WorldWideScience

Sample records for 26-kilobase common region

  1. Regional Welfare Effects of the Common Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger ELSHOLZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework to analyseregional welfare effects of EU’s Common Agricultural Policy. Given the mix ofagricultural policy measures on the one hand and the differences in the agriculturalproduction structure on the other hand the question how regions are affected iscrucial for analysing the overall welfare effects arising from the CAP. For thisreason the composition of transfers, the program design and the financing of themeasures are on the focus of this paper for regions in the federal state of Hesse,Germany. The analysis wants to contribute to the relevant literature in a twofoldway. Firstly, the federal structure of Germany is taken into account explicitly. Thishas important aspects in regard to the different co-financing rules as well as to thefinancing of the measures or funds. Secondly, much smaller regions – the Hessiancommunities – are considered in this study to obtain exact welfare effects at theregional level. The theoretical framework of this study shows that for rural regionsthe overall CAP generates positive welfare effects while it generates negativeeffects for urban regions.

  2. Regional Commonalities and Regional Identities: Forging a Normative Understanding of Southeast Asian Identity

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    Gürol Baba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, most of the IR academia’s attention on Southeast Asian regionalism utilised constructivism and/or realism and has focused on ASEAN and its derivatives. This article aims to skew this angle by elaborating a possible relationship between Asian values and a normative understanding of Southeast Asian identity. The major reason for this article’s focus on a normative interpretation is that a practical application of Southeast Asian identity is not very achievable due to various ethnic, cultural, political, territorial, and historical diversities. While the region is diverse, there are also a number of commonalities among its states. Asian values, from a Confucian perspective, account for some of these commonalities. By using constructivists’ claims on both the links between norms and identity and the dynamic interaction between values and norms, this article argues that Asian values could contribute to the development of Amitav Acharya’s widely cited normative/ideational format of Southeast Asian identity. The article takes ASEAN identity as a case study and aims to show why a normative identity is more achievable than a practical identity among Southeast Asians, and how Asian values might contribute to the creation of this shared identity.

  3. Stroke, complex regional pain syndrome and phantom limb pain: can commonalities direct future management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acerra, Nicole E; Souvlis, Tina; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2007-03-01

    Despite being different conditions, complex regional pain syndrome type 1, phantom limb pain and stroke share some potentially important similarities. This report examines experimental and clinical findings from each patient population. It identifies common aspects of symptomatic presentation, sensory phenomena and patterns of cortical reorganization. Based on these common findings, we argue that established principles of stroke rehabilitation are also applicable to rehabilitation of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 and phantom limb pain. In addition, we contend that promising treatment approaches for complex regional pain syndrome type 1 and phantom limb pain may be helpful in stroke rehabilitation. Examples of emerging supportive evidence for these hypotheses are provided and discussed.

  4. Common and specific brain regions in high- versus low-confidence recognition memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongkeun; Cabeza, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to investigate whether and to what extent brain regions involved in high-confidence recognition (HCR) versus low-confidence recognition (LCR) overlap or separate from each other. To this end, we performed conjunction analyses involving activations elicited during high-confidence hit, low-confidence hit, and high-confidence correct-rejection responses. The analyses yielded 3 main findings. First, sensory/perceptual and associated posterior regions were common to HCR and LCR, indicating contribution of these regions to both HCR and LCR activity. This finding may help explain why these regions are among the most common in functional neuroimaging studies of episodic retrieval. Second, medial temporal lobe (MTL) and associated midline regions were associated with HCR, possibly reflecting recollection-related processes, whereas specific prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions were associated with LCR, possibly reflecting executive control processes. This finding is consistent with the notion that the MTL and PFC networks play complementary roles during episodic retrieval. Finally, within posterior parietal cortex, a dorsal region was associated with LCR, possibly reflecting top-down attentional processes, whereas a ventral region was associated with HCR, possibly reflecting bottom-up attentional processes. This finding may help explain why functional neuroimaging studies have found diverse parietal effects during episodic retrieval. Taken together, our findings provide strong evidence that HCR versus LCR, and by implication, recollection versus familiarity processes, are represented in common as well as specific brain regions. PMID:19501072

  5. An Achievable Rate Region for Cognitive Radio Channel With Common Message

    CERN Document Server

    Monemizadeh, Mostafa; Hodtani, Ghosheh Abed

    2011-01-01

    The cognitive radio channel with common message (CRCC) is considered. In this channel, similar to the cognitive radio channel (CRC), we have a cognitive user which has full non-causal knowledge of the primary message, and like the interference channel with common message (ICC), the information sources at the two transmitters are statistically dependent and the senders need to transmit not only the private message but also certain common message to their corresponding receivers. By using a specific combination of superposition coding, binning scheme and simultaneous decoding, we propose a unified achievable rate region for the CRCC which subsumes the several existing results for the CRC, ICC, interference channel without common message (IC), strong interference channel and compound multiple access channel with common information (SICC and CMACC).

  6. Thousands of corresponding human and mouse genomic regions unalignable in primary sequence contain common RNA structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torarinsson, Elfar; Sawera, Milena; Havgaard, Jakob Hull

    2006-01-01

    been investigated. Owing to the limitations in computational methods, comparative genomics has been lacking the ability to compare such nonconserved sequence regions for conserved structural RNA elements. We have investigated the presence of structural RNA elements by conducting a local structural...... alignment, using FOLDALIGN, on a subset of these 100,000 corresponding regions and estimate that 1800 contain common RNA structures. Comparing our results with the recent mapping of transcribed fragments (transfrags) in human, we find that high-scoring candidates are twice as likely to be found in regions...... expressed non-coding RNA sequences not alignable in primary sequence....

  7. Nature conservation and tourism development in the Dutch Wadden Sea region: a common future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revier, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is about the development of tourism in the Dutch Wadden Sea Region in combination with nature conservation. The main question is whether they have a common future. There are some future points stated: - Nature and landscape of the Wadden Sea are the main pull factors for the tourism de

  8. Common factors in the withdrawal of European aircraft manufacturers from the regional aircraft market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, Johannes M.G.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Steenhuis, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate whether there were common causes for the withdrawal from the regional aircraft market of three established manufacturers (BAE Systems, Fokker and Saab), while competitors thrived. We focus on the markets for 50- and 100-seat aircraft. One cause concerning the 50-seat market was the

  9. Nature conservation and tourism development in the Dutch Wadden Sea region: a common future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans Revier

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is about the development of tourism in the Dutch Wadden Sea Region in combination with nature conservation. The main question is whether they have a common future. There are some future points stated: - Nature and landscape of the Wadden Sea are the main pull factors for the tourism de

  10. Spectrum of Common α-Globin Deletion Mutations in the Southern Region of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui Thi Kim, Ly; Phu Chi, Dung; Hoang Thanh, Chi

    2016-06-01

    The common deletion mutations of α-globin genes in the Vietnamese population is not well known. Here we report the presence of five deletional mutations of Southeast Asia in the southern region of Vietnam. The - -(SEA) (NG_000006.1: g.26264_45564del19301) mutation is the most common type of deletion (87.35%), followed by the -α(3.7) (rightward) (NG_000006.1: g.34164_37967del3804) deletion (9.64%), -α(4.2) (leftward) (AF221717) deletion (2.41%) and - -(THAI) (NG_000006.1: g.10664_44164del33501) (0.6%) mutation in this region. The - -(FIL) (NG_000006.1: g.11684_43534del31581) mutation was not detected in this study. This result provided a view of the distribution of common α-globin gene mutations in Vietnam and could serve as a baseline for further investigations into these genetic defects.

  11. Common prefrontal regions activate during self-control of craving, emotion, and motor impulses in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabibnia, Golnaz; Creswell, J David; Kraynak, Thomas; Westbrook, Cecilia; Julson, Erica; Tindle, Hilary A

    2014-09-01

    It has been posited that self-regulation of behaviors, emotions, and temptations may all rely on a common resource. Recent reviews suggest this common resource may include the inferior frontal cortex (IFC). However, to our knowledge no single functional neuroimaging study has tested this hypothesis. We obtained fMRI scans as 25 abstinent treatment-seeking cigarette smokers completed motor, affective, and craving self-control tasks before smoking cessation treatment. We identified two regions in left IFC and a region in pre-supplementary motor area (preSMA) that were commonly activated in all three tasks. Further, PPI analyses suggest that IFC may involve dissociable pathways in each self-control domain. Specifically, the IFC showed negative functional connectivity with large portions of the thalamus and precentral gyrus during motor stopping, with the insula and other portions of the thalamus during craving regulation, and potentially with a small limbic region during emotion regulation. We discuss implications for understanding self-control mechanisms.

  12. The Protective Properties of Common Reed Plantations on Shores of the Lower Volga Region

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    Solodovnikov Denis Anatolyevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The abrasion processing of shores is a pressing problem of large water basins of the Lower Volga region and other Russian regions. About 3 km2 of shoreland is annually lost in the zone of the Volgograd water basin as a result of this process. The existing methods of shores protection are connected with the creation of concrete structures having a high level of erosion resistance. They are extremely expensive and in most cases they are not affordable for rural municipalities suffering from abrasion. The authors offer cheap and environmentally friendly way of protecting the shores of large water basins from abrasion. The method is based on the plantation of a common reed strip on a water basin’s shallow. The biological characteristics of common reed as the main component of shore protection structures are described. The terms and milestones of the work in the conditions of the Volgograd water basin are developed. The main result of applying our methodology is the complete cessation of abrasion processing of the shore at the corresponding piece of land. The authors overview the positive qualities of reed plantations, their biocenotic, barrier and waterproof role in on-shore ecosystems. The application of the described method will allow saving for the national economy dozens of hectares of valuable shore lands annually, in particular, irrigated cropland, settlement lands, infrastructure. In addition to the direct benefits associated with the conservation of land resources, the intensity of adverse processes associated with erosion of shores (water basin muddying, deterioration of sanitary qualities of water will decrease. Due to the wide geographic spread of common reed described in the present work, the technology of shores stabilization can be applied at almost all lowland water basins of Russia.

  13. Patterns of hypothalamic regionalization in amphibians and reptiles: common traits revealed by a genoarchitectonic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eDominguez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most studies in mammals and birds have demonstrated common patterns of hypothalamic development highlighted by the combination of developmental regulatory genes (genoarchitecture, supporting the notion of the hypothalamus as a component of the secondary prosencephalon, topologically rostral to the diencephalon. In our comparative analysis we have summarized the data on the expression patterns of different transcription factors and neuroactive substances, used as anatomical markers, in the developing hypothalamus of the amphibian Xenopus laevis and the juvenile turtle Pseudemys scripta. This analysis served to highlight the organization of the hypothalamus in the anamniote/amniotic transition. We have identified supraoptoparaventricular and the suprachiasmatic regions in the alar part of the hypothalamus, and tuberal and mammillary regions in the basal hypothalamus. Shared features in the two species are: 1 The supraoptoparaventricular region is defined by the expression of Otp and the lack of Nkx2.1/Isl1. It is subdivided into rostral, rich in Otp and Nkx2.2, and caudal, only Otp-positive, portions. 2 The suprachiasmatic area contains catecholaminergic cell groups and lacks Otp, and can be further divided into rostral (rich in Nkx2.1 and Nkx2.2 and a caudal (rich in Isl1 and devoid of Nkx2.1 portions. 3 Expression of Nkx2.1 and Isl1 define the tuberal hypothalamus and only the rostral portion expresses Otp. 4 Its caudal boundary is evident by the lack of Isl1 in the adjacent mammillary region, which expresses Nkx2.1 and Otp. Differences in the anamnio-amniote transition were noted since in the turtle, like in other amniotes, the boundary between the alar hypothalamus and the telencephalic preoptic area shows distinct Nkx2.2 and Otp expressions but not in the amphibian (anamniote, and the alar supraoptoparaventricular region is defined by the expression of Otp/Pax6, whereas in Xenopus only Otp is expressed.

  14. Epidemiological Aspect and common Bacterial and Fungal isolates from Suppurative Corneal Ulcer in Mymensingh Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moid, M A; Akhanda, A H; Islam, S; Halder, S K; Islam, R

    2015-04-01

    This prospective study was done to find out the epidemiological factors of suppurative corneal ulcer and the common causative bacterial and fungal isolates from the, patients with suppurative corneal ulcer in secondary and tertiary level hospital at Mymensingh region. A total 100 samples of corneal scrapings were collected purposively from clinically diagnosed suppurative corneal ulcer patients from March 18, 2012 to March 17, 2013. Out of the total 100 samples, bacterial species were 29(29%) cases and the fungal spacies were 71(71%) identified by the culture in blood agar, chocolate agar and sabouraud's agar media and also by microscopic examination. The bacterial species were streptococcus pneumonae 12 cases (12%), Staphylococcus aureus 9 cases (9%), pseudomonas in 6 cases (6%), and Streptococcus pyoganes 2 cases (2%). Fungal species were aspergillus fumigatus 61 cases (61%), aspergillus niger 10 cases (10%). Out of the study populations, most of the populations were from the age group of 41 to 60 years (39 %), followed 21 to 40 years (34%) age group. Considering the sex, male were 67%, female were 33%. The majority of patients came from the rural area of Mymensingh region; occupationally they were farmers (44%). Ocular trauma due to agricultural materials was the most common associated factor (71%). The etiological and epidemiological pattern of suppurative corneal ulcer varies significantly with geographical region, patient population and health of the cornea. The present study was carried out to explore the epidemiological pattern, causative bacterial and fungal specie by laboratory procedure from corneal scraping and to invent a prospective guide line for the management of corneal ulcer in the community.

  15. Common vampire bat attacks on humans in a village of the Amazon region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Maria Cristina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people in Amazonian communities have reported bat bites in the last decade. Bites by vampire bats can potentially transmit rabies to humans. The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with bat biting in one of these communities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a village of gold miners in the Amazonian region of Brazil (160 inhabitants. Bats were captured near people's houses and sent to a lab. Of 129 people interviewed, 41% had been attacked by a bat at least once, with 92% of the bites located on the lower limbs. A logistic regression found that adults were bitten around four times more often than children (OR = 3.75, CI 95%: 1.46-9.62, p = 0.036. Males were bitten more frequently than females (OR = 2.08, CI 95%: 0.90-4.76, p = 0.067. Nine Desmodus rotundus and three frugivorous bats were captured and tested negative for rabies. The study suggests that, in an area of gold miners, common vampire bats are more likely to attack adults and males. The control strategy for human rabies developed in this region should therefore place special emphasis on adult males. There should also be more research on how the search for gold in the Amazonian region places people and the environment at risk.

  16. Common site of urinary calculi in kidney, ureter and bladder region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, R B; Shah, A K; Pant, D K; Paudel, S

    2013-03-01

    Urolithiasis is an ancient disease with global distribution. It refers to stones originating anywhere in the urinary system. Urinary calculi or stones are the most common cause of acute urinary system obstruction. The study was aimed with finding out the common site of urinary calculus in kidney ureter bladder (KUB) region. This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted from June 2012 to September 2012 at Tribhuvan University, Teaching Hospital, Maharajgunj. A total 240 urolitiasis patients were enrolled for plain KUB examination. Site of urinary calculus was identified by observing KUB film of the subjects under the supervision of radiologist. The data were analyzed prospectively with outcome measures of gender & stone location. Out of 240 patients, 138 were male and 102 were female with male to female ratio of 1.35:1. The age ranged from 9 to 83 years. Out of total 240 patients, 71.9% (187) patients belonged to productive age group (20-60 years). Total number of urinary calculi was 345 in which 208 were found in male patients and 137 were found in female patients. Of total 345 calculi, 237 were renal stones, 47 were ureteric stones, 22 of the stones were found in pelviureteric junction (PUJ), 33 of stones were found in vesicoureteric junction (VUJ), and 6 were in bladder. In conclusion, urinary stone disease is a major public health problem in a developing country like Nepal with male and productive age group predominance. Kidney stones are most common. Distal ureter is the most common site of ureteric stone.

  17. Patterns of hypothalamic regionalization in amphibians and reptiles: common traits revealed by a genoarchitectonic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Laura; González, Agustín; Moreno, Nerea

    2015-01-01

    Most studies in mammals and birds have demonstrated common patterns of hypothalamic development highlighted by the combination of developmental regulatory genes (genoarchitecture), supporting the notion of the hypothalamus as a component of the secondary prosencephalon, topologically rostral to the diencephalon. In our comparative analysis we have summarized the data on the expression patterns of different transcription factors and neuroactive substances, used as anatomical markers, in the developing hypothalamus of the amphibian Xenopus laevis and the juvenile turtle Pseudemys scripta. This analysis served to highlight the organization of the hypothalamus in the anamniote/amniotic transition. We have identified supraoptoparaventricular and the suprachiasmatic regions (SCs) in the alar part of the hypothalamus, and tuberal and mammillary regions in the basal hypothalamus. Shared features in the two species are: (1) The supraoptoparaventricular region (SPV) is defined by the expression of Otp and the lack of Nkx2.1/Isl1. It is subdivided into rostral, rich in Otp and Nkx2.2, and caudal, only Otp-positive, portions. (2) The suprachiasmatic area contains catecholaminergic cell groups and lacks Otp, and can be further divided into rostral (rich in Nkx2.1 and Nkx2.2) and a caudal (rich in Isl1 and devoid of Nkx2.1) portions. (3) Expression of Nkx2.1 and Isl1 define the tuberal hypothalamus and only the rostral portion expresses Otp. (4) Its caudal boundary is evident by the lack of Isl1 in the adjacent mammillary region, which expresses Nkx2.1 and Otp. Differences in the anamnio-amniote transition were noted since in the turtle, like in other amniotes, the boundary between the alar hypothalamus and the telencephalic preoptic area shows distinct Nkx2.2 and Otp expressions but not in the amphibian (anamniote), and the alar SPV is defined by the expression of Otp/Pax6, whereas in Xenopus only Otp is expressed.

  18. Spatio-temporal filtering for determination of common mode error in regional GNSS networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusz, Janusz; Gruszczynski, Maciej; Figurski, Mariusz; Klos, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The spatial correlation between different stations for individual components in the regional GNSS networks seems to be significant. The mismodelling in satellite orbits, the Earth orientation parameters (EOP), largescale atmospheric effects or satellite antenna phase centre corrections can all cause the regionally correlated errors. This kind of GPS time series errors are referred to as common mode errors (CMEs). They are usually estimated with the regional spatial filtering, such as the "stacking". In this paper, we show the stacking approach for the set of ASG-EUPOS permanent stations, assuming that spatial distribution of the CME is uniform over the whole region of Poland (more than 600 km extent). The ASG-EUPOS is a multifunctional precise positioning system based on the reference network designed for Poland. We used a 5- year span time series (2008-2012) of daily solutions in the ITRF2008 from Bernese 5.0 processed by the Military University of Technology EPN Local Analysis Centre (MUT LAC). At the beginning of our analyses concerning spatial dependencies, the correlation coefficients between each pair of the stations in the GNSS network were calculated. This analysis shows that spatio-temporal behaviour of the GPS-derived time series is not purely random, but there is the evident uniform spatial response. In order to quantify the influence of filtering using CME, the norms L1 and L2 were determined. The values of these norms were calculated for the North, East and Up components twice: before performing the filtration and after stacking. The observed reduction of the L1 and L2 norms was up to 30% depending on the dimension of the network. However, the question how to define an optimal size of CME-analysed subnetwork remains unanswered in this research, due to the fact that our network is not extended enough.

  19. World region of origin and common mental disorders among migrant women in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Dolores; Mendieta-Marichal, Yaiza; Martínez-Ortega, José M; Agrela, María; Ariza, Carmen; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis; Araya, Ricardo; Lewis, Glyn; Gurpegui, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Migration can affect the mental health of migrants. This cross-sectional study has two objectives: (1) to compare the prevalence of common mental disorder (CMD) between migrants (n = 458) living in Granada (Spain) and Spanish-born women (n = 448); (2) within migrants, to analyse the associations of world region of origin, other sociodemographic factors and post-migration features with the presence of CMD. Participants answered a questionnaire, including sociodemographic characteristics, post-migration features and CMD that was measured by Kessler K6-scale. Logistic regression analyses showed that CMD (K6 ≥ 13) was significantly higher among migrants than Spaniards. Compared with Spaniards, the odds of CMD were 3.6 [95 % confidence intervals (CI) 2.1–6.0] and 2.9 (CI 1.6–5.3), respectively, for Latin Americans and for Moroccan and other African women. Among migrants, Latin Americans as opposed to the reference group (migrants from other countries), had higher probability of CMD (OR 2.3, CI 1.1–4.9). This study supports the hypothesis that migration leads to mental distress. Consideration of world region of origin may clarify the differences observed in mental health across different migrant groups.

  20. Common and distinct brain regions processing multisensory bodily signals for peripersonal space and body ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivaz, Petr; Blanke, Olaf; Serino, Andrea

    2017-02-15

    We take the feeling that our body belongs to us for granted. However, recent research has shown that it is possible to alter the subjective sensation of body ownership (BO) by manipulating multisensory bodily inputs. Several frontal and parietal regions are known to specifically process multisensory cues presented close to the body, i.e., within the peripersonal space (PPS). It has been proposed that these PPS fronto-parietal regions also underlie BO. However, most previous studies investigated the brain mechanisms of either BO or of PPS processing separately and by using a variety of paradigms. Here, we conducted an extensive meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies to investigate PPS and BO processing in humans in order to: a) assess quantitatively where each one of these functions was individually processed in the brain; b) identify whether and where these processes shared common or engaged distinct brain mechanisms; c) characterize these areas in terms of whole-brain co-activation networks and functions, respectively. We identified (i) a bilateral PPS network including superior parietal, temporo-parietal and ventral premotor regions and (ii) a BO network including posterior parietal cortex (right intraparietal sulcus, IPS; and left IPS and superior parietal lobule, SPL), right ventral premotor cortex, and the left anterior insula. Co-activation maps related to both PPS and BO encompassed largely overlapping fronto-parietal networks, but whereas the PPS network was more frequently associated with sensorimotor tasks, the BO network was rather associated with attention and awareness tasks. Finally, the conjunction analysis showed that (iii) PPS and BO tasks anatomically overlapped only in two clusters located in the left parietal cortex (dorsally at the intersection between the SPL, the IPS and area 2 and ventrally between areas 2 and IPS). Distinct activations were located for PPS at the temporo-parietal junction and for BO in the anterior insula. These

  1. CORE: Common Region Extension Based Multiple Protein Structure Alignment for Producing Multiple Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woo-Cheol Kim; Sanghyun Park; Jung-Im Won

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several decades,biologists have conducted numerous studies examining both general and specific functions of proteins.Generally,if similarities in either the structure or sequence of amino acids exist for two proteins,then a common biological function is expected.Protein function is determined primarily based on the structure rather than the sequence of amino acids.The algorithm for protein structure alignment is an essential tool for the research.The quality of the algorithm depends on the quality of the similarity measure that is used,and the similarity measure is an objective function used to determine the best alignment.However,none of existing similarity measures became golden standard because of their individual strength and weakness.They require excessive filtering to find a single alignment.In this paper,we introduce a new strategy that finds not a single alignment,but multiple alignments with different lengths.This method has obvious benefits of high quality alignment.However,this novel method leads to a new problem that the running time for this method is considerably longer than that for methods that find only a single alignment.To address this problem,we propose algorithms that can locate a common region (CORE) of multiple alignment candidates,and can then extend the CORE into multiple alignments.Because the CORE can be defined from a final alignment,we introduce CORE* that is similar to CORE and propose an algorithm to identify the CORE*.By adopting CORE* and dynamic programming,our proposed method produces multiple alignments of various lengths with higher accuracy than previous methods.In the experiments,the alignments identified by our algorithm are longer than those obtained by TM-align by 17% and 15.48%,on average,when the comparison is conducted at the level of super-family and fold,respectively.

  2. Proteome profiling reveals regional protein alteration in cerebrum of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) exposed to methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yueting; Yamamoto, Megumi; Figeys, Daniel; Ning, Zhibin; Chan, Hing Man

    2016-03-10

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is known to selectively damage the calcarine and precentral cortices along deep sulci and fissures in adult cases, but the detailed mechanism is still unclear. This study aims to identify and analyze the differential proteome expression in two regions of the cerebrum (the frontal lobe and the occipital lobe including the calcarine sulcus) of the common marmoset exposed to MeHg using a shot-gun proteomic approach. A total of 1045 and 1062 proteins were identified in the frontal lobe (FL) and occipital lobe (OL), of which, 62 and 89 proteins were found significantly changed with MeHg exposure. Functional enrichment/depletion analysis showed that the lipid metabolic process and proteolysis were affected in both two lobes. Functional changes in FL were characterized in cell cycle and cell division, sulfur compound metabolic process, microtubule-based process and glycerolipid metabolic process. In comparison, proteins were enriched in the functions of transport, carbohydrate metabolic process, chemical caused homeostasis and regulation of body fluid levels in OL. Pathway analysis predicted that vasopressin-regulated water reabsorption was disturbed in MeHg-treated FL. Our results showed that MeHg induced regional specific protein changes in FL and OL but with similar endpoint effects such as energy diminish and disruption of water transport. APOE and GPX1 were shown to be possible key proteins targeted by MeHg leading to multiple functional changes in OL. This is the first report of the whole proteome changes of primate cerebrum for MeHg neurotoxicity, and the results will contribute to the understanding of molecular basis of MeHg intoxication in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Complex regional pain syndrome treated with intravenous immunoglobulin in a patient with common variable immune deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachdjian, Raffi

    2013-12-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) represents a large heterogeneous group of antibody-deficiency syndromes associated with a wide range of clinical features and a lack of defined causes in the realm of primary immunodeficiencies. Here, we present a case of CVID in a 62-year-old white male patient with a history of longstanding complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). His medical history included multiple sinus infections per year and several pneumonias requiring antibiotics. He has had various back surgeries, including a laminectomy at the L4 level 1 year prior to his diagnosis. Thereafter, he underwent four sympathetic nerve blocks with minimal pain relief. Blood chemistries showed a normal white blood cell count with a normal differential, but increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels. Total Ig (Immunoglobulin)G was 611 mg/dL (normal 700-1,600), IgG1 was 425 mg/dL (341-894), IgG2 was 114 mg/dL (171-632), IgG3 was 14.4 mg/dL (18.4-106), and IgG4 was 7.4 mg/dL (2.4-121). IgA was 47 mg/dL (normal 70-400), IgM was 131 mg/dL (40-230), and IgE was 4.5 kU/L (<4.0). He only had 10 of 23 pneumococcal titers in the protective range post-vaccination. Upon treatment of the CVID with intravenous immunoglobulin, the patient's pain levels were significantly decreased and have been maintained for more than 2 years. Therefore, immunoglobulin therapy appears to have been beneficial in the treatment of the patient's symptoms of CRPS, including pain. Additional studies investigating the mechanism by which immunoglobulin therapy may reduce the inflammation and pain of CRPS are needed.

  4. Intraregional and inter-regional variability of herbicide sensitivity in common arable weed populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mol, Friederike; Gerowitt, Bärbel; Kaczmarek, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    The question on intraregional versus inter-regional variability in herbicide sensitivity for weed populations is of major importance, both in extrapolation of model parameters and in herbicide zonal approval procedures. We hypothesised that inter-regional variability in herbicide sensitivity for ...

  5. GWAS signals across the HLA regions: revealing a clue for common etiology underlying infectious tumors and other immunity diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Yao Shugart; Ying Wang; Wei-Hua Jia; Yi-Xin Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that multiple genes in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) regions play an important role in development of cancers and immunity disorders. However, the biological mechanisms of the HLA associations are not well understood. We recently conducted a survey of all genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with significant findings in the HLA regions and concluded that diseases such as cancer and immune disorders are more likely to be associated with genetic variants located in the HLA regions than other diseases. This finding is suggestive for testing a hypothesis of a common etiology of infectious tumors and other immunity diseases.

  6. Governing a Common Sea. Environmental Policies in the Baltic Sea Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joas, M.; Jahn, D.; Kern, K.

    2008-01-01

    How is a natural common pool resource such as a sea, which is shared by several countries, best governed? The potential for international conflict is immense, as each country may have different agendas with regard to issues such as exploitation and environmental protection. This book uses a case stu

  7. Local and regional diversity in Streptomyces species causing common scab in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common scab of potato and other tuber/root crops, caused by a complex of soil bacteria in the genus Streptomyces, is one of the most important potato diseases in North America. Knowledge of the pathogen is fundamental to understanding and alleviating plant disease. To learn what species are found in...

  8. Thousands of corresponding human and mouse genomic regions unalignable in primary sequence contain common RNA structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torarinsson, Elfar; Sawera, Milena; Havgaard, Jakob Hull

    2006-01-01

    overlapped by transfrags than regions that are not overlapped by transfrags. To verify the coexpression between predicted candidates in human and mouse, we conducted expression studies by RT-PCR and Northern blotting on mouse candidates, which overlap with transfrags on human chromosome 20. RT-PCR results...... confirmed expression of 32 out of 36 candidates, whereas Northern blots confirmed four out of 12 candidates. Furthermore, many RT-PCR results indicate differential expression in different tissues. Hence, our findings suggest that there are corresponding regions between human and mouse, which contain...

  9. A genetic linkage map of the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion; Asteracaea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijverberg, K.; Hulst, van der R.G.M.; Lindhout, W.H.; Dijk, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we mapped the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale, by using amplified fragment length polymorphism technology (AFLP) in 73 plants from a segregating population. Taraxacum serves as a model system to investigate the genetics, ecology, and evolution of apomixis. The

  10. A genetic linkage map of the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion; Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijverberg, Kitty; van der Hulst, R.G.M.; Lindhout, P.; Van Dijk, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we mapped the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale, by using amplified fragment length polymorphism technology (AFLP) in 73 plants from a segregating population. Taraxacum serves as a model system to investigate the genetics, ecology, and evolution of apomixis. The

  11. A genetic linkage map of the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion; Asteracaea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijverberg, K.; Hulst, van der R.G.M.; Lindhout, W.H.; Dijk, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we mapped the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale, by using amplified fragment length polymorphism technology (AFLP) in 73 plants from a segregating population. Taraxacum serves as a model system to investigate the genetics, ecology, and evolution of apomixis. The

  12. A genetic linkage map of the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion; Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijverberg, Kitty; van der Hulst, R.G.M.; Lindhout, P.; Van Dijk, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we mapped the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale, by using amplified fragment length polymorphism technology (AFLP) in 73 plants from a segregating population. Taraxacum serves as a model system to investigate the genetics, ecology, and evolution of apomixis. The

  13. Identification of a common deletion region in 10q26 associated with human gliomas

    OpenAIRE

    Alves Margarida; Liberato Paulo; Conde Ana; Mafra Manuela; Inverno Alexandra; Maia Ana; Bagrel Denise; Carreira Isabel; Brito Miguel; Monteiro Carolino

    2010-01-01

    RIGHTS : This article is licensed under the BioMed Central licence at http://www.biomedcentral.com/about/license which is similar to the 'Creative Commons Attribution Licence'. In brief you may : copy, distribute, and display the work; make derivative works; or make commercial use of the work - under the following conditions: the original author must be given credit; for any reuse or distribution, it must be made clear to others what the license terms of this work are.

  14. Relations between common geographic descriptors and discharge nutrient concentrations across regions and at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juston, John; Destouni, Georgia

    2014-05-01

    Most river basins and coastal regions worldwide are not monitored adequately to support direct data based nutrient load computations to receiving waters. Therefore, there is continued need to investigate basic relationships between upstream conditions and downstream nutrient discharges. Much work has been done in the past to identify land use based nutrient yield coefficients, however yield coefficients disconnect load estimation from the hydrological cycle and thus expected changes. Here, we investigate relationships between recent multi-year flow-averaged riverine total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) concentrations as a function of upstream population density, percent crop and total agricultural cover, and fertilisation load over a wide range of scale (5E0-1.8E6 km2) and characteristics (e.g., 0-95% crop cover). We developed two new and utilised four previously published datasets (n=150 basins in total) to bridge understanding across three major drainage areas: the Baltic Sea, the Mississippi River basin and eastern seaboard, U.S.A. Significant positive correlations were observed in most cases between TN and TP concentrations and the geographic variables. Most noteworthy were strong and consistent relationships across the six datasets and three regions for TN concentration as a function of both percent crop cover and basin fertilisation load. In comparison, TP relationships indicated scale and region dependence. Simple empirical models for TN and TP prediction were calibrated and tested against independent data (n=113). These results are relevant to understanding how nutrient export functions across regions, and can also be useful for first order load estimation (provided complimentary flow data) in other less-well monitored non-arid regions.

  15. A common deletion at D6S265 in the hemochromatosis gene region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyper, W.R.; Burt, M.J.; Powell, L.W. [Queensland Institute of Medical Research and Department of Medicine, Brisbane (Australia)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Positional cloning of the hemochromatosis (HC) gene on chromosome 6p has utilized a number of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. While the putative HC gene has been localized within 1 cM of HLA-A, definition of the genetic limits of the HC locus has been controversial. Isolation and characterization of additional markers within this region will enable construction of a physical map upon which the HC gene can located. D6S265 is one such microsatellite, physically mapped within 120 kb centromeric of HLA-A. Recombinant and linkage analysis of this dinucleotide repeat in 24 Australian families segregating for HC positioned D6S265 within 1 cM of the HC gene, while allele association analysis showed allele 1 to be significantly increased in HC patients ({chi}{sup 2}=41.4, p<0.001, RR=5.75). In 6 of the 24 HC families, a D6265 locus deletion was found to segregate with HLA-A25 and HLA-A26 alleles. The D6S265 locus deletion was not associated with expression of HC. This study enables us to exclude candidate HC genes from the deleted region involving D6S265, and gives further support for an area of instability in the HLA class I region.

  16. Rural and Regional Development Policies in Europe: Social Farming in the Common Strategic Framework (Horizon 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Francesc TULLA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Social Farming (SF is an emerging sector in the rural European context, but the European Economic and Social Committee (2013/C 44/07 emphasizes that SF should be planned and implemented under the new 2014-20 rural development policy because of the positive results obtained. The SF concept can be associated with agriculture as a multifunctional activity, giving agricultural practice new meanings and functions and incorporating social services, medical treatment and rehabilitation, and educational training and support. In addition, agriculture must be considered as a means of employment and social integration for groups as diverse as individuals who are unemployed or living with mental retardation, mental disorders, or addictions, among others. As a result, innovative SF activities are contributing to the social economy, rural and regional development, and support for a new agro-social paradigm. These are mainly activities linked with the endogenous resources of the territory that generate new enterprises, together with complementary activities that consolidate an economic network as the basis for regional development.

  17. YIELD OF COMMON FIG FERTIGATED WITH BOVINE BIOFERTILIZER IN THE SEMIARID REGION OF CEARÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO LIMEIRA DA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the productivity of the fig tree the organic fertirrigation cattle under different environmental conditions in Ceará semiarid region. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the Teaching Unit, Research and Extension, the IFCE, North Lemon Tree, EC. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with split plots, with four replications and three plants per plot. The plots consisted of three rooms (full sun - PS; trellis - LT and greenhouse - EST, the subplots, the concentrations of bovine biofertilizer diluted in water in the following concentrations: T0 (0% of biofertilizer + 100% water; T1 (20% biofertilizer 80 +% water; T2 (40% biofertilizer + 60% water, T3 (60% biofertiliante + 40% water and subsubplot, the production cycles. The variables were evaluated: average fruit weight, fruit diameter, number of fruits per plant and yield. The cultivation environments (greenhouse and trellis promote better performance on average mass and diameter of the fruit compared to plants grown in full sun during the production cycles of the fig crop grown in Ceará semiarid region. The bovine biofertilizer in the concentration of 60% promoted the highest mass, diameter, number of fruits per plant and the fig crop yield.

  18. A genetic linkage map of the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion; Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijverberg, K; Van Der Hulst, R G M; Lindhout, P; Van Dijk, P J

    2004-02-01

    In this study, we mapped the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale, by using amplified fragment length polymorphism technology (AFLP) in 73 plants from a segregating population. Taraxacum serves as a model system to investigate the genetics, ecology, and evolution of apomixis. The genus includes sexual diploid as well as apomictic polyploid, mostly triploid, plants. Apomictic Taraxacum is diplosporous, parthenogenetic, and has autonomous endosperm formation. Previous studies have indicated that these three apomixis elements are controlled by more than one locus in Taraxacum and that diplospory inherits as a dominant, monogenic trait ( Ddd; DIP). A bulked segregant analysis provided 34 AFLP markers that were linked to DIP and were, together with two microsatellite markers, used for mapping the trait. The map length was 18.6 cM and markers were found on both sides of DIP, corresponding to 5.9 and 12.7 cM, respectively. None of the markers completely co-segregated with DIP. Eight markers were selected for PCR-based marker development, of which two were successfully converted. In contrast to all other mapping studies of apomeiosis to date, our results showed no evidence for suppression of recombination around the DIP locus in Taraxacum. No obvious evidence for sequence divergence between the DIP and non- DIP homologous loci was found, and no hemizygosity at the DIP locus was detected. These results may indicate that apomixis is relatively recent in Taraxacum.

  19. Health Care Seeking Behavior for Common Childhood Illnesses in Jeldu District, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolola, Tufa; Gezahegn, Takele; Addisie, Mesfin

    2016-01-01

    Even though health care seeking interventions potentially reduce child mortality from easily treatable diseases, significant numbers of children die without ever reaching a health facility or due to delays in seeking care in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess health care seeking behavior for common childhood illnesses and associated factors. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeldu District from January to February 2011. A systematic sampling method was used for sample selection. Data were collected from 422 caregivers with under-five children who experienced diseases within six weeks before the survey. Interviewer administered structured and pre-tested questionnaire which were used to collect data. Data entry and cleaning were carried out using Epi Info version 3.5.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Descriptive analysis was done to determine the magnitude of health care seeking behavior. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify associated factors. A total of 422 caregivers of under-five children were participated in the study giving an overall response rate of 97.5%. Three hundred fifteen (74.6%) children sought care from health facilities for all conditions. However, only 55.4% of them were taken to health facilities as first source treatment during their illness and prompt care was also very low (13.7%). Marital status of the caregivers (AOR = 2.84; 95%CI: 1.62-4.98), number of symptoms experienced by the child (AOR = 2.04; 95%CI: 1.24-3.36) and perceived severity of the illness (AOR = 3.20; 95%CI: 1.96-5.22) were predictors of health care seeking behavior. Health care seeking behavior for childhood illnesses was delayed and decision to seek care from health facilities was influenced by worsening of the illnesses. Thus, community level promotion of prompt health care seeking is essential to enhance the health care seeking behavior for child hood illnesses in the locality.

  20. Characterization of FRA7B, a human common fragile site mapped at the 7p chromosome terminal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Nazario; Pelliccia, Franca; Rocchi, Angela

    2010-10-01

    Common fragile sites (CFS) are specific regions of the mammalian chromosomes that are particularly prone to gaps and breaks. They are a cause of genome instability, and the location of many CFS correlates with breakpoints of aberrations recurrent in some cancers. The molecular characterization of some CFS has not clarified the causes of their fragility. In this work, by using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with BAC and PAC clones, we determined the DNA sequence of the CFS FRA7B. The FRA7B sequence was then analyzed to identify coding sequences and some structural features possibly involved in fragility. FRA7B spans about 12.2 megabases, and is therefore one of the largest CFS analyzed. It maps at the 7p21.3-22.3 chromosome bands, therefore at the interface of G- and R-band regions that are probably difficult to replicate. A 90-kilobase long sequence that presents very high flexibility values was identified at the very beginning of the more fragile CFS region. Three large genes (THSD7A, SDK1, and MAD1L1) and two miRNA genes (MIRN589 and MIRN339) map in the fragile region. The chromosome band 7p22 is a recurrent breakpoint in chromosome abnormalities in different types of neoplasm. FRA7B is the first characterized CFS located in a chromosome terminal region.

  1. Trace Elements and Common Ions in Southeastern Idaho Snow: Regional Air Pollutant Tracers for Source Area Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Michael Lehman; Einerson, Jeffrey James; Schuster, Paul; Susong, David D.

    2002-09-01

    Snow samples were collected in southeastern Idaho over two winters to assess trace elements and common ions concentrations in air pollutant fallout across the region. The objectives were to: 1) develop sampling and analysis techniques that would produce accurate measurements of a broad suite of elements and ions in snow, 2) identify the major elements in regional fallout and their spatial and temporal trends, 3) determine if there are unique combinations of elements that are characteristic to the major source areas in the region (source profiles), and 4) use pattern recognition and multivariate statistical techniques (principal component analysis and classical least squares regression) to investigate source apportionment of the fallout to the major source areas. In the winter of 2000-2001, 250 snow samples were collected across the region over a 4-month period and analyzed in triplicate using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC). Thirty-nine (39) trace elements and 9 common ions were positively identified in most samples. The data were analyzed using pattern recognition tools in the software, Pirouette® (Infometrix, Inc.). These results showed a large crustal component (Al, Zn, Mn, Ba, and rare earth elements), an overwhelming contribution from phosphate processing facilities located outside Pocatello in the southern portion of the ESRP, some changes in concentrations over time, and no obvious source area profiles (unique chemical signatures) other than at Pocatello. Concentrations near a major U.S. Department of Energy industrial complex on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) were lower than those observed at major downwind communities. In the winter of 2001-2002, we tried a new sampling design (and collected 135 additional samples) in an attempt to estimate pure emission profiles from the major source areas in the region and used classical least squares regression (CLS) to source

  2. Regions of common inter-individual DNA methylation differences in human monocytes: genetic basis and potential function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Christopher; Leitão, Elsa; Wallner, Stefan; Schmitz, Gerd; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Sinha, Anupam; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Heilmann-Heimbach, Stefanie; Hoffmann, Per; Nöthen, Markus M; Steffens, Michael; Ebert, Peter; Rahmann, Sven; Horsthemke, Bernhard

    2017-07-26

    There is increasing evidence for inter-individual methylation differences at CpG dinucleotides in the human genome, but the regional extent and function of these differences have not yet been studied in detail. For identifying regions of common methylation differences, we used whole genome bisulfite sequencing data of monocytes from five donors and a novel bioinformatic strategy. We identified 157 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) with four or more CpGs, almost none of which has been described before. The DMRs fall into different chromatin states, where methylation is inversely correlated with active, but not repressive histone marks. However, methylation is not correlated with the expression of associated genes. High-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of the five donors revealed evidence for a role of cis-acting genetic variation in establishing methylation patterns. To validate this finding in a larger cohort, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using SNP genotypes and 450k array methylation data from blood samples of 1128 individuals. Only 30/157 (19%) DMRs include at least one 450k CpG, which shows that these arrays miss a large proportion of DNA methylation variation. In most cases, the GWAS peak overlapped the CpG position, and these regions are enriched for CREB group, NF-1, Sp100 and CTCF binding motifs. In two cases, there was tentative evidence for a trans-effect by KRAB zinc finger proteins. Allele-specific DNA methylation occurs in discrete chromosomal regions and is driven by genetic variation in cis and trans, but in general has little effect on gene expression.

  3. Common premotor regions for the perception and production of prosody and correlations with empathy and prosodic ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Aziz-Zadeh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prosody, the melody and intonation of speech, involves the rhythm, rate, pitch and voice quality to relay linguistic and emotional information from one individual to another. A significant component of human social communication depends upon interpreting and responding to another person's prosodic tone as well as one's own ability to produce prosodic speech. However there has been little work on whether the perception and production of prosody share common neural processes, and if so, how these might correlate with individual differences in social ability. METHODS: The aim of the present study was to determine the degree to which perception and production of prosody rely on shared neural systems. Using fMRI, neural activity during perception and production of a meaningless phrase in different prosodic intonations was measured. Regions of overlap for production and perception of prosody were found in premotor regions, in particular the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG. Activity in these regions was further found to correlate with how high an individual scored on two different measures of affective empathy as well as a measure on prosodic production ability. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate, for the first time, that areas that are important for prosody production may also be utilized for prosody perception, as well as other aspects of social communication and social understanding, such as aspects of empathy and prosodic ability.

