selection procedure using the NIR/mid-IR dual-region spectrometer combined with 2D NIR/mid-IR heterospectral correlation spectroscopy is a powerful method for the construction of a reliable regression model.

  12. [Analysis and identification of Poria cocos peels harvested from different producing areas by FTIR and 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fang; Zhang, Fang; Tang, Jin; Chen, Ping; Chen, Jian-Bo; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-Qin

    2014-02-01

    Different geographical regions of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), its chemical composition is different, the accumulation of drug and medicinal properties is different. The accurate identification and analysis of different production area of medicinal herbs is critical for the quality control and pharmacological research of TCM. In this paper, a tri-step infrared spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with second derivative spectra and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-COS) were employed to identify and analyze the main components of Hubei (HB), Anhui (AH), Yun-nan (YN) genuine Poria Cocos peels. The emergence of several characteristic absorption peaks of carbohydrates including 1149, 1079 1036 cm(-1), peaks around 1619, 1315, 780 cm(-1) belonged to calcium oxalate suggested that HB and AH Poria Cocos peels contained calcium oxalate, but peaks around 797, 779, 537, 470 cm(-1) belonged to kaoline suggested that YN Poria Cocos peels contained kaoline. Their carbohydrates were different by comparing the second derivative infrared spectra in the range of 1640-450 cm(-1) and Yongping come from YN contains both calcium oxalate and kaoline. Furthermore, the above differences were visually validated by two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). It was demonstrated that the Tri-step infrared spectroscopy were successfully applied to fast analyze and identify Poria Cocos peels from different geographical regions and subsequently would be applicable to explain the relevance of geographical regions and medicinal properties for the TCM.

  13. Localised IR spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    CERN Document Server

    Yarrow, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    IR absorption spectroscopy of hemoglobin was performed using an IR optical parametric oscillator laser and a commercial atomic force microscope in a novel experimental arrangement based on the use of a bottom-up excitation alignment. This experimental approach enables detection of protein samples with a resolution that is much higher than that of standard IR spectroscopy. Presented here are AFM based IR absorption spectra of micron sized hemoglobin features

  14. Discrimination of five species of Fritillaria and its extracts by FT-IR and 2D-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Jin, Zhexiong; Zhou, Qun; Chen, Jianbo; Lei, Yu; Sun, Suqin

    2010-06-01

    Bulbus Fritillariae (in Chinese named Beimu), referred to the bulbs of several Fritillaria species ( Liliaceae), is a commonly used anti-tussive and expectorant herb in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for more than 2000 years. The objective of this study is to discriminate five species of Beimu herbs and their total alkaloid extracts by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), second derivative infrared spectroscopy, and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR) under thermal perturbation. The structural information of the samples indicated that, Beimu and their extract residues contain a large amount of starch, since some characteristic absorption peaks of the starch, such as 1158, 1080, 1015 and 987 cm -1 can be observed. Further more, the characteristic absorption peaks of the sulfate which arouse at 1120 ± 5 and 618 cm -1 in the IR spectra of Beimu aqueous extracts can be find. This validated that people used the sulfur fumigation method in the processing. The macroscopical fingerprint characters of FT-IR and 2D-IR spectra can not only provide the information of main chemical constituents in medicinal materials and their different extracts, but also compare the components differences among the similar samples. In conclusion, the multi-steps IR macro-fingerprint method is rapid, effective, visual and accurate for pharmaceutical research.

  15. Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman-2D electronic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Austin P; Hutson, William O; Harel, Elad

    2017-03-10

    Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational-vibrational, electronic-vibrational and electronic-electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes.

  16. Assessing 2D electrophoretic mobility spectroscopy (2D MOSY) for analytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Yushmanov, Pavel V; Furó, István

    2016-12-08

    Electrophoretic displacement of charged entity phase modulates the spectrum acquired in electrophoretic NMR experiments, and this modulation can be presented via 2D FT as 2D mobility spectroscopy (MOSY) spectra. We compare in various mixed solutions the chemical selectivity provided by 2D MOSY spectra with that provided by 2D diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) spectra and demonstrate, under the conditions explored, a superior performance of the former method. 2D MOSY compares also favourably with closely related LC-NMR methods. The shape of 2D MOSY spectra in complex mixtures is strongly modulated by the pH of the sample, a feature that has potential for areas such as in drug discovery and metabolomics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. StartCopTextCopyright © 2016 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Intense Terahertz Sources for 2D Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov

    radiation emitted from a 2-color air plasma has a conical beam profile. With the beam profiles measured through a focal plane, this has been reconstructed in 3D showing that the beam collapses to a single spot in focus. Besides the off-axis THz radiation, a weak on-axis forward propagating mode has been...... observed having a Gaussian beam profile. In addition to the intense THz pulses focused in free-space in order to achieve the highest possible field strength, it is shown that resonant microslit arrays can be used to enhance the THz field, and with the possibility of mounting crystalline samples inside...... the metallic slits, this is proposed as a combined spectroscopy system for investigating high-field phenomena. With a carefully optimized design, the slit resonance can be coupled to the lattice modes of the array structure to achieve a field enhancement of more than 35 times, which is approximately 60 % more...

  18. 2D IR spectra of cyanide in water investigated by molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Won; Carr, Joshua K.; Göllner, Michael; Hamm, Peter; Meuwly, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, the 2D infrared (IR) spectroscopy of CN− solvated in D2O is investigated. Depending on the force field parametrizations, most of which are based on multipolar interactions for the CN− molecule, the frequency-frequency correlation function and observables computed from it differ. Most notably, models based on multipoles for CN− and TIP3P for water yield quantitatively correct results when compared with experiments. Furthermore, the recent finding that T 1 times are sensitive to the van der Waals ranges on the CN− is confirmed in the present study. For the linear IR spectrum, the best model reproduces the full widths at half maximum almost quantitatively (13.0 cm−1 vs. 14.9 cm−1) if the rotational contribution to the linewidth is included. Without the rotational contribution, the lines are too narrow by about a factor of two, which agrees with Raman and IR experiments. The computed and experimental tilt angles (or nodal slopes) α as a function of the 2D IR waiting time compare favorably with the measured ones and the frequency fluctuation correlation function is invariably found to contain three time scales: a sub-ps, 1 ps, and one on the 10-ps time scale. These time scales are discussed in terms of the structural dynamics of the surrounding solvent and it is found that the longest time scale (≈10 ps) most likely corresponds to solvent exchange between the first and second solvation shell, in agreement with interpretations from nuclear magnetic resonance measurements.

  19. Determining Transition State Geometries in Liquids Using 2D-IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Charles; Cahoon, James F.; Sawyer, Karma R.; Schlegel, Jacob P.; Harris, Charles B.

    2007-12-11

    Many properties of chemical reactions are determined by the transition state connecting reactant and product, yet it is difficult to directly obtain any information about these short-lived structures in liquids. We show that two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy can provide direct information about transition states by tracking the transformation of vibrational modes as a molecule crossed a transition state. We successfully monitored a simple chemical reaction, the fluxional rearrangement of Fe(CO)5, in which the exchange of axial and equatorial CO ligands causes an exchange of vibrational energy between the normal modes of the molecule. This energy transfer provides direct evidence regarding the time scale, transition state, and mechanism of the reaction.

  20. IR nanoscale spectroscopy and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Eamonn; Yarrow, Fiona; Rice, James H.

    2011-10-01

    Sub diffraction limited infrared absorption imaging was applied to hemoglobin by coupling IR optics with an atomic force microscope. Comparisons between the AFM topography and IR absorption images of micron sized hemoglobin features are presented, along with nanoscale IR spectroscopic analysis of the metalloprotein.

  1. Simulations of the infrared, Raman, and 2D-IR photon echo spectra of water in nanoscale silica pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Paul C; Laage, Damien; Thompson, Ward H

    2016-05-21

    Vibrational spectroscopy is frequently used to characterize nanoconfined liquids and probe the effect of the confining framework on the liquid structure and dynamics relative to the corresponding bulk fluid. However, it is still unclear what molecular-level information can be obtained from such measurements. In this paper, we address this question by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to reproduce the linear infrared (IR), Raman, and two-dimensional IR (2D-IR) photon echo spectra for water confined within hydrophilic (hydroxyl-terminated) silica mesopores. To simplify the spectra the OH stretching region of isotopically dilute HOD in D2O is considered. An empirical mapping approach is used to obtain the OH vibrational frequencies, transition dipoles, and transition polarizabilities from the MD simulations. The simulated linear IR and Raman spectra are in good general agreement with measured spectra of water in mesoporous silica reported in the literature. The key effect of confinement on the water spectrum is a vibrational blueshift for OH groups that are closest to the pore interface. The blueshift can be attributed to the weaker hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) formed between the OH groups and silica oxygen acceptors. Non-Condon effects greatly diminish the contribution of these OH moieties to the linear IR spectrum, but these weaker H-bonds are readily apparent in the Raman spectrum. The 2D-IR spectra have not yet been measured and thus the present results represent a prediction. The simulated spectra indicates that it should be possible to probe the slower spectral diffusion of confined water compared to the bulk liquid by analysis of the 2D-IR spectra.

  2. High-resolution spectroscopy of CH2D+ in a cold 22-pole ion trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Sabrina; Krieg, Jürgen; Klemann, André; Asvany, Oskar; Brünken, Sandra; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2013-10-03

    The method of laser-induced reaction (LIR) is used to obtain high-resolution IR spectra of CH2D(+) in collision with n-H2 at a nominal temperature of 14 K. For this purpose, a home-built optical parametric oscillator (OPO), tunable in the range of 2500-4000 cm(-1), has been coupled to a 22-pole ion trap apparatus. In total, 112 lines of the ν1 and ν4 bands have been recorded. A line list is inferred from a careful analysis of the shape of the LIR signal. Line positions have been determined to an accuracy of 1 × 10(-4) cm(-1), allowing for the prediction of pure rotational transitions with MHz accuracy. In addition, an IR-THz double-resonance LIR depletion technique is applied to H2D(+) to demonstrate the feasibility for pure rotational spectroscopy with LIR.

  3. Visualizing Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy with Computer Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Charles B.; Fine, Leonard W.

    1996-01-01

    IR Tutor, an interactive, animated infrared (IR) spectroscopy tutorial has been developed for Macintosh and IBM-compatible computers. Using unique color animation, complicated vibrational modes can be introduced to beginning students. Rules governing the appearance of IR absorption bands become obvious because the vibrational modes can be visualized. Each peak in the IR spectrum is highlighted, and the animation of the corresponding normal mode can be shown. Students can study each spectrum stepwise, or click on any individual peak to see its assignment. Important regions of each spectrum can be expanded and spectra can be overlaid for comparison. An introduction to the theory of IR spectroscopy is included, making the program a complete instructional package. Our own success in using this software for teaching and research in both academic and industrial environments will be described. IR Tutor consists of three sections: (1) The 'Introduction' is a review of basic principles of spectroscopy. (2) 'Theory' begins with the classical model of a simple diatomic molecule and is expanded to include larger molecules by introducing normal modes and group frequencies. (3) 'Interpretation' is the heart of the tutorial. Thirteen IR spectra are analyzed in detail, covering the most important functional groups. This section features color animation of each normal mode, full interactivity, overlay of related spectra, and expansion of important regions. This section can also be used as a reference.

  4. Optimizing sparse sampling for 2D electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeding, Sebastian; Klimovich, Nikita; Brixner, Tobias

    2017-02-01

    We present a new data acquisition concept using optimized non-uniform sampling and compressed sensing reconstruction in order to substantially decrease the acquisition times in action-based multidimensional electronic spectroscopy. For this we acquire a regularly sampled reference data set at a fixed population time and use a genetic algorithm to optimize a reduced non-uniform sampling pattern. We then apply the optimal sampling for data acquisition at all other population times. Furthermore, we show how to transform two-dimensional (2D) spectra into a joint 4D time-frequency von Neumann representation. This leads to increased sparsity compared to the Fourier domain and to improved reconstruction. We demonstrate this approach by recovering transient dynamics in the 2D spectrum of a cresyl violet sample using just 25% of the originally sampled data points.

  5. Preliminary results of determination of chemical changes on Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.)P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes) carried by Shenzhou I spaceship with FTIR and 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Yew Keong; Chen, Xiangdong; Jamal, Jamia Azdina; Wang, Qiuying; Lan, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Spaceflight represents a complex environmental condition. Space mutagenesis breeding has achieved marked results over the years. The objective of this study is to determine the chemical changes in medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum cultivated after spaceflight in 1999. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) correlation spectroscopy were used in analysis. The sample Sx and its control Cx showed the least dissimilarities in one-dimensional FTIR spectra, but absorbance of Sx is twice as high as Cx. Sx presented a clear peak at 1648 cm in 2nd derivative spectra, which could not be detected in the Cx. The 2DIR spectra showed the intensity of Sx in the range 1800-1400 cm-1 for protein is higher than the control. The sample Sx produced some carbohydrate peaks in the area of 889 cm-1 compared with the Cx. The spaceflight set up an extreme condition and caused changes of chemical properties in G. lucidum strain.

  6. Size-dependent ultrafast structural dynamics inside phospholipid vesicle bilayers measured with 2D IR vibrational echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kel, Oksana; Tamimi, Amr; Fayer, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The ultrafast structural dynamics inside the bilayers of dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles with 70, 90, and 125 nm diameters were directly measured with 2D IR vibrational echo spectroscopy. The antisymmetric CO stretch of tungsten hexacarbonyl was used as a vibrational probe and provided information on spectral diffusion (structural dynamics) in the alkyl region of the bilayers. Although the CO stretch absorption spectra remain the same, the interior structural dynamics become faster as the size of the vesicles decrease, with the size dependence greater for dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine than for DLPC. As DLPC vesicles become larger, the interior dynamics approach those of the planar bilayer. PMID:24395796

  7. Thermal analysis of paracetamol polymorphs by FT-IR spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Boris; Baranović, Goran

    2011-01-25

    A simple IR spectroscopy based methodology in routine screening studies of polymorphism is proposed. Reflectance and transmittance temperature-dependent IR measurements (coupled with the 2D-IR data presentation and the baseline analysis) offer a positive identification of each polymorphic phase, therefore allowing simple and rapid monitoring of the measured system. Applicability and flexibility of the methodology was demonstrated on the measurement of the model polymorphic compound paracetamol under various conditions (including geometric constraints and elevated pressure). The thermal behavior of paracetamol strongly depends on slight variations in experimental conditions that can result in formation of various phases (three polymorphs and the amorphous form). The amorphous phase can crystallize during heating into either Form II or Form III within almost identical temperature range. Likewise, the crystal transformations II→I and III→II also can proceed within almost identical temperature range. Furthermore, the thermal behavior is even more diverse than that, and includes the crystallizations of Forms I, II and III from the melt, and the high temperature II→I transition. The variety of the temperatures of the transformations is a major obstacle for unambiguous identification of a particular phase by DSC and a major reason for the implementation of these IR methods.

  8. Tellurium halide IR fibers for remote spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xhang H.; Ma, Hong Li; Blanchetiere, Chantal; Le Foulgoc, Karine; Lucas, Jacques; Heuze, Jean; Colardelle, P.; Froissard, P.; Picque, D.; Corrieu, G.

    1994-07-01

    The new family of IR transmitting glasses, the TeX glasses, based on the association of tellurium and halide (Cl, Br, or I) are characterized by a wide optical window extending from 2 to 18 micrometers and a strong stability towards devitrification. Optical fibers drawn from these glasses exhibit low losses in the 7 - 10 micrometers range (less than 1 dB/m for single index fibers, 1 - 2 dB/m for fibers having a core-clad structure). The TeX glass fibers have been used in a remote analysis set-up which is mainly composed of a FTIR spectrometer coupled with a HgCdTe detector. This prototype system permits qualitative and quantitative analysis in a wide wavelength region lying from 3 to 13 micrometers , covering the fundamental absorption of more organic species. The evolution of a lactic and an alcoholic fermentation has been monitored by means of this set-up.

  9. IR Cards: Inquiry-Based Introduction to Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jacqueline; Forster, Tabetha

    2010-01-01

    As infrared spectroscopy (IR) is frequently used in undergraduate organic chemistry courses, an inductive introduction to IR spectroscopy that uses index cards printed with spectra, structures, and chemical names is described. Groups of students are given an alphabetized deck of these "IR cards" to sort into functional groups. The students then…

  10. Human erythrocytes analyzed by generalized 2D Raman correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Kozicki, Mateusz; Czepiel, Jacek; Łabanowska, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Grzegorz; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Birczyńska, Malwina; Biesiada, Grażyna; Mach, Tomasz; Garlicki, Aleksander

    2014-07-01

    The most numerous elements of the blood cells, erythrocytes, consist mainly of two components: homogeneous interior filled with hemoglobin and closure which is the cell membrane. To gain insight into their specific properties we studied the process of disintegration, considering these two constituents, and comparing the natural aging process of human healthy blood cells. MicroRaman spectra of hemoglobin within the single RBC were recorded using 514.5, and 785 nm laser lines. The generalized 2D correlation method was applied to analyze the collected spectra. The time passed from blood donation was regarded as an external perturbation. The time was no more than 40 days according to the current storage limit of blood banks, although, the average RBC life span is 120 days. An analysis of the prominent synchronous and asynchronous cross peaks allow us to get insight into the mechanism of hemoglobin decomposition. Appearing asynchronous cross-peaks point towards globin and heme separation from each other, while synchronous shows already broken globin into individual amino acids. Raman scattering analysis of hemoglobin "wrapping", i.e. healthy erythrocyte ghosts, allows for the following peculiarity of their behavior. The increasing power of the excitation laser induced alterations in the assemblage of membrane lipids. 2D correlation maps, obtained with increasing laser power recognized as an external perturbation, allows for the consideration of alterations in the erythrocyte membrane structure and composition, which occurs first in the proteins. Cross-peaks were observed indicating an asynchronous correlation between the senescent-cell antigen (SCA) and heme or proteins vibrations. The EPR spectra of the whole blood was analyzed regarding time as an external stimulus. The 2D correlation spectra points towards participation of the selected metal ion centers in the disintegration process.

  11. Supercontinuum based mid-IR imaging spectroscopy for cancer detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Møller, Uffe Visbech; Kubat, Irnis

    2014-01-01

    The mid-infrared (IR) spectral region is of significant technical and scientific interest because most molecules display fundamental vibrational absorptions in this region, leaving distinct spectral fingerprints. To date, the limitations of mid-IR light sources, such as thermal emitters, low-powe...... cancer detection with mid-IR imaging spectroscopy....

  12. Theoretical studies on electronic structure and x-ray spectroscopies of 2D materials

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Extraordinary chemical and physical properties have been discovered from the studies of two-dimensional (2D) materials, ever since the successful exfoliation of graphene, the first 2D material. Theoretical investigations of electronic structure and spectroscopies of these materials play a fundamental role in deep understanding the various properties. In particular, the band structure and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy can provide critical information near the ...

  13. C2D Spitzer-IRS spectra of disks around T Tauri stars. V. Spectral decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, J.; Augereau, J.-C.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Merín, B.; Grosso, N.; Ménard, F.; Blake, G. A.; Monin, J.-L.

    2010-09-01

    Context. Dust particles evolve in size and lattice structure in protoplanetary disks, due to coagulation, fragmentation and crystallization, and are radially and vertically mixed in disks due to turbulent diffusion and wind/radiation pressure forces. Aims: This paper aims at determining the mineralogical composition and size distribution of the dust grains in planet forming regions of disks around a statistical sample of 58 T Tauri stars observed with Spitzer/IRS as part of the Cores to Disks (c2d) Legacy Program. Methods: We present a spectral decomposition model, named “B2C”, that reproduces the IRS spectra over the full spectral range (5-35 μm). The model assumes two dust populations: a warm component responsible for the 10 μm emission arising from the disk inner regions (≲1 AU) and a colder component responsible for the 20-30 μm emission, arising from more distant regions (≲10 AU). The fitting strategy relies on a random exploration of parameter space coupled with a Bayesian inference method. Results: We show evidence for a significant size distribution flattening in the atmospheres of disks compared to the typical MRN distribution, providing an explanation for the usual flat, boxy 10 μm feature profile generally observed in T Tauri star spectra. We reexamine the crystallinity paradox, observationally identified by Olofsson et al. (2009 , A&A, 507, 327), and we find a simultaneous enrichment of the crystallinity in both the warm and cold regions, while grain sizes in both components are uncorrelated. We show that flat disks tend to have larger grains than flared disk. Finally our modeling results do not show evidence for any correlations between the crystallinity and either the star spectral type, or the X-ray luminosity (for a subset of the sample). Conclusions: The size distribution flattening may suggests that grain coagulation is a slightly more effective process than fragmentation (helped by turbulent diffusion) in disk atmospheres, and that

  14. Resonant photothermal IR spectroscopy of picogram samples with microstring resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Shoko; Schmid, Silvan; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report a demonstration of resonant photothermal IR spectroscopy using microstrings in mid-infrared region providing rapid identification of picogram samples. In our microelectromechanical resonant photothermal IR spectroscopy system, samples are deposited directly on microstrings using...... an in-situ sampling method and the resonance frequency of the string is measured optically. Resonance frequency shifts, proportional to the absorbed heat, are recorded in real time as monochromatic infrared light is being scanned over the mid-infrared range. These resonant photothermal IR spectroscopy...

  15. A 2-D Array of Superconducting Magnesium Diboride (MgB2) Far-IR Thermal Detectors for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, Brook

    2009-01-01

    A 2-D array of superconducting Magnesium Diboride(MgB2) far IR thermal detectors has been fabricated. Such an array is intended to be at the focal plane of future generation thermal imaging far-IR instruments that will investigate the outer planets and their icy moons. Fabrication and processing of the pixels of the array as well as noise characterization of architectured MgB2 thin films will be presented. Challenges and solutions for improving the performance of the array will be discussed.

  16. Fast, accurate 2D-MR relaxation exchange spectroscopy (REXSY): Beyond compressed sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ruiliang; Benjamini, Dan; Cheng, Jian; Basser, Peter J.

    2016-10-01

    Previously, we showed that compressive or compressed sensing (CS) can be used to reduce significantly the data required to obtain 2D-NMR relaxation and diffusion spectra when they are sparse or well localized. In some cases, an order of magnitude fewer uniformly sampled data were required to reconstruct 2D-MR spectra of comparable quality. Nonetheless, this acceleration may still not be sufficient to make 2D-MR spectroscopy practicable for many important applications, such as studying time-varying exchange processes in swelling gels or drying paints, in living tissue in response to various biological or biochemical challenges, and particularly for in vivo MRI applications. A recently introduced framework, marginal distributions constrained optimization (MADCO), tremendously accelerates such 2D acquisitions by using a priori obtained 1D marginal distribution as powerful constraints when 2D spectra are reconstructed. Here we exploit one important intrinsic property of the 2D-MR relaxation exchange spectra: the fact that the 1D marginal distributions of each 2D-MR relaxation exchange spectrum in both dimensions are equal and can be rapidly estimated from a single Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) or inversion recovery prepared CPMG measurement. We extend the MADCO framework by further proposing to use the 1D marginal distributions to inform the subsequent 2D data-sampling scheme, concentrating measurements where spectral peaks are present and reducing them where they are not. In this way we achieve compression or acceleration that is an order of magnitude greater than that in our previous CS method while providing data in reconstructed 2D-MR spectral maps of comparable quality, demonstrated using several simulated and real 2D T2 - T2 experimental data. This method, which can be called "informed compressed sensing," is extendable to other 2D- and even ND-MR exchange spectroscopy.

  17. Linearly Polarized IR Spectroscopy Theory and Applications for Structural Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Tsonko

    2011-01-01

    A technique that is useful in the study of pharmaceutical products and biological molecules, polarization IR spectroscopy has undergone continuous development since it first emerged almost 100 years ago. Capturing the state of the science as it exists today, "Linearly Polarized IR Spectroscopy: Theory and Applications for Structural Analysis" demonstrates how the technique can be properly utilized to obtain important information about the structure and spectral properties of oriented compounds. The book starts with the theoretical basis of linear-dichroic infrared (IR-LD) spectroscop

  18. Ir Spectroscopy and Nickel (II) Hexammines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedijk, J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment, for the general chemistry laboratory, intended to introduce the student to infrared spectroscopy. After being introduced to the theory of molecular vibrations on an elementary level, each student receives a list of 5-7 nickel (II) ammines to be prepared, analyzed and characterized by infrared spectoscopy. (MLH)

  19. Multicolor IR spectroscopy of pure liquid water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, Dan; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Wiersma, Douwe A.; Mostovoy, Maxim; Lindner, Jörg; Vöhringer, Peter; Corkum, P; Jonas, D; Miller, RJD; Weiner, AM

    2007-01-01

    Multicolor infrared ultrafast spectroscopy is applied to investigate the vibrational relaxation dynamics in liquid water at room temperature with both the stretching and the bending mode being photoexcited and probed. A unified model, capable of the reproduction of as much as 150 transients, yielded

  20. Multicolor IR spectroscopy on pure liquid water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, Dan; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Wiersma, Douwe A.; Mostovoy, Maxim; Lindner, Jörg; Vöhringer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Multicolor infrared ultrafast spectroscopy is applied to investigate the vibrational relaxation dynamics in liquid water at room temperature with both the stretching and the bending mode being photoexcited and probed. A unified model, capable of the reproduction of as much as 150 transients, yielded

  1. Distinguishing and grading human gliomas by IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Gerald; Shaw, Anthony; Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Abuid, Mario H; Schackert, Gabriele; Sobottka, Stephan; Steller, Wolfram; Salzer, Reiner; Mantsch, Henry H

    2003-01-01

    As a molecular probe of tissue composition, IR spectroscopy can potentially serve as an adjunct to histopathology in detecting and diagnosing disease. This study demonstrates that cancerous brain tissue (astrocytoma, glioblastoma) is distinguishable from control tissue on the basis of the IR spectra of thin tissue sections. It is further shown that the IR spectra of astrocytoma and glioblastoma affected tissue can be discriminated from one another, thus providing insight into the malignancy grade of the tissue. Both the spectra and the methods employed for their classification reveal characteristic differences in tissue composition. In particular, the nature and relative amounts of brain lipids, including both the gangliosides and phospholipids, appear to be altered in cancerous compared to control tissue. Using a genetic classification approach, classification success rates of up to 89% accuracy were obtained, depending on the number of regions included in the model. The diagnostic potential and practical applications of IR spectroscopy in brain tumor diagnosis are discussed.

  2. Combination of transient 2D-IR experiments and ab initio computations sheds light on the formation of the charge-transfer state in photoexcited carbonyl carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Donato, Mariangela; Segado Centellas, Mireia; Lapini, Andrea; Lima, Manuela; Avila, Francisco; Santoro, Fabrizio; Cappelli, Chiara; Righini, Roberto

    2014-08-14

    The excited state dynamics of carbonyl carotenoids is very complex because of the coupling of single- and doubly excited states and the possible involvement of intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) states. In this contribution we employ ultrafast infrared spectroscopy and theoretical computations to investigate the relaxation dynamics of trans-8'-apo-β-carotenal occurring on the picosecond time scale, after excitation in the S2 state. In a (slightly) polar solvent like chloroform, one-dimensional (T1D-IR) and two-dimensional (T2D-IR) transient infrared spectroscopy reveal spectral components with characteristic frequencies and lifetimes that are not observed in nonpolar solvents (cyclohexane). Combining experimental evidence with an analysis of CASPT2//CASSCF ground and excited state minima and energy profiles, complemented with TDDFT calculations in gas phase and in solvent, we propose a photochemical decay mechanism for this system where only the bright single-excited 1Bu(+) and the dark double-excited 2Ag(-) states are involved. Specifically, the initially populated 1Bu(+) relaxes toward 2Ag(-) in 200 fs. In a nonpolar solvent 2Ag(-) decays to the ground state (GS) in 25 ps. In polar solvents, distortions along twisting modes of the chain promote a repopulation of the 1Bu(+) state which then quickly relaxes to the GS (18 ps in chloroform). The 1Bu(+) state has a high electric dipole and is the main contributor to the charge-transfer state involved in the dynamics in polar solvents. The 2Ag(-) → 1Bu(+) population transfer is evidenced by a cross peak on the T2D-IR map revealing that the motions along the same stretching of the conjugated chain on the 2Ag(-) and 1Bu(+) states are coupled.

  3. c2d Spitzer IRS spectra of embedded low-mass young stars: gas-phase emission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Lahuis, Fred; Jørgensen, Jes K; Blake, Geoffrey A; Evans, Neal J

    2010-01-01

    A survey of mid-IR gas-phase emission lines of H2, H2O and various atoms toward a sample of 43 embedded low-mass young stars in nearby star-forming regions is presented. The sources are selected from the Spitzer "Cores to Disks" (c2d) legacy program. The environment of embedded protostars is complex both in its physical structure (envelopes, outflows, jets, protostellar disks) and the physical processes (accretion, irradiation by UV and/or X-rays, excitation through slow and fast shocks) which take place. A key point is to spatially resolve the emission in the Spitzer-IRS spectra. An optimal extraction method is used to separate both spatially unresolved (compact, up to a few 100 AU) and spatially resolved (extended, 1000 AU or more) emission from the IRS spectra. The results are compared with the c2d disk sample and literature PDR and shock models to address the physical nature of the sources. Both compact and extended emission features are observed. Warm (Tex few 100 K) H2, observed through the pure rotatio...

  4. New developments in IR surface vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschmugl, C.J.; Lamont, C.L.A.; Williams, G.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source

    1995-12-31

    Low frequency dynamics at surfaces, particularly in the region of the adsorbate-substrate vibrational modes is of fundamental importance in areas as varied as sliding friction, catalysis, corrosion and epitaxial growth. This paper reviews the new developments in low frequency Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation as the source. Absolute changes induced in the far infrared for several adsorbate systems on Cu, including CO and H, are dominated by broadband reflectance changes and dipole forbidden vibrational modes which in some cases are an order of magnitude stronger than the dipole allowed modes. The experimental data can be explained by a theory developed by Persson, in which the dielectric response of the substrate is seen as playing a crucial role in the dynamics. In particular the relationships between the wavelength of the light, the penetration depth and the electron mean-free path, are critical.

  5. IR spectroscopy of gaseous fluorocarbon ions: The perfluoroethyl anion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crestoni, Maria Elisa; Chiavarino, Barbara [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie del Farmaco, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , P. le A. Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Lemaire, Joel; Maitre, Philippe [Universite Paris Sud, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique - UMR8000 CNRS, Faculte des Sciences - Batiment 350, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Fornarini, Simonetta, E-mail: simonetta.fornarini@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie del Farmaco, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , P. le A. Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy)

    2012-04-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C{sub 2}F{sub 5}{sup -} ions are formed by dissociative electron capture in perfluoropropane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both their reactivity towards neutrals and IRMPD spectroscopy are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sampled C{sub 2}F{sub 5}{sup -} ions are best described as covalently bound pentafluoroethyl anions. - Abstract: The first IR spectrum of a perfluorinated carbanion has been obtained in the gas phase by IRMPD spectroscopy. Quantum chemical calculations at the MP2/cc-pVTZ level were performed yielding the optimized geometries and IR spectra for a covalently bound C{sub 2}F{sub 5}{sup -} species and for conceivable loosely bound F{sup -}(C{sub 2}F{sub 4}) complexes. Both the computational results and the IR characterization point to a covalent structure for the assayed species in agreement with the reactivity pattern displayed with selected neutrals.

  6. Location Detection and Tracking of Moving Targets by a 2D IR-UWB Radar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Han Nguyen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In indoor environments, the Global Positioning System (GPS and long-range tracking radar systems are not optimal, because of signal propagation limitations in the indoor environment. In recent years, the use of ultra-wide band (UWB technology has become a possible solution for object detection, localization and tracking in indoor environments, because of its high range resolution, compact size and low cost. This paper presents improved target detection and tracking techniques for moving objects with impulse-radio UWB (IR-UWB radar in a short-range indoor area. This is achieved through signal-processing steps, such as clutter reduction, target detection, target localization and tracking. In this paper, we introduce a new combination consisting of our proposed signal-processing procedures. In the clutter-reduction step, a filtering method that uses a Kalman filter (KF is proposed. Then, in the target detection step, a modification of the conventional CLEAN algorithm which is used to estimate the impulse response from observation region is applied for the advanced elimination of false alarms. Then, the output is fed into the target localization and tracking step, in which the target location and trajectory are determined and tracked by using unscented KF in two-dimensional coordinates. In each step, the proposed methods are compared to conventional methods to demonstrate the differences in performance. The experiments are carried out using actual IR-UWB radar under different scenarios. The results verify that the proposed methods can improve the probability and efficiency of target detection and tracking.

  7. Stable and high-power few cycle supercontinuum for 2D ultrabroadband electronic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokoyny, Boris; Koh, Christine J; Harel, Elad

    2015-03-15

    Broadband supercontinuum (SC) pulses in the few cycle regime are a promising source for spectroscopic and imaging applications. However, SC sources are plagued by poor stability, greatly limiting their utility in phase-resolved nonlinear experiments such as 2D photon echo spectroscopy (2D PES). Here, we generated SC by two-stage filamentation in argon and air starting from 100 fs input pulses, which are sufficiently high-power and stable to record time-resolved 2D PE spectra in a single laser shot. We obtain a total power of 400 μJ/pulse in the visible spectral range of 500-850 nm and, after compression, yield pulses with duration of 6 fs according to transient-grating frequency-resolved optical gating (TG-FROG) measurements. We demonstrate the method on the laser dye, Cresyl Violet, and observe coherent oscillations indicative of nuclear wavepacket dynamics.

  8. 2D-Cosy NMR Spectroscopy as a Quantitative Tool in Biological Matrix: Application to Cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Gilles; Evrard, Brigitte; de Tullio, Pascal

    2015-11-01

    Classical analytical quantifications in biological matrices require time-consuming sample pre-treatments and extractions. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis does not require heavy sample treatments or extractions which therefore increases its accuracy in quantification. In this study, even if quantitative (q)NMR could not be applied to 2D spectra, we demonstrated that cross-correlations and diagonal peak intensities have a linear relationship with the analyzed pharmaceutical compound concentration. This work presents the validation process of a 2D-correlation spectroscopy (COSY) NMR quantification of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in plasma. Specificity, linearity, precision (repeatability and intermediate precision), trueness, limits of quantification (LOQs), and accuracy were used as validation criteria. 2D-NMR could therefore be used as a valuable and accurate analytical technique for the quantification of pharmaceutical compounds, including hardly detectable compounds such as cyclodextrins or poloxamers, in complex biological matrices based on a calibration curve approach.

  9. Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of IrN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. F. Pang; A. S. C. Cheung

    2009-01-01

    High resolution laser induced fluorescence spectra of IrN in the spectral region between 394and 520 nm were recorded using laser vaporization/reaction free jet expansion and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Seven new vibronic transition bands were observed and analyzed. TwoΩ=1 and five Ω=0 new states were identified. Least squares fit of rotationally resolved transition lines yielded accurate molecular constants for the upper states. Spectra of isotopic molecules were observed, which provided confirmation for the vibrational assignment. Comparison of the observed electronic states of IrB, IrC, and IrN provides a good understanding of the chemical bonding of this group of molecules.

  10. Critical Slowing of Density Fluctuations Approaching the Isotropic-Nematic Transition in Liquid Crystals: 2D IR Measurements and Mode Coupling Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowsky, Kathleen P; Bailey, Heather E; Hoffman, David J; Andersen, Hans C; Fayer, Michael D

    2016-07-21

    Two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) data are presented for a vibrational probe in three nematogens: 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl, 4-cyano-4'-octylbiphenyl, and 4-(trans-4-amylcyclohexyl)-benzonitrile. The spectral diffusion time constants in all three liquids in the isotropic phase are proportional to [T*/(T - T*)](1/2), where T* is 0.5-1 K below the isotropic-nematic phase transition temperature (TNI). Rescaling to a reduced temperature shows that the decays of the frequency-frequency correlation function (FFCF) for all three nematogens fall on the same curve, suggesting a universal dynamic behavior of nematogens above TNI. Spectral diffusion is complete before significant orientational relaxation in the liquid, as measured by optically heterodyne detected-optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) spectroscopy, and before any significant orientational randomization of the probe measured by polarization selective IR pump-probe experiments. To interpret the OHD-OKE and FFCF data, we constructed a mode coupling theory (MCT) schematic model for the relationships among three correlation functions: ϕ1, a correlator for large wave vector density fluctuations; ϕ2, the orientational correlation function whose time derivative is the observable in the OHD-OKE experiment; and ϕ3, the FFCF for the 2D IR experiment. The equations for ϕ1 and ϕ2 match those in the previous MCT schematic model for nematogens, and ϕ3 is coupled to the first two correlators in a straightforward manner. Resulting models fit the data very well. Across liquid crystals, the temperature dependences of the coupling constants show consistent, nonmonotonic behavior. A remarkable change in coupling occurs at ∼5 K above TNI, precisely where the rate of spectral diffusion in 5CB was observed to deviate from that of a similar nonmesogenic liquid.

  11. NMR Analysis of Unknowns: An Introduction to 2D NMR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, David E.; Warren, Steven E.

    2005-01-01

    A study combined 1D (one-dimensional) and 2D (two-dimensional) NMR spectroscopy to solve structural organic problems of three unknowns, which include 2-, 3-, and 4-heptanone. Results showed [to the first power]H NMR and [to the thirteenth power]C NMR signal assignments for 2- and 3-heptanone were more challenging than for 4-heptanone owing to the…

  12. AGN and starburst in bright Seyfert galaxies: from IR photometry to IR spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Malkan, Matthew A

    2009-01-01

    Infrared photometry and later infrared spectroscopy provided powerful diagnostics to distinguish between the main emission mechanisms in galaxies: AGN and Starburst. After the pioneering work on infrared photometry with IRAS in the far-IR and the S.Pedro Martir and ESO ground-based work in the near-IR, ISO photometry extended up to 200um the coverage of the galaxies energy distributions. Then Spitzer collected accurate mid-infrared spectroscopy on different samples of galaxies. We will review the work done on the 12um galaxy sample since the times of IRAS photometry to the new Spitzer spectroscopy. The main results on the multifrequency data of 12um selected Seyfert galaxies are presented and discussed in the light of unification and evolution models. The spectroscopic work of Spitzer will soon be complemented at longer wavelengths by the Herschel spectrometers and in the future by SPICA at higher redshift.

  13. Dynamics of a Room Temperature Ionic Liquid in Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes vs the Bulk Liquid: 2D IR and Polarized IR Pump-Probe Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Yoon; Yamada, Steven A; Fayer, Michael D

    2017-01-11

    Supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) are membranes that have ionic liquids impregnated in their pores. SILMs have been proposed for advanced carbon capture materials. Two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) and polarization selective IR pump-probe (PSPP) techniques were used to investigate the dynamics of reorientation and spectral diffusion of the linear triatomic anion, SeCN(-), in poly(ether sulfone) (PES) membranes and room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EmimNTf2). The dynamics in the bulk EmimNTf2 were compared to its dynamics in the SILM samples. Two PES membranes, PES200 and PES30, have pores with average sizes, ∼300 nm and ∼100 nm, respectively. Despite the relatively large pore sizes, the measurements reveal that the reorientation of SeCN(-) and the RTIL structural fluctuations are substantially slower in the SILMs than in the bulk liquid. The complete orientational randomization, slows from 136 ps in the bulk to 513 ps in the PES30. 2D IR measurements yield three time scales for structural spectral diffusion (SSD), that is, the time evolution of the liquid structure. The slowest decay constant increases from 140 ps in the bulk to 504 ps in the PES200 and increases further to 1660 ps in the PES30. The results suggest that changes at the interface propagate out and influence the RTIL structural dynamics even more than a hundred nanometers from the polymer surface. The differences between the IL dynamics in the bulk and in the membranes suggest that studies of bulk RTIL properties may be poor guides to their use in SILMs in carbon capture applications.

  14. Conformation of self-assembled porphyrin dimers in liposome vesicles by phase-modulation 2D fluorescence spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Lott, Geoffrey A; Utterback, James K; Widom, Julia R; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Marcus, Andrew H

    2011-01-01

    By applying a phase-modulation fluorescence approach to 2D electronic spectroscopy, we studied the conformation-dependent exciton-coupling of a porphyrin dimer embedded in a phospholipid bilayer membrane. Our measurements specify the relative angle and separation between interacting electronic transition dipole moments, and thus provide a detailed characterization of dimer conformation. Phase-modulation 2D fluorescence spectroscopy (PM-2D FS) produces 2D spectra with distinct optical features, similar to those obtained using 2D photon-echo spectroscopy (2D PE). Specifically, we studied magnesium meso tetraphenylporphyrin dimers, which form in the amphiphilic regions of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes. Comparison between experimental and simulated spectra show that while a wide range of dimer conformations can be inferred by either the linear absorption spectrum or the 2D spectrum alone, consideration of both types of spectra constrains the possible structures to a "T-shaped" geometry. The...

  15. IR Spectroscopy and Photo-Chemistry of Extraterrestrial Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Mastrapa, Rachel; Elsila, Jamie; Sandford, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Dense molecular clouds from which planetary systems form and the outer Solar System are both cold environments dominated by ices. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is used to probe these ices, but the IR absorptions of molecules depend on the conditions. As a result appropriate lab data is needed to correctly fit spectra of extraterrestrial ices. Such fits have shown that most of these ices are composed primarily of H2O, but also contain 1-10 percent of other simple molecules such as CO2, CO, CH4, & NH3;. We shall present near IR spectra of ice mixtures of relevance to icy outer Solar System bodies and show that they still hold surprises, such as the Cheshire cat-like CO2 (2v3) overtone near 2.134 micrometers (4685 cm-1) that is absent from spectra of pure CO2 but present in H2O-CO2 mixtures.

  16. Terahertz Spectroscopy and Global Analysis of the Bending Vibrations of Acetylene 12C2D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shanshan; Drouin, Brian J.; Pearson, John C.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Lattanzi, Valerio; Walters, Adam

    2009-06-01

    Two hundred and fifty-one 12C2D2 transitions have been measured in the 0.2-1.6 THz region of its ν5-ν4 difference band and 202 of them were observed for the first time. The accuracy of these measurements is estimated to be ranging from 50 kHz to 100 kHz. The 12C2D2 molecules were generated under room temperature by passing 120-150 mTorr D2O vapor through calcium carbide (CaC2) powder. A multistate analysis was carried out for the bending vibrational modes ν4 and ν5 of 12C2D2, which includes the lines observed in this work and prior microwave, far-infrared and infrared data on the pure bending levels. Significantly improved molecular parameters were obtained for 12C2D2 by adding the new measurements to the old data set, which had only 10 lines with microwave measurement precision. New frequency and intensity predictions have been made based on the obtained molecular parameters. The more precise measurements and new predictions reported here will support the analyses of astronomical observations by the future high-resolution spectroscopy telescopes such as Herschel, SOFIA, and ALMA, which will work in the terahertz spectral region.

  17. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Part II. Advantages of FT-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    This is Part II in a series on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Described are various advantages of FT-IR spectroscopy including energy advantages, wavenumber accuracy, constant resolution, polarization effects, and stepping at grating changes. (RH)

  18. Broadband 2D electronic spectroscopy reveals a carotenoid dark state in purple bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumov, Evgeny E; Mulvaney, Rachel M; Cogdell, Richard J; Scholes, Gregory D

    2013-04-01

    Although the energy transfer processes in natural light-harvesting systems have been intensively studied for the past 60 years, certain details of the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. We performed broadband two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy measurements on light-harvesting proteins from purple bacteria and isolated carotenoids in order to characterize in more detail the excited-state manifold of carotenoids, which channel energy to bacteriochlorophyll molecules. The data revealed a well-resolved signal consistent with a previously postulated carotenoid dark state, the presence of which was confirmed by global kinetic analysis. The results point to this state's role in mediating energy flow from carotenoid to bacteriochlorophyll.

  19. c2d Spitzer IRS spectra of embedded low-mass young stars: gas-phase emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahuis, F.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Blake, G. A.; Evans, N. J.

    2010-09-01

    Context. A survey of mid-infrared gas-phase emission lines of H2, H2O and various atoms toward a sample of 43 embedded low-mass young stars in nearby star-forming regions is presented. The sources are selected from the Spitzer “Cores to Disks” (c2d) legacy program. Aims: The environment of embedded protostars is complex both in its physical structure (envelopes, outflows, jets, protostellar disks) and the physical processes (accretion, irradiation by UV and/or X-rays, excitation through slow and fast shocks) which take place. The mid-IR spectral range hosts a suite of diagnostic lines which can distinguish them. A key point is to spatially resolve the emission in the Spitzer-IRS spectra to separate extended PDR and shock emission from compact source emission associated with the circumstellar disk and jets. Methods: An optimal extraction method is used to separate both spatially unresolved (compact, up to a few hundred AU) and spatially resolved (extended, thousand AU or more) emission from the IRS spectra. The results are compared with the c2d disk sample and literature PDR and shock models to address the physical nature of the sources. Results: Both compact and extended emission features are observed. Warm (T_ex few hundred K) H2, observed through the pure rotational H2 S(0), S(1) and S(2) lines, and [S i] 25 μm emission is observed primarily in the extended component. [S i] is observed uniquely toward truly embedded sources and not toward disks. On the other hand hot (T_ex ⪆ 700 K) H2, observed primarily through the S(4) line, and [Ne ii] emission is seen mostly in the spatially unresolved component. [Fe ii] and [Si ii] lines are observed in both spatial components. Hot H2O emission is found in the spatially unresolved component of some sources. Conclusions: The observed emission on ≥1000 AU scales is characteristic of PDR emission and likely originates in the outflow cavities in the remnant envelope created by the stellar wind and jets from the embedded

  20. Electron spectroscopy of rubber and resin-based composites containing 2D carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaciulis, S., E-mail: saulius.kaciulis@ismn.cnr.it [Institute for the Study of Nanostructured Materials, ISMN-CNR, P.O. Box 10, Monterotondo Stazione, 00015 Roma (Italy); Mezzi, A.; Balijepalli, S.K. [Institute for the Study of Nanostructured Materials, ISMN-CNR, P.O. Box 10, Monterotondo Stazione, 00015 Roma (Italy); Lavorgna, M. [Institute of Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, IPCB-CNR, P.le Fermi, 80055 Napoli (Italy); Xia, H.S. [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 Sichuan (China)

    2015-04-30

    Composite materials with 2D carbon (graphene and/or single wall carbon nanotubes) are very promising due to their extraordinary electrical and mechanical properties. Graphene and natural rubber composites, which may be used for the gaskets or sealants, were prepared by ultrasonically assisted latex-mixing exfoliation and in-situ reduction process, with two vulcanization approaches: roll-mixing and hot-pressing. Also the resin-based composites, filled with micro-particles of Ag and graphene or carbon nanotubes, have been studied. The standards for the compositional characterization of these materials still are not established. In addition to the mostly used techniques, such as Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy, also Auger electron spectroscopy can be employed for the identification of graphene. In this study, the shape of C KVV peak, excited by electron beam and X-ray photons, has been investigated in different composite materials containing graphene and carbon nanotubes. A spectroscopic method for 2D carbon recognition, based on the D{sub x} parameter which is determined from C KVV signal excited by X-ray photons, was proposed and verified. Even a small content of graphene in different types of composites was sufficient for this recognition due to the dominating presence of graphene on the surface of composites. - Highlights: • Chemical composition of the rubber composites was determined by XPS. • Auger spectrum of carbon was used for graphene identification in composites. • Small content of graphene was sufficient for its recognition from the D parameter.

  1. Broadband 2D Electronic Spectroscopy Reveals Coupling Between Dark 1Bu- State of Carotenoid and Qx State of Bacteriochlorophyll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholes Gregory D.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of LH2 protein of purple bacteria by broadband 2D electronic spectroscopy is presented. The dark 1Bu- carotenoid state is directly observed in 2D spectra and its role in carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll interaction is discussed.

  2. 3D OPTICAL AND IR SPECTROSCOPY OF EXCEPTIONAL HII GALAXIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Telles

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution I will very brie y summarize some recent results obtained applying 3D spectroscopy to observations of the well known HII galaxy II Zw 40, both in the optical and near-IR. I have studied the distribution of the dust in the starburst region, the velocity and velocity dispersion, and the geometry of the molecular hydrogen and ionized gas. I found a clear correlation between the component of the ISM and the velocity eld suggesting that the latter has a fundamental role in de ning the modes of the star formation process.

  3. Fast acquisition of high-resolution 2D NMR spectroscopy in inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liangjie; Wei, Zhiliang; Zeng, Qing; Yang, Jian; Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Zhong

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy plays an important role in chemical and biological analyses. In this study, we combine the J-coupling coherence transfer module with the echo-train acquisition technique for fast acquisition of high-resolution 2D NMR spectra in magnetic fields with unknown spatial variations. The proposed method shows satisfactory performance on a 5 mM ethyl 3-bromopropionate sample, under a 5-kHz (10 ppm at 11.7 T) B0 inhomogeneous field, as well as under varying degrees of pulse-flip-angle deviations. Moreover, a simulative ex situ NMR measurement is also conducted to show the effectiveness of the proposed pulse sequence.

  4. IRIS : A reaction spectroscopy facility with solid H2 /D2 target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, Matthias; Kanungo, Ritu; Alcorta, Martin; Andreoiu, Corina; Bidaman, Harris; Burbadge, Christina; Burke, Devin; Chen, Alan; Davids, Barry; Diaz Varela, Alejandra; Garrett, Paul; Hackman, Greg; Ishimoto, Shigeru; Kaur, Satbir; Keefe, Matthew; Kruecken, Reiner; Mansour, Iymad; Randhawa, Jaspreet; Sanetullaev, Alisher; Shotter, Alan; Smith, Jenna; Tanaka, Junki; Tanihata, Isao; Turko, Joseph; Workman, Orry

    2016-09-01

    The charged particle reaction spectroscopy station IRIS at TRIUMF is designed to allow studies of inelastic scattering and transfer reactions for low intensity beams. To do so, a novel solid H2 /D2 target is used in combination with a low pressure ionization chamber for the identification of incoming beam particles. The light ejectiles are measured using a ΔE - E telescope consisting of an annular silicon detector followed by CsI(Tl) array. Another ΔE - E telescope, consisting of two segmented silicon detectors, is used to identify the heavy outgoing particles. An overview of the faciltity will be given and examples from recent experiments that illustrate that facility's capability for reaction studies of exotic nuclei will be shown. Support from Canada Foundation for Innovation, Nova Scotia Research and Innovation Trust and NSERC.

  5. Temperature-dependent conformations of a membrane supported zinc porphyrin tweezer by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Julia R; Lee, Wonbae; Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro; Rappoport, Dmitrij; Molinski, Tadeusz F; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Marcus, Andrew H

    2013-07-25

    We studied the equilibrium conformations of a zinc porphyrin tweezer composed of two carboxylphenyl-functionalized zinc tetraphenyl porphyrin subunits connected by a 1,4-butyndiol spacer, which was suspended inside the amphiphilic regions of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) liposomes. By combining phase-modulation two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D FS) with linear absorbance and fluorimetry, we determined that the zinc porphyrin tweezer adopts a mixture of folded and extended conformations in the membrane. By fitting an exciton-coupling model to a series of data sets recorded over a range of temperatures (17-85 °C) and at different laser center wavelengths, we determined that the folded form of the tweezer is stabilized by a favorable change in the entropy of the local membrane environment. Our results provide insights toward understanding the balance of thermodynamic factors that govern molecular assembly in membranes.

  6. Detection of 2D phase transitions at the electrode/electrolyte interface using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymoczko, Jakub; Colic, Viktor; Bandarenka, Aliaksandr S.; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The capacitance of the electric double layer, CDL, formed at the electrode/electrolyte interface is generally determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). However, CDL values obtained using EIS data often depend on the ac frequency of the potential perturbation used in EIS. The reasons for the observed frequency dispersions can be various, and hence extracting valuable information about the status of the electrified interface is not possible with the required certainty. In this work, using well-understood electrochemical systems, namely Pt(111) electrodes in contact with a series of acidic sulfate ions containing electrolytes, we provide strong evidence that 2D phase transitions in the adsorbate layers and, in general, structural effects at the electrode/electrolyte interface are in many cases responsible for the frequency dispersion of the double layer capacitance. These empirical findings open new opportunities for the detection and evaluation of 2D phase transition processes and other structural effects using EIS, even in presence of simultaneously occurring electrochemical processes. However, further theoretical elaboration of this effect is necessary.

  7. A 2D correlation Raman spectroscopy analysis of a human cataractous lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacharz, Julia; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Paluszkiewicz, Czesława; Chaniecki, Piotr; Błażewicz, Marta

    2016-11-01

    This work is a continuation of our study of a cataractous human eye lens removed after phacoemulsification surgery. There are clear differences in the lens colors that allowed for distinguishing two opaque phases in the obtained biological material: the white- and yellow-phase. The Raman spectroscopy and 2D correlation spectroscopy method were used to trace a pathologically altered human cataract lens at a molecular level. Although the Raman spectra of these two phases are relatively similar, taking advantage of 2D correlation, and considering time as an external perturbation, the synchronous and asynchronous spectra were obtained showing completely different patterns. Prominent synchronous auto-peaks appear at 3340, 2920, 1736, 1665 and 1083 cm-1 for the white-, and at 2929 and 1670 cm-1 for the yellow phase. The white phase is characterized by intensive asynchronous peaks at -(2936, 3360), -(1650, 1674) and +(1620,1678). The modifications in the water contained in the white phase structure are ahead of the changes in the protein (CH3-groups), furthermore changes in β-conformation are asynchronous with respect to the α-structure. The yellow phase demonstrates asynchronous peaks: +(2857, 2928), +(1645,1673), +(1663, 1679), and +(1672,1707). These illustrate concomitant modifications in the β- and unordered conformation. Both forms of cataractous human eye lens, white- and yellow-phases, are degenerate forms of the eye lens proteins, both are arranged in a different way. The main differences are observed for the amide I, methyl, methylene and Osbnd H vibrational band region. The effect of Asp, Glu and Tyr amino acids in cataractous lens transformations was observed.

  8. Structural Characterization of Lignins Isolated from Caragana sinica Using FT-IR and NMR Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAOLing-ping; SHIZheng-jun; XUFeng; SUN Run-cang; Amar Kmohanty

    2011-01-01

    In order to efficiently explore and use woody biomass,six lignin fractions were isolated from dewaxed Caragana sinica via successive extraction with organic.solvents and alkaline solutions.The lignin structures were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR).FT-IR spectra revealed that the “core” of the lignin structure did not significantly change during the treatment under the conditions given.The results of 1 H and 13C NMR demonstrated that the lignin fraction L2,isolated with 70% ethanol containing 1% NaOH,was mainly composed of β-O-4 ether bonds together with G and S units and trace p-hydroxyphenyl unit.Based on the 2D HSQC NMR spectrum,the ethanol organosolv lignin fraction L1,extracted with 70% ethanol,presents a predominance of β-O-4' arylether linkages (61% of total side chains),and a low abundance of condensed carbon-carbon linked structures (such as β-β',β-1',and β-5') and a lower S/G ratio.Furthermore,a small percentage (ca.9%) of the linkage side chain was found to be acylated at the γ-carbon.

  9. Investigating the Hydration of CM2 meteorites by IR spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Góbi, S; Beck, P; Quirico, E; Schmidt, B

    2014-01-01

    Chondritic meteorites are of great interest since they are one of the most ancient remnants of the early solar system. Some of them, like the carbonaceous CM meteorites experienced aqueous alteration thus their olivine content transformed more or less into hydrated silicates such as phyllosilicates. These hydrated CM2 meteorites have been investigated in KBr pellets by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. In our focus of interest was to study the 3 and 10 $\\mu$m (3000 and 1000 cm$^{-1}$, the O$-$H and silicate streching) bands of several CM2 chondrites. By investigating these signals the water content and the extent of hydration can be determined. In order to achieve this, development of a new pellet production method was essential. This technique facilitates the elimination of adsorbed water coming from the surrounding environment, which would complicate correct interpretation of the results.

  10. Differentiation of Leishmania species by FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Josafá C.; Mittmann, Josane; Ferreira, Isabelle; Ferreira-Strixino, Juliana; Raniero, Leandro

    2015-05-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infectious disease caused by protozoa that belong to the genus Leishmania. It is transmitted by the bite of an infected female Sand fly. The disease is endemic in 88 countries Desjeux (2001) [1] (16 developed countries and 72 developing countries) on four continents. In Brazil, epidemiological data show the disease is present in all Brazilian regions, with the highest incidences in the North and Northeast. There are several methods used to diagnose leishmaniasis, but these procedures have many limitations, are time consuming, have low sensitivity, and are expensive. In this context, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis has the potential to provide rapid results and may be adapted for a clinical test with high sensitivity and specificity. In this work, FT-IR was used as a tool to investigate the promastigotes of Leishmaniaamazonensis, Leishmaniachagasi, and Leishmaniamajor species. The spectra were analyzed by cluster analysis and deconvolution procedure base on spectra second derivatives. Results: cluster analysis found four specific regions that are able to identify the Leishmania species. The dendrogram representation clearly indicates the heterogeneity among Leishmania species. The band deconvolution done by the curve fitting in these regions quantitatively differentiated the polysaccharides, amide III, phospholipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. L. chagasi and L. major showed a greater biochemistry similarity and have three bands that were not registered in L. amazonensis. The L. amazonensis presented three specific bands that were not recorded in the other two species. It is evident that the FT-IR method is an indispensable tool to discriminate these parasites. The high sensitivity and specificity of this technique opens up the possibilities for further studies about characterization of other microorganisms.

  11. Synchronous two-dimensional MIR correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) as a novel method for screening smoke tainted wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudge, Anthea L; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Ristic, Renata; Cozzolino, Daniel

    2013-08-15

    In this study, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) combined with mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy was evaluated as a novel technique for the identification of spectral regions associated with smoke-affected wine, for the purpose of screening taint arising from grapevine exposure to smoke. Smoke-affected wines obtained from experimental and industry sources were analysed using MIR spectroscopy and chemometrics, and calibration models developed. 2D-COS analysis was used to generate synchronous data maps for red and white cask wines spiked with guaiacol, a marker of smoke taint. Correlations were observed at wavelengths that could be attributable to aromatic C-C stretching, i.e., between 1400 and 1500 cm(-1), indicative of volatile phenols. These results demonstrate the potential of 2D-COS as a rapid, high-throughput technique for the preliminary screening of smoke tainted wine.

  12. VLT/VIMOS integral field spectroscopy of luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies: 2D kinematic properties

    CERN Document Server

    Bellocchi, Enrica; Colina, Luis; Miralles-Caballero, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We present and discuss the 2D kinematic properties of the ionized gas (Halpha) in a sample of 38 local (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies [(U)LIRGs] (31 LIRGs and 7 ULIRGs) observed with VIMOS at the VLT using integral field spectroscopy. This sample covers well the less studied LIRG luminosity range and includes isolated disks, interacting systems, and mergers. The majority of the galaxies have two main kinematically distinct components. One component (i.e., narrow or systemic) extends over the whole line-emitting region and is characterized by small to intermediate velocity dispersions (i.e., sigma from 30 to 160 km s^-1). It traces the overall velocity field. The second component (broad) has in general a larger velocity dispersion (up to 320 km s^-1), mainly found in the inner regions and generally blueshifted with respect to the systemic component. Most of the objects (76%) are dominated by rotation, more relevant in LIRGs than in ULIRGs. Isolated disks, interacting galaxies, and merging systems define a ...

  13. Rapid authentication of different ages of tissue-cultured and wild Dendrobium huoshanense as well as wild Dendrobium henanense using FTIR and 2D-COS IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nai-Dong; Chen, Nai-Fu; Li, Jun; Cao, Cai-Yun; Wang, Jin-Mei

    2015-12-01

    The accumulating of pharmaceutical chemicals in medicinal plants would greatly be affected by their ages and establishing a fast quality-identification method to evaluate the similarity of medicinal herbs at different cultivated ages is a critical step for assurance of quality and safety in the TCM industry. In this work, tri-step IR macro-fingerprinting and 2D-COS IR spectrum techniques combined with statistical pattern recognition were applied for discrimination and similarity evaluation of different ages of tissue-cultured and wild Dendrobium huoshanense C. Z. Tang et S. J. Cheng as well as Dendrobium henanense J.L.Lu et L.X Gao. Both tissue-cultured and wild D. huoshanense were easily differentiated from D. henanense by FTIR and SD-IR spectra, while it's quite difficult to discriminate different cultivated years of the three investigated Dendrobiums. In 2D-COS IR spectra, 1-5 auto-peaks with different indensity and positions were located in the region 1160-1030 cm-1 of the twelve Dendrobium samples and thus could be used to identify Dendrobium samples at different ages. Principle component analysis (PCA) of synchronous 2D-COS data showed that the twelve samples were effectively identified and evaluated. The results indicated that the tri-step infrared macro-fingerprinting combined with PCA method was suitable to differentiate the cultivated ages of Dendrobiums with species and orgins rapidly and nondestructively.

  14. Moving-window 2D correlation spectroscopy in studies of fluphenazine-DPPC dehydrated film as a function of temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwed, Joanna; Cieślik-Boczula, Katarzyna; Czarnik-Matusewicz, Bogusława; Jaszczyszyn, Agata; Gąsiorowski, Kazimierz; Świątek, Piotr; Malinka, Wiesław

    2010-06-01

    The effect of incorporating fluphenazine (FPh) into the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) multibilayers was studied by means of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) applied to attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared spectra. DPPC is used as a model membrane that mimics the organization of lipids in biological membranes and their interaction with FPh. ATR-IR spectra for both DPPC dry film alone and the film doped with FPh were recorded as a function of temperature to provide information about the interaction between FPh molecules and DPPC lipid. The chain-melting phase-transition temperature changes are strictly correlated with the conformational order of the lipid hydrocarbon chains. To gain deeper insight into the accompanying spectral changes, we employed moving-window 2D correlation spectroscopy. Subdividing all the measurements from 10 to 90 °C into 20° subsets enables a detailed identification of spectral features induced by embedding FPh into DPPC multilayers. Moving-window analysis of the power spectra for the ν asym,symCH 2, δ sCH 2, and δ rCH 2 vibrations provides evidence that FPh is embedded in the region between the bilayers, penetrating their hydrophilic part, which destabilizes the interchain interaction. Above 60 °C the FPh-DPPC system reaches the liquid crystalline phase with the well-established location of FPh. A further temperature increase to 90 °C has little effect on the intrachain conformational order and the packing character of the FPh-DPPC system in the liquid crystalline phase. In addition, FPh hinders the formation of large domains. Comparison of the moving-window analysis done by using slice spectra for DPPC and FPh-doped DPPC dry film for ν asym,symCH 2, νC dbnd O, and νPO2- shows that the interaction between the DPPC and FPh molecules is accompanied by very distinct spectral changes located in a both lower and narrower temperature range than those observed in pure DPPC film.

  15. Near-IR spectroscopy of planetary nebulae precursors

    CERN Document Server

    García-Hernandez, D A; García-Lario, P; Dominguez-Tagle, C; Conway, G; Prada, F

    2002-01-01

    We present near-IR spectroscopy of a sample of 30 IRAS sources recently identified as late AGB stars, post-AGB stars or early PNe. The spectra obtained are centered at various wavelengths covering the molecular hydrogen v=1-0 S(1) and v=2-1 S(1) emission lines, the recombination lines of hydrogen Br-gamma, Pf-gamma and Br-alpha, and the CO[v=2-0] first overtone bandhead at 2.294 microns. As a result of these observations we have increased from 4 to 13 the total number of proto-PNe detected in molecular hydrogen. When the molecular hydrogen is fluorescence-excited the detection rate is found to be directly correlated with the evolutionary stage of the central star, rather than with the nebular morphology. In contrast, shocked-excited molecular hydrogen is detected only in strongly bipolar proto-PNe, sometimes even at an early stage in the post-AGB phase. The strong correlation of shocked-excited molecular hydrogen emission with bipolarity found confirms the result previously reported by Kastner et al. (1996) i...

  16. Mixed IR/Vis two-dimensional spectroscopy: chemical exchange beyond the vibrational lifetime and sub-ensemble selective photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wilderen, Luuk J G W; Messmer, Andreas T; Bredenbeck, Jens

    2014-03-03

    Two-dimensional exchange spectroscopy (2D EXSY) is a powerful method to study the interconversion (chemical exchange) of molecular species in equilibrium. This method has recently been realized in femtosecond 2D-IR spectroscopy, dramatically increasing the time resolution. However, current implementations allow the EXSY signal (and therefore the chemical process of interest) only to be tracked during the lifetime (T1 ) of the observed spectroscopic transition. This is a severe limitation, as typical vibrational T1 are only a few ps. An IR/Vis pulse sequence is presented that overcomes this limit and makes the EXSY signal independent of T1 . The same pulse sequence allows to collect time-resolved IR spectra after electronic excitation of a particular chemical species in a mixture of species with strongly overlapping UV/Vis spectra. Different photoreaction pathways and dynamics of coexisting isomers or of species involved in different intermolecular interactions can thus be revealed, even if the species cannot be isolated because they are in rapid equilibrium.

