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Sample records for 245cm nejtronnye secheniya

  1. Synthesis of the isotopes of elements 118 and 116 in the 249Cf and 245Cm+48Ca fusion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oganessian, Y T; Utyonkov, V K; Lobanov, Y V; Abdullin, F S; Polyakov, A N; Sagaidak, R N; Shirokovsky, I V; Tsyganov, Y S; Voinov, A A; Gulbekian, G G; Bogomolov, S L; Gikal, B N; Mezentsev, A N; Iliev, S; Subbotin, V G; Sukhov, A M; Subotic, K; Zagrebaev, V I; Vostokin, G K; Itkis, M G; Moody, K J; . Patin, J B; Shaughnessy, D A; Stoyer, M A; Stoyer, N J; Wilk, P A; Kenneally, J M; Landrum, J H; Wild, J F; Lougheed, R W

    2006-01-31

    The decay properties of {sup 290}116 and {sup 291}116, and the dependence of their production cross sections on the excitation energies of the compound nucleus, {sup 293}116, have been measured in the {sup 245}Cm({sup 48}Ca,xn){sup 293-x}116 reaction. These isotopes of element 116 are the decay daughters of element 118 isotopes, which are produced via the {sup 249}Cf+{sup 48}Ca reaction. They performed the element 118 experiment at two projectile energies, corresponding to {sup 297}118 compound nucleus excitation energies of E* = 29.2 {+-} 2.5 and 34.4 {+-} 2.3 MeV. During an irradiation with a total beam dose of 4.1 x 10{sup 19} {sup 48}Ca projectiles, three similar decay chains consisting of two or three consecutive {alpha} decays and terminated by a spontaneous fission (SF) with high total kinetic energy of about 230 MeV were observed. The three decay chains originated from the even-even isotope {sup 294}118 (E{sub {alpha}} = 11.65 {+-} 0.06 MeV, T{sub {alpha}} = 0.89{sub -0.31}{sup +1.07} ms) produced in the 3n-evaporation channel of the {sup 249}Cf+{sup 48}Ca reaction with a maximum cross section of 0.5{sub -0.3}{sup +1.6} pb.

  2. Measurement of neutron induced fission of {sup 235}U, {sup 233}U and {sup 245}Cm with the FIC detector at the CERN n-TOF facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calviani, M.; Karadimos, D.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Alvarez, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Becvar, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calvino, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapic, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Gramegna, F.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Jericha, E.; Kappeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Koehler, P.; Kossionides, E.; Krticka, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Martinez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P.M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O' Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M.T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J.L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M.C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K

    2008-07-01

    A series of measurements of neutron induced fission cross section of various transuranic isotopes have been performed at the CERN n-TOF spallation neutron facility, in the energy range from thermal to nearly 250 MeV. The experimental apparatus consists in a fast ionization chamber (FIC), used as a fission fragment detector with a high efficiency. Good discrimination between alphas and fission fragments can be obtained with a simple amplitude threshold. In order to allow the monitoring of the neutron beam and to extract the n-TOF neutron flux, the well known cross section of the {sup 235}U(n,f) reaction, considered as a fission standard, has been used. Preliminary results for the cross section are shown for some selected isotopes such as {sup 235}U, {sup 233}U and {sup 245}Cm in the energy range from 0.050 eV to about 2 MeV. These results for {sup 235}U, {sup 233}U and {sup 245}Cm show results consistent with databases in the resonance region, with no normalization required for {sup 233}U. In the case of {sup 245}Cm, for the energy range between thermal and 20 eV, we obtained the first experimental data ever published, while showing a good agreement with previous data in the region above that value.

  3. Fission Cross-section Measurements of (233)U, (245)Cm and (241,243)Am at CERN n_TOF Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Calviani, M; Andriamonje, S; Chiaveri, E; Vlachoudis, V; Colonna, N; Meaze, M H; Marrone, S; Tagliente, G; Terlizzi, R; Belloni, F; Abbondanno, U; Fujii, K; Milazzo, P M; Moreau, C; Aerts, G; Berthoumieux, E; Dridi, W; Gunsing, F; Pancin, J; Perrot, L; Plukis, A; Alvarez, H; Duran, I; Paradela, C; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Cano-Ott, D; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Guerrero, C; Martinez, T; Villamarin, D; Vicente, M C; Andrzejewski, J; Marganiec, J; Assimakopoulos, P; Karadimos, D; Karamanis, D; Papachristodoulou, C; Patronis, N; Audouin, L; David, S; Ferrant, L; Isaev, S; Stephan, C; Tassan-Got, L; Badurek, G; Jericha, E; Leeb, H; Oberhummer, H; Pigni, M T; Baumann, P; Kerveno, M; Lukic, S; Rudolf, G; Becvar, F; Krticka, M; Calvino, F; Capote, R; Carrillo De Albornoz, A; Marques, L; Salgado, J; Tavora, L; Vaz, P; Cennini, P; Dahlfors, M; Ferrari, A; Gramegna, F; Herrera-Martinez, A; Kadi, Y; Mastinu, P; Praena, J; Sarchiapone, L; Wendler, H; Chepel, V; Ferreira-Marques, R; Goncalves, I; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Neves, F; Cortes, G; Poch, A; Pretel, C; Couture, A; Cox, J; O'brien, S; Wiescher, M; Dillman, I; Heil, M; Kappeler, F; Mosconi, M; Plag, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wisshak, K; Dolfini, R; Rubbia, C; Domingo-Pardo, C; Tain, J L; Eleftheriadis, C; Savvidis, I; Frais-Koelbl, H; Griesmayer, E; Furman, W; Konovalov, V; Goverdovski, A; Ketlerov, V; Haas, B; Haight, R; Reifarth, R; Igashira, M; Koehler, P; Kossionides, E; Lampoudis, C; Lozano, M; Quesada, J; Massimi, C; Vannini, G; Mengoni, A; Oshima, M; Papadopoulos, C; Vlastou, R; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Plompen, A; Rullhusen, P; Rauscher, T; Rosetti, M; Ventura, A

    2011-01-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross-sections of minor actinides have been measured using the n_TOF white neutron source at CERN, Geneva, as part of a large experimental program aiming at collecting new data relevant for nuclear astrophysics and for the design of advanced reactor systems. The measurements at n_TOF take advantage of the innovative features of the n_TOF facility, namely the wide energy range, high instantaneous neutron flux and good energy resolution. Final results on the fission cross-section of 233U, 245Cm and 243Am from thermal to 20 MeV are here reported, together with preliminary results for 241Am. The measurement have been performed with a dedicated Fast Ionization Chamber (FIC), a fission fragment detector with a very high efficiency, relative to the very well known cross-section of 235U, measured simultaneously with the same detector.

  4. Recoil-range studies of heavy products of multinucleon transfer from /sup 18/O to /sup 245/Cm and /sup 249/Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, R.M.

    1982-09-01

    Recoil range distributions were measured for alpha and spontaneous fission activities made in the bombardment of /sup 245/Cm and /sup 249/Cf with /sup 18/O from 6.20 MeV/nucleon down to the interaction barrier. The shape of the distributions indicates tht transfers of up to four protons take place via a combination of quasi-elastic (QET) and deep inelastic (DIT) mechanisms, rather than complete fusion-de-excitation (CF) or massive transfer (MT). Angular distributions constructed from recoil range distributions, assuming QET/DIT, indicate that the QET component contributes more significantly to the heavy product residue cross section than the DIT, even though primary cross sections are expected to be higher for DIT than for QET. This may be explained qualitatively as a result of the high excitation energies associated with DIT; the very negative Q/sub gg/ of projectile stripping for these systems combined with the lower expected optimal Q/sub rxn/ of QET compared to DIT can give QET products comparatively low excitation.

  5. Measurement of the Neutron Capture Cross Sections of $^{233}$U, $^{237}$Np, $^{240,242}$Pu, $^{241,243}$Am and $^{245}$Cm with a Total Absorption Calorimeter at n_TOF

    CERN Multimedia

    Beer, H; Wiescher, M; Cox, J; Rapp, W; Embid, M; Dababneh, S

    2002-01-01

    Accurate and reliable neutron capture cross section data for actinides are necessary for the poper design, safety regulation and precise performance assessment of transmutation devices such as Fast Critical Reactors or Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). The goal of this proposal is the measurement of the neutron capture cross sections of $^{233}$U, $^{237}$Np, $^{240,242}$Pu, $^{241,243}$Am and $^{245}$Cm at n_TOF with an accuracy of 5~\\%. $^{233}$U plays an essential role in the Th fuel cycle, which has been proposed as a safer and cleaner alternative to the U fuel cycle. The capture cross sections of $^{237}$Np,$^{240,242}$Pu, $^{241,243}$Am and $^{245}$Cm play a key role in the design and optimization of a strategy for the Nuclear Waste Transmutation. A high accuracy can be achieved at n_TOF in such measurements due to a combination of features unique in the world: high instantaneous neutron fluence and excellent energy resolution of the facility, innovative Data Acquisition System based on flash ADCs and t...

  6. Above-threshold structure in {sup 244}Cm neutron-induced fission cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov, V.M. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    The quasi-resonance structure appearing above the fission threshold in neutron-induced fission cross section of {sup 244}Cm(n,f) is interpreted. It is shown to be due to excitation of few-quasiparticle states in fissioning {sup 245}Cm and residual {sup 244}Cm nuclides. The estimate of quasiparticle excitation thresholds in fissioning nuclide {sup 245}Cm is consistent with pairing gap and fission barrier parameters. (author)

  7. Measurements of Fission Cross Sections of Actinides

    CERN Multimedia

    Wiescher, M; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M

    2002-01-01

    A measurement of the neutron induced fission cross sections of $^{237}$Np, $^{241},{243}$Am and of $^{245}$Cm is proposed for the n_TOF neutron beam. Two sets of fission detectors will be used: one based on PPAC counters and another based on a fast ionization chamber (FIC). A total of 5x10$^{18}$ protons are requested for the entire fission measurement campaign.

  8. Annual report of the project CIS-03-95, `evaluation of actinide nuclear data`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov, V.M. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    The evaluation of neutron data for {sup 243}Cm, {sup 245}Cm and {sup 246}Cm is made in the energy region from 10-5 eV up to 20 MeV. The results of the evaluation are compiled in the ENDF/B-VI format. This work is performed under the Project Agreement CIS-03-95 with the International Science and Technology Center (Moscow). This is the annual report of the project CIS-03-95. (author)

  9. Average resonance parameters evaluation for actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porodzinskij, Yu.V.; Sukhovitskij, E.Sh. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    New evaluated <{Gamma}{sub n}{sup 0}> and values for {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 243}Cm, {sup 245}Cm, {sup 246}Cm and {sup 241}Am nuclei in the resolved resonance region are presented. The applied method based on the idea that experimental resonance missing results in correlated changes of reduced neutron widths and level spacings distributions is discussed. (author)

  10. Prompt neutron multiplicities for the transplutonium nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct determination of the average prompt neutron emission values is reviewed, and a method of comparing different sites of neutron emission multiplicity distribution values is described. Measured and recommended values are tabulated for these nuclides: 241Am, 242Am, 242Cm, 243Cm, 244Cm, 246Cm, 247Cm, 248Cm, 250Cm, 245Cm, 249Bk, 246Cf, 249Cf, 250Cf, 252Cf, 254Cf, 251Cf, 253Es, 254Es, 244Fm, 246Fm, 255Fm, 252No, 254Fm, 256Fm, 257Fm. 59 refs., 24 tabs

  11. Resposta de Euphalerus clitoriae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae a armadilhas adesivas de diferentes cores Response of Euphalerus clitoriae (Hem: Psyllidae to adhesive traps of different colors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela Guajará

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Retângulos de alumínio, medindo 10 x 24,5 cm, pintados de branco, vermelho, azul e amarelo, foram revestidos com cola incolor e inodora e dispostos no campo, entre árvores de Clitoria fairchildiana, para verificação da responsividade dos adultos de E. clitoriae às diferentes cores. Retângulos transparentes, de iguais dimensões, foram utilizados como controle. O número significativamente superior de adultos atraídos e capturados pelas armadilhas amarelas, em comparação com as demais, indica uma resposta orientada, sendo elas, portanto, recomendadas para o monitoramento de adultos de E. clitoriae.Aluminum rectangles measuring 10 x 24.5 cm and painted white, red, blue and yellow were covered with colorless and scentless glue and disposed in the field among trees of Clitoria fairchildiana, for verification of response of E. clitoriae adults to the different colors. Transparent rectangles of the same dimensions were also used as controls. The number of adults attracted and captured by the yellow traps was significantly greater than that attracted by the other colors, suggesting a color-oriented response. Thus, the yellow adhesive traps are recommended for monitoring of E. clitoriae adults.

  12. Conservation of Isospin in Neutron-rich Fission Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A. K.; Choudhury, D.; Maheshwari, B.

    2014-06-01

    On the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the fission phenomenon, we present a surprisingly simple result which highlights the important role of isospin and its conservation in neutron rich fission fragments. We have analysed the fission fragment mass distribution from two recent heavyion reactions 238U(18O,f) and 208Pb(18O,f) as well as a thermal neutron fission reaction 245Cm(nth,f). We find that the conservation of the total isospin explains the overall trend in the observed relative yields of fragment masses in each fission pair partition. The isospin values involved are very large making the effect dramatic. The findings open the way for more precise calculations of fission fragment distributions in heavy nuclei and may have far reaching consequences for the drip line nuclei, HI fusion reactions, and calculation of decay heat in the fission phenomenon.

  13. Conservation of Isospin in Neutron-Rich Fission Fragments

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Ashok Kumar; Maheshwari, Bhoomika

    2014-01-01

    On the occasion of the $75^{th}$ anniversary of the fission phenomenon, we present a surprisingly simple result which highlights the important role of isospin and its conservation in neutron rich fission fragments. We have analysed the fission fragment mass distribution from two recent heavy-ion reactions $^{238}$U($^{18}$O,f) and $^{208}$Pb($^{18}$O,f) as well as a thermal neutron fission reaction $^{245}$Cm(n$^{th}$,f). We find that the conservation of the total isospin explains the overall trend in the observed relative yields of fragment masses in each fission pair partition. The isospin values involved are very large making the effect dramatic. The findings open the way for more precise calculations of fission fragment distributions in heavy nuclei and may have far reaching consequences for the drip line nuclei, HI fusion reactions, and calculation of decay heat in the fission phenomenon.

  14. Data basis for a site specific radioactive element migration analysis of a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migration analysis is of considerable importance in long-term safety analysis of radioactive waste repositories. As a first step the author calculates the transport of radionuclides using data, as far as possible, for an undisturbed hydrogeology. Thereby a reference case is defined. In a later step, possible events and processes can be considered leading to a deviation from the reference case. The present work gives the data base for a selected part of a comprehensive geosphere transport calculation. The report is restricted to a critical evaluation of parameters pertinent to the migration analysis of the 245Cm chain. This includes the important nuclide 237Np. For the first time it is possible to perform a site specific calculation for repositories planned in deep geologic formations in Switzerland. The well known fact that the data basis is extremely sparse is pointed out once more and concretized in detail. (Auth.)