  4. [Analysis of genetic diversity of Russian regional populations based on common STR markers used in DNA identification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesik, V Yu; Fedunin, A A; Agdzhoyan, A T; Utevska, O M; Chukhraeva, M I; Evseeva, I V; Churnosov, M I; Lependina, I N; Bogunov, Yu V; Bogunova, A A; Ignashkin, M A; Yankovsky, N K; Balanovska, E V; Orekhov, V A; Balanovsky, O P

    2014-06-01

    We conducted the first genetic analysis of a wide a range of rural Russian populations in European Russia with a panel of common DNA markers commonly used in criminalistics genetic identification. We examined a total of 647 samples from indigenous ethnic Russian populations in Arkhangelsk, Belgorod, Voronezh, Kursk, Rostov, Ryazan, and Orel regions. We employed a multiplex genotyping kit, COrDIS Plus, to genotype Short Tandem Repeat (STR) loci, which included the genetic marker panel officially recommended for DNA identification in the Russian Federation, the United States, and the European Union. In the course of our study, we created a database of allelic frequencies, examined the distribution of alleles and genotypes in seven rural Russian populations, and defined the genetic relationships between these populations. We found that, although multidimensional analysis indicated a difference between the Northern gene pool and the rest of the Russian European populations, a pairwise comparison using 19 STR markers among all populations did not reveal significant differences. This is in concordance with previous studies, which examined up to 12 STR markers of urban Russian populations. Therefore, the database of allelic frequencies created in this study can be applied for forensic examinations and DNA identification among the ethnic Russian population over European Russia. We also noted a decrease in the levels of heterozygosity in the northern Russian population compared to ethnic populations in southern and central Russia, which is consistent with trends identified previously using classical gene markers and analysis of mitochondrial DNA.

  5. Validation of Simple Sequence Length Polymorphism Regions of Commonly Used Mouse Strains for Marker Assisted Speed Congenics Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channabasavaiah B. Gurumurthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marker assisted speed congenics technique is commonly used to facilitate backcrossing of mouse strains in nearly half the time it normally takes otherwise. Traditionally, the technique is performed by analyzing PCR amplified regions of simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP markers between the recipient and donor strains: offspring with the highest number of markers showing the recipient genome across all chromosomes is chosen for the next generation. Although there are well-defined panels of SSLP makers established between certain pairs of mice strains, they are incomplete for most strains. The availability of well-established marker sets for speed congenic screens would enable the scientific community to transfer mutations across strain backgrounds. In this study, we tested the suitability of over 400 SSLP marker sets among 10 mouse strains commonly used for generating genetically engineered models. The panel of markers presented here can readily identify the specified strains and will be quite useful in marker assisted speed congenic screens. Moreover, unlike newer single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array methods which require sophisticated equipment, the SSLP markers panel described here only uses PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis of amplified products; therefore it can be performed in most research laboratories.

  6. Common SNP-Based Haplotype Analysis of the 4p16.3 Huntington Disease Gene Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Min; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi Srinidhi; Ramos, Eliana Marisa; Myers, Richard H.; Hayden, Michael R.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Nance, Martha; Ross, Christopher A.; Margolis, Russell L.; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Griguoli, Annamaria; Di Donato, Stefano; Gomez-Tortosa, Estrella; Ayuso, Carmen; Suchowersky, Oksana; Trent, Ronald J.; McCusker, Elizabeth; Novelletto, Andrea; Frontali, Marina; Jones, Randi; Ashizawa, Tetsuo; Frank, Samuel; Saint-Hilaire, Marie-Helene; Hersch, Steven M.; Rosas, Herminia D.; Lucente, Diane; Harrison, Madaline B.; Zanko, Andrea; Abramson, Ruth K.; Marder, Karen; Sequeiros, Jorge; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Gusella, James F.

    2012-01-01

    Age at the onset of motor symptoms in Huntington disease (HD) is determined largely by the length of a CAG repeat expansion in HTT but is also influenced by other genetic factors. We tested whether common genetic variation near the mutation site is associated with differences in the distribution of expanded CAG alleles or age at the onset of motor symptoms. To define disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we compared 4p16.3 SNPs in HD subjects with population controls in a case:control strategy, which revealed that the strongest signals occurred at a great distance from the HD mutation as a result of “synthetic association” with SNP alleles that are of low frequency in population controls. Detailed analysis delineated a prominent ancestral haplotype that accounted for ∼50% of HD chromosomes and extended to at least 938 kb on about half of these. Together, the seven most abundant haplotypes accounted for ∼83% of HD chromosomes. Neither the extended shared haplotype nor the individual local HTT haplotypes were associated with altered CAG-repeat length distribution or residual age at the onset of motor symptoms, arguing against modification of these disease features by common cis-regulatory elements. Similarly, the 11 most frequent control haplotypes showed no trans-modifier effect on age at the onset of motor symptoms. Our results argue against common local regulatory variation as a factor influencing HD pathogenesis, suggesting that genetic modifiers be sought elsewhere in the genome. They also indicate that genome-wide association analysis with a small number of cases can be effective for regional localization of genetic defects, even when a founder effect accounts for only a fraction of the disorder. PMID:22387017

  7. Genome-wide association study confirms SNPs in SNCA and the MAPT region as common risk factors for Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Todd L; Scott, William K; Almonte, Cherylyn; Burt, Amber; Powell, Eric H; Beecham, Gary W; Wang, Liyong; Züchner, Stephan; Konidari, Ioanna; Wang, Gaofeng; Singer, Carlos; Nahab, Fatta; Scott, Burton; Stajich, Jeffrey M; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Haines, Jonathan; Vance, Jeffery M; Martin, Eden R

    2010-03-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder with a cumulative prevalence of greater than one per thousand. To date three independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have investigated the genetic susceptibility to PD. These studies implicated several genes as PD risk loci with strong, but not genome-wide significant, associations. In this study, we combined data from two previously published GWAS of Caucasian subjects with our GWAS of 604 cases and 619 controls for a joint analysis with a combined sample size of 1752 cases and 1745 controls. SNPs in SNCA (rs2736990, p-value = 6.7 x 10(-8); genome-wide adjusted p = 0.0109, odds ratio (OR) = 1.29 [95% CI: 1.17-1.42] G vs. A allele, population attributable risk percent (PAR%) = 12%) and the MAPT region (rs11012, p-value = 5.6 x 10(-8); genome-wide adjusted p = 0.0079, OR = 0.70 [95% CI: 0.62-0.79] T vs. C allele, PAR%= 8%) were genome-wide significant. No other SNPs were genome-wide significant in this analysis. This study confirms that SNCA and the MAPT region are major genes whose common variants are influencing risk of PD.

  8. A maximum likelihood QTL analysis reveals common genome regions controlling resistance to Salmonella colonization and carrier-state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Son Tran

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium of the Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella enterica are significant causes of human food poisoning. Fowl carrying these bacteria often show no clinical disease, with detection only established post-mortem. Increased resistance to the carrier state in commercial poultry could be a way to improve food safety by reducing the spread of these bacteria in poultry flocks. Previous studies identified QTLs for both resistance to carrier state and resistance to Salmonella colonization in the same White Leghorn inbred lines. Until now, none of the QTLs identified was common to the two types of resistance. All these analyses were performed using the F2 inbred or backcross option of the QTLExpress software based on linear regression. In the present study, QTL analysis was achieved using Maximum Likelihood with QTLMap software, in order to test the effect of the QTL analysis method on QTL detection. We analyzed the same phenotypic and genotypic data as those used in previous studies, which were collected on 378 animals genotyped with 480 genome-wide SNP markers. To enrich these data, we added eleven SNP markers located within QTLs controlling resistance to colonization and we looked for potential candidate genes co-localizing with QTLs. Results In our case the QTL analysis method had an important impact on QTL detection. We were able to identify new genomic regions controlling resistance to carrier-state, in particular by testing the existence of two segregating QTLs. But some of the previously identified QTLs were not confirmed. Interestingly, two QTLs were detected on chromosomes 2 and 3, close to the locations of the major QTLs controlling resistance to colonization and to candidate genes involved in the immune response identified in other, independent studies. Conclusions Due to the lack of stability of the QTLs detected, we suggest that interesting regions for further studies are those that were

  9. The Common Occurrence of Highly Supercooled Drizzle and Rain near the Coastal Regions of the Western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Chemke, Rei; DeMott, Paul J.; Sullivan, Ryan C.; Rasmussen, R M.; McDonough, Frank; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Jonsson, Haf; Suski, Kaitlyn; Cazorla, Alberto; Prather, Kimberly

    2013-09-05

    The formation of highly supercooled rain was documented by aircraft observations in clouds at a wide range of conditions near the coastal region of the western United States. Several case studies are described in detail using combined cloud and aerosol measurements to document both the highly super-cooled condition and the relatively pristine aerosol conditions under which it forms. The case studies include: (1) Marine convective clouds over the coastal waters of northern California, as measured by cloud physics probes flown on a Gulfstream-1 aircraft during the CALWATER campaign in February and early March 2011. The clouds had extensive drizzle in their tops, which extended downward to the 0°C isotherm as supercooled rain. Ice multiplication was observed only in mature parts of the clouds where cloud water was already depleted. (2) Orographically triggered convective clouds in marine air mass over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada to the east of Sacramento, as measured in CALWATER. Supercooled rain was observed down to -21°C. No indications for ice multiplication were evident. (3) Orographic layer clouds over Yosemite National Park, also measured in CALWATER. The clouds had extensive drizzle at -21°C, which intensified with little freezing lower in the cloud, and (4) Supercooled drizzle drops in layer clouds near Juneau, Alaska, as measured by the Wyoming King Air as part of a FAA project to study aircraft icing in this region. Low concentrations of CCN was a common observation in all these clouds, allowing for the formation of clouds with small concentration of large drops that coalesced into supercooled drizzle and raindrops. Another common observation was the absence of ice nuclei and/or ice crystals in measurable concentrations was associated with the persistent supercooled drizzle and rain. Average ice crystal concentrations were 0.007 l-1 at the top of convective clouds at -12°C and 0.03 l-1 in the case of layer clouds at -21°C. In combination these

  10. Sequencing the GRHL3 Coding Region Reveals Rare Truncating Mutations and a Common Susceptibility Variant for Nonsyndromic Cleft Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Elisabeth; Böhmer, Anne C.; Ishorst, Nina; Hoebel, Ann-Kathrin; Gültepe, Pinar; Schuenke, Hannah; Klamt, Johanna; Hofmann, Andrea; Gölz, Lina; Raff, Ruth; Tessmann, Peter; Nowak, Stefanie; Reutter, Heiko; Hemprich, Alexander; Kreusch, Thomas; Kramer, Franz-Josef; Braumann, Bert; Reich, Rudolf; Schmidt, Gül; Jäger, Andreas; Reiter, Rudolf; Brosch, Sibylle; Stavusis, Janis; Ishida, Miho; Seselgyte, Rimante; Moore, Gudrun E.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Borck, Guntram; Aldhorae, Khalid A.; Lace, Baiba; Stanier, Philip; Knapp, Michael; Ludwig, Kerstin U.

    2016-01-01

    Nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without cleft palate (nsCL/P) and nonsyndromic cleft palate only (nsCPO) are the most frequent subphenotypes of orofacial clefts. A common syndromic form of orofacial clefting is Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) where individuals have CL/P or CPO, often but not always associated with lower lip pits. Recently, ∼5% of VWS-affected individuals were identified with mutations in the grainy head-like 3 gene (GRHL3). To investigate GRHL3 in nonsyndromic clefting, we sequenced its coding region in 576 Europeans with nsCL/P and 96 with nsCPO. Most strikingly, nsCPO-affected individuals had a higher minor allele frequency for rs41268753 (0.099) than control subjects (0.049; p = 1.24 × 10−2). This association was replicated in nsCPO/control cohorts from Latvia, Yemen, and the UK (pcombined = 2.63 × 10−5; ORallelic = 2.46 [95% CI 1.6–3.7]) and reached genome-wide significance in combination with imputed data from a GWAS in nsCPO triads (p = 2.73 × 10−9). Notably, rs41268753 is not associated with nsCL/P (p = 0.45). rs41268753 encodes the highly conserved p.Thr454Met (c.1361C>T) (GERP = 5.3), which prediction programs denote as deleterious, has a CADD score of 29.6, and increases protein binding capacity in silico. Sequencing also revealed four novel truncating GRHL3 mutations including two that were de novo in four families, where all nine individuals harboring mutations had nsCPO. This is important for genetic counseling: given that VWS is rare compared to nsCPO, our data suggest that dominant GRHL3 mutations are more likely to cause nonsyndromic than syndromic CPO. Thus, with rare dominant mutations and a common risk variant in the coding region, we have identified an important contribution for GRHL3 in nsCPO. PMID:27018475

  11. Epigenetic Mechanisms of Genomic Imprinting: Common Themes in the Regulation of Imprinted Regions in Mammals, Plants, and Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. MacDonald

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic imprinting is a form of epigenetic inheritance whereby the regulation of a gene or chromosomal region is dependent on the sex of the transmitting parent. During gametogenesis, imprinted regions of DNA are differentially marked in accordance to the sex of the parent, resulting in parent-specific expression. While mice are the primary research model used to study genomic imprinting, imprinted regions have been described in a broad variety of organisms, including other mammals, plants, and insects. Each of these organisms employs multiple, interrelated, epigenetic mechanisms to maintain parent-specific expression. While imprinted genes and imprint control regions are often species and locus-specific, the same suites of epigenetic mechanisms are often used to achieve imprinted expression. This review examines some examples of the epigenetic mechanisms responsible for genomic imprinting in mammals, plants, and insects.

  12. Fine-Mapping the HOXB Region Detects Common Variants Tagging a Rare Coding Allele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Edward J; Dadaev, Tokhir; Leongamornlert, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    The HOXB13 gene has been implicated in prostate cancer (PrCa) susceptibility. We performed a high resolution fine-mapping analysis to comprehensively evaluate the association between common genetic variation across the HOXB genetic locus at 17q21 and PrCa risk. This involved genotyping 700 SNPs u...

  13. Prevalence of Self-reported Skin Complaints and Avoidance of Common Daily Life Consumer Products in Selected European Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naldi, Luigi; Cazzaniga, Simone; Goncalo, Margarida; Diepgen, Thomas; Bruze, Magnus; Elsner, Peter; Coenraads, Peter J.; Svensson, Ake; Bertuccio, Paola; Ofenloch, Robert

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Skin disorders are common in the general population, and they may be associated with significant disability. The use of daily skin products may affect the appearance and severity of skin conditions. OBJECTIVES To assess the prevalence of reported itchy rash lasting longer than 3 days amon

  14. Gearing up to Teach the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics in Rural Northeast Region Schools. REL 2015-031

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Kirk; Torres, Aubrey Scheopner; Smith, Toni; Ford, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study describes key challenges and necessary supports related to implementation of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) identified by rural math educators in the Northeast. The research team interviewed state and district math coordinators and surveyed teachers in Maine, New Hampshire, New York and Vermont, to assess their…

  15. Population trend and distribution of the vulnerable common hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius in the Mara Region of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanga, Erustus M.; Ogutu, Joseph O.; Olff, Han; Santema, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The common hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius can significantly influence the dynamics of ecosystems and engender serious conflicts with people but, in Kenya, one of the species strongholds, it has been little studied or monitored. We surveyed the hippopotamus population in the Masai Mara National

  16. Post-glacial recolonization of the Great Lakes region by the common gartersnake (Thamnophis sirtalis) inferred from mtDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placyk, John S; Burghardt, Gordon M; Small, Randall L; King, Richard B; Casper, Gary S; Robinson, Jace W

    2007-05-01

    Pleistocene events played an important role in the differentiation of North American vertebrate populations. Michigan, in particular, and the Great Lakes region, in general, were greatly influenced by the last glaciation. While several hypotheses regarding the recolonization of this region have been advanced, none have been strongly supported. We generated 148 complete ND2 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from common gartersnake (Thamnophis sirtalis) populations throughout the Great Lakes region to evaluate phylogeographic patterns and population structure and to determine whether the distribution of haplotypic variants is related to the post-Pleistocene retreat of the Wisconsinan glacier. The common gartersnake was utilized, as it is believed to have been one of the primary vertebrate invaders of the Great Lakes region following the most recent period of glacial retreat and because it has been a model species for a variety of evolutionary, ecological, behavioral, and physiological studies. Several genetically distinct evolutionary lineages were supported by both genealogical and molecular population genetic analyses, although to different degrees. The geographic distribution of the majority of these lineages is interpreted as reflecting post-glacial recolonization dynamics during the late Pleistocene. These findings generally support previous hypotheses of range expansion in this region.

  17. Estimation of life expectancy of patients diagnosed with the most common cancers in the Valparaiso Region, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taramasco, C; Figueroa, K; Lazo, Y; Demongeot, J

    2017-01-01

    Background The 1000s of people who die from cancer each year have become one of the leading causes of death among the Chilean population, placing it as the second cause of death in the region of Valparaiso between 1997 and 2003. Statistics have provided different measures regarding the life expectancy of cancer patients which have resulted in being useful to establish courses of action for prevention and treatment plans to follow. Methods Data was extracted from the cancer module of the Epidemiology Assistance System (SADEPI for its initials in Spanish) which stores information about cancer cases in the provinces of Valparaiso and Petorca. The survival period is defined as the difference in days between the date of occurrence and the date of death of the patient by separating the data into quartiles. Results The more frequent cancers in the region of Valparaiso behave similarly to global behaviours of the disease. The majority of affected patients are around 65 years of age which progressively lowers its occurrence in younger adults under the age of 45. Conclusions Further efforts are required for early detection and timely access to treatment for cancer patients. Statistics are an important support in achieving this. PMID:28144287

  18. Common features of the tectonosphere deep structure in the Western Pacific Margins (Northeast Asia Region and Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrishchevsky, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    This paper analyses the spatial distributions of gravity sources and density contrast of geological media between the centers of mass of density heterogeneities and surfaces of some layers, which is reflected by the values of parameter μz, in the Northeast Asia Region and Australia. Statistical images of complex distributions of density heterogeneities are generally consistent with the shallowest tectonic structures, wave velocity, and electric anomalies. The correlation of μz minimums with high heat flow suggests melted magmas beneath the crust base and in the asthenosphere. In the lower crust layer, large μz maximums correlate with major continental megaelements, which are divided by extended linear μz minimums, high conductivity anomalies, and Vp/ Vs maximums marking zones of lower viscosity. Deep boundaries and a thickness of lithospheric plates and asthenosphere lenses have been defined in the Northeast Asia Region. In Australia, two roughly NS-striking low-viscosity zones crossing the continent reflect the deep setting of the Lasseter (in the west) and the Tasman (in the east) lines. These zones are displayed in a wide depth range (15-120 km) and are confined to the Archean-Proterozoic and Proterozoic-Phanerozoic boundaries in the Australian lithosphere. Statistical gravity models derived without external (relatively to gravity) geological and geophysical information prove the multilayered tectonosphere structure of both continents and the similar deep structure features of their margins.

  19. Evaluation of resistance of commonly used antibiotics on clinical case of Staphylococcus capitis from Assir region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar M Abdalla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus capitis is a coagulase-negative species (CoNS of Staphylococcus. It causes antimicrobial resistance for nosocomial infections as well as for community-acquired infections. This case report involves a 51-year-old, married Saudi patient. He got admitted to the male medical ward of Aseer Central Hospital, with severe chest infection. Clinical examination, X-ray, and laboratory investigations were performed which involved bactech, culture media, antibiotic sensitivity test using disk diffusion [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC] and molecular [polymerase chain reaction (PCR] for detection of CoNS of Staphylococcus species and detection of the mecA gene. Laboratory data were recorded in special formats and analyzed by statistical computer program (SPSS. Results showed the resistance of isolated S. capitis to many commonly used antibiotics.

  20. Aetiology-Specific Estimates of the Global and Regional Incidence and Mortality of Diarrhoeal Diseases Commonly Transmitted through Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro; Fischer-Walker, Christa L; Lanata, Claudio F

    2015-01-01

    ,000 (95% UI 472,000-802,000) deaths worldwide in 2010. The largest number of cases were caused by norovirus (677 million; 95% UI 468-1,153 million), enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) (233 million; 95% UI 154-380 million), Shigella spp. (188 million; 95% UI 94-379 million) and Giardia lamblia (179...... million; 95% UI 125-263); the largest number of deaths were caused by norovirus (213,515; 95% UI 171,783-266,561), enteropathogenic E. coli (121,455; 95% UI 103,657-143,348), ETEC (73,041; 95% UI 55,474-96,984) and Shigella (64,993; 95% UI 48,966-92,357). There were marked regional differences...

  1. Prevalence and correlates of common mental disorders among mothers of young children in Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline G Uriyo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although poor maternal mental health is a major public health problem, with detrimental effects on the individual, her children and society, information on its correlates in low-income countries is sparse. AIMS: This study investigates the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD among at-risk mothers, and explores its associations with sociodemographic factors. METHODS: This population-based survey of mothers of children aged 0-36 months used the 14-item Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ. Mothers whose response was "yes" to 8 or more items on the scale were defined as "at risk of CMD." RESULTS: Of the 1,922 mothers (15-48 years, 28.8% were at risk of CMD. Risk of CMD was associated with verbal abuse, physical abuse, a partner who did not help with the care of the child, being in a polygamous relationship, a partner with low levels of education, and a partner who smoked cigarettes. Cohabiting appeared to be protective. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results indicate the significance of the quality of relations with one's partner in shaping maternal mental health. The high proportion of mothers who are at risk of CMD emphasizes the importance of developing evidence-based mental health programmes as part of the care package aimed at improving maternal well-being in Tanzania and other similar settings.

  2. Intravenous regional anesthesia: a review of common local anesthetic options and the use of opioids and muscle relaxants as adjuncts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flamer D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available David Flamer, Philip WH PengDepartment of Anesthesia, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaPurpose: To provide a review of local anesthetic (LA agents and adjuncts, opioids and muscle relaxants, and their intraoperative effects and postoperative outcomes in intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA.Source: A search for prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trials evaluating LA agents, opioids and muscle relaxants as adjuvants for IVRA, was conducted (MEDLINE®, Embase. Intraoperative benefits (onset/recovery of sensory and motor block, intraoperative analgesia, tourniquet pain, postoperative benefits (pain score, analgesic consumption, time to first analgesia, and side effects were recorded. A conclusion for overall benefit was made based on statistical significance and clinical relevance.Findings: Thirty-one studies were evaluated, with data collected on 1523 subjects. LA agents evaluated were lidocaine, ropivacaine, and prilocaine. Adjuncts evaluated were opioids (morphine, fentanyl, meperidine, sufentanil, tramadol and muscle relaxants (pancuronium, atracurium, mivacurium, cisatacurium. There was good evidence that ropivacaine provided effective IVRA and improved postoperative analgesia. Lidocaine and prilocaine were effective LA agents, however they lacked postoperative benefits. Morphine, fentanyl, and meperidine as sole adjuncts did not demonstrate clinically significant benefits or result in an increased risk of side effects. Sufentanil data was limited, but appeared to provide faster onset of sensory block. Tramadol provided faster onset of sensory block and tourniquet tolerance, however postoperative benefits were not consistent and the risk of minor side effects increased. Muscle relaxants improved the quality of motor block, but at the expense of delayed motor recovery. The combination of fentanyl and muscle relaxants can achieve an equivalent quality of IVRA with 50

  3. Common variants in the regulative regions of GRIA1 and GRIA3 receptor genes are associated with migraine susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfrancesco Fernando

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system which acts by the activation of either ionotropic (AMPA, NMDA and kainate receptors or G-protein coupled metabotropic receptors. Glutamate is widely accepted to play a major role in the path physiology of migraine as implicated by data from animal and human studies. Genes involved in synthesis, metabolism and regulation of both glutamate and its receptors could be, therefore, considered as potential candidates for causing/predisposing to migraine when mutated. Methods The association of polymorphic variants of GRIA1-GRIA4 genes which encode for the four subunits (GluR1-GluR4 of the alpha-amino-3- hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA receptor for glutamate was tested in migraineurs with and without aura (MA and MO and healthy controls. Results Two variants in the regulative regions of GRIA1 (rs2195450 and GRIA3 (rs3761555 genes resulted strongly associated with MA (P = 0.00002 and P = 0.0001, respectively, but not associated with MO, suggesting their role in cortical spreading depression. Whereas the rs548294 variant in GRIA1 gene showed association primarily with MO phenotype, supporting the hypothesis that MA and MO phenotypes could be genetically related. These variants modify binding sites for transcription factors altering the expression of GRIA1 and GRIA3 genes in different conditions. Conclusions This study represents the first genetic evidence of a link between glutamate receptors and migraine.

  4. Opposing effects of D-cycloserine on fear despite a common extinction duration: interactions between brain regions and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkan, Scott S; Lattal, K Matthew

    2014-09-01

    A number of studies have reported that D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor, can facilitate the loss of conditioned fear if it is administered during an extinction trial. Here we examine the effects of DCS injected into the hippocampus or amygdala on extinction of context-evoked freezing after contextual fear conditioning in C57BL/6 mice. We find that DCS administered prior to an extinction session decreased freezing from the outset of the session regardless of which brain region was targeted. Retention tests revealed opposite effects on fear expression despite identical behavioral treatments: intra-hippocampal DCS inhibited fear expression while intra-amygdala DCS potentiated fear expression. Following post-extinction session injections of DCS, we found a similar though less pronounced effect. Closer inspection of the data revealed that the effects of DCS interacted with the behavior of the subjects during extinction. Intra-hippocampal injections of DCS enhanced extinction in those mice that showed the greatest amount of within-session extinction, but had less pronounced effects on mice that showed the least within-session extinction. Intra-amygdala injections of DCS impaired extinction in those mice that showed the least within-session extinction, but there was some evidence that the effect in the amygdala did not depend on behavior during extinction. These findings demonstrate that even with identical extinction trial durations, the effects of DCS administered into the hippocampus and amygdala can heavily depend on the organism's behavior during the extinction session. The broader implication of these findings is that the effects of pharmacological treatments designed to enhance extinction by targeting hippocampal or amygdalar processes may depend on the responsivity of the subject to the behavioral treatment.

  5. Identification of an antigenic domain in the N-terminal region of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) capsid protein that is not common to swine and human HEVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhen; Sun, Yani; Du, Taofeng; Wang, Chengbao; Xiao, Shuqi; Mu, Yang; Zhang, Gaiping; Liu, Lihong; Widén, Frederik; Hsu, Walter H; Zhao, Qin; Zhou, En-Min

    2014-12-01

    The antigenic domains located in the C-terminal 268 amino acid residues of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) capsid protein have been characterized. This region shares common epitopes with swine and human HEVs. However, epitopes in the N-terminal 338 amino acid residues have never been reported. In this study, an antigenic domain located between amino acids 23 and 85 was identified by indirect ELISA using the truncated recombinant capsid proteins as coating antigens and anti-avian HEV chicken sera as primary antibodies. In addition, this domain did not react with anti-swine and human HEV sera. These results indicated that the N-terminal 338 amino acid residues of avian HEV capsid protein do not share common epitopes with swine and human HEVs. This finding is important for our understanding of the antigenicity of the avian HEV capsid protein. Furthermore, it has important implications in the selection of viral antigens for serological diagnosis.

  6. DNA Sequence Variants in the Five Prime Untranslated Region of the Cyclooxygenase-2 Gene Are Commonly Found in Healthy Dogs and Gray Wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safra, Noa; Hayward, Louisa J; Aguilar, Miriam; Sacks, Benjamin N; Westropp, Jodi L; Mohr, F Charles; Mellersh, Cathryn S; Bannasch, Danika L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of regional DNA variants upstream to the translation initiation site of the canine Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) gene in healthy dogs. Cox-2 plays a role in various disease conditions such as acute and chronic inflammation, osteoarthritis and malignancy. A role for Cox-2 DNA variants in genetic predisposition to canine renal dysplasia has been proposed and dog breeders have been encouraged to select against these DNA variants. We sequenced 272-422 bases in 152 dogs unaffected by renal dysplasia and found 19 different haplotypes including 11 genetic variants which had not been described previously. We genotyped 7 gray wolves to ascertain the wildtype variant and found that the wolves we analyzed had predominantly the second most common DNA variant found in dogs. Our results demonstrate an elevated level of regional polymorphism that appears to be a feature of healthy domesticated dogs.

  7. DNA Sequence Variants in the Five Prime Untranslated Region of the Cyclooxygenase-2 Gene Are Commonly Found in Healthy Dogs and Gray Wolves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Safra

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of regional DNA variants upstream to the translation initiation site of the canine Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2 gene in healthy dogs. Cox-2 plays a role in various disease conditions such as acute and chronic inflammation, osteoarthritis and malignancy. A role for Cox-2 DNA variants in genetic predisposition to canine renal dysplasia has been proposed and dog breeders have been encouraged to select against these DNA variants. We sequenced 272-422 bases in 152 dogs unaffected by renal dysplasia and found 19 different haplotypes including 11 genetic variants which had not been described previously. We genotyped 7 gray wolves to ascertain the wildtype variant and found that the wolves we analyzed had predominantly the second most common DNA variant found in dogs. Our results demonstrate an elevated level of regional polymorphism that appears to be a feature of healthy domesticated dogs.

  8. Region 9 Common Headers (SDWIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPAâ??s Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) databases store information about drinking water. The federal version (SDWIS/FED) stores the information EPA...

  9. Human mtDNA hypervariable regions, HVR I and II, hint at deep common maternal founder and subsequent maternal gene flow in Indian population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Swarkar; Saha, Anjana; Rai, Ekta; Bhat, Audesh; Bamezai, Ramesh

    2005-01-01

    We have analysed the hypervariable regions (HVR I and II) of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in individuals from Uttar Pradesh (UP), Bihar (BI) and Punjab (PUNJ), belonging to the Indo-European linguistic group, and from South India (SI), that have their linguistic roots in Dravidian language. Our analysis revealed the presence of known and novel mutations in both hypervariable regions in the studied population groups. Median joining network analyses based on mtDNA showed extensive overlap in mtDNA lineages despite the extensive cultural and linguistic diversity. MDS plot analysis based on Fst distances suggested increased maternal genetic proximity for the studied population groups compared with other world populations. Mismatch distribution curves, respective neighbour joining trees and other statistical analyses showed that there were significant expansions. The study revealed an ancient common ancestry for the studied population groups, most probably through common founder female lineage(s), and also indicated that human migrations occurred (maybe across and within the Indian subcontinent) even after the initial phase of female migration to India.

  10. Human histamine N-methyltransferase pharmacogenetics: gene resequencing, promoter characterization, and functional studies of a common 5'-flanking region single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liewei; Thomae, Bianca; Eckloff, Bruce; Wieben, Eric; Weinshilboum, Richard

    2002-08-15

    Histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) catalyzes one of two major metabolic pathways for histamine. The levels of HNMT activity and immunoreactive protein in human tissues are regulated primarily by inheritance. Previous studies of HNMT identified two common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including a functionally significant nonsynonymous coding SNP (cSNP), (C314T, Thr105Ile), but that polymorphism did not explain all of the phenotypic variation. In the present study, a genotype-to-phenotype strategy was used to search for additional genetic factors that might contribute to the regulation of human HNMT activity. Specifically, we began by resequencing the human HNMT gene using 90 ethnically anonymous DNA samples from the Coriell Cell Repository and identified a total of eight SNPs, including the two that had been reported previously. No new nonsynonymous cSNPs were observed, but three of the six novel SNPs were located in the 5'-flanking region (5'-FR) of the gene-including a third common polymorphism with a frequency of 0.367 (36.7%). That observation directed our attention to possible genetic effects on HNMT transcription. As a first step in testing that possibility, we created and studied a series of reporter gene constructs for the initial 1kb of the HNMT 5'-FR. The core promoter and possible regulatory regions were identified and verified by electrophoresis mobility shift assays. We then studied the possible functional implications of the new common HNMT 5'-FR SNP. However, on the basis of reporter gene studies, that SNP appeared to have little effect on transcription. Phenotype-genotype correlation analysis performed with 112 human kidney biopsy samples that had been phenotyped for their level of HNMT activity confirmed that the common 5'-FR SNP was not associated with the level of HNMT activity in vivo. In summary, this series of experiments resulted in the identification of several novel HNMT polymorphisms, identification of the HNMT core promoter

  11. A study on anti dermatophytic potential of selected ethno medicinalplants against Trichophyton rubrum, a common etiologic agent in and around Visakhapatnam region (India)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sai deviT; Jyothi padmajaI; Nagendra sastryY; NagamaniA

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical patterns and etiology of dermatophytosis and the anti dermatophytic potentiality of some selected medicinal plants used by tribal people in and around Visakhapatnam region, India. Methods: 62 patients with dermatophytosis who attended the dermatology clinic of King George hospital, Visakhapatnam were studied. Isolation and identification was done by direct microscopic observation, cultural characteristics and by using biochemical tests in the microbiology laboratory. Some ethno medicinal plant parts like Albizia lebbeck bark, Annona reticulata leaf and bark, Cassia fistula leaf, Wrightia tinktoria bark and Couroupita guianensis leaf were tested for anti dermatophytic activity by agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) studies were carried out by broth dilution assay. Results: 51 patients out of 62 were positive (82.2%) by direct smear and culture. Tinea corporis was the most common dermatophytosis which was predominantly caused by Trichophyton rubrum in and around Visakhapatnam. Two dermatophyte species were isolated and identified. Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequent isolate (58.8%) followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (19.6%). Albizia lebbek bark, Annona reticulata bark and leaf extracts showed inhibitory against T. rubrum while Cassia fistula leaf extract did not show significant inhibitory activity. Wrightia tinktoria bark and Couroupita guianensis leaf extracts did not show inhibitory activity. Conclusions: The results showed that tinea corporis was the most common dermatophytosis in and around Visakhapatnam region. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common etiologic agent. Albizia lebbek bark, Annona reticulata leaf and bark extracts showed potential inhibitory activity against Trichophyton rubrum than other tested ethno medicinal plants.

  12. Intra- and inter-clade cross-reactivity by HIV-1 Gag specific T-cells reveals exclusive and commonly targeted regions: implications for current vaccine trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lycias Zembe

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of HIV-1 across the globe is a major challenge for developing an HIV vaccine. To facilitate immunogen design, it is important to characterize clusters of commonly targeted T-cell epitopes across different HIV clades. To address this, we examined 39 HIV-1 clade C infected individuals for IFN-γ Gag-specific T-cell responses using five sets of overlapping peptides, two sets matching clade C vaccine candidates derived from strains from South Africa and China, and three peptide sets corresponding to consensus clades A, B, and D sequences. The magnitude and breadth of T-cell responses against the two clade C peptide sets did not differ, however clade C peptides were preferentially recognized compared to the other peptide sets. A total of 84 peptides were recognized, of which 19 were exclusively from clade C, 8 exclusively from clade B, one peptide each from A and D and 17 were commonly recognized by clade A, B, C and D. The entropy of the exclusively recognized peptides was significantly higher than that of commonly recognized peptides (p = 0.0128 and the median peptide processing scores were significantly higher for the peptide variants recognized versus those not recognized (p = 0.0001. Consistent with these results, the predicted Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I IC(50 values were significantly lower for the recognized peptide variants compared to those not recognized in the ELISPOT assay (p<0.0001, suggesting that peptide variation between clades, resulting in lack of cross-clade recognition, has been shaped by host immune selection pressure. Overall, our study shows that clade C infected individuals recognize clade C peptides with greater frequency and higher magnitude than other clades, and that a selection of highly conserved epitope regions within Gag are commonly recognized and give rise to cross-clade reactivities.

  13. Comparison of sequencing the D2 region of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (MicroSEQ®) versus the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions using two public databases for identification of common and uncommon clinically relevant fungal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbefeville, S; Harris, A; Ferrieri, P

    2017-09-01

    Fungal infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Rapid and accurate identification of fungi is essential to guide accurately targeted antifungal therapy. With the advent of molecular methods, clinical laboratories can use new technologies to supplement traditional phenotypic identification of fungi. The aims of the study were to evaluate the sole commercially available MicroSEQ® D2 LSU rDNA Fungal Identification Kit compared to the in-house developed internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions assay in identifying moulds, using two well-known online public databases to analyze sequenced data. 85 common and uncommon clinically relevant fungi isolated from clinical specimens were sequenced for the D2 region of the large subunit (LSU) of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene with the MicroSEQ® Kit and the ITS regions with the in house developed assay. The generated sequenced data were analyzed with the online GenBank and MycoBank public databases. The D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene identified 89.4% or 92.9% of the 85 isolates to the genus level and the full ITS region (f-ITS) 96.5% or 100%, using GenBank or MycoBank, respectively, when compared to the consensus ID. When comparing species-level designations to the consensus ID, D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene aligned with 44.7% (38/85) or 52.9% (45/85) of these isolates in GenBank or MycoBank, respectively. By comparison, f-ITS possessed greater specificity, followed by ITS1, then ITS2 regions using GenBank or MycoBank. Using GenBank or MycoBank, D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene outperformed phenotypic based ID at the genus level. Comparing rates of ID between D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and the ITS regions in GenBank or MycoBank at the species level against the consensus ID, f-ITS and ITS2 exceeded performance of the D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene, but ITS1 had similar performance to the D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene using MycoBank. Our results indicated that the MicroSEQ® D2 LSU r

  14. Factors Determining Allocation of Common Costs in the Financial Services Sector: A Study of Rural Banks in the Ashanti Region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben K. Agyei-Mensah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the necessary conditions for organisational controls to work is that the manager whose performance is being measured must be able to affect the results in a material way. The controllability principle in management accounting is one of the central tenets of responsibility accounting, (Merchant and Van der Stede, 2007.The study assessed whether in measuring the performance of these branches factors that are within the control of these branches are considered. In addition the study examined the impact of contingent factors on the application of the controllability principle.The study found out that branch managers do not have full autonomy and control over common resources costs which form part of their evaluation, even though management accounting theory suggest that.The study findings also revealed that profitability (i.e. operating profit margin, Return on shareholders' capital and liquidity (i.e. current ratio and working capital ratio have varied impact on the use of performance measures, and the allocation of common costs to branches in the rural banks in the Ashanti Region of Ghana.

  15. Induction of Haemolysis and DNA Fragmentation in a Normal and Malarial-Infected Blood by Commonly - used Antimalarial Drugs in the North-Western Region of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Aliyu; Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Erukainure, Ochuko Lucky; Habila, Nathan; Idowu, Aimola Asegame; Ndidi, Uche Samuel; Malami, Ibrahim; Zailani, Halliru; Kudan, Zeenat Bello; Muhammad, Bilal Abdullahi

    2016-01-01

    Antimalarial drugs are medicines that are used to prevent or treat malaria effectively at different stages in the life cycle of the malarial parasites. In spite of this, a good number of these drugs have the potential to cause harm when they are misused or abused. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of commonly-used antimalarial drugs in the North Western region of Nigeria on haemolysis and DNA fragmentation in the blood of normal and malarial infected humans ex vivo. The drugs used were artemisinine, artesunate, chloroquine, coartem and quinine (0.5-8.0 mg/ml). Haemolysis, haemoglobin status and DNA fragmentations were assayed for using standard procedures. It was observed that all the drugs induced a remarkable dose-dependent haemolysis with more pronounced effects on apparently healthy humans. There was a significant (P DNA fragmentation when compared with control. Commonly-used antimalarial drugs induced haemolysis and altered haemoglobin status which may spontaneously increases the cellular iron levels; a substrate for Fenton and Haber Weiss reactions, and eventually induces DNA fragmentation. Hence, adequate care should be taken during prescription with total avoidance for self medications and/or drugs abuse as a result of their adverse effects within the red blood cells and its immediate microenvironment.

  16. BAC-end microsatellites from intra and inter-genic regions of the common bean genome and their correlation with cytogenetic features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Wohlgemuth Blair

    Full Text Available Highly polymorphic markers such as simple sequence repeats (SSRs or microsatellites are very useful for genetic mapping. In this study novel SSRs were identified in BAC-end sequences (BES from non-contigged, non-overlapping bacterial artificial clones (BACs in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. These so called "singleton" BACs were from the G19833 Andean gene pool physical map and the new BES-SSR markers were used for the saturation of the inter-gene pool, DOR364×G19833 genetic map. A total of 899 SSR loci were found among the singleton BES, but only 346 loci corresponded to the single di- or tri-nucleotide motifs that were likely to be polymorphic (ATT or AG motifs, principally and useful for primer design and individual marker mapping. When these novel SSR markers were evaluated in the DOR364×G19833 population parents, 136 markers revealed polymorphism and 106 were mapped. Genetic mapping resulted in a map length of 2291 cM with an average distance between markers of 5.2 cM. The new genetic map was compared to the most recent cytogenetic analysis of common bean chromosomes. We found that the new singleton BES-SSR were helpful in filling peri-centromeric spaces on the cytogenetic map. Short genetic distances between some new singleton-derived BES-SSR markers was common showing suppressed recombination in these regions compared to other parts of the genome. The correlation of singleton-derived SSR marker distribution with other cytogenetic features of the bean genome is discussed.

  17. Conflict or synergy? Understanding interaction between municipalities and village commons (regole in polycentric governance of mountain areas in the Veneto Region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Favero

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A particular challenge for mountainous areas in Italy is the definition of suitable governance models for local resources. Several solutions have been proposed over time, resulting in the co-existence of a number of decision-making centers. A crucial role is played by municipalities, but, in recent years, village commons – regola (singular / regole (plural in the local language – have been re-constituted as institutions with local power. In this dynamic context, little is known on how municipalities and regole interact. This paper aims at improving the understanding of local governance of mountain areas in the Veneto Region, from the viewpoint of municipalities, which represent the political, legal and administrative authority. The analysis is grounded in the polycentric governance literature, especially crucial in drawing attention to level and extent of cooperation, trustworthiness, mutual learning and effort for adaptation. Tensions, conflicts and conflict-resolution mechanisms were also assessed. We carried out a survey of 14 municipalities containing regole within their administrative jurisdictions. The results of our work provide evidence that this relationship is mostly a synergistic one. Municipalities showed adaptive capacity in mirroring values and views of the regole and proved willing to share responsibilities. Their decisions were formulated whilst taking into account the need for creating the appropriate linkages with local communities. Where conflicts or discontent have emerged, they have been mostly resolved, or considered as reflecting a need for greater coordination. This outcome can be looked upon as a local polycentric governance innovation that so far has only partially received policy support at the regional level. We conclude that municipalities will continue to play a central role in regulation of local-level socio-economic dynamics, remaining the institutional reference point for mountainous areas in the Veneto

  18. Geographical Analysis for Detecting High-Risk Areas for Bovine/Human Rabies Transmitted by the Common Hematophagous Bat in the Amazon Region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begot, Alberto L.; Ramos, Ofir de S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The common hematophagous bat, Desmodus rotundus, is one of the main wild reservoirs of rabies virus in several regions in Latin America. New production practices and changed land use have provided environmental features that have been very favorable for D. rotundus bat populations, making this species the main transmitter of rabies in the cycle that involves humans and herbivores. In the Amazon region, these features include a mosaic of environmental, social, and economic components, which together creates areas with different levels of risk for human and bovine infections, as presented in this work in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. Methodology We geo-referenced a total of 175 cases of rabies, of which 88% occurred in bovines and 12% in humans, respectively, and related these cases to a number of different geographical and biological variables. The spatial distribution was analyzed using the Kernel function, while the association with independent variables was assessed using a multi-criterion Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique. Findings The spatiotemporal analysis of the occurrence of rabies in bovines and humans found reduction in the number of cases in the eastern state of Pará, where no more cases were recorded in humans, whereas high infection rates were recorded in bovines in the northeastern part of the state, and low rates in the southeast. The areas of highest risk for bovine rabies are found in the proximity of rivers and highways. In the case of human rabies, the highest concentration of high-risk areas was found where the highway network coincides with high densities of rural and indigenous populations. Conclusion The high-risk areas for human and bovine rabies are patchily distributed, and related to extensive deforested areas, large herds of cattle, and the presence of highways. These findings provide an important database for the generation of epidemiological models that could support the development of effective prevention

  19. Common Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Common warts By Mayo Clinic Staff Common warts are small, grainy skin growths that occur most often on your fingers or hands. Rough to the touch, common warts also often feature a pattern of tiny ...

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of the common sea slater, Ligia oceanica (Crustacea, Isopoda bears a novel gene order and unusual control region features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podsiadlowski Lars

    2006-09-01

    present the last common ancestor of these isopods. Beyond that, the positions of three tRNA genes differ in the two isopod species. Strand bias in nucleotide frequency is reversed in both isopod species compared to other Malacostraca. This is probably due to a reversal of the replication origin, which is further supported by the fact that the hairpin structure typically found in the control region shows a reversed orientation in the isopod species, compared to other crustaceans.

