Sample records for 2d fourier transform

  1. Building a symbolic computer algebra toolbox to compute 2D Fourier transforms in polar coordinates. (United States)

    Dovlo, Edem; Baddour, Natalie


    The development of a symbolic computer algebra toolbox for the computation of two dimensional (2D) Fourier transforms in polar coordinates is presented. Multidimensional Fourier transforms are widely used in image processing, tomographic reconstructions and in fact any application that requires a multidimensional convolution. By examining a function in the frequency domain, additional information and insights may be obtained. The advantages of our method include: •The implementation of the 2D Fourier transform in polar coordinates within the toolbox via the combination of two significantly simpler transforms.•The modular approach along with the idea of lookup tables implemented help avoid the issue of indeterminate results which may occur when attempting to directly evaluate the transform.•The concept also helps prevent unnecessary computation of already known transforms thereby saving memory and processing time.

  2. Two-dimensional Fourier transform ESR in the slow-motional and rigid limits: 2D-ELDOR (United States)

    Patyal, Baldev R.; Crepeau, Richard H.; Gamliel, Dan; Freed, Jack H.


    The two-dimensional Fourier transform ESP techniques of stimulated SECSY and 2D-ELDOR are shown to be powerful methods for the study of slow motions for nitroxides. Stimulated SECSY provides magnetization transfer rates, whereas 2D-ELDOR displays how the rotational motions spread the spins out from their initial spectral positions to new spectral positions, as a function of mixing time. The role of nuclear modulation in studies of structure and dynamics is also considered.

  3. A Two Dimensional Discrete Fourier Transform Based Secret Data Embedding for Color Image Authentication (2D-DFTSDECIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Mandal


    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel two-dimensional Discrete Fourier Transform based information embedding has beenproposed for color image authentication (2D-DFTSDECIA. Initially, each 2 × 2 sub-image block of thecarrier image is pre-adjusted, if necessary and then transformed by the application of two dimensionalDiscrete Fourier Transforms (2D-DFT where the transformation technique has been applied in row majororder. In the proposed 2D-DFTSDECIA scheme, two bits from the authenticating message/image can beembedded in second, third and fourth frequency components of every 2 × 2 green sub-image matrix.Similarly, three bits from the authenticating message/image are embedded in second, third and fourthfrequency components of every 2 × 2 red and blue sub-image matrices because, the human eye is lesssensitive in blue and red channels as compared to the green channel. The first frequency component ofgreen channel hides one bit at the pre-LSB position whereas two bits are embedded in first frequencycomponent of red and blue channels starting from the pre-LSB. After embedding authenticatingimage/message bits, a frequency adjustment method is applied to get frequency component values closer tothe actual frequency component value without hampering the embedded bits. Inverse 2D-DFT (2D-IDFTis applied on each 2 x 2 image block after embedding authenticating message/image bits to generateembedded image. During the inverse transform phase, if any fractional value occurs in spatial domain,then the least significant bit of the first frequency component of that sub-matrix is flipped and 2D-IDFT isapplied again. Experimental results conform that the proposed algorithm performs better than DPTHDI[7] and previously proposed DFTIECIA [8] schemes in terms of qualities and payload capacities.

  4. Comparative Variable Temperature Studies of Polyamide II with a Benchtop Fourier Transform and a Miniature Handheld Near-Infrared Spectrometer Using 2D-COS and PCMW-2D Analysis. (United States)

    Unger, Miriam; Pfeifer, Frank; Siesler, Heinz W


    The main objective of this communication is to compare the performance of a miniaturized handheld near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer with a benchtop Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectrometer. Generally, NIR spectroscopy is an extremely powerful analytical tool to study hydrogen-bonding changes of amide functionalities in solid and liquid materials and therefore variable temperature NIR measurements of polyamide II (PAII) have been selected as a case study. The information content of the measurement data has been further enhanced by exploiting the potential of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) and the perturbation correlation moving window two-dimensional (PCMW2D) evaluation technique. The data provide valuable insights not only into the changes of the hydrogen-bonding structure and the recrystallization of the hydrocarbon segments of the investigated PAII but also in their sequential order. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the 2D-COS and PCMW2D results derived from the spectra measured with the miniaturized NIR instrument are equivalent to the information extracted from the data obtained with the high-performance FT-NIR instrument.

  5. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen


    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...

  6. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-qin; Zheng, Jing


    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p = 0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  7. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy. (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-Qin; Zheng, Jing


    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p=0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  8. Characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy of a carbosilane dendrimer with peripheral ammonium groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina, E-mail: [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry (Romania); Gomez, Rafael; Mata, Fco Javier de la; Rasines, Beatriz [Universidad de Alcala, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica (Spain); Simionescu, Bogdan C. [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry (Romania)


    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 2D correlation spectroscopy were used to study the microstructural changes occurring on heating of a new carbosilane dendrimer with peripheral ammonium groups. Temperature-dependent spectral variations in the 3,010-2,710, 1,530-1,170, and 1,170-625 cm{sup -1} regions were monitored during the heating process. The dependence, on temperature, of integral absorptions and position of spectral bands was established and the spectral modifications associated with molecular conformation rearrangements, allowing molecular shape changes, were found. Before 180 Degree-Sign C, the studied carbosilane dendrimer proved to be stable, while at higher temperatures it oxidizes and Si-O groups appear. 2D IR correlation spectroscopy gives new information about the effect of temperature on the structure and dynamics of the system. Synchronous and asynchronous spectra indicate that, at low temperature, conformational changes of CH{sub 3} and CH{sub 3}-N{sup +} groups take place first. With increasing temperature, the intensity variation of the CH{sub 2}, C-N, Si-C and C-C groups from the dendritic core is faster than that of the terminal units. This indicates that, with increasing temperature, the segments of the dendritic core obtain enough energy to change their conformation more easily as compared to the terminal units, due to their internal flexibility.

  9. Variable-temperature Fourier-transform infrared studies of poly(L-lactic acid) in different states of order: A 2DCOS and PCMW2D analysis (United States)

    Zhang, Pudun; Unger, Miriam; Pfeifer, Frank; Siesler, Heinz W.


    Variable-temperature Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of a predominantly amorphous and a semi-crystalline poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) film were measured between 30 °C and 170 °C in order to investigate their temperature-dependent structural changes as a function of the initial state of order. For an in-depth analysis of the spectral variations in the carbonyl stretching band region (1803-1722 cm-1) two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) and perturbation-correlation moving-window two-dimensional (PCMW2D) analyses were applied. Significant spectral changes were observed during heating of the amorphous PLLA sample whereas the semi-crystalline specimen showed only slight band shifts as a function of the external perturbation. The PCMW2D results suggested that for efficient 2DCOS analyses the heating process should be split up in two temperature intervals. These analyses then provided information on the recrystallization of the amorphous regions, the presence of an intermediate state of order and a sequence scenario for the observed spectral changes.

  10. Fourier and Laplace Transforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerends, R.J.; Morsche, ter H.G.; Berg, van den J.C.


    This textbook presents in a unified manner the fundamentals of both continuous and discrete versions of the Fourier and Laplace transforms. These transforms play an important role in the analysis of all kinds of physical phenomena. As a link between the various applications of these transforms the a

  11. Fourier transform mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander


    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook.

  12. Fourier transformation for pedestrians

    CERN Document Server

    Butz, Tilman


    This book is an introduction to Fourier Transformation with a focus on signal analysis, based on the first edition. It is well suited for undergraduate students in physics, mathematics, electronic engineering as well as for scientists in research and development. It gives illustrations and recommendations when using existing Fourier programs and thus helps to avoid frustrations. Moreover, it is entertaining and you will learn a lot unconsciously. Fourier series as well as continuous and discrete Fourier transformation are discussed with particular emphasis on window functions. Filter effects of digital data processing are illustrated. Two new chapters are devoted to modern applications. The first deals with data streams and fractional delays and the second with the back-projection of filtered projections in tomography. There are many figures and mostly easy to solve exercises with solutions.

  13. Fourier transforms principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Eric W


    Fourier Transforms: Principles and Applications explains transform methods and their applications to electrical systems from circuits, antennas, and signal processors-ably guiding readers from vector space concepts through the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Fourier series, and Fourier transform to other related transform methods.  Featuring chapter end summaries of key results, over two hundred examples and four hundred homework problems, and a Solutions Manual this book is perfect for graduate students in signal processing and communications as well as practicing engineers.

  14. Generic Quantum Fourier Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Cristopher; Russell, A; Moore, Cristopher; Rockmore, Daniel; Russell, Alexander


    The quantum Fourier transform (QFT) is the principal algorithmic tool underlying most efficient quantum algorithms. We present a generic framework for the construction of efficient quantum circuits for the QFT by ``quantizing'' the separation of variables technique that has been so successful in the study of classical Fourier transform computations. Specifically, this framework applies the existence of computable Bratteli diagrams, adapted factorizations, and Gel'fand-Tsetlin bases to offer efficient quantum circuits for the QFT over a wide variety a finite Abelian and non-Abelian groups, including all group families for which efficient QFTs are currently known and many new group families. Moreover, the method gives rise to the first subexponential-size quantum circuits for the QFT over the linear groups GL_k(q), SL_k(q), and the finite groups of Lie type, for any fixed prime power q.

  15. Real Clifford Windowed Fourier Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mawardi BAHRI; Sriwulan ADJI; Ji Man ZHAO


    We study the windowed Fourier transform in the framework of Clifford analysis, which we call the Clifford windowed Fourier transform (CWFT). Based on the spectral representation of the Clifford Fourier transform (CFT), we derive several important properties such as shift, modulation,reconstruction formula, orthogonality relation, isometry, and reproducing kernel. We also present an example to show the differences between the classical windowed Fourier transform (WFT) and the CWFT. Finally, as an application we establish a Heisenberg type uncertainty principle for the CWFT.

  16. Rainbow Fourier Transform (United States)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Mishchenko, Michael I.


    We present a novel technique for remote sensing of cloud droplet size distributions. Polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135deg and 165deg exhibit a sharply defined rainbow structure, the shape of which is determined mostly by single scattering properties of cloud particles, and therefore, can be modeled using the Mie theory. Fitting the observed rainbow with such a model (computed for a parameterized family of particle size distributions) has been used for cloud droplet size retrievals. We discovered that the relationship between the rainbow structures and the corresponding particle size distributions is deeper than it had been commonly understood. In fact, the Mie theory-derived polarized reflectance as a function of reduced scattering angle (in the rainbow angular range) and the (monodisperse) particle radius appears to be a proxy to a kernel of an integral transform (similar to the sine Fourier transform on the positive semi-axis). This approach, called the rainbow Fourier transform (RFT), allows us to accurately retrieve the shape of the droplet size distribution by the application of the corresponding inverse transform to the observed polarized rainbow. While the basis functions of the proxy-transform are not exactly orthogonal in the finite angular range, this procedure needs to be complemented by a simple regression technique, which removes the retrieval artifacts. This non-parametric approach does not require any a priori knowledge of the droplet size distribution functional shape and is computationally fast (no look-up tables, no fitting, computations are the same as for the forward modeling).

  17. Fourier transforms in spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kauppinen, Jyrki


    This modern approach to the subject is clearly and logically structured, and gives readers an understanding of the essence of Fourier transforms and their applications. All important aspects are included with respect to their use with optical spectroscopic data. Based on popular lectures, the authors provide the mathematical fundamentals and numerical applications which are essential in practical use. The main part of the book is dedicated to applications of FT in signal processing and spectroscopy, with IR and NIR, NMR and mass spectrometry dealt with both from a theoretical and practical poi

  18. Fast Fourier transform telescope (United States)

    Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias


    We propose an all-digital telescope for 21 cm tomography, which combines key advantages of both single dishes and interferometers. The electric field is digitized by antennas on a rectangular grid, after which a series of fast Fourier transforms recovers simultaneous multifrequency images of up to half the sky. Thanks to Moore’s law, the bandwidth up to which this is feasible has now reached about 1 GHz, and will likely continue doubling every couple of years. The main advantages over a single dish telescope are cost and orders of magnitude larger field-of-view, translating into dramatically better sensitivity for large-area surveys. The key advantages over traditional interferometers are cost (the correlator computational cost for an N-element array scales as Nlog⁡2N rather than N2) and a compact synthesized beam. We argue that 21 cm tomography could be an ideal first application of a very large fast Fourier transform telescope, which would provide both massive sensitivity improvements per dollar and mitigate the off-beam point source foreground problem with its clean beam. Another potentially interesting application is cosmic microwave background polarization.

  19. Fourier Transform Spectrometer System (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)


    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.

  20. Ultrafast Fourier-transform parallel processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, W.L.


    A new, flexible, parallel-processing architecture is developed for a high-speed, high-precision Fourier transform processor. The processor is intended for use in 2-D signal processing including spatial filtering, matched filtering and image reconstruction from projections.

  1. Wavelet-fractional Fourier transforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Lin


    This paper extends the definition of fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) proposed by Namias V by using other orthonormal bases for L2 (R) instead of Hermite-Ganssian functions.The new orthonormal basis is gained indirectly from multiresolution analysis and orthonormal wavelets. The so defined FRFT is called wavelets-fractional Fourier transform.

  2. Motion analysis of optically trapped particles and cells using 2D Fourier analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin Verner; Ahrendt, Peter; Lindballe, Thue Bjerring;


    Motion analysis of optically trapped objects is demonstrated using a simple 2D Fourier transform technique. The displacements of trapped objects are determined directly from the phase shift between the Fourier transform of subsequent images. Using end-and side-view imaging, the stiffness...... of the trap is determined in three dimensions. The Fourier transform method is simple to implement and applicable in cases where the trapped object changes shape or where the lighting conditions change. This is illustrated by tracking a fluorescent particle and a myoblast cell, with subsequent determination...

  3. Fast Numerical Nonlinear Fourier Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Wahls, Sander


    The nonlinear Fourier transform, which is also known as the forward scattering transform, decomposes a periodic signal into nonlinearly interacting waves. In contrast to the common Fourier transform, these waves no longer have to be sinusoidal. Physically relevant waveforms are often available for the analysis instead. The details of the transform depend on the waveforms underlying the analysis, which in turn are specified through the implicit assumption that the signal is governed by a certain evolution equation. For example, water waves generated by the Korteweg-de Vries equation can be expressed in terms of cnoidal waves. Light waves in optical fiber governed by the nonlinear Schr\\"dinger equation (NSE) are another example. Nonlinear analogs of classic problems such as spectral analysis and filtering arise in many applications, with information transmission in optical fiber, as proposed by Yousefi and Kschischang, being a very recent one. The nonlinear Fourier transform is eminently suited to address them ...

  4. Static Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. (United States)

    Schardt, Michael; Murr, Patrik J; Rauscher, Markus S; Tremmel, Anton J; Wiesent, Benjamin R; Koch, Alexander W


    Fourier transform spectroscopy has established itself as the standard method for spectral analysis of infrared light. Here we present a robust and compact novel static Fourier transform spectrometer design without any moving parts. The design is well suited for measurements in the infrared as it works with extended light sources independent of their size. The design is experimentally evaluated in the mid-infrared wavelength region between 7.2 μm and 16 μm. Due to its large etendue, its low internal light loss, and its static design it enables high speed spectral analysis in the mid-infrared.

  5. Applying Quaternion Fourier Transforms for Enhancing Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Khalil


    Full Text Available The Fourier transforms play a critical role in a broad range of image processing applications, including enhancement, analysis, restoration, and compression. Until recently, it was common to use the conventional methods to deal with colored images. These methods are based on RGB decomposition of the colored image by separating it into three separate scalar images and computing the Fourier transforms of these images separately. The computing of the Hypercomplex 2D Fourier transform of a color image as a whole unit has only recently been realized. This paper is concerned with frequency domain noise reduction of color images using quaternion Fourier transforms. The approach is based on obtaining quaternion Fourier transform of the color image and applying the Gaussian filter to it in the frequency domain. The filtered image is then obtained by calculating the inverse quaternion Fourier transforms.

  6. A More Accurate Fourier Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Elya


    Fourier transform methods are used to analyze functions and data sets to provide frequencies, amplitudes, and phases of underlying oscillatory components. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) methods offer speed advantages over evaluation of explicit integrals (EI) that define Fourier transforms. This paper compares frequency, amplitude, and phase accuracy of the two methods for well resolved peaks over a wide array of data sets including cosine series with and without random noise and a variety of physical data sets, including atmospheric $\\mathrm{CO_2}$ concentrations, tides, temperatures, sound waveforms, and atomic spectra. The FFT uses MIT's FFTW3 library. The EI method uses the rectangle method to compute the areas under the curve via complex math. Results support the hypothesis that EI methods are more accurate than FFT methods. Errors range from 5 to 10 times higher when determining peak frequency by FFT, 1.4 to 60 times higher for peak amplitude, and 6 to 10 times higher for phase under a peak. The ability t...

  7. A Short Biography of Joseph Fourier and Historical Development of Fourier Series and Fourier Transforms (United States)

    Debnath, Lokenath


    This article deals with a brief biographical sketch of Joseph Fourier, his first celebrated work on analytical theory of heat, his first great discovery of Fourier series and Fourier transforms. Included is a historical development of Fourier series and Fourier transforms with their properties, importance and applications. Special emphasis is made…

  8. Image restoration based on the discrete fraction Fourier transform (United States)

    Yan, Peimin; Mo, Yu L.; Liu, Hong


    The fractional Fourier transform is the powerful tool for time-variant signal analysis. For space-variant degradation and non-stationary processes the filtering in fractional Fourier domains permits reduction of the error compared with ordinary Fourier domain filtering. In this paper the concept of filtering in fractional Fourier domains is applied to the problem of estimating degraded images. Efficient digital implementation using discrete Hermite eigenvectors can provide similar results to match the continuous outputs. Expressions for the 2D optimal filter function in fractional domains will be given for transform domains characterized by the two rotation angle parameters of the 2D fractional Fourier transform. The proposed method is used to restore images that have several degradations in the experiments. The results show that the method presented in this paper is valid.

  9. Fourier-transform optical microsystems (United States)

    Collins, S. D.; Smith, R. L.; Gonzalez, C.; Stewart, K. P.; Hagopian, J. G.; Sirota, J. M.


    The design, fabrication, and initial characterization of a miniature single-pass Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) that has an optical bench that measures 1 cm x 5 cm x 10 cm is presented. The FTS is predicated on the classic Michelson interferometer design with a moving mirror. Precision translation of the mirror is accomplished by microfabrication of dovetailed bearing surfaces along single-crystal planes in silicon. Although it is miniaturized, the FTS maintains a relatively high spectral resolution, 0.1 cm-1, with adequate optical throughput.

  10. Novel Micro Fourier Transform Spectrometers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Yan-mei; LIANG Jing-qiu; LIANG Zhong-zhu; WANG-Bo; ZHANG Jun


    The miniaturization of spectrometer opens a new application area with real-time and on-site measurements. The Fourier transform spectrometer(FTS) is much attractive considering its particular advantages among the approaches. This paper reviews the current status of micro FTS in worldwide and describes its developments; In addition, analyzed are the key problems in designing and fabricating FTS to be settled during the miniaturization. Finally, a novel model of micro FTS with no moving parts is proposed and analyzed, which may provide new concepts for the design of spectrometers.

  11. JPL Fourier transform ultraviolet spectrometer (United States)

    Cageao, R. P.; Friedl, R. R.; Sander, Stanley P.; Yung, Y. L.


    The Fourier Transform Ultraviolet Spectrometer (FTUVS) is a new high resolution interferometric spectrometer for multiple-species detection in the UV, visible and near-IR. As an OH sensor, measurements can be carried out by remote sensing (limb emission and column absorption), or in-situ sensing (long-path absorption or laser-induced fluorescence). As a high resolution detector in a high repetition rate (greater than 10 kHz) LIF system, OH fluorescence can be discriminated against non-resonant background emission and laser scatter, permitting (0, 0) excitation.

  12. Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometer (United States)

    Schindler, R. A.


    Fourier-transform spectrometer provides approximately hundredfold increase in luminosity at detector plane over that achievable with older instruments of this type. Used to analyze such weak sources as pollutants and other low-concentration substances in atmosphere. Interferometer creates fringe patterns on two distinct arrays of light detectors, which observe different wavelength bands. Objective lens focuses scene on image plane, which contains optical chopper. To make instrument less susceptible to variations in scene under observation, field and detector lenses focus entrance aperture, rather that image, onto detector array.

  13. Fourier Transform Methods. Chapter 4 (United States)

    Kaplan, Simon G.; Quijada, Manuel A.


    This chapter describes the use of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) for accurate spectrophotometry over a wide spectral range. After a brief exposition of the basic concepts of FTS operation, we discuss instrument designs and their advantages and disadvantages relative to dispersive spectrometers. We then examine how common sources of error in spectrophotometry manifest themselves when using an FTS and ways to reduce the magnitude of these errors. Examples are given of applications to both basic and derived spectrophotometric quantities. Finally, we give recommendations for choosing the right instrument for a specific application, and how to ensure the accuracy of the measurement results..

  14. 2D Fourier series representation of gravitational functionals in spherical coordinates (United States)

    Ghobadi-Far, Khosro; Sharifi, Mohammad Ali; Sneeuw, Nico


    2D Fourier series representation of a scalar field like gravitational potential is conventionally derived by making use of the Fourier series of the Legendre functions in the spherical harmonic representation. This representation has been employed so far only in the case of a scalar field or the functionals that are related to it through a radial derivative. This paper provides a unified scheme to represent any gravitational functional in terms of spherical coordinates using a 2D Fourier series representation. The 2D Fourier series representation for each individual point is derived by transforming the spherical harmonics from the geocentric Earth-fixed frame to a rotated frame so that its equator coincides with the local meridian plane of that point. In the obtained formulation, each functional is linked to the potential in the spectral domain using a spectral transfer. We provide the spectral transfers of the first-, second- and third-order gradients of the gravitational potential in the local north-oriented reference frame and also those of some functionals of frequent use in the physical geodesy. The obtained representation is verified numerically. Moreover, spherical harmonic analysis of anisotropic functionals and contribution analysis of the third-order gradient tensor are provided as two numerical examples to show the power of the formulation. In conclusion, the 2D Fourier series representation on the sphere is generalized to functionals of the potential. In addition, the set of the spectral transfers can be considered as a pocket guide that provides the spectral characteristics of the functionals. Therefore, it extends the so-called Meissl scheme.

  15. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei


    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  16. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei


    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  17. Two modified discrete chirp Fourier transform schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊平毅; 夏香根


    This paper presents two modified discrete chirp Fourier transform (MDCFT) schemes.Some matched filter properties such as the optimal selection of the transform length, and its relationship to analog chirp-Fourier transform are studied. Compared to the DCFT proposed previously, theoretical and simulation results have shown that the two MDCFTs can further improve the chirp rate resolution of the detected signals.

  18. The multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Jun; TAO Ran; RAN QiWen; WANG Yue


    The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) has multiplicity, which is intrinsic in frac-tional operator. A new source for the multiplicity of the weight-type fractional Fou-rier transform (WFRFT) is proposed, which can generalize the weight coefficients of WFRFT to contain two vector parameters MN,∈ZM. Therefore a generalized frac-tional Fourier transform can be defined, which is denoted by the multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform (MPFRFT). It enlarges the multiplicity of the FRFT, which not only includes the conventional FRFT and general multi-fractional Fourier transform as special cases, but also introduces new fractional Fourier transforms. It provides a unified framework for the FRFT, and the method is also available for fractionalizing other linear operators. In addition, numerical simulations of the MPFRFT on the Hermite-Gaussian and rectangular functions have been performed as a simple application of MPFRFT to signal processing.

  19. The Fourier Transform on Quantum Euclidean Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Coulembier


    Full Text Available We study Fourier theory on quantum Euclidean space. A modified version of the general definition of the Fourier transform on a quantum space is used and its inverse is constructed. The Fourier transforms can be defined by their Bochner's relations and a new type of q-Hankel transforms using the first and second q-Bessel functions. The behavior of the Fourier transforms with respect to partial derivatives and multiplication with variables is studied. The Fourier transform acts between the two representation spaces for the harmonic oscillator on quantum Euclidean space. By using this property it is possible to define a Fourier transform on the entire Hilbert space of the harmonic oscillator, which is its own inverse and satisfies the Parseval theorem.

  20. Fourier Analysis and Structure Determination: Part I: Fourier Transforms. (United States)

    Chesick, John P.


    Provides a brief introduction with some definitions and properties of Fourier transforms. Shows relations, ways of understanding the mathematics, and applications. Notes proofs are not included but references are given. First of three part series. (MVL)

  1. Shift sampling theory of Fourier transform computation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The DFT transform us extended to DFTξη transform and the relationship between FT and DFTξη is given by the Fourier transform discretization theorem. Based on the theorem, the DFTξη algorithm-error equation (DFTξη A-E equation) is established, and the minimization property of discrete effect and the oscillation property of truncation effect are demonstrated. All these construct the shift sampling theory——a new theory about Fourier transform computation.

  2. A new twist to fourier transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Meikle, Hamish D


    Making use of the inherent helix in the Fourier transform expression, this book illustrates both Fourier transforms and their properties in the round. The author draws on elementary complex algebra to manipulate the transforms, presenting the ideas in such a way as to avoid pages of complicated mathematics. Similarly, abbreviations are not used throughout and the language is kept deliberately clear so that the result is a text that is accessible to a much wider readership.The treatment is extended with the use of sampled data to finite and discrete transforms, the fast Fourier transform, or FFT, being a special case of a discrete transform. The application of Fourier transforms in statistics is illustrated for the first time using the examples operational research and later radar detection. In addition, a whole chapter on tapering or weighting functions is added for reference. The whole is rounded off by a glossary and examples of diagrams in three dimensions made possible by today's mathematics programs

  3. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (United States)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Manatt, Ken; Rider, David; Wu, Yen-Hung


    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for a geostationary orbit (GEO) earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. GEO allows GeoFTS to continuously stare at a region of the earth for frequent sampling to capture the variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental spatial scales and temporal scales from diurnal, synoptic, seasonal to interannual. The measurement strategy provides a process based understanding of the carbon cycle from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) collected many times per day at high spatial resolution (2.7kmx2.7km at nadir). The CO2/CH4/CO/CF measurement suite in the near infrared spectral region provides the information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric carbon concentrations and to minimize uncertainties in the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and surface. The half meter cube size GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design that uses all high TRL components in a modular configuration to reduce complexity and cost. It is self-contained and as independent of the spacecraft as possible with simple spacecraft interfaces, making it ideal to be a "hosted" payload on a commercial communications satellite mission. The hosted payload approach for measuring the major carbon-containing gases in the atmosphere from the geostationary vantage point will affordably advance the scientific understating of carbon cycle processes and climate change.

  4. Fourier transforms in radar and signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Brandwood, David


    Fourier transforms are used widely, and are of particular value in the analysis of single functions and combinations of functions found in radar and signal processing. Still, many problems that could have been tackled by using Fourier transforms may have gone unsolved because they require integration that is difficult and tedious. This newly revised and expanded edition of a classic Artech House book provides you with an up-to-date, coordinated system for performing Fourier transforms on a wide variety of functions. Along numerous updates throughout the book, the Second Edition includes a crit

  5. Quantum Fourier transform in computational basis (United States)

    Zhou, S. S.; Loke, T.; Izaac, J. A.; Wang, J. B.


    The quantum Fourier transform, with exponential speed-up compared to the classical fast Fourier transform, has played an important role in quantum computation as a vital part of many quantum algorithms (most prominently, Shor's factoring algorithm). However, situations arise where it is not sufficient to encode the Fourier coefficients within the quantum amplitudes, for example in the implementation of control operations that depend on Fourier coefficients. In this paper, we detail a new quantum scheme to encode Fourier coefficients in the computational basis, with fidelity 1 - δ and digit accuracy ɛ for each Fourier coefficient. Its time complexity depends polynomially on log (N), where N is the problem size, and linearly on 1/δ and 1/ɛ . We also discuss an application of potential practical importance, namely the simulation of circulant Hamiltonians.

  6. Dynamic measurement of deformation using Fourier transform digital holographic interferometry (United States)

    Gao, Xinya; Wu, Sijin; Yang, Lianxiang


    Digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a well-established optical technique for measurement of nano-scale deformations. It has become more and more important due to the rapid development of applications in aerospace engineering and biomedicine. Traditionally, phase shift technique is used to quantitatively measure the deformations in DHI. However, it cannot be applied in dynamic measurement. Fourier transform phase extraction method, which can determine the phase distribution from only a single hologram, becomes a promising method to extract transient phases in DHI. This paper introduces a digital holographic interferometric system based on 2D Fourier transform phase extraction method, with which deformations of objects can be measured quickly. In the optical setup, the object beam strikes a CCD via a lens and aperture, and the reference beam is projected on the CCD through a single-mode fiber. A small inclination angle between the diverging reference beam and optical axial is introduced in order to physically separate the Fourier components in frequency domain. Phase maps are then obtained by the utilization of Fourier transform and windowed inverse Fourier transform. The capability of the Fourier transform DHI is discussed by theoretical discussion as well as experiments.

  7. Electronically-Scanned Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (United States)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Ocallaghan, F. G.


    Instrument efficient, lightweight, and stable. Fourier-transform spectrometer configuration uses electronic, instead of mechanical, scanning. Configuration insensitive to vibration-induced sampling errors introduced into mechanically scanned systems.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Chaoying; Yang Lihua; Huang Daren


    A space DF is constructed and some characterizations of space DF are given. Itis shown that the classical Fourier transform is extended to the distribution space D'F, whichcan be embedded into the Schwartz distribution space D' continuously. It is also shown thatD'F is the biggest embedded subspace of D' on which the extended Fourier transform, F, is ahomeomorphism of D'F onto itself.

  9. Fractional Fourier transform of Lorentz beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Guo-Quan


    This paper introduces Lorentz beams to describe certain laser sources that produce highly divergent fields. The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is applied to treat the propagation of Lorentz beams. Based on the definition of convolution and the convolution theorem of the Fourier transform, an analytical expression for a Lorentz beam passing through a FRFT system has been derived. By using the derived formula, the properties of a Lorentz beam in the FRFT plane are illustrated numerically.

  10. Topics In Chemical Instrumentation: Fourier Transformations for Chemists Part I. Introduction to the Fourier Transform. (United States)

    Glasser, L.


    This paper explores how Fourier Transform (FT) mimics spectral transformation, how this property can be exploited to advantage in spectroscopy, and how the FT can be used in data treatment. A table displays a number of important FT serial/spectral pairs related by Fourier Transformations. A bibliography and listing of computer software related to…

  11. From Complex Fractional Fourier Transform to Complex Fractional Radon Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; JIANG Nian-Quan


    We show that for n-dimensional complex fractional Fourier transform the corresponding complex fractional Radon transform can also be derived, however, it is different from the direct product of two n-dimensional real fractional Radon transforms. The complex fractional Radon transform of two-mode Wigner operator is calculated.

  12. On the Scaled Fractional Fourier Transformation Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; HU Li-Yun


    Based on our previous study [Chin.Phys.Lett.24(2007)2238]in which the Fresnel operator corresponding to classical Fresnel transform was introduced,we derive the fractional Fourier transformation operator,and the optical operator method is then enriched.

  13. High order generalized permutational fractional Fourier transforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran Qi-Wen; Yuan Lin; Tan Li-Ying; Ma Jing; Wang Qi


    We generalize the definition of the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) by extending the new definition proposed by Shih. The generalized FRFT, called the high order generalized permutational fractional Fourier transform (HGPFRFT),is a generalized permutational transform. It is shown to have arbitrary natural number M periodic eigenvalues not only with respect to the order of Hermite-Gaussian functions but also to the order of the transform. This HGPFRFT will be reduced to the original FRFT proposed by Namias and Liu's generalized FRFT and Shih's FRFT at the three limits with M = +∞,M = 4k (k is a natural number), and M = 4, respectively. Therefore the HGPFRFT introduces a comprehensive approach to Shih's FRFT and the original definition. Some important properties of HGPFRFT are discussed. Lastly the results of computer simulations and symbolic representations of the transform are provided.

  14. Fast Fourier Transform algorithm design and tradeoffs (United States)

    Kamin, Ray A., III; Adams, George B., III


    The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is a mainstay of certain numerical techniques for solving fluid dynamics problems. The Connection Machine CM-2 is the target for an investigation into the design of multidimensional Single Instruction Stream/Multiple Data (SIMD) parallel FFT algorithms for high performance. Critical algorithm design issues are discussed, necessary machine performance measurements are identified and made, and the performance of the developed FFT programs are measured. Fast Fourier Transform programs are compared to the currently best Cray-2 FFT program.

  15. Fourier transforms and convolutions for the experimentalist

    CERN Document Server

    Jennison, RC


    Fourier Transforms and Convolutions for the Experimentalist provides the experimentalist with a guide to the principles and practical uses of the Fourier transformation. It aims to bridge the gap between the more abstract account of a purely mathematical approach and the rule of thumb calculation and intuition of the practical worker. The monograph springs from a lecture course which the author has given in recent years and for which he has drawn upon a number of sources, including a set of notes compiled by the late Dr. I. C. Browne from a series of lectures given by Mr. J . A. Ratcliffe of t

  16. Clifford Fourier transform on vector fields. (United States)

    Ebling, Julia; Scheuermann, Gerik


    Image processing and computer vision have robust methods for feature extraction and the computation of derivatives of scalar fields. Furthermore, interpolation and the effects of applying a filter can be analyzed in detail and can be advantages when applying these methods to vector fields to obtain a solid theoretical basis for feature extraction. We recently introduced the Clifford convolution, which is an extension of the classical convolution on scalar fields and provides a unified notation for the convolution of scalar and vector fields. It has attractive geometric properties that allow pattern matching on vector fields. In image processing, the convolution and the Fourier transform operators are closely related by the convolution theorem and, in this paper, we extend the Fourier transform to include general elements of Clifford Algebra, called multivectors, including scalars and vectors. The resulting convolution and derivative theorems are extensions of those for convolution and the Fourier transform on scalar fields. The Clifford Fourier transform allows a frequency analysis of vector fields and the behavior of vector-valued filters. In frequency space, vectors are transformed into general multivectors of the Clifford Algebra. Many basic vector-valued patterns, such as source, sink, saddle points, and potential vortices, can be described by a few multivectors in frequency space.

  17. Replica Fourier Transform: Properties and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Crisanti


    Full Text Available The Replica Fourier Transform is the generalization of the discrete Fourier Transform to quantities defined on an ultrametric tree. It finds use in conjunction of the replica method used to study thermodynamics properties of disordered systems such as spin glasses. Its definition is presented in a systematic and simple form and its use illustrated with some representative examples. In particular we give a detailed discussion of the diagonalization in the Replica Fourier Space of the Hessian matrix of the Gaussian fluctuations about the mean field saddle point of spin glass theory. The general results are finally discussed for a generic spherical spin glass model, where the Hessian can be computed analytically.

  18. Implementation of quantum and classical discrete fractional Fourier transforms. (United States)

    Weimann, Steffen; Perez-Leija, Armando; Lebugle, Maxime; Keil, Robert; Tichy, Malte; Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Nolte, Stefan; Moya-Cessa, Hector; Weihs, Gregor; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Szameit, Alexander


    Fourier transforms, integer and fractional, are ubiquitous mathematical tools in basic and applied science. Certainly, since the ordinary Fourier transform is merely a particular case of a continuous set of fractional Fourier domains, every property and application of the ordinary Fourier transform becomes a special case of the fractional Fourier transform. Despite the great practical importance of the discrete Fourier transform, implementation of fractional orders of the corresponding discrete operation has been elusive. Here we report classical and quantum optical realizations of the discrete fractional Fourier transform. In the context of classical optics, we implement discrete fractional Fourier transforms of exemplary wave functions and experimentally demonstrate the shift theorem. Moreover, we apply this approach in the quantum realm to Fourier transform separable and path-entangled biphoton wave functions. The proposed approach is versatile and could find applications in various fields where Fourier transforms are essential tools.

  19. Fourier transforms on an amalgam type space

    CERN Document Server

    Liflyand, E


    We introduce an amalgam type space, a subspace of $L^1(\\mathbb R_+).$ Integrability results for the Fourier transform of a function with the derivative from such an amalgam space are proved. As an application we obtain estimates for the integrability of trigonometric series.

  20. Fourier transform infrared spectrometery: an undergraduate experiment (United States)

    Lerner, L.


    Simple apparatus is developed, providing undergraduate students with a solid understanding of Fourier transform (FT) infrared (IR) spectroscopy in a hands on experiment. Apart from its application to measuring the mid-IR spectra of organic molecules, the experiment introduces several techniques with wide applicability in physics, including interferometry, the FT, digital data analysis, and control theory.

  1. Implementation of 2D Discrete Wavelet Transform by Number Theoretic Transform and 2D Overlap-Save Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Yang


    Full Text Available To reduce the computation complexity of wavelet transform, this paper presents a novel approach to be implemented. It consists of two key techniques: (1 fast number theoretic transform(FNTT In the FNTT, linear convolution is replaced by the circular one. It can speed up the computation of 2D discrete wavelet transform. (2 In two-dimensional overlap-save method directly calculating the FNTT to the whole input sequence may meet two difficulties; namely, a big modulo obstructs the effective implementation of the FNTT and a long input sequence slows the computation of the FNTT down. To fight with such deficiencies, a new technique which is referred to as 2D overlap-save method is developed. Experiments have been conducted. The fast number theoretic transform and 2D overlap-method have been used to implement the dyadic wavelet transform and applied to contour extraction in pattern recognition.

  2. Electro-optic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Znod, Hanying (Inventor)


    An Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (EOIFTS) for Hyperspectral Imaging is described. The EOIFTS includes an input polarizer, an output polarizer, and a plurality of birefringent phase elements. The relative orientations of the polarizers and birefringent phase elements can be changed mechanically or via a controller, using ferroelectric liquid crystals, to substantially measure the spectral Fourier components of light propagating through the EIOFTS. When achromatic switches are used as an integral part of the birefringent phase elements, the EIOFTS becomes suitable for broadband applications, with over 1 micron infrared bandwidth.

  3. Robust Video Watermarking Based on Discrete Fractional Fourier Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Xiamu; SUN Shenghe


    A video watermarking techniquebased on discrete fractional Fourier transform(DFRFT) is proposed. Each frame of an original videois first decomposed into two-dimensional (2-D) mul-tiresolution representations by 2-D discrete wavelettransforms (DWT) along the spatial axis. Then thewavelet coefficient frames in each group of pictures(GOP, each GOP has 16 frames) are transformed intoDFRFT coefficient frames by one-dimensional (1-D)DFRFT along the temporal axis. The watermark isembedded into each DFRFT coefficient frame in theGOP, and the angular parameter of the DFRFT canbe changed to adapt itself to the original video. Experimental results show that the proposed techniqueis robust enough against the attacks of frame dropping, averaging and lossy compression.

  4. Fourier Transform Fabry-Perot Interferometer (United States)

    Snell, Hilary E.; Hays, Paul B.


    We are developing a compact, rugged, high-resolution remote sensing instrument with wide spectral scanning capabilities. This relatively new type of instrument, which we have chosen to call the Fourier-Transform Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FT-FPI), is accomplished by mechanically scanning the etalon plates of a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) through a large optical distance while examining the concomitant signal with a Fourier-transform analysis technique similar to that employed by the Michelson interferometer. The FT-FPI will be used initially as a ground-based instrument to study near-infrared atmospheric absorption lines of trace gases using the techniques of solar absorption spectroscopy. Future plans include modifications to allow for measurements of trace gases in the stratosphere using spectral lines at terahertz frequencies.

  5. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Studies in Flotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been extensively employed in flotation research.The work done by the author and co-workers has been reported.A comparison has been made among the different FTIR spectroscopic techniques,e.g.,transmission FTIR spectroscopy,diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy,and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FTIR spectroscopy.FTIR spectroscopy has been used to study the mechanism of interaction between the collector and the surfaces of different minerals,the mechanism of action of the depressant in improving the selectivity of flotation,and the mechanism of adsorption of the polymeric modifying reagent on mineral surfaces.The interaction between particles in mineral suspension has also been studied by FTIR spectroscopy.

  6. Fourier-transform spectroscopy instrumentation engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Saptari, Vidi


    Many applications today require the Fourier-transform (FT) spectrometer to perform close to its limitations, such as taking many quantitative measurements in the visible and in the near infrared wavelength regions. In such cases, the instrument should not be considered as a perfect ""black box."" Knowing where the limitations of performance arise and which components must be improved are crucial to obtaining repeatable and accurate results. One of the objectives of this book is to help the user identify the instrument's bottleneck.

  7. Matrix isolation studies with Fourier transform IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, David W.; Reedy, Gerald T.


    The combination of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy with the matrix-isolation techniques has advantages compared with the use of more conventional grating spectroscopy. Furthermore, the recent commercial availability of Fourier transform spectrometers has made FT-IR a practical alternative. Some advantages of the FT-IR spectrometer over the grating spectrometer are the result of the computerized data system that is a necessary part of the FT-IR spectrometer; other advantages are a consequence of the difference in optical arrangements and these represent the inherent advantages of the FT-IR method. In most applications with the matrix-isolation technique, the use of FT-IR spectroscopy results in either an improved signal-to-noise ratio or a shorter time for data collection compared with grating infrared spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used in the laboratory to study several molecular species in low-temperature matrices. Some species have been produced by high-temperature vaporization from Knudsen cells and others by sputtering. By sputtering, Ar and Kr matrices have been prepared which contain U atoms, UO, UO/sub 2/, UO/sub 3/, PuO, PuO/sub 2/, UN, or UN/sub 2/, depending upon the composition of the gas used to sputter as well as the identity of the metallic cathode. Infrared spectra of matrices containing these compounds are presented and discussed. (JRD)

  8. Optical Planar Discrete Fourier and Wavelet Transforms (United States)

    Cincotti, Gabriella; Moreolo, Michela Svaluto; Neri, Alessandro


    We present all-optical architectures to perform discrete wavelet transform (DWT), wavelet packet (WP) decomposition and discrete Fourier transform (DFT) using planar lightwave circuits (PLC) technology. Any compact-support wavelet filter can be implemented as an optical planar two-port lattice-form device, and different subband filtering schemes are possible to denoise, or multiplex optical signals. We consider both parallel and serial input cases. We design a multiport decoder/decoder that is able to generate/process optical codes simultaneously and a flexible logarithmic wavelength multiplexer, with flat top profile and reduced crosstalk.

  9. Digital image pattern recognition system using normalized Fourier transform and normalized analytical Fourier-Mellin transform (United States)

    Vélez-Rábago, Rodrigo; Solorza-Calderón, Selene; Jordan-Aramburo, Adina


    This work presents an image pattern recognition system invariant to translation, scale and rotation. The system uses the Fourier transform to achieve the invariance to translation and the analytical Forier-Mellin transform for the invariance to scale and rotation. According with the statistical theory of box-plots, the pattern recognition system has a confidence level at least of 95.4%.

  10. Laser Field Imaging Through Fourier Transform Heterodyne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, B.J.; Laubscher, B.E.; Olivas, N.L.; Galbraith, A.E.; Strauss, C.E.; Grubler, A.C.


    The authors present a detection process capable of directly imaging the transverse amplitude, phase, and Doppler shift of coherent electromagnetic fields. Based on coherent detection principles governing conventional heterodyned RADAR/LADAR systems, Fourier Transform Heterodyne incorporates transverse spatial encoding of the reference local oscillator for image capture. Appropriate selection of spatial encoding functions allows image retrieval by way of classic Fourier manipulations. Of practical interest: (1) imaging may be accomplished with a single element detector/sensor requiring no additional scanning or moving components, (2) as detection is governed by heterodyne principles, near quantum limited performance is achievable, (3) a wide variety of appropriate spatial encoding functions exist that may be adaptively configured in real-time for applications requiring optimal detection, and (4) the concept is general with the applicable electromagnetic spectrum encompassing the RF through optical.

  11. Topology-Preserving Rigid Transformation of 2D Digital Images. (United States)

    Ngo, Phuc; Passat, Nicolas; Kenmochi, Yukiko; Talbot, Hugues


    We provide conditions under which 2D digital images preserve their topological properties under rigid transformations. We consider the two most common digital topology models, namely dual adjacency and well-composedness. This paper leads to the proposal of optimal preprocessing strategies that ensure the topological invariance of images under arbitrary rigid transformations. These results and methods are proved to be valid for various kinds of images (binary, gray-level, label), thus providing generic and efficient tools, which can be used in particular in the context of image registration and warping.

  12. High Etendue Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer: initial results (United States)

    Horton, Richard F.; Conger, Chris A.; Pelligrino, L. S.


    At the Denver meeting, last year, we presented the High Etendue Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer, (HEIFTS), theory and optical design. This device uses a new 'image plane interferometer' geometry to produce 'autocorrelation function modulation' in the image plane of a 2D imaging array, such that the phase offset of the modulation varies linearly across the image. As a 2D image is pushbroomed across the imaging, array, the record of an individual scene pixel is recorded for each autocorrelation phase offset. The 3D array of this data is processed to yield an 'autocorrelation function' data cube, which is Fourier transformed to yield a 'wavenumber' hyperspectral data curve. A phase I device has been demonstrated in the laboratory and initial results are presented. The significant increase in signal to noise ratio, which the HEIFTS optical design promises over conventional hyperspectral imaging schemes, has been simulated, and results will be discussed. A Phase II system is being prepared for initial field deployment, and will be described.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Konakoglu


    Full Text Available Two coordinate systems used in Turkey, namely the ED50 (European Datum 1950 and ITRF96 (International Terrestrial Reference Frame 1996 coordinate systems. In most cases, it is necessary to conduct transformation from one coordinate system to another. The artificial neural network (ANN is a new method for coordinate transformation. One of the biggest advantages of the ANN is that it can determine the relationship between two coordinate systems without a mathematical model. The aim of this study was to investigate the performances of three different ANN models (Feed Forward Back Propagation (FFBP, Cascade Forward Back Propagation (CFBP and Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN with regard to 2D coordinate transformation. To do this, three data sets were used for the same study area, the city of Trabzon. The coordinates of data sets were measured in the ED50 and ITRF96 coordinate systems by using RTK-GPS technique. Performance of each transformation method was investigated by using the coordinate differences between the known and estimated coordinates. The results showed that the ANN algorithms can be used for 2D coordinate transformation in cases where optimum model parameters are selected.

  14. Fourier transforms in generalized Fock spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Schmeelk


    Full Text Available A classical Fock space consists of functions of the form,Φ↔(ϕ0,ϕ1,…,ϕq,…,where ϕ0∈C and ϕq∈L2(R3q, q≥1. We will replace the ϕq, q≥1 with q-symmetric rapid descent test functions within tempered distribution theory. This space is a natural generalization of a classical Fock space as seen by expanding functionals having generalized Taylor series. The particular coefficients of such series are multilinear functionals having tempered distributions as their domain. The Fourier transform will be introduced into this setting. A theorem will be proven relating the convergence of the transform to the parameter, s, which sweeps out a scale of generalized Fock spaces.

  15. Research progress on discretization of fractional Fourier transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Ran; ZHANG Feng; WANG Yue


    As the fractional Fourier transform has attracted a considerable amount of atten-tion in the area of optics and signal processing,the discretization of the fractional Fourier transform becomes vital for the application of the fractional Fourier trans-form.Since the discretization of the fractional Fourier transform cannot be obtained by directly sampling in time domain and the fractional Fourier domain,the discre-tization of the fractional Fourier transform has been investigated recently.A sum-mary of discretizations of the fractional Fourier transform developed in the last nearly two decades is presented in this paper.The discretizations include sampling in the fractional Fourier domain,discrete-time fractional Fourier transform,frac-tional Fourier series,discrete fractional Fourier transform (including 3 main types:linear combination-type;sampling-type;and eigen decomposition-type),and other discrete fractional signal transform.It is hoped to offer a doorstep for the readers who are interested in the fractional Fourier transform.

