WorldWideScience

Sample records for 241-z building decontamination

  1. Building 003 decontamination and disposition. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination and disposition (D and D) of the contaminated facilities in Building 003 are complete. The Hot Cave, the building radioactive exhaust system, the radioactive liquid waste system, and the fume hoods were removed. The more significant D and D activities are summarized, special techniques are noted, and problems and their resolution are discussed. Results of the radiological monitoring are presented

  2. Tank 241-Z-361 process and characterization history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.A.

    1998-08-06

    An Unreviewed Safety Question (Wagoner, 1997) was declared based on lack of adequate authorization basis for Tank 241-Z-361 in the 200W Area at Hanford. This document is a summary of the history of Tank 241-Z-361 through December 1997. Documents reviewed include engineering files, laboratory notebooks from characterization efforts, waste facility process procedures, supporting documents and interviews of people`s recollections of over twenty years ago. Records of transfers into the tank, past characterization efforts, and speculation were used to estimate the current condition of Tank 241-Z-361 and its contents. Information about the overall waste system as related to the settling tank was included to help in understanding the numbering system and process relationships. The Plutonium Finishing Plant was built in 1948 and began processing plutonium in mid-1949. The Incinerator (232-Z) operated from December 1961 until May 1973. The Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF, 236-Z) began operation in May 1964. The Waste Treatment Facility (242-Z) operated from August 1964 until August 1976. Waste from some processes went through transfer lines to 241-Z sump tanks. High salt and organic waste under normal operation were sent to Z-9 or Z-18 cribs. Water from the retention basin may have also passed through this tank. The transfer lines to 241-Z were numbered D-4 to D-6. The 241-Z sump tanks were numbered D-4 through D-8. The D-4, 5, and 8 drains went to the D-6 sump tank. When D-6 tank was full it was transferred to D-7 tank. Prior to transfer to cribs, the D-7 tank contents was sampled. If the plutonium content was analyzed to be more than 10 g per batch, the material was (generally) reprocessed. Below the discard limit, caustic was added and the material was sent to the cribs via the 241-Z-361 settling tank where solids settled out and the liquid overflowed by gravity to the cribs. Waste liquids that passed through the 241-Z-361 settling tank flowed from PFP to ground in

  3. Tank 241-Z-361 Sludge Retrieval and Treatment Alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAMPTON, B.K.

    2000-05-24

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Tank 241-Z-361 (Z-361) contains legacy sludge resulting from waste discharges from past missions at PFP. A sketch of the tank is shown in Figure 1. In this view various risers and penetrations are shown along with the sludge level depicted by the horizontal line halfway up the tank, and the ground level depicted by the horizontal line above the tank. The HEPA filter installed for breathing is also shown on one of the risers.

  4. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) 241-Z LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY DEACTIVATION AND DEMOLITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ' (CERCLA). The project completed TPA Milestone M-083-032 to 'Complete those activities required by the 241-Z Treatment and Storage Unit's RCRA Closure Plan' four years and seven months ahead of this legally enforceable milestone. In addition, the project completed TPA Milestone M-083-042 to 'Complete transition and dismantlement of the 241-2 Waste Treatment Facility' four years and four months ahead of schedule. The project used an innovative approach in developing the project-specific RCRA closure plan to assure clear integration between the 241-Z RCRA closure activities and ongoing and future CERCLA actions at PFP. This approach provided a regulatory mechanism within the RCRA closure plan to place segments of the closure that were not practical to address at this time into future actions under CERCLA. Lessons learned from th is approach can be applied to other closure projects within the DOE Complex to control scope creep and mitigate risk. A paper on this topic, entitled 'Integration of the 241-Z Building D and D Under CERCLA with RCRA Closure at the PFP', was presented at the 2007 Waste Management Conference in Tucson, Arizona. In addition, techniques developed by the 241-Z D and D Project to control airborne contamination, clean the interior of the waste tanks, don and doff protective equipment, size-reduce plutonium-contaminated process piping, and mitigate thermal stress for the workers can be applied to other cleanup activities. The project-management team developed a strategy utilizing early characterization, targeted cleanup, and close coordination with PFP Criticality Engineering to significantly streamline the waste- handling costs associated with the project . The project schedule was structured to support an early transition to a criticality 'incredible' status for the 241-Z Facility. The cleanup work was sequenced and coordinated with project-specific criticality analysis to allow the fissile material waste being generated to be managed in a bulk fashion

  5. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) 241-Z LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY DEACTIVATION AND DEMOLITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSTON GA

    2008-01-15

    Liability Act of 1980' (CERCLA). The project completed TPA Milestone M-083-032 to 'Complete those activities required by the 241-Z Treatment and Storage Unit's RCRA Closure Plan' four years and seven months ahead of this legally enforceable milestone. In addition, the project completed TPA Milestone M-083-042 to 'Complete transition and dismantlement of the 241-2 Waste Treatment Facility' four years and four months ahead of schedule. The project used an innovative approach in developing the project-specific RCRA closure plan to assure clear integration between the 241-Z RCRA closure activities and ongoing and future CERCLA actions at PFP. This approach provided a regulatory mechanism within the RCRA closure plan to place segments of the closure that were not practical to address at this time into future actions under CERCLA. Lessons learned from th is approach can be applied to other closure projects within the DOE Complex to control scope creep and mitigate risk. A paper on this topic, entitled 'Integration of the 241-Z Building D and D Under CERCLA with RCRA Closure at the PFP', was presented at the 2007 Waste Management Conference in Tucson, Arizona. In addition, techniques developed by the 241-Z D&D Project to control airborne contamination, clean the interior of the waste tanks, don and doff protective equipment, size-reduce plutonium-contaminated process piping, and mitigate thermal stress for the workers can be applied to other cleanup activities. The project-management team developed a strategy utilizing early characterization, targeted cleanup, and close coordination with PFP Criticality Engineering to significantly streamline the waste- handling costs associated with the project . The project schedule was structured to support an early transition to a criticality 'incredible' status for the 241-Z Facility. The cleanup work was sequenced and coordinated with project-specific criticality analysis to allow the fissile

  6. Tank 241-Z-361 vapor sampling and analysis plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-02-23

    Tank 241-Z-361 is identified in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement), Appendix C, (Ecology et al. 1994) as a unit to be remediated under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). As such, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will serve as the lead regulatory agency for remediation of this tank under the CERCLA process. At the time this unit was identified as a CERCLA site under the Tri-Party Agreement, it was placed within the 200-ZP-2 Operable Unit. In 1997, The Tri-parties redefined 200 Area Operable Units into waste groupings (Waste Site Grouping for 200 Areas Soils Investigations [DOE-RL 1992 and 1997]). A waste group contains waste sites that share similarities in geological conditions, function, and types of waste received. Tank 241-Z-361 is identified within the CERCLA Plutonium/Organic-rich Process Condensate/Process Waste Group (DOE-RL 1992). The Plutonium/Organic-rich Process Condensate/Process Waste Group has been prioritized for remediation beginning in the year 2004. Results of Tank 216-Z-361 sampling and analysis described in this Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) and in the SAP for sludge sampling (to be developed) will determine whether expedited response actions are required before 2004 because of the hazards associated with tank contents. Should data conclude that remediation of this tank should occur earlier than is planned for the other sites in the waste group, it is likely that removal alternatives will be analyzed in a separate Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA). Removal actions would proceed after the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) signs an Action Memorandum describing the selected removal alternative for Tank 216-Z-361. If the data conclude that there is no immediate threat to human health and the environment from this tank, remedial actions for the tank will be defined in a

  7. Radioactive decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Code of Practice covers: (a) the decontamination of plant items, buildings and associated equipment; (b) decontamination of protective clothing; (c) simple personal decontamination; and (d) the basic mechanisms of contamination and their influence on decontaminability. (author)

  8. TMI-2 auxiliary building elevator shaft and pit decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination of the elevator pit and shaft in the auxiliary building at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) was performed to remove high radiation and contamination levels which prevented personnel from utilizing the elevator. The radiation and contamination levels in the TMI-2 auxiliary building elevator shaft have been reduced to the point where plant personnel are again permitted to ride in the elevator without a radiation work permit, with the exception of access to the 281-ft (basement) level. Based on the declassification and expanded use of the elevator, the task goal has been met. The tax expended 16.16 man-rem and 621 man-hours

  9. Engineering study of the criticality issues associated with Hanford tank 241-Z-361

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipke, E.J.

    1997-12-22

    Tank 241-Z-361 is associated with the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Uncertainty about the contents of the tank have led to the declaration of an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and the preparation of a Justification for Continued Operation (JCO) to address flammable gas and other authorization basis issued. A Criticality Safety Team was assembled to review old data, determine its validity, and reevaluate the tank. It was concluded that the tank has a sufficient margin of safety to allow opening, sampling, and other characterizing activities. The team concluded that a criticality in Tank 241-Z-361 was extremely unlikely.

  10. Engineering study of the criticality issues associated with tank 241-Z-361

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-Z-361 is associated with the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Uncertainty about the contents of the tank have led to the declaration of an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and the preparation of a Justification for Continued Operation (JCO) to address flammable gas and other authorization basis issued. A Criticality Safety Team was assembled to review old data, determine its validity, and reevaluate the tank. It was concluded that the tank has a sufficient margin of safety to allow opening, sampling, and other characterizing activities. The team concluded that a criticality in Tank 241-Z-361 was extremely unlikely

  11. Studies of radioactive deposition on farm buildings and testing of some methods for decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were made of radioactive fallout on roofs of farm buildings and of some methods of decontamination. The aim was to find ways of reducing the external radiation dose to farmers working and farm animals housed in stables in a fallout situation. The roof material studied was steel plate (A) and tile (B,C, D), each with four sample areas of ca. 1 m2. The roof samples were collected at three places and from totally four building in regions which in 1986 (after the Chernobyl fallout) has a 137Cs ground depositions of 3040 kBq/m2 (A, B, C) and > 100 kBq/m2 (D). Four different decontamination methods were tested: 1. High pressure washing with water. 2. Repeated high pressure washing with water. 3. Application of foam of a sanitizing chemical for livestock buildings followed by high pressure washing with water. 4. Application of a solution of KCl followed by high pressure washing with water. In C, the effect of decontamination expressed as the percentage decrease of the 137Cs activity was on average for all methods, 55%. This material was coated before the decontamination by a marked growth of algae or moss, which was effectively washed off during the sanitizing procedure. In B, the average activity decontamination effect was 25%, while in D (with the highest original activity, but without growth of organic material) the effect was very small, 3%. In A, the activity level before decontamination was so low that measurements after decontamination were considered unnecessary. Method number 4 was the most effective in B and C, 32% and 64%, respectively, while method number 3 was the most effective in D, 5.7%. The results indicate that good effects can be achieved in radioactivity decontamination of roof material with equipment and chemicals which are normally available on farms

  12. Radioactivity build-up and decontamination (part 4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish a decontamination method of radioactive corrosion products in BWR primary coolant system, the radioactivity buildup after the decontamination was investigated for 304 stainless steel using a test loop simulating a BWR condition for 400 hours. The results show that; (1) Removal of the chromium in crud may be necessary to supress the activity re-buildup and the validity of Oxidation-reduction method with this process was proved. (2) The most significant activity re-buildup was shown when the original surface layer was exposed after complete removal of the crud. The exposure of chromium rich surface layer may account for the acceralation of activity buildup. (3) The re-buildup was supressed when a pre-filming by H2O2 (8 ppm 140 0C 24 hr) was applied after the electro-polishing up to the original surface layer. This supressing effect was also seen on new SUS304 surface. (author)

  13. 324 and 325 Building hot cell cleanout program: Decontamination of C-Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During FY 1989 the decontamination of C-Cell of Hanford's 324 Building was completed as part of the 324 and 325 Building Hot Cell Cleanout Program sponsored by the DOE Nuclear Energy's Surplus Facilities Management Program. The decontamination effort was completed using a series of remote and contact decontamination techniques. Initial radiation readings in C-Cell averaged 50 rad/hr and were reduced remotely to less than 200 mrad/hr using an alkaline foam cleaner followed by a 5000-psi water flush. Contact decontamination was then permissible using ultra high-pressure water, at 36,000 psi, further reducing the average radiation level in the cell to less than 86 mrem/hr. The approach used in decontaminating C-Cell resulted in a savings in radiation exposure of 87% and a cost savings of 39% compared to a hands-on procedure used in A-Cell, 324 Building in 1987. The radiation dose and the costs to achieve a 244-fold reduction in radiation contamination were 1.65 mrem per ft2 and $96 per ft2 of cell surface area. 14 figs., 4 tabs

  14. 324 and 325 Building hot cell cleanout program: Decontamination of C-Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Y.B.; Holton, L.K. Jr.

    1989-10-01

    During FY 1989 the decontamination of C-Cell of Hanford's 324 Building was completed as part of the 324 and 325 Building Hot Cell Cleanout Program sponsored by the DOE Nuclear Energy's Surplus Facilities Management Program. The decontamination effort was completed using a series of remote and contact decontamination techniques. Initial radiation readings in C-Cell averaged 50 rad/hr and were reduced remotely to less than 200 mrad/hr using an alkaline foam cleaner followed by a 5000-psi water flush. Contact decontamination was then permissible using ultra high-pressure water, at 36,000 psi, further reducing the average radiation level in the cell to less than 86 mrem/hr. The approach used in decontaminating C-Cell resulted in a savings in radiation exposure of 87% and a cost savings of 39% compared to a hands-on procedure used in A-Cell, 324 Building in 1987. The radiation dose and the costs to achieve a 244-fold reduction in radiation contamination were 1.65 mrem per ft{sup 2} and $96 per ft{sup 2} of cell surface area. 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Destruction of Spores on Building Decontamination Residue in a Commercial Autoclave▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lemieux, P.; Sieber, R; Osborne, A; Woodard, A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted an experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercial autoclave for treating simulated building decontamination residue (BDR). The BDR was intended to simulate porous materials removed from a building deliberately contaminated with biological agents such as Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) in a terrorist attack. The purpose of the tests was to assess whether the standard operating procedure for a commercial autoclave provided sufficiently r...

  16. Building Toxic Metal Characterization and Decontamination Report: Area 6, Building 914

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Industrial Hygiene

    2011-08-15

    The purpose of this report is to outline the toxic metal characterization and decontamination efforts in Area 6, Building 914. This includes the initial building inspection, the hotspot sampling, results/findings, building cleanup, and the verification sampling. Building 914 is a steel light frame building that was constructed in 1992. It is about 16,454 square feet, and five employees are assigned to this building. According to the building's floor plan blueprints, it could be inferred that this building was once a Wiremen/Lineman shop. In 2002-2004, the National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office embarked on a broad characterization of beryllium (Be) surface concentrations throughout the North Las Vegas Facility, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), and ancillary facilities like the Special Technologies Laboratory, Remote Sensing Laboratory, etc. Building 914 was part of this characterization. The results of the 2002 study illustrated that the metal housekeeping limits were within acceptable limits and from a Be standpoint, the building was determined to be fit for occupancy. On March 2, 2011, based on a request from Building 914 users, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) Industrial Hygiene (IH) collected bulk samples from the southwest corner of Building 914 at heights above 6 feet where black dust had been noticed on this particular wall. IH conducted surface swipe sampling of the area and analyzed the samples for toxic metals, namely, beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), and manganese (Mn). The sample results indicated values two to four times above the housekeeping threshold for Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Mn. Subsequently, the facility was closed and posted; the necessary personnel were notified; and controls were instituted for ingress and egress of the building. On March 17, 2011, IH performed an extensive sampling event involving the entire warehouse in accordance with NSTec Organization Procedure OP-P250

  17. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions This dataset is associated with the following...

  18. Decontamination and decommissioning assessment for the Waste Incineration Facility (Building 232-Z) Hanford Site, [Hanford], WA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building 232-Z is an element of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. From 1961 until 1972, plutonium-bearing combustible materials were incinerated in the building. Between 1972 and 1983, following shutdown of the incinerator, the facility was used for waste segregation activities. The facility was placed in retired inactive status in 1984 and classified as a Limited Control Facility pursuant to DOE Order 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear Facilities, and 6430.1A, General Design Criteria. The current plutonium inventory within the building is estimated to be approximately 848 grams, the majority of which is retained within the process hood ventilation system. As a contaminated retired facility, Building 232-Z is included in the DOE Surplus Facility Management Program. The objective of this Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) assessment is to remove Building 232-Z, thereby elmininating the radiological and environmental hazards associated with the plutonium inventory within the structure. The steps to accomplish the plan objectives are: (1) identifying the locations of the most significant amounts of plutonium, (2) removing residual plutonium, (3) removing and decontaminating remaining building equipment, (4) dismantling the remaining structure, and (5) closing out the project

  19. Surface activity and radiation field measurements of the TMI-2 reactor building gross decontamination experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIsaac, C V

    1983-10-01

    Surface samples were collected from concrete and metal surfaces within the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building on December 15 and 17, 1981 and again on March 25 and 26, 1982. The Reactor Building was decontaminated by hydrolasing during the period between these dates. The collected samples were analyzed for radionuclide concentration at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The sampling equipment and procedures, and the analysis methods and results are discussed. The measured mean surface concentrations of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr on the 305-ft elevation floor before decontamination were, respectively, 3.6 +- 0.9 and 0.17 +- 0.04 ..mu..Ci/cm/sup 2/. Their mean concentrations on the 347-ft elevation floor were about the same. On both elevations, walls were found to be considerably less contaminated than floors. The fractions of the core inventories of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, and /sup 129/I deposited on Reactor Building surfaces prior to decontamination were calculated using their mean concentrations on various types of surfaces. The calculated values for these three nuclides are 3.5 +- 0.4 E-4, 2.4 +- 0.8 E-5, and 5.7 +- 0.5 E-4, respectively. The decontamination operations reduced the /sup 137/Cs surface activity on the 305- and 347-ft elevations by factors of 20 and 13, respectively. The /sup 90/Sr surface activity reduction was the same for both floors, that being a factor of 30. On the whole, decontamination of vertical surfaces was not achieved. Beta and gamma exposure rates that were measured during surface sampling were examined to determine the degree to which they correlated with measured surface activities. The data were fit with power functions of the form y = ax/sup b/. As might be expected, the beta exposure rates showed the best correlation. Of the data sets fit with the power function, the set of December 1981 beta exposure exhibited the least scatter. The coefficient of determination for this set was calculated to be 0.915.

  20. Evaluation of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building decontamination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination activities from the cleanup of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building are generating a variety of waste streams. Solid wastes being disposed of in commercial shallow land burial include trash and rubbish, ion-exchange resins (Epicor-II) and strippable coatings. The radwaste streams arising from cleanup activities currently under way are characterized and classified under the waste classification scheme of 10 CFR Part 61. It appears that much of the Epicor-II ion-exchange resin being disposed of in commerical land burial will be Class B and require stabilization if current radionuclide loading practices continue to be followed. Some of the trash and rubbish from the cleanup of the reactor building so far would be Class B. Strippable coatings being used at TMI-2 were tested for leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents, thermal stability, radiation stability, stability under immersion and biodegradability. Actual coating samples from reactor building decontamination testing were evaluated for radionuclide leaching and biodegradation

  1. Evaluation of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building decontamination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougherty, D.; Adams, J. W.

    1983-08-01

    Decontamination activities from the cleanup of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building are generating a variety of waste streams. Solid wastes being disposed of in commercial shallow land burial include trash and rubbish, ion-exchange resins (Epicor-II) and strippable coatings. The radwaste streams arising from cleanup activities currently under way are characterized and classified under the waste classification scheme of 10 CFR Part 61. It appears that much of the Epicor-II ion-exchange resin being disposed of in commerical land burial will be Class B and require stabilization if current radionuclide loading practices continue to be followed. Some of the trash and rubbish from the cleanup of the reactor building so far would be Class B. Strippable coatings being used at TMI-2 were tested for leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents, thermal stability, radiation stability, stability under immersion and biodegradability. Actual coating samples from reactor building decontamination testing were evaluated for radionuclide leaching and biodegradation.

  2. Y-12 Plant decontamination and decommissioning technology logic diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 3: Technology evaluation data sheets; Part B: Decontamination, robotics/automation, waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) problems at Bldg. 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD uses information from the Strategic Roadmap for the Oak Ridge Reservation, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram, and a previous Hanford logic diagram. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D and D and waste management (WM) activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk. This report consists of the decontamination, robotics/automation, and WM data sheets

  3. Development of standards for chemical and biological decontamination of buildings and structures affected by terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumley, T.C.; Volchek, K.; Fingas, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch; Hay, A.W.M. [Leeds Univ., Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Currently, there are no suitable standards for determining levels of safety when reoccupying a building that has been recommissioned following a biological or chemical attack. For that reason, this study focused on developing clean-up standards for decontaminating buildings and construction materials after acts of terrorism. Several parameters must be assessed when determining the course of action to decontaminate toxic agents and to rehabilitate facilities. First, the hazardous substance must be positively identified along with the degree of contamination and information on likely receptors. Potential exposure route is also a key consideration in the risk assessment process. A key objective of the study was to develop specific guidelines for ascertaining and defining clean. In particular, standards for chemical and biological agents that pose a real or potential risk for use as agents of terrorism will be developed. The selected agents for standards development were ammonia, fentanyl, malathion, mustard gas, potassium cyanide, ricin, sarin, hepatitis A virus, and bacillus anthracis. The standards will be developed by establishing the relationship between the amount of exposure and expected health effects; assessing real and potential risks by identifying individuals at risk and consideration of all exposure routes; and, characterizing the risk to determine the potential for toxicity or infectivity. For non-carcinogens, this was done through the analysis of other known guidelines. Cancer-slope factors will be considered for carcinogens. The standards will be assessed in the laboratory using animal models. The guidelines and standards are intended for first-responders and are scheduled for development by the end of 2006. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. PROPERTIES AND BEHAVIOR OF 238PU RELEVANT TO DECONTAMINATION OF BUILDING 235-F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, A.; Kane, M.

    2009-11-24

    This report was prepared to document the physical, chemical and radiological properties of plutonium oxide materials that were processed in the Plutonium Fuel Form Facility (PuFF) in building 235-F at the Savannah River Plant (now known as the Savannah River Site) in the late 1970s and early 1980s. An understanding of these properties is needed to support current project planning for the safe and effective decontamination and deactivation (D&D) of PuFF. The PuFF mission was production of heat sources to power Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in space craft. The specification for the PuO{sub 2} used to fabricate the heat sources required that the isotopic content of the plutonium be 83 {+-} 1% Pu-238 due to its high decay heat of 0.57 W/g. The high specific activity of Pu-238 (17.1 Ci/g) due to alpha decay makes this material very difficult to manage. The production process produced micron-sized particles which proved difficult to contain during operations, creating personnel contamination concerns and resulting in the expenditure of significant resources to decontaminate spaces after loss of material containment. This report examines high {sup 238}Pu-content material properties relevant to the D&D of PuFF. These relevant properties are those that contribute to the mobility of the material. Physical properties which produce or maintain small particle size work to increase particle mobility. Early workers with {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} felt that, unlike most small particles, Pu-238 oxide particles would not naturally agglomerate to form larger, less mobile particles. It was thought that the heat generated by the particles would prevent water molecules from binding to the particle surface. Particles covered with bound water tend to agglomerate more easily. However, it is now understood that the self-heating effect is not sufficient to prevent adsorption of water on particle surfaces and thus would not prevent agglomeration of particles. Operational

  5. Development and field testing of a mobile chlorine dioxide generation system for the decontamination of buildings contaminated with Bacillus anthracis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Joseph P., E-mail: wood.joe@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Homeland Security Research Center, MC-E343-06, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Blair Martin, G., E-mail: martin.blair@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, MC-E340-C, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2009-05-30

    The numerous buildings that became contaminated with Bacillus anthracis (the bacterium causing the disease anthrax) in 2001, and more recent B. anthracis - related events, point to the need to have effective decontamination technologies for buildings contaminated with biological threat agents. The U.S. Government developed a portable chlorine dioxide (ClO{sub 2}) generation system to decontaminate buildings contaminated with B. anthracis spores, and this so-called mobile decontamination trailer (MDT) prototype was tested through a series of three field trials. The first test of the MDT was conducted at Fort McClellan in Anniston, AL. during October 2004. Four test attempts occurred over two weekends; however, a number of system problems resulted in termination of the activity prior to any ClO{sub 2} introduction into the test building. After making several design enhancements and equipment changes, the MDT was subjected to a second test. During this test, extensive leak checks were made using argon and nitrogen in lieu of chlorine gas; each subsystem was checked for functionality, and the MDT was operated for 24 h. This second test demonstrated the MDT flow and control systems functioned satisfactorily, and thus it was decided to proceed to a third, more challenging field trial. In the last field test, ClO{sub 2} was generated and routed directly to the scrubber in a 12-h continuous run. Measurement of ClO{sub 2} levels at the generator outlet showed that the desired production rate was not achieved. Additionally, only one of the two scrubbers performed adequately with regard to maintaining ClO{sub 2} emissions below the limit. Numerous lessons were learned in the field trials of this ClO{sub 2} decontamination technology.

  6. Development and field testing of a mobile chlorine dioxide generation system for the decontamination of buildings contaminated with Bacillus anthracis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The numerous buildings that became contaminated with Bacillus anthracis (the bacterium causing the disease anthrax) in 2001, and more recent B. anthracis - related events, point to the need to have effective decontamination technologies for buildings contaminated with biological threat agents. The U.S. Government developed a portable chlorine dioxide (ClO2) generation system to decontaminate buildings contaminated with B. anthracis spores, and this so-called mobile decontamination trailer (MDT) prototype was tested through a series of three field trials. The first test of the MDT was conducted at Fort McClellan in Anniston, AL. during October 2004. Four test attempts occurred over two weekends; however, a number of system problems resulted in termination of the activity prior to any ClO2 introduction into the test building. After making several design enhancements and equipment changes, the MDT was subjected to a second test. During this test, extensive leak checks were made using argon and nitrogen in lieu of chlorine gas; each subsystem was checked for functionality, and the MDT was operated for 24 h. This second test demonstrated the MDT flow and control systems functioned satisfactorily, and thus it was decided to proceed to a third, more challenging field trial. In the last field test, ClO2 was generated and routed directly to the scrubber in a 12-h continuous run. Measurement of ClO2 levels at the generator outlet showed that the desired production rate was not achieved. Additionally, only one of the two scrubbers performed adequately with regard to maintaining ClO2 emissions below the limit. Numerous lessons were learned in the field trials of this ClO2 decontamination technology.

  7. Y-12 Plant decontamination and decommissioning technology logic diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 2: Technology logic diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) problems at Bldg. 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D and D and waste management (WM) activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 2 has been divided into five sections: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Robotics/Automation, and Waste Management. Each section contains logical breakdowns of the Y-12 D and D problems by subject area and identifies technologies that can be reasonably applied to each D and D challenge

  8. Y-12 Plant decontamination and decommissioning technology logic diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 2: Technology logic diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) problems at Bldg. 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D and D and waste management (WM) activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 2 has been divided into five sections: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Robotics/Automation, and Waste Management. Each section contains logical breakdowns of the Y-12 D and D problems by subject area and identifies technologies that can be reasonably applied to each D and D challenge.

  9. Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 1: Technology evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    During World War 11, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was built as part of the Manhattan Project to supply enriched uranium for weapons production. In 1945, Building 9201-4 (Alpha-4) was originally used to house a uranium isotope separation process based on electromagnetic separation technology. With the startup of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site gaseous diffusion plant In 1947, Alpha-4 was placed on standby. In 1953, the uranium enrichment process was removed, and installation of equipment for the Colex process began. The Colex process--which uses a mercury solvent and lithium hydroxide as the lithium feed material-was shut down in 1962 and drained of process materials. Residual Quantities of mercury and lithium hydroxide have remained in the process equipment. Alpha-4 contains more than one-half million ft{sup 2} of floor area; 15,000 tons of process and electrical equipment; and 23,000 tons of insulation, mortar, brick, flooring, handrails, ducts, utilities, burnables, and sludge. Because much of this equipment and construction material is contaminated with elemental mercury, cleanup is necessary. The goal of the Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 is to provide a planning document that relates decontamination and decommissioning and waste management problems at the Alpha-4 building to the technologies that can be used to remediate these problems. The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 builds on the methodology transferred by the U.S. Air Force to the Environmental Management organization with DOE and draws from previous technology logic diagram-efforts: logic diagrams for Hanford, the K-25 Site, and ORNL.

  10. Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 1: Technology evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During World War 11, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was built as part of the Manhattan Project to supply enriched uranium for weapons production. In 1945, Building 9201-4 (Alpha-4) was originally used to house a uranium isotope separation process based on electromagnetic separation technology. With the startup of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site gaseous diffusion plant In 1947, Alpha-4 was placed on standby. In 1953, the uranium enrichment process was removed, and installation of equipment for the Colex process began. The Colex process--which uses a mercury solvent and lithium hydroxide as the lithium feed material-was shut down in 1962 and drained of process materials. Residual Quantities of mercury and lithium hydroxide have remained in the process equipment. Alpha-4 contains more than one-half million ft2 of floor area; 15,000 tons of process and electrical equipment; and 23,000 tons of insulation, mortar, brick, flooring, handrails, ducts, utilities, burnables, and sludge. Because much of this equipment and construction material is contaminated with elemental mercury, cleanup is necessary. The goal of the Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 is to provide a planning document that relates decontamination and decommissioning and waste management problems at the Alpha-4 building to the technologies that can be used to remediate these problems. The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 builds on the methodology transferred by the U.S. Air Force to the Environmental Management organization with DOE and draws from previous technology logic diagram-efforts: logic diagrams for Hanford, the K-25 Site, and ORNL

  11. Lessons Learned from Decontamination Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, JH

    2000-11-16

    This interim report describes a DOE project currently underway to establish what is known about decontamination of buildings and people and the procedures and protocols used to determine when and how people or buildings are considered ''clean'' following decontamination. To fulfill this objective, the study systematically examined reported decontamination experiences to determine what procedures and protocols are currently employed for decontamination, the timeframe involved to initiate and complete the decontamination process, how the contaminants were identified, the problems encountered during the decontamination process, how response efforts of agencies were coordinated, and the perceived social psychological effects on people who were decontaminated or who participated in the decontamination process. Findings and recommendations from the study are intended to aid decision-making and to improve the basis for determining appropriate decontamination protocols for recovery planners and policy makers for responding to chemical and biological events.

  12. Site Characterization Plan for decontamination and decommissioning of Buildings 3506 and 3515 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buildings 3506, the Waste Evaporator Facility, and 3515, the Fission Product Pilot Plant, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), are scheduled for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). This Site Characterization Plan (SCP) presents the strategy and techniques to be used to characterize Buildings 3506/3515 for the purpose of planning D and D activities. The elements of the site characterization for Buildings 3506/3515 are planning and preparation, field investigation, and characterization reporting. Other level of effort activities will include management and oversight, project controls, meetings, and progress reporting. The objective of the site characterization is to determine the nature and extent of radioactive and hazardous materials and other industrial hazards in and around the buildings. This information will be used in subsequent planning to develop a detailed approach for final decommissioning of the facilities: (1) to evaluate decommissioning alternatives and design the most cost-effective D and D approach; (2) to determine the level and type of protection necessary for D and D workers; and (3) to estimate the types and volumes of wastes generated during D and D activities. The current D and D characterization scope includes the entire building, including the foundation and equipment or materials within the building. To estimate potential worker exposure from the soil during D and D, some subfoundation soil sample collection is planned. Buildings 3506/3515 are located in the ORNL main plant area, to the west and east, respectively, of the South Tank Farm. Building 3506 was built in 1949 to house a liquid waste evaporator and was subsequently used for an incinerator experiment. Partial D and D was done prior to abandonment, and most equipment has been removed. Building 3515 was built in 1948 to house fission product separation equipment. In about 1960, all entrances were sealed with concrete block and mortar. Building 3515 is expected to be

  13. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  14. Gross decontamination experiment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment

  15. Environmental decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The record of the proceedings of the workshop on environmental decontamination contains twenty-seven presentations. Emphasis is placed upon soil and surface decontamination, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and assessments of instrumentation and equipment used in decontamination

  16. Environmental decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, G.A.; Jernigan, H.C. (eds.)

    1981-02-01

    The record of the proceedings of the workshop on environmental decontamination contains twenty-seven presentations. Emphasis is placed upon soil and surface decontamination, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and assessments of instrumentation and equipment used in decontamination. (DLS)

  17. Final report of the decontamination and decommission of Building 31 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the domestic uranium procurement program funded by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJPO Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, also was the remedial action contractor. Radiological contamination was identified in Building 31 and the building was demolished in 1992. The soil area within the footprint of the building has been remediated in accordance with the identified standards and the area can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This area was addressed in the summary final report of the remediation of the exterior areas of the GJPO facility. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual final report for each contaminated GJPO building

  18. Decontamination and dismantlement of the building 594 waste ion exchange facility at Argonne National Laboratory-East project final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, E. C.

    1998-11-23

    The Building 594 D&D Project was directed toward the following goals: Removal of any radioactive and hazardous materials associated with the Waste Ion Exchange Facility; Decontamination of the Waste Ion Exchange Facility to unrestricted use levels; Demolition of Building 594; and Documentation of all project activities affecting quality (i.e., waste packaging, instrument calibration, audit results, and personnel exposure) These goals had been set in order to eliminate the radiological and hazardous safety concerns inherent in the Waste Ion Exchange Facility and to allow, upon completion of the project, unescorted and unmonitored access to the area. The ion exchange system and the resin contained in the system were the primary areas of concern, while the condition of the building which housed the system was of secondary concern. ANL-E health physics technicians characterized the Building 594 Waste Ion Exchange Facility in September 1996. The characterization identified a total of three radionuclides present in the Waste Ion Exchange Facility with a total activity of less than 5 {micro}Ci (175 kBq). The radionuclides of concern were Co{sup 60}, Cs{sup 137}, and Am{sup 241}. The highest dose rates observed during the project were associated with the resin in the exchange vessels. DOE Order 5480.2A establishes the maximum whole body exposure for occupational workers at 5 rem (50 mSv)/yr; the administrative limit at ANL-E is 1 rem/yr (10 mSv/yr).

  19. Alternatives evaluation for the decontamination and decommissioning of buildings 3506 and 3515 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    this is an alternative evaluation document that records the evaluation process and justification for choosing the alternative recommended for the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the 3506 and 3515 buildings at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The alternatives for the D&D of the two buildings were: (1) no action (continued surveillance and maintenance), (2) decontamination for free release, (3) entombment in place, (4) partial dismantlement, and (5) complete dismantlement. Soil remediation is not included in any of the alternatives. The recommended alternative for the D&D of Building 3506 is partial dismantlement at an estimated cost of $936, 000 in escalated dollars. The cost estimate for complete dismantlement is $1,384,000. The recommended alternative for the D&D of Building 3515 is complete dismantlement at an estimated cost of $3,733,000 in escalated dollars. This alternative is recommended, because the soils below the foundation of the 3515 building are highly contaminated, and removing the foundation in the D&D project results in lower overall worker risk, costs, and improved post-D&D site conditions. A further recommendation is to revise these cost estimates after the conclusion of the ongoing characterization study. The results of the characterization of the two buildings is expected to change some of the assumptions and resolve some of the uncertainties in the development of these estimates.

  20. Safety Analysis (SA) of the decontamination facility, Building 419, at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety analysis was performed for the Manager, Plant Services at LLNL and fulfills the requirements of DOE Order 5481.1. The analysis was based on field inspections, document review, computer calculations, and extensive input from Waste Management personnel. It was concluded that the maximum quantities of radioactive materials that safety procedures allow to be handled in this building do not pose undue risks on- or off-site even in postulated severe accidents. Risk from the various hazards at this facility vary from low to moderate as specified in DOE Order 5481.1. Recommendations are made for improvements that will reduce risks even further

  1. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Argonne National Laboratory Building 350 Plutonium Fabrication Facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1973, Argonne National Laboratory began consolidating and upgrading its plutonium-handling operations with the result that the research fuel-fabrication facility located in Building 350 was shut down and declared surplus. Sixteen of the twenty-three gloveboxes which comprised the system were disassembled and relocated for reuse or placed into controlled storage during 1974 but, due to funding constraints, full-scale decommissioning did not start until 1978. Since that time the fourteen remaining contaminated gloveboxes, including all internal and external equipment as well as the associated ventilation systems, have been assayed for radioactive content, dismantled, size reduced to fit acceptable packaging and sent to a US Department of Energy (DOE) transuranic retrievable-storage site or to a DOE low-level nuclear waste burial ground. The project which was completed in 1983, required 5 years to accomplish, 32 man years of effort, produced some 540 m3 (19,000 ft3) of radioactive waste of which 60% was TRU, and cost 2.4 million dollars

  2. Radioactivity decontamination device and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a method of decontaminating floors and walls of large-scaled equipments and buildings (large-sized members to be decontaminated) in a radioactive material handling facility. Namely, supersonic vibrations are applied to a low pressure running water to form water vibrating at fine frequency of supersonic waves. It is jetted to the large-scaled members to be decontaminated to remove radiation-contaminated materials from the surface of the large-scaled members to be decontaminated by friction of the vibrations. Specifically, when the decontaminating water is jetted out from a nozzle at a hydraulic pressure of from 0.02 to 0.1kg/cm2G, supersonic waves at a variable oscillation frequency of from 100 to 800kHz and an output of from 5 to 15W/cm2 per a unit area of vibrator are applied to the water stream. Fine decontamination for large-scaled members can be conducted by the decontamination method of the present invention. Since decontamination of radioactivity does not occur, and unevenness and remaining of contamination are eliminated, the decontamination operation can be made efficient. (I.S.)

  3. Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomasney, H. [ISOTRON Corp., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has assigned a priority to the advancement of technology for decontaminating concrete surfaces which have become contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organics. This agency is responsible for decontamination and decommissioning of thousands of buildings. Electrokinetic extraction is one of the several innovative technologies which emerged in response to this initiative. This technique utilizes an electropotential gradient and the subsequent electrical transport mechanism to cause the controlled movement of ionics species, whereby the contaminants exit the recesses deep within the concrete. This report discusses the technology and use at the Oak Ridge k-25 plant.

  4. Y-12 Plant decontamination and decommissioning technology logic diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 3: Technology evaluation data sheets; Part A: Characterization, dismantlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) problems at Bldg. 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD uses information from the Strategic Roadmap for the Oak Ridge Reservation, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram, and a previous Hanford logic diagram. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D and D and waste management (WM) activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk. This report consists of the characterization and dismantlement data sheets.

  5. Y-12 Plant decontamination and decommissioning technology logic diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 3: Technology evaluation data sheets; Part A: Characterization, dismantlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) problems at Bldg. 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD uses information from the Strategic Roadmap for the Oak Ridge Reservation, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram, and a previous Hanford logic diagram. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D and D and waste management (WM) activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk. This report consists of the characterization and dismantlement data sheets

  6. Decontamination method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, Hiroshi; Ono, Shigeki; Tada, Nobuo; Tamai, Yasumasa; Okada, Masaya; Kurihara, Masayuki [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Onuki, Toyomitsu; Toyota, Seiichi

    1998-10-27

    Before contamination of materials to be decontaminated, a surface of a region where a strippable paint is to be coated is smoothed by an epoxy resin previously. Then, a waterproof sheet is extended to the material to be decontaminated, and the strippable paint is applied to the periphery or the entire surface of the sheet. In order to facilitate peeling, the strippable paint is not applied to a portion of the outer circumference of the sheet. Even if the contaminating circumstance is an air atmosphere or a liquid such as reactor water, since the sheet itself has waterproofness and the strippable paint excellent in gas and water tightness is applied to the periphery, contamination is eliminated. When decontaminating the material to be decontaminated having contaminated surfaces, if the sheet for the start of peeling is picked up and the sheet is peeled, the strippable paint at the periphery thereof can be peeled off together with the sheet. (N.H.)

  7. Decontamination of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-seven papers were presented at this conference in five sessions. Topics covered include regulation, control and consequences of decontamination; decontamination of components and facilities; chemical and non-chemical methods of decontamination; and TMI decontamination experience

  8. Decontamination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apparatus for decontaminating radioactive components consists of an attachment mechanism for completely suspending the apparatus from the tube sheet of a nuclear steam generator, a first drive mechanism for moving the apparatus in a first direction, a second drive mechanism for pivoting the apparatus in a second direction, and a third drive mechanism for moving the apparatus in a third independent direction. The apparatus also has a dual nozzle arrangement attached to the third drive mechanism for directing a water-grit mixture toward the component to be decontaminated. The apparatus provides a mechanism for remotely decontaminating the channel head of a nuclear steam generator so as to allow working personnel to enter therein. It is likely that less than 0.001 inches of metal surface will be removed from the steam generator using alumina or magnetite grit

  9. Decontamination glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass for the decontamination of the furnace for vitrification of radioactive wastes contains 50 to 60 wt.% of waste glass, 15 to 30 wt.% of calcium oxide, 1 to 6 wt.% sodium oxide, 1 to 5 wt.% phosphorus pentoxide and 5 to 20 wt.% boron oxide. The melting furnace is flushed with the glass such that it melts in the furnace for at least 60 mins and is then poured out of the furnace. After the furnace has cooled down the settled glass spontaneously cracks and peels off the walls leaving a clean surface. The glass may be used not only for decontamination of the furnace but also for decontamination of melting crucibles and other devices contaminated with radioactive glass. (J.B.)

  10. Decontamination and protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, J.C.; Dhein, E.H.; Morgenthau, M.

    1954-01-01

    Test panels, four ft square, of 14 building materials were mounted on the weather surfaces of two remotely controlled liberty ships and on a stationary barge. One of the ships was protected by a washdown system. All surfaces were contaminated significantly with tenacious fallout. Vertical surfaces facing upwind became equally or more highly contaminated than horizontal or pitched surfaces, probably due to wind currents impacting the tenacious contaminant onto surfaces normal to it. A sequence of hosing and vigorous scrubbing operations resulted in contamination reductions of 40 to 70%, but with reductions on most surfaces being less than 50%. The most effective decontamination method was scrubbing. Under the conditions of this test, painting and joint sealing had little effect while the washdown countermeasure reduced the initial contamination over 90%. It is concluded that contamination from fallout encountered in these tests presents a serious decontamination problem on buildings and paved areas and further development of effective countermeasures is necessary.

  11. Contamination with radioactive materials and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of the monograph mainly designed for personnel in nuclear power plants, radiochemical laboratories and laboratories of nuclear medicine departments is basically divided into two parts. In the general part, the contamination of persons and objects with radioactive substances is discussed and the physico-chemical principles of decontamination are presented. The main part of the publication is devoted to concrete practical decontamination procedures. Special attention is devoted to the decontamination of components of nuclear power plants with WWER reactors and to the decontamination of the equipment of radiochemical and radiological laboratories (in-service, after accidents and during decommissioning). Also described is the decontamination of garments, underwear, protective aids, rooms, buildings, terrain and water. Also included is a chapter on the disposal of radioactive wastes generated during decontamination. (A.K.)

  12. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system

  13. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system.

  14. Chemical surety material decontamination and decommissioning of Los Alamos National Laboratory Chemical Surety Material Laboratory area TA-3, building SM-29, room 4009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1982 through 1987, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) performed surety laboratory operations for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (MRDC). Room 4009 in building SM-29, TA-3, was used as the laboratory for work with the following chemical surety material (CSM) agents: sarin (GB), soman (GD), lewisite (L), and distilled mustard (HD) radio-labelled with H3 or C14. The work was confined to three CSM-certified fume hoods, located in room 4009 (see diagram in Appendix C). The laboratory ceased all active operations during the late 1986 and early 1987 period. From 1987 until 1993 the laboratory was secured and the ventilation system continued to operate. During late 1992, the decision was made to utilize this laboratory space for other operations, thus a decision was made to dismantle and reconfigure this room. LANL sub-contracted Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI) to draw upon the CSM experience of the technical staff from the Hazardous Materials Research Facility (HMRF) to assist in developing a decontamination and decommissioning plan. BMI was subcontracted to devise a CSM safety training course, and a sampling and air monitoring plan for CSM material to ensure personnel safety during all disassembly operations. LANL subcontracted Johnson Controls personnel to perform all disassembly operations. Beginning in early 1993 BMI personnel from the HMRF visited the laboratory to develop both the safety plan and the sample and air monitoring plan. Execution of that plan began in September 1993 and was completed in January 1994

  15. Corrective Action Plan for CAU No. 95: Area 15 EPA Farm Laboratory Building, Decontamination and Demolition Closure Activities - Nevada Test Site. Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, A.L.; Nacht, S.J.

    1997-11-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm Laboratory Building 15-06 located in Area 15 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The facility is part of the Environmental Restoration Project managed by the U.S. Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Subproject which serves to manage and dispose of surplus facilities at the NTS in a manner that will protect personnel, the public, and the environment. It is identified as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 95 in Appendix III of the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). In July 1997, the DOE/NV verbally requested approval from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for the closure schedule to be accelerated. Currently, field activities are anticipated to be completed by September 30, 1997. In order to meet this new schedule NDEP has agreed to review this document as expeditiously as possible. Comments will be addressed in the Closure Report after field activities have been completed, unless significant issues require resolution during closure activities.

  16. Corrective Action Plan for CAU No. 95: Area 15 EPA Farm Laboratory Building, Decontamination and Demolition Closure Activities - Nevada Test Site. Rev. 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm Laboratory Building 15-06 located in Area 15 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The facility is part of the Environmental Restoration Project managed by the U.S. Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Subproject which serves to manage and dispose of surplus facilities at the NTS in a manner that will protect personnel, the public, and the environment. It is identified as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 95 in Appendix III of the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). In July 1997, the DOE/NV verbally requested approval from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for the closure schedule to be accelerated. Currently, field activities are anticipated to be completed by September 30, 1997. In order to meet this new schedule NDEP has agreed to review this document as expeditiously as possible. Comments will be addressed in the Closure Report after field activities have been completed, unless significant issues require resolution during closure activities

  17. Vibratory finishing as a decontamination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, M.W.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; Allen, R.P.

    1980-10-01

    The major objective of this research is to develop vibratory finishing into a large-scale decontamination technique that can economicaly remove transuranic and other surface contamination from large volumes of waste produced by the operation and decommissioning of retired nuclear facilities. The successful development and widespread application of this decontamination technique would substantially reduce the volume of waste requiring expensive geologic disposal. Other benefits include exposure reduction for decontamination personnel and reduced risk of environmental contamination. Laboratory-scale studies showed that vibratory finishing can rapidly reduce the contamination level of transuranic-contaminated stainless steel and Plexiglas to well below the 10-nCi/g limit. The capability of vibratory finishing as a decontamination process was demonstrated on a large scale. The first decontamination demonstration was conducted at the Hanford N-Reactor, where a vibratory finisher was installed to reduce personnel exposure during the summer outage. Items decontaminated included fuel spacers, process-tube end caps, process-tube inserts, pump parts, ball-channel inspection tools and miscellaneous hand tools. A second demonstration is currently being conducted in the decontamination facility at the Hanford 231-Z Building. During this demonstration, transuranic-contaminated material from decommissioned plutonium facilities is being decontaminated to <10 nCi/g to minimize the volume of material that will require geologic disposal. Items that are being decontaminated include entire glove boxes, process-hood structural material and panels, process tanks, process-tank shields, pumps, valves and hand tools used during the decommissioning work.

  18. The Walls Come Tumbling Down: Decontamination and Demolition of 29 Manhattan Project and Cold War-Era Buildings and Structures at Los Alamos National Laboratory-12301

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the nation's top scientists and military leaders converged on Los Alamos, New Mexico in the 1943, to work on the Manhattan Project, the facilities they used to conduct their top-secret work were quickly constructed and located in the middle of what eventually became the Los Alamos town site. After one of these early facilities caught on fire, it seemed wise to build labs and production facilities farther away from the homes of the town's residents. They chose to build facilities on what was then known as Delta Prime (DP) Mesa and called it Technical Area 21, or TA-21. With wartime urgency, a number of buildings were built at TA-21, some in as little as a few months. Before long, DP Mesa was populated with several nondescript metal and cinder-block buildings, including what became, immediately following the war, the world's first plutonium production facility. TA-21 also housed labs that used hazardous chemicals and analyzed americium, tritium and plutonium. TA-21 was a bustling center of research and production for the next several decades. Additional buildings were built there in the 1960's, but by the 1990's many of them had reached the end of their service lives. Labs and offices were moved to newer, more modern buildings. When Los Alamos National Laboratory received $212 million in funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act in July 2009 for environmental cleanup projects, about $73 million of the funds were earmarked to decontaminate and demolish 21 of the old buildings at TA-21. Although some D and D of TA-21 buildings was performed in the 1990's, many of the facilities at DP Site remained relatively untouched for nearly three decades following their final operational use. In 2006, there were over three dozen buildings or structures on the mesa to be removed so that soil cleanup could be completed (and the land made available for transfer and reuse). The total footprint of buildings across the mesa was approximately 18,580 m2 (200,000 ft2

  19. Chemical surety material decontamination and decommissioning of Los Alamos National Laboratory Chemical Surety Material Laboratory area TA-3, building SM-29, room 4009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, T.E.; Smith, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    From 1982 through 1987, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) performed surety laboratory operations for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (MRDC). Room 4009 in building SM-29, TA-3, was used as the laboratory for work with the following chemical surety material (CSM) agents: sarin (GB), soman (GD), lewisite (L), and distilled mustard (HD) radio-labelled with H{sup 3} or C{sup 14}. The work was confined to three CSM-certified fume hoods, located in room 4009 (see diagram in Appendix C). The laboratory ceased all active operations during the late 1986 and early 1987 period. From 1987 until 1993 the laboratory was secured and the ventilation system continued to operate. During late 1992, the decision was made to utilize this laboratory space for other operations, thus a decision was made to dismantle and reconfigure this room. LANL sub-contracted Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI) to draw upon the CSM experience of the technical staff from the Hazardous Materials Research Facility (HMRF) to assist in developing a decontamination and decommissioning plan. BMI was subcontracted to devise a CSM safety training course, and a sampling and air monitoring plan for CSM material to ensure personnel safety during all disassembly operations. LANL subcontracted Johnson Controls personnel to perform all disassembly operations. Beginning in early 1993 BMI personnel from the HMRF visited the laboratory to develop both the safety plan and the sample and air monitoring plan. Execution of that plan began in September 1993 and was completed in January 1994.

  20. Decontaminating pesticide protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, J

    1993-01-01

    The review of recent work on the mechanisms of soil removal from textiles assists in understanding decontamination of pesticide protective clothing. The current work provides explanatory conclusions about residue retention as a basis of making recommendations for the most effective decontamination procedures. A caution about generalizations: Some pesticides produce very idiosyncratic responses to decontamination. An example is the paraquat/salt response. Other pesticides exhibit noticeable and unique responses to a highly alkaline medium (carbaryl), or to bleach (chlorpyrifos), or are quickly volatilized (methyl parathion). Responses such as these do not apply to other pesticides undergoing decontamination. Given this caution, there are soil, substrate, and solvent responses that do maximize residue removal. Residue removal is less complete as the concentration of pesticide increases. The concentration of pesticide in fabric builds with successive exposures, and the more concentrated the pesticide, the more difficult the removal. Use a prewash product and/or presoak. The surfactant and/or solvent in a prewash product is a booster in residue removal. Residues transfer from contaminated clothing to other clothing during the washing cycle. Use a full washer of water for a limited number of garments to increase residue removal. The hotter the washing temperature, the better. Generally, this means a water temperature of at least 49 degrees C, and preferably 60 degrees C. Select the detergent shown to be more effective for the formulation: heavy-duty liquid detergents for emulsifiable concentrate formulations and powdered phosphate detergents for wettable powder formulations. If the fabric has a soil-repellent finish, use 1.25 times the amount recommended on the detergent label. For water hardness above 300 ppm, an additional amount of powdered phosphate detergent is needed to obtain the same level of residue removal as obtained with the heavy-duty liquid detergent when

  1. LASL experience in decontamination of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This discussion represents one part of a major effort in soil decontamination at the Los Alamos site. A contaminated industrial waste line in the Los Alamos townsite was removed, and a plutonium incineration facility, and a filter building contaminated with actinium-227 were dismantled. The former plutonium handling facility has been decontaminated, and canyons and an old firing site contaminated with strontium-90 have been surveyed

  2. Pickering NGS decontaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In early 1984, decontaminations of the Pickering NGS Units 1 and 2 heat transport systems were carried out. These decontaminations reduced radiation fields in front of the reactor face by up to a factor of 10, and resulted in radiation fields of 50 to 140 mR/h. These decontaminations were carried out using an improved version of the CAN-DECON process. This paper describes the development of the process and its successful applications at Pickering NGS

  3. PWR decontamination feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination work which has been accomplished is reviewed and it is concluded that it is worthwhile to investigate further four methods for decontamination for future demonstration. These are: dilute chemical; single stage strong chemical; redox processes; and redox/chemical in combination. Laboratory work is recommended to define the agents and processes for demonstration and to determine the effect of the solvents on PWR materials. The feasibility of Indian Point 1 for decontamination demonstrations is discussed, and it is shown that the system components of Indian Point 1 are well suited for use in demonstrations

  4. Food decontamination using nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research indicates that nanomaterials including nanoemulsions are promising decontamination media for the reduction of food contaminating pathogens. The inhibitory effect of nanoparticles for pathogens could be due to deactivate cellular enzymes and DNA; disrupting of membrane permeability; and/...