  15. Technical note: Test of a low-cost and animal-friendly system for measuring methane emissions from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis;

    2012-01-01

    Methane is a greenhouse gas with a significant anthropogenic contribution from cattle production. A demand exists for techniques that facilitate evaluation of mitigation strategies for dairy cows. Therefore, a low-cost system facilitating the highest possible animal welfare was constructed...... and validated. The system uses the same principles as systems for open-circuit indirect calorimetry, but to lower the costs, the chamber construction and air-conditioning system were simpler than described for other open-circuit systems. To secure the highest possible animal welfare, the system is located...... in the cow’s daily environment. The system consists of 4 transparent polycarbonate chambers placed in a square so that the cows are facing each other. The chamber dimensions are 183 (width), 382 (length), and 245cm (height) with a volume of 17 m3. Flow and concentrations of O2, CO2, CH4, and H2 are measured...

  16. High-pressure flame visualization of autoignition and flashback phenomena with liquid-fuel spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, C. J.; Baker, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the effect of boundary layers on autoignition and flashback for premixed Jet-A fuel in a unique high-pressure windowed test facility. A plate was placed in the center of the fuel-air stream to establish a boundary layer. Four experimental configurations were tested: a 24.5-cm-long plate with either a pointed leading edge, a rounded edge or an edge with a 0.317-cm step, or the duct without the plate. Experiments at an equivalence ratio ranging from 0.4 to 0.9 were performed at pressures to 2500 kPa (25 atm.) at temperatures of 600, 645, and 700 K and velocities to 115 meters per second. Flame shapes were observed during flashback and autoignition using high speed cinematography. Flashback and autoignition limits were determined.

  17. EFFECTS OF SUBSTRATUM AND CONTAINERS IN ACCLIMATION OF PINEAPPLE SEEDLINGS [Ananas comosus (L. Merril] CV. PÉROLA EFEITOS DE SUBSTRATOS E RECIPIENTES NA ACLIMATAÇÃO DE PLÂNTULAS DE ABACAXIZEIRO [Ananas comosus (L. Merril] CV. PÉROLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Brandão Santa Cruz Barboza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    After the removal of the in vitro culture medium, the survival and growth of micropropagated seedlings are among the main difficulties found in several crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of pineapple cv. Pérola seedlings produced in vitro and acclimated in different substrates and containers. The experimental design was completely randomized split plot, with four replicates. The plots (twenty plants consisted of three substrates (sand/plant fiber/humus, Plantmax and sand and the subplots consisted of three containers (a tubet 5cm in diameter by 13cm high, a tubet 5cm in diameter by 24.5cm high and a 10cm x 8cm plastic bag. The combinations of sand/plant fiber/humus with 5x13cm tubet or with a plastic bag, and of Plantmax with 5x13cm tubet provide better growth in ex vitro conditions.

    KEY-WORDS: Culture in vitro; micropropagation; fruitculture.

    A sobrevivência e o crescimento de plântulas micropropagadas, após a remoção do meio de cultivo in vitro, estão entre as principais dificuldades encontradas em várias culturas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de plântulas de abacaxi cv. Pérola, produzidas in vitro e submetidas a aclimatação em diferentes substratos e recipientes. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. As parcelas (com vinte plântulas foram constituídas de três substratos (areia/xaxim/húmus, Plantmax e areia e as subparcelas, de três recipientes (tubete com 5cm de diâmetro x 13cm de altura, tubete com 5cm de diâmetro x 24,5cm de altura e saco plástico, com 10cm x 8cm. As combinações areia/xaxim/húmus com tubete pequeno ou com saco plástico e Plantmax com tubete de 5cm diâmetro x 13cm de altura proporcionaram melhores respostas ao crescimento em condições ex vitro.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Cultivo in vitro; micropropagação; fruticultura; parcelas subdivididas.

  18. Synthesis, Z-Scan and Degenerate Four Wave Mixing characterization of certain novel thiocoumarin derivatives for third order nonlinear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakrishnan, K.; Joseph, Antony; Mathew, K. Paulson; Siji, T. B.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Narendran, N. K. Siji; Jaseela, M. A.; Muraleedharan, K.

    2016-08-01

    The third order nonlinear optical features of certain novel thiocoumarin derivatives have been studied. Single beam Z-scan study on these compounds reveals that the compounds exhibit self defocusing effect upon irradiation with 532 nm, 7 ns pulses of Nd:YAG laser. Nonlinear absorption coefficient, nonlinear refractive index and second-order molecular hyperpolarizability values were estimated. The optical power limiting properties of the compounds are found to be attributable to both two-photon and excited state absorption. Some of the samples show nonlinear absorption coefficient (βeff) as high as 24.5 cm/GW. UV-Visible and photoluminescence outputs of these compounds reveal remarkable absorptive and emissive properties. This article also reports extraordinary growth of third order optical nonlinearity in pure coumarin upon certain donor substitutions in lieu of hydrogen. Degenerate Four Wave Mixing (DFWM) signals of the compounds were analyzed to verify the Z-scan results. Electrostatic Surface Potential (ESP) mapping and structure optimization techniques have been employed to interpret the structure-property relationship of each molecule.

  19. Synovectomy by Neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Synovectomy by Neutron capture has as purpose the treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis, illness which at present does not have a definitive curing. This therapy requires a neutron source for irradiating the articulation affected. The energy spectra and the intensity of these neutrons are fundamental since these neutrons induce nuclear reactions of capture with Boron-10 inside the articulation and the freely energy of these reactions is transferred at the productive tissue of synovial liquid, annihilating it. In this work it is presented the neutron spectra results obtained with moderator packings of spherical geometry which contains in its center a Pu239 Be source. The calculations were realized through Monte Carlo method. The moderators assayed were light water, heavy water base and the both combination of them. The spectra obtained, the average energy, the neutron total number by neutron emitted by source, the thermal neutron percentage and the dose equivalent allow us to suggest that the moderator packing more adequate is what has a light water thickness 0.5 cm (radius 2 cm) and 24.5 cm heavy water (radius 26.5 cm). (Author)

  20. Low energy neutrons from a sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 PuBe isotopic neutron source inserting in moderating media

    CERN Document Server

    Vega, H R

    2002-01-01

    Several neutron applications share a common problem: the neutron source design. In this work MCNP computer code has been used to design a moderated sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 PuBe neutron source to produce low energy neutrons. The design involves the source located at the center of a spherical moderator. Moderator media studied were light water, heavy water and a heterogeneous combination of light water and heavy water. Similar moderating features were found between the 24.5 cm-radius container filled with heavy water (23.0-cm-thick) and that made with light water (3.5-cm-thick) plus heavy water (19.5-cm-thick). A sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 PuBe neutron source inserted in this moderator produces, at 27 cm, a neutron fluence of 1.8 x 10 sup - sup 4 n-cm sup - sup 2 per source neutron, with an average neutron energy of 0.34 MeV, where 47.8 % have an energy <= 0.4 eV. A further study of this moderator was carried out using a reflector medium made of graphite. Thus, 15-cm-thickness reflector improves the neutron field producing...

  1. Measurement of fission cross-section of actinides at n_TOF for advanced nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Calviani, Marco; Montagnoli, G; Mastinu, P

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the determination of high accuracy neutron-induced fission cross-sections of various isotopes - all of which radioactive - of interest for emerging nuclear technologies. The measurements had been performed at the CERN neutron time-of-flight facility n TOF. In particular, in this work, fission cross-sections on 233U, the main fissile isotope of the Th/U fuel cycle, and on the minor actinides 241Am, 243Am and 245Cm have been analyzed. Data on these isotopes are requested for the feasibility study of innovative nuclear systems (ADS and Generation IV reactors) currently being considered for energy production and radioactive waste transmutation. The measurements have been performed with a high performance Fast Ionization Chamber (FIC), in conjunction with an innovative data acquisition system based on Flash-ADCs. The first step in the analysis has been the reconstruction of the digitized signals, in order to extract the information required for the discrimination between fission fragm...

  2. Estimating slash pine biomass using radar backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Yousif Ali; Reich, Robin M.; Hoffer, Roger M.

    1991-01-01

    L-band HV multiple-incidence-angle aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data were analyzed in relation to average stand biomass, basal area, and tree height for 55 slash pine plantations located in northern Florida. This information was used to develop a system of equations to predict average stand biomass as a function of L-band (24.5-cm) radar backscatter. The system of equations developed in this study using three-stage least-squares and combinatorial screening accounted for 97 percent of the variability observed in average stand biomass per hectare. When applied to an independent data set, the biomass equations had an average bias of less than 1 percent with a standard error of approximately 3 percent. These results indicate that future Shuttle Imaging Radar Systems (e.g., SIR-C, which will have cross-polarized radar sensors) should be able to obtain better estimates of forest biomass than were obtained with previous satellite radar missions, which utilized only HH-polarized SAR data.

  3. Relationships between multipolarized radar backscatter and slash pine stand parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Yousif Ali; Hoffer, Roger M.

    1989-01-01

    Multipolarized L-band (24.5 cm) aircraft radar data was obtained for a primarily forested area in northern Florida. Based on the results of previous studies by Hoffer and Hussin (1989), a swath of medium incidence angle (35-25 deg) data was defined. Three groups of slash pine stands were located in the data: 4- to 17-year-old plantations, 18- to 48-year-old plantations, and 16- to 53-year-old natural stands. Stand data obtained from the forest-products companies operating in the area include age, tree height, diameter-at-breast height, basal area, volume (cords/acre), and density (trees/acre). Each of these stand parameters were compared to each of the four polarizations (HH, VV, VH, and HV) of the radar data for each group of stands. Statistically significant relationships were found between the radar backscatter and the forest stand parameters only for the 4- to 17-year-old slash pine plantation stands. In general, the cross-polarized radar backscatter was more highly correlated with the various stand parameters than the like-polarized backscatter, and the VV-polarized data were more highly correlated than the HH-polarized data.

  4. The influence of body size on the intermittent locomotion of a pelagic schooling fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Takuji; Fujioka, Ko; Fukuda, Hiromu; Mitamura, Hiromichi; Ichikawa, Kotaro; Arai, Nobuaki

    2016-06-15

    There is a potential trade-off between grouping and the optimizing of the energetic efficiency of individual locomotion. Although intermittent locomotion, e.g. glide and upward swimming (GAU), can reduce the cost of locomotion at the individual level, the link between the optimization of individual intermittent locomotion and the behavioural synchronization in a group, especially among members with different sizes, is unknown. Here, we continuously monitored the schooling behaviour of a negatively buoyant fish, Pacific bluefin tuna (N = 10; 21.0 ∼ 24.5 cm), for 24 h in an open-sea net cage using accelerometry. All the fish repeated GAU during the recording periods. Although the GAU synchrony was maintained at high levels (overall mean = 0.62 for the cross-correlation coefficient of the GAU timings), larger fish glided for a longer duration per glide and more frequently than smaller fish. Similar-sized pairs showed significantly higher GAU synchrony than differently sized pairs. Our accelerometry results and the simulation based on hydrodynamic theory indicated that the advantage of intermittent locomotion in energy savings may not be fully optimized for smaller animals in a group when faced with the maintenance of group cohesion, suggesting that size assortative shoaling would be advantageous. PMID:27252017

  5. Temperature measurement with neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results presented in this report were obtained from the information provided by charged products. Another alternative consists in detecting the neutrons abundantly emitted particularly by heavy nuclei. The residue channel was studied in the 40Ar + 197Au at 60 MeV/nucleon by means of the neutron multidetector DEMON. The evolution of the multiplicity of neutrons emitted backwards in the framework of the heavy nucleus forwardly detected as a function of the residue velocity by a silicon detector, placed at 8 degrees and at 24.5 cm from target, agrees with the expected results i.e. an increase with the residue velocity hence with the collision violence. For the same detector the first measurements show similarly a linear increase of the apparent temperature of 4.0 to around 6.5 MeV for residue velocities varying from 0.5 to 1.3 cm/ns and masses ranging from 140 to 160 uma. This first results of the analysis show therefore a good behaviour of the assembly and especially of the couple DeMoN-SyReP

  6. Nuclear structure of 241Pu from neutron-capture, (d,p)-, and (d,t)-reaction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report experimental measurements in 241Pu of the following: primary and secondary γ rays and conversion electrons from thermal neutron capture in 240Pu;γ rays from 245Cm α decay; proton and triton spectra, respectively, from (d,p) and (d,t) reactions on 240Pu and 242Pu targets. From these data and those of other investigations, we have identified 53 excited levels in 241Pu below 1400 keV. Of these, 44 are placed in 10 rotational bands (with connecting transitions) that have been assigned Nilsson configurations. For the bands below 1 MeV in 241Pu that are largely of single-particle character, there is good correspondence with similar bands in 239U and with the theoretical model of Gareev et al. For those bands in 241Pu where there is mixing between single-particle and vibrational modes, we find some significant deviations from theoretical predictions. For example, the (5) /(2) [622]circle-times 0- state at 519 keV appears to mix less with other states than predicted, while a trio of Kπ= (1) /(2) - bands show unexpected mixing patterns. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  7. Powering-up Wireless Sensor Nodes Utilizing Rechargeable Batteries and an Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salar Chamanian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a wireless sensor node (WSN system where an electromagnetic (EM energy harvester is utilized for charging its rechargeable batteries while the system is operational. The capability and the performance of an in-house low-frequency EM energy harvester for charging rechargeable NiMH batteries were experimentally verified in comparison to a regular battery charger. Furthermore, the power consumption of MicaZ motes, used as the WSN, was evaluated in detail for different operation conditions. The battery voltage and current were experimentally monitored during the operation of the MicaZ sensor node equipped with the EM vibration energy harvester. A compact (24.5 cm3 in-house EM energy harvester provides approximately 65 µA charging current to the batteries when excited by 0.4 g acceleration at 7.4 Hz. It has been shown that the current demand of the MicaZ mote can be compensated for by the energy harvester for a specific low-power operation scenario, with more than a 10-fold increase in the battery lifetime. The presented results demonstrate the autonomous operation of the WSN, with the utilization of a vibration-based energy harvester.

  8. The Fission Programme at the CERN n_TOF Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsinganis, A.; Barbagallo, M.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviani, M.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Diakaki, M.; Duran, I.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Leong, L.-S.; Paradela, C.; Tarrio, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Vlastou, R.

    Since 2001, the scientific programme of the CERN n_TOF facility has focused mainly on the study of radiative neutron capture reactions, which are of great interest to nuclear astrophysics and on neutron-induced fission reactions, which are of relevance for nuclear technology, as well as essential for the development of theoretical models of fission. In particular, taking advantage of the high instantaneous neutron flux and high energy resolution of the facility, as well as of high-performance detection and acquisition systems, accurate new measurements on several long-lived major and minor actinides, from 232Th to 245Cm, have been performed so far. Data on these isotopes are needed in order to improve the safety and efficiency of conventional reactors, as well as to develop new systems for nuclear energy production and treatment of nuclear waste, such as Generation IV reactors, Accelerator Driven Systems and reactors based on innovative fuel cycles. A review of the most important results on fission cross-sections and fragment properties obtained at n_TOF for a variety of (radioactive) isotopes is presented along with the perspectives arising from the coming on line in the second half of 2014 of a new 19 m flight-path, which will allow n_TOF to expand its measurement capabilities to even more rare or short-lived isotopes, such as 230Th, 232U, 238,240Pu and 244Cm.