  1. The 89 Ma Tortugal komatiitic suite, Costa Rica: Implications for a common geological origin of the Caribbean and Eastern Pacific region from a mantle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Denyer, Percy; Sinton, Christopher W.

    1997-05-01

    Komatiites are reported for the first time in the northern part of the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. These rocks, dated at 89.7 ± 1.4 Ma (Turonian) by 40Ar/39Ar methods, occur as a large, elongated (14 km long, 1.5 km wide) N60°W striking body in the ophiolitic Nicoya Complex. These lavas have high MgO (26% 29%), Ni, and Cr, have high CaO/Al2O3 (0.98 1.08) and moderate Al2O3/TiO2 (5.55 8.44) ratios, and are depleted in Al2O3 (4% 5.5%), K2O (0.02% 0.37%), and TiO2 (0.59% 0.9%). Although these lavas are cumulates, their geochemical composition indicates an origin from a primary komatiitic magma, with a melting temperature of 1700 °C at a depth of 150 km. Similarities in the petrology and age (88 90 Ma) of Gorgona, Curaìao, and Nicoya-Tortugal mafic and ultramafic volcanic rocks suggest that these rocks had a common origin. These occurrences suggest a single hotspot center over a large area of the Caribbean and Eastern Pacific Mesozoic region due to a major thermal anomaly in the mantle, such as a hot, rising, convective plume.

  2. Evaluation of heavy metal pollution in water wells and soil using common leafy green plant indicators in the Al-Kharj region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hammad, Bushra Ahmed; Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy

    2016-06-01

    This study was performed to determine the levels of eight heavy metals in irrigation well water and soil and to assess the suitability of some leafy green plants that are commonly cultivated in the Al-Kharj region, Saudi Arabia, for human consumption using an atomic absorption spectrometer. The mean concentrations of metals ranged from 0.0001 to 0.436 mg/L in well water and from 0.248 to 164.52 mg/kg in soil. The heavy metal concentrations showed significant differences among the different leafy green plants studied. Parsley (4.98 mg/kg) exhibited higher levels of Pb than other leafy green plants, whereas mallow (0.097 mg/kg) revealed greater amounts of Cd than other plants. All of the leafy green plants retained essential metals (Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn) more than the toxic metals (Pb and Cd). The levels of some of the metals in the leafy green plants were found to meet the FAO/WHO-recommended limits. The monitoring of heavy metals in leafy green plants must be continued because these plants are the main source of food for humans in many parts of the world and are considered to be bio-indicators for environmental pollution.

  3. Forensic STR loci reveal common genetic ancestry of the Thai-Malay Muslims and Thai Buddhists in the deep Southern region of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutanan, Wibhu; Kitpipit, Thitika; Phetpeng, Sukanya; Thanakiatkrai, Phuvadol

    2014-12-01

    Among the people living in the five deep Southern Thai provinces, Thai-Malay Muslims (MUS) constitute the majority, while the remaining are Thai Buddhists (BUD). Cultural, linguistic and religious differences between these two populations have been previously reported. However, their biological relationship has never been investigated. In this study, we aimed to reveal the genetic structure and genetic affinity between MUS and BUD by analyzing 15 autosomal short tandem repeats. Both distance and model-based clustering methods showed significant genetic homogeneity between these two populations, suggesting a common biological ancestry. After Islamization in this region during the fourteenth century AD, gradual albeit nonstatistically significant genetic changes occurred within these two populations. Cultural barriers possibly influenced these genetic changes. MUS have closer admixture to Malaysian-Malay Muslims than BUD countrywide. Admixture proportions also support certain degree of genetic dissimilarity between the two studied populations, as shown by the unequal genetic contribution from Malaysian-Malay Muslims. Cultural transformation and recent minor genetic admixture are the likely processes that shaped the genetic structure of both MUS and BUD.

  4. Mutational analysis of the PITX2 coding region revealed no common cause for transposition of the great arteries (dTGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldmuntz Elizabeth

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PITX2 is a bicoid-related homeodomain transcription factor that plays an important role in asymmetric cardiogenesis. Loss of function experiments in mice cause severe heart malformations, including transposition of the great arteries (TGA. TGA accounts for 5–7% of all congenital heart diseases affecting 0.2 per 1000 live births, thereby representing the most frequent cyanotic heart defect diagnosed in the neonatal period. Methods To address whether altered PITX2 function could also contribute to the formation of dTGA in humans, we screened 96 patients with dTGA by means of dHPLC and direct sequencing for mutations within the PITX2 gene. Results Several SNPs could be detected, but no stop or frame shift mutation. In particular, we found seven intronic and UTR variants, two silent mutations and two polymorphisms within the coding region. Conclusion As most sequence variants were also found in controls we conclude that mutations in PITX2 are not a common cause of dTGA.

  5. Characterization of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance genes and their relatedness to class 1 integron and insertion sequence common region in gram-negative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hae Won; Lim, Jinsook; Kim, Semi; Kim, Jimyung; Kwon, Gye Cheol; Koo, Sun Hoe

    2015-01-01

    Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) has been used for the treatment of urinary tract infections, but increasing resistance to TMP-SMX has been reported. In this study, we analyzed TMP-SMX resistance genes and their relatedness with integrons and insertion sequence common regions (ISCRs) in uropathogenic gram-negative bacilli. Consecutive nonduplicate TMP-SMX nonsusceptible clinical isolates of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Acinetobacter spp., and P. aeruginosa were collected from urine. The minimal inhibitory concentration was determined by Etest. TMP-SMX resistance genes (sul and dfr), integrons, and ISCRs were analyzed by PCR and sequencing. A total of 45 E. coli (37.8%), 15 K. pneumoniae (18.5%), 12 Acinetobacter spp. (70.6%), and 9 Pseudomonas aeruginosa (30.0%) isolates were found to be resistant to TMP-SMX. Their MICs were all over 640. In E. coli and K. pneumoniae, sul1 and dfr genes were highly prevalent in relation with integron1. The sul3 gene was detected in E. coli. However, in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp., only sul1 was prevalent in relation with class 1 integron; however, dfr was not detected and sul2 was less prevalent than in Enterobacteriaceae. ISCR1 and/or ISCR2 were detected in E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter spp. but the relatedness with TMP-SMX resistance genes was not prominent. ISCR14 was detected in six isolates of E. coli. In conclusion, resistance mechanisms for TMP-SMX were different between Enterobacteriaceae and glucose non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli. Class 1 integron was widely disseminated in uropathogenic gram-negative baciili, so the adoption of prudent use of antimicrobial agents and the establishment of a surveillance system are needed.

  6. Common Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen Common Terms Below is a list of diabetes-related ... a skin condition characterized by darkened skin patches; common in people whose body is not responding correctly ...

  7. Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In the course of a year, people ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest ...

  8. Solid miscibility of common-anion lithium and sodium halides. Experimental determination of the region of demixing in lithium bromide + sodium bromide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, H.A.J.; Wijk, H.J. van; Doornhof, D.

    1984-01-01

    The region of demixing of solid lithium bromide + sodium bromide mixtures has been measured by X-ray diffraction. The critical temperature of mixing corresponding to a thermodynamic fit of the experimental data is 513 K. Estimates are given of the regions of demixing in solid lithium chloride + sodi

  9. Student Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  10. Common proteomic changes in the hippocampus in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and particular evidence for involvement of cornu ammonis regions 2 and 3.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-05-01

    The hippocampus is strongly implicated in schizophrenia and, to a lesser degree, bipolar disorder. Proteomic investigations of the different regions of the hippocampus may help us to clarify the basis and the disease specificity of the changes.

  11. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  12. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  13. QCI Common

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  14. Fine-mapping the HOXB region detects common variants tagging a rare coding allele: evidence for synthetic association in prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J Saunders

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The HOXB13 gene has been implicated in prostate cancer (PrCa susceptibility. We performed a high resolution fine-mapping analysis to comprehensively evaluate the association between common genetic variation across the HOXB genetic locus at 17q21 and PrCa risk. This involved genotyping 700 SNPs using a custom Illumina iSelect array (iCOGS followed by imputation of 3195 SNPs in 20,440 PrCa cases and 21,469 controls in The PRACTICAL consortium. We identified a cluster of highly correlated common variants situated within or closely upstream of HOXB13 that were significantly associated with PrCa risk, described by rs117576373 (OR 1.30, P = 2.62×10(-14. Additional genotyping, conditional regression and haplotype analyses indicated that the newly identified common variants tag a rare, partially correlated coding variant in the HOXB13 gene (G84E, rs138213197, which has been identified recently as a moderate penetrance PrCa susceptibility allele. The potential for GWAS associations detected through common SNPs to be driven by rare causal variants with higher relative risks has long been proposed; however, to our knowledge this is the first experimental evidence for this phenomenon of synthetic association contributing to cancer susceptibility.

  15. Gearing up to Teach the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics in the Rural Northeast Region. Stated Briefly. REL 2015-066

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Walters; Smith, Toni M.; Ford, Jennifer; Scheopner Torres, Aubrey

    2014-01-01

    This study describes key challenges and necessary supports related to implementation of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) identified by rural math educators in the Northeast. The research team interviewed state and district math coordinators and surveyed teachers in Maine, New Hampshire, New York and Vermont, to assess their…

  16. Instituting Commoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . STEALTH.unlimited

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the origins of the notion of management, this paper explores how commons governance is constituted by the earlier influential research of Elinor Ostrom, and pursues this with reference to scholars such as Saki Bailey, who emphasises that the choice of regulatory frame is ultimately a political one. We then argue that commons have to be ‘instituted’ in an open manner in order to remain accessible. This demands a set of scripts, rules or agreements that keep the process of commoning in place, and, simultaneously, keep commoning in a constant process of reproduction. We examine this tension and look at the shift in understanding about what ‘institutions of the commons’ have entailed in practice over the course of the last century and a half. Finally, we return to the political dimension to touch upon the question of whether, with the disappearance of the welfare state, a coherent concept of society can emerge from the current upsurge of commons initiatives.

  17. Evidence for PTPN22 R620W Polymorphism As the Sole Common Risk Variant for Rheumatoid Arthritis in the 1p13.2 Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Jose-Ezequiel; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A.; Balsa, Alejandro; Pascual-Salcedo, Dora; Gonzalez-Escribano, Maria F.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Fernandez-Gutierrez, Benjamin; Raya, Enrique; Coenen, Marieke J. H.; van Riel, Piet; Radstake, Timothy R. D. J.; Kvien, Tore K.; Viken, Marte K.; Lie, Benedicte A.; Koeleman, Bobby P. C.; Martin, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The PTPN22 rs2476601 genetic variant has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune diseases. Some reports suggest that this single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may not be the only causal variant in the region of PTPN22. Our aim was to identify new independent RA

  18. Evidence for PTPN22 R620W polymorphism as the sole common risk variant for rheumatoid arthritis in the 1p13.2 region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martín, Jose-Ezequiel; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; González-Gay, Miguel A; Balsa, Alejandro; Pascual-Salcedo, Dora; González-Escribano, María F; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Raya, Enrique; Coenen, Marieke J H; van Riel, Piet; Radstake, Timothy R D J; Kvien, Tore K; Viken, Marte K; Lie, Benedicte A; Koeleman, Bobby P C; Martín, Javier

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The PTPN22 rs2476601 genetic variant has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune diseases. Some reports suggest that this single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may not be the only causal variant in the region of PTPN22. Our aim was to identify new independent RA

  19. Evidence for PTPN22 R620W Polymorphism As the Sole Common Risk Variant for Rheumatoid Arthritis in the 1p13.2 Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, J.E.; Alizadeh, B.Z.; Gonzalez-Gay, M.A.; Balsa, A.; Pascual-Salcedo, D.; Gonzalez-Escribano, M.F.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, L.; Fernandez-Gutierrez, B.; Raya, E.; Coenen, M.J.H.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Kvien, T.K.; Viken, M.K.; Lie, B.A.; Koeleman, B.P.; Martin, J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The PTPN22 rs2476601 genetic variant has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune diseases. Some reports suggest that this single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may not be the only causal variant in the region of PTPN22. Our aim was to identify new independent RA

  20. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  1. Science commons

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  2. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  3. A new method for quantitative analysis of the T cell receptor V region repertoires in healthy common marmosets by microplate hybridization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaura, Kazutaka; Fujii, Yoshiki; Matsutani, Takaji; Shirai, Kenji; Suzuki, Satsuki; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Shimada, Shin; Kametani, Yoshie; Shiina, Takashi; Takabayashi, Shuji; Katoh, Hideki; Ogasawara, Kouetsu; Kurane, Ichiro; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2012-10-31

    The common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, is one of the smallest primates and is increasingly used for an experimental nonhuman primate model in many research fields. Analysis of T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires is a powerful tool to investigate T cell immunity in terms of antigen specificity and variability of TCR expression. However, monoclonal antibodies specific for many TCR Vα or Vβ chains have not been created. We have recently identified a large number of TCRα chain variable (TRAV) and TCRβ chain variable (TRBV) sequences from a cDNA library of common marmosets. The purpose of this study is to develop a new method for analysis of TCR repertoires in the common marmoset using this sequence information. This method is based on a microplate hybridization technique using 32 TRAV-specific and 32 TRBV-specific oligoprobes following an adaptor-ligation PCR. This enables the easy quantitation of the respective TRAV and TRBV expression levels. No cross-hybridization among specific-oligoprobes and very low variances in repeated measures of the same samples was found, demonstrating high specificity and reproducibility. Furthermore, this method was validated by an antihuman Vβ23 antibody which specifically bound to marmoset Vβ23. Using this method, we analyzed TCR repertoires from various tissue samples (PBMCs, spleen, lymph node and thymus) and isolated T cell subpopulations (CD4+CD8+, CD4+CD8− and CD4−CD8+) from the thymus of 10 common marmosets. Neither tissue-specific nor T cell subpopulation-specific differences was found in TRAV and TRBV repertoires. These results suggest that, unlike mice, TCR repertoires in the common marmoset are not affected by endogenous superantigens and are conserved among individuals, among tissues, and among T cell subpopulations. Thus, TCR repertoire analysis with high specificity and reproducibility is a very useful technique, with the potential to replace flow cytometric analysis using a panel of TRV-specific antibodies, many

  4. A molecular biological study on identification of common septicemia bacteria using 16s-23s rRNA gene spacer regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅君芬; 虞和永; 尚世强; 洪文澜; 陆淼泉; 李建平

    2002-01-01

    In the search for a rapid and reliable method for identification of bacteria in blood and cerebrospinal fluid , we developed a unified set of primers and used them under polymerase chain reaction(PCR) to amplify the spacer regions between the 16s and 23s genes in the prokaryotic rRNA genetic loci . Spacer regions within these loci showed a significant level of length and sequence polymorphism across most of the species lines. A generic pair of priming sequences was selected from highly conserved sequences in the 16s and 23s genes occurring adjacent to these polymorphic regions. This single set of primers and reaction conditions were used for the amplification of the 16s-23s spacer regions for 61 strains of standard bacteria and corresponding clinical isolates belonging to 20 genera and 27 species, including Listeria, Staphylococcus and Salmonella species, et al. When the spacer amplification products were resolved by electrophoresis, the resulting patterns could be used to distinguish most of the bacteria species within the test group, and the amplification products of the clinical isolates clustered at the standard species level. Some species presenting similar pattern were further analyzed by HinfI or AluI digestion or DNA clone and sequences analysis in order to establish the specific 16s-23s rRNA gene spacer regions map. Analysis of 42 blood specimens from septicemic neonates and 6 CSF specimens from suspected purulent meningitis patients by bacterial culture and PCR-RFLP(Restriction Fregament Length Polymorphism) showed that 15 specimens of blood culture were positive(35.7%) in the 42 septicemic neonates; 27 specimens were positive(64.2%) by PCR, and that the positive rate by PCR was significantly higher than that by blood culture(P<0.01). Among the 6 CSF specimens, one specimen found positive by blood culture was also positive by PCR, two found negative by blood culture showed positive by PCR; all three were S.epidermidis according to the DNA map. One C

  5. The region of XRCC1 which harbours the three most common nonsynonymous polymorphic variants, is essential for the scaffolding function of XRCC1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanssen-Bauer, Audun; Solvang-Garten, Karin; Gilljam, Karin Margaretha

    2012-01-01

    XRCC1 functions as a non-enzymatic, scaffold protein in single strand break repair (SSBR) and base excision repair (BER). Here, we examine different regions of XRCC1 for their contribution to the scaffolding functions of the protein. We found that the central BRCT1 domain is essential for recruit......XRCC1 functions as a non-enzymatic, scaffold protein in single strand break repair (SSBR) and base excision repair (BER). Here, we examine different regions of XRCC1 for their contribution to the scaffolding functions of the protein. We found that the central BRCT1 domain is essential......-nuclear localization or the ability to support recruitment of POLß or PNKP to micro-irradiated sites for these variants relative to the conservative protein, we did observe lower foci intensity after micro-irradiation and a reduced stability of the foci with the Arg280His and Arg399Gln variants, respectively...

  6. Are regional habitat models useful at a local-scale? A case study of threatened and common insectivorous bats in South-Eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna McConville

    Full Text Available Habitat modelling and predictive mapping are important tools for conservation planning, particularly for lesser known species such as many insectivorous bats. However, the scale at which modelling is undertaken can affect the predictive accuracy and restrict the use of the model at different scales. We assessed the validity of existing regional-scale habitat models at a local-scale and contrasted the habitat use of two morphologically similar species with differing conservation status (Mormopterus norfolkensis and Mormopterus species 2. We used negative binomial generalised linear models created from indices of activity and environmental variables collected from systematic acoustic surveys. We found that habitat type (based on vegetation community best explained activity of both species, which were more active in floodplain areas, with most foraging activity recorded in the freshwater wetland habitat type. The threatened M. norfolkensis avoided urban areas, which contrasts with M. species 2 which occurred frequently in urban bushland. We found that the broad habitat types predicted from local-scale models were generally consistent with those from regional-scale models. However, threshold-dependent accuracy measures indicated a poor fit and we advise caution be applied when using the regional models at a fine scale, particularly when the consequences of false negatives or positives are severe. Additionally, our study illustrates that habitat type classifications can be important predictors and we suggest they are more practical for conservation than complex combinations of raw variables, as they are easily communicated to land managers.

  7. A shared promoter region suggests a common ancestor for the human VCX/Y, SPANX, and CSAG gene families and the murine CYPT family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin A; Nielsen, John E; Retelska, Dorota

    2008-01-01

    Many testis-specific genes from the sex chromosomes are subject to rapid evolution, which can make it difficult to identify murine genes in the human genome. The murine CYPT gene family includes 15 members, but orthologs were undetectable in the human genome. However, using refined homology search...... with the murine SPANX gene and the CYPT family may share a common ancestor. Finally, we present evidence that VCX/Y and SPANX may be paralogs with a similar protein structure consisting of C terminal acidic repeats of variable lengths....

  8. PCR-RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA ND5/6 region among 3 subspecies of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and its application to genetic discrimination of subspecies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA ND5/6 region was studied by PCR-RFLP analysis among ten representative strains belonging to three subspecies (Cyprinus carpio carpio, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus and Cyprinus carpio rubrofuscus) of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). A total of 2.4 kb fragment was amplified and subjected to restriction endonuclease analysis with nine restriction endonucleases subsequently. The results indicated that each subspecies owned one hyplotype and four restriction enzymes (DdeⅠ, HaeⅢ, TaqⅠand MboⅠ) produced diagnostic restriction sites which could be used for discriminating the three subspecies and as molecular genetic markers for assistant selective breeding of common carp.

  9. Regional Absorption of Common Agricultural Policy's Rural Development Funds Targeted for Semi-Subsistence Farms in Romania in the 2007-2013 Programming Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORÓKA-JÚLIA BÍRÓ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Land fragmentation and the need for consolidation are major problems of current Romanian agriculture. The transition from the status-quo of an agricultural structure dominated by subsistence and semi-subsistence farms in the view of restructuring, resulting in a more efficient sector - is a must. Present study proposes to evaluate the application of specific measures of the Romanian National Rural Development Programme (NRDP that sought to support semi-subsistence farms between 2007 and 2013. Three NRDP measures have been identified under which semi-subsistence farms were eligible: Measure 112 "Setting up of young farmers", Measure 121 "Modernization of agricultural holdings", and Measure 141 "Supporting semi-subsistence agricultural holdings". The above measures belong to the 1st Axis of the Common Agricultural Policy's second pillar, thus having a common general goal the improvement of the competitiveness of the agricultural sector, while aiming at restructuring and developing the physical potential and management of generation change - trying to keep the rural population in place. Available data on a seven-year time horizon was analyzed. The absorption level of measures 112, 121 and 141 - under which the Romanian semi-subsistence farms were eligible - on national and subnational scale was mapped.

  10. Immunity related genes in dipterans share common enrichment of AT-rich motifs in their 5' regulatory regions that are potentially involved in nucleosome formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez Mario H

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the transcriptional regulation mechanisms in response to environmental challenges is of fundamental importance in biology. Transcription factors associated to response elements and the chromatin structure had proven to play important roles in gene expression regulation. We have analyzed promoter regions of dipteran genes induced in response to immune challenge, in search for particular sequence patterns involved in their transcriptional regulation. Results 5' upstream regions of D. melanogaster and A. gambiae immunity-induced genes and their corresponding orthologous genes in 11 non-melanogaster drosophilid species and Ae. aegypti share enrichment in AT-rich short motifs. AT-rich motifs are associated with nucleosome formation as predicted by two different algorithms. In A. gambiae and D. melanogaster, many immunity genes 5' upstream sequences also showed NFκB response elements, located within 500 bp from the transcription start site. In A. gambiae, the frequency of ATAA motif near the NFκB response elements was increased, suggesting a functional link between nucleosome formation/remodelling and NFκB regulation of transcription. Conclusion AT-rich motif enrichment in 5' upstream sequences in A. gambiae, Ae. aegypti and the Drosophila genus immunity genes suggests a particular pattern of nucleosome formation/chromatin organization. The co-occurrence of such motifs with the NFκB response elements suggests that these sequence signatures may be functionally involved in transcriptional activation during dipteran immune response. AT-rich motif enrichment in regulatory regions in this group of co-regulated genes could represent an evolutionary constrained signature in dipterans and perhaps other distantly species.

  11. Examining spatial variability in relative sea-level in the New York City/New Jersey region during the Common Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jennifer; Clear, Jennifer; Garcia-Artola, Ane; Khan, Nicole; Shaw, Timothy; Corbett, Reide; Kemp, Andrew; Kopp, Robert; Horton, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Relative sea-level (RSL) reconstructions extend the 20th century instrumental record (tide gauge and satellite measurements) of spatial and temporal sea-level variability to provide a much longer context for recent trends and projected RSL rise. Common Era (last 2000 years) RSL reconstructions illustrate patterns of natural variability and include natural phases of climate and sea-level which will improve our knowledge basis for sea-level responses to climate changes. The northeast U.S. has exhibited varying rates in relative sea-level rise through the Common Era, primarily due to glacial isostatic adjustment. However, other factors such as ocean/atmosphere dynamics, sediment compaction, and the static equilibrium response to land ice changes, further influence the evolution of relative sea-level. The spatial variability is manifest in the tide gauge records. The tide gauge at the Battery, New York City (1856 to 2015) records a relative sea-level rise of 2.8 mm/yr whereas the tide gauge at Sandy Hook, New Jersey (1932 to 2015), 25 km southeast, records 4.1 mm/yr. Here we present a new reconstruction of RSL in northern New Jersey using geological and tide gauge data. A Common Era sea-level record from northern New Jersey fills in the spatial gap between records completed in southern New Jersey, New York City, and Connecticut. Our field study site is in Cheesequake State Park, where we observed sedimentary sequences dating back 2000 cal. yrs. BP. We use microfossil indicators preserved in salt-marsh sediments as a proxy to reconstruct RSL with decimeter precision. Salt-marsh foraminifera act as reliable RSL indicators because their modern distribution is strongly linked to tidal elevation. The recent application of microfossil-based transfer functions has enabled continuous records of RSL, extending centuries before the modern instrumental period, to be produced with a full consideration of uncertainty. We use a composite chronology of AMS 14C, pollen chrono

  12. Jan Åge Riseth; Sámi reindeer management under technological change 1960-1990: Implications for Common-Pool Resource Use Under Various Natural and Instututional Conditions. A comparative analysis of regional development paths....

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Egil Haugerud (ed.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available On June 22, Cand. Agric. Jan Åge Riseth successfully defended his dissertation "Sami reindeer management under technological change 1960-1990: Implications for Common-Pool Resource Use Under Various Natural And Institutional Conditions. A comparative analysis of regional development paths in West Finnmark, North Trøndelag, and South Trøndelag/Hedmark, Norway." for the degree Dr. Scient, at the Agricultural University of Norway (AUN, Dept. of Economics and Social Sciences.

  13. Jan Åge Riseth; Sámi reindeer management under technological change 1960-1990: Implications for Common-Pool Resource Use Under Various Natural and Instututional Conditions. A comparative analysis of regional development paths....

    OpenAIRE

    Rolf Egil Haugerud (ed. in chief)

    2000-01-01

    On June 22, Cand. Agric. Jan Åge Riseth successfully defended his dissertation "Sami reindeer management under technological change 1960-1990: Implications for Common-Pool Resource Use Under Various Natural And Institutional Conditions. A comparative analysis of regional development paths in West Finnmark, North Trøndelag, and South Trøndelag/Hedmark, Norway." for the degree Dr. Scient, at the Agricultural University of Norway (AUN), Dept. of Economics and Social Sciences.

  14. Social determinants of common metabolic risk factors (high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high body mass index and high waist-hip ratio) of major non-communicable diseases in South Asia region: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sudesh Raj; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Wagle, Kusum; Page, Rachel; Matheson, Anna; Lambrick, Danielle; Faulkner, James; Lounsbury, David; Vaidya, Abhinav

    2017-09-07

    Prevalence of non-communicable diseases has been increasing at a greater pace in developing countries and, in particular, the South Asia region. Various behavioral, social and environmental factors present in this region perpetuate common metabolic risk factors of non-communicable diseases. This study will identify social determinants of common metabolic risk factors of major non-communicable diseases in the context of the South Asian region and map their causal pathway. A systematic review of selected articles will be carried out following Cochrane guidelines. Review will be guided by Social Determinants of Health Framework developed by the World Health Organization to extract social determinants of metabolic risk factors of non-communicable diseases from studies. A distinct search strategy will be applied using key words to screen relevant studies from online databases. Primary and grey literature published from the year 2000 to 2016 and studies with discussion on proximal and distal determinants of non-communicable risk factors among adults of the South Asia region will be selected. They will be further checked for quality, and a matrix illustrating contents of selected articles will be developed. Thematic content analysis will be done to trace social determinants and their interaction with metabolic risk factors. Findings will be illustrated in causal loop diagrams with social determinants of risk factors along with their interaction (feedback mechanism). The review will describe the interplay of social determinants of common NCD metabolic risk factors in the form of causal loop diagram. Findings will be structured in two parts: the first part will explain the linkage between proximal determinants with the metabolic risk factors and the second part will describe the linkage among the risk factors, proximal determinants and distal determinants. Evidences across different regions will be discussed to compare and validate and/or contrast the findings. Possible

  15. A monoclonal antibody with specificity for the genus Klebsiella binds to a common epitope located in the core region of Klebsiella lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brade, L; Podschun, R; Brade, H

    2001-01-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) which has been obtained after immunization of mice with heat-killed Klebsiella pneumoniae strain R20/O1(-) followed by standard plasmacytoma cell fusion protocols was investigated for its ability to identify various species of the genus Klebsiella. Based on the published observation that the antibody binds to an epitope located in the core region of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of strain R20/O1(-), we tested whether this epitope is shared and exposed by other species of the genus Klebsiella. The antibody was able to bind to LPS of clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae (n = 77), K. oxytoca (n = 50), K. terrigena (n = 49) and K. planticola (n = 50) in 93%, 98%, 96% and 100%, respectively, but did not bind to LPS of other Gram-negative genera (n = 159) as tested by Western blots and dot blots using proteinase K-digested whole cell lysates as antigens. Western blot analyses indicated that the antibody bound only to those LPS molecules which did not carry an O-antigen and that the antibody is thus different from those already published.

  16. Hybridization effects and genetic diversity of the common and black-tufted marmoset (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix penicillata) mitochondrial control region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malukiewicz, Joanna; Boere, Vanner; Fuzessy, Lisieux F; Grativol, Adriana D; French, Jeffrey A; de Oliveira e Silva, Ita; Pereira, Luiz C M; Ruiz-Miranda, Carlos R; Valença, Yuri M; Stone, Anne C

    2014-12-01

    Hybridization is continually documented in primates, but effects of natural and anthropogenic hybridization on biodiversity are still unclear and differentiating between these contexts remains challenging in regards to primate evolution and conservation. Here, we examine hybridization effects on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of Callithrix marmosets, which provide a unique glimpse into interspecific mating under distinct anthropogenic and natural conditions. DNA was sampled from 40 marmosets along a 50-km transect from a previously uncharacterized hybrid zone in NE Brazil between the ranges of Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix penicillata. DNA was also collected from 46 marmosets along a 30-km transect in a hybrid zone in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, where exotic marmosets appeared in the 1980s. Combining Callithrix DNA sampled inside and outside of these hybrid zones, phylogenetic and network analyses show C. jacchus and C. penicillata being parental species to sampled hybrids. We expand limited Callithrix population genetics work by describing mtDNA diversity and demographic history of these parental species. We show ancient population expansion in C. jacchus and historically constant population size in C. penicillata, with the latter being more genetically diverse than the former. The natural hybrid zone contained higher genetic diversity relative to the anthropogenic zone. While our data suggest hybrid swarm formation within the anthropogenic zone due to removed physical reproductive barriers, this pattern is not seen in the natural hybrid zone. These results suggest different genetic dynamics within natural and anthropogenic hybridization contexts that carry important implications for primate evolution and conservation.

  17. The most common mutation causing medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency is strongly associated with a particular haplotype in the region of the gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kølvraa, S; Gregersen, N; Blakemore, A I;

    1991-01-01

    RFLP haplotypes in the region containing the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) gene on chromosome 1 have been determined in patients with MCAD deficiency. The RFLPs were detected after digestion of patient DNA with the enzymes BanII. PstI and TaqI and with an MCAD cDNA-clone as a probe....... Of 32 disease-causing alleles studied, 31 possessed the previously published A----G point-mutation at position 985 of the cDNA. This mutation has been shown to result in inactivity of the MCAD enzyme. In at least 30 of the 31 alleles carrying this G985 mutation a specific RFLP haplotype was present....... In contrast, the same haplotype was present in only 23% of normal alleles (P less than or equal to 3.4 x 10(-18)). These findings are consistent with the existence of a pronounced founder effect, possibly combined with biological and/or sampling selection....

  18. Exchange of natural enemies for biological control: is it a rocky road?-the road in the Euro-Mediterranean region and the South American common market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinot, D; Briano, J; Parra, J R P; de Sá, L A N; Cônsoli, F L

    2013-02-01

    The access and benefit sharing (ABS) regulations from the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) for the use of natural resources became an important issue because the biodiversity of developing countries was heavily accessed and unilaterally exploited by pharmaceutical and seed companies. However, natural enemies used for biological control are living and unmodified genetic resources which cannot be patented and have been treated as resources such as drugs, seeds, or other commercial products. Consequently, the ABS requirements have limited not only the use of natural enemies but also the positive effects that scientifically supported biological control strategies have on the society, the environment, and the economy, reducing problems of pesticide residues, water and soil contamination, and non-target effects. During the last several years, the biological control scientific community has faced new and extremely complicated legislation dictated by a high and diverse number of governmental agencies at different levels, making the access to natural resources for biocontrol purposes a rocky road. Society at large should be aware of how the strict ABS regulations affect the use of natural enemies as biological resources to secure food production, food safety, and global environmental protection. We discuss in here the current difficulties derived from CBD for the exchange of natural enemies taking as example the Euro-Mediterranean region, Argentina, and Brazil to demonstrate how long and diverse are the steps to be followed to obtain the required permits for access and exportation/importation of natural enemies. We then argue that the public visibility of biocontrol strategies should be increased and their benefits highlighted in order to persuade legislators for the development of a less bureaucratic, more expedient, and more centralized regulatory frame, greatly favoring the practice and benefits of biological control. We finally propose a general framework in

  19. From global to regional and back again: common climate stressors of marine ecosystems relevant for adaptation across five ocean warming hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Ekaterina; Yool, Andrew; Byfield, Valborg; Cochrane, Kevern; Coward, Andrew C; Salim, Shyam S; Gasalla, Maria A; Henson, Stephanie A; Hobday, Alistair J; Pecl, Gretta T; Sauer, Warwick H; Roberts, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Ocean warming 'hotspots' are regions characterized by above-average temperature increases over recent years, for which there are significant consequences for both living marine resources and the societies that depend on them. As such, they represent early warning systems for understanding the impacts of marine climate change, and test-beds for developing adaptation options for coping with those impacts. Here, we examine five hotspots off the coasts of eastern Australia, South Africa, Madagascar, India and Brazil. These particular hotspots have underpinned a large international partnership that is working towards improving community adaptation by characterizing, assessing and projecting the likely future of coastal-marine food resources through the provision and sharing of knowledge. To inform this effort, we employ a high-resolution global ocean model forced by Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 and simulated to year 2099. In addition to the sea surface temperature, we analyse projected stratification, nutrient supply, primary production, anthropogenic CO2 -driven ocean acidification, deoxygenation and ocean circulation. Our simulation finds that the temperature-defined hotspots studied here will continue to experience warming but, with the exception of eastern Australia, may not remain the fastest warming ocean areas over the next century as the strongest warming is projected to occur in the subpolar and polar areas of the Northern Hemisphere. Additionally, we find that recent rapid change in SST is not necessarily an indicator that these areas are also hotspots of the other climatic stressors examined. However, a consistent facet of the hotspots studied here is that they are all strongly influenced by ocean circulation, which has already shown changes in the recent past and is projected to undergo further strong change into the future. In addition to the fast warming, change in local ocean circulation represents a distinct feature of present and future

  20. A common polymorphism in the promoter region of the TNFSF4 gene is associated with lower allele-specific expression and risk of myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Ria

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The TNFSF4/TNFRSF4 system, along with several other receptor-ligand pairs, is involved in the recruitment and activation of T-cells and is therefore tentatively implicated in atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndromes. We have previously shown that genetic variants in TNFSF4 are associated with myocardial infarction (MI in women. This prompted functional studies of TNFSF4 expression. METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on a screening of the TNFSF4 genomic region, a promoter polymorphism (rs45454293 and a haplotype were identified, conceivably involved in gene regulation. The rs45454293T-allele, in agreement with the linked rs3850641G-allele, proved to be associated with increased risk of MI in women. Haplotype-specific chromatin immunoprecipitation of activated polymerase II, as a measure of transcriptional activity in vivo, suggested that the haplotype including the rs45454293 and rs3850641 polymorphisms is functionally important, the rs45454293T- and rs3850641G-alleles being associated with lower transcriptional activity in cells heterozygous for both polymorphisms. The functional role of rs45454293 on transcriptional levels of TNFSF4 was clarified by luciferase reporter assays, where the rs45454293T-allele decreased gene expression when compared with the rs45454293C-allele, while the rs3850641 SNP did not have any effect on TNFSF4 promoter activity. Electromobility shift assay showed that the rs45454293 polymorphism, but not rs3850641, affects the binding of nuclear factors, thus suggesting that the lower transcriptional activity is attributed to binding of one or more transcriptional repressor(s to the T-allele. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that the TNFSF4 rs45454293T-allele is associated with lower TNFSF4 expression and increased risk of MI.

  1. Amino acid regions 572-579 and 657-666 of the spacer domain of ADAMTS13 provide a common antigenic core required for binding of antibodies in patients with acquired TTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luken, Brenda M; Turenhout, Ellen A M; Kaijen, Paul H P; Greuter, Mascha J; Pos, Wouter; van Mourik, Jan A; Fijnheer, Rob; Voorberg, Jan

    2006-09-01

    Antibodies directed against ADAMTS13 have been detected in the majority of patients with acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). We have previously localized a major antigenic determinant within the spacer domain of ADAMTS13. To identify the amino acid residues of the spacer domain that are involved in binding of anti-ADAMTS13 antibodies, we constructed a series of fifteen hybrids (designated A-O) in which 5-10 amino acids of the spacer domain were exchanged for the corresponding region of ADAMTS1. Plasma from six patients with antibodies directed against the spacer domain was analyzed for reactivity with the ADAMTS13/ADAMTS1 chimeras. Exchange of amino acid residues 572-579 (hybrid C) and 657-666 (hybrid M) completely abolished the binding of antibodies from all six patients analyzed. Regions 580-587 (D), 602-620 (G, H), 629-638 (J), and 667-767 (N) contributed to binding of antibodies from patients 2, 4, and 5 (epitope present within regions CDGHJMN). Antibodies derived from patient 1 required region 602-620 (G, H) for binding (CGHM-epitope). For antibodies of patient 3, residues 564-571 (B), 580-587 (D), and 629-638 (J) were required (BCDJM-epitope), whereas replacement of residues 602-610 (G) and 629-638 (J) greatly diminished binding of antibodies from patient 6 (CGJM-epitope). Despite the presumably polyclonal origin of the antibodies present in plasma of patients, our results suggest that residues 572-579 (C) and 657-666 (M) comprise a common antigenic core region that is crucial for binding of anti-ADAMTS13 antibodies. Other regions that spatially surround this antigenic core further modulate binding of antibodies to the spacer domain.

  2. Adapting to Sea Level Rise to the Year 2100 and Beyond in the State of Florida, USA: A Regional Approach Based upon Common Vulnerabilities and the Utility of Shared Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, R. W.; Harlem, P. W.; Meeder, J.

    2014-12-01

    We simulate the vulnerability of all 35 Florida coastal counties to the ongoing Anthropocene marine transgression unconstrained by the artificial end date of year 2100. Coastal submergence was emulated using a 'bathtub model' and rising sea level associated with an atmospheric temperature increase of +1 oC to +4 oC (see Levermann et al. [1]). Simulation results are organized into seven regions, each representing an area of common vulnerability characterized in this study as high (9% to 30% land loss), higher (16 to 68% land loss) and highest (48% to 97% land loss). This grouping provides a logical basis for establishing or re-enforcing collaboration based upon a common threat and the utility of shared technical and financial resources. Our bathtub model assumes Florida terrain is simply submerged as the shoreline migrates across a static landscape without change in the physical and biological materials subject to marine transgression. However, geologic studies of past and present Florida shorelines indicate the rate of rise is as important as the magnitude when predicting coastal response. To determine the utility of the bathtub model as a representative simulation of Florida's response to future sea level rise, we considered Florida's coastal response to varying rates of sea level rise over the last 14,000 years. Available data clearly demonstrate predicted rates of sea level rise will result in widespread submergence; the rate of rise will be too fast to be offset by the stabilizing forces of biogenic or physical sediment accumulation. Hence the magnitude of land loss and associated shoreline retreat in each of the seven Florida regions - and likely other coastal zones in the southeast U.S. - will be solely a function of topographic elevation and can therefore be reasonably forecast using a bathtub model. While our focus is on Florida's coastal counties, we recognize in some regions the effects of sea level rise will extend further inland. In these areas, the

  3. [Common vulvar dermatologic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Jeskanen, Leila

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of cutaneous diseases can affect genital area. Some of these dermatoses are predominantly present in vulvar area while others primarily occur in extra-genital skin areas. Genital area is susceptible to maceration and the combination of moisture and warmth together with the increased penetration of topical agents make the region vulnerable for mechanical and chemical irritation. Lichen simplex chronicus (LSC) is a secondary condition precipitated by chronic itching and scratching. Scratching may be caused by some dermatoses or candida infection. Chronic systemic dermatoses most commonly affecting vulval area are various eczemas, psoriasis, lichen sclerorus and lichen planus.

  4. Assisted Common Information: Further Results

    CERN Document Server

    Prabhakaran, Vinod M

    2011-01-01

    We presented assisted common information as a generalization of G\\'acs-K\\"orner (GK) common information at ISIT 2010. The motivation for our formulation was to improve upperbounds on the efficiency of protocols for secure two-party sampling (which is a form of secure multi-party computation). Our upperbound was based on a monotonicity property of a rate-region (called the assisted residual information region) associated with the assisted common information formulation. In this note we present further results. We explore the connection of assisted common information with the Gray-Wyner system. We show that the assisted residual information region and the Gray-Wyner region are connected by a simple relationship: the assisted residual information region is the increasing hull of the Gray-Wyner region under an affine map. Several known relationships between GK common information and Gray-Wyner system fall out as consequences of this. Quantities which arise in other source coding contexts acquire new interpretatio...

  5. A novel immunodominant CD8+ T cell response restricted by a common HLA-C allele targets a conserved region of Gag HIV-1 clade CRF01_AE infected Thais.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supranee Buranapraditkun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CD8+ T cell responses play an important role in the control of HIV-1. The extensive sequence diversity of HIV-1 represents a critical hurdle to developing an effective HIV-1 vaccine, and it is likely that regional-specific vaccine strains will be required to overcome the diversity of the different HIV-1 clades distributed world-wide. Unfortunately, little is known about the CD8+ T cell responses against CRF01_AE, which is responsible for the majority of infections in Southeast Asia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify dominant CD8+ T cell responses recognized in HIV-1 clade CRF01_AE infected subjects we drew upon data from an immunological screen of 100 HIV-1 clade CRF01_AE infected subjects using IFN-gamma ELISpot to characterize a novel immunodominant CD8+ T cell response in HIV-1 Gag restricted by HLA-Cw*0102 (p24, (277YSPVSILDI(285, YI9. Over 75% of Cw*0102+ve subjects targeted this epitope, representing the strongest response in more than a third of these individuals. This novel CD8 epitope was located in a highly conserved region of HIV-1 Gag known to contain immunodominant CD8 epitopes, which are restricted by HLA-B*57 and -B*27 in clade B infection. Nonetheless, viral escape in this epitope was frequently observed in Cw*0102+ve subjects, suggestive of strong selection pressure being exerted by this common CD8+ T cell response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As HLA-Cw*0102 is frequently expressed in the Thai population (allelic frequency of 16.8%, this immunodominant Cw*0102-restricted Gag epitope may represent an attractive candidate for vaccines specific to CRF01_AE and may help facilitate further studies of immunopathogenesis in this understudied HIV-1 clade.