  5. Anthrax Sampling and Decontamination: Technology Trade-Offs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Phillip N.; Hamachi, Kristina; McWilliams, Jennifer; Sohn, Michael D.

    2008-09-12

    The goal of this project was to answer the following questions concerning response to a future anthrax release (or suspected release) in a building: 1. Based on past experience, what rules of thumb can be determined concerning: (a) the amount of sampling that may be needed to determine the extent of contamination within a given building; (b) what portions of a building should be sampled; (c) the cost per square foot to decontaminate a given type of building using a given method; (d) the time required to prepare for, and perform, decontamination; (e) the effectiveness of a given decontamination method in a given type of building? 2. Based on past experience, what resources will be spent on evaluating the extent of contamination, performing decontamination, and assessing the effectiveness of the decontamination in abuilding of a given type and size? 3. What are the trade-offs between cost, time, and effectiveness for the various sampling plans, sampling methods, and decontamination methods that have been used in the past?

  6. Tritium contamination and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Establishment of tritium safe handling technology is required with the development of fusion reactor research. Tritium is contained by multiple-barriers containment due to the difficulty in perfect containment of hydrogen isotopes. Tritium contamination of materials and subsequent desorption are one of the critical issues in tritium containment. And the development of tritium decontamination technology is also a critical issue in tritium safe handling. The status of tritium contamination study and tritium decontamination technology are reviewed. (author)

  7. Facility decontamination technology workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    Purpose of the meeting was to provide a record of experience at nuclear facilities, other than TMI-2, of events and incidents which have required decontamination and dose reduction activities, and to furnish GPU and others involved in the TMI-2 cleanup with the results of that decontamination and dose reduction technology. Separate abstracts were prepared for 24 of the 25 papers; the remaining paper had been previously abstracted. (DLC)

  8. Decontamination and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project scope of work included the complete decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Westinghouse ARD Fuel Laboratories at the Cheswick Site in the shortest possible time. This has been accomplished in the following four phases: (1) preparation of documents and necessary paperwork; packaging and shipping of all special nuclear materials in an acceptable form to a reprocessing agency; (2) decontamination of all facilities, glove boxes and equipment; loading of generated waste into bins, barrels and strong wooden boxes; (3) shipping of all bins, barrels and boxes containing waste to the designated burial site; removal of all utility services from the laboratories; and (4) final survey of remaining facilities and certification for nonrestricted use; preparation of final report. These four phases of work were conducted in accordance with applicable regulations for D and D of research facilities and applicable regulations for packaging, transportation, and burial and storage of radioactive materials. The final result is that the Advanced Fuel Laboratories now meet requirements of ANSI 13.12 and can be released for unrestricted use. The four principal documents utilized in the D and D of the Cheswick Site were: (1) Plan for Fully Decontaminating and Decommissioning, Revision 3; (2) Environmental Assessment for Decontaminating and Decommissioning the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Plutonium Fuel Laboratories, Cheswick, Pa.; (3) WARD-386, Quality Assurance Program Description for Decontaminating and Decommissioning Activities; and (4) Health Physics, Fire Control, and Site Emergency Manual. These documents are provided as Attachments 1, 2, 3 and 4

  9. Decontamination Technologies, Task 3, Urban Remediation and Response Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the aftermath of a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD, also known as a dirty bomb) it will be necessary to remediate the site including building exteriors and interiors, equipment, pavement, vehicles, personal items etc. Remediation will remove or reduce radioactive contamination from the area using a combination of removing and disposing of many assets (including possible demolition of buildings), decontaminating and returning to service other assets, and fixing in place or leaving in place contamination that is deemed 'acceptable'. The later will require setting acceptable dose standards, which will require negotiation with all involved parties and a balance of risk and cost to benefit. To accomplish the first two, disposal or decontamination, a combination of technologies will be deployed that can be loosely classified as: Decontamination; Equipment removal and size reduction; and Demolition. This report will deal only with the decontamination technologies that will be used to return assets to service or to reduce waste disposal. It will not discuss demolition, size reduction or removal technologies or equipment (e.g., backhoe mounted rams, rock splitter, paving breakers and chipping hammers, etc.). As defined by the DOE (1994), decontamination is removal of radiological contamination from the surfaces of facilities and equipment. Expertise in this field comes primarily from the operation and decommissioning of DOE and commercial nuclear facilities as well as a small amount of ongoing research and development closely related to RDD decontamination. Information related to decontamination of fields, buildings, and public spaces resulting from the Goiania and Chernobyl incidents were also reviewed and provide some meaningful insight into decontamination at major urban areas. In order to proceed with decontamination, the item being processed needs to have an intrinsic value that exceeds the cost of the cleaning and justifies the exposure of any workers during the

  10. Decontamination Technologies, Task 3, Urban Remediation and Response Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser,J.; Sullivan, T.

    2009-06-30

    In the aftermath of a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD, also known as a dirty bomb) it will be necessary to remediate the site including building exteriors and interiors, equipment, pavement, vehicles, personal items etc. Remediation will remove or reduce radioactive contamination from the area using a combination of removing and disposing of many assets (including possible demolition of buildings), decontaminating and returning to service other assets, and fixing in place or leaving in place contamination that is deemed 'acceptable'. The later will require setting acceptable dose standards, which will require negotiation with all involved parties and a balance of risk and cost to benefit. To accomplish the first two, disposal or decontamination, a combination of technologies will be deployed that can be loosely classified as: Decontamination; Equipment removal and size reduction; and Demolition. This report will deal only with the decontamination technologies that will be used to return assets to service or to reduce waste disposal. It will not discuss demolition, size reduction or removal technologies or equipment (e.g., backhoe mounted rams, rock splitter, paving breakers and chipping hammers, etc.). As defined by the DOE (1994), decontamination is removal of radiological contamination from the surfaces of facilities and equipment. Expertise in this field comes primarily from the operation and decommissioning of DOE and commercial nuclear facilities as well as a small amount of ongoing research and development closely related to RDD decontamination. Information related to decontamination of fields, buildings, and public spaces resulting from the Goiania and Chernobyl incidents were also reviewed and provide some meaningful insight into decontamination at major urban areas. In order to proceed with decontamination, the item being processed needs to have an intrinsic value that exceeds the cost of the cleaning and justifies the exposure of any workers

  11. KEWB facilities decontamination and disposition. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination and disposition of the KEWB facilities, Buildings 073, 643, 123, and 793, are complete. All of the facility equipment, including reactor enclosure, reactor vessel, fuel handling systems, controls, radioactive waste systems, exhaust systems, electrical services, and protective systems were removed from the site. Buildings 643, 123, and 793 were completely removed, including foundations. The floor and portions of the walls of Building 073 were covered over by final grading. Results of the radiological monitoring and the final survey are presented. 9 tables, 19 figures

  12. Decontamination method for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic radioactive wastes are immersed in a liquid nitrogen vessel above a freezing crusher and they are frozen to about -196degC. Then, impact shocks are applied to crush the radioactive wastes frozen by a rotary shearing shock crusher disposed below the freezing crusher. The thus obtained crushed materials are sent to a decontamination device and decontaminated. In this case, since the objective materials are crushed, any of a blast decontamination method, an electrolytic polishing decontamination method, a redox decontamination method and a chemical agent immersion decontamination method can be applied. Thereafter, the dose of remaining radioactivity of the decontaminated crushed materials is measured. With such procedures, the decontamination and the subsequent measurement for the radiation contamination dose can easily and certainly be conducted for metallic radioactive wastes such as pipes of a small diameter and complicated structures. (I.N.)

  13. Decontamination: back to basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Susan J; Sjorgen, Geoff

    2008-07-01

    My invitation from this Journal's Editor, Felicia Cox, to provide a paper for this themed issue, included the sentence 'I was wondering if you or a colleague would like to contribute a back to basics article on the relevant standards and guidelines for decontamination, including what is compliance?'. The reason it is so interesting to me is that the term 'back to basics' implies reverting to a simpler time in life - when by just sticking to the rules, life became easier. However, with decontamination this is not actually true.

  14. Decontamination of operational nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce the radiation fields around nuclear power plants, and, consequently, to limit the radiation exposure of and dose commitments to the operating and maintenance personnel, the contamination build-up should be kept to a minimum. The most fruitful approach, from the point of view of economics and efficiency, is to tackle the problems of contamination and decontamination in the design and construction phases of the reactor. To do this, knowledge gained from the operation of existing power reactors should be used to make improvements in new designs. New structural materials with low corrosion rates or whose constituents are not activated by neutrons should also be used. For older reactors, in most cases it is already too late to incorporate design changes without extensive and expensive modifications. For these plants, decontamination remains the most efficient way to reduce radiation fields. The aim of this report is to deal with the different decontamination methods that may be applied to nuclear power plant circuits and equipment during operation. The factors that have to be considered in determining the type and the extent of the methods used are the engineering and the planning of the decontamination operation and the treatment of the resulting waste generated during the process are also discussed

  15. Decontamination and dismantlement of the building 200/205 pneumatic transfer tube at Argonne National Laboratory-East project final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, E. C.

    1998-12-11

    The Building 200/205 Pneumatic Transfer Tube D&D Project was directed toward the following goals: Remove any radioactive and hazardous materials associated with the transfer tube; Survey the transfer tube to identify any external contamination; Remove the transfer tube and package for disposal; Survey the soil and sand surrounding the transfer tube for any contamination; and Backfill the trench in which the tube sat and restore the area to its original condition. These goals had been set in order to eliminate the radiological and hazardous safety concerns inherent in the buried transfer tube and to allow, upon completion of the project, the removal of this project from the ANL-E action item list. The physical condition of the transfer tube and possible nuclear fuel samples lost in the tube were the primary areas of concern, while the exact location of the transfer tube was of secondary concern. ANL-E health physics technicians collected characterization data from the ends of the Building 200/205 pneumatic transfer tube in January 1998. The characterization surveys identified contamination to a level of 67,000 dpm (1,117 Bq) ({beta}/{gamma}) and 20,000 dpm (333 Bq) {alpha} smearable at the opening.

  16. Soil decontamination with Extraksol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Extraksol process is a mobile decontamination technology which treats unconsolidated materials by solvent extraction. Treatment with Extraksol involves material washing, drying and solvent regeneration. Contaminant removal is achieved through desorption/dissolution mechanisms. The treated material is dry and acceptable to be reinstalled in its original location. The process provides a fast, efficient and versatile alternative for decontamination of soil and sludge. The organic contaminants extracted from the matrix are transferred to the extraction fluids. These are thereafter concentrated in the residues of distillation after solvent regeneration. Removal and concentration of the contaminants ensures an important waste volume reduction. This paper presents the process is operational principles and the steps involved in Extraksol's development with results of the pilot tests and full-scale demonstrations

  17. Results of 'decontamination model project' and application to decontamination operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes 'Decontamination Model Project,' which aims to collect the data related to decontamination and to arrange them for providing the results, for the purpose of judgment on how to implement radioactive decontamination in wide areas as the first experience in Japan. This was the project that Japan Atomic Energy Agency was entrusted by the government, and it was completed in June 2012. This project arranged the following items as information. (1) Various decontamination technologies and methods including applicability / effects, cost, necessary manpower, required time, and technological detail such as the treatment method of waste generated from decontamination and storage method of the waste, (2) Radiation control such as exposure control for workers and securement of general work safety, and (3) Communication with related local governments and local residents. This project is a pilot-trial work in order to measure to what extent decontamination is possible for what substances by what method, but numerical target such as the goal depletion ratio of air dose rate is not specified. However, this project comparatively arranged the results on how much extents the individual item affected surface decontamination. As the conclusion, this paper picks out the points that should be considered in the future full-scale decontamination work, from the results obtained by the experience of this project. (1) preliminary monitoring, (2) safety and operation / maintenance of temporary storage sites, and (3) radiation control involved in decontamination work. (O.A.)

  18. Manual on decontamination of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manual is intended for those who are responsible for the organization and implementation of decontamination programmes for facilities where radioactive materials are handled mainly on a laboratory scale. It contains information and guidelines on practical methods for decontaminating working spaces, equipment, laboratory benches and protective clothing. Useful information is also provided on the removal of loose skin contamination from personnel by mild, non-medical processes. Methods of removing skin contamination needing medical supervision, or of internal decontamination, which is entirely a medical process, are not covered in this manual. Large-scale decontamination of big nuclear facilities is also considered as outside its scope

  19. Decontamination and decommissioning costing efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of a wide variety of facilities ranging from reactors to fuel cycle processing buildings throughout the country. The D and D effort represents a large financial investment and a considerable challenge for the DOE and contractor program and project managers. Specifically, the collection and sharing of useful cost data and development of cost estimates are difficult in an environment in which the availability of these data is limited and the technologies and project methods are evolving. Sound cost data are essential for developing project cost estimates; baselines; and project management, benchmarking, and continuous improvement purposes. This paper will focus on some initiatives that in coordination with other federal agencies and international organizations, the DOE Environmental Management Applied Cost Engineering (ACE) Team is taking to standardize cost definitions; to collect, analyze, and report D and D cost data; and to develop fast, accurate, and easy-to-use cost-estimating models for D and D work

  20. Modification of the Decontamination Facility at the Kruemmel NPP - 13451

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klute, Stefan; Kupke, Peter [Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH Am Taubenfeld 25/1, 69123 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    walls are welded gap-free and all rough edges are rounded off. All wetted parts are steel grade 1.4301 or higher. In an extension to the high pressure water decontamination box, 2 ultrasonic ponds and one washing station for small components as provide by new construction. A long pond with 3.25 m length for the decontamination of large components (e.g. turbine blades, pump rotors, driving rods) was installed. For the handling heavy components, a 2 t crane was installed. New construction of a mechanical effluent treatment facility including oil separator was connected to the existing effluent storage tank provided by the customer. One exhaust air filtration system is provided for each decontamination box, with the following requirements. The exhaust air is sent back to the room (recirculated air system). Dry blasting box including raw separator with dust collection in 200 l drum, filter for suspended particles; High pressure water decontamination box and wet area with water separator, pre-separator, filter for suspended particles. Installation of a steel platform at building height +12.85 above the decontamination boxes + 8.50 m for the erection of the high pressure water facilities, the recirculating air filter system, the air compressor and the respiratory air supply unit. The aforementioned components are placed on the steel platform and have been encased in a sound-lowering and accessible manner. New construction of the entire E and C technology for the TU system including modification of the supply lines from the switch gear. All devices are to be operated automatically. Dry blasting box, high pressure water decontamination box and wet area are designed to guarantee a unitary 'exterior view' of the decontamination facility. (authors)

  1. Modification of the Decontamination Facility at the Kruemmel NPP - 13451

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    walls are welded gap-free and all rough edges are rounded off. All wetted parts are steel grade 1.4301 or higher. In an extension to the high pressure water decontamination box, 2 ultrasonic ponds and one washing station for small components as provide by new construction. A long pond with 3.25 m length for the decontamination of large components (e.g. turbine blades, pump rotors, driving rods) was installed. For the handling heavy components, a 2 t crane was installed. New construction of a mechanical effluent treatment facility including oil separator was connected to the existing effluent storage tank provided by the customer. One exhaust air filtration system is provided for each decontamination box, with the following requirements. The exhaust air is sent back to the room (recirculated air system). Dry blasting box including raw separator with dust collection in 200 l drum, filter for suspended particles; High pressure water decontamination box and wet area with water separator, pre-separator, filter for suspended particles. Installation of a steel platform at building height +12.85 above the decontamination boxes + 8.50 m for the erection of the high pressure water facilities, the recirculating air filter system, the air compressor and the respiratory air supply unit. The aforementioned components are placed on the steel platform and have been encased in a sound-lowering and accessible manner. New construction of the entire E and C technology for the TU system including modification of the supply lines from the switch gear. All devices are to be operated automatically. Dry blasting box, high pressure water decontamination box and wet area are designed to guarantee a unitary 'exterior view' of the decontamination facility. (authors)

  2. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  3. Decontamination and coating of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology is being developed to decontaminate lead used in shielding applications in contaminated environments for recycle as shieldings. Technology is also being developed to coat either decontaminated lead or new lead before it is used in contaminated environments. The surface of the coating is expected to be much easier to decontaminate than the original lead surface. If contamination becomes severely embedded in the coating and cannot be removed, it can be easily cut with a knife and removed from the lead. The used coating can be disposed of as radioactive (hot hazardous) waste. The lead can then be recoated for further use as a shielding material

  4. Survey of decontamination and decommissioning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reports and articles on decommissioning have been reviewed to determine the current technology status and also attempt to identify potential decommissioning problem areas. It is concluded that technological road blocks, which limited decommissioning facilities in the past have been removed. In general, techniques developed by maintenance in maintaining the facility have been used to decommission facilities. Some of the more promising development underway which will further simplify decommissioning activities are: electrolytic decontamination which simplifies some decontaminating operations; arc saw and vacuum furnace which reduce the volume of metallic contaminated material by a factor of 10; remotely operated plasma torch which reduces personnel exposure; and shaped charges, water cannon and rock splitters which simplify concrete removal. Areas in which published data are limited are detailed costs identifying various components included in the total cost and also the quantity of waste generated during the decommissioning activities. With the increased awareness of decommissioning requirements as specified by licensing requirements, design criteria for new facilities are taking into consideration final decommissioning of buildings. Specific building design features will evolve as designs are evaluated and implemented

  5. Laryngoscope decontamination techniques: A survey

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv Chawla; Akhilesh Gupta; Anshu Gupta; Mritunjay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: India is a vast country with variable, nonuniform healthcare practices. A laryngoscope is an important tool during general anesthesia and resuscitation. The study aimed to determine the current practices of laryngoscope decontamination in India. Material and Methods: An online survey was conducted amongst 100 anesthesiologists to determine the common methods of laryngoscope decontamination adopted in their settings. The survey was done over 6 months after validating t...

  6. Presolidification treatment of decontamination wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsatisfactory leaching performance of several solidified decontamination solutions indicated a need for presolidification treatments to reduce the water sensitivity of the active chemicals. Chemical treatments examined in this work include pH adjustment, precipitation and oxidation-reduction reactions. The reactions involved in these treatments are discussed. The most suitable presolidification treatment for each decontamination solution has been identified. Further research is needed to test the effectivenss of these treatments

  7. Decontamination technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to identify and technically assess foreign decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technology developments that may represent significant improvements over D and D technology currently available or under development in the United States. Technology need areas for nuclear power reactor decommissioning operations were identified and prioritized using the results of past light water rector (LWR) decommissioning studies to quantitatively evaluate the potential for reducing cost and decommissioning worker radiation dose for each major decommissioning activity. Based on these identified needs, current foreign D and D technologies of potential interest to the U.S. were identified through personal contacts and the collection and review of an extensive body of D and D literature. These technologies were then assessed qualitatively to evaluate their uniqueness, potential for a significant reduction in D and D costs and/or worker radiation dose, development status, and other factors affecting their value and applicability to U.S. needs

  8. New decontamination technologies for environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technologies discussed represent a versatile collection of tools and approaches for environmental decontamination applications. The fixatives provide a means for gaining and maintaining control of large contaminated areas, for decontaminating large surface areas, and for protecting equipment and supplies used in decontamination operations. The other decontamination techniques together provide a method for removing loose surface contamination from almost all classes of materials and surfaces. These techniques should have wide application both as direct decontamination processes and for the cleaning of tools and equipment used in the decontamination operations

  9. How Clean is Safe? Improving the Effectiveness of Decontamination of Structures and People Following Chemical and Biological Incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt (Sorensen), B.M.

    2003-04-03

    This report describes a U.S. Department of Energy, (DOE) Chemical and Biological National Security Program project that sought to establish what is known about decontamination of structures, objects, and people following an exposure to chemical or biological materials. Specifically we sought to identify the procedures and protocols used to determine when and how people or buildings are considered ''clean'' following decontamination. To fulfill this objective, the study systematically examined reported decontamination experiences to determine what procedures and protocols are currently employed for decontamination, the timeframe involved to initiate and complete the decontamination process, how the contaminants were identified, the factors determining when people were (or were not) decontaminated, the problems encountered during the decontamination process, how response efforts of agencies were coordinated, and the perceived social psychological effects on people who were decontaminated or who participated in the decontamination process. Findings and recommendations from the study are intended to aid decision-making and to improve the basis for determining appropriate decontamination protocols for recovery planners and policy makers for responding to chemical and biological events.

  10. Decontamination and size reduction of plutonium contaminated process exhaust ductwork and glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Decommissioning Program has decontaminated and demolished two filter plenum buildings at Technical Area 21 (TA-21). During the project a former hot cell was retrofitted to perform decontamination and size reduction of highly Pu contaminated process exhaust (1,100 ft) and gloveboxes. Pu-238/239 concentrations were as high a 1 Ci per linear foot and averaged approximately 1 mCi/ft. The Project decontamination objective was to reduce the plutonium contamination on surfaces below transuranic levels. If possible, metal surfaces were decontaminated further to meet Science and Ecology Group (SEG) waste classification guidelines to enable the metal to be recycled at their facility in oak Ridge, Tennessee. Project surface contamination acceptance criteria for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), transuranic waste, and SEG waste acceptance criteria will be presented. Ninety percent of all radioactive waste for the project was characterized as LLRW. Twenty percent of this material was shipped to SEG. Process exhaust and glove boxes were brought to the project decontamination area, an old hot cell in Building 4 North. This paper focuses on process exhaust and glovebox decontamination methodology, size reduction techniques, waste characterization, airborne contamination monitoring, engineering controls, worker protection, lessons learned, and waste minimization. Decontamination objectives are discussed in detail

  11. DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FACILITY REUSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, Steven J.; Blair, Danielle M.

    2003-02-27

    As nuclear research and production facilities across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex are slated for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D), there is a need to decontaminate some facilities for reuse for another mission or continued use for the same mission. Improved technologies available in the commercial sector and tested by the DOE can help solve the DOE's decontamination problems. Decontamination technologies include mechanical methods, such as shaving, scabbling, and blasting; application of chemicals; biological methods; and electrochemical techniques. Materials to be decontaminated are primarily concrete or metal. Concrete materials include walls, floors, ceilings, bio-shields, and fuel pools. Metallic materials include structural steel, valves, pipes, gloveboxes, reactors, and other equipment. Porous materials such as concrete can be contaminated throughout their structure, although contamination in concrete normally resides in the top quarter-inch below the surface. Metals are normally only contaminated on the surface. Contamination includes a variety of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides and can sometimes include heavy metals and organic contamination regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes several advanced mechanical, chemical, and other methods to decontaminate structures, equipment, and materials.

  12. The use of chemical gel for decontamination during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurau, Daniela; Deju, Radu

    2015-01-01

    A technical research study was developed for testing the decontamination using chemical gels. The study was realized for different type of samples, systems often encountered in the VVR-S nuclear research reactor from Magurele-Romania. The results obtained in the study have demonstrated that the decontamination gels could be an efficient way to reduce or to eliminate the surface contamination of buildings or equipment's, minimizing the potential for spreading contamination during decommissioning activities.

  13. EDF guide book for decontamination at power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses EDF quality organization in the decontamination field: policy includes: decontamination activities, how to reach quality, who is doing what, qualification of decontamination personnel, and acceptance and qualification of a decontamination process. Implementation includes: why planning a decontamination? Responsibility of the initiator, responsibility of the planner, and responsibility of the decontamination crew leader

  14. Handbook of radioactive contamination and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this book the fundamentals of radioactive contamination and the general principles of decontamination are set out. Topics covered include the evaluation of risk after human exposure and the decontamination of persons and their clothing and food and the decontamination of reactor components. The assessment of contamination after possible reactor accidents or nuclear explosions is discussed. The various methods of decontamination appropriate to specific incidents are discussed. (UK)

  15. Contamination and decontamination of fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is made of the problems of contamination and decontamination of clothes and underwear. Possible ways are described of contamination of fabrics (dry, wet) and in this connection the contaminant-fabric binding is underlined (in dry state, at different relative air humidity, in wet conditions in an environment of polar solvents). A survey is presented of decontamination methods and their importance. Dry methods include beatino., brushing and vacuum cleaning, wet methods include soaking and washing, dry cleaning in non-polar solvents, and the Intensol and Dual methods which combine dry cleaning and washing in one process. (B.S.)

  16. Optimization of electrochemical soil decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, M. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; John, J. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Centre for Radiochemistry and Radiation Chemistry

    2004-07-01

    At the Czech Technical University in Prague, soil decontamination techniques have been studied for several years. The leaching procedures (batch or 'sorption' leaching) did not allow to achieve more than 30% caesium desorption. Caesium thermodesorption was demonstrated not to be very efficient either; quantitative caesium separation could be achieved only from solutions resulting from fusion of the soil with special fluxes. The most promising results were achieved by electrolytic decontamination. In preliminary experiments, more than 97% of caesium was released from soils contaminated long time ago. The aim of this study was to perform optimisation of the parameters of this method. (orig.)

  17. Rockwell International Hot Laboratory decontamination and dismantlement interim progress report 1987-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-05-06

    OAK A271 Rockwell International Hot Laboratory decontamination and dismantlement interim progress report 1987-1996. The Rockwell International Hot Laboratory (RIHL) is one of a number of former nuclear facilities undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The RIHL facility is in the later stages of dismantlement, with the final objective of returning the site location to its original natural state. This report documents the decontamination and dismantlement activities performed at the facility over the time period 1988 through 1996. At this time, the support buildings, all equipment associated with the facility, and the entire above-ground structure of the primary facility building (Building 020) have been removed. The basement portion of this building and the outside yard areas (primarily asphalt and soil) are scheduled for D&D activities beginning in 1997.

  18. Public experiences of mass casualty decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Holly; Drury, John; Rubin, G James; Williams, Richard; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we analyze feedback from simulated casualties who took part in field exercises involving mass decontamination, to gain an understanding of how responder communication can affect people's experiences of and compliance with decontamination. We analyzed questionnaire data gathered from 402 volunteers using the framework approach, to provide an insight into the public's experiences of decontamination and how these experiences are shaped by the actions of emergency responders. Factors that affected casualties' experiences of the decontamination process included the need for greater practical information and better communication from responders, and the need for privacy. Results support previous findings from small-scale incidents that involved decontamination in showing that participants wanted better communication from responders during the process of decontamination, including more practical information, and that the failure of responders to communicate effectively with members of the public led to anxiety about the decontamination process. The similarity between the findings from the exercises described in this article and previous research into real incidents involving decontamination suggests that field exercises provide a useful way to examine the effect of responder communication strategies on the public's experiences of decontamination. Future exercises should examine in more detail the effect of various communication strategies on the public's experiences of decontamination. This will facilitate the development of evidence-based communication strategies intended to reduce anxiety about decontamination and increase compliance among members of the public during real-life incidents that involve mass decontamination.

  19. Chemical decontamination technical resources at Los Alamos National Laboratory (2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    This document supplies information resources for a person seeking to create planning or pre-planning documents for chemical decontamination operations. A building decontamination plan can be separated into four different sections: Pre-planning, Characterization, Decontamination (Initial response and also complete cleanup), and Clearance. Of the identified Los Alamos resources, they can be matched with these four sections: Pre-planning -- Dave Seidel, EO-EPP, Emergency Planning and Preparedness; David DeCroix and Bruce Letellier, D-3, Computational fluids modeling of structures; Murray E. Moore, RP-2, Aerosol sampling and ventilation engineering. Characterization (this can include development projects) -- Beth Perry, IAT-3, Nuclear Counterterrorism Response (SNIPER database); Fernando Garzon, MPA-11, Sensors and Electrochemical Devices (development); George Havrilla, C-CDE, Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering; Kristen McCabe, B-7, Biosecurity and Public Health. Decontamination -- Adam Stively, EO-ER, Emergency Response; Dina Matz, IHS-IP, Industrial hygiene; Don Hickmott, EES-6, Chemical cleanup. Clearance (validation) -- Larry Ticknor, CCS-6, Statistical Sciences.

  20. Decontamination in a Russian settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, C.L.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Barkovsky, A.N.;

    1999-01-01

    . This paper describes the decontamination work carried out and the results obtained, The roofs of the houses were swept and cleaned by special roof cleaning equipment. The soil around the houses was removed by hand while carefully monitoring the ground for residual contamination, By monitoring the decline...

  1. Advances in PCB decontamination technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1985 several million kilograms of PCB equipment and millions of litres of PCB contaminated oil have been processed in Canada for reduction of PCB concentrations below government guidelines. Advances in extraction and metal recovery from electrical equipment, chemical dechlorination and distillation of PCB-contaminated oils were the significant technological options utilized. For example, using the Decontaksolv technology owners of PCB equipment in Canada have decontaminated three million kilograms of electrical equipment, which resulted in the reintegration of 2.7 million kilograms of useful metals (steel, copper, aluminium) into the economic circuit. The equipment decontaminated included transformers, electromagnets, relays, radiators, circuit breakers, tanks, pipes, valves, and drums. The most recent advances in this technology include improvements that makes the economical processing of capacitors, possible. Chemical dechlorination has virtually eliminated PCB-contaminated oils which are normally present in large transformers, to the point where some service companies have curtailed or discontinued their oil decontamination activities in Canada. Recent advances in this technology center around techniques for the decontamination of waste hydrocarbons, and to a lesser extent, dielectric fluids. Two example projects to illustrate recent advances have been briefly described

  2. Justification for Continued Operation for Tank 241-Z-361

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGEN, D.M.

    1999-09-01

    This justification for continued operations (JCO) summarizes analyses performed to better understand and control the potential hazards associated with Tank 241-2-361. This revision to the JCO has been prepared to identify and control the hazards associated with sampling the tank using techniques developed and approved for use in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) at Hanford.

  3. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-07-29

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  4. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-08-05

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  5. Justification for Continued Operation for Tank 241-Z-361

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This justification for continued operations (JCO) summarizes analyses performed to better understand and control the potential hazards associated with Tank 241-2-361. This revision to the JCO has been prepared to identify and control the hazards associated with sampling the tank using techniques developed and approved for use in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) at Hanford

  6. Verification of wet blasting decontamination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macoho Co., Ltd. participated in the projects of 'Decontamination Verification Test FY 2011 by the Ministry of the Environment' and 'Decontamination Verification Test FY 2011 by the Cabinet Office.' And we tested verification to use a wet blasting technology for decontamination of rubble and roads contaminated by the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Company. As a results of the verification test, the wet blasting decontamination technology showed that a decontamination rate became 60-80% for concrete paving, interlocking, dense-grated asphalt pavement when applied to the decontamination of the road. When it was applied to rubble decontamination, a decontamination rate was 50-60% for gravel and approximately 90% for concrete and wood. It was thought that Cs-134 and Cs-137 attached to the fine sludge scraped off from a decontamination object and the sludge was found to be separated from abrasives by wet cyclene classification: the activity concentration of the abrasives is 1/30 or less than the sludge. The result shows that the abrasives can be reused without problems when the wet blasting decontamination technology is used. (author)

  7. Building for animal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to limit the radiation dose to persons working with animal husbandry in severe fallout situations, it was considered necessary to make an inventory of the Swedish livestock buildings as to number, location, use and size. These data as well as data on geometry of buildings, building material and thickness of the material in walls and roofs are given in the present work. On the basis of the mentioned data, calculations were made of the shielding factors of different types of livestock buildings. The collected data can also be used in preparedness planning in relation to housing facilities for livestock and location and size of animal production in situations of crises or war. The calculations show shielding factors for different types of livestock buildings of normal ground area within the range of 0.18-0.71. The higher value indicates a fairly poor shielding effect. The inventory and the calculations show that in those regions in Sweden where the main part of the livestock is managed, the types of buildings are, however, characterized by radiation shielding factors of 0.3-0.4. Calculation were also made of the radiation level inside the buildings following decontamination of roofs or of surrounding ground. Ground decontamination only, i.e., removal of the upper contaminated surface layer, will reduce the radiation level inside the building. For most buildings the radius of the surrounding area to be decontaminated has to be 15-30 times larger than the width of the building in order to achieve a 50 percentage reduction of the radiation level inside the building. For buildings of medium or large size and with thick walls the radiation contribution from the roof is greater than the radiation from the ground, and regardless of the size of the ground areas decontaminated the radiation level inside these buildings will only be reduced by 20-30%. 15 refs, 11 figs, 14 tabs

  8. Decontamination in a Russian settlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roed, J.; Lange, C.; Andersson, K.G. [and others

    1996-03-01

    Decontamination was carried out in and around three houses in Novo Bobovichi, Russia, in the autumn of 1995. It was demonstrated that significant reductions in the dose rate both indoor (DRF = 0.34) and outdoor (DRF = 0.20) can be achieved when a careful cleaning is undertaken. This report describes the decontamination work carried out and the results obtained. The roofs of the houses were swept and cleaned by special roof cleaning equipment. The soil around the houses was removed by hand while carefully monitoring the ground for residual contamination. By monitoring the decline in the dose rate during the different stages of the work the dose reducing effect of each action has been estimated. This report also describes a test of a triple digging method that reduces the dose rate without generating waste. In the appendices of the report the measurement data are available for further analysis. (au) 16 tabs., 15 ills.

  9. Physico-Chemical Dynamics of Nanoparticle Formation during Laser Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, M.D.

    2005-06-01

    Laser-ablation based decontamination is a new and effective approach for simultaneous removal and characterization of contaminants from surfaces (e.g., building interior and exterior walls, ground floors, etc.). The scientific objectives of this research are to: (1) characterize particulate matter generated during the laser-ablation based decontamination, (2) develop a technique for simultaneous cleaning and spectroscopic verification, and (3) develop an empirical model for predicting particle generation for the size range from 10 nm to tens of micrometers. This research project provides fundamental data obtained through a systematic study on the particle generation mechanism, and also provides a working model for prediction of particle generation such that an effective operational strategy can be devised to facilitate worker protection.

  10. Pickering emulsions for skin decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Alicia; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Rolland, Pauline; Chevalier, Yves; Josse, Denis; Briançon, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at developing innovative systems for skin decontamination. Pickering emulsions, i.e. solid-stabilized emulsions, containing silica (S-PE) or Fuller's earth (FE-PE) were formulated. Their efficiency for skin decontamination was evaluated, in vitro, 45min after an exposure to VX, one of the most highly toxic chemical warfare agents. Pickering emulsions were compared to FE (FE-W) and silica (S-W) aqueous suspensions. PE containing an oil with a similar hydrophobicity to VX should promote its extraction. All the formulations reduced significantly the amount of VX quantified on and into the skin compared to the control. Wiping the skin surface with a pad already allowed removing more than half of VX. FE-W was the less efficient (85% of VX removed). The other formulations (FE-PE, S-PE and S-W) resulted in more than 90% of the quantity of VX removed. The charge of particles was the most influential factor. The low pH of formulations containing silica favored electrostatic interactions of VX with particles explaining the better elimination from the skin surface. Formulations containing FE had basic pH, and weak interactions with VX did not improve the skin decontamination. However, these low interactions between VX and FE promote the transfer of VX into the oil droplets in the FE-PE. PMID:27021875

  11. Mobile workstation for decontamination and decommissioning operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop effective mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of facilities within the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. These mobile worksystems will be configured to operate within the environmental and logistical constraints of such facilities and to perform a number of work tasks. Our program is designed to produce a mobile worksystem with capabilities and features that are matched to the particular needs of D ampersand D work by evolving the design through a series of technological developments, performance tests and evaluations. The project has three phases. In this the first phase, an existing teleoperated worksystem, the Remote Work Vehicle (developed for use in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building basement), was enhanced for telerobotic performance of several D ampersand D operations. Its ability to perform these operations was then assessed through a series of tests in a mockup facility that contained generic structures and equipment similar to those that D ampersand D work machines will encounter in DOE facilities. Building upon the knowledge gained through those tests and evaluations, a next generation mobile worksystem, the RWV II, and a more advanced controller will be designed, integrated and tested in the second phase, which is scheduled for completion in January 1995. The third phase of the project will involve testing of the RWV II in the real DOE facility

  12. Mobile worksystems for decontamination and dismantlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many DOE nuclear facilities have aged beyond their useful lifetimes. They need to be decommissioned in order to be safe for human presence in the short term, to eventually recover valuable materials they contain, and ultimately to be transitioned to alternative uses or green field conditions. Decontamination and dismantlement are broad classes of activities that will enable these changes to occur. Most of these facilities - uranium enrichment plants, weapons assembly plants, research and production reactors, and fuel recycling facilities - are dormant, though periodic inspection, surveillance and maintenance activities within them are on-going. DOE estimates that there are over 5000 buildings that require deactivation to reduce the costs of performing such work with manual labor. In the long term, 1200 buildings will be decommissioned, and millions of metric tons of metal and concrete will have to be recycled or disposed of The magnitude of the problem calls for new approaches that are far more cost effective than currently available techniques. This paper describes two technologies that are viable solutions for facility D ampersand D

  13. Mobile worksystems for decontamination and dismantlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bares, L.C.; Thompson, B.R. [RedZone Robotics, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Many DOE nuclear facilities have aged beyond their useful lifetimes. They need to be decommissioned in order to be safe for human presence in the short term, to eventually recover valuable materials they contain, and ultimately to be transitioned to alternative uses or green field conditions. Decontamination and dismantlement are broad classes of activities that will enable these changes to occur. Most of these facilities - uranium enrichment plants, weapons assembly plants, research and production reactors, and fuel recycling facilities - are dormant, though periodic inspection, surveillance and maintenance activities within them are on-going. DOE estimates that there are over 5000 buildings that require deactivation to reduce the costs of performing such work with manual labor. In the long term, 1200 buildings will be decommissioned, and millions of metric tons of metal and concrete will have to be recycled or disposed of. The magnitude of the problem calls for new approaches that are far more cost effective than currently available techniques. This paper describes a mobile workstation termed ROSIE, which provides remote work capabilities for D&D activities.

  14. Specific decontamination methods: water nozzle, cavitation erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The erosion and decontamination tests carried out in the framework of this study, allowed to specify the fields favourable to the use of the high pressure jet taking into account the determinant parameters that are the pressure and the target-nozzle distance. The previous spraying of gels with chemical reagents (sulfuric acid anf hydrazine) allows to get better decontamination factors. Then, the feasibility study of a decontamination method by cavitation erosion is presented. Gelled compounds for decontamination have been developed; their decontamination quality has been evaluated by comparative contamination tests in laboratory and decontamination tests of samples of materials used in nuclear industry; this last method is adapted to remote handling devices and produces a low quantity of secondary effluents, so it allows to clean high contaminated installation on the site without additional exposure of the personnel

  15. Soil decontamination at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of work being done at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) to decontaminate soil contaminated with plutonium-239. How the contamination came about is described, as well as what has been done to contain it while decontamination methods are being developed. The purpose of the work is to decontaminate the soil so that it can be returned to the site instead of having to package, ship, and store it

  16. Decontamination Efficacy and Skin Toxicity of Two Decontaminants against Bacillus anthracis

    OpenAIRE

    Chad W Stratilo; Crichton, Melissa K. F.; Sawyer, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Decontamination of bacterial endospores such as Bacillus anthracis has traditionally required the use of harsh or caustic chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a chlorine dioxide decontaminant in killing Bacillus anthracis spores in solution and on a human skin simulant (porcine cadaver skin), compared to that of commonly used sodium hypochlorite or soapy water decontamination procedures. In addition, the relative toxicities of these decontaminants were compared in ...

  17. Proceedings of the concrete decontamination workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen papers were presented. These papers describe concrete surface removal methods and equipment, as well as experiences in decontaminating and removing both power and experimental nuclear reactors

  18. Proceedings of the concrete decontamination workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halter, J.M.; Sullivan, R.G.; Currier, A.J.

    1980-05-28

    Fourteen papers were presented. These papers describe concrete surface removal methods and equipment, as well as experiences in decontaminating and removing both power and experimental nuclear reactors.

  19. Large-Scale Urban Decontamination; Developments, Historical Examples and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer

    2007-02-01

    Recent terrorist threats and actual events have lead to a renewed interest in the technical field of large scale, urban environment decontamination. One of the driving forces for this interest is the real potential for the cleanup and removal of radioactive dispersal device (RDD or “dirty bomb”) residues. In response the U. S. Government has spent many millions of dollars investigating RDD contamination and novel decontamination methodologies. Interest in chemical and biological (CB) cleanup has also peaked with the threat of terrorist action like the anthrax attack at the Hart Senate Office Building and with catastrophic natural events such as Hurricane Katrina. The efficiency of cleanup response will be improved with these new developments and a better understanding of the “old reliable” methodologies. Perhaps the most interesting area of investigation for large area decontamination is that of the RDD. While primarily an economic and psychological weapon, the need to cleanup and return valuable or culturally significant resources to the public is nonetheless valid. Several private companies, universities and National Laboratories are currently developing novel RDD cleanup technologies. Because of its longstanding association with radioactive facilities, the U. S. Department of Energy National Laboratories are at the forefront in developing and testing new RDD decontamination methods. However, such cleanup technologies are likely to be fairly task specific; while many different contamination mechanisms, substrate and environmental conditions will make actual application more complicated. Some major efforts have also been made to model potential contamination, to evaluate both old and new decontamination techniques and to assess their readiness for use. Non-radioactive, CB threats each have unique decontamination challenges and recent events have provided some examples. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as lead agency for these emergency

  20. Decontamination of FAST (CPP-666) fuel storage area stainless steel fuel storage racks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessinger, G.F.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this report was to identify and evaluate alternatives for the decontamination of the RSM stainless steel that will be removed from the Idaho Chemical Processing plant (ICPP) fuel storage area (FSA) located in the FAST (CPP-666) building, and to recommend decontamination alternatives for treating this material. Upon the completion of a literature search, the review of the pertinent literature, and based on the review of a variety of chemical, mechanical, and compound (both chemical and mechanical) decontamination techniques, the preliminary results of analyses of FSA critically barrier contaminants, and the data collected during the FSA Reracking project, it was concluded that decontamination and beneficial recycle of the FSA stainless steel produced is technically feasible and likely to be cost effective as compared to burying the material at the RWMC. It is recommended that an organic acid, or commercial product containing an organic acid, be used to decontaminate the FSA stainless steel; however, it is also recommended that other surface decontamination methods be tested in the event that this method proves unsuitable. Among the techniques that should be investigated are mechanical techniques (CO{sub 2} pellet blasting and ultra-high pressure water blasting) and chemical techniques that are compatible with present ICPP waste streams.

  1. Decontamination Technology Development for Nuclear Research Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology development of surface decontamination in the uranium conversion facility before decommissioning, technology development of component decontamination in the uranium conversion facility after decommissioning, uranium sludge treatment technology development, radioactive waste soil decontamination technology development at the aim of the temporary storage soil of KAERI, Optimum fixation methodology derivation on the soil and uranium waste, and safety assessment methodology development of self disposal of the soil and uranium waste after decontamination have been performed in this study. The unique decontamination technology applicable to the component of the nuclear facility at room temperature was developed. Low concentration chemical decontamination technology which is very powerful so as to decrease the radioactivity of specimen surface under the self disposal level was developed. The component decontamination technology applicable to the nuclear facility after decommissioning by neutral salt electro-polishing was also developed. The volume of the sludge waste could be decreased over 80% by the sludge waste separation method by water. The electrosorption method on selective removal of U(VI) to 1 ppm of unrestricted release level using the uranium-containing lagoon sludge waste was tested and identified. Soil decontamination process and equipment which can reduce the soil volume over 90% were developed. A pilot size of soil decontamination equipment which will be used to development of real scale soil decontamination equipment was designed, fabricated and demonstrated. Optimized fixation methodology on soil and uranium sludge was derived from tests and evaluation of the results. Safety scenario and safety evaluation model were development on soil and uranium sludge aiming at self disposal after decontamination

  2. Molten salts as stripping media for radioactive superficial decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Oliveira Lainetti, Paulo Ernesto [Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente - CQMA, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 C. Universitaria Sao Paulo - SP, CEP- 5508-000 (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The main practical difficulty associated to the task of the dismantling and decommissioning of the IPEN's old Nuclear Fuel Cycle facilities has been the big amount of radioactive waste generated in the dismantling operations. The waste is mainly in the form of contaminated carbon steel structures. In the IPEN, the presence of contamination in the equipments, structures and buildings, although restricted to low and medium activity levels, constituted an important concern due, on one hand, to the great volume of radioactive wastes generated during the operations. In the other hand, it should be outstanding that the capacity of radioactive wastes stockpiling in IPEN found been exhausted. Basically, for the facilities dismantling operations, the main radionuclides of interest, from the radioprotection point of view, are U of natural isotopic composition and thorium-232. In function of the large waste volume generated in the dismantling operations, the main concerns and focuses of research and technological development in the IPEN's Chemical and Environmental Center - CQMA - have been the effluent and waste treatment subjects, besides the development of some special decontamination techniques, since most old nuclear fuel cycle facilities are installed in the CQMA's area. It should be stood out that, in scenery of reduction of the importance of the nuclear program in the Institution, occurred in the nineties and in the first half of the present decade, there was a significant reduction of sections previously engaged in the activities as, for instance, the decontamination area. That section would be of vital importance for the execution of any D and D program. In this context, the reduction of the radioactive waste volume has a significant impact in the decommissioning costs and in the amount of material to be stored. For these reasons, in spite of the role of the CQMA has not ever been the treatments of radioactive wastes or decontamination, several new

  3. Magnetic separation for soil decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is a physical separation process that is used to extract magnetic particles from mixtures. The technology is used on a large scale in the kaolin clay industry to whiten or brighten kaolin clay and increase its value. Because all uranium and plutonium compounds are slightly magnetic, HGMS can be used to separate these contaminants from non-magnetic soils. A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was signed in 1992 between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Company (LESAT) to develop HGMS for soil decontamination. This paper reports progress and describes the HGMS technology

  4. Managing mass casualties and decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcott, Robert P

    2014-11-01

    Careful planning and regular exercising of capabilities is the key to implementing an effective response following the release of hazardous materials, although ad hoc changes may be inevitable. Critical actions which require immediate implementation at an incident are evacuation, followed by disrobing (removal of clothes) and decontamination. The latter can be achieved through bespoke response facilities or various interim methods which may utilise water or readily available (dry, absorbent) materials. Following transfer to a safe holding area, each casualty's personal details should be recorded to facilitate a health surveillance programme, should it become apparent that the original contaminant has chronic health effects.

  5. Cost effectiveness of dilute chemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principles of dilute chemical decontamination are described, as well as the method of application. Methods of computing savings in radiation dose and costs are presented, with results from actual experience and illustrative examples. It is concluded that dilute chemical decontamination is beneficial in many cases. It reduces radiation exposure of workers, saves money, and simplifies maintenance work

  6. Project gnome decontamination and decommissioning plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document presents the operational plan for conducting the final decontamination and decommissioning work at the site of the first U.S. nuclear detonation designed specifically for peaceful purposes and the first underground event on the Plowshare Program to take place outside the Nevada Test Site. The plan includes decontamination and decommissioning procedures, radiological guidelines, and the NV concept of operations

  7. INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities performed during FY98 and describes the planned activities for FY99. Accomplishments for FY98 include identifying and selecting decontamination, the screening of potential characterization technologies, development of minimum performance factors for the decontamination technology, and development and identification of Applicable, Relevant and Appropriate Regulations (ARARs).

  8. Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant, Italy: Decontamination and Rearranging of Reactor Canal and Spent Fuel Pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garigliano nuclear power plant was a 506 MW(th), first generation, dual cycle BWR. It started operation in 1964 and finally shut down in 1978, following the discovery of serious damage to a secondary steam generator. This section describes decontamination activities carried out in 1991–1993 in preparation for safe enclosure of Garigliano reactor building.1 Activities were carried out after completion of spent fuel transport off-site (1985–1987). A schematic of the spent fuel pool and adjacent areas is provided. Decontamination activities included the following: (a) Agitation and resuspension of pool sediments using water jets and water filtration. (b) Lowering of water level and parallel decontamination of pool walls with high pressure water jets of approximately 700 kg/cm2. (c) Removal, decontamination and interim storage on gangways of equipment located on the pool south-east wall. (d) Removal, decontamination and storage of the fuel transport container platform. (e) Removal of four fuel racks to their pool wall bearings, decontamination and transfer to the fresh fuel room. (f) Decontamination of the vessel head platform, removal from the reactor canal, brushing and coating to allow preservation and fixing of loose contamination. Eventually, this component was placed back in the reactor canal. (g) Construction in the reactor canal of an interim structure supporting fuel racks. At the completion of the work, this structure was dismounted, decontaminated and removed. (h) Removal of fuel racks (five at a time) to their pool wall bearings, decontamination and interim storage in the reactor canal. (i) Gradual lowering of the pool water level to some 50 cm from the pool floor and parallel decontamination of fixed structures and walls. (j) Discovery by visual inspection and radiological checks, of activated components on the floor of the pool. Retrieval of all this material, segmentation as needed, temporary storage in containers and later transfer to the high

  9. Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this coordinated research programme (CRP) were to promote the exchange of information on the practical experience by Member States in decontamination and decommissioning. The scope of the programme included several areas of decontamination and decommissioning rather than focusing on a single aspect of it, in line with recommendation of the experts who participated in Phase 1 of the CRP. Experts felt that this format would generate better awareness of decontamination and decommissioning and would be more effective vehicle for the exchange of information by stimulating broader discussion on all aspects of decontamination and decommissioning. Special emphasis was given to the development of principles and methodologies to facilitate decommissioning and to the new methods and techniques for optimization of decontamination and disassembly of equipment. Refs, figs, tabs

  10. Concrete decontamination and demolition methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Division of Environmental Control Technology, requested Nuclear Energy Services to prepare a handbook for the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of DOE-owned and commercially-owned radioactive facilities. the objective of the handbook is to provide the nuclear industry with guidance on the state-of-the-art methods and equipment available for decommissioning and to provide the means to estimate decommissioning costs and environmental impact. The methods available for concrete decontamination and demolition are summarized to provide an overview of some of the state-of-the-art techniques to be discussed at this workshop. The pertinent information on each method will include the selection factors such as the rate of performance in terms of concrete removal per unit time (cubic yards per day), manpower required by craft, unit cost (dollars per cubic yard) and the advantages and disadvantages. The methods included in this overview are those that have been routinely used in nuclear and nonnuclear applications or demonstrated in field tests. These methods include controlled blasting, wrecking ball or slab, backhoe mounted ram, flame torch, thermic lance, rock splitter, demolition compound, sawing, core stitch drilling, explosive cutting, paving breaker and power chisel, drill and spall, scarifying, water cannon and grinding

  11. Environmental assessment for decontaminating and decommissioning the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Plutonium Fuel Laboratories, Cheswick, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Department of Energy has prepared an environmental assessment on the proposed decontamination and decommissioning of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Plutonium Fuel Laboratories, Cheswick, Pennsylvania. Based on the environmental assessment, which is available to the public on request, the Department has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, no environmental impact statement is required. The proposed action is to decontaminate and decommission the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division fuel fabrication facilities (the Plutonium Laboratory - Building 7, and the Advanced Fuels Laboratory - Building 8). Decontamination and decommissioning of the facilities would require removal of all process equipment, the associated service lines, and decontamination of the interior surfaces of the buildings so that the empty buildings could be released for unrestricted use. Radioactive waste generated during these activities would be transported in licensed containers by truck for disposal at the Department's facility at Hanford, Washington. Useable non-radioactive materials would be sold as excess material, and non-radioactive waste would be disposed of by burial as sanitary landfill at an approved site.