  17. Two-dimensional IR spectroscopy and segmental 13C labeling reveals the domain structure of human γD-crystallin amyloid fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Sean D; Woys, Ann Marie; Buchanan, Lauren E; Bixby, Eli; Decatur, Sean M; Zanni, Martin T

    2012-02-28

    The structural eye lens protein γD-crystallin is a major component of cataracts, but its conformation when aggregated is unknown. Using expressed protein ligation, we uniformly (13)C labeled one of the two Greek key domains so that they are individually resolved in two-dimensional (2D) IR spectra for structural and kinetic analysis. Upon acid-induced amyloid fibril formation, the 2D IR spectra reveal that the C-terminal domain forms amyloid β-sheets, whereas the N-terminal domain becomes extremely disordered but lies in close proximity to the β-sheets. Two-dimensional IR kinetics experiments show that fibril nucleation and extension occur exclusively in the C-terminal domain. These results are unexpected because the N-terminal domain is less stable in the monomer form. Isotope dilution experiments reveal that each C-terminal domain contributes two or fewer adjacent β-strands to each β-sheet. From these observations, we propose an initial structural model for γD-crystallin amyloid fibrils. Because only 1 μg of protein is required for a 2D IR spectrum, even poorly expressing proteins can be studied under many conditions using this approach. Thus, we believe that 2D IR and protein ligation will be useful for structural and kinetic studies of many protein systems for which IR spectroscopy can be straightforwardly applied, such as membrane and amyloidogenic proteins.

  18. c2d Spitzer IRS spectra of embedded low-mass young stars : gas-phase emission lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahuis, F.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Blake, G. A.; Evans, N. J.

    2010-01-01

    Context. A survey of mid-infrared gas-phase emission lines of H(2), H(2)O and various atoms toward a sample of 43 embedded low-mass young stars in nearby star-forming regions is presented. The sources are selected from the Spitzer "Cores to Disks" (c2d) legacy program. Aims. The environment of embed

  19. AFM-IR: Technology and Applications in Nanoscale Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazzi, Alexandre; Prater, Craig B

    2016-12-13

    Atomic force microscopy-based infrared spectroscopy (AFM-IR) is a rapidly emerging technique that provides chemical analysis and compositional mapping with spatial resolution far below conventional optical diffraction limits. AFM-IR works by using the tip of an AFM probe to locally detect thermal expansion in a sample resulting from absorption of infrared radiation. AFM-IR thus can provide the spatial resolution of AFM in combination with the chemical analysis and compositional imaging capabilities of infrared spectroscopy. This article briefly reviews the development and underlying technology of AFM-IR, including recent advances, and then surveys a wide range of applications and investigations using AFM-IR. AFM-IR applications that will be discussed include those in polymers, life sciences, photonics, solar cells, semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, and cultural heritage. In the Supporting Information , the authors provide a theoretical section that reviews the physics underlying the AFM-IR measurement and detection mechanisms.

  20. Stereochemistry of 16a-Hydroxyfriedelin and 3-Oxo-16-methylfriedel-16-ene Established by 2D NMR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Fernandes Knupp

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Friedelin (1, 3b-friedelinol (2, 28-hydroxyfriedelin (3, 16a-hydroxyfriedelin (4, 30-hydroxyfriedelin (5 and 16a,28-dihydroxyfriedelin (6 were isolated through fractionation of the hexane extract obtained from branches of Salacia elliptica. After a week in CDCl3 solution, 16a-hydroxyfriedelin (4 reacted turning into 3-oxo-16-methylfriedel-16-ene (7. This is the first report of a dehydration followed by a Nametkin rearrangement of a pentacyclic triterpene in CDCl3 solution occurring in the NMR tube. These seven pentacyclic triterpenes was identified through NMR spectroscopy and the stereochemistry of compound 4 and 7 was established by 2D NMR (NOESY spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (GC-MS. It is also the first time that all the 13C-NMR and 2D NMR spectral data are reported for compounds 4 and 7.

  1. Bringing NMR and IR Spectroscopy to High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonjour, Jessica L.; Hass, Alisa L.; Pollock, David W.; Huebner, Aaron; Frost, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Development of benchtop, portable Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectrometers has opened up opportunities for creating university-high school partnerships that provide high school students with hands-on experience with NMR and IR instruments. With recent changes to the international baccalaureate chemistry…

  2. Physical Parameters of a Flare Derived from Multi-line 2D Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Time series of 2D spectra of Hα and CaII λ8542 for a flare of 1999 December 22 are obtained and analyzed with a new fitting technique. The method we proposed can simultaneously yield the four parameters: the line source function, the optical thickness at line center, the line-of-sight velocity and the Doppler width. We present the spatial distributions of the physical parameters and their temporal evolutions determined from the 2D spectra. Our results are consistent with the general picture predicted by the flare dynamic models.

  3. Understanding the two-dimensional ionization structure in luminous infrared galaxies. A near-IR integral field spectroscopy perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Colina, Luis; Arribas, Santiago; Riffel, Rogerio; Riffel, Rogemar A; Rodriguez-Ardila, Alberto; Pastoriza, Miriani; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Sales, Dinalva

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the 2D excitation structure of the ISM in a sample of LIRGs and Seyferts using near-IR IFS. This study extends to the near-IR the well-known optical and mid-IR emission line diagnostics used to classify activity in galaxies. Based on the spatially resolved spectroscopy of prototypes, we identify in the [FeII]1.64/Br$\\gamma$ - H_2 1-0S(1)/Br$\\gamma$ plane regions dominated by the different heating sources, i.e. AGNs, young MS massive stars, and evolved stars i.e. supernovae. The ISM in LIRGs occupy a wide region in the near-IR diagnostic plane from -0.6 to +1.5 and from -1.2 to +0.8 (in log units) for the [FeII]/Br$\\gamma$ and H_2/Br$\\gamma$ line ratios, respectively. The corresponding median(mode) ratios are +0.18(0.16) and +0.02(-0.04). Seyferts show on average larger values by factors ~2.5 and ~1.4 for the [FeII]/Br$\\gamma$ and H_2/Br$\\gamma$ ratios, respectively. New areas and relations in the near-IR diagnostic plane are defined for the compact, high surface brightness regions dominated by ...

  4. Noise reduction methods applied to two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) reveal complementary benefits of pre- and post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foist, Rod B; Schulze, H Georg; Ivanov, Andre; Turner, Robin F B

    2011-05-01

    Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) is a powerful spectral analysis technique widely used in many fields of spectroscopy because it can reveal spectral information in complex systems that is not readily evident in the original spectral data alone. However, noise may severely distort the information and thus limit the technique's usefulness. Consequently, noise reduction is often performed before implementing 2D-COS. In general, this is implemented using one-dimensional (1D) methods applied to the individual input spectra, but, because 2D-COS is based on sets of successive spectra and produces 2D outputs, there is also scope for the utilization of 2D noise-reduction methods. Furthermore, 2D noise reduction can be applied either to the original set of spectra before performing 2D-COS ("pretreatment") or on the 2D-COS output ("post-treatment"). Very little work has been done on post-treatment; hence, the relative advantages of these two approaches are unclear. In this work we compare the noise-reduction performance on 2D-COS of pretreatment and post-treatment using 1D (wavelets) and 2D algorithms (wavelets, matrix maximum entropy). The 2D methods generally outperformed the 1D method in pretreatment noise reduction. 2D post-treatment in some cases was superior to pretreatment and, unexpectedly, also provided correlation coefficient maps that were similar to 2D correlation spectroscopy maps but with apparent better contrast.

  5. 2D-Raman-THz spectroscopy: A sensitive test of polarizable water models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, Peter, E-mail: peter.hamm@chem.uzh.ch [Department of Chemistry, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr. 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2014-11-14

    In a recent paper, the experimental 2D-Raman-THz response of liquid water at ambient conditions has been presented [J. Savolainen, S. Ahmed, and P. Hamm, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110, 20402 (2013)]. Here, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations are performed with the goal to reproduce the experimental results. To that end, the molecular response functions are calculated in a first step, and are then convoluted with the laser pulses in order to enable a direct comparison with the experimental results. The molecular dynamics simulation are performed with several different water models: TIP4P/2005, SWM4-NDP, and TL4P. As polarizability is essential to describe the 2D-Raman-THz response, the TIP4P/2005 water molecules are amended with either an isotropic or a anisotropic polarizability a posteriori after the molecular dynamics simulation. In contrast, SWM4-NDP and TL4P are intrinsically polarizable, and hence the 2D-Raman-THz response can be calculated in a self-consistent way, using the same force field as during the molecular dynamics simulation. It is found that the 2D-Raman-THz response depends extremely sensitively on details of the water model, and in particular on details of the description of polarizability. Despite the limited time resolution of the experiment, it could easily distinguish between various water models. Albeit not perfect, the overall best agreement with the experimental data is obtained for the TL4P water model.

  6. A combined IR/IR and IR/UV spectroscopy study on the proton transfer coordinate of isolated 3-hydroxychromone in the electronic ground and excited state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, A; Weiler, M; Brächer, A; Schwing, K; Gerhards, M

    2014-10-21

    In this paper the excited state proton transfer (ESPT) of isolated 3-hydroxychromone (3-HC), the prototype of the flavonols, is investigated for the first time by combined IR/UV spectroscopy in molecular beam experiments. The IR/UV investigations are performed both for the electronically excited and electronic ground state indicating a spectral overlap of transitions of the 3-HC monomer and clusters with water in the electronic ground state, whereas in the excited state only the IR frequencies of the proton-transferred monomer structure are observed. Due to the loss of isomer and species selectivity with respect to the UV excitations IR/IR techniques are applied in order to figure out the assignment of the vibrational transitions in the S0 state. In this context the quadruple resonance IR/UV/IR/UV technique (originally developed to distinguish different isomers in the electronically excited state) could be applied to identify the OH stretching vibration of the monomer in the electronic ground state. In agreement with calculations the OH stretching frequency differs significantly from the corresponding values of substituted hydroxychromones.

  7. Infrared spectroscopy of radio-luminous OH/IR stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Terry Jay; Hyland, A. R.; Fix, John D.; Cobb, Michael L.

    1988-01-01

    Low-resolution 1.5-2.5-micron spectra for 21 radio-luminous OH/IR stars are presented. These spectra divide into two broad classes. Those with very strong water-vapor absorption closely resemble the spectra of classical Mira variables and are classified Type VM. Those with weaker water-vapor absorption, but still showing strong CO absorption, resemble the spectra of true core-burning supergiants and are classified Type SG. Comparison of the classification of 30 radio-luminous OH/IR stars with their Delta(V)s and luminosities suggests this classification is a good indicator of the intrinsic nature of the underlying star. There is some evidence, however, that some true supergiants (massive main-sequence progenitors) develop the pulsation properties and photospheric characteristics of the Mira-like OH/IR stars when they become optically obscured OH/IR stars.

  8. Characterization of Momordica charantia Ussing FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Keseru

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, because earlier claim shows that the plant used as stomachic, carminative, tonic, antipyretic, antidiabetic, in rheumatoid arthritis and gout, the present investigation was carried to characterized a principal components of plant using FT-IR technique

  9. Transmittance, Reflectance, and Emission Spectroscopy of Meteorites from the UV to the IR Spectral Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; Koulen, J. M.; Ferrari, S.; Martellato, E.

    2016-08-01

    Transmittance, reflectance, and emissivity Spectra of six meteorites have been collected at the Planetary Spectroscopy Laboratory (PSL) of DLR in Berlin in the whole spectral range from the UV to the IR.

  10. Results obtained by investigating saffron ussing FT-IR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Andronie

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological activity and the pharmaceutical properties of plants are strongly dependent on their structure. The FT-IR spectra of saffron (commercial have been obtained. The vibrational fundamentals from the IR spectrum, were analyzed  and assigned acoording to the available literature. In the present research work the genus saffron is selected because it is famous in wold as foods and also as medicine.

  11. In vivo 1D and 2D correlation MR spectroscopy of the soleus muscle at 7T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Saadallah; Ratai, Eva-Maria; Wald, Lawrence L.; Mountford, Carolyn E.

    2010-05-01

    AimThis study aims to (1) undertake and analyse 1D and 2D MR correlation spectroscopy from human soleus muscle in vivo at 7T, and (2) determine T1 and T2 relaxation time constants at 7T field strength due to their importance in sequence design and spectral quantitation. MethodSix healthy, male volunteers were consented and scanned on a 7T whole-body scanner (Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany). Experiments were undertaken using a 28 cm diameter detunable birdcage coil for signal excitation and an 8.5 cm diameter surface coil for signal reception. The relaxation time constants, T1 and T2 were recorded using a STEAM sequence, using the 'progressive saturation' method for the T1 and multiple echo times for T2. The 2D L-Correlated SpectroscopY (L-COSY) method was employed with 64 increments (0.4 ms increment size) and eight averages per scan, with a total time of 17 min. ResultsT1 and T2 values for the metabolites of interest were determined. The L-COSY spectra obtained from the soleus muscle provided information on lipid content and chemical structure not available, in vivo, at lower field strengths. All molecular fragments within multiple lipid compartments were chemically shifted by 0.20-0.26 ppm at this field strength. 1D and 2D L-COSY spectra were assigned and proton connectivities were confirmed with the 2D method. ConclusionIn vivo 1D and 2D spectroscopic examination of muscle can be successfully recorded at 7T and is now available to assess lipid alterations as well as other metabolites present with disease. T1 and T2 values were also determined in soleus muscle of male healthy volunteers.

  12. Measuring PAH Emission in Ultradeep Spitzer IRS Spectroscopy of High Redshift IR Luminous Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Teplitz, H I; Armus, L; Chary, R; Marshall, J A; Colbert, J W; Frayer, D T; Pope, A; Blain, A; Spoon, H; Charmandaris, V; Scott, D

    2007-01-01

    The study of the dominant population of high redshift IR-luminous galaxies (10^11 - 10^12 Lsun at 1IR. We present the deepest spectra taken to date with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. We targeted two faint (f24~0.15 mJy) sources in the Southern GOODS field at z=1.09 and z=2.69. Spectra of the lower redshift target were taken in the observed-frame 8--21 micron range, while the spectrum of the higher redshift target covered 21--37 microns. We also present the spectra of two secondary sources within the slit. We detect strong PAH emission in all four targets, and compare the spectra to those of local galaxies observed by the IRS. The z=1.09 source appears to be a typical, star-formation dominated IR-luminous galaxy, while the z=2.69 source is a composite source with strong star formation and a prominent AGN. The IRAC colors of this source show no evidence of rest-frame near-infrared stellar photospheric...

  13. XAFS data acquisition with 2D-detectors: Transmission mode XAFS and grazing incidence EXAFS spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Gasse, J.-C.; Bögel, R.; Wagner, R.; Frahm, R.

    2016-05-01

    XAFS-experiments in transmission and reflection modes have been performed using a Pilatus 100K pixel detector. Transmission mode XAFS spectra from a Co metal foil and Co3O4 were recorded to evaluate the data quality offered by this 2D-detector. Furthermore, the pixel detector was also used to measure reflection mode grazing incidence EXAFS data. Using different regions of interest in the collected scattering patterns, we will show that the diffuse scattering can be separated for the different contributing surfaces and interfaces, allowing simultaneous investigations of surfaces and buried interfaces within multi-layered samples.

  14. IR-REMPI spectroscopy for thermometry of C-60

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijnsbergen, D.; von Helden, G.; Sartakov, B.; Meijer, G.

    2000-01-01

    Gas-phase C-60 molecules are excited with a 30 ps 266 nm Nd:YAG laser, followed by a train of high-power infrared (IR) sub-picosecond pulses from a free electron laser (FEL), which resonantly heats the molecules up to internal energies at which they efficiently undergo delayed ionization. By tuning

  15. Styrylpyrylium Salts: 1H and 13C NMR High-Resolution Spectroscopy (1D and 2D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Claude W. Ouédraogo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available 1H and 13C NMR high-resolution spectroscopy (1D and 2D (1H, 1H-COSY, HSQC, HMBC for four styrylpyrylium perchlorates were carried out and signal attributions are reported. Chemical shifts observed on 13C NMR spectra for the styrylpyrylium salts were compared with net atomic charge for carbon obtained by AM1 semiempirical calculations. The position of the styryl group present low effect on chemical shifts for carbon atoms, while the presence of methyl group led to the unshielding of the substituted carbon.

  16. Nanomechanical IR spectroscopy for fast analysis of liquid-dispersed engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Alina Joukainen; Yamada, Shoko; Ek, Pramod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The proliferated use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), e.g. in nanomedicine, calls for novel techniques allowing for fast and sensitive analysis of minute samples. Here we present nanomechanical IR spectroscopy (NAM-IR) for chemical analysis of picograms of ENMs. ENMs are nebulized directly from...... dispersion and efficiently collected on nanomechanical string resonators through a non-diffusion limited sampling method. Even very small amounts of sample can convert absorbed IR light into a measurable frequency detuning of the string through photothermal heating. An IR absorption spectrum is thus readily...... obtained by recording this detuning of the resonator over a range of IR wavelengths. Results recorded using NAM-IR agree well with corresponding results obtained through ATR-FTIR, and remarkably, measurement including sample preparation takes only a few minutes, compared to ∼2 days sample preparation...

  17. Analysis and Assessment of Agrimonia Pilosa Ledeb from Different Sources Using FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-qing WANG; Zhe-xiong JIN

    2010-01-01

    To get the IR spectrums of Agrimonia Pilosa Ledeb (APL) from China and Japan areas,and to find out the characters of IR spectrums through the content of different chemical constituents,to provide a fast and effective analysis method monitor the inherent qualities of traditional Chinese medicine-APL.Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy(FT-IR) was applied to detect sample of APL from China and Japan areas.This study showed that the IR spectra of APL from China and Japan areas have their unique IR fingerprint features.The contents of tannin and calcium phosphate in APL from China is different APL from Japan.So FT-IR is a very quick,effective and well repetitive method for monitoring and distinguishing the traditional Chinese medicine.

  18. Nanomechanical IR Spectroscopy for the fast analysis of picogram samples of engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Alina Joukainen; Ek, Pramod Kumar; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), e.g. in nanomedicine, demands for novel sensitive techniques allowing for the analysis of minute samples. We present nanoelectromechanical system-based IR spectroscopy (NEMS-IR) of picograms of polymeric micelles. The micelles are nebulized...... with electrospray directly from dispersion and then efficiently collected on the sensor, which detects the IR-wavelength-dependent photothermal sample heating. Only 10 nL of sample (~0.1 mg/mL) is required for the acquisition of an IR spectrum. Measurement, including sample preparation, takes only a few minutes......, compared to 2 days for analysis by ATR-FT-IR. NEMS-IR constitutes a promising technique for the fast analysis of ENMs....

  19. Spatially-resolved mid-ir spectroscopy of ngc 1068

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Mason

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos espectros espacialmente resueltos, cercanos al l mite de difracci on, de 10 m, del n ucleo de la galaxia Seyfert 2 NGC 1068. Estos revelan variaciones notables en la pendiente del cont nuo, el per l y la profundidad del rasgo de silicato, y ujos de l neas de estructura na en escalas de subsegundos de arco, que ilustran en detalles sin precedente la complejidad de las regiones circunnuclares de esta galaxia en longitudes de onda del IR medio. Las im agenes de adquisici on muestran dos componentes distintos: una fuente brillante compacta (radio < 15 pc dentro de los 0.4 segarc centrales, identi cada con el toro obscurecedor de AGN, y una emisi on extendida, de brillo m as bajo proveniente del polvo de los conos de ionizaci on. El espectro observado de la fuente compacta se compara con modelos de toro grumoso, siendo esta la primera comparaci on detallada de estos modelos con observaciones. Los modelos requieren que la mayor parte de las nubes se localice dentro de unos cuantos parsecs de la m aquina central, lo cual concuerda muy bien con observaciones interferom etricas recientes del IR medio. Sin embargo, el ujo del IR medio medido con aperturas mayores de alrededor de 1 segarc est a dominado por la emisi on de polvo procedente de los conos de ionizaci on. Muchos de los intentos previos para determinar la distribuci on de la energ a espectral del toro estar an probablemente afectados por la contaminaci on procedente de la emisi on extendida, lo cual pone de relieve la importancia que la resoluci on espacial tiene para estudios IR de AGN cercanos.

  20. The Mid-IR Properties of Starburst Galaxies from Spitzer-IRS Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Brandl, B R; Spoon, H W W; Devost, D; Sloan, G C; Guilles, S; Wu, Y; Houck, J R; Armus, L; Weedman, D W; Charmandaris, V; Appleton, P N; Soifer, B T; Hao, L; Marshall, J A; Higdon, S J; Herter, T L

    2006-01-01

    We present 5-38um mid-infrared spectra at a spectral resolution of R~65-130 of a large sample of 22 starburst nuclei taken with the Infrared Spectrograph IRS on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra show a vast range in starburst SEDs. The silicate absorption ranges from essentially no absorption to heavily obscured systems with an optical depth of tau(9.8um)~5. The spectral slopes can be used to discriminate between starburst and AGN powered sources. The monochromatic continuum fluxes at 15um and 30um enable a remarkably accurate estimate of the total infrared luminosity of the starburst. We find that the PAH equivalent width is independent of the total starburst luminosity L_IR as both continuum and PAH feature scale proportionally. However, the luminosity of the 6.2um feature scales with L_IR and can be used to approximate the total infrared luminosity of the starburst. Although our starburst sample covers about a factor of ten difference in the [NeIII]/[NeII] ratio, we found no systematic correla...

  1. 2D Raman spectroscopy as an alternative technique for distinguishing oleanoic acid and ursolic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, César; Crotti, Antônio E. M.; Vessecchi, Ricardo; Cunha, Wilson R.

    2006-11-01

    The isomeric triterpenes oleanoic acid and ursolic acid are compounds exhibiting a variety of biological activities. Structurally, they differ only in the position of the methyl group (C-29) at ring E. The differentiation of these two compounds requires a detailed analysis of their 13C and 1H NMR spectra which is often tedious and time-consuming, besides the need of using deuterated solvents. In this work, we report the use of bidimensional Raman spectroscopy as a fast technique to distinguish these two bioactive isomeric compounds.

  2. Ionic Liquid-Solute Interactions Studied by 2D NOE NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Sufia; Castner, Edward W

    2015-07-23

    Intermolecular interactions between a Ru(2+)(bpy)3 solute and the anions and cations of four different ionic liquids (ILs) are investigated by 2D NMR nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) techniques, including {(1)H-(19)F} HOESY and {(1)H-(1)H} ROESY. Four ILs are studied, each having the same bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide anion in common. Two of the ILs have aliphatic 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cations, while the other two ILs have aromatic 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations. ILs with both shorter (butyl) and longer (octyl or decyl) cationic alkyl substituents are studied. NOE NMR results suggest that the local environment of IL anions and cations near the Ru(2+)(bpy)3 solute is rather different from the bulk IL structure. The solute-anion and solute-cation interactions are significantly different both for ILs with short vs long alkyl tails and for ILs with aliphatic vs aromatic cation polar head groups. In particular, the solute-anion interactions are observed to be about 3 times stronger for the cations with shorter alkyl tails relative to the ILs with longer alkyl tails. The Ru(2+)(bpy)3 solute interacts with both the polar head and the nonpolar tail groups of the 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cation but only with the nonpolar tail groups of the 1-decyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cation.

  3. Performance improvements in temperature reconstructions of 2-D tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Doo-Won; Jeon, Min-Gyu; Cho, Gyeong-Rae; Kamimoto, Takahiro; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Doh, Deog-Hee

    2016-02-01

    Performance improvement was attained in data reconstructions of 2-dimensional tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). Multiplicative Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (MART) algorithm was adopted for data reconstruction. The data obtained in an experiment for the measurement of temperature and concentration fields of gas flows were used. The measurement theory is based upon the Beer-Lambert law, and the measurement system consists of a tunable laser, collimators, detectors, and an analyzer. Methane was used as a fuel for combustion with air in the Bunsen-type burner. The data used for the reconstruction are from the optical signals of 8-laser beams passed on a cross-section of the methane flame. The performances of MART algorithm in data reconstruction were validated and compared with those obtained by Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) algorithm.

  4. Photoacoustic IR spectroscopy instrumentation, applications and data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelian, Kirk H

    2010-01-01

    This invaluable and up-to-date source on instruments and applications covers everything needed to employ a technique for investigating various gases and materials, including biomaterials. It includes the latest developments in light sources, signal recovery and numerical methods. There is no other single publication that reviews the entire subject of photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy in such detail. Physicists, chemists, and spectroscopists in both academic and industrial laboratories, polymer and organic chemists, analysts in industry, forensic and government laboratories, and materials

  5. Water analysis of glass ceramics by FT-IR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nease, A B; Hale, M D; Kramer, D P

    1983-12-15

    A method for measuring water concentration in glasses has been described and the results of the study of ten batches of glasses have been tabulated. It has been shown that infrared spectroscopy is a satisfactory tool for measuring water concentration in glass ceramics. The water concentrations of ten batches of glass have been shown to differ significantly, and these variances are associated with environmental humidity and glass preparation method.

  6. Anisotropy in bone demineralization revealed by polarized far-IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Roman; Fix, Dmitri; Schade, Ulrich; Aziz, Emad F; Timofeeva, Nadya; Weinkamer, Richard; Masic, Admir

    2015-04-02

    Bone material is composed of an organic matrix of collagen fibers and apatite nanoparticles. Previously, vibrational spectroscopy techniques such as infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy have proved to be particularly useful for characterizing the two constituent organic and inorganic phases of bone. In this work, we tested the potential use of high intensity synchrotron-based far-IR radiation (50-500 cm(-1)) to gain new insights into structure and chemical composition of bovine fibrolamellar bone. The results from our study can be summarized in the following four points: (I) compared to far-IR spectra obtained from synthetic hydroxyapatite powder, those from fibrolamellar bone showed similar peak positions, but very different peak widths; (II) during stepwise demineralization of the bone samples, there was no significant change neither to far-IR peak width nor position, demonstrating that mineral dissolution occurred in a uniform manner; (III) application of external loading on fully demineralized bone had no significant effect on the obtained spectra, while dehydration of samples resulted in clear differences. (IV) using linear dichroism, we showed that the anisotropic structure of fibrolamellar bone is also reflected in anisotropic far-IR absorbance properties of both the organic and inorganic phases. Far-IR spectroscopy thus provides a novel way to functionally characterize bone structure and chemistry, and with further technological improvements, has the potential to become a useful clinical diagnostic tool to better assess quality of collagen-based tissues.

  7. Perforated SiN membrane resonators for nanomechanical IR spectroscopy poster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurek, Maksymilian; Carnoy, Matthias; Boisen, Anja

    behavior. The principle of operation is based on the monitoring of the resonance frequency shift dueto various external factors such as change of temperature. It has been shown that photothermal infrared (IR) spectroscopy based onnanomechanical silicon nitride (SiN) string resonators (NAM-IR) enables...... the exceptionally fast chemical analysis of pictograms of analytedirectly from liquid solution in only a few minutes [1]. However in this technique the coupling of the IR laser beam to the nanometerwidestring resonators is difficult and inefficient. Therefore perforated SiN membranes with thickness of 100 nm......, lateral dimension of1×1 mm2 and 2 µm perforation grid pitch were used instead of strings which makes the IR beam alignment significantly simpler whilemaintaining similar sampling efficiency and photothermal IR absorption sensitivity....

  8. Near-infrared (NIR) monitoring of Nylon 6 during quenching studied by projection two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Mizukado, Junji

    2016-11-01

    Evolutionary change in supermolecular structure of Nylon 6 during its melt-quenched process was studied by Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Time-resolved NIR spectra was measured by taking the advantage of high-speed NIR monitoring based on an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). Fine spectral features associated with the variation of crystalline and amorphous structure occurring in relatively short time scale were readily captured. For example, synchronous and asynchronous 2D correlation spectra reveal the initial decrease in the contribution of the NIR band at 1485 nm due to the amorphous structure, predominantly existing in the melt Nylon 6. This is then followed by the emerging contribution of the band intensity at 1535 nm associated with the crystalline structure. Consequently, the results clearly demonstrate a definite advantage of the high-speed NIR monitoring for analyzing fleeting phenomena.

  9. Fire and Ice: IRS Mid-IR Spectroscopy of IRAS F00183--7111

    CERN Document Server

    Spoon, H W W; Cami, J; Tielens, A G G M; Chiar, J E; Peeters, E; Keane, J V; Charmandaris, V; Appleton, P N; Teplitz, H I; Burgdorf, M J

    2004-01-01

    We report the detection of strong absorption and weak emission features in the 4--27 micron Spitzer-IRS spectrum of the distant ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) IRAS F00183--7111 (z=0.327). The absorption features of CO2 and CO gas, water ice, hydrocarbons and silicates are indicative of a strongly obscured (A[9.6]>=5.4; A[V]>=90) and complex line of sight through both hot diffuse ISM and shielded cold molecular clouds towards the nuclear power source. From the profile of the 4.67 micron CO fundamental vibration mode we deduce that the absorbing gas is dense (n~10^6 cm^-3) and warm (720 K) and has a CO column density of ~10^19.5 cm^-2, equivalent to N[H]~10^23.5 cm^-2. The high temperature and density, as well as the small infered size (<0.03pc), locates this absorbing gas close to the power source of this region. Weak emission features of molecular hydrogen, PAHs and Ne+, likely associated with star formation, are detected against the 9.7 micron silicate feature, indicating an origin away from the ab...

  10. Comparison between ATR-IR, Raman, concatenated ATR-IR and Raman spectroscopy for the determination of total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of Chinese rice wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengzong; Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Pan, Xiaowei; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2016-03-01

    The application of attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), Raman spectroscopy (RS) and combination of ATR-IR and RS for measurements of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) of Chinese rice wine (CRW) were investigated in this study. Synergy interval partial least-squares (SiPLS), support vector machine (SVM) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to process the merged data from two individual instruments. It was observed that the performances of models based on the RS spectra were better than those based on the ATR-IR spectra. In addition, SVM models based on the efficient information extracted from ATR-IR and RS spectra were superior to PLS models based on the same information and PLS models based on ATR-IR or RS spectra. The overall results demonstrated that integrating ATR-IR and RS was possible and could improve the prediction accuracy of TAC and TPC in CRWs.

  11. Composition of the Martian aerosols through near-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erard, Stephane; Cerroni, Priscilla; Coradini, Angioletta

    1993-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy is a powerful technique to study the composition of planetary surfaces, as the main minerals exhibit absorption bands in this spectral range. It gave important information on the mineralogy and petrology of Mars in the past twenty years although in this case it is well known that a large fraction of light is scattered by the airborne particles before reaching the surface. The measured signal is thus the sum of two different contributions that should be studied separately: One from the surface and one from the aerosols that depends on their density, size distribution and composition. Data from the ISM imaging spectrometer are used here to derive the aerosols spectrum. They consist in sets of spectra (from 0.76 to 3.16 microns) of approximately 3000 pixels approximately 25x25 sq km in size. The resulting spectrum exhibits both water-ice and clay mineral features superimposed on a scattering continuum.

  12. IR spectroscopy of sulphates in clinkers and cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez, T.

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Infrared spectroscopy is a very useful technique in Cement Chemistry. This work is devoted to the study of a large number of sulphates that should have an incidence in false set phenomena, and they are qualitative and semi-quantitatlvely studied when they are in some degree in the clinker or in the portland cement.

    La espectroscopía infrarroja es una técnica de gran utilidad en la Química del Cemento. En el presente trabajo se aplica al estudio de numerosos sulfatos que pueden tener incidencia en el fenómeno de falso fraguado, y se estudian cualitativa y semicuantitativamente cuando forman parte del clinker o cemento portland.

  13. An add-on system for photochemical ATR-IR spectroscopy studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to an add-on system for a unit mainly adapted for attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The add-on system enables time-resolved in-situ measurements of different sample types in an easy, simple and inexpensive way. The add-on system includes a cap (300G...

  14. Preparation of Phenolized Calcium Lignosulfonate andCharacterization of the Reaction by IR Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A kind of calcium lignosulfonate was phenolized by phenol with sulfuric acid as catalyst. The calcium lignosulfonate and its phenolized derivatives were characterized by infrared spectroscopy. It is proved that the extent and type of the phenolizing reaction can be deduced from the IR spectra of the calcium lignosulfonate and its phenolized derivatives.

  15. Slower processes of the ultrafast photo-isomerization of an azobenzene observed by IR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koller, F.O.; Sobotta, C.; Schrader, T.E.; Cordes, T.; Schreier, W.J.; Sieg, A.; Gilch, P.

    2007-01-01

    The photo-induced trans–cis isomerization of the azobenzene derivative 4-nitro-4'-(dimethylamino)azobenzene in polar solution was studied by femtosecond UV/Vis and IR spectroscopy. The UV/Vis experiment reveals two excited state processes; the slower one (1 ps) is the internal conversion to the grou

  16. Structure Determination of Unknown Organic Liquids Using NMR and IR Spectroscopy: A General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, John T.; Hyde, Erin C.; Bruch, Martha D.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment introduced general chemistry students to the basic concepts of organic structures and to the power of spectroscopic methods for structure determination. Students employed a combination of IR and NMR spectroscopy to perform de novo structure determination of unknown alcohols, without being provided with a list of possible…

  17. ISO Far-IR Spectroscopy of IR-Bright Galaxies and ULIRGs

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, J; Satyapal, S; Greenhouse, M A; Stacey, G J; Bradford, C M; Lord, S D; Brauher, J R; Unger, S J; Clegg, P E; Smith, H A; Melnick, G J; Colbert, J W; Malkan, M A; Spinoglio, L; Cox, P; Harvey, V; Suter, J P; Strelnitski, V S

    1999-01-01

    Based on far-infrared spectroscopy of a small sample of nearby infrared-bright and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) with the ISO Long Wavelength Spectrometer, we find a dramatic progression in ionic/atomic fine-structure emission line and molecular/atomic absorption line characteristics in these galaxies extending from strong [O III]52,88 and [N III]57 micron line emission to detection of only faint [C II]158 micron line emission from gas in photodissociation regions in the ULIRGs. The molecular absorption spectra show varying excitation as well, extending from galaxies in which the molecular population mainly occupies the ground state to galaxies in which there is significant population in higher levels. In the case of the prototypical ULIRG, the merger galaxy Arp 220, the spectrum is dominated by absorption lines of OH, H2O, CH, and [O I]. Low [O III]88 micron line flux relative to the integrated far-infrared flux correlates with low excitation and does not appear to be due to far-infrared extinctio...

  18. The c2d Spitzer spectroscopy survey of ices around low-mass young stellar objects, III: CH4

    CERN Document Server

    Oberg, Karin I; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Blake, Geoffrey A; Evans, Neal J; Lahuis, Fred; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2008-01-01

    CH4 is proposed to be the starting point of a rich organic chemistry. Solid CH4 abundances have previously been determined mostly toward high mass star forming regions. Spitzer/IRS now provides a unique opportunity to probe solid CH4 toward low mass star forming regions as well. Infrared spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope are presented to determine the solid CH4 abundance toward a large sample of low mass young stellar objects. 25 out of 52 ice sources in the $c2d$ (cores to disks) legacy have an absorption feature at 7.7 um, attributed to the bending mode of solid CH4. The solid CH4 / H2O abundances are 2-8%, except for three sources with abundances as high as 11-13%. These latter sources have relatively large uncertainties due to small total ice column densities. Toward sources with H2O column densities above 2E18 cm-2, the CH4 abundances (20 out of 25) are nearly constant at 4.7+/-1.6%. Correlation plots with solid H2O, CH3OH, CO2 and CO column densities and abundances relative to H2O reveal a closer...

  19. Preliminary Discrimination of Cheese Adulteration by FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Cuibus

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes a preliminary study to compare some traditional Romanian cheeses and adulterated cheeses using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. For PLS model calibration (6 concentration levels and validation (5 concentration levels sets were prepared from commercial Dalia Cheese from different manufacturers by spiking it with palm oil at concentrations ranging 2-50 % and 5-40 %, respectively. Fifteen Dalia Cheese were evaluated as external set. The spectra of each sample, after homogenization, were acquired in triplicate using a FTIR Shimatsu Prestige 21 Spectrophotometer, with a horizontal diamond ATR accessory in the MIR region 4000-600 cm-1. Statistical methods as PLS were applied using MVC1 routines written for Matlab R2010a. As first step the optimal condition for PLS model were obtained using cross-validation on the Calibration set. Spectral region in 3873-652 cm-1, and 3 PLS-factors were stated as the best conditions and showed an R2 value of 0.9338 and a relative error in the calibration of 17.2%. Then validation set was evaluated, obtaining good recovery rates (108% and acceptable dispersion of the data (20%. The curve of actual vs. predicted values shows slope near to 1 and origin close to 0, with an R2 of 0.9695. When the external sample set was evaluated, samples F19, F21, F22 and F24, showed detectable levels of palm fats. The results proved that FTIR-PLS is a reliable non-destructive technique for a rapid quantification the level of adulteration in cheese.  The spectroscopic methods could assist the quality control authority, traders and the producers to discriminate the adulterated cheeses with palm oil.

  20. Improved rovibrational constants for the v7 = 1 state of ethylene-cis-1,2-d2 (cis-C2H2D2) by high-resolution synchrotron FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, T. L.; Ng, L. L.; Gabona, M. G.; Aruchunan, G.; Wong, Andy; Appadoo, Dominique R. T.; McNaughton, Don

    2017-01-01

    Using the far-infrared beamline of the Australian Synchrotron, the spectrum of the ν7 band of ethylene-cis-1,2-d2 (cis-C2H2D2) was recorded in the 640-990 cm-1 region at an unapodized resolution of 0.00096 cm-1. A rovibrational analysis of a total of 2823 infrared transitions of the ν7 band was carried out using an asymmetric rotor fitting program based on the Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian in the Ir representation to derive up to four sextic constants with a rms deviation of 0.00035 cm-1. From the fitting of 2634 ground state combination differences (GSCDs) of cis-C2H2D2 which were derived from the infrared transitions of the ν7 band of this work, and ν10 and ν12 bands of previous studies, together with 22 microwave frequencies, accurate ground state constants of cis-C2H2D2 up to four sextic terms were obtained. The rotational constants (A, B, and C) of the v7 = 1 state of cis-C2H2D2 were found to agree within 0.5% with the calculated values using B3LYP/cc-pVTZ and MP2/cc-pVTZ levels of theory. From this work, the band center of ν7 at 842.209489(20) cm-1 and the rovibrational constants of the v7 = 1 state of cis-C2H2D2 were determined with better accuracy than previously reported.

  1. Remote Thermal IR Spectroscopy of our Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, Theodor; Hewagama, Tilak; Goldstein, Jeffrey; Livengood, Timothy; Fast, Kelly

    1999-01-01

    Indirect methods to detect extrasolar planets have been successful in identifying a number of stars with companion planets. No direct detection of an extrasolar planet has yet been reported. Spectroscopy in the thermal infrared region provides a potentially powerful approach to detection and characterization of planets and planetary systems. We can use knowledge of our own solar system, its planets and their atmospheres to model spectral characteristics of planets around other stars. Spectra derived from modeling our own solar system seen from an extrasolar perspective can be used to constrain detection strategies, identification of planetary class (terrestrial vs. gaseous) and retrieval of chemical, thermal and dynamical information. Emission from planets in our solar system peaks in the thermal infrared region, approximately 10 - 30 microns, substantially displaced from the maximum of the much brighter solar emission in the visible near 0.5 microns. This fact provides a relatively good contrast ratio to discriminate between stellar (solar) and planetary emission and optimize the delectability of planetary spectra. Important molecular constituents in planetary atmospheres have rotational-vibrational spectra in the thermal infrared region. Spectra from these molecules have been well characterized in the laboratory and studied in the atmospheres of solar system planets from ground-based and space platforms. The best example of such measurements are the studies with Fourier transform spectrometers, the Infrared Interferometer Spectrometers (IRIS), from spacecraft: Earth observed from NIMBUS 8, Mars observed from Mariner 9, and the outer planets observed from Voyager spacecraft. An Earth-like planet is characterized by atmospheric spectra of ozone, carbon dioxide, and water. Terrestrial planets have oxidizing atmospheres which are easily distinguished from reducing atmospheres of gaseous giant planets which lack oxygen-bearing species and are characterized by spectra

  2. Energy transfer dynamics in trimers and aggregates of light-harvesting complex II probed by 2D electronic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enriquez, Miriam M.; Zhang, Cheng; Tan, Howe-Siang, E-mail: howesiang@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Akhtar, Parveen; Garab, Győző; Lambrev, Petar H., E-mail: lambrev@brc.hu [Institute of Plant Biology, Biological Research Centre, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 521, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary)

    2015-06-07

    The pathways and dynamics of excitation energy transfer between the chlorophyll (Chl) domains in solubilized trimeric and aggregated light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) are examined using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES). The LHCII trimers and aggregates exhibit the unquenched and quenched excitonic states of Chl a, respectively. 2DES allows direct correlation of excitation and emission energies of coupled states over population time delays, hence enabling mapping of the energy flow between Chls. By the excitation of the entire Chl b Q{sub y} band, energy transfer from Chl b to Chl a states is monitored in the LHCII trimers and aggregates. Global analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) spectra reveals that energy transfer from Chl b to Chl a occurs on fast and slow time scales of 240–270 fs and 2.8 ps for both forms of LHCII. 2D decay-associated spectra resulting from the global analysis identify the correlation between Chl states involved in the energy transfer and decay at a given lifetime. The contribution of singlet–singlet annihilation on the kinetics of Chl energy transfer and decay is also modelled and discussed. The results show a marked change in the energy transfer kinetics in the time range of a few picoseconds. Owing to slow energy equilibration processes, long-lived intermediate Chl a states are present in solubilized trimers, while in aggregates, the population decay of these excited states is significantly accelerated, suggesting that, overall, the energy transfer within the LHCII complexes is faster in the aggregated state.

  3. Energy transfer dynamics in trimers and aggregates of light-harvesting complex II probed by 2D electronic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, Miriam M; Akhtar, Parveen; Zhang, Cheng; Garab, Győző; Lambrev, Petar H; Tan, Howe-Siang

    2015-06-07

    The pathways and dynamics of excitation energy transfer between the chlorophyll (Chl) domains in solubilized trimeric and aggregated light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) are examined using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES). The LHCII trimers and aggregates exhibit the unquenched and quenched excitonic states of Chl a, respectively. 2DES allows direct correlation of excitation and emission energies of coupled states over population time delays, hence enabling mapping of the energy flow between Chls. By the excitation of the entire Chl b Qy band, energy transfer from Chl b to Chl a states is monitored in the LHCII trimers and aggregates. Global analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) spectra reveals that energy transfer from Chl b to Chl a occurs on fast and slow time scales of 240-270 fs and 2.8 ps for both forms of LHCII. 2D decay-associated spectra resulting from the global analysis identify the correlation between Chl states involved in the energy transfer and decay at a given lifetime. The contribution of singlet-singlet annihilation on the kinetics of Chl energy transfer and decay is also modelled and discussed. The results show a marked change in the energy transfer kinetics in the time range of a few picoseconds. Owing to slow energy equilibration processes, long-lived intermediate Chl a states are present in solubilized trimers, while in aggregates, the population decay of these excited states is significantly accelerated, suggesting that, overall, the energy transfer within the LHCII complexes is faster in the aggregated state.

  4. Highly-accelerated quantitative 2D and 3D localized spectroscopy with linear algebraic modeling (SLAM) and sensitivity encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Gabr, Refaat E.; Zhou, Jinyuan; Weiss, Robert G.; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2013-12-01

    Noninvasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) with chemical shift imaging (CSI) provides valuable metabolic information for research and clinical studies, but is often limited by long scan times. Recently, spectroscopy with linear algebraic modeling (SLAM) was shown to provide compartment-averaged spectra resolved in one spatial dimension with many-fold reductions in scan-time. This was achieved using a small subset of the CSI phase-encoding steps from central image k-space that maximized the signal-to-noise ratio. Here, SLAM is extended to two- and three-dimensions (2D, 3D). In addition, SLAM is combined with sensitivity-encoded (SENSE) parallel imaging techniques, enabling the replacement of even more CSI phase-encoding steps to further accelerate scan-speed. A modified SLAM reconstruction algorithm is introduced that significantly reduces the effects of signal nonuniformity within compartments. Finally, main-field inhomogeneity corrections are provided, analogous to CSI. These methods are all tested on brain proton MRS data from a total of 24 patients with brain tumors, and in a human cardiac phosphorus 3D SLAM study at 3T. Acceleration factors of up to 120-fold versus CSI are demonstrated, including speed-up factors of 5-fold relative to already-accelerated SENSE CSI. Brain metabolites are quantified in SLAM and SENSE SLAM spectra and found to be indistinguishable from CSI measures from the same compartments. The modified reconstruction algorithm demonstrated immunity to maladjusted segmentation and errors from signal heterogeneity in brain data. In conclusion, SLAM demonstrates the potential to supplant CSI in studies requiring compartment-average spectra or large volume coverage, by dramatically reducing scan-time while providing essentially the same quantitative results.

  5. Detection of metanil yellow contamination in turmeric using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon; Schmidt, Walter; Chan, Dian

    2016-05-01

    Turmeric is well known for its medicinal value and is often used in Asian cuisine. Economically motivated contamination of turmeric by chemicals such as metanil yellow has been repeatedly reported. Although traditional technologies can detect such contaminants in food, high operational costs and operational complexities have limited their use to the laboratory. This study used Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and Fourier Transform - Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric powder. Mixtures of metanil yellow in turmeric were prepared at concentrations of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1% and 0.01% (w/w). The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectral signal of pure turmeric powder, pure metanil yellow powder and the 8 sample mixtures were obtained and analyzed independently to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric. The results show that FT-Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy can detect metanil yellow mixed with turmeric at concentrations as low as 1% and 5%, respectively, and may be useful for non-destructive detection of adulterated turmeric powder.

  6. Gas-phase peptide structures unraveled by far-IR spectroscopy: combining IR-UV ion-dip experiments with Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeqx, Sander; Oomens, Jos; Cimas, Alvaro; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre; Rijs, Anouk M

    2014-04-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy provides an important probe of the three-dimensional structures of peptides. With increasing size, these IR spectra become very complex and to extract structural information, comparison with theoretical spectra is essential. Harmonic DFT calculations have become a common workhorse for predicting vibrational frequencies of small neutral and ionized gaseous peptides. Although the far-IR region (IR spectra of peptides. Here, Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) is applied to predict the far-IR signatures of two γ-turn peptides. Combining experiments and simulations, far-IR spectra can provide structural information on gas-phase peptides superior to that extracted from mid-IR and amide A features.

  7. High resolution spectroscopy of the Cs2 D 1Sigma u + -X 1Sigma g + transition and hyperfine structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tooru; Usui, Takashi; Kumauchi, Takahiro; Baba, Masaaki; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi; Katô, Hajime

    1993-02-01

    The Doppler-free high resolution laser spectroscopy of Cs2 D 1Σu+-X 1Σg+ transition is extended up to v'=65. By comparing the spectral linewidth and the time-resolved fluorescence intensity, the line broadening observed for transitions to the D 1Σu+(v'=63,J'≤70) levels is identified as the lifetime broadening originating from the predissociation. Line splittings are observed for the D 1Σu+(v'=46,J'≥95)-X 1Σg+(v`= 1,J`) transitions and are identified as the hyperfine splitting due to a magnetic dipole interaction between nuclear spin and electron. The hyperfine splitting is attributed to mixing of the (2) 3Πu state, whose wave function changes from Hund's case (a) to case (b) at large J. The dependence of the electric dipole transition moment on the internuclear distance for the D 1Σu+-X 1Σg+ transition is determined by comparing the observed and calculated line intensities of the dispersed fluorescence.

  8. Analyzing 2D THz-Raman spectroscopy using a non-Markovian Brownian oscillator model with nonlinear system-bath interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, Tatsushi; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    We explore and describe the roles of inter-molecular vibrations in terms of a Brownian oscillator (BO) model with linear-linear (LL) and square-linear (SL) system-bath interactions, which we use to analyze two-dimensional (2D) THz-Raman spectra obtained by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In addition to linear absorption (1D IR), we calculate 2D Raman-THz-THz, THz-Raman-THz, and THz-THz-Raman signals for liquid formamide, water, and methanol using an equilibrium non-equilibrium hybrid MD simulation. The calculated 1D IR and 2D THz-Raman signals are then accounted by the LL+SL BO model with the use of the hierarchal Fokker-Planck equations for a non-perturbative and non-Markovian noise. All of the characteristic 2D profiles of the simulated signals are reproduced using the LL+SL BO model, indicating that the present model captures the essential features of the inter-molecular motion. We analyze the fitted the 2D profiles in terms of anharmonicity, nonlinear polarizability, and dephasing time. The ...

  9. IR spectroscopy of protonated toluene: Probing ring hydrogen shifts in gaseous arenium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopfer, Otto; Lemaire, Joel; Maître, Philippe; Chiavarino, Barbara; Crestoni, Maria Elisa; Fornarini, Simonetta

    2006-03-01

    Toluenium ions [CH3C6H6]+, formed by protonation of toluene by C2H5+ ions in the cell of a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer, have been assayed by IR multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. Their IRMPD spectrum compares well with the calculated IR absorption spectra for the ortho-, meta-, and para-toluenium isomers, suggesting a mixture rich in the ortho/para isomers. When the protonation is effected on perdeuterated toluene, the so-formed ions present IRMPD features characteristic for both CD2 and CHD groups in the arenium ring. This finding is spectroscopic evidence for the occurrence of ring hydrogen shifts and provides the first example of differentiation of families of isotopomers (bearing either two D-atoms or one D-atom and one H-atom on the tetrahedral ring carbon) by the powerful tool of IRMPD using the tunable IR radiation of a free electron laser.

  10. Characterization of the crystalline structure of cellulose using static and dynamic FT-IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerholm, Margaretha; Hinterstoisser, Barbara; Salmén, Lennart

    2004-02-25

    The cellulose structure is a factor of major importance for the strength properties of wood pulp fibers. The ability to characterize small differences in the crystalline structures of cellulose from fibers of different origins is thus highly important. In this work, dynamic FT-IR spectroscopy has been further explored as a method sensitive to cellulose structure variations. Using a model system of two different celluloses, the relation between spectral information and the relative cellulose Ialpha content was investigated. This relation was then used to determine the relative cellulose Ialpha content in different pulps. The estimated cellulose I allomorph compositions were found to be reasonable for both unbleached and bleached chemical pulps. In addition, it was found that the dynamic FT-IR spectroscopy technique had the potential to indicate possible correlation field splitting peaks of cellulose Ibeta.

  11. Characterization of human ovarian teratoma hair by using AFM, FT-IR, and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Lee, Jinwoo; Jung, Min-Hyung; Choi, Young Joon; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2011-12-01

    The structural, physical, and chemical properties of hair taken from an ovarian teratoma (teratoma hair) was first examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and Raman spectroscopy. The similarities and differences between the teratoma hair and scalp hair were also investigated. Teratoma hair showed a similar morphology and chemical composition to scalp hair. Teratoma hair was covered with a cuticle in the same manner as scalp hair and showed the same amide bonding modes as scalp hair according to FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. On the other hand, teratoma hair showed different physical properties and cysteic acid bands from scalp hair: the surface was rougher and the adhesive force was lower than the scalp hair. The cystine oxides modes did not change with the position unlike scalp hair. These differences can be understood by environmental effects not by the intrinsic properties of the teratoma hair.

  12. Structural changes induced in silica by ion irradiation observed by IR reflectance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saavedra, Rafael [Materiales para Fusión, Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Martin, Piedad, E-mail: piedad.martin@ciemat.es [Materiales para Fusión, Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Jimenez-Rey, David [Materiales para Fusión, Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro Micro-Análisis Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vila, Rafael [Materiales para Fusión, Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • IR reflection spectroscopy was used to study microstructural changes in silica. • Electronic excitation was the predominant process of energy transfer in this work. • IR reflection spectra of ion and neutron irradiated silica has been compared. • New IR reflection bands related to three-four member rings appear at high ion fluence. • He{sup +} ions are the best suited to reproduce neutron microstructural changes. - Abstract: The structural changes produced by ion irradiation, He{sup +} (2.5 MeV), O{sup 4+} (13.5 MeV), Si{sup 4+} (24.4 MeV), and Cu{sup 7+} (32.6 MeV), in different types of silica (KU1, KS-4V and Infrasil 301) were observed by IR reflection spectroscopy. The IR reflectance spectra were measured between 400 and 1400 cm{sup −1}. Structural bands wavenumber of the three silica grades, irradiated with the same ion and fluence, is independent on OH or impurity content of silica. Modification in the surface structure of the irradiated face of a silica sample was studied monitoring the changes in the wavenumber of fundamental structural bands as function of the ion fluence. Samples irradiated at high ion fluence present a shift of known structural bands and new IR reflection bands around 608 cm{sup −1} and between 920 and 990 cm{sup −1}, corresponding to a new structure. The spectra of neutron irradiated samples at fluences 10{sup 17} and 10{sup 18} n/cm{sup 2} were also measured and compared with ion irradiated samples.

  13. IR spectroscopy studies of zeolites in geopolymeric materials derived from kaolinite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, M.; Minkiewicz, J.; Mozgawa, W.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of alkali activation process conditions on the IR spectra, on which amount and types of zeolites in the resultant geopolymers influence significantly. Kaolinite was used as starting materials. The kaolinitic clay was first calcined to transform into the amorphous aluminosilicate phases (metakaolinite) and then activated with sodium silicate (as water glass) and sodium hydroxide. The effects of reaction systems composition (expressed as SiO2/Al2O3 and Al2O3/Na2O molar ratios) as well as synthesis temperature on the phase composition of obtained products have been determined. In particular, the structures of materials were examined using FT-IR spectroscopy in the middle infrared range. The results were compared to the XRD measurements, as well as SEM observations. Alkali-activation treatment of the metakaolin yielded bulk materials with different amounts and types of zeolite, which reveal the IR spectra of received materials. With proper selection of the initial conditions (temperature and composition), it is possible to obtain a solid material containing zeolite phase such as zeolite X, zeolite A or sodalite. The presence of zeolite phase was confirmed by the measurement of spectra in the middle infrared. In particular in pseudolattice range of the spectra, i.e. 800-400 cm-1, there are bands associated with the ring vibrations, which are characteristic for secondary building units (SBU) occurred in zeolite structure. IR spectroscopy is also useful in the studies of resulting amorphous phase structure.

  14. Monitoring lipase-catalyzed interesterification for bulky fats modification with FT-IR/NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Tinghong; Lai, Xuxin; Zhang, Hong

    2005-01-01

    This work demonstrates the application of FT-IR and FT-NIR spectroscopy to monitor the enzymatic interesterification process for bulky fat modification. The reaction was conducted between palm stearin and coconut oil (70/30, w/w) with the catalysis of Lipozyme TL IM at 70°C in a batch reactor...... (PLS) regression. High correlations (r > 0.96) were obtained from cross validations of the data estimated by FT-IR, FT-NIRand above-mentioned conventional analytical methods, except for correlations (r = 0.90-0,95) between FT-IR and SFC profiles. Overall, FT-NIR spectroscopy coupled with transmission....... The blends and interesterified fats samples in liquid form were measured by attenuated total reflectance (ATR) based FT-IR (spectra region: 1516-781 cm-1) and transmission mode based FT-NIR (spectra region: 5369-4752 cm-1) with temperature both controlled at 70°C. The samples in solid form were also measured...

  15. Breath air measurement using wide-band frequency tuning IR laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistenev, Yury V.; Borisov, Alexey V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Boyko, Andrey A.; Kostyukova, Nadezhda Y.; Karapuzikov, Alexey A.

    2016-03-01

    The results of measuring of biomarkers in breath air of patients with broncho-pulmonary diseases using wide-band frequency tuning IR laser photo-acoustic spectroscopy and the methods of data mining are presented. We will discuss experimental equipment and various methods of intellectual analysis of the experimental spectra in context of above task. The work was carried out with partial financial support of the FCPIR contract No 14.578.21.0082 (ID RFMEFI57814X0082).

  16. Detection of Oxidation of L-Cysteine by Dimethyl Sulfoxide in Aqueous Solutions by IR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanyan, Z.; Markarian, S.

    2013-11-01

    We have used IR spectroscopy to study the reaction between L-cysteine and dimethyl sulfoxide in aqueous medium. We have found that reaction occurs with formation of an insoluble product, which we have identified. We show that oxidation of L-cysteine by dimethyl sulfoxide can occur at an appreciable rate under mild conditions, with formation of L-cystine, dimethyl sulfide, and water.

  17. Adsorption of neopentane on HNaY-FAU zeolite studied by IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiricsi, I.; Tasi, Gy.; Förster, H.; Fejes, P.

    1994-01-01

    Adsorption of neopentane on HNaY-FAU zeolite was studied by IR spectroscopy. At beam temperature neopentane already shows a weak interaction with Brønsted acidic sites. At high temperatures, irreversible consumption of both Brønsted and Lewis sites is observed. According to the results of quantum chemical calculations a proton attack on the central carbon of neopentane seems to be favoured.

  18. The detection and discrimination of human body fluids using ATR FT-IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphanou, Charlotte-Maria; Walton-Williams, Laura; Mountain, Harry; Cassella, John

    2015-07-01

    Blood, saliva, semen and vaginal secretions are the main human body fluids encountered at crime scenes. Currently presumptive tests are routinely utilised to indicate the presence of body fluids, although these are often subject to false positives and limited to particular body fluids. Over the last decade more sensitive and specific body fluid identification methods have been explored, such as mRNA analysis and proteomics, although these are not yet appropriate for routine application. This research investigated the application of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy for the detection and discrimination of human blood, saliva, semen and vaginal secretions. The results demonstrated that ATR FT-IR spectroscopy can detect and distinguish between these body fluids based on the unique spectral pattern, combination of peaks and peak frequencies corresponding to the macromolecule groups common within biological material. Comparisons with known abundant proteins relevant to each body fluid were also analysed to enable specific peaks to be attributed to the relevant protein components, which further reinforced the discrimination and identification of each body fluid. Overall, this preliminary research has demonstrated the potential for ATR FT-IR spectroscopy to be utilised in the routine confirmatory screening of biological evidence due to its quick and robust application within forensic science.

  19. Special IR properties of palladium nanoparticles and their aggregations in CO molecular probe infrared spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yanxia; CHEN Wei; LIAO Honggang; JIN Lanying; SUN Shigang

    2004-01-01

    Dispersed Pd nanoparticles (Pdn) have been synthesized by reducing H2PdCI4 with ethanol, and stabilized using poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PYP). The Pdn is applied to the glassy carbon substrate to form a thin film, and then the potential cyclic scanning at 50 mV. S-1 from -0.25 to 1.25 V was carried out for about 30 min to form the aggregations of Pdn (Pdagn). FTIR spectroscopy of both transmission and re flection modes was employed to study CO adsorption on Pdn and Pdagn in both solidlliquid and solidlgas interfaces. It has been revealed that CO adsorption on Pdn film yields two IR bands near 1964 and 1906 cm-1, which are assigned to IR absorption of CO bonded on asymmetric and symmetric bridge sites, respectively. In contrast to the IR properties of CO adsorbed on Pdn, only species of CO bonded on asymmetric bridge sites was determined on Pdang, and the direction of the IR band near 1963 cm-1 is completely inverted.The full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the COasBs band near 1964 cm-1 is measured to be 14 cm-1 on Pdn film, while it is 24 cm-1 on Pdnag film. The results of the present study demonstrated that the inverting of the IR band direction is a general phenomenon that is closely related to the interaction between nanoparticles in aggregation of Pdn.

  20. Application of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in determination of microalgal compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yingying; Yao, Changhong; Xue, Song; Yang, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was applied in algal strain screening and monitoring cell composition dynamics in a marine microalga Isochrysis zhangjiangensis during algal cultivation. The content of lipid, carbohydrate and protein of samples determined by traditional methods had validated the accuracy of FT-IR method. For algal screening, the band absorption ratios of lipid/amide I and carbo/amide I from FT-IR measurements allowed for the selection of Isochrysis sp. and Tetraselmis subcordiformis as the most potential lipid and carbohydrate producers, respectively. The cell composition dynamics of I. zhangjiangensis measured by FT-IR revealed the diversion of carbon allocation from protein to carbohydrate and neutral lipid when nitrogen-replete cells were subjected to nitrogen limitation. The carbo/amide I band absorption ratio had also been demonstrated to depict physiological status under nutrient stress in T. subcordiformis. FT-IR serves as a tool for the simultaneous measurement of lipid, carbohydrate, and protein content in cell.

  1. Structural analysis of bioinspired nano materials with synchrotron far IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoudi, Rania S; Dowd, Annette; Smith, Brian J; Mechler, Adam

    2016-04-28

    Bioinspired fibres and hierarchical nano-materials are based on the self-assembly of organic building blocks such as polypeptides. Confirming the core structure of such materials is often challenging as they lack the long-range order required by crystallographic methods. Far-IR spectroscopy characterizes the vibrational modes of large molecular units. These vibrational modes are very sensitive to angle strain and second order interactions such as hydrogen bonding. As such, far-IR spectra hold information about the secondary structure and interactions of large biomolecules. Here we analyze the far-IR vibrational spectra of fibrous nano-materials based on three isomeric unnatural tripeptides, Ac-β(3)Leu-β(3)Ile-β(3)Ala, Ac-β(3)Ile-β(3)Ala-β(3)Leu, and Ac-β(3)Ala-β(3)Leu-β(3)Ile. These peptides have well described self-assembly characteristics, forming one-dimensional nanorods that impose tight conformational constraints on the constituent molecules. The synchrotron far-IR spectroscopic results were interpreted by using density functional theory (DFT) modelling based vibrational analysis. The sensitivity of the spectra to peptide conformation was assessed by comparing the experimental spectra with DFT predictions. In high dielectric implicit solvent, intramolecular hydrogen-bonding is inhibited and thus the energy minimized peptide structure remains close to the 14-helix folding characteristic of substituted β(3)-peptides, giving good agreement between the experimental and predicted vibration spectra. In contrast, energy minimization in vacuum alters the peptide conformation leading to intramolecular hydrogen bonds, and hence the predicted vibration spectra do not agree with the experimental data. Therefore, our results demonstrate the ability of far-IR spectroscopy to identify correct structural predictions and thus open the way for using far-IR spectroscopy for the characterization and structural analysis of bioinspired nano-materials and potentially their

  2. Mid-IR fiber-optic reflectance spectroscopy for identifying the finish on wooden furniture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, T; Chiantore, O; Nervo, M; Piccirillo, A

    2011-05-01

    Mid-IR fiber-optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) is a totally noninvasive infrared analytical technique allowing the investigation of artworks without the need for any sampling. The development and optimization of this analytical methodology can provide a tool that is capable of supporting conservators during the first steps of their interventions, yielding fast results and dramatically reducing the number of samples needed to identify the materials involved. Furthermore, since reflection IR spectra suffer from important spectral anomalies that complicate accurate spectral interpretation, it is important to characterize known reference materials and substrates in advance. This work aims to verify the possibility of investigating and identifying the most widely used wood finishes by means of fiber-optic (chalcogenide and metal halides) mid-infrared spectroscopy. Two historically widely employed wood finishes (beeswax, shellac) and two modern ones (a hydrogenated hydrocarbon resin and a microcrystalline wax) were investigated in an extended IR range (from 1000 to 6000 cm(-1)) with reflectance spectroscopy and with FORS. The broad spectral response of the MCT detector was exploited in order to include overtones and combination bands from the NIR spectral range in the investigation. The reflectance spectra were compared with those collected in transmission mode in order to highlight modifications to shapes and intensities, to assign absorptions, and finally to select "marker" bands indicating the presence of certain finishing materials, even when applied onto a substrate such as wood, which shows many absorptions in the mid-infrared region. After the characterization, the different products were applied to samples of aged pear wood and investigated with the same techniques in order to check the ability of mid-IR FORS to reveal the presence and composition of the product on the wooden substrate.

  3. Potential of mid IR spectroscopy in the rapid label free identification of skin malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastl, Lena; Kemper, Björn; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Stone, Nick; Naranjo, Valery; Penaranda, Francisco; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    The rapid inspection of suspicious skin lesions for pathological cell types is the objective of optical point of care diagnostics technologies. A marker free fast diagnosis of skin malignancies would overcome the limitations of the current gold standard surgical biopsy. The time consuming and costly biopsy procedure requires the inspection of each sample by a trained pathologist, which limits the analysis of potentially malignant lesions. Optical technologies like RAMAN or infrared spectroscopy, which provide both, localization and chemical information, can be used to differentiate malignant from healthy tissue by the analysis of multi cell structures and cell type specific spectra. We here report the application of midIR spectroscopy towards fast and reliable skin diagnostics. Within the European research project MINERVA we developed standardized in vitro skin systems with increasing complexity, from single skin cell types as fibroblasts, keratinocytes and melanoma cells, to mixtures of these and finally three dimensional human skin equivalents. The standards were characterized in the established midIR range and also with newly developed systems for fast imaging up to 12 μm. The analysis of the spectra by novel data processing algorithms demonstrated the clear separation of all cell types, especially the tumor cells. The signals from single cell layers were sufficient for cell type differentiation. We have compared different midIR systems and found all of them suitable for specific cell type identification. Our data demonstrate the potential of midIR spectroscopy for fast image acquisition and an improved data processing as sensitive and specific optical biopsy technology.

  4. UV–UV hole burning and IR dip spectroscopy of homophenylalanine by laser desorption supersonic jet technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Woon Yong; Ishiuchi, Shun-ichi [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Çarçabal, Pierre [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, CNRS, Université Paris Sud XI, Bâtiment 210, 91405 Orsay (France); Oba, Hikari [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Fujii, Masaaki, E-mail: mfujii@res.titech.ac.jp [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Homophenylalanine was measured by laser desorption supersonic jet spectroscopy. • Ten conformers were found by UV–UV hole burning spectroscopy. • The observed conformers were assigned by the combination of UV and IR spectra. • Franck–Condon simulations were employed to assign the flexible molecule. - Abstract: Conformer selected electronic and vibrational spectra of homophenylalanine, phenylalanine analogue molecule, were measured by UV–UV hole burning and IR dip spectroscopy combined with laser desorption technique. 10 conformers were found by UV–UV hole burning spectroscopy and their structures were assigned by IR dip and UV absorption spectra with aid of quantum chemical calculations in both S{sub 0} and S{sub 1}. This study shows that the combination of simulated IR and UV spectra is powerful to assign flexible molecules.

  5. The importance of correcting for variable probe-sample interactions in AFM-IR spectroscopy: AFM-IR of dried bacteria on a polyurethane film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Daniel E; Biffinger, Justin C; Cockrell-Zugell, Allison L; Lo, Michael; Kjoller, Kevin; Cook, Debra; Lee, Woo Kyung; Pehrsson, Pehr E; Crookes-Goodson, Wendy J; Hung, Chia-Suei; Nadeau, Lloyd J; Russell, John N

    2016-08-02

    AFM-IR is a combined atomic force microscopy-infrared spectroscopy method that shows promise for nanoscale chemical characterization of biological-materials interactions. In an effort to apply this method to quantitatively probe mechanisms of microbiologically induced polyurethane degradation, we have investigated monolayer clusters of ∼200 nm thick Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 bacteria (Pf) on a 300 nm thick polyether-polyurethane (PU) film. Here, the impact of the different biological and polymer mechanical properties on the thermomechanical AFM-IR detection mechanism was first assessed without the additional complication of polymer degradation. AFM-IR spectra of Pf and PU were compared with FTIR and showed good agreement. Local AFM-IR spectra of Pf on PU (Pf-PU) exhibited bands from both constituents, showing that AFM-IR is sensitive to chemical composition both at and below the surface. One distinct difference in local AFM-IR spectra on Pf-PU was an anomalous ∼4× increase in IR peak intensities for the probe in contact with Pf versus PU. This was attributed to differences in probe-sample interactions. In particular, significantly higher cantilever damping was observed for probe contact with PU, with a ∼10× smaller Q factor. AFM-IR chemical mapping at single wavelengths was also affected. We demonstrate ratioing of mapping data for chemical analysis as a simple method to cancel the extreme effects of the variable probe-sample interactions.

  6. Weak carbonyl-methyl intermolecular interactions in acetone clusters explored by IR plus VUV spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Jiwen [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Hu, Yongjun, E-mail: yjhu@scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Xie, Min [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Bernstein, Elliot R. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1872 (United States)

    2012-09-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbonyl overtone of acetone clusters is observed by IR-VUV spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetone molecules in the dimer are stacked with an antiparallel way. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of the acetone trimer and the tetramer are the cyclic structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbonyl groups would interact with the methyl groups in acetone clusters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These weak interactions are further confirmed by H/D substitution experiment. -- Abstract: Size-selected IR-VUV spectroscopy is employed to detect vibrational characteristics in the region 2850 {approx} 3550 cm{sup -1} of neutral acetone and its clusters (CH{sub 3}COCH{sub 3}){sub n} (n = 1-4). Features around 3440 cm{sup -1} in the spectra of acetone monomer and its clusters are assigned to the carbonyl stretch (CO) overtone. These features red-shift from 3455 to 3433 cm{sup -1} as the size of the clusters increases from the monomer to the tetramer. Based on calculations, the experimental IR spectra in the C=O overtone region suggest that the dominant structures for the acetone trimer and tetramer should be cyclic in the supersonic expansion sample. This study also suggests that the carbonyl groups interact with the methyl groups in the acetone clusters. These weak interactions are further confirmed by the use of deuterium substitution.

  7. Identification of species' blood by attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistek, Ewelina; Lednev, Igor K

    2015-09-01

    Blood is one of the most common and informative forms of biological evidence found at a crime scene. A very crucial step in forensic investigations is identifying a blood stain's origin. The standard methods currently employed for analyzing blood are destructive to the sample and time-consuming. In this study, attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is used as a confirmatory, nondestructive, and rapid method for distinction between human and animal (nonhuman) blood. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models were built and demonstrated complete separation between human and animal donors, as well as distinction between three separate species: human, cat, and dog. Classification predictions of unknown blood donors were performed by the model, resulting in 100 % accuracy. This study demonstrates ATR FT-IR spectroscopy's great potential for blood stain analysis and species discrimination, both in the lab and at a crime scene since portable ATR FT-IR instrumentation is commercially available.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IR spectroscopy of AGN & starbursts (Samsonyan+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonyan, A.; Weedman, D.; Lebouteiller, V.; Barry, D.; Sargsyan, L.

    2016-10-01

    A sample of 379 extragalactic sources is presented that has mid-infrared, high-resolution spectroscopy from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) and also spectroscopy of the [CII]158μm line from the Herschel Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS). The emission line profiles of [NeII]12.81μm, [NeIII]15.55μm, and [CII]158μm are presented, and intrinsic line widths are determined (full width half maximum of Gaussian profiles after instrumental correction). All line profiles, together with overlays comparing the positions of PACS and IRS observations, are made available in the Cornell Atlas of Spitzer IRS Sources (CASSIS). Sources are classified from active galactic nucleus (AGN) to starburst based on equivalent widths of the 6.2μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon feature. It is found that intrinsic line widths do not change among classifications for [CII], with median widths of 207km/s for AGNs, 248km/s for composites, and 233km/s for starbursts. The [NeII] line widths also do not change with classification, but [NeIII] lines are progressively broader from starburst to AGN. A few objects with unusually broad lines or unusual redshift differences in any feature are identified. (1 data file).

  9. [Study on the identification of radix scutellariae and extract using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional IR correlation spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-hui; Zhang, Gui-jun; Sun, Su-qin; Tu, Ya

    2010-07-01

    2D-IR correlation spectroscopy was used to do the research on crude and prepared drug of radix scutellariae and the extracts of them. The results show that the holistic shape of peaks among them are similar in the FTIR spectra. In second derivative spectra, the two absorption peaks: 1,745 and 1,411 cm(-1) of processed products move to the bigger wavenumber direction, while 1,357 cm(-1) of processed products moves to the smaller wavenumber direction; There are conspicuous differences in Two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy among them: Four characteristic peaks are shown between 1,300 and 1,800 cm(-1). The intensity of peak at 1,575 cm(-1) is the strongest. There are three main districts about the autopeaks of sliced scutellariae. Wine-fried scutellariae has two auto-peak districts, in which all the auto-peaks are positively correlated. The FTIR spectra of total glycoside extract of different samples present characteristic peaks at 1,615, 1,585, 1,450 cm(-1) (vibration of phenyl framework) and 1,658 cm(-1) (=C-O ) respectively, therefore, the authors speculated that their mutual component is the compound of phenolic glycoside. The two-dimensional infrared correlation spectra present five automatic peaks (vibration of phenyl framework) in 800-1,800 cm(-1) (1,366, 1,420, 1,508, 1,585, 1,669 cm(-1)). So the authors can conclude that a lot of information can be provided by macro-fingerprint technology of infrared spectroscopy which can evaluate overall quality of radix scutellariae accurately and be used to study the characteristics of relevance of crude and prepared scutellariae.

  10. Collaborative Student Laboratory Exercise Using FT-IR Spectroscopy for the Kinetics Study of a Biotin Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Jhaque; Ackroyd, Nathan C.; Ho, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of N-methoxycarbonyl-2-imidazolidone, an analogue of biotin, was conducted by organic chemistry students and confirmed using FT-IR and H NMR. Spectroscopy students used FT-IR to measure the rate of hydrolysis of the product and determined the rate constant for the reaction using the integrated rate law. From the magnitude of the rate…

  11. VLT near- to mid-IR imaging and spectroscopy of the M17 UC1-IRS5 region

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhiwei; Chini, Rolf; Jiang, Zhibo; Fang, Min

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the surroundings of the hypercompact HII region M17 UC1 to probe the physical properties of the associated young stellar objects and the environment of massive star formation. Five of the seven point sources in this region show $L$-band excess emission. Geometric match is found between the H_2 emission and near-IR polarized light in the vicinity of IRS5A, and between the diffuse mid-IR emission and near-IR polarization north of UC1. The H_2 emission is typical for dense PDRs, which are FUV pumped initially and repopulated by collisional de-excitation. The spectral types of IRS5A and B273A are B3-B7 V/III and G4-G5 III, respectively. The observed infrared luminosity L_IR in the range 1-20 micron is derived for three objects; we obtain 2.0x10^3 L_\\sun for IRS5A, 13 L_\\sun for IRS5C, and 10 L_\\sun for B273A. IRS5 might be a young quadruple system. Its primary star IRS5A is confirmed to be a high-mass protostellar object (~ 9 M_\\sun, ~1x10^5 yrs); it might have terminated accretion due to the feedb...

  12. Advanced Photoemission Spectroscopy Investigations Correlated with DFT Calculations on the Self-Assembly of 2D Metal Organic Frameworks Nano Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzein, Radwan; Chang, Chun-Min; Ponomareva, Inna; Gao, Wen-Yang; Ma, Shengqian; Schlaf, Rudy

    2016-11-16

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) deposited from solution have the potential to form 2-dimensional supramolecular thin films suitable for molecular electronic applications. However, the main challenges lie in achieving selective attachment to the substrate surface, and the integration of organic conductive ligands into the MOF structure to achieve conductivity. The presented results demonstrate that photoemission spectroscopy combined with preparation in a system-attached glovebox can be used to characterize the electronic structure of such systems. The presented results demonstrate that porphyrin-based 2D MOF structures can be produced and that they exhibit similar electronic structure to that of corresponding conventional porphyrin thin films. Porphyrin MOF multilayer thin films were grown on Au substrates prefunctionalized with 4-mercaptopyridine (MP) via incubation in a glovebox, which was connected to an ultrahigh vacuum system outfitted with photoelectron spectroscopy. The thin film growth process was carried out in several sequential steps. In between individual steps the surface was characterized by photoemission spectroscopy to determine the valence bands and evaluate the growth mode of the film. A comprehensive evaluation of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES) data was performed and correlated with density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the density of states (DOS) of the films involved to yield the molecular-level insights into the growth and the electronic properties of MOF-based 2D thin films.

  13. Structure and Absolute Configuration of Ginkgolide B Characterized by IR- and VCD Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Højmark; Christensen, N.J.; Lassen, Peter Rygaard

    2010-01-01

    Experimental and calculated (B3LYP/6-31G(d)) vibrational Circular dichroism (VCD) and IR spectra are compared, illustrating that the structure and absolute configuration of ginkgolide B (GB) may be characterized directly in solution. A conformational search for GB using MacroModel and subsequent......, displaying different intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Differences between measured and calculated IR and VCD spectra for GB at certain wavenumbers are rationalized in terms of interactions with solvent, intermolecular GB-GB interactions, and the potential presence of more than one conformer....... This is the first detailed investigation of the spectroscopic fingerprint region (850-1300 cm(-1)) of the natural product GB employing infrared absorption and VCD spectroscopy. Chirality 22:217-223, 2010....

  14. Crystallization and micro FT-IR spectroscopy investigation of cytochrome bc1 complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳文海; 何季平; 谢荣; 徐建兴; 朱克莉; 翁诗甫

    1996-01-01

    A simple method to obtain large red crystals of cytochrome bc1 complex from beef heart mitochondria has been developed. These crystals are very stable. Their shapes are retained for a long time in tip-sealed Pasteur pipets placed in a refrigerator. The structure of crystalline cytochrome bc1 complex by micro FT-IR spectroscopy has been investigated. Based on the IR spectra of cytochrome c, the empirical assignments of the major infrared frequencies of cytochrome bc1 complex are given. Infrared frequencies and relative intensities of variable orientation and section of crystal are significantly different. These imply that infrared spectral characterization of the membrane protein crystallization is associated with the variable symmetries and orientations of the structure. Experimental results show that phospholipid exists in the crystal of cytochrome bc1 complex. The membrane protein is probably spanned on the mitochondrial membrane and buried in phospholipid bilayer in an asymmetric manner.

  15. Multifrequency high precise subTHz-THz-IR spectroscopy for exhaled breath research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaks, Vladimir L.; Domracheva, Elena G.; Pripolzin, Sergey I.; Chernyaeva, Mariya B.

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays the development of analytical spectroscopy with high performance, sensitivity and spectral resolution for exhaled breath research is attended. The method of two-frequency high precise THz spectroscopy and the method of high precise subTHz-THz-IR spectroscopy are presented. Development of a subTHz-THz-IR gas analyzer increases the number of gases that can be identified and the reliability of the detection by confirming the signature in both THz and MIR ranges. The testing measurements have testified this new direction of analytical spectroscopy to open widespread trends of its using for various problems of medicine and biology. First of all, there are laboratory investigations of the processes in exhaled breath and studying of their dynamics. Besides, the methods presented can be applied for detecting intermediate and short time living products of reactions in exhaled breath. The spectrometers have been employed for investigations of acetone, methanol and ethanol in the breath samples of healthy volunteers and diabetes patients. The results have demonstrated an increased concentration of acetone in breath of diabetes patients. The dynamic of changing the acetone concentration before and after taking the medicines is discovered. The potential markers of pre-cancer states and oncological diseases of gastrointestinal tract organs have been detected. The changes in the NO concentration in exhaled breath of cancer patients during radiotherapy as well as increase of the NH3 concentration at gastrointestinal diseases have been revealed. The preliminary investigations of biomarkers in three frequency ranges have demonstrated the advantages of the multifrequency high precise spectroscopy for noninvasive medical diagnostics.

  16. Using FT-IR Spectroscopy to Elucidate the Structures of Ablative Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    The composition and structure of an ablative polymer has a multifaceted influence on its thermal, mechanical and ablative properties. Understanding the molecular level information is critical to the optimization of material performance because it helps to establish correlations with the macroscopic properties of the material, the so-called structure-property relationship. Moreover, accurate information of molecular structures is also essential to predict the thermal decomposition pathways as well as to identify decomposition species that are fundamentally important to modeling work. In this presentation, I will describe the use of infrared transmission spectroscopy (FT-IR) as a convenient tool to aid the discovery and development of thermal protection system materials.

  17. FT-IR and FT-NIR Raman spectroscopy in biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, D.

    1998-06-01

    FT-IR and FT-NIR Raman spectra of intact microbial, plant animal or human cells, tissues, and body fluids are highly specific, fingerprint-like signatures which can be used to discriminate between diverse microbial species and strains, characterize growth-dependent phenomena and cell-drug interactions, and differentiate between various disease states. The spectral information potentially useful for biomedical characterizations may be distributed over the entire infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, i.e. over the near-, mid-, and far-infrared. It is therefore a key problem how the characteristic vibrational spectroscopic information can be systematically extracted from the infrared spectra of complex biological samples. In this report these questions are addressed by applying factor and cluster analysis treating the classification problem of microbial infrared spectra as a model task. Particularly interesting applications arise by means of a light microscope coupled to the FT-IR spectrometer. FT-IR spectra of single microcolonies of less than 40 μm in diameter can be obtained from colony replica applying a stamping technique that transfers the different, spatially separated microcolonies from the culture plate to a special IR-sample holder. Using a computer controlled x,y-stage together with mapping and video techniques, the fundamental tasks of microbiological analysis, namely detection, enumeration, and differentiation of micro-organisms can be integrated in one single apparatus. Since high quality, essentially fluorescence free Raman spectra may now be obtained in relatively short time intervals on previously intractable biological specimens, FT-IR and NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy can be used in tandem to characterize biological samples. This approach seems to open up new horizons for biomedical characterizations of complex biological systems.

  18. GP2D12红外测距传感器曲线拟合函数设计%Design Research of GP2D12 IR Distance Measuring Sensor Curve Fitting Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭伟

    2012-01-01

    GP2D12是SHAR P公司一种新型的红外测距传感器。ACR ONAME R OBOTICS基于最小二乘原理提出了以乘幂函数为模型的两种曲线拟合设计方法,使用拟合函数编写了微控制器C程序,在嵌入式测距系统电路中实测运行,实现了稳定的高精度测距效果。%Research and propose an improvement design on the generating method of GP2D12 infrared distance sensor curve fitting function which proposed by Acroname Robotics,based on the least squares principle we use power function as a model propose an design method of two kinds of curve fitting,by using the fitting function we design a microcontroller C procedures and achieve a stable high accuracy distance measuring effects when operating it in the embedded system circuit.

  19. Interaction of mineral surfaces with simple organic molecules by diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Joan E.; Kelley, Michael J.

    2008-06-01

    Diffuse reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to characterize multi-layers of lysine, glutamic acid and salicylic acid on -alumina and kaolinite surfaces. The results agreed well with those previously obtained by ATR-IR in aqueous media where available, indicating that DRIFT may be regarded as effectively an in-situ spectroscopy for these materials. In the case of salicylic acid adsorption onto γ-alumina, DRIFTS was used to identify monolayer coverage and to detect molecules down to coverage of 3% of a monolayer. The spectroscopic results as to coverage were confirmed by analysis of the solutions used for treatment. The spectra obtained allowed identification of changes in the bonding environment with increasing surface coverage. DRIFTS, offers several advantages in terms of materials, experimental technique and data treatment, motivating further investigations.

  20. Conformational equilibrium of phenylacetic acid and its halogenated analogues through theoretical studies, NMR and IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levandowski, Mariana N.; Rozada, Thiago C.; Melo, Ulisses Z.; Basso, Ernani A.; Fiorin, Barbara C.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a study on the conformational preferences of phenylacetic acid (PA) and its halogenated analogues (FPA, CPA, BPA). To clarify the effects that rule these molecules' behaviour, theoretical calculations were used, for both the isolated phase and solution, combined with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Most conformations of phenylacetic acid and its halogenated derivatives are stabilized through the hyperconjugative effect, which rules the conformational preference. NMR analyses showed that even with the variation in medium polarity, there was no significant change in the conformation population. Infrared spectroscopy showed similar results for all compounds under study. In most spectra, two bands were found through the carbonyl deconvolution, which is in accordance with the theoretical data. It was possible to prove that variation in the nature of the substituent in the ortho position had no significant influence on the conformational equilibrium.

  1. Pharmacologic application of fourier transform IR spectroscopy: in vivo toxicity of carbon tetrachloride on rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, A M; Perromat, A; Déléris, G

    2000-01-01

    Microsomal fractions from rat liver were examined by means of Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy to study the in vivo toxic effect of carbon tetrachloride administered by intraperitoneal injection. Lipid content was significantly enhanced in the liver of treated rats compared with untreated ones. The level of saturated fatty acids largely increased while that of unsaturated acids slightly decreased as a consequence of lipid peroxidation induced by the xenobiotic compound. The conformational structure of membrane proteins was changed, which was shown by the large decrease in the alpha-helical configuration. In the polysaccharide region we observed an important loss in glucidic structures that could be related to the metabolic changes caused by carbon tetrachloride intoxication. Thus, FTIR spectroscopy appears to be a useful tool to rapidly investigate the chemical alterations induced by this drug in liver microsomes and to correlate them with biochemical and physiological data.

  2. Detection of starch adulteration in onion powder by FT-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohumi, Santosh; Lee, Sangdae; Lee, Wang-Hee; Kim, Moon S; Mo, Changyeun; Bae, Hanhong; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2014-09-24

    Adulteration of onion powder with cornstarch was identified by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The reflectance spectra of 180 pure and adulterated samples (1-35 wt % starch) were collected and preprocessed to generate calibration and prediction sets. A multivariate calibration model of partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was executed on the pretreated spectra to predict the presence of starch. The PLSR model predicted adulteration with an R(p)2 of 0.98 and a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 1.18% for the FT-NIR data and an R(p)2 of 0.90 and SEP of 3.12% for the FT-IR data. Thus, the FT-NIR data were of greater predictive value than the FT-IR data. Principal component analysis on the preprocessed data identified the onion powder in terms of added starch. The first three principal component loadings and β coefficients of the PLSR model revealed starch-related absorption. These methods can be applied to rapidly detect adulteration in other spices.

  3. Vibrational overtone combination spectroscopy (VOCSY)-a new way of using IR and NIR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Erik; Bro, Rasmus; Engelsen, Søren B; Karlberg, Bo; Torgrip, Ralf J O

    2007-05-01

    This work explores a novel method for rearranging 1st order (one-way) infra-red (IR) and/or near infra-red (NIR) ordinary spectra into a representation suitable for multi-way modelling and analysis. The method is based on the fact that the fundamental IR absorption and the first, second, and consecutive overtones of NIR absorptions represent identical chemical information. It is therefore possible to rearrange these overtone regions of the vectors comprising an IR and NIR spectrum into a matrix where the fundamental, 1st, 2nd, and consecutive overtones of the spectrum are arranged as either rows or columns in a matrix, resulting in a true three-way tensor of data for several samples. This tensorization facilitates explorative analysis and modelling with multi-way methods, for example parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), N-way partial least squares (N-PLS), and Tucker models. The vibrational overtone combination spectroscopy (VOCSY) arrangement is shown to benefit from the "order advantage", producing more robust, stable, and interpretable models than, for example, the traditional PLS modelling method. The proposed method also opens the field of NIR for true peak decomposition--a feature unique to the method because the latent factors acquired using PARAFAC can represent pure spectral components whereas latent factors in principal component analysis (PCA) and PLS usually do not.

  4. Ir Spectroscopy of First-Row Transition Metal Clusters and Their Complexes with Simple Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiawi, D. M.; Bakker, J.; Oomens, J.; Buma, W. J.; Waters, L. B. F. M.

    2014-06-01

    Iron is an important element in the formation of solids in space. Spectroscopic observations of interstellar iron shows that its atomic gas-phase abundance is strongly depleted with respect to that of hydrogen. In contrast, sulfur is mostly found in the gas phase in low-density regions of interstellar space, but is highly depleted in regions of star- and planet formation. Furthermore, the dominant source of sulfur in our solar system is solid FeS, as found in primitive meteorites, implying an efficient chemical pathway to convert sulphur or sulphur containing compounds into solid FeS during the (early phases of) the star formation process. We address the evolution of iron and sulfur in space on a molecular level by studying metal nanoclusters and their interaction with ligands using IR action spectroscopy. Clusters are formed through laser ablation of solid precursor materials and brought into a molecular beam environment. Complexes with ligands are obtained by directing the beam through a reaction channel containing low-pressure reactant gas. Mass-selected IR action spectra are recorded by irradiating the clusters using the Free Electron Laser for Infrared eXperiments (FELIX). Experimental spectra are then compared with DFT predictions which enables us to determine the structure of the selected cluster and its binding interactions with ligands. As part of this project, we here present IR action spectra of size-selected Fe clusters and the chemically closely related Co clusters, and their complexes with relevant ligands.

  5. Identification of authentic and adulterated Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-bo; Zhou, Qun; Zhang, Gui-jun; Sun, Su-qin; Guo, Yi-zhen

    2016-11-01

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, the commercial Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis are employed to establish a simple and quick identification method for the authentic and adulterated ALR. In the conventional infrared spectra, the standard ALR has a strong peak at 1658 cm-1 referring to the conjugated carbonyl of resin, while this peak is absent in the adulterated samples. The position, intensity, and shape of the auto-peaks and cross-peaks of the authentic and adulterated ALR are much different in the synchronous 2D correlation spectra with thermal perturbation. In the range of 1700-1500 cm-1, the standard ALR has four obvious auto-peaks, while the strongest one is at 1659 cm-1. The adulterated sample w-1 has three obvious auto-peaks and the strongest one is at 1647 cm-1. The adulterated sample w-2 has three obvious auto-peaks and the strongest one is at 1519 cm-1. The adulterated sample w-3 has four obvious auto-peaks and the strongest one is at 1690 cm-1. The above auto-peaks confirm that the standard ALR contains a certain content of resin compounds, while the three counterfeits contain little or different resins. The results show the potential of FT-IR spectroscopy and 2D correlation analysis in the simple and quick identification of authentic and adulterated ALR.

  6. New ultrarapid-scanning interferometer for FT-IR spectroscopy with microsecond time-resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süss, B.; Ringleb, F.; Heberle, J.

    2016-06-01

    A novel Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) rapid-scan spectrometer has been developed (patent pending EP14194520.4) which yields 1000 times higher time resolution as compared to conventional rapid-scanning spectrometers. The central element to achieve faster scanning rates is based on a sonotrode whose front face represents the movable mirror of the interferometer. A prototype spectrometer with a time resolution of 13 μs was realized, capable of fully automated long-term measurements with a flow cell for liquid samples, here a photosynthetic membrane protein in solution. The performance of this novel spectrometer is demonstrated by recording the photoreaction of bacteriorhodopsin initiated by a short laser pulse that is synchronized to the data recording. The resulting data are critically compared to those obtained by step-scan spectroscopy and demonstrate the relevance of performing experiments on proteins in solution. The spectrometer allows for future investigations of fast, non-repetitive processes, whose investigation is challenging to step-scan FT-IR spectroscopy.

  7. Cyclohexene Photo-oxidation over Vanadia Catalyst Analyzed by Time Resolved ATR-FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, Heinz; Mul, Guido; Wasylenko, Walter; Hamdy, M. Sameh; Frei, Heinz

    2008-06-04

    Vanadia was incorporated in the 3-dimensional mesoporous material TUD-1 with a loading of 2percent w/w vanadia. The performance in the selective photo-oxidation of liquid cyclohexene was investigated using ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy. Under continuous illumination at 458 nm a significant amount of product, i.e. cyclohexenone, was identified. This demonstrates for the first time that hydroxylated vanadia centers in mesoporous materials can be activated by visible light to induce oxidation reactions. Using the rapid scan method, a strong perturbation of the vanadyl environment could be observed in the selective oxidation process induced by a 458 nm laser pulse of 480 ms duration. This is proposed to be caused by interaction of the catalytic centre with a cyclohexenyl hydroperoxide intermediate. The restoration of the vanadyl environment could be kinetically correlated to the rate of formation of cyclohexenone, and is explained by molecular rearrangement and dissociation of the peroxide to ketone and water. The ketone diffuses away from the active center and ATR infrared probing zone, resulting in a decreasing ketone signal on the tens of seconds time scale after initiation of the photoreaction. This study demonstrates the high potential of time resolved ATR FT-IR spectroscopy for mechanistic studies of liquid phase reactions by monitoring not only intermediates and products, but by correlating the temporal behavior of these species to molecular changes of the vanadyl catalytic site.

  8. Kinetic analysis of protein aggregation monitored by real-time 2D solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etzkorn, M.; Böckmann, A.; Baldus, M.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that real-time 2D solid-state NMR can be used to obtain kinetic and structural information about the process of protein aggregation. In addition to the incorporation of kinetic information involving intermediate states, this approach can offer atom-specific resolution for all detectable

  9. Near-IR spectroscopy of the highly inflated, hottest known Jupiter KOI-13.01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming

    2013-10-01

    We propose to use the WFC3 IR-G141 grism to measure the near-IR dayside emission spectrum of the highly inflated, hottest known Jupiter KOI-13.01 via secondary eclipses. The A-type host star of KOI-13.01 has the highest temperature among all known hot Jupiter hosts, producing extreme irradiation and making the planet's atmosphere probably quite different from others'. It is therefore an extreme and unique target to test exoplanetary atmosphere models and observed correlation between thermal inversion and irradiation. The host star of KOI-13.01 has a companion of same brightness and spectral type at 1.2 arcsec. Because the two stars will be well-resolved by WFC3, the stellar companion provides a unique advantage to calibrate the common-mode systematics of the eclipse light curves, enabling high precision and high fidelity spectroscopy of the planet's dayside emission. The WFC3 observations will definitively determine the presence or absence of a thermal inversion in the planet's upper atmosphere by probing the water bands between 1.1 - 1.7 microns. When combined with the Kepler nightside thermal emission measurement in visible light, the near-IR spectroscopy from WFC3 will also help tightly constrain its albedo and heat transport efficiency. Furthermore, resolving the binary and measuring the secondary eclipses will allow us to definitively verify whether the brigher star is indeed the host of the planet. This study can only be done with HST because of the ultra-high precision requisite and the coverage of water bands unavailable from ground.

  10. Evaluation of Polymerization Efficacy in Composite Resins via FT-IR Spectroscopy and Vickers Microhardness Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, Tahereh-Sadat; Erfan, Mohammad; Behroozibakhsh, Marjan; Fatemi, Mostafa; Masaeli, Reza; Rezaei, Yashar; Bagheri, Hossein; Erfan, Yasaman

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Polymerization efficacy affects the properties and performance of composite resin restorations.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of polymerization of two micro-hybrid, two nano-hybrid and one nano-filled ormocer-based composite resins, cured by two different light-curing systems, using Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Vickers microhardness testing at two different depths (top surface, 2 mm). Materials and methods. For FT-IR spectrometry, five cylindrical specimens (5mm in diameter × 2 mm in length) were prepared from each composite resin using Teflon molds and polymerized for 20 seconds. Then, 70-μm wafers were sectioned at the top surface and at2mm from the top surface. The degree of conversion for each sample was calculated using FT-IR spectroscopy. For Vickers micro-hardness testing, three cylindrical specimens were prepared from each composite resin and polymerized for 20 seconds. The Vickers microhardness test (Shimadzu, Type M, Japan) was performed at the top and bottom (depth=2 mm) surfaces of each specimen. Three-way ANOVA with independent variables and Tukey tests were performed at 95% significance level. Results. No significant differences were detected in degree of conversion and microhardness between LED and QTH light-curing units except for the ormocer-based specimen, CeramX, which exhibited significantly higher DC by LED. All the composite resins showed a significantly higher degree of conversion at the surface. Microhardness was not significantly affected by depth, except for Herculite XRV Ultra and CeramX, which showed higher values at the surface. Conclusion. Composite resins containing nano-particles generally exhibited more variations in degree of conversion and microhardness.

  11. Effect of Water on HEMA Conversion by FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TS. Jafarzadeh Kashi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The use of HEMA as a biocompatible material in dentin bonding systems and its potential for clinical applications has been well established. Excess water can affect conversion of bonding resins. The aim of this study was to survey the effect of water on the degree of conversion of HEMA by Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FT-IR.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, distilled water was added in amounts of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 ml to 1 ml of curable HEMA solution. Six repetitions per wa-ter ratio were made and investigated. Each sample was polymerized for 60 seconds. De-gree of conversion was obtained from the absorbance IR-Spectrum of the materials before and after polymerization by FT-IR spectroscopy. One way ANOVA and Tukey-HSD were carried out to compare and detect any differences among groups.Results: Statistical analysis indicates highly significant difference between pairs of groups at level (P<0.001. The results showed a trend of decreasing in HEMA conversion with increasing water. Degree of conversion changes significantly within the 0.05 ml to 0.2 ml water range. However, degree of conversion did not change after reaching 0.02 ml and before 0.05.Conclusion: Degree of conversion of HEMA decreased by increasing water. The most dramatic effect of water on the polymerization process occurs within a range which exists under clinical conditions. The reason that the degree of conversion did not show signifi-cant result before 0.05 ml may be related to the hydrophilic nature of HEMA.

  12. Far-Ir Spectroscopy of Neutral Gas Phase Peptides: Signatures from Combined Experiments and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahé, Jérôme; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre; Bakker, Daniël; Jaeqx, Sander; Rijs, Anouk

    2016-06-01

    Within the past two decades, action vibrational spectroscopy has become an almost routine experimental method to probe the structures of molecules and clusters in the gas phase (neutral and ions). Such experiments are mainly performed in the 1000-4000 wn fingerprint regions. Though successful in many respects, these spectral domains can be however restrictive in the information provided, and sometimes reach limitations for unravelling structures without ambiguity. In a collaborative work with the group of Dr A.M. Rijs (FELIX laboratory, Radbout University, The Netherlands) we have launched a new strategy where the far-IR/Tera-Hertz domain (100-800 wn domain) is experimentally probed for neutral gas phase molecules. Our group in Paris apply finite temperature DFT-based molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) simulations in order to unravel the complex signatures arising in the far-IR domain, and provide an unambiguous assignment both of the structural conformation of the gas phase molecules (taking into account the experimental conditions) and an understanding of the spectral signatures/fingerprints. We will discuss our experimental and theoretical investigations on two neutral peptides in the 100-800 wn far-IR spectral domain, i.e. Z-Ala6 and PheGly dipeptide, that represent two systems which definitive conformational assignment was not possible without the far IR signatures. We will also present our very recent results on the Phe-X peptide series, where X stands for Gly, Ala, Pro, Val, Ser, Cys, combining experiments and DFT-MD simulations, providing a detailed understanding of the vibrational fingerprints in the far-IR domain. In all exemples, we will show how DFT-MD simulations is the proper theoretical tool to account for vibrational anharmonicities and mode couplings, of prime importance in the far-IR domain. References : J. Mahé, S. Jaeqx, A.M. Rijs, M.P. Gaigeot, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 17 :25905 (2015) S. Jaeqx, J. Oomens, A. Cimas, M.P. Gaigeot, A.M. Rijs, Angew

  13. Cold, Gas-Phase UV and IR Spectroscopy of Protonated Leucine Enkephalin and its Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Nicole L.; Redwine, James; Dean, Jacob C.; McLuckey, Scott A.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2014-06-01

    The conformational preferences of peptide backbones and the resulting hydrogen bonding patterns provide critical biochemical information regarding the structure-function relationship of peptides and proteins. The spectroscopic study of cryogenically-cooled peptide ions in a mass spectrometer probes these H-bonding arrangements and provides information regarding the influence of a charge site. Leucine enkephalin, a biologically active endogenous opiod peptide, has been extensively studied as a model peptide in mass spectrometry. This talk will present a study of the UV and IR spectroscopy of protonated leucine enkephalin [YGGFL+H]+ and two of its analogues: the sodiated [YGGFL+Na]+ and C-terminally methyl esterified [YGGFL-OMe+H]+ forms. All experiments were performed in a recently completed multi-stage mass spectrometer outfitted with a cryocooled ion trap. Ions are generated via nano-electrospray ionization and the analyte of interest is isolated in a linear ion trap. The analyte ions are trapped in a 22-pole ion trap held at 5 K by a closed cycle helium cryostat and interrogated via UV and IR lasers. Photofragments are trapped and isolated in a second LIT and mass analyzed. Double-resonance UV and IR methods were used to assign the conformation of [YGGFL+H]+, using the NH/OH stretch, Amide I, and Amide II regions of the infrared spectrum. The assigned structure contains a single backbone conformation at vibrational/rotational temperatures of 10 K held together with multiple H-bonds that self-solvate the NH3+ site. A "proton wire" between the N and C termini reinforces the H-bonding activity of the COO-H group to the F-L peptide bond, whose cleavage results in formation of the b4 ion, which is a prevalent, low-energy fragmentation pathway for [YGGFL+H]+. The reinforced H-bonding network in conjunction with the mobile proton theory may help explain the prevalence of the b4 pathway. In order to elucidate structural changes caused by modifying this H-bonding activity

  14. X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and thermal characterization of partially hydrolyzed guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B S

    2012-05-01

    Guar gum was hydrolyzed using cellulase from Aspergillus niger at 5.6 pH and 50°C temperature. Hydrolyzed guar gum sample was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, dilute solution viscometry and rotational viscometry. Viscometry analysis of native guar gum showed a molecular weight of 889742.06, whereas, after enzymatic hydrolysis, the resultant product had a molecular weight of 7936.5. IR spectral analysis suggests that after enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum there was no major transformation of functional group. Thermal analysis revealed no major change in thermal behavior of hydrolyzed guar gum. It was shown that partial hydrolysis of guar gum could be achieved by inexpensive and food grade cellulase (Aspergillus niger) having commercial importance and utilization as a functional soluble dietary fiber for food industry.

  15. Rotationally resolved IR spectroscopy of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) C6N4H12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirali, O.; Boudon, V.; Carrasco, N.; Dartois, E.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) appears to be a potential constituent of several objects in space, including comets or Titan's atmosphere and, as an organic residue of ice irradiation in the laboratory, it may be present in the interstellar medium. Aims: We performed a laboratory study of rotationally resolved intense IR bands of HMT to provide accurate line positions and synthetic spectra to be used for potential astronomical detections. Methods: We used synchrotron-based high-resolution Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to record the experimental data. A formalism and programs dedicated to the assignment, analysis, and simulation of absorption spectra of tetrahedral molecules were used to exploit the spectra. Results: Infrared spectra of gas phase HMT were recorded and accurate wavenumbers and molecular parameters for four intense bands located in the 1000-1500 cm-1 spectral range suitable for astronomical searches were derived.

  16. Spatial metabolic fingerprinting using FT-IR spectroscopy: investigating abiotic stresses on Micrasterias hardyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Soyab A; Currie, Felicity; Thakker, Nalin; Goodacre, Royston

    2008-12-01

    The release of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) into the environment is an ecologically important topic for study because, whilst APIs have been designed to have a wide range of biological properties for the target of interest (usually in man), little information on potential ecological risks is currently available regarding their effects on the organisms that inhabit the environment. In this study, the algae Micrasterias hardyi was exposed to propranolol, metoprolol (beta-adrenergic receptor agonist drugs) and mefenamic acid (a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug), at concentrations ranging between 0.002-0.2 mM. Initial studies showed that Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy on algal homogenates illustrated that all three APIs had a quantitative effect on the metabolism of the organisms and it was possible to estimate the level of API exposure from the FT-IR metabolic fingerprints using partial least squares (PLS) regression. From the inspection of the PLS loadings matrices it was possible to elucidate that all drugs caused effects on protein and lipid levels. Most strikingly propranolol had significant effects on the lipid components of the cell. These were dramatically reduced possibly as a consequence of loss of membrane integrity. In order to investigate this further, FT-IR microspectroscopy was used to generate detailed metabolic fingerprinting maps. These chemical maps revealed that all the drugs had a dramatic effect on the distribution of various chemical species throughout the algae, and that all drugs had an affect on protein and lipid levels. In particular, as noted in the PLS analyses for propranolol treated cells, the lipid complement found in the lipid storage areas in the processes of M. hardyi was greatly reduced. This illustrates the power of spatial metabolic fingerprinting for investigating abiotic stresses on complex biological species.

  17. Protonation sites of isolated fluorobenzene revealed by IR spectroscopy in the fingerprint range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopfer, Otto; Solcà, Nicola; Lemaire, Joel; Maitre, Philippe; Crestoni, Maria-Elisa; Fornarini, Simonetta

    2005-09-08

    Protonated fluorobenzene ions (C6H6F+) are produced by chemical ionization of C6H5F in the cell of a FT-ICR mass spectrometer using either CH5+ or C2H5+. The resulting protonation sites are probed by IR multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy in the 600-1700 cm-1 fingerprint range employing the free electron laser at CLIO (Centre Laser Infrarouge Orsay). Comparison with quantum chemical calculations reveals that the IRMPD spectra are consistent with protonation in para and/or ortho position, which are the thermodynamically favored protonation sites. The lack of observation of protonation at the F substituent, when CH5+ is used as protonating agent, is attributed to the low-pressure conditions in the ICR cell where the ions are produced. Comparison of the C6H6F+ spectrum with IR spectra of C6H5F and C6H7+ reveals the effects of both protonation and H F substitution on the structural properties of these fundamental aromatic molecules.

  18. The Application of FT-IR Spectroscopy for Quality Control of Flours Obtained from Polish Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglińska, Alicja; Reder, Magdalena; Ciemniewska-Żytkiewicz, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Samples of wheat, spelt, rye, and triticale flours produced by different Polish mills were studied by both classic chemical methods and FT-IR MIR spectroscopy. An attempt was made to statistically correlate FT-IR spectral data with reference data with regard to content of various components, for example, proteins, fats, ash, and fatty acids as well as properties such as moisture, falling number, and energetic value. This correlation resulted in calibrated and validated statistical models for versatile evaluation of unknown flour samples. The calibration data set was used to construct calibration models with use of the CSR and the PLS with the leave one-out, cross-validation techniques. The calibrated models were validated with a validation data set. The results obtained confirmed that application of statistical models based on MIR spectral data is a robust, accurate, precise, rapid, inexpensive, and convenient methodology for determination of flour characteristics, as well as for detection of content of selected flour ingredients. The obtained models' characteristics were as follows: R2 = 0.97, PRESS = 2.14; R2 = 0.96, PRESS = 0.69; R2 = 0.95, PRESS = 1.27; R2 = 0.94, PRESS = 0.76, for content of proteins, lipids, ash, and moisture level, respectively. Best results of CSR models were obtained for protein, ash, and crude fat (R2 = 0.86; 0.82; and 0.78, resp.). PMID:28243483

  19. Monitoring wine aging with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basalekou Marianthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oak wood has commonly been used in wine aging but recently other wood types such as Acacia and Chestnut, have attracted the interest of the researchers due to their possible positive contribution to wine quality. However, only the use of oak and chestnut woods is approved by the International Enological Codex of the International Organisation of Vine and Wine. In this study Fourier Transform (FT-mid-infrared spectroscopy combined with Discriminant Analysis was used to differentiate wines aged in barrels made from French oak, American oak, Acacia and Chestnut and in tanks with oak chips, over a period of 12 months. Two red (Mandilaria, Kotsifali and two white (Vilana, Dafni native Greek grape varieties where used to produce four wines. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectra of the samples were recorded on a Zinc Selenide (ZnSe window after incubation at 40 °C for 30 min. A complete differentiation of the samples according to both the type of wood used and the contact time was achieved based on their FT-IR spectra.

  20. Evaluation of lead(II) immobilization by a vermicompost using adsorption isotherms and IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquero-Durán, Armando; Flores, Iraima

    2009-02-01

    The immobilization of lead ions by a vermicompost with calcite added was evaluated by adsorption isotherms and the results were explained on basis of the pH dependent surface charge and by IR spectroscopy. The results showed maximum adsorption values between 113.6 mg g(-1) (33 degrees C) and 123.5mg g(-1) (50 degrees C). The point of zero net charge (PZC) was 7.5+/-0.1, indicating the presence of a positive surface charge at the pH of batch experiments. The differences in the IR spectra at pH 3.8 and 7.0 in the region from 1800 to 1300 cm(-1), were interpreted on the basis of the carboxyl acid ionization, that reduced the band intensity around 1725 cm(-1), producing signals at 1550 cm(-1) and 1390 cm(-1) of carboxylate groups. Similar changes were detected at pH 3.8 when Pb2+ was present suggesting that the ion complexation takes place by a cationic exchange equilibrium, between the protons and Pb2+ ions.

  1. FT-IR spectroscopy combined with DFT calculation to explore solvent effects of vinyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Qing

    2014-05-21

    The infrared vibration frequencies of vinyl acetate (VAc) in 18 different solvents were theoretically computed at Density Function Theory (DFT) B3LYP/6-311G(*) level based on Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) and experimentally recorded by FT-IR spectroscopy. The solvent-induced long-range bulk electrostatic solvation free energies of VAc (ΔGelec) were calculated by the SMD model. The C=O stretching vibration frequencies of VAc were utilized as a measure of the chemical reactivities of the CC group in VAc. The calculated and experimental C=O stretching vibration frequencies of VAc (νcal(C=O) and νexp(C=O)) were correlated with empirical solvent parameters including the KBM equation, the Swain equation and the linear solvation energy relationships (LSER). Through ab initio calculation, assignments of the two C=O absorption bands of VAc in alcohol solvents were achieved. The PCM, SMD and ab initio calculation offered supporting evidence to explain the FT-IR experimental observations from differing aspects.

  2. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) variable selection for near-infrared microscopy discrimination of meat and bone meal in compound feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Chengxu; Chen, Longjian; Yang, Zengling; Liu, Xian; Han, Lujia

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a novel method for combining auto-peak and cross-peak information for sensitive variable selection in synchronous two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). This variable selection method is then applied to the case of near-infrared (NIR) microscopy discrimination of meat and bone meal (MBM). This is of important practical value because MBM is currently banned in ruminate animal compound feed. For the 2D-COS analysis, a set of NIR spectroscopy data of compound feed samples (adulterated with varying concentrations of MBM) was pretreated using standard normal variate and detrending (SNVD) and then mapped to the 2D-COS synchronous matrix. For the auto-peak analysis, 12 main sensitive variables were identified at 6852, 6388, 6320, 5788, 5600, 5244, 4900, 4768, 4572, 4336, 4256, and 4192 cm(-1). All these variables were assigned their specific spectral structure and chemical component. For the cross-peak analysis, these variables were divided into two groups, each group containing the six sensitive variables. This grouping resulted in a correlation between the spectral variables that was in accordance with the chemical-component content of the MBM and compound feed. These sensitive variables were then used to build a NIR microscopy discrimination model, which yielded a 97% correct classification. Moreover, this method detected the presence of MBM when its concentration was less than 1% in an adulterated compound feed sample. The concentration-dependent 2D-COS-based variable selection method developed in this study has the unique advantages of (1) introducing an interpretive aspect into variable selection, (2) substantially reducing the complexity of the computations, (3) enabling the transferability of the results to discriminant analysis, and (4) enabling the efficient compression of spectral data.

  3. Comparing the photophysics of the two forms of the Orange Carotenoid Protein using 2D electronic spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathies R.A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Broadband two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy is applied to investigate the photophysics of the photoactive orange carotenoid protein, which is involved in nonphotochemical quenching in cyanobacteria. Differences in dynamics between the light and dark forms arise from the different structure of the carotenoid in the protein pocket, with consequences for the biological role of the two forms.

  4. Surface Plasmon Resonances in 1D and 2D Arrays of Metal Nanoparticles for the Control of Enhanced Spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    SPECTROSCOPIES FA9550-09-1-0579 Noguez, Cecilia Roman-Velazquez, Carlos E. Angulo, Ali M. Instituto de Fisica Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico...Ciudad Universitaria , Del. Coyoacan, C.P. 04510, Mexico D.F. AFOSR/JA (703) 696-9705 875 NORTH RANDOLPH STREET SUITE 325, ROOM 3112 ARLINGTON, VA

  5. A Practical Deconvolution Computation Algorithm to Extract 1D Spectra from 2D Images of Optical Fiber Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Guangwei; Bai, Zhongrui

    2015-01-01

    Bolton and Schlegel presented a promising deconvolution method to extract 1D spectra from a 2D optical fiber spectral CCD image. The method could eliminate the PSF difference between fibers, extract spectra to the photo noise level, as well as improve the resolution. But the method is limited by its huge computation requirement and thus cannot be implemented in actual data reduction. In this article, we develop a practical computation method to solve the computation problem. The new computation method can deconvolve a 2D fiber spectral image of any size with actual PSFs, which may vary with positions. Our method does not require large amounts of memory and can extract a 4k multi 4k noise-free CCD image with 250 fibers in 2 hr. To make our method more practical, we further consider the influence of noise, which is thought to be an intrinsic illposed problem in deconvolution algorithms. We modify our method with a Tikhonov regularization item to depress the method induced noise. Compared with the results of tra...

  6. Rapid determination of baicalin and total baicalein content in Scutellariae radix by ATR-IR and NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Escamilla, M; Rodenas Sanz, F; Li, H; Schönbichler, S A; Yang, B; Bonn, G K; Huck, C W

    2013-09-30

    In this study methods for the quantification of baicalin and total baicalein in Scutellariae radix with near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and attenuated-total-reflectance mid-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy in hyphenation with multivariate analysis were developed and compared. The reference analysis was performed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Different pretreatments like standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), first and second derivative Savitzky-Golay were applied on the spectra to optimize the calibrations. A principal component analysis was performed with both spectroscopic methods to distinguish wild and cultivated samples. Quality parameters obtained for test-set calibration models of ATR-IR spectroscopy (baicalin: standard error of prediction (SEP)=1.31, ratio performance to deviation (RPD)=2.91 and R(2)=0.88; total baicalein: SEP=1.02, RPD=3.24 and R(2)=0.89) and NIR spectroscopy (baicalin: SEP=1.50, RPD=2.54 and R(2)=0.88; total baicalein: SEP=1.19, RPD=2.76 and R(2)=0.84) demonstrate that both spectroscopic techniques in combination with multivariate analysis are successful tools for the quantification of baicalin and total baicalein in Scutellariae radix, but it was found that ATR-IR spectroscopy provides higher accuracy in the given application. Furthermore it was proved that wild and cultivated samples can be distinguished by ATR-IR.

  7. Investigation of the nitrogen hyperfine coupling of the second stable radical in γ-irradiated L-alanine crystals by 2D-HYSCORE spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltar-Strmečki, Nadica; Rakvin, Boris

    2012-09-01

    The second stable radical, NH3+C(CH3)COO, R2, in the γ-irradiated single crystal of L-alanine and its fully 15N-enriched analogue were studied by an advanced pulsed EPR technique, 2D-HYSCORE (two-dimensional hyperfine sublevel correlation) spectroscopy at 200 K. The nitrogen hyperfine coupling tensor of the R2 radical was determined from the HYSCORE data and provides new experimental data for improved characterization of the R2 radical in the crystal lattice. The results obtained complement the experimental proton data available for the R2 radical and could lead to increased accuracy and reliability of EPR spectrum simulations.

  8. Synthesis and structure elucidation of a series of pyranochromene chalcones and flavanones using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Sunayna S; Koorbanally, Neil A

    2014-06-01

    A series of novel pyranochromene chalcones and corresponding flavanones were synthesized. This is the first report on the confirmation of the absolute configuration of chromene-based flavanones using X-ray crystallography. These compounds were characterized by 2D NMR spectroscopy, and their assignments are reported herein. The 3D structure of the chalcone 3b and flavanone 4g was determined by X-ray crystallography, and the structure of the flavanone was confirmed to be in the S configuration at C-2.

  9. Gaz Phase IR and UV Spectroscopy of Neutral Contact Ion Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habka, Sana; Brenner, Valerie; Mons, Michel; Gloaguen, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Cations and anions, in solution, tend to pair up forming ion pairs. They play a crucial role in many fundamental processes in ion-concentrated solutions and living organisms. Despite their importance and vast applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry, they remain difficult to characterize namely because of the coexistence of several types of pairing in solution. However, an interesting alternative consists in applying highly selective gas phase spectroscopy which can offer new insights on these neutral ion pairs. Our study consists in characterizing contact ion pairs (CIPs) in isolated model systems (M+, Ph-(CH2)n-COO- with M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and n=1-3), to determine their spectral signatures and compare them to ion pairs in solution. We have used laser desorption to vaporize a solid tablet containing the desired salt. Structural information for each system was obtained by mass-selective, UV and IR laser spectroscopy combined with high level quantum chemistry calculations1. Evidence of the presence of neutral CIPs was found by scanning the π-π* transition of the phenyl ring using resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI). Then, conformational selective IR/UV double resonance spectra were recorded in the CO2- stretch region for each conformation detected. The good agreement between theoretical data obtained at the BSSE-corrected-fullCCSD(T)/dhf-TZVPP//B97-D3/dhf-TZVPP level and experimental IR spectra led us to assign the 3D structure for each ion pair formed. Spectral signatures of (M+, Ph-CH2-COO-) pairs, were assigned to a bidentate CIPs between the alkali cation and the carboxylate group. In the case of (Li+, Ph-(CH2)3-COO-) pairs, the presence of a flexible side chain promotes a cation-π interaction leading to a tridentate O-O-π structure with its unique IR and UV signatures. IR spectra obtained on isolated CIPs were found very much alike the ones published on lithium and sodium acetate in solution2. However, in the case of sodium acetate, solution

  10. Applications of Ultrafast Terahertz Pulses for Intra-ExcitonicSpectroscopy of Quasi-2D Electron-Hole Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaindl, Robert A.; Carnahan, Marc A.; Hagele, Daniel; Chemla, D.S.

    2006-09-02

    Excitons are of fundamental interest and of importance foropto-electronic applications of bulk and nano-structured semiconductors.This paper discusses the utilization of ultrafast terahertz (THz) pulsesfor the study of characteristic low-energy excitations of photoexcitedquasi 2D electron-hole (e-h) gases. Optical-pump THz-probe spectroscopyat 250-kHz repetition rate is employed to detect characteristic THzsignatures of excitons and unbound e-h pairs in GaAs quantum wells.Exciton and free-carrier densities are extracted from the data using atwo-component model. We report the detailed THz response and pairdensities for different photoexcitation energies resonant to heavy-holeexcitons, light-hole excitons, or the continuum of unbound pairs. Suchexperiments can provide quantitative insights into wavelength, time, andtemperature dependence of the low-energy response and composition ofoptically excited e-h gases in low-dimensionalsemiconductors.

  11. Analysis of a Brazilian baroque sculpture using Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Renato P.; Ribeiro, Iohanna M.; Calza, Cristiane; Oliveira, Ana L.; Felix, Valter S.; Ferreira, Douglas S.; Pimenta, André R.; Pereira, Ronaldo V.; Pereira, Marcelo O.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, samples were taken from the sculpture of Our Lady of Sorrows and analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR. This sculpture has been dated to the early eighteenth century. Samples were also examined using optical microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Based on chemical analysis, the pigments vermilion [HgS], massicot [PbO] and azurite [Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2] were found in the sculpture polychrome. The results indicate that the green polychrome of the sculpture's mantle comes from the blending of massicot and azurite. Because the literature reports that the mantle of the Our Lady of Sorrows sculpture is blue, the mixing of these pigments results from a production error. The results also indicate the presence of Au in the sculpture, which indicates the originality of the piece. The results from this study helped restorers to choose the appropriate procedures for intervening in the sculpture and contributed to the knowledge about the manufacturing process of Brazilian baroque sculptures.

  12. Ammonia sorption by Dawson acid studied by IR spectroscopy and microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micek-Ilnicka, A.; Gil, B.; Lalik, E.

    2005-04-01

    Using in-situ microbalance and infrared spectroscopy techniques the double ammonia proton complexation was traced. The results confirm the formation of N 2H 7+ dimer in solid Dawson acid H 6P 2W 18O 62, previously reported only for N 2H 7I and for (N 2H 7) 4SiW 12O 40. The formation of such dimers was evidenced by the microbalance results, the molar ratio of ammonia to proton was measured as 2:1 at 10.7 kPa and 298 K. The formation of NH 4+ monomer (band at 1410 cm -1) and N 2H 7+ dimer (1460 cm -1) was revealed by IR spectroscopy. Enthalpy of ammonia sorption on Dawson structure was calculated to be -127.9 kJ mol -1, indicating the lower acid strength of Dawson-type compared to that of the Keggin-type heteropolyacids, like H 4SiW 12O 40.

  13. Half-sandwich (6-arene)ruthenium(II) chiral Schiff base complexes: Analysis of the diastereomeric mixtures in solution by 2D-NMR spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rakesh K Rath; G A Nagana Gowda; Akhil R Chakravarty

    2002-10-01

    2D NMR spectroscopy has been used to determine the metal configuration in solution of three complexes, viz. [($\\eta^6$--cymene)Ru(L∗)Cl] (1) and [(6--cymene)Ru(L∗)(L')] (ClO4) (L' = H2O, 2; PPh3, 3), where L∗ is the anion of ()-(1-phenylethyl)salicylaldimine. The complexes exist in two diastereomeric forms in solution. Both the (Ru, C)- and (Ru, C)-diastereomers display the presence of attractive CH/ interaction involving the phenyl group attached to the chiral carbon and the cymene ring hydrogens. This interaction restricts the rotation of the C∗-N single bond and, as a result, two structural types with either the hydrogen atom attached to the chiral carbon (C∗) or the methyl group attached to C∗ in close proximity of the cymene ring protons get stabilized. Using 2D NMR spectroscopy as a tool, the spatial interaction involving these protons are studied in order to obtain the metal configuration(s) of the diastereomeric complexes in solution. This technique has enabled us to determine the metal configuration as (Ru, C) for the major isomers of 1-3 in solution.

  14. Photoinduced Graft-Polymerization of Acrylic Acid on Polyethylene and Polypropylene Surfaces: Comparative Study Using IR-ATR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbachev, A. A.; Tretinnikov, O. N.; Shkrabatovskaya, L. V.; Prikhodchenko, L. K.

    2014-11-01

    Photoinduced graft-polymerization of acrylic acid on the surface of polyethylene and polypropylene films containing a photoinitiator pre-adsorbed from a thin layer of non-de-aerated aqueous monomer solution was investigated. Data about the monomer conversion and grafting depth as functions of the UV irradiation time and polymer nature were obtained using IR-ATR spectroscopy.

  15. CO Adsorption on Pt Nanoparticles in Low E-Fields Studied by ATR-IR Spectroscopy in a Microreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susarrey Arce, A.; Tiggelaar, R.M.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; Houselt, van A.; Lefferts, L.

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of carbon monoxide (CO) on platinum (Pt) nanoparticles under the influence of a low electrical field (E-field) is studied. The adsorption of CO is monitored by attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, while an external electrical field is applied over the microreact

  16. NMR and IR Spectroscopy for the Structural Characterization of Edible Fats and Oils: An Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Molly W.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an upper-level instrumental laboratory for undergraduates that explores the complementary nature of IR and NMR spectroscopy for analysis of several edible fats and oils that are structurally similar but differ in physical properties and health implications. Five different fats and oils are analyzed for average chain length,…

  17. HST/STIS results on circumstellar disks and jets, future coronography and technology for IR multi-object spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Bruce E.

    2002-01-01

    Results of studies of circumstellar disks and jets obtained by HST/STIS visible coronagraphy and UV spectroscopy, and by ground-based Fabry-Perot coronagraphy will be presented. Future improvements in coronagraphy will be discussed. The development of microshutter arrays as programmable multi-object selectors for the NGST near IR spectrograph will be described.

  18. Detection and classification of salmonella serotypes using spectral signatures collected by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spectral signatures of Salmonella serotypes namely Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky were collected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). About 5-10 µL of Salmonella suspensions with concentrations of 1...

  19. Molecular orientation of molybdate ions adsorbed on goethite nanoparticles revealed by polarized in situ ATR-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davantès, Athénaïs; Lefèvre, Grégory

    2016-11-01

    The speciation of species adsorbed on nanoparticles is a major concern for several fields, as environmental pollution and remediation, surface functionalization, or catalysis. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) was amongst the rare methods able to give in situ information about the geometry of surface complexes on nanoparticles. A new possibility using this technique is illustrated here with the MoO42 -/goethite system. Using deuterated goethite to avoid spectral interferences, adsorption of molybdate ions on a spontaneous oriented film of nanoparticles has been followed using a polarized infrared beam. From the decomposition of spectra in the x, y and z directions, a monodentate surface complex on the {101} faces has been found as the most probable geometry. This result demonstrates that polarized ATR-IR allows to characterize in more details adsorption mode at the atomic scale, in comparison with usual ATR-IR spectroscopy.

  20. Transient IR spectroscopy and ab initio calculations on ESIPT in 3-hydroxyflavone solvated in acetonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Katharina; Wolf, Matthias M N; Funk, Andreas; Andres, Marko; Gerhards, Markus; Diller, Rolf

    2012-11-21

    Femtosecond polarization resolved UV/Vis and mid-infrared spectroscopy was used to thoroughly identify and characterize the relevant elementary chemical and physical processes in the photocycle of 3-hydroxyflavone (3-HF) in solution. In one set of experiments with the polar aprotic solvent acetonitrile-d(3), for the first time excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT), vibrational cooling/relaxation and rotational diffusion could be separated, and furthermore mid IR vibrational spectra of 3-HF excited states in solution phase were obtained. UV/Vis transient absorption data yield the time constant τ(Rot) = 22 ps for rotational diffusion and the time constant τ(VR) = 8.5 ps for vibrational cooling/relaxation in the tautomer excited state (S(1)'). Biphasic ESIPT with τ ps as well as slow ground state recovery with τ > 500 ps was found. The time resolved mid IR data yield a time constant of ≈3.4 ps for the slow ESIPT step as well as the vibrational frequencies of S(0,) S(1)' and, in particular those of the short lived excited state S(1). Via quantum chemical calculations, structural parameters of these states are obtained. Various models were used, namely for the isolated molecule, aggregates with solvent as well as a polarizable continuum, that allow us to correlate the two ESIPT components with two mechanisms. Results are compared to those from previously published gas-phase experiments and indicate that the observed slow ESIPT is mediated by solute-solvent interaction via a hydrogen bond with the hydroxyl group of 3-HF.

  1. Characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by FT-IR spectroscopy and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabelle; Ferreira-Strixino, Juliana; Castilho, Maiara L; Campos, Claudia B L; Tellez, Claudio; Raniero, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, is a dimorphic fungus existing as mycelia in the environment (or at 25°C in vitro) and as yeast cells in the human host (or at 37°C in vitro). Because mycological examination of lesions in patients frequently is unable to show the presence of the fungus and serological tests can misdiagnose the disease with other mycosis, the development of new approach's for molecular identification of P. brasiliensis spurges is needed. This study describes the use of a gold nanoprobe of a known gene sequence of P. brasiliensis as a molecular tool to identify P. brasiliensis by regular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) associated with a colorimetric methods. This approach is suitable for testing in remote areas because it does not require any further step than gene amplification, being safer and cheaper than electrophoresis methods. The proposed test showed a color change of the PCR reaction mixture from red to blue in negative samples, whereas the solution remains red in positive samples. We also performed a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy analysis to characterize and compare the chemical composition between yeast and mycelia forms, which revealed biochemical differences between these two forms. The analysis of the spectra showed that differences were distributed in chemical bonds of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. The most prominent difference between both forms was vibration modes related to 1,3-β-glucan usually found in mycelia and 1,3-α-glucan found in yeasts and also chitin forms. In this work, we introduce FT-IR as a new method suitable to reveal overall differences that biochemically distinguish each form of P. brasiliensis that could be additionally used to discriminate biochemical differences among a single form under distinct environmental conditions.

  2. An add-on cap for ATR-IR spectroscopy studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a cap (300B) for an attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectrometer, the ATR-IR spectrometer comprising an ATR-IR plate (200). The cap (300B) comprises an ATR- IR plate facing cap surface. When the ATR-IR plate facing cap surface is placed on the sample surface...... side of the ATR-IR plate (200), a sample cavity enclosing the sample is formed between the sample surface side of the ATR-IR plate (200) and the ATR-IR plate facing cap surface of the cap (300B). This sample cavity can be an air tight cavity. The cap may further comprise a bridge (322), which functions...... as cap securing means (322), as the cap (300B) is secured onto the ATR-IR plate (200) by a pressure clamp (108) and an arm (110) holding the pressure clamp (108) pressing on the bridge (322)....

  3. Impact and radiation influence on solid hydrocarbon transformation and structuring (by IR-spectroscopy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, O.

    2009-04-01

    Solid hydrocarbons (bitumens)-typical specimens of natural organic minerals-are one of the most essential objects of petroleum geology and at the same time-one of the least investigated objects of organic mineralogy. Moreover they can be treated as admissible analogs of meteorite carbonaceous materials. According to terrestrial analog of meteoritic organic matter it's possible to estimate the chemical structure of extraterrestrial matter. Further investigation of impact force and radiation influence on the bitumen chemical structure change will make it possible to connect them with extraterrestrial organic matter. This work represents the research of impact influence on the processes of transformation and structuring of asphaltite and changes in the molecular structure of solid bitumens constituting the carbonization series (asphaltite--kerite--anthraxolite), which were subjected to the impact of high radiation doses (10 and 100 Mrad) by infrared spectroscopy (IRS). In percussion experiments peak pressure varied from 10 to 63.4 GPa; temperature - from the first tens degrees to several hundreds degrees Celsius. The radiation experiment was performed in the Arzamas-16 Federal Nuclear Center in line with conditions described in [1]. Asphaltite, which sustained shock load from 17.3 to 23 GPa, didn't undergo considerable changes in its element composition. Though their IR-spectra differ from the spectrum of initial asphaltite by heightened intensity of absorption bands of aromatic groups, as well as by insignificant rise of heterogroups and condensed structures oscillation strength. At the same time the intensity of aliphatic (СН2 and СН3) groups absorption hasn't changed. Probably there've just been the carbon and hydrogen atomic rearrangement. However, shock load up to 26.7 GPa leads to asphaltite transformation into the albertite. There've been observed the intensity decrease of aliphatic groups on its IR-spectrum. Under growth of shock load up to 60 GPa bitumen

  4. Grism Performance for Mid-IR (5-40 microns) Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennico, K. A.; Mar, D. J.; Jaffe, D. T.; Marsh, J. P.; Keller, L. D.; Herter, T. L.; Greene, T. P.; Adams, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    Grisms provide a straightforward method to transform an imager into a spectrometer with little change to the original imaging optics. This paper addresses the performance of a suite of grisms as part of an Astrobiology Science and Instrument Development (ASTID) Program to implement a moderate resolution spectroscopic capability to the mid/far-IR facility instrument FORCAST for the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) [see accompanying abstract by Adams et al.]. A moderate resolution mid-IR spectrometer on SOFIA will offer advantages not available to either ground or space-based instruments after the Spitzer Space Telescope ceases operation in approx. 2007. SOFIA will begin operations in 2007 and will have an operational lifetime of approx. 20 years. From aircraft altitudes, it will be possible to cover a range of wavelengths, particularly in the critical 5-9 micron band, where detection of astrobiologically interesting molecules have key spectral signatures, that are not accessible from the ground. This grism suite consists of six grisms: four monolithic Si grisms [see accompanying abstract by Mar et al.] and two KRS-5 grisms. These devices will allow long slit low-resolution and short slit, cross-dispersed high-resolution spectroscopic modes selectable by simply moving the camera filter wheels. This configuration will enable observing programs to gather images and spectra in a single SOFIA flight. The four silicon grisms, whose performance is highlighted in this paper, will operate in the following wavelength ranges: 5-8, 17-28, and 28-37 microns. In the 5-8 micron range, R=1200 is achievable for a 2 arcsecond slit using the grism as a cross-disperser. For the 17-28 and 28-37 micron ranges, the resolving powers are R approx. 130, 250 when used in low orders with a slit of 3 arcseconds. The silicon grisms demonstrate a new family of dispersive elements with good optical performance for spectroscopy from 1.2-8 micron and beyond 18 microns

  5. WaFIRS, a Waveguide Far-IR Spectrometer: Enabling Space-Borne Spectroscopy of High-z Galaxies in the Far-IR and Submm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, C. M.; Bock, J. J.; Dragovan, M.; Earle, L.; Glenn, J.; Naylor, B.; Nguyen, H.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of galaxies beyond z approximately equal to 1 which emit the bulk of their luminosity at long wavelengths has demonstrated the need for high sensitivity, broadband spectroscopy in the far-IR/submm/mm bands. Because many of these sources are not detectable in the optical, long wavelength spectroscopy is key to measuring their redshifts and ISM conditions. The continuum source list will increase in the next decade with new ground-based instruments (SCUBA2, Bolocam, MAMBO) and the surveys of HSO and SIRTF. Yet the planned spectroscopic capabilities lag behind, primarily due to the difficulty in scaling existing IR spectrograph designs to longer wavelengths. To overcome these limitations, we are developing WaFIRS, a novel concept for long-wavelength spectroscopy which utilizes a parallel-plate waveguide and a curved diffraction grating. WaFIRS provides the large (approximately 60%) instantaneous bandwidth and high throughput of a conventional grating system, but offers a dramatic reduction in volume and mass. WaFIRS requires no space overheads for extra optical elements beyond the diffraction grating itself, and is two-dimensional because the propagation is confined between two parallel plates. Thus several modules could be stacked to multiplex either spatially or in different frequency bands. The size and mass savings provide opportunities for spectroscopy from space-borne observatories which would be impractical with conventional spectrographs. With background-limited detectors and a cooled 3.5 telescope, the line sensitivity would be better than that of ALMA, with instantaneous broad-band coverage. We have built and tested a WaFIRS prototype for 1-1.6 mm, and are currently constructing Z-Spec, a 100 mK model to be used as a ground-based lambda/DELTAlambda approximately equal to 350 submillimeter galaxy redshift machine.

  6. Investigation of the hydrated 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin dimer by combined IR/UV spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamm, A.; Schwing, K.; Gerhards, M., E-mail: gerhards@chemie.uni-kl.de [TU Kaiserslautern, Fachbereich Chemie and Research Center Optimas, Erwin-Schroedinger-Straße 52, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2014-11-21

    The first molecular beam investigations on a coumarin dimer and clusters of a coumarin dimer with water both in the neutral (S{sub 0}) and cationic (D{sub 0}) electronic ground state are performed. The structure and structural changes due to ionization of the isolated 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin dimer (7H4MC){sub 2} as well as its mono- and dihydrate (7H4MC){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 1-2} are analyzed by applying combined IR/UV spectroscopy compared with density functional theory calculations. In case of the neutral dimer of 7H4MC a doubly hydrogen-bonded structure is formed. This doubly hydrogen-bonded arrangement opens to a singly hydrogen-bonded structure in the ion presenting a rearrangement reaction within an isolated dimer. By attaching one or two water molecules to the neutral 7H4MC dimer water is inserted into the hydrogen bonds. In contrast to the non-hydrated species this general binding motif with water in a bridging function does not change via ionization but especially for the dihydrate the spatial arrangement of the two 7H4MC units changes strengthening the interaction between the aromatic chromophores. The presented analyses illustrate the strong dependence of binding motifs as a function of successive hydration and charge including a rearrangement reaction.

  7. Forensic Hair Differentiation Using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, Jeremy; Doty, Kyle C; McLaughlin, Gregory; Lednev, Igor K

    2016-07-01

    Hair and fibers are common forms of trace evidence found at crime scenes. The current methodology of microscopic examination of potential hair evidence is absent of statistical measures of performance, and examiner results for identification can be subjective. Here, attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to analyze synthetic fibers and natural hairs of human, cat, and dog origin. Chemometric analysis was used to differentiate hair spectra from the three different species, and to predict unknown hairs to their proper species class, with a high degree of certainty. A species-specific partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) model was constructed to discriminate human hair from cat and dog hairs. This model was successful in distinguishing between the three classes and, more importantly, all human samples were correctly predicted as human. An external validation resulted in zero false positive and false negative assignments for the human class. From a forensic perspective, this technique would be complementary to microscopic hair examination, and in no way replace it. As such, this methodology is able to provide a statistical measure of confidence to the identification of a sample of human, cat, and dog hair, which was called for in the 2009 National Academy of Sciences report. More importantly, this approach is non-destructive, rapid, can provide reliable results, and requires no sample preparation, making it of ample importance to the field of forensic science.

  8. The deposition characteristics of copper(I) compounds for CVD by FT-IR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardcastle, F.D.; Peden, C.H.F.; Omstead, T.R.; Blewer, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Farkas, J.; Hampden-Smith, M.J.; Kodas, T.T. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to investigate the adsorption and thermally-induced decomposition of copper (I) {beta}-diketonate precursors of the type (hfac)CuL, where hfac is the hexafluoroacetylacetonate bidentate ligand and L is trimethylphosphine or 1,5-cyclooctadiene. The (hfac)CuPMe{sub 3} precursor desorbs from the surface at very low temperatures whereas the (hfac)Cu(1,5-COD) dissociates on adsorption, liberating 1,5-COD and leaving a surface(hfac)Cu complex which can subsequently disproportionate. Evidence is provided for hydrogen-bonding between the hfac ligand and the surface silanols for (hfac)CuPMe{sub 3}, but not for (hfac)Cu(1,5-COD). These results are consistent with the selective behavior of these precursors for copper deposition and suggest that the selectivity of the (hfac)CuPMe{sub 3} and (hfac)Cu(1, 5-COD) precursors may be due to the ability of the hfac ligand to hydrogen bond to the surface silanol groups.

  9. The deposition characteristics of copper(I) compounds for CVD by FT-IR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardcastle, F.D.; Peden, C.H.F.; Omstead, T.R.; Blewer, R.S. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Farkas, J.; Hampden-Smith, M.J.; Kodas, T.T. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to investigate the adsorption and thermally-induced decomposition of copper (I) {beta}-diketonate precursors of the type (hfac)CuL, where hfac is the hexafluoroacetylacetonate bidentate ligand and L is trimethylphosphine or 1,5-cyclooctadiene. The (hfac)CuPMe{sub 3} precursor desorbs from the surface at very low temperatures whereas the (hfac)Cu(1,5-COD) dissociates on adsorption, liberating 1,5-COD and leaving a surface(hfac)Cu complex which can subsequently disproportionate. Evidence is provided for hydrogen-bonding between the hfac ligand and the surface silanols for (hfac)CuPMe{sub 3}, but not for (hfac)Cu(1,5-COD). These results are consistent with the selective behavior of these precursors for copper deposition and suggest that the selectivity of the (hfac)CuPMe{sub 3} and (hfac)Cu(1, 5-COD) precursors may be due to the ability of the hfac ligand to hydrogen bond to the surface silanol groups.

  10. XRD, TEM, IR, Raman and NMR Spectroscopy of In Situ Crystallization of Lithium Disilicate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, T.; Mogus-Milankovic, A.; Ray, C. S.; Lesher, C. E.; Youngman, R.; Day, D. E.

    2006-01-01

    The structure of a Li2O-2SiO2 (LS2) glass was investigated as a function of pressure and temperature up to 6 GPa and 750 C respectively, using XRD, TEM, IR, Raman and NMR spectroscopy. Glass densified at 6 GPa has an average Si-O-Si bond angle approx.7deg lower than that found in glass processed at 4.5 GPa. At 4.5 GPa, lithium disilicate crystallizes from the glass, while at 6 GPa a new high pressure form of lithium metasilicate crystallizes. The new phase, while having lithium metasilicate crystal symmetry, contains at least 4 different Si sites. NMR results for 6 GPa sample indicate the presence of Q4 species with (Q(sup 4))Si-O-Si(Q(sup 4)) bond angles of approx.157deg. This is the first reported occurrence of Q(sup 4) species with such large bond angles in alumina free alkali silicate glass. No five- or six- coordinated Si are found.

  11. Investigation of the hydrated 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin dimer by combined IR/UV spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, A; Schwing, K; Gerhards, M

    2014-11-21

    The first molecular beam investigations on a coumarin dimer and clusters of a coumarin dimer with water both in the neutral (S0) and cationic (D0) electronic ground state are performed. The structure and structural changes due to ionization of the isolated 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin dimer (7H4MC)2 as well as its mono- and dihydrate (7H4MC)2(H2O)1-2 are analyzed by applying combined IR/UV spectroscopy compared with density functional theory calculations. In case of the neutral dimer of 7H4MC a doubly hydrogen-bonded structure is formed. This doubly hydrogen-bonded arrangement opens to a singly hydrogen-bonded structure in the ion presenting a rearrangement reaction within an isolated dimer. By attaching one or two water molecules to the neutral 7H4MC dimer water is inserted into the hydrogen bonds. In contrast to the non-hydrated species this general binding motif with water in a bridging function does not change via ionization but especially for the dihydrate the spatial arrangement of the two 7H4MC units changes strengthening the interaction between the aromatic chromophores. The presented analyses illustrate the strong dependence of binding motifs as a function of successive hydration and charge including a rearrangement reaction.

  12. Investigation of calcium aluminates by IR spectroscopy in diffusely scattered light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medin, A.S.; Borovkov, V.Yu.; Nissenbaum, V.D.; Yakerson, V.I.; Kazanskii, V.B.

    1989-01-01

    The hydroxyl covering and the adsorption sites for CO and H/sub 2/O on aluminum-calcium catalysts and supports with developed surfaces have been studied by IR spectroscopy in diffusely scattered light. The presence of several types of surface OH groups, viz., terminal groups bonded to calcium ions with different types of coordination, bridging OH groups, and groups appearing in (CaOH)/sup +/ groupings, which perform the role of compensating cations in the zeolite-like structure of calcium aluminates, has been established. The shifts of the bands of the OH groups upon the adsorption of C/sub 6/H/sub 6/ and cyclo-C/sub 6/H/sub 12/ point out their weakly acidic or basic character. When calcium aluminates are dehydroxylated, aprotic sites appear on their surfaces, and the rehydration of such surfaces is accompanied by the formation of OH groups and the weakening of the Al-O-M bonds (M = Al, Ca) with the appearance of additional sites for the strong adsorption of water.

  13. Mid-IR Properties of Seyferts: Spitzer IRS Spectroscopy of the IRAS 12 μm Seyfert Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmandaris, Vassilis; Wu, Yanling; Huang, Jiasheng; Spinoglio, Luigi; Tommasin, Silvia

    2010-05-01

    We performed an analysis of the mid-infrared properties of the 12 μm Seyfert sample, a complete unbiased 12 μm flux limited sample of local Seyfert galaxies selected from the IRAS Faint Source Catalog based on low-resolution spectra obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on-board Spitzer Space Telescope. A detailed presentation of this analysis is discussed by Wu et al. (2009). We find that, on average, the 15-30 μm slope of the continuum is = -0.85 ± 0.61 for Seyfert 1s and -1.53 ± 0.84 for Seyfert 2s, and there is substantial scatter in each type. Moreover, nearly 32% of Seyfert 1s, and 9% of Seyfert 2s, display a peak in the mid-infrared spectrum at 20 μm, which is attributed to an additional hot dust component. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) equivalent width decreases with increasing dust temperature, as indicated by the global infrared color of the host galaxies. However, no statistical difference in PAH equivalent width is detected between the two Seyfert types of the same bolometric luminosity. Finally, we propose a new method to estimate the AGN contribution to the integrated 12 μm galaxy emission, by subtracting the “star formation” component in the Seyfert galaxies, making use of the tight correlation between PAH 11.2 μm luminosity and 12 μm luminosity for star forming galaxies.

  14. Mid-IR properties of Seyferts: Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of the IRAS 12micron Seyfert sample

    CERN Document Server

    Charmandaris, V; Huang, J; Spinoglio, L; Tommasin, S

    2009-01-01

    We performed an analysis of the mid-infared properties of the 12micron Seyfert sample, a complete unbiased 12micron flux limited sample of local Seyfert galaxies selected from the IRAS Faint Source Catalog, based on low resolution spectra obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on-board Spitzer Space Telescope. A detailed presentation of this analysis is dicussed in Wu et al. (2009). We find that on average, the 15-30micron slope of the continuum is -0.85+/-0.61 for Seyfert 1s and -1.53+/-0.84 for Seyfert 2s, and there is substantial scatter in each type. Moreover, nearly 32% of Seyfert 1s, and 9% of Seyfert 2s, display a peak in the mid-infrared spectrum at 20micron, which is attributed to an additional hot dust component. The Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) equivalent width decreases with increasing dust temperature, as indicated by the global infrared color of the host galaxies. However, no statistical difference in PAH equivalent width is detected between the two Seyfert types, 1 and 2, of the...

  15. Near-infrared (NIR) imaging analysis of polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite by multiple-perturbation two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Murakami, Takurou N.; Nishida, Masakazu; Kanematsu, Wataru; Noda, Isao

    2014-07-01

    Multiple-perturbation two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy was applied to sets of near-infrared (NIR) imaging data of polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite samples undergoing UV degradation. Incorporation of clay nanoparticles substantially lowers the surface free energy barrier for the nucleation of PLA and eventually increases the frequency of the spontaneous nucleation of PLA crystals. Thus, when exposed to external stimuli such as UV light, PLA nanocomposite may show different structure alternation depending on the clay dispersion. Multiple-perturbation 2D correlation analysis of the PLA nanocomposite samples revealed different spatial variation between crystalline and amorphous structure of PLA, and the phenomenon especially becomes acute in the region where the clay particles are coagulated. The incorporation of the clay leads to the cleavage-induced crystallization of PLA when the sample is subjected to the UV light. The additional development of the ordered crystalline structure then works favorably to restrict the initial degradation of the polymer, providing the delay in the weight loss of the PLA.

  16. Differentiation of Body Fluid Stains on Fabrics Using External Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Félix; de la Ossa, Ma Ángeles Fernández; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Body fluids are evidence of great forensic interest due to the DNA extracted from them, which allows genetic identification of people. This study focuses on the discrimination among semen, vaginal fluid, and urine stains (main fluids in sexual crimes) placed on different colored cotton fabrics by external reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with chemometrics. Semen-vaginal fluid mixtures and potential false positive substances commonly found in daily life such as soaps, milk, juices, and lotions were also studied. Results demonstrated that the IR spectral signature obtained for each body fluid allowed its identification and the correct classification of unknown stains by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). Interestingly, results proved that these IR spectra did not show any bands due to the color of the fabric and no substance of those present in daily life which were analyzed, provided a false positive.

  17. Tunable Microcavity-Stabilized Quantum Cascade Laser for Mid-IR High-Resolution Spectroscopy and Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Borri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The need for highly performing and stable methods for mid-IR molecular sensing and metrology pushes towards the development of more and more compact and robust systems. Among the innovative solutions aimed at answering the need for stable mid-IR references are crystalline microresonators, which have recently shown excellent capabilities for frequency stabilization and linewidth narrowing of quantum cascade lasers with compact setups. In this work, we report on the first system for mid-IR high-resolution spectroscopy based on a quantum cascade laser locked to a CaF2 microresonator. Electronic locking narrows the laser linewidth by one order of magnitude and guarantees good stability over long timescales, allowing, at the same time, an easy way for finely tuning the laser frequency over the molecular absorption line. Improvements in terms of resolution and frequency stability of the source are demonstrated by direct sub-Doppler recording of a molecular line.

  18. Tunable Microcavity-Stabilized Quantum Cascade Laser for Mid-IR High-Resolution Spectroscopy and Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borri, Simone; Siciliani de Cumis, Mario; Insero, Giacomo; Bartalini, Saverio; Cancio Pastor, Pablo; Mazzotti, Davide; Galli, Iacopo; Giusfredi, Giovanni; Santambrogio, Gabriele; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Eliyahu, Danny; Ilchenko, Vladimir; Akikusa, Naota; Matsko, Andrey; Maleki, Lute; De Natale, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The need for highly performing and stable methods for mid-IR molecular sensing and metrology pushes towards the development of more and more compact and robust systems. Among the innovative solutions aimed at answering the need for stable mid-IR references are crystalline microresonators, which have recently shown excellent capabilities for frequency stabilization and linewidth narrowing of quantum cascade lasers with compact setups. In this work, we report on the first system for mid-IR high-resolution spectroscopy based on a quantum cascade laser locked to a CaF2 microresonator. Electronic locking narrows the laser linewidth by one order of magnitude and guarantees good stability over long timescales, allowing, at the same time, an easy way for finely tuning the laser frequency over the molecular absorption line. Improvements in terms of resolution and frequency stability of the source are demonstrated by direct sub-Doppler recording of a molecular line. PMID:26901199

  19. [The effect of Tween-80 on the differentiation of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum strains with FT-IR spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergın, Çagri; İlkit, Macit; Gök, Yaşar; Çon, Ahmet Hilmi; Özel, Mustafa Zafer; Kabay, Nilgün; Döğen, Aylin; Baygu, Yasemin

    2014-07-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum, are two of the frequently identified dermatophyte species in routine microbiology laboratories. Although newer technologies may assist in species-level identification, direct application of these methods usually require improvement in order to obtain reliable identification of these species. Earlier data have shown that dermatophytes may be identified with FT-IR spectroscopy although there are some limitations. In particular, the organic bond ranges in FT-IR spectra showed more irregularity because of the eucaryotic complexity of the molds. In this study, Tween-80 which is an inorganic molecule, was added to the dermatophyte growth medium in order to investigate its effect on FT-IR spectroscopy analysis of dermatophytes. Nine reference dermatophyte strains [5 T.mentagrophytes complex (T.asteroides CBS 424.63, T.erinacei CBS 344.79, CBS 511.73, CBS 677.86, T.mentagrophytes CBS 110.65) and 4 T.rubrum complex strains with different morphotypes (T.fluviomuniense CBS 592.68, T.kuryangei CBS 422.67, T.raubitschekii CBS 102856, T.rubrum CBS 392.58)] were included in the study. All strains were cultured on Sabouraud glucose agar either with or without 1% Tween-80 for three weeks. After the incubation period, superficial scrapings from each dermatophyte colony were analyzed using FT-IR spectroscopy. All measurements were performed in transmission mode between 4400 and 400 cm-1. Numerous spectral window data were analyzed by principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering was performed. The second derivations of spectral ranges revealed clear grouping of T.mentagrophytes complex and T.rubrum complex in association over five separate spectral ranges. The findings also showed that while all of the T.mentagrophytes strains contained lipid compounds in their mold structure after Tween-80 incubation (pIR spectroscopy. This effect might be attributed to the possible transfer of lipid compounds from culture to cell

  20. IGRINS NEAR-IR HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF MULTIPLE JETS AROUND LkHα 234

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Heeyoung; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Byeong-Gon; Park, Chan; Chun, Moo-Young; Kim, Kang-Min; Oh, Jae Sok; Jeong, Ueejeong; Yu, Young Sam; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kim, Hwihyun; Hwang, Narae; Lee, Sungho [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Pyo, Tae-Soo [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Pak, Soojong; Lee, Hye-In; Le, Huynh Anh Nguyen [School of Space Research and Institute of Natural Sciences, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Kaplan, Kyle; Pavel, Michael; Mace, Gregory, E-mail: hyoh@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); and others

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy toward the multiple outflows around the Herbig Be star LkHα 234 using the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph. Previous studies indicate that the region around LkHα 234 is complex, with several embedded young stellar objects and the outflows associated with them. In simultaneous H- and K-band spectra from HH 167, we detected 5 [Fe ii] and 14 H{sub 2} emission lines. We revealed a new [Fe ii] jet driven by radio continuum source VLA 3B. Position–velocity diagrams of the H{sub 2} 1−0 S(1) λ2.122 μm line show multiple velocity peaks. The kinematics may be explained by a geometrical bow shock model. We detected a component of H{sub 2} emission at the systemic velocity (V{sub LSR} = −10.2 km s{sup −1}) along the whole slit in all slit positions, which may arise from the ambient photodissociation region. Low-velocity gas dominates the molecular hydrogen emission from knots A and B in HH 167, which is close to the systemic velocity; [Fe ii] emission lines are detected farther from the systemic velocity, at V{sub LSR} = −100–−130 km s{sup −1}. We infer that the H{sub 2} emission arises from shocked gas entrained by a high-velocity outflow. Population diagrams of H{sub 2} lines imply that the gas is thermalized at a temperature of 2500–3000 K and the emission results from shock excitation.

  1. The roles of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in the process of aggregation of natural marine organic matter investigated by means of 2D correlation spectroscopy applied to infrared spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Pietrantonio, Eva; Pietroletti, Marco

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the marine organic matter soluble in an alkaline medium called extractable humic substance (EHS), was extracted from three sediment samples of Tyrrhenian Sea and separated by precipitation at pH 2 in the two fractions of fulvic acids (FAs) and humic acids (HAs). FAs were further fractionated in seven sub-samples of different molecular weight (mw) by means of seven different ultrafiltration membranes operating in the range between mw 100 kDa. Then the qualitative composition of each sample of fractionated FAs and HAs was studied by means of one-dimensional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in reflectance mode (FTIR-DRIFT) and by two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy both in wavelength-wavelength (WW) and in sample-sample (SS) mode. The application of 2D correlation WW spectroscopy allows to elucidate the different roles played by carbohydrates and proteins with respect to some lipid compounds such as fatty acids and ester fatty acids during the process of aggregate formations from mw ˜1 kDa to higher size aggregates. In addition, 2D correlation WW spectroscopy allows to observe some peculiar interactions between carbohydrates and proteins in the formation of EHS aggregates, interactions which vary from a sample to another sample. The results of 2D correlation SS spectroscopy confirm the general evidences obtained by 2D WW spectroscopy and moreover, they also describe the formation of EHS aggregates as a complex process where evolutionary links and connectivity between aggregates of neighbour molecular size ranges are not evident. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy applied to FTIR spectroscopy shows to be a powerful tool for the investigation of the mechanisms involved in EHS aggregation because it supports the acquisition of structural information which sometimes can be hardly obtained by one-dimensional FTIR spectroscopy.

  2. Studies on Lignin Structure of Wheat Straw by 1H-13C 2-D NMR Spectroscopy%1H-13C 2-D NMR光谱技术在麦草木素结构研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛培锦; 曲音波; 赵建

    2006-01-01

    对麦草二氧六环木素分别进行了1H-NMR、13C-NMR和2D-HMQC NMR光谱分析.研究结果表明:二维2D-HMQC NMR光谱技术可较好揭示麦草木素的结构特征,克服1H-NMR和 13C-NMR光谱的吸收峰重叠以及多糖的干扰问题.

  3. Ageing of Starch Based Systems as observed with FT-IR and Solid State NMR Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, A.L.M.; Ruhnau, F.C.; Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Soest, van J.J.G.

    1998-01-01

    The retrogradation and physical ageing of model starch systems with respect to their glass transition temperatures Tg have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and solid state NMR spectroscopy. Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared (DRIFT) spectra demonstrate the com

  4. Ageing of starch based systems as observed with FT-IR and solid state NMR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Smits, A.L.M.; Ruhnau, F.C.; Soest, J.J.G. van

    1998-01-01

    The retrogradation and physical ageing of model starch systems with respect to their glass transition temperatures Tg have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy and solid state NMR spectroscopy. Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared (DRIFT) spectra demonstrate the com

  5. UV and IR Spectroscopy of Cold H2O(+)-Benzo-Crown Ether Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Ebata, Takayuki; Rizzo, Thomas R

    2015-11-12

    The H2O(+) radical ion, produced in an electrospray ion source via charge transfer from Eu(3+), is encapsulated in benzo-15-crown-5 (B15C5) or benzo-18-crown-6 (B18C6). We measure UV photodissociation (UVPD) spectra of the (H2O·B15C5)(+) and (H2O·B18C6)(+) complexes in a cold, 22-pole ion trap. These complexes show sharp vibronic bands in the 35 700-37 600 cm(-1) region, similar to the case of neutral B15C5 or B18C6. These results indicate that the positive charge in the complexes is localized on H2O, giving the forms H2O(+)·B15C5 and H2O(+)·B18C6, in spite of the fact that the ionization energy of B15C5 and B18C6 is lower than that of H2O. The formation of the H2O(+) complexes and the suppression of the H3O(+) production through the reaction of H2O(+) and H2O can be attributed to the encapsulation of hydrated Eu(3+) clusters by B15C5 and B18C6. On the contrary, the main fragment ions subsequent to the UV excitation of these complexes are B15C5(+) and B18C6(+) radical ions; the charge transfer occurs from H2O(+) to B15C5 and B18C6 after the UV excitation. The position of the band origin for the H2O(+)·B18C6 complex (36323 cm(-1)) is almost the same as that for Rb(+)·B18C6 (36315 cm(-1)); the strength of the intermolecular interaction of H2O(+) with B18C6 is similar to that of Rb(+). The spectral features of the H2O(+)·B15C5 complex also resemble those of the Rb(+)·B15C5 ion. We measure IR-UV spectra of these complexes in the CH and OH stretching region. Four conformers are found for the H2O(+)·B15C5 complex, but there is one dominant form for the H2O(+)·B18C6 ion. This study demonstrates the production of radical ions by charge transfer from multivalent metal ions, their encapsulation by host molecules, and separate detection of their conformers by cold UV spectroscopy in the gas phase.

  6. Effect of storage on microstructural changes of Carbopol polymers tracked by the combination of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Barnabás; Süvegh, Károly; Zelkó, Romána

    2011-09-15

    Different types of Carbopols are frequently applied excipients of various dosage forms. Depending on the supramolecular structure, their water sorption behaviour could significantly differ. The purpose of the present study was to track the supramolecular changes of two types of Carbopol polymers (Carbopol 71G and Ultrez 10NF) alone and in their physical mixture with a water-soluble drug, vitamin B(12), as a function of storage time. The combination of FT-IR spectroscopy, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and Doppler-broadening spectroscopy was applied to follow the effect of water uptake on the structural changes. Our results indicate that water-induced interactions between polymeric chains can be sensitively detected. This enables the prediction of stability of dosage forms in the course of storage.

  7. Characterization of large amyloid fibers and tapes with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, Devin M; Claunch, Elizabeth C; Barone, Justin R

    2013-12-01

    Amyloids are self-assembled protein structures implicated in a host of neurodegenerative diseases. Organisms can also produce "functional amyloids" to perpetuate life, and these materials serve as models for robust biomaterials. Amyloids are typically studied using fluorescent dyes, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), or Raman spectroscopy analysis of the protein amide I region, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) because the self-assembled β-sheet secondary structure of the amyloid can be easily identified with these techniques. Here, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy analyses are described to characterize amyloid structures beyond just identification of the β-sheet structure. It has been shown that peptide mixtures can self-assemble into nanometer-sized amyloid structures that then continue to self-assemble to the micrometer scale. The resulting structures are flat tapes of low rigidity or cylinders of high rigidity depending on the peptides in the mixture. By monitoring the aggregation of peptides in solution using FT-IR spectroscopy, it is possible to identify specific amino acids implicated in β-sheet formation and higher order self-assembly. It is also possible to predict the final tape or cylinder morphology and gain insight into the structure's physical properties based on observed intermolecular interactions during the self-assembly process. Tapes and cylinders are shown to both have a similar core self-assembled β-sheet structure. Soft tapes also have weak hydrophobic interactions between alanine, isoleucine, leucine, and valine that facilitate self-assembly. Rigid cylinders have similar hydrophobic interactions that facilitate self-assembly and also have extensive hydrogen bonding between glutamines. Raman spectroscopy performed on the dried tapes and fibers shows the persistence of these interactions. The spectroscopic analyses described could be generalized to other self-assembling amyloid systems to explain property and morphological differences.

  8. IR spectroscopy together with multivariate data analysis as a process analytical tool for in-line monitoring of crystallization process and solid-state analysis of crystalline product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pöllänen, Kati; Häkkinen, Antti; Reinikainen, Satu-Pia

    2005-01-01

    Crystalline product should exist in optimal polymorphic form. Robust and reliable method for polymorph characterization is of great importance. In this work, infra red (IR) spectroscopy is applied for monitoring of crystallization process in situ. The results show that attenuated total reflection...... Fourier transform infra red (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy provides valuable information on process, which can be utilized for more controlled crystallization processes. Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infra red (DRIFT-IR) is applied for polymorphic characterization of crystalline product using X...

  9. FMOS near-IR spectroscopy of Herschel selected galaxies: star formation rates, metallicity and dust attenuation at z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Roseboom, I G; Sumiyoshi, M; Wang, L; Dalton, G; Akiyama, M; Bock, J; Bonfield, D; Buat, V; Casey, C; Chapin, E; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Curtis-Lake, E; Cooray, A; Dunlop, J S; Farrah, D; Ham, S J; Ibar, E; Iwamuro, F; Kimura, M; Lewis, I; Macaulay, E; Magdis, G; Maihara, T; Marsden, G; Mauch, T; Moritani, Y; Ohta, K; Oliver, S J; Page, M J; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Symeonidis, M; Takato, N; Tamura, N; Totani, T; Yabe, K; Zemcov, M

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the properties (e.g. star formation rate, dust attentuation, stellar mass and metallicity) of a sample of infrared luminous galaxies at z \\sim 1 via near-IR spectroscopy with Subaru-FMOS. Our sample consists of Herschel SPIRE and Spitzer MIPS selected sources in the COSMOS field with photometric redshifts in the range 0.7 = 0.51\\pm0.27 for = 10^12 Lsol sources at = 1.36. By comparing star formation rates estimated from the IR and from the dust uncorrected H{\\alpha} line we find a strong relationship between dust attenuation and star formation rate. This relation is broadly consistent with that previously seen in star-forming galaxies at z ~ 0.1. Finally, we investigate the metallicity via the N2 ratio, finding that z ~ 1 IR-selected sources are indistinguishable from the local mass-metallicity relation. We also find a strong correlation between dust attentuation and metallicity, with the most metal-rich IR-sources experiencing the largest levels of dust attenuation.

  10. Using IR spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution to elucidate mechanism of heat-induced decomposition of an organic complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpushkin, Evgeny; Gvozdik, Nataliya; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.

    , the evolved compounds structure is relatively similar, and therefore their analysis by means of vibrational spectroscopy is a convenient approach towards elucida- tion of the underlying reactions mechanism as well as optimization of the pro- cess conditions. Modern analytical instruments provide...... the opportunity to carry out simultaneous thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry analysis and IR/Raman/mass spectrometry investigation of the evolving gaseous products. However, elucidation of the mechanism of the reactions occurring upon heat- ing is not completely straightforward, due to a number...... and discuss the results of TGA-DSC-IR study of heat-induced decomposition of tris(acetylacetonato)manganese(III) complex. Using this process as an example, we have indicated the complications of the evolved gas analysis and demonstrated that they can be partially overcome taking advantage of multivariate...

  11. DIFERENCIACIÓN DE ESPECIE MICOBACTERIANA POR FT-IR (ESPECTROSCOPIA INFRARROJA CON TRANSFORMADA DE FOURIER Differentiation of Mycobacterial Species by FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE ANDRÉS CUÉLLAR GIL

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se trabajó con espectroscopía infrarroja transformada de Fourier (FT-IR para diferenciar diez especies de micobacterias. Mycobacterium intracelullare y M. fortuitum (ATCC, M. flavensces, M. smegmatis, M. chelone, M. gordonae, M. triviale, M. vaccae, M. terrae y M. nonchromogenicum (IP. Como control de diferenciación de género se incluyó Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus viridans y Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae y Escherichia coli, cada especie se corrió por triplicado en KBr y ATR. Los espectros se analizaron según el método de diferenciación de componentes principales, y se realizaron derivadas de primer orden (D1 en modalidad de transmisión usando la pastilla de KBr y la base ATR, además se diseñó una biblioteca espectral con la primera derivada de ATR. La sensibilidad de detección fue de 100% al trabajar con KBr y el nivel de diferenciación fue de 100% en tres de cuatro muestras problema.Spectroscopy Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR was used to differentiate 10 species of mycobacteria. Mycobacterium intracelullare and M. fortuitum (ATCC. M. flavensces, M. smegmatis, M. chelone, M. gordonae, M. triviale, M. vaccae, M. terrae and M. nonchromogenicum (IP. For gender differentiation Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus viridans and Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae y Escherichia coli were incluided as controls, each species was run for triplicate in KBr and ATR. The spectra were analyzed with the method of principal components to make the first derivatives of first order (D1 in the transmission mode using KBr pellet and ATR base, and a spectral library of the first derivative of ATR was kept. The detection sensitivity was 100% with KBr and the level of differentiation was 100% in three of the four samples problems.

  12. Allophane on Mars: Evidence from IR Spectroscopy and TES Spectral Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Rampe, E. B.; Kraft, M. D.; Sharp. T. G.; Golden, D. C.; Christensen, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    Allophane is an alteration product of volcanic glass and a clay mineral precursor that is commonly found in basaltic soils on Earth. It is a poorly-crystalline or amorphous, hydrous aluminosilicate with Si/Al ratios ranging from approx.0.5-1 [Wada, 1989]. Analyses of thermal infrared (TIR) spectra of the Martian surface from TES show high-silica phases at mid-to-high latitudes that have been proposed to be primary volcanic glass [Bandfield et al., 2000; Bandfield, 2002; Rogers and Christensen, 2007] or poorly-crystalline secondary silicates such as allophane or aluminous amorphous silica [Kraft et al., 2003; Michalski et al., 2006; Rogers and Christensen, 2007; Kraft, 2009]. Phase modeling of chemical data from the APXS on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit suggest the presence of allophane in chemically weathered rocks [Ming et al., 2006]. The presence of allophane on Mars has not been previously tested with IR spectroscopy because allophane spectra have not been available. We synthesized allophanes and allophanic gels with a range of Si/Al ratios to measure TIR emission and VNIR reflectance spectra and to test for the presence of allophane in Martian soils. VNIR reflectance spectra of the synthetic allophane samples have broad absorptions near 1.4 m from OH stretching overtones and 1.9 m from a combination of stretching and bending vibrations in H2O. Samples have a broad absorption centered near 2.25 microns, from AlAlOH combination bending and stretching vibrations, that shifts position with Si/Al ratio. Amorphous silica (opaline silica or primary volcanic glass) has been identified in CRISM spectra of southern highland terrains based on the presence of 1.4, 1.9, and broad 2.25 m absorptions [Mustard et al., 2008]; however, these absorptions are also consistent with the presence of allophane. TIR emission spectra of the synthetic allophanes show two spectrally distinct types: Si-rich and Al-rich. Si-rich allophanes have two broad absorptions centered near 1080

  13. Constant-time 2D and 3D through-bond correlation NMR spectroscopy of solids under 60 kHz MAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rongchun; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy, E-mail: ramamoor@umich.edu [Biophysics and Department of Chemistry, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1055 (United States)

    2016-01-21

    Establishing connectivity and proximity of nuclei is an important step in elucidating the structure and dynamics of molecules in solids using magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Although recent studies have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of proton-detected multidimensional solid-state NMR experiments under ultrafast-MAS frequencies and obtaining high-resolution spectral lines of protons, assignment of proton resonances is a major challenge. In this study, we first re-visit and demonstrate the feasibility of 2D constant-time uniform-sign cross-peak correlation (CTUC-COSY) NMR experiment on rigid solids under ultrafast-MAS conditions, where the sensitivity of the experiment is enhanced by the reduced spin-spin relaxation rate and the use of low radio-frequency power for heteronuclear decoupling during the evolution intervals of the pulse sequence. In addition, we experimentally demonstrate the performance of a proton-detected pulse sequence to obtain a 3D {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C/{sup 1}H chemical shift correlation spectrum by incorporating an additional cross-polarization period in the CTUC-COSY pulse sequence to enable proton chemical shift evolution and proton detection in the incrementable t{sub 1} and t{sub 3} periods, respectively. In addition to through-space and through-bond {sup 13}C/{sup 1}H and {sup 13}C/{sup 13}C chemical shift correlations, the 3D {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C/{sup 1}H experiment also provides a COSY-type {sup 1}H/{sup 1}H chemical shift correlation spectrum, where only the chemical shifts of those protons, which are bonded to two neighboring carbons, are correlated. By extracting 2D F1/F3 slices ({sup 1}H/{sup 1}H chemical shift correlation spectrum) at different {sup 13}C chemical shift frequencies from the 3D {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C/{sup 1}H spectrum, resonances of proton atoms located close to a specific carbon atom can be identified. Overall, the through-bond and through-space homonuclear/heteronuclear proximities determined from the

  14. Constant-time 2D and 3D through-bond correlation NMR spectroscopy of solids under 60 kHz MAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongchun; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2016-01-21

    Establishing connectivity and proximity of nuclei is an important step in elucidating the structure and dynamics of molecules in solids using magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Although recent studies have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of proton-detected multidimensional solid-state NMR experiments under ultrafast-MAS frequencies and obtaining high-resolution spectral lines of protons, assignment of proton resonances is a major challenge. In this study, we first re-visit and demonstrate the feasibility of 2D constant-time uniform-sign cross-peak correlation (CTUC-COSY) NMR experiment on rigid solids under ultrafast-MAS conditions, where the sensitivity of the experiment is enhanced by the reduced spin-spin relaxation rate and the use of low radio-frequency power for heteronuclear decoupling during the evolution intervals of the pulse sequence. In addition, we experimentally demonstrate the performance of a proton-detected pulse sequence to obtain a 3D (1)H/(13)C/(1)H chemical shift correlation spectrum by incorporating an additional cross-polarization period in the CTUC-COSY pulse sequence to enable proton chemical shift evolution and proton detection in the incrementable t1 and t3 periods, respectively. In addition to through-space and through-bond (13)C/(1)H and (13)C/(13)C chemical shift correlations, the 3D (1)H/(13)C/(1)H experiment also provides a COSY-type (1)H/(1)H chemical shift correlation spectrum, where only the chemical shifts of those protons, which are bonded to two neighboring carbons, are correlated. By extracting 2D F1/F3 slices ((1)H/(1)H chemical shift correlation spectrum) at different (13)C chemical shift frequencies from the 3D (1)H/(13)C/(1)H spectrum, resonances of proton atoms located close to a specific carbon atom can be identified. Overall, the through-bond and through-space homonuclear/heteronuclear proximities determined from the 3D (1)H/(13)C/(1)H experiment would be useful to study the structure and dynamics of

  15. Fine Structure of Hydrogen Bond in Cholic Acid Revealed by 2DIR Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on cryogenic FT-IR spectroscopic studies of hydrogen bonds in cholic acid, two-dimensional FT-IR spectroscopy was applied to enhance our understanding of the hydrogen bonds of cholic acid. Fine spectral structures were revealed by asynchronous 2D FT-IR spectra. The co-relationship among various bands was discussed according to the synchronous 2D FT-IR spectrum.

  16. NEAR-IR Spectroscopy of Young Stars in the Braid Nebula Star Formation Region in Cygnus Ob7

    OpenAIRE

    Aspin, Colin; Beck, Tracy L.; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Davis, Chris J.; Schieven, G. M.; Khanzadyan, Tigran; Magakian, Tigran; Movsessian, Tigran; NIkogossian, Elena G.; Mitchison, Sharon; Smith, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    We present 1.4 to 2.5 um integral field spectroscopy of 16 stars in the Braid Nebula star formation region in Cygnus OB7. These data forms one aspect of a large-scale multi-wavelength survey aimed at determining an unbiased estimate of the number, mass distribution, and evolutionary state of the young stars within this one square degree area of the previously poorly studied Lynds 1003 molecular cloud. Our new spectroscopic data, when combined with 2MASS near-IR photometry, provide evidence of...

  17. Organic Spectroscopy Laboratory: Utilizing IR and NMR in the Identification of an Unknown Substance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glagovich, Neil M.; Shine, Timothy D.

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that emphasizes the interpretation of both infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra in the elucidation of the structure of an unknown compound was developed. The method helps students determine [to the first power]H- and [to the thirteenth power]C-NMR spectra from the structures of compounds and to…

  18. MRI and 2D-CSI MR spectroscopy of the brain in the evaluation of patients with acute onset of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundgren, P.C.; Jennings, J.; Gebarski, S.; Pang, Y.; Maly, P. [University of Michigan Health Systems, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Attwood, J.T.; McCune, W.J. [University of Michigan Health Systems, Department of and Rheumatology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Nan, B. [University of Michigan Health Systems, School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2005-08-01

    MRI and 2D-CSI spectroscopy were performed in eight patients with systemic lupus erythematosus who presented with acute onset of neuropsychiatric lupus (NP-SLE), and in seven normal controls to evaluate for differences in metabolic peaks and metabolic ratios between the two groups. Also, the interval change of the metabolic peaks and their ratios during treatment in the NP-SLE patient group was evaluated. Metabolic peaks for N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), and lactate/lipids (LL) and their ratios (NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, Cho/Cr, LL/Cr) were determined at initial presentation and 3 and 6 months later. In the eight lupus patients compared to the seven normal controls, NAA/Cho ratios were lower at presentation (1.05 vs 1.25; p = 0.004) and decreased even further at the three month follow-up (0.92 vs 1.05; p = 0.008). In contrast, both Cho/Cr (1.42 vs 1.26; p = 0.026) and LL/Cr ratios (0.26 vs 0.19; p = 0.002) were higher in the lupus patients at presentation compared to the controls and did not significantly change at three and six months follow-up. The NAA/Cr ratios were lower in the lupus patients compared to the controls at presentation but the difference was not statistically significant. However, the mean NAA/Cr significantly decreased from the initial examination to the three month follow-up (1.42 vs 1.32; p = 0.049) but did not significantly change from the three to the six month follow-up examinations. The NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and NAA/Cho ratios varied significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.05, respectively) between the 17 different locations measured in the brain in all eight patients and seven controls. Both the NAA/Cr ratios and the Cho/Cr ratios were also significantly lower in the gray matter than in the white matter (p < 0.0001) in both patients and controls, whereas the LL/Cr and NAA/Cho ratios were not significantly different. In conclusion, 2D-CSI MR spectroscopy may be useful in the early detection of metabolic CNS changes in NP

  19. A refined model of the chlorosomal antennae of the green bacterium chlorobium tepidum from proton chemical shift constraints obtained with high-field 2-D and 3-D MAS NMR dipolar correlation spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, van B.E.J.; Steengaard, D.B.; Boender, G.J.; Schaffner, K.; Holzwarth, A.R.; Groot, de H.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Heteronuclear 2-D and 3-D magic-angle spinning NMR dipolar correlation spectroscopy was applied to determine solid-state 1H shifts for aggregated bacteriochlorophyll c (BChl c) in uniformly 13C-enriched light harvesting chlorosomes of the green photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. A complete

  20. Kinetics of the reaction F+NO+M->FNO+M studied by pulse radiolysis combined with time-resolved IR and UV spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn; Sillesen, A.; Jodkowski, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    The title reaction was initiated by pulse radiolysis of SF6/NO gas mixtures, and the formation of FNO was studied by time-resolved IR and UV spectroscopy. At SF6 pressures of 10-320 mbar at 298 K, the formation of FNO was studied by infrared diode laser spectroscopy at 1857.324 cm(-1). Comparative...

  1. Role of Bi promotion and solvent in platinum-catalyzed alcohol oxidation probed by in situ X-ray absorption and ATR-IR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondelli, C.; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Ferri, D.

    2010-01-01

    the catalysts under working conditions using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), aiming at uncovering the roles of the metal promoter and the reaction medium. XAS confirms that Bi is oxidized more easily than Pt, maintaining the catalytic....... This behaviour is not observed in the presence of Bi, whose geometric effect (site blocking) is interpreted as additionally limiting the adsorption of toluene and the premature deactivation of Pt. ATR-IR spectroscopy during CO adsorption on Pt and during reaction indicates that Bi is located rather on extended...

  2. Characterization of extracellular vesicles by IR spectroscopy: Fast and simple classification based on amide and CH stretching vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihály, Judith; Deák, Róbert; Szigyártó, Imola Csilla; Bóta, Attila; Beke-Somfai, Tamás; Varga, Zoltán

    2017-03-01

    Extracellular vesicles isolated by differential centrifugation from Jurkat T-cell line were investigated by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Amide and CH stretching band intensity ratios calculated from IR bands, characteristic of protein and lipid components, proved to be distinctive for the different extracellular vesicle subpopulations. This proposed 'spectroscopic protein-to-lipid ratio', combined with the outlined spectrum-analysis protocol is valid also for low sample concentrations (0.15-0.05mg/ml total protein content) and can carry information about the presence of other non-vesicular formations such as aggregated proteins, lipoproteins and immune complexes. Detailed analysis of IR data reveals compositional changes of extracellular vesicles subpopulations: second derivative spectra suggest changes in protein composition from parent cell towards exosomes favoring proteins with β-turns and unordered motifs at the expense of intermolecular β-sheet structures. The IR-based protein-to-lipid assessment protocol was tested also for red blood cell derived microvesicles for which similar values were obtained. The potential applicability of this technique for fast and efficient characterization of vesicular components is high as the investigated samples require no further preparations and all the different molecular species can be determined in the same sample. The results indicate that ATR-FTIR measurements provide a simple and reproducible method for the screening of extracellular vesicle preparations. It is hoped that this sophisticated technique will have further impact in extracellular vesicle research.

  3. Classification of edible oils and modeling of their physico-chemical properties by chemometric methods using mid-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Aderval S.; da Silva, Arnaldo P.; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard

    This research work describes two studies for the classification and characterization of edible oils and its quality parameters through Fourier transform mid infrared spectroscopy (FT-mid-IR) together with chemometric methods. The discrimination of canola, sunflower, corn and soybean oils was investigated using SVM-DA, SIMCA and PLS-DA. Using FT-mid-IR, DPLS was able to classify 100% of the samples from the validation set, but SIMCA and SVM-DA were not. The quality parameters: refraction index and relative density of edible oils were obtained from reference methods. Prediction models for FT-mid-IR spectra were calculated for these quality parameters using partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machines (SVM). Several preprocessing alternatives (first derivative, multiplicative scatter correction, mean centering, and standard normal variate) were investigated. The best result for the refraction index was achieved with SVM as well as for the relative density except when the preprocessing combination of mean centering and first derivative was used. For both of quality parameters, the best results obtained for the figures of merit expressed by the root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) and prediction (RMSEP) were equal to 0.0001.

  4. Biochemical Monitoring of Spinal Cord Injury by FT-IR Spectroscopy--Effects of Therapeutic Alginate Implant in Rat Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tamosaityte

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI induces complex biochemical changes, which result in inhibition of nervous tissue regeneration abilities. In this study, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy was applied to assess the outcomes of implants made of a novel type of non-functionalized soft calcium alginate hydrogel in a rat model of spinal cord hemisection (n = 28. Using FT-IR spectroscopic imaging, we evaluated the stability of the implants and the effects on morphology and biochemistry of the injured tissue one and six months after injury. A semi-quantitative evaluation of the distribution of lipids and collagen showed that alginate significantly reduced injury-induced demyelination of the contralateral white matter and fibrotic scarring in the chronic state after SCI. The spectral information enabled to detect and localize the alginate hydrogel at the lesion site and proved its long-term persistence in vivo. These findings demonstrate a positive impact of alginate hydrogel on recovery after SCI and prove FT-IR spectroscopic imaging as alternative method to evaluate and optimize future SCI repair strategies.

  5. ATR FT-IR spectroscopy on Vmh2 hydrophobin self-assembled layers for Teflon membrane bio-functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portaccio, M., E-mail: marianna.portaccio@unina2.it [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale – Seconda Università di Napoli, Via S.M. di Costantinopoli, 16-80134 Napoli (Italy); Gravagnuolo, A.M., E-mail: alfredomaria.gravagnuolo@unina.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università “Federico II”, Via Cintia, 21- 80126 Napoli (Italy); Longobardi, S., E-mail: sara.longobardi@unina.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università “Federico II”, Via Cintia, 21- 80126 Napoli (Italy); Giardina, P., E-mail: paola.giardina@unina.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università “Federico II”, Via Cintia, 21- 80126 Napoli (Italy); Rea, I., E-mail: ilaria.rea@na.imm.cnr.it [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, CNR, Via P. Castellino, 111-80131 Napoli (Italy); De Stefano, L., E-mail: luca.destefano@na.imm.cnr.it [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, CNR, Via P. Castellino, 111-80131 Napoli (Italy); Cammarota, M., E-mail: marcella.cammarota@unina2.it [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale – Seconda Università di Napoli, Via S.M. di Costantinopoli, 16-80134 Napoli (Italy); Lepore, M., E-mail: maria.lepore@unina2.it [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale – Seconda Università di Napoli, Via S.M. di Costantinopoli, 16-80134 Napoli (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hydrophobin self-assembled layers on Teflon in different preparation conditions were investigated. • ATR collection data geometry allowed samples examination without any particular preparation. • Amide content, lipid/amide and carbohydrate/amide ratios of the protein layer were estimated. • Secondary structure of protein was determined for the examined samples. • FT-IR demonstrated to be of extreme relevance in monitoring hydrophobin self-assembled layers preparation. - Abstract: Surface functionalization by layers of hydrophobins, amphiphilic proteins produced by fungi offers a promising and green strategy for fabrication of biomedical and bioanalytical devices. The layering process of the Vmh2 hydrophobin from Pleurotus ostreatus on Teflon membrane has been investigated by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. In particular, protein layers obtained with hydrophobin purified with two different procedures and in various coating conditions have been examined. The layers have been characterized by quantifying the amide I and amide II band area together with the lipid/amide ratio and carbohydrate/amide ratio. This characterization can be very useful in evaluating the best purification strategy and coating conditions. Moreover the analysis of the secondary structure of the layered protein using the deconvolution procedure of amide I band indicate the prevalent contribution from β-sheet state. The results inferred by infrared spectroscopy have been also confirmed by scanning electron microscopy imaging.

  6. Accelerated Aging of BKC 44306-10 Rigid Polyurethane Foam: FT-IR Spectroscopy, Dimensional Analysis, and Micro Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbertson, Robert D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Patterson, Brian M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Zachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-02

    An accelerated aging study of BKC 44306-10 rigid polyurethane foam was carried out. Foam samples were aged in a nitrogen atmosphere at three different temperatures: 50 °C, 65 °C, and 80 °C. Foam samples were periodically removed from the aging canisters at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 month intervals when FT-IR spectroscopy, dimensional analysis, and mechanical testing experiments were performed. Micro Computed Tomography imaging was also employed to study the morphology of the foams. Over the course of the aging study the foams the decreased in size by a magnitude of 0.001 inches per inch of foam. Micro CT showed the heterogeneous nature of the foam structure likely resulting from flow effects during the molding process. The effect of aging on the compression and tensile strength of the foam was minor and no cause for concern. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to follow the foam chemistry. However, it was difficult to draw definitive conclusions about the changes in chemical nature of the materials due to large variability throughout the samples.

  7. High Resolution Near-IR Spectroscopy of Protostars With Large Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Tom; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    It is now possible to measure absorption spectra of Class I protostars using D greater than or = 8m telescopes equipped with sensitive cryogenic IR spectrographs. Our latest high-resolution (R approx. 20,000) Keck data reveal that Class I protostars are indeed low-mass stars with dwarf-like features. However, they differ from T Tauri stars in that Class I protostars have much higher IR veilings (tau(sub k) greater than or = 1 - 3+) and they are rotating quickly, v sin i greater than 20 km/s. Interestingly, the vast majority of protostellar absorption spectra show stellar - not disk - absorption features. A preliminary H-R diagram suggests that protostellar photospheres may have different physical structures than T Tauri stars, perhaps due to their higher accretion rates.

  8. Monitoring biochemical changes in bacterial spore during thermal and pressure-assisted thermal processing using FT-IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Anand; Ahn, Juhee; Balasubramaniam, V M; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis

    2007-10-31

    Pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP) is being widely investigated for processing low acid foods. However, its microbial safety has not been well established and the mechanism of inactivation of pathogens and spores is not well understood. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to study some of the biochemical changes in bacterial spores occurring during PATP and thermal processing (TP). Spore suspensions (approximately 10(9) CFU/mL of water) of Clostridium tyrobutyricum, Bacillus sphaericus, and three strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were treated by PATP (121 degrees C and 700 MPa) for 0, 10, 20, and 30 s and TP (121 degrees C) for 0, 10, 20, and 30 s. Treated and untreated spore suspensions were analyzed using FT-IR in the mid-infrared region (4000-800 cm(-1)). Multivariate classification models based on soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were developed using second derivative-transformed spectra. The spores could be differentiated up to the strain level due to differences in their biochemical composition, especially dipicolinic acid (DPA) and secondary structure of proteins. During PATP changes in alpha-helix and beta-sheets of secondary protein were evident in the spectral regions 1655 and 1626 cm(-1), respectively. Infrared absorption bands from DPA (1281, 1378, 1440, and 1568 cm(-1)) decreased significantly during the initial stages of PATP, indicating release of DPA. During TP changes were evident in the bands associated with secondary proteins. DPA bands showed little or no change during TP. A correlation was found between the spore's Ca-DPA content and its resistance to PATP. FT-IR spectroscopy could classify different strains of bacterial spores and determine some of the changes occurring during spore inactivation by PATP and TP. Furthermore, this technique shows great promise for rapid screening PATP-resistant bacterial spores.

  9. Characterisation of DNA methylation status using spectroscopy (mid-IR versus Raman) with multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jemma G; Najand, Ghazal M; Martin, Francis L

    2011-05-01

    Methylation status plays important roles in the regulation of gene expression and significantly influences the dynamics, bending and flexibility of DNA. The aim of this study was to determine whether attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) or Raman spectroscopy with subsequent multivariate analysis could determine methylation patterning in oligonucleotides variously containing 5-methylcytosine, cytosine and guanine bases. Applied to Low-E reflective glass slides, 10 independent spectral acquisitions were acquired per oligonucleotide sample. Resultant spectra were baseline-corrected and vector normalised over the 1750 cm(-1) -760 cm(-1) (for ATR-FTIR spectroscopy) or the 1750 cm(-1) -600 cm(-1) (for Raman spectroscopy) regions. Data were then analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) coupled with linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Exploiting this approach, biomolecular signatures enabling sensitive and specific discrimination of methylation patterning were derived. For DNA sequence and methylation analysis, this approach has the potential to be an important tool, especially when material is scarce.

  10. Compact large-aperture Fabry-Perot interferometer modules for gas spectroscopy at mid-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantojärvi, Uula; Varpula, Aapo; Antila, Tapani; Holmlund, Christer; Mäkynen, Jussi; Näsilä, Antti; Mannila, Rami; Rissanen, Anna; Antila, Jarkko; Disch, Rolf J.; Waldmann, Torsten A.

    2014-03-01

    VTT has developed Fabry-Pérot Interferometers (FPI) for visible and infrared wavelengths since 90's. Here we present two new platforms for mid-infrared gas spectroscopy having a large optical aperture to provide high optical throughput but still enabling miniaturized instrument size. First platform is a tunable filter that replaces a traditional filter wheel, which operates between wavelengths of 4-5 um. Second platform is for correlation spectroscopy where the interferometer provides a comb-like transmission pattern mimicking absorption of diatomic molecules at the wavelength range of 4.7-4.8 um. The Bragg mirrors have 2-4 thin layers of polysilicon and silicon oxide.

  11. Identification and classification of textile fibres using ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy with chemometric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peets, Pilleriin; Leito, Ivo; Pelt, Jaan; Vahur, Signe

    2017-02-01

    The possibility of classification of single- and two-component textile materials using ATR-FT-IR spectra and chemometric methods, principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis, was assessed. Altogether 89 textile samples belonging to 26 different types (11 one- and 15 two-component textiles) were investigated. It was found that PCA classification using only two or three principal components (PCs) enables identifying different one- and two-component textiles, although with two important limitations: it was not always possible to distinguish between the cellulose-based fibres (cotton, linen and in some cases viscose) and it was only partly possible to distinguish between silk and wool. The statistical discriminant analysis can use as many PCs as there are sample classes and due to that can discriminate between single-component fibres, including viscose from linen and cotton as well as silk from wool. Besides that, in both of these cases, involving optical microscopy as an additional technique enabled unequivocal identification of the fibres. The possibilities of semi-quantitative analysis of mixed fibres (cotton-polyester, wool-polyester and wool-polyamide) with PCA were investigated and it was found that approximate quantitative composition is obtainable if for the mixed fibre sample a number of spectra are averaged in order to minimize the effect of structural inhomogeneity. For approximate content determination 25 spectra of selected two-component samples were registered for calibration and the averaged spectrum for each sample was computed. Due to the structural inhomogeneity of mixed textiles, obtaining accurate quantitative composition from real samples is not possible with ATR-FT-IR. The main problems with ATR-FT-IR-PCA classification are (1) difficulties in getting high quality spectra from some textiles (e.g. polyacrylic), (2) inhomogeneity of the textile fibres in the case of two-component fibres and (3) intrinsic similarity between the

  12. Spitzer-IRS Spectroscopy of the Prototypical Starburst Galaxy NGC7714

    CERN Document Server

    Brandl, B R; Higdon, S J U; Charmandaris, V; Spoon, H W W; Herter, T L; Hao, L; Bernard-Salas, J; Houck, J R; Armus, L; Soifer, B T; Grillmair, C J; Appleton, P N

    2004-01-01

    We present observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 7714 with the Infrared Spectrograph IRS on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra yield a wealth of ionic and molecular features that allow a detailed characterization of its properties. NGC 7714 has an HII region-like spectrum with strong PAH emission features. We find no evidence for an obscured active galactic nucleus, and with [NeIII]/[NeII]~0.73, NGC7714 lies near the upper end of normal-metallicity starburst galaxies. With very little slicate absorption and a temperature of the hottest dust component of 340K, NGC 7714 is the perfect template for a young, unobscured starburst

  13. Mid- and Far-IR Spectroscopy of the Nebular Phase of SN1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The mid- and far-infrared (IR) spectra of the nebular phase of SM 987A spans 250 days through more than 1000 days after the event. Analysis of the spectra, largely obtained from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, leads to a rich picture of the structure of the supernebula. The evidence for dust grain formation. In the nebula after about 580 days will be reviewed. The dust continuum emission spectrum was gray and dust appears to have condensed in optically thick 'clumps' throughout a significant fraction of the nebula. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Identification and classification of textile fibres using ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy with chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peets, Pilleriin; Leito, Ivo; Pelt, Jaan; Vahur, Signe

    2017-02-15

    The possibility of classification of single- and two-component textile materials using ATR-FT-IR spectra and chemometric methods, principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis, was assessed. Altogether 89 textile samples belonging to 26 different types (11 one- and 15 two-component textiles) were investigated. It was found that PCA classification using only two or three principal components (PCs) enables identifying different one- and two-component textiles, although with two important limitations: it was not always possible to distinguish between the cellulose-based fibres (cotton, linen and in some cases viscose) and it was only partly possible to distinguish between silk and wool. The statistical discriminant analysis can use as many PCs as there are sample classes and due to that can discriminate between single-component fibres, including viscose from linen and cotton as well as silk from wool. Besides that, in both of these cases, involving optical microscopy as an additional technique enabled unequivocal identification of the fibres. The possibilities of semi-quantitative analysis of mixed fibres (cotton-polyester, wool-polyester and wool-polyamide) with PCA were investigated and it was found that approximate quantitative composition is obtainable if for the mixed fibre sample a number of spectra are averaged in order to minimize the effect of structural inhomogeneity. For approximate content determination 25 spectra of selected two-component samples were registered for calibration and the averaged spectrum for each sample was computed. Due to the structural inhomogeneity of mixed textiles, obtaining accurate quantitative composition from real samples is not possible with ATR-FT-IR. The main problems with ATR-FT-IR-PCA classification are (1) difficulties in getting high quality spectra from some textiles (e.g. polyacrylic), (2) inhomogeneity of the textile fibres in the case of two-component fibres and (3) intrinsic similarity between the

  15. In-situ IR spectroscopy to study anodic oxidation of Si(111) in KOH solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipsen, H.G.G.; Chazalviel, J.-N.; Allongue, P.; Ozanam, F.; Kelly, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to study in-situ the anodic oxidation of n-type Si(111) in KOH solution. Changes in surface chemistry were followed during oxide growth. The results are considered on the basis of a model developed from electrochemical measurements.

  16. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy of Atmospheric Trace Gases HCl, NO and SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridass, C.; Aw-Musse, A.; Dowdye, E.; Bandyopadhyay, C.; Misra, P.; Okabe, H.

    1998-01-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectral data have been recorded in the spectral region 400-4000/cm of hydrogen chloride and sulfur dioxide with I/cm resolution and of nitric oxide with 0.25 cm-i resolution, under quasi-static conditions, when the sample gas was passed through tubings of aluminum, copper, stainless steel and teflon. The absorbance was measured for the rotational lines of the fundamental bands of (1)H(35)Cl and (1)H(37)Cl for pressures in the range 100-1000 Torr and for the (14)N(16)O molecule in the range 100-300 Torr. The absorbance was also measured for individual rotational lines corresponding to the three modes of vibrations (upsilon(sub 1) - symmetric stretch, upsilon(sub 2) - symmetric bend, upsilon(sub 3) - anti-symmetric stretch) of the SO2 molecule in the pressure range 25-150 Torr. A graph of absorbance versus pressure was plotted for the observed rotational transitions of the three atmospherically significant molecules, and it was found that the absorbance was linearly proportional to the pressure range chosen, thereby validating Beer's law. The absorption cross-sections were determined from the graphical slopes for each rotational transition recorded for the HCl, NO and SO2 species. Qualitative and quantitative spectral changes in the FT-IR data will be discussed to identify and characterize various tubing materials with respect to their absorption features.

  17. Following [FeFe] Hydrogenase Active Site Intermediates by Time-Resolved Mid-IR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmohades, Mohammad; Adamska-Venkatesh, Agnieszka; Sommer, Constanze; Reijerse, Edward; Lomoth, Reiner; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Hammarström, Leif

    2016-08-18

    Time-resolved nanosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy is for the first time employed to study the [FeFe] hydrogenase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and to investigate relevant intermediates of the enzyme active site. An actinic 355 nm, 10 ns laser flash triggered photodissociation of a carbonyl group from the CO-inhibited state Hox-CO to form the state Hox, which is an intermediate of the catalytic proton reduction cycle. Time-resolved infrared spectroscopy allowed us to directly follow the subsequent rebinding of the carbonyl, re-forming Hox-CO, and determine the reaction half-life to be t1/2 ≈ 13 ± 5 ms at room temperature. This gives direct information on the dynamics of CO inhibition of the enzyme.

  18. Chemical Sensors Based on IR Spectroscopy and Surface-Modified Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Gabriel P.; Niemczyk, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Sol-gel processing techniques have been used to apply thin porous films to the surfaces of planar infrared (IR) waveguides to produce widely useful chemical sensors. The thin- film coating serves to diminish the concentration of water and increase the concentration of the analyte in the region probed by the evanescent IR wave. These porous films are composed of silica, and therefore, conventional silica surface modification techniques can be used to give the surface a specific functional character. The sol-gel film was surface-modified to make the film highly hydrophobic. These sensors were shown to be capable of detecting non-polar organic analytes, such as benzonitrile, in aqueous solution with detection limits in the ppb range. Further, these porous sol-gel structures allow the analytes to diffuse into and out of the films rapidly, thus reaching equilibrium in less than ten seconds. These sensors are unique because of the fact that their operation is based on the measurement of an IR absorption spectrum. Thus, these sensors are able to identify the analytes as well as measure concentration with high sensitivity. These developments have been documented in previous reports and publications. Recently, we have also targeted detection of the polar organic molecules acetone and isopropanol in aqueous solution. Polar organics are widely used in industrial and chemical processes, hence it is of interest to monitor their presence in effluents or decontamination process flows. Although large improvements in detection limits were expected with non-polar organic molecules in aqueous solutions using very hydrophobic porous sol-gel films on silicon attenuated total reflectance (Si ATR) waveguides, it was not as clear what the detection enhancements might be for polar organic molecules. This report describes the use of modified sol-gel-coated Si ATR sensors for trace detection and quantitation of small polar organic molecules in aqueous solutions. The detection of both acetone

  19. La-doping effect on spin-orbit coupled Sr2IrO4 probed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Sun, Xuanyong; Liu, Shengli; Li, Bin; Wang, Haiyun; Dong, Peng; Wang, Yu; Xu, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Sr2IrO4 was predicted to be an unconventional superconductor upon carrier doping since it highly resembles the high-temperature cuprates. Here, to understand carrier doping effect on spin-orbit coupled Mott insulator Sr2IrO4, the electronic structure and local structure distortion for Sr2 - x La x IrO4 system have been investigated by x-ray absorption spectroscopy. By comparing the intensity of white-line features at the Ir L 2,3 absorption edges, we observe remarkably large branching ratios in La-doped compounds, greater than that of the parent material Sr2IrO4, suggesting a strong spin-orbit interaction for Sr2IrO4-based system. Moreover, extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectra demonstrate more regular IrO6 octahedra, i.e. the weakened crystal electric field versus La-doping. By theoretical calculations, the synergistic effect of regular IrO6 octahedra and electron doping is established, which accounts for the transition from a Mott insulator to a conductive state in Sr2 - x La x IrO4-based system.

  20. Adsorption and interaction of 5-fluorouracil with montmorillonite and saponite by FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akalin, Elif; Akyuz, Sevim; Akyuz, Tanil

    2007-05-01

    Adsorption of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on montmorillonite and saponite has been investigated using FT-IR spectrometry. The intercalation of 5-FU within montmorillonite or saponite has been shown by X-ray diffraction to increase the interlayer spacing. In order to investigate interaction of 5-FU with clays, the harmonic and anharmonic vibrational wavenumbers of free 5-FU and 5-FU interacting with Al(OH) 3 have been calculated at the DFT/B3LYP level with 6-31++G(d,p) basis set by using Gaussian 03 program set. The solution effect on 5-FU was also calculated by using polarizable continuum model (PCM). Experimental and calculated results indicated that 5-FU interacted with clays by direct or indirect coordination (through water molecules) to the Lewis acidic centers.

  1. High-resolution IR absorption spectroscopy of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: the realm of anharmonicity

    CERN Document Server

    Maltseva, Elena; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J; Tielens, Alexander G G M; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2015-01-01

    We report on an experimental and theoretical investigation of the importance of anharmonicity in the 3 micron CH stretching region of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. We present mass-resolved, high-resolution spectra of the gas-phase cold (~4K) linear PAH molecules naphthalene, anthracene, and tetracene. The measured IR spectra show a surprisingly high number of strong vibrational bands. For naphthalene, the observed bands are well separated and limited by the rotational contour, revealing the band symmetries. Comparisons are made to the harmonic and anharmonic approaches of the widely used Gaussian software. We also present calculated spectra of these acenes using the computational program SPECTRO, providing anharmonic predictions enhanced with a Fermi-resonance treatment that utilises intensity redistribution. We demonstrate that the anharmonicity of the investigated acenes is strong, dominated by Fermi resonances between the fundamental and double combination modes, with triple combination ...

  2. High precision mapping of kidney stones using μ-IR spectroscopy to determine urinary lithogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Francisco; Ortiz-Alías, Pilar; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Evolution of urinary lithiasis is determined by the metabolism and life-style of the related patient. The appropriate classification of the stone is mandatory for the identification of the lithogenic process. In this study, cros-sections from a single stone of each of the most frequent urolithiasis types (calcium oxalate mono and dihydrate and carbonate apatite) have been selected and imaged using IR microspectroscopy. Moreover, the use of high definition sFTIR (synchrotron source) has revealed hidden information to the conventional FTIR. This work has demonstrated that minor components become key factors on the description of the stages of stone formation. Intensity map for COM (1630 cm(-1) peak). The high spatial definition achieved is key for the precise description of the kidney stone history.

  3. Nitriles as directionally tolerant hydrogen bond acceptors: IR-UV ion depletion spectroscopy of benzenepropanenitrile and its hydrate clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Patrick A.; Lobo, Isabella A.; Wilson, David J. D.; Robertson, Evan G.

    2016-09-01

    Benzenepropanenitrile (BPN) and its hydrate clusters are studied by R2PI and IR-UV ion-depletion spectroscopy in the CH/OH stretch regions, aided by theoretical calculations. A single water molecule binds to the terminal nitrile 'lone-pair' of the anti-BPN host, but there is also evidence for a side-type structure with OH donating to the nitrile π-electrons. In the gauche-BPN cluster, water is located at an intermediate angle that facilitates O⋯HC(ortho) interaction. A wide range of attachment angles is possible, as the intrinsic preference for linear hydrogen bonding is mediated by additional CH⋯O interactions that depend on molecular geometry near the nitrile group.

  4. Characterization of inorganic species in coal by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using UV and IR radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateo, M.P. [Universidad de A Coruna, Departamento de Ingenieria Industrial II, E-15403 Ferrol (A Coruna) (Spain)], E-mail: pazmateo@udc.es; Nicolas, G.; Yanez, A. [Universidad de A Coruna, Departamento de Ingenieria Industrial II, E-15403 Ferrol (A Coruna) (Spain)

    2007-12-15

    In this work, the capability of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for process control in a thermal power plant is presented through quantitative compositional characterization of the coal used for combustion. Laser-induced emission signal of seven samples with a range of concentrations was calibrated for quantification purposes. The eighth sample was subsequently analyzed five times as unknown in order to determine the precision and accuracy of the measurements. Two modes of operation, dynamic and static and two laser wavelengths, 1064 nm and 355 nm were employed in this study for comparison. The results revealed that UV wavelength provided better results than IR radiation in terms of accuracy for the quantification of inorganic species in coal after the comparison with conventional atomic absorption spectrometry characterization.

  5. Solid state 13C NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy of the cocoon silk of two common spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramanti, Emilia; Catalano, Donata; Forte, Claudia; Giovanneschi, Mario; Masetti, Massimo; Veracini, Carlo Alberto

    2005-11-01

    The structure of the silk from cocoons of two common spiders, Araneus diadematus (family Araneidae) and Achaearanea tepidariorum (family Theridiidae) was investigated by means of 13C solid state NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies. The combined use of these two techniques allowed us to highlight differences in the two samples. The cocoon silk of Achaearanea tepidariorum is essentially constituted by helical and β-sheet structures, whereas that of Araneus diadematus shows a more complex structure, containing also β-strands and β-turns. Moreover, the former silk is essentially crystalline while the latter contains more mobile domains. The structural differences of the two cocoon silks are ascribed to the different habitat of the two species.

  6. Hot Carrier Dynamics in the X Valley in Si and Ge Measured by Pump-IR-Probe Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. B.; Cavicchia, M. A.; Alfano, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    Si is the semiconductor of choice for nanoelectronic roadmap into the next century for computer and other nanodevices. With growing interest in Si, Ge, and Si(sub m)Ge(sub n) strained superlattices, knowledge of the carrier relaxation processes in these materials and structures has become increasingly important. The limited time resolution for earlier studies of carrier dynamics in Ge and Si, performed using Nd:glass lasers, was not sufficient to observe the fast cooling processes. In this paper, we present a direct measurement of hot carrier dynamics in the satellite X valley in Si and Ge by time-resolved infrared(IR) absorption spectroscopy, and show the potential of our technique to identify whether the X valley is the lowest conduction valley in semiconductor materials and structures.

  7. Ion Association in Hydrothermal Sodium Sulfate Solutions Studied by Modulated FT-IR-Raman Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Joachim; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Wambach, Jörg M; Vogel, Frédéric

    2015-07-30

    Saline aqueous solutions at elevated pressures and temperatures play an important role in processes such as supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) and supercritical water gasification (SCWG), as well as in natural geochemical processes in Earth and planetary interiors. Some solutions exhibit a negative temperature coefficient of solubility at high temperatures, thereby leading to salt precipitation with increasing temperature. Using modulated FT-IR Raman spectroscopy and classical molecular dynamics simulations (MD), we studied the solute speciation in solutions of 10 wt % Na2SO4, at conditions close to the saturation limit. Our experiments reveal that ion pairing and cluster formation are favored as solid saturation is approached, and ionic clusters form prior to the precipitation of solid sulfate. The proportion of such clusters increases as the phase boundary is approached either by decreasing pressure or by increasing temperature in the vicinity of the three-phase (vapor-liquid-solid) curve.

  8. Selective modification of polylactide by introducing acrylate groups: IR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, and differential thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashkova, V. T.; Matveeva, I. A.; Glagolev, N. N.; Zarkhina, T. S.; Timashev, P. S.; Bagratashvili, V. N.; Solov'eva, A. B.

    2016-10-01

    One-stage modification of polylactide has been performed to obtain the acrylate derivatives of the polymer capable of further polymerization and preparation of cross-linked polymer materials suitable for creating implants. The reaction mechanism was determined by IR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, and differential thermal analysis. It was shown for the first time that the reaction path changes depending on the ratio of components so that the desired product polylactide acrylate forms with a ~90% yield only in the presence of large (approximately tenfold) excesses of the isocyanate and acrylate components; at the equimolar ratio of components generally used in urethane formation, a mixture of the desired product (~30%), oligourethane diacrylates, and unchanged polylactide forms.

  9. Impact of Humidity on Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Based CO Detection Using a Near-IR Telecommunication Diode Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xukun; Dong, Lei; Zheng, Huadan; Liu, Xiaoli; Wu, Hongpeng; Yang, Yanfang; Ma, Weiguang; Zhang, Lei; Yin, Wangbao; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2016-01-27

    A near-IR CO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) is evaluated using humidified nitrogen samples. Relaxation processes in the CO-N2-H2O system are investigated. A simple kinetic model is used to predict the sensor performance at different gas pressures. The results show that CO has a ~3 and ~5 times slower relaxation time constant than CH4 and HCN, respectively, under dry conditions. However, with the presence of water, its relaxation time constant can be improved by three orders of magnitude. The experimentally determined normalized detection sensitivity for CO in humid gas is 1.556 × 10(-8) W ⋅ cm (-1)/Hz(1/2).

  10. Impact of Humidity on Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Based CO Detection Using a Near-IR Telecommunication Diode Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xukun Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A near-IR CO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS is evaluated using humidified nitrogen samples. Relaxation processes in the CO-N2-H2O system are investigated. A simple kinetic model is used to predict the sensor performance at different gas pressures. The results show that CO has a ~3 and ~5 times slower relaxation time constant than CH4 and HCN, respectively, under dry conditions. However, with the presence of water, its relaxation time constant can be improved by three orders of magnitude. The experimentally determined normalized detection sensitivity for CO in humid gas is 1.556 × 10 − 8   W ⋅ cm − 1 / Hz 1 / 2 .

  11. Cyclic Constraints on Conformational Flexibility in γ-PEPTIDES: Conformation-Specific IR and UV Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Patrick S.; Kusaka, Ryoji; Zwier, Timothy S.; Fisher, Brian F.; Gellman, Samuel H.

    2013-06-01

    Spectroscopic studies of flexible peptides in the gas phase can provide insight to their inherent structural preferences in the absence of solvent. Recently, there has been increased attention paid to synthetic foldamers containing non-natural residues that can be specifically engineered to robustly form particular secondary structures. These engineered peptides have potential in therapeutic drug design because they are resistant to enzymatic degradation. Specifically, the Gellman group has synthesized a γ-peptide with a six membered cyclic constraint in the γ^{4}-γ^{3} position and an ethyl group at the γ^{2} position (γ_{ACHC}). The three stereocenters have a well-defined chirality [S,S,S]. These two features constrain the relative orientation of adjacent amide groups, thereby favoring a particular "pitch" to the turn. Solution phase results indicate that constrained γ-peptides induce the formation of a 14-helix. Ac-γ_{ACHC}-NHBz, its monohydrate and Ac-γ_{ACHC}-γ_{ACHC}-NHBz have been studied using ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) double-resonance methods to obtain conformation-specific spectra under jet-cooled conditions in the gas phase. IR spectra in the hydride stretch (3300-3750 cm^{-1}), amide I/II and OH bend (1400-1800 cm^{-1}) were recorded and compared to predictions using density functional methods (DFT) and harmonic frequency calculations. We will compare the present results on constrained γ-peptides with corresponding results on unconstrained analogs. Data obtained for the monohydrated water cluster of Ac-γ_{ACHC}-NHBz will also be presented, including assignment of the water bend fundamental, which appears in the midst of transitions due to the amide II vibrations. L. Guo, W. Zhang, A. G. Reidenbach, M. W. Giuliano, I. A. Guzei, L. C. Spencer and S. H. Gellman Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 5843-5846

  12. A Concept for Seeing-Limited Near-IR Spectroscopy on the Giant Magellan Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcoe, Robert A.; Furesz, Gabor; Egan, Mark; Malonis, Andrew; Hellickson, Tim

    2016-09-01

    We present a simple seeing-limited IR spectrometer design for the Giant Magellan Telescope, with continuous R = 6000 coverage from 0.87-2.50 microns for a 0:7" slit. The instrument's design is based on an asymmetric white pupil echelle layout, with dichroics splitting the optical train into yJ, H, and K channels after the pupil transfer mirror. A separate low-dispersion mode offers single-object R ~ 850 spectra which also cover the full NIR bandpass in each exposure. Catalog gratings and H2RG detectors are used to minimize cost, and only two cryogenic rotary mechanisms are employed, reducing mechanical complexity. The instrument dewar occupies an envelope of 1:8×1:5×1:2 meters, satisfying mass and volume requirements for GMT with comfortable margin. We estimate the system throughput at ~35% including losses from the atmosphere, telescope, and instrument (i.e. all coatings, gratings, and sensors). This optical efficiency is comparable to the FIRE spectrograph on Magellan, and we have specified and designed fast cameras so the GMT instrument will have an almost identical pixel scale as FIRE. On the 6.5 meter Magellan telescopes, FIRE is read-noise limited in the y and J bands, similar to other existing near-IR spectrometers and also to JWST/NIRSPEC. GMT's twelve-fold increase in collecting area will therefore offer gains in signal-to-noise per exposure that exceed those of moderate resolution optical instruments, which are already sky-noise limited on today's telescopes. Such an instrument would allow GMT to pursue key early science programs on the Epoch of Reionization, galaxy formation, transient astronomy, and obscured star formation environments prior to commissioning of its adaptive optics system. This design study demonstrates the feasibility of developing relatively affordable spectrometers at the ELT scale, in response to the pressures of joint funding for these telescopes and their associated instrument suites.

  13. Rapid Quantitative Determination of Squalene in Shark Liver Oils by Raman and IR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David W; Marshall, Susan N; Gordon, Keith C; Killeen, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    Squalene is sourced predominantly from shark liver oils and to a lesser extent from plants such as olives. It is used for the production of surfactants, dyes, sunscreen, and cosmetics. The economic value of shark liver oil is directly related to the squalene content, which in turn is highly variable and species-dependent. Presented here is a validated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis method for the quantitation of squalene in shark liver oils, with an accuracy of 99.0 %, precision of 0.23 % (standard deviation), and linearity of >0.999. The method has been used to measure the squalene concentration of 16 commercial shark liver oils. These reference squalene concentrations were related to infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of the same oils using partial least squares regression. The resultant models were suitable for the rapid quantitation of squalene in shark liver oils, with cross-validation r (2) values of >0.98 and root mean square errors of validation of ≤4.3 % w/w. Independent test set validation of these models found mean absolute deviations of the 4.9 and 1.0 % w/w for the IR and Raman models, respectively. Both techniques were more accurate than results obtained by an industrial refractive index analysis method, which is used for rapid, cheap quantitation of squalene in shark liver oils. In particular, the Raman partial least squares regression was suited to quantitative squalene analysis. The intense and highly characteristic Raman bands of squalene made quantitative analysis possible irrespective of the lipid matrix.

  14. IR spectroscopy of ethanol in nitrogen cryomatrices with different concentration ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldiyarov, A.; Aryutkina, M.; Drobyshev, A.; Kurnosov, V.

    2011-06-01

    Thin films of cryovacuum condensates of ethanol-nitrogen mixtures formed by co-condensation of gas mixtures with different concentrations on a cooled metal substrate are studied by IR spectrometry. The condensation temperature was Tc = 16 K and the pressure of the gaseous phase during cryodeposition was P = 10-5 Torr. The ethanol concentration in nitrogen was varied from 0.5 to 10% and the film thickness, from 1 to 30 μm. Measurements were made in the range from 400 to 4200 cm-1. An analysis of the IR spectra and a comparison with published data shows that ethanol monomers and dimers are present in the nitrogen matrix. This is indicated by an absorption band at a frequency of 3658 cm-1 owing to vibrations of O-H bonds of ethanol monomers and dimers. The local minima of this band at 3645 and 3658 cm-1 are related to the existence of two conformational states of the ethanol molecule: anti (3658 cm-1) and gauche (3645 cm-1). In addition, the presence of ethanol dimers and monomers in the matrix leads to the appearance of absorption bands at 1259 and 1276 cm-1 attributable to deformation vibrations δ(COH) of the anti- and gauche-isomers, respectively, as well as bands corresponding to a combination of ν(CCO) valence vibrations and rotational oscillations of the methyl group r(CH3) attributable to anti-dimers (ν = 1090 cm-1) and anti-monomers (ν = 1095 cm-1). Local minima within 3000-3600 cm-1 also indicate the presence of cyclical dimers, trimers, and tetramers, as well as hexamers in the matrix. A broad band over 3250-3330 cm-1 indicates that large polyaggregates, with ethanol molecules in a hydrogen-bond state (multimer), exist in the matrix.

  15. Verification of Ganoderma (lingzhi) commercial products by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional IR correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Yew-Keong; Sun, Su-Qin; Zhou, Qun; Lan, Jin; Lee, Han-Lim; Chen, Xiang-Dong

    2014-07-01

    Ganoderma commercial products are typically based on two sources, raw material (powder form and/or spores) and extract (water and/or solvent). This study compared three types of Ganoderma commercial products using 1 Dimensional Fourier Transform infrared and second derivative spectroscopy. The analyzed spectra of Ganoderma raw material products were compared with spectra of cultivated Ganoderma raw material powder from different mushroom farms in Malaysia. The Ganoderma extract product was also compared with three types of cultivated Ganoderma extracts. Other medicinal Ganoderma contents in commercial extract product that included glucan and triterpenoid were analyzed by using FTIR and 2DIR. The results showed that water extract of cultivated Ganoderma possessed comparable spectra with that of Ganoderma product water extract. By comparing the content of Ganoderma commercial products using FTIR and 2DIR, product content profiles could be detected. In addition, the geographical origin of the Ganoderma products could be verified by comparing their spectra with Ganoderma products from known areas. This study demonstrated the possibility of developing verification tool to validate the purity of commercial medicinal herbal and mushroom products.

  16. Infrared Spectroscopy of Gas-Phase M(+)(CO2)n (M = Co, Rh, Ir) Ion-Molecule Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskra, Andreas; Gentleman, Alexander S; Kartouzian, Aras; Kent, Michael J; Sharp, Alastair P; Mackenzie, Stuart R

    2017-01-12

    The structures of gas-phase M(+)(CO2)n (M = Co, Rh, Ir; n = 2-15) ion-molecule complexes have been investigated using a combination of infrared resonance-enhanced photodissociation (IR-REPD) spectroscopy and density functional theory. The results provide insight into fundamental metal ion-CO2 interactions, highlighting the trends with increasing ligand number and with different group 9 ions. Spectra have been recorded in the region of the CO2 asymmetric stretch around 2350 cm(-1) using the inert messenger technique and their interpretation has been aided by comparison with simulated infrared spectra of calculated low-energy isomeric structures. All vibrational bands in the smaller complexes are blue-shifted relative to the asymmetric stretch in free CO2, consistent with direct binding to the metal center dominated by charge-quadrupole interactions. For all three metal ions, a core [M(+)(CO2)2] structure is identified to which subsequent ligands are less strongly bound. No evidence is observed in this size regime for complete activation or insertion reactions.

  17. Optical Determination of Lead Chrome Green in Green Tea by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Transmission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoli; Xu, Kaiwen; Zhang, Yuying; Sun, Chanjun; He, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The potential of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) transmission spectroscopy for determination of lead chrome green in green tea was investigated based on chemometric methods. Firstly, the qualitative analysis of lead chrome green in tea was performed based on partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and the correct rate of classification was 100%. And then, a hybrid method of interval partial least squares (iPLS) regression and successive projections algorithm (SPA) was proposed to select characteristic wavenumbers for the quantitative analysis of lead chrome green in green tea, and 19 wavenumbers were obtained finally. Among these wavenumbers, 1384 (C = C), 1456, 1438, 1419(C = N), and 1506 (CNH) cm-1 were the characteristic wavenumbers of lead chrome green. Then, these 19 wavenumbers were used to build determination models. The best model was achieved by least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM)algorithm with high coefficient of determination and low root-mean square error of prediction set (R2p = 0.864 and RMSEP = 0.291). All these results indicated the feasibility of IR spectra for detecting lead chrome green in green tea. PMID:28068348

  18. Sensing the structural differences in cellulose from apple and bacterial cell wall materials by Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska-Chargot, Monika; Cybulska, Justyna; Zdunek, Artur

    2011-01-01

    Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used for assessment of structural differences of celluloses of various origins. Investigated celluloses were: bacterial celluloses cultured in presence of pectin and/or xyloglucan, as well as commercial celluloses and cellulose extracted from apple parenchyma. FT-IR spectra were used to estimate of the I(β) content, whereas Raman spectra were used to evaluate the degree of crystallinity of the cellulose. The crystallinity index (X(C)(RAMAN)%) varied from -25% for apple cellulose to 53% for microcrystalline commercial cellulose. Considering bacterial cellulose, addition of xyloglucan has an impact on the percentage content of cellulose I(β). However, addition of only xyloglucan or only pectins to pure bacterial cellulose both resulted in a slight decrease of crystallinity. However, culturing bacterial cellulose in the presence of mixtures of xyloglucan and pectins results in an increase of crystallinity. The results confirmed that the higher degree of crystallinity, the broader the peak around 913 cm(-1). Among all bacterial celluloses the bacterial cellulose cultured in presence of xyloglucan and pectin (BCPX) has the most similar structure to those observed in natural primary cell walls.

  19. Sensing the Structural Differences in Cellulose from Apple and Bacterial Cell Wall Materials by Raman and FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Zdunek

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy was used for assessment of structural differences of celluloses of various origins. Investigated celluloses were: bacterial celluloses cultured in presence of pectin and/or xyloglucan, as well as commercial celluloses and cellulose extracted from apple parenchyma. FT-IR spectra were used to estimate of the Iβ content, whereas Raman spectra were used to evaluate the degree of crystallinity of the cellulose. The crystallinity index (XCRAMAN% varied from −25% for apple cellulose to 53% for microcrystalline commercial cellulose. Considering bacterial cellulose, addition of xyloglucan has an impact on the percentage content of cellulose Iβ. However, addition of only xyloglucan or only pectins to pure bacterial cellulose both resulted in a slight decrease of crystallinity. However, culturing bacterial cellulose in the presence of mixtures of xyloglucan and pectins results in an increase of crystallinity. The results confirmed that the higher degree of crystallinity, the broader the peak around 913 cm−1. Among all bacterial celluloses the bacterial cellulose cultured in presence of xyloglucan and pectin (BCPX has the most similar structure to those observed in natural primary cell walls.

  20. Highly Stable, All-fiber, High Power ZBLAN Supercontinuum Source Reaching 4.75 µm used for Nanosecond mid-IR Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moselund, Peter M.; Petersen, Christian; Leick, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate compact all-fiber mid-IR supercontinuum generation up to 4.75 μm with 1.2 W output power during hundreds of hours. This source is applied to upconversion spectroscopy using the energy corresponding to a single pulse.......We demonstrate compact all-fiber mid-IR supercontinuum generation up to 4.75 μm with 1.2 W output power during hundreds of hours. This source is applied to upconversion spectroscopy using the energy corresponding to a single pulse....

  1. Thermal decomposition of methyl 2-azidopropionate studied by UV photoelectron spectroscopy and matrix isolation IR spectroscopy: heterocyclic intermediate vs imine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, R M; Dias, A A; Costa, M L; Rodrigues, P; Barros, M T; Ogden, J S; Dyke, J M

    2011-08-01

    Methyl 2-azidopropionate (N(3)CH(3)CHCOOCH(3), M2AP) has been synthesized and characterized by different spectroscopic methods, and the thermal decomposition of this molecule has been investigated by matrix isolation infrared (IR) spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UVPES). Computational methods have been employed in the spectral simulation of both UVPES and matrix IR spectra and in the rationalization of the thermal decomposition results. M2AP presents a HOMO vertical ionization energy (VIE) of 9.60 ± 0.03 eV and contributions from all four lowest-energy conformations of this molecule are detected in the gas phase. Its thermal decomposition starts at ca. 400 °C and is complete at ca. 650 °C, yielding N(2), CO, CO(2), CH(3)CN, and CH(3)OH as the final decomposition products. Methyl formate (MF) and CH(4) are also found during the pyrolysis process. Analysis of the potential energy surface of the decomposition of M2AP indicates that M2AP decomposes preferentially into the corresponding imine (M2IP), through a 1,2-H shift synchronous with the N(2) elimination (Type 1 mechanism), requiring an activation energy of 160.8 kJ/mol. The imine further decomposes via two competitive routes: one accounting for CO, CH(3)OH, and CH(3)CN (ΔE(G3) = 260.2 kJ/mol) and another leading to CO(2), CH(4), and CH(3)CN (ΔE(G3) = 268.6 kJ/mol). A heterocyclic intermediate (Type 2 mechanism)-4-Me-5-oxazolidone-can also be formed from M2AP via H transfer from the remote O-CH(3) group, together with the N(2) elimination (ΔE(G3) = 260.2 kJ/mol). Finally, a third pathway which accounts for the formation of MF through an M2AP isomer is envisioned.

  2. Spatially Resolved Spitzer-IRS Spectroscopy of the Central Region of M82

    CERN Document Server

    Beirão, P; Appleton, P N; Groves, B; Armus, L; Förster-Schreiber, N M; Smith, J D; Charmandaris, V; Houck, J R

    2007-01-01

    We present high spatial resolution (~ 35 parsec) 5-38 um spectra of the central region of M82, taken with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. From these spectra we determined the fluxes and equivalent widths of key diagnostic features, such as the [NeII]12.8um, [NeIII]15.5um, and H_2 S(1)17.03um lines, and the broad mid-IR polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features in six representative regions and analysed the spatial distribution of these lines and their ratios across the central region. We find a good correlation of the dust extinction with the CO 1-0 emission. The PAH emission follows closely the ionization structure along the galactic disk. The observed variations of the diagnostic PAH ratios across M82 can be explained by extinction effects, within systematic uncertainties. The 16-18um PAH complex is very prominent, and its equivalent width is enhanced outwards from the galactic plane. We interpret this as a consequence of the variation of the UV radiation field. The EWs of the 11.3um PAH fe...

  3. ISO Spectroscopy of the Young Bipolar Nebulae S106 IR and Cep A East

    CERN Document Server

    Van den Ancker, M E; Wesselius, P R

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of ISO SWS and LWS grating scans towards the embedded Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) S106 IR and Cep A East. Emission from the pure rotational lines of H2 and the infrared fine structure lines of [C II], [O I], [S I], [Si II] and [Fe II], as well as absorption bands due to H2O, CO and CO2 ice were detected toward Cep A. In S106 we detected emission lines of H2, CO, H I, and a large number of ionized species including Fe, O, N, C, Si, S, Ne and Ar. S106 also shows many of the infrared PAH bands in emission. Excitation temperatures and molecular hydrogen masses were derived from the low-lying pure rotational levels of H2 and are 500 and 730 K and 8 and 3 x 10^{-3} solar masses for S106 and Cep A, respectively. Since both objects are expected to have several solar masses of H2 in their environment, we conclude that in both cases the bulk of the H2 is cooler than a few hundred Kelvins. Excitation temperatures and line ratios were compared with those predicted by theoretical models for PDRs an...

  4. High-Resolution IR Absorption Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: The Realm of Anharmonicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseva, Elena; Petrignani, Annemieke; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J.; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2016-01-01

    We report on an experimental and theoretical investigation of the importance of anharmonicity in the 3 micrometers CH stretching region of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. We present mass-resolved, high-resolution spectra of the gas-phase cold ((is) approximately 4K) linear PAH molecules naphthalene, anthracene, and tetracene. The measured IR spectra show a surprisingly high number of strong vibrational bands. For naphthalene, the observed bands are well separated and limited by the rotational contour, revealing the band symmetries. Comparisons are made to the harmonic and anharmonic approaches of the widely used Gaussian software. We also present calculated spectra of these acenes using the computational program SPECTRO, providing anharmonic predictions enhanced with a Fermi-resonance treatment that utilizes intensity redistribution. We demonstrate that the anharmonicity of the investigated acenes is strong, dominated by Fermi resonances between the fundamental and double combination modes, with triple combination bands as possible candidates to resolve remaining discrepancies. The anharmonic spectra as calculated with SPECTRO lead to predictions of the main modes that fall within 0.5% of the experimental frequencies. The implications for the Aromatic Infrared Bands, specifically the 3-m band are discussed.

  5. HIGH-RESOLUTION IR ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: THE REALM OF ANHARMONICITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltseva, Elena; Buma, Wybren Jan [University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Petrignani, Annemieke; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J. [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Oomens, Jos, E-mail: w.j.buma@uva.nl, E-mail: petrignani@strw.leidenuniv.nl [Radboud University, Toernooiveld 7, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2015-11-20

    We report on an experimental and theoretical investigation of the importance of anharmonicity in the 3-μm CH stretching region of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. We present mass-resolved, high-resolution spectra of the gas-phase cold (∼4 K) linear PAH molecules naphthalene, anthracene, and tetracene. The measured IR spectra show a surprisingly high number of strong vibrational bands. For naphthalene, the observed bands are well separated and limited by the rotational contour, revealing the band symmetries. Comparisons are made to the harmonic and anharmonic approaches of the widely used Gaussian software. We also present calculated spectra of these acenes using the computational program SPECTRO, providing anharmonic predictions with a Fermi-resonance treatment that utilizes intensity redistribution. We demonstrate that the anharmonicity of the investigated acenes is strong, dominated by Fermi resonances between the fundamental and double combination modes, with triple combination bands as possible candidates to resolve remaining discrepancies. The anharmonic spectra as calculated with SPECTRO lead to predictions of the main bands that fall within 0.5% of the experimental frequencies. The implications for the aromatic infrared bands, specifically the 3-μm band, are discussed.

  6. Carbonization and demineralization of coals: A study by means of FT–IR spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Gómez-Serrano; M C Fernández-González; M L Rojas-Cervantes; M F Alexandre-Franco; A Macías-García

    2003-12-01

    Coal basically consists of two parts-a crystalline, inorganic part, and an amorphous, organic part. Based on this, we intended to study the changes that occurred on the composition and on the chemical structure of coals after carbonization at 1000 or 900°C and demineralization treatments with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. For this, four coals of different categories (or levels) were chosen: semianthracite (A–O) and high volatile bituminous coal (B–O), which are high level coals, and lignite (Li–O) and leonardite (Le–O), these being low level coals. The coals were first analysed in terms of their proximate and elemental compositions and then carbonized and demineralized. Also, the starting coals and the prepared samples were examined by infrared spectroscopy. In addition, a study of the optimization of the application of this technique for only A–O was carried out. For A–O and B–O, the spectra recorded intense absorption bands that are ascribable to vibration modes in mineral components as quartz and aluminosilicates, such as kaolinite. For Li–O and Le–O, the spectra displayed some other bands as well, also quite intense, which have been assigned to bond vibrations in functional groups and structures of their organic part. The carbonization of the coals resulted in significant changes in their inorganic part as the content of quartz increased and the content of aluminosilicates decreased. In addition, the thermal decomposition of mineral carbonates occurred. The carbonization greatly affects the organic part of the coals, especially in Li–O and Le–O, as most functional groups and structures are not thermally stable under heating conditions. With regard to demineralization, HF is a more effective agent than HCl, achieving products with higher organic content. The mass losses are higher in Li–O and Le–O than in A–O and B–O. So, the infrared spectroscopy allows the analysis of both inorganic and organic parts of the coals and of

  7. Synthesis and Resolution of the Atropisomeric 1,1'-Bi-2-Naphthol: An Experiment in Organic Synthesis and 2-D NMR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kendrew K. W.

    2004-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is presented. It is seen that the experiment regarding the synthesis and resolution of 1,1'-Bi-2-naphtol presents a good experiment for teaching organic synthesis and NMR spectroscopy and provides a strategy for obtaining enantiopure compounds from achiral starting materials.

  8. XANES and IR spectroscopy study of the electronic structure and chemical composition of porous silicon on n- and p-type substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenshin, A. S., E-mail: lenshinas@phys.vsu.ru; Kashkarov, V. M.; Seredin, P. V. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation); Spivak, Yu. M.; Moshnikov, V. A. [LETI St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15

    The differences in the electronic structure and composition of porous silicon samples obtained under identical conditions of electrochemical etching on the most commonly used n- and p-type substrates with different conductivities are demonstrated by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR) methods. It is shown that significantly higher oxidation and saturation with hydrogen is observed for the porous layer on n-type substrates.

  9. High Spatial Resolution Spectroscopy of W51 IRS2E and IRS2W: Two Very Massive Young Stars in Early Formation Stages

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa, C L; Conti, P S; Damineli, A; Figueredo, E

    2008-01-01

    We present $K$-band spectra of the near infrared counterparts to IRS2E and IRS2W which is associated with the ultracompact HII region W51d, both of them embedded sources in the Galactic compact HII region W51 IRS2. The high spatial resolution observations were obtained with the laser guide star facility and Near infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) mounted at the Gemini North observatory. The spectrum of the ionizing source of W51d shows the photospheric features NIII (21155 \\AA) in emission and HeII (21897 \\AA) in absorption which lead us to classify it as an young O3 type star. We detected CO overtone in emission at 23000 \\AA in the spectrum of IRS2E, suggesting that it is a massive young object still surrounded by an accretion disc, probably transitioning from the hot core phase to an ultracompact HII region.

  10. Peltier cooled PbSe double-heterostructure lasers for IR-gas spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preier, H.; Bleicher, M.; Riedel, W.; Pfeiffer, H.; Maier, H. (Allgemeine Elektricitaets-Gesellschaft AEG Telefunken, Frankfurt am Main (Germany, F.R.). Forschungsinstitut)

    1977-01-01

    PbS-PbSe-PbS double-heterostructure lasers have been pulse-operated at about 200 K mounted on 4 stage thermoelectric coolers. Emitting at a wavelength of about 5.5 ..mu..m they could be used for NO gas spectroscopy. Operation temperatures of up to 230 K have been achieved with structures consisting of n-type PbS substrates and epitaxial layers of n-type PbSe and Tl doped p-type PbS. The temperature dependence of the threshold current density and the emission wavelength of these DH-lasers was compared with PbSe-homojunction lasers. The use of a germanium etalon for a quick evaluation of the spectral quality of the emitted radiation is described.

  11. UV and IR spectroscopy of cold 1,2-dimethoxybenzene complexes with alkali metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Boyarkin, Oleg V; Ebata, Takayuki; Rizzo, Thomas R

    2012-04-01

    We report UV photodissociation (UVPD) and IR-UV double-resonance spectra of 1,2-dimethoxybenzene (DMB) complexes with alkali metal ions, M(+)·DMB (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs), in a cold, 22-pole ion trap. The UVPD spectrum of the Li(+) complex shows a strong origin band. For the K(+)·DMB, Rb(+)·DMB, and Cs(+)·DMB complexes, the origin band is very weak and low-frequency progressions are much more extensive than that of the Li(+) ion. In the case of the Na(+)·DMB complex, spectral features are similar to those of the K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+) complexes, but vibronic bands are not resolved. Geometry optimization with density functional theory indicates that the metal ions are bonded to the oxygen atoms in all the M(+)·DMB complexes. For the Li(+) complex in the S(0) state, the Li(+) ion is located in the same plane as the benzene ring, while the Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+) ions are located off the plane. In the S(1) state, the Li(+) complex has a structure similar to that in the S(0) state, providing the strong origin band in the UV spectrum. In contrast, the other complexes show a large structural change in the out-of-plane direction upon S(1)-S(0) excitation, which results in the extensive low-frequency progressions in the UVPD spectra. For the Na(+)·DMB complex, fast charge transfer occurs from Na(+) to DMB after the UV excitation, making the bandwidth of the UVPD spectrum much broader than that of the other complexes and producing the photofragment DMB(+) ion.

  12. THz and mid-IR spectroscopy of interstellar ice analogs: methyl and carboxylic acid groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioppolo, S; McGuire, B A; Allodi, M A; Blake, G A

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental problem in astrochemistry concerns the synthesis and survival of complex organic molecules (COMs) throughout the process of star and planet formation. While it is generally accepted that most complex molecules and prebiotic species form in the solid phase on icy grain particles, a complete understanding of the formation pathways is still largely lacking. To take full advantage of the enormous number of available THz observations (e.g., Herschel Space Observatory, SOFIA, and ALMA), laboratory analogs must be studied systematically. Here, we present the THz (0.3-7.5 THz; 10-250 cm(-1)) and mid-IR (400-4000 cm(-1)) spectra of astrophysically-relevant species that share the same functional groups, including formic acid (HCOOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH), and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) and acetone ((CH3)2CO), compared to more abundant interstellar molecules such as water (H2O), methanol (CH3OH), and carbon monoxide (CO). A suite of pure and mixed binary ices are discussed. The effects on the spectra due to the composition and the structure of the ice at different temperatures are shown. Our results demonstrate that THz spectra are sensitive to reversible and irreversible transformations within the ice caused by thermal processing, suggesting that THz spectra can be used to study the composition, structure, and thermal history of interstellar ices. Moreover, the THz spectrum of an individual species depends on the functional group(s) within that molecule. Thus, future THz studies of different functional groups will help in characterizing the chemistry and physics of the interstellar medium (ISM).

  13. Discovering [superscript 13]C NMR, [superscript 1]H NMR, and IR Spectroscopy in the General Chemistry Laboratory through a Sequence of Guided-Inquiry Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iler, H. Darrell; Justice, David; Brauer, Shari; Landis, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    This sequence of three guided-inquiry labs is designed for a second-semester general chemistry course and challenges students to discover basic theoretical principles associated with [superscript 13]C NMR, [superscript 1]H NMR, and IR spectroscopy. Students learn to identify and explain basic concepts of magnetic resonance and vibrational…

  14. Dynamics of an [Fe4S4(SPh)4]2- cluster explored via IR, Raman, and nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS)-analysis using 36S substitution, DFT calculations, and empirical force fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuming; Koutmos, Markos; Case, David A; Coucouvanis, Dimitri; Wang, Hongxin; Cramer, Stephen P

    2006-05-14

    We have used four vibrational spectroscopies--FT-IR, FT-Raman, resonance Raman, and 57Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS)--to study the normal modes of the Fe-S cluster in [(n-Bu)4N]2[Fe4S4(SPh)4]. This [Fe4S4(SR)4]2- complex serves as a model for the clusters in 4Fe ferredoxins and high-potential iron proteins (HiPIPs). The IR spectra exhibited differences above and below the 243 K phase transition. Significant shifts with 36S substitution into the bridging S positions were also observed. The NRVS results were in good agreement with the low temperature data from the conventional spectroscopies. The NRVS spectra were interpreted by normal mode analysis using optimized Urey-Bradley force fields (UBFF) as well as from DFT theory. For the UBFF calculations, the parameters were refined by comparing calculated and observed NRVS frequencies and intensities. The frequency shifts after 36S substitution were used as an additional constraint. A D 2d symmetry Fe4S4S'4 model could explain most of the observed frequencies, but a better match to the observed intensities was obtained when the ligand aromatic rings were included for a D 2d Fe4S4(SPh)4 model. The best results were obtained using the low temperature structure without symmetry constraints. In addition to stretching and bending vibrations, low frequency modes between approximately 50 and 100 cm(-1) were observed. These modes, which have not been seen before, are interpreted as twisting motions with opposing sides of the cube rotating in opposite directions. In contrast with a recent paper on a related Fe4S4 cluster, we find no need to assign a large fraction of the low frequency NRVS intensity to 'rotational lattice modes'. We also reassign the 430 cm(-1) band as primarily an elongation of the thiophenolate ring, with approximately 10% terminal Fe-S stretch character. This study illustrates the benefits of combining NRVS with conventional Raman and IR analysis for characterization of Fe-S centers. DFT

  15. Assessing the stability of alanine-based helices by conformer-selective IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Waldemar; Marianski, Mateusz; Warnke, Stephan; Seo, Jongcheol; Baldauf, Carsten; von Helden, Gert; Pagel, Kevin

    2016-07-20

    Polyalanine based peptides that carry a lysine at the C-terminus ([Ac-AlanLys + H](+)) are known to form α-helices in the gas phase. Three factors contribute to the stability of these helices: (i) the interaction between the helix macro dipole and the charge, (ii) the capping of dangling C[double bond, length as m-dash]O groups by lysine and (iii) the cooperative hydrogen bond network. In previous studies, the influence of the interaction between the helix dipole and the charge as well as the impact of the capping was studied intensively. Here, we complement these findings by systematically assessing the third parameter, the H-bond network. In order to selectively remove one H-bond along the backbone, we use amide-to-ester substitutions. The resulting depsi peptides were analyzed by ion-mobility and m/z-selective infrared spectroscopy as well as theoretical calculations. Our results indicate that peptides which contain only one ester bond still maintain the helical conformation. We conclude that the interaction between the charge and the helix macro-dipole is most crucial for the formation of the α-helical conformation and a single backbone H-bond has only little influence on the overall stability.

  16. IR-spectroscopy of CO adsorption on mixed-terminated ZnO surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Maria; Yu, Xiaojuan; Yang, Chengwu; Heißler, Stefan; Nefedov, Alexei; Wang, Yuemin; Wöll, Christof

    2016-10-01

    The adsorption of CO on two different mixed-terminated, single-crystal surfaces of zinc oxide, ZnO(10 1 -0) and ZnO(11 2 -0), was investigated by employing infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) using p- and s-polarized light. For both surfaces, one negative CO band was observed only for p-polarized light, indicating that CO is bound to the surface Zn2 + sites in a nearly upright geometry. In addition, we observed a substantial coverage-induced frequency shift for CO adsorption on both ZnO surfaces. For ZnO(10 1 -0), the ν(C-O) band shows a red shift of 16 cm- 1 when increasing the CO coverage from 0.5 ML (2185 cm- 1) to 1 ML (2169 cm- 1). On the ZnO(11 2 -0) surface, for isolated CO molecules, a frequency of 2192 cm- 1 was detected. The CO band shifts to 2170 cm- 1 at full monolayer. On both surfaces, the coverage-dependent frequency shift is attributed to a combination of dynamic and substrate-mediated static adsorbate-adsorbate interactions.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope Near-IR Transmission Spectroscopy of the Super-Earth HD 97658b

    CERN Document Server

    Knutson, Heather A; Kreidberg, Laura; Kempton, Eliza M -R; McCullough, P R; Fortney, Jonathan J; Bean, Jacob L; Gillon, Michael; Homeier, Derek; Howard, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Recent results from the Kepler mission indicate that super-Earths (planets with masses between 1-10 times that of the Earth) are the most common kind of planet around nearby Sun-like stars. These planets have no direct solar system analogue, and are currently one of the least well-understood classes of extrasolar planets. Many super-Earths have average densities that are consistent with a broad range of bulk compositions, including both water-dominated worlds and rocky planets covered by a thick hydrogen and helium atmosphere. Measurements of the transmission spectra of these planets offer the opportunity to resolve this degeneracy by directly constraining the scale heights and corresponding mean molecular weights of their atmospheres. We present Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared spectroscopy of two transits of the newly discovered transiting super-Earth HD 97658b. We use the Wide Field Camera 3's scanning mode to measure the wavelength-dependent transit depth in thirty individual bandpasses. Our averaged ...

  18. Far IR Transmission Characteristics of Silicon Nitride Films using Fourier Transform Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrusca, D.; Castillo-Domínguez, E.; Velázquez, M.; Hughes, D.; Serrano, A.; Torres-Jácome, A.

    2009-12-01

    We are fabricating amorphous Silicon (a-Si) bolometers doped with boron with a measured NEP˜1.5×10-16 W/Hz1/2 suitable for use in millimeter and sub-millimeter astronomy. In this paper we present the preliminary results of the absorber optimization for the a-Si bolometers. A film of Silicon Nitride (SiN), deposited by LPCVD (Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition) process at INAOE, with or without metallic coating is used as a weak thermal link to the heat sink as well as an absorber. We have measured the transmission spectrum of thin films of SiN in the range of 200 to 1000 GHz using Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FTS) and a bolometric system with a NEP˜1.26×10-13. The transmission of thin films of SiN with a thickness of 0.4 μn has been measured at temperatures of 290 K and 4 K. The uncoated SiN films have a transmission of 80% and we expect a 50% transmission for the metallic (e.g. Titanium) coated films.

  19. Using FT-IR spectroscopy to measure charge organization in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, Christopher M; Janzen, Jonathan; Butson, Eric D; Coltrain, Gage L

    2013-07-25

    A major goal in the field of ionic liquids is correlating transport property trends with the underlying liquid structure of the compounds, such as the degree of charge organization among the constituent ions. Traditional techniques for experimentally assessing charge organization are specialized and not readily available for routine measurements. This represents a significant roadblock in elucidating these correlations. We use a combination of transmission and polarized-ATR infrared spectroscopy to measure the degree of charge organization for ionic liquids. The technique is illustrated with a family of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ionic liquids at 30 °C. As expected, the amount of charge organization decreases as the alkyl side chain is lengthened, highlighting the important role of short-range repulsive interactions in defining quasilattice structure. Inherent limitations of the method are identified and discussed. The quantitative measurements of charge organization are then correlated with trends in the transport properties of the compounds to highlight the relationship between charge and momentum transport and the underlying liquid structure. Most research laboratories possess infrared spectrometers capable of conducting these measurements; thus, the proposed method may represent a cost-effective solution for routinely measuring charge organization in ionic liquids.

  20. Ultrafast transient mid IR to visible spectroscopy of fully reduced flavins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui-Kun; Lukacs, Andras; Haigney, Allison; Brust, Richard; Greetham, Gregory M; Towrie, Michael; Tonge, Peter J; Meech, Stephen R

    2011-10-21

    The light sensing apparatus of many organisms includes a flavoprotein. In any spectroscopic analysis of the photocycle of flavoproteins a detailed knowledge of the spectroscopy and excited state dynamics of potential intermediates is required. Here we correlate transient vibrational and electronic spectra of the two fully reduced forms of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD): FADH(-) and FADH(2). Ground and excited state frequencies of the characteristic carbonyl modes are observed and assigned with the aid of DFT calculations. Excited state decay and ground state recovery dynamics of the two states are reported. Excited state decay occurs on the picosecond timescale, in agreement with the low fluorescence yield, and is markedly non single exponential in FADH(-). Further, an unusual 'inverse' isotope effect is observed in the decay time of FADH(-), suggesting the involvement in the radiationless relaxation coordinate of an NH or hydrogen bond mode that strengthens in the excited electronic state. Ground state recovery also occurs on the picosecond time scale, consistent with radiationless decay by internal conversion, but is slower than the excited state decay.

  1. The structure and dynamics of carbon dioxide and water containing ices investigated via THz and mid-IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allodi, Marco A; Ioppolo, Sergio; Kelley, Matthew J; McGuire, Brett A; Blake, Geoffrey A

    2014-02-28

    Icy dust grains play a key role in the chemistry of the interstellar medium. The cumulative outcome of recent observations, laboratory studies, and astrochemical models indicates that solid-phase reaction mechanisms may dominate the formation of complex organic molecules such as amino acids and sugars in space. Consequently, the composition and structure of the icy grain mantle may significantly influence solid-phase reaction pathways. In this work, we present a new experimental setup capable of studying astrochemical ice analogs in both the TeraHertz (THz), or far-Infrared (far-IR), region (0.3-7.5 THz; 10-250 cm(-1)) and the mid-IR (400-4000 cm(-1)). The instruments are capable of performing a variety of spectroscopic studies that can provide especially relevant laboratory data to support astronomical observations from telescopes such as Herschel, SOFIA, and ALMA. Experimental spectra of astrochemical ice analogs of water and carbon dioxide in pure, mixed, and layered ices were collected at different temperatures under high vacuum conditions with the goal of investigating the structure of the ice. We tentatively observe a new feature in both amorphous solid water and crystalline water at 33 cm(-1) (1 THz). In addition, our studies of mixed and layered ices show how it is possible to identify the location of carbon dioxide as it segregates within the ice by observing its effect on the THz spectrum of water ice. The THz spectra of mixed and layered ices are further analyzed by fitting their spectral features to those of pure amorphous solid water and crystalline water ice to quantify the effects of temperature changes on structure. From the results of this work, it appears that THz spectroscopy is potentially well suited to study thermal transformations within the ice.

  2. Application of FT-IR spectroscopy for control of the medium composition during the biodegradation of nitro aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Mara; Muter, Olga; Strikauska, Silvija; Gavare, Marita; Limane, Baiba

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies showed that cabbage leaf extract (CLE) added to the growth medium can noticeably promote the degradation of nitro aromatic compounds by specific consortium of bacteria upon their growth. For further development of the approach for contaminated soil remediation it was necessary to evaluate the qualitative and/or quantitative composition of different origin CLE and their relevance on the growth of explosives-degrading bacteria. Six CLE (different by species, cultivars and harvesting time) were tested and used as additives to the growth medium. It was shown that nitro aromatic compounds can be identified in the FT-IR absorption spectra by the characteristic band at 1,527 cm(-1), and in CLE by the characteristic band at 1,602 cm(-1). The intensity of the CLE band at 1,602 cm(-1) correlated with the concentration of total nitrogen (R2=0.87) and decreased upon the growth of bacteria. The content of nitrogen in CLE differed (0.22-1.00 vol.%) and significantly influenced the content of total carbohydrates (9.50-16.00% DW) and lipids [3.90-9.90% dry weight (DW)] accumulated in bacterial cells while the content of proteins was similar in all samples. Though this study showed quantitative differences in the composition of the studied CLE and the response of bacterial cells to the composition of the growth media, and proved the potential of this additive for remediation of contaminated soil. It was shown that analysis of CLE and monitoring of the conversion of nitro aromatic compounds can be investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy as well as by conventional chemical methods.

  3. Hubble space telescope near-ir transmission spectroscopy of the super-Earth HD 97658B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dragomir, Diana [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Kreidberg, Laura; Bean, Jacob L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Kempton, Eliza M.-R. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112 (United States); McCullough, P. R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Gillon, Michael [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Universiteé de Liége, Liége 1 (Belgium); Homeier, Derek [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, F-69364 Lyon (France); Howard, Andrew W., E-mail: hknutson@caltech.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    Recent results from the Kepler mission indicate that super-Earths (planets with masses between 1-10 times that of the Earth) are the most common kind of planet around nearby Sun-like stars. These planets have no direct solar system analogue, and are currently one of the least well-understood classes of extrasolar planets. Many super-Earths have average densities that are consistent with a broad range of bulk compositions, including both water-dominated worlds and rocky planets covered by a thick hydrogen and helium atmosphere. Measurements of the transmission spectra of these planets offer the opportunity to resolve this degeneracy by directly constraining the scale heights and corresponding mean molecular weights of their atmospheres. We present Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared spectroscopy of two transits of the newly discovered transiting super-Earth HD 97658b. We use the Wide Field Camera 3's (WFC3) scanning mode to measure the wavelength-dependent transit depth in 30 individual bandpasses. Our averaged differential transmission spectrum has a median 1σ uncertainty of 23 ppm in individual bins, making this the most precise observation of an exoplanetary transmission spectrum obtained with WFC3 to date. Our data are inconsistent with a cloud-free solar metallicity atmosphere at the 10σ level. They are consistent at the 0.4σ level with a flat line model, as well as effectively flat models corresponding to a metal-rich atmosphere or a solar metallicity atmosphere with a cloud or haze layer located at pressures of 10 mbar or higher.

  4. Detection Limits for Blood on Fabrics Using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy and Derivative Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenyu; DeJong, Stephanie A; Cassidy, Brianna M; Belliveau, Raymond G; Myrick, Michael L; Morgan, Stephen L

    2016-06-27

    Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) was used to detect blood stains based on signature protein absorption in the mid-IR region, where intensity changes in the spectrum can be related to blood concentration. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was applied for multivariate calibrations of IR spectra of blood dilutions on four types of fabric (acrylic, nylon, polyester, and cotton). Gap derivatives (GDs) were applied as a preprocessing technique to optimize the performance of calibration models. We report a much improved IR detection limit (DL) for blood on cotton (2700× in dilution factor units) and the first IR DL reported for blood on nylon (250×). Due to sample heterogeneity caused by fabric hydrophobicity, acrylic fabric produced variable ATR FT-IR spectra that caused poor DLs in concentration units compared to previous work. Polyester showed a similar problem at low blood concentrations that lead to a relatively poor DL as well. However, the increased surface sensitivity and decreased penetration depth of ATR FT-IR make it an excellent choice for detection of small quantities of blood on the front surface of all fabrics tested (0.0010 µg for cotton, 0.0077 µg for nylon, 0.011 µg for acrylic, and 0.0066 µg for polyester).

  5. An investigation of the effect of silicone oil on polymer intraocular lenses by means of PALS, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamerski, Kordian; Lesniak, Magdalena; Sitarz, Maciej; Stopa, Marcin; Filipecki, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    The effect of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based silicone oil, that is widely used in vitreoretinal surgery, on internal structures of the polymer intraocular lenses was investigated. The effect of PDMS was studied on the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) rigid lenses and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) flexible lenses. The research was carried out by means of the positron lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) as well as the infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and the Raman spectroscopy (RS). The studies involving the use of PALS and FT-IR methods have revealed that the PHEMA based lenses absorbed, whereas the PMMA lenses did not absorb, silicone oil. The results obtained with the use of the RS method were inconclusive, probably due to the too low intensity of the characteristic PDMS bands. The evidence from this study was discussed in terms of physics and related to the clinical use of both silicone oil and intraocular lenses.

  6. A new Density Functional Theory (DFT) based method for supporting the assignment of vibrational signatures of mannan and cellulose—Analysis of palm kernel cake hydrolysis by ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barsberg, Søren Talbro; Sanadi, Anand Ramesh; Jørgensen, Henning

    2011-01-01

    Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) FT-IR spectroscopy gives in situ information on molecular concentration, organization and interactions in plant cell walls. We demonstrate its potential for further developments by a case study which combines ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy with a recently published DFT...

  7. IR and Vibrational Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy of Matrine- and Artemisinin-Type Herbal Products: Stereochemical Characterization and Solvent Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuefei; Poopari, M Reza; Cai, Xiaoli; Savin, Aliaksandr; Dezhahang, Zahra; Cheramy, Joseph; Xu, Yunjie

    2016-04-22

    Five Chinese herbal medicines--matrine, oxymatrine, sophoridine, artemisinin, and dihydroartemisinin--were investigated using vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) experiments and density functional theory calculations to extract their stereochemical information. The three matrine-type alkaloids are available from the dry roots of Sophora flavescens and have long been used in various traditional Chinese herbal medicines to combat diseases such as cancer and cardiac arrhythmia. Artemisinin and the related dihydroartemisinin, discovered in 1979 by Professor Youyou Tu, a 2015 Nobel laureate in medicine, are effective drugs for the treatment of malaria. The VCD measurements were carried out in CDCl3 and DMSO-d6, two solvents with different dielectric constants and hydrogen-bonding characteristics. A "clusters-in-a-liquid" approach was used to model both explicit and implicit solvent effects. The studies show that effectively accounting for solvent effects is critical to using IR and VCD spectroscopy to provide unique spectroscopic features to differentiate the potential stereoisomers of these Chinese herbal medicines.

  8. Evaluation of Salmon Adhesion on PET-Metal Interface by ATR, FT-IR, and Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zumelzu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The material employed in this study is an ecoefficient, environmentally friendly, chromium (VI-free (noncarcinogenic metal polymer. The originality of the research lies in the study of the effect of new production procedures of salmon on metal packaging with multilayer polyethylene terephthalate (PET polymer coatings. Our hypothesis states that the adhesion of postmortem salmon muscles to the PET polymer coating produces surface and structural changes that affect the functionality and limit the useful life of metal containers, compromising therefore their recycling capacity as ecomaterials. This work is focused on studying the effects of the biochemical changes of postmortem salmon on the PET coating and how muscle degradation favors adhesion to the container. The experimental design considered a series of laboratory tests of containers simulating the conditions of canned salmon, chemical and physical tests of food-contact canning to evaluate the adhesion, and characterization of changes in the multilayer PET polymer by electron microscopy, ATR, FT-IR, and Raman spectroscopy analyses. The analyses determined the effect of heat treatment of containers on the loss of freshness of canned fish and the increased adhesion to the container wall, and the limited capability of the urea treatment to remove salmon muscle from the container for recycling purposes.

  9. Improved Extended Multiplicative Scatter Correction Algorithm Applied in Blood Glucose Noninvasive Measurement with FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingbo Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the predictive accuracy of human blood glucose quantitative analysis model with fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, this paper uses a method named improved extended multiplicative scatter correction (Im-EMSC, which can effectively eliminate the scattering effects caused by human body strong scattering. The principal components of the differential spectra are used instead of the pure spectra of the analytes in this algorithm. Calibrate the unwanted physical characteristic through the shape of the curve of principal components, and extract the original glucose concentration information. Im-EMSC can efficiently remove most of the pathlength difference and baseline shift influences. Firstly, Im-EMSC is used as a preprocessing method, and then partial least squares (PLS regression method is adopted to establish a quantitative analysis model. In this paper, the result of Im-EMSC is compared with those popular scattering correction algorithms of multiplicative scatter correction (MSC and extended multiplicative scatter correction (EMSC preprocessing methods. Experimental results show that the prediction accuracy has been greatly improved with Im-EMSC method, which is helpful for human noninvasive glucose concentration detection technology.

  10. Single photon infrared emission spectroscopy: a study of IR emission from UV laser excited PAHs between 3 and 15 micrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D. J.; Schlemmer, S.; Balucani, N.; Wagner, D. R.; Harrison, J. A.; Steiner, B.; Saykally, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    Single-photon infrared emission spectroscopy (SPIRES) has been used to measure emission spectra from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A supersonic free-jet expansion has been used to provide emission spectra of rotationally cold and vibrationally excited naphthalene and benzene. Under these conditions, the observed width of the 3.3-micrometers (C-H stretch) band resembles the bandwidths observed in experiments in which emission is observed from naphthalene with higher rotational energy. To obtain complete coverage of IR wavelengths relevant to the unidentified infrared bands (UIRs), UV laser-induced desorption was used to generate gas-phase highly excited PAHs. Lorentzian band shapes were convoluted with the monochromator-slit function in order to determine the widths of PAH emission bands under astrophysically relevant conditions. Bandwidths were also extracted from bands consisting of multiple normal modes blended together. These parameters are grouped according to the functional groups mostly involved in the vibration, and mean bandwidths are obtained. These bandwidths are larger than the widths of the corresponding UIR bands. However, when the comparison is limited to the largest PAHs studied, the bandwidths are slightly smaller than the corresponding UIR bands. These parameters can be used to model emission spectra from PAH cations and cations of larger PAHs, which are better candidate carriers of the UIRs.

  11. IGRINS Near-IR High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Multiple Jets around LkH$\\alpha$ 234

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Heeyoung; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Byeong-Gon; Park, Chan; Chun, Moo-Young; Pak, Soojong; Kim, Kang-Min; Oh, Jae Sok; Jeong, Ueejeong; Yu, Young Sam; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kim, Hwihyun; Hwang, Narae; Kaplan, Kyle; Pavel, Michael; Mace, Gregory; Lee, Hye-In; Le, Huynh Anh Nguyen; Lee, Sungho; Jaffe, Daniel T

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy toward the multiple outflows around the Herbig Be star Lk{\\Ha} 234 using the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph (IGRINS). Previous studies indicate that the region around Lk{\\Ha} 234 is complex, with several embedded YSOs and the outflows associated with them. In simultaneous H$-$ and K$-$band spectra from HH 167, we detected 5 {\\FeII} and 14 H$_{2}$ emission lines. We revealed a new {\\FeII} jet driven by radio continuum source VLA 3B. Position-velocity diagrams of H$_{2}$ 1$-$0 S(1) $\\lambda$2.122 $\\micron$ line show multiple velocity peaks. The kinematics may be explained by a geometrical bow shock model. We detected a component of H$_{2}$ emission at the systemic velocity (V$_{LSR}$ $=$ $-$10.2 {\\kms}) along the whole slit in all slit positions, which may arise from the ambient photodissociation region. Low-velocity gas dominates the molecular hydrogen emission from knots A and B in HH 167, which is close to the systemic velocity, {\\FeII} ...

  12. Characterization of Alginates by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Vibrational Spectroscopy (IR, NIR, Raman) in Combination with Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Henrik Max; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes three different spectroscopic methods for structural characterization of the commercial important hydrocolloid alginate extracted from brown seaweed. The "golden" reference method for characterization of the alginate structure is (1)H liquid-state NMR of depolymerized alginate polymers using a stepwise hydrolysis. Having implemented this method, predictive and rapid non-destructive methods using vibrational spectroscopy and chemometrics can be developed. These methods can predict the M/G-ratio of the intact alginate powder with at least the same precision and accuracy as the reference method in a fraction of the time that is required to measure the alginate using the reference method. The chapter also demonstrates how solid-state (13)C CP/MAS NMR can be used to determine the M/G ratio on the intact sample by the use of multivariate chemometrics and how this method shares the characteristics of the solid-state non-destructive IR method rather than its liquid-state counterpart.

  13. A Study on the Surface Structures of Viscose-based Activated Carbon Fiber by FT-IR Spectroscopy and XPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄强; 黄永秋; 潘鼎

    2004-01-01

    Using viscose fiber (VF) as starting material and common steam as activating agent, formation of oxygen structures in activated carbon fiber is investigated. In the preparation of samples, VF was first heated at temperatures between 450℃ and 900℃ in N2 artmosphere. Then, in a successive activation stage, the product carbonized at 600℃ was activated in steam at 450 - 900℃ for 30 min, and at 600℃for 5- 30 min. The other carbonization products were activated at 600 and 900℃ for 30 min respectively. The products activated at 900℃ were then activated at 450℃ for 30 min again. The starting material, carbonized products and all activation products were examined by FT-IR spectroscopy and some products were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS). And the yields of the carbonized and activated products were calculated. By analysing these spectra, the amount of oxygen-containing functional groups of the activated products attained under various activation time, various activation temperature and various previous carbonization temperature was determined.