  6. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  7. 铜仁地区特种野猪9种常用饲料的营养价值%Nutritive Value of Nine Common Feedstuffs for Special Wild Boars in Tongren Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵啸; 张华琦; 杨正德; 曹东; 孟华

    2014-01-01

    The digestibility of main nutrients and energy of six healthy special wild boars with three-month old and 25.24 kg of average body weight from the similar genetic source fed by 9 common feedstuffs (corn,wheat,rice bran,wheat bran,fish meal,bean pulp,rapeseed dregs,sweet potato vine and endive) was determined to study the nutritive value of common feedstuffs for special wild boars in Tongren region. The apparent digestibility of crude protein,crude fat,carbohydrate,total P and energy for special wild boars is slightly higher than domestic pigs.The apparent digestibility of total energy and carbohydrate is significantly and negatively related to neutral detergent fiber (NDF)content in feedstuffs.The apparent digestibility of fish meal to crude protein is the highest,followed by bean pulp and the lowest apparent digestibility of crude protein is rice bran,sweet potato vine and endive respectively.%为探明铜仁地区特种野猪常用饲料的营养价值,选择遗传来源相似,平均体重为25.24 kg的3月龄健康去势特种野猪6头,采用全收粪法测定特种野猪对9种常用饲料(能量饲料:玉米、小麦、米糠、麦麸,蛋白质饲料:鱼粉、豆粕、菜籽粕,青粗饲料:红薯藤、菊苣)主要养分与能量的消化率,并评定其有效能含量。结果表明:特种野猪对9种常用饲料的粗蛋白质、粗脂肪、碳水化合物、总磷及能量的表观消化率与家猪相似,但均略高于家猪。其中,总能、碳水化合物的表观消化率与饲料中中性洗涤纤维含量呈显著负相关;粗蛋白质的表观消化率以鱼粉最高,其次为豆粕,以糠麸和青粗饲料相对为低。

  8. Coated potassium choride in residual effect on winter common bean irrigated in Cerrado regionCloreto de potássio revestido em efeito residual no feijoeiro de inverno irrigado na região de cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Augusto de Carvalho Rodrigues

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain the nutrients available to plants have been studied controlled release fertilizers. In this context, the objective was to evaluate the residual effect of doses of potassium chloride, coated or not, applied in the corn crop, regarding the crop components and grains yield of irrigated winter common bean, cultivated in followed, in Cerrado region. The experiment was conducted in Selvíria – MS, Brazil, 51°22’ west longitude and 20°22’ south latitude, in a clayey Oxisol, in 2009 and 2010. A randomized block design with four repetitions was used, disposed in a factorial scheme 4 x 2, being: four K2O doses (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 and two potassium sources (potassium chloride and coated potassium chloride by polymers applied at sowing in the corn crop. The coated potassium chloride by polymers have the same residual effect as conventional KCl, because it provides results similar for the K and chlorophyll leaf contents, crop components and grains yield of winter common bean irrigated. The increment of potassium doses in the previous crop (corn have residual effect, because it influenced positively the number of grains per plant in 2009 and increased linearly the chlorophyll leaf content and the grains yield of winter common bean irrigated in 2010, regardless of the source used for K.Com a finalidade de manter os nutrientes disponíveis para as plantas têm-se buscado fertilizantes de liberação controlada. Neste contexto, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito residual de doses de potássio usando cloreto de potássio e cloreto de potássio revestido por polímeros, aplicados na cultura do milho, nos componentes de produção e a produtividade do feijoeiro de inverno irrigado, cultivado em sucessão, em condições de cerrado. O experimento foi conduzido em Selvíria – MS, com coordenadas geográficas de 51o 22” de longitude Oeste e 20o 22” de latitude Sul, num Latossolo Vermelho distrófico de textura argilosa, em 2009 e

  9. Common vampire bat attacks on humans in a village of the Amazon region of Brazil Agressões de morcegos hematófagos a pessoas em um povoado da região amazônica do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Schneider

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Many people in Amazonian communities have reported bat bites in the last decade. Bites by vampire bats can potentially transmit rabies to humans. The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with bat biting in one of these communities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a village of gold miners in the Amazonian region of Brazil (160 inhabitants. Bats were captured near people's houses and sent to a lab. Of 129 people interviewed, 41% had been attacked by a bat at least once, with 92% of the bites located on the lower limbs. A logistic regression found that adults were bitten around four times more often than children (OR = 3.75, CI 95%: 1.46-9.62, p = 0.036. Males were bitten more frequently than females (OR = 2.08, CI 95%: 0.90-4.76, p = 0.067. Nine Desmodus rotundus and three frugivorous bats were captured and tested negative for rabies. The study suggests that, in an area of gold miners, common vampire bats are more likely to attack adults and males. The control strategy for human rabies developed in this region should therefore place special emphasis on adult males. There should also be more research on how the search for gold in the Amazonian region places people and the environment at risk.Agressões de morcegos a pessoas vêm sendo notificadas em várias comunidades amazônicas nesta última década. Isto constitui um risco potencial para a raiva humana transmitida por morcegos. O objetivo deste estudo foi de analisar fatores associados a estas agressões em uma destas comunidades. Foi realizado um estudo transversal em um povoado de garimpeiros na Região Amazônica brasileira (160 habitantes. Foi realizada a captura de morcegos junto às casas e foram enviadas amostras para o laboratório. Das 129 pessoas entrevistas, 41% foram agredidas por morcegos pelo menos uma vez, com 92% das mordidas localizadas nos dedos dos pés. Por meio de regressão logística, encontrou-se que adultos eram agredidos ao redor de

  10. Common Privacy Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information home > privacy + phrs > common privacy myths Common Privacy Myths With the new federal laws protecting ... Here are the truths to some of the common myths: Health information cannot be faxed – FALSE Your ...

  11. Common NICU Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... newborn intensive care unit (NICU) > Common NICU equipment Common NICU equipment E-mail to a friend Please ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications ...

  12. Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is ... and acquired agammaglobulinemia. Why Is the Study of Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) a Priority for NIAID? CVID ...

  13. Common Discomforts of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Common discomforts of pregnancy Common discomforts of pregnancy E-mail to a friend ... like back ache and being really tired are common and shouldn’t make you worry. For most ...

  14. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  15. Manejo de irrigação e fertilização nitrogenada para o feijoeiro na região dos cerrados Irrigation timing and nitrogen fertilization for common bean crop in the cerrado region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTÔNIO FERNANDO GUERRA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido na área experimental da Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária dos Cerrados (CPAC com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de diferentes regimes hídricos e de diferentes doses de N sobre a produtividade e componentes de produção de feijão Pérola (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivado após o milho, na região de cerrado. As aplicações de água foram feitas quando a tensão de água no solo, medida a 10 cm de profundidade, atingia valores de 41, 55, 75 e 300 kPa. As doses de N testadas foram: 0, 40, 80 e 160 kg/ha. As doses foram parceladas em duas aplicações, a saber: a metade, aplicada por ocasião da emergência das plântulas, e o restante, no início do estádio de florescimento da cultura. A máxima produtividade foi obtida com as irrigações quando a tensão de água no solo era de 41 kPa, medida a 10 cm de profundidade. As doses de N que propiciaram as máximas produtividades variaram com a tensão de água no solo utilizada para o controle da irrigação. A quantidade de água aplicada para uma produtividade superior a 4.800 kg/ha foi em torno de 450 mm. O valor da relação entre a produtividade e a lâmina de água aplicada aumentou com o aumento da tensão de água no solo e das doses de N.This study was carried out in the experimental field of the Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária dos Cerrados (CPAC to determine the irrigation timing and the nitrogen amounts for common bean crop (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cultivated after corn, in the cerrado region. Water was applied when soil-water tension, measured at a depth of 10 cm reached values of 41, 55, 75 and 300 kPa. The nitrogen doses were splited in two applications. Half doses was applied just after germination and the other half at the initial flowering stage. The highest yield was obtained with irrigation at 41 kPa, measured at a depth of 10 cm. In relation to nitrogen doses, maximum yield was attained with variable soil water tension value used

  16. Finding Common Ground with the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the journey of museum educators at the Chicago History Museum in understanding the Common Core State Standards and implementing them in our work with the school audience. The process raised questions about our teaching philosophy and our responsibility to our audience. Working with colleagues inside and outside of our…

  17. How Common Is the Common Core?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

  18. Finding Common Ground with the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the journey of museum educators at the Chicago History Museum in understanding the Common Core State Standards and implementing them in our work with the school audience. The process raised questions about our teaching philosophy and our responsibility to our audience. Working with colleagues inside and outside of our…

  19. Commonly Abused Drugs Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule Juice, Gym Candy, Pumpers, Roids Nandrolone (Oxandrin ® ), oxandrolone (Anadrol ® ), oxymetholone ( ... swings; tiredness; restlessness; loss of appetite; insomnia; lowered sex drive; depression, sometimes leading to suicide attempts. Treatment ...

  20. Common Asthma Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Common Asthma Triggers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... t avoid the triggers. Some of the most common triggers are: Tobacco Smoke Tobacco smoke is unhealthy ...

  1. Common Eye Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.cdc.gov/emailupdates/">What's this? Submit Button Common Eye Disorders Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... macular degeneration, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Other common eye disorders include amblyopia and strabismus. For a ...

  2. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Jul 5,2017 How ... do you know about cholesterol? Here are some common misconceptions — and the truth. High cholesterol isn’t ...

  3. Common Conditions in Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Common Conditions in Newborns Page Content Article Body Some physical conditions are especially common during the first couple of weeks after birth. ...

  4. Common Tests for Arrhythmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Tests for Arrhythmia Updated:Dec 21,2016 Several ... diagnose an arrhythmia. View an animation of arrhythmia . Common Tests for Arrhythmia Holter monitor (continuous ambulatory electrocardiographic ...

  5. Isolated loco-regional recurrence of breast cancer is more common in young patients and following breast conserving therapy: Long-term results of European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, Truuske; van der Hage, J.A.; Putter, H.; Bonnema, J.; Bartelink, H.; van de Velde, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic factors for isolated loco-regional recurrence in patients treated for invasive stage I or H breast cancer. The study population comprised 3602 women who had undergone primary surgery for early stage breast cancer, who were enrolled in European Organis

  6. Isolated loco-regional recurrence of breast cancer is more common in young patients and following breast conserving therapy : Long-term results of European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, GH; van der Hage, JA; Putter, H; Bonnema, J; Bartelink, H; van de Velde, CJ

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic factors for isolated loco-regional recurrence in patients treated for invasive stage I or H breast cancer. The study population comprised 3602 women who had undergone primary surgery for early stage breast cancer, who were enrolled in European Organis

  7. The common viral insertion site Evi12 is located in the 5'-noncoding region of Gnn, a novel gene with enhanced expression in two subclasses of human acute myeloid leukemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van den Akker (Eric); Y.V. Vankan-Berkhoudt (Yolanda); P.J.M. Valk (Peter); B. Löwenberg (Bob); H.R. Delwel (Ruud)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe leukemia and lymphoma disease locus Evi12 was mapped to the noncoding region of a novel gene, Gnn (named for Grp94 neighboring nucleotidase), that is located immediately upstream of the Grp94/Tra1 gene on mouse chromosome 10. The Gnn gene is conserved in mice and humans. Expression o

  8. Tragedy of the Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    The tittle refers to an article from 1968 by Garrett Hardin, using the metaphore of the common grazing land in villages in old time. These 'Commons' were for free use for people in the commounity to have some sheep grazing. This system was based on a certain social solidarity and ethic....... With an individualistic and selfish attitude this would collaps, since each single citizen could benefit from putting more sheep on the common, which would eventually collapse by overgrazing. The metaphore is applied to our common planet, and our ability to built up institutions, economics and ethics, geared for sharing...

  9. The Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    At present voluntary and philanthropic organisations are experiencing significant public attention and academic discussions about their role in society. Central to the debate is on one side the question of how they contribute to “the common good”, and on the other the question of how they can avoid...... and concepts continuously over time have blurred the different sectors and “polluted” contemporary definitions of the “common good”. The analysis shows that “the common good” is not an autonomous concept owned or developed by specific spheres of society. The analysis stresses that historically, “the common...

  10. The Common HOL Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The Common HOL project aims to facilitate porting source code and proofs between members of the HOL family of theorem provers. At the heart of the project is the Common HOL Platform, which defines a standard HOL theory and API that aims to be compatible with all HOL systems. So far, HOL Light and hol90 have been adapted for conformance, and HOL Zero was originally developed to conform. In this paper we provide motivation for a platform, give an overview of the Common HOL Platform's theory and...

  11. A peptide derived from the CD loop-D helix region of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) induces neuronal differentiation and survival by binding to the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) receptor and common cytokine receptor chain gp130

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathje, Mette; Pankratova, Stanislava; Nielsen, Janne;

    2011-01-01

    been suggested to be important for the cytokine interaction with LIFR. We designed a peptide, termed cintrofin, that encompasses this region. Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated that cintrofin bound to LIFR and gp130, but not to CNTFRa, with apparent K(D) values of 35nM and 1.1n......M, respectively. Cintrofin promoted the survival of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs), in which cell death was induced either by potassium withdrawal or H(2)O(2) treatment. Cintrofin induced neurite outgrowth from CGNs, and this effect was inhibited by specific antibodies against both gp130 and LIFR, indicating...... and LIF had no neuritogenic effect but were able to inhibit cintrofin-induced neuronal differentiation, indicating that cintrofin and cytokines compete for the same receptors. In addition, cintrofin induced the phosphorylation of STAT3, Akt, and ERK, indicating that it exerts cell signaling properties...

  12. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  13. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can be both ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

  14. Common Knowledge on Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Liddell, Torrin M

    2015-01-01

    Common knowledge of intentions is crucial to basic social tasks ranging from cooperative hunting to oligopoly collusion, riots, revolutions, and the evolution of social norms and human culture. Yet little is known about how common knowledge leaves a trace on the dynamics of a social network. Here we show how an individual's network properties---primarily local clustering and betweenness centrality---provide strong signals of the ability to successfully participate in common knowledge tasks. These signals are distinct from those expected when practices are contagious, or when people use less-sophisticated heuristics that do not yield true coordination. This makes it possible to infer decision rules from observation. We also find that tasks that require common knowledge can yield significant inequalities in success, in contrast to the relative equality that results when practices spread by contagion alone.

  15. Five Common Glaucoma Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Donate In This Section Five Common Glaucoma Tests en Español email Send this article to ... year or two after age 35. A Comprehensive Glaucoma Exam To be safe and accurate, five factors ...

  16. Common elbow conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-02

    Sep 2, 2011 ... Chronic overuse is the most common reason for elbow injury. ... fingers. ECRB has been shown to be active with flexion, extension, ... such as lifting a kettle and shaking hands. ... proximal palmar crease to the tip of the.

  17. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  18. MA Common Tern Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The official State census period for common terns was June 1-10. The survey was conducted on June 4 by Biologist Healey, Biotech Springfield, and Maintenance...

  19. UNDERSTANDING THE GLOBAL COMMONS

    OpenAIRE

    Bromley, Daniel W.; Cochrane, Jeffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    We want to clarify the way in which we think about the global commons, particularly the problem of global warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions and tropical deforestation. We develop a policy framework in which the policy goal is the sustainability of the earth's ability to absorb greenhouse gases. The framework considers the unequal incidence of benefits and costs of particular policies. We identify several resource management regimes and suggest that management under a common property ...

  20. Common clay and shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  1. Somatic Deletions of the PolyA Tract in the 3′ Untranslated Region of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Are Common in Microsatellite Instability–High Endometrial and Colorectal Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Deqin; Chen, Zhao; Nero, Christopher; Patel, Keyur P.; Daoud, Emad M.; Cheng, Hanyin; Djordjevic, Bojana; Broaddus, Russell R.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Rashid, Asif; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Context Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in up to 80% of colorectal and endometrial carcinomas. Deletions of the polyA tract in the 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) have been reported in microsatellite instability–high (MSI-H) colonic carcinomas, but their impacts on EGFR expression and downstream pathways are unclear. This phenomenon has not been reported in other MSI-H tumors. Objective To assess the 3′ UTR polyA tract of EGFR in both endometrial and colorectal carcinomas and the mutational status of EGFR downstream pathways. Design Ninety-eight colorectal carcinomas and 47 endometrial carcinomas were included. EGFR 3′ UTR polyA status was detected by capillary electrophoresis and Sanger sequencing. EGFR gene expression, EGFR copy numbers, and KRAS and BRAF mutation status were analyzed accordingly. Results The 3′ UTR polyA tract was deleted in 18 of 23 (78%) MSI-H versus 0 of 24 microsatellite-stable endometrial carcinomas (P polyA deletions versus those with wild-type polyA tract. Amplification of the EGFR gene was not observed. Deletions in polyA tract do not seem to affect the frequency of KRAS and BRAF mutations. Conclusions Deletions of EGFR 3′ UTR polyA are frequent in endometrial and colorectal carcinomas, are confined almost exclusively to MSI-H tumors, and do not affect KRAS and BRAF mutations. PMID:22540299

  2. Somatic deletions of the polyA tract in the 3' untranslated region of epidermal growth factor receptor are common in microsatellite instability-high endometrial and colorectal carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deqin, Ma; Chen, Zhao; Nero, Christopher; Patel, Keyur P; Daoud, Emad M; Cheng, Hanyin; Djordjevic, Bojana; Broaddus, Russell R; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Rashid, Asif; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi

    2012-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in up to 80% of colorectal and endometrial carcinomas. Deletions of the polyA tract in the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) have been reported in microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) colonic carcinomas, but their impacts on EGFR expression and downstream pathways are unclear. This phenomenon has not been reported in other MSI-H tumors. To assess the 3' UTR polyA tract of EGFR in both endometrial and colorectal carcinomas and the mutational status of EGFR downstream pathways. Ninety-eight colorectal carcinomas and 47 endometrial carcinomas were included. EGFR 3' UTR polyA status was detected by capillary electrophoresis and Sanger sequencing. EGFR gene expression, EGFR copy numbers, and KRAS and BRAF mutation status were analyzed accordingly. The 3' UTR polyA tract was deleted in 18 of 23 (78%) MSI-H versus 0 of 24 microsatellite-stable endometrial carcinomas (P polyA deletions versus those with wild-type polyA tract. Amplification of the EGFR gene was not observed. Deletions in polyA tract do not seem to affect the frequency of KRAS and BRAF mutations. Deletions of EGFR 3' UTR polyA are frequent in endometrial and colorectal carcinomas, are confined almost exclusively to MSI-H tumors, and do not affect KRAS and BRAF mutations.

  3. The Common HOL Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Adams

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Common HOL project aims to facilitate porting source code and proofs between members of the HOL family of theorem provers. At the heart of the project is the Common HOL Platform, which defines a standard HOL theory and API that aims to be compatible with all HOL systems. So far, HOL Light and hol90 have been adapted for conformance, and HOL Zero was originally developed to conform. In this paper we provide motivation for a platform, give an overview of the Common HOL Platform's theory and API components, and show how to adapt legacy systems. We also report on the platform's successful application in the hand-translation of a few thousand lines of source code from HOL Light to HOL Zero.

  4. COMMON FISCAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mursa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a common fiscal policy, designed to support the euro currency, has some significant drawbacks. The greatest danger is the possibility of leveling the tax burden in all countries. This leveling of the tax is to the disadvantage of countries in Eastern Europe, in principle, countries poorly endowed with capital, that use a lax fiscal policy (Romania, Bulgaria, etc. to attract foreign investment from rich countries of the European Union. In addition, common fiscal policy can lead to a higher degree of centralization of budgetary expenditures in the European Union.

  5. The putative imprinted locus D15S9 within the common deletion region for the Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes encodes two overlapping mRNAs transcribed from opposite strands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, C.C.; Driscoll, D.J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Saitoh, S. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome is typically caused by a deletion of paternal 15q11-q13, or maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 15, while Angelman syndrome is caused by a maternal deletion or paternal UPD of the same region. Therefore, these two clinically distinct neurobehavioral syndromes result from differential expression of imprinted genes within 15q11-q13. A 3.1 kb cDNA, DN34, from the D15S9 locus within 15q11-q13 was isolated from a human fetal brain library. We showed previously that DN34 probe detects a DNA methylation imprint and therefore may represent a candidate imprinted gene. Isolation of genomic clones and DNA sequencing demonstrated that the gene segment encoding the partial cDNA DN34 was split by a 2 kb intron, but did not encode a substantial open reading frame (ORF). Preliminary analysis of expression by RT-PCR suggests that this gene is expressed in fetal but not in tested tissue types from the adult, and thus its imprinting status has not been possible to assess at present. Surprisingly, we found an ORF on the antisense strand of the DN34 cDNA. This ORF encodes a putative polypeptide of 505 amino acid residues containing a RING C{sub 3}HC{sub 4} zinc-finger motif and other features of nuclear proteins. Subsequent characterization of this gene, ZNF127, and a mouse homolog, demonstrated expression of 3.2 kb transcript from all tested fetal and adult tissues. Transcripts initiate from within a CpG-island, shown to be differentially methylated on parental alleles in the human. Interestingly, functional imprinting of the mouse homolog was subsequently demonstrated in an F{sub 1} cross by analyzing a VNTR polymorphism in the mRNA. The ZNF127 gene is intronless, has significant overlap with the DN34 gene on the antisense strand, and a 1 kb 3{prime} end within the 2 kb DN34 intron.

  6. Sequential Common Agency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prat, A.; Rustichini, A.

    1998-01-01

    In a common agency game a set of principals promises monetary transfers to an agent which depend on the action he will take. The agent then chooses the action, and is paid the corresponding transfers. Principals announce their transfers simultaneously. This game has many equilibria; Bernheim and Whi

  7. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

  8. Chemicals of Common bitercress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marenich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the study of the chemical composition of Common bitter cress (Barbarea vulgaris R. Br.. Shows indicators of good quality, optimal parameters extraction, trace element composition, amino acid composition, content of biologically active substances and volatile of raw material.

  9. Testing Common Sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Explores the use of common sense testing and measurement as a means of predicting real-world performance. The authors discuss practical versus book knowledge, examine several empirical studies of practical intelligence, describe tacit knowledge and the instruments used for testing it, and present findings from a tacit knowledge research program.…

  10. Common File Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Lauren

    2014-03-21

    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  11. Common Influence Join

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Mamoulis, Nikos; Karras, Panagiotis

    2008-01-01

    We identify and formalize a novel join operator for two spatial pointsets P and Q. The common influence join (CIJ) returns the pairs of points (p,q),p isin P,q isin Q, such that there exists a location in space, being closer to p than to any other point in P and at the same time closer to q than...

  12. 'Crossing a Bare Common'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2006-01-01

    than not described as a ‘sublime rhetoric’. From the stock of rhetorical tropes the most favoured by Emerson and picked out as the trademark of his rhetorical sublimity critics mention in particular his use of hyperbole, chiasmus and metalepsis. Common to all three tropes is said to be their ability...

  13. Is Context Common Ground?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jens Sand

    2012-01-01

    This article will explore the relation between the how’s and why’s of humour, by gradually moving from the contextual compositionality of conversational implication to a broadened perspective on the open- ended nature of conversation and the purpose humour serves in developing ‘common ground’....

  14. Common tester platform concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  15. Commonly used endocrine drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mário Miguel; Dias, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine drugs are agents directed to a malfunctioning endocrine path. Several agents are secreted in or target the nervous system, and are thus more prone to cause neurologic adverse events (AEs). This chapter focuses on commonly used endocrine agents directed to the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, thyroid, and antidiabetic agents. The therapeutic agents are discussed in terms of indication, mechanism of action, description, and frequency of AEs, and risk factors for occurrence where available. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Common HEP UNIX Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Arnaud

    After it had been decided to design a common user environment for UNIX platforms among HEP laboratories, a joint project between DESY and CERN had been started. The project consists in 2 phases: 1. Provide a common user environment at shell level, 2. Provide a common user environment at graphical level (X11). Phase 1 is in production at DESY and at CERN as well as at PISA and RAL. It has been developed around the scripts originally designed at DESY Zeuthen improved and extended with a 2 months project at CERN with a contribution from DESY Hamburg. It consists of a set of files which are customizing the environment for the 6 main shells (sh, csh, ksh, bash, tcsh, zsh) on the main platforms (AIX, HP-UX, IRIX, SunOS, Solaris 2, OSF/1, ULTRIX, etc.) and it is divided at several "sociological" levels: HEP, site, machine, cluster, group of users and user with some levels which are optional. The second phase is under design and a first proposal has been published. A first version of the phase 2 exists already for AIX and Solaris, and it should be available for all other platforms, by the time of the conference. This is a major collective work between several HEP laboratories involved in the HEPiX-scripts and HEPiX-X11 working-groups.

  17. 'Historicising common sense'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstone, Noah

    2012-12-01

    This essay is an expanded set of comments on the social psychology papers written for the special issue on History and Social Psychology. It considers what social psychology, and particularly the theory of social representations, might offer historians working on similar problems, and what historical methods might offer social psychology. The social history of thinking has been a major theme in twentieth and twenty-first century historical writing, represented most recently by the genre of 'cultural history'. Cultural history and the theory of social representations have common ancestors in early twentieth-century social science. Nevertheless, the two lines of research have developed in different ways and are better seen as complementary than similar. The theory of social representations usefully foregrounds issues, like social division and change over time, that cultural history relegates to the background. But for historians, the theory of social representations seems oddly fixated on comparing the thought styles associated with positivist science and 'common sense'. Using historical analysis, this essay tries to dissect the core opposition 'science : common sense' and argues for a more flexible approach to comparing modes of thought.

  18. Common sense codified

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    At CERN, people of more than a hundred different nationalities and hundreds of different professions work together towards a common goal. The new Code of Conduct is a tool that has been designed to help us keep our workplace pleasant and productive through common standards of behaviour. Its basic principle is mutual respect and common sense. This is only natural, but not trivial…  The Director-General announced it in his speech at the beginning of the year, and the Bulletin wrote about it immediately afterwards. "It" is the new Code of Conduct, the document that lists our Organization's values and describes the basic standards of behaviour that we should both adopt and expect from others. "The Code of Conduct is not going to establish new rights or new obligations," explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources Department (HR). But what it will do is provide a framework for our existing rights and obligations." The aim of a co...

  19. Common Β- Thalassaemia Mutations in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Azarfam

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: β –Thalassaemia was first explained by Thomas Cooly as Cooly’s anaemia in 1925. The β- thalassaemias are hereditary autosomal disorders with decreased or absent β-globin chain synthesis. The most common genetic defects in β-thalassaemias are caused by point mutations, micro deletions or insertions within the β-globin gene. Material and Methods: In this research , 142 blood samples (64 from childrens hospital of Tabriz , 15 samples from Shahid Gazi hospital of Tabriz , 18 from Urumia and 45 samples from Aliasghar hospital of Ardebil were taken from thalassaemic patients (who were previously diagnosed .Then 117 non-familial samples were selected . The DNA of the lymphocytes of blood samples was extracted by boiling and Proteinase K- SDS procedure, and mutations were detected by ARMS-PCR methods. Results: From the results obtained, eleven most common mutations,most of which were Mediterranean mutations were detected as follows; IVS-I-110(G-A, IVS-I-1(G-A ،IVS-I-5(G-C ,Frameshift Codon 44 (-C,( codon5(-CT,IVS-1-6(T-C, IVS-I-25(-25bp del ,Frameshift 8.9 (+G ,IVS-II-1(G-A ,Codon 39(C-T, Codon 30(G-C the mutations of the samples were defined. The results showed that Frameshift 8.9 (+G, IVS-I-110 (G-A ,IVS-II-I(G-A, IVS-I-5(G-C, IVS-I-1(G-A , Frameshift Codon 44(-C , codon5(-CT , IVS-1-6(T-C , IVS-I-25(-25bp del with a frequency of 29.9%, 25.47%,17.83%, 7.00%, 6.36% , 6.63% , 3.8% , 2.5% , 0.63% represented the most common mutations in North - west Iran. No mutations in Codon 39(C-T and Codon 30(G-C were detected. Cunclusion: The frequency of the same mutations in patients from North - West of Iran seems to be different as compared to other regions like Turkey, Pakistan, Lebanon and Fars province of Iran. The pattern of mutations in this region is more or less the same as in the Mediterranean region, but different from South west Asia and East Asia.

  20. English for common entrance

    CERN Document Server

    Kossuth, Kornel

    2013-01-01

    Succeed in the exam with this revision guide, designed specifically for the brand new Common Entrance English syllabus. It breaks down the content into manageable and straightforward chunks with easy-to-use, step-by-step instructions that should take away the fear of CE and guide you through all aspects of the exam. - Gives you step-by-step guidance on how to recognise various types of comprehension questions and answer them. - Shows you how to write creatively as well as for a purpose for the section B questions. - Reinforces and consolidates learning with tips, guidance and exercises through

  1. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    Much recent research suggests that firms need to increase their level of delegation to better cope with, for example, the challenges introduced by dynamic rapid environments and the need to engage more with external knowledge sources. However, there is less insight into the organizational...... preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground...

  2. COMMON SENSE BIBLICAL HERMENEUTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Mangini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the noetics of moderate realism provide a firm foundation upon which to build a hermeneutic of common sense, in the first part of his paper the author adopts Thomas Howe’s argument that the noetical aspect of moderate realism is a necessary condition for correct, universally valid biblical interpretation, but he adds, “insofar as it gives us hope in discovering the true meaning of a given passage.” In the second part, the author relies on John Deely’s work to show how semiotics may help interpreters go beyond meaning and seek the significance of the persons, places, events, ideas, etc., of which the meaning of the text has presented as objects to be interpreted. It is in significance that the unity of Scripture is found. The chief aim is what every passage of the Bible signifies. Considered as a genus, Scripture is composed of many parts/species that are ordered to a chief aim. This is the structure of common sense hermeneutics; therefore in the third part the author restates Peter Redpath’s exposition of Aristotle and St. Thomas’s ontology of the one and the many and analogously applies it to the question of how an exegete can discern the proper significance and faithfully interpret the word of God.

  3. Common pediatric epilepsy syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun T; Shahid, Asim M; Jammoul, Adham

    2015-02-01

    Benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE), childhood idiopathic occipital epilepsy (CIOE), childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) are some of the common epilepsy syndromes in the pediatric age group. Among the four, BRE is the most commonly encountered. BRE remits by age 16 years with many children requiring no treatment. Seizures in CAE also remit at the rate of approximately 80%; whereas, JME is considered a lifelong condition even with the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Neonates and infants may also present with seizures that are self-limited with no associated psychomotor disturbances. Benign familial neonatal convulsions caused by a channelopathy, and inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, have a favorable outcome with spontaneous resolution. Benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, also referred to as "fifth-day fits," are an example of another epilepsy syndrome in infants that carries a good prognosis. BRE, CIOE, benign familial neonatal convulsions, benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, and benign myoclonic epilepsy in infancy are characterized as "benign" idiopathic age-related epilepsies as they have favorable implications, no structural brain abnormality, are sensitive to AEDs, have a high remission rate, and have no associated psychomotor disturbances. However, sometimes selected patients may have associated comorbidities such as cognitive and language delay for which the term "benign" may not be appropriate.

  4. True and common balsams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana L. Custódio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.

  5. Common Sense Biblical Hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Mangini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the noetics of moderate realism provide a firm foundation upon which to build a hermeneutic of common sense, in the first part of his paper the author adopts Thomas Howe’s argument that the noetical aspect of moderate realism is a necessary condition for correct, universally valid biblical interpretation, but he adds, “insofar as it gives us hope in discovering the true meaning of a given passage.” In the second part, the author relies on John Deely’s work to show how semiotics may help interpreters go beyond meaning and seek the significance of the persons, places, events, ideas, etc., of which the meaning of the text has presented as objects to be interpreted. It is in significance that the unity of Scripture is found. The chief aim is what every passage of the Bible signifies. Considered as a genus, Scripture is composed of many parts/species that are ordered to a chief aim. This is the structure of common sense hermeneutics; therefore in the third part the author restates Peter Redpath’s exposition of Aristotle and St. Thomas’s ontology of the one and the many and analogously applies it to the question of how an exegete can discern the proper significance and faithfully interpret the word of God.

  6. Common Injuries of Collegiate Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wisdom Magtajas Valleser

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the common injuries of Filipino collegiate tennis players; 110 varsity tennis players with a mean of 20 years old (SD ± 1.7 with an average playing experience of 12 years participated in the study. There was a 100% occurrence of at least one injury with an average rate of 5.98 injuries per person. The authors observed that the most commonly injured anatomical region is the lower extremity; ankles were recorded as the most commonly injured part. Other commonly injured areas included the shoulders and lower back. Furthermore, the most common injury type is tendinitis, sprains, and strains. The recorded injuries were mostly associated with overuse injuries, and the findings were similar to those of most other studies on tennis injuries. A larger sample size may provide more conclusive findings on tennis injuries, particularly in different levels of competition, such as recreational or professional athletes.

  7. [Halitosis. A common problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, M L; Slot, D E; Danser, M M

    2011-12-01

    Halitosis is a frequently occurring problem, the cause of which is generally to be found in the mouth. The challenge for oral health care providers is to diagnose it correctly and treat it effectively. Differential diagnosis is of great importance in making a distinction between halitosis which originates in the mouth and which does not originate in the mouth. Oral halitosis can be treated effectively by good oral health care. Plaque accumulation on the tongue is the most common cause of oral halitosis. Tongue cleansing, possibly in combination with a specific mouth wash, is consequently recommended as an element of oral hygiene care. Other oral health problems, such as periodontal disease, caries and ill-fitting removable dentures should be treated adequately to eliminate these problems as potential causes of halitosis.

  8. Building the common

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    In opposition to positivism the so called postpositivism reject the emphasis on the empirical truth and proposes an interpretative approach to the social world (Fischer, 1993). Policy analysis begins to address the sense-making constructions and the competing discourses on social meanings whilst...... the implications of the categorization of the immigration that the European Union wants to manage based on the ten common principles. I will attend to the creation of the European immigrant (third-country nationals) and its different categories (economic immigration, labour immigrants, potential immigrants, other...... categories of immigrants) under the more general legal immigrant. The economic discourse defined the immigrant in terms of adequacy to the European labour market through metaphors and new categories (immigration profiles, circular migration, brain waste – opposite brain drain). The new EU narrative...

  9. TMT common software update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Kim; Brighton, Allan; Buur, Hanne

    2016-08-01

    TMT Common Software (CSW). CSW consists of software services and library code that is used by developers to create the subsystems and components that participate in the software system. CSW also defines the types of components that can be constructed and their functional roles in the software system. TMT CSW has recently passed its preliminary design review. The unique features of CSW include its use of multiple, open-source products as the basis for services, and an approach that works to reduce the amount of CSW-provided infrastructure code. Considerable prototyping was completed during this phase to mitigate risk with results that demonstrate the validity of this design approach and the selected service implementation products. This paper describes the latest design of TMT CSW, key features, and results from the prototyping effort.

  10. CPL: Common Pipeline Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESO CPL Development Team

    2014-02-01

    The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules using programs such as EsoRex (ascl:1504.003).

  11. [Common anemias in neonatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, J; Wacker, P

    1999-01-28

    We describe the four most common groups of neonatal anemia and their treatments, with particular emphasis on erythropoietin therapy. The hemolytic anemias include the ABO incompatibility (much more frequent, nowadays, than the Rh incompatibility, which has nearly disappeared following the use of anti-D immunoglobulin in postpartum Rh-negative mothers), hereditary spherocytosis and G-6-PD deficiency. Among hypoplastic anemias, that caused by Parvovirus B19 predominates, by far, over Diamond-Blackfan anemia, alpha-thalassemia and the rare sideroblastic anemias. "Hemorrhagic" anemias occur during twin-to-twin transfusions, or during feto-maternal transfusions. Finally, the multifactorial anemia of prematurity develops principally as a result of the rapid expansion of the blood volume in this group of patients. Erythropoietin therapy, often at doses much higher than those used in the adult, should be seriously considered in most cases of non-hypoplastic neonatal anemias, to minimise maximally the use of transfusions.

  12. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  13. common problems affecting supranational attempts in africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    some of the common challenges, as evident in the foregoing analysis, facing ... direct binding effect of laws emanating from regional organisations on ... remains the apical decision-making body on matters relating to foreign policy, justice ... exercises supranational powers especially in relation to voting rules in the General.

  14. Common Control System Vulnerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an

  15. (UnCommonly Connected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M. Hodge

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As states continue to implement the Common Core State Standards (CCSS, state educational agencies (SEAs are providing professional development and curricular resources to help districts and teachers understand the standards. However, little is known about the resources SEAs endorse, the states and/or organizations sponsoring these resources, and how states and organizations are connected. This study investigates the secondary English/language arts resources provided by 51 SEAs (2,023 resources sponsored by 51 SEAs and 262 intermediary organizations. Social network analysis of states and sponsoring organizations revealed a core-periphery network in which certain states and organizations were frequently named as the sponsors of resources, while other organizations were named as resource sponsors by only one state. SEAs are providing a variety of types of resources, including professional development, curriculum guidelines, articles, and instructional aids. This study offers insight into the most influential actors providing CCSS resources at the state level, as well as how SEAs are supporting instructional capacity through the resources they provide for teachers.

  16. ``Mastering`` the global commons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehr, N. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Peter Wall Inst. for Advanced Studies and Green Coll.

    1999-11-01

    The question of ``mastering`` the global commons will increasingly become a central socio-political issue, if it has not already attained this status. For example, the dilemmas brought about by anthropogenic climate change are in many ways unprecedented. They call for massive efforts to plan global climate change. In this context, knowledge about the physical nature of global climate changes is adequate in order to move from a comprehension to a solution of the problem. The record shows that past generations, too, have been fascinated with and concerned about the impact of climate on society, as well as, anthropogenic climate change. But these efforts have, for the most part, been informed by the doctrine of climate determinism. In much the same vein, the concept of climate policies as an ``optimal control problem`` is inadequate. Impact research has to be cognizant of the social construct of climate, as well as, fundamental secular societal changes that profoundly alter modern societies and the value orientations of its citizens. Climate policies as a form of large-scale and deliberate climate change, therefore, have to draw extensively on social science expertise. (orig.) 53 refs.

  17. Reformulating the commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrom Elinor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The western hemisphere is richly endowed with a diversity of natural resource systems that are governed by complex local and national institutional arrangements that have not, until recently, been well understood. While many local communities that possess a high degree of autonomy to govern local resources have been highly successful over long periods of time, others fail to take action to prevent overuse and degradation of forests, inshore fisheries, and other natural resources. The conventional theory used to predict and explain how local users will relate to resources that they share makes a uniform prediction that users themselves will be unable to extricate themselves from the tragedy of the commons. Using this theoretical view of the world, there is no variance in the performance of self-organized groups. In theory, there are no self-organized groups. Empirical evidence tells us, however, that considerable variance in performance exists and many more local users self-organize and are more successful than it is consistent with the conventional theory . Parts of a new theory are presented here.

  18. Urban green commons: Insights on urban common property systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colding, J.; Barthel, S.; Bendt, P.; Snep, R.P.H.; Knaap, van der W.G.M.; Ernstson, H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to shed new light on urban common property systems. We deal with urban commons in relation to urban green-space management, referring to them as urban green commons. Applying a property-rights analytic perspective, we synthesize information on urban green commons from three

  19. Urban green commons: Insights on urban common property systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colding, J.; Barthel, S.; Bendt, P.; Snep, R.P.H.; Knaap, van der W.G.M.; Ernstson, H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to shed new light on urban common property systems. We deal with urban commons in relation to urban green-space management, referring to them as urban green commons. Applying a property-rights analytic perspective, we synthesize information on urban green commons from three

  20. Entrepreneurship and regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    This literature review examines how entrepreneurship and regional development has been previously addressed theoretically and empirically. Regional Science and Entrepreneurship are two fields with their own distinct literature's. The question is therefore, how do these two fields talk about...... the respective other? What are the commonalities and differences? The purpose of this article is to create an analytical synthesis by combining the insights of the two literature's in order to gain a fuller understanding of the relation between entrepreneurship and regional development....

  1. Common hyperspectral image database design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lixun; Liao, Ningfang; Chai, Ali

    2009-11-01

    This paper is to introduce Common hyperspectral image database with a demand-oriented Database design method (CHIDB), which comprehensively set ground-based spectra, standardized hyperspectral cube, spectral analysis together to meet some applications. The paper presents an integrated approach to retrieving spectral and spatial patterns from remotely sensed imagery using state-of-the-art data mining and advanced database technologies, some data mining ideas and functions were associated into CHIDB to make it more suitable to serve in agriculture, geological and environmental areas. A broad range of data from multiple regions of the electromagnetic spectrum is supported, including ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, thermal infrared, and fluorescence. CHIDB is based on dotnet framework and designed by MVC architecture including five main functional modules: Data importer/exporter, Image/spectrum Viewer, Data Processor, Parameter Extractor, and On-line Analyzer. The original data were all stored in SQL server2008 for efficient search, query and update, and some advance Spectral image data Processing technology are used such as Parallel processing in C#; Finally an application case is presented in agricultural disease detecting area.

  2. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table ... is unknown, but it is the second most common cause of death from cancer in men of ...

  3. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table ... you should know about six of the most common cancers and some of the NCI funded research ...

  4. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table ... Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The ...

  5. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table ... the United States, it is the third most common cancer in men and women. Caught early, it ...

  6. Common Sleep Problems (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Common Sleep Problems KidsHealth > For Teens > Common Sleep Problems Print A A A What's in ... insomnia — trouble falling or staying asleep. The most common cause of insomnia is stress . But all sorts ...

  7. Ruling the Commons. Introducing a new methodology for the analysis of historical commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine de Moor

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant progress in recent years, the evolution of commons over the long run remains an under-explored area within commons studies. During the last years an international team of historians have worked under the umbrella of the Common Rules Project in order to design and test a new methodology aimed at advancing our knowledge on the dynamics of institutions for collective action – in particular commons. This project aims to contribute to the current debate on commons on three different fronts. Theoretically, it explicitly draws our attention to issues of change and adaptation in the commons – contrasting with more static analyses. Empirically, it highlights the value of historical records as a rich source of information for longitudinal analysis of the functioning of commons. Methodologically, it develops a systematic way of analyzing and comparing commons’ regulations across regions and time, setting a number of variables that have been defined on the basis of the “most common denominators” in commons regulation across countries and time periods. In this paper we introduce the project, describe our sources and methodology, and present the preliminary results of our analysis.

  8. Common mistakes in managing pulmonary coccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galgiani JN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever is a common disease in Arizona and certain other parts of the Southwestern United States. Despite this, there is a surprising lack of awareness, neglect in diagnosis, and inadequacy of management by many clinicians in these endemic regions. This review discusses why early diagnosis of coccidioidal infection is valuable to patient care and offers a variety of management options that are particularly useful and others which often are of little value.

  9. The Evolution, Trend and Inspiration of the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union: A Game Analysis between Regional Economic Integration and Trade Liberalization%欧盟共同农业政策的演进、走向与启示——基于区域经济一体化和贸易自由化的博弈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐

    2012-01-01

    The reform of the Common Agricultural Policy in EU is the game process between regional economic integration and global trade liberalization. Since 1962, the Common Agricultural Policy has gone through several reforms. Its policy objective is shifting from an emphasis on agricultural development to an emphasis on both agriculture and country development, so that environment and sustainable development are getting more and more concerns; its policy measures are shifting from a single price support to a variety of measures such as price support, income support, and country development support, so that market liberalization is improving; its policy framework is shifting from close to open, so that global integration is increasing. But the Common Agricultural Policy is still facing a big internal and external pressure. First, internal economic costs are still high; second, the EU enlargement has led to increased internal coordination costs; third, in recent years, the continuing rise in international food prices is increasing the pressure on the policy spillover effect. The EU Common Agricultural Policy is closely related to the multilateral trade negotiations, and the Doha negotiations have reached deadlock. The EU common agricultural policy is also in a dilemma. But the EU's basic attitude of expecting more space for its agricultural development with fewer costs has never changed. All these may have a positive inspiration to China's food security.%欧盟共同农业政策的改革就是区域经济一体化和全球贸易自由化的博弈过程。实施50年以来,政策目标从强调农业发展转向强调农业、农村并重,对农村环境、可持续发展关注越来越多;政策手段由单一价格支持转为价格支持、收入补贴、农村发展支持多种综合措施.市场自由化程度有所提高;政策框架由封闭逐步转向开放,全球化一体化程度不断提高。但是共同农业政策的困境并未解除,首先

  10. Pastoral commons use in Romania and the role of the Common Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. E. Sutcliffe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In comparison to many Western European countries, in Romania the use of common pastures remains widespread and is strongly linked to the predominance of subsistence and semi-subsistence farming in much of the country. The majority of permanent pasture in the country is under state or community ownership, and these areas are of high natural and cultural, as well as economic importance for Romania. Whilst traditional governance systems of the commons are still partly intact, or at least within living memory here, new institutions are forming in response to substantial changes in agriculture and rural life that have been occurring, particularly since Romania’s accession to the EU in 2007. We describe the changing role of common pastures for local communities in the case study region of Târnava Mare in Southern Transylvania, Romania. The number of active users here is decreasing, and those who have more animals are increasingly grazing their animals on long-term leased or private land, thus effectively no longer participating in the commons. This is encouraged by the current system of relatively low prices for agricultural products and EU agricultural support payments, which for smallholders and larger farmers alike are now a major factor in the financial viability of farming in Romania. The future of the commons in the study region will hinge on the success of the communities to self-organise and take advantage of the opportunities presented by the changing rural context of pastoral commons use.

  11. The Commons Problem: Alternative Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edney, Julian J.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews four contrasting theories bearing on the concept of the commons dilemma, which deals with conflicts of individual v group interests over time. Focuses on the threats that commons problems pose to democratic principles in community structure. Discusses alternative directions for the resolution of resource crises. (Author/GC)

  12. Common injections in musculoskeletal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monseau, Aaron J; Nizran, Parminder Singh

    2013-12-01

    Musculoskeletal injections are a common procedure in primary care and sports medicine but can be intimidating for some clinicians. This article addresses current evidence for corticosteroid injections, and common injection indications and techniques, namely knee, subacromial bursa, glenohumeral joint, lateral epicondyle, de Quervain tenosynovitis, and greater trochanteric bursa injections. Preparation for injections and some evidence for ultrasound guidance are also reviewed.

  13. The Tragedy of the Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The tragedy of the commons is one of the principal tenets of ecology. Recent developments in experiential computer-based simulation of the tragedy of the commons are described. A virtual learning environment is developed using the popular video game "Minecraft". The virtual learning environment is used to experience first-hand depletion…

  14. The common ancestry of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is common belief that all cellular life forms on earth have a common origin. This view is supported by the universality of the genetic code and the universal conservation of multiple genes, particularly those that encode key components of the translation system. A remarkable recent study claims to provide a formal, homology independent test of the Universal Common Ancestry hypothesis by comparing the ability of a common-ancestry model and a multiple-ancestry model to predict sequences of universally conserved proteins. Results We devised a computational experiment on a concatenated alignment of universally conserved proteins which shows that the purported demonstration of the universal common ancestry is a trivial consequence of significant sequence similarity between the analyzed proteins. The nature and origin of this similarity are irrelevant for the prediction of "common ancestry" of by the model-comparison approach. Thus, homology (common origin of the compared proteins remains an inference from sequence similarity rather than an independent property demonstrated by the likelihood analysis. Conclusion A formal demonstration of the Universal Common Ancestry hypothesis has not been achieved and is unlikely to be feasible in principle. Nevertheless, the evidence in support of this hypothesis provided by comparative genomics is overwhelming. Reviewers this article was reviewed by William Martin, Ivan Iossifov (nominated by Andrey Rzhetsky and Arcady Mushegian. For the complete reviews, see the Reviewers' Report section.

  15. Malheur - Common Carp Movement Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into the Harney Basin in the 1920’s and were recognized as a problem in Malheur Lake in 1952. The common carp...

  16. Common Disorders of the Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... progressive disorder associated with the destruction of the pancreas. The disease is more common in men and usually develops ... can develop malnutrition and weight loss. If the pancreas becomes destroyed in the latter stages of the disease, patients may develop diabetes mellitus. The most common ...

  17. The Tragedy of the Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The tragedy of the commons is one of the principal tenets of ecology. Recent developments in experiential computer-based simulation of the tragedy of the commons are described. A virtual learning environment is developed using the popular video game "Minecraft". The virtual learning environment is used to experience first-hand depletion…

  18. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, M E; Leveillee, R J; McCann, J C; Maini, B S

    1991-10-01

    Operative common bile duct exploration, performed in conjunction with cholecystectomy, has been considered the treatment of choice for choledocholithiasis in the presence of an intact gallbladder. With the advent of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the management of common bile duct stones has been affected. More emphasis is being placed on endoscopic sphincterotomy and options other than operative common duct exploration. Because of this increasing demand, we have developed a new technique for laparoscopic common bile duct exploration performed in the same operative setting as laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A series of five patients who successfully underwent common bile duct exploration, flexible choledochoscopy with stone extraction, and T-tube drainage, all using laparoscopic technique, is reported. Mean postoperative length of hospital stay was 4.6 days. Outpatient T-tube cholangiography was performed in all cases and revealed normal ductal anatomy with no retained stones. Follow-up ranged from 6 weeks to 4 months, and all patients were asymptomatic and had normal liver function tests.

  19. Nonparametric Regression with Common Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Souza-Rodrigues

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a nonparametric regression model for cross-sectional data in the presence of common shocks. Common shocks are allowed to be very general in nature; they do not need to be finite dimensional with a known (small number of factors. I investigate the properties of the Nadaraya-Watson kernel estimator and determine how general the common shocks can be while still obtaining meaningful kernel estimates. Restrictions on the common shocks are necessary because kernel estimators typically manipulate conditional densities, and conditional densities do not necessarily exist in the present case. By appealing to disintegration theory, I provide sufficient conditions for the existence of such conditional densities and show that the estimator converges in probability to the Kolmogorov conditional expectation given the sigma-field generated by the common shocks. I also establish the rate of convergence and the asymptotic distribution of the kernel estimator.

  20. Common Diseases and Some Demographic Characteristics among Saudi Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haramlah, Ahmed Abdulrahman; Al-Bakr, Fawziah; Merza, Haniah

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to detect the common diseases among Saudi women and their relationship with the level of physical activity and some variables. This study was applied to 1233 Saudi woman in different regions of the Kingdom, and adopted to explore the common diseases: obesity, hypertension, diabetes, cholesterol and asthma. The study results showed…

  1. Promoting regional mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne

    Pricing of transport has been part of EU's common transport policy since this gained momentum in the early 1990s. Since then, it has been closely connected to the trans-European transport network (TEN-T) and to rising demands of efficient mobility systems at a local, regional and Community scale....

  2. Learning Commons in Academic Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa González Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Like all human creations, institutions transform and evolve over time. Libraries also have changed to respond the needs of its users. Academic libraries physical spaces are one of the turned aspects, an example are the Learning Commons (spaces for collaborative work in academic libraries. The main purpose of this paper is to expose the characteristics of the Learning Commons model with a brief account of the history of planning and construction of academic libraries. This paper also aims to present the manner in which a Learning Commons has been implemented at the library of Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM, Campus Monterrey in Mexico.

  3. A Common Solution of Two Cosmic Puzzles

    CERN Document Server

    Dado, Shlomo

    2014-01-01

    The origin of the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background, which was measured with the large area telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi satellite at energy below 820 GeV, and of the diffuse cosmic background of neutrinos, which was observed at much higher energies with the IceCube detector deep under the south pole ice, are among the current unsolved major cosmic puzzles. Here we show that their properties indicate a common origin: the decay of mesons produced in collisions of cosmic rays accelerated in relativistic jets with matter in/near source. Moreover, their properties are those expected if their common source is the highly relativistic jets that produce the long duration gamma ray bursts in core collapse supernovae of type Ic, which take place mostly in the densest regions of giant molecular clouds in star forming galaxies.

  4. NIH Common Data Elements Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Common Data Elements (CDE) Repository has been designed to provide access to structured human and machine-readable definitions of data elements that have...

  5. Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)supports the PMA-209 Air Combat Electronics Program Office. CSIL also supports development, test, integration and life cycle...

  6. Common Difficulties with Probabilistic Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Jack A.; Kelly, Ivan W.

    1983-01-01

    Several common errors reflecting difficulties in probabilistic reasoning are identified, relating to ambiguity, previous outcomes, sampling, unusual events, and estimating. Knowledge of these mistakes and interpretations may help mathematics teachers understand the thought processes of their students. (MNS)

  7. Approximate common divisors via lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Cohn, Henry

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the multivariate generalization of Howgrave-Graham's algorithm for the approximate common divisor problem. In the m-variable case with modulus N and approximate common divisor of size N^beta, this improves the size of the error tolerated from N^(beta^2) to N^(beta^((m+1)/m)), under a commonly used heuristic assumption. This gives a more detailed analysis of the hardness assumption underlying the recent fully homomorphic cryptosystem of van Dijk, Gentry, Halevi, and Vaikuntanathan. While these results do not challenge the suggested parameters, a 2^sqrt(n) approximation algorithm for lattice basis reduction in n dimensions could be used to break these parameters. We have implemented our algorithm, and it performs better in practice than the theoretical analysis suggests. Our results fit into a broader context of analogies between cryptanalysis and coding theory. The multivariate approximate common divisor problem is the number-theoretic analogue of noisy multivariate polynomial interpolation, and we ...

  8. THE PROBLEM OF COMMON GOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Landowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to discuss the relation between the understanding of human being and the concept of common good. On the one hand, materialist and spiritualist concepts of man lead to the univocal understanding of bonum commune, on the other hand, dualist anthropology entails a breakdown of the unity of common good. The author reveals weak points of these approaches and undertakes an attempt of examining realist vision of man and its impact on the notion of bonum commune. He starts with analyzing the complex structure of human being, which includes the potential and actual nature of human person. Against the background of the personalist anthropology, the author concludes that the common good has not only a material or instrumental, but above all a personal dimension, which makes this good both common and non-antagonistic. [The article written in Polish

  9. Quantum Mechanics and Common Sense

    CERN Document Server

    Gantsevich, S V

    2016-01-01

    A physical picture for Quantum Mechanics which permits to conciliate it with the usual common sense is proposed. The picture agrees with the canonical Copenhagen interpretation making more clear its statements.

  10. Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)supports the PMA-209 Air Combat Electronics Program Office. CSIL also supports development, test, integration and life cycle...

  11. Adolescents' theories of the commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Constance; Gallay, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from research on civic engagement and environmental commitment, we make a case for the processes inherent in how adolescents' ideas about the commons (those things that bind a polity together) develop. Engagement in the public realm with a plethora of perspectives and a goal of finding common ground is fundamental. Adolescents participate in the public realm through mini-polities (e.g., schools, community organizations). Practices in those settings can reinforce or challenge dominant political narratives. Special attention is given to the natural environment as a commons that transcends generations and to the opportunities in schools and in community partnerships that enable adolescents to realize their interdependence with nature and to author decisions about the commons.

  12. Freeing data through The Polar Information Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, T.; Chen, R. S.; Parsons, M. A.; Carlson, D. J.; Cass, K.; Finney, K.; Wilbanks, J.; Jochum, K.

    2010-12-01

    The polar regions are changing rapidly with dramatic global effect. Wise management of resources, improved decision support, and effective international cooperation on resource and geopolitical issues require deeper understanding and better prediction of these changes. Unfortunately, polar data and information remain scattered, scarce, and sporadic. Inspired by the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 that established the Antarctic as a global commons to be used only for peaceful purposes and scientific research, we assert that data and information about the polar regions are themselves “public goods” that should be shared ethically and with minimal constraint. ICSU’s Committee on Data (CODATA) therefore started the Polar Information Commons (PIC) as an open, virtual repository for vital scientific data and information. The PIC provides a shared, community-based cyber-infrastructure fostering innovation, improving scientific efficiency, and encouraging participation in polar research, education, planning, and management. The PIC builds on the legacy of the International Polar Year (IPY), providing a long-term framework for access to and preservation of both existing and future data and information about the polar regions. Rapid change demands rapid data access. The PIC system enables scientists to quickly expose their data to the world and share them through open protocols on the Internet. A PIC digital label will alert users and data centers to new polar data and ensure that usage rights are clear. The PIC utilizes the Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data, which promotes open data access through the public domain coupled with community norms of practice to ensure use of data in a fair and equitable manner. A set of PIC norms has been developed in consultation with key polar data organizations and other stakeholders. We welcome inputs from the broad science community as we further develop and refine the PIC approach and move ahead with

  13. The Common Invalid Condition of Regional Ethnic Teacher Training and Its Elimination%走出“自我中心”的困境--论民族区域教师培训的普遍无效现象及其消除

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷云; 杨欢

    2016-01-01

    In the regional ethnic teacher training,the trainers usually get into a dilemma of“egocentricity”as they ignore the educational knowledge and practical condition of trainee teach-ers and assertively design training obj ectives and contents so that the trainees stick to their “self”without understanding the others.As a result,this kind of training is invalid.The only way for trainers is to step out of the“egocentricity”,based on“respect”,and with the help of“listening”and “dialogue”,which aims to enhance understanding,so as to eliminate the common ineffective-ness in teachers training.%民族区域教师培训者陷入了“自我中心”的困境。他们无视参训者的教育知识与实践状况,独断地设计培训目的与内容,致使民族区域教师固守“自我”的世界,“理解”无从可能而培训普遍无效。培训者唯走出“自我中心”,以“尊重”为前提,借助“倾听”、“对话”等旨在增进理解的培训方式,才能消除普遍无效的培训现象。

  14. The Messiness of Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    that a distinction between the non-civil and the civil is more fruitful, if we want to understand the past, present and future messiness in place in defining the common good. Based on an ethnographic case analysis of a Danish corporate foundation between 1920 and 2014 the paper shows how philanthropic gift...... has been messed up with other logics and that it is this mess that creates contemporary definitions of the common good....

  15. Whose commons are mobilities spaces?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene

    2015-01-01

    for cyclists and cycling to be given greater consideration in broader societal understandings of the common good. I argue that this is in fact not the case. Rather the specific project identities that are nurtured by Copenhagen’s cycling community inhibit it from advocating publicly or aggressively...... for a vision of the common good that gives cyclists greater and more protected access to the city’s mobility spaces...

  16. A Case for the Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Kourantidou, Melina; Fernandez, Linda

    -economic concerns regarding profitability in fisheries but also by several intriguing property rights and game theoretic questions. As the global fishing commons has shrunk over the past half century, we have seen how the details matter in determining the net benefits of what simply applied economic theory would...... define as a clear boon. We delineate and examine this complex story here in order to bring awareness to dimensions of commons management that the literature has yet to address....

  17. Forest commons and local enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

    2008-09-09

    This article examines the relationship between local enforcement and forests used as commons. It uses a unique multicountry dataset, created over the past 15 years by the International Forestry Resources and Institutions Research Program. Drawing on original enforcement and forest commons data from 9 countries, we find that higher levels of local enforcement have a strong and positive but complex relationship to the probability of forest regeneration. This relationship holds even when the influence of a number of other factors such as user group size, subsistence, and commercial importance of forests, size of forest, and collective action for forest improvement activities is taken into account. Although several of the above factors have a statistically significant relationship to changes in the condition of forest commons, differences in levels of local enforcement strongly moderate their link with forest commons outcomes. The research, using data from diverse political, social, and ecological contexts, shows both the importance of enforcement to forest commons and some of the limits of forest governance through commons arrangements.

  18. OTA a wide common mode low power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Iván Gómez-Ortiz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of an operational transconductance amplifier OTA operating in sub-threshold region for low power consumption. Simulations were performed in SYNOPSYS tools program for a 180nm technology. The differential amplifier is supplied with a VDD of 600mV, and has a load capacitance of 15pF. Amplifier gain is 60.08dB with unity-gain frequency of 21.7kHz, and a phase margin greater than 50degrees. Wide common mode operation is achieved by using complementary input differential pairs (NMOS and PMOS showing a range of operation of 500mV.

  19. Common surgical complications in degenerative spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Michael; Aggeliki, Lianou; Papadopoulos, Elias C; Girardi, Federico P

    2013-04-18

    The rapid growth of spine degenerative surgery has led to unrelenting efforts to define and prevent possible complications, the incidence of which is probably higher than that reported and varies according to the region of the spine involved (cervical and thoracolumbar) and the severity of the surgery. Several issues are becoming progressively clearer, such as complication rates in primary versus revision spinal surgery, complications in the elderly, the contribution of minimally invasive surgery to the reduction of complication rate. In this paper the most common surgical complications in degenerative spinal surgery are outlined and discussed.

  20. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    OpenAIRE

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro,; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume de...

  1. The Landform Regions of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — A landscape is a collection of land shapes or land forms. Landform regions are a grouping of individual landscape features that have a common geomophology. In Iowa,...

  2. Induced artificial androgenesis in common tench, Tinca tinca (L., using common carp and common bream eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kucharczyk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents artificial induction using tench eggs, Tinca tinca (L., of androgenetic origin. The oocytes taken from common bream, Abramis brama (L. and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. were genetically inactivated using UV irradiation and then inseminated using tench spermatozoa. Androgenetic origin (haploid or diploid embryos was checked using a recessive colour (blond and morphological markers. The percentage of hatched embryos in all experimental groups was much lower than in the control groups. All haploid embryos showed morphological abnormalities, which were recorded as haploid syndrome (stunted body, poorly formed retina, etc.. The optimal dose of UV irradiation of common bream and common carp eggs was 3456 J m–2. At this dose, almost 100% of haploid embryos were produced at a hatching rate of over 6%. Lower UV-ray doses affected abnormal embryo development. The highest yield of tench androgenesis (about 2% was noted when eggs were exposed to thermal shock 30 min after egg activation.

  3. Garlic for the common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2014-11-11

    Background Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four.Objectives To determine whether garlic (Allium sativum) is effective for the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7),OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965),MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE(1974 to August 2014) and AMED (1985 to August 2014).Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data.Main results In this updated review, we identified eight trials as potentially relevant from our searches. Again, only one trial met the inclusion criteria.This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily)for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. Authors' conclusions There is insufficient clinical trial evidence

  4. Creative Commons and Why It Should Be More Commonly Understood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Doug

    2009-01-01

    Authors, videographers, musicians, photographers, and almost anyone who creates materials and makes them publicly available has an alternative to standard copyright licensing: Creative Commons (CC). It is a tool that helps the creator display a licensing mark. The creator can assign a variety of rights for others to use his work--rights that are…

  5. Surveying the Commons: Current Implementation of Information Commons Web sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeder, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the content of 72 academic library Information Commons (IC) Web sites using content analysis, quantitative assessment and qualitative surveys of site administrators to analyze current implementation by the academic library community. Results show that IC Web sites vary widely in content, design and functionality, with few…

  6. Vibrio chromosomes share common history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gevers Dirk

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes.

  7. Longest Common Extensions via Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Kristensen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    . The LCE problem can be solved in linear space with constant query time and a preprocessing of sorting complexity. There are two known approaches achieving these bounds, which use nearest common ancestors and range minimum queries, respectively. However, in practice a much simpler approach with linear......(n,σ)) preprocessing time, where sort(n,σ) is the time it takes to sort n numbers from σ. Though this solution is asymptotically strictly worse than the asymptotically best previously known algorithms, it outperforms them in practice in average case and is almost as fast as the simple linear time algorithm. On worst......The longest common extension (LCE) problem is to preprocess a string in order to allow for a large number of LCE queries, such that the queries are efficient. The LCE value, LCE s (i,j), is the length of the longest common prefix of the pair of suffixes starting at index i and j in the string s...

  8. Science for common entrance physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, WR

    2015-01-01

    Cover everything required for the 13+ Common Entrance Physics exam with clearly presented content, lively illustrations and challenging end-of-chapter questions. This challenging and stimulating Science course has been reviewed by the ISEB subject editor and covers the content of both Levels 1 and 2 of the 13+ Physics exam. Designed for pupils in Years 7 and 8, it is an indispensable resource that lays the foundations for Common Entrance success. - Explores every Level 1 and 2 topic with clear explanations and examples - Includes topic-based exercises and extension questions - Builds on p

  9. Common queries in thalassemia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Inusha; Marwaha, Ram Kumar

    2006-06-01

    Beta thalassemia is a common genetic disorder in Indians. Around 10,000 thala-ssemia major cases are born every year. The treatment of thalassemia major patients imposes a financial burden on the family. Much progress has been made in last 15 years in understanding of the pathogenesis of thalassemia and development of effective management(1). These include development of a promising new oral iron chelator, intensive preparative regimens for stem cell transplantation and better vectors for gene therapy. In the present article, we highlight the common questions asked by the family and the general practitioners on thalassemia care.

  10. Vestnorden. A functional region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grétar Þór Eyþórsson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issue of what kind of a region Vestnorden is. The need for such a discussion arises from the challenges posed by globalisation for the idea and construction of the West Nordic space, and the need to observe how this regional unit counters these processes. The article is based on an analytical framework which presupposes that a functional region has to consist of four elements. First, whether the space has its own institutions for decision making; second, how far there is economic complementarities among the involved nations and territories; third, to what degree they have common economic interests; and finally, to what extent social, cultural and historical ties exist between the territories involved. The article argues that there is an urgent need to discuss and reorient the institutional functionality of Vestnorden as a regional unit.

  11. Amputation neuroma mimics common hepatic duct carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, N; Todoroki, T; Kawamoto, T; Inagawa, S; Yoshida, S; Fukao, K

    2000-01-01

    Most amputation neuromas of the biliary tract occur in the cystic duct stump after cholecystectomy and are asymptomatic. However, when they arise in the main hepatic duct and are associated with obstructive jaundice, it is difficult to distinguish them from carcinoma. We describe a case in which preoperative differential diagnosis was difficult. A 60-year-old man was admitted to the Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, with a chief complaint of jaundice. Cholangiography showed an irregularly elevated nodular lesion on the lateral wall of the common hepatic duct and multiple floating stones in the choledochus. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed one-sided regional thickening of the common hepatic duct associated with dilatation of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level was markedly elevated to 11,200 IU/mL in the bile juice, but was only 38 IU/mL in the serum, below the limit of abnormality. Cholangioscopy showed papillary tumor with coarse granular surface mimicking papillary carcinoma, but biopsy revealed no malignancy. The patient underwent hepaticocholedochus resection. Although the macroscopic finding from the surgical specimens was papillary carcinoma of the common hepatic duct penetrating to the hepatoduodenal ligament, histopathological examination revealed an amputation neuroma consisting of hypertrophic nerve tissues and giant cells containing foreign bodies, probably as a consequence of a previous cholecystectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient has been living well for the 5 years since the resection.

  12. Why Fever Phobia Is Still Common?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Suzan; Usak, Esma; Koksal, Tulin; Canbal, Metin

    2016-01-01

    Background Fever is a reliable sign of illness, but it also evokes fear and anxiety. It is not the fever itself but the fear of possible complications and accompanying symptoms that is important for pediatricians and parents. Objectives We aimed to investigate maternal understanding of fever, its potential consequences, and impacts on the treatment of children. Patients and Methods A questionnaire was use to explore the attitudes, knowledge, and practices of mothers of 861 children brought to four medical centers in different regions of Turkey in 2012, with fever being the chief complaint. All the children were aged 3 months - 15 years. Results Among the 861 mothers, 92.2% favored antipyretics for fever, either alone or in addition to external cooling measures. Most favored paracetamol or ibuprofen. In this study, the appropriate use of antipyretics was 75.2%, which was higher than that reported in the literature. In common with previous reports, seizures and brain damage were perceived as the most frightening and harmful effects of fever. All the mothers expressed concerns about fever, but they were most common among the highly educated or those with one child. Conclusions Fever phobia remains common, not only among low socioeconomic status mothers but also among those of high socioeconomic status. Healthcare providers should take fever phobia into account and provide correct information to caregivers about fever at all visits. PMID:27781110

  13. Genes and (common pathways underlying drug addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Yun Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is a serious worldwide problem with strong genetic and environmental influences. Different technologies have revealed a variety of genes and pathways underlying addiction; however, each individual technology can be biased and incomplete. We integrated 2,343 items of evidence from peer-reviewed publications between 1976 and 2006 linking genes and chromosome regions to addiction by single-gene strategies, microrray, proteomics, or genetic studies. We identified 1,500 human addiction-related genes and developed KARG (http://karg.cbi.pku.edu.cn, the first molecular database for addiction-related genes with extensive annotations and a friendly Web interface. We then performed a meta-analysis of 396 genes that were supported by two or more independent items of evidence to identify 18 molecular pathways that were statistically significantly enriched, covering both upstream signaling events and downstream effects. Five molecular pathways significantly enriched for all four different types of addictive drugs were identified as common pathways which may underlie shared rewarding and addictive actions, including two new ones, GnRH signaling pathway and gap junction. We connected the common pathways into a hypothetical common molecular network for addiction. We observed that fast and slow positive feedback loops were interlinked through CAMKII, which may provide clues to explain some of the irreversible features of addiction.

  14. inheritance of resistance to common bacterial blight in common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    evolution for Xap across geographic regions and bean gene pools .... phenotypic classes were tested for goodness of fit to postulated ratios based ... conducive for disease development, but again. Chimbamba was not ..... variation of Xap also poses challenges in breeding for ... ofdifferent evolutionary origins for resistance.

  15. Single Common Powertrain Lubricant Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    laboratory building. Back-pressure was controlled via a butterfly valve located in the exhaust stack between the engine and the buildings common...Mass Changes .................................................................... 23 Table 11 – Repeatability Runs, Piston & Valve Ratings...operation at rated speed and load during the test cycle. Air was filtered through an OEM-style air filter housing with an adjusting valve to vary intake

  16. Five Common Cancers in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolandoozan, Shadi; Sadjadi, Alireza; Radmard, Amir Reza; Khademi, Hooman

    2010-01-01

    Iran as a developing nation is in epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. Although, cancer is the third cause of death in Iran, ifs mortality are on the rise during recent decades. This mini-review was carried out to provide a general viewpoint on common cancers in

  17. A greatest common divisor algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belenkiy, A; Vidunas, R

    1998-01-01

    Algorithms of computation of the Greatest Common Divisor (GCD) of two integers play a principal role in all computational systems dealing with rational arithmetic. The simplest one (Euclidean) is not the best for large numbers (see D. E. Knuth's book "The Art of Computer Programming" for details). O

  18. Common Core: Solve Math Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Erich

    2012-01-01

    The new common core standards for mathematics demand that students (and teachers!) exhibit deeper conceptual understanding. That's music to the ears of education professor John Tapper, who says teachers have overemphasized teaching procedures--and getting right answers. In his new book, "Solving for Why," he makes a powerful case for moving beyond…

  19. Common Issues in Professional Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosik, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    Most conversations about ethics and professional behavior involve case studies and hypothetical situations. This study identifies and examines the most common concerns in professional behavior as reported by 303 student affairs practitioners in the field. Differences by gender, years of experience, organizational level, institutional type, and…

  20. Common Diagnoses in the NICU

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is more common in low birth weight and premature babies. What causes it? It's thought that a number of factors can contribute to the development of NEC, which is the necrosis, or death, of parts of the intestine. Although a full- ...

  1. Autism: Many Genes, Common Pathways?

    OpenAIRE

    Geschwind, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental syndrome with a complex genetic etiology. It is still not clear whether autism comprises a vast collection of different disorders akin to intellectual disability or a few disorders sharing common aberrant pathways. Unifying principles among cases of autism are likely to be at the level of brain circuitry in addition to molecular pathways.

  2. Autism: many genes, common pathways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geschwind, Daniel H

    2008-10-31

    Autism is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental syndrome with a complex genetic etiology. It is still not clear whether autism comprises a vast collection of different disorders akin to intellectual disability or a few disorders sharing common aberrant pathways. Unifying principles among cases of autism are likely to be at the level of brain circuitry in addition to molecular pathways.

  3. Longest Common Extensions in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li;

    2015-01-01

    The longest common extension (LCE) of two indices in a string is the length of the longest identical substrings starting at these two indices. The LCE problem asks to preprocess a string into a compact data structure that supports fast LCE queries. In this paper we generalize the LCE problem to t...

  4. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:Dec 9,2016 Knowing the facts ... health. This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  5. Common parasite with uncommon associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Jain

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Filaariasis a quite common in some parts of the world including India. It has been reported as an incidental finding in cytology smears. Here we report three cases where microfilariae of Wuchereria Bancrofti were detected incidentally in bone marrow smears, in two cases in special stain slides. All these patients were being investigated for other hematological disorders.

  6. The Common Vision. Reviews: Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Marshak's book describing the work of educators Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner, Aurobindo Ghose, and Inayat Khan. Maintains that the book gives clear, concise information on each educator and presents a common vision for children and their education; also maintains that it gives theoretical and practical information and discusses…

  7. Five Common Cancers in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolandoozan, Shadi; Sadjadi, Alireza; Radmard, Amir Reza; Khademi, Hooman

    Iran as a developing nation is in epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. Although, cancer is the third cause of death in Iran, ifs mortality are on the rise during recent decades. This mini-review was carried out to provide a general viewpoint on common cancers

  8. Common Core: Victory Is Yours!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Jennifer L. W.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to implement the Common Core State Standards in the classroom. She presents examples and activities that will leave teachers feeling "rosy" about tackling the new standards. She breaks down important benchmarks and shows how other teachers are doing the Core--and loving it!

  9. Muscle Cramp - A Common Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment Becoming a DO Video Library Muscle Cramp – A Common Pain Page Content Has a muscle ... body’s natural tendency toward self-healing. Causes of Muscle Cramps Muscle cramps can occur anywhere, anytime to anyone. “ ...

  10. The common European flexicurity principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the decision-making process underlying the adoption of common EU flexicurity principles. Supporters of the initiative succeeded in convincing the sceptics one by one; the change of government in France and the last-minute support of the European social partner organizations...

  11. Vaccines for the common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simancas-Racines, Daniel; Franco, Juan Va; Guerra, Claudia V; Felix, Maria L; Hidalgo, Ricardo; Martinez-Zapata, Maria José

    2017-05-18

    The common cold is a spontaneously remitting infection of the upper respiratory tract, characterised by a runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing, cough, malaise, sore throat, and fever (usually Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (September 2016), MEDLINE (1948 to September 2016), Embase (1974 to September 2016), CINAHL (1981 to September 2016), and LILACS (1982 to September 2016). We also searched three trials registers for ongoing studies and four websites for additional trials (February 2017). We included no language or date restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any virus vaccines compared with placebo to prevent the common cold in healthy people. Two review authors independently evaluated methodological quality and extracted trial data. We resolved disagreements by discussion or by consulting a third review author. We found no additional RCTs for inclusion in this update. This review includes one RCT dating from the 1960s with an overall high risk of bias. The RCT included 2307 healthy participants, all of whom were included in analyses. This trial compared the effect of an adenovirus vaccine against placebo. No statistically significant difference in common cold incidence was found: there were 13 (1.14%) events in 1139 participants in the vaccines group and 14 (1.19%) events in 1168 participants in the placebo group (risk ratio 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 2.02; P = 0.90). No adverse events related to the live vaccine were reported. The quality of the evidence was low due to limitations in methodological quality and a wide 95% confidence interval. This Cochrane Review was based on one study with low-quality evidence. We found no conclusive results to support the use of vaccines for preventing the common cold in healthy people compared with placebo. We identified a need for well-designed, adequately powered RCTs to investigate vaccines for the common cold in healthy people. Any future trials on medical treatments for preventing the

  12. 喀斯特山区9种常见树木叶片在防火期的阻火性分析%Fire Resistance of Leaves During Fire Prevention Period of Nine Common Tree Species in Karst Mountain Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁琴; 陶建平; 邓锋; 王微; 方文; 何平

    2015-01-01

    Objective]Guizhou province of China is one of the most typical karst regions in the world,at the same time,its fire disturbance is highly representative in the national forest fires. With the fragile karst environment plus severe forest fire disturbance,the fire prevention is particularly important and urgent in the Karst mountain regions of Guizhou province. Among the many fire prevention measures,the biological firebreak with its versatile,and long-term advantage, has attracted much attention of scholars and managers. The primary task of biological firebreak is to select the appropriate pyrophyte ( the plants with good fire resistance) . However,there is few study focus on the pyrophyte selection for karst mountain regions. On the other hand,with regard to pyrophyte selection,there is no uniform evaluation method up to now. It’s necessary to select appropriate fire-resistant tree species which are also suitable for growing in karst mountain regions,[Method]we investigated 9 common tree species from karst mountain regions of northwest Guizhou. Based on the measurements of four leaf traits ( benzene -alcohol extract content,ash content,ignition time and heat value) during fire prevention period,we used the Principal Component Analysis ( PCA) ,combined with the Weighted-Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution ( W-TOPSIS) ,to analyze the fire resistance.[Result]The Viburnum foetidum var. ceanothoides’s and Castanea seguinii’s benzene-alcohol extractive content were 2. 12 and 1. 97 times higher than Murica nana’s; The ash content of M. nana’s and V. foetidum var. ceanothoides’were the highest,and Castanea seguinii’s,Vaccinium pseudorobustum ’s and Ligustrum quihoui ’s were the lowest; The ignition time of L. quihoui, Castanea seguinii and Cotoneaster glaucophyllus var. glaucophyllus were the longest, and Puracantha fortuneana, Cunninghamia lanceolata and Rhododendron simsii were the shortest;The highest heat value were

  13. Common sense and the common morality in theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The unfinished nature of Beauchamp and Childress's account of the common morality after 34 years and seven editions raises questions about what is lacking, specifically in the way they carry out their project, more generally in the presuppositions of the classical liberal tradition on which they rely. Their wide-ranging review of ethical theories has not provided a method by which to move beyond a hypothetical approach to justification or, on a practical level regarding values conflict, beyond a questionable appeal to consensus. My major purpose in this paper is to introduce the thought of Bernard Lonergan as offering a way toward such a methodological breakthrough. In the first section, I consider Beauchamp and Childress's defense of their theory of the common morality. In the second, I relate a persisting vacillation in their argument regarding the relative importance of reason and experience to a similar tension in classical liberal theory. In the third, I consider aspects of Lonergan's generalized empirical method as a way to address problems that surface in the first two sections of the paper: (1) the structural relation of reason and experience in human action; and (2) the importance of theory for practice in terms of what Lonergan calls "common sense" and "general bias."

  14. Lipedema: A Relatively Common Disease with Extremely Common Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Lipedema, or adiposis dolorosa, is a common adipose tissue disorder that is believed to affect nearly 11% of adult women worldwide. It is characterized most commonly by disproportionate adipocyte hypertrophy of the lower extremities, significant tenderness to palpation, and a failure to respond to extreme weight loss modalities. Women with lipedema report a rapid growth of the lipedema subcutaneous adipose tissue in the setting of stress, surgery, and/or hormonal changes. Women with later stages of lipedema have a classic “column leg” appearance, with masses of nodular fat, easy bruising, and pain. Despite this relatively common disease, there are few physicians who are aware of it. As a result, patients are often misdiagnosed with lifestyle-induced obesity, and/or lymphedema, and subjected to unnecessary medical interventions and fat-shaming. Diagnosis is largely clinical and based on criteria initially established in 1951. Treatment of lipedema is effective and includes lymphatic support, such as complete decongestive therapy, and specialized suction lipectomy to spare injury to lymphatic channels and remove the diseased lipedema fat. With an incidence that may affect nearly 1 in 9 adult women, it is important to generate appropriate awareness, conduct additional research, and identify better diagnostic and treatment modalities for lipedema so these women can obtain the care that they need and deserve.

  15. Regional Competition in Maghreb Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EL AMOURI ALLAL

    2016-01-01

    Great powers focus on cooperation instead of competition in their regions in order to maintain stability and develop the economy of their regions and the world in general. The United States for example created the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFT

  16. Commonness and rarity in the marine biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Sean R; MacNeil, M Aaron; Caley, M Julian; Knowlton, Nancy; Cripps, Ed; Hisano, Mizue; Thibaut, Loïc M; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar D; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Brainard, Russell E; Brandt, Angelika; Bulleri, Fabio; Ellingsen, Kari E; Kaiser, Stefanie; Kröncke, Ingrid; Linse, Katrin; Maggi, Elena; O'Hara, Timothy D; Plaisance, Laetitia; Poore, Gary C B; Sarkar, Santosh K; Satpathy, Kamala K; Schückel, Ulrike; Williams, Alan; Wilson, Robin S

    2014-06-10

    Explaining patterns of commonness and rarity is fundamental for understanding and managing biodiversity. Consequently, a key test of biodiversity theory has been how well ecological models reproduce empirical distributions of species abundances. However, ecological models with very different assumptions can predict similar species abundance distributions, whereas models with similar assumptions may generate very different predictions. This complicates inferring processes driving community structure from model fits to data. Here, we use an approximation that captures common features of "neutral" biodiversity models--which assume ecological equivalence of species--to test whether neutrality is consistent with patterns of commonness and rarity in the marine biosphere. We do this by analyzing 1,185 species abundance distributions from 14 marine ecosystems ranging from intertidal habitats to abyssal depths, and from the tropics to polar regions. Neutrality performs substantially worse than a classical nonneutral alternative: empirical data consistently show greater heterogeneity of species abundances than expected under neutrality. Poor performance of neutral theory is driven by its consistent inability to capture the dominance of the communities' most-abundant species. Previous tests showing poor performance of a neutral model for a particular system often have been followed by controversy about whether an alternative formulation of neutral theory could explain the data after all. However, our approach focuses on common features of neutral models, revealing discrepancies with a broad range of empirical abundance distributions. These findings highlight the need for biodiversity theory in which ecological differences among species, such as niche differences and demographic trade-offs, play a central role.

  17. Africa Region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of HIV/AIDS on» Gross Domestic Product (GGP) in the WHO. Africa Region ... methods) and for economic evaluations of treatment, prevention and promotion. , programmes. ..... develop new products), for which we could not find data ...

  18. Energy sense is common sense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel, K.

    1979-07-01

    Background information about the West Midlands Region of British Gas is presented and this sets the scene for the subsequent description of the action taken to conserve energy in all West Midlands Gas operational activities. The basic organizational structure for dealing with energy throughout the Region is outlined. The objectives of the Energy Conservation Working Party are defined and the achievements in energy saving since April 1975 are highlighted. The monitoring and control action taken to save energy in buildings and functional engineering and transport activities is described and reference is made to special projects undertaken to improve performance in energy utilization. Special emphasis is given to the promotion of energy conservation through the use of specially designed posters and stickers, by publicity in the in-house newspaper Boost, and by annual Energy Conservation Conferences and Awards for the Conservation of Energy in the form of an ACE Trophy for group achievement and ACE Merit Awards for individual achievement. The motivational aspects of the Region's energy conservation campaign are discussed and plans for continuing to gain the cooperation of employees to conserve energy are outlined. It is concluded that the success achieved by the Region in saving energy has been significantly influenced by the special attention which has been given to mounting an imaginative, intensive, and long term campaign aimed at involving all employees and to gaining their continuing commitment to energy conservation.

  19. Regional odontodysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, D N; Bailoor, D; Patel, B

    2011-01-01

    Regional odontodysplasia is an unusual developmental anomaly in which ectodermal and mesodermal tooth components are affected. We present a rare case of a developmental anomaly called regional odontodysplasia or 'ghost teeth' in a 12-year-old Indian girl. The anomaly affected right maxillary permanent teeth. The mandibular teeth were unaffected. The clinical, radiographic and histological features are reviewed. The management of affected patients is discussed.

  20. Regional odontodysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D N Mehta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional odontodysplasia is an unusual developmental anomaly in which ectodermal and mesodermal tooth components are affected. We present a rare case of a developmental anomaly called regional odontodysplasia or ′ghost teeth′ in a 12-year-old Indian girl. The anomaly affected right maxillary permanent teeth. The mandibular teeth were unaffected. The clinical, radiographic and histological features are reviewed. The management of affected patients is discussed.

  1. REDVET indexada desde Scientific Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    veterinaria.org

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenScientific Commons es un cosechador de metadatos desarrollado por laUniversidad de St. Gallen (Suiza en los idiomas inglés y alemán, utiliza el protocolo OAI-PMH y aunque aún está en versión beta, paulatinamente va adquiriendo números totales de revistas científicas que, como es el caso de REDVET Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria, publican en OA. Así si entramos a http://en.scientificcommons.org/redvet#search_string=REDVETVeremos como a fecha de hoy hay 644 artículos publicados en REDVETindexados en Scientific Commons:

  2. Common Readout System in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Jubin, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is going for a major physics upgrade in 2018. This upgrade is necessary for getting high statistics and high precision measurement for probing into rare physics channels needed to understand the dynamics of the condensed phase of QCD. The high interaction rate and the large event size in the upgraded detectors will result in an experimental data flow traffic of about 1 TB/s from the detectors to the on-line computing system. A dedicated Common Readout Unit (CRU) is proposed for data concentration, multiplexing, and trigger distribution. CRU, as common interface unit, handles timing, data and control signals between on-detector systems and online-offline computing system. An overview of the CRU architecture is presented in this manuscript.

  3. The illusion of common ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Harvey, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    , together with concerted bodily (and vocal) activity, serve to organize, regulate and coordinate both attention and the verbal and non-verbal activity that it gives rise to. Since wordings are normative, they can be used to develop skills for making cultural sense of environments and other peoples’ doings...... isolated individuals “use” language to communicate. Autonomous cognitive agents are said to use words to communicate inner thoughts and experiences; in such a framework, ‘common ground’ describes a body of information that people allegedly share, hold common, and use to reason about how intentions have...... language to synergetic coordination between biological agents who draw on wordings to act within cultural ecosystems. Crucially, human coordination depends on, not just bodies, but also salient patterns of articulatory movement (‘wordings’). These rich patterns function as non-local resources that...

  4. Common skin conditions during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunzi, Marc; Gray, Gary R

    2007-01-15

    Common skin conditions during pregnancy generally can be separated into three categories: hormone-related, preexisting, and pregnancy-specific. Normal hormone changes during pregnancy may cause benign skin conditions including striae gravidarum (stretch marks); hyperpigmentation (e.g., melasma); and hair, nail, and vascular changes. Preexisting skin conditions (e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, fungal infections, cutaneous tumors) may change during pregnancy. Pregnancy-specific skin conditions include pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy, prurigo of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, pemphigoid gestationis, impetigo herpetiformis, and pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy. Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy are the most common of these disorders. Most skin conditions resolve postpartum and only require symptomatic treatment. However, there are specific treatments for some conditions (e.g., melasma, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, impetigo herpetiformis, pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy). Antepartum surveillance is recommended for patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, impetigo herpetiformis, and pemphigoid gestationis.

  5. Theorising Disability: Beyond Common Sense

    OpenAIRE

    Handley, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This article seeks to introduce the topic of disability to political theory via a discussion of some of the literature produced by disability theorists. The author argues that these more radical approaches conceptualise disability in ways that conflict with ‘common-sense’ notions of disability that tend to underpin political theoretical considerations of the topic. Furthermore, the author suggests that these more radical conceptualisations have profound implications for current debates on soc...

  6. Tragedy of the common canal

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Charles A.; Johnson, Cathleen; Mallow, Courtney; Sullivan, Sean P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses laboratory experiments to investigate the effects of alternative solutions to a common-pool resource with a unidirectional flow. The focus is on the comparative economic efficiency of communications, bilateral “Coasian” bargaining, auctions and price-based allocations. All treatments improve allocative efficiency relative to a baseline environment. Communication and bilateral bargaining are not generally as effective as market allocations. An exogenously imposed, optimal fee...

  7. Common Perspectives in Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Marie

    2016-07-01

    The primary purpose of this column is to focus on several common core concepts that are foundational to qualitative research. Discussion of these concepts is at an introductory level and is designed to raise awareness and understanding of several conceptual foundations that undergird qualitative research. Because of the variety of qualitative approaches, not all concepts are relevant to every design and tradition. However, foundational aspects were selected for highlighting.

  8. Residual residential space as commons

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Research on common pool resources (CPR), which began with a focus on rural communities and their defining agricultural practices, shifted recently also to the urban context, looking at community gardens, city parks and other recreational facilities. This article extends the use of CPR theory to residential complexes. Courtyards, lawns, lobbies, cellars, stairwells and other parts that fall outside individual apartments are aggregated as a new sub-set of CPR, defined herewith as Residual Resid...

  9. George Combe and common sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyde, Sean

    2015-06-01

    This article examines the history of two fields of enquiry in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Scotland: the rise and fall of the common sense school of philosophy and phrenology as presented in the works of George Combe. Although many previous historians have construed these histories as separate, indeed sometimes incommensurate, I propose that their paths were intertwined to a greater extent than has previously been given credit. The philosophy of common sense was a response to problems raised by Enlightenment thinkers, particularly David Hume, and spurred a theory of the mind and its mode of study. In order to succeed, or even to be considered a rival of these established understandings, phrenologists adapted their arguments for the sake of engaging in philosophical dispute. I argue that this debate contributed to the relative success of these groups: phrenology as a well-known historical subject, common sense now largely forgotten. Moreover, this history seeks to question the place of phrenology within the sciences of mind in nineteenth-century Britain.

  10. Common Ground Between Three Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehuda Peled

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Triwizard program with Israel brought together students from three different communities: an Israeli Arab school, an Israeli Jewish school, and an American public school with few Jews and even fewer Muslims. The two Israeli groups met in Israel to find common ground and overcome their differences through dialogue and understanding. They communicated with the American school via technology such as video-conferencing, Skype, and emails. The program culminated with a visit to the U.S. The goal of the program was to embark upon a process that would bring about intercultural awareness and acceptance at the subjective level, guiding all involved to develop empathy and an insider's view of the other's culture. It was an attempt to have a group of Israeli high school students and a group of Arab Israeli students who had a fearful, distrustful perception of each other find common ground and become friends. TriWizard was designed to have participants begin a dialogue about issues, beliefs, and emotions based on the premise that cross-cultural training strategies that are effective in changing knowledge are those that engage the emotions, and actively develop empathy and an insider's views of another culture focused on what they have in common. Participants learned that they could become friends despite their cultural differences.

  11. Sustainability of common pool resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as “capitalism,” affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of common pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies. PMID:28212426

  12. The Common Geometry Module (CGM).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tautges, Timothy James

    2004-12-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and on top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also includes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.

  13. Sustainability of common pool resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of common pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies.

  14. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-10-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

  15. Neurodegenerative diseases: a common etiology and a common therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpaoli, Walter

    2005-12-01

    The variety of names of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) does not indicate that there is a wide variety of causes and a multiple number of cures. In fact NDDs derive from a common and repetitive, almost monotonous multicausal origin. NDDs are initiated invariably by a sudden or silent insidious decrease in immunologic resistance of the T cell-dependent or delayed type, produced by a large variety of psychological-emotional and/or environmental "stressors" (e.g., social, family-domestic, economic, alimentary, traumatic, and professional). These stressors increase the vulnerability of tissues (in this case, a section of the central or peripheral nervous system) to attack by a common virus (e.g., adenoviruses and herpesviruses). This attack creates a vicious circle leading to emergence of virus-generated tissue autoantigens and then to formation of autoantibodies. Use of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs dramatically worsen and "eternalize" the diseases with further immunosuppression. Invariably, onset of NDDs is anticipated by a clear-cut alteration of the hormonal cyclicity, which closely controls immunity. My experience with patients in the last five years indicates a new approach to prevent and cure NDDs, based on a system totally divergent from present therapies. In fact "resetting the hormonal cyclicity clock" results in restoration of hormone-dependent antiviral immunity, arrest of disease progression, and at least partial recovery of neural functions, whatever the origin, anatomic location, and course of pathology.

  16. Hypokalaemia: common things occur commonly – a retrospective survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alasdair; Jones, Gareth; Isles, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To define the causes of hypokalaemia in an unselected adult population. Design Retrospective survey of biochemistry database. Setting District general hospital in southwest Scotland. Participants and main outcome measures There were 187,704 measurements of urea and electrolytes in 2010. Sixty-one patients had serum potassium feeding syndrome and inadequate potassium supplementation when patients were nil by mouth (37%). In 25% of patients a transient and profound fall in serum potassium appeared to coincide with their acute illness. Acute alcohol intoxication and/or alcohol withdrawal were prominent features in 11% of patients. More than one cause was commonly present. There were no cases of Bartter's, Gitelman's or Liddle's syndromes or of hypokalaemic periodic paralysis in this study. Conclusions Severe hypokalaemia <2.5 mmol/L occurs at least once a week in a district general hospital with a catchment population of around 150,000, suggesting there may be around 300 cases a week in the UK (population around 50,000,000). Diuretics, vomiting and diarrhoea are commonly implicated as are nutritional causes, acute illness and alcohol. Bartter's, Gitelman's, Liddle's syndrome and hypokalaemic period paralysis are all extremely uncommon. PMID:23323198

  17. Common Battlefield Training for Airmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    team IST initial skills training; also called technical training KARB Kirkuk Regional Air Base MAJCOM major command MILES Multiple Integrated Laser...incident AF Sniper team insertions AEF 7/8-05 Iraq [ KARB ] 01857-66225 Convoy Combat incident Poorly set up to respond to off-base mishaps, particularly in...of Responsibility (AOR). No voice communication possible between KARB and personnel at forward operating bases (FOB). AEF 7/8-05 Iraq ( KARB

  18. Commonly Asked Questions in Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Assael, Marc J

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever had a question that keeps persisting and for which you cannot find a clear answer? Is the question seemingly so "simple" that the problem is glossed over in most resources, or skipped entirely? CRC Press/Taylor and Francis is pleased to introduce Commonly Asked Questions in Thermodynamics, the first in a new series of books that address the questions that frequently arise in today's major scientific and technical disciplines. Designed for a wide audience, from students and researchers to practicing professionals in related areas, the books are organized in a user friend

  19. Common Tuina Techniques in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Editor

    2004-01-01

    @@ Tuina techniques in children are similar to those in adults. Some are same in name, but different in methods,such as pushing technique. Some techniques are just applied to children rather than to adults, such as pushing method. In clinical practice, such intense Tuina techniques as nailing, grasping, and pinching are practiced as the ending manipulations, so as not to hurt children and affect treatment. Such media as ginger juice,Talcum powder and egg white are commonly used to prevent from skin abrasion and improve therapeutic effects.

  20. Common blocks for ASQS(12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Milazzo

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available An ASQS(v is a particular Steiner system featuring a set of v vertices and two separate families of blocks, B and G, whose elements have a respective cardinality of 4 and 6. It has the property that any three vertices of X belong either to a B-block or to a G-block. The parameter cb is the number of common blocks in two separate ASQSs, both defined on the same set of vertices X . In this paper it is shown that cb ≤ 29 for any pair of ASQSs(12.

  1. Common Knowledge in Email Exchanges

    CERN Document Server

    Sietsma, Floor

    2011-01-01

    We consider a framework in which a group of agents communicates by means of emails, with the possibility of replies, forwards and blind carbon copies (BCC). We study the epistemic consequences of such email exchanges by introducing an appropriate epistemic language and semantics. This allows us to determine when a group of agents acquires common knowledge of the formula expressing that an email was sent. We also show that in our framework from the epistemic point of view the BCC feature of emails cannot be simulated using messages without BCC recipients. Finally, we clarify the notion of a causal relationship between emails using the concept of properly terminating email exchanges.

  2. ASPECTS OF THE FUTURE COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo GAJO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present the main CAP reforms imposed by the actual situation of agriculture development in the EU. The Common Agriculture Policy is focused on decoupling, modulation and cross-compliance. The single payment scheme will assure aids only for farms where production complies with environment, food safety, animal and plant health, animal welfare, and agricultural land maintenance in good condition. The new legislation provides the introduction of "green payments" related to the adoption of agricultural practices beneficial for the climate and the environment. The demographic growth imposes more production and a better distribution of food in the world. The EU has to be prepared to produce more because of the mass emigration to the rich countries from the region where food demand can not be covered.

  3. 3-Receiver Broadcast Channels with Common and Confidential Messages

    CERN Document Server

    Chia, Yeow-Khiang

    2009-01-01

    Achievable secrecy rate regions for the general 3-receiver broadcast channel with one common and one confidential message sets are established. We consider two setups: (i) when the confidential message is to be sent to two of the receivers and the third receiver is an eavesdropper; and (ii) when the confidential message is to be sent to one of the receivers and the other two receivers are eavesdroppers. We show that our secrecy rate regions are optimum for some special cases.

  4. Common ecology quantifies human insurgency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Gourley, Sean; Dixon, Alexander R; Spagat, Michael; Johnson, Neil F

    2009-12-17

    Many collective human activities, including violence, have been shown to exhibit universal patterns. The size distributions of casualties both in whole wars from 1816 to 1980 and terrorist attacks have separately been shown to follow approximate power-law distributions. However, the possibility of universal patterns ranging across wars in the size distribution or timing of within-conflict events has barely been explored. Here we show that the sizes and timing of violent events within different insurgent conflicts exhibit remarkable similarities. We propose a unified model of human insurgency that reproduces these commonalities, and explains conflict-specific variations quantitatively in terms of underlying rules of engagement. Our model treats each insurgent population as an ecology of dynamically evolving, self-organized groups following common decision-making processes. Our model is consistent with several recent hypotheses about modern insurgency, is robust to many generalizations, and establishes a quantitative connection between human insurgency, global terrorism and ecology. Its similarity to financial market models provides a surprising link between violent and non-violent forms of human behaviour.

  5. Urban ambiances as common ground?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Thibaud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to point out various arguments which question ambiance as a common ground of everyday urban experience. Such a project involves four major points. First, we have to move beyond the exclusive practical aspects of everyday life and bring the sensory to the forefront. Under such conditions, sensory cultures emerge where feeling and acting come together. Second, we must put common experience into perspectiveby initiating a dual dynamics of socialising the sensory and sensitising social life. Ambiances involve a complex web comprised of an ‘existential’ dimension (empathy with the ambient world, a ‘contextual’ dimension (degree of presence in the situation, and an ‘interactional’ dimension (forms of sociability expressed in the tonality. Third, we have to initiate a political ecology of ambiances in order to better understand how ambiances deal with fundamental design and planning issues. Far from being neutral, the notion of ambiance appears to be bound up with the socio-aesthetic strategies underpinning changes to the sensory urban environment of the future. Fourth, we have to question what in situ experience is all about. Three major research pointers enable to address this issue: the embodiment of situated experiences, the porous nature of sensory spaces, and the sensory efficiency of the build environment. Ambiances sensitize urban design as well as social lifeforms.

  6. Network Governance of the Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Gunnar Carlsson

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The survival of the commons is closely associated with the potential to find ways to strengthen contemporary management systems, making them more responsive to a number of complexities, like the dynamics of ecosystems and related, but often fragmented, institutions. A discussion on the desirability of finding ways to establish so-called cross-scale linkages has recently been vitalised in the literature. In the same vein, concepts like adaptive management, co-management and adaptive co-management have been discussed. In essence, these ways of organizing management incorporate an implicit assumption about the establishment of social networks and is more closely related to network governance and social network theory, than to political administrative hierarchy. However, so far, attempts to incorporate social network analysis (SNA in this literature have been rather few, and not particularly elaborate. In this paper, a framework for such an approach will be presented. The framework provides an analytical skeleton for the understanding of joint management and the establishment of cross-scale linkages. The relationships between structural network properties - like density, centrality and heterogeneity - and innovation in adaptive co-management systems are highlighted as important to consider when crafting institutions for natural resource management. The paper makes a theoretical and methodological contribution to the understanding of co-management, and thereby to the survival of the commons.

  7. Common Mathematical Model of Fatigue Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Maléř

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new common mathematical model which is able to describe fatigue characteristics in the whole necessary range by one equation only:log N = A(R + B(R ∙ log Sawhere A(R = AR2 + BR + C and B(R = DR2 + AR + F.This model was verified by five sets of fatigue data taken from the literature and by our own three additional original fatigue sets. The fatigue data usually described the region of N 104 to 3 x 106 and stress ratio of R = -2 to 0.5. In all these cases the proposed model described fatigue results with small scatter. Studying this model, following knowledge was obtained:– the parameter ”stress ratio R” was a good physical characteristic– the proposed model provided a good description of the eight collections of fatigue test results by one equation only– the scatter of the results through the whole scope is only a little greater than that round the individual S/N curve– using this model while testing may reduce the number of test samples and shorten the test time– as the proposed model represents a common form of the S/N curve, it may be used for processing uniform objective fatigue life results, which may enable mutual comparison of fatigue characteristics.

  8. METHODOLOGY OF REGIONAL ECONOMY OPTIMIZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ainabek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development of the national economy directly depends on the optimality of its composite parts. This can be addressed through the appropriate balance of the sectors and the regions, the inner parts of their structure based on a common criterion of the evaluation of cost variables characterizing the parameters of the functioning of the regional actors. This paper shows theoretical principles and economic-mathematical model of optimization of the regional economy and the relations between the center and the regions based on the author’s approach.

  9. Residual residential space as commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Rabinowitz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on common pool resources (CPR, which began with a focus on rural communities and their defining agricultural practices, shifted recently also to the urban context, looking at community gardens, city parks and other recreational facilities. This article extends the use of CPR theory to residential complexes. Courtyards, lawns, lobbies, cellars, stairwells and other parts that fall outside individual apartments are aggregated as a new sub-set of CPR, defined herewith as Residual Residential Space (RRS. Based on findings from three main types of RRS in Israel, the article evaluates some of the mechanisms designed to regulate such space. In line with earlier work on CPR, the article suggests that legal instruments, important as they are for general guidance, do not suffice. To be effective they need to echo popular framings of Residual Residential Space, to be congruent with local sensibilities regarding micro-history, and to concur with expectations stake-holders might have from their own community.

  10. Common Data Elements in Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Daniel L; Kahn, Charles E

    2017-06-01

    Diagnostic radiologists generally produce unstructured information in the form of images and narrative text reports. Although designed for human consumption, radiologic reports contain a wealth of information that could be valuable for clinical care, research, and quality improvement if that information could be extracted by automated systems. Unfortunately, the lack of structure in radiologic reports limits the ability of information systems to share information easily with other systems. A common data element (CDE)-a unit of information used in a shared, predefined fashion-can improve the ability to exchange information seamlessly among information systems. In this article, a model and a repository of radiologic CDEs is described, and three important applications are highlighted. CDEs can help advance radiologic practice, research, and performance improvement, and thus, it is crucial that CDEs be adopted widely in radiologic information systems. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  11. Science, values, and common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Chris

    2003-11-01

    In this paper, I argue that there may be common ground shared by animal science and its critics insofar as animal scientists seek improvement in their field in four areas: the quality of their products, the quality of life for those who make their livelihood in food production, the fair treatment of human workers, and the humane treatment of animals. I also propose that there are fundamental differences between improvement motivated by profit and improvement motivated by ethical values. Positive moral change is sometimes revolutionary, although it is often a matter of promoting positive incremental changes and keeping one's attention on the effects of actions and attitudes. In conclusion, I suggest that in animal agriculture, positive change can be brought about by "getting closer" to the objects of scientific research, including nonhuman animals, by paying more attention to their welfare.

  12. Transient regional osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Trotta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis are uncommon and probably underdiagnosed bone diseases characterized by pain and functional limitation mainly affecting weight-bearing joints of the lower limbs. These conditions are usually self-limiting and symptoms tend to abate within a few months without sequelae. Routine laboratory investigations are unremarkable. Middle aged men and women during the last months of pregnancy or in the immediate post-partum period are principally affected. Osteopenia with preservation of articular space and transitory edema of the bone marrow provided by magnetic resonance imaging are common to these two conditions, so they are also known by the term regional transitory osteoporosis. The appearance of bone marrow edema is not specific to regional transitory osteoporosis but can be observed in several diseases, i.e. trauma, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, avascular osteonecrosis, infections, tumors from which it must be differentiated. The etiology of this condition is unknown. Pathogenesis is still debated in particular the relationship with reflex sympathetic dystrophy, with which regional transitory osteoporosis is often identified. The purpose of the present review is to remark on the relationship between transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis with particular attention to the bone marrow edema pattern and relative differential diagnosis.

  13. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  14. The complete chloroplast genome of common walnut (Juglans regia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiheng ​Hu; Keith E. Woeste; Meng Dang; Tao Zhou; Xiaojia Feng; Guifang Zhao; Zhanlin Liu; Zhonghu Li; Peng. Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Common walnut (Juglans regia L.) is cultivated in temperate regions worldwide for its wood and nuts. The complete chloroplast genome of J. regia was sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. This is the first complete chloroplast sequence for the Juglandaceae, a family that includes numerous species of economic importance....

  15. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibar, D.P.; Stein, J.L.; Renteria, M.E.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Desrivieres, S.; Jahanshad, N.; Toro, R.; Wittfeld, K.; Abramovic, L.; Andersson, M.; Aribisala, B.S.; Armstrong, N.J.; Bernard, M.; Bohlken, M.M.; Boks, M.P.; Bralten, J.; Brown, A.A.; Chakravarty, M.M.; Chen, Q.; Ching, C.R.; Cuellar-Partida, G.; Braber, A.; Giddaluru, S.; Goldman, A.L.; Grimm, O.; Guadalupe, T.; Hass, J.; Woldehawariat, G.; Holmes, A.J.; Hoogman, M.; Janowitz, D.; Jia, T.; Kim, S.; Klein, M.; Kraemer, B.; Lee, P.H.; Olde Loohuis, L.M.; Luciano, M.; Macare, C.; Mather, K.A.; Mattheisen, M.; Milaneschi, Y.; Nho, K.; Papmeyer, M.; Ramasamy, A.; Risacher, S.L.; Roiz-Santianez, R.; Rose, E.J.; Salami, A.; Samann, P.G.; Schmaal, L.; Schork, A.J.; Shin, J.; Strike, L.T.; Teumer, A.; Donkelaar, M.M.J. van; Eijk, K.R. van; Walters, R.K.; Westlye, L.T.; Whelan, C.D.; Winkler, A.M.; Zwiers, M.P.; Alhusaini, S.; Athanasiu, L.; Ehrlich, S.; Hakobjan, M.M.; Hartberg, C.B.; Haukvik, U.K.; Heister, A.J.; Hoehn, D.; Kasperaviciute, D.; Liewald, D.C.; Lopez, L.M.; Makkinje, R.R.; Matarin, M.; Naber, M.; McKay, D.R.; Needham, M.; Nugent, A.C.; Putz, B.; Royle, N.A.; Shen, L.; Sprooten, E.; Trabzuni, D.; Marel, S.S. van der; Hulzen, K.J.E. van; Walton, E.; Wolf, C.; Almasy, L.; Ames, D.; Arepalli, S.; Assareh, A.A.; Bastin, M.E.; Brodaty, H.; Bulayeva, K.B.; Carless, M.A.; Cichon, S.; Corvin, A.; Curran, J.E.; Czisch, M.; Fisher, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common

  16. A Nomadic Subtelomeric Disease Resistance Gene Cluster in Common Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The B4 resistance (R)-gene cluster, located in subtelomeric region of chromosome 4, is one of the largest clusters known in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Pv). We sequenced 650 kb spanning this locus and annotated 97 genes, 26 of which correspond to Coiled-coil-Nucleotide-Binding-Site-Leucine-Rich...

  17. Common cutaneous disorders in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, R J

    1990-02-01

    Athletic activity may cause or aggravate skin disorders, which in turn may diminish athletic performance. Since many sporting activities necessitate prolonged exposure to the sun, athletes must avoid painful sunburn which will adversely affect their performance. Drugs and chemicals also may cause photoallergic and/or phototoxic reactions, including polymorphous light eruption and athletes should thus avoid photosensitising drugs and chemicals. The effects of chronic ultraviolet exposure include ageing, pigmentation and skin cancers. The most effective protection against excessive exposure to sunlight is the use of sunscreens, although inadequate application and poor protection in the UVA spectrum may diminish their effectiveness and contact allergies may create other problems. Viral, bacterial and fungal infections are common in athletes due to heat, friction and contact with others. Herpes simplex may be treated with any drying agents (e.g. alcohol) as they are as effective as more expensive topical agents such as acyclovir. Molluscum contagiosum may be spread by close contact or water contact and is treated by superficial incision, cryotherapy or standard wart varnishes. Plantar wart infection is transmitted by swimming pool decks, changing rooms and hand-to-hand from weights in gymnasiums. Plantar warts presenting with pain may be aggressively treated, by blunt dissection, but painless ones are best treated conservatively. Impetigo and folliculitis often develop after trauma. Antibiotics are effective against mild infections while abrasions and lacerations should be cleansed and dressed with occlusive dressings. Diphtheroid bacteria in moist footwear may produce pitted keratolysis and erythrasma. Tinea pedis is common in athletes and probably originates in swimming pools, gymnasium floors and locker rooms. Interdigital, dry-moccasin and pustular-midsole forms can be distinguished. The latter two forms respond to topical antifungal agents, while the interdigital

  18. Angiomyolipoma have common mutations in TSC2 but no other common genetic events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qin

    Full Text Available Renal angiomyolipoma are part of the PEComa family of neoplasms, and occur both in association with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC and independent of that disorder. Previous studies on the molecular genetic alterations that occur in angiomyolipoma are very limited. We evaluated 9 angiomyolipoma for which frozen tissue was available from a consecutive surgical series. Seven of 8 samples subjected to RT-PCR-cDNA sequencing showed mutations in TSC2; none showed mutations in TSC1 or RHEB. Six of the seven mutations were deletions. We searched for 983 activating and inactivating mutations in 115 genes, and found none in these tumors. Similarly analysis for genomic regions of loss or gain, assessed by Affymetrix SNP6.0 analysis, showed no abnormalities. Loss of heterozygosity in the TSC2 region was commonly seen, except in patients with low frequency TSC2 mutations. We conclude that sporadic renal angiomyolipoma usually have mutations in TSC2, but not TSC1 or RHEB, and have no other common genomic events, among those we searched for. However, chromosomal translocations and gene fusion events were not assessed here. TSC2 inactivation by mutation is a consistent and likely necessary genetic event in the pathogenesis of most angiomyolipoma.

  19. Common questions about wound care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worster, Brooke; Zawora, Michelle Q; Hsieh, Christine

    2015-01-15

    Lacerations, abrasions, burns, and puncture wounds are common in the outpatient setting. Because wounds can quickly become infected, the most important aspect of treating a minor wound is irrigation and cleaning. There is no evidence that antiseptic irrigation is superior to sterile saline or tap water. Occlusion of the wound is key to preventing contamination. Suturing, if required, can be completed up to 24 hours after the trauma occurs, depending on the wound site. Tissue adhesives are equally effective for low-tension wounds with linear edges that can be evenly approximated. Although patients are often instructed to keep their wounds covered and dry after suturing, they can get wet within the first 24 to 48 hours without increasing the risk of infection. There is no evidence that prophylactic antibiotics improve outcomes for most simple wounds. Tetanus toxoid should be administered as soon as possible to patients who have not received a booster in the past 10 years. Superficial mild wound infections can be treated with topical agents, whereas deeper mild and moderate infections should be treated with oral antibiotics. Most severe infections, and moderate infections in high-risk patients, require initial parenteral antibiotics. Severe burns and wounds that cover large areas of the body or involve the face, joints, bone, tendons, or nerves should generally be referred to wound care specialists.

  20. Common problems in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosca, David D; Navazio, Franco

    2007-07-15

    Endurance athletes alternate periods of intensive physical training with periods of rest and recovery to improve performance. An imbalance caused by overly intensive training and inadequate recovery leads to a breakdown in tissue reparative mechanisms and eventually to overuse injuries. Tendon overuse injury is degenerative rather than inflammatory. Tendinopathy is often slow to resolve and responds inconsistently to anti-inflammatory agents. Common overuse injuries in runners and other endurance athletes include patellofemoral pain syndrome, iliotibial band friction syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, and lower extremity stress fractures. These injuries are treated with relative rest, usually accompanied by a rehabilitative exercise program. Cyclists may benefit from evaluation on their bicycles and subsequent adjustment of seat height, cycling position, or pedal system. Endurance athletes also are susceptible to exercise-associated medical conditions, including exercise-induced asthma, exercise-associated collapse, and overtraining syndrome. These conditions are treatable or preventable with appropriate medical intervention. Dilutional hyponatremia is increasingly encountered in athletes participating in marathons and triathlons. This condition is related to overhydration with hypotonic fluids and may be preventable with guidance on appropriate fluid intake during competition.

  1. Common errors in disease mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ocaña-Riola

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Many morbid-mortality atlases and small-area studies have been carried out over the last decade. However, the methods used to draw up such research, the interpretation of results and the conclusions published are often inaccurate. Often, the proliferation of this practice has led to inefficient decision-making, implementation of inappropriate health policies and negative impact on the advancement of scientific knowledge. This paper reviews the most frequent errors in the design, analysis and interpretation of small-area epidemiological studies and proposes a diagnostic evaluation test that should enable the scientific quality of published papers to be ascertained. Nine common mistakes in disease mapping methods are discussed. From this framework, and following the theory of diagnostic evaluation, a standardised test to evaluate the scientific quality of a small-area epidemiology study has been developed. Optimal quality is achieved with the maximum score (16 points, average with a score between 8 and 15 points, and low with a score of 7 or below. A systematic evaluation of scientific papers, together with an enhanced quality in future research, will contribute towards increased efficacy in epidemiological surveillance and in health planning based on the spatio-temporal analysis of ecological information.

  2. Common abdominal emergencies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, James

    2002-02-01

    Because young children often present to EDs with abdominal complaints, emergency physicians must have a high index of suspicion for the common abdominal emergencies that have serious sequelae. At the same time, they must realize that less serious causes of abdominal symptoms (e.g., constipation or gastroenteritis) are also seen. A gentle yet thorough and complete history and physical examination are the most important diagnostic tools for the emergency physician. Repeated examinations and observation are useful tools. Physicians should listen carefully to parents and their children, respect their concerns, and honor their complaints. Ancillary tests are inconsistent in their value in assessing these complaints. Abdominal radiographs can be normal in children with intussusception and even malrotation and early volvulus. Unlike the classic symptoms seen in adults, young children can display only lethargy or poor feeding in cases of appendicitis or can appear happy and playful between paroxysmal bouts of intussusception. The emergency physician therefore, must maintain a high index of suspicion for serious pathology in pediatric patients with abdominal complaints. Eventually, all significant abdominal emergencies reveal their true nature, and if one can be patient with the child and repeat the examinations when the child is quiet, one will be rewarded with the correct diagnosis.

  3. Longest common extensions in trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li;

    2016-01-01

    to trees and suggest a few applications of LCE in trees to tries and XML databases. Given a labeled and rooted tree T of size n, the goal is to preprocess T into a compact data structure that support the following LCE queries between subpaths and subtrees in T. Let v1, v2, w1, and w2 be nodes of T...... such that w1 and w2 are descendants of v1 and v2 respectively. - LCEPP(v1, w1, v2, w2): (path-path LCE) return the longest common prefix of the paths v1 ~→ w1 and v2 ~→ w2. - LCEPT(v1, w1, v2): (path-tree LCE) return maximal path-path LCE of the path v1 ~→ w1 and any path from v2 to a descendant leaf. - LCETT......(v1, v2): (tree-tree LCE) return a maximal path-path LCE of any pair of paths from v1 and v2 to descendant leaves. We present the first non-trivial bounds for supporting these queries. For LCEPP queries, we present a linear-space solution with O(log* n) query time. For LCEPT queries, we present...

  4. Longest Common Extensions in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li;

    2015-01-01

    to trees and suggest a few applications of LCE in trees to tries and XML databases. Given a labeled and rooted tree T of size n, the goal is to preprocess T into a compact data structure that support the following LCE queries between subpaths and subtrees in T. Let v1, v2, w1, and w2 be nodes of T...... such that w1 and w2 are descendants of v1 and v2 respectively. - LCEPP(v1, w1, v2, w2): (path-path LCE) return the longest common prefix of the paths v1 ~→ w1 and v2 ~→ w2. - LCEPT(v1, w1, v2): (path-tree LCE) return maximal path-path LCE of the path v1 ~→ w1 and any path from v2 to a descendant leaf. - LCETT......(v1, v2): (tree-tree LCE) return a maximal path-path LCE of any pair of paths from v1 and v2 to descendant leaves. We present the first non-trivial bounds for supporting these queries. For LCEPP queries, we present a linear-space solution with O(log* n) query time. For LCEPT queries, we present...

  5. The Common Sense of Copying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Stamm

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay provides a survey of two very significant phases in the history of Japanese education: 1 the founding of the modern system (1872-1890 with a focus on the pedagogical practices acquired from the United States during that period and 2 Japan’s performance on international tests of mathematics achievement. The first relies primarily on Benjamin Duke’s recently published book The History of Modern Japanese Education: Constructing the National School System, 1872-1890, and the second on a detailed comparison of ERA mathematics test scores of Japan and Singapore over a thirty year period. These two aspects provide clear evidence that, contrary to the assertions of some scholars, it is quite possible to transfer the practices in use in one culture to another, with great success. Noting the irony of the abandonment by the U.S. of the principles that have served Japan so well for almost 140 years, I suggest that we exercise the "Common Sense of Copying” ourselves.

  6. Managing the wildlife tourism commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirotta, Enrico; Lusseau, David

    2015-04-01

    The nonlethal effects of wildlife tourism can threaten the conservation status of targeted animal populations. In turn, such resource depletion can compromise the economic viability of the industry. Therefore, wildlife tourism exploits resources that can become common pool and that should be managed accordingly. We used a simulation approach to test whether different management regimes (tax, tax and subsidy, cap, cap and trade) could provide socioecologically sustainable solutions. Such schemes are sensitive to errors in estimated management targets. We determined the sensitivity of each scenario to various realistic uncertainties in management implementation and in our knowledge of the population. Scenarios where time quotas were enforced using a tax and subsidy approach, or they were traded between operators were more likely to be sustainable. Importantly, sustainability could be achieved even when operators were assumed to make simple rational economic decisions. We suggest that a combination of the two regimes might offer a robust solution, especially on a small spatial scale and under the control of a self-organized, operator-level institution. Our simulation platform could be parameterized to mimic local conditions and provide a test bed for experimenting different governance solutions in specific case studies.

  7. Comparison of Common Tonsillectomy Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, M A; Sultana, T

    2016-01-01

    This prospective randomized study was done to compare operative time, intra-operative blood loss, post operative pain, secondary haemorrhage in common tonsillectomy methods. Thirty two (32) paediatric population of age 7-12 years from each group randomly selected, operative techniques adopted consecutively and this study was conducted in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Islami Bank Hospital, Dhaka, and Desh Medical Services, Chittagong, from January 2011 to December 2013. Surgery was performed by single midlevel surgeon. Postoperatively one month was followed the entire patient. Total 96 pediatrics population (32 for each group) was studied. Mean operating time and mean intra-operative blood loss was in cold dissection method 22 min and 15 ml, in bipolar dissection tonsillectomy 18 min and 10 ml & in laser tonsillectomy 17 min and 9 ml. Differences of operating time and variation of blood loss in various methods are not statistically significant. Laser and bipolar electro dissection tonsillectomy are popularized due to its relative less bleeding and quicker methods than that of cold dissection tonsillectomy; there is no significant difference among them.

  8. 比较视角下的东北亚区域意识:共同命运对集体认同的关键影响%A Comparative Perspective on Northeast Asian Regional Consciousness: The Impact of a Common Destiny on Collective Iden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张度

    2011-01-01

    区域意识是指某一地理范围内的国家对该区域的一种集体身份认同。研究区域意识的形成和发展,有助于我们更好地理解区域合作的现状和前景。本文通过借鉴和修正建构主义理论所提出的影响集体身份认同的分析框架,集中探讨共同命运这一变量对于区域意识,尤其是东北亚区域意识形成和发展的关键影响。在此基础上,通过简要比较东北亚同欧洲、东南亚之间不同的区域意识发展水平,对本文所提出的框架进行了验证,并运用这一理论初步解释了东北亚区域意识水平较低的关键原因。%Regional consciousness refers to the collective identity of states within some geographical boundary towards that region. Research on the formation and development of regional consciousness is useful for better understanding of the prospects for regional

  9. Ozonation of Common Textile Auxiliaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskender, Gulen; Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Koyunluoglu, Sebnem; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Germirli Babuna, Fatos

    2016-10-01

    The treatability of four different commonly applied textile auxiliary chemicals, namely two tannin formulations (Tannin 1: a condensation product of aryl sulphonate; Tannin 2: natural tannic acid) and two biocidal finishing agents (Biocide 1: 2,4,4’-trichloro-2’- hydroxydiphenyl ether; Biocide 2: a nonionic diphenyl alkane derivative) with ozone was investigated. Increasing the ozone dose yielded higher COD removals for the natural tannin. Optimum ozone doses of 485 and 662 mg/h were obtained at a pH of 3.5 for natural and synthetic tannin carrying textile bath discharges, respectively. When the reaction pH was increased from 3.5 to 7.0, a slight decrease in COD removal was observed for the natural tannin due to ozone selectivity towards its polyaromatic structure. The same increase in ozonation pH enhanced COD removals for the synthetic tannin as a result of enhanced ozone decomposition rendering free radical chain reactions dominant. Optimum ozone doses of 499 and 563 mg/h were established for Biocide 1 and 2, respectively. With the increase of ozonation, pH exhibited a positive influence on COD removals for both textile tannins. A substantial improvement in terms of TOC removals was observed as the reaction pH was increased from 3.5 to 7.0 for the synthetic tannin, and from 7 to 12 for both textile biocides. Higher AOX removals were evident at pH 7 than at pH 12 for Biocide 1 as a result of the higher selectivity of the dehalogenation reaction at neutral pH.

  10. Common Questions About Chronic Prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James D; Garrett, W Allan; McCurry, Tyler K; Teichman, Joel M H

    2016-02-15

    Chronic prostatitis is relatively common, with a lifetime prevalence of 1.8% to 8.2%. Risk factors include conditions that facilitate introduction of bacteria into the urethra and prostate (which also predispose the patient to urinary tract infections) and conditions that can lead to chronic neuropathic pain. Chronic prostatitis must be differentiated from other causes of chronic pelvic pain, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and pelvic floor dysfunction; prostate and bladder cancers; benign prostatic hyperplasia; urolithiasis; and other causes of dysuria, urinary frequency, and nocturia. The National Institutes of Health divides prostatitis into four syndromes: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP)/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS), and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. CBP and CNP/CPPS both lead to pelvic pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. CBP presents as recurrent urinary tract infections with the same organism identified on repeated cultures; it responds to a prolonged course of an antibiotic that adequately penetrates the prostate, if the urine culture suggests sensitivity. If four to six weeks of antibiotic therapy is effective but symptoms recur, another course may be prescribed, perhaps in combination with alpha blockers or nonopioid analgesics. CNP/CPPS, accounting for more than 90% of chronic prostatitis cases, presents as prostatic pain lasting at least three months without consistent culture results. Weak evidence supports the use of alpha blockers, pain medications, and a four- to six-week course of antibiotics for the treatment of CNP/CPPS. Patients may also be referred to a psychologist experienced in managing chronic pain. Experts on this condition recommend a combination of treatments tailored to the patient's phenotypic presentation. Urology referral should be considered when appropriate treatment is ineffective. Additional treatments include pelvic

  11. Designing the Microbial Research Commons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlir, Paul F. [Board on Research Data and Information Policy and Global Affairs, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Recent decades have witnessed an ever-increasing range and volume of digital data. All elements of the pillars of science--whether observation, experiment, or theory and modeling--are being transformed by the continuous cycle of generation, dissemination, and use of factual information. This is even more so in terms of the re-using and re-purposing of digital scientific data beyond the original intent of the data collectors, often with dramatic results. We all know about the potential benefits and impacts of digital data, but we are also aware of the barriers, the challenges in maximizing the access, and use of such data. There is thus a need to think about how a data infrastructure can enhance capabilities for finding, using, and integrating information to accelerate discovery and innovation. How can we best implement an accessible, interoperable digital environment so that the data can be repeatedly used by a wide variety of users in different settings and with different applications? With this objective: to use the microbial communities and microbial data, literature, and the research materials themselves as a test case, the Board on Research Data and Information held an International Symposium on Designing the Microbial Research Commons at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC on 8-9 October 2009. The symposium addressed topics such as models to lower the transaction costs and support access to and use of microbiological materials and digital resources from the perspective of publicly funded research, public-private interactions, and developing country concerns. The overall goal of the symposium was to stimulate more research and implementation of improved legal and institutional models for publicly funded research in microbiology.

  12. The spinal cord of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charles; Sengul, Gulgun; Tanaka, Ikuko; Rusznak, Zoltan; Tokuno, Hironobu

    2015-04-01

    The marmoset spinal cord possesses all the characteristic features of a typical mammalian spinal cord, but with some interesting variation in the levels of origin of the limb nerves. In our study Nissl and ChAT sections of the each segment of the spinal cord in two marmosets (Ma5 and Ma8), we found that the spinal cord can be functionally and anatomically divided into six regions: the prebrachial region (C1 to C3); the brachial region (C4 to C8) - segments supplying the upper limb; the post-brachial region (T1 to L1) - containing the sympathetic outflow, and supplying the hypaxial muscles of the body wall; the crural region (L2 to L5) - segments supplying the lower limb; the postcrural region (L6) - containing the parasympathetic outflow; and the caudal region (L7 to Co4) - supplying the tail. In the rat, mouse, and rhesus monkey, the prebrachial region consists of segments C1 to C4 (with the phrenic nucleus located at the C4 segment), and the brachial region extends from C5 to T1 inclusive. The prefixing of the upper limb outflow in these two marmosets mirrors the finding in the literature that a large C4 contribution to the brachial plexus is common in humans.

  13. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  14. Common Cause Abduction : Its Scope and Limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dziurosz-Serafinowicz, Patryk

    2012-01-01

    Patryk Dziurosz-Serafmowicz, Common Cause Abduction: Its Scope and Limits This article aims to analyze the scope and limits of common cause abduction which is a version of explanatory abduction based on Hans Reichenbach's Principle of the Common Cause. First, it is argued that common cause abduction

  15. Noncommutative Common Cause Principles in algebraic quantum field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer-Szabó, Gábor; Vecsernyés, Péter

    2013-04-01

    States in algebraic quantum field theory "typically" establish correlation between spacelike separated events. Reichenbach's Common Cause Principle, generalized to the quantum field theoretical setting, offers an apt tool to causally account for these superluminal correlations. In the paper we motivate first why commutativity between the common cause and the correlating events should be abandoned in the definition of the common cause. Then we show that the Noncommutative Weak Common Cause Principle holds in algebraic quantum field theory with locally finite degrees of freedom. Namely, for any pair of projections A, B supported in spacelike separated regions VA and VB, respectively, there is a local projection C not necessarily commuting with A and B such that C is supported within the union of the backward light cones of VA and VB and the set {C, C⊥} screens off the correlation between A and B.

  16. Noncommutative Common Cause Principles in Algebraic Quantum Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hofer-Szabó, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    States in algebraic quantum field theory "typically" establish correlation between spacelike separated events. Reichenbach's Common Cause Principle, generalized to the quantum field theoretical setting, offers an apt tool to causally account for these superluminal correlations. In the paper we motivate first why commutativity between the common cause and the correlating events should be abandoned in the definition of the common cause. Then we show that the Noncommutative Weak Common Cause Principle holds in algebraic quantum field theory with locally finite degrees of freedom. Namely, for any pair of projections A, B supported in spacelike separated regions V_A and V_B, respectively, there is a local projection C not necessarily commuting with A and B such that C is supported within the union of the backward light cones of V_A and V_B and the set {C, non-C} screens off the correlation between A and B.

  17. Returning common sense to regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, M.R.

    1995-10-01

    While these sessions of the November 1995 meeting of the American Nuclear Society are being devoted to the Linear Theory of harm from radiation, it must be realized that the low-level radiation issue, as important as it may be, is but a subset of an entire body of environmental issues running afoul of common sense. Cellular phones, electromagnetic fields, asbestos, dioxin, acid rain, and others especially in their public portrayals, some in their regulatory treatment, are based upon exaggerated or misunderstood risks. One must recognize that what lies ahead is an immense effort to revisit the underlying science of the existing regulations of radiation exposures. New evidence has been published, and most importantly, it is now recognized that many of these regulations--promulgated with the best of intentions--have been extraordinarily harmful to the public. In many cases, the harm has been exaggerated, and has created in the public policy arena the notion that the public is at great risk from the smallest sources of radiation. The national cost of compliance with these regulations has been enormous. To the extent that existing environmental regulations are not being moderated, they pose major economic threats to present and future industries involving nuclear materials and technology. These would include the pharmaceutical industries as well as those seeking U.S. isotope markets in separations, purification, labeling, and manufacturing of new radiopharmaceuticals for cancer therapy, diagnosis, pain mitigation, treatment of arthritis, and other new applications. For those who are not aware of the results of recent advances in radiopharmaceuticals, clinical trials have demonstrated an 80% remission rate in the treatment of b-cell lymphoma and leukemia. New isotopes and new isotope technology promise greater effectiveness in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. The regulatory problems and their enormous costs exist at all stages in nuclear medicine, from the

  18. Common Cause Failures and Ultra Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2012-01-01

    A common cause failure occurs when several failures have the same origin. Common cause failures are either common event failures, where the cause is a single external event, or common mode failures, where two systems fail in the same way for the same reason. Common mode failures can occur at different times because of a design defect or a repeated external event. Common event failures reduce the reliability of on-line redundant systems but not of systems using off-line spare parts. Common mode failures reduce the dependability of systems using off-line spare parts and on-line redundancy.

  19. Regional odontodysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimma Reddy B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional odontodysplasia (ROD is a rare developmental anomaly involving both mesodermal and ectodermal components in a group of contiguous teeth. It affects the primary and permanent dentitions in the maxilla and the mandible or both, however, the maxilla is frequently involved. Although the etiology of the ROD is uncertain, it has been suggested that numerous other factors play a role. The treatment plan should be based on the degree of involvement as well as the functional and esthetic needs in each case. This article reports the case of a 5-year-old boy presenting a rare anomaly on the right side of the maxillary arch. The treatment performed was rehabilitation with temporary partial acrylic denture and periodic checkups. The extraction was followed by rehabilitation with dental implants. The main aim of this article is to provide valuable information to pediatric dentists about the review and treatment alternatives for ROD.

  20. Whither the common law derivative action

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, JL

    2009-01-01

    The common law derivative action was developed as a result of decades of case law in common law jurisdictions. Hong Kong and Singapore continue to retain the common law derivative action within their respective legal frameworks, despite both having enacted statutory derivative actions. This paper considers the situations in which the common law derivative action continues to have practical application in each of these jurisdictions. It then considers whether the common law derivative acti...

  1. 和谐与共荣:新时期西北地区残疾人体育健身服务保障体系的构建%Harmony and Common Prosperity: Discussion on the Con- struction of Sports Fitness Service System of Persons with Disa- bilities in Northwest Region of China in the New Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 张建华

    2012-01-01

    Using the research methods of literature, comparative a- nalysis and social investigation, the paper analyzed the current de- velopment of sports for the disabled in Northwest region of China. The results showed that: under certain economic conditions in Northwest region of China, internal and external factors can influ- ence the sports participation among persons with disabilities, inter- nal factors can be influenced and restricted by social factors, while social factors can be restricted by subjective desire of disabilities who moving to fitness. Therefore, by using the disabled sports fit- ness market innovation, institutional facilities, public opinion guid- ance, operation security, education and employment, building the sports fitness service system of persons with disabilities in Northwest region of China in the new period.%运用文献资料、比较分析和社会调查等研究方法,对西北地区残疾人体育发展现状进行分析。研究表明:在西北地区特定的经济条件下,影响残疾人体育健身的因素包括内因和外因两个方面,其中自身因素受社会因素的影响与制约,而社会因素则受动于残疾人体育健身主观愿望。因此,从残疾人体育健身市场开拓创新、制度配套、舆论引导、运行保障以及残疾人受教育和就业等方面,为新时期西北地区构建残疾人体育健身保障体系提供具体建议。

  2. Regional migratory osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahir, John G. [Department of Radiology, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Colney Lane, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7UY (United Kingdom)], E-mail: john.cahir@nnuh.nhs.uk; Toms, Andoni P. [Department of Radiology, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Colney Lane, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7UY (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    Regional migratory osteoporosis (RMO) is an uncommon disease characterised by a migrating arthralgia involving the weight bearing joints of the lower limb. The typical imaging findings on radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and bone scintigraphy are described and illustrated. Men in their fifth and sixth decades of life are most commonly affected. The most common presentation is with proximal to distal spread in the lower limb. The world literature has been reviewed which has revealed 63 documented cases of regional osteoporosis or bone marrow oedema with migratory symptoms. Most of these cases have not been labelled as RMO and therefore the condition is probably under-diagnosed. The radiology of RMO is indistinguishable from transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH) except for the migratory symptoms and the two conditions are likely to be part of the same spectrum of disease. Systemic osteoporosis is a more recently recognised accompanying feature that hints at an underlying aetiology and an approach to the management of this condition.

  3. Science for common entrance physics : answers

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, W R

    2015-01-01

    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Science for Common Entrance: Physics , which covers every Level 1 and 2 topic in the ISEB 13+ Physics Common Entrance exam syllabus. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. - Suitable for ISEB 13+ Mathematics Common Entrance exams taken from Autumn 2017 onwards. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Science for Common Entrance: Physics. - Science for Common Entrance: Biology. - Science for Common En

  4. Low Back Pain Common Among Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163320.html Low Back Pain Common Among Kids Sports injuries are ... 30, 2017 MONDAY, Jan. 30, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Low back pain is common in school-age American ...

  5. Common Problems That Can Affect Your Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... near you Common Problems That Can Affect Your Voice Common Problems That Can Affect Your Voice Patient ... that traditionally accompany gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Voice Misuse and Overuse Speaking is a physical task ...

  6. Decoding Dyslexia, a Common Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Dyslexia Decoding Dyslexia, a Common Learning Disability Past Issues / Winter 2016 ... Dyslexic" Articles In Their Own Words: Dealing with Dyslexia / Decoding Dyslexia, a Common Learning Disability / What is ...

  7. Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Monitoring Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Project is an interagency effort to increase public awareness of the common reedgrass problem, demonstrate effective control...

  8. How Are Pelvic Floor Disorders Commonly Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How are pelvic floor disorders commonly treated? Skip sharing on social media ... Treatment Nonsurgical treatments commonly used for PFDs include: Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT). Also called Kegel (pronounced KEY- ...

  9. Common Parent Reactions to the NICU

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Common Parent Reactions to the NICU Page Content Article ... their NICU stay. Anger Anger is also a common reaction to the initial NICU experience. Many parents ...

  10. Common cold - how to treat at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000466.htm Common cold - how to treat at home To use ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Colds are very common. A visit to your health care provider's office ...

  11. Does Commonality in Illiquidity Matter to Investors?

    OpenAIRE

    Richard G. Anderson; Binner, Jane M.; Björn Hagströmer; Birger Nilsson

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates whether investors are compensated for taking on commonality risk in equity portfolios. A large literature documents the existence and the causes of commonality in illiquidity, but the implications for investors are less understood. We find a return premium for commonality risk in NYSE stocks that is both economically and statistically significant. The commonality risk premium is independent of illiquidity level effects, and robust to variations in illiquidity measureme...

  12. WS co-designing and commoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botero, Andrea; Van Amste, Frederik; Seravalli, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This workshop explores the relevance of commons as an objective and commoning as a way of doing and being for design. How can these concepts help us critically support sustainable futures for communities of humans and non-humans?......This workshop explores the relevance of commons as an objective and commoning as a way of doing and being for design. How can these concepts help us critically support sustainable futures for communities of humans and non-humans?...

  13. 49 CFR 1185.5 - Common control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common control. 1185.5 Section 1185.5... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTERLOCKING OFFICERS § 1185.5 Common control. It shall not be... carriers if such carriers are operated under common control or management either: (a) Pursuant to...

  14. A School for the Common Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Lawrence; Foster, Hal

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the history and the concept of the common school from the Common School Movement reformers of the 1850s to the present. These reformers envisioned schools that were to be tuition free and open to everyone, places where rich and poor met and learned together on equal terms. Central to the concept of the common school is its…

  15. Simplifying the ELA Common Core; Demystifying Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoker, Mike; Jago, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The English Language Arts (ELA) Common Core State Standards ([CCSS], 2010) could have a transformational effect on American education. Though the process seems daunting, one can begin immediately integrating the essence of the ELA Common Core in every subject area. This article shows how one could implement the Common Core and create coherent,…

  16. Common Frame of Reference and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Satyanarayana, R.

    2009-01-01

    The article "Common Frame of Reference and Social Justice" by Martijn W. Hesselink evaluates the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) of social justice. It discusses the important areas, namely a common frame of Reference in a broad sense, social justice and contract law, private law and democracy

  17. Common Core: Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karge, Belinda Dunnick; Moore, Roxane Kushner

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core has become a household term and yet many educators do not understand what it means. This article explains the historical perspectives of the Common Core and gives guidance to teachers in application of Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE) necessary for full implementation of the Common Core State Standards. An effective…

  18. El sistema de las Creative Commons

    OpenAIRE

    Marandola, Marco

    2005-01-01

    Creative Commons scheme. Creative Commons is the first attempt to provide a valid legal framework for open access. This text analyses the beginnings of the movement and the different types of licences that have been prepared, as well as offering considerations regarding Creative Commons applications.

  19. Academic Engagement in the Library Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charlie; Bodnar, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written about library commons in recent years. For the most part, that literature has dealt with designing information and learning commons that support student learning by giving them the tools and resources they need for their academic work. However, few authors have discussed how a library commons might facilitate collaboration…

  20. Common Cold in Babies: Symptoms and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common cold in babies Symptoms and causes By Mayo Clinic Staff The first indication of the common cold in a baby is often: A congested ... or green Other signs and symptoms of a common cold in a baby may include: Fever Sneezing ...

  1. 47 CFR 1.9080 - Private commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private commons. 1.9080 Section 1.9080... and Procedures § 1.9080 Private commons. (a) Overview. A “private commons” arrangement is an... infrastructure (e.g., base stations, mobile stations, or other related elements). In a private commons...

  2. More efficient policy of energy and regional electricity supply by the directive 96/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 10 december 1996 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity; Effizientere Energiepolitik und regionale Elektrizitaetsversorgung durch die EU-Elektrizitaetsrichtlinie 1996. Politikfeldanalyse der europaeischen, deutschen und bayerischen Energiepolitik und Elektrizitaetswirtschaft im Zusammenhang mit der Entstehung und Umsetzung der EU-Richtlinie 96 sowie der Veraenderung der Effizienz in der traditionellen Elektrizitaetsversorgung unter supranationalem EU-Einfluss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtner, Franz

    2006-07-01

    The German energy policy and its main addressees, the regional electricity companies (EVU), are going through a critical phase at the beginning of the 21st century. The increasing complexity and inconsistency of energy issues have, in Germany and in other countries, led to decisions which again have produced extensive, but not yet foreseeable developments, as, for example, the liberalisation of the electricity and gas market within the European Union. The first objective of this paper is an empirical analysis of the regional electricity supply industry in Germany and particularly in Bavaria in so far as it is relevant for energy politics, as well as an introduction to the German energy policy up to approximately the time when the Directive 96/92/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 19 December 1996 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity, was passed. Moreover, findings for the definition of energy efficiency in electricity supply and of the policy analysis are outlined. The second objective of this paper is the analysis and evaluation of the European Union energy policy, in particular of the Directive 96/92/EC, its formation and how it has been put into action by the German and Bavarian electricity supply industry. Energy efficiency of the electricity supply serves as a yardstick, the research method employed is the policy analysis. The main part of this paper, by comparing objectives to effects and by evaluating interviews with energy experts, examines the questions if, in what ways and to what extent the Directive 96/92/EC has led to an increase of energy efficiency in the narrow as well as in the boarder sense, within the EU, Germany and Bavaria. Additionally, three hypotheses are tested: firstly the significance of energy efficiency (in the narrow sense), secondly the alignment of European energy supply, and thirdly the importance of supranational control through EU politics. The results are presented in tabular form, and the

  3. ERICA: prevalence of common mental disorders in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Claudia S; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; dos Santos, Debora França; Menezes, Paulo Rossi; de Carvalho, Kenia Mara Baiocchi; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of common mental disorders in Brazilian adolescent students, according to geographical macro-regions, school type, sex, and age. METHODS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents who participated in the Cardiovascular Risk Study in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national, school-based study conducted in 2013-2014 in cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. A self-administered questionnaire and an electronic data collector were employed. The presence of common mental disorders was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We estimated prevalence and 95% confidence intervals of common mental disorders by sex, age, and school type, in Brazil and in the macro-regions, considering the sample design. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders was of 30.0% (95%CI 29.2-30.8), being higher among girls (38.4%; 95%CI 37.1-39.7) when compared to boys (21.6%; 95%CI 20.5-22.8), and among adolescents who were from 15 to 17 years old (33.6%; 95%CI 32.2-35.0) compared to those aged between 12 and 14 years (26.7%; 95%CI 25.8-27.6). The prevalence of common mental disorders increased with age for both sexes, always higher in girls (ranging from 28.1% at 12 years to 44.1% at 17 years) than in boys (ranging from 18.5% at 12 years to 27.7% at 17 years). We did not observe any significant difference by macro-region or school type. Stratified analyses showed higher prevalence of common mental disorders among girls aged from 15 to 17 years of private schools in the North region (53.1; 95%CI 46.8-59.4). CONCLUSIONS The high prevalence of common mental disorders among adolescents and the fact that the symptoms are often vague mean these disorders are not so easily identified by school administrators or even by health services. The results of this study can help the proposition of more specific prevention and control measures, focused on highest risk subgroups. PMID:26910549

  4. ERICA: prevalence of common mental disorders in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia S Lopes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of common mental disorders in Brazilian adolescent students, according to geographical macro-regions, school type, sex, and age. METHODS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents who participated in the Cardiovascular Risk Study in Adolescents (ERICA, a cross-sectional, national, school-based study conducted in 2013-2014 in cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. A self-administered questionnaire and an electronic data collector were employed. The presence of common mental disorders was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. We estimated prevalence and 95% confidence intervals of common mental disorders by sex, age, and school type, in Brazil and in the macro-regions, considering the sample design. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders was of 30.0% (95%CI 29.2-30.8, being higher among girls (38.4%; 95%CI 37.1-39.7 when compared to boys (21.6%; 95%CI 20.5-22.8, and among adolescents who were from 15 to 17 years old (33.6%; 95%CI 32.2-35.0 compared to those aged between 12 and 14 years (26.7%; 95%CI 25.8-27.6. The prevalence of common mental disorders increased with age for both sexes, always higher in girls (ranging from 28.1% at 12 years to 44.1% at 17 years than in boys (ranging from 18.5% at 12 years to 27.7% at 17 years. We did not observe any significant difference by macro-region or school type. Stratified analyses showed higher prevalence of common mental disorders among girls aged from 15 to 17 years of private schools in the North region (53.1; 95%CI 46.8-59.4. CONCLUSIONS The high prevalence of common mental disorders among adolescents and the fact that the symptoms are often vague mean these disorders are not so easily identified by school administrators or even by health services. The results of this study can help the proposition of more specific prevention and control measures, focused on highest risk subgroups.

  5. L’informazione geografica nella regione Toscana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Trevisani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Tuscany region, made possible consult and download geographic informations through Creative Commons license, to facilitate the access to geographic database that produce. All this is possible through the GEOScopio WMS.

  6. Abundant oligonucleotides common to most bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin F Davenport

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacteria show a bias in their genomic oligonucleotide composition far beyond that dictated by G+C content. Patterns of over- and underrepresented oligonucleotides carry a phylogenetic signal and are thus diagnostic for individual species. Patterns of short oligomers have been investigated by multiple groups in large numbers of bacteria genomes. However, global distributions of the most highly overrepresented mid-sized oligomers have not been assessed across all prokaryotes to date. We surveyed overrepresented mid-length oligomers across all prokaryotes and normalised for base composition and embedded oligomers using zero and second order Markov models. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report a presumably ancient set of oligomers conserved and overrepresented in nearly all branches of prokaryotic life, including Archaea. These oligomers are either adenine rich homopurines with one to three guanine nucleosides, or homopyridimines with one to four cytosine nucleosides. They do not show a consistent preference for coding or non-coding regions or aggregate in any coding frame, implying a role in DNA structure and as polypeptide binding sites. Structural parameters indicate these oligonucleotides to be an extreme and rigid form of B-DNA prone to forming triple stranded helices under common physiological conditions. Moreover, the narrow minor grooves of these structures are recognised by DNA binding and nucleoid associated proteins such as HU. CONCLUSION: Homopurine and homopyrimidine oligomers exhibit distinct and unusual structural features and are present at high copy number in nearly all prokaryotic lineages. This fact suggests a non-neutral role of these oligonucleotides for bacterial genome organization that has been maintained throughout evolution.

  7. The Region is Dead, Long Live the Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian; Metzger, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    If it today is commonly accepted that regions are ‘constructs’ – then who or what construct them, for what reasons, and by which means? How are they made manifest and durable as both mental geographies and mundane everyday realities (cf. Metzger, 2013)? Paasi (2010, p.2298) suggests that regions...... become actualized through “a plethora of practices, discourses, relations and connections that can have wider origins in space and time but are assembled and connected in historically contingent ways in cultural, economic and political contexts and struggles”. Furthermore, he suggests that regions...... practices that have led to the formation and more recently encroaching dissipation of a well-known EUropean region: Öresund. In this endeavour we will make an effort to be sensitive to how Öresund as a spatial entity interrelates with, depends upon or partially challenges/is challenged by other geographical...

  8. Regional governance: strategies and disputes in health region management

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Adriano Maia; Giovanella, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the regional governance of the health systemin relation to management strategies and disputes. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES A qualitative study with health managers from 19 municipalities in the health region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Data were drawn from 17 semi-structured interviews of state, regional, and municipal health policymakers and managers; a focus group; observations of the regional interagency committee; and documents in 2012. The political-institutional and the organizational components were analyzed in the light of dialectical hermeneutics. RESULTS The regional interagency committee is the chief regional governance strategy/component and functions as a strategic tool for strengthening governance. It brings together a diversity of members responsible for decision making in the healthcare territories, who need to negotiate the allocation of funding and the distribution of facilities for common use in the region. The high turnover of health secretaries, their lack of autonomy from the local executive decisions, inadequate technical training to exercise their function, and the influence of party politics on decision making stand as obstacles to the regional interagency committee’s permeability to social demands. Funding is insufficient to enable the fulfillment of the officially integrated agreed-upon program or to boost public supply by the system, requiring that public managers procure services from the private market at values higher than the national health service price schedule (Brazilian Unified Health System Table). The study determined that “facilitators” under contract to health departments accelerated access to specialized (diagnostic, therapeutic and/or surgical) services in other municipalities by direct payment to physicians for procedure costs already covered by the Brazilian Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS The characteristics identified a regionalized system with a conflictive pattern of governance and

  9. Regional governance: strategies and disputes in health region management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Maia dos Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the regional governance of the health systemin relation to management strategies and disputes. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES A qualitative study with health managers from 19 municipalities in the health region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Data were drawn from 17 semi-structured interviews of state, regional, and municipal health policymakers and managers; a focus group; observations of the regional interagency committee; and documents in 2012. The political-institutional and the organizational components were analyzed in the light of dialectical hermeneutics. RESULTS The regional interagency committee is the chief regional governance strategy/component and functions as a strategic tool for strengthening governance. It brings together a diversity of members responsible for decision making in the healthcare territories, who need to negotiate the allocation of funding and the distribution of facilities for common use in the region. The high turnover of health secretaries, their lack of autonomy from the local executive decisions, inadequate technical training to exercise their function, and the influence of party politics on decision making stand as obstacles to the regional interagency committee’s permeability to social demands. Funding is insufficient to enable the fulfillment of the officially integrated agreed-upon program or to boost public supply by the system, requiring that public managers procure services from the private market at values higher than the national health service price schedule (Brazilian Unified Health System Table. The study determined that “facilitators” under contract to health departments accelerated access to specialized (diagnostic, therapeutic and/or surgical services in other municipalities by direct payment to physicians for procedure costs already covered by the Brazilian Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS The characteristics identified a regionalized system with a conflictive pattern of

  10. Regional governance: strategies and disputes in health region management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Adriano Maia dos; Giovanella, Ligia

    2014-08-01

    To analyze the regional governance of the health systemin relation to management strategies and disputes. A qualitative study with health managers from 19 municipalities in the health region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Data were drawn from 17 semi-structured interviews of state, regional, and municipal health policymakers and managers; a focus group; observations of the regional interagency committee; and documents in 2012. The political-institutional and the organizational components were analyzed in the light of dialectical hermeneutics. The regional interagency committee is the chief regional governance strategy/component and functions as a strategic tool for strengthening governance. It brings together a diversity of members responsible for decision making in the healthcare territories, who need to negotiate the allocation of funding and the distribution of facilities for common use in the region. The high turnover of health secretaries, their lack of autonomy from the local executive decisions, inadequate technical training to exercise their function, and the influence of party politics on decision making stand as obstacles to the regional interagency committee's permeability to social demands. Funding is insufficient to enable the fulfillment of the officially integrated agreed-upon program or to boost public supply by the system, requiring that public managers procure services from the private market at values higher than the national health service price schedule (Brazilian Unified Health System Table). The study determined that "facilitators" under contract to health departments accelerated access to specialized (diagnostic, therapeutic and/or surgical) services in other municipalities by direct payment to physicians for procedure costs already covered by the Brazilian Unified Health System. The characteristics identified a regionalized system with a conflictive pattern of governance and intermediate institutionalism. The regional interagency committee

  11. Análise da adaptabilidade e estabilidade de produção em ensaios regionais de feijoeiro para o Estado de São Paulo Analysis of adaptability and yield stability in regional trials of common bean for the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Peres Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar genótipos, superiores em produtividade, adaptabilidade e estabilidade, na produção de grãos de feijoeiro, por meio da análise Lin & Binns (1988, modificada por Carneiro (1998. Foram avaliados vinte e dois genótipos pertencentes aos principais programas de melhoramento do país. Essas avaliações constaram de dados dos ensaios de VCU 2007/2008/2009 para o Estado de São Paulo, que seguiram as normas estabelecidas pelo MAPA/SNPC, para ensaios de campo. Estes ensaios foram instalados em vinte e quatro ambientes, nas épocas das águas de 2007 e 2008, seca de 2008 e 2009 e inverno de 2008 e 2009. Os resultados obtidos no conjunto dos anos e ambientes de 2007/2008/2009 demonstraram que os genótipos 'Gen C2-1-3', 'CNFC 10408', 'Juriti Claro' e 'LP 04-72' comportaram-se como os mais estáveis e adaptados. O método Lin & Binns (1988, modificado por Carneiro (1998, mostrou-se adequado para análise dos dados, identificando os genótipos mais estáveis, produtivos e adaptados aos ambientes de cultivo.The objective of the present study was to identify superior genotypes for yield, adaptability and stability in common bean yield using the Lin & Binns (1988 analysis modified by Carneiro (1998. Twenty-two genotypes were analyzed from the main Brazilian plant breeding programs. The assessments consisted of data from the VCU 2007/2008/2009 experiments for São Paulo State that followed the norms established by the MAPA/SNPC for field trials. The experiments were set up in twenty-four environments, in the 2007 and 2008 wet growing seasons, the 2008 and 2009 dry growing seasons, and 2008 and 2009 winter growing seasons. The results obtained in the set of years and environments of 2007/2008/2009 showed that the genotypes 'Gen C2-1-3', 'CNFC 10408', 'Juriti Claro' and 'LP 04-72' performed with the greatest stability. The Lin & Binns (1988 analysis modified by Carneiro (1998 was shown to be suitable to analyze the

  12. Restraint stress and social defeat: What they have in common.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Simone Cristina; Canteras, Newton Sabino

    2015-07-01

    Bob Blanchard was a great inspiration for our studies on the neural basis of social defense. In the present study, we compared the hypothalamic pattern of activation between social defeat and restraint stress. As important stress situations, both defeated and immobilized animals displayed a substantial increase in Fos in the parvicellular part of the paraventricular nucleus,mostly in the region that contains the CRH neurons. In addition, socially defeated animals, but not restrained animals, recruited elements of the medial hypothalamic conspecific-responsive circuit, a region also engaged in other forms of social behavior. Of particular interest, both defeated and immobilized animals presented a robust increase in Fos expression in specific regions of the lateral hypothalamic area (i.e., juxtaparaventricular and juxtadorsomedial regions) likely to convey septo-hippocampal information encoding the environmental boundary restriction observed in both forms of stress, and in the dorsomedial part of the dorsal premammillary nucleus which seems to work as a key player for the expression of, at least, part of the behavioral responses during both restraint and social defeat. These results indicate interesting commonalities between social defeat and restraint stress, suggesting, for the first time, a septo-hippocampal–hypothalamic path likely to respond to the environmental boundary restriction that may act as common stressor component for both types of stress. Moreover, the comparison of the neural circuits mediating physical restraint and social defense revealed a possible path for encoding the entrapment component during social confrontation.

  13. Strengthening regional safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palhares, L.; Almeida, G.; Mafra, O. [Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980`s and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States.

  14. Manejo de microembalses para el cultivo extensivo de carpa común (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 en la región de Zacapu, Michoacán, México Water basins management for extensive aquaculture of common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 in the region of Zacapu, Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bel Huipe-Ramos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio aporta, mediante pruebas experimentales, una estimación de la capacidad de carga de los microembalses de la región de Zacapu, Michoacán para ser utilizada en la acuicultura extensiva y semintensiva de carpa común (Cyprinus carpió. Un análisis factorial (3 × 3 con tres densidades (D B = 0.5 org. · m-2, D M = 1 org. · m-2 y D A = 2 orgs. · m-2 y tres regímenes de alimentación (R0= sin fertilizar o con el alimento natural, R F= con fertilización y R+= suplementada con subproductos agrícolas incluyó nueve tratamientos combinados entre densidades y regímenes alimenticios con tres réplicas en cada caso. La combinación de baja densidad y alimentación natural, análoga a una acuicultura extensiva en microembalses, alcanzó un rendimiento máximo equivalente a 5,000 orgs.· ha-1 . Pruebas empíricas realizadas a la par en siete microembalses temporales (This study provides an assessment of the carrying capacity of water bodies in the area of Zacapu, Michoacan for extensive and semintensive aquaculture with carp (Cyprinus carpió by means of experimental trials in 27 ponds. A 3 × 3 factorial analysis with three densities (D B = 0.5 org. · m-2, D M=1 org. · m-2 and D A= 2 orgs. · m-2 and three feeding regimes (R0 = without fertilization, R F = fertilization and R+ = farming by-products included nine combined treatments between densities and feeding regimes with three replicates for each case. The combination of low density and natural food, analog to an extensive aquaculture in small water reservoirs, attained a maximum yield equivalent to 5,000 orgs.· ha-1 . Empirical trials accomplished at seven temporary basins (<10 ha under conditions of different stocking densities from 1,500 to 6,000 orgs.· ha-1 lead to fairly similar yields to those obtained in the ponds. Thus, the general index used in Mexico for extensive aquaculture of 1 org. · m² overloads the regional temporary ecosystems and only the possibility

  15. Agronomic performance of common bean third crop under irrigation in the northwestern region of Paraná StateDesempenho agronômico do feijoeiro comum de terceira safra sob irrigação na região Noroeste do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Viana Vieira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was done to evaluate the yield and yield components of bean third crop under irrigation depths in the northwestern region of Paraná State. The experiment was conducted in Arenito Campus of the State University of Maringa, Cidade Gaúcha city. The research was implanted with six irrigation depths (0, 104.1, 171.8, 192.4, 222.9 and 333 mm and four replicates with a randomized block design and plot banded. The plants number per meter (NPM, pods per plant number (NVP, grains per pod number (NGV, hundred grains weight (MCG, crop height (AP and height of first pod (AIPV were evaluated. The yield (PROD, pods per plant number (NVP, grains per pod number (NGV and hundred grains weight (MCG responded signicantly to irrigation depths. The highest yield, 2224 kg ha-1 was obtained with application of greater depth, equal to 333 mm.O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade e os componentes de produção da cultura do feijoeiro de terceira safra sob diferentes lâminas de irrigação na região Noroeste do Paraná. O experimento foi em área experimental da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Campus do Arenito, em Cidade Gaúcha – PR. O trabalho foi implantado com seis lâminas de irrigação (0, 104,1, 171,8, 192,4, 222,9 e 333 mm e quatro repetições, com delineamento de blocos ao acaso e esquema de parcelas em faixas. Foram avaliados o número de plantas por metro (NPM, número de vagens por planta (NVP, número de grãos por vagem (NGV, massa de cem grãos (MCG, altura das plantas (AP e altura de inserção da primeira vagem (AIPV. A produtividade (PROD e os componentes número de vagens por planta (NVP, número de grãos por vagem (NGV e massa de cem grãos (MCG responderam de forma linear e crescente às lâminas de irrigação. A maior produtividade, 2224 kg ha-1, foi obtida com aplicação da maior lâmina, igual a 333 mm

  16. [Common bile duct stones and their complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millat, B; Borie, F

    2000-12-01

    At the time of cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis, 7-20% of patients have common bile duct stones. Nearly one third of them are asymptomatic. Routine cholangiography during cholecystectomy allows the diagnosis and treatment of common bile duct stones during the same operation. Selective indication for the diagnosis of common bile duct stones based on the positive predictive value of indicators limits treatment to symptomatic cases. No single indicator is however completely accurate in predicting common bile duct stones and the natural history of asymptomatic cases is uncertain. Endoscopic stone extraction preceding cholecystectomy is not superior to one-stage surgical treatment. Diagnosis and treatment of common bile duct stones are feasible laparoscopically. Complications of common bile duct stones are cholangitis and acute pancreatitis; if severe, they require specific therapeutic approaches.

  17. A Simulation Model for Component Commonality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiao-chi; ZHANG Zi-gang

    2002-01-01

    Component commonality has been cited as a powerful approach for manufacturers to cope with increased component proliferation and to control inventory costs. To fully realize its potential benefits, one needs a clear understanding of its impacts on the system. In this paper, the feasibility of using a simulation model to provide a systematic perspective for manufacturing firms to implement a commonality strategy is demonstrated. Alternative commonality strategies including the stage of employing commonality and the allocation policies are simulated. Several interesting results on effects of commonality, allocation policies,and optimal solutions are obtained. We then summarize qualitative insights and managerial implications into the component commonality design and implementation, and inventory management in a general multi-stage assembly system.

  18. The Atmosphere as a Global Common

    OpenAIRE

    Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2013-01-01

    Der Klimawandel ist ein Problem globaler Gemeingüter (Commons). Die atmosphärische Senke wird zu stark genutzt. Zentrale Frage ist daher ob es möglich ist die "Tragedy of the Commons" zu einem "Drama der Commons" zu machen. Obwohl dies schwierig erscheint, gibt es vielversprechende technologische und institutionelle Optionen. Da in den kommenden Jahrzehnten jedoch keine globale Weltregierung abzusehen ist, müssen polyzentrische Regierungsansätze erforscht werden. Climate Change is a Global...

  19. Boolean approach to common event analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, R.B.; Stack, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Although different phenomena may be involved, the problem that must be solved for each kind of common event analysis is essentially the same: to determine the effect of common events on the behavior of a system. A Boolean approach to the problem is set forth. Because of the large equations that arise, processing must be done by computers. Vital location analysis is a particular kind of common event analysis that is used to study ways to prevent the sabotage of nuclear reactors. (RWR)

  20. Accounting and marketing: searching a common denominator

    OpenAIRE

    David S. Murphy

    2012-01-01

    Accounting and marketing are very different disciplines. The analysis of customer profitability is one concept that can unite accounting and marketing as a common denominator. In this article I search for common ground between accounting and marketing in the analysis of customer profitability to determine if a common denominator really exists between the two. This analysis focuses on accounting profitability, customer lifetime value, and customer equity. The article ends with a summary of wha...

  1. Editorial Thoughts: Rise of the Innovation Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Tod Colegrove

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available That the practice of libraries and librarianship is changing is an understatement. Throughout their history, libraries have adapted and evolved to better meet the needs of the communities served. Framed against the historical development of the library commons and technological support, this piece introduces the concept of an innovation commons as a natural evolution for libraries, from information through learning commons, to the organic development and incorporation of library makerspaces.

  2. Common neuromusculoskeletal injuries amongst rock climbers in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezel Wegner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rock climbing is an extreme sport that is fast gaining interest in the Western Cape. Due to the physical nature of the sport, climbers often suffer neuromusculoskeletal (NMS injuries. Physiotherapists are first-line practitioners who diagnose and treat NMS injuries, but no previous study has been conducted regarding common NMS injuries amongst rock climbers in the Western Cape.Objective: To determine the common NMS injuries amongst rock climbers, and the relationships between independent variables and injury.Method: A Quantitative, cross-sectional, retrospective descriptive study design utilised a self-developed survey based on the literature. This was completed by rock climbers from an indoor climbing gym in Cape Town and two outdoor crags in the Western Cape. Out of the total population of 650 climbers, 247 were conveniently sampled to complete the self-administered survey, making the results generalisable to the climbing population.Results: Finger flexor tendon pulley injuries were the most commonly diagnosed NMS injury. Injury to the fingers, hand and elbow regions were the most common self-reported injury by area. The risk of suffering climbing-related injuries was significantly correlated to gender, setting, grade and type of climbing, but not to frequency of climbing.Conclusion: The results of this study could assist physiotherapists to assess and manage the common NMS injuries that occur in this group of extreme athletes, as well as to raise awareness amongst rock climbers in the Western Cape about potential risk of injury.

  3. Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coherent Logix, Incorporated (CLX) proposes the development of a Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) that leverages the inherent advantages of an...

  4. Mathematics for common entrance three (extension) answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension) , which provides essential preparation for Level 3 of the ISEB 13+ Mathematics exam, as well as for CASE and other scholarship exams. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension). - Mathematics for Common Entrance One. - Mathematics for Common Entrance One Answers. - M

  5. Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coherent Logix, Incorporated proposes the Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) program to facilitate the development of a Software Defined Radio...

  6. Regional air quality modeling: North American and European perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyn, D.; Builtjes, P.; Schaap, M.; Yarwood, G.

    2013-01-01

    An overview of regional-scale quality modeling practices and perspectives in North America and Europe, highlighting the differences and commonalities in how regional-scale air quality modeling systems are being used and evaluated across both continents

  7. Color change using HSB color system of dental resin composites immersed in different common Amazon region beverages Alteração de cor de resinas compostas imersas em diferentes bebidas comuns da região Amazônica, utilizando o sistema de cor HSB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora da Costa e Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate in vitro the color stability of composite resins when exposed to beverages with high coloring contents from the Amazon region. 240 samples from four different composite brands (Natural Look, Z350, 4Seasons and Opallis of hue A3 were fabricated using an acrylic matrix. The samples were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 hours. The initial color (T0 was registered using a Canon EOS Rebel XTi 10 mp camera, and then the samples were divided into four groups (n=15: G1 (coffee, G2 (açaí juice, G3 (energetic guaraná and G4 (control - distilled water. The samples were exposed to solutions of DES (6hs and RE (18hs and placed in a double boiler under constant agitation, at 37ºC for 30 days. The samples were immersed in the coloring solutions for 15 minutes daily. After 7, 15 and 30 days, new photographic registers were made (T1, T2 and T3. The images were analyzed using Corel PHOTO-PAINT 12 software to identify the colors through the HSB system. The Kruskal-Wallis and t tests (pEste estudo propôs avaliar in vitro a estabilidade de cor de alguns compósitos quando expostos a bebidas da Região Amazônica com alto teor de corante. Foram confeccionados 240 corpos de prova (CP de quatro resinas (Natural Look, Z350, 4Seasons e Opallis no matiz A3 utilizando uma matriz de acrílico. As amostras foram armazenadas em água deionizada a 37ºC por 24 horas. A cor inicial das resinas (T0 foi registrada utilizando a máquina Canon EOS Rebel XTi 10Mp, e em seguida os CP foram divididos em 4 grupos (n=15: G1 (café, G2 (suco de açaí, G3 (guaraná energético e G4 (controle - água destilada. Os CP foram submetidos às soluções DES (6hs e RE (18hs e colocados em banho-maria, sob constante agitação, à temperatura de 37ºC durante 30 dias. Diariamente os corpos de prova foram imersos nas soluções corantes durante 15 minutos. Após 7, 15 e 30 dias realizaram-se novos registros fotográficos (T1, T2 e T3. As

  8. Looking Forward from "A Common Faith"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2009-01-01

    "A Common Faith," according to this author, is arguably one of John Dewey's least effective books. In it, he tries to persuade readers that the best of two epistemologically different worlds can be reconciled in a common faith--one that employs the methods of science with a generously religious attitude. Possibly most people today believe this…

  9. Jetu Edosa Chewaka INTRODUCTION Perspectives on common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perspectives on common property regime have been popularized when. Hardin wrote on .... among indigenous peoples is gaining wide support from ecologists, political ...... and are least likely, among all Oromo populations to trade their identity for ...... which is given by the government to local residents for common grazing,.

  10. Confronting Common Folklore: Catching a Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Page

    2012-01-01

    Almost every child has experienced the sniffly, stuffy, and achy congestion of the common cold. In addition, many have encountered the "old wives tales" that forge a link between personal actions and coming down with this common respiratory infection. Much of this health folklore has been passed down from generation to generation (e.g., getting a…

  11. Young Children's Understanding of Cultural Common Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human social interaction depends on individuals identifying the common ground they have with others, based both on personally shared experiences and on cultural common ground that all members of the group share. We introduced 3- and 5-year-old children to a culturally well-known object and a novel object. An experimenter then entered and asked,…

  12. The common polymorphism of apolipoprotein E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Ulrik

    2003-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) has important functions in systemic and local lipid transport, but also has other functions. The gene (APOE) shows a common polymorphism with three alleles--APOE*2, APOE*3, and APOE*4. Their frequencies vary substantially around the world, but APOE*3 is the most common...

  13. Clinical chemistry of common apolipoprotein E isoforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; vanDoormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    1996-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E plays a central role in clearance of lipoprotein remnants by serving as a ligand for low-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein E receptors. Three common alleles (apolipoprotein E(2), E(3) and E(4)) give rise to six phenotypes. Apolipoprotein E(3) is the ancestral form. Common apoli

  14. Private Schools Opt for Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    The common standards are not just for public schools. With all but four states having adopted them since 2010, districts have little choice but to implement the Common Core State Standards. But many private schools are also making the transition. Many Roman Catholic, Lutheran, and other private schools have adopted at least portions of the…

  15. Longest Common Extensions in Sublinear Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs;

    2015-01-01

    The longest common extension problem (LCE problem) is to construct a data structure for an input string T of length n that supports LCE(i,j) queries. Such a query returns the length of the longest common prefix of the suffixes starting at positions i and j in T. This classic problem has a well-kn...

  16. After Common Core, States Set Rigorous Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Paul E.; Barrows, Samuel; Gift, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In spite of Tea Party criticism, union skepticism, and anti-testing outcries, the campaign to implement Common Core State Standards (otherwise known as Common Core) has achieved phenomenal success in statehouses across the country. Since 2011, 45 states have raised their standards for student proficiency in reading and math, with the greatest…

  17. Clinical chemistry of common apolipoprotein E isoforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; vanDoormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    1996-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E plays a central role in clearance of lipoprotein remnants by serving as a ligand for low-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein E receptors. Three common alleles (apolipoprotein E(2), E(3) and E(4)) give rise to six phenotypes. Apolipoprotein E(3) is the ancestral form. Common

  18. Generalized Common Fixed Point Results with Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Amin Kutbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtained some generalized common fixed point results in the context of complex valued metric spaces. Moreover, we proved an existence theorem for the common solution for two Urysohn integral equations. Examples are presented to support our results.

  19. Characteristics of common infections in Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matute Moreno, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of the studies outlined in this thesis was to gain empirical epidemiological and therapeutic knowledge of some common infectious diseases in Nicaragua. So far, relatively little was known about the incidence, etiology, management and antibiotic resistance patterns of common infectio

  20. Signaling Without Common Prior : An Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drouvelis, M.; Müller, W.; Possajennikov, A.

    2009-01-01

    The common prior assumption is pervasive in game-theoretic models with incomplete information. This paper investigates experimentally the importance of inducing a common prior in a two-person signaling game. For a specific probability distribution of the sender’s type, the long-run behavior without

  1. Graphic method for analyzing common path interferometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.

    1998-01-01

    Common path interferometers are widely used for visualizing phase disturbances and fluid flows. They are attractive because of the inherent simplicity and robustness in the setup. A graphic method will be presented for analyzing and optimizing filter parameters in common path interferometers....

  2. Signaling Without Common Prior : An Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drouvelis, M.; Müller, W.; Possajennikov, A.

    2009-01-01

    The common prior assumption is pervasive in game-theoretic models with incomplete information. This paper investigates experimentally the importance of inducing a common prior in a two-person signaling game. For a specific probability distribution of the sender’s type, the long-run behavior without

  3. Common Stochastic Trends in the Current Account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumah, F.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Solow residuals are used as proxies for productivity shocks in many empirical studies.Considering the shortcomings of this approach this paper proposes the common trends approach as an alternative.The common trends econometric technique is utilized here in an attempt to identify and analyze the long

  4. "Bud, Not Buddy": Common Reading, Uncommon Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Marjorie M., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Gives an idea of how to structure a common reading experience around a book on tape with accompanying response approaches for student engagement with and reaction to good common reading. Presents exercises and ideas that can be used in the classroom to supplement the audio books, including writing exercises and listening and responding exercises.…

  5. Confronting Common Folklore: Catching a Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Page

    2012-01-01

    Almost every child has experienced the sniffly, stuffy, and achy congestion of the common cold. In addition, many have encountered the "old wives tales" that forge a link between personal actions and coming down with this common respiratory infection. Much of this health folklore has been passed down from generation to generation (e.g., getting a…

  6. Common Core in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M.; McShane, Michael Q.

    2013-01-01

    There are at least four key places where the Common Core intersects with current efforts to improve education in the United States--testing, professional development, expectations, and accountability. Understanding them can help educators, parents, and policymakers maximize the chance that the Common Core is helpful to these efforts and, perhaps…

  7. Common Core in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M.; McShane, Michael Q.

    2013-01-01

    There are at least four key places where the Common Core intersects with current efforts to improve education in the United States--testing, professional development, expectations, and accountability. Understanding them can help educators, parents, and policymakers maximize the chance that the Common Core is helpful to these efforts and, perhaps…

  8. Establishing a Knowledge Commons at the CSIR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, Johanna M

    2008-06-05

    Full Text Available Commons aims to serve as the science showcase for the CSIR. (There are huge differences between the typical academic library perception of a knowledge commons and what the CSIR is busy creating. These differences will, very briefly, be mentioned...

  9. Common Standards for Career Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Office of College and Career Readiness has developed the "Common Standards for Career Education Programs." The six common standards are: (1) Program Management and Planning; (2) Curriculum; (3) Instruction; (4) Professional Development; (5) Career and Technical Student Organizations; and (6) Instructional Facilities and Equipment.…

  10. ASEAN and Thailand's regional security cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Kanpachai, Saisak

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established in 1967 by the integration of the Southeast Asian non communist states. Common security concerns in the region made the cooperation possible among them in the first place. Established mainly because of security reasons, ASEAN at present has only loose regional security cooperation. On the other hand, it provides close regional economic cooperation. Distrust among ASEAN ...

  11. Chemical and Common Burns in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shan

    2017-05-01

    Burns are a common cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in children. Thermal and chemical burns are the most common types of burns. Their clinical appearance can be similar and the treatment is largely similar. Thermal burns in children occur primarily after exposure to a hot surface or liquid, or contact with fire. Burns are typically classified based on the depth and total body surface area, and the severity and onset of the burn can also depend on the temperature and duration of contact. Chemical burns are caused by chemicals-most commonly acids and alkalis-that can damage the skin on contact. In children, the most common cause of chemical burns is from household products such as toilet bowl cleaners, drain cleaners, detergents, and bleaches. Mild chemical burns generally cause redness and pain and can look similar to other common rashes or skin infections, whereas severe chemical burns are more extreme and may cause redness, blistering, skin peeling, and swelling.

  12. The Common and its potential creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2015-01-01

    creativity of the common allows for the production of other forms of life. This article explores an alternative model of creative capitalism, whereby the common is expropriated through its marketization and individualization. This model is based on three pillars: the city as the place of creation of new......The capitalist modes of production and accumulation require and make possible the expansion of the common. The dependency of capitalism on the common opens up possibilities of different paths seen from post-crisis perspectives: the potential of the common can be monopolized by the interest...... of capital in exploiting it but it can also contribute to shaping other scenarios. In the first case, creative capitalism moves towards a mode of production based on clustering, mostly in the cities, to produce untraded externalities or interdependencies. In the second case, the interconnected and potential...

  13. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF COMMON LOON GENETIC STRUCTURE IN NORTH AMERICA BASED ON FIVE MICROSATELLITE LOCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study seeks to determine fine-scale genetic structure of Common Loon breeding populations in order to link wintering birds with their breeding regions. Common Loons are large piscivorous birds that breed in lakes of northern North America and Iceland. Loons are highly phil...

  14. Monetary policy and regional output in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rockenbach da Silva Guimarães

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an analysis of whether the effects of the Brazilian monetary policy on regional outputs are symmetric. The strategy developed combines the techniques of principal component analysis (PCA to decompose the variables that measure regional economic activity into common and region-specific components and vector autoregressions (VAR to observe the behavior of these variables in response to monetary policy shocks. The common component responds to monetary policy as expected. Additionally, the idiosyncratic components of the regions showed no impact of monetary policy. The main finding of this paper is that the monetary policy responses on regional output are symmetrical when the regional output decomposition is performed, and the responses are asymmetrical when this decomposition is not performed. Therefore, performing the regional output decomposition corroborates the economic intuition that monetary policy has no impact on region-specific issues. Once monetary policy affects the common component of the regional economic activity and does not impact its idiosyncratic components, it can be considered symmetrical.

  15. Governing the global commons with local institutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Bodnar

    Full Text Available Most problems faced by modern human society have two characteristics in common--they are tragedy-of-the-commons type of problems, and they are global problems. Tragedy-of-the-commons type of problems are those where a commonly shared resource is overexploited by free riders at the expense of everyone sharing the resource. The exploitation of global resources such as clean air and water, political stability and peace, etc. underlies many of the most pressing human problems. Punishment of free riding behavior is one of the most frequently used strategies to combat the problem, but the spatial reach of sanctioning institutions is often more limited than the spatial effects of overexploitation. Here, we analyze a general game theoretical model to assess under what circumstances sanctioning institutions with limited reach can maintain the larger commons. We find that the effect of the spatial reach has a strong effect on whether and how the commons can be maintained, and that the transitions between those outcomes are characterized by phase transitions. The latter indicates that a small change in the reach of sanctioning systems can profoundly change the way the global commons can be managed.

  16. Governing the global commons with local institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Todd; Salathé, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Most problems faced by modern human society have two characteristics in common--they are tragedy-of-the-commons type of problems, and they are global problems. Tragedy-of-the-commons type of problems are those where a commonly shared resource is overexploited by free riders at the expense of everyone sharing the resource. The exploitation of global resources such as clean air and water, political stability and peace, etc. underlies many of the most pressing human problems. Punishment of free riding behavior is one of the most frequently used strategies to combat the problem, but the spatial reach of sanctioning institutions is often more limited than the spatial effects of overexploitation. Here, we analyze a general game theoretical model to assess under what circumstances sanctioning institutions with limited reach can maintain the larger commons. We find that the effect of the spatial reach has a strong effect on whether and how the commons can be maintained, and that the transitions between those outcomes are characterized by phase transitions. The latter indicates that a small change in the reach of sanctioning systems can profoundly change the way the global commons can be managed.

  17. Anatomical study of sciatic nerve and common peroneal nerve compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingzhao Jia; Qing Xia; Jinmin Sun; Qiang Zhou; Weidong Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many diseases of the common peroneal nerve are a result of sciatic nerve injury. The present study addresses whether anatomical positioning of the sciatic nerve is responsible for these injuries. OBJECTIVE: To analyze anatomical causes of sciatic nerve and common peroneal nerve injury by studying the relationship between the sciatic nerve and piriformis. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Observe and measure repeatedly. The experiment was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Tianjin Medical College between January and June 2005. MATERIALS: Fifty-two adult cadavers 33 males and 19 females, with a total of 104 hemispheres, and fixed with formaldehyde, were provided by Tianjin Medical College and Tianjin Medical University. METHODS: A posterior cut was made from the lumbosacral region to the upper leg, fully exposing the piriformis and path of the sciatic nerve. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Anatomical characteristics of the tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve. (2) According to different areas where the sciatic nerve crosses the piriformis, the study was divided into two types--normal and abnormal. Normal is considered to be when the sciatic nerve passes through the infrapiriform foramen. Remaining pathways are considered to be abnormal. (3) Observe the relationship between the suprapiriform foramen, infrapiriform foramen, as well as the superior and inferior space of piriformis. RESULTS: (1) The nerve tract inside the common peroneal nerve is smaller and thinner, with less connective tissue than the tibial nerve. When pathological changes or variations of the piriformis, or over-abduction of the hip joint, occur, injury to the common peroneal nerve often arises due to blockage and compression. (2) A total of 76 hemispheres (73.08%) were normal, 28 were abnormal (26.92%). The piriformis can be injured, and the sciatic nerve can become compressed, when the hip joint undergoes intorsion, extorsion, or abduction. (3) The structures between the infrapiriform and

  18. Accounting and marketing: searching a common denominator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Murphy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Accounting and marketing are very different disciplines. The analysis of customer profitability is one concept that can unite accounting and marketing as a common denominator. In this article I search for common ground between accounting and marketing in the analysis of customer profitability to determine if a common denominator really exists between the two. This analysis focuses on accounting profitability, customer lifetime value, and customer equity. The article ends with a summary of what accountants can do to move the analysis of customer value forward, as an analytical tool, within companies.

  19. Ecology and the Tragedy of the Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Roopnarine

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops mathematical models of the tragedy of the commons analogous to ecological models of resource consumption. Tragedies differ fundamentally from predator–prey relationships in nature because human consumers of a resource are rarely controlled solely by that resource. Tragedies do occur, however, at the level of the ecosystem, where multiple species interactions are involved. Human resource systems are converging rapidly toward ecosystem-type systems as the number of exploited resources increase, raising the probability of system-wide tragedies in the human world. Nevertheless, common interests exclusive of exploited commons provide feasible options for avoiding tragedy in a converged world.

  20. General Common Fixed Point Theorems and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Lal Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main result is a common fixed point theorem for a pair of multivalued maps on a complete metric space extending a recent result of Đorić and Lazović (2011 for a multivalued map on a metric space satisfying Ćirić-Suzuki-type-generalized contraction. Further, as a special case, we obtain a generalization of an important common fixed point theorem of Ćirić (1974. Existence of a common solution for a class of functional equations arising in dynamic programming is also discussed.

  1. Attachments to the common-place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2015-01-01

    change. To understand the dynamic interplay of architecture and community-building in this case, the article stages a theoretical debate on the politics of shared attachments between three proponents of French pragmatic sociology: Bruno Latour, Antoine Hennion, and Laurent Thévenot. Drawing in particular...... on Thévenot's notion of ‘commonality in the plural’, the article shows how a range of personal affinities to the architectural form of the kyō-machiya, positioned as an urban ‘common-place’, serves to coordinate across otherwise divergent interests. By taking seriously the role of attachments to common...

  2. Evaluation of common bean lines for adaptation to high temperatures in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    As in other regions worldwide, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in Central America and the Caribbean (CA/C) region is threatened by effects of climate change including increasing temperatures and drought due to variable rainfall patterns. One of the main alternatives for increasing ada...

  3. Italian Common Bean Landraces: History, Genetic Diversity and Seed Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela R. Piergiovanni

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The long tradition of common bean cultivation in Italy has allowed the evolution of many landraces adapted to restricted areas. Nowadays, in response to market demands, old landraces are gradually being replaced by improved cultivars. However, landraces still survive in marginal areas of several Italian regions. Most of them appear severely endangered with risk of extinction due to the advanced age of the farmers and the socio-cultural context where they are cultivated. The present contribution is an overview of the state of the art about the knowledge of Italian common bean germplasm, describing the most important and recent progresses made in its characterization, including genetic diversity and nutritional aspects.

  4. Common Law, Mountain Music, and the Construction of Community Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenkins, Christopher David

    2010-01-01

    preserve a backward-looking, cultural memory at the same time as they accommodate gradual changes in social conditions. Thus, this comparison argues that these essentially unwritten legal and musical traditions similarly transcend geographical and temporal distances, reflect and influence normative......This article suggests how law and the arts can shape a community’s identity over time, by exploring the unique parallels between the common law and the folk music of the Appalachian region of the United States — two cultural transplants from the British Isles to the early American frontier. Both...... attitudes, and rely upon relatively open communicative processes in transmitting their core information. As living traditions, then, the common law and Appalachian folk music open small but important spaces for pluralistic discourse, where social conflicts can be reconciled over time and new identities...

  5. Anomalous branching pattern of common hepatic artery: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant S. Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of hepatic artery variations exists which is continuously proving a hindrance for the surgeons and radiologists. During routine dissection in the subhepatic region in 50 year old male cadaver for undergraduate teaching, a variation in the branching pattern of common hepatic artery was noticed. We observed an unusual branching of the common hepatic artery into seven terminal branches, of which two were left hepatic arteries, two were right gastric arteries and the remaining three were right hepatic artery, cystic artery and gastroduodenal artery. Hepatic artery proper was absent. Embryological basis of these variations were discussed. The present case is a rarity and will further throw light on the knowledge of the hepatic artery variations, thus assisting surgeons and radiologists in various surgical and diagnostic procedures. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1740-1742

  6. Worldwide genetic differentiation in the common fouling barnacle, Amphibalanus amphitrite

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hsi-Nien

    2014-10-21

    © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Amphibalanus amphitrite is a common fouling barnacle distributed globally in tropical and subtropical waters. In the present study, the genetic (mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I) and morphological differentiation in A. amphitrite from 25 localities around the world were investigated. The results revealed three clades within A. amphitrite with a genetic divergence of ~ 4% among clades, whereas there were no diagnostic morphological differences among clades. Clade 1 is widely distributed in both temperate and tropical waters, whereas Clade 3 is currently restricted to the tropical region. The deep divergence among clades suggests historical isolation within A. amphitrite; thus, the present geographical overlaps are possibly a result of the combined effects of rising sea level and human-mediated dispersals. This study highlights the genetic differentiation that exists in a common, widely distributed fouling organism with great dispersal potential; future antifouling research should take into account the choice of lineages.

  7. Internet: A Homeland in Common İnternet: Ortak Vatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tayfun Gülle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Editorial part of this issue, brief information is given about the problems facing internet usage in Turkey, which is spreading day by day. It is emphasized that the laws made for disciplining the internet in Turkey through legal regulations affect both the violators and the innocent, leading to a restriction in the society’s access to information and freedom of expression. Departing from the argument that people, societies, regions and countries can freely exhibit their different cultural and social structures through the internet, which will lead to the proliferation of tolerance among world people, the Editorial emphasizes that there is a need for a legal regulation to punish the real violators instead of disciplining this cyber world which has turned into a “homeland in common.” Accordingly, the Declaration of Common Platform Against Internet Censorship signed by 56 nongovernmental organizations, including ours, is presented in addition to the editorial.

  8. Building Bridges Between Scientific Categories and Common Sense Social Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, A.

    2005-05-01

    The teaching of scientific categories in remote regions of the country, far away from research centers involved in the production of knowledge must take into account the layman's common sense concepts of those categories. Our research on the comprehension and learning of linguistic categories in on-service education courses gives support to the utility of the notion of social representations (such as described by Moscovici, Abric and others ) and has shown that re-textualization of scientific definitions undertaken by students in on-service training programs is reinforced by everyday, non-scientific categories. It has also shown that re-textualization is an activity that involves the social representation of the discourse objects. It has been said that all scientific concepts have a a corresponding common sense one; our paper addresses the problem of how to investigate the community's local knowledge so as to build the foundations of outreach programs.

  9. The Common and its potential creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2015-01-01

    The capitalist modes of production and accumulation require and make possible the expansion of the common. The dependency of capitalism on the common opens up possibilities of different paths seen from post-crisis perspectives: the potential of the common can be monopolized by the interest...... of capital in exploiting it but it can also contribute to shaping other scenarios. In the first case, creative capitalism moves towards a mode of production based on clustering, mostly in the cities, to produce untraded externalities or interdependencies. In the second case, the interconnected and potential...... social bonds, the production of general intellect and the transformation of public spaces; the precarious multitude as a new class composition opposed to the entrepreneurial conception of creative class; and the cultural commons as an exit strategy from the dichotomy between private and public leading...

  10. Common acquired kidney diseases in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5. Common acquired kidney diseases in children. Examination of the urine is probably the most ... rheumatic fever and APSGN should not ... remains unknown. ... Volume overload may also cause ..... systematic review of observational studies.

  11. SSA FITARA Common Baseline Implementation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This document describes the agency's plan to implement the Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Common Baseline per OMB memorandum M-15-14.

  12. Anti-Secession Law Reflects Common Will

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏远

    2005-01-01

    @@ Chinese top legislator Wu Bangguo on Dec.29, 2004 promised that the 10th National People's Congress (NPC) would do its best to fully reflect the common will of all Chinese people in making the anti-secession law.

  13. Depression Common After Time Spent in ICU

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160482.html Depression Common After Time Spent in ICU About one- ... of former intensive care unit (ICU) patients have depression, a new review finds. Each year, more than ...

  14. Mycorrhiza: A Common Form of Mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medve, Richard J.

    1978-01-01

    Mycorrhizae are among the most common examples of mutualism. This article discusses their structure, symbolic relationship, factors affecting formation and applying research. Questions are posed and answers suggested. (MA)

  15. Frameworks of competence: common or specific?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Grant, S. (2006). Frameworks of competence: common or specific?. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. September 12th, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from

  16. Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Project Progress Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Southern Watersheds includes the drainages of the Northwest River, the North Landing River, and Back Bay in the southeastern corner of Virginia. Common reedgrass...

  17. Common Cause Failure Modeling: Aerospace Versus Nuclear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, James E.; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert W.; Hark, Frank; Hatfield, G. Spencer

    2010-01-01

    Aggregate nuclear plant failure data is used to produce generic common-cause factors that are specifically for use in the common-cause failure models of NUREG/CR-5485. Furthermore, the models presented in NUREG/CR-5485 are specifically designed to incorporate two significantly distinct assumptions about the methods of surveillance testing from whence this aggregate failure data came. What are the implications of using these NUREG generic factors to model the common-cause failures of aerospace systems? Herein, the implications of using the NUREG generic factors in the modeling of aerospace systems are investigated in detail and strong recommendations for modeling the common-cause failures of aerospace systems are given.

  18. common laboratory investigations in obstetrics and gynaecology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    tice have much in common with those in other medical disci- ... Vitamin B12 and folate ... hypertensive disorders of ... antenatal full blood count screening ... and Low Platelets). ... be of value in detecting obstetrically .... The cut-off at 2 hours.

  19. What Are Common Treatments for Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources and Publications What are common treatments for Down syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... computers with large-letter keyboards. DS-Connect®: The Down Syndrome Registry Parents and families of children with Down ...

  20. Vulvovaginitis and other common childhood gynaecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, Anne S

    2011-04-01

    Paediatric gynaecological problems, especially those involving the vulvar area, are common in childhood. The conditions frequently seen include recurrent bacterial vulvovaginitis, vulvar irritation, labial adhesions and dermatological conditions. The presentation and management of these conditions will be reviewed.

  1. Lateral meniscal cyst causing common peroneal palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jowett, Andrew J.L.; Johnston, Jaquie F.A. [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Level 7, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Gaillard, Francesco; Anderson, Suzanne E. [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Department of Radiology, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Lateral meniscal cysts are relatively common, but only in rare instances do they cause common peroneal nerve irritation. There are, we believe, no cases reported in which both the sensory and motor functions of the nerve have been compromised. We present a case of a lateral meniscal cyst that became palpable and led to symptoms of numbness and weakness in the distribution of the common peroneal nerve. The MRI findings were of an oblique tear of the lateral meniscus with an associated multiloculated meniscal cyst that coursed behind the biceps tendon before encroaching on the common peroneal nerve. Surgical resection confirmed the tract as located on the MRI and histology confirmed the mass to be a synovial cyst. Resection of the cyst and arthroscopic excision of the meniscal tear led to resolution of the symptoms in 3 months. (orig.)

  2. Spring Creek Common Allotment habitat management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Management plan for the Spring Creek Common Allotment on Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge, in McCone and Garfield Counties, Montana. This plan discusses...

  3. Mycorrhiza: A Common Form of Mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medve, Richard J.

    1978-01-01

    Mycorrhizae are among the most common examples of mutualism. This article discusses their structure, symbolic relationship, factors affecting formation and applying research. Questions are posed and answers suggested. (MA)

  4. Inquiry, New Literacies, and the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegman, Bridget

    2014-01-01

    For 21st century learning, students need to be well versed in techniques for inquiry using new literacies. Developing these skills also will meet the rigorous expectations of the Common Core State Standards.

  5. Inquiry, New Literacies, and the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegman, Bridget

    2014-01-01

    For 21st century learning, students need to be well versed in techniques for inquiry using new literacies. Developing these skills also will meet the rigorous expectations of the Common Core State Standards.

  6. common bacterial isolates from infected eyes abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    The common bacterial isolates and their antibiotics susceptibility were studied in 298 bacterial ... Bacteria were isolated most on the eye infections of the conjunctiva ... practitioners to avoid development of resistance from indiscriminate use.

  7. Urban gardens: catalysts for restorative commons infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Seitz

    2009-01-01

    One of 18 articles inspired by the Meristem 2007 Forum, "Restorative Commons for Community Health." The articles include interviews, case studies, thought pieces, and interdisciplinary theoretical works that explore the relationship between human health and the urban...

  8. Data Commons to Support Pediatric Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchenboum, Samuel L; Cox, Suzanne M; Heath, Allison; Resnick, Adam; Cohn, Susan L; Grossman, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The falling costs and increasing fidelity of high-throughput biomedical research data have led to a renaissance in cancer surveillance and treatment. Yet, the amount, velocity, and complexity of these data have overcome the capacity of the increasing number of researchers collecting and analyzing this information. By centralizing the data, processing power, and tools, there is a valuable opportunity to share resources and thus increase the efficiency, power, and impact of research. Herein, we describe current data commons and how they operate in the oncology landscape, including an overview of the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group data commons as a paradigm case. We outline the practical steps and considerations in building data commons. Finally, we discuss the unique opportunities and benefits of creating a data commons within the context of pediatric cancer research, highlighting the particular advantages for clinical oncology and suggested next steps.

  9. Social Justice and the Environmental Commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Constance A; Byington, Rachel; Gallay, Erin; Sambo, Allison

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we build on the scholarship on youth civic engagement by turning attention to the environmental commons as a space for political action. We begin with a definition of the term and arguments about ways that social justice is implied in it. Following that, we raise several psychological challenges to motivating action on behalf of the environmental commons and discuss the critical experiences and actions that can defy those challenges. Finally, drawing from Ostrom's empirical evidence opposing a tragedy of the commons, we discuss practices consistent with a social justice approach that nurture in younger generations an identification with and commitment to the environmental commons and discuss how this orientation would benefit human beings, democracies, and the earth. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Learning commons evolution and collaborative essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Schader, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This book examines successfully planned and implemented learning commons at several different academic institutions around the world. These case studies provide a methodology for effective planning, implementation and assessment. Practical information is provided on how to collaborate with campus stakeholders, estimate budgeting and staffing and determine the equipment, hardware and software needs. Also provided are memoranda of understandings (MOUs), planning checklists and assessment tools. This book reflects a unifying focus on both the evolution of learning commons to learning spaces and t

  11. Complications in common general pediatric surgery procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnaus, Maria E; Ostlie, Daniel J

    2016-12-01

    Complications related to general pediatric surgery procedures are a major concern for pediatric surgeons and their patients. Although infrequent, when they occur the consequences can lead to significant morbidity and psychosocial stress. The purpose of this article is to discuss the common complications encountered during several common pediatric general surgery procedures including inguinal hernia repair (open and laparoscopic), umbilical hernia repair, laparoscopic pyloromyotomy, and laparoscopic appendectomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Common Metrics for Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, Aaron; Lewis, Michael; Fong, Terrence; Scholtz, Jean; Schultz, Alan; Kaber, David; Goodrich, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to identify common metrics for task-oriented human-robot interaction (HRI). We begin by discussing the need for a toolkit of HRI metrics. We then describe the framework of our work and identify important biasing factors that must be taken into consideration. Finally, we present suggested common metrics for standardization and a case study. Preparation of a larger, more detailed toolkit is in progress.

  13. Stochastic Models for Common Failures of Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    common cause model, NUREG /CR-1401, 1980. [3] Church, J. D. and Harris, B., The estimation of reliability from stress- strength relationship...Fachband 2/1, 1980. [11] Lewis, H. W., Chairman, Risk Assessment Review Group Report to the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NUREG /CR-0400, 1978. [12...Regulatory Commission, P.R.A. Procedures Guide, NUREG / CR-2300, 1983. [18] Vesely, W. E., Estimating Common Cause Failure Probabilities in Reliability and

  14. Common predictor effects for multivariate longitudinal data

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Juan; Weiss, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Multivariate outcomes measured longitudinally over time are common in medicine, public health, psychology and sociology. The typical (saturated) longitudinal multivariate regression model has a separate set of regression coefficients for each outcome. However, multivariate outcomes are often quite similar and many outcomes can be expected to respond similarly to changes in covariate values. Given a set of outcomes likely to share common covariate effects, we propose the Clustered Outcome COmm...

  15. A common language for computer security incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Howard; Thomas A Longstaff

    1998-10-01

    Much of the computer security information regularly gathered and disseminated by individuals and organizations cannot currently be combined or compared because a common language has yet to emerge in the field of computer security. A common language consists of terms and taxonomies (principles of classification) which enable the gathering, exchange and comparison of information. This paper presents the results of a project to develop such a common language for computer security incidents. This project results from cooperation between the Security and Networking Research Group at the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, and the CERT{reg_sign} Coordination Center at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA. This Common Language Project was not an effort to develop a comprehensive dictionary of terms used in the field of computer security. Instead, the authors developed a minimum set of high-level terms, along with a structure indicating their relationship (a taxonomy), which can be used to classify and understand computer security incident information. They hope these high-level terms and their structure will gain wide acceptance, be useful, and most importantly, enable the exchange and comparison of computer security incident information. They anticipate, however, that individuals and organizations will continue to use their own terms, which may be more specific both in meaning and use. They designed the common language to enable these lower-level terms to be classified within the common language structure.

  16. No association of common VCP variants with sporadic frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Axel; Friedrich, Patricia; Diehl, Janine; Ibach, Bernd; Schoepfer-Wendels, Andreas; Mueller, Jakob C; Konta, Lidija; Laws, Simon M; Kurz, Alexander; Foerstl, Hans; Riemenschneider, Matthias

    2009-02-01

    Mutations in the gene for valosin containing protein (VCP) cause autosomal dominant inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD). To investigate the role of this novel gene in sporadic forms of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), we genotyped 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the entire VCP genomic region in 198 patients with sporadic FTD and 184 matched controls from Germany. No significant association could be demonstrated. There is no evidence, that common variants in VCP confer a strong risk to the development of sporadic FTD.

  17. Common variants in the HLA-DQ region confer susceptibility to idiopathic achalasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gockel, Ines; Becker, Jessica; Wouters, Mira M.; Niebisch, Stefan; Gockel, Henning R.; Hess, Timo; Ramonet, David; Zimmermann, Julian; Vigo, Ana Gonzalez; Trynka, Gosia; de Leon, Antonio Ruiz; de la Serna, Julio Perez; Urcelay, Elena; Magadi Gopalaiah, Vinod Kumar; Franke, Lude; Westra, Harm-Jan; Drescher, Daniel; Kneist, Werner; Marquardt, Jens U.; Galle, Peter R.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Annese, Vito; Latiano, Anna; Fumagalli, Uberto; Laghi, Luigi; Cuomo, Rosario; Sarnelli, Giovanni; Mueller, Michaela; Eckardt, Alexander J.; Tack, Jan; Hoffmann, Per; Herms, Stefan; Mangold, Elisabeth; Heilmann, Stefanie; Kiesslich, Ralf; von Rahden, Burkhard H. A.; Allescher, Hans-Dieter; Schulz, Henning G.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Heneka, Michael T.; Lang, Hauke; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Noethen, Markus M.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Knapp, Michael; Schumacher, Johannes

    Idiopathic achalasia is characterized by a failure of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax due to a loss of neurons in the myenteric plexus(1,2). This ultimately leads to massive dilatation and an irreversibly impaired megaesophagus. We performed a genetic association study in 1,068 achalasia

  18. Desenvolvimento regional: a diversidade regional como potencialidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Odim Degrandi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the second half of the twentieth century the debate on regional development in Brazil received special attention, especially among economists and geographers. Two main approaches stand out in the debate: one that understands the promotion of regional development from the reduction / elimination of regional inequalities, and the other proposes the understanding of regional diversity and potentiality for developing regions. The first was and still remains hegemonic, being evidenced both in scientific papers and in documents guiding public policies in the area. The latter is evidenced most clearly from the 1990s on, a period when the concept of region is resumed under a new approach. This paper aims to clarify the meaning of each of these concepts in order to contribute to the qualification of the discussion on regional development.

  19. Desenvolvimento regional: a diversidade regional como potencialidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Elisabeta Etges

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ao longo da segunda metade do século XX o debate sobre desenvolvimento regional no Brasil recebeu atenção especial, principalmente, entre economistas e geógrafos. Dois enfoques principais se destacam no debate: um, que entende a promoção do desenvolvimento regional a partir da redução/eliminação das desigualdades regionais; outro, que propõe a compreensão da diversidade regional como potencialidade para o desenvolvimento de regiões. O primeiro foi e continua sendo hegemônico, evidenciado tanto em trabalhos científicos quanto em documentos norteadores das políticas públicas na área. Já o segundo evidencia-se mais claramente a partir da década de 1990, período em que o conceito de região é retomado sob um novo enfoque. Neste trabalho pretende-se explicitar o significado de cada uma dessas concepções, no intuito de contribuir para a qualificação da discussão sobre desenvolvimento regional.Palavras-chave | Desenvolvimento regional; diversidade regional; potencialidades; região.Código JEL | O18; R11; R58. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: REGIONAL DIVERSITY AS POTENTIALAbstractThroughout the second half of the twentieth century the debate on regional development in Brazil received special attention, especially among economists and geographers. Two main approaches stand out in the debate: one that understands the promotion of regional development from the reduction / elimination of regional inequalities, and the other proposes the understanding of regional diversity and potentiality for developing regions. The first was and still remains hegemonic, being evidenced both in scientific papers and in documents guiding public policies in the area. The latter is evidenced most clearly from the 1990s on, a period when the concept of region is resumed under a new approach. This paper aims to clarify the meaning of each of these concepts in order to contribute to the qualification of the discussion on regional development.Keywords | Regional

  20. Regional sinkhole susceptibility maps: The Latium Region case (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vigna, F.; Teoli, P.; Mazza, R.; Leoni, G.; Capelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    Several and frequent studies were internationally presented about landslide susceptibility, meanwhile in literature is missing a broad diffusion of studies regarding sinkhole susceptibility. That's why sinkhole recurrence depends on several geological conditions related to specific geological and hydrogeological context (sinkhole prone area) that vary case by case. Notwithstanding this regionalization problem of sinkhole recurrence, in the central Appenine sedimentary basins (Italy) a certain number of geological, geomorphologic and hydrogeological conditions (sinkhole predisposing issues) can be considered in common between the surveyed sinkholes. Eventually this could be compared with similar geological conditions and sinkhole occurrence in the rest of Italy or in other countries. In this case study is presented a probabilistic approach regarding the Latium Region deriving from the comparison between the regional sinkhole inventory realized during a precedent project and the dataset of the new Hydrogeological Map of Latium Region (scale 1:100.000). Indexed elements, chosen because associated to the majority of sinkhole phenomena, are: outcropping lithologies, water table depth, main faults (even if buried), hydrothermal springs, land use and the epicentres of recent earthquakes. These indexed elements were weighted and combined in a matrix which preliminary result is the sinkhole susceptibility map of Latium Region. When definitively validated, this approach could be suitable for local authorities to planning more targeted studies in major hazard areas.

  1. The most common friend first immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Fu-Zhong; Hu, Cha-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a standard susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible(SIRS) epidemic model based on the Watts-Strogatz (WS) small-world network model and the Barabsi-Albert (BA) scale-free network model is established, and a new immunization scheme — “the most common friend first immunization” is proposed, in which the most common friend’s node is described as being the first immune on the second layer protection of complex networks. The propagation situations of three different immunization schemes — random immunization, high-risk immunization, and the most common friend first immunization are studied. At the same time, the dynamic behaviors are also studied on the WS small-world and the BA scale-free network. Moreover, the analytic and simulated results indicate that the immune effect of the most common friend first immunization is better than random immunization, but slightly worse than high-risk immunization. However, high-risk immunization still has some limitations. For example, it is difficult to accurately define who a direct neighbor in the life is. Compared with the traditional immunization strategies having some shortcomings, the most common friend first immunization is effective, and it is nicely consistent with the actual situation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61263019), the Program for International Science and Technology Cooperation Projects of Gansu Province, China (Grant No. 144WCGA166), and the Program for Longyuan Young Innovation Talents and the Doctoral Foundation of Lanzhou University of Technology, China.

  2. Self-calibrating common-path interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras-Aguilar, Rosario; Falaggis, Konstantinos; Ramirez-San-Juan, Julio C; Ramos-Garcia, Ruben

    2015-02-09

    A quantitative phase measuring technique is presented that estimates the object phase from a series of phase shifted interferograms that are obtained in a common-path configuration with unknown phase shifts. The derived random phase shifting algorithm for common-path interferometers is based on the Generalized Phase Contrast theory [pl. Opt.40(2), 268 (2001)10.1063/1.1404846], which accounts for the particular image formation and includes effects that are not present in two-beam interferometry. It is shown experimentally that this technique can be used within common-path configurations employing nonlinear liquid crystal materials as self-induced phase filters for quantitative phase imaging without the need of phase shift calibrations. The advantages of such liquid crystal elements compared to spatial light modulator based solutions are given by the cost-effectiveness, self-alignment, and the generation of diminutive dimensions of the phase filter size, giving unique performance advantages.

  3. COMMON PHASES OF COMPUTER FORENSICS INVESTIGATION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Yusoff

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing criminal activities using digital information as the means or targets warrant for a structured manner in dealing with them. Since 1984 when a formalized process been introduced, a great number of new and improved computer forensic investigation processes have been developed. In this paper, we reviewed a few selected investigation processes that have been produced throughout the yearsand then identified the commonly shared processes. Hopefully, with the identification of the commonly shard process, it would make it easier for the new users to understand the processes and also to serve as the basic underlying concept for the development of a new set of processes. Based on the commonly shared processes, we proposed a generic computer forensics investigation model, known as GCFIM.

  4. Organising pneumonia in common variable immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujaoude, Ziad; Arya, Rohan; Rafferty, William; Dammert, Pedro

    2013-06-07

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common of the primary immunodeficiency disorders. Pulmonary manifestations are characterised by recurrent rhinosinusitis, respiratory tract infections and bronchiectasis. Less commonly the lung may be affected by lymphoid disorders and sarcoid-like granulomas. Organising pneumonia (OP) is a rare pulmonary manifestation. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with CVID who presented with fever, dyspnoea and persistent lung infiltrates despite antibiotic therapy. CT of the chest showed bilateral patchy alveolar infiltrates. Pulmonary function tests revealed moderate restriction and reduction in diffusion capacity. Initial bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsies did not yield a diagnosis but surgical lung biopsies identified OP. Significant clinical, radiographic and physiological improvement was achieved after institution of corticosteroid therapy.

  5. REVIEW ON TUBERCULOSIS AND MENTAL DISORDERS COMMON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleide Santos de Araújo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite having vaccine and treatment , TB remains a public health problem . Publications have described high proportion of TB among people with anxiety , depression and mental disorders . This study aimed to identify publications on the association between common mental disorders and tuberculosis and describe the state of the art . This is a literature review with keywords tuberculosis,common mental disorders , anxiety and depression , we excluded studies of extra- pulmonary tuberculosis and animals. 09 articles, only on a specific common mental disorders , comparing the proportion of these in tuberculosis cases ( 46.7 % and tuberculosis infected by the human immunodeficiency virus ( 63.7 % , there are few studies concerning the topic were elected , the most specific problems of anxiety and depression , are from countries where the incidence of tuberculosis is high, ethodological strategies have low analytical power and do not investigate the causal mechanisms underlying the relationship between mental health and tuberculosis.

  6. Our Common Landscapes For The Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    , but also changed in different time-perspectives. They present different approaches to landscape assessment for practical purposes as well as for aesthetic, mental use and as a source of inspiration. And they end up in the discussion of the establishment of the common endeavor of taking practical care......Foreword for Marc Antrop and Veerle van Eetvelde: Landscape Perspectives – The Holistic Nature of Landscapes Our common landscapes for the future by Jesper Brandt The solution of the ecological crisis through a transformation towards sustainable development is the most urgent challenge in our time....... It is not just a question of CO2 and conversion toward renewable energy. The reestablishment and conscious development of our common landscapes at all spatial scales for the combined benefits of biodiversity, our cultural heritage and the preservation and development of ecosystem services will probably...

  7. Common Software for the ALMA project

    CERN Document Server

    Chiozzi, G; Jeram, B; Sivera, P; Plesko, M; Sekoranja, M; Tkacik, G; Dovc, J; Kadunc, M; Milcinski, G; Verstovsek, I; Zagar, K

    2001-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, USA and Japan. ALMA will consist of at least 64 12-meter antennas operating in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength range, with baselines up to 10 km. It will be located at an altitude above 5000m in the Chilean Atacama desert[1]. The ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns in control systems and of components, which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is an object model of controlled devices, called Distributed Objects (DOs), implemented as CORBA network objects. Components such as antenna mount, power supply, etc. are defined by means of DOs. A code generator creates Java Bean components for each DO. Programmers can write Java client applications by connecting those Beans with data-manipulation and visualization Beans using commercial visual development tools or programmatically. ACS i...

  8. The Common Framework for Earth Observation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, J.; Stryker, T. S.; Sherman, R.

    2016-12-01

    Each year, the Federal government records petabytes of data about our home planet. That massive amount of data in turn provides enormous benefits to society through weather reports, agricultural forecasts, air and water quality warnings, and countless other applications. To maximize the ease of transforming the data into useful information for research and for public services, the U.S. Group on Earth Observations released the first Common Framework for Earth Observation Data in March 2016. The Common Framework recommends practices for Federal agencies to adopt in order to improve the ability of all users to discover, access, and use Federal Earth observations data. The U.S. Government is committed to making data from civil Earth observation assets freely available to all users. Building on the Administration's commitment to promoting open data, open science, and open government, the Common Framework goes beyond removing financial barriers to data access, and attempts to minimize the technical impediments that limit data utility. While Earth observation systems typically collect data for a specific purpose, these data are often also useful in applications unforeseen during development of the systems. Managing and preserving these data with a common approach makes it easier for a wide range of users to find, evaluate, understand, and utilize the data, which in turn leads to the development of a wide range of innovative applications. The Common Framework provides Federal agencies with a recommended set of standards and practices to follow in order to achieve this goal. Federal agencies can follow these best practices as they develop new observing systems or modernize their existing collections of data. This presentation will give a brief on the context and content of the Common Framework, along with future directions for implementation and keeping its recommendations up-to-date with developing technology.

  9. Less common neoplasms of the pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abby L Mulkeen; Peter S Yoo; Charles Cha

    2006-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increased recognition of neoplasms of the pancreas other than ductal adenocarcinoma. Although not as well studied or characterized as pancreatic adenocarcinoma there are many distinct lesions which exhibit diverse biological behaviors and varying degrees of malignancy. These lesions include: endocrine neoplasms, cystic tumors, solid pseudopapillary tumors, acinar cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, primary lymphoma of the pancreas, and metastatic lesions to the pancreas. These less common neoplasms are being diagnosed more frequently as the number and sensitivity of diagnostic imaging studies increase. This review article discusses the clinical course,diagnosis, and treatment of these less common, but quite relevant, neoplasms of the pancreas.

  10. Common cardiac arrhythmias: recognition and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmers, F N; Kinhal, V; Sabharwal, S; Weissler, A M

    1981-04-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are commonly seen in the everyday practice of medicine by the physician. Although certain arrhythmias may be suspected clinically, precise diagnosis is made by electrocardiographic recording of the abnormal rhythm. Once the arrhythmia has been recorded, the next steps are proper electrocardiographic diagnosis and selection of proper treatment. The specific mode of therapy and the speed with which it is delivered will depend not only on the type of arrhythmia, but also on the hemodynamic consequences of the rhythm abnormality on the patient's cardiovascular system. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the electrocardiographic criteria of common cardiac arrhythmias as well as current concepts regarding therapy.

  11. Humanism as a common factor in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampold, Bruce E

    2012-12-01

    There are many forms of psychotherapies, each distinctive in its own way. From the origins of psychotherapy, it has been suggested that psychotherapy is effective through factors that are common to all therapies. In this article, I suggest that the commonalities that are at the core of psychotherapy are related to evolved human characteristics, which include (a) making sense of the world, (b) influencing through social means, and (c) connectedness, expectation, and mastery. In this way, all psychotherapies are humanistic. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Radiographic evaluation of common pediatric elbow injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven F. DeFroda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal variations in anatomy in the skeletally immature patient may be mistaken for fracture or injury due to the presence of secondary centers of ossification. Variations in imaging exist from patient to patient based on sex, age, and may even vary from one extremity to the other on the same patient. Despite differences in the appearance of the bony anatomy of the elbow there are certain landmarks and relationships, which can help, distinguish normal from abnormal. We review common radiographic parameters and pitfalls associated in the evaluation of pediatric elbow imaging. We also review common clinical diagnoses in this population.

  13. Common overuse injuries in the young athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengel, K Brooke

    2014-12-01

    Pediatric overuse injury is a common complaint presenting to pediatricians. Overuse injury can affect the soft tissues or bone, and results from an imbalance between training and load to the tissues and recovery time. In the skeletally immature athlete, physeal and apophyseal tissue is particularly vulnerable to overuse resulting in different patterns of injury compared to adults. Awareness of age-dependent patterns of overuse is necessary for proper recognition, treatment, and prevention of injury. This article reviews the most common pediatric overuse injuries with emphasis on risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment. Guidelines for prevention are included, as this is the key component for successful management of overuse injury in pediatric athletes.

  14. Preventive strategies for common mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Garg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Common Mental Disoders (CMDs include depressive and anxiety disorders; one in five individuals, worldwide, gets afflicted with CMDs over lifetime. A wide range of preventive strategies have shown promise when implemented across different stages of lifespan. There is a common thread of emerging preventive strategies for CMDs on the lines for those already established for non-communicable diseases. In India, although there is emerging research in this area, the much required prevention is still in its incipient stage. Some critical issues in planning research and implementing preventive strategies are also outlined to provide a more appropriate perspective.

  15. Socioeconomic transitions as common dynamic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlach, Erich; Paldam, Martin

    Long-run socioeconomic transitions can be observed as stylized facts across countries and over time. For instance, poor countries have more agriculture and less democracy than rich countries, and this pattern also holds within countries for transitions from a traditional to a modern society....... It is shown that the agricultural and the democratic transitions can be partly explained as the outcome of dynamic processes that are shared among countries. We identify the effects of common dynamic processes with panel estimators that allow for heterogeneous country effects and possible cross......-country spillovers. Common dynamic processes appear to be in line with alternative hypotheses on the causes of socioeconomic transitions....

  16. CASL- The Common Algebraic Specification Language- Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne

    1997-01-01

    This Summary is the basis for the Design Proposal [LD97b] for CASL, the Common Algebraic Specification Language, prepared by the Language Design Task Group of CoFI, the Common Framework Initiative. It gives the abstract syntax, and informally describes its intended semantics. It is accompanied...... for approval to the sponsoring IFIP Working Group on Foundations of System Specification, WG 1.3. It received tentative approval, together with a referees' report recommending the reconsideration of some elements of the design [IFI97]; a response has already been made [LD97a]. The present version...

  17. Simulating futures in extended common LISP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtsheim, Philip R.

    1988-01-01

    Stack-groups comprise the mechanism underlying implementation of multiprocessing in Extended Common LISP, i.e., running multiple quasi-simultaneous processes within a single LISP address space. On the other hand, the future construct of MULTILISP, an extension of the LISP dialect scheme, deals with parallel execution. The source of concurrency that future exploits is the overlap between computation of a value and use of the value. Described is a simulation of the future construct by an interpreter utilizing stack-group extensions to common LISP.

  18. Inferences on the common coefficient of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili

    2005-07-30

    The coefficient of variation is often used as a measure of precision and reproducibility of data in medical and biological science. This paper considers the problem of making inference about the common population coefficient of variation when it is a priori suspected that several independent samples are from populations with a common coefficient of variation. The procedures for confidence interval estimation and hypothesis testing are developed based on the concepts of generalized variables. The coverage properties of the proposed confidence intervals and type-I errors of the proposed tests are evaluated by simulation. The proposed methods are illustrated by a real life example.

  19. Frequency discrimination in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanski, Michael S; Song, Xindong; Guo, Yueqi; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2016-11-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a highly vocal New World primate species that has emerged in recent years as a promising model system for studies of auditory and vocal processing. Our recent studies have examined perceptual mechanisms related to the pitch of harmonic complex tones in this species. However, no previous psychoacoustic work has measured marmosets' frequency discrimination abilities for pure tones across a broad frequency range. Here we systematically examined frequency difference limens (FDLs), which measure the minimum discriminable frequency difference between two pure tones, in marmosets across most of their hearing range. Results show that marmosets' FDLs are comparable to other New World primates, with lowest values in the frequency range of ∼3.5-14 kHz. This region of lowest FDLs corresponds with the region of lowest hearing thresholds in this species measured in our previous study and also with the greatest concentration of spectral energy in the major types of marmoset vocalizations. These data suggest that frequency discrimination in the common marmoset may have evolved to match the hearing sensitivity and spectral characteristics of this species' vocalizations.

  20. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  1. Development of a Common Nordic Balance Settlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    NordREG finds it essential for the customers that a common integrated end-user electricity market is developed and that all end-users are able to take part in the Nordic market. A common Nordic balance settlement is one important part of such a change. However, attention has to be paid to the comments that a badly designed common system is worse than well-designed national systems. It is thus important that the change to a common balance settlement is so thoroughly investigated that the common system gives a basis for a well-functioning market. An important basis for such a change is an agreed vision for the process: The present different systems for balance settlement shall by the year 2010 be replaced by a common Nordic balance settlement. This means that: It will be possible for a supplier to sell to the whole Nordic market from one legal entity and using only one system for customer management and reporting. The common Nordic balance settlement will be designed in such a way that it contributes to a well functioning market. This means for example that it will be attractive even for small suppliers and some end-users to be balance responsible parties. It is feasible that the first phase is focused on those present differences that are most decisive for fulfilment of the vision. NordREG recommends that the following issues shall be discussed and agreed in co-operation between NordREG, Nordel and relevant stakeholders in the first phase: The definition shall include how the common Nordic balance settlement shall interact with the balance control and the balance regulation of the interconnected power system and the balance settlement between countries performed by the TSOs. The definition should include the cost-base for common Nordic balance settlement in relation to other system responsibility costs. The core activities of system responsibility have also been analyzed by NordREG. It is important to find a balance between inter alia the need for simplicity and the

  2. Common Space as Threshold Space: Urban Commoning in Struggles to Re-appropriate Public Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper will explore contemporary practices of urban commoning while attempting to construct a theoretical argument on the inherently emancipating potentialities of common space. Urban commoning will be considered as a set of spatial practices through which space is created both as a good to be shared and as a medium that can give form to institutions of sharing. In order for commoning to remain an open process that continuously expands without being contained in any form of enclosure, it has to invite newcomers. Shared spaces, open to newcomers, are spaces defined neither by a prevailing authority that supervises their use, nor by a closed community that controls them by excluding all ‘outsiders’. Common spaces are thus dependent upon their power to communicate and connect rather than separate. Common spaces are threshold spaces, connecting and comparing adjacent areas at the same time. In practices of common space creation, commoners create areas of encounter and collective self-management. Rules of use are also of a threshold character, constantly in the making. Likewise, subjects of use are threshold subjects: for commoning to remain open and ever expanding, commoners have to consider themselves open to transformative negotiations with newcomers.This paper will thus attempt to understand urban commoning as a multifaceted process which produces spaces, subjects of use (inhabitants and rules of use (institutions that share the same qualitative characteristics. In such a prospect, urban commoning can prefigure forms of social relations based on sharing, cooperation and solidarity. In this way, space becomes not simply a common product but also the means through which egalitarian social relations can potentially be shaped. 

  3. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association

  4. Mirror Neurons in a New World Monkey, Common Marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Wataru; Banno, Taku; Miyakawa, Naohisa; Abe, Hiroshi; Goda, Naokazu; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2015-01-01

    Mirror neurons respond when executing a motor act and when observing others' similar act. So far, mirror neurons have been found only in macaques, humans, and songbirds. To investigate the degree of phylogenetic specialization of mirror neurons during the course of their evolution, we determined whether mirror neurons with similar properties to macaques occur in a New World monkey, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The ventral premotor cortex (PMv), where mirror neurons have been reported in macaques, is difficult to identify in marmosets, since no sulcal landmarks exist in the frontal cortex. We addressed this problem using "in vivo" connection imaging methods. That is, we first identified cells responsive to others' grasping action in a clear landmark, the superior temporal sulcus (STS), under anesthesia, and injected fluorescent tracers into the region. By fluorescence stereomicroscopy, we identified clusters of labeled cells in the ventrolateral frontal cortex, which were confirmed to be within the ventrolateral frontal cortex including PMv after sacrifice. We next implanted electrodes into the ventrolateral frontal cortex and STS and recorded single/multi-units under an awake condition. As a result, we found neurons in the ventrolateral frontal cortex with characteristic "mirror" properties quite similar to those in macaques. This finding suggests that mirror neurons occur in a common ancestor of New and Old World monkeys and its common properties are preserved during the course of primate evolution.

  5. Complementing the Common Core with Holistic Biliteracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Susan; Butvilofsky, Sandra; Escamilla, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors propose that biliteracy is a more challenging and rigorous form of literacy than the English-only orientation of the Common Core State Standards. Because learning to read and write in two languages differs from learning to read and write in one, they argue that biliteracy requires its own pedagogies, methodologies, and…

  6. Action of commonly used disinfectants against enteroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, H K; Codd, A A

    1983-06-01

    The virucidal effect of some of the most commonly used hospital disinfectants against Coxsackie B4, Echovirus 11, Poliovirus type 1 and Rotavirus have been evaluated. It was found that 'Chloros', 'Totacide 28' and methylated spirits were completely virucidal to all the viruses under study. 'Stericol' and 'Lysol' had a limited effect while 'Hibiscrub' and 'Savlon' had no effect at all.

  7. English Learners, Writing, and the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Carol Booth; Scarcella, Robin; Matuchniak, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Adopted by 46 states, the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) present a vision of what it means to be literate in the twenty-first century and call for all students, including English learners, to develop critical reading skills necessary for a deep understanding of complex texts, and critical writing skills to write about those texts. This article…

  8. Lesson Planning with the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Linda A.; McDuffie, Amy Roth; Tate, Cathie

    2014-01-01

    Planning a lesson can be similar to planning a road trip--a metaphor the authors use to describe how they applied research and theory to their lesson planning process. A map and mode of transportation, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and textbooks as resources, can lead to desired destinations, such as students engaging in…

  9. Are male reproductive disorders a common entity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, K A; Main, K M; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2001-01-01

    of one common entity, a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that TDS is a result of disruption of embryonal programming and gonadal development during fetal life. The recent rise in the prevalence of TDS may be causally linked to endocrine disrupters...

  10. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eBeebe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation.

  11. Revisiting the Common Myths about Homeschooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, Michael H.

    2006-01-01

    The author examines four common myths that still influence individuals regarding their perspective and understanding of the role homeschooling plays in the education of American children. Myth 1 is that homeschooling produces social misfits, stemming from the belief that homeschooled students lack the socialization skills necessary for normal…

  12. Where have all the commons gone?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narain, Vishal; Vij, Sumit

    2016-01-01

    Common property resources (CPRs) have provided a basis for sustenance to countless households, especially those that lack access to private assets. Several factors have eroded the access of CPR dependent communities, such as, conscious policy decisions of the state, elite domination, the process

  13. Genetics Home Reference: common variable immune deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or Free article on PubMed Central Park JH, Resnick ES, Cunningham-Rundles C. Perspectives on common variable ... on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Resnick ES, Cunningham-Rundles C. The many faces of ...

  14. Cold shocks: a stressor for common carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanck, M.W.T.; Booms, G.H.R.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Komen, J.

    2000-01-01

    The stress response of common carp Cyprinus carpio was studied by evaluating plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate after single or multiple rapid temperature drops (ΔT: 7, 9 or 11°C). All three amplitudes used induced a significant rise in plasma cortisol levels. Peaks occurred within 20 min after

  15. Common Questions about Sexual Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    Provides research-based answers to questions commonly posed by educators, parents, and others about the philosophy, methods, and impact of school sexual health education, discussing such issues as: whether these school programs are needed, what values they teach, whether the programs should teach about sexual orientation and abstinence, and…

  16. The Common Good in Classical Political Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, V. Bradley

    2006-01-01

    The term "common good" names the end (or final cause) of political and social life in the tradition of moral thought that owes its main substance to Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas. It names a genuine good ("bonum honestum") and not merely an instrumental or secondary good defeasible in the face of particular goods. However, at the same time, it…

  17. Commonalities in Symbiotic Plant-Microbe Signalling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmer, R.; Rutten, L.J.J.; Kohlen, W.; Velzen, van R.; Geurts, R.

    2017-01-01

    Plants face the problem that they have to discriminate symbionts from a diverse pool of soil microbes, including pathogens. Studies on different symbiotic systems revealed commonalities in plant-microbe signalling. In this chapter we focus on four intimate symbiotic interactions: two mycorrhizal

  18. Network Disruption and the Common Enemy Effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, B.

    2012-01-01

    "The enemy of my enemy is my friend." This common adage, which seems to be adhered to in social interactions (e.g. high school cliques or work relationships) as well as in political alliances within countries and between countries, describes the ability of groups or people to work together when they

  19. Common Fixed Points for Weakly Compatible Maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renu Chugh; Sanjay Kumar

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to prove a common fixed point theorem, from the class of compatible continuous maps to a larger class of maps having weakly compatible maps without appeal to continuity, which generalized the results of Jungck [3], Fisher [1], Kang and Kim [8], Jachymski [2], and Rhoades [9].

  20. Imposex in the common whelk, Buccinum undatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, B.P.

    1999-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerned the perhaps best known and studied common gastropod from the open North Sea of which only limited information was available. With the present research more insight has been obtained concerning this long-lived, off-shore snail species, which