  12. Decontamination techniques for BWR power generation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report describes various techniques used for decontamination in BWR power generation plants. Objectives and requirements for decontamination in BWR power plants are first discussed focusing on reduction in dose, prevention of spread of contamination, cleaning of work environments, exposure of equipment parts for inspection, re-use of decontaminated resources, and standards for decontamination. Then, the report outlines major physical, chemical and electrochemical decontamination techniques generally used in BWR power generation plants. The physical techniques include suction of deposits in tanks, jet cleaning, particle blast cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, coating with special paints, and flushing cleaning. The chemical decontamination techniques include the use of organic acids etc. for dissolution of oxidized surface layers and treatment of secondary wastes such as liquids released from primary decontamination processes. Other techniques are used for removal of penetrated contaminants, and soft and hard cladding in and on equipment and piping that are in direct contact with radioactive materials used in nuclear power generation plants. (N.K.)

  13. Disassembling and decontamination techniques for JPDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasunaka, Hideo (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment)

    1990-08-01

    The report addresses the development and testing of decontamination techniques that have been carried out at JPDR by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The reactor's primary system, fuel pools and waste liquid tanks are decontaminated before disassembling. Chemical techniques are mainly used for the decontamination of the primary system while high-pressure jets, blasting and peelable coatings are used for pools and tanks. The techniques employed at JPDR for the systems decontamination prior to disassembling include the Can-Decon method, a modified NP/NS-1 method, redox method, and flow polishing. About 40,000-50,000 tons of metal waste is released from a disassembled large-size nuclear power facility, about 20 percent of which is contaminated with radioactive substances. Most of the waste can be decontaminated by appropriate techniques such as electrolytic polishing, immersion in chemical decontamination agents, and grid blasting. The ultimate goal of post-disassembling decontamination is complete removal of radioactive contaminants from the surface of metal waste to permit its reutilization. (N.K.).

  14. Estimation and characterization of decontamination and decommissioning solid waste expected from the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose of the study was to estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant is decontaminated and decommissioned. (Building structure and soil are not covered.) Results indicate that ∼5,500 m3 of solid waste is expected to result from the decontamination and decommissioning of the Pu Finishing Plant. The breakdown of the volumes and percentages of waste by category is 1% dangerous solid waste, 71% low-level waste, 21% transuranic waste, 7% transuranic mixed waste

  15. Decontamination of Rooibostea by radurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microbiological quality of a 'raw' agricultural commodity such as Rooibos tea is determined by a set of factors during harvesting and processing. Results suggest that a fermentation process takes place during processing, with members of the Enterobacteriaceae playing a dominant role. Against this background, as well as fluctuating hygienic conditions during processing, the high microbial population (107 to 5 x 108 /g) and even the possible presence of food-borne pathogens such as salmonellae, may be explaned. No real quarantee for the microbiological status of the product can be given, unless it is subjected to a terminal decontamination process (preferably after final packaging). Radurisation appears to be an ideal process for this purpose, and treatment at 8 kGy resulted in more than a 5000-fold (>99,9%) reduction of the microbial population. This was sufficient to eliminate all pathogens without harming the organoleptic quality of the product

  16. Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning Project Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David Shane; Webber, Frank Laverne

    2001-07-01

    This report is a compilation of summary descriptions of Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, and Surveillance and Maintenance projects planned for inactive facilities and sites at the INEEL from FY-2002 through FY-2010. Deactivations of contaminated facilities will produce safe and stable facilities requiring minimal surveillance and maintenance pending further decontamination and decommissioning. Decontamination and decommissioning actions remove contaminated facilities, thus eliminating long-term surveillance and maintenance. The projects are prioritized based on risk to DOE-ID, the public, and the environment, and the reduction of DOE-ID mortgage costs and liability at the INEEL.

  17. Decontamination of alpha-bearing solid wastes and plutonium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear activities in the Radiochemistry building of Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Center concern principally the study of fuel reprocessing and the production of transuranium isotopes. During these activities solid wastes are produced. In order to improve the management of these wastes, it has been decided to build new facilities: a group of three glove-boxes named ELISE for the treatment of α active solid waste and a hot-cell, PROLIXE, for the treatment of solid wastes. Leaching processes were developed in order to: decontaminate these wastes and recover actinide elements, particularly the highly valuable plutonium, from the leachates. The processes developed are sufficiently flexible to be able to accommodate solid wastes produced in other facilities. Laboratory studies were conducted to develop the leaching process based on the use of electrogenerated Ag(II) species which is particularly suitable to provoke the dissolution of PuO2. Successful exhaustive Pu decontaminations with DF(Pu) higher than 104 were achieved for the first time during the treatment of stainless steel PuO2 cans (future MELOX plant) by electrogenerated Ag (II) in nitric acid medium

  18. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. N. Doyle

    2002-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The site is located within the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (R-MAD) compound and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding areas within an existing fenced area measuring approximately 50 x 37 meters (160 x 120 feet). The site was used from the early 1960s to the early 1970s as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station program to decontaminate test-car hardware and tooling. The site was reactivated in the early 1980s to decontaminate a radiologically contaminated military tank. This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed to allow un-restricted release of the R-MAD Decontamination Facility.

  19. Critical review of advanced decontamination methods and their application and selection of methods suitable for disposal decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is structured as follows: (i) Critical review of advanced decontamination methods (chemical methods; electrochemical methods; mechanical methods - high-pressure water jet, abrasive methods, ultrasonic methods); (ii) Effective management of the entire decontamination process; (iii) Proposal for advanced decontamination methods suitable for disposal decontamination; and (iv) Effect of decontamination on waste management. It is concluded that (i) No single universal method exists for efficient decontamination of different materials, so a combination of methods must be used; (ii) The decontamination process should be optimised so that its cost should not exceed the cost of contaminated material handling without decontamination. The following methods were selected for additional examination: dry abrasive blasting, chemical decontamination, and ultrasonic decontamination. (P.A.)

  20. Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) is a trace contaminant control device based on non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma technology that...

  1. Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) is a trace contaminant control device based on non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma technology. Compared to...

  2. Decontamination of laryngoscopes in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucx, M J; Dankert, J; Beenhakker, M M; Harrison, T E

    2001-01-01

    In this study the decontamination procedures of laryngoscopes in Dutch hospitals are described, based on a structured telephone questionnaire. There were substantial differences between decontamination procedures in Dutch hospitals and the standards of the APIC (Association of Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology), CDC (Centers of Disease Control) and ASA (American Society of Anesthesiology) were met in full in 19.4% of the hospitals. The standards of manual decontamination, used in 78% of the 139 hospitals, were particularly disappointing; manual cleaning was considered inadequate in 22.9% of these hospitals and manual disinfection did not meet the standards of the APIC, CDC or ASA in any of these hospitals. Decontamination by instrument cleaning machines as a standard procedure was used in 30 (22%) hospitals. In three of these hospitals the blades were subsequently sterilized. We suggest adherence to the infection control guidelines of the CDC, APIC and ASA, until the safety of less conservative infection control practices are demonstrated. PMID:11575419

  3. Dilute chemical decontamination program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of dilute chemical decontamination technology for Boiling Water Reactor (BWRs) was completed under the Dilute Chemical Decontamination Program. An integrated process was developed and demonstrated under simulated BWR decontamination chemical conditions using a 76 cm long section of 15 cm piping removed from an operating BWR. Reasonable process conditions are: 0.012 M oxalic acid and 0.005 M citric acid at pH 3.0 and 900C with a controlled dissolved oxygen concentration of 0.75 ppM. A novel reagent regeneration process using anion-exchange resin preloaded with oxalate and citrate anions was developed to remove the dissolved corrosion products, including Fe(III), from solution during the decontamination. A limited corrosion testing program was completed and no severe adverse effects were identified

  4. Urban Decontamination Experience at Pripyat Ukraine - 13526

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paskevych, Sergiy [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 36 a Kirova str. Chornobyl, Kiev region, 07200 (Ukraine); Voropay, Dmitry [Federal State Unitary Enterprise ' Russian State Center of Inventory and Registration and Real Estate - Federal Bureau of Technical Inventory' , 37-2 Bernadsky Prospekt, Moscow Russia 119415 (Russian Federation); Schmieman, Eric [Battelle Memorial Institute, PO Box 999 MSIN K6-90, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the efficiency of radioactive decontamination activities of the urban landscape in the town of Pripyat, Ukraine. Different methods of treatment for various urban infrastructure and different radioactive contaminants are assessed. Long term changes in the radiation condition of decontaminated urban landscapes are evaluated: 1. Decontamination of the urban system requires the simultaneous application of multiple methods including mechanical, chemical, and biological. 2. If a large area has been contaminated, decontamination of local areas of a temporary nature. Over time, there is a repeated contamination of these sites due to wind transport from neighboring areas. 3. Involvement of earth-moving equipment and removal of top soil by industrial method achieves 20-fold reduction in the level of contamination by radioactive substances, but it leads to large amounts of waste (up to 1500 tons per hectare), and leads to the re-contamination of treated areas due to scatter when loading, transport pollutants on the wheels of vehicles, etc.. (authors)

  5. Metal Surface Decontamination by the PFC Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PFC (per-fluorocarbon) spray decontamination equipment was fabricated and its decontamination behavior was investigated. Europium oxide powder was mixed with the isotope solution which contains Co-60 and Cs-137. The different shape of metal specimens artificially contaminated with europium oxide powder was used as the surrogate contaminants. Before and after the application of the PFC spray decontamination method, the radioactivity of the metal specimens was measured by MCA. The decontamination factors were in the range from 9.6 to 62.4. The spent PFC solution was recycled by distillation. Before and after distillation, the turbidity of PFC solution was also measured. From the test results, it was found that more than 98% of the PFC solution could be recycled by a distillation. (authors)

  6. PROCESS OF DECONTAMINATING MATERIAL CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.; Acken, M.F.

    1958-09-16

    A process is described for decontaminating metallic objects, such as stainless steel equipment, which consists in contacting such objects with nltric acid in a concentration of 35 to 60% to remove the major portion of the contamination; and thereafter contacting the partially decontaminated object with a second solution containing up to 20% of alkali metal hydroxide and up to 20% sodium tartrate to remove the remaining radioactive contaminats.

  7. Depressurized pipes decontamination by using circulation foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination of pipes remains a necessity in order to reduce the radiation level during maintenance or dismantling operations but it is not so easy to do it, especially in case of a long pipe network. To achieve this operation, the use of chemistry is one of the more relevant methods; moreover, the liquid waste production still remains an issue that it can be avoided by the use of decontamination foams. (authors)

  8. Processing of waste solutions from electrochemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of electropolishing as a decontamination technique will be effective only if we can minimize the amount of secondary waste requiring disposal and economically recycle part of the decontamination electrolyte. Consequently, a solution purification method is needed to remove the dissolved contamination and metal in the electrolyte. This report describes the selection of a purification method for a phosphoric acid electrolyte from the following possible acid reclamation processes: ion exchange, solvent extraction, precipitation, distillation, electrolysis, and membrane separation

  9. Chemical Decontamination at Browns Ferry Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May, 2002, the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Board of Directors approved the recovery and restart of Unit 1 at Browns Ferry Nuclear Station. As an initial step in the site characterization and restart feasibility review, a majority of the primary reactor circuit was chemically decontaminated. Close cooperation between TVA and vendor personnel resulted in project completion ahead of schedule with outstanding results. The final average decontamination factors were excellent, and the final dose rates were very low, with contact readings on most points between one and three mRem/hr. In addition to allowing TVA to do a complete and thorough job of determining the feasibility of the Unit 1 restart, the decontamination effort will greatly reduce personnel exposure during plant recovery, both whole body exposure to gamma radiation and airborne exposure during pipe replacement efforts. The implementation of lessons learned from previous decontamination work performed at Browns Ferry, as well as decontamination efforts at other plants aided greatly in the success. Specific items of note are: (1) The initial leak check of the temporary decontamination system should include ancillary systems such as the spent resin system, as well as the main circulation loop. This could save time and dose exposure if leaks are discovered before the use of such systems is required. (2) Due to the quick turnaround time from the award of contract, a vendor representative was onsite early in the project to help with engineering efforts and procedures. This aided greatly in completing preparations for the decontamination. (3) The work was performed under a single maintenance activity. This resulted in great craft and plant support. (4) The constant coverage by the site's decontamination flush directors provided timely plant support and interface. (5) The FPC system isolation and back flushing to prevent residual chemicals from being left in the FPC system should have been addressed in more

  10. Collection of lectures delivered at decontamination course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection contains 10 lectures read at the decontamination workshop DEK '85 held between 29-31 Oct 1985 at the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez, all of which fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The workshop, whose first course was held in 1975, is destined for personnel of various institutions who are decontamination process users but also for designers of nuclear installations, personnel of safety of work inspectorates, hygiene services, etc. (Z.M.)

  11. Surface decontamination by photo-catalysis - 16068

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently in the nuclear industry, surface contamination in the form of radioactive metal or metal oxide deposits is most commonly removed by chemical decontamination, electrochemical decontamination or physical attrition. Physical attrition techniques are generally used on structural materials (concrete, plaster), with (electro)chemical methods being used to decontaminate metallic or painted surfaces. The most common types of (electro)chemical decontamination are the use of simple mineral acids such as nitric acid or cerium (IV) oxidation (MEDOC). Use of both of these reagents frequently results in the dissolution of a layer of the substrate surface increasing the percentage of secondary waste which leads to burdens on downstream effluent treatment and waste management plants. In this context, both mineral acids and MEDOC can be indiscriminate in the surfaces attacked during deployment, e.g. attacking in transit through a pipe system to the site of contamination resulting in both diminished effect of the decontaminating reagent upon arrival at its target site and an increased secondary waste management requirement. This provides two main requirements for a more ideal decontamination reagent: Improved area specificity and a dissolution power equal to or greater than the previously mentioned current decontaminants. Photochemically promoted processes may provide such a decontamination technique. Photochemical reduction of metal ion valence states to aid in heavy metal deposition has already been extensively studied [1], with reductive manipulation also being achieved with uranium and plutonium simulants (Ce) [2]. Importantly photooxidation of a variety of metals, including neptunium [3], has also been achieved. Here we report on the potential application of this technology to metal dissolution. (authors)

  12. Criteria and evaluation of three decontamination techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past decontamination and solvent recovery activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), which is part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), have resulted in the accumulation of 1.5 million gallons of radioactively contaminated sodium-bearing liquid waste. Future decontamination activities at the ICPP could result in the production of 5 million gallons or more of sodium-bearing waste using the current decontamination techniques of chemical/water flushes and steam jet cleaning. This waste requires a large amount of cold chemical additive to process because the low melting temperatures of sodium and potassium salts cause agglomeration in the bed of the calciner vessel. Criteria have been established for evaluating methods and technologies available for decontaminating equipment and facilities. The criteria were weighted according to their relative importance using a Kepner-Tregoe Problem Solving process. These criteria were used to rank three decontamination techniques new to the ICPP: laser ablation, liquid abrasive blasting and CO2 pellet blasting, against the standard decontamination techniques of sodium-based chemical cleaning and water/steam jets used

  13. An overview of plutonium-238 decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) projects at Mound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, W.H.; Davis, W.P.; Draper, D.G.; Geichman, J.R.; Harris, J.C.; Jaeger, R.R.; Sohn, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Mound is currently decontaminating for restricted reuse and/or decommissioning for conditional release four major plutonium-238 contaminated facilities that contained 1700 linear feet of gloveboxes and associated equipment and services. Several thousand linear feet of external underground piping, associated tanks, and contaminated soil are being removed. Two of the facilities contain ongoing operations and will be reused for both radioactive and nonradioactive programs. Two others will be completely demolished and the land area will become available for future DOE building sites. An overview of the successful techniques and equipment used in the decontamination and decommissioning of individual pieces of equipment, gloveboxes, services, laboratories, sections of buildings, entire buildings, and external underground piping, tanks, and soil in a highly populated residential area is described and pictorially presented.

  14. Decontamination Efficacy and Skin Toxicity of Two Decontaminants against Bacillus anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad W Stratilo

    Full Text Available Decontamination of bacterial endospores such as Bacillus anthracis has traditionally required the use of harsh or caustic chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a chlorine dioxide decontaminant in killing Bacillus anthracis spores in solution and on a human skin simulant (porcine cadaver skin, compared to that of commonly used sodium hypochlorite or soapy water decontamination procedures. In addition, the relative toxicities of these decontaminants were compared in human skin keratinocyte primary cultures. The chlorine dioxide decontaminant was similarly effective to sodium hypochlorite in reducing spore numbers of Bacillus anthracis Ames in liquid suspension after a 10 minute exposure. After five minutes, the chlorine dioxide product was significantly more efficacious. Decontamination of isolated swine skin contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Sterne with the chlorine dioxide product resulted in no viable spores sampled. The toxicity of the chlorine dioxide decontaminant was up to two orders of magnitude less than that of sodium hypochlorite in human skin keratinocyte cultures. In summary, the chlorine dioxide based decontaminant efficiently killed Bacillus anthracis spores in liquid suspension, as well as on isolated swine skin, and was less toxic than sodium hypochlorite in cultures of human skin keratinocytes.

  15. Clearance of BWR steam piping by off line chemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with laboratory tests that analyze the acid attack of metallic samples, contaminated by Co60 in the Caorso nuclear power plant in Italy. The main aim was to establish the working parameters of the decontamination plant for metallic components. The study took into consideration the steam piping, located in the turbine building, that is, piping from the main header to the high pressure turbine stage, as well as other steam piping, connecting different turbine stages or that had other functions. The Co60 is produced in the reactor vessel by neutron capture in the iron nuclei of the materials located in the pressure vessel. The coolant erodes the steel surfaces and deposits these products along the piping. In the first phase of the activity the chemical decontamination process was simulated in the laboratory, in particular the acid attack and the subsequent high pressure water washing. For the various parts of the piping (straight lines, bends, intersections) smear tests enabled the radioactivity distribution to be determined. Metallographic analyses of the samples, core bored by the piping, determined the composition of the deposit (crud) on the internal surface of the components and the radioactivity along the thickness of the crud, and consequently the time of the acid attack in order to obtain the Clearance. Numerical simulations of the Co60 deposition by means of CFD codes are currently being carried out in order to compare the results to those obtained experimentally. This will enable us to classify the systems from a radiological point of view by estimating ‘a priori’ the time required for decontamination

  16. Clearance of BWR steam piping by off line chemical decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilo, F. [Department of Mechanical Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of Pisa (Italy); Fontani, E. [Sogin Spa, Caorso Nuclear Power Plant (Italy); Aquaro, D., E-mail: aquaro@ing.unipi.it [Department of Mechanical Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of Pisa (Italy)

    2014-04-01

    This paper deals with laboratory tests that analyze the acid attack of metallic samples, contaminated by Co{sup 60} in the Caorso nuclear power plant in Italy. The main aim was to establish the working parameters of the decontamination plant for metallic components. The study took into consideration the steam piping, located in the turbine building, that is, piping from the main header to the high pressure turbine stage, as well as other steam piping, connecting different turbine stages or that had other functions. The Co{sup 60} is produced in the reactor vessel by neutron capture in the iron nuclei of the materials located in the pressure vessel. The coolant erodes the steel surfaces and deposits these products along the piping. In the first phase of the activity the chemical decontamination process was simulated in the laboratory, in particular the acid attack and the subsequent high pressure water washing. For the various parts of the piping (straight lines, bends, intersections) smear tests enabled the radioactivity distribution to be determined. Metallographic analyses of the samples, core bored by the piping, determined the composition of the deposit (crud) on the internal surface of the components and the radioactivity along the thickness of the crud, and consequently the time of the acid attack in order to obtain the Clearance. Numerical simulations of the Co{sup 60} deposition by means of CFD codes are currently being carried out in order to compare the results to those obtained experimentally. This will enable us to classify the systems from a radiological point of view by estimating ‘a priori’ the time required for decontamination.

  17. New quaternary ammonium salts based decontaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M. Popescu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Decontamination after terrorist attacks or industrial accidents with biological and/or chemical agents („bio-chem“ must be fast and efficient, in order to reduce the number of victims and to eliminate the consequent damages. The decontamination of living biological agents (bacteria, viruses or nonliving ones (toxins, regulators and toxic chemicals could be accomplished by reactions of hydrolysis in various experimental conditions, in particular in alkaline medium, reactions with amines or ammonia, alcohols, phenols etc. and by their transformation into less toxic degradation products. “Bio-chem” intentional or unintentional contamination is a real risk, towards which an effective management must be available to prevent and control it. Decontamination is an essential measure to protect the personnel and the environment. Synthesis and testing of new „bio-chem“ decontaminants, based on quaternary ammonium salts, complete the arsenal of protection against chemical and biological agents. The most effective selected substances could be produced and used for decontamination in accordance with legal procedures

  18. Development of laser decontamination. 5. Decontamination test of the hot samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process of laser decontamination system is as follows. As the material is irradiated by laser beam, its surface is instantaneously heated and ablated. Laser decontamination system is able to decontaminate thoroughly. In this work, the characteristics of laser beam transmission by optical fibers, and decontamination effect of laser beam irradiation to test pieces which are cut down of pipe in the hot facility, are experimented for apply laser decontamination technique to radioactive wastes treatment and decommissioning of nuclear fuel facilities. The results are as follows. (1) Beam transmission: Transmission of Q switch pulse YAG laser's beam by optical fibers are examined. Transmission energy is in proportion to incident energy to fiber. Transmission energy of bundled fiber is 168mJ to 406mJ of incident energy. In the case of incident energy was 425mJ, transmission energy was decrease, because some fibers of bundled fiber were damaged by laser beam. (2) Decontamination test of the hot samples: Counting rate of pipe test piece were decreased more than 90% by first irradiation of Q switch pulse YAG laser. Counting rate of pipe test piece were decreased no more than 4% by on and after second irradiation of Q switch pulse YAG laser. To move the test piece slowly, and to raise the density of irradiation energy, and to use the helium gas for auxiliary gas are effective to increase decontamination effect. (author)

  19. Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the project of Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology, the followings were studied. 1. Development of decontamination and repair technology for nuclear fuel cycle facilities 2. Development of dismantling technology 3. Development of environmental restoration technology. (author)

  20. Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents (Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beer Singh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical warfare agents (CWA pose inevitable threat, both to soldiers and civilians. Risk on contact with these deadly agents can be avoided by neutralisation of their toxic effects. A suitable media with essential physico-chemical properties is required for this purpose. Considerable efforts have been made to develop several decontamination media suitable for neutralisation of highly toxic CWAs. This paper reviews history and details of recent technological advancements in the development of versatile, broad spectrum decontamination formulations against CWAs, as also nanosized metal oxides as CWA decontaminants.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(4, pp.428-441, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.487

  1. Decontamination tests on tritium-contaminated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These tests are designed to try out various processes liable to be applied to the decontamination of a material contaminated with tritium. The samples are thin stainless- steel slabs contaminated in the laboratory with elements extracted from industrial installations. The measurement of the initial and residual activities is carried out using an open-window BERTHOLD counter. The best results are obtained by passing a current of pre-heated (300 deg. C) air containing water vapour. This process makes it possible to reach a decontamination factor of 99.5 per cent in 4 hours. In a vacuum, the operation has to be prolonged to 100 hours in order to obtain a decontamination factor of 99.2 per cent. Wet-chemical or electrolytic treatments are efficient but their use is limited by the inherent corrosion risks. A study of the reappearance of the contamination has made it possible to observe that this phenomenon occurs whatever the process used. (authors)

  2. Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material's decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting

  3. Biodegradation of concrete intended for their decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination of sub-structural materials represents a stake of high importance because of the high volume generated. It is agreed then to propose efficient and effective processes. The process of bio-decontamination of the hydraulic binders leans on the mechanisms of biodegradation of concretes, phenomenon characterized in the 40's by an indirect attack of the material by acids stem from the microbial metabolism: sulphuric acid (produced by Thiobacillus), nitric acid (produced by Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter) and organic acids (produced by fungi). The principle of the bio-decontamination process is to apply those microorganisms on the surface of the contaminated material, in order to damage its surface and to retrieve the radionuclides. One of the multiple approaches of the process is the use of a bio-gel that makes possible the micro-organisms application. (author)

  4. Waste assay and mass balance for the decontamination and volume reduction system at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Garner, Scott E.; Romero, Mike J.; Christensen, Davis V.; Bustos, Roland M.

    2003-07-01

    The Decontamination and Volume Reduction System (DVRS) operated by the Solid Waste Operations (SWO) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) processes large volume, legacy radioactive waste items. Waste boxes, in sizes varying from 4 ft x 4 ft x 8 ft to 10 ft x 12 ft x 40 ft, are assayed prior to entry into the processing building. Inside the building, the waste items are removed from their container, decontaminated and/or size reduced if necessary, and repackaged for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) or on-site low-level waste disposal. The repackaged items and any secondary waste produced (e.g., personal protective equipment) are assayed again at the end of the process and a mass balance is done to determine whether there is any significant hold-up material left in the DVRS building. The DVRS building is currently classed as a radiological facility, with a building limit of 0.52 Ci of Pu239 and Am241, and 0.62 Ci of Pu238, the most common radionuclides processed. This requires tight controls on the flow of nuclear material. The large volume of the initial waste packages, the (relatively) small amounts of radioactive material in them, and the tight ceiling on the building inventory require accurate field measurements of the nuclear material. This paper describes the radioactive waste measurement techniques, the computer modeling used to determine the amount of nuclear material present in a waste package, the building inventory database, and the DVRS process itself. Future plans include raising the limit on the nuclear material inventory allowed in the building to accommodate higher activity waste packages. All DOE sites performing decontamination and decommissioning of radioactive process equipment face challenges related to waste assay and inventory issues. This paper describes an ongoing operation, incorporating lessons learned over the life of the project to date.

  5. Changes in the decontamination factor of cesium iodide on evaporation of a scrubbing solution in the Filtered Containment Venting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Young Su; Ha, Kwang Soon; Kim, Sungil; Cho, Song-Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    When the pressure in the containment building approaches a setting value, the FCVS(Filtered Containment Venting System) operates. The amount of steam and gas mixtures generated during a severe accident can be released into the FCVS. Non-condensable gases and fine aerosols can pass a scrubbing solution and the filters in the FCVS vessel. The decontaminated gases are finally discharged from the FCVS to the outside environment. Previous study observed that a scrubbing solution in the FCVS vessel was constantly evaporating owing to high-temperature steam released continuously from the containment building. A scrubbing solution in the FCVS vessel was completely evaporated at about 31 hours after the FCVS operation. Pool evaporation in the FCVS vessel can negatively affect the decontamination feature of the FCVS because it reduces the scrubbing depth for fission products in an aerosol form. This study carefully evaluated the decontamination factor of metal iodide aerosols especially cesium iodide (CsI), on a scrubbing solution in the FCVS. This paper summarizes the calculated results on the decontamination factor of CsI in the FCVS vessel, which was presented at the international OECD-NEA/NUGENIA-SARNET workshop. This study estimated the decontamination factor of CsI on a scrubbing solution in the FCVS. The MELCOR computer code simulated that an SBO occurred in the OPR 1000. The FCVS consists of a cylindrical vessel with a 3 m diameter and 6.5 m height, and it includes a scrubbing solution of 21 tons. Accumulated mass of CsI aerosol was calculated in a scrubbing solution and the atmosphere in the FCVS vessel and the outside environment. In the early FCVS operation, the decontamination factor of CsI aerosol rapidly increased owing to steam condensation in a scrubbing solution. When the temperature of a pool approached its saturation temperature, the decontamination factor of CsI aerosol started to decrease.

  6. Decontamination of CAGR gas circulator components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development and full-scale trial of two methods for removal of radioactive contamination on the surfaces of CAGR gas circulator components. The two methods described are a particle impact cleaning (PIC) decontamination technique and an electrochemical technique, 'electro-swabbing', which is based on the principle of decontamination by electro-polishing. In developing these techniques it was necessary to take account of the physical and chemical nature of the surface deposits on the gas circulator components; these were shown to consist of magnetite-type oxide and carbonaceous material. In order to follow the progress of the decontamination it was also necessary to develop a surface sampling technique which was effective and precise under these conditions; an electrochemical technique, employing similar principles to the electro-swabbing process, was developed for this purpose. The full-scale trial of the PIC decontamination technique was carried out on an inlet guide vane (IGV) assembly, this having been identified as the component from the gas circulator which contributes most to the radiation dose accumulated during routine circulator maintenance. The technique was shown to be practically viable and some 99% of the radioactive contamination was readily removed from the treated surfaces with only negligible surface damage being caused. The full-scale trial of the electro-swabbing decontamination technique was carried out on a gas circulator impeller. High decontamination factors were again achieved with ≥ 99% of the radioactive contamination being removed from the treated surfaces. The technique has practical limitations in terms of handling and treatment of waste-arisings. However, the use of specially-designed swabbing electrodes may allow the treatment of constricted geometries inaccessible to techniques such as PIC. The technique is also highly suitable for the treatment of soft-finish materials and of components fabricated from a

  7. Green coffee decontamination by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbiological load of green coffee is a real problem considering that it is extremely sensitive to contamination. Irradiation is a decontamination method for a lot of foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly one. Beans and ground green coffee were irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. Microbial load, rheological behavior, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and visible spectroscopy were carried out. The results show that electron beam irradiation of green coffee could decontaminate it without severe changes in its properties

  8. Radio decontamination experiences of pharmaceuticals products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities for the radio decontamination radioimmunodetection of Mafenide 10% cream, Bariopac powder and Ranitidine raw material by means of the application of different dose level of gamma rays were studied. Microbiological and Physicochemical evaluations were carried out before and after the treatment . The industrial production was irradiated with 3 and 1 kGy as the adequate dose, in a continuous way. It was concluded that the application of ionising radiations with decontamination aims is an alternative to guarantee the microbiological quality of these pharmaceuticals

  9. Green coffee decontamination by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemtanu, Monica R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor St., P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)]. E-mail: monica@infim.ro; Brasoveanu, Mirela [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor St., P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Grecu, Maria Nicoleta [National Institute for Materials Physics, RO 77 125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Minea, R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor St., P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2005-10-15

    Microbiological load of green coffee is a real problem considering that it is extremely sensitive to contamination. Irradiation is a decontamination method for a lot of foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly one. Beans and ground green coffee were irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. Microbial load, rheological behavior, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and visible spectroscopy were carried out. The results show that electron beam irradiation of green coffee could decontaminate it without severe changes in its properties.

  10. Localization of decontamination waste in the territory of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various environmental conditions in decontamination waste storage areas in the Zhitomir, Kiev, Chernigov, Rovno, Cherkassy, Sumy Regions of Ukraine are analyzed. Typical designs and basic parameters of decontamination waste storage areas implemented in 17 contractor designs are described. Theoretical grounds of safe storage of decontamination waste in the areas are discussed

  11. Wide-area decontamination in an urban environment after radiological dispersion: A review and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Michael D; Lee, Sang Don; Magnuson, Matthew

    2016-03-15

    Nuclear or radiological terrorism in the form of uncontrolled radioactive contamination presents a unique challenge in the field of nuclear decontamination. Potential targets require an immediate decontamination response, or mitigation plan to limit the social and economic impact. To date, experience with urban decontamination of building materials - specifically hard, porous, external surfaces - is limited to nuclear weapon fallout and nuclear reactor accidents. Methods are lacking for performing wide-area decontamination in an urban environment so that in all release scenarios the area may be re-occupied without evaluation and/or restriction. Also lacking is experience in developing mitigation strategies, that is, methods of mitigating contamination and its resultant radiation dose in key areas during the immediate aftermath of an event and after lifesaving operations. To date, the tremendous strategy development effort primarily by the European community has focused on the recovery phase, which extends years beyond the release event. In this review, we summarize the methods and data collected over the past 70 years in the field of hard, external surface decontamination of radionuclide contaminations, with emphasis on methods suitable for response to radiological dispersal devices and their potentially unique physico-chemical characteristics. This review concludes that although a tremendous amount of work has been completed primarily by the European Community (EU) and the United Kingdom (UK), the few studies existing on each technique permit only very preliminary estimates of decontamination factors for various building materials and methods and extrapolation of those values for use in environments outside the EU and UK. This data shortage prevents us from developing an effective and detailed mitigation response plan and remediation effort. Perhaps most importantly, while the data available does include valuable information on the practical aspects of performing

  12. Reaction-diffusion models of decontamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    A contaminant, which also contains a polymer is in the form of droplets on a solid surface. It is to be removed by the action of a decontaminant, which is applied in aqueous solution. The contaminant is only sparingly soluble in water, so the reaction mechanism is that it slowly dissolves...

  13. 40 CFR 170.250 - Decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicular access: (i) The soap, single-use towels, clean change of clothing, and water may be at the nearest place of vehicular access. (ii) The handler employer may permit handlers to use clean water from springs... accessible than the water located at the nearest place of vehicular access. (4) Decontamination supplies...

  14. Ultrasonic decontamination of nuclear fuel. Feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, A.; Libal, A.; Norbaeck, J.; Wegemar, B.

    1995-05-01

    Ultrasonic decontamination of nuclear fuel is an expeditious way to reduce radiation exposures resulting in a minimal volume of waste. The fuel assemblies are set up in the fuel preparation machine one at a time and treated without prior disassemblage. By decontaminating 20% of the BWR fuel assemblies annually, there is a potential to reduce the collective dose by approximately 40-50%. Including also improved reactivity of the fuel, this amounts to an economic benefit of about 4 MSEK per reactor and year. The costs for performing the decontamination can be economically justified if the plants do not plan for short outages each year. The decontamination method could also be used for the purpose of removing tramp Uranium following a fuel failure or minor core accident. An additional benefit is removal of loosely adherent crud. The waste produced will be handled in a closed filtering circuit. The method is suggested to be verified in a test on discharged burnt-up fuel at site. The next step will be to develop the method further in order to be able to remove also tenacious crud. 12 refs, 4 tabs.

  15. Hand decontamination: nurses' opinions and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, D

    Infection is spread in hospital mainly by hands, making hand decontamination the most important means of preventing dissemination. There is some evidence to suggest that when access to hand-decontaminating agents is poor or the agents available are disliked, hands are washed too seldom, increasing risks of cross-infection. However, little attention has been paid to the use of towels and factors which promote their use, although it is known that damp hands transfer bacteria more readily than dry ones and that hands which become sore through poor drying have higher bacterial counts, contributing to the risk of cross-infection. This paper reports the results of the Nursing Times Hand Drying survey designed to assess nurses' access to hand decontamination agents and towels. The results suggest that the 112 nurses who participated were aware of the need for attention to hand hygiene but that access to both hand-decontaminating agents and paper towels was variable. Forty-one per cent complained of a shortage of soap and although nearly all used paper towels, these were in many cases of poor quality. Such towels were perceived as damaging to hands, leaving them feeling damp and sore. Good-quality, soft, paper towels were much appreciated by respondents in this sample. It is concluded that the quality of paper towels contributes to good infection control practice.

  16. Decontamination and decommissioning focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents details of the facility deactivation, decommissioning, and material disposition research for development of new technologies sponsored by the Department of Energy. Topics discussed include; occupational safety, radiation protection, decontamination, remote operated equipment, mixed waste processing, recycling contaminated metals, and business opportunities

  17. 40 CFR 170.150 - Decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water may be at the nearest place of vehicular access. (ii) The agricultural employer may permit workers to use clean water from springs, streams, lakes, or other sources for decontamination at the remote... equipment, soap, clean towels, and a sufficient amount of water so that the workers may wash thoroughly....

  18. Thermal decontamination of transformers: A new technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After evaluating a number of methods for decontaminating or disposing of transformers that contained polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), it was concluded that no entirely satisfactory procedure or technology was yet available which was permanent, effective, safe, relatively simple, and based on proven technology or conventional practice. The most desirable compromise appears to be thermal decontamination. It is proposed to decontaminate transformers by controlled incineration in a specially designed, indirect-fired furnace which resembles the conventional bell-type, vertical elevator, metal heat treating type of furnace. The design differs in the incorporation of those essential features required to achieve oxidation of the organic components, to provide internal air circulation needed to ensure efficient heat and mass transfer, and other factors. The most appropriate decontamination facility would provide for implementation of the following procedures: draining of PCB-containing liquids from the transformer; limited disassembly of the transformer, which in most instances would imply only removal of the top cover to expose the insides; and controlled incineration with any vapors generated being conducted to a secondary combustion chamber. Experiments were conducted in a kiln to simulate the proposed transformer incinerator. Results show that exposure of the transformer segments to a temperature in the 950-1,000 degree C range for over 90 min is generally sufficient to reduce the PCB content to under 1 ppM. Based on the work conducted, a suitable bell furnace was constructed and added to the Swan Hills (Alberta) waste treatment facility. 2 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Study of Electrolyte for Electrochemical Decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removal of metallic surface contamination by anodic dissolution in an electrochemical has pervaded in industrial use for many years. The removal of radioactive contaminations by this same technique has more recently attracted attention. Allen and Arrowsmith have reported extensive work with phosphoric acid as the electrolyte. Phosphoric acid is very efficient electrolyte for removing radioactive contaminations and does furnish an electro-polished surface that is quite smooth. But inadequate processes for the spent electrolyte caused unwanted waste. Such unwanted waste is also caused in other acidic electrolytes (for example, nitric acid or sulfuric acid). Most of the radioactivity is assumed to be localized in about ten micron thickness on the surface: therefore, a surface decontamination method should be useful as a decontamination technique. In particular, electrolytic decontamination is considered to be the most useful method because of a high volume reduction factor and easy application on metal waste of diverse shapes. In this paper, we consider that NaNO3 solution is suitable for electrochemical decontamination

  20. Laser decontamination of the radioactive lightning rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1970 and 1980 Brazil experienced a significant market for radioactive lightning rods (RLR). The device consists of an air terminal with one or more sources of americium-241 attached to it. The sources were used to ionize the air around them and to increase the attraction of atmospheric discharges. Because of their ineffectiveness, the nuclear regulatory authority in Brazil suspended the license for manufacturing, commerce and installation of RLR in 1989, and determined that the replaced RLR were to be collected to a centralized radioactive waste management facility for treatment. The first step for RLR treatment is to remove the radioactive sources. Though they can be easily removed, some contaminations are found all over the remaining metal scrap that must decontaminated for release, otherwise it must be treated as radioactive waste. Decontamination using various chemicals has proven to be inefficient and generates large amounts of secondary wastes. This work shows the preliminary results of the decontamination of 241Am-contaminated metal scrap generated in the treatment of radioactive lightning rods applying laser ablation. A Nd:YAG nanoseconds laser was used with 300 mJ energy leaving only a small amount of secondary waste to be treated. - Highlights: • The process generates minimal additional secondary waste. • The effectiveness of this technique may allow certain materials to be recycled reducing radioactive waste volumes. • The process allows reuse of decontaminated metals

  1. Decontamination and decommissioning focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report presents details of the facility deactivation, decommissioning, and material disposition research for development of new technologies sponsored by the Department of Energy. Topics discussed include; occupational safety, radiation protection, decontamination, remote operated equipment, mixed waste processing, recycling contaminated metals, and business opportunities.

  2. Remote methods for decontamination and decommissioning operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three methods for the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities are described along with operational experience associated with each method. Each method described in some way reduces radiation exposure to the operating personnel involved. Electrochemical decontamination of process tanks is described using an in-situ method. Descriptions of two processes, electropolishing and cerium redox decontamination, are listed. A method of essentially smokeless cutting of process piping using a plasma-arc cutting torch is described. In one technique, piping is cut remotely from a distance using a specially modified torch holder. In another technique, cutting is done with master-slave manipulators inside a hot cell. Finally, a method for remote cutting and scarification of contaminated concrete is described. This system, which utilizes high-pressure water jets, is coupled to a cutting head or rotating scarification head. The system is suited for cutting contaminated concrete for removal or removing a thin layer in a controlled manner for decontamination. 4 refs., 6 figs

  3. Decontamination and dismantling at the CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the dismantling policy at the CEA (French Research Center on the atomic energy), the financing of the decontamination and the dismantling, the regulatory framework, the knowledge and the technology developed at the CEA, the radiation protection, the environment monitoring and the installations. (A.L.B.)

  4. Ultrasonic decontamination of nuclear fuel. Feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonic decontamination of nuclear fuel is an expeditious way to reduce radiation exposures resulting in a minimal volume of waste. The fuel assemblies are set up in the fuel preparation machine one at a time and treated without prior disassemblage. By decontaminating 20% of the BWR fuel assemblies annually, there is a potential to reduce the collective dose by approximately 40-50%. Including also improved reactivity of the fuel, this amounts to an economic benefit of about 4 MSEK per reactor and year. The costs for performing the decontamination can be economically justified if the plants do not plan for short outages each year. The decontamination method could also be used for the purpose of removing tramp Uranium following a fuel failure or minor core accident. An additional benefit is removal of loosely adherent crud. The waste produced will be handled in a closed filtering circuit. The method is suggested to be verified in a test on discharged burnt-up fuel at site. The next step will be to develop the method further in order to be able to remove also tenacious crud. 12 refs, 4 tabs

  5. LASL experience in decontamination of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1972 the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has been actively involved in land area surveys for radioactive contamination and has gained considerable experience in cleanup of lands considered to have unacceptable levels of radioactive contamination. Experience and means of arriving at recommendations for decontamination at levels as low as reasonably achievable

  6. Separation of radionuclides from electrochemical decontamination waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study demonstrated the efficiency and applicability of a combined process for the separation of radionuclides from organic complexonates containing waste. A combination of photo-catalytic degradation of organic complexonates followed by the sorption of the radionuclides onto a strongly acidic ion exchanger offers a promising route for the treatment of the spent electrochemical decontamination solution. (authors)

  7. Surface decontamination as a technical and technological discipline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical and physical properties are described of the surface, the contaminant and the decontamination system, i.e., the three components of the decontamination process. A survey is presented of decontamination processes for a solid contaminant and for the decontamination of a contaminant bound to the surface. Problems of decontamination are then discussed, connected with the construction and project designing of facilities which shall operate in a radiation field. The generation of contaminants is described and the principles given of project design and design of facilities with regard to radiation hygiene, economy and disposal. (J.P.)

  8. Study on the Decontamination of Radionuclides in Spent Phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chong Hun; Won, H. J.; Moon, J. K.

    2010-01-15

    The objective of the study is to confirm the possibility of further R and D thru pre-study on the decontamination technology for the safe, high decontamination factor, low waste arising and cost effective removal of radionuclide in spent phosphogypsum. The following contents were studied. 1) Decontamination of Radionuclide in Phosphogypsum - Effect of decontamination chemical formulation on Ra removal - Effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration on Ra removal - Effect of Sr concentration on Ra removal 2) Removal of Radionuclide in Liquid Waste from Decontamination of Phosphogypsum - Ra removal by chromate treatment - Ra removal by zeolite and ACF treatment

  9. Radiological measurements during decontamination of PFBR MOX fuel elements using ultrasonic decontamination technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a fuel fabrication facility fabrication of MOX fuel elements involving various metallurgical processes is carried out in leak tight glove boxes because of high radio toxicity associated with plutonium,. A fuel pin consists of a thin walled tube loaded with cylindrical fuel pellets with plugs welded on both ends. The pellet loading and welding processes result in cross contamination on the tube surface near the edges. It is important that finished fuel pins should not contain any transferable contamination on the surface beyond safe limits applicable for unrestricted release before subjecting the pins to manual handling for quality control checks. Hence it is imperative that thorough decontamination of fuel pins is essential for safe handling. Conventional decontamination methods result in undue personal exposures and generation of solid waste. Though there are number of techniques available for decontamination of non-fuel elements in the nuclear industry, very few of them can be used for decontamination of fuel elements because of possible damage to fuel clad, Ultrasonic cleaning process, using dc-mineralized water as medium does not affect the properties of the clad and is simple to implement and fast to carry out. This paper brings out radiological measurements carried out to study the effectiveness of ultrasonic decontamination technique and the factors involved in achieving required degree of decontamination with reduced individual exposure

  10. Electrolytic decontamination of the 3013 inner can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposition of plutonium recovered from nuclear weapons or production residues must be stored in a manner that ensures safety. The criteria that has been established to assure the safety of stored materials for a minimum of 50 years is DOE-STD-3013. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has designed a containment package in accordance with the DOE standard. The package consists of an optional convenience (food pack) can, a welded type 304L stainless steel inner (primary) can, and a welded type 304L stainless steel outer (secondary) can. With or without the food pack can, the material is placed inside the primary can and welded shut under a helium atmosphere. This activity takes place totally within the confinement of the glove box line. Following the welding process, the can is checked for leaks and then sent down the line for decontamination. Once decontaminated, the sealed primary can may be removed from the glove box line. Welding of the secondary container takes place outside the glove box line. The highly automated decontamination process that has been developed to support the packaging of Special Nuclear Materials is based on an electrolytic process similar to the wide spread industrial technique of electropolishing. The can is placed within a specially designed stainless steel fixture built within a partition of a glove box. This fixture is then filled with a flowing electrolyte solution. A low DC electric current is made to flow between the can, acting as the anode, and the fixture, acting as the cathode. Following the decontamination, the system provides a flow of rinse water through the fixture to rinse the can of remaining salt residues. The system then carried out a drying cycle. Finally, the fixture is opened from the opposite side of the partition and the can surface monitored directly and through surface smears to assure that decontamination is adequate

  11. Electrolytic decontamination of the 3013 inner can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposition of plutonium recovered from nuclear weapons or production residues must be stored in a manner that ensures safety. The criteria that has been established to assure the safety of stored materials for a minimum of 50 years is DOE-STD-3013. This standard specifies both the requirements for containment and furthermore specifies that the inner container be decontaminated to a level of ≤20 dpm/100 cm2 swipable and ≤500 dpm/100 cm2 direct alpha such that a failure of the outer containment barrier will have a lower probability of resulting in a spread of contamination. The package consists of an optional convenience (food pack) can, a welded type 304L stainless steel inner (primary) can, and a welded type 304L stainless steel outer (secondary) can. Following the welding process, the can is checked for leaks and then sent down the line for decontamination. Once decontaminated, the sealed primary can may be removed from the glove box line. Welding of the secondary container takes place outside the glove box line. The highly automated decontamination process that has been developed to support the packaging of Special Nuclear Materials is based on an electrolytic process similar to the wide spread industrial technique of electropolishing. The can is placed within a specially designed stainless steel fixture built within a partition of a glove box. The passage of current through this electrolytic cell results in a uniform anodic dissolution of the surface metal layers of the can. This process results in a rapid decontamination of the can. The electrolyte is fully recyclable, and the separation of the chromium from the actinides results in a compact, non RCRA secondary waste product

  12. A Planning Tool for Estimating Waste Generated by a Radiological Incident and Subsequent Decontamination Efforts - 13569

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, Timothy [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Lemieux, Paul [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Schultheisz, Daniel; Peake, Tom [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Hayes, Colin [Eastern Research Group, Inc, Morrisville, NC 26560 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Management of debris and waste from a wide-area radiological incident would probably constitute a significant percentage of the total remediation cost and effort. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Waste Estimation Support Tool (WEST) is a unique planning tool for estimating the potential volume and radioactivity levels of waste generated by a radiological incident and subsequent decontamination efforts. The WEST was developed to support planners and decision makers by generating a first-order estimate of the quantity and characteristics of waste resulting from a radiological incident. The tool then allows the user to evaluate the impact of various decontamination/demolition strategies on the waste types and volumes generated. WEST consists of a suite of standalone applications and Esri{sup R} ArcGIS{sup R} scripts for rapidly estimating waste inventories and levels of radioactivity generated from a radiological contamination incident as a function of user-defined decontamination and demolition approaches. WEST accepts Geographic Information System (GIS) shape-files defining contaminated areas and extent of contamination. Building stock information, including square footage, building counts, and building composition estimates are then generated using the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) Hazus{sup R}-MH software. WEST then identifies outdoor surfaces based on the application of pattern recognition to overhead aerial imagery. The results from the GIS calculations are then fed into a Microsoft Excel{sup R} 2007 spreadsheet with a custom graphical user interface where the user can examine the impact of various decontamination/demolition scenarios on the quantity, characteristics, and residual radioactivity of the resulting waste streams. (authors)

  13. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination. PMID:25710477

  14. Pool decontamination method in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable radioactive substance decontamination in a short time by applying ultrasonic cavitation effect to the surface of a stainless cavity (pool) deposited with such radioactive substances. Method: Upon decontamination, an ultrasonic cleaner is caused to flow in water, before discharging water in a cavity after fuel exchange, and supported on supports of a driving device so that the sonic radiation surface of an ultrasonic oscillator is opposed to the side wall surface of the cavity. Then, clean water is supplied to a tubular re-cleaning device provided with a plurality of jetting ports, the ultrasonic oscillator is excited, water is discharged from the cavity and the driving device is reciprocated, whereby the ultrasonic cleaner conducts ultrasonic cleaning while moving in a zig-zag manner along the trace shown in the drawing to remove the radioactive materials deposited on the cavity surface into water. (Kawakami, Y.)