  16. JCE Online: Interactive Fourier Transform Activities (United States)

    Zielinski, Theresa Julia


    In our vigorous teaching of concepts and skills to students, we may cover (hide) more than we uncover, obscuring significant relationships between mathematical models and their associated chemical concepts with excessive mathematical derivations. To set the record straight, I find that mathematical treatments of physical phenomena are beautiful and elegant. Students should know from where the equations and simplifications leading to them arise. They should know the limits of the equations in order to use them properly. However, this can be the Siren's song. For example, the mathematical representation of the Fourier transform and its significance as presented in most texts are too brief to convey understanding to the typical undergraduate student. Furthermore, a few hand calculations would not permit deeper probing of the method and its intimate link to spectroscopy. The Fourier transform is a very good example of how symbolic equation software can help to uncover the science by making the mathematical manipulations easier and the mathematical concepts more accessible. The complete articles and Mathcad documents described in these abstracts are available from JCE Online at

  17. The Fourier transform of tubular densities

    KAUST Repository

    Prior, C B


    We consider the Fourier transform of tubular volume densities, with arbitrary axial geometry and (possibly) twisted internal structure. This density can be used to represent, among others, magnetic flux or the electron density of biopolymer molecules. We consider tubes of both finite radii and unrestricted radius. When there is overlap of the tube structure the net density is calculated using the super-position principle. The Fourier transform of this density is composed of two expressions, one for which the radius of the tube is less than the curvature of the axis and one for which the radius is greater (which must have density overlap). This expression can accommodate an asymmetric density distribution and a tube structure which has non-uniform twisting. In addition we give several simpler expressions for isotropic densities, densities of finite radius, densities which decay at a rate sufficient to minimize local overlap and finally individual surfaces of the tube manifold. These simplified cases can often be expressed as arclength integrals and can be evaluated using a system of first-order ODEs. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  18. Fourier Transforms Simplified: Computing an Infrared Spectrum from an Interferogram (United States)

    Hanley, Quentin S.


    Fourier transforms are used widely in chemistry and allied sciences. Examples include infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopies. A thorough understanding of Fourier methods assists the understanding of microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and diffraction gratings. The theory of Fourier transforms has been presented in this "Journal",…

  19. From fractional Fourier transformation to quantum mechanical fractional squeezing transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕翠红; 范洪义; 李东韡


    By converting the triangular functions in the integration kernel of the fractional Fourier transformation to the hy-perbolic function, i.e., tanα→tanhα, sinα→sinhα, we find quantum mechanical fractional squeezing transformation (FrST) which satisfies additivity. By virtue of the integration technique within ordered product of operators (IWOP) wederive the unitary operator responsible for the FrST, which is composite and is made of eiπa†a/2 and exp[ iα2 (a2+a†2)]. The FrST may be implemented in combinations of quadratic nonlinear crystals with different phase mismatches.

  20. Fourier transform inequalities for phylogenetic trees. (United States)

    Matsen, Frederick A


    Phylogenetic invariants are not the only constraints on site-pattern frequency vectors for phylogenetic trees. A mutation matrix, by its definition, is the exponential of a matrix with non-negative off-diagonal entries; this positivity requirement implies non-trivial constraints on the site-pattern frequency vectors. We call these additional constraints "edge-parameter inequalities". In this paper, we first motivate the edge-parameter inequalities by considering a pathological site-pattern frequency vector corresponding to a quartet tree with a negative internal edge. This site-pattern frequency vector nevertheless satisfies all of the constraints described up to now in the literature. We next describe two complete sets of edge-parameter inequalities for the group-based models; these constraints are square-free monomial inequalities in the Fourier transformed coordinates. These inequalities, along with the phylogenetic invariants, form a complete description of the set of site-pattern frequency vectors corresponding to bona fide trees. Said in mathematical language, this paper explicitly presents two finite lists of inequalities in Fourier coordinates of the form "monomial < or = 1", each list characterizing the phylogenetically relevant semialgebraic subsets of the phylogenetic varieties.

  1. Fourier transform spectroscopy for future planetary missions (United States)

    Brasunas, John; Kolasinski, John; Kostiuk, Ted; Hewagama, Tilak


    Thermal-emission infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool for exploring the composition, temperature structure, and dynamics of planetary atmospheres; and the temperature of solid surfaces. A host of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) such as Mariner IRIS, Voyager IRIS, and Cassini CIRS from NASA Goddard have made and continue to make important new discoveries throughout the solar system. Future FTS instruments will have to be more sensitive (when we concentrate on the colder, outer reaches of the solar system), and less massive and less power-hungry as we cope with decreasing resource allotments for future planetary science instruments. With this in mind, we have developed CIRS-lite, a smaller version of the CIRS FTS for future planetary missions. We discuss the roadmap for making CIRS-lite a viable candidate for future planetary missions, including the recent increased emphasis on ocean worlds (Europa, Encelatus, Titan) and also on smaller payloads such as CubeSats and SmallSats.

  2. Integrability of the Fourier transform: functions of bounded variation

    CERN Document Server

    Liflyand, E


    Certain relations between the Fourier transform of a function of bounded variation and the Hilbert transform of its derivative are revealed. The widest subspaces of the space of functions of bounded variation are indicated in which the cosine and sine Fourier transforms are integrable.

  3. Geometric interpretations of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) (United States)

    Campbell, C. W.


    One, two, and three dimensional Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFT) and geometric interpretations of their periodicities are presented. These operators are examined for their relationship with the two sided, continuous Fourier transform. Discrete or continuous transforms of real functions have certain symmetry properties. The symmetries are examined for the one, two, and three dimensional cases. Extension to higher dimension is straight forward.

  4. Ordered fast fourier transforms on a massively parallel hypercube multiprocessor (United States)

    Tong, Charles; Swarztrauber, Paul N.


    Design alternatives for ordered Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) algorithms were examined on massively parallel hypercube multiprocessors such as the Connection Machine. Particular emphasis is placed on reducing communication which is known to dominate the overall computing time. To this end, the order and computational phases of the FFT were combined, and the sequence to processor maps that reduce communication were used. The class of ordered transforms is expanded to include any FFT in which the order of the transform is the same as that of the input sequence. Two such orderings are examined, namely, standard-order and A-order which can be implemented with equal ease on the Connection Machine where orderings are determined by geometries and priorities. If the sequence has N = 2 exp r elements and the hypercube has P = 2 exp d processors, then a standard-order FFT can be implemented with d + r/2 + 1 parallel transmissions. An A-order sequence can be transformed with 2d - r/2 parallel transmissions which is r - d + 1 fewer than the standard order. A parallel method for computing the trigonometric coefficients is presented that does not use trigonometric functions or interprocessor communication. A performance of 0.9 GFLOPS was obtained for an A-order transform on the Connection Machine.

  5. 2D Hilbert transform for phase retrieval of speckle fields (United States)

    Gorsky, M. P.; Ryabyi, P. A.; Ivanskyi, D. I.


    The paper presents principal approaches to diagnosing the structure forming skeleton of the complex optical field. An analysis of optical field singularity algorithms depending on intensity discretization and image resolution has been carried out. An optimal approach is chosen, which allows to bring much closer the solution of the phase problem of localization speckle-field special points. The use of a "window" 2D Hilbert transform for reconstruction of the phase distribution of the intensity of a speckle field is proposed. It is shown that the advantage of this approach consists in the invariance of a phase map to a change of the position of the kernel of transformation and in a possibility to reconstruct the structure-forming elements of the skeleton of an optical field, including singular points and saddle points. We demonstrate the possibility to reconstruct the equi-phase lines within a narrow confidence interval, and introduce an additional algorithm for solving the phase problem for random 2D intensity distributions.

  6. Weighted inequalities for Hilbert transforms and multiplicators of Fourier transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokilashvili V


    Full Text Available As is well known, invariant operators with a shift can be bounded from into only if . We show that the case might also hold for weighted spaces. We derive the sufficient conditions for the validity of strong (weak type inequalities for the Hilbert transform when . The examples of couple of weights which guarantee the fulfillness of two-weighted strong (weak type inequalities for singular integrals are presented. The method of proof of the main results allows us to generalize the results of this paper to the singular integrals which are defined on homogeneous groups. The Fourier multiplier theorem is also proved.

  7. Stepwise Iterative Fourier Transform: The SIFT (United States)

    Benignus, V. A.; Benignus, G.


    A program, designed specifically to study the respective effects of some common data problems on results obtained through stepwise iterative Fourier transformation of synthetic data with known waveform composition, was outlined. Included in this group were the problems of gaps in the data, different time-series lengths, periodic but nonsinusoidal waveforms, and noisy (low signal-to-noise) data. Results on sinusoidal data were also compared with results obtained on narrow band noise with similar characteristics. The findings showed that the analytic procedure under study can reliably reduce data in the nature of (1) sinusoids in noise, (2) asymmetric but periodic waves in noise, and (3) sinusoids in noise with substantial gaps in the data. The program was also able to analyze narrow-band noise well, but with increased interpretational problems. The procedure was shown to be a powerful technique for analysis of periodicities, in comparison with classical spectrum analysis techniques. However, informed use of the stepwise procedure nevertheless requires some background of knowledge concerning characteristics of the biological processes under study.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiachang Sun


    In this paper we propose the well-known Fourier method on some non-tensor product domains in Rd, including simplex and so-called super-simplex which consists of (d + 1)! simplices. As two examples, in 2-D and 3-D case a super-simplex is shown as a paralle lhexagon and a parallel quadrilateral dodecahedron, respectively. We have extended most of concepts and results of the traditional Fourier methods on multivariate cases, such as Fourier basis system, Fourier series, discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and its fast algorithm(FFT) on the super-simplex, as well as generalized sine and cosine transforms (DST, DCT) and related fast algorithms over a simplex. The relationship between the basic orthogonal system and eigen-functions of a Laplacian-like operator over these domains is explored.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Bing; Zhao Yuexia; Xu Zhoujun; Fu Hongjuan; Ma Fengning


    A set of discrete points obtained from audit records on a behavior session is processed with Fourier transform. The criterion of selecting Fourier transform coefficients is introduced, and is used to find a unified value from the set of coefficients. This unified value is compared with a threshold to determine whether the session is abnormal. Finally simple test results are reported.

  10. Fiber Optic Fourier Transform White-Light Interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Jiang; Cai-Jie Tang


    Fiber optic Fourier transform white-light inter-fereometry is presented to interrogate the absolute optical path difference of an Mach-Zehnder inter-ferometer. The phase change of the interferometer caused by scanning wavelength can be calculated by a Fourier transform-based phase demodulation technique. A linear output is achieved.

  11. Realization of quantum discrete Fourier transform with NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The pulse sequences of the logic operations used in quantum discrete Fourier transform are designed for the experiment of nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR), and 2-qubit discrete Fourier transforms are implemented experimentally with NMR. The experimental errors are examined and methods for reducing the errors are proposed.

  12. Fractional Fourier transform of apertured paraboloid refracting system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiannong Chen; Jinliang Yan; Defa Wang; Yongjiang Yu


    The limitation of paraxial condition of paraboloid refracting system in performing fractional Fourier transform acts like an aperture, which makes the system different from ideal systems. With aperture expanded as the sum of finite complex Gaussian terms, a more practical approximate analytical solution of fractional Fourier transform of Gaussian beam in an apertured paraboloid refracting system is obtained and also numerical investigation is presented. Complicated and practical fractional Fourier transform systems can be constructed by cascading several apertured paraboloid refracting systems which are the simplest and the most basic units for performing more precise transform.

  13. Generalized Fourier-grid R-matrix theory: a discrete Fourier-Riccati-Bessel transform approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, E.G. (Joint Inst. for Lab. Astrophysics, Boulder, CO (United States)); Stade, E. (Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Mathematics)


    We present the latest developments in the Fourier-grid R-matrix theory of scattering. These developments are based on the generalized Fourier-grid formalism and use a new type of extended discrete Fourier transform: the discrete Fourier-Riccati-Bessel transform. We apply this new R-matrix approach to problems of potential scattering, to demonstrate how this method reduces computational effort by incorporating centrifugal effects into the representation. As this technique is quite new, we have hopes to broaden the formalism to many types of problems. (author).

  14. Cryogenic Scan Mechanism for Fourier Transform Spectrometer (United States)

    Brasunas, John C.; Francis, John L.


    A compact and lightweight mechanism has been developed to accurately move a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) scan mirror (a cube corner) in a near-linear fashion with near constant speed at cryogenic temperatures. This innovation includes a slide mechanism to restrict motion to one dimension, an actuator to drive the motion, and a linear velocity transducer (LVT) to measure the speed. The cube corner mirror is double-passed in one arm of the FTS; double-passing is required to compensate for optical beam shear resulting from tilting of the moving cube corner. The slide, actuator, and LVT are off-the-shelf components that are capable of cryogenic vacuum operation. The actuator drives the slide for the required travel of 2.5 cm. The LVT measures translation speed. A proportional feedback loop compares the LVT voltage with the set voltage (speed) to derive an error signal to drive the actuator and achieve near constant speed. When the end of the scan is reached, a personal computer reverses the set voltage. The actuator and LVT have no moving parts in contact, and have magnetic properties consistent with cryogenic operation. The unlubricated slide restricts motion to linear travel, using crossed roller bearings consistent with 100-million- stroke operation. The mechanism tilts several arc seconds during transport of the FTS mirror, which would compromise optical fringe efficiency when using a flat mirror. Consequently, a cube corner mirror is used, which converts a tilt into a shear. The sheared beam strikes (at normal incidence) a flat mirror at the end of the FTS arm with the moving mechanism, thereby returning upon itself and compensating for the shear

  15. Two-dimensional Fourier transform ESR correlation spectroscopy (United States)

    Gorcester, Jeff; Freed, Jack H.


    We describe our pulsed two-dimensional Fourier transform ESR experiment and demonstrate its applicabilty for the double resonance of motionally narrowed nitroxides. Multiple pulse irradiation of the entire nitroxide spectrum enables the correlation of two precessional periods, allowing observation of cross correlations between hyperfine lines introduced by magnetization transfer in the case of a three-pulse experiment (2D ELDOR), or coherence transfer in the case of a two-pulse experiment (COSY). Cross correlations are revealed by the presence of cross peaks which connect the autocorrelation lines appearing along the diagonal ω1=ω2. The amplitudes of these cross peaks are determined by the rates of magnetization transfer in the 2D ELDOR experiment. The density operator theory for the experiment is outlined and applied to the determination of Heisenberg exchange (HE) rates in 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone-N-oxyl-d15 (PD-tempone) dissolved in toluene-d8. The quantitative accuracy of this experiment is established by comparison with the HE rate measured from the dependence of the spin echo T2 on nitroxide concentration.

  16. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry: The Transformation of Modern Environmental Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Lim


    Full Text Available Unknown compounds in environmental samples are difficult to identify using standard mass spectrometric methods. Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS has revolutionized how environmental analyses are performed. With its unsurpassed mass accuracy, high resolution and sensitivity, researchers now have a tool for difficult and complex environmental analyses. Two features of FTMS are responsible for changing the face of how complex analyses are accomplished. First is the ability to quickly and with high mass accuracy determine the presence of unknown chemical residues in samples. For years, the field has been limited by mass spectrometric methods that were based on knowing what compounds of interest were. Secondly, by utilizing the high resolution capabilities coupled with the low detection limits of FTMS, analysts also could dilute the sample sufficiently to minimize the ionization changes from varied matrices.

  17. A discrete Fourier transform for virtual memory machines (United States)

    Galant, David C.


    An algebraic theory of the Discrete Fourier Transform is developed in great detail. Examination of the details of the theory leads to a computationally efficient fast Fourier transform for the use on computers with virtual memory. Such an algorithm is of great use on modern desktop machines. A FORTRAN coded version of the algorithm is given for the case when the sequence of numbers to be transformed is a power of two.

  18. Fast Inverse Nonlinear Fourier Transforms for Fiber Bragg Grating Design and Related Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Wahls, Sander


    The problem of constructing a fiber Bragg grating profile numerically such that the reflection coefficient of the grating matches a given specification is considered. The well-known analytic solution to this problem is given by a suitable inverse nonlinear Fourier transform (also known as inverse scattering transform) of the specificed reflection coefficient. Many different algorithms have been proposed to compute this inverse nonlinear Fourier transform numerically. The most efficient ones require $\\mathcal{O}(D^{2})$ floating point operations (flops) to generate $D$ samples of the grating profile. In this paper, two new fast inverse nonlinear Fourier transform algorithms that require only $\\mathcal{O}(D\\log^{2}D)$ flops are proposed. The merits of our algorithms are demonstrated in numerical examples, in which they are compared to a conventional layer peeling method, the Toeplitz inner bordering method and integral layer peeling. One of our two algorithms also extends to the design problem for fiber-assiste...

  19. Using vertical Fourier transforms to invert potential-field data to magnetization or density models in the presence of topography (United States)

    Phillips, Jeffrey


    A physical property inversion approach based on the use of 3D (or 2D) Fourier transforms to calculate the potentialfield within a 3D (or 2D) volume from a known physical property distribution within the volume is described. Topographic surfaces and observations at arbitrary locations are easily accommodated. The limitations of the approach and applications to real data are considered.

  20. Research progress of the fractional Fourier transform in signal processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The fractional Fourier transform is a generalization of the classical Fourier transform, which is introduced from the mathematic aspect by Namias at first and has many applications in optics quickly. Whereas its potential appears to have remained largely unknown to the signal processing community until 1990s. The fractional Fourier transform can be viewed as the chirp-basis expansion directly from its definition, but essentially it can be interpreted as a rotation in the time-frequency plane, i.e. the unified time-frequency transform. With the order from 0 increasing to 1, the fractional Fourier transform can show the characteristics of the signal changing from the time domain to the frequency domain. In this research paper, the fractional Fourier transform has been comprehensively and systematically treated from the signal processing point of view. Our aim is to provide a course from the definition to the applications of the fractional Fourier transform, especially as a reference and an introduction for researchers and interested readers.

  1. Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectral Polarimeter Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Boulder Nonlinear Systems, Inc. (BNS) proposes to develop an Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectral Polarimeter (E-O IFTSP). The polarimetric system is...

  2. Embolic Doppler ultrasound signal detection via fractional Fourier transform. (United States)

    Gençer, Merve; Bilgin, Gökhan; Aydın, Nizamettin


    Computerized analysis of Doppler ultrasound signals can aid early detection of asymptomatic circulating emboli. For analysis, physicians use informative features extracted from Doppler ultrasound signals. Time -frequency analysis methods are useful tools to exploit the transient like signals such as Embolic signals. Detection of discriminative features would be the first step toward automated analysis of embolic Doppler ultrasound signals. The most problematic part of setting up emboli detection system is to differentiate embolic signals from confusing similar wave-like patterns such as Doppler speckle and artifacts caused by tissue movement, probe tapping, speaking etc. In this study, discrete version of fractional Fourier transform is presented as a solution in the detection of emboli in digitized Doppler ultrasound signals. An accurate set of parameters are extracted using short time Fourier transform and fractional Fourier transform and the results are compared to reveal detection quality. Experimental results prove the efficiency of fractional Fourier transform in which discriminative features becomes more evident.

  3. Imaging Analysis by Means of Fractional Fourier Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Starting from the diffraction imaging process,we have discussed the relationship between optical imaging system and fractional Fourier transform, and proposed a specific system which can form an inverse amplified image of input function.

  4. A general spectral transformation simultaneously including a Fourier transformation and a Laplace transformation (United States)

    Marko, H.


    A general spectral transformation is proposed and described. Its spectrum can be interpreted as a Fourier spectrum or a Laplace spectrum. The laws and functions of the method are discussed in comparison with the known transformations, and a sample application is shown.

  5. Quantum Fourier Transform and Phase Estimation in Qudit System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Ye; PENG Shi-Guo; ZHENG Chao; LONG Gui-Lu


    The quantum Fourier transform and quantum phase estimation are the key components for many quantum algorithms, such as order-finding, factoring, and etc.In this article, the general procedure of quantum Fourier transform and phase estimation are investigated for high dimensional case.They can be seen as subroutines in a main program run in a qudit quantum computer, and the quantum circuits are given.

  6. Simple optical setup implementation for digital Fourier transform holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Oliveira, G N [Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica, TEM/PGMEC, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Passo da Patria, 156, Niteroi, R.J., Cep.: 24.210-240 (Brazil); Rodrigues, D M C; Dos Santos, P A M, E-mail: [Instituto de Fisica, Laboratorio de Optica Nao-linear e Aplicada, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Nilton Tavares de Souza, s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, R.J., Cep.:24.210-346 (Brazil)


    In the present work a simple implementation of Digital Fourier Transform Holography (DFTH) setup is discussed. This is obtained making a very simple modification in the classical setup arquiteture of the Fourier Transform holography. It is also demonstrated the easy and practical viability of the setup in an interferometric application for mechanical parameters determination. The work is also proposed as an interesting advanced introductory training for graduated students in digital holography.

  7. Rotation-invariant texture analysis using Radon and Fourier transforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songshan Xiao; Yongxing Wu


    @@ Texture analysis is a basic issue in image processing and computer vision, and how to attain the rotationinvariant texture characterization is a key problem. This paper proposes a rotation-invariant texture analysis technique using Radon and Fourier transforms. This method uses Radon transform to convert rotation to translation, then utilizes Fourier transform and takes the moduli of the Fourier transform of these functions to make the translation invariant. A k-nearest-neighbor rule is employed to classify texture images. The proposed method is robust to additive white noise as a result of summing pixel values to generate projections in the Radon transform step. Experiment results show the feasibility of the proposed method and its robustness to additive white noise.

  8. An Approach to 2D Wavelet Transform and Its Use for Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vargic


    Full Text Available In this paper is constructed a new type of two-dimensional wavelet transform. Construction is based on lifting scheme. We transform 1D wavelets with symmetrical factorisation to their 2D counterparts. Comparison to existing similar 2D wavelet constructions is given. Application for image compression is given using progressive (SP1HT and classical type transform coder.

  9. Imaginary angle fractional Fourier transform and its optical implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华建文; 刘立人; 李国强


    The concept of imaginary angle fractional Fourier transform is proposed. Its existence and additive operation are proved. With this concept, FRT is expanded to the optical transform of convex lens outside the range of double focal length and that of concave lens.

  10. SAW chirp Fourier transform for MB-OFDM UWB receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Peng-fei; L(U) Ying-hua; ZHANG Hong-xin; WANG Ye-qiu; XU Yong


    In the conventional multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing ultra wideband (MB-OFDM UWB )receiver, the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm is realized by the expensive and power-consuming digital signal processor (DSP) chips. In this article, the lower power, lower cost, and lower complexity real-time analog surface acoustic wave (SAW)chirp Fourier transform devices were used to replace the DSP part. A MB-OFDM UWB receiver based on the M-C-M SAW chirp Fourier transform was presented, and the step of signal transformation from input signals was also depicted. The simulation results show that the proposed receiver provides similar bit error performance compared to the fully digital receiver when used in the channel environments proposed by the IEEE 802.15SG3a.

  11. [Analysis of cell arrangements in Biota orientalis using Fourier transformation]. (United States)

    Duo, Hua-Qiong; Wang, Xi-Ming


    Fourier transform image-processing technology is applied for determining the cross section cell arrangement of early-wood in Biota orientalis. In this method, the disc-convoluted dot map from each cell radius with 10 pixels is transformed by Fourier transform, generating the angle distribution function in the power spectral pattern. The maximum value is the arrangement of the cell. The results of Fourier transform image-processing technology indicated that the arrangements of the cell of Biota orientalis are 15 degrees in oblique direction, respectively. This method provides a new basis for the digitized identification of the wood, and also the new theoretical research direction for the digitized identification and examination of the wood species.

  12. Electro-Optical Imaging Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Hanying


    An electro-optical (E-O) imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer (IFTS), now under development, is a prototype of improved imaging spectrometers to be used for hyperspectral imaging, especially in the infrared spectral region. Unlike both imaging and non-imaging traditional Fourier-transform spectrometers, the E-O IFTS does not contain any moving parts. Elimination of the moving parts and the associated actuator mechanisms and supporting structures would increase reliability while enabling reductions in size and mass, relative to traditional Fourier-transform spectrometers that offer equivalent capabilities. Elimination of moving parts would also eliminate the vibrations caused by the motions of those parts. Figure 1 schematically depicts a traditional Fourier-transform spectrometer, wherein a critical time delay is varied by translating one the mirrors of a Michelson interferometer. The time-dependent optical output is a periodic representation of the input spectrum. Data characterizing the input spectrum are generated through fast-Fourier-transform (FFT) post-processing of the output in conjunction with the varying time delay.

  13. Fast Inverse Nonlinear Fourier Transform For Generating Multi-Solitons In Optical Fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Wahls, Sander


    The achievable data rates of current fiber-optic wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) systems are limited by nonlinear interactions between different subchannels. Recently, it was thus proposed to replace the conventional Fourier transform in WDM systems with an appropriately defined nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT). The computational complexity of NFTs is a topic of current research. In this paper, a fast inverse NFT algorithm for the important special case of multi-solitonic signals is presented. The algorithm requires only $\\mathcal{O}(D\\log^{2}D)$ floating point operations to compute $D$ samples of a multi-soliton. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first algorithm for this problem with $\\log^{2}$-linear complexity. The paper also includes a many samples analysis of the generated nonlinear Fourier spectra.

  14. Methods of theme presentation "The Fourier transform of impulse functions"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faniya Ahmetova


    Full Text Available The paper considers the Fourier transform of impulse functions, which is the mathematical basis of the tasks associated with the theory of reception and signal conversion in optoelectronic system. The method of calculating of two functions convolution, its Fourier image and the image of the Fourier-Bessel axisymmetric functions are demonstrated in details. A table, which summarizes the analytical expression for the shifted impulse functions and records their Fourier transforms, is provided. A wide range of examples of solving tasks, containing the graphic illustration, is analyzed. A structured approach to the presentation of the material, which combines basic theoretical information and analysis of typical tasks, will help second-year students of optoelectronic specialty in their independent work and homework.

  15. A new stationary gridline artifact suppression method based on the 2D discrete wavelet transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Hui, E-mail: [Laboratory of Image Science and Technology, School of Computer Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Key Laboratory of Computer Network and Information Integration (Southeast University), Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210000 (China); Centre de Recherche en Information Biomédicale sino-français, Laboratoire International Associé, Inserm, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes 35000 (France); Southeast University, Nanjing 210000 (China); Tong, Dan; Dong Bao, Xu [Laboratory of Image Science and Technology, School of Computer Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Dillenseger, Jean-Louis [INSERM, U1099, Rennes F-35000 (France); Université de Rennes 1, LTSI, Rennes F-35000 (France); Centre de Recherche en Information Biomédicale sino-français, Laboratoire International Associé, Inserm, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes 35000 (France); Southeast University, Nanjing 210000 (China)


    Purpose: In digital x-ray radiography, an antiscatter grid is inserted between the patient and the image receptor to reduce scattered radiation. If the antiscatter grid is used in a stationary way, gridline artifacts will appear in the final image. In most of the gridline removal image processing methods, the useful information with spatial frequencies close to that of the gridline is usually lost or degraded. In this study, a new stationary gridline suppression method is designed to preserve more of the useful information. Methods: The method is as follows. The input image is first recursively decomposed into several smaller subimages using a multiscale 2D discrete wavelet transform. The decomposition process stops when the gridline signal is found to be greater than a threshold in one or several of these subimages using a gridline detection module. An automatic Gaussian band-stop filter is then applied to the detected subimages to remove the gridline signal. Finally, the restored image is achieved using the corresponding 2D inverse discrete wavelet transform. Results: The processed images show that the proposed method can remove the gridline signal efficiently while maintaining the image details. The spectra of a 1D Fourier transform of the processed images demonstrate that, compared with some existing gridline removal methods, the proposed method has better information preservation after the removal of the gridline artifacts. Additionally, the performance speed is relatively high. Conclusions: The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Compared with some existing gridline removal methods, the proposed method can preserve more information within an acceptable execution time.

  16. Analysis of activity space by fragment fingerprints, 2D descriptors, and multitarget dependent transformation of 2D descriptors. (United States)

    Givehchi, Alireza; Bender, Andreas; Glen, Robert C


    The effect of multitarget dependent descriptor transformation on classification performance is explored in this work. To this end decision trees as well as neural net QSAR in combination with PLS were applied to predict the activity class of 5HT3 ligands, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, 3-hydroxyl-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, platelet activating factor antagonists, and thromboxane A2 antagonists. Physicochemical descriptors calculated by MOE and fragment-based descriptors (MOLPRINT 2D) were employed to generate descriptor vectors. In a subsequent step the physicochemical descriptor vectors were transformed to a lower dimensional space using multitarget dependent descriptor transformation. Cross-validation of the original physicochemical descriptors in combination with decision trees and neural net QSAR as well as cross-validation of PLS multitarget transformed descriptors with neural net QSAR were performed. For comparison this was repeated using fragment-based descriptors in combination with decision trees.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan ALP


    Full Text Available In this study, it was compared Fourier Transformation using widely in analysing of geophysics data and image processing and Wavelet Transformation using in image processing, boundary analysis and recently years in use geophysical data analysis. It was applicated and compared two transformations in the both geophysical data and fundamental functions. Then the results obtained were evaluated. In this study it was compared two transformation using earthquake records and Bouger gravity anomalies map of Hatay region geophysical data. At the end of the our study it was clearly seen that wavelet transform can be used by geophysical data analysing.

  18. Comparison of Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform to study echo-planar imaging flow maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez G, A.; Bowtell, R.; Mansfield, P. [Area de Procesamiento Digital de Senales e Imagenes Biomedicas. Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa. Mexico D.F. 09340 Mexico (Mexico)


    Velocity maps were studied combining Doyle and Mansfield method (1986) with each of the following transforms: Fourier, window Fourier and wavelet (Mexican hat). Continuous wavelet transform was compared against the two Fourier transform to determine which technique is best suited to study blood maps generated by Half Fourier Echo-Planar Imaging. Coefficient images were calculated and plots of the pixel intensity variation are presented. Finally, contour maps are shown to visualize the behavior of the blood flow in the cardiac chambers for the wavelet technique. (Author)

  19. Fourier-transform and global contrast interferometer alignment methods (United States)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.


    Interferometric methods are presented to facilitate alignment of image-plane components within an interferometer and for the magnified viewing of interferometer masks in situ. Fourier-transforms are performed on intensity patterns that are detected with the interferometer and are used to calculate pseudo-images of the electric field in the image plane of the test optic where the critical alignment of various components is being performed. Fine alignment is aided by the introduction and optimization of a global contrast parameter that is easily calculated from the Fourier-transform.

  20. The Formalization of Discrete Fourier Transform in HOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Shi


    Full Text Available Traditionally, Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT is performed with numerical or symbolic computation, which cannot guarantee 100% accurate analysis which may be necessary for safety-critical applications. Machine theorem proving is one of the formal methods that perform accurate analysis with completeness to some extent. This paper proposes the formalization of DFT in a higher-order logic theorem prover named HOL. We propose the formal definition of DFT and verify the fundamental properties of DFT. Two case studies are presented to illustrate usefulness and correctness of the formalized DFT, including formal verifications of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT and cosine frequency shift.

  1. Recording Fractional Fourier Transform Hologram Using Holographic Zone Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高峰; 曾阳素; 张怡霄; 杨静; 高福华; 郭永康


    FRTH(fractional Fourier transform hologram) is a new kind of hologram that differs from common Fresnel holograms and Fourier transform holograms. Due to the flexibility of zone plate. A method that uses the -1 order diffraction wave of zone plate as the object wave and the 0 order diffraction wave as the reference wave to record FRTH is presented. It provides a new simple way to record FRTH. In this paper, the theory of achieving FRT and recording FRTH using holographic zone plate is presented and experimental results are given.

  2. Multifractional Fourier Transform Method and Its Applications to Image Encryption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RANQiwen; WANGQi; MAJing; TANLiying


    The multiplicity of the fractional Fourier transform(FRFT),which is intrinsic in any fractional operator,has been claimed by several authors,but never across-the-board developed.Particularly,the weight-type FRFT(WFRFT) has not been investigated.Starting with defining the multifractional Fourier transform (MFRFT),we gained the generalization permutation matrix group (GPMG)representation and multiplicity of the MFRFT,and the relationships among the MFRFT the standard WFRFT and the standard CFRFT.Finally,as a application,a novel image encryption method hased on the MFRFT is propounded.Similation results show that this method is safe,practicable and impactful.

  3. Fourier transform infrared spectra applications to chemical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, John R


    The final and largest volume to complete this four-volume treatise is published in response to the intense commercial and research interest in Fourier Transform Interferometry.Presenting current information from leading experts in the field, Volume 4 introduces new information on, for example, applications of Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy in the Far-Infrared Region. The editors place emphasis on surface studies and address advances in Capillary Gas Chromatography - Fourier Transform Interferometry.Volume 4 especially benefits spectroscopists and physicists, as well as researchers

  4. Fourier transform infrared spectra applications to chemical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, John R


    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Applications to Chemical Systems presents the chemical applications of the Fourier transform interferometry (FT-IR).The book contains discussions on the applications of FT-IR in the fields of chromatography FT-IR, polymers and biological macromolecules, emission spectroscopy, matrix isolation, high-pressure interferometry, and far infrared interferometry. The final chapter is devoted to the presentation of the use of FT-IR in solving national technical problems such as air pollution, space exploration, and energy related subjects.Researc

  5. Discrete Fourier Transform in a Complex Vector Space (United States)

    Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor)


    An image-based phase retrieval technique has been developed that can be used on board a space based iterative transformation system. Image-based wavefront sensing is computationally demanding due to the floating-point nature of the process. The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) calculation is presented in "diagonal" form. By diagonal we mean that a transformation of basis is introduced by an application of the similarity transform of linear algebra. The current method exploits the diagonal structure of the DFT in a special way, particularly when parts of the calculation do not have to be repeated at each iteration to converge to an acceptable solution in order to focus an image.

  6. Discrete Fourier Transform Analysis in a Complex Vector Space (United States)

    Dean, Bruce H.


    Alternative computational strategies for the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) have been developed using analysis of geometric manifolds. This approach provides a general framework for performing DFT calculations, and suggests a more efficient implementation of the DFT for applications using iterative transform methods, particularly phase retrieval. The DFT can thus be implemented using fewer operations when compared to the usual DFT counterpart. The software decreases the run time of the DFT in certain applications such as phase retrieval that iteratively call the DFT function. The algorithm exploits a special computational approach based on analysis of the DFT as a transformation in a complex vector space. As such, this approach has the potential to realize a DFT computation that approaches N operations versus Nlog(N) operations for the equivalent Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) calculation.

  7. Fourier and Hadamard transform spectrometers - A limited comparison (United States)

    Tai, M. H.; Harwit, M.


    An encoding figure of merit is established for a detector-noise limited Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and compared to the comparable figure for a Hadamard transform spectrometer (HTS). The limitation of the Fourier system is partly that it does not truly Fourier analyze the radiation. Instead a cosine squared modulation is imposed on the different spectral frequencies. An additional difficulty is that neither the cosine nor the cosine squared functions form an orthonormal set. This makes the Fellgett's advantage (root-mean-squared figure of merit) for a single detector Michelson interferometer a factor of the square root of (N/8) greater than for a conventional grating instrument - rather than the square root of (N/2). The theoretical limit would be the square root of N.

  8. Application of fast Fourier transformation in thermoluminescence thermogram reconstruction (United States)

    Pla, C.; Podgorsak, E. B.


    A thermoluminescence (TL) thermogram reconstruction technique based on fast Fourier transformation (FFT) techniques is presented. Only the first few terms of the real and imaginary ``frequency arrays,'' representing the thermogram in the frequency domain, are used for thermogram reconstruction by an inverse transformation. A method to determine the optimum number of FFT terms is discussed and a reconstruction study performed on six commonly used TL materials.

  9. SPICA/SAFARI fourier transform spectrometer mechanism evolutionary design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dool, T.C. van den; Kruizinga, B.; Braam, B.C.; Hamelinck, R.F.M.M.; Loix, N.; Loon, D. van; Dams, J.


    TNO, together with its partners, have designed a cryogenic scanning mechanism for use in the SAFARI Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board of the SPICA mission. SPICA is one of the M-class missions competing to be launched in ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme in 2022. JAXA leads the development o

  10. Fourier transformation methods in the field of gamma spectrometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Abdel-Hafiez


    The basic principles of a new version of Fourier transformation is presented. This new version was applied to solve some main problems such as smoothing, and denoising in gamma spectroscopy. The mathematical procedures were first tested by simulated data and then by actual experimental data.

  11. Quaternion Fourier transforms for signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Ell, Todd A; Sangwine, Stephen J


    Based on updates to signal and image processing technology made in the last two decades, this text examines the most recent research results pertaining to Quaternion Fourier Transforms. QFT is a central component of processing color images and complex valued signals. The book's attention to mathematical concepts, imaging applications, and Matlab compatibility render it an irreplaceable resource for students, scientists, researchers, and engineers.

  12. Quantum Discrete Fourier Transform in an Ion Trap System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Biao


    We propose two schemes for the implementation of quantum discrete Fourier transform in the ion trap system. In each scheme we design a tunable two-qubit phase gate as the main ingredient. The experimental implementation of the schemes would be an important step toward complex quantum computation in the ion trap system.

  13. Coupling of column liquid chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, G.W; Gooijer, C; Velthorst, N.H; Brinkman, U.A Th


    This paper provides an extensive overview of the literature on the coupling of column liquid chromatography (LC) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR). Flow-cell-based FT-IR detection and early solvent-elimination interfaces for LC-FT-IR are discussed in brief. A comprehensive descript


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xinsong; Zheng Weixing


    In this paper, a better asymptotic order of Fourier transform on SL(2 ,R) is obtained by using classicalanalysis and Lie analysis comparing with that of [5]、 [6], and the Plancherel theorem on Cc2 (SL (2, R)) isalso obtained as an application.

  15. Discrete fourier transform (DFT) analysis for applications using iterative transform methods (United States)

    Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor)


    According to various embodiments, a method is provided for determining aberration data for an optical system. The method comprises collecting a data signal, and generating a pre-transformation algorithm. The data is pre-transformed by multiplying the data with the pre-transformation algorithm. A discrete Fourier transform of the pre-transformed data is performed in an iterative loop. The method further comprises back-transforming the data to generate aberration data.

  16. Quasi- Chun- Ching Shih's Fractional Fourier Transform with Periodicity of 2,3 and M

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xi-zhi


    Based on Chun-Ching Shih's idea, the basic transform was substituted and the quasi-ChunChing Shih's fractional Fourier transform with periodicity of 2, 3 and M was deduced. The two former transforms and the Chun-Ching Shih's fractional Fourier transform were only the particular cases of quasiChun-Ching Shih's fractional Fourier transform with periodicity of M.

  17. Fast 2-D 8×8 discrete cosine transform algorithm for image coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI XiuHua; ZHANG CaiMing; WANG JiaYe; BOEY S. H.


    A new fast two-dimension 8×8 discrete cosine transform (2D 8×8 DCT) algorithm based on the charac-teristics of the basic images of 2D DCT is presented. The new algorithm computes each DCT coefficient in turn more independently. Hence, the new algorithm is suitable for 2D DCT pruning algorithm of prun-ing away any number of high-frequency components of 2D DCT. The proposed pruning algorithm ls more efficient than the existing pruning 2D DCT algorithms in terms of the number of arithmetic opera-tions, especially the number of multiplications required in the computation.

  18. A Unified Method of Finding Laplace Transforms, Fourier Transforms, and Fourier Series. [and] An Inversion Method for Laplace Transforms, Fourier Transforms, and Fourier Series. Integral Transforms and Series Expansions. Modules and Monographs in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications Project. UMAP Units 324 and 325. (United States)

    Grimm, C. A.

    This document contains two units that examine integral transforms and series expansions. In the first module, the user is expected to learn how to use the unified method presented to obtain Laplace transforms, Fourier transforms, complex Fourier series, real Fourier series, and half-range sine series for given piecewise continuous functions. In…

  19. An introduction to Laplace transforms and Fourier series

    CERN Document Server

    Dyke, Phil


    Laplace transforms continue to be a very important tool for the engineer, physicist and applied mathematician. They are also now useful to financial, economic and biological modellers as these disciplines become more quantitative. Any problem that has underlying linearity and with solution based on initial values can be expressed as an appropriate differential equation and hence be solved using Laplace transforms. In this book, there is a strong emphasis on application with the necessary mathematical grounding. There are plenty of worked examples with all solutions provided. This enlarged new edition includes generalised Fourier series and a completely new chapter on wavelets. Only knowledge of elementary trigonometry and calculus are required as prerequisites. An Introduction to Laplace Transforms and Fourier Series will be useful for second and third year undergraduate students in engineering, physics or mathematics, as well as for graduates in any discipline such as financial mathematics, econometrics and ...

  20. Ultrafast ranging lidar based on real-time Fourier transformation. (United States)

    Xia, Haiyun; Zhang, Chunxi


    Real-time Fourier-transformation-based ranging lidar using a mode-locked femtosecond fiber laser is demonstrated. The object signal and the reference signal are guided from a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer into a dispersive element. The two optical pulses extend and overlap with each other temporally, which yields a microwave pulse on the photodetector with its frequency proportional to the time delay between the two signals. The temporal interferograms are transformed from the time domain into the frequency domain using a time-to-frequency conversion function obtained in the calibration process. The Fourier transform is used in the data processing. A range resolution of 334 nm at a sampling rate of 48.6 MHz over a distance of 16 cm is demonstrated in the laboratory.

  1. The Discrete Fourier Transform on hexagonal remote sensing image (United States)

    Li, Yalu; Ben, Jin; Wang, Rui; Du, Lingyu


    Global discrete grid system will subdivide the earth recursively to form a multi-resolution grid hierarchy with no Overlap and seamless which help build global uniform spatial reference datum and multi-source data processing mode which takes the position as the object and in the aspect of data structure supports the organization, process and analysis of the remote sensing big data. This paper adopts the base transform to realize the mutual transformation of square pixel and hexagonal pixel. This paper designs the corresponding discrete Fourier transform algorithm for any lattice. Finally, the paper show the result of the DFT of the remote sensing image of the hexagonal pixel.

  2. A Student's Guide to Fourier Transforms - 2nd Edition (United States)

    James, J. F.


    Fourier transform theory is of central importance in a vast range of applications in physical science, engineering, and applied mathematics. This new edition of a successful student text provides a concise introduction to the theory and practice of Fourier transforms, using qualitative arguments wherever possible and avoiding unnecessary mathematics. After a brief description of the basic ideas and theorems, the power of the technique is then illustrated by referring to particular applications in optics, spectroscopy, electronics and telecommunications. The rarely discussed but important field of multi-dimensional Fourier theory is covered, including a description of computer-aided tomography (CAT-scanning). The final chapter discusses digital methods, with particular attention to the fast Fourier transform. Throughout, discussion of these applications is reinforced by the inclusion of worked examples. The book assumes no previous knowledge of the subject, and will be invaluable to students of physics, electrical and electronic engineering, and computer science. Expanded to include more emphasis on applications An established successful textbook for undergraduate and graduate students Includes worked examples and copious diagrams throughout

  3. A VLSI architecture for simplified arithmetic Fourier transform algorithm (United States)

    Reed, Irving S.; Shih, Ming-Tang; Truong, T. K.; Hendon, E.; Tufts, D. W.


    The arithmetic Fourier transform (AFT) is a number-theoretic approach to Fourier analysis which has been shown to perform competitively with the classical FFT in terms of accuracy, complexity, and speed. Theorems developed in a previous paper for the AFT algorithm are used here to derive the original AFT algorithm which Bruns found in 1903. This is shown to yield an algorithm of less complexity and of improved performance over certain recent AFT algorithms. A VLSI architecture is suggested for this simplified AFT algorithm. This architecture uses a butterfly structure which reduces the number of additions by 25 percent of that used in the direct method.

  4. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification using an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.R.; Bennett, C.L.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.


    We are developing an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer for chemical effluent monitoring. The system consists of a 2-D infrared imaging array in the focal plane of a Michelson interferometer. Individual images are coordinated with the positioning of a moving mirror in the Michelson interferometer. A three dimensional data cube with two spatial dimensions and one interferogram dimension is then Fourier transformed to produce a hyperspectral data cube with one spectral dimension and two spatial dimensions. The spectral range of the instrument is determined by the choice of optical components and the spectral range of the focal plane array. Measurements in the near UV, visible, near IR, and mid-IR ranges are possible with the existing instrument. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification measurements will be primarily in the ``fingerprint`` region of the spectrum, ({lambda} = 8 to 12 {mu}m). Initial measurements of effluent using this imaging interferometer in the mid-IR will be presented.

  5. Efficient polar convolution based on the discrete Fourier-Bessel transform for application in computational biophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Melchert, O; Roth, B


    We discuss efficient algorithms for the accurate forward and reverse evaluation of the discrete Fourier-Bessel transform (dFBT) as numerical tools to assist in the 2D polar convolution of two radially symmetric functions, relevant, e.g., to applications in computational biophotonics. In our survey of the numerical procedure we account for the circumstance that the objective function might result from a more complex measurement process and is, in the worst case, known on a finite sequence of coordinate values, only. We contrast the performance of the resulting algorithms with a procedure based on a straight forward numerical quadrature of the underlying integral transform and asses its efficienty for two benchmark Fourier-Bessel pairs. An application to the problem of finite-size beam-shape convolution in polar coordinates, relevant in the context of tissue optics and optoacoustics, is used to illustrate the versatility and computational efficiency of the numerical procedure.

  6. Reducing aberration effect of Fourier transform lens by modifying Fourier spectrum of diffractive optical element in beam shaping optical system. (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Zhu, Jing; Song, Qiang; Yue, Weirui; Liu, Jingdan; Wang, Jian; Situ, Guohai; Huang, Huijie


    In general, Fourier transform lenses are considered as ideal in the design algorithms of diffractive optical elements (DOEs). However, the inherent aberrations of a real Fourier transform lens disturb the far field pattern. The difference between the generated pattern and the expected design will impact the system performance. Therefore, a method for modifying the Fourier spectrum of DOEs without introducing other optical elements to reduce the aberration effect of the Fourier transform lens is proposed. By applying this method, beam shaping performance is improved markedly for the optical system with a real Fourier transform lens. The experiments carried out with a commercial Fourier transform lens give evidence for this method. The method is capable of reducing the system complexity as well as improving its performance.

  7. Implementing the 2-D Wavelet Transform on SIMD-Enhanced General-Purpose Processors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahbahrami, A.; Juurlink, B.; Vassiliadis, S.


    The 2-D Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) consumes up to 68% of the JPEG2000 encoding time. In this paper, we develop efficient implementations of this important kernel on general-purpose processors (GPPs), in particular the Pentium 4 (P4). Efficient implementations of the 2-D DWT on the P4 must addr

  8. Fractional Fourier Transform for Ultrasonic Chirplet Signal Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Lu


    Full Text Available A fractional fourier transform (FrFT based chirplet signal decomposition (FrFT-CSD algorithm is proposed to analyze ultrasonic signals for NDE applications. Particularly, this method is utilized to isolate dominant chirplet echoes for successive steps in signal decomposition and parameter estimation. FrFT rotates the signal with an optimal transform order. The search of optimal transform order is conducted by determining the highest kurtosis value of the signal in the transformed domain. A simulation study reveals the relationship among the kurtosis, the transform order of FrFT, and the chirp rate parameter in the simulated ultrasonic echoes. Benchmark and ultrasonic experimental data are used to evaluate the FrFT-CSD algorithm. Signal processing results show that FrFT-CSD not only reconstructs signal successfully, but also characterizes echoes and estimates echo parameters accurately. This study has a broad range of applications of importance in signal detection, estimation, and pattern recognition.