  9. Application of atmospheric CVD for internal surface coating of graphite conduit by silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • APCVD could be a suitable process for SiC coating on complex geometry. • Dendrite structure of SiC was observed along the axis. • SiC coating was boundary phenomena. • Uniform coating was observed along axial and radial direction. - Abstract: Mechanism of silicon carbide coating on the internal surface of the graphite tube of dimension ϕ 3 mm ID × ϕ 10 mm OD × ϕ 235 mm and surface area ∼24.5 cm2 has been investigated. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) method in mass controlled domain has been applied. Methyltrichlorosilane (MTS) as precursor was used in the present investigation. The coating was characterized by X-ray micro tomography (μCT). The coating thickness and composition were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS). The coating phase analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It has been concluded that silicon carbide coating is a predominantly boundary layer phenomena and the engineering of the same could open up the prospects to accomplish SiC coating on complex pipe line structures on macro scale

  10. ANSI/ANS-8.15-1981(R87): Nuclear criticality control of special actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The American National Standard, open-quotes Nuclear Criticality Safety in Operations with Fissionable Materials Outside Reactotorsclose quotes American National Standards Institute/American Nuclear Society (ANSI/ANS)-8.1-1983(R88) provides guidance for the nuclides 233U, 235U, and 239Pu. These three nuclides are of primary interest in out-of-reactor criticality safety since they are the most commonly encountered in the vast majority of operations. However, some operations can involve nuclides other than 233U, 235U, and 239Pu in sufficient quantities that their effect on criticality safety could be of concern. ANSI/ANS-8.15-1981(R87) open-quotes Nuclear Criticality Control of Special Actinide Elements,close quotes provides guidance for 15 such nuclides. The standard was approved for use on November 9, 1981. When it received its first 5-yr review, no changes were made, and it was reaffirmed effective October 30, 1987. The standard was again reviewed and reaffirmed without changes in December 1995. The next 5-yr review of the standard is due in December 2000. The affected nuclides are 237Np, 238Pu, 240Pu, 242Pu, 241Am, 243Am, 244Cm, 239Pu, 241Pu, 242mAm, 243Cm, 245Cm, 247Cm, 249Cf, and 251Cf

  11. The hydrogen tunneling splitting in malonaldehyde: A full-dimensional time-independent quantum mechanical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Ren, Yinghui; Bian, Wensheng

    2016-08-01

    The accurate time-independent quantum dynamics calculations on the ground-state tunneling splitting of malonaldehyde in full dimensionality are reported for the first time. This is achieved with an efficient method developed by us. In our method, the basis functions are customized for the hydrogen transfer process which has the effect of greatly reducing the size of the final Hamiltonian matrix, and the Lanczos method and parallel strategy are used to further overcome the memory and central processing unit time bottlenecks. The obtained ground-state tunneling splitting of 24.5 cm-1 is in excellent agreement with the benchmark value of 23.8 cm-1 computed with the full-dimensional, multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree approach on the same potential energy surface, and we estimate that our reported value has an uncertainty of less than 0.5 cm-1. Moreover, the role of various vibrational modes strongly coupled to the hydrogen transfer process is revealed.

  12. USING WHOLE BODY VIBRATION TO IMPROVE JUMP ABILITY IN YOUNG RECREATIONAL SPORTMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés de Hoyo Lora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The whole body vibrations (WBV it is nowadays one of the most widely used methods for improvingthe explosive strength. In this study, 12 subjects participating in recreational physical activity were allocated to a5 sets of 60 s training, using a frequency of 30 Hz, an amplitude of 2.5 mm. and a isometric position (110 °bending knees on a Galileo Fitness ® (Novotech, Germany platform. The results showed an increase in SJ(+1.76 ± 4.05 cm and CMJ (+1.10 ± 3.20 cm in the post-test conducted just after the vibration. The values of the post-test performed 30 minutes after the squat jump remained above the ones of pre-test but just below the ones of the immediate post-test (+0.42 ± 4.43 cm. By contrast the values in the counter movement jump drop below the pre-test ones (-0.12 ± 2.45 cm. Based on these data it seems that when the frequency is not high it is necessary to use a greater amplitude in order to achieve the desired effects. The effect achieved after the vibration is transient, not remaining after 30 minutes.

  13. Synovectomy by Neutron capture; Sinovectomia por captura de neutrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H.R.; Torres M, C. [Centro Regional de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, C. Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The Synovectomy by Neutron capture has as purpose the treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis, illness which at present does not have a definitive curing. This therapy requires a neutron source for irradiating the articulation affected. The energy spectra and the intensity of these neutrons are fundamental since these neutrons induce nuclear reactions of capture with Boron-10 inside the articulation and the freely energy of these reactions is transferred at the productive tissue of synovial liquid, annihilating it. In this work it is presented the neutron spectra results obtained with moderator packings of spherical geometry which contains in its center a Pu{sup 239} Be source. The calculations were realized through Monte Carlo method. The moderators assayed were light water, heavy water base and the both combination of them. The spectra obtained, the average energy, the neutron total number by neutron emitted by source, the thermal neutron percentage and the dose equivalent allow us to suggest that the moderator packing more adequate is what has a light water thickness 0.5 cm (radius 2 cm) and 24.5 cm heavy water (radius 26.5 cm). (Author)

  14. Kidney volume correlates with tumor diameter in renal cell carcinoma and is associated with histological poor prognostic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brian D; Finn, Stephen P

    2014-02-01

    We aimed to correlate kidney volume (KV) in renal cell carcinoma nephrectomy specimens with tumor diameter (TD), macroscopic growth pattern, and histological features associated with poor prognosis. Histopathology reports, macroscopic specimen photographs, and selected glass slides were retrospectively reviewed. KV was approximated to the volume of an ellipsoid. A total of 273 specimens were identified with median KV 245 cm(3). Kidneys larger than this contained larger tumors (7.5 vs 4.5 cm). KV was significantly greater in tumors of high grade, involving perinephric fat, exhibiting venous invasion, and involving renal sinus. There was a robust linear correlation between KV and TD (r = 0.602) and a weaker correlation between kidney diameter (KD) and TD (r = 0.53). In pT1 tumors, KV (r = 0.40) also correlated better with TD than did KD (r = 0.27). By multiple regression analysis, both TD and venous invasion independently predicted both KD (R (2) = 38.27%) and KV (R (2) = 51.97%). KV and KD correlate well with TD and histopathological features of aggressiveness, although KD correlates better overall and in the pT1 subset.

  15. Extension and validation of the TRANSURANUS burn-up model for helium production in high burn-up LWR fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botazzoli, Pietro; Luzzi, Lelio; Brémier, Stephane; Schubert, Arndt; Van Uffelen, Paul; Walker, Clive T.; Haeck, Wim; Goll, Wolfgang

    2011-12-01

    The TRANSURANUS burn-up model (TUBRNP) calculates the local concentration of the actinides, the main fission products, and 4He as a function of the radial position across a fuel rod. In this paper, the improvements in the helium production model as well as the extensions in the simulation of 238-242Pu, 241Am, 243Am and 242-245Cm isotopes are described. Experimental data used for the extended validation include new EPMA measurements of the local concentrations of Nd and Pu and recent SIMS measurements of the radial distributions of Pu, Am and Cm isotopes, both in a 3.5% enriched commercial PWR UO 2 fuel with a burn-up of 80 and 65 MWd/kgHM, respectively. Good agreement has been found between TUBRNP and the experimental data. The analysis has been complemented by detailed neutron transport calculations (VESTA code), and also revealed the need to update the branching ratio for the 241Am(n,γ) 242mAm reaction in typical PWR conditions.

  16. Morphological leaf variability in natural populations of Pistacia atlantica Desf. subsp. atlantica along climatic gradient: new features to update Pistacia atlantica subsp. atlantica key

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zerey-Belaskri, Asma; Benhassaini, Hachemi

    2016-04-01

    The effect of bioclimate range on the variation in Pistacia atlantica Desf. subsp. atlantica leaf morphology was studied on 16 sites in Northwest Algeria. The study examined biometrically mature leaves totaling 3520 compound leaves. Fifteen characters (10 quantitative and 5 qualitative) were assessed on each leaf. For each quantitative character, the nested analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine relative magnitude of variation at each level of the nested hierarchy. The correlation between the climatic parameters and the leaf morphology was examined. The statistical analysis applied on the quantitative leaf characters showed highly significant variation at the within-site level and between-site variation. The correlation coefficient ( r) showed also an important correlation between climatic parameters and leaf morphology. The results of this study exhibited several values reported for the first time on the species, such as the length and the width of the leaf (reaching up to 24.5 cm/21.9 cm), the number of leaflets (up to 18 leaflets/leaf), and the petiole length of the terminal leaflet (reaching up to 3.4 cm). The original findings of this study are used to update the P. atlantica subsp. atlantica identification key.

  17. Review and Assessment of Neutron Cross Section and Nubar Covariances for Advanced Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov,V.M.; Oblozinsky, P.; Herman, M.

    2008-12-01

    In January 2007, the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) produced a set of preliminary neutron covariance data for the international project 'Nuclear Data Needs for Advanced Reactor Systems'. The project was sponsored by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), Paris, under the Subgroup 26 of the International Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC). These preliminary covariances are described in two recent BNL reports. The NNDC used a simplified version of the method developed by BNL and LANL that combines the recent Atlas of Neutron Resonances, the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE and the Bayesian code KALMAN with the experimental data used as guidance. There are numerous issues involved in these estimates of covariances and it was decided to perform an independent review and assessment of these results so that better covariances can be produced for the revised version in future. Reviewed and assessed are uncertainties for fission, capture, elastic scattering, inelastic scattering and (n,2n) cross sections as well as prompt nubars for 15 minor actinides ({sup 233,234,236}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238,240,241,242}Pu, {sup 241,242m,243}Am and {sup 242,243,244,245}Cm) and 4 major actinides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 235,238}U and {sup 239}Pu). We examined available evaluations, performed comparison with experimental data, taken into account uncertainties in model parameterization and made use state-of-the-art nuclear reaction theory to produce the uncertainty assessment.

  18. 244CmO2/nat.-UO2 hybrid blanket with flat fission power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, 244CmO2 is mixed with nat.-UO2 for the purpose of power flattening in a hybrid blanket with a reasonably high energy multiplication factor. Also, the temporal variations of the fission power density (FPD) are observed during an 18-month plant operation period. The main conclusion drawn from this work is that it became possible to keep a flat fission power profile (FPP) over a very long plant operation period of 18 months by simply omitting the beryllium multiplier in the blanket and keeping the neutron spectrum fairly unchanged throughout the fission zone. This reduced the efforts for fuel management to a minimum. A further observation focused on only minor variations of the integral neutronic data over longer plant operation periods. Among others, the fission power generation increase is also very modest. This results in an optimum investment for the nonnuclear island. The blanket burns up high-level nuclear waste 244Cm effectively, with efficient electricity production and breeding of a new type of nuclear fuel 245Cm with very superior nuclear properties. Finally, a warning should be issued for the careful international safeguarding of such a hybrid plant due to the extremely high quality of the bred plutonium fuel

  19. Vibrational properties of the trinuclear spin crossover complex [Fe3(4-(2'-hydroxy-ethyl)-1,2,4-triazole)6(H2O)6](CF3SO3)6: a nuclear inelastic scattering, IR, Raman and DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolny, Juliusz A; Rackwitz, Sergej; Achterhold, Klaus; Garcia, Yann; Muffler, Kai; Naik, Anil D; Schünemann, Volker

    2010-11-28

    The vibrational properties of the trimeric iron complex [Fe(3)(4-(2'-hydroxy-ethyl)-1,2,4-triazole)(6)(H(2)O)(6)](CF(3)SO(3))(6) which serves as a model of the 1D iron coordination polymers based on 1,2,4-triazoles have been investigated by nuclear inelastic scattering of synchrotron radiation (NIS), as well as by Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The system reveals a soft spin crossover involving only the central iron atom with its FeN(6) core, while the terminal FeN(3)O(3) units show no spin transition. The NIS spectra of the central low-spin isomer exhibit a number of marker bands in the 350-450 cm(-1) region which have not been detected in the Raman spectra. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations allowed the assignment of these bands to Fe-N bending and stretching modes. A characteristic high-spin marker mode has been identified and discriminated from the iron-ligand modes of the terminal iron atoms. This characteristic central Fe-N mode has been observed experimentally at 245 cm(-1) and theoretically at 255 cm(-1). Contrary to mononuclear centrosymmetric Fe complexes, some of the symmetric vibrations of the trimeric complex involving iron movements are observed by NIS. Furthermore the DFT calculations displayed the importance of the coulombic repulsion between metal ions for the geometry and stability of a given spin isomer. PMID:20931141

  20. Early surgical outcomes of coronary heart disease with severe ischemic mitral regurgitation%冠心病合并重度缺血性二尖瓣关闭不全的外科治疗早期疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦明杰; 陈星权; 郑少忆; 吴若彬; 郭惠明; 黄劲松

    2011-01-01

    目的 总结对冠心病合并重度缺血性二尖瓣关闭不全外科治疗的经验.方法 自2006年1月~2009年12月,45例冠心病合并重度缺血性二尖瓣关闭不全(ischemic mitral valve regurgitation,IMR珩冠状动脉旁路移植术时同期行二尖瓣成形术24例,瓣膜置换术21例.男35例,女10例;年龄32~74岁[平均(58.46±12.51)岁].结果 围术期死亡2例,死于多器官功能衰竭(multiple organ failure,MOF).超声心动图检查提示:术后二尖瓣反流面积与术前比较明显下降[(11.80±2.45)cm2和(2.83±0.98)cm2,t=22.80,P=0.00],术后左心室舒张期末内径(left ventricular end diastolic diameter,LVEDD) 与术前比较明显减小[(57.61±10.06)mm和(51.84±8.98)mm,t=2.85,P=0.005)].左心室射血分数(left ventricular ejection fraction,LVEF)无明显差异(52.7%±15.4%和53.2%±13.2%,t=0.16,P=0.87).结论 治疗冠心病合并重度缺血性二尖瓣关闭不全,对二尖瓣病变进行必要的外科手术矫正,早期可改善左心室收缩功能,长期预后有待更多的追踪.%Objective To summarize the experience with surgical treatment of coronary artery disease with severe ischemic mitral valve regurgitation (IMR). Methods From January 2006 to December 2009, 45 patients (35 males, 10 females aged 32-74 years) with the diagnosis of coronary artery disease complicated by IMR underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) combined with mitral valve plasty (MVP, 24 cases) or mitral valve replacement (MVR, 21 cases). Results Perioperative deaths occurred in 2 cases due to multiple organ failure (MOF). Echocardiography showed a significant reduction of the mitral regurgitation area (from 11.80±2.45 cm2 to 2.83±0.98 cm2, t=22.80, P=0.00) after CABG combined with mitral valve surgery, with also significantly reduced postoperative left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDD) (from 57.61±10.06 mm to 51.84±8.98 mm, t=2.85, P=0.005). No significant difference was detected in the left ventricular ejection fraction after the operation [(52.7±15.4)% vs (53.2±13.2)%, t=0.16, P=0.87)]. Conclusion CABG combined with mitral valve surgery can improve early postoperative left ventricular function in patients with ischemic coronary heart disease complicated by severe mitral regurgitation, but further follow-up study is still needed for evaluation of the long-term results.

  1. Capillary electrophoresis of heparin and other glycosaminoglycans using a polyamine running electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loegel, Thomas N.; Trombley, John D.; Taylor, Richard T. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States); Danielson, Neil D., E-mail: danielnd@muohio.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States)

    2012-11-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethylenediamine is likely acting as an ion-pairing agent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate is last peak instead of first peak. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is about a factor of five improved detectability with a 12.5 min analysis time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of a 50 {mu}m ID capillary is possible. - Abstract: This study involves the use of polyamines as potential resolving agents for the capillary electrophoresis (CE) of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), specifically heparin, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, over-sulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), and hyaluronan. All of the compounds can be separated from each other with the exception of chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronan. Using optimization software, the final run conditions are found to be 200 mM ethylenediamine and 45.5 mM phosphate as the electrolyte with -14 V applied across a 50 {mu}m ID Multiplication-Sign 24.5 cm fused silica capillary at 15 Degree-Sign C. The ion migration order, with OSCS as the last instead of the first peak, is in contrast to previous reports using either a high molarity TRIS or lithium phosphate run buffer with narrower bore capillaries. Total analysis time is 12. 5 min and the relative standard deviation of the heparin migration time is about 2.5% (n = 5). The interaction mechanism between selected polyamines and heparin is explored using conductivity measurements in addition to CE experiments to show that an ion-pairing mechanism is likely.

  2. PRELIMINARY CROSS SECTION AND NU-BAR COVARIANCES FOR WPEC SUBGROUP 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROCHMAN,D.

    2007-01-31

    We report preliminary cross section covariances developed for the WPEC Subgroup 26 for 45 out of 52 requested materials. The covariances were produced in 15- and 187-group representations as follows: (1) 36 isotopes ({sup 16}O, {sup 19}F, {sup 23}Na, {sup 27}Al, {sup 28}Si, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 56,56}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 90,91,92,94}Zr, {sup 166,167,168,170}Er, {sup 206,207,208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 233,234,236}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238,240,241,242}Pu, {sup 241,242m,243}Am, {sup 242,243,244,245}Cm) were evaluated using the BNL-LANL methodology. For the thermal region and the resolved and unresolved resonance regions, the methodology has been based on the Atlas-Kalman approach, in the fast neutron region the Empire-Kalman method has been used; (2) 6 isotopes ({sup 155,156,157,158,160}Gd and {sup 232}Th) were taken from ENDF/B-VII.0; and (3) 3 isotopes ({sup 1}H, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu) were taken from JENDL-3.3. For 6 light nuclei ({sup 4}He, {sup 6,7}Li, {sup 9}Be, {sup 10}B, {sup 12}C), only partial cross section covariance results were obtained, additional work is needed and they do not report the results here. Likewise, the cross section covariances for {sup 235}U, which they recommend to take from JENDL-3.3, will be included once the multigroup processing is successfully completed. Covariances for the average number of neutrons per fission, total {nu}-bar, are provided for 10 actinides identified as priority by SG26. Further work is needed to resolve some of the issues and to produce covariances for the full set of 52 materials.

  3. OSMOSE program : statistical review of oscillation measurements in the MINERVE reactor R1-UO2 configuration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoven, G.; Klann, R.; Zhong, Z.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-08-28

    The OSMOSE program is a collaboration on reactor physics experiments between the United States Department of Energy and the France Commissariat Energie Atomique. At the working level, it is a collaborative effort between the Argonne National Laboratory and the CEA Cadarache Research Center. The objective of this program is to measure very accurate integral reaction rates in representative spectra for the actinides important to future nuclear system designs, and to provide the experimental data for improving the basic nuclear data files. The main outcome of the OSMOSE measurement program will be an experimental database of reactivity-worth measurements in different neutron spectra for the heavy nuclides. This database can then be used as a benchmark to verify and validate reactor analysis codes. The OSMOSE program (Oscillation in Minerve of isotopes in Eupraxic Spectra) aims at improving neutronic predictions of advanced nuclear fuels through oscillation measurements in the MINERVE facility on samples containing the following separated actinides: {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, {sup 242}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 243}Am, {sup 244}Cm, and {sup 245}Cm. The first part of this report provides an overview of the experimental protocol and the typical processing of a series of experimental results which is currently performed at CEA-Cadarache. In the second part of the report, improvements to this technique are presented, as well as the program that was created to process oscillation measurement results from the MINERVE facility in the future.

  4. Validation of minor actinides fission neutron cross-sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Milan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Verification of neutron fission cross-sections of minor actinides from some recently available evaluated nuclear data libraries was carried out by comparison of the reaction rates calculated by the MCNP6.1 computer code to the experimental values. The experimental samples, containing thin layers of 235U, 237Np, 238,239,240,241Pu, 242mAm, 243Cm, 245Cm, and 247Cm, deposited on metal support and foils of 235U (pseudo-alloy 27Al + 235U, 238U, natIn, 64Zn, 27Al, and multi-component sample alloy 27Al + 55Mn + natCu + natLu + 197Au, were irradiated in the channels of the tank containing fluorine salts 0.52NaF + 0.48ZrF4, labelled as the Micromodel Salt Blanket, inserted in the lattice centre of the MAKET heavy water critical assembly at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow. This paper is a continuation of earlier initiated scientific-research activities carried out for validation of the evaluated fission cross-sections of actinides that were supposed to be used for the quality examination of the fuel design of the accelerator driven systems or fast reactors, and consequently, determination of transmutation rates of actinides, and therefore, determination of operation parameters of these reactor facilities. These scientific-research activities were carried out within a frame of scientific projects supported by the International Science and Technology Center and the International Atomic Energy Agency co-ordinated research activities, from 1999 to 2010. Obtained results confirm that further research is needed in evaluations in order to establish better neutron cross-section data for the minor actinides and selected nuclides which could be used in the accelerator driven systems or fast reactors.

  5. Highly enriched isotope samples of uranium and transuranium elements for scientific investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesnovskii, Stanislav P.; Polynov, Vladimir N.; Danilin, Lev. D.

    1992-02-01

    The paper describes the production of highly enriched isotopes of uranium, plutonium, americium and curium by electromagnetic separation for scientific and applied researches in physics, chemistry, geology, medicine, biology and other fields. Using the equipment described, the isotopes are produced in quantities sufficient to set up nuclear physical experiments, to produce nuclear reference materials and standard sources for calibration of radiometrical and mass spectrometrical equipment, in radionuclide metrology, etc. For the following isotopes the indicated degrees of isotopic enrichment were achieved: 233U - 99.97%; 235U - 99.97%; 236U - 98.0%; 238U - 99.997%; 238Pu - 99.6%; 239Pu - 99.9977%; 240Pu - 99.9-100%; 241Pu - 96.998%; 242Pu - 97.8-99.96%; 244Pu - 96.7%; 241Am - 99.6%; 242Am - 73.6%; 243Am - 99.2-99.94%; 243Cm - 99.99%; 245Cm - 99.998%; 246Cm - 99.8%; 247Cm - 90%; 248Cm - 97%. Methods for preparing layers of highly enriched isotopes on various substances are presented: - electrochemical deposition of transuranic elements from aqueous-organic and organic media and vacuum spraying: - the method of foil and coating formation via compounds in the vapour phase; - the method of fabrication of layers of transuranic elements on superthin (1-2 μm) metal substrates with additional isolating polymer-metal coatings (0.2-0.4 μm), that substantially decrease material transfer from the active layer and increase safety of product handling.

  6. RESEARCH REGARDING THE EVOLUTION OF CORPORAL WEIGHTES AND FOOD CONVERSSION ON JUVENILE OF SIBERIAN STURGEON (Acipenser baeri RAISED IN RECIRCULATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BURA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The research was performed within the recirculating aquaculture system for sturgeon growth, in Banat's Universsity of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine from Timisoara, on 2851 juveniles of Siberian sturgeons (Acipenser baeri, aged between 132-175 days. Juveniles were maintained in 4 tanks with volume of 5.63 m3, fed with granulated feed of 2 mm (44 & 22% PB and GB. Every 2 weeks the weight and body length was determinate on an effective of 30 individuals from each tank. Based on the obtained body weight, it has been established the food quantity used and bioproductive indicators. Having the weight differences between the individuals of a Siberian sturgeon population, it is needed at certain time intervals to practice assortment by body development. At the age of 175 days, Siberian sturgeons reached an average body weight between 90.13 ± 4.56 g and 197.63 ± 7.22 g and average body length between 28.73 ± 0.43 cm and 37.55 ± 0.38 cm. Individual values of minimum and maximum body weight varied between 32 g and 307 g and body length between 24.5 cm and 42 cm. For the entire population of Siberian sturgeons, there is a middle and high variability for the average body weight and a small variability for the average body length. During the 43 experimental days, the 2851 Siberian sturgeons have acquired a real weight gain of 184.66 kg, with a conversion factor of 0.84 kilograms of feed / kg growth and an index of feed conversion of 1.19 kilograms spore / kg feed consumed.

  7. Assessment of americium and curium transmutation in magnesia based targets in different spectral zones of an experimental accelerator driven system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeck, W.; Malambu, E.; Sobolev, V. P.; Aït Abderrahim, H.

    2006-06-01

    The potential to incinerate minor actinides (MA) in a sub-critical accelerator-driven system (ADS) is a subject of study in several countries where nuclear power plants are present. The performance of the MYRRHA experimental ADS, as to the transmutation of Am and Cm in the inert matrix fuel (IMF) samples consisting of 40 vol.% (Cm0.1Am0.5Pu0.4)O1.88 fuel and 60 vol.% MgO matrix with a density of 6.077 g cm-3 in three various spectrum regions, were analysed at the belgian nuclear research centre SCK · CEN. The irradiation period of 810 effective full power days (EFPD) followed by a storage period of 2 years was considered. The ALEPH code system currently under development at SCK · CEN was used to carry out this study. The total amount of MA is shown to decrease in all three considered cases. For Am, the decrease is the largest in the reflector (89% decrease) but at the cost of a net Cm production (92% increase). In the two other positions (inside the core region), 20-30% of Am has disappeared but with a lower production of Cm (between 7% and 11%). In the reflector, a significant build-up of long-lived 245Cm, 246Cm, 247Cm and 248Cm was also observed while the production of these isotopes is 10-1000 times smaller in the core. The reduction of the Pu content is also the highest in the reflector position (41%). In the other positions the incinerated amount of Pu is much smaller: 1-5%.

  8. Study of calculated and measured time dependent delayed neutron yields. [TX, for calculating delayed neutron yields; MATINV, for matrix inversion; in FORTRAN for LSI-II minicomputer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldo, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    Time-dependent delayed neutron emission is of interest in reactor design, reactor dynamics, and nuclear physics studies. The delayed neutrons from neutron-induced fission of /sup 232/U, /sup 237/Np, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 241/Am, /sup 242m/Am, /sup 245/Cm, and /sup 249/Cf were studied for the first time. The delayed neutron emission from /sup 232/Th, /sup 233/U, /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Pu, and /sup 242/Pu were measured as well. The data were used to develop an empirical expression for the total delayed neutron yield. The expression gives accurate results for a large variety of nuclides from /sup 232/Th to /sup 252/Cf. The data measuring the decay of delayed neutrons with time were used to derive another empirical expression predicting the delayed neutron emission with time. It was found that nuclides with similar mass-to-charge ratios have similar decay patterns. Thus the relative decay pattern of one nuclide can be established by any measured nuclide with a similar mass-to-charge ratio. A simple fission product yield model was developed and applied to delayed neutron precursors. It accurately predicts observed yield and decay characteristics. In conclusion, it is possible to not only estimate the total delayed neutron yield for a given nuclide but the time-dependent nature of the delayed neutrons as well. Reactors utilizing recycled fuel or burning actinides are likely to have inventories of fissioning nuclides that have not been studied until now. The delayed neutrons from these nuclides can now be incorporated so that their influence on the stability and control of reactors can be delineated. 8 figures, 39 tables.

  9. TH-C-12A-08: New Compact 10 MV S-Band Linear Accelerator: 3D Finite-Element Design and Monte Carlo Dose Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To design a new compact S-band linac waveguide capable of producing a 10 MV x-ray beam, while maintaining the length (27.5 cm) of current 6 MV waveguides. This will allow higher x-ray energies to be used in our linac-MRI systems with the same footprint. Methods: Finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics was used to design an accelerator cavity matching one published in an experiment breakdown study, to ensure that our modeled cavities do not exceed the threshold electric fields published. This cavity was used as the basis for designing an accelerator waveguide, where each cavity of the full waveguide was tuned to resonate at 2.997 GHz by adjusting the cavity diameter. The RF field solution within the waveguide was calculated, and together with an electron-gun phase space generated using Opera3D/SCALA, were input into electron tracking software PARMELA to compute the electron phase space striking the x-ray target. This target phase space was then used in BEAM Monte Carlo simulations to generate percent depth doses curves for this new linac, which were then used to re-optimize the waveguide geometry. Results: The shunt impedance, Q-factor, and peak-to-mean electric field ratio were matched to those published for the breakdown study to within 0.1% error. After tuning the full waveguide, the peak surface fields are calculated to be 207 MV/m, 13% below the breakdown threshold, and a d-max depth of 2.42 cm, a D10/20 value of 1.59, compared to 2.45 cm and 1.59, respectively, for the simulated Varian 10 MV linac and brehmsstrahlung production efficiency 20% lower than a simulated Varian 10 MV linac. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the design of a functional 27.5 cm waveguide producing 10 MV photons with characteristics similar to a Varian 10 MV linac

  10. Understanding the Long-Term Deformation in the Mississippi Embayment: the Mississippi River Seismic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, M.; McIntosh, K.; Waldron, B.; Mitchell, L.; Saustrup, S.; Towle, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Central US hosts one of the most active intraplate seismic areas in the world, the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ). Here the high level of historic and instrumental seismicity clashes with the subdued topography of the Mississippi embayment, minimal geodetic vectors and a puzzling lack of substantial deformation in the post Late-Cretaceous sediments. To explain this apparent paradox it has been proposed that the seismicity in the NMSZ is either 1) very young (at least in its present form), 2) episodic, or 3) migrates throughout a broad region. In order to test these hypotheses and to understand how the deformation is partitioned within the Mississippi embayment, we collected a 300 km-long high-resolution seismic reflection profile along the Mississippi river, from Helena, Arkansas to Caruthersville, Missouri. The profile images a portion of the embayment outside the area of influence of the NMSZ in a region where evidence has been mounting of a seismic source, predating the NMSZ, for which no corresponding structure has yet been identified. The seismic survey exploited the advantages of marine acqui9sition (time effective, low cost) using a 245/245 cm3 (15/15 in3) mini-GI airgun fired at 13.790MPa (2000 psi), a 24-channel 75 m-long active streamer, with 3.125 m group and 12 m nominal shot interval. The high quality data image the Cretaceous and younger sedimentary section, from the top of the Paleozoic unconformity to the Quaternary deposits. Preliminary interpretation of the dataset confirms the general deepening of the Paleozoic basement from ~800 ms at Caruthersville, to ~1 s at the southern end of Crowley's Ridge. In addition, the data reveal prominent recent deformation coincident with the Blytheville arch, the Eastern Reelfoot Rift margin and the White river Fault zone, accommodated by folding and faulting that extend from the top of the Paleozoic through the sedimentary section, and that involves the Quaternary deposits.

  11. First direct evidence of chalcolithic footwear from the near eastern highlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Pinhasi

    Full Text Available In 2008, a well preserved and complete shoe was recovered at the base of a Chalcolithic pit in the cave of Areni-1, Armenia. Here, we discuss the chronology of this find, its archaeological context and its relevance to the study of the evolution of footwear. Two leather samples and one grass sample from the shoe were dated at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU. A third leather sample was dated at the University of California-Irvine Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Facility (UCIAMS. The R_Combine function for the three leather samples provides a date range of 3627-3377 Cal BC (95.4% confidence interval and the calibrated range for the straw is contemporaneous (3627-3377 Cal BC. The shoe was stuffed with loose, unfastened grass (Poaceae without clear orientation which was more than likely used to maintain the shape of the shoe and/or prepare it for storage. The shoe is 24.5 cm long (European size 37, 7.6 to 10 cm wide, and was made from a single piece of leather that wrapped around the foot. It was worn and shaped to the wearer's right foot, particularly around the heel and hallux where the highest pressure is exerted in normal gait. The Chalcolithic shoe provides solid evidence for the use of footwear among Old World populations at least since the Chalcolithic. Other 4th millennium discoveries of shoes (Italian and Swiss Alps, and sandals (Southern Israel indicate that more than one type of footwear existed during the 4th millennium BC, and that we should expect to discover more regional variations in the manufacturing and style of shoes where preservation conditions permit.

  12. First direct evidence of chalcolithic footwear from the near eastern highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhasi, Ron; Gasparian, Boris; Areshian, Gregory; Zardaryan, Diana; Smith, Alexia; Bar-Oz, Guy; Higham, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, a well preserved and complete shoe was recovered at the base of a Chalcolithic pit in the cave of Areni-1, Armenia. Here, we discuss the chronology of this find, its archaeological context and its relevance to the study of the evolution of footwear. Two leather samples and one grass sample from the shoe were dated at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU). A third leather sample was dated at the University of California-Irvine Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Facility (UCIAMS). The R_Combine function for the three leather samples provides a date range of 3627-3377 Cal BC (95.4% confidence interval) and the calibrated range for the straw is contemporaneous (3627-3377 Cal BC). The shoe was stuffed with loose, unfastened grass (Poaceae) without clear orientation which was more than likely used to maintain the shape of the shoe and/or prepare it for storage. The shoe is 24.5 cm long (European size 37), 7.6 to 10 cm wide, and was made from a single piece of leather that wrapped around the foot. It was worn and shaped to the wearer's right foot, particularly around the heel and hallux where the highest pressure is exerted in normal gait. The Chalcolithic shoe provides solid evidence for the use of footwear among Old World populations at least since the Chalcolithic. Other 4th millennium discoveries of shoes (Italian and Swiss Alps), and sandals (Southern Israel) indicate that more than one type of footwear existed during the 4th millennium BC, and that we should expect to discover more regional variations in the manufacturing and style of shoes where preservation conditions permit. PMID:20543959

  13. First direct evidence of chalcolithic footwear from the near eastern highlands.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pinhasi, Ron

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, a well preserved and complete shoe was recovered at the base of a Chalcolithic pit in the cave of Areni-1, Armenia. Here, we discuss the chronology of this find, its archaeological context and its relevance to the study of the evolution of footwear. Two leather samples and one grass sample from the shoe were dated at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU). A third leather sample was dated at the University of California-Irvine Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Facility (UCIAMS). The R_Combine function for the three leather samples provides a date range of 3627-3377 Cal BC (95.4% confidence interval) and the calibrated range for the straw is contemporaneous (3627-3377 Cal BC). The shoe was stuffed with loose, unfastened grass (Poaceae) without clear orientation which was more than likely used to maintain the shape of the shoe and\\/or prepare it for storage. The shoe is 24.5 cm long (European size 37), 7.6 to 10 cm wide, and was made from a single piece of leather that wrapped around the foot. It was worn and shaped to the wearer\\'s right foot, particularly around the heel and hallux where the highest pressure is exerted in normal gait. The Chalcolithic shoe provides solid evidence for the use of footwear among Old World populations at least since the Chalcolithic. Other 4th millennium discoveries of shoes (Italian and Swiss Alps), and sandals (Southern Israel) indicate that more than one type of footwear existed during the 4th millennium BC, and that we should expect to discover more regional variations in the manufacturing and style of shoes where preservation conditions permit.

  14. Changes in central retinal artery blood flow after ocular warming and cooling in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamshad M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Retinal perfusion variability impacts ocular disease and physiology. Aim: To evaluate the response of central retinal artery (CRA blood flow to temperature alterations in 20 healthy volunteers. Setting and Design: Non-interventional experimental human study. Materials and Methods: Baseline data recorded: Ocular surface temperature (OST in °C (thermo-anemometer, CRA peak systolic velocity (PSV and end diastolic velocity (EDV in cm/s using Color Doppler. Ocular laterality and temperature alteration (warming by electric lamp/cooling by ice-gel pack were randomly assigned. Primary outcomes recorded were: OST and intraocular pressure (IOP immediately after warming or cooling and ten minutes later; CRA-PSV and EDV at three, six and nine minutes warming or cooling. Statistical Analysis: Repeated measures ANOVA. Results: (n = 20; μ±SD: Pre-warming values were; OST: 34.5±1.02°C, CRA-PSV: 9.3±2.33cm/s, CRA-EDV: 4.6±1.27cm/s. OST significantly increased by 1.96°C (95% CI: 1.54 to 2.37 after warming, but returned to baseline ten minutes later. Only at three minutes, the PSV significantly rose by 1.21cm/s (95% CI: 0.51to1.91. Pre-cooling values were: OST: 34.5±0.96°C, CRA-PSV: 9.7±2.45 cm/s, CRA-EDV: 4.7±1.12cm/s. OST significantly decreased by 2.81°C (95% CI: -2.30 to -3.37 after cooling, and returned to baseline at ten minutes. There was a significant drop in CRA-PSV by 1.10cm/s (95% CI: -2.05 to -0.15 and CRA-EDV by 0.81 (95% CI: -1.47 to -0.14 at three minutes. At six minutes both PSV (95% CI: -1.38 to -0.03 and EDV (95% CI: -1.26 to -0.02 were significantly lower. All values at ten minutes were comparable to baseline. The IOP showed insignificant alteration on warming (95% CI of difference: -0.17 to 1.57mmHg, but was significantly lower after cooling (95% CI: -2.95 to -4.30mmHg. After ten minutes, IOP had returned to baseline. Conclusion : This study confirms that CRA flow significantly increases on warming and decreases on cooling, the latter despite a significant lowering of IOP.

  15. Phytoremediation: role of terrestrial plants and aquatic macrophytes in the remediation of radionuclides and heavy metal contaminated soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunita; Singh, Bikram; Manchanda, V K

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power reactors are operating in 31 countries around the world. Along with reactor operations, activities like mining, fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing and military operations are the major contributors to the nuclear waste. The presence of a large number of fission products along with multiple oxidation state long-lived radionuclides such as neptunium ((237)Np), plutonium ((239)Pu), americium ((241/243)Am) and curium ((245)Cm) make the waste streams a potential radiological threat to the environment. Commonly high concentrations of cesium ((137)Cs) and strontium ((90)Sr) are found in a nuclear waste. These radionuclides are capable enough to produce potential health threat due to their long half-lives and effortless translocation into the human body. Besides the radionuclides, heavy metal contamination is also a serious issue. Heavy metals occur naturally in the earth crust and in low concentration, are also essential for the metabolism of living beings. Bioaccumulation of these heavy metals causes hazardous effects. These pollutants enter the human body directly via contaminated drinking water or through the food chain. This issue has drawn the attention of scientists throughout the world to device eco-friendly treatments to remediate the soil and water resources. Various physical and chemical treatments are being applied to clean the waste, but these techniques are quite expensive, complicated and comprise various side effects. One of the promising techniques, which has been pursued vigorously to overcome these demerits, is phytoremediation. The process is very effective, eco-friendly, easy and affordable. This technique utilizes the plants and its associated microbes to decontaminate the low and moderately contaminated sites efficiently. Many plant species are successfully used for remediation of contaminated soil and water systems. Remediation of these systems turns into a serious problem due to various anthropogenic activities that have

  16. Variability of matric potential measurements in evaporation experiments and its influence on the derived hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieckermann, Mathias; Scharnagl, Benedikt; Pertassek, Thomas; von Unold, Georg; Durner, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    The simplified evaporation method according to Schindler (1980) is an attractive method for determining hydraulic properties (retention curve and the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity) of a soil sample. In this method, a saturated sample is subject to evaporation, and the temporal course of matric potentials in the core is related to its water content loss by evaporation. Measurement and analysis are automated in the form of the commercially available product HYPROP© (UMS GmbH, Munich). The method and its implementation in the HYPROP system have shown to give accurate and reliable results with a minimum of effort and time required. In the HYPROP system, matric potentials are recorded in two planes of a soil sample by vertically installed tensiometers. The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how representative and robust the matric potential readings at individual horizontal locations within a depth layer are, and how possible differences in matric potentials at different positions within a depth layer affect the calculated hydraulic soil properties. An additional aim was to verify whether vertically installed tensiometers give identical results to the traditionally horizontally installed tensiometers. The investigations took place in a system called BIG-HYPROP. In principle, it follows the same setup as the standard HYPROP system, but differs with respect to the soil sample size and the number of tensiometers. Whereas standard HYPROP cores are 5 cm high and 8 cm wide (250 cm³), BIG-HYPROP cores have a diameter of 24.5 cm and a height of 10 cm (4714 cm³). Five pairs of tensiometers were positioned in depths of 2.5 cm and 7.5 cm, three of them aligned vertically, and two horizontally. Additionally, temperature was measured at the bottom and in the depths 2 cm, 4 cm, 6 cm, 8 cm as well as directly at the surface. The scatter of the measured matric potentials during stage-1 evaporation was found to be very small (cv <3%). For sand, the scattering significantly increased during the transition from stage-1 to stage-2 evaporation (t = 30 h), reaching its maximum at the end of the measurement (cv = 6% to 8%). Despite differences in the tensiometer readings, the calculated hydraulic functions are very similar and associated only with very small uncertainties. The horizontally and vertically aligned tensiometers showed no systematic differences. We conclude that matric potentials measured with individual tensiometers can be reliably regarded as representative for the measurement plane. The increasing scattering of the upper tensiometers during stage-2 evaporation had a negligible effect on the identified hydraulic functions. The orientation of the tensiometers had no influence on the measured values.

  17. Growth Characteristics and Growth Strain of Eucalyptus dunnii%邓恩桉生长特性与生长应变研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶露; J.Doland Nichols; Carolyn A.Raymond; Kevin Glencross

    2013-01-01

    [目的]通过研究邓恩桉的生长特性和生长应变,为邓恩桉木材利用提供科学数据.[方法]以9.5年生人工林邓恩桉为研究对象,测定和评估树高(Ht)、胸径(DBH)、胸高比(DBH/Ht)、生长应变,并分析生长应变与生长性状的相关性.[结果]邓恩桉树高、胸径和生长应变的小区间差异显著.胸径和生长应变的变化幅度分别为10.2~ 24.5 cm,-0.227 ~-0.0M mm.生长应变水平在上坡方向显著高于下坡方向.邓恩桉生长应变与树高、胸径、胸高比无显著相关性.[结论]邓恩桉可作为速生材培育,邓恩桉木材的生长应力不受生长性状的影响.实现高生长和选择低应力水平的速生邓恩桉作为实木加工是可行的.%The aim was to provide the scientific data for utilization of E.dunnii wood through investigating its growth and growth strain.[Method] With 9.5-year-old E.dunnii plantation as study object,tree height (Ht),diameter at breast height (DBH),ratio of diameter to tree height (DBH/Ht),growth strain and their correlations were estimated and analyzed.[Result] There were significant differences in Ht,DBH and growth strain between plots.DBH and growth strain were in the range of 10.2-24.5 cm,-0.227--0.064 mm,respectively.Uphill growth strain was significantly greater than the downhill growth strain.Growth strain had no significant correlations with Ht,DBH or DBH/Ht ratio in E.dunnii.[Conclusion] E.dunnii was a potentially fast-growing species.It was feasible to obtain fast-growing E.dunnii trees with low level of growth strain as the strain was not affected by its growth.

  18. Recent Deformation in the Mississippi Embayment from High-Resolution Reflection Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, L.; Magnani, M.; McIntosh, K.; Waldron, B.; Saustrup, S.; Towle, M.

    2008-12-01

    The New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ), located in the Mississippi embayment (Central United States), is known for the highest rate of seismic activity east of the Rocky Mountains as well as the destructive sequence of earthquakes (> 7.5M) that occurred in New Madrid, Missouri during a three-month period in 1811-1812. Here we present preliminary results of a 300 km-long high-resolution marine seismic reflection survey conducted in June 2008 along the Mississippi river from Caruthersville, Missouri, to Helena, Arkansas. Paleoseismological observations in this area, just south of the NMSZ, indicate that seismic activity has occurred here that is not correlated with the present NMSZ active fault system. Our acquisition program was designed to image the sedimentary sequences from the southern part of the NMSZ through this area with the goal to identify and characterize concealed faults inferred from the paleoseismic evidence. The reflection data were acquired using a dual chamber 245/245 cm3 (15/15 in3) mini-GI airgun firing at 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) every 10-12 seconds and a 24 channel 75 m-long active streamer. The 4 m minimum offset, 3.125 m group interval and 1.6 m CMP spacing enabled us to successfully image and identify recent deformation in the sedimentary layers (< 1 km depth) with unprecedented resolution. An ecosounder (or CHIRP) was used in conjunction with the aforementioned seismic array to map near surface structure (< 15 m). Observed structures from the CHIRP data suggest small-scale faulting and geomorphologic forms. Reflections up to an approximate depth of 1 km allow us to map the Paleozoic, Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary sequences throughout much of the profile, revealing that the deformation is accommodated within discrete zones where the unconsolidated sediments are folded and faulted. In particular, the data show pronounced folding of the sedimentary layers from the Paleozoic to the Eocene/Quaternary unconformity. Some of the most significant

  19. Phytoremediation: role of terrestrial plants and aquatic macrophytes in the remediation of radionuclides and heavy metal contaminated soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunita; Singh, Bikram; Manchanda, V K

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power reactors are operating in 31 countries around the world. Along with reactor operations, activities like mining, fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing and military operations are the major contributors to the nuclear waste. The presence of a large number of fission products along with multiple oxidation state long-lived radionuclides such as neptunium ((237)Np), plutonium ((239)Pu), americium ((241/243)Am) and curium ((245)Cm) make the waste streams a potential radiological threat to the environment. Commonly high concentrations of cesium ((137)Cs) and strontium ((90)Sr) are found in a nuclear waste. These radionuclides are capable enough to produce potential health threat due to their long half-lives and effortless translocation into the human body. Besides the radionuclides, heavy metal contamination is also a serious issue. Heavy metals occur naturally in the earth crust and in low concentration, are also essential for the metabolism of living beings. Bioaccumulation of these heavy metals causes hazardous effects. These pollutants enter the human body directly via contaminated drinking water or through the food chain. This issue has drawn the attention of scientists throughout the world to device eco-friendly treatments to remediate the soil and water resources. Various physical and chemical treatments are being applied to clean the waste, but these techniques are quite expensive, complicated and comprise various side effects. One of the promising techniques, which has been pursued vigorously to overcome these demerits, is phytoremediation. The process is very effective, eco-friendly, easy and affordable. This technique utilizes the plants and its associated microbes to decontaminate the low and moderately contaminated sites efficiently. Many plant species are successfully used for remediation of contaminated soil and water systems. Remediation of these systems turns into a serious problem due to various anthropogenic activities that have

  20. ZZ MCB63NEA.BOLIB, MCNP Cross Section Library Based on ENDF/B-VI Release 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: Continuous energy cross-section data library for the Monte Carlo program MCNP based on the ENDF/B-VI Release 3 evaluated nuclear data library (ACE Format). Format: ACE; Number of groups: Continuous energy; Nuclides (107): H-1, H-2, He-4, Li-6, Li-7, Be-9, B-10, B-11, C-nat, N-14, N-15, O-16, O-17, Na-23, Mg-nat, Al-27, Si-nat, Cl-nat, Ti-nat, Cr-50, Cr-52, Cr-53, Cr-54, Mn-55, Fe-54, Fe-56, Fe-57, Fe-58, Co-59, Ni-58, Ni-60, Ni-61, Ni-62, Ni-64, Zr-90, Zr-91, Zr-92, Zr-94, Zr-96, Zr-nat, Nb-93, Mo-94, Mo-95, Mo-96, Mo-97, Mo-nat, Tc-99, Ru-101, Ru-102, Ru-104, Rh-103, Pd-105, Pd-107, Ag-109, I-129, Xe-131, Cs-133, Pr-141, Nd-143, Nd-145, Pm-147, Sm-147, Sm-149, Sm-150, Sm-151, Sm-152, Eu-153, Gd-154, Gd-155, Gd-156, Gd-157, Gd-158, Gd-160, Hf-174, Hf-176, Hf-177, Hf-178, Hf-179, Hf-180, Hf-nat, Pb-206, Pb-207, Pb-208, Bi-209, Th-232,U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Am-241, Am-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-242, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246, Cm-247, Cm-248. Temperatures: 300 deg. K, 500 deg. K, 560 deg. K, 760 deg. K, 800 deg. K, 1000 deg. K, 1500 deg. K and 2200 deg. K. Thermal scattering (for diverse Temperatures): H in CH2 (polyethylene), H in H2O (light water), D in D2O (heavy water), C (graphite), Be (beryllium metal). Dosimetry cross-section: 16-S-32, 48-Cd-0, 79-Au-197. Origin: ENDF/B-VI Release 3, IRDF-90 Version 2. 2 - Methods: This library was generated with the NJOY-94.66 nuclear data processing system

  1. Doppler and Elastography as complementary diagnostic methods for mammary neoplasms in female cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.R. Feliciano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se descrever a utilização das técnicas Doppler e elastografia ARFI (acoustic radiation force impulse na avaliação de neoplasias mamárias de gatas, métodos ainda não utilizados para tal estudo em fêmeas felinas. Após a avaliação física e específica das neoplasias mamárias de duas gatas, foram realizadas as avaliações ultrassonográfica modo-B (ecogenicidade, ecotextura e margeamento, Doppler colorido (característica do fluxo sanguíneo e espectral (velocidade sistólica/VS; diastólica/VD; e índice de resistência/IR e a eslatografia ARFI qualitativa (escala de cores e quantitativa (velocidade de cisalhamento dos nódulos mamários, avaliando a aplicabilidade destas técnicas para determinar a malignidade dos tumores mamários. Após mastectomia e histopatologia foram diagnosticados: caso 1: carcinoma tubular; e caso 2: carcinoma mamário cribiforme. As características do modo-B foram similares para ambos os casos (heterogeneidade e margens regulares e não invasivas. Ao Doppler verificou-se presença de neovascularização e valores considerados elevados para os índices vasculares (quando comparado com tecidos benignos de outras espécies, como por exemplo caninos (caso 1 - VS: 23,1cm/s, VD: 8,5cm/s e IR: 0,63; caso 2 - VS: 47,4 e 24,5cm/s; VD: 16,1 e 6,1cm/s e IR: 0,66 e 0,75; assim como os valores da velocidade de cisalhamento dos tecidos (caso 1: 4,07 m/s; caso 2: 4,54 e 6,85 m/s na elastografia quantitativa; sendo que na avaliação qualitativa observou-se predominante rigidez e não deformidade tecidual, características que podem indicar a malignidade tecidual. Conclui-se que estas técnicas podem auxiliar no estudo de neoplasias mamárias em felinos, sugerindo a implementação destas técnicas de imagem para estudos de tumores mamários em felinos.

  2. Actividad antimicrobiana de Weissella confusa y sus metabolitos frente a Escherichia coli y Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Serna Cock

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Antimicrobial activity of Weissella confuse and its metabolites against Escherichia coli and  Klebsiella pneumoniaeResumen: Con el fin evaluar el campo de aplicación potencial de una bacteria ácido láctica y de sus metabolitos, se realizó la cinética de la actividad antimicrobiana de W. confusa y de sus  metabolitos contra E. coli, y K. pneumoniae, dos patógenos causantes de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos. La producción de W. confusa se realizó por fermentación discontinua en sustrato comercial MRS. Se realizaron tres fermentaciones durante 6 horas, sin aireación, agitación continúa 33°C y 100 rpm. Cada hora de fermentación se separaron tres sustancias biológicas, W. confusa con sus metabolitos (W+W10b, células de W. confusa libres de metabolitos (W y metabolito (W10b y se midió la actividad antimicrobiana contra los patógenos E. coli, y K. pneumoniae. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticas significativas entre tratamientos y tiempo de fermentación. Para E. coli el tratamiento W presentó la mayor actividad antimicrobiana, la cual se obtuvo entre la cuarta y sexta hora de fermentación (2.45 cm de diámetro promedio de inhibición. Para K. pneumoniae, los tratamientos W y W+W10b presentaron actividad antimicrobiana entre la cuarta y quinta hora de fermentación, sin diferencia significativa entre ellos. W. confusa y el metabolito W10b demostraron poseer capacidad antimicrobiana contra E. coli y K. pneumoniae, lo cual sugiere que W. confusa y W10b podrían utilizarse como alternativa de bioconservación o bioprotección de alimentos frescos y procesados, para alimentación humana y animal; y podría convertirse en una alternativa al uso de antibióticos para enfermedades causadas por E. coli y K. pneumoniae.Palabras clave: bioconservación, alimentos, enfermedades, aplicaciones biotecnológicas.Summary: The kinetic of antimicrobial activity ofWeissella confusa and their metabolites against E. coli, and K. pneumoniae, (two pathogens causing foodborne illness was evaluated, in order to know the possible use in food processing. W. confusa was produced by batch fermentation using MRS commercial substrate. Three fermentations, of 6 hours at 33 ° C, without aeration, stirring continuously (100 rpm were performed. In every hour of fermentation, three biological substances, W. confusa with their metabolites (W + W10b, W. confusa free cells metabolites (W, and metabolite (W10b were separated, and subsequently the antimicrobial activity against pathogenic E. coli and K. pneumoniae was measured. Statistically significant differences between treatments and fermentation time were found. Treatment (W against E. coli, showed the greatest antimicrobial activity, it was obtained between the fourth and the sixth hours of fermentation (2.45 cm inhibition diameter average. In treatments W and W + W10b against K. pneumoniae, statistically significant differences between them were not found. The antimicrobial activity was shown between the fourth and fifth hour of fermentation. W. confusa and W10b have antimicrobial activity against E. coli andK. pneumoniae, suggesting that W and W10b could be used as an alternative to biopreservation or bioprotection of fresh and processed food for human and animal consumption, and could become an alternative to antibiotics used for diseases caused by E. coli and K. pneumoniae.Key words: bioconservation, food, diseases, biotechnology applications.

  3. Multibeam tomotherapy: a new treatment unit devised for multileaf collimation, intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, Nils; Müller, Reinhold G

    2007-10-01

    organ-at-risk sparing, and comparable mean integral dose to the normal tissue a reduction in treatment time by more than 50% to only a few minutes in comparison to high-quality 3-D conformal and IMRT treatments. As a result, it will be possible to incorporate features for better patient positioning and image guidance, while sustaining reasonable overall treatment times at the same time. The virtual multibeam tomotherapy design study TOM'5-CT contains a dedicated electron beam CT (TOM'AGE) and an objective optical topometric patient positioning system (TOPOS). Thanks to the wide gantry bore of 120 cm and slim gantry depths of 70 cm, patients can be treated very comfortably, in all cases tumor-isocentrically, as well as with noncoplanar beam arrangements as in stereotactic radiosurgery with a couch rotation of up to +/- 54 degrees. The TOM'5 treatment unit on which this theoretical concept is based has a stand-alone depth of 40 cm and an outer diameter of 245 cm; the focus-isocenter distance of the heads is 100 cm with a field size of 40 cm x 7 cm and 0.5 cm leaves, which operate perpendicular to the axis of table motion. PMID:17985638

  4. Validation of live animal ultrasonic measurements of body composition in market lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenheiser, J C; Greiner, S P; Lewis, R M; Notter, D R

    2010-09-01

    Market lambs from the state fair of Virginia (n = 172) were ultrasonically evaluated by 4 scan technicians and 3 image interpreters to determine accuracy of ultrasonic estimates of loin muscle area (ULMA), backfat thickness (UBF), and body wall thickness (UBW). Lambs were initially scanned at the preferred magnification setting of each technician; 2 chose 1.5x and 2 chose 2.0x. Lambs were then scanned a second time for ULMA and UBF with machine magnification settings changed from 1.5 to 2.0x, or vice versa, midway through the second scan. Lambs were then slaughtered, and analogous measurements [carcass loin muscle area, carcass backfat thickness, and carcass body wall thickness (CBW)] were recorded on chilled carcasses. Pooled, residual correlation coefficients within technicians and interpreters between ultrasonic measurements from the first scan and carcass measurements were 0.66 for loin muscle area, 0.78 for backfat thickness, and 0.73 for body wall thickness, but were reduced to 0.43, 0.69, and 0.50, respectively, by inclusion of linear effects of carcass weight in the model. Mean bias for technicians and interpreters ranged from -1.30 to -2.66 cm(2) for loin muscle area, -0.12 to -0.17 cm for backfat thickness, and 0.14 to -0.03 cm for body wall thickness; prediction errors ranged from 1.86 to 2.22 cm(2), 0.12 to 0.14 cm, and 0.35 to 0.38 cm, respectively. Pooled correlations between repeated measures were 0.67 for ULMA, 0.79 for UBF, and 0.68 for UBW at the same magnification and 0.73 for ULMA and 0.76 for UBF across different magnification settings. Mean differences between repeated measures were more variable among technicians and interpreters than statistics comparing ultrasound to carcass measures. Standard errors of repeatability ranged from 1.61 to 2.45 cm(2) for ULMA, 0.07 to 0.11 cm for UBF, and 0.36 to 0.42 cm for UBW. The effect of changing magnification setting on technician and interpreter repeatability was small for UBF and ULMA. The accuracy of prediction of CBW from UBW was similar to that achieved for backfat thickness; further assessment of the value of ultrasonic measurements of body wall thickness in lambs is warranted. These results indicate that ultrasound scanning can reliably predict carcass loin muscle area and backfat thickness in live lambs and, accordingly, has value in selection programs to improve composition. Development of certification standards for US lamb ultrasound technicians based on results of this study and others is proposed.

  5. PLANT SPACING AND WEED MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES INFLUENCE WEED COMPETITIVENESS OF DRUM SEEDED RICE (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B N Sandeep Nayak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Direct wet seeded-rice sown through drum seeder, a potential wise rice production system in the present-day scenario, is subject to severe weed infestation and, therefore, development of a sustainable weed management strategy is crucial for its wide spread adoption. The present study was conducted in kharif 2012 at department of agronomy division with NLR-33358 (SOMASILA using six planting densities under five weed management conditions. The plant spacing tried were: 20cm x 7cm, 20 cm x 10.5 cm, 20 cm x 14 cm, 20 cm x 17.5 cm and 20 cm x 24.5cm and 20 cm x15cm. with a plant density of 71, 47, 35, 28, 20 and 33 hills m-2, respectively and five weed management practices viz., weedy check (W1, hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS (W2, cono weeding at 20 and 40 with modified cono weeder (W3, pre-emergence application of anilofos @ 0.375 kg a.i ha-1 followed by post-emergence application of 2, 4 D sodium salt @ 1.0 kg a.i ha-1 20-25 DAS (W4, pre-emergence application of pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha-1 followed by post-emergence application of bispyribac sodium @ 20 g a.i ha-1 30 DAS ( W5. . The experiment was laid out in strip- plot design with three replications assigning weed management techniques in vertical factor and plant spacing in horizontal factor. Direct wet seeded rice field was infested with 12 and 22 weed species, kharif -2012 season having Echinochloa colona, Leptochloa chinensis, Digitaria aescendens, Cyperus iriaand Eleusine indicaas the predominant weeds. Rice spacing exerted significant influence on both weed pressure and yield performance of crop. With the increase in plant spacing weed dry matter decreased but rice yield increased. In this season, among different plant densities, the highest density of 71 hills m-2(D1 resulted in minimum weed density, weed drymatter, and more number of tillers m-2 and maximum drymatter production at all stages of plant growth. closest spacing resulted in maximum weed suppression, but among various rice plant densities, a medium level population of 47 hills m-2 (D2 significantly increased the paddy yield over all other treatments except D1 treatments with a plant density of 71 hills m-2 .The highest grain yield of 3476 kg ha-1 was observed with a plant density of 47 hills m-2 and it was significantly superior to 71, 35, 28, 20 hills m-2drum seeded and 33 hills m-2 transplant paddies. which ultimately produced the highest rice yield. Weed inflicted relative yield loss was also minimized by the closest spacing. Present findings imply rice spacing mostly determines rice-weed competition, and can play a decisive role to minimize weed pressure. Therefore, closer spacing could be considered as a vital tool in the integrated weed management program for direct wet-seeded rice sown through drum seeder.

  6. Soil fertility and 137 Cs redistribution as related to land use, landscape and texture in a watershed of Paraiba State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensive land use and growing deforestation of the natural vegetation in Northeastern Brazil have contributed to the degradation of resources, particularly the decrease of soil fertility. As a result, biodiversity and ecosystem capacity to restore its resources after disturbances have been diminished. The decrease in soil fertility is more substantial in areas dominated by an undulating topography. In these areas, erosion is intensified when crops or pasture replaces natural vegetation. Even though degradation processes are reflected in environmental, social, and economical changes, there is a lack of information regarding the interrelationship between these changes and soil fertility and erosion. Thus, the 'Vaca Brava' watershed (14,04 km2), located in the 'Agreste' region of Paraiba State, was selected to study the interrelationships between land use, landscape, particle size distribution, soil fertility and erosion using 137 Cs redistribution. Small farms, where subsistence agriculture is intensive, are common in this watershed, as well as areas for environmental protection. A georreferenced survey of the watershed topography was initially carried out. Based on the survey data, the watershed was digitalized using a scale of 1:5000, and a 3-D map was created. Each landform element had its area determined on a area (absolute value) and percentage (relative value) basis. Shoulder, backslope and footslope positions represented 83% of the cultivated area in the watershed. A data base of 360 georreferenced soil samples (0-20 cm), collected using a stratified sampling scheme, was further created. Sites were stratified based on their landscape position (summit, shoulder, backslope, footslope, and toeslope) in factorial combination with land use (annual crops, pasture, Pennisetum purpureum, Mimosa caesalpiniae folia, bush fallow, and native forest). Physical analyses of the soil samples included particle size distribution and bulk density, whereas soil chemical analyses were total C and N, extractable P (Mehlich-1), pH (water, exchangeable acidity and cations). The soils of the watershed generally exhibited low fertility, regardless of their landscape position (p137 Cs redistribution approach. Soils of the topossequences under native forest (n 2) and pasture (n = 3) were sampled for this purpose. It was observed a significant correlation between clay content and 137 Cs activity in the soil (r = 0.75, p137 Cs stock down to a depth of 28 cm was 38,7 Bq m-2. At the backslope positions the 137 Cs stock was similar for the same depth range. On the other hand, the average 137 Cs stock in soils under pasture at the summit landscape position was 58,0 Bq m-2, with a maximum of 74,9 Bq m-2. Levels of 137 Cs were below detection limit (0,03 Bq kg-1) on soils under pasture from the shoulder and backslope positions. The redistribution of 137 Cs within the shoulder landscape position resulted in an estimated loss of 219,7 kg soil m-2, which is equivalent to a soil layer of 20,0 cm. Soil losses were higher on the backslope position, which reached a value of 268 kg m-2. This loss corresponds to the removal of a 24,5 cm soil layer. Given that the topossequences were representative of the area, these results indicate intense sediment redistribution within the watershed, which probably caused the transport of organic matter and nutrients associated with the clay fraction into the fluvial system. (author)

  7. ZZ KAFAX-F31, 150 and 12 Groups Cross Section Library in MATXS Format based on JEFF-3.1 for Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description: Format: MATXS, 142 nuclides processed with NJOY99.245. Number of groups: 150 neutron-, 12 photon-groups. 142 nuclides: H-1, H-2, He-3, He-4, Li-6, Li-7, Be-9, B-10, B-11, C-nat, N-14, N-15, O-16, F-19, Na-23, Mg-24, Mg-25, Mg-26, Al-27, Si-28, Si-29, Si-30, P-31, Cl-35, Cl-37, Ar-40, K-39, K-40, K-41, Ca-40, Ca-42, Ca-43, Ca-44, Ca-46, Ca-48, Ti-46, Ti-47, Ti-48, Ti-49, Ti-50, V-nat, Cr-50, Cr-52, Cr-53, Cr-54, Mn-55, Fe-54, Fe-56, Fe-57, Fe-58, Co-59, Ni-58, Ni-60, Ni-61, Ni-62, Ni-64, Cu-63, Cu-65, Ga-nat, Y-89, Zr-90, Zr-91, Zr-92, Zr-93, Zr-94, Zr-95, Zr-96, Nb-93, Mo-92, Mo-94, Mo-95, Mo-96, Mo-97, Mo-98, Mo-99, Mo-100, Ag-107, Ag-109, Cd-106, Cd-108, Cd-110, Cd-111, Cd-112, Cd-113, Cd-114, Cd-115m, Cd-116, Sn-112, Sn-114, Sn-115, Sn-116, Sn-117, Sn-118, Sn-119, Sn-120, Sn-122, Sn-123, Sn-124, Sn-125, Sn-126, Eu-151, Eu-153, Gd-152, Gd-154, Gd-155, Gd-156, Gd-157, Gd-158, Gd-160, W-182, W-183, W-184, W-186, Re-185, Re-187, Au-197, Pb-206, Pb-207, Pb-208, Bi-209, Th-232, Pa-233, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Am-241, Am-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-242, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246. Origin: JEFF-3.1. Weighting spectrum: 300, 600, 900, 1200 K. The KAFAX-F31 is a MATXS-format, 150-group neutron and 12-group photon cross section library for fast reactors based on JEFF-3.1. This library was originally generated for the KALIMER (Korea Advanced LIquid Metal Reactor) core analyses. It includes 142 nuclide data (Table 1) processed by the NJOY99.245 code patched with NEA020. The library can be utilized to generate the problem-dependent group constants for neutron and/or photon transport calculations through the DANTSYS, DOORS, or PARTISN code systems. 2 - Methods: The KAFAX-F31 was generated at 300, 600, 900, and 1200 K. It contains the self-shielded cross sections for 5 to 10 background cross sections depending on the nuclides. The neutron group structure consists of one-eighth lethargy widths in almost

  8. ZZ KAFAX-E70, 150 and 12 Groups Cross Section Library in MATXS Format based on ENDF/B-VII.0 for Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description: Format: MATXS, 144 nuclides processed with NJOY99.245. Number of groups: 150 neutron-, 12 photon-groups. 144 nuclides: H-1, H-2, He-3, He-4, Li-6, Li-7, Be-9, B-10, B-11, C-nat, N-14, N-15, O-16, F-19, Na-23, Mg-24, Mg-25, Mg-26, Al-27, Si-28, Si-29, Si-30, P-31, Cl-35, Cl-37, Ar-40, K-39, K-40, K-41, Ca-40, Ca-42, Ca-43, Ca-44, Ca-46, Ca-48, Ti-46, Ti-47, Ti-48, Ti-49, Ti-50, V-nat, Cr-50, Cr-52, Cr-53, Cr-54, Mn-55, Fe-54, Fe-56, Fe-57, Fe-58, Co-59, Ni-58, Ni-60, Ni-61, Ni-62, Ni-64, Cu-63, Cu-65, Ga-69, Ga-71, Y-89, Zr-90, Zr-91, Zr-92, Zr-93, Zr-94, Zr-95, Zr-96, Nb-93, Mo-92, Mo-94, Mo-95, Mo-96, Mo-97, Mo-98, Mo-99, Mo-100, Ag-107, Ag-109, Cd-106, Cd-108, Cd-110, Cd-111, Cd-112, Cd-113, Cd-114, Cd-115m, Cd-116, Sn-112, Sn-113, Sn-114, Sn-115, Sn-116, Sn-117, Sn-118, Sn-119, Sn-120, Sn-122, Sn-123, Sn-124, Sn-125, Sn-126, Eu-151, Eu-153, Gd-152, Gd-154, Gd-155, Gd-156, Gd-157, Gd-158, Gd-160, W-182, W-183, W-184, W-186, Re-185, Re-187, Au-197, Pb-206, Pb-207, Pb-208, Bi-209, Th-232, Pa-233, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Am-241, Am-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-242, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246. Origin: ENDF/B-VII.0. Weighting spectrum: 300, 600, 900, 1200 k. The ZZ-KAFAX-E70 is a MATXS-format, 150-group neutron and 12-group photon cross section library for fast reactors based on ENDF/B-VII.0. This library was originally generated for the KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor) core analyses. It includes 144 nuclide data processed with the NJOY99.245 code patched with NEA020. The library can be used to generate the problem-dependent group constants for neutron and/or photon transport calculations through the DANTSYS, DOORS, or PARTISN code systems. 2 - Methods: The KAFAX-E70 was generated at 300, 600, 900, and 1200 K. It contains the self-shielded cross sections for 5 to 10 background cross sections depending on the nuclides. The neutron group structure consists of one-eighth lethargy

  9. ZZ KAFAX-J33, 150 and 12 Groups Cross Section Library in MATXS Format based on JENDL-3.3 for Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description: Format: MATXS, 136 nuclides processed with NJOY99.245. Number of groups: 150 neutron-, 12 photon-groups. 136 Nuclides: H-1, H-2, He-3, He-4, Li-6, Li-7, Be-9, B-10, B-11, C-nat, N-14, N-15, O-16, F-19, Na-23, Mg-24, Mg-25, Mg-26, Al-27, Si-28, Si-29, Si-30, P-31, Cl-35, Cl-37, Ar-40, K-39, K-40, K-41, Ca-40, Ca-42, Ca-43, Ca-44, Ca-46, Ca-48, Ti-46, Ti-47, Ti-48, Ti-49, Ti-50, V-nat, Cr-50, Cr-52, Cr-53, Cr-54, Mn-55, Fe-54, Fe-56, Fe-57, Fe-58, Co-59, Ni-58, Ni-60, Ni-61, Ni-62, Ni-64, Cu-63, Cu-65, Ga-69, Ga-71, Y-89, Zr-90, Zr-91, Zr-92, Zr-93, Zr-94, Zr-95, Zr-96, Mo-92, Mo-94, Mo-95, Mo-96, Mo-97, Mo-98, Mo-99, Mo-100, Ag-107, Ag-109, Cd-106, Cd-108, Cd-110, Cd-111, Cd-112, Cd-113, Cd-114, Cd-116, Sn-112, Sn-114, Sn-115, Sn-116, Sn-117, Sn-118, Sn-119, Sn-120, Sn-122, Sn-123, Sn-124, Sn-126, Eu-151, Eu-153, Gd-152, Gd-154, Gd-155, Gd-156, Gd-157, Gd-158, Gd-160, W-182, W-183, W-184, W-186, Pb-206, Pb-208, Bi-209, Th-232, Pa-233, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Am-241, Am-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-242, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246. Origin: JENDL-3.3. Weighting spectrum: 300, 600, 900, 1200 K. The KAFAX-J33 is a MATXS-format, 150-group neutron and 12-group photon cross section library for fast reactors based on JENDL-3.3. This library was originally generated for the KALIMER (Korea Advanced LIquid Metal Reactor) core analyses. It includes 136 nuclide data processed by the NJOY99.245 code patched with NEA020. The library can be utilized to generate the problem-dependent group constants for neutron and/or photon transport calculations through the DANTSYS, DOORS, or PARTISN code systems. 2 - Methods: The KAFAX-J33 was generated at 300, 600, 900, and 1200 K. It contains the self-shielded cross sections for 5 to 10 background cross sections depending on the nuclides. The neutron group structure consists of one-eighth lethargy widths in almost all the energy ranges, except between 1 and 10 keV in

  10. Effects of two-step alkaline pretreatment on components and structure of corn stover%两步碱法预处理对玉米秸秆组分及结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱圆圆; 顾夕梅; 朱均均; 徐勇; 勇强; 余世袁

    2015-01-01

    Aimed at the effects of acetic acid on ethanol fermentation and its generation mechanism during the pretreatment process,sodium hydroxide combined with calcium hydroxide on the compositions and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover were in-vestigated.Corn stover after the first-step NaOH pretreatment could realize the removal of acetyl groups and separate acetic acid from the sugars from the source.The deacetylated corn stover further pretreated by Ca(OH)2 could improve the enzymatic hy-drolysis yield.And the fiber structure characteristics of corn stover were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR),X-rays diffraction (XRD)and scanning electron microscope (SEM).The results showed that the removal of acetyl groups and the retention ratio of xylan were 95.2% and 87.8%,respectively and cellulose was not degraded after corn stover was pretreated by the first-step pretreatment.The optimal conditions of the second-step pretreatment of deacetylated corn stover by using orthogonal experiment were that calcium hydroxide dosage 0.100 g/g(based on dry corn stover),reaction temperature 90℃ and time 36 h.The corresponding enzymatic hydrolysis yield of 36 h was 85.1%.The obtained recovery yields of cellulose and hemicellulose in the solid residue were 92.1% and 65.5%,respectively and the lignin remove ratio was 63.0%.The fiber surface was rough and appeared a large number of cracks and slivers,separation occur between fiber bundles of corn stover after two-step alkaline pretreatment.The relative crystallization degree of corn stover increased from 55.1% to 60.6%,and the stretching vi-bration peak of C=O group at 1 245 cm-1 decreased significantly due to the removal of acetyl group.Combined with the increase of enzymatic yield,it also indicated that this two-step pretreatment could improve access of cellulose to cellulase.%针对乙酸对乙醇发酵的影响及其在预处理过程中的产生机制,采用氢氧化钠-氢氧化钙2

  11. Sr, C and O isotopes as markers of alkaline disturbances in the Toarcian argillites of the Tournemire experimental platform (France). Case of a 15-years old engineered analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techer, I.; Boulvais, P.; Bartier, D.; Tinseau, E.

    2009-04-01

    argillites close to the cement-concrete contact. These data are detailed in another session of this meeting (Techer et al., ERE6 session). In order to precise the spatial extent of the disturbances and to discuss the nature of the responsible fluids, a systematic chemical and isotopic study was performed focusing on the Sr, C and O isotopes known to be very good markers of alkaline fluids percolation (Fourcade et al. 2006). Four studied levels were selected according to their location on the DM overcore and the nature of the cementitious material in contact to the argillites: -155 cm level (DM155) and -180 cm level (DM180) where argillites were in contact with a 1.5 to 3 cm thick concrete; -245 cm level (DM245) and -300 cm level (DM300) where the cementitious material was represented by a fine grained Portland cement 2 to 5 cm thick. Samples of the cementitious materials were collected at each level. Argillites were sampled perpendicularly to the cement-concrete contact with a continuous sampling every 2 to 5 mm millimeters (P1). Micro-fissures developed perpendicularly to the cement-concrete contact were opened and infilling secondary minerals were collected by scrap as a function of the distance to the cement-concrete (P3). Along P1 and P3, no significant variation of the carbonates d18O isotopic values was observed in the argillites. On the opposite d13C and 87Sr/86Sr values of these minerals changed significantly in the direct contact with the cement-concrete over a distance of 15 to 25 mm. Beyond this distance, argillites were again well bedded and showed values similar to those measured in a reference sample. Negative d13C values measured in the disturbed zone and close to those encountered in the cement and the concrete argued for a perturbation induced by an alkaline solution. 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios showed a progressive evolution in the disturbed zone, with increasing trends towards the cementitious material. Thanks to complementary Sr elementary contents

  12. DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 5 (MACROBATCH 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C.; Bibler, N.; Diprete, D.

    2010-02-04

    . The DWPF will use this list and the activities as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to the radionuclide inventory. This work was initiated through Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2008-0010; Rev. 2 entitled Sludge Batch 5 SRNL Shielded Cells Testing. Specifically, this report details results from performing Subtask II, 5 of the TTR and, in part, meets Deliverable 7 of the TTR. The work was performed following the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), WSRC-RP-2008-00137, Rev. 2 and Analytical Study Plan (ASP), WSRC-RP-2008-00138, Rev. 2. In order to determine the reportable radionuclides for SB5 (MB6), a list of radioisotopes that may meet the criteria as specified by the Department of Energy's (DOE) WAPS was developed. All radioactive U-235 fission products and all radioactive activation products that could be in the SRS HLW were considered. In addition, all U and Pu isotopes identified in WAPS 1.6 were included in the list. This list was then evaluated and some isotopes excluded from the projection calculations. Based on measurements and analytical detection limits, twenty-six radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB5 as specified by WAPS 1.2. The 26 reportable radionuclides are: Cl-36, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Zr-93, Nb-93m, Tc-99, Sn-126, Cs-137, Sm-151, U-233, U-234, Np-237, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Am-241, Pu-241, Pu-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246, Cf-251. Chlorine-36 is reported for the first time based on the upper bounding activity determined from the aqua regia digested sludge slurry. The WCP and WQR require that all of radionuclides present in the Design Basis glass be considered as the initial set of reportable radionuclides. For SB5 (MB6), all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for four radionuclides: Se-79, Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time through the year 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to

  13. Soil fertility and {sup 137} Cs redistribution as related to land use, landscape and texture in a watershed of Paraiba State; Fertilidade do solo e redistribuicao de {sup 137} Cs em funcao da cobertura vegetal, relevo, e classes texturais, em uma microbacia hidrografica do Estado da Paraiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Antonio Clementino dos

    2004-03-15

    Intensive land use and growing deforestation of the natural vegetation in Northeastern Brazil have contributed to the degradation of resources, particularly the decrease of soil fertility. As a result, biodiversity and ecosystem capacity to restore its resources after disturbances have been diminished. The decrease in soil fertility is more substantial in areas dominated by an undulating topography. In these areas, erosion is intensified when crops or pasture replaces natural vegetation. Even though degradation processes are reflected in environmental, social, and economical changes, there is a lack of information regarding the interrelationship between these changes and soil fertility and erosion. Thus, the 'Vaca Brava' watershed (14,04 km{sup 2}), located in the 'Agreste' region of Paraiba State, was selected to study the interrelationships between land use, landscape, particle size distribution, soil fertility and erosion using {sup 137} Cs redistribution. Small farms, where subsistence agriculture is intensive, are common in this watershed, as well as areas for environmental protection. A georreferenced survey of the watershed topography was initially carried out. Based on the survey data, the watershed was digitalized using a scale of 1:5000, and a 3-D map was created. Each landform element had its area determined on a area (absolute value) and percentage (relative value) basis. Shoulder, backslope and footslope positions represented 83% of the cultivated area in the watershed. A data base of 360 georreferenced soil samples (0-20 cm), collected using a stratified sampling scheme, was further created. Sites were stratified based on their landscape position (summit, shoulder, backslope, footslope, and toeslope) in factorial combination with land use (annual crops, pasture, Pennisetum purpureum, Mimosa caesalpiniae folia, bush fallow, and native forest). Physical analyses of the soil samples included particle size distribution and bulk density, whereas soil chemical analyses were total C and N, extractable P (Mehlich-1), pH (water, exchangeable acidity and cations). The soils of the watershed generally exhibited low fertility, regardless of their landscape position (p<0.05). However, land use and texture contributed significantly to the soil fertility (p<0.05). The contents of C, N, Ca, Mg, and ECEC were significantly higher (p<0.05) for the forest soils, whereas P, K, and exchangeable acidity were higher (p<0,05) in the cultivated soils. Forest soils were classified as sandy clay and sandy clay loam (65%), whereas cultivated soils were identified as sand and sandy loam (64%). Particle size distribution and topography were interrelated as sand contents decreased with the increase in slope. Overall, soils with finer texture showed higher fertility levels, regardless of the landscape position. Catchment sites were not discriminated as areas of significant gain of nutrients. It was observed a strong P deficiency, regardless of the landscape position, land use or particle size distribution. The catena segmentation, based on landform elements, land use and soil depths, was an efficient tool to understand the erosion/sedimentation processes by using the {sup 137} Cs redistribution approach. Soils of the topossequences under native forest (n 2) and pasture (n = 3) were sampled for this purpose. It was observed a significant correlation between clay content and {sup 137} Cs activity in the soil (r = 0.75, p<0.01). At the summit positions of the forest soil, the average {sup 137} Cs stock down to a depth of 28 cm was 38,7 Bq m{sup -2}. At the backslope positions the {sup 137} Cs stock was similar for the same depth range. On the other hand, the average {sup 137} Cs stock in soils under pasture at the summit landscape position was 58,0 Bq m{sup -2}, with a maximum of 74,9 Bq m{sup -2}. Levels of {sup 137} Cs were below detection limit (0,03 Bq kg{sup -1}) on soils under pasture from the shoulder and backslope positions. The redistribution of {sup 137} Cs within the shoulder landscape position resulted in an estimated loss of 219,7 kg soil m{sup -2}, which is equivalent to a soil layer of 20,0 cm. Soil losses were higher on the backslope position, which reached a value of 268 kg m{sup -2}. This loss corresponds to the removal of a 24,5 cm soil layer. Given that the topossequences were representative of the area, these results indicate intense sediment redistribution within the watershed, which probably caused the transport of organic matter and nutrients associated with the clay fraction into the fluvial system. (author)

  14. ZZ MATXSLIBJ33, JENDL-3.3 based, 175 N-42 photon groups (VITAMIN-J) MATXS library for discrete ordinates multi-group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -156, Gd-152, Gd-154, Gd-155, Gd-156, Gd-157, Gd-158, Gd-160, Tb-159, Er-162, Er-164, Er-166, Er-167, Er-168, Er-170, Hf-174, Hf-176, Hf-177, Hf-178, Hf-179, Hf-180, Ta-181, W-182, W-183, W-184, W-186, Hg-196, Hg-198, Hg-199, Hg-200, Hg-201, Hg-202, Hg-204, Pb-204, Pb-206, Pb-207, Pb-208, Bi-209, Ra-223, Ra-224, Ra-225, Ra-226, Ac-225, Ac-226, Ac-227, Th-227, Th-228, Th-229, Th-230, Th-232, Th-233, Th-234, Pa-231, Pa-232, Pa-233, U-232, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-237, U-238, Np-235, Np-236, Np-237, Np-238, Np-239, Pu-236, Pu-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Pu-244, Pu-246, Am-241, Am-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Am-244, Am-244m, Cm-240, Cm-241, Cm-242, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246, Cm-247, Cm-248, Cm-249, Cm-250, Bk-247, Bk-249, Bk-250, Cf-249, Cf-250, Cf-251, Cf-252, Cf-254, Es-254, Es-255, Fm-255 Temperatures: 300 K. Origin: JENDL-3.3. Weighting spectrum: -- iwt=11 for NJOY-99. Legendre expansion: P6. Thermal scattering: free gas model. Self shielding: sigma-0, infinity, 10000, 1000, 300, 100, 30, 10, 1, 0.1, 1. E-5. Kerma factors are provided. NEA-1707/03: Corrections were made to the continuous inelastic scattering matrices (MT=91), for all nuclides for which this channel is open. This replaces the previous version. 2 - Methods: The nuclear data processing system NJOY-99.67 was used to produce MATXSLIBJ33. It can be further processed using TRANSX-2.15. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Accuracy of pointwise cross-section reconstruction: 0.1%; Upper limit of thermal region: 4.6 eV

  15. ZZ KASHIL-E70, 199 N, 42 Photon Groups Cross Sections in MATXS Format Based on ENDF/B-VII.0 for Shielding Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description: Format: MATXS, 204 nuclides processed with NJOY99.245. Number of groups: 199 neutron-, 42 photon-groups. 204 Nuclides including 8 thermal scattering law data: H-1, H-2, H-3, He-3, He-4, Li-6, Li-7, Be-9, Be-9, Be-9, B-10, B-11, C-nat, C-nat, N-14, N-15, O-16, O-17, F-19, Na-23, Mg-24, Mg-25, Mg-26, Al-27, Si-28, Si-29, Si-30, P-31, S-32, S-33, S-34, S-36, Cl-35, Cl-37, K-39, K-40, K-41, Ca-40, Ca-42, Ca-43, Ca-44, Ca-46, Ca-48, Sc-45, Ti-46, Ti-47, Ti-48, Ti-49, Ti-50, V-nat, Cr-50, Cr-52, Cr-53, Cr-54, Mn-55, Fe-54, Fe-56, Fe-57, Fe-58, Co-59, Ni-58, Ni-60, Ni-61, Ni-62, Ni-64, Cu-63, Cu-65, Ga-69, Ga-71, Y-89, Zr-90, Zr-91, Zr-92, Zr-94, Zr-96, Nb-93, Mo-92, Mo-94, Mo-95, Mo-96, Mo-97, Mo-98, Mo-100, Pd-102, Pd-104, Pd-105, Pd-106, Pd-108, Pd-110, Ag-107, Ag-109, Cd-106, Cd-108, Cd-110, Cd-112, Cd-113, Cd-114, Cd-116, In-113, In-115, I-127, Xe-124, Xe-126, Xe-128, Xe-129, Xe-130, Xe-131, Xe-132, Xe-134, Xe-136, Cs-133, Ba-138, Pr-141, Nd-143, Nd-145, Nd-146, Nd-148, Nd-150, Pm-147, Sm-147, Sm-151, Sm-152, Eu-151, Eu-152, Eu-153, Eu-154, Eu-155, Gd-152, Gd-154, Gd-155, Gd-156, Gd-157, Gd-158, Gd-160, Dy-164, Ho-165, Lu-175, Lu-176, Hf-174, Hf-176, Hf-177, Hf-178, Hf-179, Hf-180, Ta-181, Ta-182, W-182, W-183, W-184, W-186, Re-185, Re-187, Ir-191, Ir-193, Au-197, Pb-206, Pb-207, Pb-208, Bi-209, Th-230, Th-232, Pa-231, Pa-233, U-232, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-237, U-238, Np-237, Np-238, Np-239, Pu-236, Pu-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Pu-243, Pu-244, Am-241, Am-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-241, Cm-242, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246, Cm-247, Cm-248, Bk-249, Cf-249, Cf-250, Cf-251, Cf-252, Cf-253, Es-253. Origin: ENDF/B-VII.0. Weighting spectrum: 300, 600, 1000, 2100 K. The KASHIL-E70 is a MATXS-format, 199-group neutron and 42-group photon cross section library for shielding applications based on ENDF/B-VII.0. The library contains 204 nuclide data including 8 thermal scattering law data processed by the NJOY99.259 code patched with NEA

  16. Electrochemical removal of Cd from bioashes in pilot scale and evaluation of possibilities for utilizing treated ashes in concrete; Elektrokemisk fjernelse af Cd fra bioasker i pilotskala og vurdering af mulighederne for nyttiggoerelse af behandlet aske i beton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juul Pedersen, A.; Ottosen, L.M. [BYG-DTU, Copenhagen (Denmark); Simonsen, P. [Energi E2 A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark); Aune, J. [MT Hoejgaard A/S, Soeborg (Denmark)

    2006-07-01

    Electrochemical removal of cadmium from bio ashes has been demonstrated in pilot scale, and the remediated ashes have been evaluated for possible reuse as either fertilizers, or in concrete products. 5 remediation experiments have been completed, using straw combustion fly ash or fly ash from cocombustion of wood and fuel oil. During these emediation experiments the process has been upscaled stepwise, from an initial distance between the electrodes of 35 cm and a tank volume of 300 L ash suspension, to a final electrode distance of 245 cm, a total tank volume of 2.1 m3, and inclusion of up to 6 'concentration-units'. The ash volumes to be remediated made up to between 8.4 and 82.5 kg dry matter, prior to eventual pre-wash. The first four remediation experiments were made with straw combustion fly ash, the fifth contained both straw combustion fly ash and cocombustion fly ash, in separate compartments. The demonstration experiments have in many ways confirmed the results obtained in smaller scale in the previous project PSO FU 3206. It is demonstrated that electrochemical removal of cadmium from bioashes is possible also in larger scale than laboratory scale and benchscale, as final concentrations of cadmium below the regulatory limits for recycling of straw ashes have been reached. Furthermore, new findings such as the importance of choosing more acid resistant materials for the plant have showed up. The use of concentration units contributed positively to the separation of cadmium from the ash suspension, but when using concentration units the 'natural' acidification of the ash during the remediation process is delayed, and thus it is recommended to add acid to the ash before and eventually during the remediation process to decrease pH more rapidly. The ashes were analyzed before and after remediation for evaluation of the potential of reusing the ashes in concrete products, or recycle them as fertilizers. It was found that the fertilizing

  17. ZZ FSXJ32, MCNP nuclear data library based on JENDL-3.2. ZZ FSXLIBJ33, MCNP nuclear data library based on JENDL-3.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -103, Rh-105, Pd-102, Pd-104, Pd-105, Pd-106, Pd-107, Pd-108, Pd-110, Ag-107, Ag-109, Ag-110m,Cd-106, Cd-108, Cd-110, Cd-111, Cd-112, Cd-113, Cd-114, Cd-116, In-113, In-115, Sn-112, Sn-114, Sn-115, Sn-116, Sn-117, Sn-118, Sn-119, Sn-120, Sn-122, Sn-123, Sn-124, Sn-126, Sb-121, Sb-123, Sb-124, Sb-125, Te-120, Te-122, Te-123, Te-124, Te-125, Te-126, Te-127m,Te-128, Te-129m,Te-130, I -127, I -129, I -131, Xe-124, Xe-126, Xe-128, Xe-129, Xe-130, Xe-131, Xe-132, Xe-133, Xe-134, Xe-135, Xe-136, Cs-133, Cs-134, Cs-135, Cs-136, Cs-137, Ba-130, Ba-132, Ba-134, Ba-135, Ba-136, Ba-137, Ba-138, Ba-140, La-138, La-139, Ce-140, Ce-141, Ce-142, Ce-144, Pr-141, Pr-143, Nd-142, Nd-143, Nd-144, Nd-145, Nd-146, Nd-147, Nd-148, Nd-150, Pm-147, Pm-148, Pm-148m,Pm-149, Sm-144, Sm-147, Sm-148, Sm-149, Sm-150, Sm-151, Sm-152, Sm-153, Sm-154, Eu-151, Eu-152, Eu-153, Eu-154, Eu-155, Eu-156, Gd-152, Gd-154, Gd-155, Gd-156, Gd-157, Gd-158, Gd-160, Tb-159, Er-162, Er-164, Er-166, Er-167, Er-168, Er-170, Hf-174, Hf-176, Hf-177, Hf-178, Hf-179, Hf-180, Ta-181, W-182, W-183, W-184, W-186, Hg-196, Hg-198, Hg-199, Hg-200, Hg-201, Hg-202, Hg-204, Pb-204, Pb-206, Pb-207, Pb-208, Bi-209, Ra-223, Ra-224, Ra-225, Ra-226, Ac-225, Ac-226, Ac-227, Th-227, Th-228, Th-229, Th-230, Th-232, Th-233, Th-234, Pa-231, Pa-232, Pa-233, U-232, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-237, U-238, Np-235, Np-236, Np-237, Np-238, Np-239, Pu-236, Pu-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Pu-244, Pu-246, Am-241, Am-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Am-244, Am-244m, Cm-240, Cm-241, Cm-242, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246, Cm-247, Cm-248, Cm-249, Cm-250, Bk-247, Bk-249, Bk-250, Cf-249, Cf-250, Cf-251, Cf-252, Cf-254, Es-254, Es-255, Fm-255 Temperatures: 300 K. Origin: JENDL-3.3. Thermal scattering: Free gas model Kerma factors are provided. The original JENDL-3.3 has two problems in Am-241 data. One is the missing of MF/MT=4/18, and the other is the incorrect neutron spectra for MT=18 below 500 keV. The updated data have been produced as JENDL-3