  15. Electrodialytic decontamination of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of a novel electrodialytic decontamination process for the selective removal of radioactive Cs from spent ion exchange resins containing large amounts of Li is described. The process involves passage of a dc electric current through a bed of the spent ion exchange resin in a specially designed electrodialytic cell. The radiocesium so removed from a volume of the spent resin is concentrated onto a much smaller volume of a Cs selective sorbent to achieve a significant radioactive waste volume reduction. Technical feasibility of the electrodialytic resin decontamination process has been demonstrated on a bench scale with a batch of simulated spent ion exchange resin and using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide as the Cs selective sorbent. A volume reduction factor between 10 and 17 has been estimated. The process appears to be economically attractive. Improvements in process economics can be expected from optimization of the process. Other possible applications of the EDRD process have been identified

  16. Electrochemical decontamination of Pu contaminated stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical decontamination has been demonstrated to be very effective in removing plutonium nitrate contamination (0.5 μg cm-2) on stainless steels. The amount of metal dissolved to achieve a DF of 102 to 103 was 2 to 7 μm depending on the electrolyte used. In unstirred electrolytes 1M HNO3, 1M HNO3/0.1M NaF, 5M HNO3 perform best. Under stirred electrolyte conditions, there is a general marginal fall in effectiveness except for 5M HNO3 where there is a slight improvement. The optimum performance is a compromise between maximizing the electrolyte throwing power and minimizing substrate surface roughening during decontamination. (author)

  17. Laser radiation - application for surface decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possibilities of uses laser radiation for decontamination of metal surfaces was considered. The principle of the method is to evaporate a very thin layer of material from the surface via ablation using intensive and focused laser beam. The material removed should then be transferred to a filter by a carrier gas. Some of the obtained data, regarding use of pulsed Nd:YAG laser and energy transfer through an optical fiber, were presented here too. Fundamentals of light interaction with a metal surface were also considered in order to be able to predict conditions and possible ways of successful ablation. It was pointed out that the development of the method would bring several benefits: improved safety - decontamination can be performed remotely, reduced waste volume and less secondary waste, no hazardous chemicals and thus no concerns over chemical handling. (author)

  18. Impact of LWR decontamination on radwaste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased radiation levels around certain reactors in the United States and accompanying increases in personnel exposures are causing a reexamination of options available to utilities to continue operation. One of the options is decontamination of the primary system to reduce radiation levels. The Battelle-Northwest study of decontamination and its impact on radwaste systems has been directed towards existing reactors and allied systems as they are employed during their operational lifetimes. Decommissioning and cleanup during such work are not within the scope of this project although certain processes and waste systems might be similar. Rupture debris cleanup represents a special situation that requires different design features and concepts and it is not a part of this study

  19. Room source management decontamination in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A surface,work materials and tools contamination it produced for Ra-226 sources management in des use in Uruguayan radioactive waste and sources management and storage room specifically in the Uruguay Republic University in Nuclear Search Center. A surface contamination direct was performed measurement with Eberline alpha particles Contamat FHT 111M with 42 496/30 sounder. It found greater and least contamination grade in all cement floor as well as in tables where was managed with Ra-226 sources. A value measured surface contamination can see in the Room scheme with more 200 Bq/cm in extension small places. A segregation between work materials and tools considerate d free contamination was realized. The contaminated objects was separated for a future treatment. A proceeding followed in the decontamination was inhale, abrasion,sweep essays in different representative zones, obtain decontamination factors and residual activity

  20. Surface decontamination by heterogeneous foams and suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of methods was used to investigate the surface of stainless steel as delivered or treated (electrochemically polished, machine ground). Micro X-ray spectral analysis evidenced a uniform distribution of alloying elements. Auger spectroscopy revealed the layer-by-layer composition by elements and the thickness of the superficial oxide film. The distribution of heterogeneous uranium dioxide powders on the stainless steel surface was examined by microprobe analysis (using Comebax). In the order of increasing contamination by uranium dioxide, the surfaces can be arranged as: untreated - polished - ground. The behaviour of hydrogen peroxide in alkaline solutions was studied by spectrophotometry and laser analysis. Decontamination of stainless steel surfaces from UO2 by microgaseous emulsions in alkaline media with surfactants present was tested. The decontamination factor was determined as a function of the size and volume of gas bubbles. It was shown to rise with increasing gas content. (author)

  1. APSIC Guidelines for environmental cleaning and decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Moi Lin; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Thu, Le Thi Anh; Villanueva, Victoria; Pandjaitan, Costy; Yusof, Mohamad Yasim

    2015-01-01

    This document is an executive summary of APSIC Guidelines for Environmental Cleaning and Decontamination. It describes best practices in routine cleaning and decontamination in healthcare facilities as well as in specific settings e.g. management of patients with isolation precautions, food preparation areas, construction and renovation, and following a flood. It recommends the implementation of environmental hygiene program to keep the environment safe for patients, staff and visitors visiting a healthcare facility. Objective assessment of cleanliness and quality is an essential component of this program as a method for identifying quality improvement opportunities. Recommendations for safe handling of linen and bedding; as well as occupational health and safety issues are included in the guidelines. A training program is vital to ensure consistent adherence to best practices. PMID:26719796

  2. Radiation decontamination unit for the community hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freestanding radiation decontamination units including surgical capability can be developed and made operational in small/medium sized community hospitals at relatively small cost and with minimal plant reconstrution. The Radiological Assistance Program of the United States Department of Energy and the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center Training Site of Oak Rige Associated Universities are ready to support individual hospitals and physicians in this endeavor. Adequate planning rather than luck, should be used in dealing with potential radiation accident victims. The radiation emergency team is headed by a physician on duty in the hospital. The senior administrative person on duty is responsible for intramural and extramural communications. Rapid mobilization of the radiation decontamination unit is important

  3. Chemical decontamination for decommissioning purposes. (Vigorous decontamination tests of steel samples in a special test loop)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the research activities described was to develop vigorous decontamination techniques for decommissioning purposes, taking into account the cost of treatment of the radwaste, to achieve possibly unrestricted release of the treated components, and to obtain know-how for in situ hard decontamination. The decontamination procedures for strong decontamination have been optimized in static and dynamic tests (DECO-loop). The best values have been found for: (i) hydrochloric acid: 4 to 5% vol. at low temperature, 0.7 to 1% vol. at high temperature (800C); (ii) hydrofluoric plus nitric acid: 1.5% vol. HF + 5% vol. HNO3 at low temperature; 0.3 to 0.5% vol. HF + 2.5 to 5% vol. HNO3 at high temperature. High flow rates are not necessary, but a good re-circulation of the solution is needed. The final contamination levels, after total oxide removal, are in accordance with limits indicated for unrestricted release of materials in some countries. The arising of the secondary waste is estimated. Decontamination of a 10 m2 surface would typically produce 0.5 to 3.0 kg of dry waste, corresponding to 1.6 to 10 kg of concrete conditioned waste

  4. Advanced robotics for decontamination and dismantlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination and dismantlement (D ampersand D) robotics technology application area of the US Department of Energy's Robotics Technology Development Program is explained and described. D ampersand D robotic systems show real promise for the reduction of human exposure to hazards, for improvement of productivity, and for the reduction of secondary waste generation. Current research and development pertaining to automated floor characterization, robotic equipment removal, and special inspection is summarized. Future research directions for these and emerging activities is given

  5. Cladding hull decontamination process: preliminary development studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griggs, B.; Bryan, G.H.

    1979-12-01

    An investigation of the chemical and radioactive properties of fuel hulls was conducted to assist in a decontamination process development effort. The removal of zirconium oxide layers from zirconium was accomplished by a treatment in 600/sup 0/C HF followed by a dilute aqueous reagent. Similar treatment in fused alkali-zirconium fluoride salt baths was examined. A remotely operated small batch facility was developed and process parameters determined. 16 figures, 9 tables.

  6. New technologies for PCB [polychlorinated biphenyl] decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were mixed with chlorobenzenes to reduce viscosity and provide for both electrical insulation and convective heat transfers. These mixtures were known as askarels, and ca 99.8% of PCBs used in electrical applications are contained in askarel-filled transformers and capacitors. It is estimated that there are ca 180 million gal of PCB-contaminated oil distributed through over 3 million transformers in the USA. Technology used for decontaminating these transformers depends on the concentration of the PCB contamination. At low PCB concentrations of up to ca 2,000 ppM, chemical methods can be used; at higher concentrations, alternative disposal options become more attractive. For chemical treatment, a small mobile unit using quick-reacting reagents has been developed for on-site decontamination. For highly contaminated transformers, retrofilling is very attractive since the owner's liability is minimized at minimum cost. Conventional flush/drain procedures have such drawbacks as the inability to remove oil trapped in windings and the leaching of trapped PCBs back into the uncontaminated retrofill oil over time. A new process has been developed to solve the leaching problem and to decontaminate the drained askarel at room temperature using a catalyst. An alternative disposal strategy involves dismantling the transformer carcass, incinerating non-recyclable materials, and cleaning the metals and wire with solvent. 8 figs

  7. Use of laser ablation in nuclear decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and the use of clean decontamination process appear to be one of the main priorities for industries especially for nuclear industries. This is especially due to the fact of wastes minimization which is one of the principal commitments. One answer would be to use a photonic process such as the LASER process. The principle of this process is based on the absorption, by the contaminant, of the photon's energy. This energy then will propagate into the material and create some mechanical waves responsible of the interfaces embrittlement and de-cohesion. As we can see, this process so called LASER ablation does not use any chemicals and allows us to avoid any production of liquid waste. Since now a couple of years, the Clean-Up Business Unit of AREVA group (BE/CL) investigates this new decontamination technology. Many tests have been done in inactive conditions on various simulants such as paints, inks, resins, metallic oxides firstly in order to estimate its efficiency but also to fully qualify it. After that, we decided to move on hot tests to fully validate this new process and to show its interest for the nuclear industry. Those hot tests have been done on two kinds of contaminated material (on tank pieces covered with a thick metallic oxide layer and on metallic pieces covered with grease). Some information such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray scattering spectroscopy and decontamination factors (DF) will be provided in this paper. (authors)

  8. Biodegradation of concrete intended for their decontamination; Biodegradation de matrices cimentaires en vue de leur decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jestin, A

    2005-05-15

    The decontamination of sub-structural materials represents a stake of high importance because of the high volume generated. It is agreed then to propose efficient and effective processes. The process of bio-decontamination of the hydraulic binders leans on the mechanisms of biodegradation of concretes, phenomenon characterized in the 40's by an indirect attack of the material by acids stem from the microbial metabolism: sulphuric acid (produced by Thiobacillus), nitric acid (produced by Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter) and organic acids (produced by fungi). The principle of the bio-decontamination process is to apply those microorganisms on the surface of the contaminated material, in order to damage its surface and to retrieve the radionuclides. One of the multiple approaches of the process is the use of a bio-gel that makes possible the micro-organisms application. (author)

  9. 300 Area D4 Project Fiscal Year 2007 Building Completion Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Westberg

    2009-01-15

    This report documents the deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition (D4) of twenty buildings in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The D4 of these facilties included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, utility disconnection, deactivation, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and stabilization or removal of the remaining slab and foundation, as appropriate.

  10. Experimental study on decontamination effect of water jets spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear components, pipes, casks and so on are contaminated after long usage and should be decontaminated before their repair or maintenance. There are various ways of decontamination such as ultrasonic wave cleaning, mechanical brushing, electric polishing and so forth, but most common is water jet spray. Water jet dynamic pressure along the axis of the nozzle (Pm) depends upon that of nozzle exit (Po) and the distance between nozzle exit and the surface to be decontaminated. The decontamination effect greatly depends not only on the pressure (Pm) but on the nozzle scanning speed (Vs). But the relation of these effects on decontamination is not known yet. The authors studied the characteristics of water jets from various types of nozzles by measuring pressure distribution in the water jets, made simulated sample pieces of crud, and removed the deposit by water jets. As a result of these experimental studies, the authors can obtain the formulated relation between decontamination factor and the former various factors

  11. Decontamination of metal surface contaminated by uranyl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination degrees was measured for the metallic equipments in the uranium conversion plant by a chemical decontamination and contamination degrees also measured. Most equipments was made of stainless steel and contacted with uranium(VI) and nitric acid solution. So, metallic surfaces was contaminated with uranium(VI) materials. And decontamination degrees can be expressed by alpha activity measurements. For the alpha activity measurements, metallic specimens were selected in the three representative processes, dissolution process, solvent extraction, and Ammonium Uranyl Carbonate(AUC) precipitation and were prepared to rectangular parallelepipeds with 18mm width and 18mm length and 5mm height. The metallic surfaces can be decontaminated under 10 Bq/cm2 alpha activity due to uranium by only water decontamination, and under 0.04 Bq/cm2 alpha activity by 10% nitric acid decontamination that is ground activity level

  12. Decontamination system study for the Tank Waste Retrieval System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the findings of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's decontamination study in support of the Tank Waste Retrieval System (TWRS) development program. Problems associated with waste stored in existing single shell tanks are discussed as well as the justification for the TWRS program. The TWRS requires a decontamination system. The subsystems of the TWRS are discussed, and a list of assumptions pertinent to the TWRS decontamination system were developed. This information was used to develop the functional and operational requirements of the TWRS decontamination system. The requirements were combined with a comprehensive review of currently available decontamination techniques to produced a set of evaluation criteria. The cleaning technologies and techniques were evaluated, and the CO2 blasting decontamination technique was chosen as the best technology for the TWRS

  13. Decontamination of uranium-contaminated equipment and parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Uranium enrichment pilot plant was decommissioned in 1985-1986. The decontamination concept and methods and results for the equipment and parts decontaminated are discussed. The kinds of metals involved in the decontamination action were copper, nickel, aluminium alloy, mild steel, and stainless steel. Decontamination results showed the surface contamination levels of most parts decontaminated achieved the required level. The uranium content in aluminium ingots after metal refining was from 33 to 232 ppm. The decontamination liquid wastes were treated with the multiprecipitation method. The contents of uranium, nickel, and fluoride in the supernatant were 0.02-0.1 mg/1, 0.02 mg/1, and 0.13 mg/1, respectively

  14. New decontamination process using foams containing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One key point in the dismantling of nuclear facilities is the thorough cleaning of radiation- exposed surfaces on which radioactive deposits have formed. This cleaning step is often achieved by successive liquid rinses with specific solutions containing alkaline, acidic, or even oxidizing species depending on whether the aim is to dissolve greasy deposits (like ter-butylphosphate) or to corrode surfaces on micrometric thicknesses. An alternative process to reduce the amount of chemicals and the volume of the resulting nuclear wastes consists in using the same but foamed solutions (1). Carrying less liquid, the resulting foams still display similar kinetics of dissolution rates and their efficiency is determined by their ability to hold sufficient wetnesses during the time required for the decontamination. Classical foam decontamination process illustrated by foam pulverization or circulation in the 90 turned five years ago into a specific static process using high-lifetime viscosified foam at a steady state. One way to slow down the liquid drainage is to raise liquid viscosity by adding organic viscosifiers like xanthan gum (2). In 2005, new studies started on an innovative process proposed by S. Faure and based on triphasic foams containing particles [3]. The aim is to generate new decontamination foams containing less quantities of organics materials (surfactants and viscosifiers). Silica particles are obviously known to stabilize or destabilize foams (4). In the frame of S. Guignot Ph.D., new fundamental studies are initiated in order to clarify the role of silica solid microparticles in these foams. Our final goal is to determine whether this kind of new foam can be stable for several hours for a decontamination process. The results we will report focus on wet foams used for nuclear decontamination and incorporating fumed silica. The study is conducted on a vertical foam column in a pseudo-free drainage configuration, and aims at investigating the influence of

  15. New decontamination process using foams containing particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guignot, S.; Faure, S. [CEA Marcoule, Lab. des Procedes Avances de Decontamination, 30 (France)

    2008-07-01

    One key point in the dismantling of nuclear facilities is the thorough cleaning of radiation- exposed surfaces on which radioactive deposits have formed. This cleaning step is often achieved by successive liquid rinses with specific solutions containing alkaline, acidic, or even oxidizing species depending on whether the aim is to dissolve greasy deposits (like ter-butylphosphate) or to corrode surfaces on micrometric thicknesses. An alternative process to reduce the amount of chemicals and the volume of the resulting nuclear wastes consists in using the same but foamed solutions (1). Carrying less liquid, the resulting foams still display similar kinetics of dissolution rates and their efficiency is determined by their ability to hold sufficient wetnesses during the time required for the decontamination. Classical foam decontamination process illustrated by foam pulverization or circulation in the 90 turned five years ago into a specific static process using high-lifetime viscosified foam at a steady state. One way to slow down the liquid drainage is to raise liquid viscosity by adding organic viscosifiers like xanthan gum (2). In 2005, new studies started on an innovative process proposed by S. Faure and based on triphasic foams containing particles [3]. The aim is to generate new decontamination foams containing less quantities of organics materials (surfactants and viscosifiers). Silica particles are obviously known to stabilize or destabilize foams (4). In the frame of S. Guignot Ph.D., new fundamental studies are initiated in order to clarify the role of silica solid microparticles in these foams. Our final goal is to determine whether this kind of new foam can be stable for several hours for a decontamination process. The results we will report focus on wet foams used for nuclear decontamination and incorporating fumed silica. The study is conducted on a vertical foam column in a pseudo-free drainage configuration, and aims at investigating the influence of

  16. Steam generator channel head decontamination by remote grit blast methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decontamination technique using a high pressure water spray containing an abrasive grit has been developed and employed in the decontamination of steam generator channel heads. The spray, which is remotely controlled, removes the corrosion product deposits that form on primary system surfaces and reduces the area dose rates. The remote grit blast technique has proven to be a viable method for decontamination of steam generator channel head surfaces

  17. Electropulse method of decontamination of nuclear power plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of existing methods of decontamination of nuclear power plant equipment; it describes the advantages and disadvantages of the existing methods. A new promising method for decontamination of removable NPP equipment with a complex surface configuration. The technology and the advantages of the proposed method. Presented physical -mathematical model that calculates non- steady field electrolyte concentration, temperature and electric field in the electrolyte during electro surface treatment. Key words: corrosion, radioactive contamination, decontamination, equipment, nuclear power plant

  18. Decontamination technologies for release from bioprocessing facilities. Part I. Introduction. Part II. Decontamination of wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetically engineered microorganisms are widely used in biotechnology. Wastewater from bioprocessing facilities will require treatment to ensure that effluents discharged into surface water or other waste streams are not a source of viable organisms or transmittable genetic material. The application of treatment technologies used in other industries to decontaminate the releases from biotechnology processing facilities was evaluated. Since published literature on the inactivation of recombinant-DNA organisms is very limited, information for bacteria, viruses, fungi and subcellular components was obtained. The data indicated that ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, heat, ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation offer good performance potential for decontamination of rDNA processing wastewater. 180 refs., 7 figs., 26 tabs

  19. Design of a decontamination section of the post-irradiation examination laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Post-Irradiation Examination Laboratory activities include the decontamination of expensive equipment of different sizes and weight, involving the complexity and extension of the necessary decontamination. A decontamination section has been designed for that purpose. (author)

  20. Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1973, when the IAEA first introduced the subject of decontamination and decommissioning into its programme, twelve Agency reports reflecting the needs of the Member States on these topics have been published. These reports summarize the work done by various Technical Committees, Advisory Groups, and International Symposia. While the basic technology to accomplish decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) is fairly well developed, the Agency feels that a more rapid exchange of information and co-ordination of work are required to foster technology, reduce duplication of effort, and provide useful results for Member States planning D and D activities. Although the Agency's limited financial resources do not make possible direct support of every research work in this field, the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) creates a forum for outstanding workers from different Member States brought into closer contact with one another to provide for more effective interaction and, perhaps subsequently, closer collaboration. The first IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on decontamination and decommissioning was initiated in 1984. Nineteen experts from 11 Member States and two international organizations (CEC, OECD/NEA) took part in the three Research Co-ordination Meetings (RCM) during 1984-87. The final RCM took place in Pittsburgh, USA, in conjunction with the 1987 International Decommissioning Symposium (sponsored by the US DOE and organized in co-operation with the IAEA and OECD/NEA). The present document summarizes the salient features and achievements of the co-ordinated research work performed during the 1984-87 programme period. The document consists of two parts: Part 1, Summary of the three research co-ordination meetings and Part 2, Final submissions by participants on the research work performed during 1984-1987. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 7 reports presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Full system decontamination experience in BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, N.; Sugai, K.; Katayouse, N.; Fujimori, A.; Iida, K.; Hayashi, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo (Japan); Kanasaki, T.; Inami, I. [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama (Japan); Strohmer, F. [Framatome ANP Gmbh, Eelangen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    At the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station unit 3, unit 2, unit 5 and unit 1 of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), the replacement of the core shroud and internals has been conducted since 1997 in this order. The welded core internals in operating BWR plants were replaced to improve stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance. At present these units are operating smoothly. The developed technology concept is to restore those internals in open air inside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). To reduce the radiation dose rate inside the RPV, not only a shielding method was applied to cut the radiation from the irradiated structures but also a chemical decontamination method was applied to dissolve the radioactive crud deposited on the surface by using chemical agents. The calculated decontamination factor (DF) at the RPV bottom reached 35-117. As result, the dose rate decreased to approximately 0.1 mSv/h under water. Before and after the installation of the in-vessel shielding, a mechanical cleaning was extensively applied inside the RPV to remove the residual crud as well as the swarf, chips from cutting. As a result, the dose rate at the RPV bottom decreased to ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 mSv/h in air. A working environment for human access, which was better than expected, was established inside the RPV, resulting in 70, 140, 50 and 70 man-Sv (estimated) saving respectively at unit 3 (1F-3), unit 2(1F-2), unit 5(1F-5) and unit 1(1F-1). All four full system decontamination (FSDs) contributed to the successful realization of the core shroud replacement project under the dry condition in RPV.

  2. Microwave-Based Water Decontamination System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Byerly, Diane (Inventor); Sognier, Marguerite (Inventor); Dusl, John (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system for decontaminating a medium. The system can include a medium having one or more contaminants disposed therein. The contaminants can be or include bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, and combinations thereof. A microwave energy radiation device can be positioned proximate the medium. The microwave energy radiation device can be adapted to generate a signal having a frequency from about 10 GHz to about 100 GHz. The signal can be adapted to kill one or more of the contaminants disposed within the medium while increasing a temperature of the medium by less than about 10 C.

  3. Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

    2006-07-15

    The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Major articles/reports in this issue include: NPP Krsko revised decommissioning program, by Vladimir Lokner and Ivica Levanat, APO d.o.o., Croatia, and Nadja Zeleznik and Irena Mele, ARAO, Slovenia; Supporting the renaissance, by Marilyn C. Kray, Exelon Nuclear; Outage world an engineer's delight, by Tom Chrisopher, Areva, NP Inc.; Optimizing refueling outages with R and D, by Ross Marcoot, GE Energy; and, A successful project, by Jim Lash, FirstEnergy.

  4. Microbiological decontamination of some herbs by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research work on the microbiological decontamination of the medical herbs by electron beam was carried out. The seven samples of the herbs granules were irradiated at the doses 3, 6 and 10 kGy. It has been shown, that D10 values are varied in several samples after irradiation. Additional, research work, by gas chromatographic method, on the composition volatile oils (salvia, orange, peppermint and anise), after irradiation at the dose 4.4 and 8.8 kGy was carried out. It was not significant differences in the compositions between control and irradiated oils. (author). 12 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Decontamination formulations for disinfection and sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D.; Engler, Daniel E.

    2007-09-18

    Aqueous decontamination formulations that neutralize biological pathogens for disinfection and sterilization applications. Examples of suitable applications include disinfection of food processing equipment, disinfection of areas containing livestock, mold remediation, sterilization of medical instruments and direct disinfection of food surfaces, such as beef carcasses. The formulations include at least one reactive compound, bleaching activator, inorganic base, and water. The formulations can be packaged as a two-part kit system, and can have a pH value in the range of 7-8.

  6. Automated Single Cell Data Decontamination Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennessen, Kristin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Pati, Amrita [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2014-03-21

    Recent technological advancements in single-cell genomics have encouraged the classification and functional assessment of microorganisms from a wide span of the biospheres phylogeny.1,2 Environmental processes of interest to the DOE, such as bioremediation and carbon cycling, can be elucidated through the genomic lens of these unculturable microbes. However, contamination can occur at various stages of the single-cell sequencing process. Contaminated data can lead to wasted time and effort on meaningless analyses, inaccurate or erroneous conclusions, and pollution of public databases. A fully automated decontamination tool is necessary to prevent these instances and increase the throughput of the single-cell sequencing process

  7. Decision Analysis Science Modeling for Application and Fielding Selection Applied to Metal Decontamination Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, L.E.; Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    During the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), approximately 550,000 metric tons of contaminated metal will be generated by the disposition of contaminated buildings. The majority of the structural steel is considered to be radiologically contaminated. The D and D activities require the treatment of the structural steel to reduce occupational and environmental radiological exposures during dismantlement. Treatment technologies may also be required for possible recycling. Many proven commercial treatment technologies are available. These treatment processes vary in aggressiveness, safety requirements, secondary waste generation, necessary capital, and operation and maintenance costs. Choosing the appropriate technology to meet the decontamination objectives for structural steel is a difficult process. A single information source comparing innovative and nuclear and non-nuclear technologies in the areas of safety, cost and effectiveness is not currently commercially available to perform a detailed analysis. This study presents comparable data related to operation and maintenance, cost, and health and safely aspects of three readily available technologies and one innovative technology for nuclear decontamination. The technologies include Advance Recyclable Media System (ARMS{trademark}), NELCO Porta Shot Blast{trademark} (JHJ-2000), Pegasus Coating Removal System 7 (PCRS-7) and the innovative laser ablation technology called the Yag Eraser{trademark}.

  8. Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Jik; Kwon, H. S.; Kim, G. N. and others

    1999-03-01

    Through the project of 'Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology', the followings were studied. 1. Development of decontamination and repair technology for nuclear fuel cycle facilities 2. Development of dismantling technology 3. Development of environmental restoration technology. (author)

  9. Stability of Decontamination Foam Containing Silica Nanoparticles and Viscosifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, In Ho; Jung, Chong Hun; Yoon, Suk Bon; Kim, Chorong; Jung, Jun Young; Park, Sang Yoon; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Wang Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This formulation can significantly decrease the amounts of chemical reagents and secondary waste. The advantage of decontamination foam is its potentially wide application for metallic walls, overhead surfaces, and the elements of complex components and facilities. In addition, foam is a good material for in situ decontamination because it generates low final waste volumes owing to its volume expansion. The application of foam allows for remote decontamination processing using only an injection nozzle and the equipment to generate the decontamination foam, which reduces operator exposure to high radioactivity. The decontamination efficiency can be enhanced by improving the contact time between chemical reagents and a contaminated surface through the addition of surfactants and viscosifiers into the decontamination foam. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of silica nanoparticles and a viscosifier on the foam stability and the dissolution behaviors of corroded specimens using a non-ionic surfactant. This study showed the effect of viscosifiers and nanoparticles on the foam stability when developing new formulations of decontamination foam. The addition of xanthan gum and the mixture of xanthan gum and silica nanoparticles (M-5) significantly increased the foam stability, compared to the surfactant solution alone. This result indicates that both the viscosifier and nanoparticles have a synergistic effect on the foam stability. As the contact time increased, the dissolution rate increased to become similar to the dissolution that contained decontamination liquid.

  10. Stability of Decontamination Foam Containing Silica Nanoparticles and Viscosifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This formulation can significantly decrease the amounts of chemical reagents and secondary waste. The advantage of decontamination foam is its potentially wide application for metallic walls, overhead surfaces, and the elements of complex components and facilities. In addition, foam is a good material for in situ decontamination because it generates low final waste volumes owing to its volume expansion. The application of foam allows for remote decontamination processing using only an injection nozzle and the equipment to generate the decontamination foam, which reduces operator exposure to high radioactivity. The decontamination efficiency can be enhanced by improving the contact time between chemical reagents and a contaminated surface through the addition of surfactants and viscosifiers into the decontamination foam. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of silica nanoparticles and a viscosifier on the foam stability and the dissolution behaviors of corroded specimens using a non-ionic surfactant. This study showed the effect of viscosifiers and nanoparticles on the foam stability when developing new formulations of decontamination foam. The addition of xanthan gum and the mixture of xanthan gum and silica nanoparticles (M-5) significantly increased the foam stability, compared to the surfactant solution alone. This result indicates that both the viscosifier and nanoparticles have a synergistic effect on the foam stability. As the contact time increased, the dissolution rate increased to become similar to the dissolution that contained decontamination liquid

  11. Decontamination of Belarus research reactor installation by strippable coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study was to develop new strippable coatings using water-based solutions of polyvinyl alcohol and active additives for decontamination of research reactor equipment. The employment of strippable coatings makes it possible to minimize the quantity of liquid radioactive waste. The selection of strippable decontaminating coatings was carried out on the basis of general requirements to decontaminating solutions: successfully dissolve corrosion deposits; ensure the desorption of radionuclides from the surfaces and the absence of resorption; introduce minimal corrosion effect of construction materials; to be relatively cheap and available in reagents. The decontaminating ability and adhesion properties of these coatings depending on metal and deposit sorts were investigated. Research on the chemical stability of solid wastes was carried out. The data obtained were the base for recommendations on waste management procedure for used films and pastes. A full-scale case-study analysis was performed for comparing strippable coatings with decontaminating solutions. (author)

  12. Project n.4: local strategies for decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, Ph. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Ramzaev, V. [Branch of Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Karchovka, Bryandk (Russian Federation); Antsypov, G. [Chernobyl State Committee of the Republic of Belarus, (Belarus); Sobotovich, E. [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Ore formation, Kiev (Ukraine); Anisimova, L. [EMERCOM, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The efficiencies of a great number of techniques for decontamination or dose reduction in contaminated areas have been investigated by several teams of E.C. and CIS scientists (ECP4 project). Modelling, laboratory and field experiments, and a return from experience from the area contaminated by the Chernobyl accident allowed to assess radiological efficiencies and requirements for the operation of numerous practical solutions. Then those data were supplemented with data on cost and waste generation in order to elaborate all the information for the optimisation of decontamination strategies. Results are presented for about 70 techniques. However, a technique cannot be compared to another from a generic point of view. Rather it is designed for a specific target and the best technology depends on the objectives. It has been decided to implement decision analyses on case studies and the local conditions and objectives have been investigated. Individual doses ranged from 1 to 5 mSv, with the contrasted contributions of internal and external doses. The desire to restore a normal activity in a partially depopulated settlement and concerns about the recent increase in internal doses were typical incentives for action. The decision aiding analysis illustrated that actions can be usually recommended. Results are outlined. (authors). 23 refs.

  13. Cost/risk/benefit analysis report on the decontamination and decommissioning of Z-plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to estimate the cost of decontaminating and decommissioning Z-Plant. All of the buildings in the Z-Plant exclusion area except Building 2736-Z, the plutonium storage vault, are included in the study. The study also excludes all underground facilities within the exclusion area which are not contained within a building and all Z-Plant related facilities outside the perimeter fence. The contamination in Z-Plant is primarily 239Pu which has a half-life of 24,360 years. Because of the long half-life of 239Pu, it is not practical to consider the isolation of the facility to await reduction of the contamination level by natural decay. Therefore, this study analyzes the costs, risk and benefit of decontaminating Z-Plant to four different levels of residual contamination. The three principle criteria used in the analysis are cost, the risk of offsite dose to the public, and the occupational exposure to onsite personnel

  14. Decontamination and dismantling of large plutonium-contamined glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the work performed in the frame of two C.E.C. - Contracts FI1D-002400-B Decommissioning of very large glove boxes and FI1D-0058 Decommissioning of a complex glove box structure to be dismounted partially on place. Detailed information is given about each glove box. The selection of the solution Transportation of the glove boxes to a specialized dismantling plant is justified. The necessary contacts inside the BELGONUCLEAIRE MOX plant and between the latter and other organizations are explained. The problems of manipulating large gloves are listed and the retained solution of building a so called Stiffening frame around each glove box is described. Furthermore information is given concerning required operators time for cleaning, manipulating, packing and dismantling together with received doses and quantities of waste produced. Concerning the glove box unit partially to be dismounted on place, detailed information is given about the way the glove boxes have been treated prior to this partial dismantling on place and about the way this partial dismantling has been performed. From these results one can conclude that such a delicate task can be performed without major difficulties. Finally information is given of the decontamination test of a highly Pu contaminated glove box with freon with rather poor results and of the preliminary CO2 blasting tests on non active samples

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 254 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. A corrective action investigation for this CAS as conducted in January 2000 as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Samples were collected from various media throughout the CAS and sent to an off-site laboratory for analysis. The laboratory results indicated the following: radiation dose rates inside the Decontamination Facility, Building 3126, and in the storage yard exceeded the average general dose rate; scanning and static total surface contamination surveys indicated that portions of the locker and shower room floor, decontamination bay floor, loft floor, east and west decon pads, north and south decontamination bay interior walls, exterior west and south walls, and loft walls were above preliminary action levels (PALs). The investigation-derived contaminants of concern (COCs) included: polychlorinated biphenyls, radionuclides (strontium-90, niobium-94, cesium-137, uranium-234 and -235), total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Metals). During the investigation, two corrective action objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate human exposure to COCs. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the Nevada Test Site, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Unrestricted Release Decontamination and Verification Survey; and Alternative 3 - Unrestricted

  16. Cleaning of liquid LLW from decontamination processes using semipermeable membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the three processes, which have been used extensively for liquid radioactive waste purification, evaporation and ion exchange are costly and flocculation gives a low degree of purification. By comparison to that, reverse osmosis offers intermediate purification at reasonable cost. Present research is examining the potential of using a membrane filtration system for the removal of dissolved radionuclides, but chemical treatment showed as necessary to convert soluble radionuclides, organic traces and metals to insoluble, filterable species. Liquid wastes within a CANDU station are segregated into normal and low-activity waste streams. The normal-activity waste includes wastes from the laboratories, laundries, some service-building drains, upgrade drains, and decontamination center. The drains from the reactor building, the heavy-water area, the spent-fuel pool, and the resin storage area are also directed to this normal activity wastes from showers and building drains in areas of the service building that would not normally be contaminated. The aqueous liquid wastes from the decontamination center and the other collected wastes from the chemical drain system are currently treated by the membrane plant. Generally, the liquid waste streams are effectively volume-reduced by a combination of continuous crossflow microfiltration (MF), spiral wound reverse osmosis (SWRO) and tubular reverse osmosis membrane technologies. Backwash chemical cleaning wastes from the membrane plant are further volume-reduced by evaporation. The concentrate from the membrane plant is ultimately immobilized with bitumen. The ability of the MF/SWRO technology to remove impurities non-selectively makes it suitable for the treatment of radioactive effluents from operating nuclear plants, with proper membrane selection, feed characterization, system configuration and system chemistry control. The choice of polysulfonate material for membrane was based on the high flow rates achievable with this

  17. Decontamination Project for Cell G of the Metal Recovery Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandry, G.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Grisham, R.W. [Allied Technology Group, Inc., Fremont, CA (United States)

    1994-02-01

    The goal of the decontamination effort in Cell G at the Metal Recovery Facility, Building 3505, located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was two-fold: to determine the effectiveness of the dry decontamination technique employed and to provide data required to assess whether additional decontamination using this method would be beneficial in the eventual decommissioning of the facility. Allied Technology Group (ATG) was contracted to remove a portion of the concrete surface in Cell G by a technique known as scabbling. Some metallic cell components were also scabbled to remove paint and other surface debris. Generally, the scabbling operation was a success. Levels of contamination were greatly reduced. The depth of contaminant penetration into the concrete surfaces of certain areas was much greater than had been anticipated, necessitating the removal of additional concrete and extending ATG`s period of performance. Scabbling and other related techniques will be extremely useful in the decontamination and decommissioning of other nuclear facilities with similar radiological profiles.

  18. Situations of decontamination promotion activities. Efforts by Tokyo Electric Power Company, Fukushima Revitalization Headquarters, Decontamination Promotion Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for the decontamination of the soil contaminated with radioactive materials, decontamination is on the way in compliance with the 'Act on Special Measures Concerning the Handling of Environmental Pollution by Radioactive Materials by the NPS Accident Associated with the Tohoku District - Off the Pacific Ocean' (hereinafter, the Act on Special Measures). Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), as the party concerned to the accident, is cooperating with decontamination activities conducted by countries and municipalities under the Act on Special Measures. Total number of people cooperated by the Decontamination Promotion Office amounts to about 120,000 people. The cooperation to the decontamination by countries and municipalities covers the following fields: provision of knowledge of radiation, training of site management and supervisors, and proposal such as the decontamination method suitable for the site. As cooperation to various monitoring, there is a traveling monitoring that performs radiation measurement from the vehicles. As cooperation in the farming and industrial resumption toward the reconstruction, the group has implemented support for the distribution promotion of the holdup that was stuck in distribution due to contamination with radioactive substances. As decontamination related technology, the following are performed: (1) preparation of radiation understanding promotion tool, (2) development of precise individual dose measurement technology, and (3) development and utilization of decontamination effect analysis program. In the future, this group will perform the follow-up for decontamination, and measures toward the lifting of evacuation order. It will install the basis to perform various technical analyses on decontamination, and will further intensify technical cooperation. (A.O.)

  19. Decontamination and decommissioning activities photobriefing book FY 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-08

    The Chicago Pile 5 (CP-5) Reactor, the first reactor built on the Argonne National Laboratory-East site, followed a rich history that had begun in 1942 with Enrico Fermi's original pile built under the west stands at the Stagg Field Stadium of The University of Chicago. CP-5 was a 5-megawatt, heavy water-moderated, enriched uranium-fueled reactor used to produce neutrons for scientific research from 1954--79. The reactor was shut down and defueled in 1979, and placed into a lay-up condition pending funding for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). In 1990, work was initiated on the D and D of the facility in order to alleviate safety and environmental concerns associated with the site due to the deterioration of the building and its associated support systems. A decision was made in early Fiscal Year (FY) 1999 to direct focus and resources to the completion of the CP-5 Reactor D and D Project. An award of contract was made in December 1998 to Duke Engineering and Services (Marlborough, MA), and a D and D crew was on site in March 1999 to begin work, The project is scheduled to be completed in July 2000. The Laboratory has determined that the building housing the CP-5 facility is surplus to the Laboratory's needs and will be a candidate for demolition. In addition to a photographic chronology of FY 1999 activities at the CP-5 Reactor D and D Project, brief descriptions of other FY 1999 activities and of projects planned for the future are provided in this photobriefing book.

  20. Nuclear disaster. Fukushima, hundred years of decontamination; Catastrophe nucleaire: Fukushima, cent ans de decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupin, L.

    2011-04-15

    This article gives an overview of what will have to be done on the site of Fukushima to decontaminate and to dismantle it. Based on the experience gained in Three Mile Island and in Chernobyl, experts foresee ten years of work within the reactor cores, thirty years around the plant, sixty years of decontamination within the no man's land area around the plant; and centuries as far as scattered spots are concerned more than hundred kilometres away from the plant. Three radionuclides must be surveyed, but with different half lives: iodine 131 (8 days), caesium 137 (30 years), and plutonium 239 (24000 years). The expertise of French companies (Areva, Assystem, Bouygues and Vinci) in reactor dismantling, dismantling procedure design, and public works (protection arch like in Chernobyl) is briefly evoked, as well as the French approach for post-accident management

  1. Long-term decontamination engineering study. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geuther, W.J.

    1995-04-03

    This report was prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) with technical and cost estimating support from Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) and Parsons Environmental Services, Inc. (Parsons). This engineering study evaluates the requirements and alternatives for decontamination/treatment of contaminated equipment at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to determine the decontamination/treatment strategy that best supports the Hanford Site environmental restoration mission. It describes the potential waste streams requiring treatment or decontamination, develops the alternatives under consideration establishes the criteria for comparison, evaluates the alternatives, and draws conclusions (i.e., the optimum strategy for decontamination). Although two primary alternatives are discussed, this study does identify other alternatives that may warrant additional study. hanford Site solid waste management program activities include storage, special processing, decontamination/treatment, and disposal facilities. This study focuses on the decontamination/treatment processes (e.g., waste decontamination, size reduction, immobilization, and packaging) that support the environmental restoration mission at the Hanford Site.

  2. Preconceptual design of the gas-phase decontamination demonstration cart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removal of uranium deposits from the interior surfaces of gaseous diffusion equipment will be a major portion of the overall multibillion dollar effort to decontaminate and decommission the gaseous diffusion plants. Long-term low-temperature (LTLT) gas-phase decontamination is being developed at the K-25 Site as an in situ decontamination process that is expected to significantly lower the decontamination costs, reduce worker exposure to radioactive materials, and reduce safeguard concerns. This report documents the preconceptual design of the process equipment that is necessary to conduct a full-scale demonstration of the LTLT method in accordance with the process steps listed above. The process equipment and method proposed in this report are not intended to represent a full-scale production campaign design and operation, since the gas evacuation, gas charging, and off-gas handling systems that would be cost effective in a production campaign are not cost effective for a first-time demonstration. However, the design presented here is expected to be applicable to special decontamination projects beyond the demonstration, which could include the Deposit Recovery Program. The equipment will therefore be sized to a 200 ft size 1 converter (plus a substantial conservative design margin), which is the largest item of interest for gas phase decontamination in the Deposit Recovery Program. The decontamination equipment will allow recovery of the UF6, which is generated from the reaction of ClF3 with the uranium deposits, by use of NaF traps

  3. New decontamination techniques: chemical gels, electropolishing and abrasives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of nuclear installations requires decontamination techniques that are efficient, simple to apply and producing a small amount of wastes, which are easy to process. With a view to this, three decontamination methods, which appear to be particularly suited to decommissioning, have been studied. These three methods are: - spraying of gels carrying chemical decontaminating agents, - electropolishing with a swab device, - abrasives blasting. After parametric tests on non-radioactive and active samples, the industrial application of these methods in the dismantling of installations was studied. These industrial applications concern: - decontamination of pieces coming from the German BWR ISAR by immersion and gel spraying, - decontamination, mainly by gel spraying, and dismantling of the BRENNILIS bituminisation plant, - decontamination of part of the cooling circuit of the graphite gas reactor G2 by gel spraying, - decontamination of a component of the FBR SuperPhenix, using dry abrasives blasting. During the first three applications, generated secondary wastes volume and form were determined. 33 tabs., 16 figs., 12 refs

  4. Experimental studies on decontamination in first aid for contaminated wounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusama, Tomoko; Ogaki, Kazushi; Yoshizawa, Yasuo (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-06-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the decontamination procedures in first aid for wounds contaminated with radionuclides. Abrasion of mouse skin was contaminated with /sup 58/CoCl/sub 2/. Irrigation by decontamination fluids began at 2 min after administration of the radionuclide and continued for 14 min. Tap water, 0.5% Hyamine solution or 10% Ca-DTPA solution were used as the decontamination fluids. Radioactivities of whole body, wounded skin surface and washed solution were measured with an animal counter with 5 cm NaI(Tl) and a well-type auto-gamma-counter. Decontamination effectiveness were expressed as follows: (1) absorption rate of radionuclide through the wound and (2) residual rate of radionuclide on the wound. More than 20% of the radionuclide applied on the wounded skin was absorbed in 15 min after contamination. The absorption rate decreased to 2% by the decontamination procedures. The Ca-DTPA solution reduced the residual rate of radionuclide on the wounds. The results suggested that the decontamination for the contaminated wounds should begin as soon as possible. Irrigation with 0.5% Hyamine solution has been advocated for the decontamination in the first aid.

  5. Development of Decontamination and Decommissioning Technologies for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser ablation decontamination technology which is reportedly effective for a removal of fixed contaminants has been developed for three years as the first stage of the development. Lab scale experimental equipment was fabricated and the process variables have been assessed for determination of appropriate decontamination conditions at the laser wave lengths of 1,064 nm and 532 nm, respectively. The decontamination tests using radioactive specimens showed that the decontamination efficiency was about 100 which is quite a high value. An electrokinetic-flushing, an agglomeration leaching and a supercritical CO2 soil decontamination technology were development for a decontamination of radioactive soil wastes from the decommissioned sites of the TRIGA research reactor and the uranium conversion facilities. An electrokinetic-flushing process was found to be effective for soil wastes aged for a long time and an agglomeration leaching process was effective for soil wastes of surface contamination. On the other hand, a supercritical CO2 soil decontamination technology was found to be applicable for U or TRU bearing soil wastes. The remediation monitoring key technologies such as a representative sample taking and a measurement concept for the vertical distribution of radionuclides were developed for an assessment of the site remediation. Also an One-Dimensional Water Flow and Contaminant Transport in Unsaturated Zone (FTUNS) code was developed to interpretate the radionuclide migration in the unsaturated zone

  6. Comparative analysis of showering protocols for mass-casualty decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlot, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Jones, David R; Carter, Holly; Turner, Elizabeth A; Price, Shirley C; Chilcott, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    A well-established provision for mass-casualty decontamination that incorporates the use of mobile showering units has been developed in the UK. The effectiveness of such decontamination procedures will be critical in minimizing or preventing the contamination of emergency responders and hospital infrastructure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three empirical strategies designed to optimize existing decontamination procedures: (1) instructions in the form of a pictorial aid prior to decontamination; (2) provision of a washcloth within the showering facility; and (3) an extended showering period. The study was a three-factor, between-participants (or "independent") design with 90 volunteers. The three factors each had two levels: use of washcloths (washcloth/no washcloth), washing instructions (instructions/no instructions), and shower cycle duration (three minutes/six minutes). The effectiveness of these strategies was quantified by whole-body fluorescence imaging following application of a red fluorophore to multiple, discrete areas of the skin. All five showering procedures were relatively effective in removing the fluorophore "contaminant", but the use of a cloth (in the absence of instructions) led to a significant ( appox. 20%) improvement in the effectiveness of decontamination over the standard protocol (p mass-casualty decontamination effectiveness, especially in children, can be optimized by the provision of a washcloth. This simple but effective approach indicates the value of performing controlled volunteer trials for optimizing existing decontamination procedures.

  7. Development of Decontamination and Decommissioning Technologies for Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Jei Kwon; Lee, Kune Woo; Won, Hui Jun

    2010-04-15

    A laser ablation decontamination technology which is reportedly effective for a removal of fixed contaminants has been developed for three years as the first stage of the development. Lab scale experimental equipment was fabricated and the process variables have been assessed for determination of appropriate decontamination conditions at the laser wave lengths of 1,064 nm and 532 nm, respectively. The decontamination tests using radioactive specimens showed that the decontamination efficiency was about 100 which is quite a high value. An electrokinetic-flushing, an agglomeration leaching and a supercritical CO{sub 2} soil decontamination technology were development for a decontamination of radioactive soil wastes from the decommissioned sites of the TRIGA research reactor and the uranium conversion facilities. An electrokinetic-flushing process was found to be effective for soil wastes aged for a long time and an agglomeration leaching process was effective for soil wastes of surface contamination. On the other hand, a supercritical CO{sub 2} soil decontamination technology was found to be applicable for U or TRU bearing soil wastes. The remediation monitoring key technologies such as a representative sample taking and a measurement concept for the vertical distribution of radionuclides were developed for an assessment of the site remediation. Also an One-Dimensional Water Flow and Contaminant Transport in Unsaturated Zone (FTUNS) code was developed to interpretate the radionuclide migration in the unsaturated zone

  8. Long-term decontamination engineering study. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) with technical and cost estimating support from Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) and Parsons Environmental Services, Inc. (Parsons). This engineering study evaluates the requirements and alternatives for decontamination/treatment of contaminated equipment at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to determine the decontamination/treatment strategy that best supports the Hanford Site environmental restoration mission. It describes the potential waste streams requiring treatment or decontamination, develops the alternatives under consideration establishes the criteria for comparison, evaluates the alternatives, and draws conclusions (i.e., the optimum strategy for decontamination). Although two primary alternatives are discussed, this study does identify other alternatives that may warrant additional study. hanford Site solid waste management program activities include storage, special processing, decontamination/treatment, and disposal facilities. This study focuses on the decontamination/treatment processes (e.g., waste decontamination, size reduction, immobilization, and packaging) that support the environmental restoration mission at the Hanford Site

  9. Analysis of decontamination methods used at nuclear power plants and in other facilities. Research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods used in the Czech Republic and in other countries are described. The following topics are treated: Introduction into decontamination; Chemical methods; Foam methods; Electrochemical methods; Mechanical methods; Other methods; Decontamination of civil engineering structures; Technologies suitable for disposal decontamination; and Effect of decontamination on waste management. (P.A.)

  10. Decontamination and its role in the Fort St. Vrain decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The full scale decommissioning of a reactor requires the use of a variety of decontamination processes, techniques and equipment. In August of 1992, the decommissioning of the Fort St. Vrain High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) was initiated by Public Service Company of Colorado. The Fort St. Vrain Decommissioning Project is being performed by a team comprised of Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Scientific Ecology Group, and MK Ferguson. This project is the largest decommissioning and early dismantlement of a commercially operated reactor in the United States to date. The scope of the project includes decontamination and dismantlement of the Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessel (PCRV) and decontamination/removal of contaminated plant systems, site cleanup, and a comprehensive final radiation survey. This paper discusses the various types of decontamination equipment, survey instrumentation and techniques used during the Fort St. Vrain Decommissioning Project. Decontamination techniques range from simple methods such as soapy water, high pressure washing, scabbling, strippable paint; to more complicated methods such as remotely operated grit blast equipment used to decontaminate embedded pipe. The parameters necessary to evaluate the cost effectiveness of various decontamination techniques are discussed. Typically this includes consideration of the type and level of contamination, the substrate and surface to be decontaminated, the type and volume of waste generated from the decontamination process, whether the decon will be performed on site or off site, equipment and labor costs, project schedule impact, and the unconditional release criteria that must be achieved. These factors and costs are then compared to the costs associated with the removal, possible volume reduction and final disposal of a particular component or system. The successes and lessons learned during the Fort St. Vrain Decommissioning Project are presented

  11. Decontaminating soil organic pollutants with manufactured nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie; Chen, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Organic pollutants in soils might threaten the environmental and human health. Manufactured nanoparticles are capable to reduce this risk efficiently due to their relatively large capacity of sorption and degradation of organic pollutants. Stability, mobility, and reactivity of nanoparticles are prerequisites for their efficacy in soil remediation. On the basis of a brief introduction of these issues, this review provides a comprehensive summary of the application and effectiveness of various types of manufactured nanoparticles for removing organic pollutants from soil. The main categories of nanoparticles include iron (oxides), titanium dioxide, carbonaceous, palladium, and amphiphilic polymeric nanoparticles. Their advantages (e.g., unique properties and high sorption capacity) and disadvantages (e.g., high cost and low recovery) for soil remediation are discussed with respect to the characteristics of organic pollutants. The factors that influence the decontamination effects, such as properties, surfactants, solution chemistry, and soil organic matter, are addressed. PMID:26906002

  12. Decontamination of Cuban oysters using irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) collected on the Cuban coast near Havana were examined for contamination with Vibrio cholerae and other potentially pathogenic Vibrio species. The strains thus isolated were characterized and identified to species following standard methods, and their radiation resistance (D10) was determined in pure culture. The Vibrio species most often isolated were V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and V. Alginolyticus. Representative cultures from each species were later used to inoculate shucked oysters to determine the optimal radiation dose that would ensure elimination of 108 colony forming units (CFU)/g. The highest proportion of isolates were identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. algynoliticus. Non-O1 strains of Vibrio cholerae were isolated from 50% of samples, but no V. cholerae O1 was identified. D10 values calculated for the various strains were low in relation to those in the literature. The radiation dose for decontaminating heavily inoculated (108 CFU/g) oysters was 1.2 kGy. (author)

  13. Thixotropic corrosive gels for nuclear decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this thesis was the development of corrosive gels for metallic surface decontamination. These gels formulation, based on a powerful oxidant (the cerium IV), the nitric acid, a mineral charge (silica) and a non ionic surface-active, has been developed according to the specific constraints of the nuclear industry. The objective was to prepare thixotropic gels becoming liquid after shacking to allow an easy pulverization and coming again solid to permit a perfect adhesion on the metallic surface. This rheological study of the gels has been completed by an evaluation of their corrosive properties. The last part of the work presents an industrial utilization during two years. (A.L.B.)

  14. ONLINE MEASUREMENT OF THE PROGRESS OF DECONTAMINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    In order to determine if the sensor technology and the decontamination technology will face problems once integrated, a feasibility study (see Appendix B) was produced in which the effect of motion on the efficiency of a radiation sensor was measured. It was found that the effect is not negligible; however, it is not catastrophic, and if the sensors are properly calibrated, this obstacle can be overcome. During the first year of this project, many important tasks have been accomplished. The search for radiation sensors provided knowledge on the technologies commercially available. This, in turn, allowed for a proper assessment of the properties, limitations, different methods of measurement, and requirements of a large number of sensors. The best possible characterization and data collection instrument and decontamination technologies were chosen using the requirement information in Appendix A. There are technical problems with installing sensors within the blasting head, such as steel shot and dust interference. Therefore, the sensor array is placed so that it will measure the radioactivity after the blasting. Sensors are rather sensitive, and therefore it is not feasible to place the sensor windows in such an abrasive environment. Other factors, such as the need for radiation hardening in extreme cases, and the possible interference of gamma rays with the radio frequency modem, have been considered. These factors are expected to be negligible and can be revisited at the time of prototype production. Factors that need to be addressed are the vibrations of the blasting unit and how to isolate the sensor array from these. In addition, an electromagnetic survey must be performed to ensure there will be no interference with the electronic component that will be integrated. The integration design is shown in section 4.0.

  15. Phase 2 microwave concrete decontamination results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report on the results of the second phase of a four-phase program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop a system to decontaminate concrete using microwave energy. The microwave energy is directed at the concrete surface through the use of an optimized wave guide antenna, or applicator, and this energy rapidly heats the free water present in the interstitial spaces of the concrete matrix. The resulting steam pressure causes the surface to burst in much the same way popcorn pops in a home microwave oven. Each steam explosion removes several square centimeters of concrete surface that are collected by a highly integrated wave guide and vacuum system. The authors call this process the microwave concrete decontamination, or MCD, process. In the first phase of the program the principle of microwaves concrete removal concrete surfaces was demonstrated. In these experiments, concrete slabs were placed on a translator and moved beneath a stationary microwave system. The second phase demonstrated the ability to mobilize the technology to remove the surfaces from concrete floors. Area and volume concrete removal rates of 10.4 cm2/s and 4.9 cm3/S, respectively, at 18 GHz were demonstrated. These rates are more than double those obtained in Phase 1 of the program. Deeper contamination can be removed by using a longer residence time under the applicator to create multiple explosions in the same area or by taking multiple passes over previously removed areas. Both techniques have been successfully demonstrated. Small test sections of painted and oil-soaked concrete have also been removed in a single pass. Concrete with embedded metal anchors on the surface has also been removed, although with some increased variability of removal depth. Microwave leakage should not pose any operational hazard to personnel, since the observed leakage was much less than the regulatory standard

  16. An alternative simple method in laryngoscope blade decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Mehmet Emin; Saygun, Onur; Güzeldemir, M Erdal

    2002-06-01

    The cleaning and disinfection of laryngoscope blades is controversial. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of two different chemical disinfectant agents and tap water where the laryngoscope blades were contaminated by different microorganisms and try to create a simple, effective and easy decontamination method. The results of our study demonstrate that the decontamination of the laryngoscope blades, which are cleansed with tap water, is not a reliable approach. In conclusion, mechanical cleaning of blades with water and the immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde or 10% polyvinyl pyrrolidine iodine for 10 minutes is an effective method for decontamination of laryngoscope blades. PMID:12138517

  17. Decision Analysis System for Selection of Appropriate Decontamination Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal objective for designing Decision Analysis System for Decontamination (DASD) is to support DOE-EM's endeavor to employ the most efficient and effective technologies for treating radiologically contaminated surfaces while minimizing personnel and environmental risks. DASD will provide a tool for environmental decision makers to improve the quality, consistency, and efficacy of their technology selection decisions. The system will facilitate methodical comparisons between innovative and baseline decontamination technologies and aid in identifying the most suitable technologies for performing surface decontamination at DOE environmental restoration sites

  18. Decision Analysis System for Selection of Appropriate Decontamination Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.; Boudreaux, J.F.; Chinta, S.; Zanakis, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    The principal objective for designing Decision Analysis System for Decontamination (DASD) is to support DOE-EM's endeavor to employ the most efficient and effective technologies for treating radiologically contaminated surfaces while minimizing personnel and environmental risks. DASD will provide a tool for environmental decision makers to improve the quality, consistency, and efficacy of their technology selection decisions. The system will facilitate methodical comparisons between innovative and baseline decontamination technologies and aid in identifying the most suitable technologies for performing surface decontamination at DOE environmental restoration sites.