  14. FT-IR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis as an auxiliary tool for diagnosis of mental disorders: Bipolar and schizophrenia cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogruc Ildiz, G.; Arslan, M.; Unsalan, O.; Araujo-Andrade, C.; Kurt, E.; Karatepe, H. T.; Yilmaz, A.; Yalcinkaya, O. B.; Herken, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a methodology based on Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and principal component analysis and partial least square methods is proposed for the analysis of blood plasma samples in order to identify spectral changes correlated with some biomarkers associated with schizophrenia and bipolarity. Our main goal was to use the spectral information for the calibration of statistical models to discriminate and classify blood plasma samples belonging to bipolar and schizophrenic patients. IR spectra of 30 samples of blood plasma obtained from each, bipolar and schizophrenic patients and healthy control group were collected. The results obtained from principal component analysis (PCA) show a clear discrimination between the bipolar (BP), schizophrenic (SZ) and control group' (CG) blood samples that also give possibility to identify three main regions that show the major differences correlated with both mental disorders (biomarkers). Furthermore, a model for the classification of the blood samples was calibrated using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), allowing the correct classification of BP, SZ and CG samples. The results obtained applying this methodology suggest that it can be used as a complimentary diagnostic tool for the detection and discrimination of these mental diseases.

  15. A spectroelectrochemical cell for ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J. G. W.; Vogt, Tim; Winter, Ernst; Bredenbeck, Jens

    2015-08-01

    A spectroelectrochemical cell has been designed to combine electrochemistry and ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool to extract structure and dynamics information on the femtosecond to picosecond time scale. Our design is based on a gold mirror with the dual role of performing electrochemistry and reflecting IR light. To provide the high optical surface quality required for laser spectroscopy, the gold surface is made by electron beam evaporation on a glass substrate. Electrochemical cycling facilitates in situ collection of ultrafast dynamics of redox-active molecules by means of 2D-IR. The IR beams are operated in reflection mode so that they travel twice through the sample, i.e., the signal size is doubled. This methodology is optimal for small sample volumes and successfully tested with the ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox system of which the corresponding electrochemically induced 2D-IR difference spectrum is reported.

  16. A spectroelectrochemical cell for ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J. G. W.; Vogt, Tim; Winter, Ernst; Bredenbeck, Jens, E-mail: bredenbeck@biophysik.uni-frankfurt.org, E-mail: bredenbeck@biophysik.uni-frankfurt.de [Institut für Biophysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    A spectroelectrochemical cell has been designed to combine electrochemistry and ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool to extract structure and dynamics information on the femtosecond to picosecond time scale. Our design is based on a gold mirror with the dual role of performing electrochemistry and reflecting IR light. To provide the high optical surface quality required for laser spectroscopy, the gold surface is made by electron beam evaporation on a glass substrate. Electrochemical cycling facilitates in situ collection of ultrafast dynamics of redox-active molecules by means of 2D-IR. The IR beams are operated in reflection mode so that they travel twice through the sample, i.e., the signal size is doubled. This methodology is optimal for small sample volumes and successfully tested with the ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox system of which the corresponding electrochemically induced 2D-IR difference spectrum is reported.

  17. Hyperfine structure and lifetime measurements in the 4s2nd 2D3/2 Rydberg sequence of Ga I by time-resolved laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunqing; Tian, Yanshan; Yu, Qi; Bai, Wanshuang; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Chong; Dai, Zhenwen

    2016-05-01

    The hyperfine structure (HFS) constants of the 4s2nd 2D3/2 (n=6-18) Rydberg sequence and the 4s26p 2P3/2 level for two isotopes of 69Ga and 71Ga atoms were measured by means of the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TR-LIF) technique and the quantum beat method. The observed hyperfine quantum beat spectra were analyzed and the magnetic-dipole HFS constants A as well as the electric-quadrupole HFS constants B of these levels were obtained by Fourier transform and a program for multiple regression analysis. Also using TR-LIF method radiative lifetimes of the above sequence states were determined at room temperature. The measured lifetime values range from 69 to 2279 ns with uncertainties no more than 10%. To our knowledge, the HFS constants of this Rydberg sequence and the lifetimes of the 4s2nd 2D3/2 (n=10-18) levels are reported for the first time. Good agreement between our results and the previous is achieved.

  18. Quantitative analysis of surface amine groups on plasma-polymerized ethylenediamine films using UV-visible spectroscopy compared to chemical derivatization with FT-IR spectroscopy, XPS and TOF-SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinmo [Department of Physics, Brain Korea 21 Physics Research Division and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Advanced Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Donggeun [Department of Physics, Brain Korea 21 Physics Research Division and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yongsup [Division of Advanced Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yongki [Department of Physics, Brain Korea 21 Physics Research Division and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Advanced Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Dae Won [Division of Advanced Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Geol [Division of Advanced Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: tglee@kriss.re.kr

    2007-02-28

    A quantitative analysis of the surface density of amine groups on a plasma-polymerized ethylenediamine thin film deposited on a platinum surface using inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition method is described. UV-visible spectroscopy together with a chemical derivatization technique using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to obtain the quantitative information. Chemical tags of pentafluorobenzaldehyde were hybridized with the surface amine groups and were easily detected due to the characteristic absorption bands of C-F stretching, aromatic ring and C=N stretching vibrations in the reflection-absorption FT-IR spectra. The surface amine density was reproducibly controlled as a function of deposition plasma power and quantified using UV-visible spectroscopy. A good linear correlation was observed between the FT-IR intensities of the characteristic absorption bands and the surface amine densities, suggesting the possibility of using this chemical derivatization technique to quantify the surface densities of specific functional groups on an organic surface. Chemical derivatization was also used with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on the same samples, and the results were compared with those obtained from FT-IR and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Although each analysis technique has different probing depths from the surface, the three different data sets obtained from the chemical tags correlated well with each other since each analysis technique measured the chemical tags on the sample surface.

  19. FT-IR spectroscopy: A powerful tool for studying the inter- and intraspecific biodiversity of cultivable non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from grape must.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeteau, Cédric; Gerhards, Daniel; Terrat, Sebastien; Dequiedt, Samuel; Alexandre, Hervé; Guilloux-Benatier, Michèle; von Wallbrunn, Christian; Rousseaux, Sandrine

    2016-02-01

    The efficiency of the FT-IR technique for studying the inter- and intra biodiversity of cultivable non-Saccharomyces yeasts (NS) present in different must samples was examined. In first, the capacity of the technique FT-IR to study the global diversity of a given sample was compared to the pyrosequencing method, used as a reference technique. Seven different genera (Aureobasidium, Candida, Cryptococcus, Hanseniaspora, Issatchenkia, Metschnikowia and Pichia) were identified by FT-IR and also by pyrosequencing. Thirty-eight other genera were identified by pyrosequencing, but together they represented less than 6% of the average total population of 6 musts. Among the species identified, some of them present organoleptic potentials in winemaking, particularly Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candidazemplinina). So in a second time, we evaluated the capacity of the FT-IR technique to discriminate the isolates of this species because few techniques were able to study intraspecific NS yeast biodiversity. The results obtained were validated by using a classic method as ITS sequencing. Biodiversity at strain level was high: 19 different strains were identified from 58 isolates. So, FT-IR spectroscopy seems to be an accurate and reliable method for identifying major genera present in the musts. The two biggest advantages of the FT-IR are the capacity to characterize intraspecific biodiversity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts and the possibility to discriminate a lot of strains.

  20. Real-time feedback control using online attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy for continuous flow optimization and process knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilton, Ryan A; Parrott, Andrew J; George, Michael W; Poliakoff, Martyn; Bourne, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    The use of automated continuous flow reactors is described, with real-time online Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis to enable rapid optimization of reaction yield using a self-optimizing feedback algorithm. This technique has been applied to the solvent-free methylation of 1-pentanol with dimethyl carbonate using a γ-alumina catalyst. Calibration of the FT-IR signal was performed using gas chromatography to enable quantification of yield over a wide variety of flow rates and temperatures. The use of FT-IR as a real-time analytical technique resulted in an order of magnitude reduction in the time and materials required compared to previous studies. This permitted a wide exploration of the parameter space to provide process understanding and validation of the optimization algorithms.

  1. Solution Structures of Highly Active Molecular Ir Water-Oxidation Catalysts from Density Functional Theory Combined with High-Energy X-ray Scattering and EXAFS Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke R; Matula, Adam J; Kwon, Gihan; Hong, Jiyun; Sheehan, Stafford W; Thomsen, Julianne M; Brudvig, Gary W; Crabtree, Robert H; Tiede, David M; Chen, Lin X; Batista, Victor S

    2016-05-04

    The solution structures of highly active Ir water-oxidation catalysts are elucidated by combining density functional theory, high-energy X-ray scattering (HEXS), and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. We find that the catalysts are Ir dimers with mono-μ-O cores and terminal anionic ligands, generated in situ through partial oxidation of a common catalyst precursor. The proposed structures are supported by (1)H and (17)O NMR, EPR, resonance Raman and UV-vis spectra, electrophoresis, etc. Our findings are particularly valuable to understand the mechanism of water oxidation by highly reactive Ir catalysts. Importantly, our DFT-EXAFS-HEXS methodology provides a new in situ technique for characterization of active species in catalytic systems.

  2. Adsorption and oxidation of formaldehyde on a polycrystalline Pt film electrode: An in situ IR spectroscopy search for adsorbed reaction intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusys, Zenonas; Behm, R Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    As part of a mechanistic study of the electrooxidation of C1 molecules we have systematically investigated the dissociative adsorption/oxidation of formaldehyde on a polycrystalline Pt film electrode under experimental conditions optimizing the chance for detecting weakly adsorbed reaction intermediates. Employing in situ IR spectroscopy in an attenuated total reflection configuration (ATR-FTIRS) with p-polarized IR radiation to further improve the signal-to-noise ratio, and using low reaction temperatures (3 °C) and deuterium substitution to slow down the reaction kinetics and to stabilize weakly adsorbed reaction intermediates, we could detect an IR absorption band at 1660 cm(-1) characteristic for adsorbed formyl intermediates. This assignment is supported by an isotope shift in wave number. Effects of temperature, potential and deuterium substitution on the formation and disappearance of different adsorbed species (COad, adsorbed formate, adsorbed formyl), are monitored and quantified. Consequences on the mechanism for dissociative adsorption and oxidation of formaldehyde are discussed.

  3. Ir-Uv Double Resonance Spectroscopy of a Cold Protonated Fibril-Forming Peptide: NNQQNY\\cdotH+

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlase, Andrew F.; Harrilal, Christopher P.; Walsh, Patrick S.; McLuckey, Scott A.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2016-06-01

    Protein aggregation to form amyloid-like fibrils is a purported molecular manifestation that leads to Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and other neurodegenerative diseases. The propensity for a protein to aggregate is often driven by the presence of glutamine (Q) and asparagine (N) rich tracts within the primary sequence. For example, Eisenberg and coworkers [Nature 2006, 435, 773] have shown by X-ray crystallography that the peptides NNQQNY and GNNQQNY aggregate into a parallel β-sheet configuration with side chains that intercalate into a "steric zipper". These sequences are commonly found at the N-terminus of the prion-determining domain in the yeast protein Sup35, a typical fibril-forming protein. Herein, we invoke recent advances in cold ion spectroscopy to explore the nascent conformational preferences of the protonated peptides that are generated by electrospray ionization. Towards this aim, we have used UV and IR spectroscopy to record conformation-specific photofragment action spectra of the NNQQNY monomer cryogenically cooled in an octopole ion trap. This short peptide contains 20 hydride stretch oscillators, leading to a rich infrared spectrum with at least 18 resolved transitions in the 2800-3800 cm-1 region. The infrared spectrum suggests the presence of both a free acid OH moiety and an H-bonded tyrosine OH group. We compare our results with resonant ion dip infrared spectra (RIDIRS) of the acyl/NH-benzyl capped neutral glutamine amino acid and its corresponding dipeptide: Ac-Q-NHBn and Ac-QQ-NHBn, respectively. These comparisons bring empirical insight to the NH stretching region of the spectrum, which contains contributions from free and singly H-bonded NH2 side-chain groups, and from peptide backbone amide NH groups. We further compare our spectrum to harmonic calculations at the M05-2X/6-31+G* level of theory, which were performed on low energy structures obtained from Monte Carlo conformational searches using the Amber* and OPLS force fields to assess

  4. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of chrysotile and crocidolite fibers with IR-spectroscopy: application to asbestos-cement products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, D; Valerio, F

    1986-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectrophotometry allows simple and quick qualitative and quantitative evaluations of different kinds of asbestos, as well as of other inorganic particles. In particular, chrysotile and crocidolite have characteristic IR spectra and optical density measures of 2,710 nm band for chrysotile, of 12,820 nm band for crocidolite permit quantitative evaluation of each fiber alone or in mixture. IR spectra also give informations about changes of fiber structure and of chemical composition due, for example, to thermal treatment or acid leaching. The analytical method we developed can detect levels as low as 0.1 mg of fiber in a 300 mg disk of KBr using a low cost IR spectrophotometer. The use of a Fourier Transform IR spectrophotometer (FTIR) improves dramatically the sensitivity and selectivity. Computer assisted analysis of spectra offers the possibility to reduce matrix interferences and to compare different spectra. Examples of IR technique applied to asbestos-cement products and insulating materials are presented.

  5. Simultaneous monitoring of curing shrinkage and degree of cure of thermosets by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernàndez-Francos, Xavier; Kazarian, Sergei G; Ramis, Xavier; Serra, Àngels

    2013-12-01

    We present a novel methodology to simultaneously monitor of the degree of cure and curing shrinkage of thermosetting formulations. This methodology is based on the observation of changes in the infrared absorption of reactive functional groups and the groups used as a standard reference for normalization. While the optical path length is exact and controlled in transmission infrared spectroscopy, in attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR), the exact determination of volume changes requires the measurement of the refractive indices of the studied system throughout the curing process or at least an indirect parallel measurement of this property. The methodology presented here allows one to achieve quantitative measurements of the degree of cure and shrinkage for thermosets using in situ ATR FT-IR spectroscopy.

  6. Surface-enhanced IR absorption spectroscopy of the KcsA potassium channel upon application of an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakata, Akira; Shimizu, Hirofumi; Oiki, Shigetoshi

    2015-09-01

    Surface-enhanced IR absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS) is a powerful tool for studying the structure of molecules adsorbed on an electrode surface (ATR-SEIRA). Coupled with an electrochemical system, structural changes induced by changes in the electric field can be detected. All the membrane proteins are subjected to the effect of membrane electric field, but conformational changes at different membrane potentials and their functional relevance have not been studied extensively except for channel proteins. In this contribution, background information of potential-dependent functional and structural changes of a prototypical channel, the KcsA channel, is summarized, and SEIRAS applied to the KcsA channel under the application of the potential is shown. The potassium channels allow K(+) to permeate selectively through the structural part called the selectivity filter, in which dehydrated K(+) ions interact with backbone carbonyls. In the absence of K(+), the selectivity filter undergoes conformational changes to the non-conductive collapsed conformation. To apply the electric field, the KcsA channels were fixed on the gold surface in either upside or reverse orientation. The SEIRA spectrum in K(+) or Na(+) solution revealed both backbone structural changes and local changes in the OCO-carboxylate groups. Upon application of the negative electric field, the spectrum of OCO was enhanced only in the K(+) solution. These results indicate that the negative electric field accumulates local K(+) concentration, which turned the collapsed filter to the conductive conformation. ATR-SEIRA serves as an unprecedented experimental system for examining membrane proteins under an electric field.

  7. The exploration of hydrogen bonding properties of 2,6- and 3,5-diethynylpyridine by IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojta, Danijela; Kovačević, Goran; Vazdar, Mario

    2015-02-01

    Hydrogen bonding properties of 2,6- and 3,5-diethynylpyridine were analyzed by exploring of their interactions with trimethylphosphate, as hydrogen bond acceptor, or phenol, as hydrogen bond donor, in tetrachloroethene C2Cl4. The employment of IR spectroscopy enabled unravelling of their interaction pattern as well as the determination of their association constants (Kc) and standard reaction enthalpies (ΔrH⦵). The association of diethynylpyridines with trimethylphosphate in stoichiometry 1:1 is established through tbnd Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond, accompanied by the secondary interaction between Ctbnd C moiety and CH3 group of trimethylphosphate. In the complexes with phenol, along with the expected OH⋯N interaction, Ctbnd C⋯HO interaction is revealed. In contrast to 2,6-diethynylpyridine where the spatial arrangement of hydrogen bond accepting groups enables the simultaneous involvement of phenol OH group in both OH⋯N and OH⋯Ctbnd C hydrogen bond, in the complex between phenol and 3,5-diethynylpyridine this is not possible. It is postulated that cooperativity effects, arisen from the certain type of resonance-assisted hydrogen bonds, contribute the stability gain of the latter. Associations of diethynylpyridines with trimethylphosphate are characterized as weak (Kc ≈ 0.8-0.9 mol-1 dm3; -ΔrH⦵ ≈ 5-8 kJ mol-1), while their complexes with phenol as medium strong (Kc ≈ 5 mol-1 dm3; -ΔrH⦵ ≈ 15-35 kJ mol-1). Experimental findings on the studied complexes are supported with the calculations conducted at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory in the gas phase. Two conformers of diethynylpyridine⋯trimethylphosphate dimers are formed via tbnd Csbnd H⋯O interaction, whereas dimers between phenol and diethynylpyridines are established through OH⋯N interaction.

  8. Phase-Sensitive Control Of Molecular Dissociation Through Attosecond Pump/Strong-Field Mid-IR Probe Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-15

    TM) and recombined with the near-IR streaking beam with a drilled mirror (DM). The two beams are focused into an Ar gas jet, where the near-IR beam...DM = drilled mirror, TM = toroidal mirror, SM = specialized mirror. Bottom left: photograph of vacuum chambers. Inset shows direction of EUV/mid-IR... detection of the KER of the protons at the time of dissociation. A system of bellows and movable TOF mounts, using lockable bearing carriages and

  9. Femtosecond Hydrogen Bond Dynamics of Bulk-like and Bound Water at Positively and Negatively Charged Lipid Interfaces Revealed by 2D HD-VSFG Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant Chandra; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Nihonyanagi, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Shoichi; Tahara, Tahei

    2016-08-26

    Interfacial water in the vicinity of lipids plays an important role in many biological processes, such as drug delivery, ion transportation, and lipid fusion. Hence, molecular-level elucidation of the properties of water at lipid interfaces is of the utmost importance. We report the two-dimensional heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation (2D HD-VSFG) study of the OH stretch of HOD at charged lipid interfaces, which shows that the hydrogen bond dynamics of interfacial water differ drastically, depending on the lipids. The data indicate that the spectral diffusion of the OH stretch at a positively charged lipid interface is dominated by the ultrafast (dynamics, while the dynamics at a negatively charged lipid interface exhibit sub-picosecond dynamics almost exclusively, implying that fast hydrogen bond fluctuation is prohibited. These results reveal that the ultrafast hydrogen bond dynamics at the positively charged lipid-water interface are attributable to the bulk-like property of interfacial water, whereas the slow dynamics at the negatively charged lipid interface are due to bound water, which is hydrogen-bonded to the hydrophilic head group.

  10. Combining FT-IR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the cell wall composition changes during apples development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska-Chargot, M; Chylinska, M; Kruk, B; Zdunek, A

    2015-01-22

    The aim of this work was to quantitatively and qualitatively determine the composition of the cell wall material from apples during development by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The FT-IR region of 1500-800 cm(-1), containing characteristic bands for galacturonic acid, hemicellulose and cellulose, was examined using principal component analysis (PCA), k-means clustering and partial least squares (PLS). The samples were differentiated by development stage and cultivar using PCA and k-means clustering. PLS calibration models for galacturonic acid, hemicellulose and cellulose content from FT-IR spectra were developed and validated with the reference data. PLS models were tested using the root-mean-square errors of cross-validation for contents of galacturonic acid, hemicellulose and cellulose which was 8.30 mg/g, 4.08% and 1.74%, respectively. It was proven that FT-IR spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods has potential for fast and reliable determination of the main constituents of fruit cell walls.

  11. Discrimination of edible oils and fats by combination of multivariate pattern recognition and FT-IR spectroscopy: A comparative study between different modeling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidnia, Katayoun; Parish, Maryam; Karimi, Sadegh; Hemmateenejad, Bahram

    2013-03-01

    By using FT-IR spectroscopy, many researchers from different disciplines enrich the experimental complexity of their research for obtaining more precise information. Moreover chemometrics techniques have boosted the use of IR instruments. In the present study we aimed to emphasize on the power of FT-IR spectroscopy for discrimination between different oil samples (especially fat from vegetable oils). Also our data were used to compare the performance of different classification methods. FT-IR transmittance spectra of oil samples (Corn, Colona, Sunflower, Soya, Olive, and Butter) were measured in the wave-number interval of 450-4000 cm-1. Classification analysis was performed utilizing PLS-DA, interval PLS-DA, extended canonical variate analysis (ECVA) and interval ECVA methods. The effect of data preprocessing by extended multiplicative signal correction was investigated. Whilst all employed method could distinguish butter from vegetable oils, iECVA resulted in the best performances for calibration and external test set with 100% sensitivity and specificity.

  12. Isolating Site-Specific Spectral Signatures of Individual Water Molecules in H-Bonded Networks with Isotopomer-Selective Ir-Ir Double Resonance Vibrational Predissociation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Conrad T.; Johnson, Mark

    2016-06-01

    We will discuss an experimental method that directly yields the embedded correlations between the two OH stretches and the intramolecular bending modes associated with a single H2O water molecule embedded in an otherwise all-D isotopologue. This is accomplished using isotopomer-selective IR-IR hole-burning on the Cs+(D2O)5(H2O) clusters formed by gas-phase exchange of a single, intact H2O molecule for D2O in the Cs+(D2O)6 ion. The OH stretching pattern of the Cs+(H2O)6 isotopologue is accurately recovered by superposition of the isotopomer spectra, thus establishing that the H2O incorporation is random and that the OH stretching manifold is largely due to contributions from decoupled water molecules. This behavior enables a powerful new way to extract structural information from vibrational spectra of size-selected clusters by explicitly identifying the local environments responsible for specific infrared features. Extension of this method to address the degree to which OH stretches are decoupled in the protonated water clusters will also be discussed.

  13. Combining Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy with quantitative isotopic labeling for differentiation of E. coli cells at community and single cell levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamadali, Howbeer; Chisanga, Malama; Subaihi, Abdu; Goodacre, Royston

    2015-04-21

    There is no doubt that the contribution of microbially mediated bioprocesses toward maintenance of life on earth is vital. However, understanding these microbes in situ is currently a bottleneck, as most methods require culturing these microorganisms to suitable biomass levels so that their phenotype can be measured. The development of new culture-independent strategies such as stable isotope probing (SIP) coupled with molecular biology has been a breakthrough toward linking gene to function, while circumventing in vitro culturing. In this study, for the first time we have combined Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, as metabolic fingerprinting approaches, with SIP to demonstrate the quantitative labeling and differentiation of Escherichia coli cells. E. coli cells were grown in minimal medium with fixed final concentrations of carbon and nitrogen supply, but with different ratios and combinations of (13)C/(12)C glucose and (15)N/(14)N ammonium chloride, as the sole carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The cells were collected at stationary phase and examined by Raman and FT-IR spectroscopies. The multivariate analysis investigation of FT-IR and Raman data illustrated unique clustering patterns resulting from specific spectral shifts upon the incorporation of different isotopes, which were directly correlated with the ratio of the isotopically labeled content of the medium. Multivariate analysis results of single-cell Raman spectra followed the same trend, exhibiting a separation between E. coli cells labeled with different isotopes and multiple isotope levels of C and N.

  14. Solution structure of the 45-residue ATP-binding peptide of adenylate kinase as determined by 2-D NMR, FTIR, and CD spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, D.C.; Byler, D.M.; Susi, H.; Brown, E.M.; Kuby, S.A.; Mildyan, A.S.

    1986-05-01

    In the X-ray structure of adenylate kinase residues 1-45 exist as 47% ..cap alpha..-helix, 29% ..beta..-structure (strands and turns) and 24% coil. The solution structure of a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 1-45, which constitutes the MgATP binding site was studied by 3 independent spectroscopic methods. Globularity of the peptide was shown by its broad NMR resonances which narrow upon denaturation, and by its ability to bind MgATP with similar affinity and conformation as the intact enzyme does. COSY and NOESY NMR methods at 250 and 500 MHz reveal proximities among NH, C..cap alpha.., and C..beta.. protons indicative of >20% ..cap alpha..-helix, and >20% ..beta..-structure. Correlation of regions of secondary structure with the primary sequence by 2D NMR indicates at least one ..cap alpha..-helix (res. 23 to 29) and two ..beta..-strands (res. 12 to 15 and 34 to 38). The broad amide I band in the deconvoluted FTIR spectrum could be fit as the sum of 4 peaks due to specific secondary structures, yielding less than or equal to=45% ..cap alpha..-helix, less than or equal to=40% ..beta..-structure and greater than or equal to=15% coil. The CD spectrum, from 185-250 nm, interpreted with a 3-parameter basis set, yielded 20 +/- 5% ..cap alpha..=helix, and less than or equal to=20% ..beta..-structure. The solution structure of peptide 1-45 thus approximates that of residues 1-45 in the crystal.

  15. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the products of the interaction of gaseous IrF6 with fine UO2F2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prusakov Vladimir N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear fuel reprocessing by fluorination, a dry method of regeneration of spent nuclear fuel, uses UO2F2 for the separation of plutonium from gaseous mixtures. Since plutonium requires special treatment, IrF6 was used as a thermodynamic model of PuF6. The model reaction of the interaction of gaseous IrF6 with fine UO2F2 in the sorption column revealed a change of color of the sorption column contents from pale-yellow to gray and black, indicating the formation of products of such an interaction. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study showed that the interaction of gaseous IrF6 with fine UO2F2 at 125 °C results in the formation of stable iridium compounds where the iridium oxidation state is close to Ir3+. The dependence of the elemental compositions of the layers in the sorption column on the penetration depth of IrF6 was established.

  16. Friction behaviour of TiAlN films around cubic/hexagonal transition: A 2D grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and electron energy loss spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinot, Y. [Université de Haute Alsace, Laboratoire Physique et Mécanique Textiles (EA 4365), F-68093 Mulhouse (France); Pac, M.-J., E-mail: marie-jose.pac@uha.fr [Université de Haute Alsace, Laboratoire Physique et Mécanique Textiles (EA 4365), F-68093 Mulhouse (France); Henry, P. [Université de Haute Alsace, Laboratoire Physique et Mécanique Textiles (EA 4365), F-68093 Mulhouse (France); Rousselot, C. [Université de Franche-Comté, FEMTO-ST (UMR CNRS 6174), F-25211 Montbéliard (France); Odarchenko, Ya.I.; Ivanov, D.A. [Université de Haute Alsace, Institut de Science des Matériaux de Mulhouse (UMR 7361 CNRS), F-68093 Mulhouse (France); Ulhaq-Bouillet, C.; Ersen, O. [Université de Strasbourg, Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg (UMR CNRS 7504), F-67087 Strasbourg (France); Tuilier, M.-H. [Université de Haute Alsace, Laboratoire Physique et Mécanique Textiles (EA 4365), F-68093 Mulhouse (France)

    2015-02-27

    The properties at different scales of Ti{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}N films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering from TiAl sintered (S) targets produced by powder metallurgy are compared with those of a set of films previously deposited in the same conditions from mosaic targets (M) made of pure Ti and Al metals. For compositions close to the hcp/fcc transition (around x = 0.6), the friction behaviour, growth directions and organization of crystallized domains are found to be sensitive to the type of target used. The resistance to crack creation is higher for Ti{sub 0.54}Al{sub 0.46}N (S) and Ti{sub 0.38}Al{sub 0.62}N (S) than for Ti{sub 0.50}Al{sub 0.50}N (M) and Ti{sub 0.32}Al{sub 0.68}N (M). From the measurement of mechanical properties, toughness, and wear volumes and from the observation of wear tracks, it is found that films prepared from sintered targets exhibit a better wear resistance. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and electron energy loss spectroscopy in Transmission Electronic Microscopy are used to investigate the long- and short-range orders within the films. The morphology of Ti{sub 0.54}Al{sub 0.46}N (S) film can be considered as an array of crystalline domains having reciprocal-space vectors 111 and 200 directed along the meridian but with random in-plane orientation. Ti{sub 0.38}Al{sub 0.62}N (S) Al-rich film presents a random orientation of the crystalline domains whereas Ti{sub 0.32}Al{sub 0.68}N (M) deposited from composite targets exhibits a well-oriented fibrillar structure. The N K-edge Electron Energy Loss Near Edge Spectra are discussed with previous results of Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy, which has evidenced different values of Al–N and Ti–N bond lengths, either octahedral (cubic-like) or tetrahedral (hexagonal-like) within Ti{sub 0.50}Al{sub 0.50}N (M) and Ti{sub 0.32}Al{sub 0.68}N (M) films. For similar compositions, films deposited from sintered alloys contain more nitrogen atoms in octahedral cubic

  17. Ultra-broadband 2D electronic spectroscopy of carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll interactions in the LH1 complex of a purple bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiuri, Margherita; Réhault, Julien; Carey, Anne-Marie; Hacking, Kirsty; Garavelli, Marco; Lüer, Larry; Polli, Dario; Cogdell, Richard J; Cerullo, Giulio

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the excitation energy transfer (EET) pathways in the photosynthetic light harvesting 1 (LH1) complex of purple bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum with ultra-broadband two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES). We employ a 2DES apparatus in the partially collinear geometry, using a passive birefringent interferometer to generate the phase-locked pump pulse pair. This scheme easily lends itself to two-color operation, by coupling a sub-10 fs visible pulse with a sub-15-fs near-infrared pulse. This unique pulse combination allows us to simultaneously track with extremely high temporal resolution both the dynamics of the photoexcited carotenoid spirilloxanthin (Spx) in the visible range and the EET between the Spx and the B890 bacterio-chlorophyll (BChl), whose Qx and Qy transitions peak at 585 and 881 nm, respectively, in the near-infrared. Global analysis of the one-color and two-color 2DES maps unravels different relaxation mechanisms in the LH1 complex: (i) the initial events of the internal conversion process within the Spx, (ii) the parallel EET from the first bright state S2 of the Spx towards the Qx state of the B890, and (iii) the internal conversion from Qx to Qy within the B890.

  18. Ultra-broadband 2D electronic spectroscopy of carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll interactions in the LH1 complex of a purple bacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiuri, Margherita [CNR-IFN, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, P.zza L. da Vinci 32, Milano 20133 (Italy); Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Washington Road, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Réhault, Julien; Polli, Dario; Cerullo, Giulio, E-mail: giulio.cerullo@polimi.it [CNR-IFN, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, P.zza L. da Vinci 32, Milano 20133 (Italy); Carey, Anne-Marie; Hacking, Kirsty; Cogdell, Richard J. [Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, IBLS, University of Glasgow, 126 Place, Glasgow G12 8TA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Garavelli, Marco [Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician,” Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, IT-40126 Bologna (Italy); CNRS, Institut de Chimie de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Université de Lyon, 46 Allée d’Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Lüer, Larry [Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies, IMDEA Nanociencia, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-06-07

    We investigate the excitation energy transfer (EET) pathways in the photosynthetic light harvesting 1 (LH1) complex of purple bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum with ultra-broadband two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES). We employ a 2DES apparatus in the partially collinear geometry, using a passive birefringent interferometer to generate the phase-locked pump pulse pair. This scheme easily lends itself to two-color operation, by coupling a sub-10 fs visible pulse with a sub-15-fs near-infrared pulse. This unique pulse combination allows us to simultaneously track with extremely high temporal resolution both the dynamics of the photoexcited carotenoid spirilloxanthin (Spx) in the visible range and the EET between the Spx and the B890 bacterio-chlorophyll (BChl), whose Q{sub x} and Q{sub y} transitions peak at 585 and 881 nm, respectively, in the near-infrared. Global analysis of the one-color and two-color 2DES maps unravels different relaxation mechanisms in the LH1 complex: (i) the initial events of the internal conversion process within the Spx, (ii) the parallel EET from the first bright state S{sub 2} of the Spx towards the Q{sub x} state of the B890, and (iii) the internal conversion from Q{sub x} to Q{sub y} within the B890.

  19. Ultra-broadband 2D electronic spectroscopy of carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll interactions in the LH1 complex of a purple bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiuri, Margherita; Réhault, Julien; Carey, Anne-Marie; Hacking, Kirsty; Garavelli, Marco; Lüer, Larry; Polli, Dario; Cogdell, Richard J.; Cerullo, Giulio

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the excitation energy transfer (EET) pathways in the photosynthetic light harvesting 1 (LH1) complex of purple bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum with ultra-broadband two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES). We employ a 2DES apparatus in the partially collinear geometry, using a passive birefringent interferometer to generate the phase-locked pump pulse pair. This scheme easily lends itself to two-color operation, by coupling a sub-10 fs visible pulse with a sub-15-fs near-infrared pulse. This unique pulse combination allows us to simultaneously track with extremely high temporal resolution both the dynamics of the photoexcited carotenoid spirilloxanthin (Spx) in the visible range and the EET between the Spx and the B890 bacterio-chlorophyll (BChl), whose Qx and Qy transitions peak at 585 and 881 nm, respectively, in the near-infrared. Global analysis of the one-color and two-color 2DES maps unravels different relaxation mechanisms in the LH1 complex: (i) the initial events of the internal conversion process within the Spx, (ii) the parallel EET from the first bright state S2 of the Spx towards the Qx state of the B890, and (iii) the internal conversion from Qx to Qy within the B890.

  20. Investigation of kinetics and thermodynamics of DNA hybridization by means of 2-D fluorescence spectroscopy and soft/hard modeling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Sara; Kompany-Zareh, Mohsen, E-mail: kmpz@dr.com

    2016-02-04

    Reversible hybridization reaction plays a key role in fundamental biological processes, in many laboratory techniques, and also in DNA based sensing devices. Comprehensive investigation of this process is, therefore, essential for the development of more sophisticated applications. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the hybridization reaction, as a second order process, are systematically investigated with the aid of the soft and hard chemometric methods. Labeling two complementary 21 mer DNA single strands with FAM and Texas red fluorophores, enabled recording of the florescence excitation−emission matrices during the experiments which led to three-way data sets. The presence of fluorescence resonance energy transfer in excitation and emission modes and the closure in concentration mode, made the three-way data arrays rank deficient. To acquire primary chemical information, restricted Tucker3 as a soft method was employed. Herein a model-based method, hard restricted trilinear decomposition, is introduced for in depth analysis of rank deficient three-way data sets. By employing proposed hard method, the nonlinear model parameters as well as the correct profiles could be estimated. In addition, a simple constraint is presented to extract chemically reasonable output profiles regarding the core elements of restricted Tucker3 model. - Highlights: • Hard restricted trilinear decomposition (HrTD) was introduced for model-based analysis of three-way rank deficient data. • DNA hybridization was investigated by two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy and soft/hard multi-way techniques. • Restricted Tucker3 analysis enabled accurate estimation of pure FRET profiles in the hybridized form. • HrTD was successfully employed to estimate kinetic and equilibrium parameters of DNA hybridization system. • The performance of the proposed methods in response to different physical stimuli was successfully evaluated.

  1. Solution structure of the 45-residue MgATP-binding peptide of adenylate kinase as examined by 2-D NMR, FTIR, and CD spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, D.C.; Byler, D.M.; Susi, H.; Brown, M.; Kuby, S.A.; Mildvan A.S.

    1988-05-17

    The structure of a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 1-45 of rabbit muscle adenylate kinase has been studied in aqueous solution by two-dimensional NMR, FTIR, and CD spectroscopy. This peptide, which binds MgATP and is believed to represent most of the MgATP-binding site of the enzyme, appears to maintain a conformation similar to that of residues 1-45 in the X-ray structure of intact porcine adenylate kinase, with 42% of the residues of the peptide showing NOEs indicative of phi and psi angles corresponding to those found in the protein. The NMR studies suggest that the peptide is composed of two helical regions of residues 4-7 and 23-29, and three stretches of ..beta..-strand at residues 8-15, 30-32, and 35-40, yielding an overall secondary structure consisting of 24% ..cap alpha..-helix, 38% ..beta..-structure, and 38% aperiodic. Although the resolution-enhanced amide I band of the peptide FTIR spectrum is broad and rather featureless, possible due to disorder, it can be fit by using methods developed on well-characterized globular proteins. The CD spectrum is best fit by assuming the presence of at most 13% ..cap alpha..-helix in the peptide, 24 +/- 2% ..beta..-structure, and 66 +/- 4% aperiodic. The inability of the high-frequency FTIR and CD methods to detect helices in the amount found by NMR may result from the short helical lengths as well as from static and dynamic disorder in the peptide. Upon binding of MgATP, numerous conformation changes in the backbone of the peptide are detected by NMR, with smaller alterations in the overall secondary structure as assess by CD.

  2. Synthesis, structural characterization, IR- and Raman spectroscopy, magnetic properties of new organically templated metal sulfates with 4-aminopyridinium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarchuk, Tamara J.; Kinzhybalo, Vasyl; Bednarchuk, Oleksandr; Pietraszko, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Crystal structures of the series of twelve 4-aminopyridinium templated metal sulfates: (C5H7N2)2[MeII(H2O)6](SO4)2 (MeII = Cu (1), Co (2), Mg (3), Zn (4), Fe (5), Mn (6a)), (C5H7N2)2[MeII(H2O)4(SO4)2]·4H2O (MeII = Mn (6b), Cd (7a)), (C5H7N2)2[MnII(H2O)4(SO4)2] (6c), (C5H7N2)2[Cd(H2O)4(SO4)2] (7b), (C5H7N2)[Al(H2O)6](SO4)2·4H2O (low (8lt) and room temperature (8rt) phases) and (C5H7N2)[FeIII(H2O)4(SO4)2] (9) were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1-6a are isostructural, crystal structure consists of [Me(H2O)6]2+ octahedra, 4-aminopyridinium cations (4ap) and sulfate anions. Crystal packing in 1-6a series is characterized by alternating 4ap and inorganic layers. In the structure of 1 Cu2+ coordination environment is axially deformed due to Jahn-Teller effect to tetragonal bipyramidal. Compounds 6 (a, b) and 7a at ambient conditions dehydrate to produce isostructural complexes 6c and 7b, respectively. In structures of 6c, 7b and 9 sulfate anions are involved in slightly distorted octahedral metal coordination composed of six O atoms from four water molecules and two sulfate anions. Room temperature phase of 8 is characterized by disorder of 4ap around center of inversion. Continuous phase transition at ≈185 K leads to the cell doubling and ordering of 4ap. All of the structures are governed by an extensive three-dimensional hydrogen bond networks, as well as π-π interactions visualized by Hirshfeld surface analysis. Moreover, selected compounds were characterized by the IR and Raman spectroscopy and magnetic measurement studies.

  3. Faecal near-IR spectroscopy to determine the nutritional value of diets consumed by beef cattle in east Mediterranean rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, S Y; Dvash, L; Roudman, M; Muklada, H; Barkai, D; Yehuda, Y; Ungar, E D

    2016-02-01

    Rapid assessment of the nutritional quality of diets ingested by grazing animals is pivotal for successful cow-calf management in east Mediterranean rangelands, which receive unpredictable rainfall and are subject to hot-spells. Clipped vegetation samples are seldom representative of diets consumed, as cows locate and graze selectively. In contrast, faeces are easily sampled and their near-IR spectra contain information about nutrients and their utilization. However, a pre-requisite for successful faecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FNIRS) is that the calibration database encompass the spectral variability of samples to be analyzed. Using confined beef cows in Northern and Southern Israel, we calibrated prediction equations based on individual pairs of known dietary attributes and the NIR spectra of associated faeces (n=125). Diets were composed of fresh-cut green fodder of monocots (wheat and barley), dicots (safflower and garden pea) and natural pasture collected at various phenological states over 2 consecutive years, and, optionally, supplements of barley grain and dried poultry litter. A total of 48 additional pairs of faeces and diets sourced from cows fed six complete mixed rations covering a wide range of energy and CP concentrations. Precision (linearity of calibration, R2cal, and of cross-validation, R2cv) and accuracy (standard error of cross-validation, SEcv) were criteria for calibration quality. The calibrations for dietary ash, CP, NDF and in vitro dry matter digestibility yielded R2cal values >0.87, R2cv of 0.81 to 0.89 and SEcv values of 16, 13, 39 and 31 g/kg dry matter, respectively. Equations for nutrient intake were of low quality, with the exception of CP. Evaluation of FNIRS predictions was carried out with grazing animals supplemented or not with poultry litter, and implementation of the method in one herd over 2 years is presented. The potential usefulness of equations was also established by calculating the Mahalanobis (H

  4. Solution structure of the 45-residue MgATP-binding peptide of adenylate kinase as examined by 2-D NMR, FTIR, and CD spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, D C; Byler, D M; Susi, H; Brown, E M; Kuby, S A; Mildvan, A S

    1988-05-17

    The structure of a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 1-45 of rabbit muscle adenylate kinase has been studied in aqueous solution by two-dimensional NMR, FTIR, and CD spectroscopy. This peptide, which binds MgATP and is believed to represent most of the MgATP-binding site of the enzyme [Fry, D.C., Kuby, S.A., & Mildvan, A.S. (1985) Biochemistry 24, 4680-4694], appears to maintain a conformation similar to that of residues 1-45 in the X-ray structure of intact porcine adenylate kinase [Sachsenheimer, W., & Schulz, G.E. (1977) J. Mol. Biol. 114, 23-26], with 42% of the residues of the peptide showing NOEs indicative of phi and psi angles corresponding to those found in the protein. The NMR studies suggest that the peptide is composed of two helical regions of residues 4-7 and 23-29, and three stretches of beta-strand at residues 8-15, 30-32, and 35-40, yielding an overall secondary structure consisting of 24% alpha-helix, 38% beta-structure, and 38% aperiodic. Although the resolution-enhanced amide I band of the peptide FTIR spectrum is broad and rather featureless, possibly due to disorder, it can be fit by using methods developed on well-characterized globular proteins. On this basis, the peptide consists of 35 +/- 10% beta-structure, 60 +/- 12% turns and aperiodic structure, and not more than 10% alpha-helix. The CD spectrum is best fit by assuming the presence of at most 13% alpha-helix in the peptide, 24 +/- 2% beta-structure, and 66 +/- 4% aperiodic. The inability of the high-frequency FTIR and CD methods to detect helices in the amount found by NMR may result from the short helical lengths as well as from static and dynamic disorder in the peptide. Upon binding of MgATP, numerous conformational changes in the backbone of the peptide are detected by NMR, with smaller alterations in the overall secondary structure as assessed by CD. Detailed assignments of resonances in the peptide spectrum and intermolecular NOEs between protons of bound MgATP and

  5. 500 nm Continuous Wave Tunable SingleFrequency MidIR Light Source for C–H Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgstedt, Lasse; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    2012-01-01

    A computer controlled tunable mid-IR light source, based on single resonant difference frequency generation (DFG), is experimentally investigated. The DFG process is pumped by an external cavity tapered diode laser, tunable over a spectral range of 30 nm. Grating feedback to the single mode channel...... approach, a tunable single-frequency output power exceeding 3 mW was obtained in the mid-IR tuning range from 2.9 to 3.4 μm....

  6. A Q-switched Ho:YAG laser assisted nanosecond time-resolved T-jump transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy with high sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Deyong; Li, Yunliang; Li, Hao; Weng, Yuxiang, E-mail: yxweng@iphy.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wu, Xianyou [Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, Qingxu [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, No. 2, Linggong Road, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Knowledge of dynamical structure of protein is an important clue to understand its biological function in vivo. Temperature-jump (T-jump) time-resolved transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy is a powerful tool in elucidating the protein dynamical structures and the folding/unfolding kinetics of proteins in solution. A home-built setup of T-jump time-resolved transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy with high sensitivity is developed, which is composed of a Q-switched Cr, Tm, Ho:YAG laser with an output wavelength at 2.09 μm as the T-jump heating source, and a continuous working CO laser tunable from 1580 to 1980 cm{sup −1} as the IR probe. The results demonstrate that this system has a sensitivity of 1 × 10{sup −4} ΔOD for a single wavelength detection, and 2 × 10{sup −4} ΔOD for spectral detection in amide I′ region, as well as a temporal resolution of 20 ns. Moreover, the data quality coming from the CO laser is comparable to the one using the commercial quantum cascade laser.

  7. A Q-switched Ho:YAG laser assisted nanosecond time-resolved T-jump transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy with high sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deyong; Li, Yunliang; Li, Hao; Wu, Xianyou; Yu, Qingxu; Weng, Yuxiang

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of dynamical structure of protein is an important clue to understand its biological function in vivo. Temperature-jump (T-jump) time-resolved transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy is a powerful tool in elucidating the protein dynamical structures and the folding/unfolding kinetics of proteins in solution. A home-built setup of T-jump time-resolved transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy with high sensitivity is developed, which is composed of a Q-switched Cr, Tm, Ho:YAG laser with an output wavelength at 2.09 μm as the T-jump heating source, and a continuous working CO laser tunable from 1580 to 1980 cm(-1) as the IR probe. The results demonstrate that this system has a sensitivity of 1 × 10(-4) ΔOD for a single wavelength detection, and 2 × 10(-4) ΔOD for spectral detection in amide I' region, as well as a temporal resolution of 20 ns. Moreover, the data quality coming from the CO laser is comparable to the one using the commercial quantum cascade laser.

  8. Direct spectroscopy of the $^2$S$_{1/2}-^2$P$_{1/2}$ and $^2$D$_{3/2}-^2$P$_{1/2}$ transitions and observation of micromotion modulated spectra in trapped \\Ca

    CERN Document Server

    Pruttivarasin, Thaned; Haeffner, Hartmut

    2013-01-01

    We present an experimental scheme to perform spectroscopy of the $^2$S$_{1/2}-^2$P$_{1/2}$ and $^2$D$_{3/2}-^2$P$_{1/2}$ transitions in \\Ca. By rapidly switching lasers between both transitions, we circumvent the complications of both dark resonances and Doppler heating. We apply this method to directly observe the micromotion modulated fluorescence spectra of both transitions and measure the dependence of the micromotion modulation index on the trap frequency. With a measurement time of 10 minutes, we can detect the center frequencies of both dipole transitions with a precision on the order of 200 kHz even in the presence of strong micromotion.

  9. The Use and Evaluation of Scaffolding, Student Centered-Learning, Behaviorism, and Constructivism to Teach Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and IR Spectroscopy in a Two-Semester Organic Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livengood, Kimberly; Lewallen, Denver W.; Leatherman, Jennifer; Maxwell, Janet L.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2002, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry have been introduced at the beginning of the first-semester organic chemistry lab course at this university. Starting in 2008, each individual student was given 20 unique homework problems that consisted of multiple-choice [superscript 1]H NMR and IR problems…

  10. Cross-strand coupling of a beta-hairpin peptide stabilized with an Aib-Gly turn studied using isotope-edited IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Setnicka, Vladimir; Etienne, Marcus A; Kim, Joohyun; Kubelka, Jan; Hammer, Robert P; Keiderling, Timothy A

    2007-11-01

    Isotope-edited IR spectroscopy was used to study a series of singly and doubly 13C=O-labeled beta-hairpin peptides stabilized by an Aib-Gly turn sequence. The double-labeled peptides have amide I' IR spectra that show different degrees of vibrational coupling between the 13C-labeled amides due to variations in the local geometry of the peptide structure. The single-labeled peptides provide controls to determine frequencies characteristic of the diagonal force field (FF) contributions at each position for the uncoupled 13C=O modes. Separation of diagonal FF and coupling effects on the spectra are used to explain the cross-strand labeled spectral patterns. DFT calculations based on an idealized model beta-hairpin peptide correctly predict the vibrational coupling patterns. Extending these model results by consideration of frayed ends and the hairpin conformational flexibility yields an alternate interpretation of details of the spectra. Temperature-dependent isotopically labeled IR spectra reveal differences in the thermal stabilities of the individual isotopically labeled sites. This is the first example of using an IR-based isotopic labeling technique to differentiate structural transitions at specific sites along the peptide backbone in model beta-hairpin peptides.

  11. Identification of the traditional Tibetan medicine "Shaji" and their different extracts through tri-step infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Li, Jingyi; Fan, Gang; Sun, Suqin; Zhang, Yuxin; Zhang, Yi; Tu, Ya

    2016-11-01

    Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. sinensis Rousi, Hippophae gyantsensis (Rousi) Y. S. Lian, Hippophae neurocarpa S. W. Liu & T. N. He and Hippophae tibetana Schlechtendal are typically used under one name "Shaji", to treat cardiovascular diseases and lung disorders in Tibetan medicine (TM). A complete set of infrared (IR) macro-fingerprints of these four Hippophae species should be characterized and compared simply, accurately, and in detail for identification. In the present study, tri-step IR spectroscopy, which included Fourier transform IR (FT-IR) spectroscopy, second derivative IR (SD-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation IR (2D-IR) spectroscopy, was employed to discriminate the four Hippophae species and their corresponding extracts using different solvents. The relevant spectra exhibited the holistic chemical compositions and variations. Flavonoids, fatty acids and sugars were found to be the main chemical components. Characteristic peak positions, intensities and shapes derived from FT-IR, SD-IR and 2D-IR spectra provided valuable information for sample discrimination. Principal component analysis (PCA) of spectral differences was performed to illustrate the objective identification. Results showed that the species and their extracts can be clearly distinguished. Thus, a quick, precise and effective tri-step IR spectroscopy combined with PCA can be applied to identify and discriminate medicinal materials and their extracts in TM research.

  12. Determination of lycopene and beta-carotene content in tomato fruits and related products: Comparison of FT-Raman, ATR-IR, and NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranska, M; Schütze, W; Schulz, H

    2006-12-15

    Tomatoes and various products derived from thermally processed tomatoes are major sources of lycopene, but apart from this micronutrient, other carotenoids such as beta-carotene also are present in the fruit. They occur in tomato fruits and various tomato products in amounts of 2.62-629.00 (lycopene) and 0.23-2.83 mg/100 g (beta-carotene). Standard methods for determining the carotenoid content require the extraction of the analyte as well as other cleanup steps. In this work, FT-Raman, ATR-IR, and NIR spectroscopy are applied in order to establish new, fast, and nondestructive calibration methods for quantification of lycopene and beta-carotene content in tomato fruits and related products. The best prediction quality was achieved using a model based on IR spectroscopy (R2 = 0.98 and 0.97, SECV = 33.20 and 0.16 for lycopene and beta-carotene, respectively). In spite of the fact that Raman spectra of tomato products show characteristic key bands of the investigated carotenoids, this method gives slightly lower reliability (R2 = 0.91 and 0.89, SECV = 74.34 and 0.34 for lycopene and beta-carotene, respectively). NIR spectroscopy, which has been used for quantification purposes in the agricultural sector for several decades, in this study shows the worse prediction quality (R2 = 0.85 and 0.80, SECV = 91.19 and 0.41 for lycopene and beta-carotene, respectively).

  13. A nearby GRB host prototype for z~7 Lyman-break galaxies: Spitzer-IRS and X-shooter spectroscopy of the host galaxy of GRB031203

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, D; Christensen, L; O'Halloran, B; Michałowski, M; Hjorth, J; Malesani, D; Fynbo, J P U; Gordon, K D; Cerón, J M Castro

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies have been studied extensively in optical photometry and spectroscopy. Here we present the first mid-infrared spectrum of a GRB host, HG031203. It is one of the nearest GRB hosts at z=0.1055, allowing both low and high-resolution spectroscopy with Spitzer-IRS. Medium resolution UV-to-K-band spectroscopy with the X-shooter spectrograph on the VLT is also presented, along with Spitzer IRAC and MIPS photometry, as well as radio and sub-mm observations. These data allow us to construct a UV-to-radio spectral energy distribution with almost complete spectroscopic coverage from 0.3-35 micron of a GRB host galaxy for the first time, potentially valuable as a template for future model comparisons. The IRS spectra show strong, high-ionisation fine structure line emission indicative of a hard radiation field in the galaxy, suggestive of strong ongoing star-formation and a very young stellar population. The selection of HG031203 via the presence of a GRB suggests that it might be a use...

  14. Implications for Extraterrestrial Hydrocarbon Chemistry: Analysis of Ethylene (C2H4) and D4-Ethylene (C2D4) Ices Exposed to Ionizing Radiation via Combined Infrared Spectroscopy and Reflectron Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abplanalp, Matthew J.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2017-02-01

    The processing of the hydrocarbon ice, ethylene (C2H4/C2D4), via energetic electrons, thus simulating the processes in the track of galactic cosmic-ray particles, was carried out in an ultrahigh vacuum apparatus. The chemical evolution of the ices was monitored online and in situ utilizing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and during temperature programmed desorption, via a quadrupole mass spectrometer utilizing electron impact ionization (EI-QMS) and a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer utilizing a photoionization source (PI-ReTOF-MS). Several previous in situ studies of ethylene ice irradiation using FTIR were substantiated with the detection of six products: [CH4 (CD4)], acetylene [C2H2 (C2D2)], the ethyl radical [C2H5 (C2D5)], ethane [C2H6 (C2D6)], 1-butene [C4H8 (C4D8)], and n-butane [C4H10 (C4D10)]. Contrary to previous gas phase studies, the PI-ReTOF-MS detected several groups of hydrocarbon with varying degrees of saturation: C n H2n+2 (n = 4–10), C n H2n (n = 2–12, 14, 16), C n H2n‑2 (n = 3–12, 14, 16), C n H2n‑4 (n = 4–12, 14, 16), C n H2n‑6 (n = 4–10, 12), C n H2n‑8 (n = 6–10), and C n H2n‑10 (n = 6–10). Multiple laboratory studies have shown the facile production of ethylene from methane, which is a known ice constituent in the interstellar medium. Various astrophysically interesting molecules can be associated with the groups detected here, such as allene/methylacetylene (C3H4) or 1, 3-butadiene (C4H6) and its isomers, which have been shown to lead to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Finally, several hydrocarbon groups detected here are unique to ethylene ice versus ethane ice and may provide understanding of how complex hydrocarbons form in astrophysical environments.

  15. Detection of Soluble and Fixed NH4+ in Clay Minerals by DTA and IR Reflectance Spectroscopy : A Potential Tool for Planetary Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice, Bishop; Banin, A.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Klovstad, M. R.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential element for life. It is the only element among the six major biogenic elements, C, O, S, O, P, H, whose presence in the Martian soil has not been positively and directly established. We describe here a study assessing the ability to detect NH4 in soils by two methods: differential thermal analysis (DTA) and infrared (IR) reflectance spectroscopy. Four standard clay minerals (kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite and attapulgite) and an altered tephra sample from Mauna Kea were treated with NH4 in this study. Samples of the NH4-treated and leached clays were analyzed by DTA and infrared (IR) reflectance spectroscopy to quantify the delectability of soluble and sorbed/fixed NH4. An exotherm at 270-280 C was clearly detected in the DTA curves of NH4-treated (non-leached) samples. This feature is assigned to the thermal decomposition reaction of NH4. Spectral bands observed at 1.56, 2.05, 2.12, 3.06, 3.3, 3.5, 5.7 and 7.0 microns in the reflectance spectra of NH4-treated and leached samples are assigned to the sorbed/fixed ammonium in the clays. The montmorillonite has shown the most intense absorbance due to fixed ammonium among the leached samples in this study, as a result of its high cation sorption capacity. It is concluded that the presence of sorbed or fixed NH4 in clays may be detected by infrared (IR) reflectance or emission spectroscopy. Distinction between soluble and sorbed NH4 may be achieved through the presence or absence of several spectral features assigned to the sorbed NH4 moietyi and, specifically, by use of the 4.2 micrometer feature assigned to solution NH4. Thermal analyses furnish supporting evidence of ammonia in our study through detection of N released at temperatures of 270-330 C. Based on these results it is estimated that IR spectra measured from a rover should be able to detect ammonia if present above 20 mg NH4/g sample in the surface layers. Orbital IR spectra and thermal analyses measured on a rover may be able to

  16. FT-IR spectroscopy and DFT calculation study on the solvent effects of benzaldehyde in organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Qing

    2012-02-01

    FT-IR spectra of benzaldehyde in 11 different organic solvents were recorded and analyzed. The density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP/6-31G* method was chosen to calculate the infrared spectrum of benzaldehyde in gaseous state. The electrostatic effects of different solvents in benzaldehyde solutions were calculated using DFT with the self-consistent isodensity polarizable continuum model (SCI-PCM). Two remarkable carbonyl (C=O) peaks of benzaldehyde were observed by FT-IR in alcohol solvents, which were caused by different hydrogen bond species and explained by ab initio calculation. The results showed that the combination of SCI-PCM model and ab initio calculation could give excellent agreements with FT-IR spectra of title compound in solutions.

  17. Noninvasive express diagnostics of pulmonary diseases based on control of patient's gas emission using methods of IR and terahertz laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starikova, M. K.; Bulanova, A. A.; Bukreeva, E. B.; Karapuzikov, A. A.; Karapuzikov, A. I.; Kistenev, Y. V.; Klementyev, V. M.; Kolker, D. B.; Kuzmin, D. A.; Nikiforova, O. Y.; Ponomarev, Yu. N.; Sherstov, I. V.; Boyko, A. A.

    2013-11-01

    Pulmonary diseases diagnostics always occupies one of the key positions in medicine practices. A large variety of high technology methods are used today, but none of them cannot be used for early screening of pulmonary diseases. We discuss abilities of methods of IR and terahertz laser spectroscopy for noninvasive express diagnostics of pulmonary diseases on a base of analysis of absorption spectra of patient's gas emission, in particular, exhaled air. Experience in the field of approaches to experimental data analysis and hard-ware realization of gas analyzers for medical applications is also discussed.

  18. Visible and near-IR spectroscopy of endohedral Gd@C82( C 2 v ) and Ho@C82( C 2 v ) metallofullerenes and their monoanions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareev, I. E.; Nekrasov, V. M.; Dutlov, A. E.; Martynenko, V. M.; Bubnov, V. P.; Laukhina, E.; Veciana, J.; Rovira, C.

    2017-03-01

    Solutions of endohedral Gd@C82( C 2 v ) and Ho@C82( C 2 v ) metallofullerenes are studied by means of visible and near-IR spectroscopy upon their conversion from neutral to the anionic form via a redox reaction with the electron donor potassium perchlorotriphenylmethide K(18-crown-6)[C(C6Cl5)3]. The concentrations of the studied solutions of endohedral Gd@C82( C 2 v ) and Ho@C82( C 2 v ) metallofullerenes in o-dichlorobenzene were determined from the spectroscopic data, and their molar extinction coefficients are calculated.

  19. DETERMINATION OF CRYSTALLINITY INDEX OF CARBOHYDRATE COMPONENTS IN HEMP (CANNABIS SATIVA L. WOODY CORE BY MEANS OF FT-IR SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat Gümüşkaya

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study; it was investigated chemical compositions of hemp woody core and changes in crystallinity index of its carbohydrate components by using FT-IR spectroscopy was investigated. It was determined that carbohyrate components ratio in hemp woody core were similar to that in hard wood, but lignin content in hemp woody core was higher than in hard wood. Crystallinity index of carbohydrate components in hemp woody core increased by removing amorphous components. It was designated that monoclinic structure in hemp woody core and its carbohydrate components was dominant, but triclinic ratio increased by treated chemical isolation of carbohydrate from hemp woody core.

  20. Discrimination of different processed animal proteins (PAPs by FT-IR spectroscopy based on their fat characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu, Q.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to explore the potential of FT-IR technique for discriminating different species of processed animal proteins (PAPs based on their fat characteristics. A total of 47 source-reliable PAPs samples containing fish meal, porcine, bovine, ovine and poultry meat and bone meal (MBM were involved in the present study. The results obtained showed that the FT-IR differentiated quite well between the fat derived from different species of PAPs, especially at the bands of 3,006 cm-1 and 722 cm-1. Results provided evidence that FT-IR differentiated the fat derived from fish meal, terrestrial non-ruminant and ruminant MBM quite well. Fish meal and ruminant MBM samples could be discriminated effectively by both the sensitivity and specificity values which were 1.00 and 1.00, respectively. For non-ruminant MBM samples, the sensitivity and specificity were 1.00 and 0.96, respectively. However, it was hard to distinguish bovine MBM from ovine ones as well as porcine MBM from poultry ones. The result makes it possible to allow FT-IR analytical methodology as a preliminary study for the exploitation of a rapid and reliable way for the identification of the animal origin of PAPs used in feeding stuffs.

  1. Studies on the Hydrogenation of Acetonitrile over Fresh Mo2C/γ-Al2O3 Catalyst by In-situ IR Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jing; Wu Weicheng; Liu Chuang; Ding Xiaoguang; Chu Gang; Zhang Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of acetonitrile, the co-adsorption of acetonitrile with CO, and hydrogenation of acetonitrile on fresh Mo2C/γ-Al2O3 catalyst were studied by in situ IR spectroscopy. It was found out that CH3CN exhibited strong interac-tion with the fresh Mo2C/γ-Al2O3 catalyst and was adsorbed mainly on Moδ+sites of fresh Mo2C/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. Moreover, CH3CN could affect the shifting of IR spectra for CO adsorption towards a lower wave number. The IR spectroscopic study on acetonitrile hydrogenation showed that CH3CN could be easily hydrogenated in the presence of H2 on the Mo2C/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. Furthermore, it was observed that CH3CN could be selectively hydrogenated to imines on fresh Mo2C/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. Additionally, the active sites of fresh Mo2C/γ-Al2O3 catalyst might be covered with coke during the hydrogenation reaction of acetonitrile. The treatment of catalyst with hydrogen at 673 K could not completely remove coke deposits on the surface of the Mo2C/γ-Al2O3 catalyst.

  2. Body composition in Mexican adults by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) with the BOD-POD and deuterium oxide dilution using infrared spectroscopy (IRS-DOD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, Nayeli; Calderón de la Barca, Ana María; Bolaños, Adriana V; Alemán, Heliodoro; Esparza, Julián; Valencia, Mauro E

    2002-09-01

    Thirty four subjects (13 men and 21 women), 24 to 70 years old from northern Mexico, were measured for body density by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) with the BOD-POD, and for total body water by deuterium oxide dilution and infrared spectroscopy (IRS-DOD). Subjects were given a 30 g dose of deuterium oxide. Saliva samples were filtered, sublimated, and deuterium was measured using a Miran 1 FF, IRS. Linear regression of the fat mass (FM) derived from both methods showed that the intercept (0.071) was not different from zero (p = .96) and the slope was 0.96 (p < .0001) demonstrating the techniques to be equivalent. Further, mean FM was 26.7 +/- 12.4 and 25.6 +/- 12.4 kg, for IRS-DOD and ADP techniques, respectively (p = .08). Precision analysis by the model R2 showed that 92.3% of the variability was explained (SEM = 3.4 kg). Bland-Altman analysis showed no significant bias (r = 0.017; p = .93). Mean difference between methods was -1.08 (CI: -2.3 to + 0.13) kg FM.

  3. Adsorption and oxidation of formaldehyde on a polycrystalline Pt film electrode: An in situ IR spectroscopy search for adsorbed reaction intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenonas Jusys

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of a mechanistic study of the electrooxidation of C1 molecules we have systematically investigated the dissociative adsorption/oxidation of formaldehyde on a polycrystalline Pt film electrode under experimental conditions optimizing the chance for detecting weakly adsorbed reaction intermediates. Employing in situ IR spectroscopy in an attenuated total reflection configuration (ATR-FTIRS with p-polarized IR radiation to further improve the signal-to-noise ratio, and using low reaction temperatures (3 °C and deuterium substitution to slow down the reaction kinetics and to stabilize weakly adsorbed reaction intermediates, we could detect an IR absorption band at 1660 cm−1 characteristic for adsorbed formyl intermediates. This assignment is supported by an isotope shift in wave number. Effects of temperature, potential and deuterium substitution on the formation and disappearance of different adsorbed species (COad, adsorbed formate, adsorbed formyl, are monitored and quantified. Consequences on the mechanism for dissociative adsorption and oxidation of formaldehyde are discussed.

  4. Applications of FT-IR spectroscopy to the studies of esterification and crosslinking of cellulose by polycarboxylic acids: Part II. The performance of the crosslinked cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Weishu; Yang, Charles Q.

    1998-06-01

    Durable press finishing processes are commonly used in the textile industry to produce wrinkle-free cotton fabrics and garments. A durable press finishing agent forms covalent bands with cellulosic hydroxyl groups, thus crosslinking the cellulose molecules. The crosslinking of cellulose increases wrinkle resistance of the treated cotton fabric and reduces fabric mechanical strength. Wrinkle recovery angle (WRA) and tensile strength are the two most important parameters used to evaluate the performance of the crosslinked cotton fabrics and garments. In this study, we investigated the correlation between WRA and tensile strength on one hand, and the amount of crosslinkages formed by the crosslinking agents including dimethyloldihydroxylethyleneurea (DMDHEU) and 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) determined by FT-IR spectroscopy on the other hand. Linear regression curves between the carbonyl band absorbance, and WRA and tensile strength of the treated cotton fabric were developed. The data indicated that FT-IR spectroscopy is a reliable technique for predicting the performance of durable press finished cotton fabrics, therefore can be used as a convenient instrumental method for quality control in the textile and garment industry.

  5. Identification of Quercus agrifolia (coast live oak resistant to the invasive pathogen Phytophthora ramorum in native stands using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Olivia Conrad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades coast live oak (CLO dominance in many California coastal ecosystems has been threatened by the alien invasive pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, the causal agent of sudden oak death. In spite of high infection and mortality rates in some areas, the presence of apparently resistant trees has been observed, including trees that become infected but recover over time. However, identifying resistant trees based on recovery alone can take many years. The objective of this study was to determine if Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, a chemical fingerprinting technique, can be used to identify CLO resistant to P. ramorum prior to infection. Soft independent modeling of class analogy identified spectral regions that differed between resistant and susceptible trees. Regions most useful for discrimination were associated with carbonyl group vibrations. Additionally, concentrations of two putative phenolic biomarkers of resistance were predicted using partial least squares regression; > 99% of the variation was explained by this analysis. This study demonstrates that chemical fingerprinting can be used to identify resistance in a natural population of forest trees prior to infection with a pathogen. FT-IR spectroscopy may be a useful approach for managing forests impacted by sudden oak death, as well as in other situations where emerging or existing forest pests and diseases are of concern.

  6. Study of Chemical Intermediates by Means of ATR-IR Spectroscopy and Hybrid Hard- and Soft-Modelling Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junxiu; Qi, Juan; Gao, Xinyu; Yan, Chunhua; Zhang, Tianlong; Tang, Hongsheng

    2017-01-01

    3,5-Diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT) became a significant energetic materials intermediate, and the study of its reaction mechanism has fundamental significance in chemistry. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of online attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy combined with the novel approach of hybrid hard- and soft-modelling multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (HS-MCR) analysis to monitor and detect changes in structural properties of compound during 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT) synthesis processes. The subspace comparison method (SCM) was used to obtain the principal components number, and then the pure IR spectra of each substance were obtained by independent component analysis (ICA) and HS-MCR. The extent of rotation ambiguity was estimated from the band boundaries of feasible solutions calculated using the MCR-BANDS procedure. There were five principal components including two intermediates in the process in the results. The reaction rate constants of DAT formation reaction were also obtained by HS-MCR. HS-MCR was used to analyze spectroscopy data in chemical synthesis process, which not only increase the information domain but also reduce the ambiguities of the obtained results. This study provides the theoretical basis for the optimization of synthesis process and technology of energetic materials and provides a strong technical support of research and development of energy material with extraordinary damage effects. PMID:28386512

  7. Study of Chemical Intermediates by Means of ATR-IR Spectroscopy and Hybrid Hard- and Soft-Modelling Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junxiu; Qi, Juan; Gao, Xinyu; Yan, Chunhua; Zhang, Tianlong; Tang, Hongsheng; Li, Hua

    2017-01-01

    3,5-Diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT) became a significant energetic materials intermediate, and the study of its reaction mechanism has fundamental significance in chemistry. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of online attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy combined with the novel approach of hybrid hard- and soft-modelling multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (HS-MCR) analysis to monitor and detect changes in structural properties of compound during 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT) synthesis processes. The subspace comparison method (SCM) was used to obtain the principal components number, and then the pure IR spectra of each substance were obtained by independent component analysis (ICA) and HS-MCR. The extent of rotation ambiguity was estimated from the band boundaries of feasible solutions calculated using the MCR-BANDS procedure. There were five principal components including two intermediates in the process in the results. The reaction rate constants of DAT formation reaction were also obtained by HS-MCR. HS-MCR was used to analyze spectroscopy data in chemical synthesis process, which not only increase the information domain but also reduce the ambiguities of the obtained results. This study provides the theoretical basis for the optimization of synthesis process and technology of energetic materials and provides a strong technical support of research and development of energy material with extraordinary damage effects.

  8. Study of Chemical Intermediates by Means of ATR-IR Spectroscopy and Hybrid Hard- and Soft-Modelling Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxiu Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 3,5-Diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT became a significant energetic materials intermediate, and the study of its reaction mechanism has fundamental significance in chemistry. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of online attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR spectroscopy combined with the novel approach of hybrid hard- and soft-modelling multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (HS-MCR analysis to monitor and detect changes in structural properties of compound during 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT synthesis processes. The subspace comparison method (SCM was used to obtain the principal components number, and then the pure IR spectra of each substance were obtained by independent component analysis (ICA and HS-MCR. The extent of rotation ambiguity was estimated from the band boundaries of feasible solutions calculated using the MCR-BANDS procedure. There were five principal components including two intermediates in the process in the results. The reaction rate constants of DAT formation reaction were also obtained by HS-MCR. HS-MCR was used to analyze spectroscopy data in chemical synthesis process, which not only increase the information domain but also reduce the ambiguities of the obtained results. This study provides the theoretical basis for the optimization of synthesis process and technology of energetic materials and provides a strong technical support of research and development of energy material with extraordinary damage effects.

  9. Characterization and dating of blue ballpoint pen inks using principal component analysis of UV-Vis absorption spectra, IR spectroscopy, and HPTLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Samir; Hamed, Ezzat; Masoud, Mamdouh; Shehata, Eman

    2012-07-01

    The ink of pens and ink extracted from lines on white photocopier paper of 10 blue ballpoint pens were subjected to ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, infrared (IR), and high-performance thin-layer liquid chromatography (HPTLC). The R(f) values and color tones of the bands separated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis used to classify the writing inks into three groups. The principal component analysis (PCA) investigates the pen responsible for a piece of writing, and how time affects spectroscopy of written ink. PCA can differentiate between pen ink and ink line indicates the influence of solvent extraction process on the results. The PCA loadings are useful in individualization of a questioned ink from a database. The PCA of ink lines extracted at different times can be used to estimate the time at which a questioned document was written. The results proved that the UV-Vis spectra are effective tool to separate blue ballpoint pen ink in most cases rather than IR and HPTLC.

  10. Site-specific thermodynamic stability and unfolding of a de novo designed protein structural motif mapped by 13C isotopically edited IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubelka, Ginka S; Kubelka, Jan

    2014-04-23

    The mechanism of protein folding remains poorly understood, in part due to limited experimental information available about partially folded states. Isotopically edited infrared (IR) spectroscopy has emerged as a promising method for studying protein structural changes with site-specific resolution, but its full potential to systematically probe folding at multiple protein sites has not yet been realized. We have used (13)C isotopically edited IR spectroscopy to investigate the site-specific thermal unfolding at seven different locations in the de novo designed helix-turn-helix protein αtα. As one of the few stable helix-turn-helix motifs, αtα is an excellent model for studying the roles of secondary and tertiary interactions in folding. Circular dichroism (CD) experiments on the full αtα motif and its two peptide fragments show that interhelical tertiary contacts are critical for stabilization of the secondary structure. The site-specific thermal unfolding probed by (13)C isotopically edited IR is likewise consistent with primarily tertiary stabilization of the local structure. The least thermally stable part of the αtα motif is near the turn where the interhelical contacts are rather loose, while the motif's center with best established core packing has the highest stability. Similar correlation between the local thermal stability and tertiary contacts was found previously for a naturally occurring helix-turn-helix motif. These results underline the importance of native-like tertiary stabilizing interactions in folding, in agreement with recent state-of-the art folding simulations as well as simplified, native-centric models.

  11. In situ FT-IR spectroscopy investigations of carbon nanotubes supported Co-Mo catalysts for selective hydrodesulfurization of FCC gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingcheng Zhang; Wenkun Yin; Hongyan Shang; Chenguang Liu

    2008-01-01

    To better understand the nature of carbon nanotubes supported Co-Mo catalysts (Co-Mo/CNTs) for selective hy-drodesulfurization (HDS) of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline, studies are carried out using in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The catalytic performances of Co-Mo/CNTs catalysts were evaluated with a mixture of cy-clohexane, diisobutylene, cyclohexene, 1-octene (60 : 30 : 5 : 5, volume ratio) and thiophene (0.5%, ratio of total weight) as model compounds to simulate FCC gasoline. The HDS experimental results suggested that the HDS activity and selectivity of Co-Mo/CNTs catalysts were affected by Co/Mo ratio; the optimal Co/Mo atomic ratio is about 0.4, and the optimum reaction temperature is 260 ℃. The in situ FT-IR studies revealed that 1-octene can be completely saturated at 200 ℃. In the FT-IR spectra of diisobutylene, the characteristic absorption peak around 3081 cm-1 for the stretching vibration peak of=C-H bond was still clear at 320℃, indicating that diisobutylene is difficult to be hydrogenated. As for the thiophene, no characteristic absorption peak could be found around 3092 cm-1 and 835 cm-1 when the reaction temperature was raised to 280 ℃, indi-cating that thiophene had been completely hydrodesulfurized. On the basis of FT-IR results, it can be deduced that thiopbene HDS reaction occurred mainly through direct hydrogenolysis route, whereas thiophene HDS and diisobutylene hydrogenation reaction over Co-Mo/CNTs catalysts might occur on two different kinds of active sites.

  12. 2D semiconductor optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselov, Kostya

    The advent of graphene and related 2D materials has recently led to a new technology: heterostructures based on these atomically thin crystals. The paradigm proved itself extremely versatile and led to rapid demonstration of tunnelling diodes with negative differential resistance, tunnelling transistors, photovoltaic devices, etc. By taking the complexity and functionality of such van der Waals heterostructures to the next level we introduce quantum wells engineered with one atomic plane precision. Light emission from such quantum wells, quantum dots and polaritonic effects will be discussed.

  13. Analytical characterisation of inorganic suspended matter in the Milan aerosol by micro FT-IR spectroscopy (Part 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, A. [Como Univ. dell' Insubria, Como (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Chimiche, Fisiche e Matematiche; Cariati, F.; Fermo, P. [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Inorganica, Metallorganica e Analitica; Consonni, V.; Todeschini, R. [Milan Univ. Bicocca, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Chemometric and QSAR Research Group

    2000-08-01

    Infrared spectra of an urban aerosol sample selected by an impactor have been analysed by using PCA and PLS multivariate analyses. The presence of carbonates, nitrates, sulphates silicates and ammonium salts have been observed. The experimental spectra have been simulated as linear combinations of reference spectra. [Italian] Gli spettri IR di un campione di aerosol urbano selezionato con un impactor, sono stati analizzati utilizzando le analisi multivariate PCA e PLS. E' stata osservata la presenza di carboni, nitrati, solfati, silicati e sali di ammonio. Gli spettri sperimentali sono stati confrontati con gli spettri ottenuti come combinazioni lineari degli spettri di composti di riferimento.

  14. IR spectroscopy of cationized aliphatic amino acids: Stability of charge-solvated structure increases with metal cation size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drayss, M. K.; Armentrout, P. B.; Oomens, J.; Schaefer, M.

    2010-01-01

    Gas-phase structures of alkali metal cationized (Li+, Na+,K+, Rb+, and Cs+) proline (Pro) and N-methyl alanine have been investigated using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy utilizing light generated by a free electron laser and computational modeling. Measured IRMPD spectra

  15. Exploring the mechanism of IR-UV double-resonance for quantitative spectroscopy of protonated polypeptides and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornova, Natalia S; Rizzo, Thomas R; Boyarkin, Oleg V

    2013-06-03

    Spectroscopic fingerprint: Infrared–ultraviolet double resonance photodissociation is used for conformational assignment of the electronic spectra of a cold protonated decapeptide (see picture). A mechanism of the IR–UV depletion spectroscopy is proposed and a procedure of using it for measurements of absolute absorption cross-sections of vibrational transitions is elaborated.

  16. IR spectroscopy of cationized aliphatic amino acids: Stability of charge-solvated structure increases with metal cation size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drayß, M.K.; Armentrout, P.B.; Oomens, J.; Schäfer, M.

    2010-01-01

    Gas-phase structures of alkali metal cationized (Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, and Cs+) proline (Pro) and N-methyl alanine have been investigated using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy utilizing light generated by a free electron laser and computational modeling. Measured IRMPD spectr

  17. Proteolytically-induced changes of secondary structural protein conformation of bovine serum albumin monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-circular dichroism spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, Günnur; Vorob'ev, Mikhail M.; Vogel, Vitali; Mäntele, Werner

    2016-05-01

    Enzymatically-induced degradation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) by serine proteases (trypsin and α-chymotrypsin) in various concentrations was monitored by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet circular dichroism (UV-CD) spectroscopy. In this study, the applicability of both spectroscopies to monitor the proteolysis process in real time has been proven, by tracking the spectral changes together with secondary structure analysis of BSA as proteolysis proceeds. On the basis of the FTIR spectra and the changes in the amide I band region, we suggest the progression of proteolysis process via conversion of α-helices (1654 cm- 1) into unordered structures and an increase in the concentration of free carboxylates (absorption of 1593 and 1402 cm- 1). For the first time, the correlation between the degree of hydrolysis and the concentration of carboxylic groups measured by FTIR spectroscopy was revealed as well. The far UV-CD spectra together with their secondary structure analysis suggest that the α-helical content decreases concomitant with an increase in the unordered structure. Both spectroscopic techniques also demonstrate that there are similar but less spectral changes of BSA for the trypsin attack than for α-chymotrypsin although the substrate/enzyme ratio is taken the same.

  18. Distant analysis of the isotopic composition of H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, T{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, D{sub 2}O, T{sub 2}O mixtures by spontaneous Raman spectroscopy; Analyse a distance de la composition isotopique de melanges (H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, T{sub 2}) et (H{sub 2}O, D{sub 2}O, T{sub 2}O) par spectroscopie Raman spontanee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaufour, Y

    1996-01-10

    This work concerns the quantitative analysis of hydrogen isotopes in of H2/D2/T2 and H20/D20/T20 mixtures. The radioactivity of tritium and its nuclear environment explain the need for distant analysis. Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy has been chosen as analytical tool because it can differentiate all the isotopic molecules we are interested in. The possibility to record spectra distantly with optical fibers makes it a good solution for the two cases we are presenting. For tritiated water analysis we have used a multi-fiber probe which penetrates the glovebox and allows to record the water spectrum through the closed glass flask which contains it. In two minutes we can detect 0.56 molar % of H20 and D20, and 0.056 molar % of 120 (1800 i/l). For gaseous hydrogen mixtures we have developed a multipass cell connected to the Raman installation with one hundred meter optical fibers. Each of the six molecular species resulting of isotopic exchanges are detected in two minutes until partial pressures of 2O mbar. (author) 80 refs.

  19. Flexible attosecond beamline for high harmonic spectroscopy and XUV/near-IR pump probe experiments requiring long acquisition times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, S. J., E-mail: sebastien.weber@cea.fr; Manschwetus, B.; Billon, M.; Bougeard, M.; Breger, P.; Géléoc, M.; Gruson, V.; Lin, N.; Ruchon, T.; Salières, P.; Carré, B. [Commissariat l’Energie Atomique, Laser, Interactions and Dynamics Laboratory (LIDyL), DSM/IRAMIS, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Böttcher, M.; Huetz, A.; Picard, Y. J. [ISMO, UMR 8214, Université Paris-Sud, Batiment 350, Orsay (France)

    2015-03-15

    We describe the versatile features of the attosecond beamline recently installed at CEA-Saclay on the PLFA kHz laser. It combines a fine and very complete set of diagnostics enabling high harmonic spectroscopy (HHS) through the advanced characterization of the amplitude, phase, and polarization of the harmonic emission. It also allows a variety of photo-ionization experiments using magnetic bottle and COLTRIMS (COLd Target Recoil Ion Momentum Microscopy) electron spectrometers that may be used simultaneously, thanks to a two-foci configuration. Using both passive and active stabilization, special care was paid to the long term stability of the system to allow, using both experimental approaches, time resolved studies with attosecond precision, typically over several hours of acquisition times. As an illustration, applications to multi-orbital HHS and electron-ion coincidence time resolved spectroscopy are presented.

  20. Sulfato/thiosulfato reducing bacteria characterization by FT-IR spectroscopy: a new approach to biocorrosion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Celine; Ott, Christelle; Amiel, Caroline; Dupont-Moral, Isabelle; Travert, Josette; Mariey, Laurence

    2006-03-01

    Sulfato and Thiosulfato Reducing Bacteria (SRB, TRB) can induce corrosion process on steel immersed in seawater. This phenomenon, called biocorrosion, costs approximatively 5 billion euros in France each year. We provide the first evidence that Fourier Transformed InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy is a competitive technique to evaluate the sulfurogen flora involved in biocorrosion in comparison with time consuming classical identification methods or PCR analyses. A great discrimination was obtained between SRB, TRB and some contamination bacteria known to be present in seawater and seem to be able to reduce sulfate under particular conditions. Moreover, this preliminary study demonstrates that FTIR spectroscopic and genotypic results present a good correlation (these results are confirmed by other data obtained before or later, data not shown here). The advantages gained by FTIR spectroscopy are to give information on strain phenotype and bacterial metabolism which are of great importance in corrosion processes.

  1. Absorption Spectroscopy and Imaging from the Visible through Mid-IR with 20 nm Resolution Using AFM probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrone, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Correlated nanoscale composition and optical property maps are important to engineer nanomaterials in applications ranging from photovoltaics to sensing and therapeutics. Wavelengths (λs) from the visible to near-IR probe electronic transitions in materials, providing information regarding band gap and defects while light in mid-IR probes vibrational transitions and provide chemical composition. However, light diffraction limits the lateral resolution of conventional micro-spectroscopic techniques to approximately λ/2, which is insufficient to image nanomaterials. Additionally, the λ-dependent resolution impedes direct comparison of spectral maps from different spectral ranges. Photo Thermal Induced Resonance (PTIR) is a novel technique that circumvents light diffraction by employing an AFM tip as a local detector for measuring light absorption with λ-independent nanoscale resolution. Our PTIR setup combines an AFM microscope with three lasers providing λ-tunability from 500 nm to 16000 nm continuously. The AFM tip transduces locally the sample thermal expansion induced by light absorption into large cantilever oscillations. Local absorption spectra (electronic or vibrational) and maps are obtained recording the amplitude of the tip deflection as a function of λ and position, respectively. The working principles of the PTIR technique will be described first, and nano-patterned polymer samples will be used to evaluate its lateral resolution, sensitivity and linearity. Results show that the PTIR signal intensity is proportional to the local absorbed energy suggesting applicability of this technique for quantitative chemical analysis at nanoscale, at least for thin (less than 1000 nm thick) samples. Additionally, a λ-independent resolution as high as 20 nm is demonstrated across the whole spectral range. In the second part of the talk, PTIR will be applied to image the dark plasmonic resonance of gold Asymmetric Split Ring Resonators (A-SRRs) in the mid-IR

  2. Discrimination of fennel chemotypes applying IR and Raman spectroscopy – discovery of a new -asarone chemotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krähmer, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Various vibrational spectroscopy methods have been applied to classify different fennel chemotypes according to their individual profile of volatile substances. Intact fennel fruits of different chemotypes could be successfully discriminated by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR and Near Infrared (NIR spectroscopy. Solvent extracts (CCl4 of the considered fennel fruits showed characteristic fingerprints with marker bands related to the individual volatile components (trans-anethole, fenchone, estragole, piperitenone oxide, -asarone, limonene for ATR-FTIR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. Especially C=C and C=O absorption bands contribute to the different spectral profiles. Based on hierarchical cluster analysis, the considered fennel accessions were classified according to gas chromatographic (GC and vibrational spectroscopic data. Furthermore, even a discrimination of “sweet” and “bitter” fennel fruits, both belonging to the trans-anethole chemotype, could be successfully performed. All vibrational spectroscopical techniques used in this study are rapid and easy to apply. Hence, they allow different fennel chemotypes to be reliably distinguished and can also be used for on-site measurement in free nature.

  3. Discrimination of fennel chemotypes applying IR and Raman spectroscopy: discovery of a new γ-asarone chemotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudi, Gennadi; Krähmer, Andrea; Krüger, Hans; Hennig, Lothar; Schulz, Hartwig

    2014-04-23

    Various vibrational spectroscopy methods have been applied to classify different fennel chemotypes according to their individual profile of volatile substances. Intact fennel fruits of different chemotypes could be successfully discriminated by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Solvent extracts (CCl4) of the considered fennel fruits showed characteristic fingerprints with marker bands related to the individual volatile components (trans-anethole, fenchone, estragole, piperitenone oxide, γ-asarone, limonene) for ATR-FTIR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. Especially νC═C and νC═O absorption bands contribute to the different spectral profiles. On the basis of hierarchical cluster analysis, the considered fennel accessions were classified according to gas chromatographic (GC) and vibrational spectroscopic data. Furthermore, even a discrimination of "sweet" and "bitter" fennel fruits, both belonging to the trans-anethole chemotype, could be successfully performed. All vibrational spectroscopical techniques used in this study are rapid and easy to apply. Hence, they allow different fennel chemotypes to be reliably distinguished and can also be used for on-site measurement in free nature.

  4. High-resolution IR absorption spectroscopy of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the 3 {\\mu}m region: Role of periphery

    CERN Document Server

    Maltseva, Elena; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J; Tielens, Alexander G G M; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this work we report on high-resolution IR absorption studies that provide a detailed view on how the peripheral structure of irregular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affects the shape and position of their 3 {\\mu}m absorption band. To this purpose we present mass-selected, high-resolution absorption spectra of cold and isolated phenanthrene, pyrene, benz[a]antracene, chrysene, triphenylene, and perylene molecules in the 2950-3150 cm-1 range. The experimental spectra are compared with standard harmonic calculations, and anharmonic calculations using a modified version of the SPECTRO program that incorporates a Fermi resonance treatment utilizing intensity redistribution. We show that the 3 {\\mu}m region is dominated by the effects of anharmonicity, resulting in many more bands than would have been expected in a purely harmonic approximation. Importantly, we find that anharmonic spectra as calculated by SPECTRO are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Together with previously reported hi...

  5. Peer Mentoring in the General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories. The Pinacol Rearrangement: An Exercise in NMR and IR Spectroscopy for General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington, Caleb A.; Hill, Jameica B.; Radfar, Ramin; Whisnant, David M.; Bass, Charles G.

    2008-02-01

    This article describes a discovery experiment for general chemistry and organic chemistry labs. Although the pinacol rearrangement has been employed in undergraduate organic laboratories before, in this application organic chemistry students act as mentors to students of general chemistry. Students work together using distillation—a new technique for the general chemistry students and a basic one for the organic students—to isolate an unknown compound. Then, using spectroscopy (IR and NMR), the students collaborate to determine the structure of the product of the reaction. This application of a standard experiment allows general chemistry students to gain exposure to modern spectroscopic instrumentation and to enhance their problem-solving skills. Organic chemistry students improve their understandings of laboratory techniques and spectroscopic interpretation by acting as the resident experts for the team.

  6. Enhancing the sensitivity of mid-IR quantum cascade laser-based cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy using RF current perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfred, Katherine M; Kirkbride, James M R; Ciaffoni, Luca; Peverall, Robert; Ritchie, Grant A D

    2014-12-15

    The sensitivity of mid-IR quantum cascade laser (QCL) off-axis cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS), often limited by cavity mode structure and diffraction losses, was enhanced by applying a broadband RF noise to the laser current. A pump-probe measurement demonstrated that the addition of bandwidth-limited white noise effectively increased the laser linewidth, thereby reducing mode structure associated with CEAS. The broadband noise source offers a more sensitive, more robust alternative to applying single-frequency noise to the laser. Analysis of CEAS measurements of a CO(2) absorption feature at 1890  cm(-1) averaged over 100 ms yielded a minimum detectable absorption of 5.5×10(-3)  Hz(-1/2) in the presence of broadband RF perturbation, nearly a tenfold improvement over the unperturbed regime. The short acquisition time makes this technique suitable for breath applications requiring breath-by-breath gas concentration information.

  7. Selective Alcohol Oxidation by a Copper TEMPO Catalyst: Mechanistic Insights by Simultaneously Coupled Operando EPR/UV-Vis/ATR-IR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabeah, Jabor; Bentrup, Ursula; Stößer, Reinhard; Brückner, Angelika

    2015-09-28

    The first coupled operando EPR/UV-Vis/ATR-IR spectroscopy setup for mechanistic studies of gas-liquid phase reactions is presented and exemplarily applied to the well-known copper/TEMPO-catalyzed (TEMPO=(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl) oxidation of benzyl alcohol. In contrast to previous proposals, no direct redox reaction between TEMPO and Cu(I) /Cu(II) has been detected. Instead, the role of TEMPO is postulated to be the stabilization of a (bpy)(NMI)Cu(II) -O2 (⋅-) -TEMPO (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, NMI=N-methylimidazole) intermediate formed by electron transfer from Cu(I) to molecular O2 .

  8. Cysteine, thiourea and thiocyanate interactions with clays: FT-IR, Mössbauer and EPR spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana, Henrique; Paesano, Andrea; da Costa, Antonio C S; di Mauro, Eduardo; de Souza, Ivan G; Ivashita, Flávio F; de Souza, Cláudio M D; Zaia, Cássia T B V; Zaia, Dimas A M

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the adsorption of cysteine, thiourea and thiocyanate on bentonite and montmorillonite at two different pHs (3.00, 8.00). The conditions used here are closer to those of prebiotic earth. As shown by FT-IR, Mössbauer and EPR spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry, the most important finding of this work is that cysteine and thiourea penetrate into the interlayer of the clays and reduce Fe(3+) to Fe(2+), and as consequence, cystine and c,c'-dithiodiformamidinium ion are formed. This mechanism resembles that which occurs with aconitase. This is a very important result for prebiotic chemistry; we should think about clays not just sink of molecules, but as primitive vessels of production of biomolecules. At pH 8.00, an increasing expansion was observed in the following order for both minerals: thiourea > thiocyanate > cysteine. At pH 3.00, the same order was not observed and thiourea had an opposite behavior, being the compound producing the lowest expansion. Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that at pH 8.00, the proportion of Fe(2+) ions in bentonite increased, doubling for thiourea, or more than doubling for cysteine, in both clays. However, at pH 3.00, cysteine and thiourea did not change significantly the relative amount of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) ions, when compared to clays without adsorption. For thiocyanate, the amount of Fe(2+) produced was independent of the pH or clay used, probably because the interlayers of clays are very acidic and HSCN formed does not reduce Fe(3+) to Fe(2+). For the interaction of thiocyanate with the clays, it was not possible to identify any potential compound formed. For the samples of bentonite and montmorillonite at pH 8.00 with cysteine, EPR spectroscopy showed that intensity of the lines due to Fe(3+) decreased because the reaction of Fe(3+)/cysteine. Intensity of EPR lines did not change when the samples of bentonite at pH 3.00 with and without cysteine were compared. These results are in accordance with those

  9. IR and SFG vibrational spectroscopy of the water bend in the bulk liquid and at the liquid-vapor interface, respectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Yicun; Skinner, J. L. [Theoretical Chemistry Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2015-07-07

    Vibrational spectroscopy of the water bending mode has been investigated experimentally to study the structure of water in condensed phases. In the present work, we calculate the theoretical infrared (IR) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectra of the HOH bend in liquid water and at the water liquid/vapor interface using a mixed quantum/classical approach. Classical molecular dynamics simulation is performed by using a recently developed water model that explicitly includes three-body interactions and yields a better description of the water surface. Ab-initio-based transition frequency, dipole, polarizability, and intermolecular coupling maps are developed for the spectral calculations. The calculated IR and SFG spectra show good agreement with the experimental measurements. In the theoretical imaginary part of the SFG susceptibility for the water liquid/vapor interface, we find two features: a negative band centered at 1615 cm{sup −1} and a positive band centered at 1670 cm{sup −1}. We analyze this spectrum in terms of the contributions from molecules in different hydrogen-bond classes to the SFG spectral density and also compare to SFG results for the OH stretch. SFG of the water bending mode provides a complementary picture of the heterogeneous hydrogen-bond configurations at the water surface.

  10. Vibrational spectrum of the spin crossover complex [Fe(phen)(2)(NCS)(2)] studied by IR and Raman spectroscopy, nuclear inelastic scattering and DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronayne, Kate L; Paulsen, Hauke; Höfer, Andreas; Dennis, Andrew C; Wolny, Juliusz A; Chumakov, Aleksandr I; Schünemann, Volker; Winkler, Heiner; Spiering, Hartmut; Bousseksou, Azzedine; Gütlich, Philipp; Trautwein, Alfred X; McGarvey, John J

    2006-10-28

    The vibrational modes of the low-spin and high-spin isomers of the spin crossover complex [Fe(phen)(2)(NCS)(2)] (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) have been measured by IR and Raman spectroscopy and by nuclear inelastic scattering. The vibrational frequencies and normal modes and the IR and Raman intensities have been calculated by density functional methods. The vibrational entropy difference between the two isomers, DeltaS(vib), which is--together with the electronic entropy difference DeltaS(el)--the driving force for the spin-transition, has been determined from the measured and from the calculated frequencies. The calculated difference (DeltaS(vib) = 57-70 J mol(-1) K(-1), depending on the method) is in qualitative agreement with experimental values (20-36 J mol(-1) K(-1)). Only the low energy vibrational modes (20% of the 147 modes of the free molecule) contribute to the entropy difference and about three quarters of the vibrational entropy difference are due to the 15 modes of the central FeN(6) octahedron.

  11. IR and SFG vibrational spectroscopy of the water bend in the bulk liquid and at the liquid-vapor interface, respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yicun; Skinner, J L

    2015-07-07

    Vibrational spectroscopy of the water bending mode has been investigated experimentally to study the structure of water in condensed phases. In the present work, we calculate the theoretical infrared (IR) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectra of the HOH bend in liquid water and at the water liquid/vapor interface using a mixed quantum/classical approach. Classical molecular dynamics simulation is performed by using a recently developed water model that explicitly includes three-body interactions and yields a better description of the water surface. Ab-initio-based transition frequency, dipole, polarizability, and intermolecular coupling maps are developed for the spectral calculations. The calculated IR and SFG spectra show good agreement with the experimental measurements. In the theoretical imaginary part of the SFG susceptibility for the water liquid/vapor interface, we find two features: a negative band centered at 1615 cm(-1) and a positive band centered at 1670 cm(-1). We analyze this spectrum in terms of the contributions from molecules in different hydrogen-bond classes to the SFG spectral density and also compare to SFG results for the OH stretch. SFG of the water bending mode provides a complementary picture of the heterogeneous hydrogen-bond configurations at the water surface.

  12. FT-IR spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations of 13C isotopologues of the helical peptide Z-Aib6-OtBu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeko, Timothy; Hannigan, Steven F; Jacisin, Timothy; Guberman-Pfeffer, Matthew J; Falcone, Eric R; Guildford, Melissa J; Szabo, Christopher; Cole, Kathryn E; Placido, Jessica; Daly, Erin; Kubasik, Matthew A

    2014-01-01

    Isotope-edited FT-IR spectroscopy is a combined synthetic and spectroscopic method used to characterize local (e.g., residue-level) vibrational environments of biomolecules. We have prepared the 3(10) helical peptide Z-Aib6-OtBu and seven (13)C-enriched analogues that vary only in the number and position(s) of (13)C═O isotopic enrichment. FT-IR spectra of these eight peptides solvated in the nonpolar aprotic solvent dichloromethane have been collected and compared to frequency, intensity, and normal mode results of DFT calculations. Single (13)C enrichment of amide functional groups tends to localize amide I vibrational eigenmodes, providing residue-specific information regarding the local environment (e.g., hydrogen bonding or solvent exposure) of the peptide bond. Double (13)C enrichment of Z-Aib6-OtBu allows for examination of interamide coupling between two labeled amide functional groups, providing experimental evidence of interamide coupling in the context of 3(10) helical structure. Although the calculated and observed interamide couplings of Z-Aib6-OtBu are a few cm(-1) and less, the eight peptides exhibit distinct infrared spectra, revealing details of interamide coupling and residue level vibrational environments.

  13. In situ FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopy of the low-temperature NO disproportionation mediated by solid state manganese(II) porphyrinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, Garik G; Azizyan, Arsen S; Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Ford, Peter C

    2006-05-15

    The heterogeneous reaction between NO gas and sublimed layers of manganese(II) porphyrinato complexes Mn(Por) (Por = TPP (tetraphenylporphyrinato dianion), TMP (tetramesitylporphyrinato dianion), or TPP(d20) (perdeuterated tetraphenylporphyrinato dianion)) has been monitored by IR and optical spectroscopy over the temperature range of 77 K to room temperature. These manganese porphyrins promote NO disproportionation to NO2 species and N2O, and the reaction proceeds via several distinct stages. At 90 K, the principal species observed spectrally are the nitric oxide dimer, cis-ONNO, two manganese nitrosyls, the simple NO adduct Mn(Por)(NO), and another intermediate (1) that is apparently critical to the disproportionation mechanism. This key intermediate is formed prior to N2O evolution, and proposals regarding its likely structure are offered. When the system is warmed to 130 K, the disproportionation products, N2O and the O-coordinated nitrito complex Mn(Por)(NO)(ONO) (2), are formed. IR spectral changes show that, upon further warming to 200 K, 2 isomerizes into the N-bonded nitro linkage isomer Mn(Por)(NO)(NO2) (3). After it is warmed to room temperature, the latter species loses NO and converts to the known 5-coordinate nitrito complex Mn(Por)(ONO) (4).

  14. Benzyl alcohol-ammonia (1:1) cluster structure investigated by combined IR-UV double resonance spectroscopy in jet and ab initio calculation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nikhil Guchhait

    2001-06-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence excitation and IR-UV double resonance spectroscopy have been used to determine the hydrogen-bonded structure of benzyl alcohol-ammonia (1:1) cluster in a jet-cooled molecular beam. In addition, ab initio quantum chemical calculations have been performed at HF/6-31G and HF/6-31G(d, p) levels for different ground state equilibrium structures of the cluster to correlate the calculated OH and NH frequencies and their intensities with experimental results. The broad red-shifted OH-stretching mode in the IR-UV double resonance spectrum suggests strong hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl hydrogen and the lone pair of the ammonia nitrogen. The position and intensity distribution of the calculated NH and OH modes for the minimum-energy gauche form at HF/6-31 level have better correlation with the experimental results compared to other calculated ground state equilibrium conformers. These results lead to the conclusion that the minimum energy gauche form of the cluster is populated in the jet-cooled condition.

  15. On the Use of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy and Synthetic Calibration Spectra to Quantify Gas Concentrations in a Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Frank T.; Johnson, Natasha M.; Nuth, Joseph A., III

    2015-01-01

    One possible origin of prebiotic organic material is that these compounds were formed via Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) reactions of carbon monoxide and hydrogen on silicate and oxide grains in the warm, inner-solar nebula. To investigate this possibility, an experimental system has been built in which the catalytic efficiency of different grain-analog materials can be tested. During such runs, the gas phase above these grain analogs is sampled using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. To provide quantitative estimates of the concentration of these gases, a technique in which high-resolution spectra of the gases are calculated using the high-resolution transmission molecular absorption (HITRAN) database is used. Next, these spectra are processed via a method that mimics the processes giving rise to the instrumental line shape of the FT-IR spectrometer, including apodization, self-apodization, and broadening due to the finite resolution. The result is a very close match between the measured and computed spectra. This technique was tested using four major gases found in the FTT reactions: carbon monoxide, methane, carbon dioxide, and water. For the ranges typical of the FTT reactions, the carbon monoxide results were found to be accurate to within 5% and the remaining gases accurate to within 10%. These spectra can then be used to generate synthetic calibration data, allowing the rapid computation of the gas concentrations in the FTT experiments.

  16. Implementation of time-resolved step-scan fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy using a kHz repetition rate pump laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magana, Donny; Parul, Dzmitry; Dyer, R Brian; Shreve, Andrew P

    2011-05-01

    Time-resolved step-scan Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has been shown to be invaluable for studying excited-state structures and dynamics in both biological and inorganic systems. Despite the established utility of this method, technical challenges continue to limit the data quality and more wide ranging applications. A critical problem has been the low laser repetition rate and interferometer stepping rate (both are typically 10 Hz) used for data acquisition. Here we demonstrate significant improvement in the quality of time-resolved spectra through the use of a kHz repetition rate laser to achieve kHz excitation and data collection rates while stepping the spectrometer at 200 Hz. We have studied the metal-to-ligand charge transfer excited state of Ru(bipyridine)(3)Cl(2) in deuterated acetonitrile to test and optimize high repetition rate data collection. Comparison of different interferometer stepping rates reveals an optimum rate of 200 Hz due to minimization of long-term baseline drift. With the improved collection efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio, better assignments of the MLCT excited-state bands can be made. Using optimized parameters, carbonmonoxy myoglobin in deuterated buffer is also studied by observing the infrared signatures of carbon monoxide photolysis upon excitation of the heme. We conclude from these studies that a substantial increase in performance of ss-FT-IR instrumentation is achieved by coupling commercial infrared benches with kHz repetition rate lasers.

  17. Ultrafast forward and backward electron transfer dynamics of coumarin 337 in hydrogen-bonded anilines as studied with femtosecond UV-pump/IR-probe spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Hirendra N; Verma, Sandeep; Nibbering, Erik T J

    2011-02-10

    Femtosecond infrared spectroscopy is used to study both forward and backward electron transfer (ET) dynamics between coumarin 337 (C337) and the aromatic amine solvents aniline (AN), N-methylaniline (MAN), and N,N-dimethylaniline (DMAN), where all the aniline solvents can donate an electron but only AN and MAN can form hydrogen bonds with C337. The formation of a hydrogen bond with AN and MAN is confirmed with steady state FT-IR spectroscopy, where the C═O stretching vibration is a direct marker mode for hydrogen bond formation. Transient IR absorption measurements in all solvents show an absorption band at 2166 cm(-1), which has been attributed to the C≡N stretching vibration of the C337 radical anion formed after ET. Forward electron transfer dynamics is found to be biexponential with time constants τ(ET)(1) = 500 fs, τ(ET)(2) = 7 ps in all solvents. Despite the presence of hydrogen bonds of C337 with the solvents AN and MAN, no effect has been found on the forward electron transfer step. Because of the absence of an H/D isotope effect on the forward electron transfer reaction of C337 in AN, hydrogen bonds are understood to play a minor role in mediating electron transfer. In contrast, direct π-orbital overlap between C337 and the aromatic amine solvents causes ultrafast forward electron transfer dynamics. Backward electron transfer dynamics, in contrast, is dependent on the solvent used. Standard Marcus theory explains the observed backward electron transfer rates.

  18. Catalysis of GTP hydrolysis by small GTPases at atomic detail by integration of X-ray crystallography, experimental, and theoretical IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudack, Till; Jenrich, Sarah; Brucker, Sven; Vetter, Ingrid R; Gerwert, Klaus; Kötting, Carsten

    2015-10-02

    Small GTPases regulate key processes in cells. Malfunction of their GTPase reaction by mutations is involved in severe diseases. Here, we compare the GTPase reaction of the slower hydrolyzing GTPase Ran with Ras. By combination of time-resolved FTIR difference spectroscopy and QM/MM simulations we elucidate that the Mg(2+) coordination by the phosphate groups, which varies largely among the x-ray structures, is the same for Ran and Ras. A new x-ray structure of a Ran·RanBD1 complex with improved resolution confirmed this finding and revealed a general problem with the refinement of Mg(2+) in GTPases. The Mg(2+) coordination is not responsible for the much slower GTPase reaction of Ran. Instead, the location of the Tyr-39 side chain of Ran between the γ-phosphate and Gln-69 prevents the optimal positioning of the attacking water molecule by the Gln-69 relative to the γ-phosphate. This is confirmed in the RanY39A·RanBD1 crystal structure. The QM/MM simulations provide IR spectra of the catalytic center, which agree very nicely with the experimental ones. The combination of both methods can correlate spectra with structure at atomic detail. For example the FTIR difference spectra of RasA18T and RanT25A mutants show that spectral differences are mainly due to the hydrogen bond of Thr-25 to the α-phosphate in Ran. By integration of x-ray structure analysis, experimental, and theoretical IR spectroscopy the catalytic center of the x-ray structural models are further refined to sub-Å resolution, allowing an improved understanding of catalysis.

  19. Hydrophobic Solvation : A 2D IR Spectroscopic Inquest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakulin, Artem A.; Liang, Chungwen; Jansen, Thomas La Cour; Wiersma, Douwe A.; Bakker, Huib J.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.

    2009-01-01

    For decades, the enigma of the hydrophobic force has captured the imagination of scientists. in particular, Frank and Evans' idea that the hydrophobic effect was mainly due to some kind of "iceberg" formation around a hydrophobic solute stimulated many experiments and molecular dynamics simulation s

  20. SDS-PAGE and IR spectroscopy to evaluate modifications in the viral protein profile induced by a cationic porphyrinic photosensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Liliana; Esteves, Ana Cristina; Correia, António; Moreirinha, Catarina; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Cunha, Ângela; Neves, Maria G P S; Faustino, Maria A F; Almeida, Adelaide

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species can be responsible for microbial photodynamic inactivation due to its toxic effects, which include severe damage to proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. In this study, the photo-oxidative modifications of the proteins of a non-enveloped T4-like bacteriophage, induced by the cationic porphyrin 5,10,15-tris(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)-20-(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin tri-iodide were evaluated. Two methods were used: sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and infrared spectroscopy. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the phage protein profile was considerably altered after photodynamic treatment. Seven protein bands putatively corresponding to capsid and tail tube proteins were attenuated and two other were enhanced. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed the time-dependent alteration on the phage protein profile detected by SDS-PAGE, indicative of a response to oxidative damage. Infrared analysis showed to be a promising and rapid screening approach for the analysis of the modifications induced on viral proteins by photosensitization. In fact, one single infrared spectrum can highlight the changes induced to all viral molecular structures, overcoming the delays and complex protocols of the conventional methods, in a much simple and cost effective way.

  1. Z-DNA's conformer substates revealed by FT-IR difference spectroscopy of nonoriented left-handed double helical poly(dG-dC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Christine; Pichler, Arthur; Trieb, Michael; Wellenzohn, Bernd; Liedl, Klaus R; Mayer, Erwin

    2005-04-01

    Nonoriented hydrated films of double helical poly(dG-dC) in the Z-form were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy either as equilibrated slow-cooled samples between 290 and 220 K or, after quenching into the glassy state, as nonequilibrated film isothermally at 200, 220, and 240 K. IR spectral changes on isothermal relaxation at 200 and 220 K toward equilibrium, caused by interconversion of two conformer substates (CS) called Z1 and Z2, are revealed by IR difference spectra. Pronounced spectral changes on Z1-to-Z2 interconversion occur between approximately 750-1250 cm(-1) and these are attributed to structural changes of the phosphodiester-sugar backbone caused by changes of torsion angles, and to decreasing hydrogen-bonding of the ionic phosphate group with water molecules. These spectral changes on Z1-to-Z2 transition can be related to structural differences between ZI and ZII CS observed in single crystals. ZI/ZII CS occurs only at (dGpdC) base steps, and similar behavior is assumed for Z1/Z2. The Z1/Z2 population ratio was determined via curve resolution of marker bands for Z1 and Z2 centered at 785 and 779 cm(-1). This ratio is 0.64 at 290 K, corresponding to 39% of the phosphates of the (dGpdC) base steps in Z1 and 61% in Z2, and it increases to 1.24 on cooling to 220 K. For the Z2Z1 equilibrium, an enthalpy change of -4.9 +/- 0.2 kJ mol(dGpdC)(-1) is obtained from the temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant. Z1 interconverts into Z2 at isothermal relaxation at 200 and 220 K, whereas on slow cooling from ambient temperature, Z2 interconverts into Z1. This unexpected reversal of CS interconversion is attributed to slow restructuring of hydration shells of the CS on quenching, in the same manner reported by Pichler et al. for the BI and BII CS of B-DNA (J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 3263-3274 (2002)). IR difference curves demonstrate two time scales on isothermal relaxation of Z1-->Z2 interconversion, a fast one for structural

  2. Comparison of NIR chemical imaging with conventional NIR, Raman and ATR-IR spectroscopy for quantification of furosemide crystal polymorphs in ternary powder mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbichler, S A; Bittner, L K H; Weiss, A K H; Griesser, U J; Pallua, J D; Huck, C W

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI), near-infrared (NIR), Raman and attenuated-total-reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to quantify three polymorphic forms (I, II, III) of furosemide in ternary powder mixtures. For this purpose, partial least-squares (PLS) regression models were developed, and different data preprocessing algorithms such as normalization, standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and 1st to 3rd derivatives were applied to reduce the influence of systematic disturbances. The performance of the methods was evaluated by comparison of the standard error of cross-validation (SECV), R(2), and the ratio performance deviation (RPD). Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) of all methods were determined. For NIR-CI, a SECVcorr-spec and a SECVsingle-pixel corrected were calculated to assess the loss of accuracy by taking advantage of the spatial information. NIR-CI showed a SECVcorr-spec (SECVsingle-pixel corrected) of 2.82% (3.71%), 3.49% (4.65%), and 4.10% (5.06%) for form I, II, III. NIR had a SECV of 2.98%, 3.62%, and 2.75%, and Raman reached 3.25%, 3.08%, and 3.18%. The SECV of the ATR-IR models were 7.46%, 7.18%, and 12.08%. This study proves that NIR-CI, NIR, and Raman are well suited to quantify forms I-III of furosemide in ternary mixtures. Because of the pressure-dependent conversion of form II to form I, ATR-IR was found to be less appropriate for an accurate quantification of the mixtures. In this study, the capability of NIR-CI for the quantification of polymorphic ternary mixtures was compared with conventional spectroscopic techniques for the first time. For this purpose, a new way of spectra selection was chosen, and two kinds of SECVs were calculated to achieve a better comparability of NIR-CI to NIR, Raman, and ATR-IR.

  3. High-resolution IR Absorption Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the 3 μm Region: Role of Periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseva, Elena; Petrignani, Annemieke; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J.; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2016-11-01

    In this work we report on high-resolution IR absorption studies that provide a detailed view on how the peripheral structure of irregular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affects the shape and position of their 3 μm absorption band. For this purpose, we present mass-selected, high-resolution absorption spectra of cold and isolated phenanthrene, pyrene, benz[a]antracene, chrysene, triphenylene, and perylene molecules in the 2950-3150 cm-1 range. The experimental spectra are compared with standard harmonic calculations and anharmonic calculations using a modified version of the SPECTRO program that incorporates a Fermi resonance treatment utilizing intensity redistribution. We show that the 3 μm region is dominated by the effects of anharmonicity, resulting in many more bands than would have been expected in a purely harmonic approximation. Importantly, we find that anharmonic spectra as calculated by SPECTRO are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Together with previously reported high-resolution spectra of linear acenes, the present spectra provide us with an extensive data set of spectra of PAHs with a varying number of aromatic rings, with geometries that range from open to highly condensed structures, and featuring CH groups in all possible edge configurations. We discuss the astrophysical implications of the comparison of these spectra on the interpretation of the appearance of the aromatic infrared 3 μm band, and on features such as the two-component emission character of this band and the 3 μm emission plateau.

  4. Structural studies of some phospho-borate glasses using ultrasonic pulse-echo technique, DSC and IR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaafar, M.S., E-mail: mohamed_s_gaafar@hotmail.co [Ultrasonic Laboratory, National Institute for Standards, Tersa Street, P.O. Box 136, El-Haram, El-Giza 12211 (Egypt); Afifi, H.A. [Ultrasonic Laboratory, National Institute for Standards, Tersa Street, P.O. Box 136, El-Haram, El-Giza 12211 (Egypt); Mekawy, M.M. [Thermometry Laboratory, National Institute for Standards, Tersa Street, P.O. Box 136, El-Haram, El-Giza 12211 (Egypt)

    2009-06-01

    Glasses in the system (95-x) [0.25 Na{sub 2}O-0.75 B{sub 2}O{sub 3}]-x P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-5 Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0<=x<=15 mol%), have been prepared by the melt quenching technique. Elastic properties and FT-IR spectroscopic studies have been employed to study the role of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} on the structure of the glass system. Elastic properties Poisson's ratio, micro-hardness and Debye temperature have been investigated using sound wave velocity measurements at 4 MHz (both longitudinal and shear) at room temperature. The results showed that the density and the molar volume increase as both sound velocities and the determined glass transition temperatures decrease with increasing the contents of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Infrared spectra of the glasses reveal that the borate network consists of diborate units and is affected by the increase in the concentration of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} content as a second network former. These results are interpreted in terms of the replacement of the diborate units with B-O-B bridges by phosphate units with non-bridging oxygens (NBOs). Therefore, the elastic moduli are observed to decrease with the increase in P{sub 2}O{sub 5} content.

  5. Near-IR integral field spectroscopy of ionizing stars and young stellar objects on the borders of HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, F; Deharveng, L; Zavagno, A; Bouret, J -C

    2009-01-01

    We present near-IR SINFONI observations of three Galactic HII regions: RVW79, RCW82 and RCW120. We identify the ionizing stars of each region: they are early to late O stars, close to the main sequence. We derive their stellar and wind properties using atmosphere models computed with the code CMFGEN. The cluster ionizing RCW~79 formed 2.3+/-0.5 Myr ago. Similar ages are estimated, albeit with a larger uncertainty, for the ionizing stars of the other two regions. In RCW79 the mechanical wind luminosity represents only 0.1% of the ionizing luminosity, questioning the influence of stellar winds on the dynamics of the the HII region. The young stellar objects show four main types of spectral features: H2 emission, Br gamma emission, CO bandheads emission and CO bandheads absorption. These features are typical of young stellar objects surrounded by disks and/or envelopes. The radial velocities of most YSOs are consistent with that of the ionized gas, firmly establishing that star formation is taking place on the b...

  6. High-Resolution IR Absorption Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the 3-micrometers Region: Role of Periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseva, Elena; Petrignani, Annemieke; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J.; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2017-01-01

    In this work we report on high-resolution IR absorption studies that provide a detailed view on how the peripheral structure of irregular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affects the shape and position of their 3-micrometers absorption band. To this purpose we present mass-selected, high-resolution absorption spectra of cold and isolated phenanthrene, pyrene, benz[a]antracene, chrysene, triphenylene, and perylene molecules in the 2950-3150 per cm range. The experimental spectra are compared with standard harmonic calculations, and anharmonic calculations using a modified version of the SPECTRO program that incorporates a Fermi resonance treatment utilizing intensity redistribution. We show that the 3-micrometers region is dominated by the effects of anharmonicity, resulting in many more bands than would have been expected in a purely harmonic approximation. Importantly, we find that anharmonic spectra as calculated by SPECTRO are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Together with previously reported high-resolution spectra of linear acenes, the present spectra provide us with an extensive dataset of spectra of PAHs with a varying number of aromatic rings, with geometries that range from open to highly-condensed structures, and featuring CH groups in all possible edge configurations. We discuss the astrophysical implications of the comparison of these spectra on the interpretation of the appearance of the aromatic infrared 3-micrometers band, and on features such as the two-component emission character of this band and the 3-micrometers emission plateau.

  7. Living Matter Observations with a Novel Hyperspectral Supercontinuum Confocal Microscope for VIS to Near-IR Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca R. Bertani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A broad range hyper-spectroscopic microscope fed by a supercontinuum laser source and equipped with an almost achromatic optical layout is illustrated with detailed explanations of the design, implementation and data. The real novelty of this instrument, a confocal spectroscopic microscope capable of recording high resolution reflectance data in the VIS-IR spectral range from about 500 nm to 2.5 μm wavelengths, is the possibility of acquiring spectral data at every physical point as defined by lateral coordinates, X and Y, as well as at a depth coordinate, Z, as obtained by the confocal optical sectioning advantage. With this apparatus we collect each single scanning point as a whole spectrum by combining two linear spectral detector arrays, one CCD for the visible range, and one InGaAs infrared array, simultaneously available at the sensor output channel of the home made instrument. This microscope has been developed for biomedical analysis of human skin and other similar applications. Results are shown illustrating the technical performances of the instrument and the capability in extracting information about the composition and the structure of different parts or compartments in biological samples as well as in solid statematter. A complete spectroscopic fingerprinting of samples at microscopic level is shown possible by using statistical analysis on raw data or analytical reflectance models based on Abelés matrix transfer methods.

  8. Living matter observations with a novel hyperspectral supercontinuum confocal microscope for VIS to near-IR reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, Francesca R; Ferrari, Luisa; Mussi, Valentina; Botti, Elisabetta; Costanzo, Antonio; Selci, Stefano

    2013-10-25

    A broad range hyper-spectroscopic microscope fed by a supercontinuum laser source and equipped with an almost achromatic optical layout is illustrated with detailed explanations of the design, implementation and data. The real novelty of this instrument, a confocal spectroscopic microscope capable of recording high resolution reflectance data in the VIS-IR spectral range from about 500 nm to 2.5 μm wavelengths, is the possibility of acquiring spectral data at every physical point as defined by lateral coordinates, X and Y, as well as at a depth coordinate, Z, as obtained by the confocal optical sectioning advantage. With this apparatus we collect each single scanning point as a whole spectrum by combining two linear spectral detector arrays, one CCD for the visible range, and one InGaAs infrared array, simultaneously available at the sensor output channel of the home made instrument. This microscope has been developed for biomedical analysis of human skin and other similar applications. Results are shown illustrating the technical performances of the instrument and the capability in extracting information about the composition and the structure of different parts or compartments in biological samples as well as in solid statematter. A complete spectroscopic fingerprinting of samples at microscopic level is shown possible by using statistical analysis on raw data or analytical reflectance models based on Abelés matrix transfer methods.

  9. Ultra-Sensitive Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs) for Far-IR/Submm Space-Borne Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, M.; Day, P. K.; Bradford, C. M.; Bock, J .J.; Leduc, H. G.

    2011-01-01

    We have built surface micromachined thin-film metallized Si(x)N(y) optical absorbers for transition-edge sensors (TESs) suitable for the Background - Limited far-IR/Submm Spectrograph (BLISS). BLISS is a broadband (38 micrometers - 433 micrometers), grating spectrometer consisting of five wavebands each with a modest resolution of R (is) approx. 1000. Because BLISS requires the effective noise equivalent power (NEP) of the TES to be below 10 (exp 19) W/Hz(exp 1/2), our TESs consist of four long (1000 micrometers), narrow (0.4 micrometers ), and thin (0.25 micrometers ) Si(x) N(y) support beams that reduce the thermal conductance G between the substrate and the optical absorber. To reduce the heat capacity of the absorber and make the response time tau fast enough for BLISS, our absorbers are patterned into a mesh geometry with a fill factor of less than 10%. We use a bilayer of Ti/Au to make the effective impedance of the absorber match the impedance of the incoming radiation for each band. Measurements of the response time of the metallized absorbers to heat pulses show that their heat capacity exceeds the predictions of the Debye model. Our results are suggestive that the surface of the low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) Si(x)N(y) used in the absorbers' construction is the source of microstates that dominate the heat capacity.

  10. Comparative studies by IR, Raman, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of azodicarbonamide, biurea and semicarbazide hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yunfei; Li, Pei; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Heya; Qian, He; Yao, Weirong

    2013-10-01

    Azodicarbonamide is widely applied in the food industry as a new flour gluten fortifier in China, Canada, the United States, and some other countries, whose metabolites of biurea and semicarbazide hydrochloride are reaction products during baking. In this study, IR, Raman and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of azodicarbonamide, biurea, and semicarbazide hydrochloride have been studied, and vibrational bands have been assigned on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The calculated Raman spectra were in good agreement with experimental Raman spectra. The SERS method coupled with active gold substrates has also been applied for detection of the three chemicals with pure water as solvent, with the limit of detection of this method being as low as 10 μg/mL (less than 45 μg/mL). These results showed that azodicarbonamide and its metabolites could be detected by the vibrational spectra technique, which might be applied as a powerful tool for the rapid detection on these species derived from agents added to flour.

  11. Multivariate chemical mapping of pigments and binders in easel painting cross-sections by micro IR reflection spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, Francesca; Federici, Arianna; Brunetti, Brunetto G; Sgamellotti, Antonio; Clementi, Sergio; Miliani, Costanza

    2011-03-01

    Paintings are composed of superimposed layers of inorganic and organic materials (pigments and binders). Knowledge of the stratigraphic sequence of these heterogeneous layers is fundamental for understanding the artist's painting technique and for conservation issues. In this study, micro-IR mapping experiments in reflection mode have been carried out on cross-sections taken from simulations of ancient easel paintings. The objective was to locate both organic binders and inorganic pigments. Chemical maps have been re-constructed using the common approach based on the integration of specific infrared bands. However, owing to the complexity of painting materials, this approach is not always applicable when dealing with broad and superimposed spectral features and with reststrahlen or derivative-like bands resulting from acquisition in reflection mode. To overcome these limitations, principal-component analysis has been successfully used for the re-construction of the image, extracting the relevant information from the complex full spectral data sets and obtaining reliable chemical distributions of the stratigraphy materials. Different pigment-binder combinations have been evaluated in order to understand limitations and strengths of the approach. Finally, the method has been applied for stratigraphic characterization of a cross-section from a 17th century wooden sculpture identifying both the original paint layer and the several overpaintings constituting the complex stratigraphy.

  12. Seasonal Variability of Saturn's Tropospheric Temperatures, Winds and Para-H$_2$ from Cassini Far-IR Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, Leigh N; Achterberg, Richard K; Orton, Glenn S; Flasar, F Michael

    2015-01-01

    Far-IR 16-1000 $\\mu$m spectra of Saturn's hydrogen-helium continuum measured by Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) are inverted to construct a near-continuous record of upper tropospheric (70-700 mbar) temperatures and para-H$_2$ fraction as a function of latitude, pressure and time for a third of a Saturnian year (2004-2014, from northern winter to northern spring). The thermal field reveals evidence of reversing summertime asymmetries superimposed onto the belt/zone structure. The temperature structure that is almost symmetric about the equator by 2014, with seasonal lag times that increase with depth and are qualitatively consistent with radiative climate models. Localised heating of the tropospheric hazes (100-250 mbar) create a distinct perturbation to the temperature profile that shifts in magnitude and location, declining in the autumn hemisphere and growing in the spring. Changes in the para-H$_2$ ($f_p$) distribution are subtle, with a 0.02-0.03 rise over the spring hemisphere (200-500 ...

  13. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) Applied to Study the Distribution of Ink Components in Printed Newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Nuria; Molleda, Cristina; Quintana, Ester; Carbajo, José M; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Villar, Juan C

    2016-09-01

    A new method was developed to study how the oil and cyan pigments of cold-set ink are distributed in newspaper thickness. The methodology involved laboratory printing followed by delamination of the printed paper. The unprinted side, printed side, and resulting layers were analyzed using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR). Three commercial newspapers and black and cyan cold-set inks were chosen for the study. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy enabled the proportion of oil and cyan pigment on the printed surface and throughout the sheet thickness to be measured. Oil percentage was evaluated as the area increment of the region from 2800 cm(-1) to 3000 cm(-1) The relative amount of cyan pigment was determined as the area of the absorption band at 730 cm(-1) The ink oil was found mainly below half the paper thickness, whereas the pigment was detected at the layers closer to the printed surface, at a depth penetration of less than 15 µm (20% of thickness). Distribution of these two components in paper thickness depended on the type of cold-set ink, the amount of ink transferred, and the newspaper properties.

  14. Nanoscale infrared (IR) spectroscopy and imaging of structural lipids in human stratum corneum using an atomic force microscope to directly detect absorbed light from a tunable IR laser source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcott, Curtis; Lo, Michael; Kjoller, Kevin; Domanov, Yegor; Balooch, Guive; Luengo, Gustavo S

    2013-06-01

    An atomic force microscope (AFM) and a tunable infrared (IR) laser source have been combined in a single instrument (AFM-IR) capable of producing ~200-nm spatial resolution IR spectra and absorption images. This new capability enables IR spectroscopic characterization of human stratum corneum at unprecendented levels. Samples of normal and delipidized stratum corneum were embedded, cross-sectioned and mounted on ZnSe prisms. A pulsed tunable IR laser source produces thermomechanical expansion upon absorption, which is detected through excitation of contact resonance modes in the AFM cantilever. In addition to reducing the total lipid content, the delipidization process damages the stratum corneum morphological structure. The delipidized stratum corneum shows substantially less long-chain CH2 -stretching IR absorption band intensity than normal skin. AFM-IR images that compare absorbances at 2930/cm (lipid) and 3290/cm (keratin) suggest that regions of higher lipid concentration are located at the perimeter of corneocytes in the normal stratum corneum.

  15. Descriptive and predictive assessment of enzyme activity and enzyme related processes in biorefinery using IR spectroscopy and chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas

    advanced techniques are necessary to monitor such difficult reactions as enzymatic biomass degradations. Such techniques should be of multivariate nature to capture and understand complex patterns in comparison to univariate techniques which can only capture information in a highly specific sense which...... does not allow interference of information. Vibrational spectroscopy (e.g. infrared) represents such multivariate techniques and is mostly used throughout the project. Data is analyzed by chemometric methods to extract the underlying patterns from the complex datasets. Hence, this project focuses...... on chemometric approaches utilizing mostly Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic data to provide descriptive and predictive insights into biomass conversion related processes. Two main study fields are introduced to the reader. First, two-way chemometric methods are used to establish Process Analytical...

  16. Exoplanet Science with the European Extremely Large Telescope. The Case for Visible and Near-IR Spectroscopy at High Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Udry, S; Bouchy, F; Cameron, A Collier; Henning, T; Mayor, M; Pepe, F; Piskunov, N; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Quirrenbach, A; Rauer, H; Rebolo, R; Santos, N C; Snellen, I; Zerbi, F

    2014-01-01

    Exoplanet science is booming. In 20 years our knowledge has expanded considerably, from the first discovery of a Hot Jupiter, to the detection of a large population of Neptunes and super-Earths, to the first steps toward the characterization of exoplanet atmospheres. Between today and 2025, the field will evolve at an even faster pace with the advent of several space-based transit search missions, ground-based spectrographs, high-contrast imaging facilities, and the James Webb Space Telescope. Especially the ESA M-class PLATO mission will be a game changer in the field. From 2024 onwards, PLATO will find transiting terrestrial planets orbiting within the habitable zones of nearby, bright stars. These objects will require the power of Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) to be characterized further. The technique of ground-based high-resolution spectroscopy is establishing itself as a crucial pathway to measure chemical composition, atmospheric structure and atmospheric circulation in transiting exoplanets. A hig...

  17. IR spectroscopy of protonation in benzene-water nanoclusters: hydronium, zundel, and eigen at a hydrophobic interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Timothy C; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit; Mosley, Jonathan D; Duncan, Michael A

    2012-08-08

    The structure of ions in water at a hydrophobic interface influences important processes throughout chemistry and biology. However, experiments to measure these structures are limited by the distribution of configurations present and the inability to selectively probe the interfacial region. Here, protonated nanoclusters containing benzene and water are produced in the gas phase, size-selected, and investigated with infrared laser spectroscopy. Proton stretch, free OH, and hydrogen-bonding vibrations uniquely define protonation sites and hydrogen-bonding networks. The structures consist of protonated water clusters binding to the hydrophobic interface of neutral benzene via one or more π-hydrogen bonds. Comparison to the spectra of isolated hydronium, zundel, or eigen ions reveals the inductive effects and local ordering induced by the interface. The structures and interactions revealed here represent key features expected for aqueous hydrophobic interfaces.

  18. Two-dimensional hetero-spectral mid-infrared and near-infrared correlation spectroscopy for discrimination adulterated milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Renjie; Liu, Rong; Dong, Guimei; Xu, Kexin; Yang, Yanrong; Zhang, Weiyu

    2016-03-15

    A new approach for discriminant analysis of adulterated milk is proposed based on two-dimensional (2D) hetero-spectral near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (IR) correlation spectroscopy along with multi-way partial least squares discriminant analysis (NPLS-DA). NIR transmittance spectra and IR attenuated total reflection spectra of pure milk and adulterated milk with level of melamine varying from 0.03 to 3 g·L(-1) were collected at room temperature. The synchronous 2D hetero-spectral IR/NIR correlation spectra of all samples were calculated to build a discriminant model to classify adulterated milk and pure milk. Also, the NPLS-DA models were built based on synchronous 2D homo-spectral NIR/NIR and IR/IR correlation spectra, respectively. Comparison results showed that the NPLS-DA model could provide better results using 2D hetero-spectral IR/NIR correlation spectra than using 2D homo-spectral NIR/NIR and 2D IR/IR correlation spectra.

  19. Two-dimensional hetero-spectral mid-infrared and near-infrared correlation spectroscopy for discrimination adulterated milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Renjie; Liu, Rong; Dong, Guimei; Xu, Kexin; Yang, Yanrong; Zhang, Weiyu

    2016-03-01

    A new approach for discriminant analysis of adulterated milk is proposed based on two-dimensional (2D) hetero-spectral near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (IR) correlation spectroscopy along with multi-way partial least squares discriminant analysis (NPLS-DA). NIR transmittance spectra and IR attenuated total reflection spectra of pure milk and adulterated milk with level of melamine varying from 0.03 to 3 g·L- 1 were collected at room temperature. The synchronous 2D hetero-spectral IR/NIR correlation spectra of all samples were calculated to build a discriminant model to classify adulterated milk and pure milk. Also, the NPLS-DA models were built based on synchronous 2D homo-spectral NIR/NIR and IR/IR correlation spectra, respectively. Comparison results showed that the NPLS-DA model could provide better results using 2D hetero-spectral IR/NIR correlation spectra than using 2D homo-spectral NIR/NIR and 2D IR/IR correlation spectra.

  20. FT-IR spectroscopy as a tool for the study of the quality of processed meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murcia, M. Antonia

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used to characterize processed meat products. Proteins were estimated through the amide I band centered at 1650 cm-1 and lipids through the carbonyl stretching band at 1735 cm-1.
    Estimations of protein/lipid ratios were obtained by dividing the area under the 1650 cm-1 band by the area under the 1735 cm-1 band. These protein/lipid ratios correlated well with those obtained for the same samples using conventional chemical analysis. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is therefore a quick and analytical technique with the advantage over other procedures of being non destructive and which can be used to assess the quality of processed meat products.

    Se ha utilizado la espectroscopia de infrarrojo de transformada de Fourier por reflectancia total atenuada para caracterizar productos cárnicos procesados. Las proteínas se valoraron a través de la banda amida I centrada a 1650 cm-1 y los lípidos por la banda de tensión del carbonilo a 1735 cm-1.
    Los valores de los cocientes proteína/lípido fueron calculados dividiendo el área bajo la banda a 1650 cm-1 por el área bajo la banda a 1735 cm-1. Los cocientes proteína/lípido se correlacionan bien con aquellos obtenidos para las mismas muestras usando análisis químicos convencionales. La espectroscopia de infrarrojo de transformada de Fourier por reflectancia total atenuada es una técnica analítica rápida y con la ventaja sobre otros métodos de ser no destructiva, que puede ser usada para determinar la calidad de productos cárnicos procesados.

  1. The physical nature of the 8 o'clock arc based on near-IR IFU spectroscopy with SINFONI

    CERN Document Server

    Shirazi, M; Nesvadba, N; Allam, S; Brinchmann, J; Tucker, D

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of near-infrared integral field unit spectroscopy for the gravitationally lensed Lyman break galaxy, the 8 o'clock arc, taken with SINFONI on the Very Large Telescope. We explore the shape of the spatially-resolved H\\beta\\ profile and demonstrate that we can decompose it into three main components that partially overlap (spatially) but are distinguishable when we include the dynamical information. To study the de-lensed morphology of the galaxy we make use of existing B & H imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope and construct a rigorous lens model using a Bayesian grid based lens modeling technique. We apply this lens model to the SINFONI data cube to construct the de-lensed H\\beta\\ line map and the velocity and velocity dispersion maps of the galaxy. We explore the dynamical state of the galaxy and find that the 8 o'clock arc has a complex velocity field that is not simply explained by a single rotating disk. The H\\beta\\ profile of the galaxy shows a blue-shifted wing suggesting g...

  2. In Situ SIMS and IR Spectroscopy of Well-Defined Surfaces Prepared by Soft Landing of Mass-Selected Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Grant E.; Gunaratne, Kalupathirannehelage Don D.; Laskin, Julia

    2014-06-16

    Soft landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces is a powerful approach for the highly-controlled preparation of materials that are inaccessible using conventional synthesis techniques. Coupling soft landing with in situ characterization using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) enables analysis of well-defined surfaces under clean vacuum conditions. The capabilities of three soft-landing instruments constructed in our laboratory are illustrated for the representative system of surface-bound organometallics prepared by soft landing of mass-selected ruthenium tris(bipyridine) dications, [Ru(bpy)3]2+, onto carboxylic acid terminated self-assembled monolayer surfaces on gold (COOH-SAMs). In situ time-of-flight (TOF)-SIMS provides insight into the reactivity of the soft-landed ions. In addition, the kinetics of charge reduction, neutralization and desorption occurring on the COOH-SAM both during and after ion soft landing are studied using in situ Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR)-SIMS measurements. In situ IRRAS experiments provide insight into how the structure of organic ligands surrounding metal centers is perturbed through immobilization of organometallic ions on COOH-SAM surfaces by soft landing. Collectively, the three instruments provide complementary information about the chemical composition, reactivity and structure of well-defined species supported on surfaces.

  3. Seasonal Variability of Saturn's Tropospheric Temperatures, Winds and Para-H2 from Cassini Far-IR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Irwin, P. G. J; Achterberg, R. K.; Orton, G. S.; Flasar, F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Far-IR 16-1000 micrometer spectra of Saturn's hydrogen-helium continuum measured by Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) are inverted to construct a near-continuous record of upper tropospheric (70-700 mbar) temperatures and para-H2 fraction as a function of latitude, pressure and time for a third of a saturnian year (2004-2014, from northern winter to northern spring). The thermal field reveals evidence of reversing summertime asymmetries superimposed onto the belt/zone structure. The temperature structure is almost symmetric about the equator by 2014, with seasonal lag times that increase with depth and are qualitatively consistent with radiative climate models. Localised heating of the tropospheric hazes (100-250 mbar) create a distinct perturbation to the temperature profile that shifts in magnitude and location, declining in the autumn hemisphere and growing in the spring. Changes in the para-H2 (f(sub p)) distribution are subtle, with a 0.02-0.03 rise over the spring hemisphere (200-500 mbar) perturbed by (i) low-f(sub p) air advected by both the springtime storm of 2010 and equatorial upwelling; and (ii) subsidence of high-f(sub p) air at northern high latitudes, responsible for a developing north-south asymmetry in f(sub p). Conversely, the shifting asymmetry in the para-H2 disequilibrium primarily reflects the changing temperature structure (and hence the equilibrium distribution of f(sub p)), rather than actual changes in f(sub p) induced by chemical conversion or transport. CIRS results interpolated to the same point in the seasonal cycle as re-analysed Voyager-1 observations (early northern spring) show qualitative consistency from year to year (i.e., the same tropospheric asymmetries in temperature and f(sub p)), with the exception of the tropical tropopause near the equatorial zones and belts, where downward propagation of a cool temperature anomaly associated with Saturn's stratospheric oscillation could potentially perturb tropopause

  4. Principles, performance, and applications of spectral reconstitution (SR) in quantitative analysis of oils by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Diego L; Sedman, Jacqueline; van de Voort, Frederik R

    2013-04-01

    Spectral reconstitution (SR) is a dilution technique developed to facilitate the rapid, automated, and quantitative analysis of viscous oil samples by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). This technique involves determining the dilution factor through measurement of an absorption band of a suitable spectral marker added to the diluent, and then spectrally removing the diluent from the sample and multiplying the resulting spectrum to compensate for the effect of dilution on the band intensities. The facsimile spectrum of the neat oil thus obtained can then be qualitatively or quantitatively analyzed for the parameter(s) of interest. The quantitative performance of the SR technique was examined with two transition-metal carbonyl complexes as spectral markers, chromium hexacarbonyl and methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl. The estimation of the volume fraction (VF) of the diluent in a model system, consisting of canola oil diluted to various extents with odorless mineral spirits, served as the basis for assessment of these markers. The relationship between the VF estimates and the true volume fraction (VF(t)) was found to be strongly dependent on the dilution ratio and also depended, to a lesser extent, on the spectral resolution. These dependences are attributable to the effect of changes in matrix polarity on the bandwidth of the ν(CO) marker bands. Excellent VF(t) estimates were obtained by making a polarity correction devised with a variance-spectrum-delineated correction equation. In the absence of such a correction, SR was shown to introduce only a minor and constant bias, provided that polarity differences among all the diluted samples analyzed were minimal. This bias can be built into the calibration of a quantitative FT-IR analytical method by subjecting appropriate calibration standards to the same SR procedure as the samples to be analyzed. The primary purpose of the SR technique is to simplify preparation of diluted samples such that

  5. Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses spectroscopy, the study of absorption of radiation by matter, including X-ray, gamma-ray, microwave, mass spectroscopy, as well as others. Spectroscopy has produced more fundamental information to the study of the detailed structure of matter than any other tools.

  6. Activated sludge model No. 2d, ASM2d

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) presents a model for biological phosphorus removal with simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in activated sludge systems. ASM2d is based on ASM2 and is expanded to include the denitrifying activity of the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs......). This extension of ASM2 allows for improved modeling of the processes, especially with respect to the dynamics of nitrate and phosphate. (C) 1999 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, S

    1976-01-01

    The three volumes of Spectroscopy constitute the one comprehensive text available on the principles, practice and applications of spectroscopy. By giving full accounts of those spectroscopic techniques only recently introduced into student courses - such as Mössbauer spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy - in addition to those techniques long recognised as being essential in chemistry teaching - sucha as e.s.r. and infrared spectroscopy - the book caters for the complete requirements of undergraduate students and at the same time provides a sound introduction to special topics for graduate students.

  8. IR intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Definitions, formulas, and code for producing epsilon values (molar absorption coefficients) and IR spectral curve from 'Gaussian' FREQ output.......Definitions, formulas, and code for producing epsilon values (molar absorption coefficients) and IR spectral curve from 'Gaussian' FREQ output....

  9. Pump and Probe Spectroscopy of CH_3F-({ortho}-H_2){n} Clusters in Solid Parahydrogen by Using Two Cw-Ir Quantum Cascade Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Hiroyuki; Mizoguchi, Asao; Kanamori, Hideto

    2016-06-01

    The absorption spectrum of the ν3 (C-F stretching) mode of CH_3F in solid {para}-H_2 by FTIR showed a series of equal interval peaks Their interpretation was that the {n}-th peak of this series was due to CH_3F-({ortho}-H_2){n} clusters which were formed CH_3F and {n}'s {ortho}-H_2 in first nearest neighbor sites of the {para}-H_2 crystal with {hcp} structure. In order to understand this system in more detail, we have studied these peaks, especially {n} = 0 - 3 corresponding to 1037 - 1041 wn, by using high-resolution and high-sensitive infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) spectroscopy. Before now, we have observed photochromic phenomena of these peaks by taking an advantage of the high brightness of the laser. However, it has not been revealed what kind of mechanism is undergoing in these processes. In order to solve this problem we introduced two cw-IR QCLs for pump and prove experiment. While the pumping laser is breaching a certain peak with high power, the probing laser is monitoring the increase of other peaks by rapid scan method. The time resolution of this spectroscopy is 5 msec. The new precise kinetic information will help us to understand the molecular interaction in solid {para}-H_2. K. Yoshioka and D. T. Anderson, J. Chem. Phys. 119 (2003) 4731-4742 A. R. W. McKellar, A. Mizoguchi, and H. Kanamori, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13 (2011) 11587-11589

  10. Differentiation and quality estimation of Cordyceps with infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Song, Ping; Sun, Su-Qin; Zhou, Qun; Feng, Shu; Tao, Jia-Xun

    2009-11-01

    Heretofore, a scientific and systemic method for differentiation and quality estimation of a well-known Chinese traditional medicine, 'Cordyceps', has not been established in modern market. In this paper, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR) are employed to propose a method for analysis of Cordyceps. It has presented that IR spectra of real Cordyceps of different origins and counterfeits have their own macroscopic fingerprints, with discriminated shapes, positions and intensities. Their secondary derivative spectra can amplify the differences and confirm the potentially characteristic IR absorption bands 1400-1700 cm -1 to be investigated in 2D-IR. Many characteristic fingerprints are discovered in 2D-IR spectra in the range of 1400-1700 cm -1 and hetero 2D spectra of 670-780 cm -1 × 1400-1700 cm -1. The different fingerprints display different chemical constitutes. Through the three steps, different Cordyceps and their counterfeits can be discriminated effectively and their qualities distinctly display. Successful analysis of eight Cordyceps capsule products has proved the practicability of the method, which can also be applied to the quality estimation of other Chinese traditional medicines.

  11. Acid-base properties, FT-IR, FT-Raman spectroscopy and computational study of 1-(pyrid-4-yl)piperazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Y. Sheena; Panicker, C. Yohannan; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Van Alsenoy, Christian; Procházková, Markéta; Ševčík, Richard; Pazdera, Pavel

    2014-03-01

    We report the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy for 1-(pyrid-4-yl)piperazine (PyPi). Single crystals of PyPi suitable for X-ray structural analysis were obtained. The acid-base properties are also reported. PyPi supported on a weak acid cation-exchanger in the single protonated form and this system can be used efficiently as the solid supported analogue of 4-N,N-dimethyl-aminopyridine. The complete vibrational assignments of wavenumbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution. The HOMO and LUMO analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule and with the molecular electrostatic potential map was applied for the reactivity assessment of PyPi molecule toward proton, electrophiles and nucleopholes as well. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. The calculated first hyperpolarizability of PyPi is 17.46 times that of urea.

  12. Using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) to study the molecular conformation of parchment artifacts in different macroscopic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Lee; Wade, Matthew; Bell, Nancy; Thomas, Kate; Wess, Tim

    2013-02-01

    Maintaining appropriate temperatures and relative humidity is considered essential to extending the useful life of parchment artifacts. Although the relationship between environmental factors and changes to the physical state of artifacts is reasonably understood, an improved understanding of the relationship between the molecular conformation and changes to the macroscopic condition of parchment is needed to optimize environmental conditions. Using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) analysis, the conformation of the molecular structure in selected parchment samples with specific macroscopic conditions, typically discoloration and planar deformations (e.g., cockling and tearing), have been made. The results of this investigation showed that the Fourier transform infrared signal differs for parchment samples exhibiting different macroscopic conditions. In areas exhibiting planar deformation, a change in the Fourier Transform Infrared signal was observed that indicates unfolding of the molecular conformation. In comparison, the discolored samples showed a change in molecular conformation that indicates a chemical change within the collagen molecular structure. This paper discusses the possible causal associations and implications of these findings for the conservation and preservation of parchment artifacts.

  13. Radiation induced topotactic [2 + 2] dimerisation of acrylate derivatives among the layers of a CaFe layered double hydroxide followed by IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srankó, D. F.; Canton, S.; Enghdahl, A.; Muráth, Sz.; Kukovecz, Á.; Kónya, Z.; Sipiczki, M.; Sipos, P.; Pálinkó, I.

    2013-07-01

    Various acrylates [E-phenylpropenoate, E-3(4‧-nitrophenyl)propenoate, E-3(2‧,5‧-difluorphenyl)propenoate, E-3(2‧-thienyl)propenoate, E-3(4‧-imidazolyl)propenoate or E-2,3-dimethylpropenoate] were successfully intercalated into Ca(II)Fe(III) layered double hydroxide (CaFe-LDH) verified by a range of instrumental methods. The possible arrangements for the organic anions were suggested on the basis of basal spacing data, layer thickness and the dimensions of the quantum chemically optimised structures of the acrylate ions. Using the acrylate-CaFe-LDHs as reactant-filled nanoreactors, photoinitiated topotactic [2 + 2] cyclisation reactions followed by IR spectroscopy could be performed with many representatives [E-phenylpropenoate-, E-3(4‧-nitrophenyl)propenoate-, E-3(2‧,5‧-difluorphenyl)propenoate- or E-3(2‧-thienyl)propenoate-CaFe-LDHs] resulting in cyclobutane derivatives within the layers of the host material indicating that there were domains where the intercalated anions were in close proximity to each other and in proper arrangement for the reaction to occur.

  14. Acid-base properties, FT-IR, FT-Raman spectroscopy and computational study of 1-(pyrid-4-yl)piperazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Y Sheena; Panicker, C Yohannan; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Van Alsenoy, Christian; Procházková, Markéta; Sevčík, Richard; Pazdera, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    We report the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy for 1-(pyrid-4-yl)piperazine (PyPi). Single crystals of PyPi suitable for X-ray structural analysis were obtained. The acid-base properties are also reported. PyPi supported on a weak acid cation-exchanger in the single protonated form and this system can be used efficiently as the solid supported analogue of 4-N,N-dimethyl-aminopyridine. The complete vibrational assignments of wavenumbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution. The HOMO and LUMO analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule and with the molecular electrostatic potential map was applied for the reactivity assessment of PyPi molecule toward proton, electrophiles and nucleopholes as well. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. The calculated first hyperpolarizability of PyPi is 17.46 times that of urea.

  15. Curcumin-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex: stability, solubility, characterisation by FT-IR, FT-Raman, X-ray diffraction and photoacoustic spectroscopy, and food application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangolim, Camila Sampaio; Moriwaki, Cristiane; Nogueira, Ana Claudia; Sato, Francielle; Baesso, Mauro Luciano; Neto, Antônio Medina; Matioli, Graciette

    2014-06-15

    Curcumin was complexed with β-CD using co-precipitation, freeze-drying and solvent evaporation methods. Co-precipitation enabled complex formation, as indicated by the FT-IR and FT-Raman techniques via the shifts in the peaks that were assigned to the aromatic rings of curcumin. In addition, photoacoustic spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, with the disappearance of the band related to aromatic rings, by Gaussian fitting, and modifications in the spectral lines, respectively, also suggested complex formation. The possible complexation had an efficiency of 74% and increased the solubility of the pure colourant 31-fold. Curcumin-β-CD complex exhibited a sunlight stability 18% higher than the pure colourant. This material was stable to pH variations and storage at -15 and 4°C. With an isothermal heating at 100 and 150°C for 2h, the material exhibited a colour retention of approximately 99%. The application of curcumin-β-CD complex in vanilla ice creams intensified the colour of the products and produced a great sensorial acceptance.

  16. Examining the structural evolution of bicarbonate–water clusters: insights from photoelectron spectroscopy, basin-hopping structural search, and comparison with available IR spectral studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Hui [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Hefei (China). Lab. of Atmospheric Physico-Chemistry, Anhui Inst. of Optics & Fine Mechanics; Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Physical Sciences Division; Hou, Gao-Lei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Physical Sciences Division; Liu, Yi-Rong [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Hefei (China). Lab. of Atmospheric Physico-Chemistry, Anhui Inst. of Optics & Fine Mechanics; Wang, Xue-Bin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Physical Sciences Division; Huang, Wei [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Hefei (China). Lab. of Atmospheric Physico-Chemistry, Anhui Inst. of Optics & Fine Mechanics; Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China). School of Environmental Science & Optoelectronic Technology

    2016-05-31

    Bicarbonate serves a crucial biochemical role in the physiological pH buffering system and also has important atmospheric implications. In the current study, HCO3$-$(H2O)n (n = 0-13) clusters were successfully produced via electrospray ionization of corresponding bulk salt solution, and were characterized by combining negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. The photoelectron spectra reveal that the electron binding energy monotonically increases with the cluster size up to n = 10 and remains largely the same after n > 10. The photo-detaching feature of the solute HCO3$-$itself, which dominates in the small clusters, diminishes with increase of water coverage. Based on the charge distribution and molecular orbital analyses, the universal high electron binding energy tail that dominates in the larger clusters can be attributed to ionization of water. Thus, the transition of ionization from solute to solvent at the size larger than n=10 has been observed. Extensive theoretical structural search based on the Basin-Hopping unbiased method was carried out, and a plethora of low energy isomers have been obtained for each medium and large size. By comparing the simulated photoelectron spectra and calculated electron binding energies with the experiments, as well as by comparing the simulated infrared spectra with previously reported IR spectra, the probable global minima and the structural evolutionary routes are presented. The nature of bicarbonate-water interactions are mainly electrostatic as implied by the electron localization function (ELF) analysis.

  17. Probing the role of chemical enhancers in facilitating drug release from patches: Mechanistic insights based on FT-IR spectroscopy, molecular modeling and thermal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenting; Quan, Peng; Li, Shanshan; Liu, Chao; Lv, Siji; Zhao, Yongshan; Fang, Liang

    2016-04-10

    In patches, a drug must release from patches prior to its percutaneous absorption. Chemical enhancers have been used for several decades, but their roles in drug release from patches are poorly understood. In this work, the roles of chemical enhancers in bisoprolol tartrate (BSP-T) release from patches were probed in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, an innovative mechanism insight of chemical enhancers in drug release process was provided at molecular level. FT-IR spectroscopy and molecular modeling were employed to investigate the influence of chemical enhancers on drug-adhesive interaction. The results showed chemical enhancers like Span 80, which had a strong ability forming hydrogen bonds, could decrease drug-adhesive interaction leading to the release of drug from adhesive of patches. Thermal analysis was conducted to research the influence of chemical enhancers on the thermodynamic properties of patch system. It showed that chemical enhancers promoted the formation of free volume of adhesive, which facilitated drug release process. By contrast, the influence on the thermodynamic properties of BSP-T was less effective in influencing BSP-T release process. In conclusion, chemical enhancers played an important role in facilitating BSP-T release from the adhesive DURO-TAK® 87-2287 of patches by decreasing drug-adhesive interaction and promoting the formation of free volume of adhesive. This work may be an important step in understanding the important roles of chemical enhancers in drug release process.

  18. Discrimination of different genuine Danshen and their extracts by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-hu; Xu, Chang-hua; Sun, Su-qin; Huang, Jian; Zhang, Ke; Li, Guo-yu; Zhu, Yun; Zhou, Qun; Zhang, Zhi-cheng; Wang, Jin-hui

    2012-11-01

    In this study, six varieties of Danshen from different populations and genuine ("Daodi" in Chinese transliteration) regions were discriminated and identified by a three-step infrared spectroscopy method (Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) coupled with second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR)). Though only small differences were found among the FT-IR spectra of the six Danshen samples, the positions and intensities of peaks at 3393, 3371, 1613, 1050, and 1036 cm-1 could be considered as the key factors to discriminate them. More significant differences were exhibited in their SD-IR, particularly for the peaks around 1080, 1144, 695, 665, 800, 1610, 1510, 1450, 1117 and 1077 cm-1. The visual 2D-IR spectra provided dynamic chemical structure information of the six Danshen samples with presenting different particular auto-peak clusters, respectively. Moreover, the contents of salvianolic acid B in all samples were measured quantitatively by a validated ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), which was consistent with the FT-IR findings. This study provides a promising method for characteristics and quality control of the complicated and extremely similar herbal medicine like Danshen, which is more cost effective and time saving.

  19. Research Synthesis and Characterization of 2D Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-13

    polythiophene chain on the Scheme should necessarily result in a continuous brick wall 2D structure). Furthermore, the design should eliminate any...Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy are under way. We have also conducted preliminary experiments on the two other low

  20. Transient two-dimensional IR spectrometer for probing nanosecond temperature-jump kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hoi Sung; Khalil, Munira; Smith, Adam W; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2007-06-01

    We have developed a Fourier transform two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectrometer to probe chemical reactions and biophysical processes triggered by a nanosecond temperature jump (T jump). The technical challenges for such a spectrometer involve (1) synchronization of a nanosecond T-jump laser and femtosecond laser system, (2) overcoming the decreased signal-to-noise ratio from low repetition rate data acquisition, and (3) performing an interferometric measurement through a sample with a density and index of refraction that varies with time delay after the T jump. The first challenge was overcome by synchronizing the two lasers to a clock derived from the Ti:sapphire oscillator, leading to timing accuracy of 2 ns for delays up to 50 ms. The data collection time is reduced by using undersampling with the improved signal-to-noise ratio obtained from a balanced detection scheme with a dual stripe array detector. Transient dispersed vibrational echo and 2D IR spectroscopy are applied to N-methylacetamide and ubiquitin, as examples, and the spectral responses by a temperature elevation and by structural changes of the protein are compared. The synchronization of 2D IR spectroscopy with a nanosecond temperature jump without losing its sensitivity at a low repetition rate opens a new applicability of the nonlinear spectroscopy to probe a variety of molecular structure changes induced by a nanosecond perturbation.

  1. [Two-Dimensional Hetero-Spectral Near-Infrared and Mid-Infrared Correlation Spectroscopy for Discrimination Adulterated Milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ge; Yang, Ren-jie; Lü, Ai-jun; Tan, En-zhong

    2015-08-01

    New approach for discriminant analysis of adulterated milk is proposed based on combining hetero-spectral two-dimensional (2D) near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (IR) correlation spectroscopy along with multi-way partial least squares discriminant analysis (NPLS-DA). Firstly, 36 pure milk samples were collected and 36 adulterated milk with starch samples (0.01 to 1 g · L(-1)) were prepared by adding appropriate mass of starch into pure milk. Then, one-dimensional NIR transmittance spectra and IR attenuated total reflection spectra of pure milk and adulterated milk with starch were measured at room temperature. And the synchronous 2D NIR-IR (4200~4800 vs. 900~1700 cm(-1)) correlation spectra of all samples were calculated. Due to the trace of adulterants, the synchronous 2D IR-NIR correlation spectral differences between adulterated milk with starch and pure milk are very subtle. Consequently, it was impossible to directly distinguish whether the sample was pure milk or adulterated milk. Finally, 2D IR-NIR correlation spectra were to build a discriminant model to classify adulterated milk and pure milk. The classification accuracy rates of samples in calibration set and in prediction set were 95.8% and 100% respectively. Also, the NPLS-DA models were built based on 2D NIR and 2D IR correlation spectra, respectively. The classification accuracy rates of samples in prediction set were 95.8%. Comparison results showed that the NPLS-DA model could provide better results using 2D NIR-IR correlation spectra than using 2D NIR, and 2D IR correlation spectra. The proposed method can not only effectively extract the feature information of adulterants in milk, but also explores a new perspective method for detection of adulterated food.

  2. Effect of pH on the Nitrite Hydrogenation Mechanism over Pd/Al2O3 and Pt/Al2O3: Details Obtained with ATR-IR Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard; Mojet, Barbara L.; Lefferts, Leon

    2011-01-01

    It is well-known that activity and selectivity to N2 during nitrite hydrogenation over noble metal catalysts in water depend on the pH of the solution, but mechanistic understanding is lacking. Attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy is an ideal tool to perform detailed studies...... on catalytic surfaces in water. In this paper, the influence of pH was studied on adsorption and subsequent hydrogenation of nitrite in water between pH 5 and 9 over Pd/Al2O3 and Pt/Al2O3, using ATR-IR spectroscopy. On both catalysts, pH clearly influenced the surface coverage and reaction rates...

  3. Organic matter from benthic foraminifera (Ammonia beccarii) shells by FT-IR spectroscopy: A study on Tupilipalem, South east coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasulu, G; Jayaraju, N; Sundara Raja Reddy, B C; Lakshmi Prasad, T; Nagalakshmi, K; Lakshmanna, B

    2017-01-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to study the variations in organic matters of benthic foraminifera (Ammonia beccarii) from four samples collected from beach environments from brackish environments along Tupilipalem coast (South east coast of India). Common absorption bands were observed as peaks in the range of 3600-3400 cm(-1), 3000-2850 cm(-1), 1750-1740 cm(-1), 1640-1600 cm(-1), 1450-1350 cm(-1), 885-870 cm(-1) and 725-675 cm(-1) in all the shells of Ammonia beccarii. The FTIR spectrum of station-1 represents the presence of alkanes (CH3) and alkyl halide (C-F stretching) with absorptions at the range 1385-1255 and 1350-1150 cm(-1) were observed and ether (C-O stretching) absorption band was observed at stations 1 and 3 with wavenumber of 1115 cm(-1) and 1117 cm(-1) respectively. Alkynes C-H bend was observed at station-1 with the wavenumber of 667.43 cm(-1). The shifting of peak positions in all the samples is could be due to presence of organic matter in the samples. Satellite remote sensing and field observation data revealed that the river mouth at Tupilipalem coast was closed by a sand bar. Consequentially, this waterbody may affect the species diversity. •Positions of the sampling locations were identified using a hand-held Garmin Global Positioning System (GPS).•Foraminifera from the sediment were obtained using a mixture of Bromoform and Acetone.•The functional groups present in the benthic foraminifera shells were recorded in the spectral range of 4000-400 cm(-1) using an FT-IR Spectrophotometer.

  4. FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible, and NMR spectroscopy and vibrational properties of the labdane-type diterpene 13-epi-sclareol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chain, Fernando E.; Leyton, Patricio; Paipa, Carolina; Fortuna, Mario; Brandán, Silvia A.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible and NMR spectroscopies and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to study the structural and vibrational properties of the labdane-type diterpene 13-epi-sclareol using the hybrid B3LYP method together with the 6-31G∗ basis set. Three stable structures with minimum energy found on the potential energy curves (PES) were optimized, and the corresponding molecular electrostatic potentials, atomic charges, bond orders, stabilization energies and topological properties were computed at the same approximation level. The complete assignment of the bands observed in the vibrational spectrum of 13-epi-sclareol was performed taking into account the internal symmetry coordinates for the three structures using the scaled quantum mechanical force field (SQMFF) methodology at the same level of theory. In addition, the force constants were calculated and compared with those reported in the literature for similar compounds. The predicted vibrational spectrum and the calculated 1H NMR and 13C NMR chemical shifts are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental results. The theoretical UV-Vis spectra for the most stable structure of 13-epi-sclareol demonstrate a better correlation with the corresponding experimental spectrum. The study of the three conformers by means of the theory of atoms in molecules (AIM) revealed different H bond interactions and a strong dependence of the interactions on the distance between the involved atoms. Furthermore, the natural bond orbital (NBO) calculations showed the characteristics of the electronic delocalization for the two six-membered rings with chair conformations.

  5. Determination of organic additives in mortars by near-IR spectroscopy. A novel approach to designing a sample set with high-variability components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Marcelo; Peguero, Anna

    2007-02-01

    Industrial mortars consist primarily of a mixture of cement and an aggregate plus a small amount of additives that are used to modify specific properties. Using too high or too low additive rates usually results in the loss of desirable properties in the end product. This entails carefully controlling the amounts of additives added to mortar in order to ensure correct dosing and/or adequate homogeneity in the final mixture. Near-IR (NIR) spectroscopy has proved effective for this purpose as it requires no sample pretreatment and affords expeditious analyses. The purpose of this work was to determine two organic additives (viz. Ad1 and Ad2) in mortars by using partial least squares regression multivariate calibration models constructed from NIR spectroscopic data. The additives are used to expedite setting and increase cohesion between particles in the mortar. In order to ensure that the sample set contained natural variability in the samples, we used a methodology based on experimental design to construct a representative set of samples. This novel design is based on a hexagonal antiprism that encompasses the concentration ranges spanned by the analytes and the variability inherent in each additive. The D-optimality criterion was used to obtain various combinations between Ad1 and Ad2 additive classes. The partial least squares calibration models thus constructed for each additive provided accurate predictions: the intercept and the slope of the plots of predicted values versus reference values for each additive were close to 0 and 1, respectively, and their confidence ranges included the respective value. The ensuing analytical methods were validated by using an external sample set.

  6. FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-visible, and NMR spectroscopy and vibrational properties of the labdane-type diterpene 13-epi-sclareol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chain, Fernando E; Leyton, Patricio; Paipa, Carolina; Fortuna, Mario; Brandán, Silvia A

    2015-03-05

    In this work, FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible and NMR spectroscopies and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to study the structural and vibrational properties of the labdane-type diterpene 13-epi-sclareol using the hybrid B3LYP method together with the 6-31G(∗) basis set. Three stable structures with minimum energy found on the potential energy curves (PES) were optimized, and the corresponding molecular electrostatic potentials, atomic charges, bond orders, stabilization energies and topological properties were computed at the same approximation level. The complete assignment of the bands observed in the vibrational spectrum of 13-epi-sclareol was performed taking into account the internal symmetry coordinates for the three structures using the scaled quantum mechanical force field (SQMFF) methodology at the same level of theory. In addition, the force constants were calculated and compared with those reported in the literature for similar compounds. The predicted vibrational spectrum and the calculated (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR chemical shifts are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental results. The theoretical UV-Vis spectra for the most stable structure of 13-epi-sclareol demonstrate a better correlation with the corresponding experimental spectrum. The study of the three conformers by means of the theory of atoms in molecules (AIM) revealed different H bond interactions and a strong dependence of the interactions on the distance between the involved atoms. Furthermore, the natural bond orbital (NBO) calculations showed the characteristics of the electronic delocalization for the two six-membered rings with chair conformations.

  7. FT-IR光谱在电离辐射作用于微生物研究中的应用%Application of FT-IR Spectroscopy in Study of Biological Effects on Microorganisms Induced by Ionizing Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘京华; 黄青

    2012-01-01

    傅里叶变换红外光谱(Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,FT-IR)是一种很有用的生物分析检测技术,通过FT-IR光谱技术可以得到有关蛋白质、脂类、核酸和多糖等微生物和细胞各类组成成分的信息.基于同步辐射光源的显微FT-IR光谱具有更高的空间分辨率和更快的测量速度,因而在生物学研究中具有进行快速、实时、动态和无损检测等优势.本文介绍了FT-IR光谱技术在微生物及电离辐射作用于微生物引起的生物学效应研究中的应用,并对该领域未来研究的发展趋势进行了展望.%Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a useful and powerful technique that can provide rich information on proteins,lipids,nucleic acids and carbohydrates in biological systems. Especially,the high-resolution synchrotron Fourier-transform infrared (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy and imaging technique can be employed as an excellent tool for convenient,fast,non-invasive,and real-time monitoring of varied complicated processes occuring in a biological system. In this review,the authors discuss the recent progress on the application of FT-IR spectroscopy in the study of biological effects on microorganisms induced by ionizing radiation,and also give an outlook for the future FT-IR spectroscopy research in this field.

  8. Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules.......This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules....

  9. Infrared spectra of U.S. automobile original finishes (post - 1989). VIII: In situ identification of bismuth vanadate using extended range FT-IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Edward M

    2014-03-01

    Chrome Yellow (PbCrO4 ·xPbSO4 ) was a common pigment in U.S. automobile OEM finishes for more than three decades, but in the early 1990s its use was discontinued. One of its main replacements was Bismuth Vanadate (BiVO4 ·nBi2 MoO6 , n = 0-2), which was commercially introduced in 1985, as this inorganic pigment also produces a very bright hue and has excellent outdoor durability. This paper describes the in situ identification of Bismuth Vanadate in automotive finishes using FT-IR and dispersive Raman spectroscopy and XRF spectrometry. Some differentiation of commercial formulations of this pigment is possible based on far-infrared absorptions, Raman data, and elemental analysis. The spectral differences arise from the presence or absence of molybdenum, the use of two crystal polymorphs of BiVO4 , and differences in pigment stabilizers. Bismuth Vanadate is usually not used alone, and it is typically found with Isoindoline Yellow, hydrous ferric oxide, rutile, Isoindolinone Yellow 3R, or various combinations of these.

  10. Infrared spectroscopy of stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, K. M.; Ridgway, S. T.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews applications of IR techniques in stellar classification, studies of stellar photospheres, elemental and isotopic abundances, and the nature of remnant and ejected matter in near-circumstellar regions. Qualitative IR spectral classification of cool and hot stars is discussed, along with IR spectra of peculiar composite star systems and of obscured stars, and IR characteristics of stellar populations. The use of IR spectroscopy in theoretical modeling of stellar atmospheres is examined, IR indicators of stellar atmospheric composition are described, and contributions of IR spectroscopy to the study of stellar recycling of interstellar matter are summarized. The future of IR astronomy is also considered.

  11. HypGrid2D. A 2-d mesh generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, N.N.

    1998-03-01

    The implementation of a hyperbolic mesh generation procedure, based on an equation for orthogonality and an equation for the cell face area is described. The method is fast, robust and gives meshes with good smoothness and orthogonality. The procedure is implemented in a program called HypGrid2D. The HypGrid2D program is capable of generating C-, O- and `H`-meshes for use in connection with the EllipSys2D Navier-Stokes solver. To illustrate the capabilities of the program, some test examples are shown. First a series of C-meshes are generated around a NACA-0012 airfoil. Secondly a series of O-meshes are generated around a NACA-65-418 airfoil. Finally `H`-meshes are generated over a Gaussian hill and a linear escarpment. (au)

  12. Analysis and identification of two reconstituted tobacco sheets by three-level infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian-xue; Xu, Chang-hua; Li, Ming; Sun, Su-qin; Li, Jin-ming; Dong, Wei

    2014-07-01

    Two kinds of reconstituted tobacco (RT) from France (RTF) and China (RTC) were analyzed and identified by a three-level infrared spectroscopy method (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) coupled with second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR)). The conventional IR spectra of RTF parallel samples were more consistent than those of RTC according to their overlapped parallel spectra and IR spectra correlation coefficients. FT-IR spectra of both two RTs were similar in holistic spectral profile except for small differences around 1430 cm-1, indicating that they have similar chemical constituents. By analysis of SD-IR spectra of RTFs and RTCs, more distinct fingerprint features, especially peaks at 1106 (1110), 1054 (1059) and 877 (874) cm-1, were disclosed. Even better reproducibility of five SD-IR spectra of RTF in 1750-1400 cm-1 could be seen intuitively from their stacked spectra and could be confirmed by further similarity evaluation of SD-IR spectra. Existence of calcium carbonate and calcium oxalate could be easily observed in two RTs by comparing their spectra with references. Furthermore, the 2D-IR spectra provided obvious, vivid and intuitive differences of RTF and RTC. Both two RTs had a pair of strong positive auto-peaks in 1600-1400 cm-1. Specifically, the autopeak at 1586 cm-1 in RTF was stronger than the one around 1421 cm-1, whereas the one at 1587 cm-1 in RTC was weaker than that at 1458 cm-1. Consequently, the RTs of two different brands were analyzed and identified thoroughly and RTF had better homogeneity than RTC. As a result, three-level infrared spectroscopy method has proved to be a simple, convenient and efficient method for rapid discrimination and homogeneousness estimation of RT.

  13. Ultrafast two dimensional infrared chemical exchange spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayer, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The method of ultrafast two dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy is described. Three ultrashort IR pulses tuned to the frequencies of the vibrational transitions of interest are directed into the sample. The interaction of these pulses with the molecular vibrational oscillators produces a polarization that gives rise to a fourth pulse, the vibrational echo. The vibrational echo pulse is combined with another pulse, the local oscillator, for heterodyne detection of the signal. For fixed time between the second and third pulses, the waiting time, the first pulse is scanned. Two Fourier transforms of the data yield a 2D IR spectrum. The waiting time is increased, and another spectrum is obtained. The change in the 2D IR spectra with increased waiting time provides information on the time evolution of the structure of the molecular system under observation. In a 2D IR chemical exchange experiment, two species A and B, are undergoing chemical exchange. A's are turning into B's, and B's are turning into A's, but the overall concentrations of the species are not changing. The kinetics of the chemical exchange on the ground electronic state under thermal equilibrium conditions can be obtained 2D IR spectroscopy. A vibration that has a different frequency for the two species is monitored. At very short time, there will be two peaks on the diagonal of the 2D IR spectrum, one for A and one for B. As the waiting time is increased, chemical exchange causes off-diagonal peaks to grow in. The time dependence of the growth of these off-diagonal peaks gives the chemical exchange rate. The method is applied to organic solute-solvent complex formation, orientational isomerization about a carbon-carbon single bond, migration of a hydrogen bond from one position on a molecule to another, protein structural substate interconversion, and water hydrogen bond switching between ions and water molecules. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific

  14. Speciation of organic matter in sandy soil size fractions as revealed by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) and FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; de la Rosa, José M.; González-Pérez, José A.

    2015-04-01

    This research deals with the assessment of organic matter structural differences in soil physical fractions before and after lipid extractions. Soil samples were collected in sandy soils, Arenosols (WRB 2006) from the Doñana National Park (SW Spain) under different vegetation cover: cork oak (Quercus suber, QS), eagle fern (Pteridium aquilinum, PA), pine (Pinus pinea, PP) and rockrose (Halimium halimifolium, HH). Two size fractions; coarse (C: 1-2 mm) and fine (F: 0.05-0.25 mm) were studied from each soil. . In addition, the two fractions from each soil were exhaustively Soxhlet extracted with a Dichlorometane-Methanol (3:1) mixture to obtain the lipid-free fractions (LF) from each size fraction (LFC and LFF). The composition of the organic matter at a molecular level in the different soil fractions was approached by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) and FT-IR spectroscopy. These techniques are complementary and have been found suitable for the structural characterization of complex organic matrices (Moldoveanu, 1998; Piccolo and Stevenson, 1982); whereas Py-GC/MS provides detailed structural information of individual compounds present and a finger-printing of soil organic matter, FT-IR is informative about major functional groups present. The advantages of these techniques are well known: no need for pretreatment are fast to perform, highly reproducible and only small amount of samples are needed. Soil size fractions show contrasting differences in organic matter content (C 4-7 % and F > 40 %) and conspicuous differences were found in the pyrolysis products released by the fractions studied. The main families of pyrolysis compounds have well defined macromolecular precursors, such as lignin, polypeptides, polysaccharides and lipids (González-Vila et al., 2001). The C fractions yield higher relative abundance of lignin and polysaccharide derived pyrolysis compounds. Regarding the differences in the soil organic matter as affected by the different vegetation covers

  15. Functional characterization of a first avian cytochrome P450 of the CYP2D subfamily (CYP2D49.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Cai

    Full Text Available The CYP2D family members are instrumental in the metabolism of 20-25% of commonly prescribed drugs. Although many CYP2D isoforms have been well characterized in other animal models, research concerning the chicken CYP2Ds is limited. In this study, a cDNA encoding a novel CYP2D enzyme (CYP2D49 was cloned from the chicken liver for the first time. The CYP2D49 cDNA contained an open reading frame of 502 amino acids that shared 52%-57% identities with other CYP2Ds. The gene structure and neighboring genes of CYP2D49 are conserved and similar to those of human CYP2D6. Additionally, similar to human CYP2D6, CYP2D49 is un-inducible in the liver and expressed predominantly in the liver, kidney and small intestine, with detectable levels in several other tissues. Metabolic assays of the CYP2D49 protein heterologously expressed in E. coli and Hela cells indicated that CYP2D49 metabolized the human CYP2D6 substrate, bufuralol, but not debrisoquine. Moreover, quinidine, a potent inhibitor of human CYP2D6, only inhibited the bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation activity of CYP2D49 to a negligible degree. All these results indicated that CYP2D49 had functional characteristics similar to those of human CYP2D6 but measurably differed in the debrisoquine 4'-hydroxylation and quinidine inhibitory profile. Further structure-function investigations that employed site-directed mutagenesis and circular dichroism spectroscopy identified the importance of Val-126, Glu-222, Asp-306, Phe-486 and Phe-488 in keeping the enzymatic activity of CYP2D49 toward bufuralol as well as the importance of Asp-306, Phe-486 and Phe-488 in maintaining the conformation of CYP2D49 protein. The current study is only the first step in characterizing the metabolic mechanism of CYP2D49; further studies are still required.

  16. Multi-pollutants sensors based on near-IR telecom lasers and mid-IR difference frequency generation: development and applications; Instruments de mesure multi-polluants par spectroscopie infrarouge bases sur des lasers fibres et par generation de difference de frequences: developpement et applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousin, J

    2006-12-15

    At present the detection of VOC and other anthropic trace pollutants is an important challenge in the measurement of air quality. Infrared spectroscopy, allowing spectral regions rich in molecular absorption to be probed, is a suitable technique for in-situ monitoring of the air pollution. Thus the aim of this work was to develop instruments capable of detecting multiple pollutants for in-situ monitoring by IR spectroscopy. A first project benefited from the availability of the telecommunications lasers emitting in near-IR. This instrument was based on an external cavity diode laser (1500 - 1640 nm) in conjunction with a multipass cell (100 m). The detection sensitivity was optimised by employing a balanced detection and a sweep integration procedure. The instrument developed is deployable for in-situ measurements with a sensitivity of < 10{sup -8} cm{sup -1} Hz{sup -1/2} and allowed the quantification of chemical species such as CO{sub 2}, CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and the determination of the isotopic ratio {sup 13}CO{sub 2}/{sup 12}CO{sub 2} in combustion environment The second project consisted in mixing two near-IR fiber lasers in a non-linear crystal (PPLN) in order to produce a laser radiation by difference frequency generation in the middle-IR (3.15 - 3.43 {mu}m), where the absorption bands of the molecules are the most intense. The first studies with this source were carried out on detection of ethylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) and benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}). Developments, characterizations and applications of these instruments in the near and middle IR are detailed and the advantages of the 2 spectral ranges is highlighted. (author)

  17. Petrogenesis and provenance of ungrouped achondrite Northwest Africa 7325 from petrology, trace elements, oxygen, chromium and titanium isotopes, and mid-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Cyrena A.; Kita, Noriko T.; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Sanborn, Matthew E.; Williams, Curtis D.; Nakashima, Daisuke; Lane, Melissa D.; Boyle, Shannon

    2017-04-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 7325 is an ungrouped achondrite that has recently been recognized as a sample of ancient differentiated crust from either Mercury or a previously unknown asteroid. In this work we augment data from previous investigations on petrography and mineral compositions, mid-IR spectroscopy, and oxygen isotope compositions of NWA 7325, and add constraints from Cr and Ti isotope compositions on the provenance of its parent body. In addition, we identify and discuss notable similarities between NWA 7325 and clasts of a rare xenolithic lithology found in polymict ureilites. NWA 7325 has a medium grained, protogranular to poikilitic texture, and consists of 10-15 vol.% Mg-rich olivine (Fo 98), 25-30 vol.% diopside (Wo 45, Mg# 98), 55-60 vol.% Ca-rich plagioclase (An 90), and trace Cr-rich sulfide and Fe,Ni metal. We interpret this meteorite to be a cumulate that crystallized at ⩾1200 °C and very low oxygen fugacity (similar to the most reduced ureilites) from a refractory, incompatible element-depleted melt. Modeling of trace elements in plagioclase suggests that this melt formed by fractional melting or multi-stage igneous evolution. A subsequent event (likely impact) resulted in plagioclase being substantially remelted, reacting with a small amount of pyroxene, and recrystallizing with a distinctive texture. The bulk oxygen isotope composition of NWA 7325 plots in the range of ureilites on the CCAM line, and also on a mass-dependent fractionation line extended from acapulcoites. The ε54Cr and ε50Ti values of NWA 7325 exhibit deficits relative to terrestrial composition, as do ordinary chondrites and most achondrites. Its ε54Cr value is distinct from that of any analyzed ureilite, but is not resolved from that of acapulcoites (as represented by Acapulco). In terms of all these properties, NWA 7325 is unlike any known achondrite. However, a rare population of clasts found in polymict ureilites (;the magnesian anorthitic lithology;) are strikingly

  18. Quasiparticle interference in unconventional 2D systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lan; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Kehui

    2017-03-01

    At present, research of 2D systems mainly focuses on two kinds of materials: graphene-like materials and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Both of them host unconventional 2D electronic properties: pseudospin and the associated chirality of electrons in graphene-like materials, and spin-valley-coupled electronic structures in the TMDs. These exotic electronic properties have attracted tremendous interest for possible applications in nanodevices in the future. Investigation on the quasiparticle interference (QPI) in 2D systems is an effective way to uncover these properties. In this review, we will begin with a brief introduction to 2D systems, including their atomic structures and electronic bands. Then, we will discuss the formation of Friedel oscillation due to QPI in constant energy contours of electron bands, and show the basic concept of Fourier-transform scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (FT-STM/STS), which can resolve Friedel oscillation patterns in real space and consequently obtain the QPI patterns in reciprocal space. In the next two parts, we will summarize some pivotal results in the investigation of QPI in graphene and silicene, in which systems the low-energy quasiparticles are described by the massless Dirac equation. The FT-STM experiments show there are two different interference channels (intervalley and intravalley scattering) and backscattering suppression, which associate with the Dirac cones and the chirality of quasiparticles. The monolayer and bilayer graphene on different substrates (SiC and metal surfaces), and the monolayer and multilayer silicene on a Ag(1 1 1) surface will be addressed. The fifth part will introduce the FT-STM research on QPI in TMDs (monolayer and bilayer of WSe2), which allow us to infer the spin texture of both conduction and valence bands, and present spin-valley coupling by tracking allowed and forbidden scattering channels.

  19. Proton/hydrogen-transfer coordinate of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid investigated in a supersonic beam: combined IR/UV spectroscopy in the S0, S1, and D0 states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Holger; Bartl, Kristina; Funk, Andreas; Gerlach, Andreas; Gerhards, Markus

    2008-12-01

    As a model system for intramolecular proton/hydrogen-transfer coordinates, the structure of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid is investigated for the ground, first electronically excited and also the ionic state. Combined IR/UV spectroscopy in molecular-beam experiments is applied and the experimental results are interpreted by the application of DFT and CASPT2 methods. No proton or hydrogen transfer is observed, but evidence is given for a hydrogen dislocation of the intramolecular hydrogen bond in the S(1) state and to lesser extent in the D(0) state. To obtain direct information on the proton/hydrogen-transfer coordinate, IR spectra are recorded both in the region of the OH and especially the CO stretching vibrations by also applying two new variants of combined IR/UV spectroscopy for the S(1) and D(0) states. The CO groups are directly involved in the hydrogen bond and, in contrast to the hydrogen-bonded OH groups, the CO stretching frequencies can be observed in all electronic states.

  20. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy as a Forensic Method to Determine the Composition of Inks Used to Print the United States One-cent Blue Benjamin Franklin Postage Stamps of the 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Harry G

    2016-01-01

    Through the combined use of infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling, the composition of inks used to print the many different types of one-cent Benjamin Franklin stamps of the 19th century has been established. This information permits a historical evaluation of the formulations used at various times, and also facilitates the differentiation of the various stamps from each other. In two instances, the ink composition permits the unambiguous identification of stamps whose appearance is identical, and which (until now) have only been differentiated through estimates of the degree of hardness or softness of the stamp paper, or through the presence or absence of a watermark in the paper. In these instances, the use of ATR Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy effectively renders irrelevant two 100-year-old practices of stamp identification. Furthermore, since the use of ATR sampling makes it possible to obtain the spectrum of a stamp still attached to its cover, it is no longer necessary to identify these blue Franklin stamps using their cancellation dates.

  1. Electronic and chemical structure of an organic light emitter embedded in an inorganic wide-bandgap semiconductor: Photoelectron spectroscopy of layered and composite structures of Ir(BPA) and ZnSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimamay, Mariel; Mayer, Thomas; Hadziioannou, Georges; Jaegermann, Wolfram

    2015-05-01

    Luminescent organic phases embedded in conductive inorganic matrices are proposed for hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes. In this configuration, the organic dye acts as the radiative recombination site for charge carriers injected into the inorganic matrix. Our investigation is aimed at finding a material combination where the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the organic dye are situated in between the valence and conduction bands of the inorganic matrix in order to promote electron and hole transfer from the matrix to the dye. Bilayer and composite thin films of zinc selenide (ZnSe) and a red iridium complex (Ir(BPA)) organic light emitter were prepared in situ via UHV thermal evaporation technique. The electronic and atomic structures were studied applying X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies. The measured energy band alignments for the ZnSe/Ir(BPA) bilayer and ZnSe+Ir(BPA) composite reveal that the HOMO and LUMO of the organic dye are positioned in the ZnSe bandgap. For the initial steps of ZnSe deposition on a dye film to form Ir(BPA)/ZnSe bilayers, zinc atoms intercalate into the dye film leaving behind an excess of selenium at the interface that partly reacts with dye molecules. Photoelectron spectroscopy of the composites shows the same species suggesting a similar mechanism. This mechanism leads to composite films with increased content of amorphous phases in the inorganic matrix, thereby affecting its conductivity, as well as to the presence of nonradiative recombination sites provided by the intercalated Zn atoms.

  2. Electronic and chemical structure of an organic light emitter embedded in an inorganic wide-bandgap semiconductor: Photoelectron spectroscopy of layered and composite structures of Ir(BPA) and ZnSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimamay, Mariel [Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Alarich-Weiss-Strasse 2, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Laboratoire de Chimie des Polymères Organiques, CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, UMR 5629-16 Avenue Pey-Berland, 33607 Pessac (France); Mayer, Thomas; Jaegermann, Wolfram [Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Alarich-Weiss-Strasse 2, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Hadziioannou, Georges [Laboratoire de Chimie des Polymères Organiques, CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, UMR 5629-16 Avenue Pey-Berland, 33607 Pessac (France)

    2015-05-07

    Luminescent organic phases embedded in conductive inorganic matrices are proposed for hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes. In this configuration, the organic dye acts as the radiative recombination site for charge carriers injected into the inorganic matrix. Our investigation is aimed at finding a material combination where the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the organic dye are situated in between the valence and conduction bands of the inorganic matrix in order to promote electron and hole transfer from the matrix to the dye. Bilayer and composite thin films of zinc selenide (ZnSe) and a red iridium complex (Ir(BPA)) organic light emitter were prepared in situ via UHV thermal evaporation technique. The electronic and atomic structures were studied applying X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies. The measured energy band alignments for the ZnSe/Ir(BPA) bilayer and ZnSe+Ir(BPA) composite reveal that the HOMO and LUMO of the organic dye are positioned in the ZnSe bandgap. For the initial steps of ZnSe deposition on a dye film to form Ir(BPA)/ZnSe bilayers, zinc atoms intercalate into the dye film leaving behind an excess of selenium at the interface that partly reacts with dye molecules. Photoelectron spectroscopy of the composites shows the same species suggesting a similar mechanism. This mechanism leads to composite films with increased content of amorphous phases in the inorganic matrix, thereby affecting its conductivity, as well as to the presence of nonradiative recombination sites provided by the intercalated Zn atoms.

  3. Aero Fighter - 2D Gaming

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    Designing and developing quality based computer game is always a challenging task for developers. In this paper I briefly discuss aero fighting war game based on simple 2D gaming concepts and developed in C & C++ programming languages, using old bitmapping concepts. Going into the details of the game development, I discuss the designed strategies, flow of game and implemented prototype version of game, especially for beginners of game programming.

  4. The reaction between ZnO and Molten K2S2O7 forming K2Zn(SO4)2, studied by Raman and IR Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Nielsen, Kurt; Boghosian, Soghomon

    1999-01-01

    The reaction between zinc oxide and molten potassium pyrosulfate at 500 °C was shown by Raman spectroscopy to be a 1:1 reaction. By lovering the temperature, colorless crystals could be formed. The crystal structure was determined: Space group = P21/c, Z = 4, a = 5.3582(11), b = 8.7653(18), c = 16...... correlations between S-O bond distances and average O-S-O bond angles followed a previously found trend. IR and Raman spectra were obtained and tentatively assigned....

  5. Estudo de coprólito da bacia sedimentar do Araripe por meios de espectroscopia FT-IR e difração de Raios-X Study of coprolites from the Araripe sedimentary basin through FT-IR spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jorge Cruz Lima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Coprolites are fossilized faeces that constitute an important source of palaeobiological informations. This paper describes the characterization of some coprolite materials originated from the Romualdo Member of the Santana Formation (Araripe Basin, south of Ceará State in Brazil by means of two techniques: X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. This characterization allowed us to determine the main composition of the coprolites, of the nodulus (where the coprolites were extracted and of the sediment (where the nodulus was found suggesting that the material was produced by a carnivorous fish of the Lower Cretaceous.

  6. Metrology for graphene and 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the

  7. IR mass-resolved spectroscopy of complexes without chromophore: cyclohexanol·(H2O)n, n = 1-3 and cyclohexanol dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Iker; Montero, Raúl; Longarte, Asier; Fernández, José A

    2013-11-01

    Mass-resolved IR spectra of cyclohexanol-water clusters and cyclohexanol dimer in supersonic expansions are presented for the first time. A combination of ns and fs IR lasers made possible recording such spectra without inclusion of a chromophore or a messenger atom. Furthermore, employment of the recently developed IR(3) technique [I. León, R. Montero, F. Castaño, A. Longarte, and J. A. Fernández, J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 6798 (2012)] allowed us to discriminate between the contribution of different species to the IR spectrum. Comparison of the experimental spectra with the predictions at the M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) calculation level confirmed the assignment of the spectrum of cyclohexanol·(H2O)1 to a structure in which water is accepting a proton from cyclohexanol's OH group, and those of cyclohexanol·(H2O)(2,3) to structures with cyclic hydrogen bond networks. A comparative analysis of the results obtained with those reported on other aromatic alcohols is also offered.

  8. IR mass-resolved spectroscopy of complexes without chromophore: Cyclohexanol·(H{sub 2}O){sub n}, n = 1–3 and cyclohexanol dimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    León, Iker; Montero, Raúl; Longarte, Asier; Fernández, José A., E-mail: josea.fernandez@ehu.es [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country-UPV/EHU, Barrio Sarriena s/n, Leioa 48940 (Spain)

    2013-11-07

    Mass-resolved IR spectra of cyclohexanol-water clusters and cyclohexanol dimer in supersonic expansions are presented for the first time. A combination of ns and fs IR lasers made possible recording such spectra without inclusion of a chromophore or a messenger atom. Furthermore, employment of the recently developed IR{sup 3} technique [I. León, R. Montero, F. Castaño, A. Longarte, and J. A. Fernández, J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 6798 (2012)] allowed us to discriminate between the contribution of different species to the IR spectrum. Comparison of the experimental spectra with the predictions at the M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) calculation level confirmed the assignment of the spectrum of cyclohexanol·(H{sub 2}O){sub 1} to a structure in which water is accepting a proton from cyclohexanol's OH group, and those of cyclohexanol·(H{sub 2}O){sub 2,3} to structures with cyclic hydrogen bond networks. A comparative analysis of the results obtained with those reported on other aromatic alcohols is also offered.

  9. Spitzer mid-IR spectroscopy of powerful 2Jy and 3CRR radio galaxies. I. Evidence against a strong starburst-AGN connection in radio-loud AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Dicken, D; Axon, D; Morganti, R; Robinson, A; N., M B; Spoon, H; Kharb, P; Inskip, K J; Holt, J; Almeida, C Ramos; Nesvadba, N P H

    2011-01-01

    We present deep Spitzer/IRS spectra for complete samples of 46 2Jy radio galaxies (0.0575%) than their more extended counterparts (=15 -- 25%). We discuss this result in the context of a possible bias towards the selection of compact radio sources triggered in gas-rich environments.

  10. Rapid, nondestructive estimation of surface polymer layer thickness using attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy and synthetic spectra derived from optical principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, B André; Guiney, Linda M; Loose, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    We have developed a rapid, nondestructive analytical method that estimates the thickness of a surface polymer layer with high precision but unknown accuracy using a single attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) measurement. Because the method is rapid, nondestructive, and requires no sample preparation, it is ideal as a process analytical technique. Prior to implementation, the ATR FT-IR spectrum of the substrate layer pure component and the ATR FT-IR and real refractive index spectra of the surface layer pure component must be known. From these three input spectra a synthetic mid-infrared spectral matrix of surface layers 0 nm to 10,000 nm thick on substrate is created de novo. A minimum statistical distance match between a process sample's ATR FT-IR spectrum and the synthetic spectral matrix provides the thickness of that sample. We show that this method can be used to successfully estimate the thickness of polysulfobetaine surface modification, a hydrated polymeric surface layer covalently bonded onto a polyetherurethane substrate. A database of 1850 sample spectra was examined. Spectrochemical matrix-effect unknowns, such as the nonuniform and molecularly novel polysulfobetaine-polyetherurethane interface, were found to be minimal. A partial least squares regression analysis of the database spectra versus their thicknesses as calculated by the method described yielded an estimate of precision of ±52 nm.

  11. Head First 2D Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Fallow), Stray

    2009-01-01

    Having trouble with geometry? Do Pi, The Pythagorean Theorem, and angle calculations just make your head spin? Relax. With Head First 2D Geometry, you'll master everything from triangles, quads and polygons to the time-saving secrets of similar and congruent angles -- and it'll be quick, painless, and fun. Through entertaining stories and practical examples from the world around you, this book takes you beyond boring problems. You'll actually use what you learn to make real-life decisions, like using angles and parallel lines to crack a mysterious CSI case. Put geometry to work for you, and

  12. Deducing the molecular properties of zwitterionic, protonated, deprotonated, and double-deprotonated forms of L-cysteine from vibrational spectroscopy (IR, Raman, VCD) and quantum chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Moreno, María Mar; Avilés-Moreno, Juan Ramón; Márquez-García, A A; López-González, Juan Jesús

    2014-06-01

    The behavior of L-cysteine (C3H7NO2S, (2R)-2-amino-3-sulfanylpropanoic acid) in water at different pH values was analyzed both experimentally and theoretically. The behavior was studied at pH values of 5.21 (at this pH, L-cysteine is a zwitterionic species), 1.00 (protonated species), 8.84 (monodeprotonated species), and 13.00 (dideprotonated species). We carried out a vibrational study using nonchiroptical (IR-Raman) and chiroptical (VCD) techniques complemented by quantum chemical calculations. We adopted a dual strategy, as follows. (i) The hybrid density functionals B3LYP and M062X and the ab initio MP2 method were employed, with the same 6-311++G (d,p) basis set, in order to characterize the relative energies and structures of an extensive set of conformers of L-cysteine. The presence of water was included by utilizing the IEF-PCM implicit solvation model. (ii) The vibrational analysis was made using a chirality-sensitive using a chirality-sensitive technique (VCD) and chirality-insensitive techniques (IR, including MIR and FIR, and Raman), especially in aqueous solution. The results obtained theoretically and experimentally were compared in order to deduce the most stable structures at each pH. Moreover, for the first time, the monodeprotonated anion of L-cysteine was detected in aqueous solution by means of IR, Raman and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). Finally, analysis of the low-frequency region using the IR and Raman techniques was shown to be a very important way to understanding the conformational preference of the zwitterionic species.

  13. Evidence for Intramolecular Antiparallel Beta-Sheet Structure in Alpha-Synuclein Fibrils from a Combination of Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, Steven J.; Iyer, Aditya; Pletikapic, Galja; Kogan, Vladimir; Subramaniam, Vinod; Woutersen, Sander

    2017-01-01

    The aggregation of the intrinsically disordered protein alpha-synuclein (αS) into amyloid fibrils is thought to play a central role in the pathology of Parkinson’s disease. Using a combination of techniques (AFM, UV-CD, XRD, and amide-I 1D- and 2D-IR spectroscopy) we show that the structure of αS fi

  14. 2D SIMPLIFIED SERVO VALVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A novel pilot stage valve called simplified 2D valve, which utilizes both rotary and linear motions of a single spool, is presented.The rotary motion of the spool incorporating hydraulic resistance bridge, formed by a damper groove and a crescent overlap opening, is utilized as pilot to actuate linear motion of the spool.A criterion for stability is derived from the linear analysis of the valve.Special experiments are designed to acquire the mechanical stiffness, the pilot leakage and the step response.It is shown that the sectional size of the spiral groove affects the dynamic response and the stiffness contradictorily and is also very sensitive to the pilot leakage.Therefore, it is necessary to establish a balance between the static and dynamic characteristics in deciding the structural parameters.Nevertheless, it is possible to sustain the dynamic response at a fairly high level, while keeping the leakage of the pilot stage at an acceptable level.

  15. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-06-24

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.

  16. D IR Line Shapes for Determining the Structure of a Peptide in a Bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woys, Ann Marie; Lin, Y. S.; Skinner, J. S.; Zanni, M. T.; Reddy, A. S.; de Pablo, J. J.

    2010-06-01

    Structure of the antimicrobial peptide, ovispirin, on a lipid bilayer was determined using 2D IR spectroscopy and spectra calculated from molecular dynamics simulations. Ovispirin is an 18 residue amphipathic peptide that binds parallel to the membrane in a mostly alpha helical conformation. 15 of the 18 residues were ^1^3C^1^8O isotopically labeled on the backbone to isolate the amide I vibration at each position. 2D IR spectra were collected for each labeled peptide in 3:1 POPC/POPG vesicles, and