  9. A novel algorithm and architecture of combined direct 2-D transform and quantization for H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper proposes a novel high-performance direct 2-D transform algorithm which suitably arranges the data processing sequences adopted in row and column transforms of H.264 CODEC systems to finish the data transposition. Simultaneity, this paper proposes a new direct 2-D transform and quantization architectures for H.264 video coding standard. The induced new transform and quantization architecture greatly increases the data processing rate and eliminates transform multiplication and transpose memory, and select different mode and quantization according to AC coefficient, DC coefficient, chrominance block and Luminance block. And this architecture just need to storage one quantization tables for Integer transform and Hadamard transform, but it can do two types of forward transforms and quantization just in one block.

  10. Waves in periodic media: Fourier analysis shortcuts and physical insights, case of 2D phononic crystals (United States)

    Dupont, S.; Gazalet, J.; Kastelik, J. C.


    Phononic crystal is a structured media with periodic modulation of its physical properties that influences the propagation of elastic waves and leads to a peculiar behaviour, for instance the phononic band gap effect by which elastic waves cannot propagate in certain frequency ranges. The formulation of the problem leads to a second order partial differential equation with periodic coefficients; different methods exist to determine the structure of the eigenmodes propagating in the material, both in the real or Fourier domain. Brillouin explains the periodicity of the band structure as a direct result of the discretization of the crystal in the real domain. Extending the Brillouin vision, we introduce digital signal processing tools developed in the frame of distribution functions theory. These tools associate physical meaning to mathematical expressions and reveal the correspondence between real and Fourier domains whatever is the physical domain under consideration. We present an illustrative practical example concerning two dimensions phononic crystals and highlight the appreciable shortcuts brought by the method and the benefits for physical interpretation.

  11. Fourier transform approach in modulation technique of experimental measurements. (United States)

    Khazimullin, M V; Lebedev, Yu A


    An application of Fourier transform approach in modulation technique of experimental studies is considered. This method has obvious advantages compared with traditional lock-in amplifiers technique--simple experimental setup, a quickly available information on all the required harmonics, high speed of data processing using fast Fourier transform algorithm. A computationally simple, fast and accurate Fourier coefficients interpolation (FCI) method has been implemented to obtain a useful information from harmonics of a multimode signal. Our analysis shows that in this case FCI method has a systematical error (bias) of a signal parameters estimation, which became essential for the short data sets. Hence, a new differential Fourier coefficients interpolation (DFCI) method has been suggested, which is less sensitive to a presence of several modes in a signal. The analysis has been confirmed by simulations and measurements of a quartz wedge birefringence by means of the photoelastic modulator. The obtained bias, noise level, and measuring speed are comparable and even better than in lock-in amplifier technique. Moreover, presented DFCI method is expected to be promised candidate for using in actively developing imaging systems based on the modulation technique requiring fast digital signal processing of large data sets.

  12. Novel fringe scanning/Fourier transform method of synthetic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, T.M.; Albano, R.K.


    We have developed a one-dimensional theory and a computer model for synthetically imaging scenes using a novel fringe scanning/Fourier transform technique. Our method probes a scene using two interfering beams of slightly different frequency. These beams form a moving fringe pattern which scans the scene and resonates with any spatial frequency components having the same spatial frequency as the scanning fringe pattern. A simple, non-imaging detector above the scene observes any scattered radiation from the scene falling onto it. If a resonance occurs between the scanning fringe pattern and the scene, then the scattered radiation will be modulated at the difference frequency between the two probing beams. By changing the spatial period of the fringe pattern and then measuring the amplitude and phase of the modulated radiation that is scattered from the scene, the Fourier amplitudes and phases of the different spatial frequency components making up the scene can be measured. A synthetic image of the scene being probed can be generated from this Fourier amplitude and phase data by taking the inverse Fourier transform of this information. This technique could be used to image objects using light, ultrasonic, or other electromagnetic or acoustic waves.

  13. Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing Using Quantum Fourier Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Da-Zu; CHEN Zhi-Gang; GUO Ying


    A (n, n )-threshold scheme of multiparty quantum secret sharing of classical or quantum message is proposed based on the discrete quantum Fourier transform.In our proposed scheme, the secret message, which is encoded by using the forward quantum Fourier transform and decoded by using the reverse, is split and shared in such a way that it can be reconstructed among them only if all the participants work in concert.Furthermore, we also discuss how this protocol must be carefully designed for correcting errors and checking eavesdropping or a dishonest participant.Security analysis shows that our scheme is secure.Also, this scheme has an advantage that it is completely compatible with quantum computation and easier to realize in the distributed quantum secure computation.

  14. Prediction of Tide Height Using the Discrete Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Towhiduzzaman


    Full Text Available In this study, I have investigated some aspects of astronomical tide and predicted tide time and height by different methods. This thesis deals with the prediction of height and time for both high and low waters of the ports set up in several places by discrete Fourier transform. I computed the tide height using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT. The results are found to be in an agreement with the predicted data of others. By this work, we can predict the tide height of overall stations if the sample observed data are available for any kind of stations. I think that my work could be helpful to predict the tides over all stations where the observed data are available.

  15. Implementing quantum Fourier transform with integrated photonic devices (United States)

    Tabia, Gelo Noel


    Many quantum algorithms that exhibit exponential speedup over their classical counterparts employ the quantum Fourier transform, which is used to solve interesting problems such as prime factorization. Meanwhile, nonclassical interference of single photons achieved on integrated platforms holds the promise of achieving large-scale quantum computation with multiport devices. An optical multiport device can be built to realize any quantum circuit as a sequence of unitary operations performed by beam splitters and phase shifters on path-encoded qudits. In this talk, I will present a recursive scheme for implementing quantum Fourier transform with a multimode interference photonic integrated circuit. Research at Perimeter Institute is supported by the Government of Canada through Industry Canada and by the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research and Innovation.

  16. On-chip photonic Fourier transform with surface plasmon polaritons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Shan Kou; Guanghui Yuan; Qian wang; Luping Du; Eugeniu Balaur; Daohua Zhang; Dingyuan Tang


    The Fourier transform (FT),a cornerstone of optical processing,enables rapid evaluation of fundamental mathematical operations,such as derivatives and integrals.Conventionally,a converging lens performs an optical FT in free space when light passes through it.The speed of the transformation is limited by the thickness and the focal length of the lens.By usingthe wave nature of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs),here we demonstrate that the FT can be implemented in a planar configuration with a minimal propagation distance of around 10 μm,resulting in an increase of speed by four to five orders of magnitude.The photonic FT was tested by synthesizing intricate SPP waves with their Fourier components.The reduced dimensionality in the minuscule device allows the future development of an ultrafast on-chip photonic information processing platform for large-scale optical computing.

  17. On the Fourier transform of the greatest common divisor

    CERN Document Server

    van der Kamp, Peter H


    The discrete Fourier transform of the greatest common divisor is a multiplicative function that generalises both the gcd-sum function and Euler's totient function. On the one hand it is the Dirichlet convolution of the identity with Ramanujan's sum, and on the other hand it can be written as a generalised convolution product of the identity with the totient function. We show that this arithmetic function of two integers (a,m) counts the number of elements in the set of ordered pairs (i,j) such that i*j is equivalent to a modulo m. Furthermore we generalise a dozen known identities for the totient function, to identities which involve the discrete Fourier transform of the greatest common divisor, including its partial sums, and its Lambert series.

  18. Fourier transform spectrometer based on Fabry-Perot interferometer. (United States)

    Al-Saeed, Tarek A; Khalil, Diaa A


    We analyze the Fourier transform spectrometer based on a symmetric/asymmetric Fabry-Perot interferometer. In this spectrometer, the interferogram is obtained by recording the intensity as a function of the interferometer length. Then, we recover the spectrum by applying the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) directly on the interferogram. This technique results in spectral harmonic overlap and fictitious wavenumber components outside the original spectral range. For this purpose, in this work, we propose a second method to recover the spectrum. This method is based on expanding the DFT of the interferogram and the spectrum by a Haar or box function. By this second method, we recovered the spectrum and got rid of the fictitious spectral components and spectral harmonic overlap.

  19. A simple scanning mirror mechanism for a Fourier transform spectrometer (United States)

    Brasunas, John C.; Cushman, G. Mark


    We present a simple scanning mirror mechanism for a Fourier transform spectrometer, consisting of a voice coil actuator, a ball-bearing slide, and a single cube corner mirror or retroreflector. The use of a single cube corner reduces significantly the sensitivity of the Fourier transform spectrometer to the tilt of its moving mirror, enabling the simple mechanism. With simple velocity feedback using a linear velocity transducer, we achieve a scan speed stability of 2%-5% (root-mean-square) for scan speeds from 40 to 440 μm/s for a travel of 2.2 cm, corresponding to a spectral resolution of 0.06 cm-1. Fringe amplitude stability is about 5%. This scan mechanism was operated at standard temperature and pressure, but the relatively minute amount of lubricant in the ball-bearing slide may indicate possible operation under vacuum and/or cryogenic conditions.

  20. Matrix-Vector Based Fast Fourier Transformations on SDR Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. He


    Full Text Available Today Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFTs are applied in various radio standards based on OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex. It is important to gain a fast computational speed for the DFT, which is usually achieved by using specialized Fast Fourier Transform (FFT engines. However, in face of the Software Defined Radio (SDR development, more general (parallel processor architectures are often desirable, which are not tailored to FFT computations. Therefore, alternative approaches are required to reduce the complexity of the DFT. Starting from a matrix-vector based description of the FFT idea, we will present different factorizations of the DFT matrix, which allow a reduction of the complexity that lies between the original DFT and the minimum FFT complexity. The computational complexities of these factorizations and their suitability for implementation on different processor architectures are investigated.

  1. Time-frequency representation measurement based on temporal Fourier transformation (United States)

    Suen, Yifan; Xiao, Shaoqiu; Hao, Sumin; Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Xiong, Yigao; Liu, Shenye


    We propose a new scheme to physically realize the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) of chirped optical pulse using time-lens array that enables us to get time-frequency representation without using FFT algorithm. The time-lens based upon the four-wave mixing is used to perform the process of temporal Fourier transformation. Pump pulse is used for both providing the quadratic phase and being the window function of STFT. The idea of STFT is physically realized in our scheme. Simulations have been done to investigate performance of the time-frequency representation scheme (TFRS) in comparison with STFT using FFT algorithm. Optimal measurement of resolution in time and frequency has been discussed.

  2. Scaled Fractional Fourier Transform for Partially Coherent Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡阳健; 林强


    The definition of scaled fractional Fourier transform (SFRT) is extended to partially coherent beams based directly on the cross-spectral density. Based on this formula, an equivalent tensor ABCD law for the SFRT of partially coherent twisted anisotropic Gaussian-Schell model beams is derived. The derived formulae provide a powerful tool for analysing and calculating the SFRT of partially coherent beams. An application example is provided.

  3. Fourier spectroscopy with a one-million-point transformation (United States)

    Connes, J.; Delouis, H.; Connes, P.; Guelachvili, G.; Maillard, J.; Michel, G.


    A new type of interferometer for use in Fourier spectroscopy has been devised at the Aime Cotton Laboratory of the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), Orsay, France. With this interferometer and newly developed computational techniques, interferograms comprising as many as one million samples can now be transformed. The techniques are described, and examples of spectra of thorium and holmium, derived from one million-point interferograms, are presented.

  4. Entangled Fractional Fourier Transform for the Multipartite Entangled State Representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Xiao-Qing; SONG Tong-Qiang


    We deduce entangled fractional Fourier transformation (EFFT) for the multipartite entangled state representation, which was newly constructed with two mutually conjugate n-mode entangled states of continuum variables in n-mode Fock space. We establish a formalism of EFFT for quantum mechanical wave functions, which provides us a convenient way to derive some wave functions. We find that the eigenmode of EFFT is different from the usual Hermite Polynomials. We also derive the EFFT of the n-mode squeezed state.

  5. 10th International Conference on Progress in Fourier Transform Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Keresztury, Gábor; Kellner, Robert


    19 plenary lectures and 203 poster papers presented at the 10th International Conference of Fourier Transform Spectroscopy in Budapest 1995 give an overview on the state-of-the art of this technology and its wide range of applications. The reader will get information on any aspects of FTS including the latest instrumental developments, e.g. in diode array detection, time resolution FTS, microscopy and spectral mapping, double modulation and two-dimensional FTS.

  6. Homology of balanced complexes via the Fourier transform

    CERN Document Server

    Meshulam, Roy


    Let G_0,...,G_k be finite abelian groups and let G_0*...*G_k be the join of the 0-dimensional complexes G_i. We give a characterization of the integral k-coboundaries of subcomplexes of G_0*...*G_k in terms of the Fourier transform on the group G_0 \\times ... \\times G_k. This leads to an extension of a recent result of Musiker and Reiner on a topological interpretation of the cyclotomic polynomial.

  7. Magnetic suspension based Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer mechanism (FTIS) (United States)

    Köker, Ingo; Langenbach, Harald; Schmid, Manfred; Lautier, Jean-Michel


    In the frame of an ESTEC technology contract the development of a Magnetically Suspended Fourier Transform Spectrometer Mechanism (FTIS) was carried out. The aim of the development is to avoid the issues found in mechanically suspended systems and to provide an active alignment and disturbance rejection capability for spectrometer applications. In the frame of FTIS an actively controlled suspension system based on the use of magnetic bearings was defined, developed and built as a demonstration model.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xichun; Li Yunjie; Zhang Jun; Wei Gang


    This letter proposes a new method for concurrent voiced speech separation. Firstly the Wrapped Discrete Fourier Transform (WDFT) is used to decompose the harmonic spectra of the mixed speeches. Then the individual speech is reconstructed by using the sinusoidal speech model. By taking advantage of the non-uniform frequency resolution of WDFT, harmonic spectra parameters can be estimated and separated accurately. Experimental results on mixed vowels separation show that the proposed method can recover the original speeches effectively.

  9. A Comparison of 2-D Shape Retrieval Using Fourier Descriptors and Wavelet Descriptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIQin; JonathanEdwards


    Choosing an appropriate image retrieval tool is the primary problem for a multimedia application such as digital image library and online image retrieval. Shape is often regarded as the most important image feature. Fourier descriptors (FDs) are widely used in shape recognition and retrieval. However, as global descriptors, they are often blamed for not being able to describe local shape features[1,2]. Wavelet descriptors (WDs) are proposed to overcome this drawback. Unfortunately, the extra information such as the multi-resolution scheme and local shape features cause much more complicate shape matching algorithms. The efficient or effective use of WD srequires more effort. Experiments are executed to evaluate the retrieval performance of this two descriptors. Some conclusions and suggestions are given according to the experimental results and the literature reviewed.

  10. Mass spectral peak distortion due to Fourier transform signal processing. (United States)

    Rockwood, Alan L; Erve, John C L


    Distortions of peaks can occur when one uses the standard method of signal processing of data from the Orbitrap and other FT-based methods of mass spectrometry. These distortions arise because the standard method of signal processing is not a linear process. If one adds two or more functions, such as time-dependent signals from a Fourier transform mass spectrometer and performs a linear operation on the sum, the result is the same as if the operation was performed on separate functions and the results added. If this relationship is not valid, the operation is non-linear and can produce unexpected and/or distorted results. Although the Fourier transform itself is a linear operator, the standard algorithm for processing spectra in Fourier transform-based methods include non-linear mathematical operators such that spectra processed by the standard algorithm may become distorted. The most serious consequence is that apparent abundances of the peaks in the spectrum may be incorrect. In light of these considerations, we performed theoretical modeling studies to illustrate several distortion effects that can be observed, including abundance distortions. In addition, we discuss experimental systems where these effects may manifest, including suggested systems for study that should demonstrate these peak distortions. Finally, we point to several examples in the literature where peak distortions may be rationalized by the phenomena presented here.

  11. Fourier-transform Ghost Imaging with Hard X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hong; Han, Shensheng; Xie, Honglan; Du, Guohao; Xiao, Tiqiao; Zhu, Daming


    Knowledge gained through X-ray crystallography fostered structural determination of materials and greatly facilitated the development of modern science and technology in the past century. Atomic details of sample structures is achievable by X-ray crystallography, however, it is only applied to crystalline structures. Imaging techniques based on X-ray coherent diffraction or zone plates are capable of resolving the internal structure of non-crystalline materials at nanoscales, but it is still a challenge to achieve atomic resolution. Here we demonstrate a novel lensless Fourier-transform ghost imaging method with pseudo-thermal hard X-rays by measuring the second-order intensity correlation function of the light. We show that high resolution Fourier-transform diffraction pattern of a complex structure can be achieved at Fresnel region, and the amplitude and phase distributions of a sample in spatial domain can be retrieved successfully. The method of lensless X-ray Fourier-transform ghost imaging extends X-ray...

  12. Fourier transform light scattering angular spectroscopy using digital inline holography. (United States)

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, YongKeun


    A simple and practical method for measuring the angle-resolved light scattering (ARLS) from individual objects is reported. Employing the principle of inline holography and a Fourier transform light scattering technique, both the static and dynamic scattering patterns from individual micrometer-sized objects can be effectively and quantitatively obtained. First, the light scattering measurements were performed on individual polystyrene beads, from which the refractive index and diameter of each bead were retrieved. Also, the measurements of the static and dynamic light scattering from intact human red blood cells are demonstrated. Using the present method, an existing microscope can be directly transformed into a precise instrument for ARLS measurements.

  13. [Continuum based fast Fourier transform processing of infrared spectrum]. (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Jie; Lin, Qi-Zhong; Wang, Qin-Jun; Li, Hui; Li, Shuai


    To recognize ground objects with infrared spectrum, high frequency noise removing is one of the most important phases in spectrum feature analysis and extraction. A new method for infrared spectrum preprocessing was given combining spectrum continuum processing and Fast Fourier Transform (CFFT). Continuum was firstly removed from the noise polluted infrared spectrum to standardize hyper-spectra. Then the spectrum was transformed into frequency domain (FD) with fast Fourier transform (FFT), separating noise information from target information After noise eliminating from useful information with a low-pass filter, the filtered FD spectrum was transformed into time domain (TD) with fast Fourier inverse transform. Finally the continuum was recovered to the spectrum, and the filtered infrared spectrum was achieved. Experiment was performed for chlorite spectrum in USGS polluted with two kinds of simulated white noise to validate the filtering ability of CFFT by contrast with cubic function of five point (CFFP) in time domain and traditional FFT in frequency domain. A circle of CFFP has limited filtering effect, so it should work much with more circles and consume more time to achieve better filtering result. As for conventional FFT, Gibbs phenomenon has great effect on preprocessing result at edge bands because of special character of rock or mineral spectra, while works well at middle bands. Mean squared error of CFFT is 0. 000 012 336 with cut-off frequency of 150, while that of FFT and CFFP is 0. 000 061 074 with cut-off frequency of 150 and 0.000 022 963 with 150 working circles respectively. Besides the filtering result of CFFT can be improved by adjusting the filter cut-off frequency, and has little effect on working time. The CFFT method overcomes the Gibbs problem of FFT in spectrum filtering, and can be more convenient, dependable, and effective than traditional TD filter methods.

  14. Direct Retrieval of Exterior Orientation Parameters Using A 2-D Projective Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seedahmed, Gamal H.


    Direct solutions are very attractive because they obviate the need for initial approximations associated with non-linear solutions. The Direct Linear Transformation (DLT) establishes itself as a method of choice for direct solutions in photogrammetry and other fields. The use of the DLT with coplanar object space points leads to a rank deficient model. This rank deficient model leaves the DLT defined up to a 2-D projective transformation, which makes the direct retrieval of the exterior orientation parameters (EOPs) a non-trivial task. This paper presents a novel direct algorithm to retrieve the EOPs from the 2-D projective transformation. It is based on a direct relationship between the 2-D projective transformation and the collinearity model using homogeneous coordinates representation. This representation offers a direct matrix correspondence between the 2-D projective transformation parameters and the collinearity model parameters. This correspondence lends itself to a direct matrix factorization to retrieve the EOPs. An important step in the proposed algorithm is a normalization process that provides the actual link between the 2-D projective transformation and the collinearity model. This paper explains the theoretical basis of the proposed algorithm as well as the necessary steps for its practical implementation. In addition, numerical examples are provided to demonstrate its validity.

  15. Graph-Based Transform for 2D Piecewise Smooth Signals With Random Discontinuity Locations. (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Liang, Jie


    The graph-based block transform recently emerged as an effective tool for compressing some special signals such as depth images in 3D videos. However, in existing methods, overheads are required to describe the graph of the block, from which the decoder has to calculate the transform via time-consuming eigendecomposition. To address these problems, in this paper, we aim to develop a single graph-based transform for a class of 2D piecewise smooth signals with similar discontinuity patterns. We first consider the deterministic case with a known discontinuity location in each row. We propose a 2D first-order autoregression (2D AR1) model and a 2D graph for this type of signals. We show that the closed-form expression of the inverse of a biased Laplacian matrix of the proposed 2D graph is exactly the covariance matrix of the proposed 2D AR1 model. Therefore, the optimal transform for the signal are the eigenvectors of the proposed graph Laplacian. Next, we show that similar results hold in the random case, where the locations of the discontinuities in different rows are randomly distributed within a confined region, and we derive the closed-form expression of the corresponding optimal 2D graph Laplacian. The theory developed in this paper can be used to design both pre-computed transforms and signal-dependent transforms with low complexities. Finally, depth image coding experiments demonstrate that our methods can achieve similar performance to the state-of-the-art method, but our complexity is much lower.

  16. Wavelets for approximate Fourier transform and data compression (United States)

    Guo, Haitao

    This dissertation has two parts. In the first part, we develop a wavelet-based fast approximate Fourier transform algorithm. The second part is devoted to the developments of several wavelet-based data compression techniques for image and seismic data. We propose an algorithm that uses the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) as a tool to compute the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The classical Cooley-Tukey FFT is shown to be a special case of the proposed algorithm when the wavelets in use are trivial. The main advantage of our algorithm is that the good time and frequency localization of wavelets can be exploited to approximate the Fourier transform for many classes of signals, resulting in much less computation. Thus the new algorithm provides an efficient complexity versus accuracy tradeoff. When approximations are allowed, under certain sparsity conditions, the algorithm can achieve linear complexity, i.e. O(N). The proposed algorithm also has built-in noise reduction capability. For waveform and image compression, we propose a novel scheme using the recently developed Burrows-Wheeler transform (BWT). We show that the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) should be used before the Burrows-Wheeler transform to improve the compression performance for many natural signals and images. We demonstrate that the simple concatenation of the DWT and BWT coding performs comparably as the embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) compression for images. Various techniques that significantly improve the performance of our compression scheme are also discussed. The phase information is crucial for seismic data processing. However, traditional compression schemes do not pay special attention to preserving the phase of the seismic data, resulting in the loss of critical information. We propose a lossy compression method that preserves the phase as much as possible. The method is based on the self-adjusting wavelet transform that adapts to the locations of the significant signal components

  17. Twin image elimination in digital holography by combination of Fourier transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Debesh


    We present a new technique for removing twin image in in-line digital Fourier holography using a combination of Fourier transformations. Instead of recording only a Fourier transform hologram of the object, we propose to record a combined Fourier transform hologram by simultaneously recording the hologram of the Fourier transform and the inverse Fourier transform of the object with suitable weighting coefficients. Twin image is eliminated by appropriate inverse combined Fourier transformation and proper choice of the weighting coefficients. An optical configuration is presented for recording combined Fourier transform holograms. Simulations demonstrate the feasibility of twin image elimination. The hologram reconstruction is sensitive to phase aberrations of the object, thereby opening a way for holographic phase sensing.

  18. Improved Spectral Representation for Birdcall Based on Fractional Fourier Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A novel spectral representation based on fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) is proposed and applied to birdcall analysis. The FrFT-based spectrogram of a signal is derived and compared with its FT-based counterpart, and the spectrum gathering method is used to show the energy distribution related to the pitch frequency. The fixed transform order and adaptive orders for FrFT are tested. The fixed order can be obtained empirically or calculated according to the known chirp rate. The adaptive optimal orders are determined by using ambiguity function. Experimental results with birdcalls show that the FrFT-based spectrogram with an optimal transform order has higher resolution than its STFT-based counterpart, and the better performance can be achieved if adaptive orders are used.

  19. Partial differential equation transform - Variational formulation and Fourier analysis. (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang


    Nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) models are established approaches for image/signal processing, data analysis and surface construction. Most previous geometric PDEs are utilized as low-pass filters which give rise to image trend information. In an earlier work, we introduced mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs), which behave like high-pass filters and are able to systematically provide intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of signals and images. Due to their tunable time-frequency localization and perfect reconstruction, the operation of MoDEEs is called a PDE transform. By appropriate selection of PDE transform parameters, we can tune IMFs into trends, edges, textures, noise etc., which can be further utilized in the secondary processing for various purposes. This work introduces the variational formulation, performs the Fourier analysis, and conducts biomedical and biological applications of the proposed PDE transform. The variational formulation offers an algorithm to incorporate two image functions and two sets of low-pass PDE operators in the total energy functional. Two low-pass PDE operators have different signs, leading to energy disparity, while a coupling term, acting as a relative fidelity of two image functions, is introduced to reduce the disparity of two energy components. We construct variational PDE transforms by using Euler-Lagrange equation and artificial time propagation. Fourier analysis of a simplified PDE transform is presented to shed light on the filter properties of high order PDE transforms. Such an analysis also offers insight on the parameter selection of the PDE transform. The proposed PDE transform algorithm is validated by numerous benchmark tests. In one selected challenging example, we illustrate the ability of PDE transform to separate two adjacent frequencies of sin(x) and sin(1.1x). Such an ability is due to PDE transform's controllable frequency localization obtained by adjusting the order of PDEs. The

  20. Numerical Analysis of Inhomogeneous Dielectric Waveguide Using Periodic Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moradian


    Full Text Available A general method is introduced to obtain the propagation constants of the inhomogeneous dielectric waveguide. The periodic Fourier transform is applied to the normalized Maxwell's equations and makes the field components periodic. Then they are expanded in Fourier series. Finally, the trapezoidal rule is applied to approximate the convolution integral which leads to a set of coupled second-order differential equations that can be solved as an eigenvalue-eigenvector problem. The normalized propagation constant can be obtained as the square roots of the eigenvalues of the coefficient matrices. The proposed method is applied to the dielectric waveguide with a two-layered dielectric profile in the transverse direction, and the first four-confined TE modes are obtained. The propagation constants for the mentioned dielectric waveguide are also derived analytically and are then compared with those derived by the proposed method. Comparison of results shows the efficacy of the proposed method.

  1. A transformada de Fourier em basic The Fourier transform (FFT in basic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Gomes Constantino


    Full Text Available In this paper we describe three computer programs in Basic language about the Fourier transform (FFT which are available in the Internet site (in English or (in Portuguese since October 1998. Those are addresses to the Web Page of our Laboratory of Organic Synthesis. The programs can be downloaded and used by anyone who is interested on the subject. The texts, menus and captions in the programs are written in English.

  2. Denoise in the pseudopolar grid Fourier space using exact inverse pseudopolar Fourier transform

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Fan Jun


    In this paper I show a matrix method to calculate the exact inverse pseudopolar grid Fourier transform, and use this transform to do noise removals in the k space of pseudopolar grids. I apply the Gaussian filter to this pseudopolar grid and find the advantages of the noise removals are very excellent by using pseudopolar grid, and finally I show the Cartesian grid denoise for comparisons. The results present the signal to noise ratio and the variance are much better when doing noise removals in the pseudopolar grid than the Cartesian grid. The noise removals of pseudopolar grid or Cartesian grid are both in the k space, and all these noises are added in the real space.

  3. Hyperspectral imaging using the single-pixel Fourier transform technique (United States)

    Jin, Senlin; Hui, Wangwei; Wang, Yunlong; Huang, Kaicheng; Shi, Qiushuai; Ying, Cuifeng; Liu, Dongqi; Ye, Qing; Zhou, Wenyuan; Tian, Jianguo


    Hyperspectral imaging technology is playing an increasingly important role in the fields of food analysis, medicine and biotechnology. To improve the speed of operation and increase the light throughput in a compact equipment structure, a Fourier transform hyperspectral imaging system based on a single-pixel technique is proposed in this study. Compared with current imaging spectrometry approaches, the proposed system has a wider spectral range (400–1100 nm), a better spectral resolution (1 nm) and requires fewer measurement data (a sample rate of 6.25%). The performance of this system was verified by its application to the non-destructive testing of potatoes.

  4. Particle field holography data reduction by Fourier transform analysis (United States)

    Hess, Cecil F.; Trolinger, James D.


    The size distribution of a particle field hologram is obtained with a Fourier transformation of the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of the reconstructed hologram. Off-axis absorption holograms of particle fields with known characteristics were obtained and analyzed with a commercially available instrument. The mean particle size of the reconstructed hologram was measured with an error of + or - 5 percent, while the distribution broadening was estimated within + or - 15 percent. Small sections of a pulsed laser hologram of a synthetic fuel spray were analyzed with this method thus yielding a spatially resolved size distribution. The method yields fast and accurate automated analysis of particle field holograms.

  5. Beam profile for the Herschel-SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer. (United States)

    Makiwa, Gibion; Naylor, David A; Ferlet, Marc; Salji, Carl; Swinyard, Bruce; Polehampton, Edward; van der Wiel, Matthijs H D


    One of the instruments on board the Herschel Space Observatory is the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE). SPIRE employs a Fourier transform spectrometer with feed-horn-coupled bolometers to provide imaging spectroscopy. To interpret the resultant spectral images requires knowledge of the wavelength-dependent beam, which in the case of SPIRE is complicated by the use of multimoded feed horns. In this paper we describe a series of observations and the analysis conducted to determine the wavelength dependence of the SPIRE spectrometer beam profile.

  6. Double passing the Kitt Peak 1-m Fourier transform spectrometer (United States)

    Jennings, D. E.; Hubbard, R.; Brault, J. W.


    Attention is given to a simple technique for performing the conversion of the Kitt Peak 1-m Fourier transform spectrometer's dual input/output optical configuration to a double pass configuration that improves spectral resolution by a factor of 2. The modification is made by placing a flat mirror in the output beam from each cat's eye, retroreflecting the beams back through the cat's eyes to the first beam splitter. A single detector is placed at the second input port, which then becomes the instrument's output.

  7. A high-resolution Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer. (United States)

    Johnson, H. L.; Forbes, F. F.; Thompson, R. I.; Steinmetz , D. L.; Harris, O.


    We have developed a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer having a resolution of 0.5/cm over the range of wavelength from 1 to 5.5 microns. It has been used to observe the sun over this wavelength range from a Lear Jet flying at an altitude of 14 km, and to observe a number of stars from the ground, using the 229-cm telescope of the Steward Observatory and the 152-cm aluminum-mirror telescope at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional in the Sierra de San Pedro Martir, Baja California, Mexico. The solar spectrum is given here, while the ground-based spectra are being published separately.

  8. Ash melting behavior by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Han-xu; QIU Xiao-sheng; TANG Yong-xin


    A Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic (FTIR) method involving a Fe2O3 flux was used to learn how China's coal ash melts. The relationship between ash fusion temperature and chemical composition, as well as the effects of Fe2O3 flux on the ash fusion temperature were studied. The relationship between ash fusion temperature and chemical composition, mineralogical phases and functional groups was analyzed with the FTIR method. The results show that the ash fusion temperature is related to the location and transmittance of certain absorption peaks, which is of great significance for the study of ash behavior.

  9. Multi-band Image Registration Method Based on Fourier Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庹红娅; 刘允才


    This paper presented a registration method based on Fourier transform for multi-band images which is involved in translation and small rotation. Although different band images differ a lot in the intensity and features,they contain certain common information which we can exploit. A model was given that the multi-band images have linear correlations under the least-square sense. It is proved that the coefficients have no effect on the registration progress if two images have linear correlations. Finally, the steps of the registration method were proposed. The experiments show that the model is reasonable and the results are satisfying.

  10. The discrete Fourier transform theory, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sundaraajan, D


    This authoritative book provides comprehensive coverage of practical Fourier analysis. It develops the concepts right from the basics and gradually guides the reader to the advanced topics. It presents the latest and practically efficient DFT algorithms, as well as the computation of discrete cosine and Walsh-Hadamard transforms. The large number of visual aids such as figures, flow graphs and flow charts makes the mathematical topic easy to understand. In addition, the numerous examples and the set of C-language programs (a supplement to the book) help greatly in understanding the theory and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Bezubik


    Full Text Available The common trigonometric functions admit generalizations to any higher dimension, the symmetric, antisymmetric and alternating ones. In this paper, we restrict ourselves to three dimensional generalization only, focusing on alternating case in detail. Many specific properties of this new class of special functions useful in applications are studied. Such are the orthogonalities, both the continuous one and the discrete one on the 3D lattice of any density, corresponding discrete and continuous Fourier transforms, and others. Rapidly increasing precision of the interpolation with increasing density of the 3D lattice is shown in an example.

  12. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis of Protein Secondary Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jilie KONG; Shaoning YU


    Infrared spectroscopy is one of the oldest and well established experimental techniques for the analysis of secondary structure of polypeptides and proteins. It is convenient, non-destructive, requires less sample preparation, and can be used under a wide variety of conditions. This review introduces the recent developments in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique and its applications to protein structural studies. The experimental skills, data analysis, and correlations between the FTIR spectroscopic bands and protein secondary structure components are discussed. The applications of FTIR to the secondary structure analysis, conformational changes, structural dynamics and stability studies of proteins are also discussed.

  13. Transfer Function Identification Using Orthogonal Fourier Transform Modeling Functions (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.


    A method for transfer function identification, including both model structure determination and parameter estimation, was developed and demonstrated. The approach uses orthogonal modeling functions generated from frequency domain data obtained by Fourier transformation of time series data. The method was applied to simulation data to identify continuous-time transfer function models and unsteady aerodynamic models. Model fit error, estimated model parameters, and the associated uncertainties were used to show the effectiveness of the method for identifying accurate transfer function models from noisy data.

  14. The Non-uniform Fast Fourier Transform in Computed Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Junqi


    This project is aimed at designing the fast forward projection algorithm and also the backprojection algorithm for cone beam CT imaging systems with circular X-ray source trajectory. The principle of the designs is based on utilizing the potential computational efficiency which the Fourier Slice Theorem and the Non-uniform Fast Fourier Transform (NUFFT) will bring forth. In this Masters report, the detailed design of the NUFFT based forward projector including a novel 3D (derivative of) Radon space resampling method will be given. Meanwhile the complexity of the NUFFT based forward projector is analysed and compared with the non-Fourier based CT projector, and the advantage of the NUFFT based forward projection in terms of the computational efficiency is demonstrated in this report. Base on the design of the forward algorithm, the NUFFT based 3D direct reconstruction algorithm will be derived. The experiments will be taken to test the performance of the forward algorithm and the backprojection algorithm to sh...

  15. A high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer for planetary spectroscopy (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Sinton, W. M.


    The employment of a high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) is described for planetary and other astronomical spectroscopy in conjunction with the 88-inch telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The FTS system is designed for a broad range of uses, including double-beam laboratory spectroscopy, infrared gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The data system is well-suited to astronomical applications because of its great speed in acquiring and transforming data, and because of the enormous storage capability of the magnetic tape unit supplied with the system. The basic instrument is outlined 2nd some of the initial results from the first attempted use on the Mauna Kea 88-inch telescope are reported.

  16. A Matrix Formulation of Discrete Chirp Fourier Transform Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Pablo Soto Quiros; Domingo Rodriguez


    This work presents a computational matrix framework in terms of tensor signal algebra for the formulation of discrete chirp Fourier transform algorithms. These algorithms are used in this work to estimate the point target functions (impulse response functions) of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems. This estimation technique is being studied as an alternative to the estimation of point target functions using the discrete cross-ambiguity function for certain types of environmental surveillance applications. The tensor signal algebra is presented as a mathematics environment composed of signal spaces, finite dimensional linear operators, and special matrices where algebraic methods are used to generate these signal transforms as computational estimators. Also, the tensor signal algebra contributes to analysis, design, and implementation of parallel algorithms. An instantiation of the framework was performed by using the MATLAB Parallel Computing Toolbox, where all the algorithms presented in this paper were implemented.

  17. Fractional Fourier transform of Cantor sets: further numerical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Qiong; Liao tian-He; Cui Yuan-Feng


    This paper is a further work of the authors' paper published previously (Liao T H and Gao Q 2005 Chin. Phys. Lett. 22 2316). The amplitudes of fractional Fourier transform of Cantor sets are analysed from the viewpoint of multifractal by wavelet transform maxima method (WTMM). An integral operation is carried out before the application of WTMM, such that the function obtained can be considered as the perturbed devil staircase. Also, wavelets with large number of vanishing moments are used, which makes the complete singularity spectrum more accessible. The validity of multifractal formalism is guaranteed by restricting parameter q to a proper range, so that the phenomenon of multifractal phase transition can be explained reasonably. Particularly, the method of determining the range of parameter q in the above paper is developed to be more operational and rigorous.

  18. Fourier transform for fermionic systems and the spectral tensor network. (United States)

    Ferris, Andrew J


    Leveraging the decomposability of the fast Fourier transform, I propose a new class of tensor network that is efficiently contractible and able to represent many-body systems with local entanglement that is greater than the area law. Translationally invariant systems of free fermions in arbitrary dimensions as well as 1D systems solved by the Jordan-Wigner transformation are shown to be exactly represented in this class. Further, it is proposed that these tensor networks be used as generic structures to variationally describe more complicated systems, such as interacting fermions. This class shares some similarities with the Evenbly-Vidal branching multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz, but with some important differences and greatly reduced computational demands.

  19. Fast Fourier Transform Co-Processor (FFTC)- Towards Embedded GFLOPs (United States)

    Kuehl, Christopher; Liebstueckel, Uwe; Tejerina, Isaac; Uemminghaus, Michael; Wite, Felix; Kolb, Michael; Suess, Martin; Weigand, Roland


    Many signal processing applications and algorithms perform their operations on the data in the transform domain to gain efficiency. The Fourier Transform Co- Processor has been developed with the aim to offload General Purpose Processors from performing these transformations and therefore to boast the overall performance of a processing module. The IP of the commercial PowerFFT processor has been selected and adapted to meet the constraints of the space environment.In frame of the ESA activity “Fast Fourier Transform DSP Co-processor (FFTC)” (ESTEC/Contract No. 15314/07/NL/LvH/ma) the objectives were the following:Production of prototypes of a space qualified version of the commercial PowerFFT chip called FFTC based on the PowerFFT IP.The development of a stand-alone FFTC Accelerator Board (FTAB) based on the FFTC including the Controller FPGA and SpaceWire Interfaces to verify the FFTC function and performance.The FFTC chip performs its calculations with floating point precision. Stand alone it is capable computing FFTs of up to 1K complex samples in length in only 10μsec. This corresponds to an equivalent processing performance of 4.7 GFlops. In this mode the maximum sustained data throughput reaches 6.4Gbit/s. When connected to up to 4 EDAC protected SDRAM memory banks the FFTC can perform long FFTs with up to 1M complex samples in length or multidimensional FFT- based processing tasks.A Controller FPGA on the FTAB takes care of the SDRAM addressing. The instructions commanded via the Controller FPGA are used to set up the data flow and generate the memory addresses.The presentation will give and overview on the project, including the results of the validation of the FFTC ASIC prototypes.

  20. Fast Fourier Transform Co-processor (FFTC), towards embedded GFLOPs (United States)

    Kuehl, Christopher; Liebstueckel, Uwe; Tejerina, Isaac; Uemminghaus, Michael; Witte, Felix; Kolb, Michael; Suess, Martin; Weigand, Roland; Kopp, Nicholas


    Many signal processing applications and algorithms perform their operations on the data in the transform domain to gain efficiency. The Fourier Transform Co-Processor has been developed with the aim to offload General Purpose Processors from performing these transformations and therefore to boast the overall performance of a processing module. The IP of the commercial PowerFFT processor has been selected and adapted to meet the constraints of the space environment. In frame of the ESA activity "Fast Fourier Transform DSP Co-processor (FFTC)" (ESTEC/Contract No. 15314/07/NL/LvH/ma) the objectives were the following: • Production of prototypes of a space qualified version of the commercial PowerFFT chip called FFTC based on the PowerFFT IP. • The development of a stand-alone FFTC Accelerator Board (FTAB) based on the FFTC including the Controller FPGA and SpaceWire Interfaces to verify the FFTC function and performance. The FFTC chip performs its calculations with floating point precision. Stand alone it is capable computing FFTs of up to 1K complex samples in length in only 10μsec. This corresponds to an equivalent processing performance of 4.7 GFlops. In this mode the maximum sustained data throughput reaches 6.4Gbit/s. When connected to up to 4 EDAC protected SDRAM memory banks the FFTC can perform long FFTs with up to 1M complex samples in length or multidimensional FFT-based processing tasks. A Controller FPGA on the FTAB takes care of the SDRAM addressing. The instructions commanded via the Controller FPGA are used to set up the data flow and generate the memory addresses. The paper will give an overview on the project, including the results of the validation of the FFTC ASIC prototypes.

  1. Fourier-Transform Ghost Imaging with Hard X Rays (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Lu, Ronghua; Han, Shensheng; Xie, Honglan; Du, Guohao; Xiao, Tiqiao; Zhu, Daming


    Knowledge gained through x-ray crystallography fostered structural determination of materials and greatly facilitated the development of modern science and technology in the past century. However, it is only applied to crystalline structures and cannot resolve noncrystalline materials. Here we demonstrate a novel lensless Fourier-transform ghost imaging method with pseudothermal hard x rays that extends x-ray crystallography to noncrystalline samples. By measuring the second-order intensity correlation function of the light, Fourier-transform diffraction pattern of a complex amplitude sample is achieved at the Fresnel region in our experiment and the amplitude and phase distributions of the sample in the spatial domain are retrieved successfully. For the first time, ghost imaging is experimentally realized with x rays. Since a highly coherent x-ray source is not required, the method can be implemented with laboratory x-ray sources and it also provides a potential solution for lensless diffraction imaging with fermions, such as neutrons and electrons where intensive coherent sources usually are not available.

  2. Chiral Analysis of Isopulegol by Fourier Transform Molecular Rotational Spectroscopy (United States)

    Evangelisti, Luca; Seifert, Nathan A.; Spada, Lorenzo; Pate, Brooks


    Chiral analysis on molecules with multiple chiral centers can be performed using pulsed-jet Fourier transform rotational spectroscopy. This analysis includes quantitative measurement of diastereomer products and, with the three wave mixing methods developed by Patterson, Schnell, and Doyle (Nature 497, 475-477 (2013)), quantitative determination of the enantiomeric excess of each diastereomer. The high resolution features enable to perform the analysis directly on complex samples without the need for chromatographic separation. Isopulegol has been chosen to show the capabilities of Fourier transform rotational spectroscopy for chiral analysis. Broadband rotational spectroscopy produces spectra with signal-to-noise ratio exceeding 1000:1. The ability to identify low-abundance (0.1-1%) diastereomers in the sample will be described. Methods to rapidly identify rotational spectra from isotopologues at natural abundance will be shown and the molecular structures obtained from this analysis will be compared to theory. The role that quantum chemistry calculations play in identifying structural minima and estimating their spectroscopic properties to aid spectral analysis will be described. Finally, the implementation of three wave mixing techniques to measure the enantiomeric excess of each diastereomer and determine the absolute configuration of the enantiomer in excess will be described.

  3. Integrated optics in an electrically scanned imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (United States)

    Breckinridge, James B. (Inventor); Ocallaghan, Fred G. (Inventor)


    An efficient, lightweight and stable, Fourier transform spectrometer was developed. The mechanical slide mechanism needed to create a path difference was eliminated by the use of retro-reflecting mirrors in a monolithic interferometer assembly in which the mirrors are not at 90 degrees to the propagation vector of the radiation, but rather at a small angle. The resulting plane wave fronts create a double-sided inteferogram of the source irradiance distribution which is detected by a charge-coupled device image sensor array. The position of each CCD pixel in the array is an indication of the path difference between the two retro-reflecting mirrors in the monolithic optical structure. The Fourier transform of the signals generated by the image sensor provide the spectral irradiance distribution of the source. For imaging, the interferometer assembly scans the source of irradiation by moving the entire instrument, such as would occur if it was fixedly mounted to a moving platform, i.e., a spacecraft. During scanning, the entrace slot to the monolithic optical structure sends different pixels to corresponding interferograms detected by adjacent columns of pixels of the image sensor.

  4. [Fourier Transform Spectrometer Based on Rotating Parallel-Mirror-Pair]. (United States)

    Zhao, Bao-wei; Xiangli, Bin; Cai, Qi-sheng; Lü, Qun-bo; Zhou, Jin-song


    In the temporally-modulated Fourier transform spectroscopy, the translational moving mirror is difficult to drive accurately, causing tilt and shear problems. While, a rotational moving mirror can solve these problems. A rotary Fourier transform spectrometer is recommanded in this paper. Its principle is analyzed and the optical path difference is deduced. Also, the constrains for engineering realization are presented. This spectrometer consists of one beamsplitter, two fixed mirrors, one rotating parallel mirror pair, a collimating lens, a collecting lens, and one detector. From it's principle, this spectrometer show a simple structure, and it is assembled and adjustmented easily because the two split light are interfered with each other after reflected through the same plane mirror; By calculating the expression of it's optical path difference, the spectrometer is easy to realize large optical path difference, meaning high spectral resolution; Through analyzing it's engineering design constraints and computer simulation, it is known that the spectrometer should get the high resolution sample by high-speed spinning motor, so it is easy to achieve precise motion control, good stability, fast measurement speed.

  5. Quantum process tomography of the quantum Fourier transform. (United States)

    Weinstein, Yaakov S; Havel, Timothy F; Emerson, Joseph; Boulant, Nicolas; Saraceno, Marcos; Lloyd, Seth; Cory, David G


    The results of quantum process tomography on a three-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor are presented and shown to be consistent with a detailed model of the system-plus-apparatus used for the experiments. The quantum operation studied was the quantum Fourier transform, which is important in several quantum algorithms and poses a rigorous test for the precision of our recently developed strongly modulating control fields. The results were analyzed in an attempt to decompose the implementation errors into coherent (overall systematic), incoherent (microscopically deterministic), and decoherent (microscopically random) components. This analysis yielded a superoperator consisting of a unitary part that was strongly correlated with the theoretically expected unitary superoperator of the quantum Fourier transform, an overall attenuation consistent with decoherence, and a residual portion that was not completely positive-although complete positivity is required for any quantum operation. By comparison with the results of computer simulations, the lack of complete positivity was shown to be largely a consequence of the incoherent errors which occurred over the full quantum process tomography procedure. These simulations further showed that coherent, incoherent, and decoherent errors can often be identified by their distinctive effects on the spectrum of the overall superoperator. The gate fidelity of the experimentally determined superoperator was 0.64, while the correlation coefficient between experimentally determined superoperator and the simulated superoperator was 0.79; most of the discrepancies with the simulations could be explained by the cumulative effect of small errors in the single qubit gates.

  6. Zernike aberration coefficients transformed to and from Fourier series coefficients for wavefront representation. (United States)

    Dai, Guang-Ming


    The set of Fourier series is discussed following some discussion of Zernike polynomials. Fourier transforms of Zernike polynomials are derived that allow for relating Fourier series expansion coefficients to Zernike polynomial expansion coefficients. With iterative Fourier reconstruction, Zernike representations of wavefront aberrations can easily be obtained from wavefront derivative measurements.

  7. An improved model for whole genome phylogenetic analysis by Fourier transform. (United States)

    Yin, Changchuan; Yau, Stephen S-T


    DNA sequence similarity comparison is one of the major steps in computational phylogenetic studies. The sequence comparison of closely related DNA sequences and genomes is usually performed by multiple sequence alignments (MSA). While the MSA method is accurate for some types of sequences, it may produce incorrect results when DNA sequences undergone rearrangements as in many bacterial and viral genomes. It is also limited by its computational complexity for comparing large volumes of data. Previously, we proposed an alignment-free method that exploits the full information contents of DNA sequences by Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), but still with some limitations. Here, we present a significantly improved method for the similarity comparison of DNA sequences by DFT. In this method, we map DNA sequences into 2-dimensional (2D) numerical sequences and then apply DFT to transform the 2D numerical sequences into frequency domain. In the 2D mapping, the nucleotide composition of a DNA sequence is a determinant factor and the 2D mapping reduces the nucleotide composition bias in distance measure, and thus improving the similarity measure of DNA sequences. To compare the DFT power spectra of DNA sequences with different lengths, we propose an improved even scaling algorithm to extend shorter DFT power spectra to the longest length of the underlying sequences. After the DFT power spectra are evenly scaled, the spectra are in the same dimensionality of the Fourier frequency space, then the Euclidean distances of full Fourier power spectra of the DNA sequences are used as the dissimilarity metrics. The improved DFT method, with increased computational performance by 2D numerical representation, can be applicable to any DNA sequences of different length ranges. We assess the accuracy of the improved DFT similarity measure in hierarchical clustering of different DNA sequences including simulated and real datasets. The method yields accurate and reliable phylogenetic trees

  8. Computationally efficient method for Fourier transform of highly chirped pulses for laser and parametric amplifier modeling. (United States)

    Andrianov, Alexey; Szabo, Aron; Sergeev, Alexander; Kim, Arkady; Chvykov, Vladimir; Kalashnikov, Mikhail


    We developed an improved approach to calculate the Fourier transform of signals with arbitrary large quadratic phase which can be efficiently implemented in numerical simulations utilizing Fast Fourier transform. The proposed algorithm significantly reduces the computational cost of Fourier transform of a highly chirped and stretched pulse by splitting it into two separate transforms of almost transform limited pulses, thereby reducing the required grid size roughly by a factor of the pulse stretching. The application of our improved Fourier transform algorithm in the split-step method for numerical modeling of CPA and OPCPA shows excellent agreement with standard algorithms.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范保星; 张开泰; 李刚; 谢玲; 马淑华; 葛世丽; 项小琼; 胡迎春; 王升启; 周平坤; 吴德昌


    Objective: To detect the expression difference of 60 lung cancer associated genes in human bronchial epithelial malignant transformation cell model (BEP2D) induced by alpha-particles. Methods: 60 lung cancer associated genes were collected and micro-arrayed onto the microscope slides using Cartesian PixSys5500 cDNA Microarray machine. Total RNA from BEP2D cells and passage 20 (Rl5H-20), passage 35 (R15H-35) cells derived from BEP2D following 1.5 Gy alpha-particles was extracted and labeled by fluorescent dye. The labeled probe was then hybridized with the cDNA. Results: 40, 47, 20 genes were detected in BEP2D, R15H-20 and R15H-35 respectively. The expression level of tumor suppressor genes decreased greatly in the transformed R15H-35. Most oncogenes decreased slightly in R15H-20. Most growth factors expressed only in R15H-20. Conclusion: In human bronchial epithelial malignant transformed cell model generated by alpha-particles, the loss-function of tumor suppressor genes at initiation stage was dominant, some related oncogenes and growth factors promoted the malignant transformation.

  10. Effects of finite pulse width on two-dimensional Fourier transform electron spin resonance (United States)

    Liang, Zhichun; Crepeau, Richard H.; Freed, Jack H.


    Two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform ESR techniques, such as 2D-ELDOR, have considerably improved the resolution of ESR in studies of molecular dynamics in complex fluids such as liquid crystals and membrane vesicles and in spin labeled polymers and peptides. A well-developed theory based on the stochastic Liouville equation (SLE) has been successfully employed to analyze these experiments. However, one fundamental assumption has been utilized to simplify the complex analysis, viz. the pulses have been treated as ideal non-selective ones, which therefore provide uniform irradiation of the whole spectrum. In actual experiments, the pulses are of finite width causing deviations from the theoretical predictions, a problem that is exacerbated by experiments performed at higher frequencies. In the present paper we provide a method to deal with the full SLE including the explicit role of the molecular dynamics, the spin Hamiltonian and the radiation field during the pulse. The computations are rendered more manageable by utilizing the Trotter formula, which is adapted to handle this SLE in what we call a "Split Super-Operator" method. Examples are given for different motional regimes, which show how 2D-ELDOR spectra are affected by the finite pulse widths. The theory shows good agreement with 2D-ELDOR experiments performed as a function of pulse width.

  11. Spectrogram analysis of selected tremor signals using short-time Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartosch, T. [Erlanger-Nuernberg Univ., Erlanger (Germany). Lehrstul fuer Nachrichtentechnik I; Seidl, D. [Seismologisches Zentralobservatorium Graefenberg, Erlanegen (Greece). Bundesanstalt fuer Geiwissenschaften und Rohstoffe


    Among a variety of spectrogram methods short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) were selected to analyse transients in non-stationary signals. Depending on the properties of the tremor signals from the volcanos Mt. Stromboli, Mt. Semeru and Mt. Pinatubo were analyzed using both methods. The CWT can also be used to extend the definition of coherency into a time-varying coherency spectrogram. An example is given using array data from the volcano Mt. Stromboli (Italy).

  12. Quantum Mechanical Fourier-Hankel Representation Transform for an Electron Moving in a Uniform Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi


    We find quantum mechanical Fourier-Hankel representation transform for an electron moving in a uniform magnetic field. The physical meaning of Fourier decomposition states of electron's coordinate eigenstate and the momentum eigenstate are revealed.

  13. Motion saliency detection using a temporal fourier transform (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Wang, Xin; Sun, Zhen; Wang, Zhijian


    Motion saliency detection aims at detecting the dynamic semantic regions in a video sequence. It is very important for many vision tasks. This paper proposes a new type of motion saliency detection method, Temporal Fourier Transform, for fast motion saliency detection. Different from conventional motion saliency detection methods that use complex mathematical models or features, variations in the phase spectrum of consecutive frames are identified and extracted as the key to obtaining the location of salient motion. As all the calculation is made on the temporal frequency spectrum, our model is independent of features, background models, or other forms of prior knowledge about scenes. The benefits of the proposed approach are evaluated for various videos where the number of moving objects, illumination, and background are all different. Compared with some the state of the art methods, our method achieves both good accuracy and fast computation.

  14. The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    In this article we shall mathematically analyse the Resistor-Capacitor (RC) circuit with the help of Fourier transforms(FT). This very general technique gives us a lot of insight intosolving first order differential equations with source terms dependingon time. In itself, the RC circuit is by far the mostcommonplace entity in modern electronics. But the method ofFT is not the accepted custom for an electronic engineer, whois probably more comfortable working with complex impedancesand phasors while solving problems in network analysis.In fact, what is used much more extensively is the Laplacetransform. But a lot of things, (including the complex impedanceitself, and some insight into complex analysis) can be understoodbetter if we use the FT approach to solve the differentialequations that come up in network analysis. The use of FTcomes smoothly from first principles – precisely what we setout to demonstrate here.

  15. Indirect Fourier transform in the context of statistical inference. (United States)

    Muthig, Michael; Prévost, Sylvain; Orglmeister, Reinhold; Gradzielski, Michael


    Inferring structural information from the intensity of a small-angle scattering (SAS) experiment is an ill-posed inverse problem. Thus, the determination of a solution is in general non-trivial. In this work, the indirect Fourier transform (IFT), which determines the pair distance distribution function from the intensity and hence yields structural information, is discussed within two different statistical inference approaches, namely a frequentist one and a Bayesian one, in order to determine a solution objectively From the frequentist approach the cross-validation method is obtained as a good practical objective function for selecting an IFT solution. Moreover, modern machine learning methods are employed to suppress oscillatory behaviour of the solution, hence extracting only meaningful features of the solution. By comparing the results yielded by the different methods presented here, the reliability of the outcome can be improved and thus the approach should enable more reliable information to be deduced from SAS experiments.

  16. Spatially Resolved Fourier Transform Spectroscopy in the Extreme Ultraviolet

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, G S M; Freisem, L; Eikema, K S E; Witte, S


    Coherent extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation produced by table-top high-harmonic generation (HHG) sources provides a wealth of possibilities in research areas ranging from attosecond physics to high resolution coherent imaging. However, it remains challenging to fully exploit the coherence of such sources for interferometry and Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS). This is due to the need for a measurement system that is stable at the level of a wavelength fraction, yet allowing a controlled scanning of time delays. Here we demonstrate XUV interferometry and FTS in the 17-55 nm wavelength range using an ultrastable common-path interferometer suitable for high-intensity laser pulses that drive the HHG process. This approach enables the generation of fully coherent XUV pulse pairs with sub-attosecond timing variation, tunable time delay and a clean Gaussian spatial mode profile. We demonstrate the capabilities of our XUV interferometer by performing spatially resolved FTS on a thin film composed of titanium and...

  17. Persian Sign Language Recognition Using Radial Distance and Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahare Jalilian


    Full Text Available This paper provides a novel hand gesture recognition method to recognize 32 static signs of the Persian Sign Language (PSL alphabets. Accurate hand segmentation is the first and important step in sign language recognition systems. Here, we propose a method for hand segmentation that helps to build a better vision based sign language recognition system. The proposed method is based on YCbCr color space, single Gaussian model and Bayes rule. It detects region of hand in complex background and non-uniform illumination. Hand gesture features are extracted by radial distance and Fourier transform. Finally, the Euclidean distanceis used to compute the similarity between the input signs and all training feature vectors in the database. The system is tested on 480 posture images of the PSL, 15 images for each 32 signs. Experimental results show that our approach is capable to recognize all 32 PSL alphabets with 95.62% recognition rate.

  18. A rheumatoid arthritis study by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    Carvalho, Carolina S.; Silva, Ana Carla A.; Santos, Tatiano J. P. S.; Martin, Airton A.; dos Santos Fernandes, Ana Célia; Andrade, Luís E.; Raniero, Leandro


    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic inflammatory disease of unknown causes and a new methods to identify it in early stages are needed. The main purpose of this work is the biochemical differentiation of sera between normal and RA patients, through the establishment of a statistical method that can be appropriately used for serological analysis. The human sera from 39 healthy donors and 39 rheumatics donors were collected and analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The results show significant spectral variations with p<0.05 in regions corresponding to protein, lipids and immunoglobulins. The technique of latex particles, coated with human IgG and monoclonal anti-CRP by indirect agglutination known as FR and CRP, was performed to confirm possible false-negative results within the groups, facilitating the statistical interpretation and validation of the technique.

  19. Instrument concept of the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer GLORIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Friedl-Vallon


    Full Text Available The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA is an imaging limb emission sounder operating in the thermal infrared region. It is designed to provide measurements of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere with high spatial and high spectral resolution. The instrument consists of an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer integrated into a gimbal. The assembly can be mounted in the belly pod of the German High Altitude and Long Range research aircraft (HALO and in instrument bays of the Russian M55 Geophysica. Measurements are made in two distinct modes: the chemistry mode emphasises chemical analysis with high spectral resolution, and the dynamics mode focuses on dynamical processes of the atmosphere with very high spatial resolution. In addition, the instrument allows tomographic analyses of air volumes. The first measurement campaigns have shown compliance with key performance and operational requirements.

  20. Optical design of the ATMOS Fourier transform spectrometer (United States)

    Abel, I. R.; Reynolds, B. R.; Breckinridge, J. B.; Pritchard, J.


    The optical system design of the ATMOS Fourier transform spectrometer to be operated from Spacelab for the measurement of stratospheric trace molecules is described. The design contains features which can achieve the required fringe contrast of 80% and spectral resolution of 0.02/cm over a spectral range of 2-16 microns. In particular, the design is based on the following features which alleviate the usual requirements for alignment precision: (1) 'cat's eye' mirror configuration in the two arms of the interferometer for retroreflection stability, (2) tilt-compensated system of beamsplitter, compensator, and fold mirrors for wavefront directional stability, (3) paraboloidal 'cat's eye' primary mirror for wavefront stability against shear, (4) rotatable compensator for matching chromatic dispersion, and (5) wedged refractive components to avoid channel spectra due to the Fabry-Perot effect.

  1. Calibration of the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) (United States)

    Best, F. A.; Revercomb, H. E.; Bingham, G. E.; Knuteson, R. O.; Tobin, D. C.; LaPorte, D. D.; Smith, W. L.


    The NASA New Millennium Program's Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) requires highly accurate radiometric and spectral calibration in order to carry out its mission to provide water vapor, wind, temperature, and trace gas profiling from geostationary orbit. A calibration concept has been developed for the GIFTS Phase A instrument design. The in-flight calibration is performed using views of two on-board blackbody sources along with cold space. A radiometric calibration uncertainty analysis has been developed and used to show that the expected performance for GIFTS exceeds its top level requirement to measure brightness temperature to better than 1 K. For the Phase A GIFTS design, the spectral calibration is established by the highly stable diode laser used as the reference for interferogram sampling, and verified with comparisons to atmospheric calculations.

  2. A direct digital synthesis chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. (United States)

    Finneran, Ian A; Holland, Daniel B; Carroll, P Brandon; Blake, Geoffrey A


    Chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometers have become the instrument of choice for acquiring rotational spectra, due to their high sensitivity, fast acquisition rate, and large bandwidth. Here we present the design and capabilities of a recently constructed CP-FTMW spectrometer using direct digital synthesis (DDS) as a new method for chirped pulse generation, through both a suite of extensive microwave characterizations and deep averaging of the 10-14 GHz spectrum of jet-cooled acetone. The use of DDS is more suited for in situ applications of CP-FTMW spectroscopy, as it reduces the size, weight, and power consumption of the chirp generation segment of the spectrometer all by more than an order of magnitude, while matching the performance of traditional designs. The performance of the instrument was further improved by the use of a high speed digitizer with dedicated signal averaging electronics, which facilitates a data acquisition rate of 2.1 kHz.

  3. A Fourier transform Raman spectrometer with visible laser excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Dzsaber, S; Bernáth, B; Gyüre, B; Fehér, T; Kramberger, C; Pichler, T; Simon, F


    We present the development and performance of a Fourier transformation (FT) based Raman spectrometer working with visible laser (532 nm) excitation. It is generally thought that FT-Raman spectrometers are not viable in the visible range where shot-noise limits the detector performance and therein they are outperformed by grating based, dispersive ones. We show that contrary to this common belief, the recent advances of high-performance interference filters makes the FT-Raman design a valid alternative to dispersive Raman spectrometers for samples which do not luminesce. We critically compare the performance of our spectrometer to two dispersive ones: a home-built single channel and a state-of-the-art CCD based instruments. We demonstrate a similar or even better sensitivity than the CCD based dispersive spectrometer particularly when the laser power density is considered. The instrument possesses all the known advantages of the FT principle of spectral accuracy, high throughput, and economic design. We also d...

  4. [Influence of collimation system on static Fourier transform spectrometer]. (United States)

    Jiang, Cheng-Zhi; Liang, Jing-Qiu; Liang, Zhong-Zhu; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Wei-Biao


    Collimation system provides collimated light for the static Fourier-transform spectroscopy (SFTS). Its quality is crucial to the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of SFTS. In the present paper, the physical model of SFTS was established based on the Fresnel diffraction theory by means of numerical software. The influence of collimation system on the SFTS was discussed in detail focusing on the aberrations of collimation lens and the quality of extended source. The results of simulation show that the influences of different kinds of aberrations on SNR take on obvious regularity, and in particular, the influences of off-axis aberrations on SNR are closely related to the location of off-axis point source. Finally the extended source's maximum radius allowed was obtained by simulation, which equals to 0.65 mm. The discussion results will be used for the design of collimation system.

  5. How to tickle spins with a fourier transform NMR spectrometer. (United States)

    Segawa, Takuya F; Carnevale, Diego; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey


    In the long bygone days of continuous-wave nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, a selected transition within a multiplet of a high-resolution spectrum could be irradiated by a highly selective continuous-wave (CW) radio-frequency (rf) field with a very weak amplitude ω(2)/(2π)≤J. This causes splittings of connected transitions, allowing one to map the connectivities of all transitions within the energy-level diagram of the spin system. Such "tickling" experiments stimulated the invention of two-dimensional spectroscopy, but seem to have been forgotten for nearly 50 years. We show that tickling can readily be achieved in homonuclear systems with Fourier transform spectrometers by applying short pulses in the intervals between the sampling points. Extensions to heteronuclear systems are even more straightforward since they can be carried out using very weak CW rf fields.

  6. High-Throughput Screening Using Fourier-Transform Infrared Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Sasmaz


    Full Text Available Efficient parallel screening of combinatorial libraries is one of the most challenging aspects of the high-throughput (HT heterogeneous catalysis workflow. Today, a number of methods have been used in HT catalyst studies, including various optical, mass-spectrometry, and gas-chromatography techniques. Of these, rapid-scanning Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR imaging is one of the fastest and most versatile screening techniques. Here, the new design of the 16-channel HT reactor is presented and test results for its accuracy and reproducibility are shown. The performance of the system was evaluated through the oxidation of CO over commercial Pd/Al2O3 and cobalt oxide nanoparticles synthesized with different reducer-reductant molar ratios, surfactant types, metal and surfactant concentrations, synthesis temperatures, and ramp rates.

  7. Short-time Fourier transform laser Doppler holography

    CERN Document Server

    Atlan, Michael


    We report a demonstration of laser Doppler holography at a sustained acquisition rate of 250 Hz on a 1 Megapixel complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) sensor array and image display at 10 Hz frame rate. The holograms are optically acquired in off-axis configuration, with a frequency-shifted reference beam. Wide-field imaging of optical fluctuations in a 250 Hz frequency band is achieved by turning time-domain samplings to the dual domain via short-time temporal Fourier transformation. The measurement band can be positioned freely within the low radio-frequency spectrum by tuning the frequency of the reference beam in real-time. Video-rate image rendering is achieved by streamline image processing with commodity computer graphics hardware. This experimental scheme is validated by a non-contact vibrometry experiment.

  8. Microscope system with on axis programmable Fourier transform filtering (United States)

    Martínez, José Luis; García-Martínez, Pascuala; Moreno, Ignacio


    We propose an on-axis microscope optical system to implement programmable optical Fourier transform image processing operations, taking advantage of phase and polarization modulation of a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) display. We use a Hamamatsu spatial light modulator (SLM), free of flickering, which therefore can be tuned to fully eliminate the zero order component of the encoded diffractive filter. This allows the realization of filtering operation on axis (as opposed to other systems in the literature that require operating off axis), therefore making use of the full space bandwidth provided by the SLM. The system is first demonstrated by implementing different optical processing operations based on phase-only blazed gratings such as phase contrast, band-pass filtering, or additive and substractive imaging. Then, a simple Differential interference contrast (DIC) imaging is obtained changing to a polarization modulation scheme, achieved simply by selecting a different incident state of polarization on the incident beam.

  9. Wide-Field Detected Fourier Transform CARS Microscopy (United States)

    Duarte, Alex Soares; Schnedermann, Christoph; Kukura, Philipp


    We present a wide-field imaging implementation of Fourier transform coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (wide-field detected FT-CARS) microscopy capable of acquiring high-contrast label-free but chemically specific images over the full vibrational ‘fingerprint’ region, suitable for a large field of view. Rapid resonant mechanical scanning of the illumination beam coupled with highly sensitive, camera-based detection of the CARS signal allows for fast and direct hyperspectral wide-field image acquisition, while minimizing sample damage. Intrinsic to FT-CARS microscopy, the ability to control the range of time-delays between pump and probe pulses allows for fine tuning of spectral resolution, bandwidth and imaging speed while maintaining full duty cycle. We outline the basic principles of wide-field detected FT-CARS microscopy and demonstrate how it can be used as a sensitive optical probe for chemically specific Raman imaging.

  10. Observing Extended Sources with the \\Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Ronin; Etxaluze, Mireya; Makiwa, Gibion; Naylor, David A; Salji, Carl; Swinyard, Bruce M; Ferlet, Marc; van der Wiel, Matthijs H D; Smith, Anthony J; Fulton, Trevor; Griffin, Matt J; Baluteau, Jean-Paul; Benielli, Dominique; Glenn, Jason; Hopwood, Rosalind; Imhof, Peter; Lim, Tanya; Lu, Nanyao; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Pearson, Chris; Sidher, Sunil; Valtchanov, Ivan


    The Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) on the European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory utilizes a pioneering design for its imaging spectrometer in the form of a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). The standard FTS data reduction and calibration schemes are aimed at objects with either a spatial extent much larger than the beam size or a source that can be approximated as a point source within the beam. However, when sources are of intermediate spatial extent, neither of these calibrations schemes is appropriate and both the spatial response of the instrument and the source's light profile must be taken into account and the coupling between them explicitly derived. To that end, we derive the necessary corrections using an observed spectrum of a fully extended source with the beam profile and the source's light profile taken into account. We apply the derived correction to several observations of planets and compare the corrected spectra with their spectral models to study the beam c...

  11. Initial Results from the USNO Dispersed Fourier Transform Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Hajian, A R; Cenko, A T; Olling, R P; Mozurkewich, D; Armstrong, J T; Pohl, B; Petrossian, S; Knuth, K H; Hindsley, R B; Murison, M; Efroimsky, M; Dantowitz, R; Kozubal, M; Currie, D G; Nordgren, T E; Tycner, C; McMillan, R S; Hajian, Arsen R.; Behr, Bradford B.; Cenko, Andrew T.; Olling, Robert P.; Mozurkewich, David; Pohl, Brian; Petrossian, Sevan; Knuth, Kevin H.; Hindsley, Robert B.; Murison, Marc; Efroimsky, Michael; Dantowitz, Ronald; Kozubal, Marek; Currie, Douglas G.; Nordgren, Tyler E.; Tycner, Christopher; Millan, Robert S. Mc


    We have designed and constructed a ``dispersed Fourier Transform Spectrometer'' (dFTS), consisting of a conventional FTS followed by a grating spectrometer. By combining these two devices, we negate a substantial fraction of the sensitivity disadvantage of a conventional FTS for high resolution, broadband, optical spectroscopy, while preserving many of the advantages inherent to interferometric spectrometers. In addition, we have implemented a simple and inexpensive laser metrology system, which enables very precise calibration of the interferometer wavelength scale. The fusion of interferometric and dispersive technologies with a laser metrology system yields an instrument well-suited to stellar spectroscopy, velocimetry, and extrasolar planet detection, which is competitive with existing high-resolution, high accuracy stellar spectrometers. In this paper, we describe the design of our prototype dFTS, explain the algorithm we use to efficiently reconstruct a broadband spectrum from a sequence of narrowband i...

  12. Mid-Infrared Frequency Comb Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Florian; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra; Cossel, Kevin C; Briles, Travis C; Hartl, Ingmar; Ye, Jun


    Optical frequency-comb-based-high-resolution spectrometers offer enormous potential for spectroscopic applications. Although various implementations have been demonstrated, the lack of suitable mid-infrared comb sources has impeded explorations of molecular fingerprinting. Here we present for the first time a frequency-comb Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the 2100-to-3700-cm-1 spectral region that allows fast and simultaneous acquisitions of broadband absorption spectra with up to 0.0056 cm-1 resolution. We demonstrate part-per-billion detection limits in 30 seconds of integration time for various important molecules including methane, ethane, isoprene, and nitrous oxide. Our system enables precise concentration measurements even in gas mixtures that exhibit continuous absorption bands, and it allows detection of molecules at levels below the noise floor via simultaneous analysis of multiple spectral features. This system represents a near real-time, high-resolution, high-bandwidth mid-infrared sp...

  13. Charge reversal Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Lobodin, Vladislav V; Savory, Joshua J; Kaiser, Nathan K; Dunk, Paul W; Marshall, Alan G


    We report the first charge reversal experiments performed by tandem-in-time rather than tandem-in-space MS/MS. Precursor odd-electron anions from fullerene C(60), and even-electron ions from 2,7-di-tert-butylfluorene-9-carboxylic acid and 3,3'-bicarbazole were converted into positive product ions ((-)CR(+)) inside the magnet of a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Charge reversal was activated by irradiating precursor ions with high energy electrons or UV photons: the first reported use of those activation methods for charge reversal. We suggest that high energy electrons achieve charge reversal in one step as double electron transfer, whereas UV-activated (-)CR(+) takes place stepwise through two single electron transfers and formally corresponds to a neutralization-reionization ((-)NR(+)) experiment.

  14. Seismic Shear Energy Reflection By Radon-Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Umairia


    Full Text Available Seismic waves split in an anisotropic medium, instead of rotating horizontal component to principal direction, Radon-Fourier is derived to observe the signature of shear wave reflection. Synthetic model with fracture is built and discretized using finite difference scheme for spatial and time domain. Common depth point (CDP with single shot gives traces and automatic gain is preprocessed before Radon Transform (RT, a filtering technique gives radon domain. It makes easier to observe fractures at specific incidence and improves its quality in some way by removing the noise. A comparison of synthetic data and BF-data is performed on the basis of root means square error (RMS values. The RMS error is minimum at the 10th trace in radon domain.

  15. Radix-3 Algorithm for Realization of Discrete Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Narayan Murty


    Full Text Available In this paper, a new radix-3 algorithm for realization of discrete Fourier transform (DFT of length N = 3m (m = 1, 2, 3,... is presented. The DFT of length N can be realized from three DFT sequences, each of length N/3. If the input signal has length N, direct calculation of DFT requires O (N 2 complex multiplications (4N 2 real multiplications and some additions. This radix-3 algorithm reduces the number of multiplications required for realizing DFT. For example, the number of complex multiplications required for realizing 9-point DFT using the proposed radix-3 algorithm is 60. Thus, saving in time can be achieved in the realization of proposed algorithm.

  16. Quantum copying and simplification of the quantum Fourier transform (United States)

    Niu, Chi-Sheng

    Theoretical studies of quantum computation and quantum information theory are presented in this thesis. Three topics are considered: simplification of the quantum Fourier transform in Shor's algorithm, optimal eavesdropping in the BB84 quantum cryptographic protocol, and quantum copying of one qubit. The quantum Fourier transform preceding the final measurement in Shor's algorithm is simplified by replacing a network of quantum gates with one that has fewer and simpler gates controlled by classical signals. This simplification results from an analysis of the network using the consistent history approach to quantum mechanics. The optimal amount of information which an eavesdropper can gain, for a given level of noise in the communication channel, is worked out for the BB84 quantum cryptographic protocol. The optimal eavesdropping strategy is expressed in terms of various quantum networks. A consistent history analysis of these networks using two conjugate quantum bases shows how the information gain in one basis influences the noise level in the conjugate basis. The no-cloning property of quantum systems, which is the physics behind quantum cryptography, is studied by considering copying machines that generate two imperfect copies of one qubit. The best qualities these copies can have are worked out with the help of the Bloch sphere representation for one qubit, and a quantum network is worked out for an optimal copying machine. If the copying machine does not have additional ancillary qubits, the copying process can be viewed using a 2-dimensional subspace in a product space of two qubits. A special representation of such a two-dimensional subspace makes possible a complete characterization of this type of copying. This characterization in turn leads to simplified eavesdropping strategies in the BB84 and the B92 quantum cryptographic protocols.

  17. Adaptive Controller for Compact Fourier Transform Spectrometer with Space Applications (United States)

    Keymeulen, D.; Yiu, P.; Berisford, D. F.; Hand, K. P.; Carlson, R. W.; Conroy, M.


    Here we present noise mitigation techniques developed as part of an adaptive controller for a very compact Compositional InfraRed Interferometric Spectrometer (CIRIS) implemented on a stand-alone field programmable gate array (FPGA) architecture with emphasis on space applications in high radiation environments such as Europa. CIRIS is a novel take on traditional Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) and replaces linearly moving mirrors (characteristic of Michelson interferometers) with a constant-velocity rotating refractor to variably phase shift and alter the path length of incoming light. The design eschews a monochromatic reference laser typically used for sampling clock generation and instead utilizes constant time-sampling via internally generated clocks. This allows for a compact and robust device, making it ideal for spaceborne measurements in the near-IR to thermal-IR band (2-12 µm) on planetary exploration missions. The instrument's embedded microcontroller is implemented on a VIRTEX-5 FPGA and a PowerPC with the aim of sampling the instrument's detector and optical rotary encoder in order to construct interferograms. Subsequent onboard signal processing provides spectral immunity from the noise effects introduced by the compact design's removal of a reference laser and by the radiation encountered during space flight to destinations such as Europa. A variety of signal processing techniques including resampling, radiation peak removal, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), spectral feature alignment, dispersion correction and calibration processes are applied to compose the sample spectrum in real-time with signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) performance comparable to laser-based FTS designs in radiation-free environments. The instrument's FPGA controller is demonstrated with the FTS to characterize its noise mitigation techniques and highlight its suitability for implementation in space systems.

  18. Potential-Field Forward Modeling and Inversion Using 3D Fast Fourier Transforms (United States)

    Phillips, J. D.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Cocchi, L.


    Although 1D and 2D fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) have long been used for the filtering, interpretation, and modeling of potential-field data, 3D FFTs have not enjoyed similar popularity. This may change with the recent discovery (Caratori Tontini et al., in press, JGR) that simple 3D FFT filters can be used to transform distributions of density (or magnetization) within a box-shaped 3D volume into gravity (or magnetic) fields within the same volume. For example, the continuous 3D Fourier transform of the vertical gravity anomaly Δgz(x,y,z) in a volume is related to the 3D Fourier transform of the density ρ(x,y,z) in the volume by ℑ[Δgz] = i4πG(kz/ | k | 2)ℑ[ρ]; | k | ≠0, (1) where G is the gravitational constant, kx, ky, kz are wavenumbers, and | k | 2 = kx2+ ky2+ kz2. (2) Translating (1) into a digital FFT filtering operation requires careful consideration of the periodicity of the density distribution and the gravity field. Nevertheless, (1) provides a highly efficient way to calculate the vertical gravity anomaly of a 3D density distribution within a few minutes. The calculated gravity anomaly can be sampled at random points or on an arbitrary surface using tri-linear interpolation. An equivalent space- domain calculation of the gravity field on an arbitrary surface can take many hours. The inverse relation to (1) does not appear to offer a practical approach for calculating a reliable density distribution from observed gravity data. This is because the data would have to cover a substantial portion of the model volume, and because the transformation is undefined on the plane kz = 0, where both the denominator of the filter kernel and the Fourier transform of the gravity field are identically zero. Numerical experiments show that the density distribution resulting from the power on the plane kz = 0 represents a classic Parker annihilator. This annihilator can be calculated from the density distribution but not from the gravity field, as would be

  19. Four-quadrant spatial phase-shifting Fourier transform digital holography for recording of cosine transform coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chujun Zheng; Peng Han; Hongsen Chang


    @@ A new one-step four-quadrant spatial phase-shifting Fourier transform digital holography is presented for recording of cosine transform coefficients, because cosine transform is a real-even symmetric Fourier transform. This approach implements four quadrant spatial phase shifting at a time using a special phase mask, which is located in the reference arm, and the phase distributions of its four-quadrants are 0, π/2, π,and 3π/2 respectively. The theoretical analysis and computer simulation results show that cosine transform coefficients of real-valued image can be calculated by capturing single four-quadrant spatial phase-shifting Fourier transform digital hologram.

  20. Adaptive motion mapping in pancreatic SBRT patients using Fourier transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Bernard L; Miften, Moyed


    Recent studies suggest that 4DCT is unable to accurately measure respiratory-induced pancreatic tumor motion. In this work, we assessed the daily motion of pancreatic tumors treated with SBRT, and developed adaptive strategies to predict and account for this motion. The daily motion trajectory of pancreatic tumors during CBCT acquisition was calculated using a model which reconstructs the instantaneous 3D position in each 2D CBCT projection image. We developed a metric (termed "Spectral Coherence," SC) based on the Fourier frequency spectrum of motion in the SI direction, and analyzed the ability of SC to predict motion-based errors and classify patients according to motion characteristics. The amplitude of daily motion exceeded the predictions of pre-treatment 4DCT imaging by an average of 3.0 mm, 2.3 mm, and 3.5 mm in the AP, LR, and SI directions. SC was correlated with daily motion differences and tumor dose coverage. In a simulated adaptive protocol, target margins were adjusted based on SC, resulting in...

  1. Development of Imaging Fourier-Transform Spectroscopy for the Characterization of Turbulent Jet Flames (United States)



  2. The segmentation of FMI image based on 2-D dyadic wavelet transform (United States)

    Liu, Rui-Lin; Wu, Yue-Qi; Liu, Jian-Hua; Ma, Yong


    A key aspect in extracting quantitative information from FMI logs is to segment the FMI image to get images of pores, vugs and fractures. A segmentation method based on the dyadic wavelet transform in 2-D is introduced in this paper. The first step is to find all the edge pixels of the FMI image using the 2-D wavelet transform. The second step is to calculate a segmentation threshold based on the average value of the edge pixels. Field data processing examples show that sub-images of vugs and fractures can be correctly separated from original FMI data continuously and automatically along the depth axis. The image segmentation lays the foundation for in-situ parameter calculation.

  3. 3D Modeling of Transformer Substation Based on Mapping and 2D Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Sun


    Full Text Available A new method for building 3D models of transformer substation based on mapping and 2D images is proposed in this paper. This method segments objects of equipment in 2D images by using k-means algorithm in determining the cluster centers dynamically to segment different shapes and then extracts feature parameters from the divided objects by using FFT and retrieves the similar objects from 3D databases and then builds 3D models by computing the mapping data. The method proposed in this paper can avoid the complex data collection and big workload by using 3D laser scanner. The example analysis shows the method can build coarse 3D models efficiently which can meet the requirements for hazardous area classification and constructions representations of transformer substation.

  4. Fourier transform Raman approach to structural correlation in hemoglobin derivatives. (United States)

    Venkatesh, B; Ramasamy, S; Mylrajan, M; Asokan, R; Manoharan, P T; Rifkind, J M


    In order to obtain information on the structural aspects of hemoglobin (Hb), Fourier transform Raman (FT-R) measurements on various ferrous, ferric derivatives and nickel reconstituted Hb (NiHb) has been made. FT-R spectra for these derivatives were obtained by laser excitation in the near infrared region (NIR) (1064 nm) whereby the wave-number region (600-1700 cm-1) related to both porphyrin ring modes and some globin modes were monitored. Comparison of various modes was made based on previous resonance Raman (RR) results. The wave-number shifts with respect to changes in oxidation state and spin state are very similar to those observed by RR. Additional bands at 1654, 1459, and 1003 cm-1 for deoxyHb and at 1656, 1454, and 1004 cm-1 for oxy Hb can be correlated to globin modes. The shift in the position of these bands for the binding of oxygen can be related to changes in conformation during the transformation. The presence of two distinct sites in NiHb could be monitored by the use of FT-R technique.

  5. Pruned Continuous Haar Transform of 2D Polygonal Patterns with Application to VLSI Layouts

    CERN Document Server

    Scheibler, Robin; Chebira, Amina


    We introduce an algorithm for the efficient computation of the continuous Haar transform of 2D patterns that can be described by polygons. These patterns are ubiquitous in VLSI processes where they are used to describe design and mask layouts. There, speed is of paramount importance due to the magnitude of the problems to be solved and hence very fast algorithms are needed. We show that by techniques borrowed from computational geometry we are not only able to compute the continuous Haar transform directly, but also to do it quickly. This is achieved by massively pruning the transform tree and thus dramatically decreasing the computational load when the number of vertices is small, as is the case for VLSI layouts. We call this new algorithm the pruned continuous Haar transform. We implement this algorithm and show that for patterns found in VLSI layouts the proposed algorithm was in the worst case as fast as its discrete counterpart and up to 12 times faster.

  6. Multifrequency Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform ESR: An X/Ku Band Spectrometer (United States)

    Borbat, Petr P.; Crepeau, Richard H.; Freed, Jack H.


    A two-dimensional Fourier Transform ESR (2D FT ESR) spectrometer operating at 9.25 and 17.35 GHz is described. The Ku-band bridge uses an efficient heterodyne technique wherein 9.25 GHz is the intermediate frequency. At Ku-band the sensitivity is increased by almost an order of magnitude. One may routinely collect a full 2D ELDOR spectrum in less than 20 min for a sample containing 0.5-5 nmol of nitroxide spin-probe in the slow-motional regime. Broad spectral coverage at Ku-band is obtained by use of a bridged loop-gap resonator (BLGR) and of a dielectric ring resonator (DR). It is shown that an even more uniform spectral excitation is obtained by using shorter microwave pulses of about 3 ns duration. The dead-time at Ku-band is just 30-40 ns, yielding an improved SNR in 2D ELDOR spectra of nitroxide spin-probes withT2as short as 20-30 ns. A comparison of 2D ELDOR spectra obtained at 9.25 and 17.35 GHz for spin-labeled phospholipid probes (16PC) in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DMPG) membrane vesicles showed that both spectra could be satisfactorily simulated using the same set of model parameters even though they are markedly different in appearance. The improved sensitivity and shorter dead-time at Ku-band made it possible to obtain orientation-dependent 2D ELDOR spectra of the Cholestane (CSL) spin-probe in macroscopically aligned lipid bilayers of egg yolk PC using samples containing only 1 mg of lipid and just 5 nmol of spin-probe.

  7. [Biological Process Oriented Online Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer]. (United States)

    Xie, Fei; Wu, Qiong-shui; Zeng, Li-bo


    An online Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer and an ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection) probe, specifically at the application of real time measurement of the reaction substrate concentration in biological processes, were designed. (1) The spectrometer combined the theories of double cube-corner reflectors and flat mirror, which created a kind of high performance interferometer system. The light path folding way was utilized to makes the interferometer compact structure. Adopting double cube-corner reflectors, greatly reduces the influence of factors in the process of moving mirror movement such as rotation, tilt, etc. The parallelogram oscillation flexible support device was utilized to support the moving mirror moves. It cancelled the friction and vibration during mirror moving, and ensures the smooth operation. The ZnSe splitter significantly improved the hardware reliability in high moisture environment. The method of 60° entrance to light splitter improves the luminous flux. (2) An ATR in situ measuring probe with simple structure, large-flux, economical and practical character was designed in this article. The transmission of incident light and the light output utilized the infrared pipe with large diameter and innerplanted-high plating membrane, which conducted for the infrared transmission media of ATR probe. It greatly reduced the energy loss of infrared light after multiple reflection on the inner wall of the light pipe. Therefore, the ATR probe obtained high flux, improved the signal strength, which make the signal detected easily. Finally, the high sensitivity of MCT (Mercury Cadmium Telluride) detector was utilized to realize infrared interference signal collection, and improved the data quality of detection. The test results showed that the system yields the advantages of perfect moisture-proof performance, luminous flux, online measurement, etc. The designed online Fourier infrared spectrometer can real-time measured common reactant substrates


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chuandan; Zhang Zhongpei; Li Shaoqian


    The method of FRactional Fourier Transform (FRFT) is introduced to Transform Domain Communication System (TDCS) for signal transforming in the paper after theoretical analysis. The method yields optimal Basis Function (BF) by FRFT with optimal transform angle. The TDCS using the proposed method has wider usable spectrum, stronger robustness and better ability of anti non-stationary jamming than using usual methods, such as Fourier Transform (FT), Auto Regressive (AR), Wavelet Transform (WT), etc. The main simulation results are as follows. First, the Bit Error Rate (BER) Pb is close to theoretical bound of no jamming no matter in single tone or in linear chirp interference. Second, the interference-to-signal ratio J/E is at least 12dB more than that of Direct Spread Spectrum System (DSSS) under the same BER if the spectrum hopping-to-signal ratio is 1:20 in chirp plus hopping interfering. Third, the Eb/No (when estimation difference is 90% between transmitter and receiver) is about 3.5dB or about 0.5dB (when estimation difference is 10% between transmitter and receiver) more than that of theoretical result when no estimation difference under Pb = 10-2.

  9. Comparative evaluation of bioactivity of crystalline trypsin for drying by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. (United States)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Fukui, Yuya; Ozaki, Yukihiro


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic stability of colloidal trypsin powder during heating in a solid-state by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra with chemoinformatics and generalized two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy. Colloidal crystalline trypsin powders were heated using differential scanning calorimetry. The enzymatic activity of trypsin was assayed by the kinetic degradation method. Spectra of 10 calibration sample sets were recorded three times with a FT-IR spectrometer. The maximum intensity at 1634cm(-1) of FT-IR spectra and enzymatic activity of trypsin decreased as the temperature increased. The FT-IR spectra of trypsin samples were analyzed by a principal component regression analysis (PCR). A plot of the calibration data obtained was made between the actual and predicted trypsin activity based on a two-component model with gamma(2)=0.962. On the other hand, a 2D method was applied to FT-IR spectra of heat-treated trypsin. The result was consistent with that of the chemoinformetrical method. The results for deactivation of colloidal trypsin powder by heat-treatment indicated that nano-structure of crystalline trypsin changed by heating reflecting that the beta-sheet was mainly transformed, since the peak at 1634cm(-1) decreased with dehydration. The FT-IR chemoinformetrical method allows for a solid-state quantitative analysis of the bioactivity of the bulk powder of trypsin during drying.

  10. Mean cell size and collagen orientation from 2D Fourier analysis on confocal laser scanning microscopy and two-photon fluorescence microscopy on human skin in vivo (United States)

    Lucassen, Gerald W.; Bakker, Bernard L.; Neerken, Sieglinde; Hendriks, Rob F. M.


    We present results from 2D Fourier analysis on 3D stacks of images obtained by confocal laser scanning reflectance microscopy (CLSM) and two-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PM) on human skin in vivo. CLSM images were obtained with a modified commercial system (Vivascope1000, Lucid Inc, excitation wavelength 830 nm) equipped with a piezo-focusing element (350 μm range) for depth positioning of the objective lens. 2PM was performed with a specially designed set-up with excitation wavelength 730 nm. Mean cell size in the epidermal layer and structural orientation in the dermal layer have been determined as a function of depth by 2D Fourier analysis. Fourier analysis on microscopic images enables automatic non-invasive quantitative structural analysis (mean cell size and orientation) of living human skin.

  11. 连续Fourier变换、逆变换的数值计算%Numerical computation for continuous Fourier transform and inverse Fourier transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏鑫宇; 冯立新; 张国艳


    Based on the trigonometric interpolation theory, a function is approximated by its trigonometric interpolation function. By the properties of Dirac distribution function, the analytic expressions of the Fourier transform and inverse Fourier transform for the trigonometric interpolation function are derived to approximate the Fourier transform and inverse Fourier transform for the original function. The numerical formulations for calculating the Fourier transforms and the inverse Fourier transforms of the functions with one variable and two variables are derived, respectively. Comparing with the algorithm using rectangular formula of numerical integration, the numerical examples show that the proposed method achieves higher accuracy.%基于三角插值理论,用函数的三角插值函数代替函数本身,并借助Dirac广义函数的性质写出三角插值函数的Fourier变换、逆变换的解析表达式,将之作为函数的Fourier变换、逆变换的近似.基于这种想法,分别推导一元函数、二元函数的Fourier变换和Fourier逆变换的计算公式.数值实验表明,这种方法比通常基于矩形求积公式计算连续Fourier变换、逆变换的精度要高.

  12. Spectrogram analysis of selected tremor signals using short-time Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Seidl


    Full Text Available Among a variety of spectrogram methods Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT and Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT were selected to analyse transients in non-stationary tremor signals. Depending on the properties of the tremor signal a more suitable representation of the signal is gained by CWT. Three selected broadband tremor signals from the volcanos Mt. Stromboli, Mt. Semeru and Mt. Pinatubo were analyzed using both methods. The CWT can also be used to extend the definition of coherency into a time-varying coherency spectrogram. An example is given using array data from the volcano Mt. Stromboli.

  13. Transmission fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of pharmaceutical tablet cores. (United States)

    Pelletier, Michael J; Larkin, Peter; Santangelo, Matthew


    Transmission Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy of pharmaceutical tablet cores is demonstrated using traditional, unmodified commercial instrumentation. The benefits of improved precision over backscattering Raman spectroscopy due to increased sample volume are demonstrated. Self-absorption effects on analyte band ratios and sample probe volume are apparent, however. A survey of near-infrared (NIR) absorption spectra in the FT-Raman spectral range (approximately 0 to 3500 wavenumber shift from 1064 nm, or 1064 to 1700 nm) of molecules with a wide range of NIR-active functional groups shows that although absorption at the laser wavelength (1064 nm) is relatively small, some regions of the Raman spectrum coincide with NIR absorbances of 0.5 per cm or greater. Fortunately, the pharmaceutically important regions of the Raman shift spectrum from 0 to 600 cm(-1) and from 1400 to 1900 cm(-1) exhibit low self-absorption for most organic materials. A statistical analysis of transmission FT-Raman noise in spectra collected from different regions of a pharmaceutical tablet provides insight into both spectral distortion and reduced sampling volume caused by self-absorption.

  14. SAR-based vibrometry using the fractional Fourier transform (United States)

    Campbell, Justin B.; Wang, Qi; Ade-Bello, Jelili; Caudana, Humberto; Trujillo, Nicole B.; Bhatta, Ishwor; Dunkel, Ralf; Atwood, Thomas; Doerry, Armin; Gerstle, Walter H.; Santhanam, Balu; Hayat, Majeed M.


    A fundamental assumption when applying Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to a ground scene is that all targets are motionless. If a target is not stationary, but instead vibrating in the scene, it will introduce a non-stationary phase modulation, termed the micro-Doppler effect, into the returned SAR signals. Previously, the authors proposed a pseudosubspace method, a modification to the Discrete Fractional Fourier Transform (DFRFT), which demonstrated success for estimating the instantaneous accelerations of vibrating objects. However, this method may not yield reliable results when clutter in the SAR image is strong. Simulations and experimental results have shown that the DFRFT method can yield reliable results when the signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) > 8 dB. Here, we provide the capability to determine a target's frequency and amplitude in a low SCR environment by presenting two methods that can perform vibration estimations when SCR < 3 dB. The first method is a variation and continuation of the subspace approach proposed previously in conjunction with the DFRFT. In the second method, we employ the dual-beam SAR collection architecture combined with the extended Kalman filter (EKF) to extract information from the returned SAR signals about the vibrating target. We also show the potential for extending this SAR-based capability to remotely detect and classify objects housed inside buildings or other cover based on knowing the location of vibrations as well as the vibration histories of the vibrating structures that house the vibrating objects.

  15. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and multivariate methods for radiobiological dosimetry. (United States)

    Meade, A D; Clarke, C; Byrne, H J; Lyng, F M


    The scientific literature contains an ever-growing number of reports of applications of vibrational spectroscopy as a multivariate non-invasive tool for analysis of biological effects at the molecular level. Recently, Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) has been demonstrated to be sensitive to molecular events occurring in cells and tissue after exposure to ionizing radiation. In this work the application of FTIRM in the examination of dose-dependent molecular effects occurring in skin cells after exposure to ionizing radiation with the use of partial least-squares regression (PLSR) and generalized regression neural networks (GRNN) was studied. The methodology is shown to be sensitive to molecular events occurring with radiation dose and time after exposure. The variation in molecular species with dose and time after irradiation is shown to be non-linear by virtue of the higher modeling efficiency yielded from the non-linear algorithms. Dose prediction efficiencies of approximately +/-10 mGy were achieved at 96 h after irradiation, highlighting the potential applications of the methodology in radiobiological dosimetry.

  16. Single beam Fourier transform digital holographic quantitative phase microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, A., E-mail:; Chhaniwal, V. K.; Mahajan, S.; Trivedi, V. [Optics Laboratory, Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390001 (India); Faridian, A.; Pedrini, G.; Osten, W. [Institut für Technische Optik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 9, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Dubey, S. K. [Siemens Technology and Services Pvt. Ltd, Corporate Technology—Research and Technology Centre, Bangalore 560100 (India); Javidi, B. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, U-4157, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-2157 (United States)


    Quantitative phase contrast microscopy reveals thickness or height information of a biological or technical micro-object under investigation. The information obtained from this process provides a means to study their dynamics. Digital holographic (DH) microscopy is one of the most used, state of the art single-shot quantitative techniques for three dimensional imaging of living cells. Conventional off axis DH microscopy directly provides phase contrast images of the objects. However, this process requires two separate beams and their ratio adjustment for high contrast interference fringes. Also the use of two separate beams may make the system more vulnerable to vibrations. Single beam techniques can overcome these hurdles while remaining compact as well. Here, we describe the development of a single beam DH microscope providing whole field imaging of micro-objects. A hologram of the magnified object projected on to a diffuser co-located with a pinhole is recorded with the use of a commercially available diode laser and an arrayed sensor. A Fourier transform of the recorded hologram directly yields the complex amplitude at the image plane. The method proposed was investigated using various phase objects. It was also used to image the dynamics of human red blood cells in which sub-micrometer level thickness variation were measurable.

  17. Online Botnet Detection Based on Incremental Discrete Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocong Yu


    Full Text Available Botnet detection has attracted lots of attention since botnet attack is becoming one of the most serious threats on the Internet. But little work has considered the online detection. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that can monitor the botnet activities in an online way. We define the concept of “feature streams” to describe raw network traffic. If some feature streams show high similarities, the corresponding hosts will be regarded as suspected bots which will be added into the suspected bot hosts set. After activity analysis, bot hosts will be confirmed as soon as possible. We present a simple method by computing the average Euclidean distance for similarity measurement.  To avoid huge calculation among feature streams, classical Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT technique is adopted. Then an incremental calculation of DFT coefficients is introduced to obtain the optimal execution time. The experimental evaluations show that our approach can detect both centralized and distributed botnet activities successfully with high efficiency and low false positive rate.

  18. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: a primer. (United States)

    Marshall, A G; Hendrickson, C L; Jackson, G S


    This review offers an introduction to the principles and generic applications of FT-ICR mass spectrometry, directed to readers with no prior experience with the technique. We are able to explain the fundamental FT-ICR phenomena from a simplified theoretical treatment of ion behavior in idealized magnetic and electric fields. The effects of trapping voltage, trap size and shape, and other nonidealities are manifested mainly as perturbations that preserve the idealized ion behavior modified by appropriate numerical correction factors. Topics include: effect of ion mass, charge, magnetic field, and trapping voltage on ion cyclotron frequency; excitation and detection of ICR signals; mass calibration; mass resolving power and mass accuracy; upper mass limit(s); dynamic range; detection limit, strategies for mass and energy selection for MSn; ion axialization, cooling, and remeasurement; and means for guiding externally formed ions into the ion trap. The relation of FT-ICR MS to other types of Fourier transform spectroscopy and to the Paul (quadrupole) ion trap is described. The article concludes with selected applications, an appendix listing accurate fundamental constants needed for ultrahigh-precision analysis, and an annotated list of selected reviews and primary source publications that describe in further detail various FT-ICR MS techniques and applications.

  19. Resource requirements for a fault-tolerant quantum Fourier transform (United States)

    Goto, Hayato; Nakamura, Satoshi; Kujiraoka, Mamiko; Ichimura, Kouichi


    The quantum Fourier transform (QFT) is a basic subroutine for most quantum algorithms providing an exponential speedup over classical ones. We investigate resource requirements for a fault-tolerant QFT. To implement single-qubit rotations for a QFT in a fault-tolerant manner, we examine three types of approaches: ancilla-free gate synthesis, ancilla-assisted gate synthesis, and state distillation. While the gate synthesis approximates single-qubit rotations with basic quantum operations, the state distillation enables to perform specific single-qubit rotations required for the QFT exactly. It is unknown, however, which approach is better for the QFT. We estimated the resource requirement for a QFT in each case, where the resource is measured by the total number of the π / 8 gates denoted by T, which is called the T count. Contrary to the initial expectation, the total T count for the state distillation is considerably larger than those for the ancilla-free and ancilla-assisted gate synthesis. Thus, we conclude that the ancilla-assisted gate synthesis is the best for a fault-tolerant QFT so far.

  20. Spin Glass Field Theory with Replica Fourier Transforms (United States)

    Pimentel, Iveta R.; De Dominicis, Cirano

    We develop a field theory for spin glasses using Replica Fourier Transforms (RFT). We present the formalism for the case of replica symmetry and the case of replica symmetry breaking on an ultrametric tree, with the number of replicas n and the number of replica symmetry breaking steps R generic integers. We show how the RFT applied to the two-replica fields allows to construct a new basis which block-diagonalizes the four-replica mass-matrix, into the replicon, anomalous and longitudinal modes. The eigenvalues are given in terms of the mass RFT and the propagators in the RFT space are obtained by inversion of the block-diagonal matrix. The formalism allows to express any i-replica vertex in the new RFT basis and hence enables to perform a standard perturbation expansion. We apply the formalism to calculate the contribution of the Gaussian fluctuations around the Parisi's solution for the free-energy of an Ising spin glass.

  1. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy of jet-cooled radicals (United States)

    Rohrs, Henry W.; Wickham-Jones, C. Tom; Ellison, G. Barney; Berry, David; Argrow, Brian M.


    We describe an experiment that couples a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) to a supersonic jet of radicals. A 1-mm-i.d. cylindrical SiC nozzle is resistively heated to 1500 K in order to decompose organic precursors and generate expansions of jet-cooled radicals. We have used this apparatus to pyrolyze alkyl nitrites to make alkoxy and nitric oxide radicals. The residence time of radicals in this hot nozzle is roughly 20 μs RONO→ΔRO+NO. We use the FTS to detect the IR absorption of the product NO (ν0=1876.1 cm-1) at resolutions as fine as 0.005 cm-1 FWHM. We observe the product NO from the pyrolysis of CH3CH2ONO to be rotationally cooled to roughly 50 K. The IR spectra indicate that the optical path length is about 3/4 cm and that the nitrites pyrolyze to produce approximately 1014 NO radicals cm-3 some 9 mm downstream from the nozzle. Our spectrometer is capable of detecting an absorption signal of 0.1% over a bandwidth of 100 cm-1 at 0.005 cm-1 resolution. Depending on the infrared cross section of the radical, this implies that we are able to monitor diatomic radical densities of roughly 5×1012 cm-3 (quantum state)-1.

  2. Continued Development of a Planetary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PIFTS) (United States)

    Sromovsky, L. A.


    This report describes continued efforts to evaluate a breadboard of a Planetary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PIFTS). The PIFTS breadboard was developed under prior PIDDP funding. That effort is described in the final report for NASA Grant NAG5-6248 and in two conference papers (Sromovsky et al. 2000; Revercomb et al. 2000). The PIFTS breadboard was designed for near-IR (1-5.2 micrometer imaging of planetary targets with spectral resolving powers of several hundred to several thousand, using an InSb detector array providing at least 64x64 pixels imaging detail. The major focus of the development effort was to combine existing technologies to produce a small and low power design compatible with a very low mass flyable instrument. The objective of this grant (NAG5-10729) was further characterization of the breadboard performance, including intercomparisons with the highly accurate non-imaging Advanced Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) (Revercomb et al. 1994; Best et al. 1997).

  3. Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS): Imaging and Tracking Capability (United States)

    Zhou, D. K.; Larar, A. M.; Liu, Xu; Reisse, R. A.; Smith, W. L.; Revercomb, H. E.; Bingham, G. E.; Zollinger, L. J.; Tansock, J. J.; Huppi, Ronald J.


    The geosynchronous-imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (GIFTS) engineering demonstration unit (EDU) is an imaging infrared spectrometer designed for atmospheric soundings. It measures the infrared spectrum in two spectral bands (14.6 to 8.8 microns, 6.0 to 4.4 microns) using two 128 128 detector arrays with a spectral resolution of 0.57/cm with a scan duration of approx. 11 seconds. From a geosynchronous orbit, the instrument will have the capability of taking successive measurements of such data to scan desired regions of the globe, from which atmospheric status, cloud parameters, wind field profiles, and other derived products can be retrieved. The GIFTS EDU provides a flexible and accurate testbed for the new challenges of the emerging hyperspectral era. The EDU ground-based measurement experiment, held in Logan, Utah during September 2006, demonstrated its extensive capabilities and potential for geosynchronous and other applications (e.g., Earth observing environmental measurements). This paper addresses the experiment objectives and overall performance of the sensor system with a focus on the GIFTS EDU imaging capability and proof of the GIFTS measurement concept.

  4. Screening cervical lesions with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The screening results were reported based on the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the samples of exfoliated cervical cells from 354 women. Their spectra can be sorted into two types based on the emerging or not of the absorption bands near 970 cm-1 and 1 170 cm-1: T1 (83.1%) type without emerging, and T2 (16.9%) type with obviously emerging. All of the samples assigned to T1 were cytologically diagnosed as normal or within normal limits (PapⅠ). 28.9% and 71.1% of samples exhibiting T2 profile, were cytologically evaluated as Pap Ⅰand abnormal respectively. 3 women in the abnormal group were diagnosed as to have cervical cells with changes associated with high grade of inflammation, cervical scar and cervical erosion. Furthermore, based on the progressive change of the relative intensities of the absorption bands, both T1 and T2 profiles can be categorized into 6 subtypes. The observed heterogeneous spectra and the progressive changes in the absorption frequencies and the relative intensities exhibit features suggestive of the progressive process of cervical lesion. The FTIR method has the potential to complement the cytological smear for large-volume screening of cervical lesions.

  5. Calibration of the Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Swinyard, B M; Hopwood, R; Valtchanov, I; Lu, N; Fulton, T; Benielli, D; Imhof, P; Marchili, N; Baluteau, J -P; Bendo, G J; Ferlet, M; Griffin, M J; Lim, T L; Makiwa, G; Naylor, D A; Orton, G S; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Schulz, B; Sidher, S D; Spencer, L D; van der Wiel, M H D; Wu, R


    The Herschel SPIRE instrument consists of an imaging photometric camera and an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), both operating over a frequency range of 450-1550 GHz. In this paper, we briefly review the FTS design, operation, and data reduction, and describe in detail the approach taken to relative calibration (removal of instrument signatures) and absolute calibration against standard astronomical sources. The calibration scheme assumes a spatially extended source and uses the Herschel telescope as primary calibrator. Conversion from extended to point-source calibration is carried out using observations of the planet Uranus. The model of the telescope emission is shown to be accurate to within 6% and repeatable to better than 0.06% and, by comparison with models of Mars and Neptune, the Uranus model is shown to be accurate to within 3%. Multiple observations of a number of point-like sources show that the repeatability of the calibration is better than 1%, if the effects of the satellite absolu...

  6. Improved Fast Fourier Transform Based Method for Code Accuracy Quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Tae Wook; Jeong, Jae Jun [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ki Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The capability of the proposed method is discussed. In this study, the limitations of the FFTBM were analyzed. The FFTBM produces quantitatively different results due to its frequency dependence. Because the problem is intensified by including a lot of high frequency components, a new method using a reduced cut-off frequency was proposed. The results of the proposed method show that the shortcomings of FFTBM are considerably relieved. Among them, the fast Fourier transform based method (FFTBM) introduced in 1990 has been widely used to evaluate a code uncertainty or accuracy. Prosek et al., (2008) identified its drawbacks, the so-called 'edge effect'. To overcome the problems, an improved FFTBM by signal mirroring (FFTBM-SM) was proposed and it has been used up to now. In spite of the improvement, the FFTBM-SM yielded different accuracy depending on the frequency components of a parameter, such as pressure, temperature and mass flow rate. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the frequency dependence of the FFTBMs. In this study, the deficiencies of the present FFTBMs are analyzed and a new method is proposed to mitigate its frequency dependence.

  7. Fourier transform optical profilometry using fiber optic Lloyd's mirrors. (United States)

    Kart, Türkay; Kösoğlu, Gülşen; Yüksel, Heba; İnci, Mehmet Naci


    A fiber optic Lloyd's mirror assembly is used to obtain various optical interference patterns for the detection of 3D rigid body shapes. Two types of fiber optic Lloyd's systems are used in this work. The first consists of a single-mode optical fiber and a highly reflecting flat mirror to produce bright and dark strips. The second is constructed by locating a single-mode optical fiber in a v-groove, which is formed by two orthogonal flat mirrors to allow the generation of square-type interference patterns for the desired applications. The structured light patterns formed by these two fiber Lloyd's techniques are projected onto 3D objects. Fringe patterns are deformed due to the object's surface topography, which are captured by a digital CCD camera and processed with a Fourier transform technique to accomplish 3D surface topography of the object. It is demonstrated that the fiber-optic Lloyd's technique proposed in this work is more compact, more stable, and easier to configure than other existing surface profilometry systems, since it does not include any high-cost optical tools such as aligners, couplers, or 3D stages. The fringe patterns are observed to be more robust against environmental disturbances such as ambient temperature and vibrations.

  8. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Saliva Analysis. (United States)

    Mikkonen, Jopi J W; Raittila, Jussi; Rieppo, Lassi; Lappalainen, Reijo; Kullaa, Arja M; Myllymaa, Sami


    Saliva provides a valuable tool for assessing oral and systemic diseases, but concentrations of salivary components are very small, calling the need for precise analysis methods. In this work, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy using transmission and photoacoustic (PA) modes were compared for quantitative analysis of saliva. The performance of these techniques was compared with a calibration series. The linearity of spectrum output was verified by using albumin-thiocyanate (SCN(-)) solution at different SCN(-) concentrations. Saliva samples used as a comparison were obtained from healthy subjects. Saliva droplets of 15 µL were applied on the silicon sample substrate, 6 drops for each specimen, and dried at 37 ℃ overnight. The measurements were carried out using an FT-IR spectrometer in conjunction with an accessory unit for PA measurements. The findings with both transmission and PA modes mirror each other. The major bands presented were 1500-1750 cm(-1) for proteins and 1050-1200 cm(-1) for carbohydrates. In addition, the distinct spectral band at 2050 cm(-1) derives from SCN(-) anions, which is converted by salivary peroxidases to hypothiocyanate (OSCN(-)). The correlation between the spectroscopic data with SCN(-) concentration (r > 0.990 for transmission and r = 0.967 for PA mode) was found to be significant (P < 0.01), thus promising to be utilized in future applications.

  9. High-resolution wide-band Fast Fourier Transform spectrometers

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Bernd; Krämer, Ingo; Bell, Andreas; Meyer, Klaus; Güsten, Rolf


    We describe the performance of our latest generations of sensitive wide-band high-resolution digital Fast Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FFTS). Their design, optimized for a wide range of radio astronomical applications, is presented. Developed for operation with the GREAT far infrared heterodyne spectrometer on-board SOFIA, the eXtended bandwidth FFTS (XFFTS) offers a high instantaneous bandwidth of 2.5 GHz with 88.5 kHz spectral resolution and has been in routine operation during SOFIA's Basic Science since July 2011. We discuss the advanced field programmable gate array (FPGA) signal processing pipeline, with an optimized multi-tap polyphase filter bank algorithm that provides a nearly loss-less time-to-frequency data conversion with significantly reduced frequency scallop and fast sidelobe fall-off. Our digital spectrometers have been proven to be extremely reliable and robust, even under the harsh environmental conditions of an airborne observatory, with Allan-variance stability times of several 1000 se...

  10. Multi-channel sampling theorems for band-limited signals with fractional Fourier transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Multi-channel sampling for band-limited signals is fundamental in the theory of multi-channel parallel A/D environment and multiplexing wireless communication environment. As the fractional Fourier transform has been found wide applications in signal processing fields, it is necessary to consider the multi-channel sampling theorem based on the fractional Fourier transform. In this paper, the multi-channel sampling theorem for the fractional band-limited signal is firstly proposed, which is the generalization of the well-known sampling theorem for the fractional Fourier transform. Since the periodic nonuniformly sampled signal in the fractional Fourier domain has valuable applications, the reconstruction expression for the periodic nonuniformly sampled signal has been then obtained by using the derived multi-channel sampling theorem and the specific space-shifting and phase-shifting properties of the fractional Fourier transform. Moreover, by designing different fractional Fourier filters, we can obtain reconstruction methods for other sampling strategies.

  11. A quantum search algorithm of two entangled registers to realize quantum discrete Fourier transform of signal processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pang Chao-Yang; Hu Ben-Qiong


    The discrete Fourier transform(DFT)is the base of modern signal processing.1-dimensional fast Fourier transform (1D FFT)and 2D FFT have time complexity O(N log N)and O(N2 log N)respectively.Since 1965,there has been no more essential breakthrough for the design of fast DFT algorithm.DFT has two properties.One property is that DFT is energy conservation transform.The other property is that many DFT coefficients are close to zero.The basic idea of this paper is that the generalized Grover's iteration can perform the computation of DFT which acts on the entangled states to search the big DFT coefficients until these big coefficients contain nearly all energy.One-dimensional quantum DFT(1D QDFT)and two-dimensional quantum DFT(2D QDFT)are presented in this paper.The quantum algorithm for convolution estimation is also presented in this paper.Compared with FFT,1D and 2D QDFT have time complexity O(√N)and O(N)respectively.QDFT and quantum convolution demonstrate that quantum computation to process classical signal is possible.

  12. Localization Operators and an Uncertainty Principle for the Discrete Short Time Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Fernández


    Full Text Available Localization operators in the discrete setting are used to obtain information on a signal f from the knowledge on the support of its short time Fourier transform. In particular, the extremal functions of the uncertainty principle for the discrete short time Fourier transform are characterized and their connection with functions that generate a time-frequency basis is studied.

  13. An Introduction to Fast Fourier Transforms through the Study of Oscillating Reactions. (United States)

    Eastman, M. P.; And Others


    Discusses an experiment designed to introduce students to the basic principles of the fast Fourier transform and Fourier smoothing through transformation of time-dependent optical absorption data from an oscillating reaction. Uses the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction. Describes the experimental setup and data analysis techniques.

  14. Optimal Padding for the Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (United States)

    Dean, Bruce H.; Aronstein, David L.; Smith, Jeffrey S.


    One-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) operations work fastest on grids whose size is divisible by a power of two. Because of this, padding grids (that are not already sized to a power of two) so that their size is the next highest power of two can speed up operations. While this works well for one-dimensional grids, it does not work well for two-dimensional grids. For a two-dimensional grid, there are certain pad sizes that work better than others. Therefore, the need exists to generalize a strategy for determining optimal pad sizes. There are three steps in the FFT algorithm. The first is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the grid. The second step is to transpose the resulting matrix. The third step is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the resulting grid. Steps one and three both benefit from padding the row to the next highest power of two, but the second step needs a novel approach. An algorithm was developed that struck a balance between optimizing the grid pad size with prime factors that are small (which are optimal for one-dimensional operations), and with prime factors that are large (which are optimal for two-dimensional operations). This algorithm optimizes based on average run times, and is not fine-tuned for any specific application. It increases the amount of times that processor-requested data is found in the set-associative processor cache. Cache retrievals are 4-10 times faster than conventional memory retrievals. The tested implementation of the algorithm resulted in faster execution times on all platforms tested, but with varying sized grids. This is because various computer architectures process commands differently. The test grid was 512 512. Using a 540 540 grid on a Pentium V processor, the code ran 30 percent faster. On a PowerPC, a 256x256 grid worked best. A Core2Duo computer preferred either a 1040x1040 (15 percent faster) or a 1008x1008 (30 percent faster) grid. There are many industries that

  15. Precise and fast spatial-frequency analysis using the iterative local Fourier transform. (United States)

    Lee, Sukmock; Choi, Heejoo; Kim, Dae Wook


    The use of the discrete Fourier transform has decreased since the introduction of the fast Fourier transform (fFT), which is a numerically efficient computing process. This paper presents the iterative local Fourier transform (ilFT), a set of new processing algorithms that iteratively apply the discrete Fourier transform within a local and optimal frequency domain. The new technique achieves 210 times higher frequency resolution than the fFT within a comparable computation time. The method's superb computing efficiency, high resolution, spectrum zoom-in capability, and overall performance are evaluated and compared to other advanced high-resolution Fourier transform techniques, such as the fFT combined with several fitting methods. The effectiveness of the ilFT is demonstrated through the data analysis of a set of Talbot self-images (1280 × 1024 pixels) obtained with an experimental setup using grating in a diverging beam produced by a coherent point source.

  16. Missing texture reconstruction method based on error reduction algorithm using Fourier transform magnitude estimation scheme. (United States)

    Ogawa, Takahiro; Haseyama, Miki


    A missing texture reconstruction method based on an error reduction (ER) algorithm, including a novel estimation scheme of Fourier transform magnitudes is presented in this brief. In our method, Fourier transform magnitude is estimated for a target patch including missing areas, and the missing intensities are estimated by retrieving its phase based on the ER algorithm. Specifically, by monitoring errors converged in the ER algorithm, known patches whose Fourier transform magnitudes are similar to that of the target patch are selected from the target image. In the second approach, the Fourier transform magnitude of the target patch is estimated from those of the selected known patches and their corresponding errors. Consequently, by using the ER algorithm, we can estimate both the Fourier transform magnitudes and phases to reconstruct the missing areas.

  17. Engineering an achromatic Bessel beam using a phase-only spatial light modulator and an iterative Fourier transformation algorithm (United States)

    Walde, Marie; Jost, Aurélie; Wicker, Kai; Heintzmann, Rainer


    Bessel illumination is an established method in optical imaging and manipulation to achieve an extended depth of field without compromising the lateral resolution. When broadband or multicolour imaging is required, wavelength-dependent changes in the radial profile of the Bessel illumination can complicate further image processing and analysis. We present a solution for engineering a multicolour Bessel beam that is easy to implement and promises to be particularly useful for broadband imaging applications. A phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) in the image plane and an iterative Fourier Transformation algorithm (IFTA) are used to create an annular light distribution in the back focal plane of a lens. The 2D Fourier transformation of such a light ring yields a Bessel beam with a constant radial profile for different wavelength.

  18. Fourier Transform Spectrometer measurements of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Methane (United States)

    Kivi, Rigel; Heikkinen, Pauli; Chen, Huilin; Hatakka, Juha; Laurila, Tuomas


    Ground based remote sensing measurements of column CO2 and CH4 using Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) within the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) are known for high precision and accuracy. These measurements are performed at various locations globally and they have been widely used in carbon cycle studies and validation of space born measurements. The relevant satellite missions include the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); the SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) by the European Space Agency (ESA); the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the upcoming Sentinel-5 Precursor mission, which is an ESA mission and scheduled for launch in 2016. Results of the column CO2 and CH4 measurements at Sodankylä in northern Finland (at 67.4° N, 26.6° E) are reported in this study. The measurements have been performed on regular basis since the beginning of the program in early 2009. We also present evaluation of the data quality of the ground based measurements and comparisons with the available satellite based retrievals. In case of comparisons between the GOSAT and ground based retrievals of CO2 and CH4 no significant biases were found. Sodankylä is one of the northernmost stations in the TCCON network. However, the data coverage has been relatively good thanks to the progress towards automation of the FTS measurement system. At Sodankylä the retrievals have been also compared with the balloon borne AirCore measurements at the site. AirCore sampling system is directly related to the World Meteorological Organization in situ trace gas measurement scales. The balloon platform allows sampling in both stratosphere and troposphere, which is a benefit, compared to the aircraft in situ measurements.

  19. Continuously tunable optical multidimensional Fourier-transform spectrometer. (United States)

    Dey, P; Paul, J; Bylsma, J; Deminico, S; Karaiskaj, D


    A multidimensional optical nonlinear spectrometer (MONSTR) is a robust, ultrastable platform consisting of nested and folded Michelson interferometers that can be actively phase stabilized. The MONSTR provides output pulses for nonlinear excitation of materials and phase-stabilized reference pulses for heterodyne detection of the induced signal. This platform generates a square of identical laser pulses that can be adjusted to have arbitrary time delays between them while maintaining phase stability. This arrangement is ideal for performing coherent optical experiments, such as multidimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy. The present work reports on overcoming some important limitations on the original design of the MONSTR apparatus. One important advantage of the MONSTR is the fact that it is a closed platform, which provides the high stability. Once the optical alignment is performed, it is desirable to maintain the alignment over long periods of time. The previous design of the MONSTR was limited to a narrow spectral range defined by the optical coating of the beam splitters. In order to achieve tunability over a broad spectral range the internal optics needed to be changed. By using broadband coated and wedged beam splitters and compensator plates, combined with modifications of the beam paths, continuous tunability can be achieved from 520 nm to 1100 nm without changing any optics or performing alignment of the internal components of the MONSTR. Furthermore, in order to achieve continuous tunability in the spectral region between 520 nm and 720 nm, crucially important for studies on numerous biological molecules, a single longitudinal mode laser at 488.5 nm was identified and used as a metrology laser. The shorter wavelength of the metrology laser as compared to the usual HeNe laser has also increased the phase stability of the system. Finally, in order to perform experiments in the reflection geometry, a simple method to achieve active phase stabilization

  20. A Fourier transform infrared trace gas analyser for atmospheric applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. T. Griffith


    Full Text Available Concern in recent decades about human impacts on Earth's climate has led to the need for improved and expanded measurement capabilities for greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In this paper we describe in detail an in situ trace gas analyser based on Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy that is capable of simultaneous and continuous measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, carbon monoxide (CO, nitrous oxide (N2O and 13C in CO2 in air with high precision and accuracy. Stable water isotopes can also be measured in undried airstreams. The analyser is automated and allows unattended operation with minimal operator intervention. Precision and accuracy meet and exceed the compatibility targets set by the World Meteorological Organisation – Global Atmosphere Watch Programme for baseline measurements in the unpolluted troposphere for all species except 13C in CO2.

    The analyser is mobile and well suited to fixed sites, tower measurements, mobile platforms and campaign-based measurements. The isotopic specificity of the optically-based technique and analysis allows application of the analyser in isotopic tracer experiments, for example 13C in CO2 and 15N in N2O. We review a number of applications illustrating use of the analyser in clean air monitoring, micrometeorological flux and tower measurements, mobile measurements on a train, and soil flux chamber measurements.

  1. Far-field radiation patterns of aperture antennas by the Winograd Fourier transform algorithm (United States)

    Heisler, R.


    A more time-efficient algorithm for computing the discrete Fourier transform, the Winograd Fourier transform (WFT), is described. The WFT algorithm is compared with other transform algorithms. Results indicate that the WFT algorithm in antenna analysis appears to be a very successful application. Significant savings in cpu time will improve the computer turn around time and circumvent the need to resort to weekend runs.

  2. Compact imaging spectrometer combining Fourier transform spectroscopy with a Fabry-Perot interferometer. (United States)

    Pisani, Marco; Zucco, Massimo


    An imaging spectrometer based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer is presented. The Fabry-Perot interferometer scans the mirror distance up to contact and the intensity modulated light signal is transformed using a Fourier Transform based algorithm, as the Michelson based Fourier Transform Spectrometers does. The resulting instrument has the advantage of a compact, high numerical aperture, high luminosity hyperspectral imaging device. Theory of operation is described along with one experimental realization and preliminary results.

  3. A Synthetic Quadrature Phase Detector/Demodulator for Fourier Transform Transform Spectrometers (United States)

    Campbell, Joel


    A method is developed to demodulate (velocity correct) Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data that is taken with an analog to digital converter that digitizes equally spaced in time. This method makes it possible to use simple low cost, high resolution audio digitizers to record high quality data without the need for an event timer or quadrature laser hardware, and makes it possible to use a metrology laser of any wavelength. The reduced parts count and simplicity implementation makes it an attractive alternative in space based applications when compared to previous methods such as the Brault algorithm.

  4. Causal Correlation Functions and Fourier Transforms: Application in Calculating Pressure Induced Shifts (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.; Lavrentieva, N. N.


    By adopting a concept from signal processing, instead of starting from the correlation functions which are even, one considers the causal correlation functions whose Fourier transforms become complex. Their real and imaginary parts multiplied by 2 are the Fourier transforms of the original correlations and the subsequent Hilbert transforms, respectively. Thus, by taking this step one can complete the two previously needed transforms. However, to obviate performing the Cauchy principal integrations required in the Hilbert transforms is the greatest advantage. Meanwhile, because the causal correlations are well-bounded within the time domain and band limited in the frequency domain, one can replace their Fourier transforms by the discrete Fourier transforms and the latter can be carried out with the FFT algorithm. This replacement is justified by sampling theory because the Fourier transforms can be derived from the discrete Fourier transforms with the Nyquis rate without any distortions. We apply this method in calculating pressure induced shifts of H2O lines and obtain more reliable values. By comparing the calculated shifts with those in HITRAN 2008 and by screening both of them with the pair identity and the smooth variation rules, one can conclude many of shift values in HITRAN are not correct.

  5. Broadband Mid-Infrared Comb-Resolved Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (United States)

    Lee, Kevin; Mills, Andrew; Mohr, Christian; Jiang, Jie; Fermann, Martin; Maslowski, Piotr


    We report on a comb-resolved, broadband, direct-comb spectroscopy system in the mid-IR and its application to the detection of trace gases and molecular line shape analysis. By coupling an optical parametric oscillator (OPO), a 100 m multipass cell, and a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), sensitive, comb-resolved broadband spectroscopy of dilute gases is possible. The OPO has radiation output at 3.1-3.7 and 4.5-5.5 μm. The laser repetition rate is scanned to arbitrary values with 1 Hz accuracy around 417 MHz. The comb-resolved spectrum is produced with an absolute frequency axis depending only on the RF reference (in this case a GPS disciplined oscillator), stable to 1 part in 10^9. The minimum detectable absorption is 1.6x10-6 wn Hz-1/2. The operating range of the experimental setup enables access to strong fundamental transitions of numerous molecular species for applications based on trace gas detection such as environmental monitoring, industrial gas calibration or medical application of human breath analysis. In addition to these capabilities, we show the application for careful line shape analysis of argon-broadened CO band spectra around 4.7 μm. Fits of the obtained spectra clearly illustrate the discrepancy between the measured spectra and the Voigt profile (VP), indicating the need to include effects such as Dicke narrowing and the speed-dependence of the collisional width and shift in the line shape model, as was shown in previous cw-laser studies. In contrast to cw-laser based experiments, in this case the entire spectrum (˜ 250 wn) covering the whole P and R branches can be measured in 16 s with 417 MHz resolution, decreasing the acquisition time by orders of magnitude. The parallel acquisition allows collection of multiple lines simultaneously, removing the correlation of possible temperature and pressure drifts. While cw-systems are capable of measuring spectra with higher precision, this demonstration opens the door for fast

  6. Fast Fourier Transform Chlorine Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy. (United States)

    D'Iorio, Marie

    A nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer operating in the frequency range 1-40 MHz was updated for fast Fourier transform spectroscopy and coupled to a Nicolet 1180 computer and data acquisition system. It was used with a low temperature cryostat for studies shown down to liquid helium temperature and with a high pressure/low temperature system for studies down to liquid nitrogen temperature and up to six kilobars. The study of the ('35)Cl NQR spectrum of K(,2)OsCl(,6) at 298 K and 77 K revealed the presence of a satellite associated with the nearest neighbour chlorines to H('+) ion impurities located at vacant octahedral sties. This result is in agreement with the predictions of a point charge model calculation. A residence time for the H('+) ion was deduced and is consistent with the result obtained from dielectric measurements. A detailed study of the ('35)Cl NQR frequency in K(,2)ReCl(,6) was performed in the temperature range 85 - 130K where two structural phase transitions occur, and at pressures from 1 to 2643 bars. A number of unusual features were revealed and discussed as the possible signature of incommensurate behavior. The primary effect of the pressure was to alter the temperatures at which the phase transitions occurred. Contrary to the behavior expected, the transition temperature for the antiferrorotative transition has a negative pressure coefficient. The spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times for the ('35)Cl and ('37)Cl isotopes of the one dimensional XY system, PrCl(,3), were measured at 4.2K. The spin-lattice relaxation is exponential and dominated by magnetic dipole -dipole interactions. The spin-spin relaxation is non-exponential and dominated by electric quadrupolar interactions arising from the coupling of the electric dipole moment at the praseodymium site and the quadrupole moment of the chlorine ion. The temperature dependence of the spin-spin relaxation time was investigated. At 17.4 K both magnetic dipolar and electric

  7. Determination of Lamb wave dispersion curves by means of Fourier transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hora P.


    Full Text Available This work reports on methods for determination of Lamb wave dispersion curves by means of Fourier transform (FT. Propagating Lamb waves are sinusoidal in both the frequency domain and the spatial domain. Therefore, the temporal FT may be carried out to go from the time to the frequency domain, and then the spatial FT may be carried out to go to the frequency–wave-number domain, where the amplitudes and the wave-numbers of individual modes may be measured. The result of this transform will be a 2D array of amplitudes at discrete frequencies and wave-numbers. Other method of determination of dispersion curves is based on the solution of FEM task in frequency domain. The frequency spectrum of a time-dependent excitation is defined using FT. Since a small number of frequencies are sufficient to achieve a correct representation of a wide variety of temporal excitations, this approach considerably speeds up the computation by avoiding the temporal FT and by decreasing the number of calculation steps.

  8. Fourier transforms of spherical distributions on compact symmetric spaces


    Olafsson, Gestur; Schlichtkrull, Henrik


    In our previous articles "A local Paley-Wiener theorem for compact symmetric spaces", Adv. Math. 218 (2008), 202--215, and "Fourier series on compact symmetric spaces" (submitted) we studied Fourier series on a compact symmetric space M=U/K. In particular, we proved a Paley-Wiener type theorem for the smooth functions on M, which have sufficiently small support and are K-invariant, respectively K-finite. In this article we extend those results to K-invariant distributions on M. We show that t...

  9. Improved method of generating bit reversed numbers for calculating fast fourier transform

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.

    Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is an important tool required for signal processing in defence applications. This paper reports an improved method for generating bit reversed numbers needed in calculating FFT using radix-2. The refined algorithm takes...

  10. Implementation of Period-Finding Algorithm by Means of Simulating Quantum Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Moghareh Abed


    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce quantum fourier transform as a key ingredient for many useful algorithms. These algorithms make a solution for problems which is considered to be intractable problems on a classical computer. Quantum Fourier transform is propounded as a key for quantum phase estimation algorithm. In this paper our aim is the implementation of period-finding algorithm.Quantum computer solves this problem, exponentially faster than classical one. Quantum phase estimation algorithm is the key for the period-finding problem .Therefore, by means of simulating quantum Fourier transform, we are able to implement the period-finding algorithm. In this paper, the simulation of quantum Fourier transform is carried out by Matlab software.

  11. Estimation of carbonate concentration and characterization of marine sediments by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerasingam, S.; Venkatachalapathy, R.

    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) is a well established method for the characterization of mineralogical and geochemical properties of marine sediments. Understanding the biogeochemical changes in marine ecosystems is challenging task...

  12. Designing Fresnel microlenses for focusing astigmatic multi-Gaussian beams by using fractional order Fourier transforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patino, A [Universidad Technologica de Bolivar, Cartagena de Indias (Colombia); Durand, P-E; Fogret, E; Pellat-Finet, P, E-mail: [Laboratoire de mathematiques et applications des mathematiques, Universite de Bretagne Sud, B P 92116, 56321 Lorient cedex (France)


    According to a scalar theory of diffraction, light propagation can be expressed by two-dimensional fractional order Fourier transforms. Since the fractional Fourier transform of a chirp function is a Dirac distribution, focusing a light beam is optically achieved by using a diffractive screen whose transmission function is a two-dimensional chirp function. This property is applied to designing Fresnel microlenses, and the orders of the involved Fourier fractional transforms depend on diffraction distances as well as on emitter and receiver radii of curvature. If the emitter is astigmatic (with two principal radii of curvature), the diffraction phenomenon involves two one-dimensional fractional Fourier transforms whose orders are different. This degree of freedom allows us to design microlenses that can focus astigmatic Gaussian beams, as produced by a line-shaped laser diode source.

  13. The Fourier Transform in Chemistry. Part 1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Introduction. (United States)

    King, Roy W.; Williams, Kathryn R.


    Using fourier transformation methods in nuclear magnetic resonance has made possible increased sensitivity in chemical analysis. This article describes these methods as they relate to magnetization, the RF magnetic field, nuclear relaxation, the RF pulse, and free induction decay. (CW)

  14. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Part II. Advantages of FT-IR. (United States)

    Perkins, W. D.


    This is Part II in a series on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Described are various advantages of FT-IR spectroscopy including energy advantages, wavenumber accuracy, constant resolution, polarization effects, and stepping at grating changes. (RH)

  15. A High Resolution Fourier-Transform Spectrometer for the Measurement of Atmospheric Column Abundances (United States)

    Cageao, R.; Sander, S.; Blavier, J.; Jiang, Y.; Nemtchinov, V.


    A compact, high resolution Fourier-transform spectrometer for atmospheric near ultraviolet spectroscopy has been installed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Table Mountain Facility (34.4N, 117.7 W, elevation 2290m).

  16. Fourier transform of delayed fluorescence as an indicator of herbicide concentration. (United States)

    Guo, Ya; Tan, Jinglu


    It is well known that delayed fluorescence (DF) from Photosystem II (PSII) of plant leaves can be potentially used to sense herbicide pollution and evaluate the effect of herbicides on plant leaves. The research of using DF as a measure of herbicides in the literature was mainly conducted in time domain and qualitative correlation was often obtained. Fourier transform is often used to analyze signals. Viewing DF signal in frequency domain through Fourier transform may allow separation of signal components and provide a quantitative method for sensing herbicides. However, there is a lack of an attempt to use Fourier transform of DF as an indicator of herbicide. In this work, the relationship between the Fourier transform of DF and herbicide concentration was theoretically modelled and analyzed, which immediately yielded a quantitative method to measure herbicide concentration in frequency domain. Experiments were performed to validate the developed method.

  17. The Design of Lens Imaging System by Means of Fractional Fourier Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jiannong; XU Qiang; D.R.Selviah


    The relation between the 2nd fractional Fourier transform and the imaging process of an optical system is discussed. By changing the coordinate scales of the input plane in respect to the magnification of the optical imaging system, the fractional Fourier transform can be a powerful tool in designing specific imaging system. The Gaussian imaging formula of single lens is obtained by using the tool. Finally the procedures are generalized for designing a double-lens imaging system through an example.

  18. Optical Image Addition and Encryption by Multi-Exposure Based on Fractional Fourier Transform Hologram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lin-Fei; ZHAO Dao-Mu


    @@ We propose a new method to add different images together by optical implementation that is realized by the multi-exposure based on fractional Fourier transform hologram. Partial image fusion is proposed and realized by this method. Multiple images encryption can also be implemented by the multi-exposure of the hologram based on fractional Fourier transform. Computer simulations prove that this method is valid.

  19. OTDM-to-WDM Conversion of Complex Modulation Formats by Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palushani, Evarist; Richter, T.; Ludwig, R.


    We demonstrate the utilization of the optical Fourier transform technique for serial-to-parallel conversion of 64×10-GBd OTDM data tributaries with complex modulation formats into 50-GHz DWDM grid without loss of phase and amplitude information.......We demonstrate the utilization of the optical Fourier transform technique for serial-to-parallel conversion of 64×10-GBd OTDM data tributaries with complex modulation formats into 50-GHz DWDM grid without loss of phase and amplitude information....

  20. Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation for OTDM-DWDM and DWDM-OTDM Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Palushani, Evarist; Galili, Michael


    Applications of time-domain optical Fourier transformation (OFT) in ultra-high-speed optical time-division multiplexed systems (OTDM) are reviewed, with emphasis on the recent demonstrations of OFT-based conversion between the OTDM and DWDM formats.......Applications of time-domain optical Fourier transformation (OFT) in ultra-high-speed optical time-division multiplexed systems (OTDM) are reviewed, with emphasis on the recent demonstrations of OFT-based conversion between the OTDM and DWDM formats....

  1. Accelerating the Non-equispaced Fast Fourier Transform on Commodity Graphics Hardware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Sangild; Schaeffter, Tobias; Noe, Karsten Østergaard


    We present a fast parallel algorithm to compute the Non-equispaced fast Fourier transform on commodity graphics hardware (the GPU). We focus particularly on a novel implementation of the convolution step in the transform, which was previously its most time consuming part. We describe the performa......We present a fast parallel algorithm to compute the Non-equispaced fast Fourier transform on commodity graphics hardware (the GPU). We focus particularly on a novel implementation of the convolution step in the transform, which was previously its most time consuming part. We describe...

  2. Simple surface structure determination from Fourier transforms of angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Shirley, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)


    The authors show by Fourier analyses of experimental data, with no further treatment, that the positions of all the strong peaks in Fourier transforms of angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS) from adsorbed surfaces can be explicitly predicted from a trial structure with an accuracy of about {+-} 0.3 {angstrom} based on a single-scattering cluster model together with the concept of a strong backscattering cone, and without any additional analysis. This characteristic of ARPEFS Fourier transforms can be developed as a simple method for determining the structures of adsorbed surfaces to an accuracy of about {+-} 0.1 {angstrom}.

  3. Neural network calibration of a snapshot birefringent Fourier transform spectrometer with periodic phase errors. (United States)

    Luo, David; Kudenov, Michael W


    Systematic phase errors in Fourier transform spectroscopy can severely degrade the calculated spectra. Compensation of these errors is typically accomplished using post-processing techniques, such as Fourier deconvolution, linear unmixing, or iterative solvers. This results in increased computational complexity when reconstructing and calibrating many parallel interference patterns. In this paper, we describe a new method of calibrating a Fourier transform spectrometer based on the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs). In this way, it is demonstrated that a simpler and more straightforward reconstruction process can be achieved at the cost of additional calibration equipment. To this end, we provide a theoretical model for general systematic phase errors in a polarization birefringent interferometer. This is followed by a discussion of our experimental setup and a demonstration of our technique, as applied to data with and without phase error. The technique's utility is then supported by comparison to alternative reconstruction techniques using fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) and linear unmixing.

  4. Perfluorobutyric Acid and its Monohydrate: a Chirped Pulse and Cavity Based Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopic Study (United States)

    Thomas, Javix; Serrato, Agapito, III; Lin, Wei; Jaeger, Wolfgang; Xu, Yunjie


    Perfluorobutyric acid (PFBA) is highly soluble in water and is a molecule of environmental importance. Rotational spectra of PFBA and its monohydrate were studied using a broadband chirped pulse and a narrow band cavity based Fourier transform microwave spectrometers and high level ab initio calculations. Extensive conformational search was performed for both the acid and its monohydrate at the MP2/6-311++G(2d,p) level of theory. Two and three conformers were predicted for PFBA and its monohydrate, respectively. One set of rotational transitions of PFBA and its mono-hydrate in each case was observed and assigned. Based on the broadband spectra obtained, one can confidently conclude that only one dominate conformer exists in each case. The orientation of the hydroxyl group in PFBA was determined using isotopic analysis. Comparison of the observed transition intensities and the calculated electric dipole moment components allowed one to identify the most stable monohydrate conformation which takes on the insertion hydrogen-bonding topology. Comparison to the shorter chain analogues, i.e. trifluoroacetic acid, perfluoropropionic acid, and their monohydrates, was made to elucidate the general trend in their conformational preference and binding topologies.

  5. Perfluorobutyric acid and its monohydrate: a chirped pulse and cavity based fourier transform microwave spectroscopic study. (United States)

    Thomas, Javix; Serrato, Agapito; Lin, Wei; Jäger, Wolfgang; Xu, Yunjie


    Rotational spectra of perfluorobutyric acid (PFBA) and its monohydrate were studied with a broadband chirped pulse and a narrow-band cavity based Fourier transform microwave spectrometer, and high-level ab initio calculations. Extensive conformational searches were performed for both the acid and its monohydrate at the MP2/6-311++G(2d,p) level of theory. Two and three conformers were predicted to exist for PFBA and its monohydrate, respectively. One set of rotational transitions was observed and assigned for each, PFBA and its monohydrate. Based on the measured broadband spectra, we confidently conclude that only one dominant conformer exists in each case. The orientation of the hydroxyl group in PFBA was determined by using isotopic analysis. Comparison of the observed transition intensities and the calculated electric dipole moment components allowed us to identify the most stable monohydrate conformation, which takes on an insertion hydrogen-bonding topology. Comparisons to the shorter chain analogues, that is, trifluoroacetic acid, perfluoropropionic acid, and their monohydrates, are made to elucidate the general trend in their conformational preference and binding topologies.

  6. Classification of select category A and B bacteria by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    Samuels, Alan C.; Snyder, A. Peter; St. Amant, Diane; Emge, Darren K.; Minter, Jennifer; Campbell, Mark; Tripathi, Ashish


    Relatively few reports have investigated the determination and classification of pathogens such as the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Category A Bacillus anthracis spores and cells (BA), Yersinia species, Francisella tularensis (FT), and Category B Brucella species from FTIR spectra. We investigated the classification ability of the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of viable pathogenic and non-pathogenic NIAID Category A and B bacteria. The impact of different growth media, growth time and temperature, rolling circle filter of the data, and wavelength range were investigated for their microorganism differentiation. Various 2-D PC plots provided differential degrees of separation with respect to the four viable, bacterial genera including the BA sub-categories of pathogenic spores, vegetative cells, and nonpathogenic vegetative cells. FT spectra were separated from that of the three other genera. The BA pathogenic spore strains 1029, LA1, and Ames were clearly differentiated from the rest of the dataset. Yersinia species were distinctly separated from the remaining dataset and could also be classified by growth media. This work provided evidence that FTIR spectroscopy can separate the four major pathogenic bacterial genera of NIAID Category A and B biological threat agents.

  7. Theory of two-dimensional Fourier transform electron spin resonance for ordered and viscous fluids (United States)

    Lee, Sanghyuk; Budil, David E.; Freed, Jack H.


    A comprehensive theory for interpreting two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D-FT) electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments that is based on the stochastic Liouville equation is presented. It encompasses the full range of motional rates from fast through very slow motions, and it also provides for microscopic as well as macroscopic molecular ordering. In these respects it is as sophisticated in its treatment of molecular dynamics as the theory currently employed for analyzing cw ESR spectra. The general properties of the pulse propagator superoperator, which describes the microwave pulses in Liouville space, are analyzed in terms of the coherence transfer pathways appropriate for COSY (correlation spectroscopy), SECSY (spin-echo correlation spectroscopy), and 2D-ELDOR (electron-electron double resonance) sequences wherein either the free-induction decay (FID) or echo decay is sampled. Important distinctions are made among the sources of inhomogeneous broadening, which include (a) incomplete spectral averaging in the slow-motional regime, (b) unresolved superhyperfine structure and related sources, and (c) microscopic molecular ordering but macroscopic disorder (MOMD). The differing effects these sources of inhomogeneous broadening have on the two mirror image coherence pathways observed in the dual quadrature 2D experiments, as well as on the auto vs crosspeaks of 2D-ELDOR, is described. The theory is applied to simulate experiments of nitroxide spin labels in complex fluids such as membrane vesicles, where the MOMD model applies and these distinctions are particularly relevant, in order to extract dynamic and ordering parameters. The recovery of homogeneous linewidths from FID-based COSY experiments on complex fluids with significant inhomogeneous broadening is also described. The theory is applied to the ultraslow motional regime, and a simple method is developed to determine rotational rates from the broadening of the autopeaks of the 2D-ELDOR spectra as a

  8. Magneto-sensor circuit efficiency incremented by Fourier-transformation

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne


    In this paper detection by recognized intelligent algorithm for different magnetic films with the aid of a cost-effective and simple high efficient circuit are realized. Well-known, magnetic films generate oscillating frequencies when they stay a part of an LC- oscillatory circuit. These frequencies can be further analyzed to gather information about their magnetic properties. For the first time in this work we apply the signal analysis in frequency domain to create the Fourier frequency spectra which was used to detect the sample properties and their recognition. In this paper we have summarized both the simulation and experimental results. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Product Summability Transform of Conjugate Series of Fourier Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Narayan Mishra


    Full Text Available A known theorem, Nigam (2010 dealing with the degree of approximation of conjugate of a signal belonging to Lipξ(t-class by (E,1(C,1 product summability means of conjugate series of Fourier series has been generalized for the weighted W(Lr,ξ(t, (r≥1,(t>0-class, where ξ(t is nonnegative and increasing function of t, by En1Cn1~ which is in more general form of Theorem 2 of Nigam and Sharma (2011.

  10. Digital watermarking for still image based on discrete fractional fourier transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Presents a digital watermarking technique based on discrete fractional Fourier transform(DFRFT), discusses the transformation of the original image by DFRFT, and the modification of DFRFT coefficients of the original image by the information of watermark, and concludes from experimental results that the proposed tech nique is robust to lossy compression attack.

  11. A Graphical Presentation to Teach the Concept of the Fourier Transform (United States)

    Besalu, E.


    A study was conducted to visualize the reason why the Fourier transform technique is useful to detect the originating frequencies of a complicated superposition of waves. The findings reveal that students respond well when instructors adapt pictorial presentation to show how the time-domain function is transformed into the frequency domain.

  12. Fourier Self-deconvolution Using Approximation Obtained from Frequency Domain Wavelet Transform as a Linear Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new method of resolving overlapped peak, Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD) using approximation CN obtained from frequency domain wavelet transform of F(ω) yielded by Fourier transform of overlapped peak signals f(t) as the linear function, was presented in this paper.Compared with classical FSD, the new method exhibits excellent resolution for different overlapped peak signals such as HPLC signals, and have some characteristics such as an extensive applicability for any overlapped peak shape signals and a simple operation because of no selection procedure of the linear function. Its excellent resolution for those different overlapped peak signals is mainly because F(ω) obtained from Fourier transform of f(t) and CN obtained from wavelet transform of F(ω) have the similar linearity and peak width. The effect of those fake peaks can be eliminated by the algorithm proposed by authors. This method has good potential in the process of different overlapped peak signals.

  13. Rejection of Linear FM Interference in DSSS System Based on Fractional Fourier Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Lin; TAO Ran; ZHOU Si-yong


    A new method for the rejection of linear frequency modulation (LFM) interference in direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) system based on the fractional Fourier transform is proposed, and the configuration of the receiver with an interference exciser is also presented. Based on the property that the fractional Fourier transform of a signal is equivalent to rotating the signal in the time-frequency plane, the received signal is transform into a certain fractional Fourier domain, this transform will result in the least spectrum overlap between the signal and interference. Then, a narrowband filter is exploited to extract most of the interference energy. The performance analyses show that remarkable improvements in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and biterror-ratio (BER) are obtained.

  14. Discrete Fourier Transform Method for Discrimination of Digital Scintillation Pulses in Mixed Neutron-Gamma Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Safari, M J; Afarideh, H; Jamili, S; Bayat, E


    A Discrete Fourier Transform Method (DFTM) for discrimination between the signal of neutrons and gamma rays in organic scintillation detectors is presented. The method is based on the transformation of signals into the frequency domain using the sine and cosine Fourier transforms in combination with the discrete Fourier transform. The method is largely benefited from considerable differences that usually is available between the zero-frequency components of sine and cosine and the norm of the amplitude of the DFT for neutrons and gamma-ray signals. Moreover, working in frequency domain naturally results in considerable suppression of the unwanted effects of various noise sources that is expected to be effective in time domain methods. The proposed method could also be assumed as a generalized nonlinear weighting method that could result in a new class of pulse shape discrimination methods, beyond definition of the DFT. A comparison to the traditional Charge Integration Method (CIM), as well as the Frequency G...

  15. Does the Entorhinal Cortex use the Fourier Transform?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff eOrchard


    Full Text Available Some neurons in the entorhinal cortex (EC fire bursts when the animal occupies locations organized in a hexagonal grid pattern in their spatial environment. Place cells have also been observed, firing bursts only when the animal occupies a particular region of the environment. Both of these types of cells exhibit theta-cycle modulation, firing bursts in the 4-12Hz range. Grid cells fire bursts of action potentials that precess with respect to the theta cycle, a phenomenon dubbed "theta precession". Various models have been proposed to explain these phenomena, and how they relate to navigation. Among the most promising are the oscillator interference models. The bank-of-oscillators model proposed by Welday et al. (2011 exhibits all these features. However, their simulations are based on theoretical oscillators, and not implemented entirely with spiking neurons. We extend their work in a number of ways. First, we place the oscillators in a frequency domain and reformulate the model in terms of Fourier theory. Second, this perspective suggests a division of labour for implementing spatial maps: position, versus map layout. The animal's position is encoded in the phases of the oscillators, while the spatial map shape is encoded implicitly in the weights of the connections between the oscillators and the read-out nodes. Third, it reveals that the oscillator phases all need to conform to a linear relationship across the frequency domain. Fourth, we implement a partial model of the EC using spiking leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF neurons. Fifth, we devise new coupling mechanisms, enlightened by the global phase constraint, and show they are capable of keeping spiking neural oscillators in consistent formation. Our model demonstrates place cells, grid cells, and phase precession. The Fourier model also gives direction for future investigations, such as integrating sensory feedback to combat drift, or explaining why grid cells exist at all.

  16. Method of local pointed function reduction of original shape in Fourier transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Dosch, H


    The method for analytical reduction of the original shape in the one-dimensional Fourier transformation by the fourier image modulus is proposed. The basic concept of the method consists in the presentation of the model shape in the form of the local peak functions sum. The eigenfunctions, generated by the linear differential equations with the polynomial coefficients, are selected as the latter ones. This provides for the possibility of managing the Fourier transformation without numerical integration. This reduces the reverse task to the nonlinear regression with a small number of the evaluated parameters and to the numerical or asymptotic study on the model peak functions - the eigenfunctions of the differential tasks and their fourier images

  17. The performance of methods based on the fractional Fourier transform for detecting marine mammal vocalizations. (United States)

    Locke, Jonathan; White, Paul R


    The analysis of cetacean vocalizations is considered using Fourier-based techniques that employ chirp functions in their decomposition. In particular, the paper considers a short-time methods based on the fractional Fourier transform for detecting frequency modulated narrow-band signals, such as dolphin whistles, and compares this to the classical short-time Fourier methods. The fractional Fourier technique explored computes transforms associated with a range of chirp rates and automatically selects the rate for the final analysis. This avoids the need for prior knowledge of signal's chirp rate. An analysis is presented that details the performance of both methods as signal detectors and allows one to determine their detection thresholds. These thresholds are then used to measure the detectability of synthetic signals. This principle is then extended to measure performance on a set of recordings of narrow-band vocalizations from a range of cetacean species.

  18. Fourier and Hadamard transform spectrometers - A limited comparison. II (United States)

    Harwit, M.; Tai, M. H.


    A mathematical approach was used to compare interferometric spectrometers and Hadamard transform spectrometers. The principle results are reported, noting that the simple Hadamard spectrometer encodes more efficiently than a Michelson interferometer which, in turn, encodes less efficiently than is usually acknowledged. Hirschfeld's (1977) major objections to these findings are discussed, although it is noted that none of his objections is supported by evidence.

  19. On Analog of Fourier Transform in Interior of the Light Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Shtepina


    Full Text Available We introduce an analog of Fourier transform Fhρ in interior of light cone that commutes with the action of the Lorentz group. We describe some properties of Fhρ, namely, its action on pseudoradial functions and functions being products of pseudoradial function and space hyperbolic harmonics. We prove that Fhρ-transform gives a one-to-one correspondence on each of the irreducible components of quasiregular representation. We calculate the inverse transform too.

  20. Transformation of 1-D Chiral-chained Titanium Phosphate to 2-D Layer Structure Through a 1-D Zigzag Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chao; YANG Yu-lin; LI Wei-sheng; LIU Yun-ling; YI Zhuo; GUO Yang-hong; PANG Wen-qin


    The transformation of titanium phosphate from 1-D chiral- chain(JTP-A) to 2-D layer(TP-J1) has been carefully investigated. Through a hydrolysis-condensation self-assembly pathway, the crystals of TP-J1 can be obtained from the JTP-A phase under hydrothermal conditions. An intermediate material with zigzag chain during the transformation was observed by XRD characterization. A hypothesis of the transformation mechanism is also described in this article. It is noteworthy that ethylenediamine plays an important role in the transformation.

  1. Products of multiple Fourier series with application to the multiblade transformation (United States)

    Kunz, D. L.


    A relatively simple and systematic method for forming the products of multiple Fourier series using tensor like operations is demonstrated. This symbolic multiplication can be performed for any arbitrary number of series, and the coefficients of a set of linear differential equations with periodic coefficients from a rotating coordinate system to a nonrotating system is also demonstrated. It is shown that using Fourier operations to perform this transformation make it easily understood, simple to apply, and generally applicable.

  2. Fractional Fourier transform-based optical encryption with treble random phase-encoding (United States)

    Xin, Yi; Tao, Ran; Wang, Yue


    We propose a new architecture of optical encryption technique using the fractional Fourier transform with three statistically independent random phase masks. Compared with the existing double-phase encoding method in the fractional Fourier-domain, the proposed extra phase mask in the last fractional Fourier domain makes the architecture symmetrical, and additive processing to the encrypted image can be turned into complex stationary white noise after decryption, and enlarge the key space without any degradation of its robustness to blind decryption. This property can be utilized to improve the quality of the recover image. Simulation results have verified the validity.

  3. Grid-Based Fourier Transform Phase Contrast Imaging (United States)

    Tahir, Sajjad

    Low contrast in x-ray attenuation imaging between different materials of low electron density is a limitation of traditional x-ray radiography. Phase contrast imaging offers the potential to improve the contrast between such materials, but due to the requirements on the spatial coherence of the x-ray beam, practical implementation of such systems with tabletop (i.e. non-synchrotron) sources has been limited. One recently developed phase imaging technique employs multiple fine-pitched gratings. However, the strict manufacturing tolerances and precise alignment requirements have limited the widespread adoption of grating-based techniques. In this work, we have investigated a technique recently demonstrated by Bennett et al. that utilizes a single grid of much coarser pitch. Our system consisted of a low power 100 microm spot Mo source, a CCD with 22 microm pixel pitch, and either a focused mammography linear grid or a stainless steel woven mesh. Phase is extracted from a single image by windowing and comparing data localized about harmonics of the grid in the Fourier domain. A Matlab code was written to perform the image processing. For the first time, the effects on the diffraction phase contrast and scattering amplitude images of varying grid types and periods, and of varying the window function type used to separate the harmonics, and the window widths, were investigated. Using the wire mesh, derivatives of the phase along two orthogonal directions were obtained and new methods investigated to form improved phase contrast images.

  4. Mesh-based phase contrast Fourier transform imaging (United States)

    Tahir, Sajjad; Bashir, Sajid; MacDonald, C. A.; Petruccelli, Jonathan C.


    Traditional x-ray radiography is limited by low attenuation contrast in materials of low electron density. Phase contrast imaging offers the potential to improve the contrast between such materials, but due to the requirements on the spatial coherence of the x-ray beam, practical implementation of such systems with tabletop (i.e. non-synchrotron) sources has been limited. One phase imaging technique employs multiple fine-pitched gratings. However, the strict manufacturing tolerances and precise alignment requirements have limited the widespread adoption of grating-based techniques. In this work, we have investigated a recently developed technique that utilizes a single grid of much coarser pitch. Our system consisted of a low power 100 μm spot Mo source, a CCD with 22 μm pixel pitch, and either a focused mammography linear grid or a stainless steel woven mesh. Phase is extracted from a single image by windowing and comparing data localized about harmonics of the mesh in the Fourier domain. The effects on the diffraction phase contrast and scattering amplitude images of varying grid types and periods, and of varying the width of the window function used to separate the harmonics were investigated. Using the wire mesh, derivatives of the phase along two orthogonal directions were obtained and combined to form improved phase contrast images.

  5. Abnormal promoter methylation of multiple genes in the malignant transformed PEP2D cells induced by alpha particles exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiP; SuiJL


    The 5' promoter regions of some genes contain CpG-rich areas,known as CpG islands,Methylation of the cytosine in these dinuleotides has important regulatory effects on gene expression.The functional significance of promoter hypermethylation would play the same roles in carcinogenesis as gene mutations.The promoter methylations p14ARF,p16INK4a,MGMT,GSTP1,BUB3 and DAPK genes were analyzed with methylation specific PCR(MSP) in the transformed human bronchial epithelial cells(BEP2D) induced by α-particles.The results indicated that p14ARF gene was not methylated in BEP2D cells,but was methylated in the malignant transformed BERP35T-1 cells,and the level of its transcription was depressed remarkable in the latter.However p16INK4a gene,which shares two exons with p14ARF gene,was not methylated.MGMT gene was methylated in both BEP2D and BERP35T-1.DAPK gene was partially methylated in BEP2D cells and methylated completely in BERP35T1.GSTP1 was not methylated in BEP2D cells and was methylated partly in BERP35T-1.BUB3 gene was not methylated in BEP2D as well as BERP35T1 cells and was further proved by sequencing analysis.

  6. Image encryption based on the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform (United States)

    Lang, Jun


    In recent years, a number of methods have been proposed in the literature for the encryption of two-dimensional information by using the fractional Fourier transform, but most of their encryptions are complex values and need digital hologram technique to record information, which is inconvenient for digital transmission. In this paper, we propose a new approach for image encryption based on the real-valuedness and decorrelation property of the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform in order to meet the requirements of the secure image transmission. In the proposed scheme, the original and encrypted images are respectively in the spatial domain and the reality-preserving multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transformed domain determined by the encryption keys. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate that the proposed method is reliable and more robust to blind decryption than several existing methods.

  7. Continuous Fourier transform method and apparatus. [for the analysis of simultaneous analog signal components (United States)

    Munoz, R. M. (Inventor)


    An input analog signal to be frequency analyzed is separated into N number of simultaneous analog signal components each identical to the original but delayed relative to the original by a successively larger time delay. The separated and delayed analog components are combined together in a suitable number of adders and attenuators in accordance with at least one component product of the continuous Fourier transform and analog signal matrices to separate the analog input signal into at least one of its continuous analog frequency components of bandwidth 1/N times the bandwidth of the original input signal. The original analog input signal can be reconstituted by combining the separate analog frequency components in accordance with the component products of the continuous Fourier transform and analog frequency component matrices. The continuous Fourier transformation is useful for spectrum analysis, filtering, transfer function synthesis, and communications.

  8. Fourier-transform spectroscopy: new methods and applications: introduction by the feature editors. (United States)

    Traub, W A; Winkel, R J; Goldman, A


    We are pleased to introduce this special issue of papers on Fourier-transform spectroscopy, which grew out of a recent topical meeting sponsored by the Optical Society of America. The topical meeting welcomed all researchers who practice the art of Fourier-transform spectroscopy in the laboratory, in the atmosphere, and in space. The power and the wide applicability of Fourier-transform spectroscopy unite these fields with a common mathematical and instrumental bond. The meeting probed each of these areas in depth, bringing out new ideas for instrumentation, analysis, and applications. There was a strong sentiment at the meeting that the quality of papers and posters was exceptionally high and that it would be important for future progress in the field to have the results of this meeting captured in print. This special issue is the fruit of that effort.

  9. Atomic Gaussian type orbitals and their Fourier transforms via the Rayleigh expansion (United States)

    Yükçü, Niyazi


    Gaussian type orbitals (GTOs), which are one of the types of exponential type orbitals (ETOs), are used usually as basis functions in the multi-center atomic and molecular integrals to better understand physical and chemical properties of matter. In the Fourier transform method (FTM), basis functions have not simplicity to make mathematical operations, but their Fourier transforms are easier to use. In this work, with the help of FTM, Rayleigh expansion and some properties of unnormalized GTOs, we present new mathematical results for the Fourier transform of GTOs in terms of Laguerre polynomials, hypergeometric and Whittaker functions. Physical and analytical properties of GTOs are discussed and some numerical results have been given in a table. Finally, we compare our mathematical results with the other known literature results by using a computer program and details of evaluation are presented.

  10. Discrete Fourier and wavelet transforms an introduction through linear algebra with applications to signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Roe W


    This textbook for undergraduate mathematics, science, and engineering students introduces the theory and applications of discrete Fourier and wavelet transforms using elementary linear algebra, without assuming prior knowledge of signal processing or advanced analysis.It explains how to use the Fourier matrix to extract frequency information from a digital signal and how to use circulant matrices to emphasize selected frequency ranges. It introduces discrete wavelet transforms for digital signals through the lifting method and illustrates through examples and computer explorations how these transforms are used in signal and image processing. Then the general theory of discrete wavelet transforms is developed via the matrix algebra of two-channel filter banks. Finally, wavelet transforms for analog signals are constructed based on filter bank results already presented, and the mathematical framework of multiresolution analysis is examined.

  11. q-Extension of Mehta's eigenvectors of the finite Fourier transform for q, a root of unity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atakishiyeva, Mesuma K [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, CP 62250 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Atakishiyev, Natig M [Instituto de Matematicas, Unidad Cuernavaca Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 273-3 Admon 3, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62251 (Mexico); Koornwinder, Tom H [Korteweg-de Vries Institute, University of Amsterdam, PO Box 94248, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:


    It is shown that the continuous q-Hermite polynomials for q, a root of unity, have simple transformation properties with respect to the classical Fourier transform. This result is then used to construct q-extended eigenvectors of the finite Fourier transform in terms of these polynomials.

  12. The Pegg-Barnett phase operator and the discrete Fourier transform (United States)

    Perez-Leija, Armando; Andrade-Morales, Luis A.; Soto-Eguibar, Francisco; Szameit, Alexander; Moya-Cessa, Héctor M.


    In quantum mechanics the position and momentum operators are related to each other via the Fourier transform. In the same way, here we show that the so-called Pegg-Barnett phase operator can be obtained by the application of the discrete Fourier transform to the number operators defined in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space. Furthermore, we show that the structure of the London-Susskind-Glogower phase operator, whose natural logarithm gives rise to the Pegg-Barnett phase operator, is contained in the Hamiltonian of circular waveguide arrays. Our results may find applications in the development of new finite-dimensional photonic systems with interesting phase-dependent properties.

  13. Three-dimensional radiative transfer using a Fourier-transform matrix-operator method (United States)

    Martonchik, J. V.; Diner, D. J.


    The three-dimensional equation of transfer for a scattering medium with planar geometry is solved by using a spatial Fourier transform and extending matrix-operator techniques developed previously for the one-dimensional equation. Doubling and adding algorithms were derived by means of an interaction principle for computing the Fourier-transformed radiation field. The resulting expressions fully describe the radiative transfer process in a scattering medium, inhomogeneous in the x-, y- and z-directions, illuminated from above by an arbitrarily general intensity field and bounded from below by a surface with completely general reflection properties.

  14. Estimation of structural modal parameters by fourier transform with an optimal window

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hong-ping; WAN Xin-hua


    An adaptive Fourier Transform (FT) with an optimal window has been proposed for the time-frequency analysis of nonstationary time series. The method allows for a good estimation of both frequency and amplitude of the spectrum and can be easily applied to the general case of time-varying signals. The evaluation of the proposed approach has been performed on measured time-varying signals from a suspension bridge model and a steel frame model whose data have the typical non-stationary characteristics. The numerical results show that the proposed approach can overcome some of the difficulties encountered in the classic Fourier transform technique and can achieve higher computation accuracy.

  15. Interferometric time delay correction for Fourier transform spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet (United States)

    Meng, Yijian; Zhang, Chunmei; Marceau, Claude; Naumov, A. Yu.; Corkum, P. B.; Villeneuve, D. M.


    We demonstrate a Fourier transform spectrometer in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectrum using a high-harmonic source, with wavelengths as short as 32 nm. The femtosecond infrared laser source is divided into two separate foci in the same gas jet to create two synchronized XUV sources. An interferometric method to determine the relative delay between the two sources is shown to improve the accuracy of the delay time, with corrections of up to 200 asec required. By correcting the time base before the Fourier transform, the frequency resolution is improved by up to an order of magnitude.

  16. Security of image encryption scheme based on multi-parameter fractional Fourier transform (United States)

    Zhao, Tieyu; Ran, Qiwen; Yuan, Lin; Chi, Yingying; Ma, Jing


    Recently, multi-parameter fractional Fourier transform (MPFRFT) has been widely applied in the optics cryptosystem, which has attracted more and more researchers' attention. However, in further study we find a serious security problem on the MPFRFT which is the multi-choice of decryption key corresponding to an encryption key. The existence of multi-decryption-key hinders the application of this algorithm. We present a new generalized fractional Fourier transform, which can overcome the problem and enlarge the key space. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has higher security and key sensitivity.

  17. All-optical WDM Regeneration of DPSK Signals using Optical Fourier Transformation and Phase Sensitive Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Kjøller, Niels-Kristian;


    We propose a novel all-optical WDM regeneration scheme for DPSK signals based on optical Fourier transformation and phase sensitive amplification. Phase regeneration of a WDM signal consisting of 4x10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK channels is demonstrated for the first time.......We propose a novel all-optical WDM regeneration scheme for DPSK signals based on optical Fourier transformation and phase sensitive amplification. Phase regeneration of a WDM signal consisting of 4x10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK channels is demonstrated for the first time....

  18. Change of Scale Formulas for Wiener Integrals Related to Fourier-Feynman Transform and Convolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Jin Kim


    Full Text Available Cameron and Storvick discovered change of scale formulas for Wiener integrals of functionals in Banach algebra S on classical Wiener space. Yoo and Skoug extended these results for functionals in the Fresnel class F(B and in a generalized Fresnel class FA1,A2 on abstract Wiener space. We express Fourier-Feynman transform and convolution product of functionals in S as limits of Wiener integrals. Moreover we obtain change of scale formulas for Wiener integrals related to Fourier-Feynman transform and convolution product of these functionals.

  19. DWDM-TO-OTDM Conversion by Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Hu, Hao; Galili, Michael


    We propose DWDM-OTDM conversion by time-domain optical Fourier transformation. Error-free conversion of a 16×10 Gbit/s 50 GHz-spacing DWDM data signal to a 160 Gbit/s OTDM signal with a 2.1 dB average penalty is demonstrated.......We propose DWDM-OTDM conversion by time-domain optical Fourier transformation. Error-free conversion of a 16×10 Gbit/s 50 GHz-spacing DWDM data signal to a 160 Gbit/s OTDM signal with a 2.1 dB average penalty is demonstrated....

  20. 1.28 Tbaud Nyquist Signal Transmission using Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation based Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Kong, Deming; Palushani, Evarist


    We demonstrate transmission of a 1.28-Tbaud Nyquist-OTDM signal over a record distance of 100 km with detection by time-domain optical Fourier transformation followed by FEC decoding, resulting in error-free performance for all tributaries.......We demonstrate transmission of a 1.28-Tbaud Nyquist-OTDM signal over a record distance of 100 km with detection by time-domain optical Fourier transformation followed by FEC decoding, resulting in error-free performance for all tributaries....

  1. 16 channel WDM regeneration in a single phase-sensitive amplifier through optical Fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Da Ros, Francesco; Lillieholm, Mads


    We demonstrate simultaneous phase regeneration of 16-WDM DPSK channels using optical Fourier transformation and a single phase-sensitive amplifier. The BERs of 16-WDM×10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK signals are improved by 0.4-1.3 orders of magnitude......We demonstrate simultaneous phase regeneration of 16-WDM DPSK channels using optical Fourier transformation and a single phase-sensitive amplifier. The BERs of 16-WDM×10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK signals are improved by 0.4-1.3 orders of magnitude...

  2. Local structure information by EXAFS analysis using two algorithms for Fourier transform calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldea, N; Pintea, S; Rednic, V [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Matei, F [University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 3-5 Calea Manastur, 400372 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Hu Tiandou; Xie Yaning, E-mail: nicolae.aldea@itim-cj.r [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facilities of Beijing Electron Positron Collider National Laboratory (China)


    The present work is a comparison study between different algorithms of Fourier transform for obtaining very accurate local structure results using Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure technique. In this paper we focus on the local structural characteristics of supported nickel catalysts and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core-shell nanocomposites. The radial distribution function could be efficiently calculated by the fast Fourier transform when the coordination shells are well separated while the Filon quadrature gave remarkable results for close-shell coordination.

  3. Analysis of the High-Resolution Fourier Spectrum of the ν6 Band of the cis-C2h2d2 Molecule (United States)

    Konov, I. A.; Chertavskikh, Yu. V.; Fomchenko, A. L.; Aslapovskaya, Yu. S.; Zhdanovich, S. A.; Sydow, C.


    The spectrum of the ν6 band of the cis-ethylene-d2 molecule (cis-C2H2D2) is recorded with a Bruker IFS 125 HR Fourier spectrometer in the range 580-1210 cm-1 with resolution of 0.0021 cm-1. An analysis of the experimental spectrum allows more than 1500 transitions belonging to this band to be assigned that by more than 2.5 times greater than it has been known in the literature so far. The obtained experimental data are then used to determine the model parameters of the molecule (the effective Hamiltonian in the A-reduction and I'- representation). Strong resonance interaction with the band ν4 forbidden in absorption by the symmetry of a molecule is taken into account. 10 parameters of the Hamiltonian obtained by solving inverse spectroscopic problem reproduce 427 initial experimental energies (more than 1500 transitions) with accuracy close to the experimental uncertainty.

  4. A fingerprint orientation model based on 2D Fourier expansion (FOMFE) and its application to singular-point detection and fingerprint indexing. (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Hu, Jiankun; Phillips, Damien


    In this paper, we have proposed a fingerprint orientation model based on 2D Fourier expansions (FOMFE) in the phase plane. The FOMFE does not require prior knowledge of singular points (SPs). It is able to describe the overall ridge topology seamlessly, including the SP regions, even for noisy fingerprints. Our statistical experiments on a public database show that the proposed FOMFE can significantly improve the accuracy of fingerprint feature extraction and thus that of fingerprint matching. Moreover, the FOMFE has a low-computational cost and can work very efficiently on large fingerprint databases. The FOMFE provides a comprehensive description for orientation features, which has enabled its beneficial use in feature-related applications such as fingerprint indexing. Unlike most indexing schemes using raw orientation data, we exploit FOMFE model coefficients to generate the feature vector. Our indexing experiments show remarkable results using different fingerprint databases.

  5. Viewing the effective k-space coverage of MR images: phantom experiments with fast Fourier transform. (United States)

    Menke, Jan; Helms, Gunther; Larsen, Jörg


    The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate whether the effective k-space coverage of MR images can in principle be viewed after multidimensional Fourier transform back to k-space. A water-soaked sponge phantom providing homogeneous k-space pattern was imaged with different standard MR sequences, utilizing elliptic acquisitions, partial-Fourier acquisitions and elliptic filtering as imaging examples. The resulting MR images were Fourier-transformed to the spatial frequency domain (the k-space) to visualize their effective k-space coverage. These frequency domain images are named "backtransformed k-space images." For a quantitative assessment, the sponge phantom was imaged with three-dimensional partial-Fourier sequences while varying the partial acquisition parameters in slice and phase direction. By linear regression analysis, the k-space coverage as expected from the sequence menu parameters was compared to the effective k-space coverage as observed in the backtransformed k-space images. The k-space coverage of elliptic and partial-Fourier acquisitions became visible in the backtransformed k-space images, as well as the effect of elliptic filtering. The expected and the observed k-space coverage showed a highly significant correlation (r=.99, PFourier-transforming MR images of a sponge phantom back to k-space. This method could be used for several purposes including sequence parameter optimization, basic imaging research, and to enhance a visual understanding of k-space, especially in three-dimensional MR imaging.

  6. Fourier Transform Near Infrared Spectrometry: Using Interferograms To Determine Chemical Composition (United States)

    Hoy, R. M.; McClure, W. Fred


    Previous research conducted in this laboratory has demonstrated several advantages accrued by transforming near infrared spectra from the wavelength domain to the Fourier domain. Those advantages include: [1] smoothing wavelength domain data without loss of end points, [2] correcting for particle size phenomena encountered in solid sample analyses by simply omitting the mean term Fourier coefficient from the "retransformation process", [3] minimizing the multicollinearity problem prevalent in wavelength space, [4] generating wavelength-space derivatives from Fourier space without loss of end points, [5] performing band enhancements via Fourier self-deconvolution, [6] identifying sample type using Fourier vectors, [7] estimating chemical composition using only the first few Fourier coefficients, [8] cutting of computer storage requirements by more than 96%, [9] cutting of calibration time by more than 96%, hence [10] reducing the drudgery of maintaining calibrations. That the first 12 Fourier coefficients contain sufficient information to determine chemical constituents in many products has turned out to be a major advantage leading us to understand that the chemical absorption information in the wavelength spectrum of a sample obtained with an interferometer was also present in the interferogram.

  7. Multi-modal Color Medical Image Fusion Using Quaternion Discrete Fourier Transform (United States)

    Nawaz, Qamar; Xiao, Bin; Hamid, Isma; Jiao, Du


    Multimodal image fusion is a process of combining multiple images, generated by identical or diverse imaging modalities, to get precise inside information about the same body organ. In recent years, various multimodal image fusion algorithms have been proposed to fuse medical image. However, most of them focus on fusing grayscale images. This paper proposes a novel algorithm for the fusion of multimodal color medical images. The proposed algorithm divides source images into blocks, converts each RGB block into quaternion representation and transforms them from special domain to frequency domain by applying quaternion discrete Fourier transform. The fused coefficients are obtained by calculating and comparing contrast values of corresponding coefficients in transformed blocks. The resultant fused image is reconstructed by merging all the blocks after applying inverse quaternion discrete Fourier transform on each block. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed algorithm qualitatively outperforms many existing state-of-the-art multimodal image fusion algorithms.

  8. Novel Polynomial Basis with Fast Fourier Transform and Its Application to Reed-Solomon Erasure Codes

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Sian-Jheng


    In this paper, we present a fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm over extension binary fields, where the polynomial is represented in a non-standard basis. The proposed Fourier-like transform requires O(h lg(h)) field operations, where h is the number of evaluation points. Based on the proposed Fourier-like algorithm, we then develop the encoding/ decoding algorithms for (n = 2m; k) Reed-Solomon erasure codes. The proposed encoding/erasure decoding algorithm requires O(n lg(n)), in both additive and multiplicative complexities. As the complexity leading factor is small, the proposed algorithms are advantageous in practical applications. Finally, the approaches to convert the basis between the monomial basis and the new basis are proposed.

  9. Algorithms for Reconstruction of Partially Known, Band Limited Fourier Transform Pairs from Noisy Data (United States)


    RECONSTRUCTION OF PARTIALLY KNOWN, BAND - LIMITED FOURIER TRANSFORM PAIRS FROM NOISY DATA 0 Richard Baraka - Contractor: RGB Associates, Inc. Contract the archetypical linear problem in transform reconstruction. A number of algorithms have been proposed for its solution, either by iterative means ...Gerschberg and Saxton 11], Papoulis 121, Youla [3] or by direct means : Cadzow [4], Sabri and Steenaart [5]. Exampte 2, The Phone PAobZem. Given a

  10. The Kinetics of Mo(Co)6 Substitution Monitored by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry. (United States)

    Suslick, Kenneth S.; And Others


    Describes a physical chemistry experiment that uses Fourier transform (FTIR) spectrometers and microcomputers as a way of introducing students to the spectral storage and manipulation techniques associated with digitized data. It can be used to illustrate FTIR spectroscopy, simple kinetics, inorganic mechanisms, and Beer's Law. (TW)

  11. Fourier transform spectroscopy around 3 microns with a broad difference frequency comb

    CERN Document Server

    Meek, Samuel A; Guelachvili, Guy; Hänsch, Theodor W; Picqué, Nathalie


    We characterize a new mid-infrared frequency comb generator based on difference frequency generation around 3.2 microns. High power per comb mode (>10-7 W/mode) is obtained over a broad spectral span (>700 nm). The source is used for direct absorption spectroscopy with a Michelson-based Fourier transform interferometer.

  12. Fourier Transform Moire Deflectometry for Measuring the 3-D Temperature Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Li; WANG Ming; LIU Song; QI Xiaopin


    Fourier transform evaluation of fringe phase is applied to Moire deflectometry. 3-D gas temperature distribution for a given layer is reconstructed by optical tomography. The results show that the high-precise and automatic measurement for the 3-D gas temperature field can be realized by this technique.

  13. The Fourier transform solution for the Green's function of monoenergetic neutron transport theory


    Ganapol, Barry D.


    Nearly 45 years ago, Ken Case published his seminal paper on the singular eigenfunction solution for the Green's function of the monoenergetic neutron transport equation with isotropic scattering. Previously, the solution had been obtained by Fourier transform. While it is apparent the two had to be equivalent, a convincing equivalence proof for general anisotropic scattering remained a challenge until now.

  14. Measurement of Microscopic Deformations Using Double-Exposure Holographic Interferometry and the Fourier Transform Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percival Almoro


    Full Text Available Microscopic deformations on the surface of a circular diaphragm were measured using double exposure holographic interferometry and Fourier transform method (FTM. The three-dimensional surface deformations were successfully visualized by applying FTM to holographic interferogram analysis. The minimum surface displacement measured was 0.317 µm. This was calibrated via the Michelson interferometry technique.

  15. Specification of the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm as a term rewriting system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, P.H.; Hoekzema, D.J.


    We specify an algorithm for multiplying polynomials with complex coefficients incorporating, the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm of Cooley and Tukey [CT]. The specification formalism we use is a variant of the formalism ASF described in. [BHK]. The difference with ASF is essentially a matter of sem

  16. Postdispersion system for astronomical observations with Fourier transform spectrometers in the thermal infrared (United States)

    Wiedermann, Guenter; Jennings, D. E.; Hanel, R. H.; Kunde, V. G.; Moseley, S. H.


    A postdispersion system for astronomical observations with Fourier transform spectrometers in the thermal infrared has been developed which improves the sensitivity of radiation noise limited observations by reducing the spectral range incident on the detector. Special attention is given to the first-generation blocked impurity band detector. Planetary, solar, and stellar observations are reported.

  17. Measurement of surface temperature and emissivity by a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Morgenstjerne, Axel; Rathmann, Ole


    Surface temperatures are estimated with high precision based on a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform spectrometers. The method is based on Planck's radiation law and a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm applied to two or more spectra at different sample temperatures and a single...

  18. Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry. Development of instrumentation, data aquisition software and processing methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbu, I.M.


    This thesis describes, the use of a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron (FTICR) mass spectrometer in the study of biological samples with, imaging mass spectrometry (MS). To achieve this goal experiments were performed on an in-house modified FTICR-MS instrument (for which special acquisition software w

  19. VUV Fourier-transform absorption study of the Lyman and Werner bands in D-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de A.; Dickenson, G.D.; Salumbides, E.J.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Oliveira, de N.; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.


    An extensive survey of the D-2 absorption spectrum has been performed with the high-resolution VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer employing synchrotron radiation. The frequency range of 90 000-119 000 cm (1) covers the full depth of the potential wells of the B (1)Sigma(+)(u), B' 1 Sigma(+)(u), and

  20. Cryogenic magnetic bearing scanning mechanism design for the SPICA/SAFARI Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dool, T.C. van den; Hamelinck, R.F.M.M.; Kruizinga, B.; Gielesen, W.L.M.; Braam, B.C.; Nijenhuis, J.R.; Loix, N.; Luyckx, S.; Loon, D. van; Kooijman, P.P.; Swinyard, B.M.


    TNO, together with its partners Micromega and SRON, have designed a cryogenic scanning mechanism for use in the SAFARI Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board of the SPICA mission. The optics of the FTS scanning mechanism (FTSM) consists of two back-to-back cat's-eyes. The optics are mounted o

  1. Subpixel translation of MEMS measured by discrete fourier transform analysis of CCD images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamahata, C.; Sarajlic, E.; Stranczl, M.; Krijnen, G.J.M.; Gijs, M.A.M.


    We present a straightforward method for measuring in-plane linear displacements of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with subnanometer resolution. The technique is based on Fourier transform analysis of a video recorded with a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera attached to an optical microscope

  2. Shifting and Variational Properties for Fourier-Feynman Transform and Convolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Soo Kim


    Full Text Available Shifting, scaling, modulation, and variational properties for Fourier-Feynman transform of functionals in a Banach algebra S are given. Cameron and Storvick's translation theorem can be obtained as a corollary of our result. We also study shifting, scaling, and modulation properties for the convolution product of functionals in S.

  3. Nonuniform fast Fourier transform method for numerical diffraction simulation on tilted planes. (United States)

    Xiao, Yu; Tang, Xiahui; Qin, Yingxiong; Peng, Hao; Wang, Wei; Zhong, Lijing


    The method, based on the rotation of the angular spectrum in the frequency domain, is generally used for the diffraction simulation between the tilted planes. Due to the rotation of the angular spectrum, the interval between the sampling points in the Fourier domain is not even. For the conventional fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based methods, a spectrum interpolation is needed to get the approximate sampling value on the equidistant sampling points. However, due to the numerical error caused by the spectrum interpolation, the calculation accuracy degrades very quickly as the rotation angle increases. Here, the diffraction propagation between the tilted planes is transformed into a problem about the discrete Fourier transform on the uneven sampling points, which can be evaluated effectively and precisely through the nonuniform fast Fourier transform method (NUFFT). The most important advantage of this method is that the conventional spectrum interpolation is avoided and the high calculation accuracy can be guaranteed for different rotation angles, even when the rotation angle is close to π/2. Also, its calculation efficiency is comparable with that of the conventional FFT-based methods. Numerical examples as well as a discussion about the calculation accuracy and the sampling method are presented.

  4. Development of secondary cell wall in cotton fibers as examined with Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    Our presentation will focus on continuing efforts to examine secondary cell wall development in cotton fibers using infrared Spectroscopy. Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-...

  5. Limitations and potential of spectral subtractions in fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of soil samples (United States)

    Soil science research is increasingly applying Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for analysis of soil organic matter (SOM). However, the compositional complexity of soils and the dominance of the mineral component can limit spectroscopic resolution of SOM and other minor components. The...

  6. Teaching Stable Two-Mirror Resonators through the Fractional Fourier Transform (United States)

    Moreno, Ignacio; Garcia-Martinez, Pascuala; Ferreira, Carlos


    We analyse two-mirror resonators in terms of their fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) properties. We use the basic ABCD ray transfer matrix method to show how the resonator can be regarded as the cascade of two propagation-lens-propagation FRFT systems. Then, we present a connection between the geometric properties of the resonator (the g…

  7. The Relationship between Tsallis Statistics, the Fourier Transform, and Nonlinear Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Kenric P


    Tsallis statistics (or q-statistics) in nonextensive statistical mechanics is a one-parameter description of correlated states. In this paper we use a translated entropic index: $1 - q \\to q$ . The essence of this translation is to improve the mathematical symmetry of the q-algebra and make q directly proportional to the nonlinear coupling. A conjugate transformation is defined $\\hat q \\equiv \\frac{{- 2q}}{{2 + q}}$ which provides a dual mapping between the heavy-tail q-Gaussian distributions, whose translated q parameter is between $ - 2 < q < 0$, and the compact-support q-Gaussians, between $0 < q < \\infty $ . This conjugate transformation is used to extend the definition of the q-Fourier transform to the domain of compact support. A conjugate q-Fourier transform is proposed which transforms a q-Gaussian into a conjugate $\\hat q$ -Gaussian, which has the same exponential decay as the Fourier transform of a power-law function. The nonlinear statistical coupling is defined such that the conjugate ...

  8. Fourier Transform of the Stretched Exponential Function: Analytic Error Estimates, Double Exponential Transform, and Open-Source Implementation libkww

    CERN Document Server

    Wuttke, Joachim


    An algorithm is described for computing the Laplace transform (one-sided Fourier sine and cosine transform) of the stretched (or compressed) exponential function exp(-t^beta) (also known as Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts function, as characteristic function of a Levy stable distribution, or as complementary cumulative Weibull distribution) for exponents beta between 0.1 and 2. For low and high frequencies, the well-known series expansions are used; for intermediate frequencies, the explicit integration is strongly accelerated by the Ooura-Mori double exponential transformation. The algorithm is implemented in C as library libkww. The source code is available at

  9. A new Fourier transform based CBIR scheme for mammographic mass classification: a preliminary invariance assessment (United States)

    Gundreddy, Rohith Reddy; Tan, Maxine; Qui, Yuchen; Zheng, Bin


    The purpose of this study is to develop and test a new content-based image retrieval (CBIR) scheme that enables to achieve higher reproducibility when it is implemented in an interactive computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system without significantly reducing lesion classification performance. This is a new Fourier transform based CBIR algorithm that determines image similarity of two regions of interest (ROI) based on the difference of average regional image pixel value distribution in two Fourier transform mapped images under comparison. A reference image database involving 227 ROIs depicting the verified soft-tissue breast lesions was used. For each testing ROI, the queried lesion center was systematically shifted from 10 to 50 pixels to simulate inter-user variation of querying suspicious lesion center when using an interactive CAD system. The lesion classification performance and reproducibility as the queried lesion center shift were assessed and compared among the three CBIR schemes based on Fourier transform, mutual information and Pearson correlation. Each CBIR scheme retrieved 10 most similar reference ROIs and computed a likelihood score of the queried ROI depicting a malignant lesion. The experimental results shown that three CBIR schemes yielded very comparable lesion classification performance as measured by the areas under ROC curves with the p-value greater than 0.498. However, the CBIR scheme using Fourier transform yielded the highest invariance to both queried lesion center shift and lesion size change. This study demonstrated the feasibility of improving robustness of the interactive CAD systems by adding a new Fourier transform based image feature to CBIR schemes.

  10. Efficient 2-D Grayscale Morphological Transformations With Arbitrary Flat Structuring Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbach, Erik R.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.


    An efficient algorithm is presented for the computation of grayscale morphological operations with arbitrary 2-D flat structuring elements (S.E.). The required computing time is independent of the image content and of the number of gray levels used. It always outperforms the only existing comparable

  11. Fractional Fourier transform for partially coherent beam in spatial-frequency domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Yang-Jian; Lin Qiang


    By using Fourier transform and the tensor analysis method, the fractional Fourier transform (FRT) in the spatialfrequency domain for partially coherent beams is derived. Based on the FRT in the spatial-frequency domain, an analytical transform formula is derived for a partially coherent twisted anisotropic Gaussian-Schell model (GSM) beam passing through the FRT system. The connections between the FRT formula and the generalized diffraction integral formulae for partially coherent beams through an aligned optical system and a misaligned optical system in the spatialfrequency domain are discussed, separately. By using the derived formula, the intensity distribution of partially coherent twisted anisotropic GSM beams in the FRT plane are studied in detail. The formula derived provide a convenient tool for analysing and calculating the FRTs of the partially coherent beams in spatial-frequency domain.

  12. Perspective: The first ten years of broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. (United States)

    Park, G Barratt; Field, Robert W


    Since its invention in 2006, the broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform spectrometer has transformed the field of microwave spectroscopy. The technique enables the collection of a ≥10 GHz bandwidth spectrum in a single shot of the spectrometer, which allows broadband, high-resolution microwave spectra to be acquired several orders of magnitude faster than what was previously possible. We discuss the advantages and challenges associated with the technique and look back on the first ten years of chirped pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy. In addition to enabling faster-than-ever structure determination of increasingly complex species, the technique has given rise to an assortment of entirely new classes of experiments, ranging from chiral sensing by three-wave mixing to microwave detection of multichannel reaction kinetics. However, this is only the beginning. Future generations of microwave experiments will make increasingly creative use of frequency-agile pulse sequences for the coherent manipulation and interrogation of molecular dynamics.

  13. A New LFM-Signal Detector Based on Fractional Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhiping


    Full Text Available A new LFM-signal detector formulated by the integration of the 4th-power modulus of the fractional Fourier transform is proposed. It has similar performance to the modulus square detector of Radon-ambiguity transform because of the equivalence relationship between them. But the new detector has much lower computational complexity in the case that the number of the searching angles is far less than the length of the signal. Moreover, it is proved that the new detector can be generalized to the integration of the nth-power ( modulus of the fractional Fourier transform via mathematical derivation. Computer simulation results have confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed detector in LFM-signal detection.

  14. A New LFM-Signal Detector Based on Fractional Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Yin


    Full Text Available A new LFM-signal detector formulated by the integration of the 4th-power modulus of the fractional Fourier transform is proposed. It has similar performance to the modulus square detector of Radon-ambiguity transform because of the equivalence relationship between them. But the new detector has much lower computational complexity in the case that the number of the searching angles is far less than the length of the signal. Moreover, it is proved that the new detector can be generalized to the integration of the nth-power (2Fourier transform via mathematical derivation. Computer simulation results have confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed detector in LFM-signal detection.

  15. Perspective: The first ten years of broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (United States)

    Park, G. Barratt; Field, Robert W.


    Since its invention in 2006, the broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform spectrometer has transformed the field of microwave spectroscopy. The technique enables the collection of a ≥10 GHz bandwidth spectrum in a single shot of the spectrometer, which allows broadband, high-resolution microwave spectra to be acquired several orders of magnitude faster than what was previously possible. We discuss the advantages and challenges associated with the technique and look back on the first ten years of chirped pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy. In addition to enabling faster-than-ever structure determination of increasingly complex species, the technique has given rise to an assortment of entirely new classes of experiments, ranging from chiral sensing by three-wave mixing to microwave detection of multichannel reaction kinetics. However, this is only the beginning. Future generations of microwave experiments will make increasingly creative use of frequency-agile pulse sequences for the coherent manipulation and interrogation of molecular dynamics.

  16. The Fractional Fourier Transform and Its Application to Energy Localization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ter Morsche Hennie G


    Full Text Available Applying the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT and the Wigner distribution on a signal in a cascade fashion is equivalent to a rotation of the time and frequency parameters of the Wigner distribution. We presented in ter Morsche and Oonincx, 2002, an integral representation formula that yields affine transformations on the spatial and frequency parameters of the -dimensional Wigner distribution if it is applied on a signal with the Wigner distribution as for the FRFT. In this paper, we show how this representation formula can be used to solve certain energy localization problems in phase space. Examples of such problems are given by means of some classical results. Although the results on localization problems are classical, the application of generalized Fourier transform enlarges the class of problems that can be solved with traditional techniques.

  17. Fourier-Mukai and Nahm transforms for holomorphic triples on elliptic curves (United States)

    García-Prada, Oscar; Hernández Ruipérez, Daniel; Pioli, Fabio; Tejero Prieto, Carlos


    We define a Fourier-Mukai transform for a triple consisting of two holomorphic vector bundles over an elliptic curve and a homomorphism between them. We prove that in some cases, the transform preserves the natural stability condition for a triple. We also define a Nahm transform for solutions to natural gauge-theoretic equations on a triple—vortices—and explore some of its basic properties. Our approach combines direct methods with dimensional reduction techniques, relating triples over a curve with vector bundles over the product of the curve with the complex projective line.

  18. All-optical signal processing of OTDM and OFDM signals based on time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Guan, Pengyu; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen


    All-optical time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation utilised for signal processing of ultra-high-speed OTDM signals and OFDM signals will be presented.......All-optical time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation utilised for signal processing of ultra-high-speed OTDM signals and OFDM signals will be presented....

  19. Double-resolution electron holography with simple Fourier transform of fringe-shifted holograms. (United States)

    Volkov, V V; Han, M G; Zhu, Y


    We propose a fringe-shifting holographic method with an appropriate image wave recovery algorithm leading to exact solution of holographic equations. With this new method the complex object image wave recovered from holograms appears to have much less traditional artifacts caused by the autocorrelation band present practically in all Fourier transformed holograms. The new analytical solutions make possible a double-resolution electron holography free from autocorrelation band artifacts and thus push the limits for phase resolution. The new image wave recovery algorithm uses a popular Fourier solution of the side band-pass filter technique, while the fringe-shifting holographic method is simple to implement in practice.

  20. Design and implementation in VHDL code of the two-dimensional fast Fourier transform for frequency filtering, convolution and correlation operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilardy, Juan M; Giacometto, F; Torres, C O; Mattos, L, E-mail: [Laboratorio de Optica e Informatica, Universidad Popular del Cesar, Sede balneario Hurtado, Valledupar, Cesar (Colombia)


    The two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT 2D) is an essential tool in the two-dimensional discrete signals analysis and processing, which allows developing a large number of applications. This article shows the description and synthesis in VHDL code of the FFT 2D with fixed point binary representation using the programming tool Simulink HDL Coder of Matlab; showing a quick and easy way to handle overflow, underflow and the creation registers, adders and multipliers of complex data in VHDL and as well as the generation of test bench for verification of the codes generated in the ModelSim tool. The main objective of development of the hardware architecture of the FFT 2D focuses on the subsequent completion of the following operations applied to images: frequency filtering, convolution and correlation. The description and synthesis of the hardware architecture uses the XC3S1200E family Spartan 3E FPGA from Xilinx Manufacturer.

  1. Implementation of the 2-D Wavelet Transform into FPGA for Image (United States)

    León, M.; Barba, L.; Vargas, L.; Torres, C. O.


    This paper presents a hardware system implementation of the of discrete wavelet transform algoritm in two dimensions for FPGA, using the Daubechies filter family of order 2 (db2). The decomposition algorithm of this transform is designed and simulated with the Hardware Description Language VHDL and is implemented in a programmable logic device (FPGA) XC3S1200E reference, Spartan IIIE family, by Xilinx, take advantage the parallels properties of these gives us and speeds processing that can reach them. The architecture is evaluated using images input of different sizes. This implementation is done with the aim of developing a future images encryption hardware system using wavelet transform for security information.

  2. Non-stationary component extraction in noisy multicomponent signal using polynomial chirping Fourier transform. (United States)

    Lu, Wenlong; Xie, Junwei; Wang, Heming; Sheng, Chuan


    Inspired by track-before-detection technology in radar, a novel time-frequency transform, namely polynomial chirping Fourier transform (PCFT), is exploited to extract components from noisy multicomponent signal. The PCFT combines advantages of Fourier transform and polynomial chirplet transform to accumulate component energy along a polynomial chirping curve in the time-frequency plane. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed to search optimal polynomial parameters with which the PCFT will achieve a most concentrated energy ridge in the time-frequency plane for the target component. The component can be well separated in the polynomial chirping Fourier domain with a narrow-band filter and then reconstructed by inverse PCFT. Furthermore, an iterative procedure, involving parameter estimation, PCFT, filtering and recovery, is introduced to extract components from a noisy multicomponent signal successively. The Simulations and experiments show that the proposed method has better performance in component extraction from noisy multicomponent signal as well as provides more time-frequency details about the analyzed signal than conventional methods.

  3. Program for the analysis of time series. [by means of fast Fourier transform algorithm (United States)

    Brown, T. J.; Brown, C. G.; Hardin, J. C.


    A digital computer program for the Fourier analysis of discrete time data is described. The program was designed to handle multiple channels of digitized data on general purpose computer systems. It is written, primarily, in a version of FORTRAN 2 currently in use on CDC 6000 series computers. Some small portions are written in CDC COMPASS, an assembler level code. However, functional descriptions of these portions are provided so that the program may be adapted for use on any facility possessing a FORTRAN compiler and random-access capability. Properly formatted digital data are windowed and analyzed by means of a fast Fourier transform algorithm to generate the following functions: (1) auto and/or cross power spectra, (2) autocorrelations and/or cross correlations, (3) Fourier coefficients, (4) coherence functions, (5) transfer functions, and (6) histograms.

  4. Detection and parameter estimation of multicomponent LFM signal based on the fractional Fourier transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Lin; TAO Ran; ZHOU Siyong; WANG Yue


    This paper presents a new method for the detection and parameter estimation of multicomponent LFM signals based on the fractional Fourier transform. For the optimization in the fractional Fourier domain, an algorithm based on Quasi-Newton method is proposed which consists of two steps of searching, leading to a reduction in computation without loss of accuracy. And for multicomponent signals, we further propose a signal separation technique in the fractional Fourier domain which can effectively suppress the interferences on the detection of the weak components brought by the stronger components. The statistical analysis of the estimate errors is also performed which perfects the method theoretically, and finally, simulation results are provided to show the validity of our method.

  5. A Study of Derivative Filters Using the Discrete Fourier Transform. Final Report M. S. Thesis (United States)

    Ioup, G. E.


    Important properties of derivative (difference) filters using the discrete Fourier transform are investigated. The filters are designed using the derivative theorem of Fourier analysis. Because physical data are generally degraded by noise, the derivative filter is modified to diminish the effects of the noise, especially the noise amplification which normally occurs while differencing. The basis for these modifications is the reduction of those Fourier components for which the noise most dominates the data. The various filters are tested by applying them to find differences of two-dimensional data to which various amounts of signal dependent noise, as measured by a root mean square value, have been added. The modifications, circular and square ideal low-pass filters and a cut-off pyramid filter, are all found to reduce noise in the derivative without significantly degrading the result.

  6. Time-Frequency Signal Processing Based on Fractional Fourier Transform in Passive Sonar Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Bagheri


    Full Text Available This paper introduce a new data SONAR classification method based on Short-Time Fractional Fourier Transform (STFrFT analysis. The passive SONAR system receives the acoustic signals radiated by vessels and attempts to categorize them as a function of the similarities between vessels of the same class.Here, a time-frequency processing and feature extraction method is developed in order to improve the performance of a feedforwardneural network, which is used to classify five classes of vessels.Processing of time-varying signals in fractional fourier domain allows us to estimate the signal with higher concentration than conventional fourier domain, making the technique robust against additive noise, maintaining same computational complexity. With the purpose of dimension reduction and classification improvement, we use Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA technique. The feasibility of the proposed technique (STFrFTLDA has been tested experimentally using a real database. The experimental results show the superiority of the proposed method

  7. Advantages of Karhunen Loève transform over fast Fourier transform for planetary radar and space debris detection (United States)

    Maccone, Claudio


    The present article describes that the range of any radiotelescope (and radar in general) may be increased by virtue of software, if one replaces the fast Fourier transform by the Karhunen Loève transform. The range increases with the inverse of the fourth root of the signal-to-noise ratio when this ratio decreases. Thus, the range on any radiotelescope (and radar) may be increased without changing the hardware at all, but by changing the software only. This improvement in the range of the radiotelescope is currently implemented at the 32-m antenna located at Medicina, near Bologna, in Italy, for both SETI and general radioastronomy.

  8. Atomic resolution tomography reconstruction of tilt series based on a GPU accelerated hybrid input-output algorithm using polar Fourier transform. (United States)

    Lu, Xiangwen; Gao, Wenpei; Zuo, Jian-Min; Yuan, Jiabin


    Advances in diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have greatly improved the prospect of three-dimensional (3D) structure reconstruction from two-dimensional (2D) images or diffraction patterns recorded in a tilt series at atomic resolution. Here, we report a new graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerated iterative transformation algorithm (ITA) based on polar fast Fourier transform for reconstructing 3D structure from 2D diffraction patterns. The algorithm also applies to image tilt series by calculating diffraction patterns from the recorded images using the projection-slice theorem. A gold icosahedral nanoparticle of 309 atoms is used as the model to test the feasibility, performance and robustness of the developed algorithm using simulations. Atomic resolution in 3D is achieved for the 309 atoms Au nanoparticle using 75 diffraction patterns covering 150° rotation. The capability demonstrated here provides an opportunity to uncover the 3D structure of small objects of nanometers in size by electron diffraction.

  9. Tropical Forest Biomass Estimation from Vertical Fourier Transforms of Lidar and InSAR Profiles (United States)

    Treuhaft, R. N.; Goncalves, F.; Drake, J.; Hensley, S.; Chapman, B. D.; Michel, T.; Dos Santos, J. R.; Dutra, L.; Graca, P. A.


    Structural forest biomass estimation from lidar or interferometric SAR (InSAR) has demonstrated better performance than radar-power-based approaches for the higher biomasses (>150 Mg/ha) found in tropical forests. Structural biomass estimation frequently regresses field biomass to some function of forest height. With airborne, 25-m footprint lidar data and fixed-baseline C-band InSAR data over tropical wet forests of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica, we compare the use of Fourier transforms of vertical profiles at a few frequencies to the intrinsically low-frequency “average height”. RMS scatters of Fourier-estimated biomass about field-measured biomass improved by 40% and 20% over estimates base on average height from lidar and fixed-baseline InSAR, respectively. Vertical wavelengths between 14 and 100 m were found to best estimate biomass. The same airborne data acquisition over La Selva was used to generate many 10’s of repeat-track L-band InSAR baselines with time delays of 1-72 hours, and vertical wavelengths of 5-100 m. We will estimate biomass from the Fourier transforms of L-band radar power profiles (InSAR complex coherence). The effects of temporal decorrelation will be modeled in the Fourier domain to try to model and reduce their impact. Using L-band polarimetric interferometry, average heights will be estimated as well and biomass regression performance compared to the Fourier transform approach. The more traditional approach of using L-band radar polarimetry will also be compared to structural biomass estimation.

  10. Fast large scale structure perturbation theory using one-dimensional fast Fourier transforms (United States)

    Schmittfull, Marcel; Vlah, Zvonimir; McDonald, Patrick


    The usual fluid equations describing the large-scale evolution of mass density in the universe can be written as local in the density, velocity divergence, and velocity potential fields. As a result, the perturbative expansion in small density fluctuations, usually written in terms of convolutions in Fourier space, can be written as a series of products of these fields evaluated at the same location in configuration space. Based on this, we establish a new method to numerically evaluate the 1-loop power spectrum (i.e., Fourier transform of the 2-point correlation function) with one-dimensional fast Fourier transforms. This is exact and a few orders of magnitude faster than previously used numerical approaches. Numerical results of the new method are in excellent agreement with the standard quadrature integration method. This fast model evaluation can in principle be extended to higher loop order where existing codes become painfully slow. Our approach follows by writing higher order corrections to the 2-point correlation function as, e.g., the correlation between two second-order fields or the correlation between a linear and a third-order field. These are then decomposed into products of correlations of linear fields and derivatives of linear fields. The method can also be viewed as evaluating three-dimensional Fourier space convolutions using products in configuration space, which may also be useful in other contexts where similar integrals appear.

  11. Fourier transform magnetic resonance current density imaging (FT-MRCDI) from one component of magnetic flux density. (United States)

    Ider, Yusuf Ziya; Birgul, Ozlem; Oran, Omer Faruk; Arikan, Orhan; Hamamura, Mark J; Muftuler, L Tugan


    Fourier transform (FT)-based algorithms for magnetic resonance current density imaging (MRCDI) from one component of magnetic flux density have been developed for 2D and 3D problems. For 2D problems, where current is confined to the xy-plane and z-component of the magnetic flux density is measured also on the xy-plane inside the object, an iterative FT-MRCDI algorithm is developed by which both the current distribution inside the object and the z-component of the magnetic flux density on the xy-plane outside the object are reconstructed. The method is applied to simulated as well as actual data from phantoms. The effect of measurement error on the spatial resolution of the current density reconstruction is also investigated. For 3D objects an iterative FT-based algorithm is developed whereby the projected current is reconstructed on any slice using as data the Laplacian of the z-component of magnetic flux density measured for that slice. In an injected current MRCDI scenario, the current is not divergence free on the boundary of the object. The method developed in this study also handles this situation.

  12. Sharpening the response of an FIR filter using Fractional Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somesh Chaturvedi


    Full Text Available In this paper we have implemented FIR filter with the help of Kaiser Window and Fractional Fourier Transform (FRFT. The window shape parameter is tuned for the transition band by considering linear phase FRFT Finite Impulse Response (FIR filter. Here FRFT of Kaiser Window is taken and convolved with the response function for tuning purposes of the transition band which makes effective transition band. This proposed method includes the change of parameters of Kaiser window by which other windows like Rectangle, Bartlett, Hamming Blackman and Hanning windows are generated by using FRFT. The efficiencies of this method in terms of main lobe and side ripples are better than the above mentioned windows under Fourier transform.

  13. Systematic effects in polarizing Fourier transform spectrometers for cosmic microwave background observations

    CERN Document Server

    Nagler, Peter C; Kogut, Alan; Tucker, Gregory S


    The detection of the primordial B-mode polarization signal of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) would provide evidence for inflation. Yet as has become increasingly clear, the detection of a such a faint signal requires an instrument with both wide frequency coverage to reject foregrounds and excellent control over instrumental systematic effects. Using a polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) for CMB observations meets both these requirements. In this work, we present an analysis of instrumental systematic effects in polarizing Fourier transform spectrometers, using the Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) as a worked example. We analytically solve for the most important systematic effects inherent to the FTS - emissive optical components, misaligned optical components, sampling and phase errors, and spin synchronous effects - and demonstrate that residual systematic error terms after corrections will all be at the sub-nK level, well below the predicted 100 nK B-mode signal.

  14. Detection Algorithm for LFM Echo of Underwater Moving Targets Based on Discrete Fractional Fourier Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The mismatch between echo and replica caused by underwater moving target(UMT)'s radial velocity degrades the detection performance of the matched filter(MF) for the linear frequency modulation(LFM) signal. By using the focusing property of fractional Fourier transform(FRFT) to that signal, a detection algorithm for UMT's LFM echo based on the discrete fractional Fourier transform(DFRFT) is proposed. This algorithm is less affected by the target's radial velocity compared with the other MF detection algorithm utilizing zero radial velocity replica(ZRVR), and the mathematical relation between the output peak positions of these two algorithms exists in the case of existence of target echo. The algorithm can also estimate the target distance by using this relation. The simulation and experiment show that this algorithm's detection performance is better than or equivalent to that of the other MF algorithm utilizing ZRVR for the LFM echo of UMT with unknown radial velocity under reverberation noise background.

  15. The X1Σ +g ground state of Mg2 studied by Fourier-transform spectroscopy (United States)

    Knöckel, H.; Rühmann, S.; Tiemann, E.


    The A^1Σ u^+ - X^1Σ g^+ UV spectrum of Mg2 has been investigated with high resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy. Mg2 vapor was created in a heat pipe. Various spectroscopic methods have been employed, such as conventional absorption spectroscopy with light from a broad band lamp and laser-induced fluorescence. The high resolution of the Fourier-transform spectrometer, together with computer aided evaluation methods of the spectra, yields precise transition frequencies. The new data and data available from earlier investigations are applied in direct potential fits of lower and upper electronic states. Various representations of potential energy curves for the ground state X^1Σ g^+ have been employed and their benefits in terms of smallest number of parameters are discussed. Scattering lengths are derived for the homonuclear isotopologues and compared with previous results.

  16. A spectral synthesis method to suppress aliasing and calibrate for delay errors in Fourier transform correlators

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneko, Tak


    Context: Fourier transform (or lag) correlators in radio interferometers can serve as an efficient means of synthesising spectral channels. However aliasing corrupts the edge channels so they usually have to be excluded from the data set. In systems with around 10 channels, the loss in sensitivity can be significant. In addition, the low level of residual aliasing in the remaining channels may cause systematic errors. Moreover, delay errors have been widely reported in implementations of broadband analogue correlators and simulations have shown that delay errors exasperate the effects of aliasing. Aims: We describe a software-based approach that suppresses aliasing by oversampling the cross-correlation function. This method can be applied to interferometers with individually-tracking antennas equipped with a discrete path compensator system. It is based on the well-known property of interferometers where the drift scan response is the Fourier transform of the source's band-limited spectrum. Methods: In this p...

  17. Ion collision cross section measurements in Fourier transform-based mass analyzers. (United States)

    Li, Dayu; Tang, Yang; Xu, Wei


    With the increasing demands of molecular structure analysis, several methods have been developed to measure ion collision cross sections within Fourier transform (FT) based mass analyzers. Particularly in the recent three years since 2012, the method of obtaining biomolecule collision cross sections was achieved in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) cells. Furthermore, similar methods have been realized or proposed for orbitraps and quadrupole ion traps. This technique adds a new ion structure analysis capability to FT-based mass analyzers. By providing complementary ion structure information, it could be used together with tandem mass spectrometry and ion mobility spectroscopy techniques. Although many questions and challenges remain, this technique potentially would greatly enhance the ion structure analysis capability of a mass spectrometer, and provide a new tool for chemists and biochemists.

  18. Surpassing the Path-Limited Resolution of a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with Frequency Combs

    CERN Document Server

    Maslowski, Piotr; Johansson, Alexandra C; Khodabakhsh, Amir; Kowzan, Grzegorz; Rutkowski, Lucile; Mills, Andrew A; Mohr, Christian; Jiang, Jie; Fermann, Martin E; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra


    Fourier transform spectroscopy based on incoherent light sources is a well-established tool in research fields from molecular spectroscopy and atmospheric monitoring to material science and biophysics. It provides broadband molecular spectra and information about the molecular structure and composition of absorptive media. However, the spectral resolution is fundamentally limited by the maximum delay range ({\\Delta}$_{max}$) of the interferometer, so acquisition of high-resolution spectra implies long measurement times and large instrument size. We overcome this limit by combining the Fourier transform spectrometer with an optical frequency comb and measuring the intensities of individual comb lines by precisely matching the {\\Delta}$_{max}$ to the comb line spacing. This allows measurements of absorption lines narrower than the nominal (optical path-limited) resolution without ringing effects from the instrumental lineshape and reduces the acquisition time and interferometer length by orders of magnitude.

  19. Suppression law of quantum states in a 3D photonic fast Fourier transform chip (United States)

    Crespi, Andrea; Osellame, Roberto; Ramponi, Roberta; Bentivegna, Marco; Flamini, Fulvio; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Viggianiello, Niko; Innocenti, Luca; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio


    The identification of phenomena able to pinpoint quantum interference is attracting large interest. Indeed, a generalization of the Hong–Ou–Mandel effect valid for any number of photons and optical modes would represent an important leap ahead both from a fundamental perspective and for practical applications, such as certification of photonic quantum devices, whose computational speedup is expected to depend critically on multi-particle interference. Quantum distinctive features have been predicted for many particles injected into multimode interferometers implementing the Fourier transform over the optical modes. Here we develop a scalable approach for the implementation of the fast Fourier transform algorithm using three-dimensional photonic integrated interferometers, fabricated via femtosecond laser writing technique. We observe the suppression law for a large number of output states with four- and eight-mode optical circuits: the experimental results demonstrate genuine quantum interference between the injected photons, thus offering a powerful tool for diagnostic of photonic platforms. PMID:26843135

  20. The data processing pipeline for the Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Fulton, T; Polehampton, E T; Valtchanov, I; Hopwood, R; Lu, N; Baluteau, J -P; Mainetti, G; Pearson, C; Papageorgiou, A; Guest, S; Zhang, L; Imhof, P; Swinyard, B M; Griffin, M J; Lim, T L


    We present the data processing pipeline to generate calibrated data products from the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer on the Herschel Space Observatory. The pipeline processes telemetry from SPIRE observations and produces calibrated spectra for all resolution modes. The spectrometer pipeline shares some elements with the SPIRE photometer pipeline, including the conversion of telemetry packets into data timelines and calculation of bolometer voltages. We present the following fundamental processing steps unique to the spectrometer: temporal and spatial interpolation of the scan mechanism and detector data to create interferograms; Fourier transformation; apodization; and creation of a data cube. We also describe the corrections for various instrumental effects including first- and second-level glitch identification and removal, correction of the effects due to emission from the Herschel telescope and from within the spectrometer instrument, interferogra...

  1. Foliage Plant Retrieval using Polar Fourier Transform, Color Moments and Vein Features

    CERN Document Server

    Kadir, Abdul; Susanto, Adhi; Santosa, Paulus Insap


    This paper proposed a method that combines Polar Fourier Transform, color moments, and vein features to retrieve leaf images based on a leaf image. The method is very useful to help people in recognizing foliage plants. Foliage plants are plants that have various colors and unique patterns in the leaf. Therefore, the colors and its patterns are information that should be counted on in the processing of plant identification. To compare the performance of retrieving system to other result, the experiments used Flavia dataset, which is very popular in recognizing plants. The result shows that the method gave better performance than PNN, SVM, and Fourier Transform. The method was also tested using foliage plants with various colors. The accuracy was 90.80% for 50 kinds of plants.

  2. Optical imaging process based on two-dimensional Fourier transform for synthetic aperture imaging ladar (United States)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Zhi, Ya'nan; Liu, Liren; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhou, Yu; Hou, Peipei


    The synthetic aperture imaging ladar (SAIL) systems typically generate large amounts of data difficult to compress with digital method. This paper presents an optical SAIL processor based on compensation of quadratic phase of echo in azimuth direction and two dimensional Fourier transform. The optical processor mainly consists of one phase-only liquid crystal spatial modulator(LCSLM) to load the phase data of target echo and one cylindrical lens to compensate the quadratic phase and one spherical lens to fulfill the task of two dimensional Fourier transform. We show the imaging processing result of practical target echo obtained by a synthetic aperture imaging ladar demonstrator. The optical processor is compact and lightweight and could provide inherent parallel and the speed-of-light computing capability, it has a promising application future especially in onboard and satellite borne SAIL systems.

  3. Diffractive imaging analysis of large-aperture segmented telescope based on partial Fourier transform (United States)

    Dong, Bing; Qin, Shun; Hu, Xinqi


    Large-aperture segmented primary mirror will be widely used in next-generation space-based and ground-based telescopes. The effects of intersegment gaps, obstructions, position and figure errors of segments, which are all involved in the pupil plane, on the image quality metric should be analyzed using diffractive imaging theory. Traditional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method is very time-consuming and costs a lot of memory especially in dealing with large pupil-sampling matrix. A Partial Fourier Transform (PFT) method is first proposed to substantially speed up the computation and reduce memory usage for diffractive imaging analysis. Diffraction effects of a 6-meter segmented mirror including 18 hexagonal segments are simulated and analyzed using PFT method. The influence of intersegment gaps and position errors of segments on Strehl ratio is quantitatively analyzed by computing the Point Spread Function (PSF). By comparing simulation results with theoretical results, the correctness and feasibility of PFT method is confirmed.

  4. Magnetic resonance spectral reconstruction using frequency-shifted and summed Fourier transform processing (United States)

    Clark, W. G.; Hanson, M. E.; Lefloch, F.; Ségransan, P.


    A novel method of Fourier transform spectroscopy of the transient signals from wide, inhomogeneously broadened magnetic resonance spectra is described and analyzed. It has the advantages of high resolution, high sensitivity, and freedom from the distortions introduced by the finite amplitude of the pulsed rf magnetic field and the finite bandwidth of the receiving system. It consists of recording the transient signal at a series of magnetic fields, shifting the frequency of the transient by the corresponding field step for each point, and summing the corresponding Fourier transformed signals. Although the primary emphasis is on pulsed NMR, the analysis also applies to pulsed ESR. Criteria for the range and step interval of the magnetic field variation are discussed. The accuracy and sensitivity of the method are compared with earlier methods of spin echo spectroscopy. A description of the corresponding measurement of NQR, NMR, and ESR spectra obtained by stepping the frequency of the spectrometer is also presented.

  5. Improving Spectral Results Using Row-by-Row Fourier Transform of Spatial Heterodyne Raman Spectrometer Interferogram. (United States)

    Barnett, Patrick D; Strange, K Alicia; Angel, S Michael


    This work describes a method of applying the Fourier transform to the two-dimensional Fizeau fringe patterns generated by the spatial heterodyne Raman spectrometer (SHRS), a dispersive interferometer, to correct the effects of certain types of optical alignment errors. In the SHRS, certain types of optical misalignments result in wavelength-dependent and wavelength-independent rotations of the fringe pattern on the detector. We describe here a simple correction technique that can be used in post-processing, by applying the Fourier transform in a row-by-row manner. This allows the user to be more forgiving of fringe alignment and allows for a reduction in the mechanical complexity of the SHRS.

  6. Fourier Transform Ultrasound Spectroscopy for the determination of wave propagation parameters. (United States)

    Pal, Barnana


    The reported results for ultrasonic wave attenuation constant (α) in pure water show noticeable inconsistency in magnitude. A "Propagating-Wave" model analysis of the most popular pulse-echo technique indicates that this is a consequence of the inherent wave propagation characteristics in a bounded medium. In the present work Fourier Transform Ultrasound Spectroscopy (FTUS) is adopted to determine ultrasonic wave propagation parameters, the wave number (k) and attenuation constant (α) at 1MHz frequency in tri-distilled water at room temperature (25°C). Pulse-echo signals obtained under same experimental conditions regarding the exciting input signal and reflecting boundary wall of the water container for various lengths of water columns are captured. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) components of the echo signals are taken to compute k, α and r, the reflection constant at the boundary, using Oak Ridge and Oxford method. The results are compared with existing literature values.

  7. Transformation Model with Constraints for High-Accuracy of 2D-3D Building Registration in Aerial Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Zhou


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel rigorous transformation model for 2D-3D registration to address the difficult problem of obtaining a sufficient number of well-distributed ground control points (GCPs in urban areas with tall buildings. The proposed model applies two types of geometric constraints, co-planarity and perpendicularity, to the conventional photogrammetric collinearity model. Both types of geometric information are directly obtained from geometric building structures, with which the geometric constraints are automatically created and combined into the conventional transformation model. A test field located in downtown Denver, Colorado, is used to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the proposed method. The comparison analysis of the accuracy achieved by the proposed method and the conventional method is conducted. Experimental results demonstrated that: (1 the theoretical accuracy of the solved registration parameters can reach 0.47 pixels, whereas the other methods reach only 1.23 and 1.09 pixels; (2 the RMS values of 2D-3D registration achieved by the proposed model are only two pixels along the x and y directions, much smaller than the RMS values of the conventional model, which are approximately 10 pixels along the x and y directions. These results demonstrate that the proposed method is able to significantly improve the accuracy of 2D-3D registration with much fewer GCPs in urban areas with tall buildings.

  8. Utilização de filtro de transformada de fourier para a minimização de ruídos em sinais analíticos Utilization of fourier transform filter for noise minimization in analytical signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo O. Cerqueira


    Full Text Available Instrumental data always present some noise. The analytical data information and instrumental noise generally has different frequencies. Thus is possible to remove the noise using a digital filter based on Fourier transform and inverse Fourier transform. This procedure enhance the signal/noise ratio and consecutively increase the detection limits on instrumental analysis. The basic principle of Fourier transform filter with modifications implemented to improve its performance is presented. A numerical example, as well as a real voltammetric example are showed to demonstrate the Fourier transform filter implementation. The programs to perform the Fourier transform filter, in Matlab and Visual Basic languages, are included as appendices

  9. Measurement of hygroscopic strain in deodar wood during convective drying using lensless Fourier transform digial holography (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Shakher, Chandra


    In this paper, moisture induced deformation and shrinkage behaviour of deodar wood during convective drying is experimentally investigated by using digital holographic interferometry. There induces dimensional changes in wood due to the moisture absorption and desorption. Lensless Fourier transform digital holographic interferometry (LLFTDH) is used to study the moisture induced deformation and strain distribution in deodar wood. The proposed technique having high sensitivity and enables the observation of deformation and strain distribution during the variations of moisture content in the deodar wood.

  10. A Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry Method Used For Oseltamivir Determination in Pharmaceutical Formulations


    Aboul-Enein, Y; BUNACIU, Andrei; Nita, Sultana; FLESCHIN, Serban; AYDOGMUS, Zeynep


    A Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometric method was developed for the rapid, direct measurement of oseltamivir phosphate (OP) in pharmaceutical formulations. Conventional KBr-spectra were compared for best determination of the active substance in pharmaceutical preparations. The Beer-Lambert law and two chemometric approaches, partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR+) methods, were used in data processing. Key words: FT-IR analysis, oseltamivir, ...

  11. Dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform security hologram with in-built repositioning

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit K Sharma; D P Chhachhia; D Mohan; A K Aggarwal


    This paper describes a simple method for making dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform (EFRT) security holograms. The hologram possesses different stages of encoding so that security features are concealed and remain invisible to the counterfeiter. These concealed and encoded anticounterfeit security features in the security hologram can only be read through a key hologram. Key hologram also facilitates in-built repositioning of security hologram. The method of fabrication, the principle of reconstruction and the experimental results are presented.

  12. On the Entangled Fractional Fourier Transform in Tripartite Entangled State Representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; JIANG Nian-Quan


    Based on the newly constructed two mutually conjugate 3-mode entangled states of continuum variablesin three-mode Fock space we introduce entangled fractional Fourier transform (EFFT) for the tripartite entangled staterepresentations, which are not a direct product of three 1-dimensional FFTs. The eigenmodes of EFFT are obtained,which is different from the usual Hermite polynomials. The EFFT of the three-mode squeezed state is derived.

  13. Fast Fourier Transform Approximation of Foreign Currency Option Pricing Based on Exponential Lévy Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xu; WAN Jian-ping


    To study the approximation of foreign currency option prices when the underlying assets'price dynamics are described by exponential Lévy processes, the convolution representations for option pricing formulas were given, and then the fast Fourier transform(FFT) algorithm was used to get the approximate values of option prices. Finally, a numerical example was given to demonstrate the calculate steps to the option price by FFT.

  14. New Eigenmodes of Propagation in Quadratic Graded Index Media and Complex Fractional Fourier Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; FAN Yue


    By introducing a convenient complex form of the α-th 2-dimensional fractional Fourier transform (CFFT) operation we find that it possesses new eigenmodes which are two-mode Hermite polynomials. We prove the eigenvalues of propagation in quadratic graded-index medium over a definite distance are the same as the eigenvalues of the α-th CFFT, which means that our definition of the α-th CFFT is physically meaningful.

  15. Using single buffers and data reorganization to implement a multi-megasample fast Fourier transform (United States)

    Brown, R. D.


    Data ordering in large fast Fourier transforms (FFT's) is both conceptually and implementationally difficult. Discribed here is a method of visualizing data orderings as vectors of address bits, which enables the engineer to use more efficient data orderings and reduce double-buffer memory designs. Also detailed are the difficulties and algorithmic solutions involved in FFT lengths up to 4 megasamples (Msamples) and sample rates up to 80 MHz.

  16. Multivariate quality control of lubricating oils using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy


    Borin,Alessandra; Poppi, Ronei Jesus


    Multivariate quality control in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to qualitatively detect the class and the condition of lubricating oils. The multivariate approach was based on principal component analysis (PCA), first to classify the lubricating oil type (mineral, synthetic and semi-synthetic) and then to develop two control charts: a T² chart using the most significant principal components and a Q chart with the PC not used in the first chart. From t...

  17. Simulation of vortex laser beams propagation in parabolic index media based on fractional Fourier transform (United States)

    Mossoulina, O. A.; Kirilenko, M. S.; Khonina, S. N.


    We use radial Fractional Fourier transform to model vortex laser beams propagation in optical waveguides with parabolic dependence of the refractive index. To overcome calculation difficulties at distances proportional to a quarter of the period we use varied calculation step. Numerical results for vortex modes superposition propagation in a parabolic optical fiber show that the transverse beam structure can be changed significantly during the propagation. To provide stable transverse distribution input scale modes should be in accordance with fiber parameters.

  18. Fast Fourier transform for Voigt profile: Comparison with some other algorithms (United States)

    Abousahl, S.; Gourma, M.; Bickel, M.


    There are different algorithms describing the Voigt profile. This profile is encountered in many areas of physics which could be limited by the resolution of the instrumentation used to measure it and by other phenomena like the interaction between the emitted waves and matter. In nuclear measurement field, the codes used to characterise radionucleides rely on algorithms resolving the Voigt profile equation. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm allows the validation of some algorithms.

  19. Intel Cilk Plus for Complex Parallel Algorithms: "Enormous Fast Fourier Transform" (EFFT) Library


    Asai, Ryo; Vladimirov, Andrey


    In this paper we demonstrate the methodology for parallelizing the computation of large one-dimensional discrete fast Fourier transforms (DFFTs) on multi-core Intel Xeon processors. DFFTs based on the recursive Cooley-Tukey method have to control cache utilization, memory bandwidth and vector hardware usage, and at the same time scale across multiple threads or compute nodes. Our method builds on single-threaded Intel Math Kernel Library (MKL) implementation of DFFT, and uses the Intel Cilk P...

  20. Data Compression in RCS Modeling by Using the Threshold Discrete Fourier Transform Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Weixing; FANG Dagang; ZHUANG Jing; LIU T.J.; YANG Zhenglong


    A new data compression tech-nique, called the threshold discrete Fourier trans-form (TDFT) method, is proposed to efficiently com-press the scattered field data from complex targets.Compared with the matrix pencil (MP) method andCLEAN method, it is quite simple and time saving un-der the similar compression ratio and reconstructionerror. In TDFT and CLEAN methods, the optimizedsegmentation is found which results in high compres-sion ratio.

  1. Raman spectroscopy of gases with a Fourier transform spectrometer - The spectrum of D2 (United States)

    Jennings, D. E.; Weber, A.; Brault, J. W.


    Fourier transform spectrometry (FTS) is presently used to record the spontaneous incoherent laser Raman spectra of gases. The high resolution, sensitivity, calibration accuracy and spectral coverage achieved demonstrate the viability of FTS for Raman spectroscopy. Attention is given to the coefficients obtained by fitting measurements obtained from the spectrum of D2, containing both v = 0-0 and 1-0 transitions, to the Dunham (1932) expansion of the vibration-rotation energy levels.

  2. A modified diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy cell for depth profiling of ceramic fibers. (United States)

    Fondeur, F; Mitchell, B S


    A modified diffused reflectance infrared Fourier transformed spectroscopy (DRIFTS) accessory was used to analyze the surface properties of alumino-silicate fibers. The modifications are simple and involve a different way of performing depth-profiling from traditional DRIFTS by removing approximately 2 mm of salt from a full cup prior to placing the sample in for depth profiling. This method proved successful in elucidating the effects of quenching alumino-silicate fibers in mineral oil versus quenching in an air stream.

  3. Bell's measure and implementing quantum Fourier transform with orbital angular momentum of classical light. (United States)

    Song, Xinbing; Sun, Yifan; Li, Pengyun; Qin, Hongwei; Zhang, Xiangdong


    We perform Bell's measurement for the non-separable correlation between polarization and orbital angular momentum from the same classical vortex beam. The violation of Bell's inequality for such a non-separable classical correlation has been demonstrated experimentally. Based on the classical vortex beam and non-quantum entanglement between the polarization and the orbital angular momentum, the Hadamard gates and conditional phase gates have been designed. Furthermore, a quantum Fourier transform has been implemented experimentally.

  4. Automotive FMCW Radar-enhanced Range Estimation via a Local Resampling Fourier Transform



    In complex traffic scenarios, more accurate measurement and discrimination for an automotive frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar is required for intelligent robots, driverless cars and driver-assistant systems. A more accurate range estimation method based on a local resampling Fourier transform (LRFT) for a FMCW radar is developed in this paper. Radar signal correlation in the phase space sees a higher signal-noise-ratio (SNR) to achieve more accurate ranging, and the LRFT - whi...

  5. The Characterisation of Pluripotent and Multipotent Stem Cells Using Fourier Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. Tobin


    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared (FTIR microspectroscopy shows potential as a benign, objective and rapid tool to screen pluripotent and multipotent stem cells for clinical use. It offers a new experimental approach that provides a holistic measurement of macromolecular composition such that a signature representing the internal cellular phenotype is obtained. The use of this technique therefore contributes information that is complementary to that acquired by conventional genetic and immunohistochemical methods.

  6. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of intact cells of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense (United States)

    Kamnev, A. A.; Ristić, M.; Antonyuk, L. P.; Chernyshev, A. V.; Ignatov, V. V.


    The data of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic measurements performed on intact cells of the soil nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense grown in a standard medium and under the conditions of an increased metal uptake are compared and discussed. The structural FTIR information obtained is considered together with atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) data on the content of metal cations in the bacterial cells. Some methodological aspects concerning preparation of bacterial cell samples for FTIR measurements are also discussed.

  7. A Fourier transform method for powder diffraction based on the Debye scattering equation. (United States)

    Thomas, Noel William


    A fast Fourier transform algorithm is introduced into the method recently defined for calculating powder diffraction patterns by means of the Debye scattering equation (DSE) [Thomas (2010). Acta Cryst. A66, 64-77]. For this purpose, conventionally used histograms of interatomic distances are replaced by compound transmittance functions. These may be Fourier transformed to partial diffraction patterns, which sum to give the complete diffraction pattern. They also lead to an alternative analytical expression for the DSE sum, which reveals its convergence behaviour. A means of embedding the DSE approach within the reciprocal-lattice-structure-factor method is indicated, with interpolation methods for deriving the peak profiles of nanocrystalline materials outlined. Efficient calculation of transmittance functions for larger crystallites requires the Patterson group symmetry of the crystals to be taken into account, as shown for α- and β-quartz. The capability of the transmittance functions to accommodate stacking disorder is demonstrated by reference to kaolinite, with a fully analytical treatment of disorder described. Areas of future work brought about by these developments are discussed, specifically the handling of anisotropic atomic displacement parameters, inverse Fourier transformation and the incorporation of instrumental (diffractometer) parameters.

  8. [A novel spatial modulation Fourier transform spectrometer with adjustable spectral resolution]. (United States)

    Lian, Yu-Sheng; Liao, Ning-Fang; Lü, Hang; Wu, Wen-Min; Dong, Zhi-Gang


    In the premise of fulfilling the application requirement, the adjustment of spectral resolution can improve efficiency of data acquisition, data processing and data saving. So, by adjusting the spectral resolution, the performance of spectrometer can be improved, and its application range can be extended. To avoid the problems of the fixed spectral resolution of classical Fourier transform spectrometer, a novel type of spatial modulation Fourier transform spectrometer with adjustable spectral resolution is proposed in this paper. The principle of the novel spectrometer and its interferometer is described. The general expressions of the optical path difference and the lateral shear are induced by a ray tracing procedure. The equivalent model of the novel interferometer is analyzed. Meanwhile, the principle of the adjustment of spectral resolution is analyzed. The result shows that the novel spectrometer has the merits of adjustable spectral resolution, high stability, easy assemblage and adjustment etc. This theoretical study will provide the theoretical basis for the design of the spectrometer with adjustable spectral resolution and expand the application range of Fourier transform spectrometer.

  9. Transformation of Zernike coefficients: a Fourier-based method for scaled, translated, and rotated wavefront apertures. (United States)

    Tatulli, Eric


    This paper studies the effects on Zernike coefficients of aperture scaling, translation, and rotation, when a given aberrated wavefront is described on the Zernike polynomial basis. It proposes an analytical method for computing the matrix that enables the building of transformed Zernike coefficients from the original ones. The technique is based on the properties of Zernike polynomials and Fourier transform, and, in the case of a full aperture without central obstruction, the coefficients of the matrix are given in terms of integrals of Bessel functions. The integral formulas are exact and do not depend on any specific ordering of the polynomials.

  10. A New LFM-Signal Detector Based on Fractional Fourier Transform


    Zhiping Yin; Weidong Chen


    A new LFM-signal detector formulated by the integration of the 4th-power modulus of the fractional Fourier transform is proposed. It has similar performance to the modulus square detector of Radon-ambiguity transform because of the equivalence relationship between them. But the new detector has much lower computational complexity in the case that the number of the searching angles is far less than the length of the signal. Moreover, it is proved that the new detector can be generalized to th...

  11. Color pattern recognition based on the joint fractional Fourier transform correlator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin Jin; Yupei Zhang


    A new system of multi-channel single-output joint fractional Fourier transform correlator (JFRTC) for color pattern recognition is proposed based on the conventional system of multi-channel single-output joint transform correlator (JTC). The theoretical analysis and optical experiments are performed. With this method, one can obtain three correlation peaks at the output plane which show a pair of desired cross-correlation peaks and one auto-correlation peak. In comparison, the conventional system leads to more correlation peaks playing a noise role in color pattern recognition.

  12. Fourier and Wavelet Transform Analysis of Pressure Signals during Explosive Boiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Tie-Nan; HUAI Xiu-Lan


    @@ The transient pressure in a liquid-pool during explosive boiling of acetone is measured by a micro-pressure-measuring system.The Fast Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform methods are applied to investigate the frequency characteristics.The results show that the dominant frequency of the explosive boiling is 0-2MHz,and the bubble cluster formed by numerous tiny bubbles departs twice.Analysis and discussions are also conducted to explain the bubble evolution during the explosive boiling.

  13. [The principle and analysis of micro-Fourier transform spectrometer based on MEMS micro-mirror]. (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Jun; Zhu, Yong; Liu, Bo; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Ning


    The present paper puts forward a novel micro-Fourier transform infrared spectrometer based on programmable MEMS micro-mirror. This design uses a MEMS micro-mirror and a slantwise reflector to replace the moving mirror system on traditional spectrometer. This paper analyzes the operating principle of this spectrometer and gives the simulation result to prove the feasibility of this method. The results show that the spectral resolution is less than 5 nm in near-infrared wave band, the wave-length accuracy is approximately 1 nm and the sampling period of this spectrometer is approximately 50 ms. This method can use Hadamard transform to improve the SNR.

  14. Fourier-Transform Raman Spectroscopy of Polymers Caractérisation de polymères par spectroscopie Raman à transformée de Fourier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siesler H. W.


    Full Text Available The recent extension of the Fourier-Transform (FT technique to the Raman effect has launched Raman spectroscopy into a new era of polymer chemical and physical applications. Thus, the increase in signal-to-noise ratio and the improvement in time resolution have largely enhanced the potential of FT-Raman spectroscopy for analytical applications, the characterization of time-dependent phenomena and the on-line combination with other techniques. Primarily the suppression of fluorescence by shifting the excitation line to the near-infrared (NIR region has contributed to the fast acceptance as an industrial routine tool. Furthermore, the application of fiber optics has opened up the areas of process-control and remote sensing. Les applications de la spectroscopie Raman dans le domaine des polymères sont entrées dans une ère nouvelle, grâce aux récents développements de la technique à transformée de Fourier avec excitation dans le proche infrarouge. L'augmentation du rapport signal sur bruit et l'amélioration de la résolution temporelle ont fortement renforcé les potentialités de la technique en ce qui concerne les applications analytiques, la caractérisation de phénomènes qui dépendent du temps et le couplage en ligne avec d'autres techniques. La suppression du phénomène de fluorescence par déplacement de la longueur d'onde de l'excitatrice dans le proche infrarouge a contribué à l'intégration rapide de l'outil en site industriel. L'emploi de fibres optiques a permis l'accroissement des applications dans le domaine du contrôle des procédés et d'analyser à distance.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai-zhen Zhu; Xiao-lan Yu; Xiao-fang Liu; Yun-zen Mao; Rui-gang Liu; Ning Zhao; Xiao-li Zhang


    Structure of PAN fibers during pre-oxidation and carbonization was studied using two dimensional small angle X-ray scattering/wide angle X-ray diffraction (2D SAXS/WAXD).The SAXS results show that during pre-oxidation between 180 ℃ and 275 ℃,the volume content of microvoids increases with the temperature increasing,which may be one of reasons for the decrease of tensile strength of pre-oxidized fibers.253 ℃ was the critical transition temperature,the length,diameter,aspect ratio and orientation distribution of microvoids increased with temperature before this temperature and decreased after this temperature.After the high temperature carbonization,lots of spindly microvoids formed.WAXD patterns demonstrate that the crystallite size of PAN fibers first increased before 230 ℃ and then decreased with the increase of temperature during the pre-oxidation.The diffraction peak of PAN fibers at 2θ ≈ 17 almost disappeared at the end of preoxidation while the diffraction peak of aromatic structure at 2θ ≈ 25 appeared at 253 ℃.During carbonization,the peak intensity at 2θ ≈ 25 increased apparently due to the formation of graphite structure.The results obtained give a deep understanding of the microstructure development in the PAN fibers during pre-oxidation and carbonization,which is important for the preparation of high performance carbon fibers.

  16. Use of Fourier Transformation for Detection of Faults in Underground Power Cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhishek Pandey; Nicolas H. Younan


    An analysis of underground power cables is performed using Fourier analysis with the objective of detecting fault and average life of the cables. Three types of cables are used in this experiment: a normal cable, a shorted cable, and a cable with holes. The impedance in each case is computed and Fourier transformation is applied so that the re- suiting impedance magnitude and impedance phase can be examined in the frequency domain. Various windowing tech- niques are applied to the experimental data to eliminate any interference. Fourier analysis is then applied to the imped- ance data calculated from both the sending end voltage and differential voltage. This analysis reveals differences in the frequency response of the three different types of a cable and can eventually be used as a measure for fault detection. Preliminary results reveal the differences in the frequency response. Accordingly, Fourier type methods can be effectively used as low cost and viable solutions to identify and detect faults in underground cables.

  17. Application of Fractional Fourier Transform to Moving Target Indication via Along-Track Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Shen


    Full Text Available A relatively unknown yet powerful technique, the so-called fractional Fourier transform (FrFT, is applied to SAR along-track interferometry (SAR-ATI in order to estimate moving target parameters. By mapping a target's signal onto a fractional Fourier axis, the FrFT permits a constant-velocity target to be focused in the fractional Fourier domain thereby affording orders of magnitude improvement in SCR. Moving target velocity and position parameters are derived and expressed in terms of an optimum fractional angle and a measured fractional Fourier position , allowing a target to be accurately repositioned and its velocity components computed without actually forming an SAR image. The new estimation algorithm is compared with the matched filter bank approach, showing some of the advantages of the FrFT method. The proposed technique is applied to the data acquired by the two-aperture CV580 airborne radar system configured in its along-track mode. Results show that the method is effective in estimating target velocity and position parameters.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The digital watermark technology is now drawing attention as a useful method of protecting copyrights of digital contents such as audio, image, and video. Especially, efficient image watermarking methods have been developed in the DWT (discrete wavelet transform domain. With the rapid development of ecommerce and internet technology, the applications of multimedia products (image, video and audio, etc.are widely spread. Meanwhile the issue on the security of the copyright has been receiving more and more attention recently. Watermarking technology is an effective way to protect digital ultimedia products by embedding a watermark into the target product to prove the owner’s right on the product. In this paper, the digital watermarking algorithm is explained. This algorithm uses images and different types of noise are also added. The PSNR for each image is used to measure the efficacy of the algorithm. This objective measure is also used to determine the influence of the better type of noise. In summary, the results support the concept that the simpler wavelet transforms and add noise to a signal. , e.g. the Haar wavelet and add white Gaussian noise to a signal. Consistently outperform the more complex ones when using a watermark.

  19. MATLAB. Application on Fourier Transform%MATLAB在傅里叶变换中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Fourier transform knowledge is always difficult to be understood because of high abstract characteristics in the signals and systems. It is realized for the visualization of various operations by the powerfully signal processing functions of MATLAB based on the content of Fourier transform, Fourier series and convolution theorem. The concept of time and frequency domains and the analysis method are deeply understood by MATLAB programming.%针对信号与系统中傅里叶变换具有抽象度高、难于理解的特点,利用MATLAB强大的信号处理功能,结合傅里叶变换、傅里叶级数、卷积定理的内容,通过MATLAB程序设计实现傅里叶变换中各种运算的直观演示。通过MATLAB编程加深对信号时域和频域概念、分析方法的理解。

  20. Subpixel shift with Fourier transform to achieve efficient and high-quality image interpolation (United States)

    Chen, Qin-Sheng; Weinhous, Martin S.


    A new approach to image interpolation is proposed. Different from the conventional scheme, the interpolation of a digital image is achieved with a sub-unity coordinate shift technique. In the approach, the original image is first shifted by sub-unity distances matching the locations where the image values need to be restored. The original and the shifted images are then interspersed together, yielding an interpolated image. High quality sub-unity image shift which is crucial to the approach is accomplished by implementing the shift theorem of Fourier transformation. It is well known that under the Nyquist sampling criterion, the most accurate image interpolation can be achieved with the interpolating function (sinc function). A major drawback is its computation efficiency. The present approach can achieve an interpolation quality as good as that with the sinc function since the sub-unity shift in Fourier domain is equivalent to shifting the sinc function in spatial domain, while the efficiency, thanks to the fast Fourier transform, is very much improved. In comparison to the conventional interpolation techniques such as linear or cubic B-spline interpolation, the interpolation accuracy is significantly enhanced. In order to compensate for the under-sampling effects in the interpolation of 3D medical images owing to a larger inter-slice distance, proper window functions were recommended. The application of the approach to 2- and 3-D CT and MRI images produced satisfactory interpolation results.

  1. Three-dimensional adaptive coordinate transformations for the Fourier modal method. (United States)

    Küchenmeister, Jens


    The concepts of adaptive coordinates and adaptive spatial resolution have proved to be a valuable tool to improve the convergence characteristics of the Fourier Modal Method (FMM), especially for metallo-dielectric systems. Yet, only two-dimensional adaptive coordinates were used so far. This paper presents the first systematic construction of three-dimensional adaptive coordinate and adaptive spatial resolution transformations in the context of the FMM. For that, the construction of a three-dimensional mesh for a periodic system consisting of two layers of mutually rotated, metallic crosses is discussed. The main impact of this method is that it can be used with any classic FMM code that is able to solve the large FMM eigenproblem. Since the transformation starts and ends in a Cartesian mesh, only the transformed material tensors need to be computed and entered into an existing FMM code.

  2. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) as a Tool for the Identification and Differentiation of Pathogenic Bacteria. (United States)

    Zarnowiec, Paulina; Lechowicz, Łukasz; Czerwonka, Grzegorz; Kaca, Wiesław


    Methods of human bacterial pathogen identification need to be fast, reliable, inexpensive, and time efficient. These requirements may be met by vibrational spectroscopic techniques. The method that is most often used for bacterial detection and identification is Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It enables biochemical scans of whole bacterial cells or parts thereof at infrared frequencies (4,000-600 cm(-1)). The recorded spectra must be subsequently transformed in order to minimize data variability and to amplify the chemically-based spectral differences in order to facilitate spectra interpretation and analysis. In the next step, the transformed spectra are analyzed by data reduction tools, regression techniques, and classification methods. Chemometric analysis of FTIR spectra is a basic technique for discriminating between bacteria at the genus, species, and clonal levels. Examples of bacterial pathogen identification and methods of differentiation up to the clonal level, based on infrared spectroscopy, are presented below.

  3. Demonstration of a compressive-sensing Fourier-transform on-chip spectrometer. (United States)

    Podmore, Hugh; Scott, Alan; Cheben, Pavel; Velasco, Aitor V; Schmid, Jens H; Vachon, Martin; Lee, Regina


    We demonstrate compressive-sensing (CS) spectroscopy in a planar-waveguide Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) device. The spectrometer is implemented as an array of Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) integrated on a photonic chip. The signal from a set of MZIs is composed of an undersampled discrete Fourier interferogram, which we invert using l1-norm minimization to retrieve a sparse input spectrum. To implement this technique, we use a subwavelength-engineered spatial heterodyne FTS on a chip composed of 32 independent MZIs. We demonstrate the retrieval of three sparse input signals by collecting data from restricted sets (8 and 14) of MZIs and applying common CS reconstruction techniques to this data. We show that this retrieval maintains the full resolution and bandwidth of the original device, despite a sampling factor as low as one-fourth of a conventional (non-compressive) design.

  4. A new modification to homotopy perturbation method combined with Fourier transform for solving nonlinear Cauchy reaction diffusion equation (United States)

    Nourazar, S. S.; Nazari-Golshan, A.


    A hybrid of Fourier transform and new modified homotopy perturbation method based on the Adomian method is developed to solve linear and nonlinear partial differential equations. The Taylor series expansion is used to expand nonlinear term of partial differential equation and the Adomian polynomial incorporated into homotopy perturbation method combined with Fourier transform, is used to solve partial differential equations. Three case study problems, partial differential equations, are handled using homotopy perturbation method and Fourier transform modified homotopy perturbation method (FTMHPM). Results obtained are compared with exact solution. The comparison reveals that for same components of recursive sequences, errors associated with Fourier transform modified method are much less than the other and are valid for a large range of x-axis coordinates.


    A portable Fourier transform infrared gas analyzer with a photoacoustic detector performed reliably during pollution prevention research at two industrial facilities. It exhibited good agreement (within approximately 6%) with other analytical instruments (dispersive infrared and ...

  6. Reversible structural transformations in a Co(II)-based 2D dynamic metal-organic framework showing selective solvent uptake

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjog S Nagarkar; Sujit K Ghosh


    A Co(II)-based two-dimensional (2D) metal-organic framework (MOF) [Co(pca)(bdc)0.5(H2O)2] (1) {pca = pyrazine carboxylic acid, and bdc = 1,4-benzene dicarboxylic acid} was synthesized solvothermally. The compound loses the coordinated lattice water molecules on heating which is accompanied by solidstate structural transformation to yield dehydrated phase [Co(pca)(bdc)0.5] (1′). The hydrated structure can be regained by exposing 1′ to water vapour (1′′). These reversible solid-state structural transformations are accompanied by a visible colour change in the material. The dehydrated compound also shows highly selective water uptake over other solvents like MeOH, EtOH, THF. This selective water uptake can be ascribed to the high affinity of polar water molecule towards the open metal site created on heating. The present report provides important insights into the reversible structural transformations observed due to variable coordination number of the central metal ion and transformability of the framework. The selective water uptake over alcohols along with visible colour change demonstrates the potential of the present compound in bio-alcohol purification.

  7. Experimental determination of Hurst exponent of the self-affine fractal patterns with optical fractional Fourier transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Shaotong; HAN Dianrong; DING Heping


    By means of experimental technique of optical fractional Fourier transform,we have determined the Hurst exponent of a regular self-affine fractal pattern to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. Then we extend this method to determine the Hurst exponents of some irregular self-affine fractal patterns. Experimental results show that optical fractional Fourier transform is a practical method for analyzing the self-affine fractal patterns.

  8. Time lens based optical fourier transformation for advanced processing of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Morioka, Toshio


    We review recent progress in the use of time lens based optical Fourier transformation for advanced optical signal processing, with focus on all-optical generation, detection and format conversion of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals.......We review recent progress in the use of time lens based optical Fourier transformation for advanced optical signal processing, with focus on all-optical generation, detection and format conversion of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals....

  9. Periodic nonlinear Fourier transform for fiber-optic communications, Part I: theory and numerical methods. (United States)

    Kamalian, Morteza; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E; Le, Son Thai; Turitsyn, Sergei K


    In this work, we introduce the periodic nonlinear Fourier transform (PNFT) method as an alternative and efficacious tool for compensation of the nonlinear transmission effects in optical fiber links. In the Part I, we introduce the algorithmic platform of the technique, describing in details the direct and inverse PNFT operations, also known as the inverse scattering transform for periodic (in time variable) nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). We pay a special attention to explaining the potential advantages of the PNFT-based processing over the previously studied nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT) based methods. Further, we elucidate the issue of the numerical PNFT computation: we compare the performance of four known numerical methods applicable for the calculation of nonlinear spectral data (the direct PNFT), in particular, taking the main spectrum (utilized further in Part II for the modulation and transmission) associated with some simple example waveforms as the quality indicator for each method. We show that the Ablowitz-Ladik discretization approach for the direct PNFT provides the best performance in terms of the accuracy and computational time consumption.

  10. Parameter estimation of linear and quadratic chirps by employing the fractional fourier transform and a generalized time frequency transform

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shishir B Sahay; T Meghasyam; Rahul K Roy; Gaurav Pooniwala; Sasank Chilamkurthy; Vikram Gadre


    This paper is targeted towards a general readership in signal processing. It intends to provide a brief tutorial exposure to the Fractional Fourier Transform, followed by a report on experiments performed by the authors on a Generalized Time Frequency Transform (GTFT) proposed by them in an earlier paper. The paper also discusses the extension of the uncertainty principle to the GTFT. This paper discusses some analytical results of the GTFT. We identify the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the GTFT. The time shift property of the GTFT is discussed. The paper describes methods for estimation of parameters of individual chirp signals on receipt of a noisy mixture of chirps. A priori knowledge of the nature of chirp signals in the mixture – linear or quadratic is required, as the two proposed methods fall in the category of model-dependent methods for chirp parameter estimation.

  11. A hybrid algorithm for the rapid Fourier transform of extensive series of data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S Franco


    Full Text Available A technique is described for the rapid Fourier transform of large series of numbers. The technique takes advantage of the fact that most digital series are highly factorizable by the number 2, which permits the use of the F.F.T. algorithm. Using two magnetic tape units, or alternatively magnetic disk facilities, very large series can be transformed efficiently with only modest computer facilities. For the transformation of odd-valued series the Thomas Prime-Factor and Gentleman and Sande algorithms are treated in detail.Apresenta-se neste trabalho uma técnica de transformação rápida de Fourier aplicada a uma longa série de valores numéricos. A técnica tira partido do fato de que a grande maioria das séries digitalizadas é, em geral, suscetível de fatoração onde aparece frequentemente o fator 2, o que permite o emprego do algorítmo da transformação rápida de Fourier (F.F.T.. Com o emprego de duas fitas magnéticas ou discos, pode ser efetuada eficientemente a transformação de longas séries em computadores de modesta memória. O algorítmo de fatores primos de Thomas e o de Gentleman e Sande são, respectivamente, tratados em detalhe, na transformação de séries com numero ímpar de valores.

  12. Study on the algorithm of computational ghost imaging based on discrete fourier transform measurement matrix (United States)

    Zhang, Leihong; Liang, Dong; Li, Bei; Kang, Yi; Pan, Zilan; Zhang, Dawei; Gao, Xiumin; Ma, Xiuhua


    On the basis of analyzing the cosine light field with determined analytic expression and the pseudo-inverse method, the object is illuminated by a presetting light field with a determined discrete Fourier transform measurement matrix, and the object image is reconstructed by the pseudo-inverse method. The analytic expression of the algorithm of computational ghost imaging based on discrete Fourier transform measurement matrix is deduced theoretically, and compared with the algorithm of compressive computational ghost imaging based on random measurement matrix. The reconstruction process and the reconstruction error are analyzed. On this basis, the simulation is done to verify the theoretical analysis. When the sampling measurement number is similar to the number of object pixel, the rank of discrete Fourier transform matrix is the same as the one of the random measurement matrix, the PSNR of the reconstruction image of FGI algorithm and PGI algorithm are similar, the reconstruction error of the traditional CGI algorithm is lower than that of reconstruction image based on FGI algorithm and PGI algorithm. As the decreasing of the number of sampling measurement, the PSNR of reconstruction image based on FGI algorithm decreases slowly, and the PSNR of reconstruction image based on PGI algorithm and CGI algorithm decreases sharply. The reconstruction time of FGI algorithm is lower than that of other algorithms and is not affected by the number of sampling measurement. The FGI algorithm can effectively filter out the random white noise through a low-pass filter and realize the reconstruction denoising which has a higher denoising capability than that of the CGI algorithm. The FGI algorithm can improve the reconstruction accuracy and the reconstruction speed of computational ghost imaging.

  13. Parallel 3-dim fast Fourier transforms with load balancing of the plane waves

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Xingyu; Fang, Jun; Wang, Han


    The plane wave method is most widely used for solving the Kohn-Sham equations in first-principles materials science computations. In this procedure, the three-dimensional (3-dim) trial wave functions' fast Fourier transform (FFT) is a regular operation and one of the most demanding algorithms in terms of the scalability on a parallel machine. We propose a new partitioning algorithm for the 3-dim FFT grid to accomplish the trade-off between the communication overhead and load balancing of the plane waves. It is shown by qualitative analysis and numerical results that our approach could scale the plane wave first-principles calculations up to more nodes.

  14. Characterization of naturally-occurring and modified fullerenes by Fourier transform mass spectrometry (United States)

    Hettich, Robert L.; Jin, Changming; Compton, Robert N.; Buseck, Peter R.; Tsipursky, Semeon J.


    Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) employing both laser desorption/ionization and thermal desorption/electron ionization is useful for the detection and structural characterization of fullerenes and chemically-modified fullerenes. Examination of a carbon-rich shungite rock sample from Russia by transmission electron microscopy and FTMS provided evidence of naturally-occurring fullerenes. Ion-molecule reactions can be studied with FTMS to investigate the electron affinities of modified fullerenes. By monitoring charge exchange reactions, the electron affinities of C60Fx (x=44,46) and C70Fy (y=52,54) were found to be substantially higher than the values for the parent fullerenes.

  15. Using the fast fourier transform to accelerate the computational search for RNA conformational switches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Senter

    Full Text Available Using complex roots of unity and the Fast Fourier Transform, we design a new thermodynamics-based algorithm, FFTbor, that computes the Boltzmann probability that secondary structures differ by [Formula: see text] base pairs from an arbitrary initial structure of a given RNA sequence. The algorithm, which runs in quartic time O(n(4 and quadratic space O(n(2, is used to determine the correlation between kinetic folding speed and the ruggedness of the energy landscape, and to predict the location of riboswitch expression platform candidates. A web server is available at

  16. Analysis of the Interference Modulation Depth in the Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rilong Liu


    Full Text Available Based on the principle of the Michelson interferometer, the paper briefly describes the theoretical significance and calculates and deduces three expressions of the interference modulation depth. The influence of the surface shape error of plane mirror on modulation depth is analyzed, and the tolerance of error is also pointed out. Moreover, the dependence of modulation depth on the reflectance change of beam splitter interface is also analyzed, and the curve is given. It is concluded that this paper is of general significance for the Fourier transform spectrometer based on the principle of the Michelson two-beam interference.

  17. Analysis of the Advantages and Limitations of Stationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer. Revised (United States)

    Beecken, Brian P.; Kleinman, Randall R.


    New developments in infrared sensor technology have potentially made possible a new space-based system which can measure far-infrared radiation at lower costs (mass, power and expense). The Stationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SIFTS) proposed by NASA Langley Research Center, makes use of new detector array technology. A mathematical model which simulates resolution and spectral range relationships has been developed for analyzing the utility of such a radically new approach to spectroscopy. Calculations with this forward model emulate the effects of a detector array on the ability to retrieve accurate spectral features. Initial computations indicate significant attenuation at high wavenumbers.

  18. Hardware schemes for fast Fourier transform, part 7.4A (United States)

    Stitt, G. R.; Bowhill, S. A.


    Real-time fast fourier transformer (FFT) processing of a MST radar data and cost-effective approaches to hardware FFT generation were studied. Previously devised hardware FFT configurations are described including the estimated number of chips used and the time required to perform a 1024-point FFT. The remaining entries in the table correspond to original designs, which presuppose the availability of a microcomputer and a modestly complicated hardware peripheral. These original designs, all of which implement a radix-4 FFT with twiddle factors, are assigned model numbers to make them easier to refer to.

  19. Unfolding features of bovine testicular hyaluronidase studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. (United States)

    Pan, Nina; Cai, Xiaoqiang; Tang, Kai; Zou, Guolin


    Chemical unfolding of bovine testicular hyaluronidase (HAase) has been studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Thermodynamic parameters were determined for unfolding HAase from changes in the intrinsic fluorescence emission intensity and the formations of several possible unfolding intermediates have been identified. This was further confirmed by representation of fluorescence data in terms of 'phase diagram'. The secondary structures of HAase have been assigned and semiquantitatively estimated from the FTIR. The occurrence of conformational change during chemical unfolding as judged by fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopy indicated that the unfolding of HAase may not follow the typical two-state model.

  20. Simple atmospheric transmittance calculation based on a Fourier-transformed Voigt profile. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hirokazu


    A method of line-by-line transmission calculation for a homogeneous atmospheric layer that uses the Fourier-transformed Voigt profile is presented. The method is based on a pure Voigt function with no approximation and an interference term that takes into account the line-mixing effect. One can use the method to calculate transmittance, considering each line shape as it is affected by temperature and pressure, with a line database with an arbitrary wave-number range and resolution. To show that the method is feasible for practical model development, we compared the calculated transmittance with that obtained with a conventional model, and good consistency was observed.

  1. On pointwise inversion of the Fourier transform of $BV_{0}$ functions


    ‎Mendoza Torres, Francisco J‎.


    ‎Using a Riemann-Lebesgue lemma for the Fourier transform over the class of‎ ‎bounded variation functions that vanish at infinity‎, ‎we prove the‎ ‎Dirichlet--Jordan theorem for functions on this class‎. ‎Our proof is in the‎ ‎Henstock--Kurzweil integral context and is different to that of‎ ‎Riesz-Livingston [Amer‎. ‎Math‎. ‎Monthly 62 (1955)‎, ‎434--437]‎. ‎As consequence‎, ‎we obtain the Dirichlet--Jordan theorem‎ ‎for functions in the intersection of the spaces of bounded...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Hsin


    Full Text Available The accuracy of the Fourier transform (FT, advantageous for the aperiodic lattice (AL design, is significantly improved for strongly scattering periodic lattices (PLs and ALs. The approach is to inversely obtain corrected parameters from an accurate transfer matrix method for the FT. We establish a corrected FT in order to improve the spectral inaccuracy of strongly scattering PLs by redefining wave numbers and reflective intensity. We further correct the FT for strongly scattering ALs by implementing improvements applied to strongly scattering PLs and then making detailed wave number adjustments in the main band spectral region. Silicon lattice simulations are presented.

  3. Vibration parameter measurement using the temporal digital hologram sequence and windowed Fourier transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Real time digital recording and numerical reconstruction of a temporal digital hologram sequence have become feasible in recent years.They provide a new measurement method which enjoys the valuable advantages of being full-field,noncontact and high precision.In this paper,a combined method of temporal digital hologram sequence and windowed Fourier transform is proposed to measure the kinematic parameters of random vibration.A series of holograms are recorded by CCD camera and the original phase can be recon...

  4. Wave scattering theory a series approach based on the Fourier transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Eom, Hyo J


    The book provides a unified technique of Fourier transform to solve the wave scattering, diffraction, penetration, and radiation problems where the technique of separation of variables is applicable. The book discusses wave scattering from waveguide discontinuities, various apertures, and coupling structures, often encountered in electromagnetic, electrostatic, magnetostatic, and acoustic problems. A system of simultaneous equations for the modal coefficients is formulated and the rapidly-convergent series solutions amenable to numerical computation are presented. The series solutions find practical applications in the design of microwave/acoustic transmission lines, waveguide filters, antennas, and electromagnetic interference/compatibilty-related problems.

  5. Predictive analog-to-digital converter for Fourier-transform spectrometers. (United States)

    Deschênes, Jean-Daniel; Potvin, Simon; Ash, Jean-Simon; Genest, Jérôme


    This paper proposes the use of predictive analog-to-digital converters (ADC) to handle dynamic range issues in Fourier-transform spectrometers. Several predictive approaches are proposed, and one is implemented experimentally to show that the technique works. A system was implemented with 16 bit (13 bits effective) ADCs and digital-to-analog converters (DACs) operated at 8 bits to provide a comparison basis. Measurements of a blackbody at 900 °C performed using the setup show a 13 bit effective performance, limited by the input noise of the data acquisition card.

  6. Fourier transform acousto-optic imaging with a custom-designed CMOS smart-pixels array. (United States)

    Barjean, Kinia; Contreras, Kevin; Laudereau, Jean-Baptiste; Tinet, Éric; Ettori, Dominique; Ramaz, François; Tualle, Jean-Michel


    We report acousto-optic imaging (AOI) into a scattering medium using a Fourier Transform (FT) analysis to achieve axial resolution. The measurement system was implemented using a CMOS smart-pixels sensor dedicated to the real-time analysis of speckle patterns. This first proof-of-principle of FT-AOI demonstrates some of its potential advantages, with a signal-to-noise ratio comparable to the one obtained without axial resolution, and with an acquisition rate compatible with a use on living biological tissue.

  7. Non-uniform sampled scalar diffraction calculation using non-uniform fast Fourier transform

    CERN Document Server

    Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Oikawa, Minoru; Okada, Naohisa; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Ito, Tomoyoshi


    Scalar diffraction calculations such as the angular spectrum method (ASM) and Fresnel diffraction, are widely used in the research fields of optics, X-rays, electron beams, and ultrasonics. It is possible to accelerate the calculation using fast Fourier transform (FFT); unfortunately, acceleration of the calculation of non-uniform sampled planes is limited due to the property of the FFT that imposes uniform sampling. In addition, it gives rise to wasteful sampling data if we calculate a plane having locally low and high spatial frequencies. In this paper, we developed non-uniform sampled ASM and Fresnel diffraction to improve the problem using the non-uniform FFT.

  8. Evolution of Lactococcus strains during ripening in Brie cheese using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy


    Lefier, Dominique; Lamprell, Helen; Mazerolles, Gérard


    International audience; The diversity of the Lactococcus flora during maturation of soft cheese, produced using one of 2 different starter cultures (S$_{\\rm A}$ and S$_{\\rm B}$), was determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Identification of Lactococcus sp. was achieved using a model composed of the 6 strains of Lc. lactis ssp. lactis and the 2 strains of Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris, present in the starter cultures S$_{\\rm A}$ and S$_{\\rm B}$, as well as a reference strai...

  9. The optimum scheme of a static Fourier-transform spectrometer based on birefringent crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongqing Zhang(张冬青); Fuquan Wu(吴福全); Shuhai Fan(范树海)


    An optimum design of static Fourier-transform spectrometer based on Savert prisms is presented in this paper. A new method of increasing path difference and resolution of spectrometer is given. When the angle between the crystal optical axis of the first Savert prism and the incident interface is 58° and the angle between the crystal optical axis of the second Savert prism and the incident interface is 28°, the maximum path difference will be 0.63 mm, the maximum resolution will be 15.8 cm-1, and the whole field-of-view will reach 6°.

  10. A Fourier transform spectrometer for visible and near ultra-violet measurements of atmospheric absorption (United States)

    Parsons, C. L.; Gerlach, J. C.; Whitehurst, M.


    The development of a prototype, ground-based, Sun-pointed Michelson interferometric spectrometer is described. Its intended use is to measure the atmospheric amount of various gases which absorb in the near-infrared, visible, and near-ultraviolet portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Preliminary spectra which contain the alpha, 0.8 micrometer, and rho sigma tau water vapor absorption bands in the near-infrared are presented to indicate the present capability of the system. Ultimately, the spectrometer can be used to explore the feasible applications of Fourier transform spectroscopy in the ultraviolet where grating spectrometers were used exclusively.

  11. Design and fabrication of step mirrors used in space-modulated Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Liang, Jingqiu; Liang, Zhongzhu


    A model of miniaturized space-modulated Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) is given. The two step mirrors as the key components are designed and a lithography-electroplating technique used to fabricate the small step mirror is proposed. We analyze the effect of the experiment results resulted from fabricating technics on the recovery spectrum in theory, and demonstrate that the lithography-electroplating technique is an effective method to fabricate the step mirror, which make miniaturized FTIR realized. We believe that the performances of FTIR can be better realized by optimizing experimental conditions to make this fabricating method more attractive.

  12. Simulation of path delay multiplexing-based Fourier transform spectrometer for fiber Bragg grating interrogation. (United States)

    Chelliah, Pandian; Sahoo, Trilochan; Singh, Sheela; Sujatha, Annie


    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) used for interrogating a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) consists of a scanning-type interferometer. The FTS has a broad wavelength range of operation and good multiplexing capability. However, it has poor wavelength resolution and interrogation speed. We propose a modification to the FTS using path delay multiplexing to improve the same. Using this method, spatial resolution and interrogation time can be improved by n times by using n path delays. In this paper, simulation results for n=2, 5 are shown.

  13. Planetary infrared astronomy using a cryogenic postdisperser on Fourier transform spectrometers (United States)

    Jennings, D. E.; Kunde, V. G.; Hanel, R. A.; Maguire, W. C.; Lamb, G. M.


    High resolution infrared spectra of planets from ground-based observatories were analyzed and instrumentation to improve sensitivity was developed. A cryogenic postdisperser (a narrow bandpass spectral filter) for use with Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS's) at facility observatories was constructed. This instrument has improved the sensitivity of FTS observations at 8 to 20 microns by about an order of magnitude. Spectra of Jupiter, Saturn and Comet Halley were obtained using the postdisperser with FTS facilities at the Kitt Peak 4-meter and McMath telescopes. Spectral resolution as high as 0.01/cm was achieved.

  14. Light field camera as a Fourier transform spectrometer sensor: instrument characterization and passive spectral ranging. (United States)

    Côté, Alex; Levasseur, Simon; Boudreau, Sylvain; Genest, Jérôme


    This paper presents a concept using field cameras in combination with Fourier transform spectrometers. The device can produce five-dimensional (position-angle-spectra) data cubes. This can lead to accurate measurements in both spectrum and distance and allows a thorough characterization of the interferometer, as well as adds passive ranging information to hyperspectral images. Shear and tilt fringes are simultaneously observed in a fixed optical path difference interferometer, and a passive spectral ranging demonstration is done in both absorption and emission for the 500-900 nm spectral bands.

  15. Design of spatio-temporally modulated static infrared imaging Fourier transform spectrometer. (United States)

    Wang, WenCong; Liang, JingQiu; Liang, ZhongZhu; Lü, JinGuang; Qin, YuXin; Tian, Chao; Wang, WeiBiao


    A novel static medium wave infrared (MWIR) imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (IFTS) is conceptually proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In this system, the moving mirror in traditional temporally modulated IFTS is replaced by multi-step micro-mirrors to realize the static design. Compared with the traditional spatially modulated IFTS, they have no slit system and are superior with larger luminous flux and higher energy efficiency. The use of the multi-step micro-mirrors can also make the system compact and light.

  16. Mastering the discrete Fourier transform in one, two or several dimensions pitfalls and artifacts

    CERN Document Server

    Amidror, Isaac


    The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is an extremely useful tool that finds application in many different disciplines. However, its use requires caution. The aim of this book is to explain the DFT and its various artifacts and pitfalls and to show how to avoid these (whenever possible), or at least how to recognize them in order to avoid misinterpretations. This concentrated treatment of the DFT artifacts and pitfalls in a single volume is, indeed, new, and it makes this book a valuable source of information for the widest possible range of DFT users. Special attention is given to the one and

  17. Correcting attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectra for water vapor and carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Susanne Wrang; Kohler, Achim; Adt, Isabelle


    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a valuable technique for characterization of biological samples, providing a detailed fingerprint of the major chemical constituents. However, water vapor and CO(2) in the beam path often cause interferences in the spectra, which can hamper...... an absorption band from either water vapor or CO(2). From two calibration data sets, gas model spectra were estimated in each of the four spectral regions, and these model spectra were applied for correction of gas absorptions in two independent test sets (spectra of aqueous solutions and a yeast biofilm (C...

  18. Hyperfine structure constants for singly ionized manganese (Mn II) using Fourier transform spectroscopy (United States)

    Townley-Smith, Keeley; Nave, Gillian; Pickering, Juliet C.; Blackwell-Whitehead, Richard J.


    We expand on the comprehensive study of hyperfine structure (HFS) in Mn II conducted by Holt et al. (1999) by verifying hyperfine magnetic dipole constants (A) for 20 levels previously measured by Holt et al. (1999) and deriving A constants for 47 previously unstudied levels. The HFS patterns were measured in archival spectra from Fourier transform (FT) spectrometers at Imperial College London and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Analysis of the FT spectra was carried out in XGREMLIN. Our A constant for the ground level has a lower uncertainty by a factor of 6 than that of Blackwell-Whitehead et al.

  19. Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy of a halogen substituted Criegee intermediate ClCHOO (United States)

    Cabezas, Carlos; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Endo, Yasuki


    Pure rotational spectra of the chloro-substituted Criegee intermediate (ClCHOO) were observed by Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy. Two conformers (syn and anti) of the isolated molecule were identified from the rotational spectra of the parent and 37Cl and 13C isotopologues detected in natural abundance. Rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants, and all components of the nuclear quadrupole coupling tensor were determined for both conformers. Structural features of the molecule have been rationalized with supporting ab initio calculations and the natural bond orbital analysis, which suggest that the conformational preferences are driven by hyperconjugative effects.

  20. a Chirped-Pulse Fourier Transform Microwave Spectrometer Combined with a Laser Ablation Source (United States)

    Mata, S.; Pena, I.; Cabezas, C.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.; Pate, B. H.


    The design of a chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer CP-FTMW combined with a laser ablation LA source is presented. The spectrometer is capable of measuring the 6.5-18 GHz region. Rotational spectra of solid samples of proline (m.p. 228° C) and alanine (m.p. 290° C) vaporized by laser ablation has been recorded. Four low-energy conformers of proline and two in alanine have been detected. 13C species of alanine in their natural abundance have been also observed. The performance of this spectrometer is compared to a LA-MB-FTMW spectrometer.

  1. Fourier Transform and Photoacoustic Absorption Spectra of Ethylene within 6035–6210 cm-1: Comparative Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venedikt A. Kapitanov


    Full Text Available Measurements of ethylene absorption spectra with Fourier Transform (FT and Photoacoustic (PA spectrometers within 6035–6210 cm−1 are described. The methodology used for building the frequency scale for both spectrometers is presented. The methane absorption spectrum, included into the HITRAN database, was used in both cases to calibrate the frequency scale. Ethylene absorption spectra were obtained with the two recording methods; a coincidence of the measured line center positions was obtained with an accuracy of 0.0005 cm−1.

  2. Nih-3T3 Fibroblast Studied by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Iovenitti, Marco


    In this work I present the study of the behaviour response of mouse fibroblasts NIH-3T3 under UVB radiation using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the preferred method of infrared spectroscopy. FT-IR, in fact, it is convenient to study molecular cell processes because it has the potential to provide the identification of the vibrational modes of some of the major compounds (lipid, proteins and nucleic acids) without being invasive in the biomaterials. The results show that apoptotic process is induced by UVB radiation.

  3. Tensorial analysis of a Fourier-transform profilometric setup devoted to the evaluation of muscular contractions (United States)

    Hanafi, Abdelmalek; Gharbi, Tijani; Cornu, Jean-Yves


    We explore the potential use of the Fourier-transform profilometry technique in in vivo studies of muscular contractions through the variation of muscle-group cross sections. Thanks to a tensorial analysis of the technique, a general expression of its sensitivity vector is established. It allows derivation of the expression of the resolution and the limit condition imposed by the spatial sampling of the fringe pattern. Key parameters that maximize the sensitivity are then simulated. A measurement system is accordingly built up and characterized. It is then successfully applied to the evaluation of the deformation of the forearm muscles during grasping exertions.

  4. Applications of asynoptic space - Time Fourier transform methods to scanning satellite measurements (United States)

    Lait, Leslie R.; Stanford, John L.


    A method proposed by Salby (1982) for computing the zonal space-time Fourier transform of asynoptically acquired satellite data is discussed. The method and its relationship to other techniques are briefly described, and possible problems in applying it to real data are outlined. Examples of results obtained using this technique are given which demonstrate its sensitivity to small-amplitude signals. A number of waves are found which have previously been observed as well as two not heretofore reported. A possible extension of the method which could increase temporal and longitudinal resolution is described.

  5. Opto-digital image encryption by using Baker mapping and 1-D fractional Fourier transform (United States)

    Liu, Zhengjun; Li, She; Liu, Wei; Liu, Shutian


    We present an optical encryption method based on the Baker mapping in one-dimensional fractional Fourier transform (1D FrFT) domains. A thin cylinder lens is controlled by computer for implementing 1D FrFT at horizontal direction or vertical direction. The Baker mapping is introduced to scramble the amplitude distribution of complex function. The amplitude and phase of the output of encryption system are regarded as encrypted image and key. Numerical simulation has been performed for testing the validity of this encryption scheme.

  6. Use of discrete Fourier transform to sum spectra in measurements with long counting times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilar Rubio Montero, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, Sta. Teresa de Jornet 38, E-06800, Merida (Spain); Garcia-Torano, Eduardo [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail:


    When measuring nuclear spectra for long counting times, it is usual to split the acquisition in a set of spectra of shorter duration that are later added after correcting by drift during the measurements. We describe a method to determine the shifting correction by using the properties of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). The method does not require assuming a particular spectral shape and the implementation is essentially independent of the kind of spectra being analyzed. The drift correction is defined for an integer number of channels. We present the results of the application to alpha-particle spectroscopy of long-lived nuclides.

  7. Detecting change in biological rhythms: a multivariate permutation test approach to Fourier-transformed data. (United States)

    Blackford, Jennifer Urbano; Salomon, Ronald M; Waller, Niels G


    Treatment-related changes in neurobiological rhythms are of increasing interest to psychologists, psychiatrists, and biological rhythms researchers. New methods for analyzing change in rhythms are needed, as most common methods disregard the rich complexity of biological processes. Large time series data sets reflect the intricacies of underlying neurobiological processes, but can be difficult to analyze. We propose the use of Fourier methods with multivariate permutation test (MPT) methods for analyzing change in rhythms from time series data. To validate the use of MPT for Fourier-transformed data, we performed Monte Carlo simulations and compared statistical power and family-wise error for MPT to Bonferroni-corrected and uncorrected methods. Results show that MPT provides greater statistical power than Bonferroni-corrected tests, while appropriately controlling family-wise error. We applied this method to human, pre- and post-treatment, serially-sampled neurotransmitter data to confirm the utility of this method using real data. Together, Fourier with MPT methods provides a statistically powerful approach for detecting change in biological rhythms from time series data.

  8. Analysis of tokamak plasma confinement modes using the fast Fourier transformation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    The Fourier analysis is a satisfactory technique for detecting plasma confinement modes in tokamaks. The confinement mode of tokamak plasma was analysed using the fast Fourier transformation (FFT). For this purpose, we used the data of Mirnov coils that is one of the identifying tools in the IR-T1 tokamak, with and without external field (electric biasing), and then compared it with each other. After the Fourier analysis of Mirnov coil data, the diagram of power spectrum density was depicted in different angles of Mirnov coils in the ‘presenceof external field’ as well as in the ‘absence of external field’. The power spectrum density (PSD) interprets the manner of power distribution of a signal with frequency. In this article, the number of plasma modes and the safety factor $q$ were obtained by using the mode number of $q = m/n$ ($m$ is the mode number). The maximum MHD activity was obtained in 30–35 kHz frequency, using the density of the energy spectrum. In addition, the number of different modes across 0–35 ms time was compared with each other in the presence and absence of theexternal field.

  9. Retrieval algorithm of quantitative analysis of passive Fourier transform infrared (FTRD) remote sensing measurements of chemical gas cloud from measuring the transmissivity by passive remote Fourier transform infrared

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhi-Ming; Liu Wen-qing; Gao Ming-Guang; Tong Jing-Jing; Zhang Wian-Shu; Xu Liang; Wei Xiuai


    Passive Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) remote sensing measurement of chemical gas cloud is a vital technology.It takes an important part in many fields for the detection of released gases.The principle of concentration measurement is based on the Beer-Lambert law.Unlike the active measurement,for the passive remote sensing,in most cases,the difference between the temperature of the gas cloud and the brightness temperature of the background is usually a few kelvins.The gas cloud emission is almost equal to the background emission,thereby the emission of the gas cloud cannot be ignored.The concentration retrieval algorithm is quite different from the active measurement.In this paper,the concentration retrieval algorithm for the passive FTIR remote measurement of gas cloud is presented in detail,which involves radiative transfer model,radiometric calibration,absorption coefficient calculation,et al.The background spectrum has a broad feature,which is a slowly varying function of frequency.In this paper,the background spectrum is fitted with a polynomial by using the Levenberg-Marquardt method which is a kind of nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm.No background spectra are required.Thus,this method allows mobile,real-time and fast measurements of gas clouds.

  10. Calibration transfer based on maximum margin criterion for qualitative analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Peng, Silong; Bi, Yiming; Tang, Liang


    A traditional multivariate calibration transfer method such as piecewise direct standardization (PDS) is usually applied to quantitative analysis. To make the method apply to qualitative analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), we propose an improved calibration transfer method based on the maximum margin criterion (CTMMC). The new method not only considers the spectral changes under different conditions, but also takes into account the geometric characteristics of spectra from different classes, so the transformed spectra from different classes will be separated as far as possible, and this will improve the performance of the follow-up qualitative analysis. A comparative study is provided between the proposed method CTMMC and other traditional calibration transfer methods on two data sets. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve better performance than previous methods.

  11. Long-distance super-resolution imaging assisted by enhanced spatial Fourier transform. (United States)

    Tang, Heng-He; Liu, Pu-Kun


    A new gradient-index (GRIN) lens that can realize enhanced spatial Fourier transform (FT) over optically long distances is demonstrated. By using an anisotropic GRIN metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion, evanescent wave in free space can be transformed into propagating wave in the metamaterial and then focused outside due to negative-refraction. Both the results based on the ray tracing and the finite element simulation show that the spatial frequency bandwidth of the spatial FT can be extended to 2.7k(0) (k(0) is the wave vector in free space). Furthermore, assisted by the enhanced spatial FT, a new long-distance (in the optical far-field region) super-resolution imaging scheme is also proposed and the super resolved capability of λ/5 (λ is the wavelength in free space) is verified. The work may provide technical support for designing new-type high-speed microscopes with long working distances.

  12. Intermittent Clutter Removal Approac for wind Profiler Data Based on Fractional Fourier Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Lei; AN Jian-ping; BU Xiang-yuan


    Through the analysis of the target characteristics and according to the intermittent clutter bursting and short duration characteristics, a new method for the clutter recognition based on the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is proposed. This method is predicated on the fact that the FRFT perfectly localizes a chirp signal as an impulse when the angle parameter of the transform matches the chirp rate of the chirp signal. The method involves detecting the presence of the intermittent clutter and correctly estimating its orientation in the time-frequency plane, removing the intermittent clutter in the fractional domain, and completing wind estimation by the power spectrum. By testing the artificial WPR-like signal and data measured from the field, we verify that the FRFT-based method is very effective.

  13. High-resolution Fourier-transform spectrometer chip with microphotonic silicon spiral waveguides. (United States)

    Velasco, Aitor V; Cheben, Pavel; Bock, Przemek J; Delâge, André; Schmid, Jens H; Lapointe, Jean; Janz, Siegfried; Calvo, María L; Xu, Dan-Xia; Florjańczyk, Mirosław; Vachon, Martin


    We report a stationary Fourier-transform spectrometer chip implemented in silicon microphotonic waveguides. The device comprises an array of 32 Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) with linearly increasing optical path delays between the MZI arms across the array. The optical delays are achieved by using Si-wire waveguides arranged in tightly coiled spirals with a compact device footprint of 12 mm2. Spectral retrieval is demonstrated in a single measurement of the stationary spatial interferogram formed at the output waveguides of the array, with a wavelength resolution of 40 pm within a free spectral range of 0.75 nm. The phase and amplitude errors arising from fabrication imperfections are compensated using a transformation matrix spectral retrieval algorithm.

  14. A journey from order to disorder - atom by atom transformation from graphene to a 2D carbon glass. (United States)

    Eder, Franz R; Kotakoski, Jani; Kaiser, Ute; Meyer, Jannik C


    One of the most interesting questions in solid state theory is the structure of glass, which has eluded researchers since the early 1900's. Since then, two competing models, the random network theory and the crystallite theory, have both gathered experimental support. Here, we present a direct, atomic-level structural analysis during a crystal-to-glass transformation, including all intermediate stages. We introduce disorder on a 2D crystal, graphene, gradually, utilizing the electron beam of a transmission electron microscope, which allows us to capture the atomic structure at each step. The change from a crystal to a glass happens suddenly, and at a surprisingly early stage. Right after the transition, the disorder manifests as a vitreous network separating individual crystallites, similar to the modern version of the crystallite theory. However, upon increasing disorder, the vitreous areas grow on the expense of the crystallites and the structure turns into a random network. Thereby, our results show that, at least in the case of a 2D structure, both of the models can be correct, and can even describe the same material at different degrees of disorder.

  15. Estimation of Interchannel Time Difference in Frequency Subbands Based on Nonuniform Discrete Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Qiu


    Full Text Available Binaural cue coding (BCC is an efficient technique for spatial audio rendering by using the side information such as interchannel level difference (ICLD, interchannel time difference (ICTD, and interchannel correlation (ICC. Of the side information, the ICTD plays an important role to the auditory spatial image. However, inaccurate estimation of the ICTD may lead to the audio quality degradation. In this paper, we develop a novel ICTD estimation algorithm based on the nonuniform discrete Fourier transform (NDFT and integrate it with the BCC approach to improve the decoded auditory image. Furthermore, a new subjective assessment method is proposed for the evaluation of auditory image widths of decoded signals. The test results demonstrate that the NDFT-based scheme can achieve much wider and more externalized auditory image than the existing BCC scheme based on the discrete Fourier transform (DFT. It is found that the present technique, regardless of the image width, does not deteriorate the sound quality at the decoder compared to the traditional scheme without ICTD estimation.

  16. Novel Fourier transform infrared spectrometer architecture based on cascaded Fabry-Perot interferometers (United States)

    Eltagoury, Yomna M.; Sabry, Yasser M.; Khalil, Diaa A.


    In this work, we present a novel architecture for Fourier transform spectrometers based on cascaded low-finesse FP interferometers. One of the interferometers has fixed path length while the second is a scanning one using a relatively large stroke electrostatic comb-drive actuator. The fixed interferometer results in a spectrum modulation and, hence, a shifted version of the interferogram away from the point of the zero spacing between the two mirrors. The shifted interferogram can then be used with the Fourier transform algorithm to obtain the spectrum of the measured light. This cascaded FP configuration results in a simple arrangement of mirrors on a line, which makes it much tolerant to misalignment errors. The proposed configuration is implemented using the MEMS DRIE technology on an SOI wafer with a simple MEMS process flow without metallization or dielectric coating of the vertical optical surface. The fabricated compact structure is measured with both a laser source with narrow spectrum at 1550 nm and a wide spectrum source composed of an SLED and the ASE of a semiconductor optical amplifier source. The obtained results validate the concept of the new configuration.

  17. Algorithm, applications and evaluation for protein comparison by Ramanujan Fourier transform. (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Wang, Jiasong; Hua, Wei; Ouyang, Pingkai


    The amino acid sequence of a protein determines its chemical properties, chain conformation and biological functions. Protein sequence comparison is of great importance to identify similarities of protein structures and infer their functions. Many properties of a protein correspond to the low-frequency signals within the sequence. Low frequency modes in protein sequences are linked to the secondary structures, membrane protein types, and sub-cellular localizations of the proteins. In this paper, we present Ramanujan Fourier transform (RFT) with a fast algorithm to analyze the low-frequency signals of protein sequences. The RFT method is applied to similarity analysis of protein sequences with the Resonant Recognition Model (RRM). The results show that the proposed fast RFT method on protein comparison is more efficient than commonly used discrete Fourier transform (DFT). RFT can detect common frequencies as significant feature for specific protein families, and the RFT spectrum heat-map of protein sequences demonstrates the information conservation in the sequence comparison. The proposed method offers a new tool for pattern recognition, feature extraction and structural analysis on protein sequences.

  18. A fractional Fourier transform analysis of a bubble excited by an ultrasonic chirp. (United States)

    Barlow, Euan; Mulholland, Anthony J


    The fractional Fourier transform is proposed here as a model based, signal processing technique for determining the size of a bubble in a fluid. The bubble is insonified with an ultrasonic chirp and the radiated pressure field is recorded. This experimental bubble response is then compared with a series of theoretical model responses to identify the most accurate match between experiment and theory which allows the correct bubble size to be identified. The fractional Fourier transform is used to produce a more detailed description of each response, and two-dimensional cross correlation is then employed to identify the similarities between the experimental response and each theoretical response. In this paper the experimental bubble response is simulated by adding various levels of noise to the theoretical model output. The method is compared to the standard technique of using time-domain cross correlation. The proposed method is shown to be far more robust at correctly sizing the bubble and can cope with much lower signal to noise ratios.

  19. Estimation of Interchannel Time Difference in Frequency Subbands Based on Nonuniform Discrete Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Bo


    Full Text Available Binaural cue coding (BCC is an efficient technique for spatial audio rendering by using the side information such as interchannel level difference (ICLD, interchannel time difference (ICTD, and interchannel correlation (ICC. Of the side information, the ICTD plays an important role to the auditory spatial image. However, inaccurate estimation of the ICTD may lead to the audio quality degradation. In this paper, we develop a novel ICTD estimation algorithm based on the nonuniform discrete Fourier transform (NDFT and integrate it with the BCC approach to improve the decoded auditory image. Furthermore, a new subjective assessment method is proposed for the evaluation of auditory image widths of decoded signals. The test results demonstrate that the NDFT-based scheme can achieve much wider and more externalized auditory image than the existing BCC scheme based on the discrete Fourier transform (DFT. It is found that the present technique, regardless of the image width, does not deteriorate the sound quality at the decoder compared to the traditional scheme without ICTD estimation.

  20. Flat-top pulse generation by the optical Fourier transform technique for ultrahigh speed signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palushani, Evarist; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael;


    This paper reports on the generation of 1.6-ps fullwidth at half-maximum flat-top pulses by the optical Fourier transform technique, and the utilization of these pulses in a 320-Gb/s demultiplexing experiment. It is demonstrated how a narrow pulse having a 15-nm wide third-order super-Gaussian sp......This paper reports on the generation of 1.6-ps fullwidth at half-maximum flat-top pulses by the optical Fourier transform technique, and the utilization of these pulses in a 320-Gb/s demultiplexing experiment. It is demonstrated how a narrow pulse having a 15-nm wide third-order super......-Gaussian spectral intensity profile is mapped into a flat-top pulse resembling its spectrum by simple propagation in SMF. Theoretical and experimental descriptions are given on flat-top pulse generation, and an experimental validation of the systems performance of the pulses is carried out, demonstrating a benefit...