  19. Comparison and Evaluation of Various Tritium Decontamination Techniques and Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of fusion energy development, various techniques and processes have been developed over the past two decades for the removal and decontamination of tritium from a variety of items, surfaces, and components. Tritium decontamination, by chemical, physical, mechanical, or a combination of these methods, is driven by two underlying motivational forces. The first of these motivational forces is safety. Safety is paramount to the established culture associated with fusion energy. The second of these motivational forces is cost. In all aspects, less tritium contamination equals lower operational and disposal costs. This paper will discuss and evaluate the various processes employed for tritium removal and decontamination

  20. Effect of Organic Solvents in Preparation of Silica-Based Chemical Gel Decontaminates for Decontamination of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination of nuclear facilities is necessary to reduce the radiation field during normal operations and decommissioning of complex equipment such as stainless steel components, other iron-based steel and alloys, metal surfaces, structural materials and so on. Chemical decontamination technology in particular is a highly effective method to remove the radioactive contamination through a chemical dissolution or a redox reaction. However, this method has the serious drawback due to the generation of large amounts of the radioactive liquid wastes. Recently, a few literatures have been reported for the preparation of the chemical gel decontaminants to reduce the amount of the radioactive liquid wastes and to enhance the decontamination efficiency through increasing the contact time between the gels and the radioactive contaminants. In the preparation of the chemical gels, the control of the viscosity highly depends on the amount of a coviscosifier used among the components of the chemical gels consisted of a viscosifier, a coviscosifier, and a chemical decontaminant. In this works, a new effective method for the preparation of the chemical gel was investigated by introducing the organic solvents. The mixture solution of the coviscosifier and organic solvent was more effective in the control of the viscosity compared with that of the coviscosifier only in gels. Furthermore, the decontamination efficiency of the chemical gels measured by using the multi-channel analyzer (MCA) showed the high decontamination factor for Co-60 and Cs-137 contaminated on the surface of the stainless steel 304

  1. Application of zirconia particle to abrasive blast decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In blasting decontamination, alumina or steel grit has been used as conventional blast material. The problem with such existing materials is the decreasing of blasting performance during the repeated use due to their diminishing hardness. Consequently, a lot of waste grit is generated as secondary waste. In order to solve this problem, zirconia has been selected because of its high strength and spherical shape. A repeating test in which blasting is executed 300 times and a decontamination test were performed using actual waste materials to confirm the applicability of zirconia grit. More than 90% of zirconia grit kept the initial performance after being used 300 times. Zirconia exhibited durability superior to that of alumina which was broken in the course pf several repetitions of use. Moreover, the decontamination performance of zirconia grit has been confirmed to be equivalent to that of alumina grit. From the results, zirconia grit is expected to be applied to the decontamination of metal wastes. (author)

  2. Decontamination by water jet, chemical and electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination tests have been carried out on samples coming from representative specimens from primary circuit of the PWR and on samples coming from the emergency feed water piping of the German BWR (Isar). The oxide found in PWR primary loops can only be removed by a two steps process. The initial embrittling step is particularly effective in hot alkaline permanganate medium. Oxidation by ozone treatment is less effective. The second step involves chemical erosion of the metal in nitrofluoric acid in conjonction with ultrasonic agitation. Among the reagents used, only oxalic acid is suitable for electrolytic decontamination. Among the reagents possible for decontamination of the Isar specimens (ferritic steel lined with hematite) halogenous acid in mixture without or with oxygenated water, sulfuric acid, the formic acid/formaldehyde mixture are chosen. Metal erosion with high pressure jet as well as the decontamination efficiency on parts lined with hematite have made possible to determine the best conditions. 33 figs, 29 refs

  3. GARDEC, Estimation of dose-rates reduction by garden decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: GARDEC estimates the reduction of dose rates by garden decontamination. It provides the effect of different decontamination Methods, the depth of soil to be considered, dose-rate before and after decontamination and the reduction factor. 2 - Methods: This code takes into account three Methods of decontamination : (i)digging a garden in a special way, (ii) a removal of the upper layer of soil, and (iii) covering with a shielding layer of soil. The dose-rate conversion factor is defined as the external dose-rate, in the air, at a given height above the ground from a unit concentration of a specific radionuclide in each soil layer

  4. Enhanced toxic cloud knockdown spray system for decontamination applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betty, Rita G.; Tucker, Mark D.; Brockmann, John E.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Levin, Bruce L.; Leonard, Jonathan

    2011-09-06

    Methods and systems for knockdown and neutralization of toxic clouds of aerosolized chemical or biological warfare (CBW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals using a non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous decontamination formulation.

  5. Decontamination of outdoor school swimming pools in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake, many school swimming pools in Fukushima have suspended water discharge, due to concerns that pool water which contains radioactive fallout is discharged into a river or waterway for agricultural use. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency conducted researches and examinations on the existing absorbent method and the flocculation method as ways for decontaminating pool water. By reviewing and improving these methods through decontamination demonstrations at eight pools in Fukushima, a practical decontamination method for outdoor pools has been established. This report summarizes the methods and results of the decontamination demonstrations carried out at the schools. Also, the surface density of fallout estimated at one of the pools is also presented and discussed in connection with the overall collection ratio of radiocesium at the pool. (author)

  6. Decontamination of MMH- and NTO/MON-propellant Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, K.; Kaelsch, I.

    2004-10-01

    Decontamination of liquid propellant tanks, namely MMH and NTO/MON tanks, due to emergency off- loading of a spacecraft can cause damage to the propellant tank material if safety precautions are not taken into account. MMH (Mono-Methyl Hydrazine) reacts with water with an exothermic reaction that causes temperature rise and hydrous reaction product formation. NTO and MON (Nitrogen Tetroxide Oxidiser / Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen) react with water forming nitrous and nitric acid, which may cause corrosion and enhance Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) in the titanium tank material. To avoid these problems, a new procedure with a numerical prediction tool for decontamination of MMH tank has been developed, used and assessed to decontaminate the MMH tank of the ESA Rosetta spacecraft successfully. The ESA proposed procedure for MON oxidiser tank emergency off-loading and decontamination is also presented.

  7. Advance in radioactive decontamination; Avances en descontaminacion radiactiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basteris M, J. A. [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Diagnostico por Laboratorio y Gabinete, Av. Cupules No. 232, Col. Garcia Gineres, 97070 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Farrera V, R., E-mail: basteris@prodigy.net.m [Hospital de Especialidades de la UMAE, Centro Medico Nacional Ignacio Garcia Tellez, Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Calle 34 x 41, Exterrenos el Fenix s/n, Col. Industrial, 91750 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    The objective of the present work was to determine if the application of the Na hypochlorite has some utility in the radioactive decontamination, in comparison with the water, detergent and alcohol. Several methods were compared for decontaminate the iodine 131 and technetium 99, the work table and the skin it was carried out an initial count with the Geiger Muller. Later on, in a single occasion, the areas were washed with abundant water, alcohol, clothes detergent and sodium hypochlorite (used commercially as domestic bleacher) without diluting. Observing that the percentage in the decrease of the counted radioactivity by the Geiger Muller, decreased in the following way: It was demonstrated that the Na hypochlorite presents the highest index of radioactive decontamination with 100% of effectiveness. The Na hypochlorite is an excellent substance that can be used with effectiveness and efficiency like decontamination element in the accident cases of radioactive contamination in the clinical laboratories of nuclear medicine. (Author)

  8. Steam Generator Group Project. Task 6. Channel head decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Steam Generator Group Project utilizes a retired-from-service pressurized-water-reactor steam generator as a test bed and source of specimens for research. An important preparatory step to primary side research activities was reduction of the radiation field in the steam generator channel head. This task report describes the channel head decontamination activities. Though not a programmatic research objective it was judged beneficial to explore the use of dilute reagent chemical decontamination techniques. These techniques presented potential for reduced personnel exposure and reduced secondary radwaste generation, over currently used abrasive blasting techniques. Two techniques with extensive laboratory research and vendors prepared to offer commercial application were tested, one on either side of the channel head. As indicated in the report, both techniques accomplished similar decontamination objectives. Neither technique damaged the generator channel head or tubing materials, as applied. This report provides details of the decontamination operations. Application system and operating conditions are described

  9. Decontamination of laryngoscope blades: Is our practice adequate?

    OpenAIRE

    Telang R; Patil V; Ranganathan P; Kelkar R

    2010-01-01

    Background : The laryngoscope has been identified as a potential source of cross-infection, because of blood and bacterial contamination. In India, there are no guidelines for cleaning and disinfection of anesthesia-related equipment. Practices for decontamination of laryngoscopes vary widely and in most healthcare institutes, laryngoscope blades are re-used after cleaning with tap-water. Materials and Methods: We prospectively compared two techniques for decontamination of laryngoscope blade...

  10. Magnetite Dissolution Performance of HYBRID-II Decontamination Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seonbyeong; Lee, Woosung; Won, Huijun; Moon, Jeikwon; Choi, Wangkyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this study, we conducted the magnetite dissolution performance test of HYBRID-II (Hydrazine Based Reductive metal Ion Decontamination with sulfuric acid) as a part of decontamination process development. Decontamination performance of HYBRID process was successfully tested with the results of the acceptable decontamination factor (DF) in the previous study. While following-up studies such as the decomposition of the post-decontamination HYBRID solution and corrosion compatibility on the substrate metals of the target reactor coolant system have been continued, we also seek for an alternate version of HYBRID process suitable especially for decommissioning. Inspired by the relationship between the radius of reacting ion and the reactivity, we replaced the nitrate ion in HYBRID with bigger sulfate ion to accommodate the dissolution reaction and named HYBRID-II process. As a preliminary step for the decontamination performance, we tested the magnetite dissolution performance of developing HYBRID-II process and compared the results with those of HYBRID process. HYBRID process developed previously is known have the acceptable decontamination performance, but the relatively larger volume of secondary waste induced by anion exchange resin to treat nitrate ion is the one of the problems related in the development of HYBRID process to be applicable. Therefore we alternatively devised HYBRID-II process using sulfuric acid and tested its dissolution of magnetite in numerous conditions. From the results shown in this study, we can conclude that HYBRID-II process improves the decontamination performance and potentially reduces the volume of secondary waste. Rigorous tests with metal oxide coupons obtained from reactor coolant system will be followed to prove the robustness of HYBRID-II process in the future.

  11. Magnetite Dissolution Performance of HYBRID-II Decontamination Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we conducted the magnetite dissolution performance test of HYBRID-II (Hydrazine Based Reductive metal Ion Decontamination with sulfuric acid) as a part of decontamination process development. Decontamination performance of HYBRID process was successfully tested with the results of the acceptable decontamination factor (DF) in the previous study. While following-up studies such as the decomposition of the post-decontamination HYBRID solution and corrosion compatibility on the substrate metals of the target reactor coolant system have been continued, we also seek for an alternate version of HYBRID process suitable especially for decommissioning. Inspired by the relationship between the radius of reacting ion and the reactivity, we replaced the nitrate ion in HYBRID with bigger sulfate ion to accommodate the dissolution reaction and named HYBRID-II process. As a preliminary step for the decontamination performance, we tested the magnetite dissolution performance of developing HYBRID-II process and compared the results with those of HYBRID process. HYBRID process developed previously is known have the acceptable decontamination performance, but the relatively larger volume of secondary waste induced by anion exchange resin to treat nitrate ion is the one of the problems related in the development of HYBRID process to be applicable. Therefore we alternatively devised HYBRID-II process using sulfuric acid and tested its dissolution of magnetite in numerous conditions. From the results shown in this study, we can conclude that HYBRID-II process improves the decontamination performance and potentially reduces the volume of secondary waste. Rigorous tests with metal oxide coupons obtained from reactor coolant system will be followed to prove the robustness of HYBRID-II process in the future

  12. Chlorhexidine decontamination of sputum for culturing Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Asmar, Shady; Drancourt, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the gold standard method for the laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, after effective decontamination. Results: We evaluated squalamine and chlorhexidine to decontaminate sputum specimens for the culture of mycobacteria. Eight sputum specimens were artificially infected with 105 colony-forming units (cfu)/mL Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans as contaminants. In the s...

  13. Decontamination of process equipment using recyclable chelating solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevec, J.; Lenore, C.; Ulbricht, S. [Babcock & Wilcox, Co., R& DD, Alliance, OH (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. This report describes the results of the performance testing of chelates and solvents for the dissolution of uranium.

  14. Evaluation of Cost and Effectiveness of Decontamination Scenarios on External Radiation Exposure in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasutaka, T.; Naito, W. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Despite the enormous cost associated with radiation decontamination, almost no quantitative assessment has been performed on the relationship between the potential reduction in long-term radiation exposure and the costs of the various decontamination strategies considered for the decontamination areas in Fukushima. In order to establish effective and pragmatic decontamination strategies for use in the radiation contaminated areas in Fukushima, a holistic approach for assessing decontamination strategies, their costs, and long-term external radiation doses is needed. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of decontamination scenarios in the decontamination areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation exposure. The choice of decontamination strategies in the decontamination areas should be based on a comprehensive analysis of multiple attributes such as radiological, economic, and socio-psychological attributes. The cost and effectiveness of the different decontamination strategies is not sole determinant of the decontamination strategies of the special decontamination area but is one of the most important attributes when making the policy decision. In the current study, we focus on radiological and economic attributes in determining decontamination strategies. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to relate the predicted external dose in the affected areas to the number of potential inhabitants and the land use in the areas. A comprehensive review of the costs of various decontamination methods was conducted as part of the analysis. The results indicate that aerial decontamination in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima would be effective for reducing the air dose rate to the target level in a short period of time in some but not all of the areas. In a standard scenario, the analysis of cost suggests that decontamination costs of decontamination in Fukushima was estimated to be up to approximately 5

  15. Evaluation of Cost and Effectiveness of Decontamination Scenarios on External Radiation Exposure in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the enormous cost associated with radiation decontamination, almost no quantitative assessment has been performed on the relationship between the potential reduction in long-term radiation exposure and the costs of the various decontamination strategies considered for the decontamination areas in Fukushima. In order to establish effective and pragmatic decontamination strategies for use in the radiation contaminated areas in Fukushima, a holistic approach for assessing decontamination strategies, their costs, and long-term external radiation doses is needed. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of decontamination scenarios in the decontamination areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation exposure. The choice of decontamination strategies in the decontamination areas should be based on a comprehensive analysis of multiple attributes such as radiological, economic, and socio-psychological attributes. The cost and effectiveness of the different decontamination strategies is not sole determinant of the decontamination strategies of the special decontamination area but is one of the most important attributes when making the policy decision. In the current study, we focus on radiological and economic attributes in determining decontamination strategies. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to relate the predicted external dose in the affected areas to the number of potential inhabitants and the land use in the areas. A comprehensive review of the costs of various decontamination methods was conducted as part of the analysis. The results indicate that aerial decontamination in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima would be effective for reducing the air dose rate to the target level in a short period of time in some but not all of the areas. In a standard scenario, the analysis of cost suggests that decontamination costs of decontamination in Fukushima was estimated to be up to approximately 5

  16. A survey of decontamination processes applicable to DOE nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this survey was to select an appropriate technology for in situ decontamination of equipment interiors as part of the decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy nuclear facilities. This selection depends on knowledge of existing chemical decontamination methods. This report provides an up-to-date review of chemical decontamination methods. According to available information, aqueous systems are probably the most universally used method for decontaminating and cleaning metal surfaces. We have subdivided the technologies, on the basis of the types of chemical solvents, into acid, alkaline permanganate, highly oxidizing, peroxide, and miscellaneous systems. Two miscellaneous chemical decontamination methods (electrochemical processes and foam and gel systems) are also described. A concise technical description of various processes is given, and the report also outlines technical considerations in the choice of technologies, including decontamination effectiveness, waste handing, fields of application, and the advantages and limitations in application. On the basis of this survey, six processes were identified for further evaluation. 144 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Decontamination and decommissioning technology development of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removal behaviour of an oxide which is similar in structure and composition to that on internal system of steam generator were investigated in low concentration chemical decontamination process [KAERI process]. In the AP solution (oxidative dissolution step), Cr dissolved fastly from the oxide in early stage and then dissolved very slowly in later stage. Dissolution behaviours of Fe from the oxides in the reductive dissolution process were similar to those of Cr in the oxidative dissolution process. Oxide dissolution behaviour in each process were discussed. In twice cyclic application of the oxidative and the reductive dissolution process(KAERI decontamination process), about 50% of the oxide was removed by chemical dissolution, about 40% by particulate detachment. The rest 10% oxide could be completely removed by ultrasonic decontamination. Corrosion acceptance guideline was established for the decontamination of domestic PWRs' steam generator. In the KAERI decontamination process, general corrosion to an Inconel-600 and 304 stainless steel was about 2.4 and 1.0% of general corrosion limit, respectively. And localized corrosion was not observed. Those results indicated that the KAERI decontamination process assured integrity of KNUs' steam generator. To evaluate the radioactive inventory for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, general calculation methods of radioactive inventory, calculation and measurement of contact exposure rate, and confirmation of those results were reviewed. Feasibility for application of the above methods was examined by taking examples of radioactive inventory estimation in the Shippingport nuclear reactor vessel. (Author)

  18. Creating value through radiological decontamination of plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritsky, W.G. [American Ecology Recycle Center, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Since the invention of nuclear power, the need for radiological cleaning (decontamination) of plant components has presented a challenge to the nuclear industry. Radiological cleaning provides an added value, when plant components are contaminated and require refurbishment. The cost of refurbishment has often been compared to the replacement cost of components plus the disposal cost for the existing component. The value derived from radiological decontamination during component refurbishment has increased as the circumstances surrounding the disposal of radioactive material have changed. Today, with the exclusion of the majority of nuclear power plants from the disposal sites, and requirements for producers to store their own waste, decontamination and refurbishment of otherwise discarded components has become an attractive alternative. In response to the industry`s demand for cost savings alternatives, the role for a licensed facility to perform decontamination has become more important. Accordingly, increased importance has been placed on the minimization of waste and mixed-waste generators during a DECON process. Pursuant to these requirements, new technologies have been or are now in the process of being developed which, when coupled with existing technology, will effectively provide decontamination capability while limiting the creation of process waste. These decontamination capabilities create value for the utility by providing an alternative to component replacement.

  19. Creating value through radiological decontamination of plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritsky, W.G. [American Ecology Recycle Center, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Since the invention of nuclear power, the need for radiological cleaning (decontamination) of plant components has presented a challenge to the nuclear industry. Radiological cleaning provides an added value, when plant components are contaminated and require refurbishment. The cost of refurbishment has often been compared to the replacement cost of components plus the disposal cost for the existing component. The value derived from radiological decontamination during component refurbishment has increased as the circumstances surrounding the disposal of radioactive material have changed. Specifically, prior to 1994, the majority of the producers of radioactive material had access to licensed disposal sites. Though the cost of disposal at these sites had risen dramatically, a disposal option still existed. Today, with the exclusion of the majority of nuclear power plants from the disposal sites, and requirements for producers to store their own waste, decontamination and refurbishment of otherwise discarded components has become an attractive alternative. In response to the industry`s demand for cost savings alternatives, the role for a licensed facility to perform decontamination has become more important. Accordingly, increased importance has been placed on the minimization of waste and mixed-waste generators during a DECON process. Pursuant to these requirements, new technologies have been or are now in the process of being developed which, when coupled with existing technology, will effectively provide decontamination capability while limiting the creation of process waste. These decontamination capabilities create value for the utility by providing an alternative to component replacement.

  20. A survey of decontamination processes applicable to DOE nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this survey was to select an appropriate technology for in situ decontamination of equipment interiors as part of the decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy nuclear facilities. This selection depends on knowledge of existing chemical decontamination methods. This report provides an up-to-date review of chemical decontamination methods. According to available information, aqueous systems are probably the most universally used method for decontaminating and cleaning metal surfaces. We have subdivided the technologies, on the basis of the types of chemical solvents, into acid, alkaline permanganate, highly oxidizing, peroxide, and miscellaneous systems. Two miscellaneous chemical decontamination methods (electrochemical processes and foam and gel systems) are also described. A concise technical description of various processes is given, and the report also outlines technical considerations in the choice of technologies, including decontamination effectiveness, waste handing, fields of application, and the advantages and limitations in application. On the basis of this survey, six processes were identified for further evaluation. 144 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Demonstration recommendations for accelerated testing of concrete decontamination methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large number of aging US Department of Energy (DOE) surplus facilities located throughout the US require deactivation, decontamination, and decommissioning. Although several technologies are available commercially for concrete decontamination, emerging technologies with potential to reduce secondary waste and minimize the impact and risk to workers and the environment are needed. In response to these needs, the Accelerated Testing of Concrete Decontamination Methods project team described the nature and extent of contaminated concrete within the DOE complex and identified applicable emerging technologies. Existing information used to describe the nature and extent of contaminated concrete indicates that the most frequently occurring radiological contaminants are 137Cs, 238U (and its daughters), 60Co, 90Sr, and tritium. The total area of radionuclide-contaminated concrete within the DOE complex is estimated to be in the range of 7.9 x 108 ft2or approximately 18,000 acres. Concrete decontamination problems were matched with emerging technologies to recommend demonstrations considered to provide the most benefit to decontamination of concrete within the DOE complex. Emerging technologies with the most potential benefit were biological decontamination, electro-hydraulic scabbling, electrokinetics, and microwave scabbling

  2. Electro-decontamination of cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The end of operations in nuclear facilities is followed by various decontamination and decommissioning operations. Similar to other electrochemical techniques such as re-alkalinisation and chloride extraction, an electrokinetic remediation process is being developed as a specific method for deeply contaminated concrete structures. Two cements, an ordinary Portland and a 30% slag cement, have been chosen for the conducted work.Mortars and concretes are contaminated by adding non-radioactive cesium in the batch water, cesium being a representative specie of deep encountered contaminants. The conducted experimental and numerical work have focused on three main aspects: characterizing and understanding the cesium transport mechanisms, assessing the electro-remediation process at lab-scale and evaluating the real scale constraints. Using existing knowledge of chloride transport mechanisms, experiments have been conducted to characterize the cesium interactions with cementitious phase and ionic transport in saturated materials. A numerical model have then been developed to describe the cesium transport, taking into account the ionic activity coefficients and interactions with solid phases. Indeed, lab-scale experiments have demonstrated that electro-remediation reduced to 20-50% the initially contained cesium after a three weeks treatment. Treated samples analysis confirmed that deeply diffused cesium is migrating to the surface. Moreover, conducted experiments showed the consistency between the different materials properties, applied currents and decontamination efficiency. A comparative analysis of experiments carried on samples with different shapes, formulations and contamination modes helped assessing and optimizing the process efficiency for various continuous and variable applied currents. Finally, electro-remediation experiments have also been carried on 1m2 concrete slabs. Liquid catholyte and anolyte solutions are replaced by alumina gels and cellulose pastes

  3. Mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning operations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop effective mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities within the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. These mobile worksystems will be configured to operate within the environmental and logistical constraints of such facilities and to perform a number of work tasks. Our program is designed to produce a mobile worksystem with capabilities and features that are matched to the particular needs of D&D work by evolving the design through a series of technological developments, performance tests and evaluations. The Phase I effort was based on a robot called the Remote Work Vehicle (RWV) that was previously developed by CMU for use in D&D operations at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building basement. During Phase I of this program, the RWV was rehabilitated and upgraded with contemporary control and user interface technologies and used as a testbed for remote D&D operations. We established a close working relationship with the DOE Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP). In the second phase, we designed and developed a next generation mobile worksystem, called Rosie, and a semi-automatic task space scene analysis system, called Artisan, using guidance from RTDP. Both systems are designed to work with and complement other RTDP D&D technologies to execute selective equipment removal scenarios in which some part of an apparatus is extricated while minimally disturbing the surrounding objects. RTDP has identified selective equipment removal as a timely D&D mission, one that is particularly relevant during the de-activation and de-inventory stages of facility transitioning as a means to reduce the costs and risks associated with subsequent surveillance and monitoring. In the third phase, we tested and demonstrated core capabilities of Rosie and Artisan; we also implemented modifications and enhancements that improve their relevance to DOE`s facility transitioning mission.

  4. Elaboration of a chemical decontamination technology: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the VVER-type pressurized water reactors, various versions of the so-called AP-CITROX method (AP: alkaline permanganate, CITROX: citric and oxalic acids) have been widely used for the chemical decontamination of the austenitic stainless steel piping of steam generators (SGs). During the period of 1993-2001 chemical decontaminations of 24 SGs in the blocks 1-3 of the Paks NPP were carried out by a non-regenerative version of AP-CITROX technology, even in 2 or 3 consecutive cycles. Based on the above decontamination procedures a database of characteristic parameters was compiled. The analysis of these data and the explanation of the corrosion effects of the technology reveal that fundamental issues of analytical chemistry and corrosion science were not taken into consideration during the elaboration of AP-CITROX procedure, suggested in steam generator manual, and utilized at Paks NPP. The non-regenerative version of the AP-CITROX technology is not an adequate method for the chemical decontamination of any reactor equipment having large steel surfaces (e.g. SGs). As a consequence of the lack of the appropriate decontamination method, a R and D project focused on the elaboration of the required technology has been initiated in 2005. The fundamental demands, which must be realized in the course of above R and D project, are as follows: (i) The decontamination method has to be suitable simultaneously for the effective removal of radionuclides (dose reduction) and for the conditioning of steel surfaces. (ii) The procedure has to provide optimal technological parameters for the homogeneous dissolution of oxide layers formed on the steel surfaces originating from both SGs never decontaminated (block 4) and SGs decontaminated earlier (blocks 1-3). The inner surfaces of the heat exchanger tubes of the latter SGs are covered by a special oxide layer ('hybrid' structure with a thickness of several micrometers). (iii) The method has to be able to utilize the technological

  5. Establishing the irradiation dose for paper decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moise, Ioan Valentin; Virgolici, Marian; Negut, Constantin Daniel; Manea, Mihaela; Alexandru, Mioara; Trandafir, Laura; Zorila, Florina Lucica; Talasman, Catalina Mihaela; Manea, Daniela; Nisipeanu, Steluta; Haiducu, Maria; Balan, Zamfir

    2012-08-01

    Museums, libraries and archives are preserving documents that are slowly degrading due to the inherent ageing of the cellulose substrate or to the technological errors of the past (acid paper, iron gall ink). Beside this, large quantities of paper are rapidly damaged by biological attacks following natural disasters and improper storage conditions. The treatment of paper documents with ionizing radiation can be used for mass decontamination of cultural heritage items but conservators and restaurators are still reserved because of the radiation induced degradation. We conducted a study for establishing the dose needed for the effective treatment of paper documents, taking into account the biological burden and the irradiation effects on paper structure. We used physical testing specific to paper industry and less destructive analytical methods (thermal analysis). Our results show that an effective treatment can be performed with doses lower than 10 kGy. Old paper appears to be less affected by gamma radiation than recent paper but the sampling is highly affected by the non-uniform degree of the initial degradation status. The extent of testing for degradation and the magnitude of acceptable degradation should take into account the biological threat and the expected life time of the paper documents.

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

    2014-09-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  7. Decontamination and Decommissioning Equipment Tracking System (DDETS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the Department of Energy (DOE)(EM-50), the Scientific Computing Unit developed a prototype system to track information and data relevant to equipment and tooling removed during decontamination and decommissioning activities. The DDETS proof-of-concept tracking system utilizes a one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) bar coding technology to retain and track information such as identification number, manufacturer, requisition information, and various contaminant information, etc. The information is encoded in a bar code, printed on a label and can be attached to corresponding equipment. The DDETS was developed using a proven relational database management system which allows the addition, modification, printing, and deletion of data. In addition, communication interfaces with bar code printers and bar code readers were developed. Additional features of the system include: (a) Four different reports available for the user (REAPS, transaction, and two inventory), (b) Remote automated inventory tracking capabilities, (c) Remote automated inventory tracking capability (2D bar codes allow equipment to be scanned/tracked without being linked to the DDETS database), (d) Edit, update, delete, and query capabilities, (e) On-line bar code label printing utility (data from 2D bar codes can be scanned directly into the data base simplifying data entry), and (f) Automated data backup utility. Compatibility with the Reportable Excess Automated Property System (REAPS) to upload data from DDETS is planned

  8. Decontamination and decommissioning of Shippingport commercial reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, J. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1989-11-01

    To a certain degree, the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Shippingport reactor was a joint venture with Duquesne Light Company. The structures that were to be decommissioned were to be removed to at least three feet below grade. Since the land had been leased from Duquesne Light, there was an agreement with them to return the land to them in a radiologically safe condition. The total enclosure volume for the steam and nuclear containment systems was about 1.3 million cubic feet, more than 80% of which was below ground. Engineering plans for the project were started in July of 1980 and the final environmental impact statement (EIS) was published in May of 1982. The plant itself was shut down in October of 1982 for end-of-life testing and defueling. The engineering services portion of the decommissioning plans was completed in September of 1983. DOE moved onto the site and took over from the Navy in September of 1984. Actual physical decommissioning began after about a year of preparation and was completed about 44 months later in July of 1989. This paper describes the main parts of D and D.

  9. Mycotoxins - prevention and decontamination by yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfliegler, Walter P; Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Pócsi, István

    2015-07-01

    The application of yeasts has great potential in reducing the economic damage caused by toxigenic fungi in the agriculture. Some yeasts may act as biocontrol agents inhibiting the growth of filamentous fungi. These species may also gain importance in the preservation of agricultural products and in the reduction of their mycotoxin contamination, yet the extent of mycotoxin production in the presence of biocontrol agents is relatively less understood. The application of yeasts in various technological processes may have a direct inhibitory effect on the toxin production of certain molds, which is independent of their growth suppressing effect. Furthermore, several yeast species are capable of accumulating mycotoxins from agricultural products, thereby effectively decontaminating them. Probiotic yeasts or products containing yeast cell wall are also applied to counteract mycotoxicosis in livestock. Several yeast strains are also able to degrade toxins to less-toxic or even non-toxic substances. This intensively researched field would greatly benefit from a deeper knowledge on the genetic and molecular basis of toxin degradation. Moreover, yeasts and their biotechnologically important enzymes may exhibit sensitivity to certain mycotoxins, thereby mounting a considerable problem for the biotechnological industry. It is noted that yeasts are generally regarded as safe; however, there are reports of toxin degrading species that may cause human fungal infections. The aspects of yeast-mycotoxin relations with a brief consideration of strain improvement strategies and genetic modification for improved detoxifying properties and/or mycotoxin resistance are reviewed here.

  10. Environmental Development Plant (EDP): decontamination and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactively contaminated facilities, equipment, materials, and land that are no longer useful or needed for a nuclear purpose are candidates for decontamination and decommissioning (D/D). Following D/D, intrinsic values can be salvaged and land returned to other desired uses. There are several hundred individual facilities which are located on ERDA Reservations or which have been assigned to ERDA for management and D/D action. Included are facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials, for nuclear energy R and D, and for the testing of nuclear devices. Many of the facilities were operated or utilized by ERDA's predecessor agencies. Also included are certain privately-owned sites and tailings of uranium mills previously operated by private enterprise. The scope of this EDP does not include D/D of commercial power reactors but the technology and issues described here may be directly applicable to such privately owned facilities. The numbers of nuclear facilities that are candidates for D/D continue to increase as they become obsolescent; consequently, a rapid expansion in the volume of D/D work is projected. R and D programs are needed to guide decisions on where and when D/D should be done, to facilitate the work, and to minimize the near and long term risks to both workers and the public

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (includes ROTC No. 1, date 01/25/1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1999-07-29

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 254 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 254 was used between 1963 through 1973 for the decontamination of test-car hardware and tooling used in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station program. The CAS is composed of a fenced area measuring approximately 119 feet by 158 feet that includes Building 3126, an associated aboveground storage tank, a potential underground storage area, two concrete decontamination pads, a generator, two sumps, and a storage yard. Based on site history, the scope of this plan is to resolve the problem statement identified during the Data Quality Objectives process that decontamination activities at this CAU site may have resulted in the release of contaminants of concern (COCs) onto building surfaces, down building drains to associated leachfields, and to soils associated with two concrete decontamination pads located outside the building. Therefore, the scope of the corrective action field investigation will involve soil sampling at biased and random locations in the yard using a direct-push method, scanning and static radiological surveys, and laboratory analyses of all soil/building samples. Historical information provided by former NTS employees indicates that solvents and degreasers may have been used in the decontamination processes; therefore, potential COCs include volatile/semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, asbestos, gamma-emitting radionuclides, plutonium, uranium, and strontium-90. The results of this

  12. Lessons learned at West Valley during facility decontamination for re-use (1982--1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary mission of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is to solidify a large volume of high-level liquid waste (2.3 million liters -- 600,000 gallons) produced during reprocessing plant operations and stored in underground tanks. This is to be accomplished through the maximum use of existing facilities. This required a significant effort to remove existing equipment and to decontaminate areas for installation of liquid and cement processing systems in a safe environment while maintaining exposure to workers as low as reasonably achievable. The reprocessing plant occupied a building of about 33,000 m2 (350,000 ft2). When the WVDP was initiated, approximately 6 percent of the plant area was in a non-contaminated condition where personnel could function without protective clothing or radiological controls. From 1982 to 1988, an additional 64 percent of the plant was cleaned up and much of this converted to low- and high-level waste processing areas. The high-level liquid and resulting low-level liquids are now being treated in these areas using an Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS). The Project has now focused attention on installation, qualification and operation of a vitrification system which will convert the remaining high-level waste into borosilicate glass logs. The stabilized waste will be sent to a Federal Repository for long-term storage. From 1982 to 1988, about 70 technical reports were dealing with specific tasks and cleanup efforts. This report provides an overview of the decontamination and decommissioning work done in that period. The report emphasizes lessons learned during that effort. Significant advances were made in: remote and contact decontamination technology; personnel protection and training; planning and procedures; and radiological controls. 62 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Lessons learned at West Valley during facility decontamination for re-use (1982--1988)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tundo, D.; Gessner, R.F.; Lawrence, R.E.

    1988-11-01

    The primary mission of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is to solidify a large volume of high-level liquid waste (2.3 million liters -- 600,000 gallons) produced during reprocessing plant operations and stored in underground tanks. This is to be accomplished through the maximum use of existing facilities. This required a significant effort to remove existing equipment and to decontaminate areas for installation of liquid and cement processing systems in a safe environment while maintaining exposure to workers as low as reasonably achievable. The reprocessing plant occupied a building of about 33,000 m/sup 2/ (350,000 ft/sup 2/). When the WVDP was initiated, approximately 6 percent of the plant area was in a non-contaminated condition where personnel could function without protective clothing or radiological controls. From 1982 to 1988, an additional 64 percent of the plant was cleaned up and much of this converted to low- and high-level waste processing areas. The high-level liquid and resulting low-level liquids are now being treated in these areas using an Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS). The Project has now focused attention on installation, qualification and operation of a vitrification system which will convert the remaining high-level waste into borosilicate glass logs. The stabilized waste will be sent to a Federal Repository for long-term storage. From 1982 to 1988, about 70 technical reports were dealing with specific tasks and cleanup efforts. This report provides an overview of the decontamination and decommissioning work done in that period. The report emphasizes lessons learned during that effort. Significant advances were made in: remote and contact decontamination technology; personnel protection and training; planning and procedures; and radiological controls. 62 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. A simplified model of decontamination by BWR steam suppression pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.A.

    1997-05-01

    Phenomena that can decontaminate aerosol-laden gases sparging through steam suppression pools of boiling water reactors during reactor accidents are described. Uncertainties in aerosol properties, aerosol behavior within gas bubbles, and bubble behavior in plumes affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools. Uncertainties in the boundary and initial conditions that are dictated by the progression of severe reactor accidents and that will affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools are discussed. Ten parameters that characterize boundary and initial condition uncertainties, nine parameters that characterize aerosol property and behavior uncertainties, and eleven parameters that characterize uncertainties in the behavior of bubbles in steam suppression pools are identified. Ranges for the values of these parameters and subjective probability distributions for parametric values within the ranges are defined. These uncertain parameters are used in Monte Carlo uncertainty analyses to develop uncertainty distributions for the decontamination that can be achieved by steam suppression pools and the size distribution of aerosols that do emerge from such pools. A simplified model of decontamination by steam suppression pools is developed by correlating features of the uncertainty distributions for total decontamination factor, DF(total), mean size of emerging aerosol particles, d{sub p}, and the standard deviation of the emerging aerosol size distribution, {sigma}, with pool depth, H. Correlations of the median values of the uncertainty distributions are suggested as the best estimate of decontamination by suppression pools. Correlations of the 10 percentile and 90 percentile values of the uncertainty distributions characterize the uncertainty in the best estimates. 295 refs., 121 figs., 113 tabs.

  15. A simplified model of decontamination by BWR steam suppression pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phenomena that can decontaminate aerosol-laden gases sparging through steam suppression pools of boiling water reactors during reactor accidents are described. Uncertainties in aerosol properties, aerosol behavior within gas bubbles, and bubble behavior in plumes affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools. Uncertainties in the boundary and initial conditions that are dictated by the progression of severe reactor accidents and that will affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools are discussed. Ten parameters that characterize boundary and initial condition uncertainties, nine parameters that characterize aerosol property and behavior uncertainties, and eleven parameters that characterize uncertainties in the behavior of bubbles in steam suppression pools are identified. Ranges for the values of these parameters and subjective probability distributions for parametric values within the ranges are defined. These uncertain parameters are used in Monte Carlo uncertainty analyses to develop uncertainty distributions for the decontamination that can be achieved by steam suppression pools and the size distribution of aerosols that do emerge from such pools. A simplified model of decontamination by steam suppression pools is developed by correlating features of the uncertainty distributions for total decontamination factor, DF(total), mean size of emerging aerosol particles, dp, and the standard deviation of the emerging aerosol size distribution, σ, with pool depth, H. Correlations of the median values of the uncertainty distributions are suggested as the best estimate of decontamination by suppression pools. Correlations of the 10 percentile and 90 percentile values of the uncertainty distributions characterize the uncertainty in the best estimates. 295 refs., 121 figs., 113 tabs

  16. Cladding hull decontamination and densification process. Part 1. The prototype cladding hull decontamination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype system for decontaminating Zircaloy-4 cladding hulls has been assembled and tested at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The decontamination process consists of treatment with a gaseous mixture of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and argon (Ar) followed by a dilute aqueous etch of ammonium oxalate, ammonium citrate, ammonium fluoride, and hydrogen peroxide. The continuous cleaning process described in this report successfully descaled small portions of most charges, but was unable to handle the original design capacity of 4 kg/hr because of problems in the following areas: control of HF reactor temperatures, regulation of HF and argon mixtures and flows, isolation of the HF reactor atmosphere from the aqueous washer/rinser atmosphere, regulation of undesirable side reactions, and control over hull transport through the system. Due to the limited time available to solve these problems, the system did not attain fully operational status. The work was performed with unirradiated hulls that simulated irradiated hulls. The system was not built to be remotely operable. The process chemistry and system equipment are described in this report with particular emphasis on critical operating areas. Recommendations for improved system operation are included

  17. Facility Decontamination and Decommissioning Program Surveillance and Maintenance Plan, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poderis, Reed J. [NSTec; King, Rebecca A. [NSTec

    2013-09-30

    This Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Plan describes the activities performed between deactivation and final decommissioning of the following facilities located on the Nevada National Security Site, as documented in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order under the Industrial Sites program as decontamination and decommissioning sites: ? Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility: o EMAD Building (Building 25-3900) o Locomotive Storage Shed (Building 25-3901) ? Test Cell C (TCC) Facility: o Equipment Building (Building 25-3220) o Motor Drive Building (Building 25-3230) o Pump Shop (Building 25-3231) o Cryogenic Lab (Building 25-3232) o Ancillary Structures (e.g., dewars, water tower, piping, tanks) These facilities have been declared excess and are in various stages of deactivation (low-risk, long-term stewardship disposition state). This S&M Plan establishes and implements a solid, cost-effective, and balanced S&M program consistent with federal, state, and regulatory requirements. A graded approach is used to plan and conduct S&M activities. The goal is to maintain the facilities in a safe condition in a cost-effective manner until their final end state is achieved. This plan accomplishes the following: ? Establishes S&M objectives and framework ? Identifies programmatic guidance for S&M activities to be conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) ? Provides present facility condition information and identifies hazards ? Identifies facility-specific S&M activities to be performed and their frequency ? Identifies regulatory drivers, NNSA/NFO policies and procedures, and best management practices that necessitate implementation of S&M activities ? Provides criteria and frequencies for revisions and updates ? Establishes the process for identifying and dispositioning a condition that has not been previously identified or

  18. Decontamination Systems Information and Reseach Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Echol E

    1998-04-01

    The following paragraphs comprise the research efforts during the first quarter of 1998 (January 1 - March 31). These tasks have been granted a continuation from the 1997 work and will all end in June 1998. This report represents the last technical quarterly report deliverable for the WVU Cooperative Agreement - Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Final reports for all of the 1997 projects will be submitted afterwards as one document. During this period, groundwater extraction operations were completed on Task 1.6 - Pilot Scale Demonstration of TCE Flushing Through PVDs at the DOE/RMI Extrusion Plant. The data have been evaluated and graphs are presented. The plot of TCE Concentration versus Time shows that the up-gradient groundwater monitoring well produced consistent levels of TCE contamination. A similar trend was observed for the down-gradient wells via grab samples tested. Groundwater samples from the PVD test pad Zone of Influence showed consistent reductions in TCE concentrations with respect to time. In addition, a natural pulse frequency is evident which will have a significant impact on the efficiency of the contaminant removal under natural groundwater advection/diffusion processes. The relationships between the PVD Extraction Flow Rate versus Cumulative Time shows a clear trend in flow rate. Consistent values between 20 to 30 g.p.m. at the beginning of the extraction duration, to less than 10 g.p.m. by the end of the extraction cycle are observed. As evidenced by the aquifer's diminishing recharge levels, the PVD extraction is affecting the response of the aquifer's natural attenuation capability. Progress was also marked on the Injection and Circulation of Potable Water Through PVDs task. Data reduction from this sequence of testing is ongoing. Work planned for next quarter includes completing the Injection / Extraction of potable water task and beginning the Surfactant Injection and removal task.

  19. Mass Casualty Decontamination in the United States: An Online Survey of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sarah; Symons, Charles; Carter, Holly; Jones, Emma; Amlôt, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Chilcott, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Mass casualty decontamination is a public health intervention that would be employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. The decontamination of large numbers of casualties is currently most often performed with water to remove contaminants from the skin surface. An online survey was conducted to explore US fire departments' decontamination practices and their preparedness for responding to incidents involving mass casualty decontamination. Survey respondents were asked to provide details of various aspects of their decontamination procedures, including expected response times to reach casualties, disrobing procedures, approaches to decontamination, characteristics of the decontamination showering process, provision for special populations, and any actions taken following decontamination. The aim of the survey was to identify any differences in the way in which decontamination guidance is implemented across US states. Results revealed that, in line with current guidance, many US fire departments routinely use the "ladder-pipe system" for conducting rapid, gross decontamination of casualties. The survey revealed significant variability in ladder-pipe construction, such as the position and number of fire hoses used. There was also variability in decontamination characteristics, such as water temperature and water pressure, detergent use, and shower duration. The results presented here provide important insights into the ways in which implementation of decontamination guidance can vary between US states. These inconsistencies are thought to reflect established perceived best practices and local adaptation of response plans to address practical and logistical constraints. These outcomes highlight the need for evidence-based national guidelines for conducting mass casualty decontamination.

  20. MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project.

  1. Development of remote electrochemical decontamination for hot cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical dissolution into nitric acid has been developed as a decontamination process for metallic items, both for immersion and in-situ use. Not only is the spent electrolyte compatible with existing waste treatment routes, potentially yielding an immobilized product volume of 0.6 dm3/m2 area treated, but it also suppresses any hydrogen production. Both processes have been developed from laboratory to microprocessor-controlled pilot-scale units, which have been demonstrated successfully for the treatment of genuine waste, reducing activity levels to background. For stainless steel substrates, the immersion tank process uses low current densities (10-50 A/m2) in 1-5M HN03 for the treatment of extended areas. Decontamination factors > 104 can be achieved in two hours. The in-situ technique uses electropolishing in 6M HN03 at 1-2 A/cm2 in an engineered head. Decontamination factors > 103 can be achieved in only 20 seconds. This device has also shown potential for incorporation into an integrated monitoring/decontaminating system under robotic control. Both techniques may be used remotely as a way of reducing man-dose and improving productivity during decontamination. Additional cost savings can be made over currently used techniques through the decategorization of the bulk of the waste volume, and the volume reduction of waste for interim storage and geological disposal

  2. Decontamination of dismantled parts from phosphate rock fertilizer plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of the Uranium Recovery Section at the Phosphate Rock Fertilizer Plant in Gresik, East Java, Indonesia requires decontamination activity be applied to dismantled parts. The decontamination study has categorized the dismantled parts into three types, type A, type B and type C parts. Type A parts were the equipment having very low surface activity or below the clearance level. Type B parts were the equipment having surface activity beyond the clearance level, containing radioactive scale, which is easily removed by in situ decontamination to become parts that are useable unrestrictedly. Type C parts were the equipment having surface activity beyond the clearance level whose nature is very difficult to remove. In situ decontamination of the type B parts have been studied. Mechanical surface cleaning methods and strippable coating methods can be applied for in situ decontamination. The application of strippable coating methods with a composition of 10.0% phosphoric acid, 1.0% HEDPA, 3.0% tartaric acid, 12.0% polyvinyl alcohol and 4.3% absorbent clynoptilolyte was considered to be very effective. (author)

  3. Modelling Mass Casualty Decontamination Systems Informed by Field Exercise Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Amlôt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS. The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit.

  4. 300 Area D4 Project 1st Quarter Fiscal Year 2006 Building Completion Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Smith

    2006-04-20

    This report documents the deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition of the MO-052, 3225, 334, 334A, and 334-TF Buildings in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The D4 of these facilities included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, utility disconnection, deactivation, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and stabilization or removal of the remaining slab and foundation as appropriate.

  5. 300 Area D4 Project Fiscal Year 2008 Building Completion Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Westberg

    2009-01-15

    This report documents the deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition (D4) of eighteen buildings in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site that were demolished in Fiscal Year 2008. The D4 of these facilties included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, utility disconnection, deactivation, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and stabilization or removal of the remaining slab and foundation, as appropriate.

  6. Gas-phase decontamination demonstration on PORTS cell X-25-4-2. Final technology status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Long-Term, Low Temperature (LTLT) process is a gas-phase in situ decontamination technique which has been tested by LMES/K-25 personnel on the laboratory scale with promising results. The purpose of the Gas-Phase Decontamination Demonstration at PORTS was to evaluate the LTLT process on an actual diffusion cascade cell at conditions similar to those used in the laboratory testing. The demonstration was conducted on PORTS diffusion cell X-25-4-2 which was one of the X-326 Building cells which was permanently shutdown as part of the Suspension of HEU Production at PORTS. The demonstration full-scale test consisted of rendering the cell leak-tight through the installation of Dresser seals onto the process seals, exposing the cell to the oxidants ClF3 and F2 for a period of 105 days and evaluating the effect of the clean-up treatment on cell samples and coupons representing the major diffusion cascade materials of construction. The results were extrapolated to determine the effectiveness of LTLT decontamination over the range of historical uranium isotope assays present in the diffusion complex. It was determined that acceptable surface contamination levels could be obtained in all of the equipment in the lower assay cascades which represents the bulk of the equipment contained in the diffusion complex

  7. Biophysical Evaluation of Food Decontamination Effects on Tissue and Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ann Zahle; Duelund, Lars; Brewer, Jonathan R.;

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, the effects and efficiency of food surface decontamination processes, such as chlorine washing, radiation, or heating, have been evaluated by sensoric analysis and colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of surface swabs or carcass rinses. These methods suffice when determining probable...... in both food surface and bacteria upon surface decontamination by SonoSteam®. SonoSteam® is a recently developed method of food surface decontamination, which employs steam and ultrasound for effective heat transfer and short treatment times, resulting in significant reduction in surface bacteria. We...... employ differential scanning calorimetry, second harmonics generation imaging microscopy, two-photon fluorescence microscopy, and green fluorescence protein-expressing bacteria and compare our results with those obtained by traditional methods of food quality and safety evaluations. Our results show...

  8. Testing and evaluation of electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Harris, M.T.; Ally, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.] [and others

    1996-10-01

    The goals and objectives of the technical task plan (TTP) are to (1) describe the nature and extent of concrete contamination within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and emerging and commercial technologies applicable to these problems; (2) to match technologies to the concrete problems and recommend up to four demonstrations; (3) to initiate recommended demonstrations; and (4) to continue investigation and evaluation of the application of electrokinetic decontamination processes to concrete. This document presents findings of experimental and theoretical studies of the electrokinetic decontamination (EK) process and their implications for field demonstrations. This effort is an extension of the work performed under TTP 142005, ``Electroosmotic Concrete Decontamination. The goals of this task were to determine the applicability of EK for treating contaminated concrete and, if warranted, to evaluate EK as a potential technology for demonstration. 62 refs.

  9. Decontaminating method for radioactive contaminant and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An organic solvent comprising methylene chloride as a basic agent is injected in a decontamination vessel containing radioactive contaminants and brought into contact with them. The organic solvent reacts with radioactive materials and coating membranes deposited on the surface of the radioactive contaminants, to defoliate the contaminants from metal tissues. After defoliating the contaminated portions, the organic solvent and the defoliated materials are recovered, and the organic solvent is reutilized. A descaling agent is injected to the decontamination vessel to promote the reaction with the surface of the radioactive contaminants after the reaction with the organic solvent. The descaling agent and metal oxides are recovered, and the descaling agent is reutilized, while the metal oxides are isolated and stored. With such procedures, the metal surface and the coating membrane of the materials to be processed can be decontaminated at a high efficiency with no diffusion. (T.M.)

  10. Decontamination and decommissioning project for the nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning work which begin in latter half of 2001 was gone well in latter half of 2002. Now, 8 laboratories, 10 lead hot cells, and 2 concrete hot cells was dismantled. Wastes produced by decommissioning process were classified with three category. The decontaminatable wastes in the solid radioactive ones will be changed with free release ones. For this, we developed cylindrical rotating pipe decontamination units, ultrasonic ones, and steam jet ones. Test of these units was started in 2002 and they will be using decontamination work in 2003. According to regulation of atomic act 55, the Decommissioning Plan and Environmental Impact Assessment for uranium conversion plant were written out and presented. Basic research for metal wastes decontamination and research for lagoon sludge treatment was carried out.

  11. Plasma decontamination during ergodic divertor experiments in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the decontamination effect resulting from the creation of an ergodic boundary zone. Two plasma geometrical configurations (outboard and inboard) are studied, the plasma being limited respectively either, on the low field side (lfs), by an outboard limiter (3 to 5 cm ahead of the ED modules) or, on the high field side (hfs), by the graphite innerwall. Strong decontamination effects have already been reported for the first configuration by observing line emission of the intrinsic (carbon and oxygen) and purposely injected (nitrogen) impurities. When limited by the inner wall, the plasma is several centimetres farther from the ED modules than in the lfs configuration. The magnetic perturbation is then greatly reduced, and much smaller decontamination effects should be expected. In this paper, the hfs configuration data is compared with that from the lfs configuration. Preliminary experiments combining lower hybrid current drive and ED operation in the hfs configuration are also reported

  12. Criteria for the evaluation of a dilute decontamination demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FitzPatrick, V.F.; Divine, J.R.; Hoenes, G.R.; Munson, L.F.; Card, C.J.

    1981-12-01

    This document provides the prerequisite technical information required to evaluate and/or develop a project to demonstrate the dilute chemical decontamination of the primary coolant system of light water reactors. The document focuses on five key areas: the basis for establishing programmatic prerequisites and the key decision points that are required for proposal evaluation and/or RFP (Request for Proposal) issuance; a technical review of the state-of-the-art to identify the potential impacts of a reactor's primary-system decontamination on typical BWR and PWR plants; a discussion of the licensing, recertification, fuel warranty, and institutional considerations and processes; a preliminary identification and development of the selection criteria for the reactor and the decontamination process; and a preliminary identification of further research and development that might be required.

  13. Attapulgite, a decontaminating medium, research tool in the radioprotection field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gels based on attapulgite, obtained by mixing attapulgite, a clay, with water or chemicals have been used as decontaminating agents. The method has been optimized through extensive scale laboratory experiments carried out under standard conditions. A wide variety of materials, used in nuclear technologies, and significant radionuclides have been tested. Gels obtained with water only in some cases allow full decontamination, when acids are added to clay, complete contamination removal, is possible except for extreme pHs radionuclides solution and on non-passivated or porous surfaces. The optimized decontaminating technique has successively been set up and applied on materials contaminated by routine or accident. Laboratory scale results have been confirmed through practical use. Process data are reported. This method is simple to perform and requires no special equipment. No liquid radioactive waste arises from the process and the resulting solid waste can be conditioned with cement

  14. Criteria for the evaluation of a dilute decontamination demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the prerequisite technical information required to evaluate and/or develop a project to demonstrate the dilute chemical decontamination of the primary coolant system of light water reactors. The document focuses on five key areas: the basis for establishing programmatic prerequisites and the key decision points that are required for proposal evaluation and/or RFP (Request for Proposal) issuance; a technical review of the state-of-the-art to identify the potential impacts of a reactor's primary-system decontamination on typical BWR and PWR plants; a discussion of the licensing, recertification, fuel warranty, and institutional considerations and processes; a preliminary identification and development of the selection criteria for the reactor and the decontamination process; and a preliminary identification of further research and development that might be required

  15. Systems analysis of decontamination options for civilian vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltz, Greg W.; Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this project, which was supported by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) Chemical and Biological Division (CBD), was to investigate options for the decontamination of the exteriors and interiors of vehicles in the civilian setting in order to restore those vehicles to normal use following the release of a highly toxic chemical. The decontamination of vehicles is especially challenging because they often contain sensitive electronic equipment, multiple materials some of which strongly adsorb chemical agents, and in the case of aircraft, have very rigid material compatibility requirements (i.e., they cannot be exposed to reagents that may cause even minor corrosion). A systems analysis approach was taken examine existing and future civilian vehicle decontamination capabilities.

  16. Decontamination of abandoned sites. An introduction into the problems of land decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from a brief overview of the history of origin of soil and ground water pollution in Berlin and its surroundings by gas, chemical, and petroleum works, old landfills, manufactories of arms and ammunition as well as gasoline depots or sites of gasoline depots, the brochure describes the legal situation and procedure (list of 'intervention' values) and goes on to outline the situation regarding the ground under Berlin, existing pollutants, and methods for dealing with land contamination. In five abandoned sites (waste oil refinery, copper refinery, waste solvent treatment plant, asphalt factory and drugs factory), different methods for eliminating soil and ground water contamination were used. Their efficacy is assessed on the basis of their soil and pollutant-specific suitability; the decontamination achieved is indicated. (BBR)

  17. Decontamination Options for Drinking Water Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raber, E; Burklund, A

    2010-02-16

    Five parameters were evaluated with surrogates of Bacillus anthracis spores to determine effective decontamination options for use in a contaminated drinking water supply. The parameters were: (1) type of Bacillus spore surrogate (B. thuringiensis or B. atrophaeus); (2) spore concentration in suspension (10{sup 2} to 10{sup 6} spores/ml); (3) chemical characteristics of decontaminant [sodium dicholor-s-triazinetrione dihydrate (Dichlor), hydrogen peroxide, potassium peroxymonosulfate (Oxone), sodium hypochlorite, and VirkonS{reg_sign}]; (4) decontaminant concentration (0.01% to 5%); and (5) decontaminant exposure time (10 min to 24 hr). Results from 162 suspension tests with appropriate controls are reported. Hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of 5%, and Dichlor and sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 2%, were effective at spore inactivation regardless of spore type tested, spore exposure time, or spore concentration evaluated. This is the first reported study of Dichlor as an effective decontaminant for B. anthracis spore surrogates. Dichlor's desirable characteristics of high oxidation potential, high level of free chlorine, and more neutral pH than that of other oxidizers evaluated appear to make it an excellent alternative. All three oxidizers were effective against B. atrophaeus spores in meeting EPA's biocide standard of greater than a 6 log kill after a 10-minute exposure time and at lower concentrations than typically reported for biocide use. Solutions of 5% VirkonS{reg_sign} and Oxone were less effective decontaminants than other options evaluated in this study and did not meet the EPA's efficacy standard for biocides. Differences in methods and procedures reported by other investigators make quantitative comparisons among studies difficult.

  18. Decontamination of laryngoscope blades: Is our practice adequate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telang R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The laryngoscope has been identified as a potential source of cross-infection, because of blood and bacterial contamination. In India, there are no guidelines for cleaning and disinfection of anesthesia-related equipment. Practices for decontamination of laryngoscopes vary widely and in most healthcare institutes, laryngoscope blades are re-used after cleaning with tap-water. Materials and Methods: We prospectively compared two techniques for decontamination of laryngoscope blades - a washing with tap-water and b washing with tap-water followed by disinfection by immersing in 5% v/v (volume/volume, 1:20 dilution aldehyde-free biguanide agent for 10 min. We calculated the cost-effectiveness of using 5% v/v aldehyde-free biguanide agent for disinfection of laryngoscopes. We also conducted a survey to assess the decontamination practices in other Indian hospitals. Results : Overall bacterial growth was 58% (29 out of 50 blades after tap-water cleaning (of which 60% were pathogenic organisms versus 3.4% (one out of 29 blades after tap-water cleaning followed by immersion in disinfectant (all of which were commensals. The cost of disinfection with biguanide was Indian Rupees 1.13 (20 US cents per laryngoscope. Most hospitals in India do not have guidelines regarding laryngoscope decontamination between uses, and cleaning with tap water is a commonly used method. Conclusion : Cleaning of laryngoscope blades with tap-water is a commonly used but inadequate method for decontamination. Washing with tap-water followed by disinfection with 5% v/v aldehyde-free biguanide for at least 10 min is an effective and inexpensive alternative. National guidelines for the decontamination of anesthesia equipment are necessary.

  19. Decomposition Technology Development of Organic Component in a Decontamination Waste Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chong Hun; Oh, W. Z.; Won, H. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K

    2007-11-15

    Through the project of 'Decomposition Technology Development of Organic Component in a Decontamination Waste Solution', the followings were studied. 1. Investigation of decontamination characteristics of chemical decontamination process 2. Analysis of COD, ferrous ion concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration 3. Decomposition tests of hardly decomposable organic compounds 4. Improvement of organic acid decomposition process by ultrasonic wave and UV light 5. Optimization of decomposition process using a surrogate decontamination waste solution.

  20. Concrete decontamination by Electro-Hydraulic Scabbling (EHS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    EHS is being developed for decontaminating concrete structures from radionuclides, organic substances, and hazardous metals. EHS involves the generation of powerful shock waves and intense cavitation by a strong pulsed electric discharge in a water layer at the concrete surface; high impulse pressure results in stresses which crack and peel off a concrete layer of controllable thickness. Scabbling produces contaminated debris of relatively small volume which can be easily removed, leaving clean bulk concrete. Objective of Phase I was to prove the technical feasibility of EH for controlled scabbling and decontamination of concrete. Phase I is complete.

  1. Concrete decontamination by Electro-Hydraulic Scabbling (EHS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EHS is being developed for decontaminating concrete structures from radionuclides, organic substances, and hazardous metals. EHS involves the generation of powerful shock waves and intense cavitation by a strong pulsed electric discharge in a water layer at the concrete surface; high impulse pressure results in stresses which crack and peel off a concrete layer of controllable thickness. Scabbling produces contaminated debris of relatively small volume which can be easily removed, leaving clean bulk concrete. Objective of Phase I was to prove the technical feasibility of EH for controlled scabbling and decontamination of concrete. Phase I is complete

  2. Determination of a cleaning and decontamination process using solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has been carried out on samples of the white cotton serge material of which most of the working overalls of the Nuclear Research Centre are made. The aims are: - to determine,from the decontamination and cleaning points of view, the efficiency of various solvents (white-spirit, trichloroethylene, perchlorethylene and tri-chloro-trifluoroethane) and the role of additives likely to improve the treatment; - to control the textile from the wear and shrinkage points of view; - to try to develop a basic cleaning and decontamination process as a function of the possibilities of each solvent considered. (authors)

  3. Physicochemical characteristics of PFC surfactants for dry decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Jin; Lee, Chi Woo [Korea University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    Even the trace amount of the used nuclear fuels of high radioactivity are hazardous to the earth and humans. Perfluorocarbons and perfluorocarbon surfactants are emerging to be efficient chemicals in the dry decontamination process of the used fuels of high radioactivity. The theme was undertaken to increase the knowledge on perfluorocarbon surfactants to develop the perfluorocarbon system in the dry decontamination process in Korea. Several cationic and anionic pfc surfactants were synthesized. Effects of pfc surfactants on electrochemical etching of silicon were investigated to form porous silicons. Forces were measured between silicon surfaces and AFM tip in the absence and presence of pfc surfactants. 7 refs., 10 figs. (Author)

  4. Radiation decontamination of herbal row materials and medical herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several thousand tons of medical herbs are produced annually by pharmaceutical industry in Poland. This product should be of highest quality and microbial purity. Recently, chemical methods of decontamination recognized as less safe, thus irradiation technique can effectively replaced them. In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology the National programme on the application of irradiation on the decontamination medical herbs is in progress now. The first aim of the programme is to study the effect of ionizing radiation on microbial purity herbal raw materials and medical herbs. (author)

  5. A mass casualty incident involving children and chemical decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Nathan; Reeves, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Mass casualty incidents involving contaminated children are a rare but ever-present possibility. In this article we outline one such event that resulted in 53 pediatric patients and 3 adults presenting to the emergency department of a children's hospital for decontamination and treatment. We pay special attention to the training that allowed this responses to occur. We also outline the institutional response with emphasis on incident command, communication, and resource utilization. Specific lessons learned are explored in detail. Finally, we set forth a series of recommendations to assist other institutions should they be called upon to care for and decontaminate pediatric patients.

  6. Decontamination of radioactive contaminated protective wear using dry cleaning solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid waste generated by conventional decontamination of radioactive contaminated cotton protective wear using detergent affects the chemical treatment of the plant. To reduce the generation of aqueous detergent waste, dry cleaning of cotton protective wear, highly soiled with oil and grease towards decontamination was tried with organic solvents. Mineral turpentine oil (MTO) among various other organic solvents was identified as a suitable organic solvent. As MTO leaves characteristic odour on the cloth, various commercial fragrances for the removal of the odour were tried. Application of the optimised dry cleaning solvent and commercial fragrance was adopted in plant scale operation. (author)

  7. Electron beam irradiation for biological decontamination of Spirulina platensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasoveanu, Mirela [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)]. E-mail: mirela@infim.ro; Nemtanu, Monica [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Minea, R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Grecu, Maria Nicoleta [National Institute for Materials Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Mazilu, Elena [Hofigal SA (Romania); Radulescu, Nora [Hofigal SA (Romania)

    2005-10-15

    The Cyanobacterium Spirulina is commercialized for its use in health foods and for therapeutic purposes due to its valuable constituents particularly proteins and vitamins. The aim of the paper is to study the Spirulina platensis behaviour when it is electron beam irradiated for biological decontamination. Microbial load, antioxidant activity, enzymatic inhibition, electron spin resonance (ESR) and UV-Vis spectra were measured for doses up to 80 kGy. The results were correlated with doses in order to find where decontamination is efficient, keeping the Spirulina qualities.

  8. Decontamination and Decommissioned Small Nuclear AIP Hybrid Systems Submarines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangya Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Being equipped with small reactor AIP is the trend of conventional submarine power in 21st century as well as a real power revolution in conventional submarine. Thus, the quantity of small reactor AIP Submarines is on the increase, and its decommissioning and decontamination will also become a significant international issue. However, decommissioning the small reactor AIP submarines is not only a problem that appears beyond the lifetime of the small reactor nuclear devices, but the problem involving the entire process of design, construction, running and closure. In the paper, the problem is explored based on the conception and the feasible decommissioning and decontamination means are supplied to choose from.

  9. Final report on the decontamination of the Curium Source Fabrication Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Curium Source Fabrication Facility (CSFF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was decontaminated to acceptable contamination levels for maintenance activities, using standard decontamination techniques. Solid and liquid waste volumes were controlled to minimize discharges to the ORNL waste systems. This program required two years of decontamination effort at a total cost of approximately $700K. 5 references, 7 figures, 2 tables

  10. Definition of a concrete bio-decontamination process in nuclear substructures; Biodegradation de matrices cimentaires en vue de leur decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jestin, A

    2005-05-15

    The decontamination of sub-structural materials represents a stake of high-importance because of the high volume generated. It is agreed then to propose efficient and effective processes. The process of bio-decontamination of the hydraulic binders leans on the mechanisms of biodegradation of concretes, phenomenon characterized in the 40's by an indirect attack of the material by acids stem from the microbial metabolism: sulphuric acid (produced by Thiobacillus), nitric acid (produced by Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter) and organic acids (produced by fungi). The principle of the bio-decontamination process is to apply those micro-organisms on the surface of the contaminated material, in order to damage its surface and to retrieve the radionuclides. One of the multiple approaches of the process is the use of a bio-gel that makes possible the micro-organisms application. (author)

  11. Development of high-level radioactive waste treatment and conversion technologies 'Dry decontamination technology development for highly radioactive contaminants'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Dry Decontamination Technology Development for Highly Radioactive Contaminants'. 1.Contaminant Characteristics Analysis of Domestic Nuclear Fuel Cycle Projects(NFCP) and Applicability Study of the Unit Dry-Decontamination Techniques A. Classification of contaminated equipments and characteristics analysis of contaminants B. Applicability study of the unit dry-decontamination techniques 2.Performance Evaluation of Unit Dry Decontamination Technique A. PFC decontamination technique B. CO2 decontamination technique C. Plasma decontamination technique 3.Development of Residual Radiation Assessment Methodology for High Radioactive Facility Decontamination A. Development of radioactive nuclide diffusion model on highly radioactive facility structure B. Obtainment of the procedure for assessment of residual radiation dose 4.Establishment of the Design Concept of Dry Decontamination Process Equipment Applicable to Highly Radioactive Contaminants 5.TRIGA soil unit decontamination technology development A. Development of soil washing and flushing technologies B. Development of electrokinetic soil decontamination technology

  12. WVU cooperative agreement, decontamination systems information and research program, deployment support leading to implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This program at West Virginia University is a Cooperative Agreement that focuses on R ampersand D associated with hazardous waste remediation problems existing at DOE, Corps of Engineers, and private sector sites. The Agreement builds on a unique combination of resources coupling university researchers with DOE sponsored small businesses, leading toward field tests and large scale technology demonstrations of environmental technologies. Most of the Agreement's projects are categorized in the Technology Maturity Levels under Gates 3-Advanced Development, Gate 4-Engineering Development, and Gate 5-Demonstration. The program includes a diversity of projects: subsurface contaminants; mixed wastes; mixed wastes/efficient separations; mixed wastes/characterization, monitoring, and sensor technologies; and decontamination and decommissioning/efficient separations

  13. Modelling of the hydrodynamic behaviour of a decontamination foam; Modelisation du comportement hydrodynamique d'une mousse de decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faury, M.; Fournel, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2001-07-01

    Decontamination of large components of nuclear power plants (refrigerants, vapor generators, effluents storage tanks...) produces an important volume of secondary effluents. The use of decontamination foams is an alternative allowing a significant diminution of this volume (about of a factor ten). The aim of this work is to propose models which could be applied by an industrialist in order to anticipate the behaviour of a foam flowing out in a component of any geometry and simplifying then the pre-study steps. (O.M.)

  14. In vitro model for decontamination of human skin: formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, H; Barbadillo, S; Hui, X; Maibach, H I

    2007-04-01

    Decontamination of a chemical from skin is often an emergency measure. This study utilized an in vitro model to compare the decontamination capacity of three model decontaminant solutions (tap water, isotonic saline, and hypertonic saline). Human cadaver skin was dosed (approximately 0.25 microg on 3 cm(2) per skin) with radio-labeled [(14)C]-formaldehyde. After a defined exposure time (1, 3, and 30 min post-dosing, respectively), the surface skin was washed three times (4ml per time) with each solution. After washing, the skin was stripped with tape discs twice. Lastly, the wash solutions, strippings, receptor fluid, and remainder of skin were liquid scintillation analyzer counted to determine the amounts of formaldehyde. Additionally, an evaporation test at different exposure times (1min, 3min, 15min, 30min, and 60min, respectively) was conducted to monitor formaldehyde % evaporation. There were no statistical differences among these groups except isotonic saline, at 3min post-exposure (in wash solutions), showed a significantly difference (pisotonic saline may be effective in removing formaldehyde from skin. However, results from this model need validation in vivo. The model may provide a facile and robust method of accelerating knowledge of decontamination mechanism and lead to enhanced efficacy. PMID:17123683

  15. Review of decontamination techniques in relation to decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of decontamination procedures currently in use in relation to the decommissioning of nuclear plant. Contributions were invited from Canada, France, Japan, Sweden, USA and the UK and are appended. They present an overview of the techniques employed in each country and identify areas of future development. (author)

  16. Decommissioning and Decontamination Program: Battelle Plutonium Facility, Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This assessment describes the decontamination of Battelle-Columbus Plutonium Facility and removal from the site of all material contamination which was associated with or produced by the Plutonium Facility. Useable uncontaminated material will be disposed of by procedures normally employed in scrap declaration and transfer. Contaminated waste will be transported to approved radioactive waste storage sites. 5 refs., 1 fig

  17. Decontamination training: with and without virtual reality simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farra, Sharon Lee; Smith, Sherrill; Gillespie, Gordon Lee; Nicely, Stephanie; Ulrich, Deborah L; Hodgson, Eric; French, DeAnne

    2015-01-01

    Nurses must be prepared to care for patients following a disaster, including patients exposed to hazardous contaminants. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of virtual reality simulation (VRS) to teach the disaster-specific skill of decontamination. A quasi-experimental design was used to assign nursing students from 2 baccalaureate nursing programs to 1 of 2 groups to learn the disaster skill of decontamination-printed written directions or VRS. Performance, knowledge, and self-efficacy were outcome measures. Although students in the treatment group had significantly lower performance scores than the control group (p = 0.004), students taking part in VRS completed the skill in a significantly shorter amount of time (p = 0.008). No significant group differences were found for self-efficacy (p = 0.172) or knowledge (p = 0.631). However, students in the VRS treatment group reported high levels of satisfaction with VRS as a training method. The disaster-specific skill of decontamination is a low-volume, high-risk skill that must be performed with accuracy to protect both exposed patients and providers performing decontamination. As frontline providers for casualties following a disaster event, emergency nurses must be prepared to perform this skill when needed. Preparation requires cost-effective, timely, and evidence-based educational opportunities that promote positive outcomes. Further investigation is needed to determine the benefits and long-term effects of VRS for disaster education. PMID:25929223

  18. Use of selective digestive tract decontamination in European intensive cares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis Miranda, D; Citerio, G; Perner, A;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that the use of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) reduces mortality. However, fear for increasing multi drug resistance might prevent wide acceptance. A survey was performed among the units registered in the European Registry for Intensive Care...

  19. The study of honey qualitative parameters after decontamination by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to determine the physical-chemical parameters of a good quality honey. These parameters could be altered upon germ decontamination of honey be means of ionizing radiation. The study analyzed the evolution of germ contamination in honey and the physical-chemical parameters that characterizes the quality of honey. (author)

  20. Decontamination of tried-in orthodontic molar bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, M R; Ireland, A J; Main, B G

    2003-12-01

    Molar bands are commonly used to retain orthodontic attachments on posterior teeth and due to the variation in the size of such teeth, it is usually necessary to 'try in' several bands before the correct one is selected. A possible concern with re-using such bands is the lack of cross-infection control, even following autoclaving, due to the presence of one or more small bore lumen (the archwire and headgear tubes). The aim of this experiment was, therefore, to determine whether such bands could be successfully decontaminated so that they could be re-used without a cross-infection risk. Two hundred orthodontic molar bands that had previously been tried in patients' mouths, but not cemented into place, were tested. Each band was decontaminated using an enzymatic cleaner/disinfectant and then sterilized using either a downward displacement (n = 100) or a vacuum cycle autoclave (n = 100). Following autoclaving each band was inoculated into brain heart infusion culture broth and incubated at 37 degrees C for 5 days. None of the decontaminated bands exhibited growth after 5 days. It would appear that, using this methodology, there is little risk of a cross-infection hazard occurring with the re-use of previously tried-in and decontaminated molar bands.

  1. History of decontamination after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnitude 9.0 earthquake (the Great East Japan Earthquake) hit Japan on March 11, 2011 brought tsunami hazard as well as a nuclear accident in addition to the seismic hazard. A wide area of the eastern Japan was contaminated by radioactive materials released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Company. In response to the unprecedented situation of the radioactive pollution after the accident, the Act on Special Measures Concerning the Handling of Radioactive Pollution was enacted in August 2011. The Ministry of the Environment (MOE) has formulated a set of guidelines by the end of 2011 to provide information on how to store and manage contaminated waste. In addition, the MOE established 'The Policies for the Decontamination of Specific Areas (Decontamination Roadmap)' in January 2012. As a result, the radiation dose rate has decreased by approximately 46% in the residential area of Naraha town. The MOE will have been promoting decontamination and construction of interim storage facilities which are able to store and manage the removed soils and incineration ashes generated from decontamination works. (author)

  2. Biophysical Evaluation of Food Decontamination Effects on Tissue and Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ann Zahle; Duelund, Lars; Brewer, Jonathan;

    2011-01-01

    that there are no contradictions between data obtained by either approach. However, the biophysical methods draw a much more nuanced picture of the effects and efficiency of the investigated decontamination method, revealing, e.g., an exponential dose/response relationship between SonoSteam® treatment time and changes in collagen...

  3. Decontamination of a fuel transport flask using chemical foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional methods of flask decontamination are labour-intensive and depend on operator skills. A chemical foam technique has been evaluated as an alternative method. It is simple and effective and offers savings in manpower, and advantages in control over contamination and arisings. (U.K.)

  4. UK fast reactor components. Sodium removal decontamination and requalification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive experience gained at the U.K.A.E.A. Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment is being applied to form the basis of the plant to be provided for sodium removal, decontamination, and requalification of components in future commercial fast reactors. In the first part of a three part paper, the factors to be taken into account, showing the UK philosophy and approach to maintenance and repair operations are discussed. In the second part, PFR facilities for sodium removal and decontamination are described and some examples are given of cleaning components such as pumps, charge machine, cold trap baskets, and steam generator units. Similar facilities at DFR are briefly described. In the third part of the paper a short description is given of the Harwell mass transfer loop, currently used to study the deposition of activated stainless steel corrosion products. Decontamination method for pipework specimens cut from the loop are described and results of first screening tests of various chemical decontaminants are presented. (U.K.)

  5. Economies of capacity use in decontamination of pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Lawson, Lartey Godwin; Lund, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the economies of capacity use regarding hot water decontamination to reduce postslaughter risk of pathogens in meat, taking interfarm heterogeneities of Salmonella risk and costs of transportation into account, using Denmark as a case study. If risk reduction goals are stated...

  6. The Ultimate Hacker: SETI Signals May Need to Be Decontaminated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.

    2004-06-01

    Biological contamination from space is a remote but recognized possibility. SETI signals might also contain harmful information. Some argue that a SETI signal could not contaminate a terrestrial computer because the idiosyncratic computer logic and code constitute an impenetrable firewall. Suggestions are given below on how to probe these arguments and decontaminate SETI signals.

  7. Decontamination of transuranic contaminated metals by melt refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melt refining of transuranic contaminated metals is a possible decontamination process with the potential advantages of producing metal for reuse and of simplifying chemical analyses. By routinely achieving the 10 nCi/g( about0.1ppm) level by melt refining, scrap metal can be removed from the transuranic waste category. (To demonstrate the effectiveness of this melt refining process, mild steel, stainless steel, nickel, and copper were contaminated with 500 ppm (μg/g) PuO2 and melted with various fluxes. The solidified slags and metals were analyzed for their plutonium contents, and corresponding partition ratios for plutonium were calculated. Some metals were double refined in order to study the effect of secondary slag treatment. The initial weight of the slags was also varied to investigate the effect of slag weight on the degree of plutonium removal. In general, all four metals could be decontaminated below 1 ppm (μg/g) Pu ( about100 nCi/g) by a single slag treatment. Doubling the slag weight did not improve decontamination significantly; however, double slag treatment using 5 wt.% slag did decontaminate the metals to below 0.1 ppm (μg/g) Pu (10 nCi/g).)

  8. Results of chemical decontamination of DOE`s uranium-enrichment scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, R.G.

    1997-02-01

    The CORPEX{reg_sign} Nuclear Decontamination Processes were used to decontaminate representative scrap metal specimens obtained from the existing scrap metal piles located at the Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. In September 1995, under contract to Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, MELE Associates, Inc. performed the on-site decontamination demonstration. The decontamination demonstration proved that significant amounts of the existing DOE scrap metal can be decontaminated to levels where the scrap metal could be economically released by DOE for beneficial reuse. This simple and environmentally friendly process can be used as an alternative, or in addition to, smelting radiologically contaminated scrap metal.

  9. System decontamination in the Stade nuclear power plant prior to dismantling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiepani, C. [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Seidelmann, K. [Kernkraftwerk Stade (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The Stade nuclear plant (KKS) was permanently shut down in November 2003. The primary system and the most important auxiliary systems (emergency cooling system, residual heat removal system, coolant purification system and volume control system) were chemically decontaminated. The paper describes the applied decontamination process HP/CORD {sup registered} UV and the results obtained during full system decontamination. This paper explains in detail the advantages of a full system decontamination as a central measure prior to dismantling as well as the excellent decontamination results. The potential for dose rate reduction in operational power plant is also pointed out. (orig.)

  10. Legionella on board trains: effectiveness of environmental surveillance and decontamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaranta Gianluigi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Legionella pneumophila is increasingly recognised as a significant cause of sporadic and epidemic community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. Many studies describe the frequency and severity of Legionella spp. contamination in spa pools, natural pools, hotels and ships, but there is no study analysing the environmental monitoring of Legionella on board trains. The aims of the present study were to conduct periodic and precise environmental surveillance of Legionella spp. in water systems and water tanks that supply the toilet systems on trains, to assess the degree of contamination of such structures and to determine the effectiveness of decontamination. Methods A comparative pre-post ecological study was conducted from September 2006 to January 2011. A total of 1,245 water samples were collected from plumbing and toilet water tanks on passenger trains. The prevalence proportion of all positive samples was calculated. The unpaired t-test was performed to evaluate statistically significant differences between the mean load values before and after the decontamination procedures; statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results In the pre-decontamination period, 58% of the water samples were positive for Legionella. Only Legionella pneumophila was identified: 55.84% were serogroup 1, 19.03% were serogroups 2–14 and 25.13% contained both serogroups. The mean bacterial load value was 2.14 × 103 CFU/L. During the post-decontamination period, 42.75% of water samples were positive for Legionella spp.; 98.76% were positive for Legionella pneumophila: 74.06% contained serogroup 1, 16.32% contained serogroups 2–14 and 9.62% contained both. The mean bacterial load in the post-decontamination period was 1.72 × 103 CFU/L. According to the t-test, there was a statistically significant decrease in total bacterial load until approximately one and a half year after beginning the decontamination programme (p

  11. The chemical decontamination of the Callisto PWR loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CALLISTO (Capability for Light water Irradiation in Steady state and Transient Operation) is a PWR experimental facility for scientific in-pile studies installed into the BR2 Material Test Reactor. Three experimental rigs, called In-Pile Sections (IPS), are installed in three reactor channels. They are connected to a common pressurized loop, which operates with representative PWR water chemistry (typically 400 ppm boron, 3,5 ppm lithium and 30 ccSTP/kg dissolved hydrogen). The IPSs can be provided with adequate instrumentation and be modified to perform valid irradiation studies in a high neutron flux and in a relevant thermos-hydraulic environment. During more than 15 years of operation, activation products have accumulated into the loop leading to a continuous increase of the dose rates at the work area. Consequently periodic maintenance and inspection operations have become more and more expensive in terms of collective dose uptake. In consultation with the internal and external safety authorities the decision has been made to proceed to the chemical closed-loop decontamination of the most important components of CALLISTO (heater, pressurizer, main and bleed flow coolers). The objective of reducing the dose rates without compromising the integrity of the operational loop has led to the combined use of known soft chemical decontamination products as KMnO4 and H2C2O4. About 10 GBq of Co-60 activity and 250 g of corrosion products were removed from the stainless steel CALLISTO loop. The systems involved had a total volume of 0,5 m3 and a surface area of 18 m2. All released activity and corrosion products were removed by ion exchange resins, leading to the generation of 2x150 liters of radioactive waste. The dose rate reduction factors in contact with the treated components varied between 2 and 12. The collective dose uptake of the entire operation (preparation - decontamination - clean-up) was about 5,5 man.mSv, and thereby in line with the ALARA estimations

  12. Fighting Ebola through Novel Spore Decontamination Technologies for the Military

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Doona

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractRecently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF, the World Health Organization (WHO, Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH, and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs, a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned. The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2 produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army – Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC and commercialized as a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. We present herein the unique attributes of NSRDEC’s novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established nonthermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical sanitizers

  13. Development of the dry decontamination technique using plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Seo, Yong Dae; Lee, Dong Uk; Jeon, Sang Hwan; Jung, Young Suk [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced dry decontamination method, dry decontamination technique using gaseous plasma is studied. Scopes of the research are 1) literature survey and case studies of the international R and D activities and industrial application, 2) contaminant characteristics analysis, 3) feasibility and applicability study of the unit techniques, 4) process development study on the plasma decontamination, 5) plasma diagnostics and quantitative analysis by QMS and OES, and 6) design of (microwave) plasma torch system. The major research results are as belows. The maximum etching rate of UO{sub 2} is achieved to be 0.8 {mu}m/min. under 300 deg C, 150 W CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} r.f. plasma maintaining the optimum ratio of CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} of four, and that of Co and Mo is 0.06 {mu}m/min. and 1.9 {mu}m/min., respectively, under 380 deg C, 220 W CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} r.f. plasma. The optimum process for the dry decontamination of TRU, CP, and or FP nuclides, therefore, requires the optimum gas composition above 350 deg C and 220W power. It is also demonstrated that this optimum process can be extrapolated to atmospheric high power torch system. In conclusion, if plasma power and temperature increases with maintaining the optimum gas composition, this dry decontamination techniques must be definitely effective and efficient. 17 refs., 62 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  14. Pickering NGS heat transport system decontamination using the CAN-DECON process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 1981, a decontamination of the Pickering NGS Unit 1 heat transport system using the CAN-DECON process was carried out. The primary objective of the decontamination was to establish the effectiveness of the decontamination process in order to determine optimum tooling and manpower requirements for major dose-intensive reactor maintenance work. Laboratory scale development work suggested that the CAN-DECON process could, with modifications, produce decontamination factors (DFs) of 10 or better on carbon steel. The full scale decontamination, however, did not confirm these expectations. Radiation fields on the carbon steel headers and feeders were unchanged. Radiation fields on the Monel boilers which were low to start with were reduced by a factor of 1.5. This paper discusses the decontamination, its results, and the lessons learned from the decontamination

  15. Decontamination Processes for Restorative Operations and as a Precursor to Decommissioning: A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, J. L.; Divine, J. R.

    1981-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted an comprehensive literature review of actual reactor decontamination processes that are currently available. In general, any decontamination process should be based on the following criteria: effectiveness, efficiency, safety, and waste production. The information that was collected and analyzed has been divided into three major categories of decontamination: chemical, mechanical, and electrochemical. Chemical methods can be further classified as either low-concentration, singlestep processes or high-concentration, single- or multistep processes. Numerous chemical decontamination methods are detailed. Mechanical decontamination methods are usually restricted to the removal of a contaminated surface layer, whlch limits their versatility; several mechanical decontamination methods are described. Electrochemical decontamination. is both fast and easily controlled, and numerous processes that have been used in industry for many years are discussed. Information obtained from this work is tabulated in Appendix A for easy access, and a bibliography and a glossary have been provided.

  16. Aggressive chemical decontamination tests on small valves from the Garigliano BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to check the effectiveness of direct chemical decontamination on small and complex components, usually considered for storage without decontamination because of the small amount, some tests were performed on the DECO experimental loop. Four small stainless steel valves from the primary system of the Garigliano BWR were decontaminated using mainly aggressive chemicals such as HC1, HF, HNO3 and their mixtures. On two valves, before the treatment with aggressive chemicals, a step with soft chemical (oxalic and citric acid mixture) was performed in order to see whether a softening action enhances the following aggressive decontamination. Moreover, in order to increase as much as possible the decontamination effectiveness, a decontamination process using ultrasounds jointly with aggressive chemicals was investigated. After an intensive laboratory testing programme, two smaller stainless steel valves from the primary system of the Garigliano BWR were decontaminated using ultrasounds in aggressive chemical solutions

  17. Fighting Ebola with novel spore decontamination technologies for the military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doona, Christopher J; Feeherry, Florence E; Kustin, Kenneth; Olinger, Gene G; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J; Leighton, Terrance

    2015-01-01

    Recently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF), the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs), a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned). The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2) produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC) and commercialized as a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. We present herein the unique attributes of NSRDEC's novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established non-thermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical sanitizers, using an array of Bacillus

  18. Decontamination of Anthrax spores in critical infrastructure and critical assets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, Raymond M.; Crown, Kevin K.; Tucker, Mark David; Hankins, Matthew Granholm

    2010-05-01

    Decontamination of anthrax spores in critical infrastructure (e.g., subway systems, major airports) and critical assets (e.g., the interior of aircraft) can be challenging because effective decontaminants can damage materials. Current decontamination methods require the use of highly toxic and/or highly corrosive chemical solutions because bacterial spores are very difficult to kill. Bacterial spores such as Bacillus anthracis, the infectious agent of anthrax, are one of the most resistant forms of life and are several orders of magnitude more difficult to kill than their associated vegetative cells. Remediation of facilities and other spaces (e.g., subways, airports, and the interior of aircraft) contaminated with anthrax spores currently requires highly toxic and corrosive chemicals such as chlorine dioxide gas, vapor- phase hydrogen peroxide, or high-strength bleach, typically requiring complex deployment methods. We have developed a non-toxic, non-corrosive decontamination method to kill highly resistant bacterial spores in critical infrastructure and critical assets. A chemical solution that triggers the germination process in bacterial spores and causes those spores to rapidly and completely change to much less-resistant vegetative cells that can be easily killed. Vegetative cells are then exposed to mild chemicals (e.g., low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, quaternary ammonium compounds, alcohols, aldehydes, etc.) or natural elements (e.g., heat, humidity, ultraviolet light, etc.) for complete and rapid kill. Our process employs a novel germination solution consisting of low-cost, non-toxic and non-corrosive chemicals. We are testing both direct surface application and aerosol delivery of the solutions. A key Homeland Security need is to develop the capability to rapidly recover from an attack utilizing biological warfare agents. This project will provide the capability to rapidly and safely decontaminate critical facilities and assets to return them to

  19. The NEA co-operative programme on decommissioning decontamination and demolition of concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to growing interest in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency set up the Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning in 1985. Its basic scope is to facilitate the exchange of scientific and technical information between major decommissioning projects. Participation in the Programme has expanded significantly over the years to include organisations from 13 countries. Currently, about 60 projects participate in the Programme. The Programme is executed under an agreement between the participating organisations and companies. A progress report is issued every five years on the CPD and includes a brief description of each project. The most recent report is entitled A Decade of Progress. The projects are divided into two groups: reactor projects (60%) and fuel facility projects (40%). A complete list of the different projects and their country of residence can be found in Annex 1. Many of the early projects in the Programme focused on experimental or prototype plants, however, a number of projects for the decommissioning of commercial facilities (power generation, fuel and reprocessing plants) have recently joined the Programme. Limited feedback on concrete clean-up operations has been available until now due to the lengthy time frame of decommissioning projects and the fact that building demolition occurs in the very late stages of the project. Some of the early projects in the Programme are now complete or nearing completion, making available significant data and experience. This experience and lessons learnt can be applied to the further development of decommissioning and dismantling (D and D) clean-up processes. This report aims to supplement the previous NEA report dedicated to decontamination techniques and to provide project engineers and/or project leaders involved in concrete infrastructure clean-up with: - Guidelines for setting up appropriate and adequate strategies, taking into consideration the international

  20. Assessing cost and effectiveness of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Naito, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Despite the enormous cost of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture, it is not clear what levels of reduction in external radiation exposure are possible in the Special Decontamination Area, the Intensive Contamination Survey Areas and the whole of Fukushima. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture in its entirety. Using a geographic information system, we calculated the costs of removal, storage containers, transport, and temporary and interim storage facilities as well as the reduction in air dose rate for a cumulative external exposure for 9000 1 km × 1 km mesh units incorporating 51 municipalities. The decontamination cost for the basic scenario, for which forested areas within 20 m of habitation areas were decontaminated, was JPY2.53-5.12 trillion; the resulting reduction in annual external dose was about 2500 person-Sv. The transport, storage, and administrative costs of decontamination waste and removed soil reached JPY1.55-2.12 trillion under this scenario. Although implementing decontamination of all forested areas provides some major reductions in the external radiation dose for the average inhabitant, decontamination costs could potentially exceed JPY16 trillion. These results indicate that technologies for reducing the volume of decontamination waste and removed soil should be considered to reduce storage costs and that further discussions about forest decontamination policies are needed.

  1. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Environmental Assessment for decontamination and dismantlement, Pinellas Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1092) of the proposed decontamination and dismantlement of the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida. Under the Decontamination and Dismantlement EA, the DOE proposes to clean up facilities, structures, and utilities; dismantle specific structures; and mitigate or eliminate any environmental impacts associated with the cleanup, dismantlement, and related activities. Related activities include utilization of specific areas by new tenants prior to full-scale cleanup. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  4. A Nanosecond Pulsed Plasma Brush for Surface Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuber, Johanna; Malik, Muhammad; Song, Shutong; Jiang, Chunqi

    2015-11-01

    This work optimizes a non-thermal, atmospheric pressure plasma brush for surface decontamination. The generated plasma plumes with a maximum length of 2 cm are arranged in a 5 cm long, brush-like array. The plasma was generated in ambient air with plasma chamber at a rate varying between 1 to 7 SLPM. Optimization of the cold plasma brush for surface decontamination was tested in a study of the plasma inactivation of two common pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii. Laminate surfaces inoculated with over-night cultured bacteria were subject to the plasma treatment for varying water concentrations in He, flow rates and discharge voltages. It was found that increasing the water content of the feed gas greatly enhanced the bactericidal effect. Emission spectroscopy was performed to identify the reactive plasma species that contribute to this variation. Additional affiliation: Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics

  5. Decontamination analysis of the NUWAX-83 accident site using DECON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an analysis of the site restoration options for the NUWAX-83 site, at which an exercise was conducted involving a simulated nuclear weapons accident. This analysis was performed using a computer program deveoped by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The computer program, called DECON, was designed to assist personnel engaged in the planning of decontamination activities. The many features of DECON that are used in this report demonstrate its potential usefulness as a site restoration planning tool. Strategies that are analyzed with DECON include: (1) employing a Quick-Vac option, under which selected surfaces are vacuumed before they can be rained on; (2) protecting surfaces against precipitation; (3) prohibiting specific operations on selected surfaces; (4) requiring specific methods to be used on selected surfaces; (5) evaluating the trade-off between cleanup standards and decontamination costs; and (6) varying of the cleanup standards according to expected exposure to surface

  6. Decontamination by shotblasting of radioactivity deposited on an asphalt road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-lived fission products may be deposited in the environment after a serious reactor accident. From previous experiments it is known that if firehosing is to be used for decontamination it has to be done soon after the deposition. It is therefore worthwhile to study another decontamination method. An experimental study has been conducted of how well shotblasting can remove contamination from an asphalt road. In shotblasting a thin layer of the surface is loosened by the impact of small steel balls, and in the same procedure the surface dust is vacuumed up and the steel balls recovered. The contaminant was 86Rb, which behaves as caesium. As reference, the weathering of identical contamination on an asphalt road, a concrete road and a road covered with small concrete stones was studied concurrently. (author)

  7. Environmental Assessment for decontamination and dismantlement, Pinellas Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1092) of the proposed decontamination and dismantlement of the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida. Under the Decontamination and Dismantlement EA, the DOE proposes to clean up facilities, structures, and utilities; dismantle specific structures; and mitigate or eliminate any environmental impacts associated with the cleanup, dismantlement, and related activities. Related activities include utilization of specific areas by new tenants prior to full-scale cleanup. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  8. Laser-based characterization and decontamination of contaminated facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the application of laser ablation to the characterization and decontamination of painted and unpainted concrete and metal surfaces that are typical of many facilities within the US Department of Energy complex. The utility of this promising technology is reviewed and the essential requirements for efficient ablation extracted. Recent data obtained on the ablation of painted steel surfaces and concrete are presented. The affects of beam irradiance, ablation speed and efficiency, and characteristics of the aerosol effluent are discussed. Characterization of the ablated components of the surface offers the ability of concurrent determination of the level of contamination. This concept can be applied online where the ablation endpoint can be determined. A conceptual system for the characterization and decontamination of surfaces is proposed

  9. Method of surface decontamination for radioactive contaminated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To attain decontamination neither causing accidents due to corrosions or cold brittleness nor environmental contaminations. Method: Ice particles containing an oxidizing agent such as H2O2, an anti-refrigerant such as alcohols and a corrosion inhibitor such as a hydrazine are respectively sent to and mixed in a mixing tank and the mixed liquid is jetted out from a nozzle to wash radioactive contaminated portions such as in a nuclear power plant. The discharge liquid is returned to a drain tank. In this way, effective decontamination can be attained in combination with mechanical elimination by ice particles without using chemicals such as acids and alkalis tending to attack the structures or chemicals such as dry ice tending to cool the structures excessively to introduce cold brittleness. (Sekiya, K.)

  10. Decontamination of an Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) had been in service for nearly thirty years. In order to comply with current DOE regulations governing such facilities and meet programmatic requirements, a major refurbishment effort was mandated. Due to the high levels of radiation and contamination within the cells, a decontamination effort was necessary to provide an environment that permitted workers to enter the cells to perform refurbishment activities without receiving high doses of radiation and to minimize the potential for the spread of contamination. State-of-the-art decontamination methods, as well as time-proven methods were utilized to minimize personnel exposure as well as maximize results

  11. Biofilm mediated decontamination of pollutants from the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we highlight beneficial use of microbial biofilms in remediation of environmental pollutants by bioremediation. Bioremediation is an environment friendly, cost effective, sustainable technology that utilizes microbes to decontaminate and degrade a wide variety of pollutants into less harmful products. Relative to free-floating planktonic cells, microbes existing in biofilm mode are advantageous for bioremediation because of greater tolerance to pollutants, environmental stress and ability to degrade varied harsh pollutants via diverse catabolic pathways. In biofilm mode, microbes are immobilized in a self-synthesized matrix which offers protection from stress, contaminants and predatory protozoa. Contaminants ranging from heavy metals, petroleum, explosives, pesticides have been remediated using microbial consortia of biofilms. In the industry, biofilm based bioremediation is used to decontaminate polluted soil and groundwater. Here we discuss conventional and newer strategies utilizing biofilms in environmental remediation.

  12. Development of Decontamination Process for Soil Contaminated Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various experiments with full-scaled electrokinetic equipment, soil washing equipment, and gravel washing equipment were performed to remove 238U from contaminated soils of below 0.4 Bq/g. The repetition number and the removal efficiencies of the soil and gravel washing equipment were evaluated. The decontamination periods by the soil and gravel electrokinetic equipment were evaluated. Finally, a work process of full-scaled decontamination equipment was developed. Contaminated soils were classified into soils and gravels using a 8.0 cm sieve. Soils were sent to the soil washing equipment, while gravels were sent to the gravel washing equipment. Soils sent to the soil washing equipment were sent to the soil electrokinetic equipment after soil washing. A repetition number of soil washing was two times. The washed gravels were sent to the gravel electrokinetic equipment. Gravel contaminated with a high concentration requires crushing after gravel washing

  13. Decontamination method and device for radiation contaminated product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present invention, radiation contaminated products generated during shot peening are decontaminated by a chelating agent, and the chelating agent is removed from the radiation contaminated products. Then the temperature of the radiation contaminated products is elevated by hot blowing at a temperature higher than a boiling point of the solvent. Then, a solvent is added to the radiation contaminated products and the solvent is evaporated abruptly. The solution of the chelating agent remained while being deposited thereto is removed by evaporation to remove it from the radiation contaminated products together with the solvent. With such procedures, all of the decontamination steps can be completed in one device without requiring a large space or not moving the radiation contaminated products on every step. (T.M.)

  14. Decontamination and partial dismantling of the Eurochemic plant. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the partial dismantling of the dissolver used for fuel elements of up to 1.6 wt % 235U enrichment, and of the total dismantling of the dissolver for highly enriched fuel elements. The corresponding head-end cells have been decontaminated, allowing prolonged interventions, either in view of refurbishing or complete dismantling. An assessment of required manpower, dose commitments, material consumption, and waste production for all operations is given. (author)

  15. Current concepts for oil decontamination of crush injuries: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Karimkhani, Chante; Amir, Mahsa; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Ipaktchi, Kyros

    2014-01-01

    This anecdotal, non-systematic review serves to explore the principles and methods of effective oil decontamination from cutaneous wounds, particularly crush injuries. The current expansion of the petroleum industry is necessary to meet increasing world demands for oil. Most stages of oil refining and applications involve significant injury risks, particularly for crush injuries that become contaminated with petroleum compounds. A literature review regarding a standard of care for effective c...

  16. Biofilm mediated decontamination of pollutants from the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Arindam Mitra; Suman Mukhopadhyay

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we highlight beneficial use of microbial biofilms in remediation of environmental pollutants by bioremediation. Bioremediation is an environment friendly, cost effective, sustainable technology that utilizes microbes to decontaminate and degrade a wide variety of pollutants into less harmful products. Relative to free-floating planktonic cells, microbes existing in biofilm mode are advantageous for bioremediation because of greater tolerance to pollutants, environmental stress...

  17. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Javaid, Muhammad Kashif; Ashiq, Mehrban; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontaminatio...

  18. Electrochemical decontamination of metallic waste contaminated with uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on the electrolytic dissolution of SUS-304 and Inconel-600 specimen was carried out in neutral salt electrolyte to evaluate the applicability of electrochemical decontamination process for recycle ro self disposal with authorization of large amount of metallic wastes contamination with uranium compounds generated by dismantling a retired uranium conversion plant in Korea. Although the best electrolytic dissolution performance for the specimens was observed in a Na2SO4 electrolyte, a Na3NO3 neutral salt electrolyte, in which about 30% for SUS-304 and the same for Inconel-600 in the weight loss was shown in comparison with that in Na2 SO4 solution, was selected as an electrolyte for the electrochemical decontamination of metallic wastes with the consideration on the surface of system components contacted with nitric acid and the compatibility with lagoon wastes generated during the facility operation. The effects of current density, electrolytic dissolution time, and concentration of NaNO3 on the electrolytic dissolution of the specimens were investigated. On the basis of the results obtained through the basic inactive experiments, electrochemical decontamination tests using the specimens contaminated with uranium compounds such as UO2, AUC (ammonium uranyl carbonate) and ADU (ammonium diuranate) taken from an uranium conversion facility were performed in 1M NaNO3 solution with the current density of 100 mA/cm2. It was verified that the electrochemical decontamination of the metallic wastes contaminated uranium compounds was quite successful in a NaNO3 neutral salt electrolyte by reducing α and β radioactivities below the level of self disposal within 10 minutes regardless of the type of contaminants and the degree of contamination.

  19. Radiation survey and decontamination of cape Arza from depleted uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Vukotić Perko; Anđelić Tomislav; Zekić Ranko; Kovačević Milojko S.; Vasić Vladimir; Savić Slobodan

    2003-01-01

    In the action of NATO A-10 airplanes in 1999, the cape Arza, Serbia and Montenegro was contaminated by depleted uranium. The clean-up operations were undertaken at the site, and 242 uranium projectiles and their 49 larger fragments were removed from the cape. That is about 85% of the total number of projectiles by which Arza was contaminated. Here are described details of the applied procedures and results of the soil radioactivity measurements after decontamination.

  20. Radiation survey and decontamination of cape Arza from depleted uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Perko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the action of NATO A-10 airplanes in 1999, the cape Arza, Serbia and Montenegro was contaminated by depleted uranium. The clean-up operations were undertaken at the site, and 242 uranium projectiles and their 49 larger fragments were removed from the cape. That is about 85% of the total number of projectiles by which Arza was contaminated. Here are described details of the applied procedures and results of the soil radioactivity measurements after decontamination.

  1. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) faces the task of decommissioning much of the vast US weapons complex. One challenge of this effort includes the disposition of large amounts of radioactively contaminated scrap metal (RSM) including but not limited to steel, nickel, copper, and aluminum. The decontamination and recycling of RSM has become a key element in the DOE's strategy for cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities. Recycling helps to offset the cost of decommissioning and saves valuable space in the waste disposal facilities. It also reduces the amount of environmental effects associated with mining new metals. Work on this project is geared toward finding decontamination and/or recycling alternatives for the RSM contained in the decommissioned gaseous diffusion plants including approximately 40,000 tons of nickel. The nickel is contaminated with Technetium-99, and is difficult to remove using traditional decontamination technologies. The project, titled ''Advanced Technologies for Decontamination and Conversion of Scrap Metal'' was proposed as a four phase project. Phase 1 and 2 are complete and Phase 3 will complete May 31, 1999. Stainless steel made from contaminated nickel barrier was successfully produced in Phase 1. An economic evaluation was performed and a market study of potential products from the recycled metal was completed. Inducto-slag refining, after extensive testing, was eliminated as an alternative to remove technetium contamination from nickel. Phase 2 included successful lab scale and pilot scale demonstrations of electrorefining to separate technetium from nickel. This effort included a survey of available technologies to detect technetium in volumetrically contaminated metals. A new process to make sanitary drums from RSM was developed and implemented. Phase 3 included a full scale demonstration of electrorefining, an evaluation of electro-refining alternatives including direct dissolution, melting of nickel into anodes, a laser cutting

  2. DECONTAMINATION/DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR ORGANICS IN TRANSURANIC WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Jones; Javier Del Campo; Patrick Nevins; Stuart Legg

    2002-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site has approximately 5000 55-gallon drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste in interim storage. These may not be shipped to WIPP in TRUPACT-II containers due to the high rate of hydrogen production resulting from the radiolysis of the organic content of the drums. In order to circumvent this problem, the {sup 238}Pu needs to be separated from the organics--either by mineralization of the latter or by decontamination by a chemical separation. We have conducted ''cold'' optimization trials and surrogate tests in which a combination of a mediated electrochemical oxidation process (SILVER II{trademark}) and ultrasonic mixing have been used to decontaminate the surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes were impregnated with copper oxalate for plutonium dioxide. Our process combines both mineralization of reactive components (such cellulose, rubber, and oil) and surface decontamination of less reactive materials such as polyethylene, polystyrene and polyvinylchloride. By using this combination of SILVER II and ultrasonic mixing, we have achieved 100% current efficiency for the destruction of the reactive components. We have demonstrated that: The degree of decontamination achieved would be adequate to meet both WIPP waste acceptance criteria and TRUPACT II packaging and shipping requirements; The system can maintain near absolute containment of the surrogate radionuclides; Only minimal pre-treatment (coarse shredding) and minimal waste sorting are required; The system requires minimal off gas control processes and monitoring instrumentation; The laboratory trials have developed information that can be used for scale-up purposes; The process does not produce dioxins and furans; Disposal routes for secondary process arisings have already been demonstrated in other programs. Based on the results from Phase 1, the recommendation is to proceed to Phase 2 and use the equipment at Savannah

  3. Evaluation of Levulinic Acid for Topical Decontamination of Meat Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Jeffrey V.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of wash treatments, consisting of hot water, 2% lactic, 2% acetic, or 2% levulinic acid, for decontamination of pathogenic bacteria previously inoculated onto meat surfaces, to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria inoculated onto previously washed meat surfaces, and on the organoleptic quality of sliced turkey roll and beef trim. Acid washes were no more effective at reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on beef plate, Listeria monocytogenes ...

  4. Dental unit water lines decontamination with the aid of nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Paramashivaiah; Prabhuji, M. L. V.; Roopalakshmi Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This article reviews the issue of dental unit waterline (DUWL) contamination which affects all the clinical and hospital settings. The contaminating microorganisms commonly isolated from these settings and the most pathogenic among them have serious consequences. Over the years several measures are inculcated for decontamination of water, their advantages and shortcomings have been addressed. Options using nanotechnology which are available in the market are described briefly. Materi...

  5. Skin decontamination of glyphosate from human skin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, H; Chan, H P; Hui, X; Maibach, H I

    2008-06-01

    This study compared three model decontaminant solutions (tap water, isotonic saline, and hypertonic saline) for their ability to remove a model herbicide (glyphosate) from an in vitro human skin model. Human cadaver skin was dosed (approximately 375microg) of [14C]-glyphosate on 3cm2 per skin. After each exposure time (1, 3, and 30min post-dosing, respectively), the surface skin was washed three times (4ml per time) with each solution. After washing, the skin was stripped twice with tape discs. Lastly, the wash solutions, strippings, receptor fluid, and remainder of skin were liquid scintillation analyzer counted to determine the amount of glyphosate. There were no statistical differences among these groups at any time points. The total mass balance recovery at three time exposure points was between 94.8% and 102.4%. The wash off rates (glyphosate in wash solutions) at three different exposure times is 79-101.2%. Thus the three tested decontaminants possess similar effectiveness in removing glyphosate from skin. This in vitro model is not only economic and rapid, but also provides quantitative data that may aid screening for optimal decontaminants. PMID:18407393

  6. Decontamination Methods Used for Dental Burs – A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugar, Deepa; Hugar, Santosh; Ranjan, Shashi; Kadani, Megha

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Infection control and modes of sterilizations are the key factors to avoid cross transmission of infection in the field of dentistry. Transmission of disease or infection is noted with improper sterilization of reused instruments. Dental burs are the most important tool in any endodontic or conservative procedures of teeth involving tooth contouring, restorative filling procedures and endodontic procedures. Hence, the present study is undertaken to assess the efficacy of different methods of sterilization or decontamination which are routinely used in dental clinics. Materials and Methods: For the present study 96 round diamond burs were selected and divided into 6 groups. These burs were used for the access cavity preparation to get contamination and subjected for bacteriological culture. After getting base line date burs were subjected to manual scrubbing, hot air oven, glass bead sterilizer, ultrasonic cleaner and autoclave to get post decontamination data. Results: The study revealed that mean colony forming units/ml of Streptococcus mutans decreased maximum for autoclave with 80% reduction, for Lactobacilli 76% reduction and for Candida albicans maximum reduction seen for glass bead sterilizer with 74%. Conclusion: Findings of our study revealed that none of the methods used were found to be absolutely efficacious in the decontamination of dental burs. However, among the experimental groups used in the present study, autoclave was found to be the relatively best method. PMID:25121062

  7. Method of electrolyzing and decontaminating by diaphragm electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To continuously recover and remove radioactive metal ions reached out and accumulated in an electrolyte in the step of decontaminating the metal surface such as of equipments, parts or the likes contaminated with the deposition of radioactive materials through electropolishing. Method: The electrolytic vessel is partitioned by an electrolytic diaphragm into an anode chamber and a cathode chamber. The electrolyte in the anode chamber is recycled through a pump and a filter filtrates to collect suspended matters in the electrolyte. When a DC current is started to supply between the anode as the decontaminate and the anode as the collecting electrode, metal ions on the surface of the material to be decontaminated are leached in the anode chamber, while hydrogen gases evolve in the cathode chamber, by which the hydrogen ion concentration in the electrolyte is gradually reduced. Then, anions in the cathode chamber transfer through the diaphragm to the anode chamber and, conversely, the metal ions in the anode chamber transfer through the electrolytic diaphragm to the cathode chamber. Then, the pH of the electrolyte in the cathode chamber is settled to about 2 and metal ions starts to deposit at the chathode. (Horiuchi, T.)

  8. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Technology for Decontamination of Space Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hubertus; Rettberg, Petra; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Thoma, Markus; Morfill, Gregor; Zimmermann, Julia; Müller, Meike; Semenov, Igor

    2016-07-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) technology is very fast and effective in inactivation of all kinds of pathogens. It is used in hygiene and especially in medicine, since the plasma treatment can be applied to sensitive surfaces, like skin, too. In a first study to use CAP for the decontamination of space equipment we could show its potential as a quite promising alternative to the standard "dry heat" and H2O2 methods [Shimizu et al. Planetary and Space Science, 90, 60-71. (2014)]. In a follow-on study we continue the investigations to reach high application level of the technology. First, we redesign the actual setup to a plasma-gas circulation system, increasing the effectivity of inactivation and the sustainability. Additionally, we want to learn more about the plasma chemistry processes involved in the inactivation. Therefore, we perform detailed plasma and gas measurements and compare them to numerical simulations. The latter will finally be used to scale the decontamination system to sizes useful also for larger space equipment. Typical materials relevant for space equipment will be tested and investigated on surface material changes due to the plasma treatment. Additionally, it is planned to use electronic boards and compare their functionality before and after the CAP expose. We will give an overview on the status of the plasma decontamination project funded by the Bavarian Ministry of Economics.

  9. Irradiation as a decontamination processing for rice paper sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starch is one of the most important plant products to man. The major sources of this compound for man's use are the cereals, but roots and tubers are also important. The starch industry comes in recent years growing and perfecting it self, leading to the necessity products with specific characteristics that take care the requirements of the market, it makes possible through processing raw material, still seldom explored. Rice paper sheet is an edible product derived from potatoes and rice, being commonly used to cover cakes, pies, and sweets in confectioner's shop. A microbiological control is necessary to give a high quality and to guarantee the security of this food. Irradiation would be a safe alternative as a decontamination method without adverse effects on the physical properties in the final products. The aim of this study was to investigate the best dose used as a decontamination method as well as discover the most prevalent fungi found in this product and changes on physical properties. Samples of rice paper sheet were irradiated with 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy using a 60Co irradiator. Irradiation appeared as a safe alternative as a decontamination method without adverse effects on the physical properties in the final products. (author)

  10. Performance Test of the Remote Operation Light Ablation Decontamination System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser induced ablation studies of various materials are the topics in the laser-matter interaction. By virtue of the attainable high energies, lasers are excellent tools to induce a photoelectric response from metallic substrates. Contamination control has been a major concern for the nuclear electric power industry in recent years, but despite the positive steps taken to address the issue, important safety concern still remains. Laser ablation was shown to be potentially superior to all other methods. It is known that when laser intensity is high enough, especially in the case of high power short pulse laser, laser energy absorption occurs rapidly and only in a very thin layer on the target surface. The thin layer is thus instantaneously evaporated and removed. However, investigations into the properties of laser ablation decontamination and its possible application to nuclear facilities are still only in their early stages. In this paper, we used the light ablation decontamination system operated remotely by computer. The system was designed and fabricated by KAERI. The objective of the study is to investigate the performance of the system. Especially, the result of the decontamination test was presented

  11. Application of a novel decontamination process using gaseous ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moat, J.; Shone, J.; Upton, M. [Manchester Univ., School of Medecine, Manchester (United Kingdom). Medical Microbiology, Translation Medicine; Cargill, J. [Old Medical School, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Microbiology

    2009-08-15

    Hospital surfaces that are touched regularly by staff carry bacterial spores and pathogens. Environmental disinfection of health care facilities is an important aspect of infection control. This paper presented a recent innovation aimed at improving hospital hygiene and decontamination of laboratory equipment. The vapour- and gas-based treatment was developed to penetrate rooms or soft furnishings and reach places inaccessible by conventional approaches. Surfaces seeded with a range of vegetative cells and spores of bacteria of clinical relevance were decontaminated using the ozone-based treatment. The efficiency of the approach for room sanitization was also evaluated. A quenching agent was used to rapidly reduce ozone concentrations to safe levels allowing treatment times of less than 1 h for most of the organisms tested. Bacteria was seeded onto agar plates and solid surfaces. Reductions in bacterial load of greater than 3 log values were then recorded for a number of organisms including Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Application of the process in a 30 m{sup 3} room showed similar reductions in viable counts for these organisms and for Clostridium difficile spores. It was concluded that ozone-based decontamination of healthcare environments could prove to be a highly cost-effective intervention. 35 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  12. Decontamination of mass casualties--re-evaluating existing dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Howard W; Siegelson, Henry J; Dickinson, Stanley; Halpern, Pinchas; Haraguchi, Yoshikura; Nocera, Anthony; Turineck, David

    2003-01-01

    The events of 11 September 2001 became the catalyst for many to shift their disaster preparedness efforts towards mass-casualty incidents. Emergency responders, healthcare workers, emergency managers, and public health officials worldwide are being tasked to improve their readiness by acquiring equipment, providing training and implementing policy, especially in the area of mass-casualty decontamination. Accomplishing each of these tasks requires good information, which is lacking. Management of the incident scene and the approach to victim care varies throughout the world and is based more on dogma than scientific data. In order to plan effectively for and to manage a chemical, mass-casualty event, we must critically assess the criteria upon which we base our response. This paper reviews current standards surrounding the response to a release of hazardous materials that results in massive numbers of exposed human survivors. In addition, a significant effort is made to prepare an international perspective on this response. Preparations for the 24-hour threat of exposure of a community to hazardous material are a community responsibility for first-responders and the hospital. Preparations for a mass-casualty event related to a terrorist attack are a governmental responsibility. Reshaping response protocols and decontamination needs on the differences between vapor and liquid chemical threats can enable local responders to effectively manage a chemical attack resulting in mass casualties. Ensuring that hospitals have adequate resources and training to mount an effective decontamination response in a rapid manner is essential.

  13. Decontamination of transport casks and of spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present document provides an analysis of the technical papers presented at the meeting as well as a summary of the panel discussion. Conclusions and Recommendations: The meeting agreed that the primary source of contamination of transport casks is the production of radioactive isotopes in nuclear fuel and activation products of fuel components in nuclear reactors. The type, amount of mechanism for the release of these isotopes depend on the reactor type and fuel handling process. The widespread use of pools for the storage and handling of fuel provides an easy path for the transfer of contamination. Control of pool water conditions is essential for limiting the spread of contamination. For plants where casks are immersed in pools for loading, the immersion times should be minimised. Casks should be designed for ease of decontamination. The meeting discussed the use of stainless steel and suitable paints for coating casks. Designers should consider the appropriate coating for specific applications. The use of pressurized water for decontamination is recommended whenever possible. A number of commercially available reagents exist for decontaminating cask external surfaces. More work, however, is needed to cope with Pressurized Water Reactor crud within casks. Leaking fuel should be identified and isolated before storage in pools. Basic studies of the uptake and release of contamination from cask surfaces should be initiated. Standardization of methods of contamination measurement and instrumentation should be instituted. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Mayaguez (Puerto Rico) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.K.; Freemerman, R.L. [Bechtel National, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1989-11-01

    On February 6, 1987 the US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the final phase of the decontamination and decommissioning of the nuclear and reactor facilities at the Center for Energy and Environmental Research (CEER), in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Bechtel National, Inc., was made the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) contractor. The goal of the project was to enable DOE to proceed with release of the CEER facility for use by the University of Puerto Rico, who was the operator. This presentation describes that project and lesson learned during its progress. The CEER facility was established in 1957 as the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center, a part of the Atoms for Peace Program. It was a nuclear training and research institution with emphasis on the needs of Latin America. It originally consisted of a 1-megawatt Materials Testing Reactor (MTR), support facilities and research laboratories. After eleven years of operation the MTR was shutdown and defueled. A 2-megawatt TRIGA reactor was installed in 1972 and operated until 1976, when it woo was shutdown. Other radioactive facilities at the center included a 10-watt homogeneous L-77 training reactor, a natural uranium graphite-moderated subcritical assembly, a 200KV particle accelerator, and a 15,000 Ci Co-60 irradiation facility. Support facilities included radiochemistry laboratories, counting rooms and two hot cells. As the emphasis shifted to non-nuclear energy technology a name change resulted in the CEER designation, and plans were started for the decontamination and decommissioning effort.

  15. Irradiation as a decontamination processing for rice paper sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Michel M.; Thomaz, Fernanda S.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Duarte, Renato C.; Aquino, Simone; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: villavic@ipen.br; Correa, Benedito [Universidade de Sao Paulo USP, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas. Dept. de Micologia]. E-mail: correabe@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Starch is one of the most important plant products to man. The major sources of this compound for man's use are the cereals, but roots and tubers are also important. The starch industry comes in recent years growing and perfecting it self, leading to the necessity products with specific characteristics that take care the requirements of the market, it makes possible through processing raw material, still seldom explored. Rice paper sheet is an edible product derived from potatoes and rice, being commonly used to cover cakes, pies, and sweets in confectioner's shop. A microbiological control is necessary to give a high quality and to guarantee the security of this food. Irradiation would be a safe alternative as a decontamination method without adverse effects on the physical properties in the final products. The aim of this study was to investigate the best dose used as a decontamination method as well as discover the most prevalent fungi found in this product and changes on physical properties. Samples of rice paper sheet were irradiated with 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy using a {sup 60}Co irradiator. Irradiation appeared as a safe alternative as a decontamination method without adverse effects on the physical properties in the final products. (author)

  16. Innovative decontamination technology by abrasion in vibratory vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The possibility of using conventional vibratory vessel technology as a decontamination technique is the motivation for the development of this project. The objective is to explore the feasibility of applying the vibratory vessel technology for decontamination of radioactively-contaminated materials such as pipes and metal structures. The research and development of this technology was granted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Abrasion processes in vibratory vessels are widely used in the manufacture of metals, ceramics, and plastics. Samples to be treated, solid abrasive media and liquid media are set up into a vessel. Erosion results from the repeated impact of the abrasive particles on the surface of the body being treated. A liquid media, generally detergents or surfactants aid the abrasive action. The amount of material removed increases with the time of treatment. The design and construction of the machine were provided by Vibro, Argentina private company. Tests with radioactively-contaminated aluminum tubes and a stainless steel bar, were performed at laboratory level. Tests showed that it is possible to clean both the external and the internal surface of contaminated tubes. Results show a decontamination factor around 10 after the first 30 minutes of the cleaning time. (authors)

  17. Texas market profile: soil and groundwater decontamination sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soil and groundwater decontamination market in Texas generated $7 billion in earnings in 1997 and should reach almost $9 billion in 2002. While Texas has introduced voluntary clean-up programs, decontamination is required at more than 200,000 sites. Pollution has arisen from such industrial sectors as chemicals, crude oil and natural gas. In Texas, government agency decontamination activities provide major business opportunities. As in the base of the environmental sector as a whole, economic factors are gradually taking over from regulation as the prime demand drivers. Cost and risk are major concerns for clients. Because the incentive to reduce costs and the trend toward contracting out and privatization are becoming stronger, companies with specialized technologies have opportunities in this market. The government is the main client for environmental restoration services, but the private sector is accounting for an increased share of the market. Aspects of market access discussed include: implications of NAFTA and 'Buy America', ATA carnets, the Environmental Technology Verification Program, centralized database, federal government contracting announcements, partnerships, and payment conditions

  18. Study of Chemical Decontamination Process for CRUD Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seongsik; Kim, Won-Seok; Kim, Jungjin; Um, Wooyong [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Chalk River Unidentified Deposit (CRUD) is a technical term in nuclear engineering which is an accumulated material on external fuel rod cladding surfaces in nuclear power plants. It is a corrosion product which is composed of either dissolved ions or solid particles such as Ni, Fe and Co. It consists mainly of NiO and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. It can affect to reduce fuel lifetime, degrade heat transfer to the coolant, and threaten human health and environment. Therefore, decontamination process is essential for reducing occupational exposures, limiting potential releases and uptakes of radioactive materials, allowing the reuse of components, and facilitating waste management process. In this paper, we have conducted the synthesis of Cobalt ferrite as power foam to use for decontamination process. In dissolution test of Co ferrite and Ni ferrite, oxalic acid shows the most effective chemical decontamination reagent to remove the contaminants. Generally, the dissolved amount of cobalt and nickel increases at low pH condition and as the temperature goes higher, dissolved amount of cobalt and iron are much higher.

  19. Assessment of strippable coatings for decontamination and decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Strippable or temporary coatings were developed to assist in the decontamination of the Three Mile Island (TMI-2) reactor. These coatings have become a viable option during the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of both US Department of Energy (DOE) and commercial nuclear facilities to remove or fix loose contamination on both vertical and horizontal surfaces. A variety of strippable coatings are available to D and D professionals. However, these products exhibit a wide range of performance criteria and uses. The Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) was commissioned to perform a 2-year investigation into strippable coatings. This investigation was divided into four parts: (1) identification of commercially available strippable coating products; (2) survey of D and D professionals to determine current uses of these coatings and performance criteria; (3) design and implementation of a non-radiological testing program to evaluate the physical properties of these coatings; and (4) design and implementation of a radiological testing program to determine decontamination factors and effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Activities during fiscal year 1997 are described.

  20. Proceedings of the workshop on transite decontamination dismantlement and recycle/disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On February 3--4, 1993, a workshop was conducted to examine issues associated with the decontamination, dismantlement, and recycle/disposal of transite located at the US Department of Energy Fernald site near Cincinnati, OH. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a Superfund Site currently undergoing remediation. A major objective of the workshop was to assess the state-of-the-art of transite remediation, and generate concepts that could be useful to the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Co. (FERMCO) for remediation of transite. Transite is a building material consisting of asbestos fiber and cement and may be radioactively contaminated as a result of past uranium processing operations at the FEMP. Many of the 100 buildings within the former uranium production area were constructed of transite siding and roofing and consequently, over 180,000 m2 of transite must be disposed or recycled. Thirty-six participants representing industry, academia, and government institutions such as the EPA and DOE assembled at the workshop to present their experience with transite, describe work in progress, and address the issues involved in remediating transite

  1. Summary of the Hanford Site decontamination, decommissioning, and cleanup, FY 1974--FY 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of World War II, the demand for more production along with process and military surveillance changes at the Hanford Site caused a continuing cycle of building and obsolescence. This trend continued until 1964, when the cutback in plutonium production began. The cutback caused the shutdown of excess production facilities. The last of eight reactors was shut down in 1971. Since that time, N Reactor has been the only production reactor that has operated. In addition, changes in the method of separating plutonium caused a number of excess facilities in the 200 Areas. Before 1973, no structured program existed for the disposal of unusable facilities or for general cleanup. Following a plant-wide safety and housekeeping inspection in 1973, a program was developed for the disposal of all surplus facilities. Since the start of FY 1974, a total of 46 radioactively contaminated sites have been demolished and disposed of. In addition, 28 buildings have been decontaminated for in situ disposal or for reuse, 21 contaminated sites have been stabilized, 131 clean structures have been removed, and 93 clean sites have received special remedial action to eliminate potential safety and/or environmental hazards. This report summarizes these activities. 3 refs, 1 fig., 18 tabs

  2. Decontamination efficacy of three commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS sporicidal disinfectants on medium-sized panels contaminated with surrogate spores of Bacillus anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Edmonds

    Full Text Available In the event of a wide area release and contamination of a biological agent in an outdoor environment and to building exteriors, decontamination is likely to consume the Nation's remediation capacity, requiring years to cleanup, and leading to incalculable economic losses. This is in part due to scant body of efficacy data on surface areas larger than those studied in a typical laboratory (5×10-cm, resulting in low confidence for operational considerations in sampling and quantitative measurements of prospective technologies recruited in effective cleanup and restoration response. In addition to well-documented fumigation-based cleanup efforts, agencies responsible for mitigation of contaminated sites are exploring alternative methods for decontamination including combinations of disposal of contaminated items, source reduction by vacuuming, mechanical scrubbing, and low-technology alternatives such as pH-adjusted bleach pressure wash. If proven effective, a pressure wash-based removal of Bacillus anthracis spores from building surfaces with readily available equipment will significantly increase the readiness of Federal agencies to meet the daunting challenge of restoration and cleanup effort following a wide-area biological release. In this inter-agency study, the efficacy of commercial-of-the-shelf sporicidal disinfectants applied using backpack sprayers was evaluated in decontamination of spores on the surfaces of medium-sized (∼1.2 m2 panels of steel, pressure-treated (PT lumber, and brick veneer. Of the three disinfectants, pH-amended bleach, Peridox, and CASCAD evaluated; CASCAD was found to be the most effective in decontamination of spores from all three panel surface types.

  3. Performance verification test on wet-blast type decontamination for the clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination test was carried out to verify its performance of the wet blast decontamination device which is placed in Fugen Decommissioning Engineering Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency and to determine the optimal conditions for decontamination using test specimens gathered from pipes of facilities which are going to be applied for the clearance. According to the test result, the contamination on inner surface of the pipes can be removed easily by more than 100 of decontamination factor with rust and its coating and can be decontaminated in less than clearance level in relatively short period of blasting process. Besides, it was proved that the optimal condition for decontamination is 0.4 MPa in blast pressure and 100 mm in blast distance, which is the basic specification of the device. (author)

  4. Influence of decontamination and preconditioning on corrosion layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation field exists in nuclear power plants is primarily due to the deposition of radioisotopes on the surfaces of pipes and other primary components. These radiation fields cause occupational radiation exposure (ORE) to personnel engaged in maintenance work during refuelling shutdowns and thus significantly influence the operation and maintenance works on nuclear power plants. Dissolved and particulate corrosion products can also deposit on fuel cladding and primary system surfaces. Primary problems caused by fuel assemblies' deposits are the increase of cladding temperature, which enhances corrosion risk and may lead to and/or contribute to fuel rod failure, For VVERs the deposition mechanism is most likely influenced by some organic substances (residues from decontamination agents), whose behaviour in the active zone and role in the deposition mechanism are not completely known. Operational experience from various NPPs (e.g. Novovoronezh, Loviisa, and Paks) revealed the large impact of decontamination processes on the quality of oxide layer and deposits, so did the loop and autoclave tests. Actual in-pile loop tests carried at the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) Rez are focused on the study of surface preconditioning and decontamination solutions' effect on surface layer after irradiation exposition. Effects of the decontamination on depositi formation onto primary circuit surfaces are investigated under steam generator (SG) operating conditions with the model device which contains SG heat exchanger tube, VVER spacer grids and heating rods simulating fuel cladding surface. The entire experiment is performed in experimental reactor water loop (RVS 4) on the NRI research reactor LVR-15. Oxide layer was built-up on the inner surface of as received SG tubes under higher temperature primary water conditions and with irradiation. This long-term exposure should enable to create oxide surface layers corresponding to the real conditions. The whole loop

  5. EDF/CIDEN - ONECTRA: PWR decontamination; EDF/CIDEN - ONECTRA: assainissement REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayolle, P. [EDFICIDEN, 35-37, rue Louis Guerin - B.P. 21212, 69611 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Orcel, H. [ONECTRA, ZA les Tomples BP45, 26701 Pierrelatte Cedex (France); Wertz, L. [ONECTRA, Le Britannia, Allee C, 20 Bd Eugene Deruelle, 69432 Lyon Cedex 03 (France)

    2010-07-01

    In the context of PWR circuit renewal (expected in 2011) and their decontamination, an analysis of data coming from cartography and on site decontamination measurements as well as from premise modelling by means of the PANTHERE radioprotection code, is presented. Several French PWRs have been studied. After a presentation of code principles and operation, the authors discuss the radiological context of a workstation, and give an assessment of the annual dose associated with maintenance operations with or without decontamination

  6. Comparison of Selected Methods for Individual Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Capoun; Jana Krykorkova

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the individual decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) and other hazardous substances. The individual decontamination applies to contaminated body surfaces, protective clothing and objects immediately after contamination, performed individually or by mutual assistance using prescribed or improvised devices. The article evaluates the importance of individual decontamination, security level for Fire and Rescue Service Units of the Czech Republic (FRS CR) and demons...

  7. 105-C Building characterization survey data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of the 105-C Facility Characterization Survey data collected during the period of July 1, 1994, through September 30, 1994. The scope of the report is limited to the characterization of the 105-C Facility and surrounding site. Conclusions and recommendations regarding courses of future action are beyond the scope of this report. The survey data in this report reflects the current conditions and status of the 105-C Building, and is intended to be used in support of future decontamination and decommissioning activities. The survey was organized and implemented to evaluate the four parameters relating to the current condition of the facility. These parameters concern the physical conditions of the 105-C Building from a personnel safety standpoint; the radiological status throughout the building; identification of the hazardous materials located in the building; and identification of subsurface obstacles left in the path of proposed excavations

  8. Development of a new process for radioactive decontamination of painted carbon steel structures by molten salt stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main practical difficulty associated to the task of the dismantling and decommissioning of the old Nuclear Fuel Cycle facilities of the IPEN has been the large amount of radioactive waste generated in the dismantling operations. The waste is mainly in the form of contaminated carbon steel structures. In the IPEN, the presence of contamination in the equipment, structures and buildings, although restricted to low and average activity levels, constituted an important concern due, on one hand, to the great volume of radioactive wastes generated during the operations. On the other hand, it should be outstanding that the capacity of stockpiling the radioactive wastes in IPEN found been exhausted. Basically, for the dismantling operations of the units, the main radionuclides of interest, from the radioprotection point of view, are U of natural isotopic composition and the thorium-232. Some attempts were done to reduce the volume of those wastes. Nevertheless, the only decontamination available methods were chemical methods such as pickling/rinsing treatments employing acid solutions (with nitric or citric acids) and alkaline solutions (sodium hydroxide). Different concentrations of such solutions were tested. The results obtained in the employed processes were not satisfactory. Ultrasonic equipment available was also employed in an attempt to increase the efficiency of decontamination. The choice of a coating removal process for radioactive material in the form of carbon steel pieces must have into account, among other factors, that it is not necessary a high quality of finishing, since the main objective is the release of the material as iron scrap. This paper describes the development of a new method for surface decontamination by immersion in molten salt baths. (author)

  9. Liquid abrasive grit blasting literature search and decontamination scoping tests report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past decontamination and solvent recovery activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) have resulted in the accumulation of 1.5 million gallons of radioactively contaminated sodium-bearing liquid waste. Future decontamination activities at the ICPP could result in the production of 5 million gallons or more of sodium-bearing waste using the current decontamination techniques of chemical/water flushes and steam jet cleaning. With the curtailment of reprocessing at the ICPP, the focus of decontamination is shifting from maintenance for continued operation of the facilities to decommissioning. As decommissioning plans are developed, new decontamination methods must be used which result in higher decontamination factors and generate lower amounts of sodium-bearing secondary waste. The primary initiative of the WINCO Decontamination Development Program is the development of methods to eliminate/minimize the use of sodium-bearing decontamination chemicals. One method that was chosen for cold scoping studies during FY-93 was abrasive grit blasting. Abrasive grit blasting has been used in many industries and a vast amount of research and development has already been conducted. However, new grits, process improvements and ICPP applicability was investigated. This evaluation report is a summary of the research efforts and scoping tests using the liquid abrasive grit blasting decontamination technique. The purpose of these scoping tests was to determine the effectiveness of three different abrasive grits: plastic beads, glass beads and alumina oxide

  10. Decontamination and decommissioning technology tree and the current status of the technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technology tree diagram was developed on the basis of the necessary technologies applicable to the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The technology tree diagram is consist of 6 main areas such as characterization, decontamination, decommissioning and remote technology, radwaste management, site restoration, and decommissioning plan and engineering. Characterization is divided into 4 regions such as sampling and data collection, general characterization, chemical analysis and radiological analysis. Decontamination is also divided into 4 regions such as chemical decontamination, mechanical decontamination, the other decontamination technologies and new decontamination technologies. Decommissioning and remote technology area is divided into 4 regions such as cutting techniques, decommissioning technologies, new developing technologies and remote technologies. Radwaste management area is divided into 5 regions such as solid waste treatment, sludge treatment, liquid waste treatment, gas waste treatment and thermal treatment. Site restoration area is divided into 3 regions such as the evaluation of site contamination, soil decontamination and ground water decontamination. Finally, permission, decommissioning process, cost evaluation, quality assurance and the estimation of radionuclide inventory were mentioned in the decommissioning plan and engineering area. The estimated items for each technology are applicable domestic D and D facilities, D and D problem area and contamination/requirement, classification of D and D technology, similar technology, principle and overview of technology, status, science technology needs, implementation needs, reference and contact point

  11. Decontamination and decommissioning technology tree and the current status of the technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Won, H.J.; Kim, G.N.; Lee, K.W.; Chol, W.K.; Jung, C.H.; Kim, C.J.; Kim, S.H.; Kwon, S.O.; Chung, C.M

    2001-03-01

    A technology tree diagram was developed on the basis of the necessary technologies applicable to the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The technology tree diagram is consist of 6 main areas such as characterization, decontamination, decommissioning and remote technology, radwaste management, site restoration, and decommissioning plan and engineering. Characterization is divided into 4 regions such as sampling and data collection, general characterization, chemical analysis and radiological analysis. Decontamination is also divided into 4 regions such as chemical decontamination, mechanical decontamination, the other decontamination technologies and new decontamination technologies. Decommissioning and remote technology area is divided into 4 regions such as cutting techniques, decommissioning technologies, new developing technologies and remote technologies. Radwaste management area is divided into 5 regions such as solid waste treatment, sludge treatment, liquid waste treatment, gas waste treatment and thermal treatment. Site restoration area is divided into 3 regions such as the evaluation of site contamination, soil decontamination and ground water decontamination. Finally, permission, decommissioning process, cost evaluation, quality assurance and the estimation of radionuclide inventory were mentioned in the decommissioning plan and engineering area. The estimated items for each technology are applicable domestic D and D facilities, D and D problem area and contamination/requirement, classification of D and D technology, similar technology, principle and overview of technology, status, science technology needs, implementation needs, reference and contact point.

  12. Agricultural soils decontamination techniques: methods and results of tests realized near Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a major nuclear accident, decontamination of agricultural soils would be necessary in order to reclaim the land. Specific techniques were studied in the framework of the European program for Rehabilitation of Soils and Surfaces after an Accident (RESSAC). Different ways to remove the top layer of soils are described, and especially the use of Decontaminating Vegetal Network (D.V.N.) combined with spraying of organic polymers. Real scale tests in the 30 km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant showed that it is possible to achieve an excellent decontamination of agricultural fields (decontamination factor greater than 95%. (author)

  13. Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 1: Primary cooling system chemical decontamination: Draft environmental statement (Docket No. 50-10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The staff has considered the environmental impact and economic costs of the proposed primary cooling system chemical decontamination at Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1. The staff has focused this statement on the occupational radiation exposure associated with the proposed Unit 1 decontamination program, on alternatives to chemical decontamination, and on the environmental impact of the disposal of the solid radioactive waste generated by this decontamination. The staff has concluded that the proposed decontamination will not significantly affect the quality of the human environment. Furthermore, any impacts from the decontamination program are outweighed by its benefits. 2 figs., 7 tabs

  14. Municipalities' opinions about decontamination in special decontamination area. Records from three and a half years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study discusses opinions of 11 municipalities in Fukushima Prefecture designated as Special Decontamination Area as of the end of September 2014, about three and a half years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This study shows that (1) more than half of the municipalities recognize that decontamination activities of the national government which is responsible for decontamination in Special Decontamination Area are inadequate, (2) more than half of the municipalities recognize that residents cannot live their lives with a sense of safety and security unless air radiation dose is reduced to the level before the accident or less than 0.23 μSv/h, and (3) many municipalities recognize that residents will not be able to live their lives with a sense of safety and security even if the national government implements decontamination, (4) many municipalities points out 'Inability to secure enough temporary storage sites' and 'Inappropriateness of the decontamination policy and methods for forests or reservoir' as problems for the promotion of decontamination, and (5) almost all the municipalities recognize the necessity of the installation of interim storage facilities to accelerate the reconstruction of towns. (author)

  15. RIVER CORRIDOR BUILDINGS 324 & 327 CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAZZELL, K.D.; SMITH, B.A.

    2006-02-09

    A major challenge in the recently awarded River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is decontaminating and demolishing (D&D) facilities in the 300 Area. Located along the banks of the Columbia River about one mile north of Richland, Washington, the 2.5 km{sup 2} (1 mi{sup 2})300 Area comprises only a small part of the 1517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) Hanford Site. However, with more than 300 facilities ranging from clean to highly contaminated, D&D of those facilities represents a major challenge for Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), which manages the new RCC Project for DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL). A complicating factor for this work is the continued use of nearly a dozen facilities by the DOE's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Most of the buildings will not be released to WCH until at least 2009--four years into the seven-year, $1.9 billion RCC Contract. The challenge will be to deactivate, decommission, decontaminate and demolish (D4) highly contaminated buildings, such as 324 and 327, without interrupting PNNL's operations in adjacent facilities. This paper focuses on the challenges associated with the D4 of the 324 Building and the 327 Building.

  16. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCB's, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay and fission products of DOE operations. The asbestos must be converted by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives

  17. Unit for air decontamination; Unidad para descontaminacion de aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano H, E

    1991-02-15

    To fulfill the applicable requirements of safety to the ventilation systems in nuclear facilities, it is necessary to make a cleaning of the air that hurtles to the atmosphere. For that which was designed and it manufactured an unit for decontamination of the air for the Pilot plant of production of Nuclear Fuel that this built one with national parts, uses Hepa national filters and the design can adapt for different dimensions of filters, also can be added a lodging for a prefilter or to adopt two Hepa filters. (Author)

  18. The new gamma sterilisation and decontamination plant, Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steritech Pty Ltd operates the only three industrial gamma sterilisation and decontamination plants in Australia. A plant in Dandenong Victoria has operated since 1971 and a second in Wetherill Park from 1985. In August 2003, a third facility started commercial operation in Narangba, 40km north of Brisbane. Each plant represents a generational change in operating features, although the basic design of the irradiation room, storage pool and shielding remains substantially the same. This paper discusses some of the key design features of the Queensland plant, the complex approval and licensing process and some of the complications caused by perceived terrorist threats

  19. Decontamination of liquid radioactive wastes using seeded ultrafiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of techniques may be used to treat radioactive wastes. This paper presents a discussion of the relative merits of two of these: ion exchange and membrane filtration, and discusses the overall benefit of using seeded filtration to combine the advantages of each, with selected examples of where these techniques have been used. Evaporation is another technique that can be used, however, because of its high capital and operating costs its use is limited and it is not discussed here. Examples of the decontamination of standard solutions by novel materials tested by the Novel Absorber Evaluation Club are presented, and the advantages of the new PAN-based absorbers discussed

  20. [Detection of enzyme activity in decontaminated spices in industrial use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R; Theobald, R

    1995-03-01

    A range of decontaminated species of industrial use have been examined for their enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, amylase, lipase activity). The genuine enzymes remain fully active in irradiated spices, whereas the microbial load is clearly reduced. In contrast steam treated spices no longer demonstrate enzyme activities. Steam treatment offers e.g. black pepper without lipase activity, which can no longer cause fat deterioration. Low microbial load in combination with clearly detectable enzyme activity in spices is an indication for irradiation, whereas, reduced microbial contamination combined with enzyme inactivation indicate steam treatment of raw material.

  1. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on heavy metal decontamination in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porova, Nataliya; Botvinnikova, Valentina; Krasulya, Olga; Cherepanov, Pavel; Potoroko, Irina

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasound has been found useful in increasing the efficiency and consumer safety in food processing. Removal of heavy metal (lead, mercury, and arsenic) contamination in milk is extremely important in regions of poor ecological environment - urban areas with heavy motor traffic or well established metallurgical/cement industry. In this communication, we report on the preliminary studies on the application of low frequency (20kHz) ultrasound for heavy metal decontamination of milk without affecting its physical, chemical, and microbiological properties. PMID:24746508

  2. Improved Technologies for Decontamination of Crated Large Metal Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFee, J.; Barbour, K.; Stallings, E.

    2003-02-25

    The Los Alamos Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) has been identifying and demonstrating technologies to reduce the cost and risk of management of transuranic element contaminated large metal objects, i.e. gloveboxes. DOE must dispose of hundreds of gloveboxes from Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and other DOE sites. This paper reports on the results of four technology demonstrations on decontamination of plutonium contaminated gloveboxes with each technology compared to a common baseline technology, wipedown with nitric acid.

  3. Technology demonstrations in the Decontamination and Decommissioning Focus Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes three large-scale demonstration projects sponsored jointly by the Decontamination and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA), and the three US Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices that successfully offered to deactivate or decommission (D ampersand D) one of its facilities using a combination of innovative and commercial D ampersand D technologies. The paper also includes discussions on recent technology demonstrations for an Advanced Worker Protection System, an Electrohydraulic Scabbling System, and a Pipe Explorer trademark. The references at the conclusion of this paper should be consulted for more detailed information about the large-scale demonstration projects and recent technology demonstrations sponsored by the DDFA

  4. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, T.R.; Shasteen, K.E.; Liby, A.L. [Manufacturing Sciences Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) accumulated large quantities of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) through historic maintenance activities. The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of major sites formerly engaged in production of nuclear materials and manufacture of nuclear weapons will generate additional quantities of RSM, as much as 3 million tons of such metal according to a recent study. The recycling of RSM is quickly becoming appreciated as a key strategy in DOE`s cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities. The work described here has focused on recycle of the concentrated and high-value contaminated scrap metal resource that will arise from cleanup of DOE`s gaseous diffusion plants.

  5. Radioactive Waste Decontamination Using Selentec Mag*SepSM Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sorbent containing crystalline silicotitanate (CST) tested for cesium removal from simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) soluble high activity waste showed rapid kinetics (1 h contact time) and high distribution coefficients (Kd 4000 mL/g of CST). The sorbent was prepared by Selective Environmental Technologies, Inc., (Selentec) as a MAG*SEP particle containing CST obtained from the Molecular Sieve Department of UOP, LLC, Results of preliminary tests suggest potential applications of the Selentec MAG*SEP particles to radioactive waste decontamination at SRS

  6. Safety analysis for the 233-S decontamination and decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility (REDOX) is a proposed expedited response action that is regulated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 and the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Due to progressive physical deterioration of this facility, a decontamination and decommissioning plan is being considered for the immediate future. This safety analysis describes the proposed actions involved in this D ampersand D effort; identifies the radioactive material inventories involved; reviews site specific environmental characteristics and postulates an accident scenario that is evaluated to identify resultant effects

  7. Gamma irradiation effects on microbial decontamination of ostrich meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tabatabaei Yazdi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work effects of gamma irradiation and storage time on microbial decontamination of fresh camel meat stored at 4˚C were evaluated. Microbial analysis indicated that irradiation had a significant effect on the reduction of microbial loads. Among the analyzed bacteria, coliforms were most sensitive to gamma radiation. Considering the sensory analyses and Total bacterial counts analyses as a whole, air-packed samples irradiated at 1.0 kGy were acceptable under refrigerated storage for 9 days, compared to 5 and 7 days for irradiated at 3.0 kGy and non irradiated air-packaged samples, respectively. 

  8. Decontamination of black pepper and red pepper by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, it has been studied the decontamination of two types of spices (black pepper and red pepper) by gamma radiation. The initial microbial population of spices not treated is about 10 (7) to 10 (8) per gram. The population decrease exponentially with irradiation dose. By this, it has been established that a dose of 6 kGy reduces the microbial flora low than 10 (3) per gram. A total elimination of moulds is obtained at dose of 8 kGy

  9. Melting metal waste for volume reduction and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melt-slagging was investigated as a technique for volume reduction and decontamination of radioactively contaminated scrap metals. Experiments were conducted using several metals and slags in which the partitioning of the contaminant U or Pu to the slag was measured. Concentrations of U or Pu in the metal product of about 1 ppM were achieved for many metals. A volume reduction of 30:1 was achieved for a typical batch of mixed metal scrap. Additionally, the production of granular products was demonstrated with metal shot and crushed slag

  10. 40 CFR 265.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment, structures and soils. 265.114 Section 265.114 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. During the partial and final closure periods, all contaminated equipment, structures and soil must be properly disposed of, or decontaminated unless specified otherwise...

  11. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Public Health Command; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Bock, Robert Eldon [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  12. Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite for decontamination of sulfur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen Kumar, J.; Prasad, G.K., E-mail: gkprasad2001@yahoo.com; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Garg, P.; Ganesan, K.

    2013-11-01

    Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. They were prepared by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Obtained data indicated the presence of mesopores with diameter ranging from 2 to 80 nm and the materials exhibited relatively high surface area 86 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} when compared to the individual metal oxide nanoparticles. Reactive sites of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied by infrared spectroscopy technique using pyridine as a probe molecule. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard when compared to single component metal oxides and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Highlights: • Preparation of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • CuO–ZnO with better surface area was synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis. • Decontamination of HD using mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • HD decontaminated by elimination and hydrolysis reactions.

  13. Distribution of radionuclides in the process of thermal decontamination of asphalt layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoradiographical analysis was used to investigate the radionuclides distribution in the process of thermal decontamination of asphalt. Cs-137 and Sr-90 were introduced in asphalt to simulate real contamination. It was found that penetration of these radionuclides is very small (about 1 mm). No significant emission of radionuclides was observed in the process of thermal decontamination

  14. For whom should we use selective decontamination of the digestive tract?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smet, Anne Marie G. A.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Kluytmans, Jan A. J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review This review discusses the relevant studies on selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) published between 2009 and mid-2011. Recent findings In a multicenter cluster-randomized cross-over study in the Netherlands, SDD and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) w

  15. 1995 Phase 1 concrete sampling at the decontaminated 183-H basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a consolidated reference for 1995 concrete sampling data associated with the Hanford Site's 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins (located at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington). In 1995, the basins were decontaminated and dismantled. Sampling efforts began after completion of concrete decontamination efforts. Soil and water samples were collected and are described in chronological order in this report

  16. Evaluation of six decontamination processes on actinide and fission product contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-situ decontamination technologies were evaluated for their ability to: (1) reduce equipment contamination levels to allow either free release of the equipment or land disposal, (2) minimize residues generated by decontamination, and (3) generate residues that are compatible with existing disposal technologies. Six decontamination processes were selected. tested and compared to 4M nitric acid, a traditional decontamination agent: fluoroboric acid (HBF4), nitric plus hydrofluoric acid, alkaline persulfate followed by citric acid plus oxalic acid, silver(II) plus sodium persulfate plus nitric acid, oxalic acid plus hydrogen peroxide plus hydrofluoric acid, and electropolishing using nitric acid electrolyte. The effectiveness of these solutions was tested using prepared 304 stainless steel couponds contaminated with uranium, plutonium, americium, or fission products. The decontamination factor for each of the solutions and tests conditions were determined; the results of these experiments are presented

  17. Application of a laser to decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities at JAERI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Takakuni; Kameo, Yutaka; Myodo, Masato

    2000-01-01

    In the research and development of various advanced technologies needed for decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, laser was applied to decontamination of metal and concrete surfaces and to cutting of large metal of low level radioactive waste. (a) Laser decontamination for metal waste: Metal waste was irradiated by laser in the atmosphere of chloride gas, and contaminant was changed from oxide to chloride which is sublimable or soluble in water and could be easily removed; and also metal waste coated with gel-decontamination reagent was irradiated by laser, and contaminant could be removed through the laser-induced chemical reaction. (b) Laser decontamination for concrete surface: Concrete surface was bursted or vitrified by laser irradiation and easily removed. (c) Laser cutting: Laser cutter was applied to cutting of large metal wastes such as tanks arising from dismantling of nuclear facilities.

  18. Chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear decontamination: Recent trends and future perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN decontamination is the removal of CBRN material from equipment or humans. The objective of the decontamination is to reduce radiation burden, salvage equipment, and materials, remove loose CBRN contaminants, and fix the remaining in place in preparation for protective storage or permanent disposal work activities. Decontamination may be carried out using chemical, electrochemical, and mechanical means. Like materials, humans may also be contaminated with CBRN contamination. Changes in cellular function can occur at lower radiation doses and exposure to chemicals. At high dose, cell death may take place. Therefore, decontamination of humans at the time of emergency while generating bare minimum waste is an enormous task requiring dedication of large number of personnel and large amount of time. General principles of CBRN decontamination are discussed in this review with emphasis on radiodecontamination.

  19. Comparison of Selected Methods for Individual Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Capoun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the individual decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA and other hazardous substances. The individual decontamination applies to contaminated body surfaces, protective clothing and objects immediately after contamination, performed individually or by mutual assistance using prescribed or improvised devices. The article evaluates the importance of individual decontamination, security level for Fire and Rescue Service Units of the Czech Republic (FRS CR and demonstrates some of the devices. The decontamination efficiency of selected methods (sorbent, glove and sponge, two-chamber foam device and wiping with alcohol was evaluated for protective clothing and painted steel plate contaminated with O-ethyl-S-(diisopropylaminoethyl-methylthiophosphonate (VX, sulfur mustard, o-cresol and acrylonitrile. The methods were assessed from an economic point of view and with regard to specific user parameters, such as the decontamination of surfaces or materials with poor accessibility and vertical surfaces, the need for a water rinse as well as toxic waste and its disposal.

  20. Development and application of ozone chemical decontamination for nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By focusing to use gaseous ozone for an oxidant under aiming to further reduce amounts of the secondary wastes, ozone chemical decontamination technique was developed. Here were described results of investigation on a process applying ozone to oxidation process for chemical decontamination and of application to decontamination of contaminated machine. As a result carrying out the contaminated machine, it was found that , 1) temperature of ozone water processing at solution test of chromium oxide using ozone water was selected to 80 centigrade, 2) ozone concentration of ozone water using for decontamination test of metal test pieces polluted by radioactive materials was more than 1 ppm, and 3) ion-exchange resins consumed by decontamination agents could be regenerated by using a third of amounts of permanganic acid. (G.K.)

  1. Mechanical decontamination tests in areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roed, J.; Andersson, K.G.; Barkovsky, A.N.; Fogh, C.L.; Mishine, A.S.; Olsen, S.K.; Ponamarjov, A.V.; Prip, H.; Ramzaev, V.P.; Vorobiev, B.F

    1998-08-01

    Decontamination was carried out around three houses in Novo Bobovichi, Russia, in the summer of 1997. It was demonstrated that significant reductions in the dose rate both indoor (DRF = 0.27) and outdoor (DRF = 0.17) can be achieved when a careful cleaning is undertaken. This report describes the decontamination work carried out and the results obtained. The roof of one of the houses was replaced with a new roof. This reduced the Chernobyl related dose rate by 10% at the ground floor and by 27% at the first floor. The soil around the houses was removed by a bobcat, while carefully monitoring the ground for residual contamination with handheld dose meters. By monitoring the decline in the dose rate during the different stages of the work the dose reducing effect of each action has been estimated. This report also describes a test of a skim-and-burial plough developed especially for treatment of contaminated land. In the appendices of the report the measurement data is available for further analysis. (au) 24 tabs., 75 ills., 33 refs.

  2. Comparative study of different surface decontaminants on chicken quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinhamahapatra, M; Biswas, S; Das, A K; Bhattacharyya, D

    2004-10-01

    (1) A comparative study on the effect of different surface decontaminants: hot water at 70 degrees C for one minute; 2% lactic acid for 30 s; 1200 p.p.m. acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) solution for 5 s and 50 p.p.m. chlorine solution for 5 min in the form of dips and sprays on the surface of dressed broilers for 0, 24 and 48 h of storage was conducted. (2) The variables studied were, total plate count (TPC), presumptive coliform count (PCC), pH and extract release volume (ERV). All treatments reduced TPC and PCC. (3) Lactic acid dip and hot water dip were the most effective for reducing TPC (1.36 and 1.28 log/cm2, respectively) with no significant difference between them. (4) ASC and hot water in dip could diminish PCC (1.37 and 1.34 log/cm2, respectively) and did not vary significantly. (5) No treatment affected muscle pH, water holding capacity (WHC), ERV, appearance, smell, tenderness and overall acceptability of treated broilers significantly. (6) Hot water treatment is the cheapest, most convenient and simplest decontamination technique for hygienic and wholesome poultry production. PMID:15623215

  3. Decontamination and decommissioning project for the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Paik, S. T.; Park, S. W. (and others)

    2007-02-15

    The final goal of this project is to complete the decommissioning of the Korean Research Reactor no.1 and no. 2(KRR-1 and 2) and uranium conversion plant safely and successfully. The goal of this project in 2006 is to complete the decontamination of the inside reactor hall of the KRR-2 which will be operating as a temporary storage for the radioactive waste until the construction and operation of the national repository site. Also the decommissioning work of the KRR-1 and auxiliary facilities is being progress. As the compaction of decommissioning project is near at hand, a computer information system was developed for a systematically control and preserve a technical experience and decommissioning data for the future reuse. The nuclear facility decommissioning, which is the first challenge in Korea, is being closed to the final stages. We completed the decommissioning of all the bio-shielding concrete for KRR-2 in 2005 and carried out the decontamination and waste material grouping of the roof, wall and bottom of the reactor hall of the KRR-2. The decommissioning for nuclear facility were demanded the high technology, remote control equipment and radioactivity analysis. So developed equipment and experience will be applied at the decommissioning for new nuclear facility in the future.

  4. Environmental restoration and waste management program decontamination and decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Robotics and Process Systems Division (RPSD), Telerobotic Systems Section (TSS) is responsible for performing a Technology Demonstration for the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Project in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER and WM) Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE). This technology demonstration is scheduled for early October of 1992 at the ORNL RPSD. The demonstration will use robotic and telerobotic technology applied to D and D tasks in hot cell environments. The goals of D and D robotics and remote systems technology development are to provide technologies which improve the quality, safety, and cost effectiveness of future D and D projects. This is accomplished by removing humans from hazardous conditions, increasing the speed, reliability, and performance associated with typical D and D tasks; and minimizing the waste stream. Four operations are basic to the D and D needs surveying, decontamination, dismantling, and material disposition. The technology demonstration at ORNL TSS will demonstrate that a pipe section can be surveyed and dismantled in an in situ environment with the use of robotic and telerobotic technology at ORNL facilities

  5. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Muhammad Kashif; Ashiq, Mehrban; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontamination of agricultural soils. The agricultural crop fields are contaminated by the periodic applications of pesticides. Biodegradation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, highly efficient approach compared to the physical and chemical methods which are expensive as well as unfriendly towards environment. Biodegradation is sensitive to the concentration levels of hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen along with microbial community, temperature, and pH changes. Experimental work for optimum conditions at lab scale can provide very fruitful results about specific bacterial, fungal strains. This study revealed an upper hand of bioremediation over physicochemical approaches. Further studies should be carried out to understand mechanisms of biotransformation. PMID:27293964

  6. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Muhammad Kashif; Ashiq, Mehrban; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontamination of agricultural soils. The agricultural crop fields are contaminated by the periodic applications of pesticides. Biodegradation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, highly efficient approach compared to the physical and chemical methods which are expensive as well as unfriendly towards environment. Biodegradation is sensitive to the concentration levels of hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen along with microbial community, temperature, and pH changes. Experimental work for optimum conditions at lab scale can provide very fruitful results about specific bacterial, fungal strains. This study revealed an upper hand of bioremediation over physicochemical approaches. Further studies should be carried out to understand mechanisms of biotransformation. PMID:27293964

  7. A solar powered handheld plasma source for microbial decontamination applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Y.; Lynch, M. J.; Modic, M.; Whalley, R. D.; Walsh, J. L.

    2016-09-01

    A fully portable atmospheric pressure air plasma system is reported to be suitable for the microbial decontamination of both surfaces and liquids. The device operates in quiescent air, and includes an integrated battery which is charged from a solar cell and weighs less than 750 g, making it highly amenable for a wide variety of applications beyond the laboratory. Using particle imaging velocimetry to visualise air flows around the device, the geometric configuration of the plasma generating electrodes was enhanced to induce a gas flow on the order of 0.5 m s‑1 directed towards a sample placed downstream, thus improving the transport of plasma generated reactive species to the sample. The microbial decontamination efficiency of the system was assessed using potable water samples inoculated with common waterborne organisms Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The reduction in the number of microorganisms was found to be in the range of 2–8 log and was strongly dependent on the plasma generation conditions.

  8. Tritium contamination and decontamination of sealing oil for vacuum pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of tritium-contaminated oils from vacuum pumps used in tritium facilities, is becoming an important issue since there is no disposal way for tritiated waste oils. On recovery of tritiated water vapor in gas streams, it is well-known that the isotope exchange reaction between the gas phase and the liquid phase occurs effectively at room temperature. We have carried out experiments using bubbles to examine the tritium contamination and decontamination of a volume of rotary-vacuum-pump oil. The contamination of the pump oil was made by bubbling tritiated water vapor and tritiated hydrogen gas into the oil. Subsequently the decontamination was processed by bubbling pure water vapor and dry argon gas into the tritiated oil. Results show that the water vapor bubbling was more effective than dry argon gas. The experiment also shows that the water vapor bubbling in an oil bottle can remove and transfer tritium efficiently from the tritiated oil into another water-bubbling bottle

  9. Decontamination of contaminated oils with radio nuclides using magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is focused in to find a solution to the wastes treatment that are generated during the maintenance to the nuclear power industry, the specify case of the contaminated oils with radio nuclides, for this purpose was necessary to make a meticulous characterization of the oils before the treatment proposal using advanced techniques, being determined the activity of them, as well as their physical-chemical characteristics. By means of the developed procedure that combines the use of magnetic fields and filtration to remove the contaminated material with radioactive particles, is possible to diminish the activity of the oils from values that oscillate between 6,00 and 10,00 up to 0,00 to 0,0003 Bq/ml. The decontamination factor of the process is of 99.00%. The proposal of the necessary technology for to decontaminate the oils is also made and is carried out the economic analysis based on the reuse of these, as well as the calculation of the avoided damages. (Author)

  10. A solar powered handheld plasma source for microbial decontamination applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Y.; Lynch, M. J.; Modic, M.; Whalley, R. D.; Walsh, J. L.

    2016-09-01

    A fully portable atmospheric pressure air plasma system is reported to be suitable for the microbial decontamination of both surfaces and liquids. The device operates in quiescent air, and includes an integrated battery which is charged from a solar cell and weighs less than 750 g, making it highly amenable for a wide variety of applications beyond the laboratory. Using particle imaging velocimetry to visualise air flows around the device, the geometric configuration of the plasma generating electrodes was enhanced to induce a gas flow on the order of 0.5 m s-1 directed towards a sample placed downstream, thus improving the transport of plasma generated reactive species to the sample. The microbial decontamination efficiency of the system was assessed using potable water samples inoculated with common waterborne organisms Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The reduction in the number of microorganisms was found to be in the range of 2-8 log and was strongly dependent on the plasma generation conditions.

  11. Surface concrete decontamination equipment developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents a project that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted to identify and develop techniques for removing contaminated concrete surfaces. A major problem associated with nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning is how to economically demolish and dispose of contaminated concrete. Removing only the contaminated portion of the concrete can substantially reduce costs. Evaluation of various methods for removing concrete surfaces shows that several techniques presently used require excessive manpower, time, and energy. Many times more material is removed than necessary, increasing the quantity of waste that must be handled under controlled conditions. These evaluations generated the basic criteria for developing a suitable concrete removal technique: provide a convenient method for cleaning surfaces (such as those contaminated by a small spill); reduce the contaminated waste volume that has to be placed into controlled storage; remove surfaces quickly; and minimize personal exposure to potentially harmful radiation or toxic materials. Removal to 1/4 to 1/2 in. of contaminated surface layer is sufficient for cleanup of most facilities. Two unique decontamination methods have been developed: the concrete spaller and the water cannon. The concrete spaller is the most efficient technique: it removes the concrete surface faster than the water cannons and at a lower cost (as little as $3.00/ft2 of concrete surface). However, the .458 magnum water cannon may be well suited for small or hard-to-reach locations

  12. Decontamination of control rod housing from Palisades Nuclear Power Station.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, M.D.; Nunez, L.; Purohit, A.

    1999-05-03

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a novel decontamination solvent for removing oxide scales formed on ferrous metals typical of nuclear reactor piping. The decontamination process is based on the properties of the diphosphonic acids (specifically 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid or HEDPA) coupled with strong reducing-agents (e.g., sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate, SFS, and hydroxylamine nitrate, HAN). To study this solvent further, ANL has solicited actual stainless steel piping material that has been recently removed from an operating nuclear reactor. On March 3, 1999 ANL received segments of control rod housing from Consumers Energy's Palisades Nuclear Plant (Covert, MI) containing radioactive contamination from both neutron activation and surface scale deposits. Palisades Power plant is a PWR type nuclear generating plant. A total of eight segments were received. These segments were from control rod housing that was in service for about 6.5 years. Of the eight pieces that were received two were chosen for our experimentation--small pieces labeled Piece A and Piece B. The wetted surfaces (with the reactor's pressurized water coolant/moderator) of the pieces were covered with as a scale that is best characterized visually as a smooth, shiny, adherent, and black/brown in color type oxide covering. This tenacious oxide could not be scratched or removed except by aggressive mechanical means (e.g., filing, cutting).

  13. Contaminated concrete: Occurrence and emerging technologies for DOE decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of the Facility Deactivation, Decommissioning, and Material Disposition Focus Area, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development, are to select, demonstrate, test, and evaluate an integrated set of technologies tailored to provide a complete solution to specific problems posed by deactivation, decontamination, and decommissioning, (D ampersand D). In response to these goals, technical task plan (TTP) OR152002, entitled Accelerated Testing of Concrete Decontamination Methods, was submitted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report describes the results from the initial project tasks, which focused on the nature and extent of contaminated concrete, emerging candidate technologies, and matching of emerging technologies to concrete problems. Existing information was used to describe the nature and extent of contamination (technology logic diagrams, data bases, and the open literature). To supplement this information, personnel at various DOE sites were interviewed, providing a broad perspective of concrete contamination. Because characterization is in the initial stage at many sites, complete information is not available. Assimilation of available information into one location is helpful in identifying potential areas of concern in the future. The most frequently occurring radiological contaminants within the DOE complex are 137Cs, 238U (and it daughters), and 60Co, followed closely by 90Sr and tritium, which account for -30% of the total occurrence. Twenty-four percent of the contaminants were listed as unknown, indicating a lack of characterization information, and 24% were listed as other contaminants (over 100 isotopes) with less than 1% occurrence per isotope

  14. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif Javaid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontamination of agricultural soils. The agricultural crop fields are contaminated by the periodic applications of pesticides. Biodegradation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, highly efficient approach compared to the physical and chemical methods which are expensive as well as unfriendly towards environment. Biodegradation is sensitive to the concentration levels of hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen along with microbial community, temperature, and pH changes. Experimental work for optimum conditions at lab scale can provide very fruitful results about specific bacterial, fungal strains. This study revealed an upper hand of bioremediation over physicochemical approaches. Further studies should be carried out to understand mechanisms of biotransformation.

  15. Decontamination and decommissioning project for the nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final goal of this project is to complete the decommissioning of the Korean Research Reactor no.1 and no. 2(KRR-1 and 2) and uranium conversion plant safely and successfully. The goal of this project in 2006 is to complete the decontamination of the inside reactor hall of the KRR-2 which will be operating as a temporary storage for the radioactive waste until the construction and operation of the national repository site. Also the decommissioning work of the KRR-1 and auxiliary facilities is being progress. As the compaction of decommissioning project is near at hand, a computer information system was developed for a systematically control and preserve a technical experience and decommissioning data for the future reuse. The nuclear facility decommissioning, which is the first challenge in Korea, is being closed to the final stages. We completed the decommissioning of all the bio-shielding concrete for KRR-2 in 2005 and carried out the decontamination and waste material grouping of the roof, wall and bottom of the reactor hall of the KRR-2. The decommissioning for nuclear facility were demanded the high technology, remote control equipment and radioactivity analysis. So developed equipment and experience will be applied at the decommissioning for new nuclear facility in the future

  16. Decontamination of steel by melt refining: A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been reported that a large amount of metal waste is produced annually by nuclear fuel processing and nuclear power plants. These metal wastes are contaminated with radioactive elements, such as uranium and plutonium. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain level. Because of high cost, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low level contaminated metals. It has been shown by some investigators that a melt refining technique can be used for the processing of the contaminated metal wastes. In this process, contaminated metal is melted wit a suitable flux. The radioactive elements are oxidized and transferred to a slag phase. In order to develop a commercial process it is important to have information on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the removal. Therefore, a literature search was carried out to evaluate the available information on the decontamination uranium and transuranic-contaminated plain steel, copper and stainless steel by melt a refining technique. Emphasis was given to the thermodynamics and kinetics of the removal. Data published in the literature indicate that it is possible to reduce the concentration of radioactive elements to a very low level by the melt refining method. 20 refs

  17. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recycle of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) from decommissioning of DOE uranium enrichment and nuclear weapons manufacturing facilities is mandatory to recapture the value of these metals and avoid the high cost of disposal by burial. The scrap metals conversion project detailed below focuses on the contaminated nickel associated with the gaseous diffusion plants. Stainless steel can be produced in MSC's vacuum induction melting process (VIM) to the S30400 specification using nickel as an alloy constituent. Further the case alloy can be rolled in MSC's rolling mill to the mechanical property specification for S30400 demonstrating the capability to manufacture the contaminated nickel into valuable end products at a facility licensed to handle radioactive materials. Bulk removal of Technetium from scrap nickel is theoretically possible in a reasonable length of time with the high calcium fluoride flux, however the need for the high temperature creates a practical problem due to flux volatility. Bulk decontamination is possible and perhaps more desirable if nickel is alloyed with copper to lower the melting point of the alloy allowing the use of the high calcium fluoride flux. Slag decontamination processes have been suggested which have been proven technically viable at the Colorado School of Mines

  18. Development of high-level radioactive waste treatment and conversion technologies 'Dry decontamination technology development for highly radioactive contaminants'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, K. W.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K

    2001-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Dry Decontamination Technology Development for Highly Radioactive Contaminants'. 1.Contaminant Characteristics Analysis of Domestic Nuclear Fuel Cycle Projects(NFCP) and Applicability Study of the Unit Dry-Decontamination Techniques A. Classification of contaminated equipments and characteristics analysis of contaminants B. Applicability study of the unit dry-decontamination techniques 2.Performance Evaluation of Unit Dry Decontamination Technique A. PFC decontamination technique B. CO2 decontamination technique C. Plasma decontamination technique 3.Development of Residual Radiation Assessment Methodology for High Radioactive Facility Decontamination A. Development of radioactive nuclide diffusion model on highly radioactive facility structure B. Obtainment of the procedure for assessment of residual radiation dose 4.Establishment of the Design Concept of Dry Decontamination Process Equipment Applicable to Highly Radioactive Contaminants 5.TRIGA soil unit decontamination technology development A. Development of soil washing and flushing technologies B. Development of electrokinetic soil decontamination technology.

  19. Effectiveness of three decontamination treatments against influenza virus applied to filtering facepiece respirators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lore, Michael B; Heimbuch, Brian K; Brown, Teanne L; Wander, Joseph D; Hinrichs, Steven H

    2012-01-01

    Filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) are recommended for use as precautions against airborne pathogenic microorganisms; however, during pandemics demand for FFRs may far exceed availability. Reuse of FFRs following decontamination has been proposed but few reported studies have addressed the feasibility. Concerns regarding biocidal efficacy, respirator performance post decontamination, decontamination cost, and user safety have impeded adoption of reuse measures. This study examined the effectiveness of three energetic decontamination methods [ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), microwave-generated steam, and moist heat] on two National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-certified N95 FFRs (3M models 1860s and 1870) contaminated with H5N1. An aerosol settling chamber was used to apply virus-laden droplets to FFRs in a method designed to simulate respiratory deposition of droplets onto surfaces. When FFRs were examined post decontamination by viral culture, all three decontamination methods were effective, reducing virus load by > 4 log median tissue culture infective dose. Analysis of treated FFRs using a quantitative molecular amplification assay (quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction) indicated that UVGI decontamination resulted in lower levels of detectable viral RNA than the other two methods. Filter performance was evaluated before and after decontamination using a 1% NaCl aerosol. As all FFRs displayed <5% penetration by 300-nm particles, no profound reduction in filtration performance was caused in the FFRs tested by exposure to virus and subsequent decontamination by the methods used. These findings indicate that, when properly implemented, these methods effectively decontaminate H5N1 on the two FFR models tested and do not drastically affect their filtering function; however, other considerations may influence decisions to reuse FFRs.

  20. Surveillance and maintenance report on decontamination and decommissioning and remedial action activities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, H.L.; Sollenberger, M.L.; Sparkman, D.E.; Reynolds, R.M.; Wayland, G.S.

    1996-12-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) and Remedial Action (RA) programs are part of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Division and are funded by the Office of Environmental Management (EM-40). Building 9201-4 (known as Alpha-4), three sites located within Building 9201-3 (the Oil Storage Tank, the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Fuel Handling Facility, and the Coolant Salt Technology Facility), and Building 9419-1 (the Decontamination Facility) are currently the facilities at the Y-12 Plant included in the D&D program. The RA program provides surveillance and maintenance (S&M) and program management of ER sites at the Y-12 Plant, including selected sites listed in Appendix C of the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA), sites listed in the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendment (HSWA) permit Solid Waste Management Unit (SWM-U) list, and sites currently closed or undergoing post-closure activities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This report communicates the status of the program plans and specific S&M activities for the D&D and RA programs.

  1. Development of a TiO2-coated optical fiber reactor for water decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to built and to study a photo-reactor composed by TiO2-coated optical fibers for water decontamination. The physico-chemical characteristics and the optical properties of the TiO2 coating were first studied. Then, the influences of different parameters as the coating thickness, the coating length and the coating volume were investigated both on the light transmission in the TiO2- coated fiber and on the photo-catalytic activity of the fiber for a model compound (malic acid). The photo-catalytic degradation of malic acid was optimized using the experimental design methodology allowing to build a multi-fiber reactor comprising 57 optical fibers. The photo-degradation of malic acid was conducted in the multi-fiber reactor and it was demonstrated that the multi-fiber reactor was more efficient than the single-fiber reactor at the same fibers density. Finally, the multi-fiber reactor was applied to the photo-degradation of a fungicide, called fenamidone, and a degradation pathway was proposed. (author)

  2. Decontamination and decommissioning project status of the TRIGA Mark II and III in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, S.T.; Park, S.K.; Chung, K.W.; Chung, U.S.; Jung, K.J. [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-08-01

    TRIGA Mark-II, the first research reactor in Korea, has operated since 1962, and the second one, TRIGA Mark-III since 1972. Both of them had their operation phased out in 1995 due to their lives and operation of the new research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor) at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute (KAERI) in Taejon. Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) project of TRIGA Mark-II and Mark-III was started in January 1997 and will be completed in December 2002. The first year of the project, work was performed in preparation of the decommissioning plan, start of the environmental impact assessment and setup licensing procedure and documentation for the project with cooperation of Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). Hyundai Engineering Company (HEC) is the main contractor to do design and licensing documentation for the D and D of both reactors. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is the technical assisting partner of HEC. The decommissioning plan document was submitted to the Ministry of Since and Technology (MOST) for the decommissioning license in December 1998, and it expecting to be issued a license in mid 1999. The goal of this project is to release the reactor site and buildings as an unrestricted area. This paper summarizes current status and future plan for the D and D project. (author)

  3. ALARA review for the decontamination and decommissioning of the 233-S pipe trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 233-S Facility was completed in 1955 to expand plutonium production by further concentrating the plutonium nitrate product solution from the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) Plant. The facility is radiologically contaminated because of operations and accidents. Isolation from REDOX and removal of the product transfer lines from the pipe trench is the second step in the decontamination and decommissioning of the entire 233-S Facility. The work scope is to isolate all piping from REDOX and then to remove all the piping/equipment from the pipe trench. The building is presently a Hazard Category 2 Nuclear Facility. A formal as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review is required by BHI-SH-02, Vol. 1, Procedure No. 1.22, Planning Radiological Work, when radiological conditions exceed trigger levels. The level of contamination inside the pipe trench and the process fluid piping is unknown. The potential exists to exceed the level of loose surface contamination, which requires a formal ALARA review when opening the pipe trench and cutting of piping commences. This ALARA review is for task instruction 1997-03-18-009 Revision 1, 233-S Pipe Trench Decon and Pipe Removal

  4. Decontamination and decommissioning project status of the TRIGA mark-2±3 research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRIGA Mark-II, the first research reactor in Korea, has operated since 1962, and the second one, TRIGA Mark-III since 1972. Both of them had their operation phased out in 1995 due to their lives and operation of the new research reactor, HANARO at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in Taejeon. Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) project of the TRIGA Mark-II and Mark-III was started in January 1997 and will be completed in December 2002. In the first year of the project, work was performed in preparation of the decommissioning plan, start of the environmental impact assessment and setup licensing procedure and documentation for the project with cooperation of Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). In 1998, Hyundai Engineering Company (HEC) is the main contractor to do design and licensing documentation for the D and D of both reactors. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is technical assisting partner of HEC. The decommissioning plan document was submitted to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the decommissioning license in December 1998, and it expecting to be issued a license at the end of September 1999. The goal of this project is to release the reactor site and buildings as an unrestricted area. This paper summarizes current status and future plan for the D and D project

  5. Post-decontamination and dismantlement (D ampersand D) characterization report for CFA-669 site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents results of post-decontamination and dismantling (D ampersand D) characterization surveys performed by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. (EG ampersand G Idaho), at Central Facilities Area (CFA)-669, which was the Hot Laundry Facility. The site was characterized to determine and document the radiological and chemical conditions of the site following D ampersand D and to determine if the site satisfies the release criteria. Constructed in 1950, CFA-669 served as the ''hot'' and ''cold'' laundry for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site contractors until the boiler exploded in 1981. The building was shut down at that time. Before D ampersand D activities began in 1992, the facility was characterized and the results documented. D ampersand D activities were completed in July 1994. The post-D ampersand D radiological characterization consisted of radiation measurements and analyses of soil samples to identify man-made radionuclides and determine the specific activity of each sample. The chemical characterization consisted of toxicity characterization leaching procedure (TCLP) analysis for metals and for volatile and semivolatile organic contamination

  6. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole reactor building is accommodated in a shaft and is sealed level with the earth's surface by a building ceiling, which provides protection against penetration due to external effects. The building ceiling is supported on walls of the reactor building, which line the shaft and transfer the vertical components of forces to the foundations. The thickness of the walls is designed to withstand horizontal pressure waves in the floor. The building ceiling has an opening above the reactor, which must be closed by cover plates. Operating equipment for the reactor can be situated above the building ceiling. (orig./HP)

  7. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  8. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  9. Aqueous media treatment and decontamination of hazardous chemical and biological substances by contact plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usage of non-equilibrium contact plasma for processes of decontamination and neutralization in conditions of manifestation of chemical, biological and radiation terrorism takes on special significance due to portability of equipment and its mobility in places where toxic liquid media hazardous for people's health are located. Processes of decontamination of aqueous media, seminated with pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, treatment of water containing toxic heavy metals, cyanides, surface-active substances, and heavy radioactive elements, are investigated. Examples of activation processes in infected water and toxic aqueous solutions present convincing evidence of the way, how new quality technological approach for achievement of high enough degree of the said media treatment is used in each specific case. Among new properties of water activated as a result of action of non-equilibrium contact plasma, it is necessary to mention presence of cluster structure, confirmed by well-known spectral and physical-chemical methods, presence of peroxide compounds, active particles and radicals. Anti-microbial activity which is displayed under action of plasma in aqueous media (chemically pure water, drinking water, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, potassium iodide, as well as other inorganic compounds) towards wide range of pathogenic and conventionally pathogenic microorganisms allows use them as reliable, accessible and low-cost preparations for increasing the degree of safety of food products. Combination of such processes with known methods of filtration and ultra-filtration gives an efficient and available complex capable of withstanding any threats, which may arise for population and living organisms. Present-day level of machine-building, electrical engineering, and electronics allows predict creation of industrial plasma installations, adapted to conditions of various terrorist threats, with minimized power consumption and optimized technological parameters

  10. Internal exposure by natural radiation and decontamination of swimming pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This explanation concerns the scientific knowledge and finding of the title subjects for general public to understand their present radiation environment, id est (i.e.), at about 1 year after the Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant Accident (FDPPA). The first described is the world history of radiation exposure, where A-bomb explosion in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Three Mile Island Power Plant Accident and Chernobyl Accident are told about their teachings and about internal nuclides at FDPPA: the author points out the natural high abundance of K-40 in contrast to the release of I-131, and Cs-137/-134 in the accident. The second is described about the effect of radiations on human cells, where characteristics, measurements, unit and their derived radionuclides of alpha, beta and gamma rays are explained together with their biological influences. Also explained are hydroxy-radical formation by alpha and beta rays in the internal exposure, and comparison of external photons, gamma and more risky ultraviolet rays. Third, the author mentions about man's natural functions to protect radiation hazard. Presented are an easy calculation and a comparison of K-40 and Cs-137 contents (weight and Bq) in the body and in the swimming pool with reference to Chernobyl standards. Internal exposure by natural radionuclides like K-40 and others, is also calculated, which is found equivalent to 0.29 mSv/y based on about 5,630 Bq/60 kg body weight. Finally, explained are the knowledge and practice of decontamination, where various adsorbents like zeolite (molecular sieve), ion exchanger, charcoal and natural zeolites (alumino-silicate) are compared and the last agent, clay easily and economically available, is recommended for decontamination. Clay material is said to adsorb 87% of Cs-137 at as low level as 750 mg/L and the author has an experience to use it successfully for decontamination of the pool. Importantly, the radioactivity of the resultant sludge should not exceed 8,000 Bq/kg. (T.T.)

  11. Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Hanna, M Leslie; Hok, Saphon; Vu, Alex K; Reutter, Dennis J; Raber, Ellen

    2011-11-30

    Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen Vanguard Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF™), U.S. military Decon Green™, and Modec Inc. and EnviroFoam Technologies Sandia Decontamination Foam (DF-200)]. All decontamination technologies tested, except for the bleach solution, performed well on nonporous and nonpermeable glass and stainless-steel surfaces. However, chemical agent residual contamination typically remained on porous and permeable surfaces, especially for the more persistent agents, HD and VX. Solvent-based Decon Green™ performed better than aqueous-based bleach or foams on polymeric surfaces, possibly because the solvent is able to penetrate the polymer matrix. Bleach and foams out-performed Decon Green for penetrating the highly polar concrete surface. Results suggest that the different characteristics needed for an ideal and universal decontamination technology may be incompatible in a single formulation and a strategy for decontaminating a complex facility will require a range of technologies.

  12. Radwaste cost savings ampersand mixed waste volume reduction achieved with CO2 decontamination - actual utility history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-Destructive Cleaning Mobile CO2 Decontamination Facilities have more than 100 months of operational time conducting decontamination at Nuclear Power Stations. During this time we have compiled an extensive database on what has been decontaminated and the cost savings realized. This paper will discuss the following: (1) how the CO2 decontamination process works; (2) what kinds of items have been decontaminated, ranging from tools to underwater TV cameras, and from electric motors to lead shielding; (3) liquid radwaste volume reduction; (4) mixed waste volume reduction; and (5) ALARA dose reduction achievements. In all of these areas, the paper will discuss the actual volumes of materials decontaminated, the DF's achieved, the amounts and types of things free released, and the actual cost savings in all of these areas. All of the data presented will be actual utility data and not the vendor's data. All the experiences presented will be actual power plant experiences. This paper will bring the audience current with the developments and achievements realized with this state-of-the-art decontamination technique. Furthermore, it will give the audience real utility data on cost savings, worker dose reduction, radwaste volume reduction, and mixed waste volume reduction

  13. Decontamination chamber for the maintenance of DUPIC nuclear fuel fabrication and process equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the decontamination chamber of being capable of decontaminating and maintaining DUPIC nuclear fuel fabrication equipment contaminated in use. The decontamination chamber is a closed room in which contaminated equipment can be isolated from a hot-cell, be decontaminated and be reparired. This chamber can prevent contamination from spreading over the hot-cell, and it can also be utilized as a part of the hot-cell after maintenance work. The developed decontamination chamber has mainly five sub-modules - a horizontal module for opening and closing a ceil of the chamber, a vertical module for opening and closing a side of the chamber, a subsidiary door module for enforcing the vertical opening/closing module, a rotary module for rotating contaminated equipment, and a grasping module for holding a decontamination device. Such sub-modules were integrated and installed in the M6 hot-cell of the IMEF at the KAERI. The mechanical design considerations of each modules and the arrangement with hot-cell facility, remote operation and manipulation of the decontamination chamber are also described

  14. Decontamination chamber for the maintenance of DUPIC nuclear fuel fabrication and process equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. H.; Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S.; Lee, H. H.; Shin, J. M

    2000-10-01

    This report presents the decontamination chamber of being capable of decontaminating and maintaining DUPIC nuclear fuel fabrication equipment contaminated in use. The decontamination chamber is a closed room in which contaminated equipment can be isolated from a hot-cell, be decontaminated and be reparired. This chamber can prevent contamination from spreading over the hot-cell, and it can also be utilized as a part of the hot-cell after maintenance work. The developed decontamination chamber has mainly five sub-modules - a horizontal module for opening and closing a ceil of the chamber, a vertical module for opening and closing a side of the chamber, a subsidiary door module for enforcing the vertical opening/closing module, a rotary module for rotating contaminated equipment, and a grasping module for holding a decontamination device. Such sub-modules were integrated and installed in the M6 hot-cell of the IMEF at the KAERI. The mechanical design considerations of each modules and the arrangement with hot-cell facility, remote operation and manipulation of the decontamination chamber are also described.

  15. Development of modified electrochemical process for decontamination of radioactive metal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H.; Lim, Y. K.; Yang, H. Y.; Shin, S. W.; Song, M. J. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    In order to develop an effective metal decontamination technique, some experiments were carried out using a modified electrochemical decontamination process. The operational parameters such as current density and reaction time in the electrolytic process were investigated to decide the optimum conditions for the decontamination of the carbon steel generated from nuclear power plants. Decontamination efficiency of the modified electrolytic process, when applied to carbon steel, was much higher than that of the conventional one. In the case of surface contamination, most of the radioactivity is localized within a 10 {mu}m thickness from the surface, in general. Through a series of experiments, 16{mu}m thickness changes were found in carbon steel with the current density and reaction time as 0.4 A/cm{sup 2} and 30 minute, respectively. Based on the results of small modified electrochemical experiments, the large lab scale electrochemical decontamination system was designed and manufactured. In particular, it is not necessary to install an extra washing tank because an ultrasonic oscillator is attached to the bottom of the electrolytic decontamination reactor. This system was also designed to decontaminate both sides of the metal waste simultaneously.

  16. Effects of the chemical decontamination on the component parts of the ATR fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical decontamination technique has been developed in order to remove the crud adhering to the surface of the components constructing the primary coolant system, as a part of the measure to decrease the exposure in the annual inspection. The technique has been already applied to the prototype reactor 'Fugen', in the core of which the fuel assemblies were not loaded. The chemical decontamination, for the core in which the fuel assemblies are loaded, has been planned for the purpose of improving the utilization factor. It is necessary to confirm, through the test before putting the plan into practice, that the decontamination reagent does not exert a bad influence upon the components constructing the fuel assembly. This report describes the test results which have been carried out so as to investigate the influence of the reagent on the components constructing the fuel assembly. The outline of the results is as follows: (1) The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking of the chemical decontamination treatment and the residual decontamination reagent on the components constructing the fuel assembly is low enough. (2) The chemical decontamination treatment and the residual decontamination reagent do not exert a bad influence upon the integrity of the fuel assembly concerning the fuel rod holding function of the spacer and the characteristics of the fretting wear caused on the fuel claddings. (author)

  17. Assessment of Environmental Contamination and Environmental Decontamination Practices within an Ebola Holding Unit, Freetown, Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Youkee

    Full Text Available Evidence to inform decontamination practices at Ebola holding units (EHUs and treatment centres is lacking. We conducted an audit of decontamination procedures inside Connaught Hospital EHU in Freetown, Sierra Leone, by assessing environmental swab specimens for evidence of contamination with Ebola virus by RT-PCR. Swabs were collected following discharge of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD patients before and after routine decontamination. Prior to decontamination, Ebola virus RNA was detected within a limited area at all bedside sites tested, but not at any sites distant to the bedside. Following decontamination, few areas contained detectable Ebola virus RNA. In areas beneath the bed there was evidence of transfer of Ebola virus material during cleaning. Retraining of cleaning staff reduced evidence of environmental contamination after decontamination. Current decontamination procedures appear to be effective in eradicating persistence of viral RNA. This study supports the use of viral swabs to assess Ebola viral contamination within the clinical setting. We recommend that regular refresher training of cleaning staff and audit of environmental contamination become standard practice at all Ebola care facilities during EVD outbreaks.

  18. Assessment of Environmental Contamination and Environmental Decontamination Practices within an Ebola Holding Unit, Freetown, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youkee, Daniel; Brown, Colin S; Lilburn, Paul; Shetty, Nandini; Brooks, Tim; Simpson, Andrew; Bentley, Neil; Lado, Marta; Kamara, Thaim B; Walker, Naomi F; Johnson, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Evidence to inform decontamination practices at Ebola holding units (EHUs) and treatment centres is lacking. We conducted an audit of decontamination procedures inside Connaught Hospital EHU in Freetown, Sierra Leone, by assessing environmental swab specimens for evidence of contamination with Ebola virus by RT-PCR. Swabs were collected following discharge of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) patients before and after routine decontamination. Prior to decontamination, Ebola virus RNA was detected within a limited area at all bedside sites tested, but not at any sites distant to the bedside. Following decontamination, few areas contained detectable Ebola virus RNA. In areas beneath the bed there was evidence of transfer of Ebola virus material during cleaning. Retraining of cleaning staff reduced evidence of environmental contamination after decontamination. Current decontamination procedures appear to be effective in eradicating persistence of viral RNA. This study supports the use of viral swabs to assess Ebola viral contamination within the clinical setting. We recommend that regular refresher training of cleaning staff and audit of environmental contamination become standard practice at all Ebola care facilities during EVD outbreaks.

  19. Comprehensive investigation of the corrosion and surface chemical effects of the decontamination technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination technologies are mainly developed to reduce the collective dose of the maintenance personnel at NPPs. The highest efficiency (i.e., the highest DF values) available without detrimental modification of the treated surface of structural material is the most important goal in the course of the application of a decontamination technology. A so-called 'soft' chemical decontamination technology has been developed - supported by the Paks Nuclear Power Plant - at the Institute of Radiochemistry and Radioecology of the University of Pannonia. The novel base technology can be effectively applied for the decontamination of the heat exchanger tubes of steam generators. In addition, by optimizing the main technological parameters (temperature, concentration of the liquid chemicals, flow rates, contact time, etc.) it can be utilized for specific applications such as decontamination of some dismountable devices and separable equipment or the total decontamination prior to plant dismantling (decommissioning) in the future. The aim of this work is to compare the efficiency, corrosion and surface chemical effects of some improved versions of the novel base-technology elaborated for decontamination of austenitic stainless steel surfaces. The experiments have been performed at laboratory conditions in decontamination model systems. The applied methods: γ-spectrometry, ICP-OES, voltammetry and SEM-EDX. The experimental results revealed that the efficiency of the base-technology mainly depends on the surface features of the stainless steel samples such as the chemical composition and thickness of the oxide layer, the nature (quantity, morphology and chemical composition) of the crystalline deposits. It has been documented that the improved version of the base-technology are suitable for the decontamination of both steel surfaces covered by chemically resistant large Cr-content crystals and that having compact oxide-layers (up to a thickness of 10

  20. Decontamination Experiments on Intact Pig Skin Contaminated with Beta-Gamma- Emitting Nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edvardsson, K.A.; Hagsgaard, S. [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden); Swensson, A. [Dept. of Occupational Medicine, Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1966-11-15

    A number of decontamination experiments have been performed on intact pig skin. In most of the experiments NaI-131 in water solution has been utilized because this nuclide is widely used within the Studsvik research establishment, is easy to detect and relatively harmless, and is practical to use in these experiments. Among the {beta} {gamma}-nuclides studied 1-131 has furthermore proved to be the one most difficult to remove from the skin. The following conclusions and recommendations regarding the decontamination of skin are therefore valid primarily for iodine in the form of Nal, but are probably also applicable to many other {beta} {gamma}-nuclides. a) A prolonged interval between contamination and decontamination has a negative effect on the result of the decontamination. Therefore start decontamination as soon as possible after the contamination. b) Soap and water has proved to be the most suitable decontamination agent. A number of other agents have appeared to be harmful to the skin. Therefore, first of all use only soap and water in connection with gentle rubbing. c) No clear connection between the temperature of the water for washing and the result of the decontamination has been demonstrated. d) Skin not degreased before the contamination seems to be somewhat easier to decontaminate than degreased skin, particularly if the activity has been on the skin for a long time. Therefore do not remove the sebum of the skin when engaged on radioactive work involving contamination risks. e) Irrigation of the contaminated surface with a solution containing the corresponding inactive ions or ordinary water in large quantities may considerably decrease the skin contamination. f) In radioactive work of long duration involving high risks of contamination prophylactic measures in the form of a protective substance ('invisible glove'), type Kerodex, may make decontamination easier.

  1. Decontamination of DWPF canisters by glass frit blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Plant will be incorporated in borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The waste glass will be encapsulated in a 304L stainless steel canister. During the filling operation the outside of the canister will become contaminated. This contamination must be reduced to an accepable level before the canister leaves the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Tests with contaminated coupons have demonstrated that this decontamination can be accomplished by blasting the surface with glass frit. The contaminated glass frit byproduct of this operation is used as a feedstock for the waste glass process, so no secondary waste is created. Three blasting techniques, using glass frit as the blasting medium, were evaluated. Air-injected slurry blasting was the most promising and was chosen for further development. The optimum parametric values for this process were determined in tests using coupon weight loss as the output parameter. 1 reference, 13 figures, 3 tables

  2. Chromatographic decontamination of medium-activity waste concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chromatographic decontamination of a MAW concentrate was carried out in a laboratory plant in 1-l-batches in the following way: In order to purify the nitric MAW concentrate from its solid and organic contamination products, it is passed through a filter and an absorber (SM7) for organic species. Subsequently the purified solution runs on-line through all following columns. First the main activity carrier cesium (137Cs, 134Cs) is transferred to ammonium molybdate phosphate (AMP-1) by means of a newly developed fluidized bed process. In the further course, 125Sb is separated on metal oxides (Sb2O5, MnO2) and the three-valued actinides/lanthanides on an extraction-chromatographic CMPO column. Finally the remaining 106Ru and 60Co activities are separated on dimethylglyoximes (DMG) coated on active carbon. (orig./RB)

  3. Effect of irradiation decontamination on the qualities of green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of irradiation on the main chemical components, such as heavy metal elements, pesticide residues as well as sensory qualities of green tea. The results indicated that irradiation had no significant impact on proteins, tea polyphenols, theine and heavy metal elements, slight differences in the contents of soluble sugar and amino acids. The content of cypermethrin reduced with the increase of irradiation dose. The color, liquor color, flavor and aroma of the tea decoction changed slightly when irradiated at the dose lower than 5 kGy. It was concluded that the optimal doses for the purpose of green team decontamination was at the range of 3-5 kGy according to the analysis of various quality factors. (authors)

  4. Concrete decontamination by Electro-Hydraulic Scabbling (EHS). Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electro-Hydraulic Scabbling (EHS) technology and equipment for decontaminating concrete structures from radionuclides, organic substances, and hazardous metals is being developed by Textron Systems Division (TSD). This wet scabbling technique involves the generation of powerful shock waves and intense cavitation by a strong pulsed electric discharge in a water layer at the concrete surface. The high pressure impulse results in stresses which crack and peel off a concrete layer of a controllable thickness. Scabbling produces contaminated debris of relatively small volume which can be easily removed, leaving clean bulk concrete. This new technology is being developed under Contract No. DE-AC21-93MC30164. The project objective is to develop and demonstrate a cost-efficient, rapid, controllable process to remove the surface layer of contaminated concrete while generating minimal secondary waste. The primary target of this program is uranium-contaminated concrete floors which constitute a substantial part of the contaminated area at DOE weapon facilities

  5. CPP-603 Chloride Removal System Decontamination and Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CPP-603 (annex) Chloride Removal System (CRS) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Project is described in this report. The CRS was used for removing Chloride ions and other contaminants that were suspended in the waters of the underwater fuel storage basins in the CPP-603 Fuel Receiving and Storage Facility (FRSF) from 1975 to 1981. The Environmental Checklist and related documents, facility characterization, decision analysis', and D ampersand D plans' were prepared in 1991. Physical D ampersand D activities were begun in mid summer of 1992 and were completed by the end of November 1992. All process equipment and electrical equipment were removed from the annex following accepted asbestos and radiological contamination removal practices. The D ampersand D activities were performed in a manner such that no radiological health or safety hazard to the public or to personnel at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) occurred

  6. Decontamination with pasty pickling agents forming a strippable foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development of an in-situ decontamination procedure by applying onto the contaminated surface (in an one-step or multi-step process) pasty, chemically aggressive agents causing dilution and adsorption of the contaminant and then hardening to form a strippable foil. The use of such a foil will result in following advantages, with respect to usual techniques: - sensibly shorter operation duration resulting in lower personnel doses; - reduction of the arising secondary waste volume because there is no need for washing; the volume of the spent strippable foil is much smaller than currently used water volumes; - optimal conditioning of the radioactive waste due to its fixation in a solid (foil); - an accidental contamination in a controlled area can easily be fixed and covered avoiding its propagation

  7. Theoretical evaluation of a technique for electrokinetic decontamination of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji-Wei; Neretnieks, Ivars

    1997-04-01

    An electrokinetic decontamination process has been modeled to investigate the feasibility of using electrokinetic soil remediation technology to remove 137Cs and 90Sr from the soil. 100 V DC current is applied to a 3-meter-long soil column by electrodes connected to the soil. The prediction results have shown that the efficiency of the electrokinetic treatment depends on the sorption and diffusion parameters. High sorption and slow diffusion will demand long treatment time. If the soil to be treated has similar sorption and diffusion properties as bentonite, and when the soil is flushed with saline water that leads to less sorption, both 137Cs and 90Sr may be cleaned by the electrokinetic process within a few months.

  8. OIL DECONTAMINATION OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS EXPERIMENTAL WORK RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lushnikov Sergey V.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of experimental work during 2004-2005 on oil decontamination of bottom sediments of Lake Schuchye, situated in the Komi Republic (Northern Russia. The cause of thecontamination were huge oil spills occurred after a series of accidental ruptures on the Harjaga-Usinsk and Vozej-Usinsk oil-pipe lines in 1994. Flotation technology was used for the cleaning of bottom sediments.157 tons of crude oil were removed during the course of 2-year experimental work from an area of 4,1 ha.The content of aliphatic and alicyclic oil hydrocarbons was reduced from 53,3 g/kg to 2,2 g/kg, on average.Hydrobiological investigations revealed that bottom sediments started to be inhabited by benthos organisms, dominantly Oligochaeta. Besides Oligochaeta, Chironomidae maggots and Bivalvia were detected. Theappearance of Macrozoobenthos organisms can serve as a bioindicator of water quality.

  9. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasevich, R.S. [KAI Technologies, Inc., Portsmouth, NH (United States); Vaux, W.G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nocito, T. [Ohio DSI Corp., New York (United States)

    1995-10-01

    DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCB`s, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay and fission products of DOE operations. The asbestos must be converted by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives.

  10. Decontamination formulation with additive for enhanced mold remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D.; Irvine, Kevin; Berger, Paul; Comstock, Robert

    2010-02-16

    Decontamination formulations with an additive for enhancing mold remediation. The formulations include a solubilizing agent (e.g., a cationic surfactant), a reactive compound (e.g., hydrogen peroxide), a carbonate or bicarbonate salt, a water-soluble bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate), a mold remediation enhancer containing Fe or Mn, and water. The concentration of Fe.sup.2+ or Mn.sup.2+ ions in the aqueous mixture is in the range of about 0.0001% to about 0.001%. The enhanced formulations can be delivered, for example, as a foam, spray, liquid, fog, mist, or aerosol for neutralization of chemical compounds, and for killing certain biological compounds or agents and mold spores, on contaminated surfaces and materials.

  11. Composition suitable for decontaminating a porous surface contaminated with cesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Michael D.; Finck, Martha R.; Mertz, Carol J.

    2010-06-15

    A method of decontaminating porous surfaces contaminated with water soluble radionuclides by contacting the contaminated porous surfaces with an ionic solution capable of solubilizing radionuclides present in the porous surfaces followed by contacting the solubilized radionuclides with a gel containing a radionuclide chelator to bind the radionuclides to the gel, and physically removing the gel from the porous surfaces. A dry mix is also disclosed of a cross-linked ionic polymer salt, a linear ionic polymer salt, a radionuclide chelator, and a gel formation controller present in the range of from 0% to about 40% by weight of the dry mix, wherein the ionic polymer salts are granular and the non cross-linked ionic polymer salt is present as a minor constituent.

  12. In-Situ Biological Decontamination of an Ice Melting Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digel, Ilya

    A major concern in space and even many terrestrial missions is the forward contamination of the alien environment with microbes and biological molecules, transported on spacecraft from Earth. Furthermore, organisms and molecules can be brought to the sampling place from the surface. All this can lead to serious misinterpretations of the obtained data and more impor-tantly, could irreversibly alter the pristine nature of the extraterrestrial environments. These issues were addressed and are constantly updated in COSPAR planetary protection policy (20 October 2002; Amended 24 March 2005; 20 July 2008). The objective of our study was to investigate the efficacy of different in-situ decontamination protocols in the conditions of thermo-mechanical ice-melting. We evaluated survival rate of microorganisms on the melting probe as a function of both time and penetration depth. Special focus was made on deter-mination of the optimal concentration of chemical decontaminants (hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite) the peculiarities of their antimicrobial action at low temperatures (-80 to 0C) combined with constant dilution with melted ice and mechanical abrasion. Common, non-pathogenic microbial strains belonging to different morphological and metabolic groups (Pseudomonas, Micrococcus, Escherichia, Bacillus and others) were chosen as test objects for this study. The working part of the melting probe was first controllably contaminated by in-cubation in suspension of microbial cells. After appropriate sedimentation of microbial cells had been reached, the drilling-melting process was started using specially prepared sterile ice blocks. Every 2 minutes the samples were taken and analyzed. In the control tests, 1 mL of distilled water was injected into the penetration site at the onset of drilling. In the other tests, 1 mL of hydrogen peroxide (30Collected data suggest high efficacy of both used compounds in respect of all tested microbial groups. Typically, 99.9

  13. Development of decommissioning, decontamination and reuse technology for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project, the foundation of decommissioning technology through the development of core technologies applied to maintenance and decommissioning of nuclear facility was established. First of all, we developed the key technology such as safety assessment technology for decommissioning work needed at the preparatory stage of decommissioning of the highly contaminated facilities and simultaneous measurement technology of the high-level alpha/beta contamination applicable to the operation and decommissioning of the nuclear facilities. Second, we developed a remotely controlled laser ablation decontamination system which is useful for a removal of fixed contaminants and developed a chemical gel decontamination technology for a removal of non-fixed contaminants during the maintenance and decommissioning works of high radiation hot cells which have been used for a recycling or treatment of spent fuels. Third, we developed a volume reduction and self-disposal technology for dismantled concrete wastes. Also, the technology for volume reduction and stabilization of the peculiar wastes(HEPA filter and organic mixed wastes), which have been known to be very difficult to treat and manage, generated from the high radioactive facilities in operation, improvement and repair and under decommissioning was developed. Finally, this research project was developed a system for the reduction of radiotoxicity of several uranium mixtures generated in the front- and back-end nuclear fuel cycles with characteristics of highly enhanced proliferation-resistance and more environmental friendliness, which can make the uranium to be recovered or separated from the mixtures with a high purity level enough for the uranium to be reused and to be classified as C-class level for burial near the surface, and then which result in the much reduction in volume of the uranium mixture wastes

  14. Contaminated concrete: Occurrence and emerging technologies for DOE decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, K.S.; Wilson-Nichols, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Morris, M.I. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The goals of the Facility Deactivation, Decommissioning, and Material Disposition Focus Area, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development, are to select, demonstrate, test, and evaluate an integrated set of technologies tailored to provide a complete solution to specific problems posed by deactivation, decontamination, and decommissioning, (D&D). In response to these goals, technical task plan (TTP) OR152002, entitled Accelerated Testing of Concrete Decontamination Methods, was submitted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report describes the results from the initial project tasks, which focused on the nature and extent of contaminated concrete, emerging candidate technologies, and matching of emerging technologies to concrete problems. Existing information was used to describe the nature and extent of contamination (technology logic diagrams, data bases, and the open literature). To supplement this information, personnel at various DOE sites were interviewed, providing a broad perspective of concrete contamination. Because characterization is in the initial stage at many sites, complete information is not available. Assimilation of available information into one location is helpful in identifying potential areas of concern in the future. The most frequently occurring radiological contaminants within the DOE complex are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}U (and it daughters), and {sup 60}Co, followed closely by {sup 90}Sr and tritium, which account for {minus}30% of the total occurrence. Twenty-four percent of the contaminants were listed as unknown, indicating a lack of characterization information, and 24% were listed as other contaminants (over 100 isotopes) with less than 1% occurrence per isotope.

  15. Melting decontamination technology development for metallic waste recycling at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactively contaminated metallic wastes have been produced from the decommissioning of both two research reactors in Seoul and an uranium conversion plant in Daejeon. The melting decontamination technology was studied to reduce the radioactive waste volume by self disposal as non radioactive waste. The partitioning of radioisotope cobalt 60 and cesium 137 among a molten ingot, slag and dust phases have been investigated in a plasma are melter. A direct current plasma arc furnace was used to melt contaminated stainless steel, mild steel and aluminum wastes with a acid, neutral and basic slag (SiO2. CaO, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO) containing radioactive 60Co and 137Cs, to measure the partitioning phenomena. Calcium oxide and ferric oxide were added to provide an increase in the slag fluidity and oxidative potential respectively. Most of the 60Co remained in the ingot phase and it was barely present in the slag during the steel melting. 60Co decontamination factor was not highly dependent on the slag composition. However, it was found that a highly fluid basic slag is a little effective. The distribution ratio of 60Co into the ingot and the slag phase showed that about 90% to 95% was recovered in the ingots. But in the melting of aluminum wastes, it was contaminated by up to 70% in the slag phase. 137Cs was completely eliminated from the melt of the stainless steel as well as the carbon steel and distributed to the dust phase. The partition remaining in the slag depended on whether the slag was basic or acidic and had a high oxidative flux (Fe2O3). A maximum of 65% of the 137Cs remained in the slag phase with a high slag concentration and basicity. Generally, the137Cs distribution in the slag was between 10% and 25% during a lab scale arc furnace test

  16. Decontamination of transuranic waste metal by melt refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melt refining of transuraniuc- (TRU-) contaminated metals has been proposed as a decontamination process with the potential advantages of reclaiming metal and simplifying analytical problems. The feasibility of routinely achieving the 10 nCi/g (approx. 0.1 ppM) decontamination level by melt refining will demonstrate the removing of scrap metal from the TRU waste classification. To demonstrate this feasibility, mild steel, stainless steel, nickel, and copper were contaminated with 500 ppM PuO2 and melted with various fluxes. Four different fluxes, borosilicate glass, blast furnace slag, high silica slag, and artificial basalt, were used in these studies. The solidified slags and metals were analyzed for their plutonium contents by the use of a combination of wet chemical and α-activity counting technique. Partition ratios were calculated for plutonium using the analytical results of each experiment. Some metals were doubled refined to study the effect of secondary slag treatment. The initial weight of the slags was also varied to investigate its effect on plutonium removal. The results indicated that the use of proper slags is necessary for effective removal of plutonium. All four slags were effective in removing plutonium from the metals. Values of less than 1 ppM Pu (approx. 100 nCi/g) could be obtained in all cases. The double-refined samples were cleaned to less than 0.1 ppM Pu (approx. nCi/g), which is the goal. Variation in the slag weight did not change the results significantly. Double refining of the metal with small primary and secondary slag volume can be an effective process for removal of TRU contaminants from metals

  17. Utilization of microwave energy for decontamination of oil polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordache, Daniela; Niculae, Dumitru; Francisc, Ioan Hathazi

    2010-01-01

    Soil oil (petroleum) product pollution represents a great environmental threat as it may contaminate the neighboring soils and surface and underground water. Liquid fuel contamination may occur anywhere during oil (petroleum) product transportation, storing, handling and utilization. The polluted soil recovery represents a complex process due to the wide range of physical, chemical and biological properties of soils which should be analyzed in connection with the study of the contaminated soil behavior under the microwave field action. The soil, like any other non-metallic material, can be heated through microwave energy absorption due to the dielectric losses, expressed by its dielectric complex constant. Oil polluted soil behaves differently in a microwave field depending on the nature, structure and amount of the polluting fuel. Decontamination is performed through volatilization and retrieval of organic contaminant volatile components. After decontamination only a soil fixed residue remains, which cannot penetrate the underground anymore. In carrying out the soil recovery process by means of this technology we should also consider the soil characteristics such as: the soil type, temperature, moisture.The first part of the paper presents the theoretical aspects relating to the behavior of the polluted soil samples in the microwave field, as well as their relating experimental data. The experimental data resulting from the analysis of soils with a different level of pollution point out that the degree of pollutant recovery is high, contributing to changing the initial classification of soils from the point of view of pollution. The paper graphically presents the levels of microwave generated and absorbed power in soil samples, soil temperature during experimentations, specific processing parameters in a microwave field. It also presents the constructive solution of the microwave equipment designed for the contaminated soil in situ treatment. PMID:21721470

  18. Decontamination experience using the EMMAC process in EDF nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EMMA, EMMAC and EMMAC-PLUS decontamination processes, nondestructive tests and waste treatment are presented. The various applications of the new EMMAC soft decontamination process, used by EDF since 1995 have shown that it is a very effective tool and at the same time, is a very low corrosive process for the materials that have been treated . The improved efficiency, compared to the previous EMMA process allowed us to obtain good decontamination factors with only one cycle instead of two. At the same time, changes in chemical composition and waste treatment produced large reduction in the amount of radioactive wastes generated. Further improvements are still being sought. (authors)

  19. Forming of information support for estimate of potential danger of storage points of the decontamination wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By now 92 storage points of the decontamination wastes that formed in result of decontamination of settlements after the Chernobyl accident is registered on the territory of Belarus. The most of theirs were placed in the unfavorable for storage of radioactive wastes places. It was examine the forming of information support for estimate of potential danger of the storage points of decontamination wastes that base on results of investigations of objects, field and laboratory investigations, theoretical researches, using of literary information about features of radionuclides migration through engineering and natural barriers to water-bearing horizon is examination

  20. The pharmacological activity of medical herbs after microbiological decontamination by irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarczyk, H. B.; Migdał, W.; K ȩdzia, B.

    2000-03-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation.