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Sample records for 24-week latin american

  1. Efalizumab in the Treatment of Scalp, Palmoplantar and Nail Psoriasis: Results of a 24-Week Latin American Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, María Denise; Chouela, Edgardo Néstor; Dorantes, Gladys Leon; Roselino, Ana Maria; Santamaria, Jesùs; Allevato, Miguel Angel; Cestari, Tania; de Aillaud, Maria Eugenia Manzanera; Stengel, Fernando Miguel; Licu, Daiana

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Plaque-type psoriasis affecting the nails, scalp, hands or feet can often be difficult to treat; for example, topical treatments and phototherapy may not penetrate the nail plate or scalp. The objective of this large, international, multicentre study was to investigate the efficacy of efalizumab in a Latin American population of adult patients with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis who were candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy. Methods Eligible patients were enrolled in a 24-week, open-label, single-arm, Phase IIIb/IV study of continuous treatment with subcutaneous efalizumab, 1.0 mg/kg/wk. Involvement of the nails, scalp, or hands or feet was assessed using the Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI), the Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI), or the Palmoplantar Pustulosis Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PPPASI), respectively. Missing data were handled using a last observation carried forward or nonresponder imputation approach. Results Of the 189 patients who received treatment, 112 patients had nail involvement, 172 had scalp involvement, and 19 had palmoplantar disease at baseline. At Week 24, ≥50% improvement on the NAPSI, PSSI and PPPASI was observed in 31%, 71% and 68% of patients, respectively, whereas ≥75% improvement on these scores was observed in 17%, 52% and 63%, respectively. Descriptive statistics showed lower NAPSI-75 and higher PSSI-75 and -50 response rates among patients with higher baseline scores. Conclusions This open-label, uncontrolled study provides supportive evidence of the potential of efalizumab as a treatment for nail, scalp and palmoplantar psoriasis. PMID:20428227

  2. Efalizumab in the Treatment of Scalp, Palmoplantar and Nail Psoriasis: Results of a 24-Week Latin American Study

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, María Denise; Chouela, Edgardo Néstor; Dorantes, Gladys Leon; ROSELINO, Ana Maria; Santamaria, Jesùs; Allevato, Miguel Angel; Cestari, Tania; de Aillaud, Maria Eugenia Manzanera; Stengel, Fernando Miguel; Licu, Daiana

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Plaque-type psoriasis affecting the nails, scalp, hands or feet can often be difficult to treat; for example, topical treatments and phototherapy may not penetrate the nail plate or scalp. The objective of this large, international, multicentre study was to investigate the efficacy of efalizumab in a Latin American population of adult patients with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis who were candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy. Methods Eligible patients were ...

  3. Control of Moderate-to-Severe Plaque Psoriasis with Efalizumab: 24-Week, Open-Label, Phase IIIb/IV Latin American Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Fernando M; Petri, Valeria; Campbell, Gladys AM; Dorantes, Gladys Leon; López, Magdalina; Galimberti, Ricardo L; Valdez, Raúl P; de Arruda, Lucia F; Guerra, Mario Amaya; Chouela, Edgardo N; Licu, Daiana

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Psoriasis is a debilitating, chronic inflammatory systemic disease affecting around 2% of the South American population. Biological therapies offer the possibility of long-term therapy with improved safety and efficacy. Methods We conducted a multicentre, open-label, single-arm, Phase IIIb/IV study of adult patients (18–75 years) with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis who were candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy. Patients received efalizumab subcutaneously (1.0 mg/kg/wk). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving a Physician Global Assessment (PGA) rating of “excellent” or “cleared” at Week 24. Safety outcomes were adverse events (AEs), serious AEs (SAEs) and abnormalities on laboratory tests. Results Of 189 patients included in the intent-to-treat and safety populations, 104 (55.0%) were of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. At Week 24, 92/189 (48.7%) patients achieved or maintained a PGA rating of “excellent” or “cleared”. AEs were reported by 161/189 (85.2%) patients, SAEs by 21/189 (11.1%). One patient died during the study (meningoencephalitis). Laboratory findings were consistent with previous experience. Conclusions Efalizumab demonstrated sustained control of psoriasis up to 24 weeks in patients from Latin America, confirming results seen in Phase III studies conducted in North America and Europe. PMID:20098510

  4. Control of Moderate-to-Severe Plaque Psoriasis with Efalizumab: 24-Week, Open-Label, Phase IIIb/IV Latin American Study Results

    OpenAIRE

    Stengel, Fernando M; Petri, Valeria [UNIFESP; Campbell, Gladys AM; Dorantes, Gladys Leon; López, Magdalina; Ricardo L. Galimberti; Valdez, Raúl P; de Arruda, Lucia F; Guerra, Mario Amaya; Chouela, Edgardo N; Licu, Daiana; ,

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Psoriasis is a debilitating, chronic inflammatory systemic disease affecting around 2% of the South American population. Biological therapies offer the possibility of long-term therapy with improved safety and efficacy. Methods We conducted a multicentre, open-label, single-arm, Phase IIIb/IV study of adult patients (18–75 years) with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis who were candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy. Patients received efalizumab subcutaneously (1.0 mg/k...

  5. Latin American cheeses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latin American (or Hispanic-style) cheeses are a category of cheeses that were developed in Mexico, Latin America, and the Caribbean and have become increasingly popular in the U.S. Although research has been conducted on some of the cheeses, quantitative information on the quality traits of most L...

  6. American Nations, Latin States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nelson Ahumada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The nation, as artifact of modernity, assumes particularities in America such as the colonization and genocide of original peoples which still weighs as a never ending comeback. Nevertheless, capital, with its overwhelming force, destroyed peoples, cultures, traditions and landscapes. Latin America faces the challenge of uniting beyond the necessities of capital, and beyond two languages, spanish and portuguese. All of which has full validity at present with the blocks UNASUR and ALBA. Ethnocentricity is postulated as the exclusive condition of all possible humanity and, as programme, racism without races; Latin American miscegenation, as the potential for unity and the strength of emancipation as a project. Our intellectuals, who constructed a unique and superlative literature, are the lighthouses in the development of a nationalism without races. Anthropology in debate with psychoanalysis can become a compass in rethinking our America.

  7. Introduction: Latin American gentrifications

    OpenAIRE

    López-Morales, E.; Shin, H.B; Lees, L.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, Latin American cities are seeing simultaneous processes of reinvestment and redevelopment in their historic central areas. These are not just mega-scale interventions like Porto Maravilha in Rio or Puerto Madero in Buenos Aires or the luxury renovations seen in Santa Fé or Nueva Polanco in Mexico City, they also include state-led, piecemeal, high-rise interventions in Santiago, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Panamá and Bogotá, all of which are causing the displacement of original po...

  8. Latin American Theology and Religious Pluralism: A Latin American Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascante-Gomez, Fernando A.

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes recent efforts by Latin-American theologians concerned with developing a pluralist theology of liberation. The author highlights some of the most significant issues and themes of this emerging theological reflection among liberation theologians. Finally, he identifies some of the challenges a pluralist theology of…

  9. Latin American intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos MONSIVÁIS

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The article carefully reviews the intellectual history of Latin America since the 19th Century, when the process of cultural secularization took place, until current times when the literary city has been replaced by its cybernetic version. Employing analyses of the multiple definitions, polemics, conducts, masks and pretenses of the intellectual class, the article draws a reliable portrait that serves as a conceptual frame that looks deeply into the most significant names and schools of the period.

  10. Improvisation in Latin American Musics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behague, Gerard

    1980-01-01

    Improvisation implies a relative freedom to choose elements within stylistic norms of rules proper to a given culture. Improvisatory processes for music from several cultures are described. These cultures are: Indian, Spanish, African, and Afro-Cuban (rumba). A few resources focusing on improvisation in Latin American music are presented. (KC)

  11. Latin American Folk Art Prints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navah, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Latin American customs and colors play an important role as second graders are introduced to multicultural experiences through food, music, dance, art, and craft. In this article, the author describes a printing project inspired by Guatemalan weavings and amate bark paintings. (Contains 2 online resources.)

  12. Women in Latin American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrin, Asuncion

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliography and suggests a number of topics around which a college level history course on Latin American women could be organized. Course topics include migration of women, definition of sex roles, legal status of women, women's work and society, feminism, politics, religion, women and the family, and women's education and…

  13. Latin American Folk Art Prints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navah, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Latin American customs and colors play an important role as second graders are introduced to multicultural experiences through food, music, dance, art, and craft. In this article, the author describes a printing project inspired by Guatemalan weavings and amate bark paintings. (Contains 2 online resources.)

  14. LATIN--Latin American Regional News Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, John Spicer

    The establishment of a regional news agency for Latin America to improve the balance of news flow and increase the transmission of news more applicable to regional problems has often been proposed. Despite wide acceptance of the concept, the birth of the Third World's first regional news agency, Agencia Latinoamericana de Informacion (LATIN), has…

  15. HELEN brings Latin Americans to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximiliem Brice

    2006-01-01

    Latin American students who have arrived at CERN to take up fellowships during the first months of 2006 relax in front of the LHC collaboration buildings, together with the deputy coordinator of HELEN, Veronica Riquer (centre), from Rome University and INFN. The training programme supported by the High Energy Physics Latin American- European Network (HELEN) is in full swing. For 2006, the programme has assigned about 70 fellowships to be spent at CERN by Latin American students and young physicists.

  16. Latin American guidelines on hypertension. Latin American Expert Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ramiro A; Ayala, Miryam; Baglivo, Hugo; Velazquez, Carlos; Burlando, Guillermo; Kohlmann, Oswaldo; Jimenez, Jorge; Jaramillo, Patricio López; Brandao, Ayrton; Valdes, Gloria; Alcocer, Luis; Bendersky, Mario; Ramirez, Agustín José; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2009-05-01

    Hypertension is a highly prevalent cardiovascular risk factor in the world and particularly overwhelming in low and middle-income countries. Recent reports from the WHO and the World Bank highlight the importance of chronic diseases such as hypertension as an obstacle to the achievement of good health status. It must be added that for most low and middle-income countries, deficient strategies of primary healthcare are the major obstacles for blood pressure control. Furthermore, the epidemiology of hypertension and related diseases, healthcare resources and priorities, the socioeconomic status of the population vary considerably in different countries and in different regions of individual countries. Considering the low rates of blood pressure control achieved in Latin America and the benefits that can be expected from an improved control, it was decided to invite specialists from different Latin American countries to analyze the regional situation and to provide a consensus document on detection, evaluation and treatment of hypertension that may prove to be cost-utility adequate. The recommendations here included are the result of preparatory documents by invited experts and a subsequent very active debate by different discussion panels, held during a 2-day sessions in Asuncion, Paraguay, in May 2008. Finally, in order to improve clinical practice, the publication of the guidelines should be followed by implementation of effective interventions capable of overcoming barriers (cognitive, behavioral and affective) preventing attitude changes in both physicians and patients.

  17. Pedagogy of a Latin American Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Enrique G., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Studies the cultural images and knowledge produced by a Latin American organization in the U.S. south as it plans and produces a Latin American festival. In addition, the complexity of the ethnographic portrayal of the festival is described, with implications drawn for other ethnographic studies. (SLD)

  18. Crossroads: Identity struggles in Latin America and Latin American psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Renato D; Pérez-Rincón, Héctor

    2010-01-01

    Identity can be defined from different perspectives such as those from philosophy, social sciences and phenomenology. The latter entails sameness, uniqueness, distinctiveness, continuity, diversity, universality and equality connotations to define characteristics of the existence and action of individuals, institutions, entities, organizations and collectivities. In order to elaborate on the identity of Latin American Psychiatry, this chapter deals first with the identity of the Latin American continent, the result of a 'collision of cultures' with mestizaje as its most prominent collective contribution. In turn, the Latin American population (and its 'Hispanic' equivalent in other countries and regions of the world) has been the subject of a pluralistic search, and played a combined role of hope and conflict, advances and setbacks in a fascinating historical process. In such context, Latin American psychiatry offers a mixed identity, resulting from a succession of mythic-religious, moral, phenomenologico-existential, biological and social/community-based routes. Each of them are assessed, and the contributions of two eponymous figures, Honorio Delgado and Gregorio Bermann, are duly delineated. Current realities in Latin American psychiatry and mental health in socio-political, conceptual, professional, ideological, academic and heuristic areas, are examined. The chapter ends with considerations of the future of psychiatry in the continent, the postulation of a 'new synthesis' embracing the essence of contemporary neurobiological knowledge and a new, revitalized humanism in the context of a healthy eclecticism, progressive educational training and didactic programmes, and concrete contributions embodying the promise of well justified expectations.

  19. Latin American History: Concerns and Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Mark L.

    1988-01-01

    Examines increased interest in Latin American studies initiated by Cuban Revolution of Fidel Castro. Identifies and compares older historiography which evolved in Latin America and newer efforts which have emanated from the United States. Suggests that a changing political and economic climate and different emphasis in methodology are affecting…

  20. Latin American History: Concerns and Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Mark L.

    1988-01-01

    Examines increased interest in Latin American studies initiated by Cuban Revolution of Fidel Castro. Identifies and compares older historiography which evolved in Latin America and newer efforts which have emanated from the United States. Suggests that a changing political and economic climate and different emphasis in methodology are affecting…

  1. IFRS READINESS IN LATIN AMERICAN BUSINESS CURRICULA

    OpenAIRE

    Myrna R. Berríos

    2012-01-01

    Multinational companies doing business in Latin America, and elsewhere in the world, must comply with individual countries’ financial reporting and financial market rules and local legislation when disclosing financial information. This research assesses international financial reporting standards (IFRS) readiness in the finance, accounting, and taxation curricula in Latin American universities.

  2. Latin American Conference on Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agan, Ray

    1971-01-01

    Presents the subject matter of a UNESCO sponsored conference in Pamplona, Colombia, April 26- May 23, 1970 of school directors and Ministry officials in Agricultural Education from 12 Latin American Countries. (GB)

  3. Latin American and Caribbean Urban Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christien Klaufus

    2015-01-01

    .... Some scholars consider Latin American and Caribbean cities to be the world's new signposts in urban development, given their role as sites of innovations in politics, architecture and urban design...

  4. [Original contributions of Latin Americans to anesthesiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrete, J A

    1998-10-01

    The original contributions of Latin American physicians to the science of anesthesiology are described. Many contributions have been unfairly ignored mainly because they were never published in English, but others have likewise been passed over even when published in the most prestigious journals in the field. Although many discoveries by Latin Americans have been made in the area of regional anesthesia, a considerable number of contributions have involved other aspects of anesthesia as well.

  5. Ocular allergy latin american consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Serapião dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.

  6. Friendship in Latin American Social Comparative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnaldo Garcia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Friendship has been traditionally investigated in the field of interpersonal relationships using different theoretical frameworks and approaches. This paper discusses the possibility of investigating friendship from a comparative Latin American perspective, based on a wide literature review on the subject. Based on the theoretical proposals of Hinde (1997 for the investigation of interpersonal relationships, the paper considers that friendship involves several levels of complexity and affects and is affected by distinct dimensions of Latin American society. The paper recognizes that comparative studies have placed the importance of friends and friendship in areas such as economy, health, education, and migration, among others. As expected, Latin American comparative studies are more frequent in some disciplines, mainly those based on censuses data, and theoretically related to social-economic and demographic concepts, including social networks and social capital. The possibility of developing a Latin American perspective for the study of friendship requires not only the need of empirical but also theoretical advances, as well as scientific cooperation and innovation. Friendship is seen as relevant for the constitution of the social tissue of Latin American society, being affected and affecting different areas and levels. In the social economic dimension, friends are relevant, specifically in Latin America, to themes such as poverty and social vulnerability. Some future possibilities for investigation are discussed.

  7. 8th Latin American School of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Figueiredo, Djairo; Iório, Rafael; Lopes, Orlando

    1988-01-01

    The Latin American School of Mathematics (ELAM) is one of the most important mathematical events in Latin America. It has been held every other year since 1968 in a different country of the region, and its theme varies according to the areas of interest of local research groups. The subject of the 1986 school was Partial Differential Equations with emphasis on Microlocal Analysis, Scattering Theory and the applications of Nonlinear Analysis to Elliptic Equations and Hamiltonian Systems.

  8. Latin America’s Subtle Racism: Salient Managerial Implications For Non-Latin American Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Rutilio Martinez; Cris de la Torre

    2011-01-01

    Since the mid nineteen nineties most Latin American nations have implemented free market policies. The ensuing economic stability has attracted investment from non-Latin corporations, thereby causing the transfer of non-Latin executives to Latin nations. For many of these executives, their Latin assignments include an unexpected challenge: Dealing with Latin America’s subtle but pervasive racism. Such racism contributes to the mistreatment of labor and influences the promotion and hiring of e...

  9. Latin America’s Subtle Racism: Salient Managerial Implications For Non-Latin American Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutilio Martinez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid nineteen nineties most Latin American nations have implemented free market policies. The ensuing economic stability has attracted investment from non-Latin corporations, thereby causing the transfer of non-Latin executives to Latin nations. For many of these executives, their Latin assignments include an unexpected challenge: Dealing with Latin America’s subtle but pervasive racism. Such racism contributes to the mistreatment of labor and influences the promotion and hiring of executives. These behaviors, although unapologetically accepted in Latin America, hurt productivity. Non-Latin managers should, therefore, treat workers fairly and hire and promote executives based exclusively upon job related factors.  

  10. Imagining Globalization through Latin American Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminet, Georgia

    2009-01-01

    Through a combination of practical applications and theoretical underpinnings, this article explores the question of how to approach the teaching of Latin American Literature in the current period of globalization. Many theorists argue that we need new epistemologies in which to ground our pedagogy for the 21st century. Understanding the effects…

  11. Library Guide: Latin American Literature, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sumar, Juanita Jara, Comp.

    Intended for use by those conducting research in Latin American literature written in Spanish, this guide contains annotations for a wide range of selected works. The guide is divided into the seven sections: (1) General Encyclopedias (1 annotation); (2) Guides to the Literature (4 annotations); (3) Literary Encyclopedias, Dictionaries and…

  12. Latin American Immigrant Women and Intergenerational Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde, Maria Cristina; Quelopana, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    People of Latin American descent make up the largest and fastest-growing minority group in the USA. Rates of pregnancy, childbirth, and sexually transmitted infections among people of Latin American descent are higher than among other ethnic groups. This paper builds on research that suggests that among families of Latin American descent, mothers…

  13. Latin American traditions and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Celina

    1983-09-01

    Educational and related non-pedagogical issues are generally described and discussed. Implicitly or explicitly, the theology of liberation, educación popular and traditional education tend to perpetuate male/female roles and very often incite violence. Peace education in Latin America should concentrate more on the pathology of the violent man. The so-called `weaknesses' associated with women and their `powerlessness' in Western civilization are precisely those which are absolutely essential to our survival. It is important for women to reject Western patterns of violence and participate actively in finding a viable alternative.

  14. A Latin American perspective of periodontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffesse, Raúl G

    2015-02-01

    Periodontal diseases occur worldwide, and Latin American populations are significantly affected by different manifestations of periodontal disease. The interest in periodontics and periodontal therapy first developed in the early 1930s in the southernmost countries of Latin America, and spread, as the years went by, throughout the region. Today, periodontal research is vibrant in Latin America. The aim of this volume of Periodontology 2000 was to present an overview of the periodontal research currently being performed in different countries of Latin America. The epidemiology of periodontal diseases in adults, children and adolescents, and the pathogenesis of such diseases (including microbiological characteristics and risk factors), are discussed. The role of systemic antibiotic therapy and the effect of smoking are discussed in relation to the progression and the treatment of periodontitis. In addition, the benefit of lasers in periodontal therapy is evaluated. Latin American research groups have been active in exploring new venues of regenerative periodontal treatment, addressing the role of cementum proteins, growth factors and oral mesenchymal stem cells in tissue engineering. Finally, basic research to study cancerization is reported.

  15. Emerging Latin American air quality regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosmer, A.W.; Vitale, E.M.; Guerrero, C.R.; Solorzano-Vincent, L. [ICF Kaiser International, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Latin America is the most urbanized region in the developing world. In recent years, significant economic growth has resulted in population migration from rural areas to urban centers, as well as in a substantial rise in the standard of living within the Region. These changes have impacted the air quality of Latin American countries as increased numbers of industrial facilities and motor vehicles release pollutants into the air. With the advent of new free trade agreements such as MERCOSUR and NAFTA, economic activity and associated pollutant levels can only be expected to continue to expand in the future. In order to address growing air pollution problems, many Latin America countries including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, and Mexico have passed, or will soon pass, new legislation to develop and strengthen their environmental frameworks with respect to air quality. As a first step toward understanding the impacts that this increased environmental regulation will have, this paper will examine the regulatory systems in six Latin American countries with respect to ambient air quality and for each of these countries: review a short history of the air quality problems within the country; outline the legal and institutional framework including key laws and implementing institutions; summarize in brief the current status of the country in terms of program development and implementation; and identify projected future trends. In addition, the paper will briefly review the international treaties that have bearing on Latin American air quality. Finally, the paper will conclude by identifying and exploring emerging trends in individual countries and the region as a whole.

  16. Population communication: the Latin American experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborga, A

    1985-06-01

    Latin America is the 5th most populous area in the world; in Central America 40% of the population is made up of indigenous groups, the remaining 60% comprise mixed European and Africa strains. The entire Latin American are faces a set of similar problems: 1) an inadequate agrarian structure, 2) unchecked urban growth, 3) high illiteracy and school drop-out rates, and 4) the undervaluation of the area's natural products by the developed countries. The increased Latin American population has had to face the additional problem of increasing unemployment rates; 10.29% in 1983 and 11.19% in 1984. The deterioration of rural living conditions, falling investment in the sector, and their lack of opportunities invariably constitute a stimulus for the endless rural exodus toward the cities. The Regional Program of Rural Communication for Latin America and the Caribbean helps national organizations (both official and private) and conducts activities related to communication and population issues by creating systems for diffusion, personnel training, and intermediate and mass communication. The basic components of the direct training program have been regional and subregional seminar courses and workshops; since 1973, 700 professional personnel have been trained directly. The Regional Program collaborates with member states in solving the zone's important population problem.

  17. Inefficiency in Latin-American market indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, L.; Tabak, B. M.; Pérez, D. G.; Garavaglia, M.; Rosso, O. A.

    2007-11-01

    We explore the deviations from efficiency in the returns and volatility returns of Latin-American market indices. Two different approaches are considered. The dynamics of the Hurst exponent is obtained via a wavelet rolling sample approach, quantifying the degree of long memory exhibited by the stock market indices under analysis. On the other hand, the Tsallis q entropic index is measured in order to take into account the deviations from the Gaussian hypothesis. Different dynamic rankings of inefficieny are obtained, each of them contemplates a different source of inefficiency. Comparing with the results obtained for a developed country (US), we confirm a similar degree of long-range dependence for our emerging markets. Moreover, we show that the inefficiency in the Latin-American countries comes principally from the non-Gaussian form of the probability distributions.

  18. VI Latin American Congress on Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hadad, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the CLAIB 2014, held in Paraná, Entre Ríos, Argentina 29, 30 & 31 October 2014. The proceedings, presented by the Regional Council of Biomedical Engineering for Latin America (CORAL) offer research findings, experiences and activities between institutions and universities to develop Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering and related sciences. The conferences of the American Congress of Biomedical Engineering are sponsored by the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE), Society for Engineering in Biology and Medicine (EMBS) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), among other organizations and international agencies and bringing together scientists, academics and biomedical engineers in Latin America and other continents in an environment conducive to exchange and professional growth. The Topics include: - Bioinformatics and Computational Biology - Bioinstrumentation; Sensors, Micro and Nano Technologies - Biomaterials, Tissu...

  19. VII Latin American Congress on Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, John; Sierra, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the CLAIB 2016, held in Bucaramanga, Santander, Colombia, 26, 27 & 28 October 2016. The proceedings, presented by the Regional Council of Biomedical Engineering for Latin America (CORAL), offer research findings, experiences and activities between institutions and universities to develop Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering and related sciences. The conferences of the American Congress of Biomedical Engineering are sponsored by the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE), Society for Engineering in Biology and Medicine (EMBS) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), among other organizations and international agencies to bring together scientists, academics and biomedical engineers in Latin America and other continents in an environment conducive to exchange and professional growth.

  20. [Latin American social medicine: contributions and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriart, Celia; Waitzkin, Howard; Breilh, Jaime; Estrada, Alfredo; Merhy, Emerson Elías

    2002-08-01

    This piece presents and analyzes a number of issues related to social medicine: the context of the emergence of social medicine; the differences between social medicine and public health; the theories, methods, and debates in social medicine; the main subjects or problems considered in social medicine; and the difficulties of disseminating the concepts of social medicine among English-speaking persons and among medical and public health professionals in general. Latin American social medicine has challenged other views by contributing to an understanding of the determinants of the health-disease-health care process and by using theories, methods, and techniques that are little known in the field of public health. Introducing Latin American social medicine, especially among English speakers, will be difficult due to the conceptual complexity of this field for persons who are accustomed to the theoretical framework of public health and medicine and also due to skepticism concerning research coming from the Third World. A multidisciplinary team is facing this challenge through two primary initiatives: 1) the creation of an Internet portal and database where there are structured abstracts in English, Portuguese, and Spanish of books, book chapters, and articles on social medicine and 2) the electronic publication of two journals on Latin American social medicine.

  1. Transnational citizenship: Latin Americans in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Padilla

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection upon the exercising of transnational citizenship as a consequence of international migration, applied to Latin Americans resident in Portugal. In order to do this we have adopted the concept of transnational citizenship, as its malleability allows us to consider the whole concept of countries of origin and destination and the influence of bilateral and international relations. We ask how transnational citizenship is exercised in the European Union, Ibero-American and, particularly, Portuguese spaces, and whether it is affected by the economic crisis in Europe and, in particular, Portugal, by analysing the cases of Argentines, Brazilians and Uruguayans living in Portugal.

  2. CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES IN LATIN AMERICAN ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Perlingeiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study consists of a critical comparative analysis of the administrative justice systems in eighteen Latin-American signatory countries of the American Convention on Human Rights (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the Dominican Republic, Uruguay, and Venezuela. According to this article, the excessive litigation in Latin-American courts that has seriously hampered the effectiveness of the administrative justice systems may be explained as follows: as former Iberian colonies, the aforementioned countries have a Continental European legal culture originating in civil law but nevertheless have improperly integrated certain aspects of the unified judicial system (generalized courts typical of administrative law in common-law countries. This situation, according to the author, could be rectified through strengthening the public administrative authorities with respect to their dispute-resolution and purely executive functions by endowing them with prerogatives to act independently and impartially, oriented by the principle of legality understood in the sense of supremacy of fundamental rights, in light of the doctrine of diffuse conventionality control adopted by the InterAmerican Court of Human Rights.

  3. Sino-Latin American Trade,Closer Tie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2009-01-01

    @@ The financial crisis has provided a new opportunity for Sino-Latin American cooperation.In the past few years,China's economic ties to Latin America have witnessed comparable growth:from 1993 to 2003,China's trade with Latin America increased by 600 percent.

  4. Antigone and the Latin American Theater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David González Betancur

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relevancy of Greek myth in Latin American theatrical practice, through the diverse existent versions of Antigone in its dramaturgy, but concentrating particularly on two works: Antígona Vélez, by Leopoldo Marechal, and The passion according to Antígona Pérez, by Luis Rafael Sánchez. Additionally, the tradition of political theater in the continent that is found behind this phenomenon is revised and the aesthetic task that this exercise represents.

  5. Interdisciplinary perspectives on Latin American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Pakkasvirta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La historia de los estudios sobre América Latina es sin lugar a dudas, multi e interdisciplinaria pero menos transdisciplinaria. Sin embargo, existen una variedad de posibilidades y oportunidades interesantes para desarrollar los estudios temáticos y culturales hacia un enfoque más radical y transdisciplinario. Este artículo analiza diferentes formas de sistematizar algunos aspectos de los estudios Latino-americanos como un campo específico o como una ‘disciplina’. Esto incluye como requisito una cultura de aprendizaje democrática, el uso del realismo crítico de una manera interdisciplinaria, la combinación de análisis interno-externo y el repensar las formas de análisis de datos cualitativos y cuantitativos. English: The history of Latin American studies is, without doubt, multi- and interdisciplinary but less transdisciplinary. There are nevertheless a host of interesting possibilities and opportunities to develop area and cultural studies toward a more radical transdisciplinary approach. This article, addresses several ways of systematising some aspects of Latin American studies as a distinct academic field or as a ‘discipline’. These include a request for a democratic learning culture, the use of critical realism in an interdisciplinary way, the combination of internal–external analysis, and the rethinking of quantitative and qualitative analysis and data.

  6. Latin American forensic pathology: scope and needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Fonseca

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathology pertains to the study of a disease; from ancient times it has sought to explain the cause of death through postmortem examination. The advancement of science and technology has led to a greater definition of roles and has favored its development through different subspecialties among which we stands out forensic pathology. This discipline has its own characteristics, scope, case series, procedures and terminology. Likewise, although forensic pathology does not differ substantially from clinical pathology, significant differences can be found between the Anglo American approach and the Latin American approach. Beyond semantics of these alleged differences, the article reviews the concepts involved and discusses the scope and requirements needed to qualify experts, in the understanding that globalizing criteria should establish new paradigms and define the specific roles of the specialty.

  7. Historical Links between Latin American Psychology and Pedagogy in Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Walter L.

    2014-01-01

    This work sets out historical information about the development of Latin American psychology over the base of education. It reviews the contribution from education to Latin American psychology, and especially, the creation of experimental psychology laboratories in schools and educational and psychopedagogical institutions, where experimental…

  8. II Latin American Conference on Bioimpedance

    CERN Document Server

    Bertemes-Filho, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of CLABIO 2015 - II Latin American Conference on Bioimpedance, held in Montevideo, Uruguay - September 30 - October 02, 2015. The works cover a broad range in Biomedical Engineering and Computing, Medical Physics and Medical Sciences, Environment, Biology and Chemistry. The topics are: ·Bioimpedance Applications ·Bioimpedance Instrumentation ·Body and Tissue Composition ·Cell Culture and Cell Suspension ·Electrical Impedance Tomography ·Electrode Modelling ·Magnetic Induction - Electrical Impedance Tomography ·Magnetic Resonance - Electrical Impedance Tomography ·Nonlinear Phenomena ·Organ and Tissue Impedance ·Plant Tissue Impedance ·Skin Impedance Modelling ·Technological Advances in Bioimpedance ·Theory and Modelling.

  9. Contrasting Assessments of the Latin American Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Lawrence Haber

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the Latin American electoral left to make substantial progress on the social justice agenda while in office is much disputed. Two significant schools of thought are identified: one generally sympathetic and the other critical. This essay explores this argument with reference to Brazil, El Salvador, and Bolivia. At the heart of the debate is the relationship between social movements and political parties of the left. Should social movements collaborate with political parties of the left? While the critics raise important questions and concerns that are useful to illuminate the limitations of gradualism they do not present a viable strategy forward. The article concludes with the observation that the nature of this collaboration is a worthy subject of serious debate and reform proposals.

  10. Twentieth-Century Latin American Literary Studies and Cultural Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Lindstrom

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1920s, when scholars first began to specialize in Latin American writing, the subject of Latin American literary studies has grown from a small subset of Spanish and Portuguese literary research and teaching to become the largest field within Hispanism and a significant presence in comparative literature. The expansion of their place in the academic world has often prompted students of Latin American literature to wonder whether, in being swept into the mainstream, their field has not left out of account the historical situations of Latin American nations. These reflections lead critics back to a problem that has troubled Latin American thinkers since Independence: the achievement, or erosion, of cultural autonomy. Though undeniably close to major powers, the Latin American nations are unequal partners in trade and cultural exchange. Corresponding to their uneven and shifting relations with Europe and later the United States, their cultural life evolves following a distinctive historical dynamic. This article considers recent efforts by scholars and essayists to characterize the features that distinguish Latin America from more politically and economically advantaged nations. Special attention goes to those scholars who, drawing on anthropological research, examine communicative and expressive practices of indigenous origin, and those who borrow from economic theory to view Latin America as shaped by its history of dependence on more powerful nations and regions.

  11. Updated site compilation of the Latin American Pollen Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.A. Flantua; H. Hooghiemstra; E.C. Grimm; H. Behling; M.B Bush; C. González-Arrango; W.D. Gosling; M.-P. Ledru; S. Lozano-Garciá; A. Maldonado; A.R. Prieto; V. Rull; J.H. van Boxel

    2015-01-01

    The updated inventory of the Latin American Pollen Database (LAPD) offers a wide range of new insights. This paper presents a systematic compilation of palynological research in Latin America. A comprehensive inventory of publications in peer-reviewed and grey literature shows a major expansion of s

  12. Revolutions: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Teaching Printmaking and Latin American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiddy, Elizabeth; Woodward, Kristen T.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a U.S. Department of Education grant to expand Latin American and Caribbean Studies at Albright College, the authors of this article, one a historian and one an artist, teamed up to teach a course called Revolutions: Art and Revolution in Latin America. In the class, they proposed to combine a studio art printmaking class with Latin…

  13. Manual for Reducing Educational Unit Costs in Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centro Multinacional de Investigacion Educativa, San Jose (Costa Rica).

    Designed for educational administrators, this manual provides suggestions for reducing educational unit costs in Latin America without reducing the quality of the education. Chapter one defines unit cost concepts and compares the costs of the Latin American countries. Chapter two deals with the different policies which could affect the principal…

  14. Manual for Reducing Educational Unit Costs in Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centro Multinacional de Investigacion Educativa, San Jose (Costa Rica).

    Designed for educational administrators, this manual provides suggestions for reducing educational unit costs in Latin America without reducing the quality of the education. Chapter one defines unit cost concepts and compares the costs of the Latin American countries. Chapter two deals with the different policies which could affect the principal…

  15. Revolutions: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Teaching Printmaking and Latin American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiddy, Elizabeth; Woodward, Kristen T.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a U.S. Department of Education grant to expand Latin American and Caribbean Studies at Albright College, the authors of this article, one a historian and one an artist, teamed up to teach a course called Revolutions: Art and Revolution in Latin America. In the class, they proposed to combine a studio art printmaking class with Latin…

  16. Technological Unemployment: An approximation to the Latin American Case

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aguilera, Andrés; Ramos Barrera, María Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    ...: domestic spending in science and technology, GDP per capita, nominal minimum wage, domestic spending in education and their impact on unemployment rate in seven Latin American countries from 1996 to 2011...

  17. Second Euro-Latin American Space Days. Procedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longdon, N.

    1994-06-01

    Contents: 1. Latin American space programmes. 2. Remote sensing applications. 3. Space science. 4. Industrial session. 5. Telecommunication and education, tele-education and space in education. 6. Experience with satellite techniques.

  18. Globalization, Latin American Migration and Catalan: Closing the Ring

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the effects of globalization dynamics on the use of Catalan among Latin American migrants living in Catalonia. The globalization process pushes towards an increasing mobility of workers and companies. Barcelona is one of the cities where this dynamic has been more evident in the last two decades, with big areas of the city being reshaped in order to suit the needs of global capital. At the same time, Catalonia has been receiving vast numbers of Latin American migrants wh...

  19. Latin American Consensus on Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of anti-VEGF agents has allowed unprecedented progress in the management and treatment of ophthalmologic conditions characterized by an increased vascular permeability and intraocular neovascularization. One of these conditions is retinal vein occlusion (RVO.  RVO is one of the most common causes of reduced vision due to retinal vascular disease. Without timely treatment, macular edema, macular ischemia, neovascularization and other potential sequelae of RVO can lead to photoreceptor cell death and consequently to irreversible vision loss.   Treatments for this indication that have been recently approved by several regulatory agencies throughout the world include: the VEGF inhibitor ranibizumab (Lucentis, Genentech, the VEGF and placental growth factor inhibitor aflibercept (Eylea, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and Bayer HealthCare, and a slow release intravitreal implant of dexamethasone (Ozurdex, Allergan. In addition bevacizumab (Avastin, Genentech has been used extensively in an off-label manner.   These new treatments allow us to preserve vision for many RVO patients who could not have expected such favorable results just 5 or 6 years ago. However, not every treatment is effective for every patient, and whether one option is superior to another or a combination of options is superior to monotherapy, have yet to be definitively determined.   A growing body of literature with strong evidence supports the use of these new treatments. However, in several instances the literature is not conclusive to support unified management of RVO. This document is a summary analysis on RVO assembled by a group of specialists summoned by the Pan-American Vitreo-Retinal Society (SPRV to participate in this Latin American consensus.

  20. Education and Globalisation: A Latin American Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the historical relationship between education and globalisation in Latin America. This is no straightforward task. Hegel's vision of a continent without history and the rapacious expansion of Western culture from the sixteenth century profoundly transformed Latin America, and in turn stimulated a search for a distinctive…

  1. Education and Globalisation: A Latin American Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the historical relationship between education and globalisation in Latin America. This is no straightforward task. Hegel's vision of a continent without history and the rapacious expansion of Western culture from the sixteenth century profoundly transformed Latin America, and in turn stimulated a search for a distinctive…

  2. Education and Globalisation: A Latin American Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the historical relationship between education and globalisation in Latin America. This is no straightforward task. Hegel's vision of a continent without history and the rapacious expansion of Western culture from the sixteenth century profoundly transformed Latin America, and in turn stimulated a search for a distinctive "Latin…

  3. Latin American and Caribbean Urban Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christien Klaufus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The new development agendas confirmed in the year 2015 evidence an increased global interest in cities and urban challenges. In Latin America and the Caribbean, cities have long been an established topic of study and debate. This exploration gives a brief overview of current research on urban development in the region and suggests fruitful avenues for future research. Following different ideological trends in twentieth-century urban studies, we currently see more pragmatic frameworks and a belief in technocratic solutions. Some scholars consider Latin American and Caribbean cities to be the world’s new signposts in urban development, given their role as sites of innovations in politics, architecture and urban design; we see potential here for urban scholars of the region to move beyond technocratic language. In addition, we argue for an area studies approach to these cities that uses the framework of the region as a heuristic device to unsettle global urbanist epistemologies that privilege North-to-South mobilities in both policy and theory. Resumen: El desarrollo urbano latinoamericano y caribeñoLas nuevas agendas de desarrollo confirmadas en el año 2015 reflejan un mayor interés mundial en las ciudades y en los retos urbanos. En Latinoamérica y en el Caribe, las ciudades llevan mucho tiempo siendo un tema habitual de estudio y debate. Esta exploración ofrece un resumen breve de las investigaciones actuales sobre desarrollo urbano en la región y sugiere caminos fructíferos para futuras investigaciones. Siguiendo las distintas tendencias ideológicas en los estudios urbanos del siglo XX, actualmente observamos marcos más pragmáticos y una creencia en soluciones tecnocráticas. Algunos investigadores consideran las ciudades latinoamericanas y caribeñas como los nuevos referentes mundiales en desarrollo urbano, dado su papel como centros de innovación en política, arquitectura y diseño urbano; vemos potencial para que los

  4. Dynamics of Change in Latin American Literature: Contemporary Women Writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaida López de Martínez

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty-five years Latin American societies have undergone profound changes. Where once the legalized abuses of dictatorships gave new meaning to the word "silence" for both men and women, now large segments of the population fight hard to sustain democratic regimes throughout the Continent. Repressive governments are being replaced, and shattered economies have begun to recover. Encouraged by the ever-increasing strength of international feminism, Latin American women (from Chiapas, Mexico, to Plaza de Mayo in Argentina have risen to play key roles in this socio-political reformation. The writing of female authors has proliferated in this environment, and the literary canon of our time has been enriched. This article examines first the impact of twenty-five years of feminism in Latin America, and second, the status of contemporary Latin American women writers within a global context.

  5. Popular education: The Latin American experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Francisco Vío

    1985-09-01

    The author discusses the theory and practice of popular education in Latin America, seen as an alternative model for social change at the popular level, rather than simply an educational method. The development of popular education is located in the context of the political-economic history of Latin America, and the consequences of this for the peasantry and the working class. The author presents the defining characteristics of popular education, together with its main tendencies, both negative and positive.

  6. Technology development and technology gap among Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Moya, Edgar David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to study the source of the technology gaps amongst some Latin American countries and to identify whether a regional system of technological progress may be strengthened. ethodology: technology development within some Latin America countries was researched based on the technology frontier concept. In order to do that, the technological advancement of such countries was compared using standard variables and institutional systems. The concept and scope of the technology frontier, whic...

  7. Current Sino-Latin American Relations and the Corresponding Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ. History of the Relationship and Its Current Situation. The Sino-Latin American relationship has a long-standing history that starts from the trade exchanges in the middle of the 16th century.From the 18th century to the early 19th century,hundreds and thousands of Chinese laborers were seized and sold by the western colonists to Latin America as "coolies" who made contribution to the local economic development there.

  8. The Latin American Middle Class: Fragile After All?

    OpenAIRE

    Castellani, Francesca; Parent, Gwenn; Zentero, Jannet

    2014-01-01

    This paper joins in the debate on the size of the middle class in Latin America, providing an analysis of its structure and characteristics. Using several measurements, it finds that 40-60 percent of Latin American households are middle class, a share which has consolidated over the past decade. The analysis reveals that gender, age, and education are associated with the likelihood of being middle class. The example of Colombia illustrates that, while growing in size, this income group still ...

  9. Klebsiella pneumoniae necrotizing fasciitis in a Latin American male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichino, Jon; Tran, Richard; Sutjita, Made; Kim, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis, caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae, is a rare and life-threatening bacterial infection. Most documented cases have been reported from Asia, particularly associated with diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of this infection in the USA is rare, especially among persons of non-Asian descent and those without travel to Asia. We report a case of disseminated necrotizing fasciitis, caused by K. pneumoniae, in a Latin American male with diabetes mellitus. Given our review of the literature, this is the only case report, to our knowledge, of a Latin American patient with Klebsiella necrotizing fasciitis in the USA. This case may reflect the geographical spread and emergence of K. pneumoniae infection in the USA. Clinicians need to be aware of the possible relationship between this organism and necrotizing fasciitis in persons of Latin American descent with diabetes mellitus.

  10. Latin American protected areas: Protected from chemical pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Jorquera, Ignacio A; Siroski, Pablo; Espejo, Winfred; Nimptsch, Jorge; Choueri, Paloma Gusso; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; Moraga, Claudio A; Mora, Miguel; Toor, Gurpal S

    2017-03-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are critically important means to preserve species and maintain natural ecosystems. However, the potential impacts of chemical pollution on PAs are seldom mentioned in the scientific literature. Research on the extent of the occurrence of chemical pollution inside PAs and in-depth assessments of how chemical contaminants may adversely affect the maintenance of species abundance, species survival, and ecosystem functions are scarce to nonexistent. We investigated 1) the occurrence of chemical contaminants inside 119 PAs in Latin America from publically available databases, and 2) reviewed case studies of chemical contaminants and pollution in 4 Latin American PAs. Cases of chemical pollution and contamination inside Latin American PAs mostly originated from sources such as mining, oil, and gas extraction. To date, the focus of the research on chemical pollution research inside Latin American PAs has been primarily on the detection of contamination, typically limited to trace metals. Where management actions have occurred, they have been reactive rather than proactive. Protected areas established in wetlands are the most affected by chemical pollution. Based on the information from the pollution and/or contamination occurrence and the case studies analyzed, Latin American PAs are not well safeguarded from chemical pollution, resulting in both challenges and opportunities to conserve biodiversity and ecosystems. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:360-370. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  11. Parathyroid cysts: the Latin-American experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizábal, Natalia; Aguilar, Carolina; Palacios, Karen; Pérez, Juan Camilo; Vélez-Hoyos, Alejandro; Duque, Carlos Simon; Sanabria, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Background Parathyroid cyst is an infrequent and unsuspected disease. There are more than 300 hundred cases reported in the world literature, a few of them are from Latin America. The experience of our centers and a review of the cases are presented. Methods Case report of a series of patients with parathyroid cyst from our institutions according to the CARE guidelines (Case Reports). A search of Medline, Embase, BIREME (Biblioteca Regional de Medicina) LILACS (Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud), Google Scholar and Scielo (Scientific Electronic Library on Line) databases and telephonic or email communications with other experts from Latin-America was performed . Results Six patients with parathyroid cyst were found in our centers in Colombia. Most of them were managed with aspiration of the cyst. Two of them required surgery. Only one case was functional. Twelve reports from Latin America were found for a total of 18 cases in our region adding ours. Conclusions Parathyroid cysts are uncommonly reported in Latin America. Most of them are diagnosed postoperatively. Suspicion for parathyroid cyst should be raised when a crystal clear fluid is aspirated from a cyst. The confirmation of the diagnosis may be easily done if parathyroid hormone (PTH) level is measured in the cyst fluid. PMID:28149800

  12. Introduction to Understanding Latin Americans. CLIC Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    sometimes, but not impossible. ROOTS OF .CULTURE "The culture of a young people, ’" LiberaLur Simon Bolivar once said of Latin Arerica, and "a culture which...S Abierto Open Cerrado Closed Entrada Entrance Sal.-da E-L Servicio/bano Restroom/bath Senoras/ Mujeres /Damas Wumen Senores/HombresiCaballeros Men

  13. Latin American Agriculture in a World of Trade Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Josling, Tim; Paggi, Mechel; Wainio, John; Yamazaki, Fumiko

    2014-01-01

    Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries have been among the most active participants in the negotiation of regional and bilateral FTAs. The countries of the region are members of 73 of the 259 FTAs notified to the WTO as currently in force, with 29 of these agreements containing tariff concessions made to one or more Latin American partners: the remaining 44 are between an LAC member country and a third country. Among LAC countries already linked by an FTA, a large percentage of agricult...

  14. Geographic patterns of genome admixture in Latin American Mestizos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sijia; Ray, Nicolas; Rojas, Winston; Parra, Maria V; Bedoya, Gabriel; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Mazzotti, Guido; Hill, Kim; Hurtado, Ana M; Camrena, Beatriz; Nicolini, Humberto; Klitz, William; Barrantes, Ramiro; Molina, Julio A; Freimer, Nelson B; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M; Petzl-Erler, Maria L; Tsuneto, Luiza T; Dipierri, José E; Alfaro, Emma L; Bailliet, Graciela; Bianchi, Nestor O; Llop, Elena; Rothhammer, Francisco; Excoffier, Laurent; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2008-03-21

    The large and diverse population of Latin America is potentially a powerful resource for elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits through admixture mapping. However, no genome-wide characterization of admixture across Latin America has yet been attempted. Here, we report an analysis of admixture in thirteen Mestizo populations (i.e. in regions of mainly European and Native settlement) from seven countries in Latin America based on data for 678 autosomal and 29 X-chromosome microsatellites. We found extensive variation in Native American and European ancestry (and generally low levels of African ancestry) among populations and individuals, and evidence that admixture across Latin America has often involved predominantly European men and both Native and African women. An admixture analysis allowing for Native American population subdivision revealed a differentiation of the Native American ancestry amongst Mestizos. This observation is consistent with the genetic structure of pre-Columbian populations and with admixture having involved Natives from the area where the Mestizo examined are located. Our findings agree with available information on the demographic history of Latin America and have a number of implications for the design of association studies in population from the region.

  15. Geographic patterns of genome admixture in Latin American Mestizos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijia Wang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The large and diverse population of Latin America is potentially a powerful resource for elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits through admixture mapping. However, no genome-wide characterization of admixture across Latin America has yet been attempted. Here, we report an analysis of admixture in thirteen Mestizo populations (i.e. in regions of mainly European and Native settlement from seven countries in Latin America based on data for 678 autosomal and 29 X-chromosome microsatellites. We found extensive variation in Native American and European ancestry (and generally low levels of African ancestry among populations and individuals, and evidence that admixture across Latin America has often involved predominantly European men and both Native and African women. An admixture analysis allowing for Native American population subdivision revealed a differentiation of the Native American ancestry amongst Mestizos. This observation is consistent with the genetic structure of pre-Columbian populations and with admixture having involved Natives from the area where the Mestizo examined are located. Our findings agree with available information on the demographic history of Latin America and have a number of implications for the design of association studies in population from the region.

  16. Geographic Patterns of Genome Admixture in Latin American Mestizos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sijia; Ray, Nicolas; Rojas, Winston; Parra, Maria V.; Bedoya, Gabriel; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Hill, Kim; Hurtado, Ana M.; Camrena, Beatriz; Nicolini, Humberto; Klitz, William; Barrantes, Ramiro; Molina, Julio A.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M.; Petzl-Erler, Maria L.; Tsuneto, Luiza T.; Dipierri, José E.; Alfaro, Emma L.; Bailliet, Graciela; Bianchi, Nestor O.; Llop, Elena; Rothhammer, Francisco; Excoffier, Laurent; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2008-01-01

    The large and diverse population of Latin America is potentially a powerful resource for elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits through admixture mapping. However, no genome-wide characterization of admixture across Latin America has yet been attempted. Here, we report an analysis of admixture in thirteen Mestizo populations (i.e. in regions of mainly European and Native settlement) from seven countries in Latin America based on data for 678 autosomal and 29 X-chromosome microsatellites. We found extensive variation in Native American and European ancestry (and generally low levels of African ancestry) among populations and individuals, and evidence that admixture across Latin America has often involved predominantly European men and both Native and African women. An admixture analysis allowing for Native American population subdivision revealed a differentiation of the Native American ancestry amongst Mestizos. This observation is consistent with the genetic structure of pre-Columbian populations and with admixture having involved Natives from the area where the Mestizo examined are located. Our findings agree with available information on the demographic history of Latin America and have a number of implications for the design of association studies in population from the region. PMID:18369456

  17. Long-term abatement potential and current policy trajectories in Latin American countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Leon; McFarland, James; Octaviano, Claudia; van Ruijven, Bas; Beach, Robert; Daenzer, Kathryn; Herreras Martínez, Sara; Lucena, André F. P.; Kitous, Alban; Labriet, Maryse; Loboguerrero Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Mundra, Anupriya; van der Zwaan, Bob

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides perspectives on the role of Latin American and Latin American countries in meeting global abatement goals, based on the scenarios developed through the CLIMACAP-LAMP modeling study.

  18. State of Art of Cancer Pharmacogenomics in Latin American Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés López-Cortés

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, several studies have shown that tumor-related somatic and germline alterations predicts tumor prognosis, drug response and toxicity. Latin American populations present a vast geno-phenotypic diversity due to the great interethnic and interracial mixing. This genetic flow leads to the appearance of complex characteristics that allow individuals to adapt to endemic environments, such as high altitude or extreme tropical weather. These genetic changes, most of them subtle and unexplored, could establish a mutational profile to develop new pharmacogenomic therapies specific for Latin American populations. In this review, we present the current status of research on somatic and germline alterations in Latin America compared to those found in Caucasian and Asian populations.

  19. Ceftaroline activity tested against contemporary Latin American bacterial pathogens (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Flamm

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2484 target bacterial pathogens were collected (one per patient episode from patients in 16 Latin American medical centers located in seven nations during 2011. Isolate identity was confirmed at a coordinating laboratory and susceptibility testing was performed for ceftaroline and comparator agents according to reference broth microdilution methods. A total of 30.0% of isolates were from respiratory tract, 29.4% from skin and skin structure, 21.4% from blood stream, 7.9% from urinary tract and 11.3% from other sites. Ceftaroline was active againstStaphylococcus aureus (42.8% MRSA with 83.6% of the isolates at 90.0% of the non-ESBL-phenotype. The spectrum of activity of ceftaroline against pathogens from Latin America indicates that it merits further study for its potential use in the Latin American region.

  20. Firm Heterogeneity and Development: Evidence from Latin American countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, H.H.; van Marrewijk, C.

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the work of Melitz (2003), Helpman, et al. (2004) and Yeaple (2005), micro-firm data provided by the World Bank Enterprise Survey is used to study the empirical productivity distribution across 15 Latin American countries. This paper differs from previous work in identifying four types

  1. Overview of Spanish and Latin American Distance Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Garrido, Jose Luis

    1991-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of Spanish and Latin American distance education programs for higher education and describes the three most important institutions: (1) the Spanish UNED (Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia); (2) the Costa Rican UNED (Universidad Estatal a Distancia); and (3) the Venezuelan UNA (Universidad Nacional Abierta).…

  2. Latin American Business Students Learn the Harvard Hustle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Judith

    1976-01-01

    The development and effectiveness of the Central American Management Institute (INCAE), a 12-year-old school that specializes in training top business administration people in Latin America, is discussed. INCAE's view is that economic development is the key to social change, especially in the third world. (LBH)

  3. Overview of Spanish and Latin American Distance Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Garrido, Jose Luis

    1991-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of Spanish and Latin American distance education programs for higher education and describes the three most important institutions: (1) the Spanish UNED (Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia); (2) the Costa Rican UNED (Universidad Estatal a Distancia); and (3) the Venezuelan UNA (Universidad Nacional Abierta).…

  4. XI Congress of Latin American Social Medicine & Collective Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Torres Tovar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Latin American Medical Association (ALAMES will be hosting the 11th Congress of Latin American Social Medicine and Collective Health from November 17-21 in Bogota Colombia. This meeting will coincide with the 25th Anniversary of the founding of ALAMES and its theme is the role health in the Latin American political and social agenda. Below we present an abridged version of the planning document for the conference. The complete version is available in Spanish in Medicina Social. More information can also be found on the ALAMES website (www.alames.org The Editors The 11th Latin American Congress of Social Medicine and Collective Health is both a convocation and a celebration. It’s a convocation to create bold and innovative alternatives to the profound crisis of neoliberal globalization, a crisis that is only beginning. The response to this crisis cannot be limited to the socialization of the losses incurred by the speculators. Now is the moment for proposing and bringing about a true change in global direction..

  5. Poetry, Healing, and the Latin American Battered Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Marja

    1999-01-01

    Explores how poetry can be used in support groups as an adjunctive treatment technique to empower and to raise consciousness of Latina battered women. Offers examples of Latin American women's literary works to demonstrate the connections poetry has to everyday lives, and how Latina spouse-abuse survivors can gain a deeper understanding of…

  6. Latin American income tax systems and current double taxation agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Espinosa Sepúlveda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tax systems in Latin America have played a very important role as the main, and in some cases the only, means of obtaining revenue to finance the major public expenditure that is necessary for the work of the states through time. Below is a short review of the main aspects of tax systems in the región, with emphasis on the impact of taxes on income in force in the majorLatin American countries, as well as a brief explanation of the network of agreements to avoid double taxation that are in force in each of them.

  7. The Latin American Consortium of Studies in Obesity (LASO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, L. E.; Casas, J. P.; Herrera, V. M.; Miranda, J. J.; Perel, P.; Pichardo, R.; González, A.; Sanchez, J. R.; Ferreccio, C.; Aguilera, X.; Silva, E.; Oróstegui, M.; Gómez, L. F.; Chirinos, J. A.; Medina-Lezama, J.; Pérez, C. M.; Suárez, E.; Ortiz, A. P.; Rosero, L.; Schapochnik, N.; Ortiz, Z.; Ferrante, D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Current, high-quality data are needed to evaluate the health impact of the epidemic of obesity in Latin America. The Latin American Consortium of Studies of Obesity (LASO) has been established, with the objectives of (i) Accurately estimating the prevalence of obesity and its distribution by sociodemographic characteristics; (ii) Identifying ethnic, socioeconomic and behavioural determinants of obesity; (iii) Estimating the association between various anthropometric indicators or obesity and major cardiovascular risk factors and (iv) Quantifying the validity of standard definitions of the various indexes of obesity in Latin American population. To achieve these objectives, LASO makes use of individual data from existing studies. To date, the LASO consortium includes data from 11 studies from eight countries (Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Peru, Puerto Rico and Venezuela), including a total of 32 462 subjects. This article describes the overall organization of LASO, the individual studies involved and the overall strategy for data analysis. LASO will foster the development of collaborative obesity research among Latin American investigators. More important, results from LASO will be instrumental to inform health policies aiming to curtail the epidemic of obesity in the region. PMID:19438980

  8. Constitutional developments in Latin American abortion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergallo, Paola; Ramón Michel, Agustina

    2016-11-01

    For most of the 20th Century, restrictive abortion laws were in place in continental Latin America. In recent years, reforms have caused a liberalizing shift, supported by constitutional decisions of the countries' high courts. The present article offers an overview of the turn toward more liberal rules and the resolution of abortion disputes by reference to national constitutions. For such purpose, the main legal changes of abortion laws in the last decade are first surveyed. Landmark decisions of the high courts of Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, and Mexico are then analyzed. It is shown that courts have accepted the need to balance interests and competing rights to ground less restrictive laws. In doing so, they have articulated limits to protection of fetal interests, and basic ideas of women's dignity, autonomy, and equality. The process of constitutionalization has only just begun. Constitutional judgments are not the last word, but they are important contributions in reinforcing the legality of abortion.

  9. [First Latin American Meeting of Journalists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    As part of the observance of the Day for Decriminalization of Abortion in Latin America and the Caribbean, a meeting of 50 journalists representing 18 countries was held in Mexico City from September 5 to 8. The journalists discussed consequences in their countries of the illegality of abortion, and agreed that it is the most serious reproductive health problem in the region. The journalists were not necessarily active in women¿s organizations working for legal abortion, but they had all demonstrated sensitivity to the problem. The meeting demonstrated the utility of mass media in the formation of a culture of respect for reproductive and sexual rights. The example of the decriminalization vote in Guyana, which was obtained by a nonpartisan vote in Congress with full citizen support, shows what can be achieved with organization, opportunity, and hard work.

  10. The control of Latin American trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip D. Marsden

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The author presents his personal point of view on the present situation of Chagas' disease control in Latin America countries. He compares the situation with African trypanosomiasis. He comments on the existence of cases in other Continents. He emphazises the success of the fighting against domiciliated triatomine bugs by using residual inseticides. He discusses other forms of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission.O autor apresenta seu ponto de vista pessoal sobre a situação atual do controle da doença de Chagas nos países da América Latina. Compara a situação com a tripanossomíase africana. Comenta a existência de casos em outros Continentes. Acentua o êxito da luta contra os triatomíneos domiciliados, através do uso de inseticidas residuais. Defende outras formas de transmissão do Trypansoma cruzi.

  11. Latin American food sources of carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Amaya, D B

    1999-09-01

    Latin America has a wide variety of carotenogenic foods, notable for the diversity and high levels of carotenoids. A part of this natural wealth has been analyzed. Carrot, red palm oil and some cultivars of squash and pumpkin are sources of both beta-carotene and alpha-carotene. beta-carotene is the principal carotenoid of the palm fruits burití, tucumã and bocaiuva, other fruits such as loquat, marolo and West Indian cherry, and sweet potato. Buriti also has high amounts of alpha-carotene and gamma-carotene. beta-Cryptoxanthin is the major carotenoid in caja, nectarine, orange-fleshed papaya, orange, peach, tangerine and the tree tomato. Lycopene predominates in tomato, red-fleshed papaya, guava, pitanga and watermelon. Pitanga also has substantial amounts of beta-cryptoxanthin, gamma-carotene and rubixanthin. Zeaxanthin, principal carotenoid of corn, is also predominant only in piquí. delta-Carotene is the main carotenoid of the peach palm and zeta-carotene of passion fruit. Lutein and beta-carotene, in high concentrations, are encountered in the numerous leafy vegetables of the region, as well as in other green vegetables and in some varieties of squash and pumpkin. Violaxanthin is the principal carotenoid of mango and mamey and is also found in appreciable amounts in green vegetables. Quantitative, in some cases also qualitative, differences exist among cultivars of the same food. Generally, carotenoids are in greater concentrations in the peel than in the pulp, increase considerably during ripening and are in higher levels in foods produced in hot places. Other Latin America indigenous carotenogenic foods must be investigated before they are supplanted by introduced crops, which are often poorer sources of carotenoids.

  12. Social Group Dynamics and Patterns of Latin American Integration Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Dubé

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to incorporate social psychology elements with mainstream political science and international relations theories to help understand the contradictions related to the integration processes in Latin America. Through a theoretical analysis, it contributes to the challenge proposed by Dabène (2009 to explain the “resilience” of the Latin American regional integration process in spite of its “instability and crises.” Our main proposition calls for considering Latin America as a community and its regional organizations as “social groups.” In conclusion, three phenomena from the field of social psychology and particularly social group dynamics shed light on these contradictory patterns: the value of the group and the emotional bond, groupthink, and cognitive dissonance.

  13. Latin American Mayors Delegation Visits China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua; Jiaguang

    2013-01-01

    <正>ALatin American mayoral delegation visited Beijing and Tianjin from May 19 to 26 at the invitation of the CPAFFC.Of the 55 members,23were mayors from nine countries,namely Costa Rica,Panama,Honduras,

  14. Coping with Financial Crises: Latin American Answers to European Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A.Cavallo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Europe faces challenges reminiscent of Latin American financial crises, namely unsustainable sovereign spreads, banking system distress, sudden stops in capital flows and growth rate collapse. The failure of recent liquidity support to normalize the situation suggests the need to refocus the policy debate on fundamentals: structural reform for growth and, where needed, restructuring to resolve banking crises and the debt overhang.  Latin America’s experience yields relevant policy lessons for Europe on all these fronts, tempered only by the slight exception that sharp real devaluation, which was key to spearheading recovery in Latin America, is unfeasible in the eurozone. Struggling eurozone countries are caught between a rock and a hard place, as the currency union imposes strict policy constraints while the reintroduction of national currencies under conditions of crisis would be catastrophic. Nevertheless, contemporary Europe stands a better chance of recovery because, in contrast with the Latin America experience, the European Union possesses greater avenues for international cooperation. With respect to financial support, a resourceful European Central Bank able to avoid chaotic adjustment by brute force is a decisive advantage of Europe relative to Latin America, which only had access to the weaker and less reliable IMF. Arguably, the limited nature of external support strongly contributed to the depth of Latin America’s great collapses. European cooperation can explore and exhaust alternatives to a euro exit to the benefit of all union members and, if dissolution becomes unavoidable, ensure amicable support to ease the transition. The path to success remains uncharted, however, and implementation of the necessary regional mechanisms will require innovation and political will. If the available means of cooperation are not used effectively, crisis countries in Europe may fare worse than those in Latin America.

  15. Delegation of China-Latin America Friendship Association Visits Four Latin American Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>Cheng Siwei,former Vice Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress and President of the China -Latin America Friendship Association (CLAFA),led a CLAFA delegation on a visit to four Central and South American countries from October 25 to November 11,2009 during which they met national leaders and other influential persons in the fields of foreign and cul-

  16. Political Ecology: a Latin American Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Leff

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Political ecology is the field where power strategies are deployed to deconstruct the unsustainable modern rationality and to mobilize social actions in the globalised world for the construction of a sustainable future founded on the potentialities of nature and cultural creativity; in emancipatory thinking and political ethics to renew the meaning and sustainability of life. Political ecology roots theoretical deconstruction in the political arena; beyond recognizing cultural diversity, traditional knowledge and indigenous peoples’ rights, radical environmentalism contests the hegemonic unification power of the market as the ineluctable fate of humanity. Political ecology in Latin America is operating a similar procedure as the one achieved by Marx with Hegelian idealism, turning the philosophy of post-modernity (Heidegger, Levinas, Derrida on the grounds of a political ontology: territorializing thinking on being, difference and otherness in an environmental rationality, rooted in an ontology of cultural diversity, a politics of difference and an ethics of otherness. Decolonizing knowledge and legitimizing other knowledges-savoirs-wisdoms liberate alternative ways of understanding reality, nature, human life and social relations opening up different paths to reconstruct human life in the planet.

  17. 1st Latin American Congress on Automation and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Baca, José; Moreno, Héctor; Carrera, Isela; Cardona, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1st Latin American Congress on Automation and Robotics held at Panama City, Panama in February 2017. It gathers research work from researchers, scientists, and engineers from academia and private industry, and presents current and exciting research applications and future challenges in Latin American. The scope of this book covers a wide range of themes associated with advances in automation and robotics research encountered in engineering and scientific research and practice. These topics are related to control algorithms, systems automation, perception, mobile robotics, computer vision, educational robotics, robotics modeling and simulation, and robotics and mechanism design. LACAR 2017 has been sponsored by SENACYT (Secretaria Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Inovacion of Panama).

  18. Globalization, Latin American Migration and Catalan: Closing the Ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Garzón

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the effects of globalization dynamics on the use of Catalan among Latin American migrants living in Catalonia. The globalization process pushes towards an increasing mobility of workers and companies. Barcelona is one of the cities where this dynamic has been more evident in the last two decades, with big areas of the city being reshaped in order to suit the needs of global capital. At the same time, Catalonia has been receiving vast numbers of Latin American migrants who already speak Spanish, one of the official languages of the region, but not the other, Catalan. This article will examine the conflicting pressures experienced by those migrants both in the labor market and in their communities.

  19. Latin American Populism: Tentative Reflections for a Global Historiographical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Latin American populism has usually been considered as an integrationist strategy towards the urban working classes in the context of mass democracy and import substitution industrialization. Among its features, the following ones can be identified: support from the working classes, charismatic leadership, nationalism and anti-intellectualism, anti-communism, state-centered conception of historical change, and corporatism. Recent writings influenced by the “linguistic” and “cultural” turns, d...

  20. Diabetes Prevention Interventions in Latin American Countries: A Scoping Review

    OpenAIRE

    Heisler, Michele; Kaselitz, Elizabeth; Rana, Gurpreet K.; Piette, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Public policies, population health initiatives, and targeted behavioral change interventions for individuals at risk for developing diabetes are all essential for diabetes prevention in Latin American countries (LACs). This scoping review examines: 1) the current evidence on diabetes prevention policies and interventions in LACs to identify components of effective diabetes prevention models in those countries; and 2) effective diabetes prevention interventions targeting Latino populations in ...

  1. Latin American consensus on guidelines for chronic migraine treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Rodrigo Espinoza Giacomozzi; Alexander Parajeles Vindas; Ariovaldo Alberto da Silva Junior; Carlos Alberto Bordini; Carlos Federico Buonanotte; Celia Aparecida de Paula Roesler; Claudio Manoel Brito; Cristina Perez; Deusvenir de Souza Carvalho; Djacir Dantas Pereira de Macedo; Elcio Juliato Piovesan; Elder Machado Sarmento; Eliana Meire Melhado; Fabiola Dach Eckeli; Fernando Kowacs

    2013-01-01

    Chronic migraine is a condition with significant prevalence all around the world and high socioeconomic impact, and its handling has been challenging neurologists. Developments for understanding its mechanisms and associated conditions, as well as that of new therapies, have been quick and important, a fact which has motivated the Latin American and Brazilian Headache Societies to prepare the present consensus. The treatment of chronic migraine should always be preceded by a careful diagnosis...

  2. Latin American consensus on guidelines for chronic migraine treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Rodrigo Espinoza Giacomozzi; Alexander Parajeles Vindas; Ariovaldo Alberto da Silva Junior; Carlos Alberto Bordini; Carlos Federico Buonanotte; Celia Aparecida de Paula Roesler; Claudio Manoel Brito; Cristina Perez; Deusvenir de Souza Carvalho; Djacir Dantas Pereira de Macedo; Elcio Juliato Piovesan; Elder Machado Sarmento; Eliana Meire Melhado; Fabiola Dach Eckeli; Fernando Kowacs

    2013-01-01

    Chronic migraine is a condition with significant prevalence all around the world and high socioeconomic impact, and its handling has been challenging neurologists. Developments for understanding its mechanisms and associated conditions, as well as that of new therapies, have been quick and important, a fact which has motivated the Latin American and Brazilian Headache Societies to prepare the present consensus. The treatment of chronic migraine should always be preceded by a careful diagnosis...

  3. [Editorial situation of seven Latin American journals on respiratory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún G, Manuel; Ramírez V, Alejandra; Agüero F, Adalberto; Baddini-Martínez, José Antonio; Bermúdez G, Mary; Canevá, Jorge O; Morales, Jaime E; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio

    2007-08-01

    A survey was conducted in a meeting sponsored by ALAT (Latin American Association of Thoracic Diseases). Each of the seven editors reported about their journal and answered a questionnaire. The improvement in knowledge divulgation is the main motivation of respiratory societies to edit their own journals. To disseminate medical knowledge and report experiences, are the main motivations of authors to submit papers. The most common deficiency of submitted manuscripts is a bad compliance with journal requirements. An improvement in the relationship between author-editor-reviewer should be the best strategy to enhance the quality of the manuscripts. Suggestions to improve the Latin American journals included to professionalize editorial work, to increase the meticulousness of manuscripts reviewers and to reinforce international norms for editing medical journals. Some major problems reported were a lack of a regular and adequate periodicity in publishing the issues, lack of original papers submitted that mean a "milestone" for the specialty a low percentage of submitted papers rejection and a high and frequent turnover of editors. Although several journals are available in electronic indices, they should be maintained in their printed form. Each journal should have printed its subscription fee, even considering that its subscription is included in the annual society membership fee. The feasibility to generate a multinational Latin American Journal on Respiratory Diseases should be explored.

  4. Test development and use in five Iberian Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Solange M; Oakland, Thomas; León, Carmem; Vivas, Eleonora; de Almeida, Leandro; Franco, Amanda; Pérez-Solís, María; Contini, Norma

    2014-08-01

    The abundance of scholarship on test development and use generally is higher in English-speaking than in Iberian Latin American countries. The purpose of this article is to help overcome this imbalance by describing and identifying similarities and differences in test development and use in two Iberian (Portugal and Spain) and three of the largest Latin American (Argentina, Brazil, and Venezuela) countries. The stages of test development in each country, roles of professional associations, presence of standards for test use, professionals' educational training, commonly used tests, together with prominent challenges to continued progress are discussed. Test development and use in these five countries are transitioning from a dependence on the use of translated tests to greater reliance on adapted and finally nationally constructed tests. Continued growth requires adherence to international standards guiding test development and use. Stronger alliance among professional associations in the Iberian Latin American countries could serve as a catalyst to promote test development in these regions. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  5. Investment, Macroeconomic Stability and Growth: The Latin American Experience Investment, Macroeconomic Stability and Growth: The Latin American Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Rojas

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of factor accumulation, economic policies, and economic and political uncertainties on growth performance of Latin American countries in the last three decades. We extend the work of Corbo and Rojas (1992 in two directions suggested by recent work in this area. First, we extend the model by considering term of trade effects and an additional measure of distortion, the black marker premium. Second, we provide further evidence of the channels through which economic policies affect growth by endogenizing the investment rate. The main conclusions are that the terms of trade affect growth directly, and indirectly through its effect in the investment rate: the black market premium is more a measure of macroeconomic instability than of the degree of oppenness; and stability of economic policies can affect growth directly through the law of motion for growth and indirectly through investment rates. Investment, Macroeconomic Stability and Growth: The Latin American Experience

  6. Jorge Oteiza's Modernity and His Latin American Travels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pérez de Mendiola

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with Eduardo Chillida, Jorge Oteiza is one of the best-known Basque sculptors of his generation. Although many scholars have written on Oteiza's significant contribution to the field of sculpture, and have analyzed his theories on the meaning of art, very few take into consideration Oteiza's 13 years in Latin America, much less acknowledge that these years had a decisive impact on his art and particularly on his critical essays and poetry. In this essay, I explore how Oteiza's stay in Latin America contributed to his reevaluation of the avant-garde movements in Europe and Latin America, and how it led him to redefine his relationship to progress, science, reason and nature, space and time, ethics, and national art. During the course of his interaction with Latin American artistic movements, Oteiza's thoughts on artistic singularity and universality matured, and he confirmed his strong sense of spirituality in order to liberate traditionally defined conceptual opposites such as the intellectual and the sacred from their teleological confinement.

  7. Urbanization: Concepts, Trends and Analysis in Three Latin American Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piña William Alfonso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Explanatory models on the urban expansion process have focussed mainly on the dynamic of cities in the developed countries that are characterized by a strong institutional framework, a culture of urban planning, and compliance with the rules. This paper analyses the phenomenon of urban expansion in three Latin American cities (Buenos Aires, Santiago de Chile and Mexico City, taking into account cities with a strong process of urbanization and where the local administration does not have enough control over the growth of cities due to the high rate of migration determining sub-urbanization, peri-urbanization, exo-urbanization, and counter-urbanization processes similar to developed countries. However, these processes may be related to hidden or displaced urbanization in rural areas of municipalities and metropolitan areas or intermediate cities due to the dynamics of urban consolidation. In every Latin American country, the participation and combination of these phenomena are different, although the results are similar: the advance of urban expansion with more segmented, disperse and distant patterns of large urban centres. This analysis determine the characteristics of the urbanization process taking into account physical and geographic aspects, urbanization trends and socioeconomic features in cities selected of Latin America and determines their impact determining the importance to formulate adequate policies that integrates environmental and socioeconomic aspects to achieve sustainable development in urban contexts.

  8. The politics of Latin American family-planning policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J L

    1978-07-01

    In population planning in Latin America the programs are as successful as the government's support of family planning. Colombia is one of the few Latin American countries which has actively exhorted its populace to birth control. If the propensity for large families reflects a belief in the economic or social utility of children, instead of machismo, birthrates will fall with expanded social security and economic welfare programs. If birthrates are the result of machismo, new gender models stressing the positive rewards and social esteem to be gained through responsible parenthood would have to be taught to both adults and children. The position profamily planning in most Latin American countries is generally supported by the ministers, technocrats, corporations, businessmen, middle-class women, doctors, mass media, protestant congregations, and working-class women. Family planning is usually opposed by members of the armed forces, Catholic hierarchy, Catholic lay organizations, oligarchy, university students, leftist intellectuals, Marxist insurgents, Indian communities, and peasants. The portion of the total national populations encompassed by the groups composing the core combination, ideological bias, and stability group ranges from 50-60% in Argentina, Uruguay, and Venezuela to 10-20% in Central America, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay. Most groups are outside the policy-making process.

  9. [Population and environment: lessons from the Latin American experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martine, G

    1995-12-01

    Consideration of population and the environment in Latin America, rather than focusing on population size and growth rate, should be centered on the processes of urbanization in the context of specific historical factors and economic forces at work in the region and their impact on the environment. The existing polemic on population and the environment is characterized by a level of generality, abstraction, and ideological content that prevent impartial examination and impede creation of more constructive and useful policy. From the perspective of population size and growth, Latin America is relatively small and advanced in the fertility transition, and does not represent a global population threat. The urban profiles of Latin America are more comparable to those of the industrial countries than those of Africa and Asia. Nearly three-fourths of Latin Americans already live in urban zones, and there are no prospects of future massive rural-urban migration except in the smallest and poorest countries. Given the close relations between population distribution, economic development efforts, and environmental deterioration, it appears evident that in most of Latin America the configuration of economic growth, the solution of social problems, the definition of environmental themes, and the results of demographic processes will be found in the large cities. The principal population and environmental concern in the region is with spatial distribution, not population growth. Most of the crucial ecological issues in the cities remain to be resolved. Interdisciplinary cooperation and long-range planning must be intensified. The relations between increased competition for international resources, ecological awareness, government regulation, and nature of economic activity are critical issues, with implications for population redistribution and socioenvironmental welfare. It is probable that none of the themes related to sustainability can be resolved without reformulation of

  10. Embracing openness: the challenges of OER in Latin American education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Paola Mireles Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Open Educational Resources (OER movement and the Open Access began only over a decade ago. During this period, the progress of the Open Educational Resources movement took place in developed countries for the most part. Recently, new projects have begun to emerge with a strong emphasis on open education. Yet, the concept of openness in education is a very innovative one, and it has not been embraced by many. In some regions, such as Latin America, OER is still in its early stages and faces many challenges that need to be addressed. Some of these challenges include awareness raising and capacity development. But there is a bigger challenge to face: embracing openness as a core value and an institutional strategy. In this paper, we offer a brief overview of the meaning of the term “open” in education and we analyze the challenges facing the OER in Latin American countries.

  11. [Demographic projections for Latin American countries prepared by CELADE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, J L

    1978-04-01

    The CELADE (Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia) prepares population projections for 20 Latin American countries, a difficult task considering the lack of reliable census data on births, deaths, and other demographic information. Nevertheless, the demographic situation can be estimated by distinguishing two states in the process: estimating past and present population history and formulating hypotheses regarding the future trends of demographic variables. In a typical situation for most Latin American countries, the first stage is the most difficult; results are mostly approximations of the reality. Thus, projections based on these data are unreliable. The present demographic situation in Latin America was analyzed by estimating fertility, mortality and international migration. Fertility rate was calculated based on the following data: number of children born to the female population, number of live births during the year prior to the census classified according to mother's age and number of children registered according to age up to 10 or 15 years of age. Fertility was thus calculated within 5 years prior to the census. Mortality was roughly estimated by calculating the annual death distribution by age. This promoted questions relating to orphans and the relative number of children who survived out of total number of children born to a woman. Little data was available on migration due to lack of registries on annual migration. It was estimated based on the number of people who left the country for 5 years, and promoted questions such as which country is one native of and year of entry into the country. The most important task relating to population projection of Latin America is the improvement of knowledge on fertility, mortality and migration.

  12. Water-borne protozoa parasites: The Latin American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-García, Félix Manuel; Guerrero-Flórez, Milena; Karanis, Gabriele; Hinojosa, María Del Carmen; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2017-07-01

    Health systems, sanitation and water access have certain limitations in nations of Latin America (LA): typical matters of developing countries. Water is often contaminated and therefore unhealthy for the consumers and users. Information on prevalence and detection of waterborne parasitic protozoa are limited or not available in LA. Only few reports have documented in this field during the last forty years and Brazil leads the list, including countries in South America and Mexico within Central America region and Caribbean islands. From 1979 to 2015, 16 outbreaks of waterborne-protozoa, were reported in Latin American countries. T. gondii and C. cayetanensis were the protozoa, which caused more outbreaks and Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were the most frequently found protozoa in water samples. On the other hand, Latin America countries have not got a coherent methodology for detection of protozoa in water samples despite whole LA is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events related to waterborne-infections; although Brazil and Colombia have some implemented laws in their surveillance systems. It would be important to coordinate all surveillance systems in between all countries for early detection and measures against waterborne-protozoan and to establish effective and suitable diagnosis tools according to the country's economic strength and particular needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. [Latin American contribution to the study of Helicobacter pylori].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Ramos, Alberto; Sánchez Sánchez, Rolando

    2009-09-01

    We have reviewed Lilacs, PubMed and Google searching for original articles related to Helicobacter pylori published by Latin American investigators from 2003 to 2008. Contributions in the following fields by countries are: Molecular biology: Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Peru y Venezuela. Argentina, Brasil, Colombia, Cuba, Peru y Venezuela. Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Chile, Costa Rica, Colombia, Mexico, Peru y Venezuela. Helicobacter pylori and gastroduodenal diseases: Brasil, Cuba, Peru y Venezuela. Helicobacter pylori and extra digestive diseases: Brasil, Colombia and Venezuela. Pediatrics: Brasil, Cuba y Venezuela. Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Peru y Venezuela.

  14. Filling the Empty Space: Women and Latin American Theatre

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsten F. Nigro

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, Latin American women have begun to appropriate and fill a space once empty of their presence. This essay looks at the work of four such women, (Diana Raznovich and Cristina Escofet of Argentina, Raquel Araujo of Mexico and the Peruvian Sara Joffre), to see how they give substance and voice to their particular concerns. In the process, this essay focusses on: 1) the notion of gender as performance; 2) the feminist deconstruction of narrative; 3) the female body in theatrical s...

  15. Filling the Empty Space: Women and Latin American Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten F. Nigro

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Latin American women have begun to appropriate and fill a space once empty of their presence. This essay looks at the work of four such women, (Diana Raznovich and Cristina Escofet of Argentina, Raquel Araujo of Mexico and the Peruvian Sara Joffre, to see how they give substance and voice to their particular concerns. In the process, this essay focusses on: 1 the notion of gender as performance; 2 the feminist deconstruction of narrative; 3 the female body in theatrical space; and 4 new, postmodern ways of doing feminist political theatre.

  16. ADR Effects on Domestic Latin American Financial Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Mendiola

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to revisit and extend previous research work that examines the ADR-listing effects on the trading process of all the domestically-listed stocks in the main Latin American exchanges. The most important result is consistent with the idea of a greater isolation (from global markets of the singly-listed stocks in the post-cross-listing period. These results persist over the cross-listing months. As expected, the cross-listed stocks become more integrated in the post-cross listing period.

  17. Volatility transmission among Latin American stock markets under structural breaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güloğlu, Bülent; Kaya, Pınar; Aydemir, Resul

    2016-11-01

    The paper investigates the volatility spillovers among five major Latin American (LA) stock markets under the presence of the structural breaks in variance. We employ a multivariate dynamic conditional correlation (DCC GARCH) model allowing for structural breaks in variance. The dynamic correlations show that volatility spillover effects among the markets are not strong. Causality in mean tests indicate one way causality from BOVESPA to all markets, whereas causality in variance tests indicate one way causality only from BOVESPA to IPSA. These findings suggest that while the markets in the sample are interdependent, there is not enough statistical evidence to infer the contagion effects among the markets.

  18. Depression in Brazil and other Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Miguel R

    2003-01-01

    Minor psychiatric disorders, specially depression and anxiety, are highly prevalent in Latin American (LA) countries including Brazil. Some important social factors specially present in medium and large LA cities such as violence, migration and homelessness probably contribute to large number of people suffering of different forms of depressive and anxiety disorders. Latin America was colonized about 500 years ago by Spain and Portugal and their cultural identity is still very much influenced by Ibero-American attitudes and beliefs. Probably as a consequence of this situation, depression is usually expressed in LA countries more through somatic symptoms such as headaches, gastrointestinal disturbances, or complaints of "nerves" than through subjective feelings of sadness or guilty. So, depression is much more seen in primary care services than in psychiatric clinics and as in other parts of the World is not recognized. Nevertheless, primary care patients from different cultural backgrounds with somatic complaints due to depression differ in their preferred explanations or attributions for these symptoms. Somatic complaints many times represent just a different idiom of distress related to depression; to understand their origin and role for patients from different cultures will certainly help health professionals to better identify and treat them.

  19. The Subject, Feminist Theory and Latin American Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Castro-Klaren

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available From a feminist perspective, this essay reviews and analyzes the interaction between metropolitan feminist theories and their interphase with the academic criticism of texts written by Latin American women. Discussion focuses on the question of the subject, which the author believes to be paramount in feminist theory, in as much as the construction of gender and the historical subordination of women devolve on the play of difference and identity. This paper examines how the problematic assumption by feminist theorists in the North American academy of Freudian and Lacanian theories of the subject pose unresolved problems and unanticipated complications to subsequent deployment of this subject theory as modes of interpretation of texts written by women in Latin America or even to the emancipatory goals on feminists in the academy. This is a case where "traveling theory" must be examined and evaluated very carefully. The second part of the paper concentrates on the feminist challenges that have been already made to both Freudian and Lacanian theories of the feminine. It highlights the work of Jane Flax, Nacy Chodorov, Gayatri Spivak and Judith Butler in suggesting a way out of theories that rely on the primacy of the male subject formation and therefore occlude and preclude the investigation of the modes of women's agency.

  20. Visibility of latin american scientific publications: the example of Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Pabón Escobar

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on the state of the art of scientific publications in Latin American countries generally restricts itself to its supposedly low visibility. This affirmation is generally conditioned to the exclusive use of large international databases, mainly of the USA and Europe, which include thousands of scientific publications that have marginalized a large part of the scientific literature produced in peripheral countries. Given this fact of low visibility, it became imperative for some Latin American countries, beginning in the 90s (20th Century, to develop their own mechanisms of projection of the results of their own scientific production. The experiences constitute an example for countries that, having significant scientific production, still do not have the means to facilitate access to local scientific publications. Although Bolivia still remains distant from these initiatives, a series of studies were identified that show the existence of a tradition of publication in scientific magazines and interest in their visibility, on a local and international level, which demands attention to the most adequate mechanisms in order to carry this out.

  1. Transnational Ties, Poverty, and Identity: Latin American Immigrant Women in Public Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Silvia; Lubitow, Amy

    2008-01-01

    This study used ethnographic data to examine the nature and functions of transnational relationships of low-income Latin American women who had immigrated to the United States and were living in areas of extreme poverty. Findings indicated that these Latin American mothers utilized transnational ties to help maintain the cultural identities of…

  2. Polycentric Structures in Latin American Metropolitan Areas : Identifying Employment Sub-centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Maldonado, Ana María; Romein, Arie; Verkoren, Otto; Parente Paula Pessoa, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Fernández-Maldonado A. M., Romein A., Verkoren O. and Parente Paula Pessoa R. Polycentric structures in Latin American metropolitan areas: identifying employment sub-centres, Regional Studies. The significant spatial transformations that have occurred within Latin American metropolitan areas since t

  3. [Latin Americans in Spain (1981-1994). Estimation of a recent migratory phenomenon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazon Ferrando, S

    1996-04-01

    The author analyzes characteristics of Latin American migration to Spain during the period 1981-1994. Aspects considered include causes of the increase of Latin American migration to Spain; policies limiting migration to Spain; spatial distribution and sex of immigrants; labor force activity; and country of origin.

  4. From sender to host: context, size and characteristics of Latin American immigration to Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael MUÑOZ DE BUSTILLO

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the immigration phenomenon in Spain. First, we analyse the evolution of migration flows in Spain over the last years. Secondly, we examine the main demographic and socio-economic characteristics of Latin Americans living in Spain, pointing out the differences among Latin Americans and Spaniards and other foreign population.

  5. From sender to host: context, size and characteristics of Latin American immigration to Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz de Bustillo, Rafael; José Ignacio ANTÓN

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the immigration phenomenon in Spain. First, we analyse the evolution of migration flows in Spain over the last years. Secondly, we examine the main demographic and socio-economic characteristics of Latin Americans living in Spain, pointing out the differences among Latin Americans and Spaniards and other foreign population.

  6. Canonizing Latin American Literature: Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Mario Vargas Llosa Enter the English Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, Alva V.

    As Latin American literature progressively enters into the English curriculum, two writers deserve special commentary for their representative contribution to the literary world. Through their works, the Columbian author, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, and the Peruvian author, Mario Vargas Llosa clearly convey the Latin American writer's desire to be…

  7. From magic to science: a journey throughout Latin American medical mycology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Blas, G

    2000-01-01

    The start of Latin America's love story with fungi may be placed in pre-Hispanic times when the use of fungi in both ritual ceremonies and daily life were common to the native civilizations. But the medical mycology discipline in Latin America started at the end of the 19th Century. At that time, scholars such as A. Posadas, R. Seeber, A. Lutz and P. Almeida, discovered agents of fungal diseases, the study of which has influenced the regional research ever since. Heirs to them are the researchers that today thrive in regional Universities and Research Institutes. Two current initiatives improve cooperation among Latin American medical mycologists. First, the periodical organization of International Paracoccidioidomycosis Meetings (seven so far, from 1979 to 1999); second, the creation of the Latin American Association for Mycology in 1991 (three Congresses, from 1993 to 1999). Latin American publications have increased in international specialized journals such as that from our Society (ISHAM) (from 8% in 1967 to 19% in 1999), and the Iberoamerican Journal of Mycology (Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia; > 40% from 1997 to 1999). In addition, Latin American participation at ISHAM International Congresses has risen from 6.9% in 1975 to 21.3% in 1997, and 43.2% at the 14th ISHAM Congress, held for the first time in a Latin American country, Argentina. A significant contribution of women to the scientific establishment of Latin American medical mycology (e.g., 45% of Latin American papers vs. 18% of other regions published in Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology in 1987, had women as authors or coauthors) suggests a better academic consideration of Latin American women against their counterparts in the developed world. Taken together, all these figures reflect the enthusiasm of our Latin American colleagues in the field, despite the difficulties that afflict our region, and affect our work.

  8. Effective promotion of breastfeeding among Latin American women newly immigrated to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman-Vitale, S; Murillo, E K

    1999-07-01

    Across the United States, advance practice nurses (APNs) are increasingly encountering recently immigrated Latin American populations. This article provides an overview of the situation of Latin Americans in the United States and discusses aspects of Latin American culture such as, respeto (respect), confianza (confidence), the importance of family, and the value of a personal connection. Strategies that will assist practitioners to incorporate culturally holistic principles in the promotion of breastfeeding among Latin American women who are new arrivals in the United States are described. If practitioners are to respond to the increasing numbers of Latin American women who need health care services, and also provide thorough, holistic health care then health care activities must be integrated with cultural competence.

  9. The Latin American contribution to the psychoanalytic concept of phantasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Izelinda Garcia

    2012-12-01

    The author argues that the ubiquity of phantasies at various levels of mental functioning is undisputed in the current schools of psychoanalytic thought; however, she demonstrates some variations in their understanding of how the psychotherapeutic access to different configurations occurs. In the process of examining and acknowledging the central role played by unconscious phantasies in his patients' symptoms, Freud gradually broadened the vernacular meaning of the German word 'Phantasie' that refers to imagination and the world of imagination, conferring on it the specific features that came to characterize its use in the psychoanalytic vocabulary. Later, the expansion of the concept derived from Melanie Klein's clinical material obtained from child analyses gave rise to important debates. The author discusses the main points of disagreement that led to these debates, as well as their various theoretical and technical implications. Psychoanalytic associations in Latin America were strongly influenced by Klein and her followers. Thus, most of their scientific writings use the concept of unconscious phantasy put forward by the Kleinian school. Taking Kleinian principles as their starting point, Baranger and Baranger made the most original Latin American contribution to the concept of unconscious phantasy with their works on the unconscious phantasies generated by the analytic pair.

  10. Exploring entrepreneurial intentions in Latin American university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoise Contreras Torres

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine if entrepreneurial intention, based on Ajzen’s model of planned behavior (1991, can be predicted by risk propensity, internal locus of control and leadership skills. Six standardized and reliable instruments were applied to 1493 undergraduate university business students in Latin American countries, selected through non-random quota sampling in accordance with their formation level in each of the five participating universities. Using structural equation techniques, the research model was validated and intention estimated and analyzed in relation to a set of socio-demographic variables. According to the results, entrepreneurial intention can be significantly predicted by the psychological variables under consideration and, contrary to what has been reported in other research, no gender differences were found in the intention of entrepreneurship. These findings are discussed.

  11. Latin American social medicine and global social medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Seiji

    2003-12-01

    A fundamental change in the theory underlying public health and medicine is needed. Latin American social medicine (LASM), originating in a region of the world that has been subjected to colonial and postcolonial influence, will be part of this change. To the extent that the social production of disease among people in other regions is a consequence of various large-scale forms of domination, LASM offers a relevant analysis, models of resistance, and exemplars of social medicine in practice. I draw upon LASM to examine the social production of disease in the Marshall Islands and Iraq. I suggest a basis for a global social medicine in the shared experience of suffering and describe implications for public health theory and practice.

  12. [Quality of life in Latin American immigrant caregivers in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bover, Andreu; Taltavull, Joana Maria; Gastaldo, Denise; Luengo, Raquel; Izquierdo, María Dolores; Juando-Prats, Clara; Sáenz de Ormijana, Amaia; Robledo, Juana

    2015-01-01

    To describe perceived quality of life in Latin American caregivers working in Spain and how it varies in relation to certain variables shared by this group. We used the SF-36 to measure perceived quality of life in 517 women residing in five Spanish regions: the Balearic Islands, Catalonia, the Basque Country, the Canary Islands, and Madrid. Several variables related to the socio-demographic profile and migration process were studied using Student's t test, ANOVA and linear regression models. The participants scored very low on the dimensions of physical and emotional roles. The factors associated with lower quality of life scores within the group were working as a live-in caregiver, lack of contract, multitasking, irregular status, and younger age. The vulnerability of these women can be explained by poor working conditions and other factors related to the migratory process. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Latin American consensus on guidelines for chronic migraine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Rodrigo Espinoza Giacomozzi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic migraine is a condition with significant prevalence all around the world and high socioeconomic impact, and its handling has been challenging neurologists. Developments for understanding its mechanisms and associated conditions, as well as that of new therapies, have been quick and important, a fact which has motivated the Latin American and Brazilian Headache Societies to prepare the present consensus. The treatment of chronic migraine should always be preceded by a careful diagnosis review; the detection of possible worsening factors and associated conditions; the stratification of seriousness/impossibility to treat; and monitoring establishment, with a pain diary. The present consensus deals with pharmacological and nonpharmacological forms of treatment to be used in chronic migraine.

  14. Do cultural differences influence batterer intervention program outcomes? A studywith Spanish and Latin American offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Vargas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed, first, if there were any differences in attitudes towards partner violence (i.e., perceivedseverity, victim blaming, and acceptability, responsibility attributions, sexism, and risk of recidivismbetween Latin American immigrants and Spanish offenders convicted of intimate-partner violence at thebeginning of a batterer intervention program. Second, differences in the batterer intervention programoutcomes between Spanish and Latin American offenders were explored. The sample consisted of 278batterers (211 Spanish and 67 Latin American who participated in a community-based battererintervention program. Results showed significant differences between Spanish and Latin Americanoffenders in perceived severity, victim blaming, violence against women acceptability, and benevolentsexism. Regarding batterer intervention program outcomes, results showed that despite initial differencesbetween Spanish and Latin American offenders, both groups benefit equally from the intervention.

  15. The Pattern of Currency Substitution in Latin American: An Overview The Pattern of Currency Substitution in Latin American: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Savastano

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available The Pattern of Currency Substitution in Latin American: An Overview This paper identifies the stylized facts and common features of recent currency substitution episodes in Bolivia, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay. It discusses the relationship between macroeconomic policies and the pattern of currency substitution in these countries and investigates the effects that the presence of foreign currency deposits had on their demand for domestic money and on their ability to conduct monetary and exchangh rate policy. The paper argues that the decision to allow foreign currency deposits in the domestic financial system tends to increase the inflationary impact of fiscal imbalances and exchange role adjustments and jeopardizes the susfainability of a managed exchange rate regime.

  16. PREFACE: XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteneodo, Celia; da Luz, Marcos G. E.

    2010-09-01

    The XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena (LAWNP) has been held in Búzios-RJ, Brazil, from 5-9 October 2009. This international conference is one in a series that have gathered biennially, over the past 21 years, physicists and other scientists who direct their work towards several aspects of nonlinear phenomena and complex systems. The main purpose of LAWNP meetings is to create a friendly and motivating environment, such that researchers from Latin America and from other parts of the globe can discuss not only their own latest results but also the trends and perspectives in this very interdisciplinary field of investigation. Hence, it constitutes a forum for promoting scientific collaboration and fomenting the emergence of new ideas, helping to advance the field. The XI edition (LAWNP'09) has gathered more than 230 scientists and students (most from Latin America), covering all of the world (27 different countries from North and South America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania). In total there were 18 plenary lectures, 80 parallel talks, and 140 poster contributions. A stimulating round-table discussion also took place devoted to the present and future of the Latin American Institutions in Complex Phenomena (a summary can be found at http://lawnp09.fis.puc-rio.br, in the Round-Table report link). The 2009 workshop was devoted to a wide scope of themes and points of view, pursuing to include the latest trends and developments in the science of nonlinearity. In this way, we have a great pleasure in publishing this Proceedings volume based on the high quality scientific works presented at LAWNP'09, covering already established methods as well as new approaches, discussing both theoretical and practical aspects, and addressing paradigmatic systems and also completely new problems, in nonlinearity and complexity. In fact, the present volume may be a very valuable reference for those interested in an overview on how nonlinear interactions can affect different

  17. [Migrations in Latin American countries. Characteristics of the pediatric population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-De Kartzow, Rodrigo; Castillo-Durán, Carlos; Lera M, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Migration is a growing phenomenon among Latin American countries (LAC) as well as others; however, scarce information is available studying its impact on paediatric groups and its association with socioeconomic variables. To study the association among socioeconomic variables and the immigration rate of paediatric population in LAC. Official rates of migration of LAC were obtained from: International Organization for Migration, Pan American Health Organization, and United Nations Development Programme. Demographic and socioeconomic information was also obtained for: gross domestic product (GDP), human development index (HDI), Gini coefficient of inequality (GC), alphabetization rate for adults (AA), net migration rate (NMR), and immigration of childrenmedian) vs those with low development (Fisher, P<.0001). There is a direct inverse association between GDP per capita, HDI, AA and GC and the proportion of each country IN15. We did not observe an association between NMR and HDI, AA, and GC. The health impact of these migrations should be analysed. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  18. 2015 Latin American School of High-Energy Physics | Ibarra, Ecuador | 4 - 17 March 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    We would like to draw your attention to the 2015 Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics, to be held in Ibarra, Ecuador from 4 to 17 March 2015.   PLEASE NOTE THAT THE DEADLINE FOR APPLICATIONS IS 21 NOVEMBER 2014. The lectures will cover a broad range of HEP topics at a level suitable for students working towards a PhD in experimental particle physics. Note that financial support may be available for Latin American students attending the School. Although the School is targeted particularly at students from Latin American countries, it is open to self-funding students from other regions. More details can be found here.

  19. Latin American social medicine: roots, development during the 1990s, and current challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajer, Débora

    2003-12-01

    Latin American social medicine arose during the 1950s and 1960s, drawing its inspiration from the social movements that emerged in France, Germany, and England in the mid-19th century. The Latin American movement of social medicine has clear ideological goals. It is organized around the Latin American Association of Social Medicine, which was founded in 1984 and is regarded as a social, political, and academic movement. This article takes a historical perspective and presents the reasons for the emergence and identity of the association, focusing on the main developments and contributions of this movement from the 1990s until the present time.

  20. Training on Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones for Latin American students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfán, L. M.; Raga, G. B.

    2009-05-01

    Tropical cyclones are one of the most impressive atmospheric phenomena and their development in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific basins has potential to affect several Latin-American and Caribbean countries, where human resources are limited. As part of an international research project, we are offering short courses based on the current understanding of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific basin. Our main goal is to train students from higher-education institutions from various countries in Latin America. Key aspects are tropical cyclone formation and evolution, with particular emphasis on their development off the west coast of Mexico. Our approach includes lectures on tropical cyclone climatology and formation, dynamic and thermodynamic models, air-sea interaction and oceanic response, ocean waves and coastal impacts as well as variability and climate-related predictions. In particular, we use a best-track dataset issued by the United States National Hurricane Center and satellite observations to analyze convective patterns for the period 1970-2006. Case studies that resulted in landfall over northwestern Mexico are analyzed in more detail; this includes systems that developed during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 seasons. Additionally, we have organized a human-dimensions symposium to discuss socio-economic issues that are associated with the landfall of tropical cyclones. This includes coastal zone impact and flooding, the link between cyclones and water resources, the flow of weather and climate information from scientists to policy- makers, the role of emergency managers and decision makers, impact over health issues and the viewpoint of the insurance industry.

  1. Some Contributions from Latin American Career Counselling for Dealing with Situations of Psychosocial Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marcelo Afonso; da Conceição Coropos Uvaldo, Maria; da Silva, Fabiano Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    Facing a working world more flexible, unstable and potentially generator of vulnerabilities, the career counselling has required contemporary approaches that meet these demands, which ones have been present in Latin America for a long time. Thus, the present paper aimed to analyse some Latin American proposals and highlight general principles to…

  2. Evaluation of the Company Size Effect on Latin American Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Benjamín Duarte Duarte

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the existence of the size effect on the most important stock markets in Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru for the period between 2002 and 2012, using the cross-section contrast methodology of the size effect in the CAPM context. Results show that there is reversed effect in some of the Latin American markets.

  3. The relevance and recognition of Latin American science. Introduction to the fourth issue of CBP-Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes-Lima, Marcelo; Alencastro, Antonieta C R; Santos, Natacha C F; Navas, Carlos A; Beleboni, Rene O

    2007-01-01

    Although the number of science and engineering (S&E) publications produced in Latin America grew exponentially over the past 15 years, the investment in science and the number of full time researchers did not grow at a comparable rate. Moreover, Latin American science is handicapped by constrained resources and access to information, higher costs of research, English-language barriers and brain-drain. One possible explanation for the observed rise in paper numbers, therefore, is that Latin American scientists have increased production, perhaps at the cost of quality. As an alternative, Latin America authors may have increased production while maintaining quality (e.g., through creativity, intense work and enhancement of international cooperation). Our aim is to verify which of these interpretations best applies for the field of comparative biochemistry and physiology (CBP). To achieve this goal, we compared the impact indicators of two randomly selected samples of authors (n=20; all with 8 to 30 years of scientific production), one from Latin America and another from developed countries. For additional comparison, we included also a group of twelve highly cited and recognized CBP researchers. We used Hirsch's indexes (h and m) as main indicators of performance, but compared also classical bibliometric indexes such as total number of citations, total number of papers and the ratio of citation per paper (CpP). The mean of most indexes were not significantly different between the two groups of regular CBP researchers, except for CpP, which was 1.7-fold higher in authors from developed countries. As expected, both groups had mean indicators well below those from the sample of highly cited researchers (average h values for top and regular CBP researchers were 37.3+/-3.0 and 11.4+/-0.9, respectively). Considering that Hirsch's indexes are more suitable indicators of performance than CpP, we conclude that Latin American CBP researchers, despite handicaps, perform

  4. PREFACE: First Latin-American Conference on Bioimpedance (CLABIO 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertemes Filho, Pedro

    2012-12-01

    The past decade has witnessed an unprecedented growth in medical technologies and a new generation of diagnostics, characterized by mobility, virtualization, homecare and costs. The ever growing demand and the rapid need for low cost tools for characterizing human tissue, and supporting intelligence and technologies for non-invasive tissue cancer investigation raise unique and evolving opportunities for research in Electrical Bioimpedance. The CLABIO2012 - First Latin American Conference on Bioimpedance is a premier Latin-American conference on Bioimpedance for research groups working on Electrical Bioimpedance. It allows Latin American researchers to share their experiences with other groups from all over the world by presenting scientific work and potential innovations in this research area and also in the social events promoting informal get togethers in the Brazilian style. The work covers a broad range including Biomedical Engineering and Computing, Medical Physics and Medical Sciences, Environment, Biology and Chemistry. Also, the Conference is intended to give students and research groups the opportunity to learn more about Bioimpedance as an important tool in biological material characterization and also in diagnosis. The conference is designed to showcase cutting edge research and accomplishments, and to enrich the educational and industrial experience in this field. It also represents a unique opportunity to meet colleagues and friends, exchanging ideas, and learning about new developments and best practice, while working to advance the understanding of the knowledge base that we will collectively draw upon in the years ahead to meet future challenges. Participants will attend presentations by scholars representing both institutes and academia. The CLABIO2012 proceedings include over 25 papers selected via a peer review process. The conference program features tutorial talks by world-leading scholars and five sessions for regular paper oral presentations

  5. The future of the IMF: A Latin American Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Cabezas

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The accelerating trend of globalization of the  world economy is putting high demands on global  institutions. The IMF has been looking for new  legitimacy in a world where countries traditionally seeking IMF support have become more financially independent. Latin America, a frequent user  of IMF lending facilities, has also entered a new  phase of economic autonomy with the IMF. This  has not come unnoticed since Latin America has  traditionally accounted for more than 40 per cent  of total IMF credit. This article brings up lessons  from Latin America’s long-term experience with  the IMF. It tries to assess whether the Institution  is still relevant for the region, and, if so, whether a  ‘mild’ reform is sufficient for the IMF or a more  radical reform is necessary to meet the challenges  faced by Latin American countries in a fast changing global economy. Resumen: El futuro del Fondo  Monetario Internacional: Una perspectiva latinoamericanaLa acelerada tendencia hacia la globalización de  la economía mundial está planteando enormes  demandas a las instituciones globales. El FMI ha  estado buscando una nueva legitimidad en un  mundo donde los países que solicitaban tradicionalmente el respaldo del FMI son cada vez más  independientes económicamente. América Latina,  un usuario frecuente de las facilidades crediticias  del FMI, también ha entrado en una nueva fase de  autonomía financiera con respecto al FMI. Esto  no ha pasado desapercibido, ya que América  Latina da cuenta tradicionalmente de más del 40  por ciento del total de los créditos del FMI. Este  artículo trata las lecciones de la larga experiencia  de América Latina con el FMI. Trata de determinar si la institución es todavía relevante para la  región y, en caso de ser así, si una reforma ‘moderada’ sería suficiente para el FMI o si se necesita  una reforma más radical para responder a los  desafíos que enfrentan los pa

  6. Characteristics of la literatura: A Reference Study of Spanish and Latin American Literature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nolen, David S

    2010-01-01

      The goal of this study is to examine the characteristics of scholarly communication, with particular emphasis on the usage of the monograph, in the field of Spanish and Latin American literature over a 30-year period...

  7. Possible treatments for arsenic removal in Latin American waters for human consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litter, Marta I., E-mail: litter@cnea.gov.a [Gerencia Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, CP 1650, San Martin, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Av. Rivadavia 1917, CP 1033, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigacion e Ingenieria Ambiental, Universidad Nacional de Gral. San Martin, Peatonal Belgrano 3563, 1o piso, CP 1650, San Martin, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Morgada, Maria E. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Av. Rivadavia 1917, CP 1033, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bundschuh, Jochen [University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Applied Research, Moltkestr. 30, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, University Road, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-15

    Considering the toxic effects of arsenic, the World Health Organization recommends a maximum concentration of 10 mug L{sup -1} of arsenic in drinking water. Latin American populations present severe health problems due to consumption of waters with high arsenic contents. The physicochemical properties of surface and groundwaters are different from those of other more studied regions of the planet, and the problem is still publicly unknown. Methods for arsenic removal suitable to be applied in Latin American waters are here summarized and commented. Conventional technologies (oxidation, coagulation-coprecipitation, adsorption, reverse osmosis, use of ion exchangers) are described, but emphasis is made in emergent decentralized economical methods as the use of inexpensive natural adsorbents, solar light technologies or biological treatments, as essential to palliate the situation in poor, isolated and dispersed populations of Latin American regions. - Low-cost techniques should be urgently investigated to remove arsenic in drinking water in poor disperse rural and urban Latin American populations.

  8. Latin american sociology's contribution to sociological imagination: analysis, criticism, and social commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Tavares-dos-Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles the role played by sociology in the analysis of the transformation processes in the Latin American societies, in following the construction process of both State and Nation, and in questioning the social issues in Latin America. Six periods of sociology in Latin America and in the Caribbean Islands are analyzed: (i sociology's intellectual inheritance; (ii the authoritative-teaching sociology; (iii the "scientific sociology" period and the configuration of the "critical sociology"; (iv the institutional crisis, consolidation of the "critical sociology", and the diversification of sociology; (v the sociology of authoritarianism, of democracy, and of exclusion; and (vi the institutional consolidation and the worldization of sociology in Latin America (from the year 2000 on. It can be said that the distinctive features of the sociological knowledge in the continent have been: internationalism, hybridism, critical approach to the processes and conflicts in the Latin American societies, and social commitment on the part of the sociologist.

  9. The Latin American cohabitation boom, 1970–2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Albert; Lesthaeghe, Ron; López-Gay, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the rise of unmarried cohabitation in Latin American countries during the last 30 years of the twentieth century, both at the national and regional levels. It documents that this major increase occurred in regions with and without traditional forms of cohabitation alike. In addition, the striking degree of catching up of cohabitation among the better-educated population segments is illustrated. The connections between these trends and economic (periods of high inflation) and cultural (reduction of stigmas in ethical domains) factors are discussed. The conclusion is that the periods of inflation and hyperinflation may have been general catalysts, but no clear indications of correlation were found between such economic factors and the rise in cohabitation. The shift toward more tolerance for hitherto stigmatized forms of conduct (e.g., homosexuality, euthanasia, abortion, singleparent household) is in line with the rise of cohabitation in regions of Argentina, Chile, and Brazil where cohabitation used to be uncommon. Further rises in cohabitation during the first decade of the twenty-first century are expected in a number of countries (e.g., mexico) despite conditions of much lower inflation.

  10. Malaria-related anaemia: a Latin American perspective

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    Juan Pablo Quintero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is the most important parasitic disease worldwide, responsible for an estimated 225 million clinical cases each year. It mainly affects children, pregnant women and non-immune adults who frequently die victims of cerebral manifestations and anaemia. Although the contribution of the American continent to the global malaria burden is only around 1.2 million clinical cases annually, there are 170 million inhabitants living at risk of malaria transmission in this region. On the African continent, where Plasmodium falciparum is the most prevalent human malaria parasite, anaemia is responsible for about half of the malaria-related deaths. Conversely, in Latin America (LA, malaria-related anaemia appears to be uncommon, though there is a limited knowledge about its real prevalence. This may be partially explained by several factors, including that the overall malaria burden in LA is significantly lower than that of Africa, that Plasmodium vivax, the predominant Plasmodium species in the region, appears to display a different clinical spectrus and most likely because better health services in LA prevent the development of severe malaria cases. With the aim of contributing to the understanding of the real importance of malaria-related anaemia in LA, we discuss here a revision of the available literature on the subject and the usefulness of experimental animal models, including New World monkeys, particularly for the study of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of malaria.

  11. The Latin American Giant Observatory: a successful collaboration in Latin America based on Cosmic Rays and computer science domains

    CERN Document Server

    Asorey, H; Núñez, L A; Rodríguez-Pascual, M; Montero, A J Rubio; Suarez-Durán, M; Torres-Niño, L A

    2016-01-01

    In this work the strategy of the Latin American Giant Observatory (LAGO) to build a Latin American collaboration is presented. Installing Cosmic Rays detectors settled all around the Continent, from Mexico to the Antarctica, this collaboration is forming a community that embraces both high energy physicist and computer scientists. This is so because the data that are measured must be analytical processed and due to the fact that \\textit{a priori} and \\textit{a posteriori} simulations representing the effects of the radiation must be performed. To perform the calculi, customized codes have been implemented by the collaboration. With regard to the huge amount of data emerging from this network of sensors and from the computational simulations performed in a diversity of computing architectures and e-infrastructures, an effort is being carried out to catalog and preserve a vast amount of data produced by the water-Cherenkov Detector network and the complete LAGO simulation workflow that characterize each site. M...

  12. Latin American Cultural Resiliency to External Foreign Policy: Strategic Implications for the United States as China Extends into Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    that is most lacking— culture . He said, “(t)he two sides should expand exchanges in the fields of culture , education, sport, media, and tourism , to...providing technical assistance to a cultural ally. This approach will lessen the impact of a Chinese economic downturn consistent with current events...Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To): 10-01-2015 – 02-16-2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Latin American Cultural Resiliency to External Foreign

  13. Latin American Economic History, Business History and Economics of Enterprise: Current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Almaraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies about Latin American business are worried about their position on the emerging and global economies. In this article we want to remark the important role of the universities, institutes, schools, and research centers in Latin America that make possible the research work and the publication of Bulletins, Journals and books on business history. In this way, we observe the recent activities of associations and international groups that focus in Latin American Business History in the last twenty five years. We identify the advances and goals in this arena and agreed with Carlos Davila about the thematic diversity and the need to achieve methodological rigor and theoretical propositions. For this reason, we emphasize the historical role of Latin American enterprises and the role of the family business, and their position in the global economies. This article has a double aim, on the one hand, we offer an overview and a state of the art about Latin American Business History. And, on the other hand, we emphasize, within the field of Latin American business, emergent studies that show the potential of this discipline to participate in broader debates about innovation, corporate governance and learning.

  14. Hypertension in seven Latin American cities: the Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America (CARMELA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Rafael; Silva, Honorio; Velasco, Manuel; Pellegrini, Fabio; Macchia, Alejandro; Escobedo, Jorge; Vinueza, Raul; Schargrodsky, Herman; Champagne, Beatriz; Pramparo, Palmira; Wilson, Elinor

    2010-01-01

    Little information is available regarding hypertension, treatment, and control in urban population of Latin America. We aimed to compare blood pressure (BP) distribution, hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control in seven Latin American cities following standard methodology. The Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America (CARMELA) study was a cross-sectional, epidemiologic study assessing cardiovascular risk factors using stratified multistage sampling of adult populations (aged 25-64 years) in seven cities: Barquisimeto (Venezuela; n = 1848); Bogotá (n = 1553); Buenos Aires (n = 1482); Lima (n = 1652); Mexico City (n = 1720); Quito (n = 1638); and Santiago (n = 1655). The prevalence of hypertension and high normal BP were determined based on 2007 European Society of Hypertension and European Society of Cardiology definitions. BP increased with age in men and women; pulse pressure increased mainly in the upper age group. The hypertension prevalence ranged from 9% in Quito to 29% in Buenos Aires. One-quarter to one-half of the hypertension cases were previously undiagnosed (24% in Mexico City to 47% in Lima); uncontrolled hypertension ranged from 12% (Lima) to 41% (Mexico City). High normal BP was also evident in a substantial number of each city participants (approximately 5-15%). Majority of population has other cardiovascular risk factors despite hypertension; only 9.19% of participants have no risk factors apart from hypertension. From 13.4 to 44.2% of the populations of seven major Latin American cities were hypertensive or had high normal BP values. Most hypertensive patients have additional risk factors. Public health programs need to target prevention, detection, treatment, and control of total cardiovascular risk in Latin America.

  15. Bibliometric assessment of the Latin-American contributions in dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Polania, Felipe; Perilla-Gonzalez, Yuliana; Martinez-Pulgarin, Dayron F; Baquero-Rodriguez, Juan D; Munoz-Urbano, Marcela; Lagos-Gallego, Mariana; Lagos-Grisales, Guillermo J; Villegas, Soraya; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2014-01-01

    Despite efforts in prevention and control of dengue, it is still a public health problem in the region. There are estimations of 13 million people affected in the Americas, therefore, it is of outmost importance to research it. An assessment on the Latin- American contributions on dengue was done. Bibliometric study at SCI (1980- 2013), MEDLINE/GOPUBMED (1802-2013), Scopus (1959-2013), SCIELO (2004-2013), LILACS (1980- 2013). Different study types, characterized by years, city/country of origin, journals and more productive authors, by country, cites and H index have been conducted. At SCI, 2598 articles were retrieved (21% of the total). Brazil was found to be the highest contributor (31.2%), then Puerto Rico (12.9%) and Mexico (10.7%). At Scopus, there are 2646 articles (16.7% of the total), 31.2% Brazil, 11.1% Mexico, 9.3% Cuba; the region received 41881 citations, 25.4% from Brazil (H index=45), 14.4% Cuba (H index=35) and 12.88% Puerto Rico (H index=38); 9.1% in Brazil were from Fundação Oswaldo Cruz; 1.6% of Mexico corresponded to Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica, 4.9% of Cuba are from Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri. At Medline, there are 2799 records (33.9% from Brazil). At SciELO there are 825 records (46.6% Brazil). At LILACS, there are 1178 records (46.8% Brazil). Brazil is the best producer in the region. In Puerto Rico and Brazil, there observed the epidemiologic burden of the disease. Scientific production in bibliographical data bases, particularly regional, is low, as compared to the high impact of the disease of in urban zones of the region.

  16. Foreign liquidity, economic openning and growth in Latin American economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Holland

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The main concern of our empirical study is to shed light on the question of whether or not and in which direction long-term growth has been associated with financial (liquidity and trade opening since early the 1970s using a panel data approach for 11 Latin American countries. Previous empirical studies reported mixed results in terms of finding a stable association between capital account liberalization and growth or even for trade opening and growth. Our empirical results suggest an important link between international liquidity and growth, but the same does not apply for trade opening and growth.O propósito central deste estudo empírico é discutir as relações entre o crescimento econômico de longo prazo e a liquidez externa, assim como deste com a abertura comercial, desde começo dos anos 70, usando a abordagem de painel para onze economias da América Latina. Estudos anteriores encontraram resultados controversos em termos da existência de relações estáveis entre a liberalização da conta de capital e o crescimento econômico, ou ainda, entre a abertura comercial e o crescimento de longo prazo do PIB. Nossos resultados empíricos sugerem um importante vínculo entre a liquidez externa e crescimento, mas o mesmo não pode ser observado para a relação entre abertura comercial e crescimento econômico.

  17. Gendered Boundaries among Latin American Migrants in Brussels

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    Inés Pérez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on ethnographic research conducted in Brussels, this article analyses gender-based constructions in relation to paid domestic work. We focus our attention on Latin American migrants who, unlike migrants from other regions, come from societies where paid domestic work has been the main occupation of women throughout the twentieth century, where it was strongly shaped by a colonial legacy. We identify two main tropes within the discourse of our informants regarding this kind of work: the ‘(gendered professional’ and the ‘(domestic worker’. In our analysis, particular attention is given to the participation of men in paid domestic work within the context of migratory experiences.Resumen: Trabajadores domésticos y fronteras generizadas entre migrantes latinoamericanos en BruselasA partir de una investigación etnográfica realizada en Bruselas, este artículo analiza las construcciones de género relacionadas con el trabajo doméstico remunerado. Focalizamos la mirada en migrantes latinoamericanos, quienes, a diferencia de migrantes de otras regiones, provienen de sociedades donde el trabajo doméstico remunerado ha sido la principal ocupación para las mujeres durante el siglo XX, fuertemente marcada por una herencia colonial. Identificamos dos tropos centrales en el discurso de nuestros informantes sobre dicho trabajo, el ‘profesional (generizado’ y el ‘trabajador (doméstico’. Merece atención particular en nuestro análisis la participación de los varones en el trabajo doméstico remunerado en el marco de experiencias migratorias.

  18. Art as awareness of desolation. Latin American dictatorship and destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Marín Osorio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At the insistence of evil, literature constitutes overwhelming discourse that permeates critically the various dialogues that circulate in society, acquiring, beyond its aesthetic nature, a political dimension as a way of repairing consciousness and liberation of the being facing social turmoil. And before the totalitarianism of the left and right in which the words missing and torture acquire a political meaning, defining in turn the contours of a new Leviathan, democracy is still the system of government that allows the development of human freedom. In this double perspective, arises in our thinking the figure of a humanist Ernesto Sabato, in his essays and in his novels, who believes in democracy as a political system where it is possible that the human creature is able to develop its creative potential and acquires the category of person. With the report Never Again or Report Sabato, the denunciation that from the human condition it makes the creator of fictions in his Report on blind is crystallized in 50,000 pages. Both reports reveal the exploration that the artist does about the problem of evil -which constitutes itself in the great ethical and aesthetic project of the artist as seer in the perspective of the search for the identity of an Argentine man-, and from there comes an esthete and political Sabato who achieves to define clearly his essence as an artist and as a man of action. In these texts emerge the avatars of the Latin American man from the hidden history, from the pain and the voices of marginality.

  19. Latin American Challenge: Consolidation of a Democratic Ideal

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Dostoievsky Ernesto de Melo; Sabino, Carla Danielle Barreto de Sousa

    2016-01-01

    The quality of democracy is analyzed by the ability to leverage the potential of various dimensions that characterize the mechanisms that control the exercise of political power. In Latin America the particular mode of relationship between state and citizens is weakened by social, economic and political context. Indeed, in Latin America, one of the democratic quality problems is the weakness of these control mechanisms and the consequences of this model affects the transgressive culture. Esta...

  20. Latin American Art Music in the Music History Curriculum: Taking Stock in the United States

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    Carol A. Hess

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay surveys the teaching of Latin American art music in U.S. post-secondary education from the 1930s to the present. After a rush of enthusiasm during the Good Neighbor period (World War II, decades of indifference set in. After 2000, an increasing number of instructors began either (1 teaching the art music of Latin America in courses dedicated to all types of Latin America music or (2 incorporating the subject into existing courses on Western art music. Yet many instructors still omit Latin American art music, as do certain authors. In this essay, I question such a stance. Not only does Latin American art music offer a window into Latin American culture but it can help counteract persistent stereotypes about Latin America, a perspective that is all the more critical in light of recent demographic trends in the United States and recent political developments.

  1. Birth Outcomes of Latin Americans in Two Countries with Contrasting Immigration Admission Policies: Canada and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L.

    2015-01-01

    Background We delved into the selective migration hypothesis on health by comparing birth outcomes of Latin American immigrants giving birth in two receiving countries with dissimilar immigration admission policies: Canada and Spain. We hypothesized that a stronger immigrant selection in Canada will reflect more favourable outcomes among Latin Americans giving birth in Canada than among their counterparts giving birth in Spain. Materials and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional bi-national comparative study. We analyzed birth data of singleton infants born in Canada (2000–2005) (N = 31,767) and Spain (1998–2007) (N = 150,405) to mothers born in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries. We compared mean birthweight at 37–41 weeks gestation, and low birthweight and preterm birth rates between Latin American immigrants to Canada vs. Spain. Regression analysis for aggregate data was used to obtain Odds Ratios and Mean birthweight differences adjusted for infant sex, maternal age, parity, marital status, and father born in same source country. Results Latin American women in Canada had heavier newborns than their same-country counterparts giving birth in Spain, overall [adjusted mean birthweight difference: 101 grams; 95% confidence interval (CI): 98, 104], and within each maternal country of origin. Latin American women in Canada had fewer low birthweight and preterm infants than those giving birth in Spain [adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.94 for low birthweight, and 0.88; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.93 for preterm birth, respectively]. Conclusion Latin American immigrant women had better birth outcomes in Canada than in Spain, suggesting a more selective migration in Canada than in Spain. PMID:26308857

  2. Climate Change and Climate Variability in the Latin American Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrin, G. O.; Gay Garcia, C.; Cruz Choque, D.; Gimenez-Sal, J. C.; Moreno, A. R.; Nagy, G. J.; Nobre, C.; Villamizar, A.

    2007-05-01

    ; and g) Changing some human diseases distribution and provoking the emergence of new ones. The impact of climate change in Latin America's productive sectors is estimated to be of a 1.3 percent reduction of the region's GDP for a change of 2ºC in global temperature (without consider non market sectors and extremes events). Moreover, if the LA countries continue to follow the business as usual scenario, the wealth of natural resources that have supported economic and socio-cultural development in the region will be further degraded, reducing the regional potential for growth. Urgent measures must be taken to help bring environmental and social considerations from the margins to the decision-making and development strategies. This presentation is part of the revision done for the Latin American (LA) chapter under the IPCC WGII Fourth Assessment Report.

  3. Assessing Liberalization and Deep Integration in FTAs: A Study of Asia-Latin American FTAs

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    Ganeshan Wignaraja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Inter-regional free trade agreements (FTAs - notably between Asia and Latin America - are growing in numbers and complexity. There is an absence of an agreed methodology for empirical assessments on the content of FTAs and little research. This paper proposes a framework to assess liberalization in FTAs in goods and services and new trade policy issues relating to regulatory barriers. Next, it applies this framework to studying the 22 Asia-Latin America FTAs in existence. The findings suggest that Asia-Latin American FTAs have laid the foundations for inter-regional integration by liberalizing the trade in goods and services and reducing some regulatory barriers. Deepening FTAs and adopting structural reforms will enhance Asia-Latin American integration in the future.

  4. Summary of the Fifth Latin American Workshop on Phenomenology of the Fundamental Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Canal, C.A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata C.C. 67-1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    1996-02-01

    The Fifth Latin American Workshop on Phenomenology took place at Universidad Aut{acute o}noma de Puebla in Puebla, Mexico from October 30 to November 3, 1995. A brief resum{acute e} of the topics covered in the Workshop is given. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Emotion socialization and ethnicity: an examination of practices and outcomes in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

    2013-06-01

    The current review paper summarizes the literature on parental emotion socialization in ethnically diverse families in the United States. Models of emotion socialization have been primarily developed using samples of European American parents and children. As such, current categorizations of "adaptive" and "maladaptive" emotion socialization practices may not be applicable to individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The review examines current models of emotion socialization, with particular attention paid to the demographic breakdown of the studies used to develop these models. Additionally, the review highlights studies examining emotion socialization practices in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families. The review is synthesized with summarizing themes of similarities and differences across ethnic groups, and implications for culturally sensitive research and practice are discussed.

  6. Latin American universities and the third mission : trends, challenges, and policy options

    OpenAIRE

    Thorn, Kristian; Soo, Maarja

    2006-01-01

    Universities in Latin America are increasingly considered instruments of social and economic development and face rising expectations in regard to supplying relevant skills, undertaking applied research, and engaging in commercial activity. The paper discusses trends and challenges within Latin American universities, as well as policy options available for strengthening their contributions to social and economic development. The so-called third mission of universities is often equated with kn...

  7. Latin American consensus on hypertension in patients with diabetes type 2 and metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    López-Jaramillo, Patricio; Sanchez, Ramiro; Díaz, Margarita; Cobos, Leonardo; Bryce, Alfonso; José Z. Parra-Carrillo; Lizcano, Fernando; Lanas, Fernando; Sinay, Isaac; Sierra, Iván D.; Peñaherrera, Ernesto; Bendersky, Mario; Schmid, Helena; Botero, Rodrigo; Urina, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The present document has been prepared by a group of experts, members of cardiology, endocrinology, internal medicine, nephrology and diabetes societies of Latin American countries, to serve as a guide to physicians taking care of patients with diabetes, hypertension and comorbidities or complications of both conditions. Although the concept of metabolic syndrome is currently disputed, the higher prevalence in Latin America of that cluster of metabolic alterations has suggested that metabolic...

  8. Book review: The Latin American left after more than a decade in power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Reneé Barrientos Garrido

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed books: Pedrosa, Fernando La otra izquierda. La socialdemocracia en América Latina. Capital Intelectual, 2012. 484 págs. Levitsky, Steven y Roberts, Kenneth (eds. The Resurgence of the Latin American Left. The John Hopkins University Press, 2011. 496 págs. Dominguez, Francisco; Lievesley, Ge­raldine y Ludlam, Steve (coords. Right-wing Politics in the New Latin America: Reaction and Revolt. ZedBooks, 2011. 280 págs.

  9. Scientific Strategies and practices in Latin American Scientific Communication Reviews. An approach to their structural features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Gustavo A. León Duarte

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific production of the magazines here analyzed emphasizes the existence of a specializing and dominant perspective of study in the field of the Latin-American research in communication in the last years. This perspective of study has clearly two trends of practical boarding. A trend is the one that is debated in the research applied to the communication in means, where there exists the predominance of two particular lines of study and today probably turned into both principal slopes of study inside the Latin-American research of the communication. On the other hand, there is emphasized the research of the properly academic communication, where, in general lines, his idea of construction it develops from a particular perspective of study of the communication that no doubt is analogous to what they raise and demand separately and with different shades two of the principal institutional initiatives and collective academic that generate nowadays the Latin-American Thought of the Communication (PLC: The called Latin-American School of the Communication (ELACOM and the Researcher Latin-American Association of the Communication (ALAIC.

  10. New World Orders: Continuities and Changes in Latin American Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    DURAND, JORGE; MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.

    2010-01-01

    Although migration from Mexico to the United States is more than a century old, until recently most other countries in Latin America did not send out significant numbers of migrants to foreign destinations. Over the past thirty years, however, emigration has emerged as an important demographic force throughout the region. This article outlines trends in the volume and composition of the migrant outflows emanating from various countries in Latin America, highlighting their diversity with respect to country of destination; multiplicity of destinations; legal auspices of entry; gender and class composition; racial, ethnic, and national origins; and the mode of insertion into the receiving society. The review underscores the broadening of international migration away from unidirectional flows toward the United States to new streams going to Europe, Canada, Australia, and Japan, as well as to other countries in Latin America itself. PMID:20814591

  11. Special situations in inflammatory bowel disease: First Latin American consensus of the Pan American Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (PANCCO (Second part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Yamamoto-Furusho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This is the first Latin American Consensus of the Pan American Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (PANCCO regarding special situations in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. The aim of this consensus is to raise awareness in the medical community in all Latin American countries with respect to pregnancy, vaccinations, infections, neoplasms, including colorectal cancer, and pediatric issues in patients with IBD.

  12. The future of the IMF: A Latin American Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Maritza Cabezas

    2008-01-01

    The accelerating trend of globalization of the  world economy is putting high demands on global  institutions. The IMF has been looking for new  legitimacy in a world where countries traditionally seeking IMF support have become more financially independent. Latin America, a frequent user  of IMF lending facilities, has also entered a new  phase of economic autonomy with the IMF. This  has not come unnoticed since Latin America has  traditionally accounted for more than 40 per cent  of total ...

  13. Imported family models? Cohabitation patterns of Latin American women in Spain

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    Clara CORTINA TRILLA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, international immigration flows have undergone a dramatic growth in Spain. In this particular context, the purpose of this article is to analyze whether Latin American female migrants residing in Spain largely maintain nuptial and reproductive patterns from their countries of origin. To analyze the prevalence of consensual unions we use three different databases: the Spanish Immigration Survey, the Spanish Labour Force Survey and birth records, all of them corresponding to 2007 and collected by the Spanish Statistical Institute. The study documents the high prevalence of consensual unions among Latin American migrants. Regarding the socio-demographic factors influencing cohabitation, our results show important similarities between Spanish and Latin American women, except for educational attainment.

  14. Latin American algorithm for treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis using disease-modifying agents

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    Alessandro Finkelsztejn

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It is estimated that circa 50,000 individuals have relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in Latin America. European and North-American algorithms for the treatment of multiple sclerosis do not foresee our regional difficulties and the access of patients to treatment. METHODS: The Latin American Multiple Sclerosis Forum is an independent and supra-institutional group of experts that has assessed the latest scientific evidence regarding efficacy and safety of disease-modifying treatments. Accesses to treatment and pharmacovigilance programs for each of the eight countries represented at the Forum were also analyzed. RESULTS: A specific set of guidelines based upon evidence-based recommendations was designed for Latin America. Future perspectives of multiple sclerosis treatment were also discussed. CONCLUSIONS: The present paper translated an effort from representatives of eight countries discussing a matter that cannot be adapted to our region directly from purely European and North-American guidelines for treatment.

  15. A Comparison of the Financial Characteristics of NAFTA and Latin American Manufacturing Firms

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    Gulser Meric

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparing the financial characteristics of firms in different countries and different regions has been a popular research topic in finance. However, NAFTA and Latin American manufacturing firms have never been compared. In this paper, we undertake such a study with the MANOVA (Multivariate Analysis of Variance method and with data drawn from the Research Insight/Global Vintage database in October 2015. Our findings indicate that NAFTA manufacturing firms have less liquidity risk, but more financial risk, compared with Latin American Manufacturing firms. NAFTA manufacturing firms have significantly higher returns on equity due to achieving higher returns on assets and using more financial leverage. Latin American manufacturing firms have more efficient inventory management. However, NAFTA manufacturing firms have more efficient accounts receivable management and total assets management.

  16. [Professional opinion about hospitalising Latin-American immigrant children in Andalucía, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Castillo, Antonio; Vílchez-Lara, María J

    2009-01-01

    There has been an increase in paediatric hospital attention being provided for Latin-American immigrant patients in Spain during the recent years. This work was aimed at ascertaining professionals' opinion regarding this population's specific and differential needs concerning Latin-American immigrant children being hospitalised. The study consisted of a qualitative, phenomenological type of investigation, based on semi-structured interviews of key informers in Andalusia (Spain). The subjects of the study were professionals from paediatric services in hospital centres in Andalusia. One of the most prominent (positive) results revealed that the Latin-American immigrant population presented less difficulties regarding hospital functioning when compared to other immigrant groups. The psychological aspects which had most impact on paediatric hospitalisation would be emotional alterations, such as the presence of anxiety and stress, or other aspects, like a lack of trust when being hospitalised.

  17. TOPONIMIA LATINOAMERICANA: UN ENFOQUE SEMIÓTICO LATIN AMERICAN TOPONYMY: A SEMIOTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Chesnokova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se enfoca en las connotaciones nacionales y culturales de los topónimos latinoamericanos. El origen, la motivación y la estructura semántica de topónimos se analizan desde el punto de vista semiótico, lo que permite evaluar su papel en la visión lingüística que los latinoamericanos tienen del mundo.This article focuses on the national, cultural, and historical connotations of Latin American place names. The origin, motivation, and semantic structure of Latin American place names are analyzed from the semiotic point of view and examined through their role in the linguistic world view of Latin American people.

  18. Addressing Disease-Related Malnutrition in Healthcare: A Latin American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Maria Isabel; Hegazi, Refaat A; Diaz-Pizarro Graf, José Ignacio; Gomez-Morales, Gabriel; Fuentes Gutiérrez, Catalina; Goldin, Maria Fernanda; Navas, Angela; Pinzón Espitia, Olga Lucia; Tavares, Gilmária Millere

    2016-03-01

    Alarmingly high rates of disease-related malnutrition have persisted in hospitals of both emerging and industrialized nations over the past 2 decades, despite marked advances in medical care over this same interval. In Latin American hospitals, the numbers are particularly striking; disease-related malnutrition has been reported in nearly 50% of adult patients in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, and Uruguay. The tolls of disease-related malnutrition are high in both human and financial terms-increased infectious complications, higher incidence of pressure ulcers, longer hospital stays, more frequent readmissions, greater costs of care, and increased risk of death. In an effort to draw attention to malnutrition in Latin American healthcare, a feedM.E. Latin American Study Group was formed to extend the reach and support the educational efforts of the feedM.E. Global Study Group. In this article, the feedM.E. Latin American Study Group shows that malnutrition incurs excessive costs to the healthcare systems, and the study group also presents evidence of how appropriate nutrition care can improve patients' clinical outcomes and lower healthcare costs. To achieve the benefits of nutrition for health throughout Latin America, the article presents feedM.E.'s simple and effective Nutrition Care Pathway in English and Spanish as a way to facilitate its use. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Repeating: An Overlooked Problem of Latin American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto

    1975-01-01

    Typically, the cause of the low rate of retention in primary schools in Latin America is assumed to be socioeconomic. This paper attempted to show that this definition of retention is incorrect, that desertion is highly over-estimated, and that the root cause of low retention in primary education is repetition. (Author/RK)

  20. Is There a Latin American Model of the University?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, Andres

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Latin America has seen the advent of research activities to meet the call for research that long preceded them and of the full-time research faculty who engage in them. These developments have taken place as the region partakes in contemporary worldwide trends that have affected universities elsewhere: the consequences of the increased…

  1. Income and beyond: Multidimensional Poverty in Six Latin American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Diego; Cruces, Guillermo; Lopez-Calva, Luis Felipe; Lugo, Maria Ana; Santos, Maria Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies multidimensional poverty for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, El Salvador, Mexico and Uruguay for the period 1992-2006. The approach overcomes the limitations of the two traditional methods of poverty analysis in Latin America (income-based and unmet basic needs) by combining income with five other dimensions: school attendance for…

  2. 10th Latin American Symposium on High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fazio, Angelo Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    SILAFAE is one of the most important and traditional events on High Energy Physicsin Latin America. Bringing together theorists and experimentalists to present the state of the art of many different topics, it provides a major forum for the discussion of the latest developments in the field. It is a unique opportunity to exchange new ideas and to foster new collaborations.

  3. Cartography of the Latin American City. Foundation of the Colonial Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Landaeta Mardones

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Latin American city is the realization of a European model of thought and customary practices that was used as an instrument of order during the process of colonization of the lands discovered in the New World. The article presents a cartography of the Latin American city, considering three aspects: a the foundation of cities, b the city during the Colonial period, and c the critique of the representations that support city institutions. The objective is to show the genesis of the urban model and its implementation, as well as the birth of a new representation that questions the means through which it was realized.

  4. Residential movement among the poor: the constraints on housing choice in Latin American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, A G; Ward, P M

    1982-01-01

    "The paper examines the validity of current theories of intra-city migration, subjecting those theories to the test of explaining new data collected in a total of 13 low-income settlements in three Latin American cities: Bogota, Mexico City, and Valencia, Venezuela. The study focuses attention upon the principal reception points for migrants; the location of previous place of residence for contemporary barrio dwellers; [and] the tenure and dwelling characteristics of previous places of residence. The authors conclude that residential patterns in Latin American cities are less the outcome of migrant choice, as some theories argue, and more the product of constraints imposed upon the land and housing markets."

  5. IS SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY CONSIDERS A FUNCTION OF LATIN AMERICAN CENTRAL BANKS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Elena Carrera Pedroza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose was to research whether social responsibility is considered a function of Latin American Central Banks. It focused on a qualitative and quantitative model, with epistemological base centered on phenomenology, a type of methodological approach that uses a feasible project and design field. From a statistical probabilistic procedure, a sample of nine Latin American Central banks was selected. For data collection, a questionnaire was applied, which revealed that 78% have education programs designed to train and disseminate economic knowledge, 56% takes social responsibility activities, while 44% makes grants to third parties.

  6. To see and not be seen: Latin American illegal foreign workers in Jerusalem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roer-strier, D; Olshtain-mann, O

    1999-01-01

    "This article describes the formation and characteristics of the new evolving community of illegal Latin American foreign workers in Jerusalem while adopting the ecological perspective, which examines human development and behaviour in various contexts of their social and cultural environments. We have looked specifically at illegal Latin American foreign workers' reasons for and process of migration, their accommodation and living conditions, allocation of employment, daily cultural and social conditions, education and health issues concerning children and families, perceptions of relations with host culture and perceptions of well-being and future expectations." (EXCERPT)

  7. International training programs in reproductive sciences for conservation of Latin American felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, W F; Brown, J L

    2004-07-01

    Survival of the ten non-domestic felid species endemic to Latin America is imperiled by habitat loss, poaching and poor captive management. Over the past 10 years, conservation of these felids has been the primary focus of a reproductive research and training program conducted in Brazil, Mexico, and the USA. The objectives of this program were to: (1) provide intensive training in reproductive sciences to Latin American scientists, (2) conduct collaborative studies investigating basic and applied reproduction in endangered felids, and (3) establish a highly-trained scientific cohort to conduct independent conservation-based research. Four formal training courses, consisting of didactic lectures and hands-on instruction in research techniques, including semen collection, sperm cryopreservation and laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI), were taught in Brazil and Mexico between 1995 and 1998. Several of these scientists received further training in conducting fecal hormone analysis in the USA, and a number of research studies, many in collaboration with American scientists, were initiated in Latin American felids. Research findings have characterized basal reproductive traits in several felid species, including ocelots, margay, tigrinas and jaguars, and established that Latin American felids exhibit only minimal seasonal variation in most reproductive traits. Other studies have explored the impact of acute and chronic stressors on adrenocortical activity and demonstrated the importance of environmental enrichment in captivity, especially in small felids. Additional research has examined ovarian and immunological responsiveness of Latin American felids to exogenous gonadotropins and assessed the impact of nutrition on sperm production and oocyte quality. Applied reproductive studies have investigated sperm cryopreservation in both captive and wild felid populations and demonstrated the production of viable offspring in ocelots and tigrinas following laparoscopic AI

  8. Teaching Afro-Latin American Culture through Film: "Raices de mi corazon" and Cuba's "Guerrita de los Negros"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown an absence of Afro-Latin American culture at all levels of Spanish instruction. In this essay, I propose the use of film to expand the undergraduate curriculum. Film provides both a visual and cultural narrative for the understanding of Latin American history, culture, and literature, and is an invaluable resource for teaching…

  9. Stereotypes and Beliefs about Different Ethnic Groups in Spain: A Study with Spanish and Latin American Children Living in Madrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enesco, Ileana; Navarro, Alejandra; Paradela, Isabel; Guerrero, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    96 Spanish and Latin American children from 3 grades in Madrid reported their knowledge of positive and negative stereotypes regarding Spaniards, Gypsies, Latin American and Chinese people. Their personal beliefs about these four ethnic groups were also assessed. Stereotypes about Spaniards were perceived as overwhelmingly positive and least…

  10. Teaching Afro-Latin American Culture through Film: "Raices de mi corazon" and Cuba's "Guerrita de los Negros"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown an absence of Afro-Latin American culture at all levels of Spanish instruction. In this essay, I propose the use of film to expand the undergraduate curriculum. Film provides both a visual and cultural narrative for the understanding of Latin American history, culture, and literature, and is an invaluable resource for teaching…

  11. 'Carrying Ibuprofen in the Bag': Priority Health Concerns of Latin American Migrants in Spain: A Participatory Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roura, M.; Bisoffi, F.; Navaza, B.; Pool, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background An estimated 2.7 million Latin Americans reside in Europe, mostly in Spain. Part of a broader project aimed at developing a research agenda on the health status and determinants of this population, this qualitative study engaged Latin American migrants in the identification of research pr

  12. Atopic dermatitis guideline. Position paper from the Latin American Society of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jorge; Páez, Bruno; Macías, A; Olmos, C; de Falco, A

    2014-01-01

    As in other regions, the incidence of atopic dermatitis in Latin America has been increasing in recent years. Although there are several clinical guidelines, many of their recommendations cannot be universal since they depend on the characteristics of each region. Thus, we decided to create a consensus guideline on atopic dermatitis applicable in Latin America and other tropical regions, taking into account socio-economic, geographical, cultural and health care system characteristics. The Latin American Society of Allergy Asthma and Immunology (SLAAI) conducted a systematic search for articles related to the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of dermatitis using various electronic resources such as Google, Pubmed, EMBASE (Ovid) and Cochrane data base. We have also looked for all published articles in Latin America on the subject using LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences) database. Each section was reviewed by at least two members of the committee, and the final version was subsequently approved by all of them, using the Delphi methodology for consensus building. Afterward, the final document was shared for external evaluation with physicians, specialists (allergists, dermatologists and pediatricians), patients and academic institutions such as universities and scientific societies related to the topic. All recommendations made by these groups were taken into account for the final drafting of the document. There are few original studies conducted in Latin America about dermatitis; however, we were able to create a practical guideline for Latin America taking into account the particularities of the region. Moreover, the integral management was highlighted including many of the recommendations from different participants in the health care of this disease (patients, families, primary care physicians and specialists). This practical guide presents a concise approach to the diagnosis and management of atopic dermatitis that can be

  13. Politics of Memory: A Study in Latin American Revolutionary Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Županović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work underlines the key concepts of the Third Way revolutionary cinema of Latin America contextualizing the collective memory and politics of remembrance. The National Project and reshaping of the National identities and the ideological shift from de-colonial and postcolonial matrixes in the revolutionary utopianism of modernistic cinema and its academic reevaluation is the basic assumption of the paper. Resurfacing of the ideologies of indianismo, indigenismo and mestizaje helps in revealing the true aims of the revolutionary filmmaking in Latin America which had more than aesthetic agenda in mind when it set trademarks of National cinemas like Yawar Mallku in Bolivia or La Hora de los Hornos in Argentina. The work tried to emphasize the original voice of the revolutionary cinema while tracking its apparatus with the theoretical works from de-colonial and Marxist perspective.

  14. Comings and Goings: The Multiple Faces of Latin American Diasporas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert V. Kemper

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available – Displacements and Diasporas: Asians in the Americas, edited by Wanni W. Anderson and Robert G. Lee. New Brunswick, NJ and London: Rutgers University Press, 2005. – Indigenous Mexican Migrants in the United States, edited by Jonathan Fox and Gaspar Rivera-Salgado. Distributed by Lynn Rienner Publishers for the Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies, UCSD, and the Center for Comparative Immigration Studies, UCSD, 2004. – Diáspora michoacana, edited by Gustavo López Castro. Zamora: El Colegio de Michoacán y el Gobierno del Estado de Michoacán, 2003. – The Japanese in Latin America, by Daniel M. Masterson (with Sayaka FunadaClassen. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2004. – Jewish Diaspora in Latin America and the Caribbean: Fragments of Memory, edited by Kristin Ruggiero. Brighton, East Sussex: Sussex Academic Press, 2005.

  15. Status of Proposed Repository for Latin-American Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrada, J.J.

    2004-10-04

    This report compiles preliminary information that supports the premise that a repository is needed in Latin America and analyzes the nuclear situation (mainly in Argentina and Brazil) in terms of nuclear capabilities, inventories, and regional spent-fuel repositories. The report is based on several sources and summarizes (1) the nuclear capabilities in Latin America and establishes the framework for the need of a permanent repository, (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) approach for a regional spent-fuel repository and describes the support that international institutions are lending to this issue, (3) the current situation in Argentina in order to analyze the Argentinean willingness to find a location for a deep geological repository, and (4) the issues involved in selecting a location for the repository and identifies a potential location. This report then draws conclusions based on an analysis of this information. The focus of this report is mainly on spent fuel and does not elaborate on other radiological waste sources.

  16. Strengthening relations with Latin American countries through health diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambassador of Peru to the United States, Luis Miguel Castilla, visited the Center for Global Health (CGH) at the National Cancer Institute a year ago with the objective of strengthening collaboration between US NCI and the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas of Peru and Ministry of Health of Peru. As part of this partnership, Ambassador Castilla convened a Roundtable dinner at the Peru Embassy to discuss “The need for creating and implementing comprehensive cancer control plans in the Latin America region".

  17. Inclusion of Low Income Sectors in Latin American Agribusiness

    OpenAIRE

    Metzger, Michael D.; Ickis, John; Leguizamon, Francisco; Flores, Juliano

    2010-01-01

    We examine three case studies on agribusiness ventures that have included low income sectors (LIS) into value creation activities to reduce poverty in Latin America. While the goal for each agribusiness is economic profit, we find that this goal is not inconsistent with wealth creation among LIS. We use the agribusiness chain analytical framework to identify the roles played by LIS in the ventures studied, and we explore the ways in which LIS inclusion has influenced the performance of the ag...

  18. 11th Latin American Symposium on High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    SILAFAE is one of the premier series of international meetings – High energy physics in Latin America. The present edition will be held in the city of Antigua Guatemala, from November 14 - 18th 2016. The program contains plenary talks aimed at reviewing the status of the recent advances in frontier topics in High Energy Physics, both theoretical and experimental. It also includes parallel sessions of specialized talks.

  19. Kawasaki Disease in Latin American Children: Past, Current, and Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando; Salgado, Andrea P; Tremoulet, Adriana H

    2014-12-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is the leading cause of acquired cardiac disease in children in developed countries and Asia. However, there is a paucity of data available from Latin America. In response to the gap in knowledge about KD in Latin America, a group of pediatric infectious disease researchers from the Kawasaki Disease Research Center at the University of California San Diego and the Sociedad Latinoamericana de Infectología Pediátrica joined efforts during the last decade to address this problem. The Red de Enfermedad de Kawasaki en América Latina (Latin American Kawasaki Disease Network) was launched in 2013 to study the epidemiology of KD among children from the major pediatric tertiary referral hospitals in Latin America. This multinational multicenter network is primarily composed of pediatric infectious diseases, cardiology, rheumatology, and immunology subspecialists and pediatricians from 20 countries, and it is one of the world's largest networks to study the general epidemiology of KD. The first 2 prospective and retrospective multinational multicenter studies looking at the epidemiology of KD in the region were initiated in 2014. Future plans for the network include establishing collaborative research alliances and projects with other centers around the world. To date [ 1], there have been no published studies describing the overall incidence and prevalence of KD in Latin American children. The most important and recent epidemiological study addressing this issue, related to Chile, was published in 2012 [ 2]. Of these, the most recent relevant study addressed the seasonality of KD in different parts of the globe, including some Latin American and Caribbean countries [ 4]. In this document, we briefly summarize relevant available information from Latin America. Although there have been other publications from individual countries that are outside the scope of this communication, the majority of these reports are single case reports, or case series

  20. Cyber Security and Habeas Data: The Latin American response to information security and data protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Parraguez Kobek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Habeas Data is not a commonly known concept, yet it is widely acknowledged in certain circles that deal with information security and data protection. Though it has been around for decades, it has recently gained momentum in Latin America. It is the legal notion that protects any and all information pertaining to the individual, from personal to financial, giving them the power to decide how and where such data can be used. At the same time, most Latin American countries have created laws that protect individuals if their  information is misused. This article examines the concept of Habeas Data from its inception to its current applications, and explains the different approaches and legislations passed in Latin American countries on data protection due to the rise of global cybercrime.

  1. [The invalidity of the impact factor as indicator of the impact of Latin American scientific journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Nájera, Julián

    2014-03-01

    Use of the Impact Factor is currently being discarded in industrialized countries where, to name one case, up to 40% of the articles published in Nature are never cited, despite the high Impact Factor of that journal. However, it is still used in Latin America to evaluate journals and authors, potentially influencing who are given positions and who receives funding. To find out how valid the Impact Factor is for Latin American research, 1 used the database BINABITROP to see how much of the relevant literature was used to measure impact. I found that the Science Citation Index (SCI) excluded 96% of the relevant literature when measuring the impact of biological articles about Costa Rica for the studied year (2011). Therefore, the impact of Latin American science is unknown and the Impact Factor should not be used to assess how often a journal, institution or author are cited.

  2. Wealth Gradients in Early Childhood Cognitive Development in Five Latin American Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Schady, Norbert Rüdiger; Behrman, Jere R.; Araujo, María Caridad; Azuero, Rodrigo; Bernal, Raquel; Bravo, David; López Bóo, Florencia; Macours, Karen; Marshall, Daniela; Paxson, Christina H.; Vakis, Renos

    2014-01-01

    Research from the United States shows that gaps in early cognitive and noncognitive abilities appear early in the life cycle. Little is known about this important question for developing countries. This paper provides new evidence of sharp differences in cognitive development by socioeconomic status in early childhood for five Latin American countries. To help with comparability, the paper...

  3. Adult Education as a Human Right: The Latin American Context and the Ecopedagogic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadotti, Moacir

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well…

  4. The Educated Citizen: Cultural and Gender Capital in the Schooling of Latin American Children in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Vazquez, Genaro

    2011-01-01

    An ethnographic study on a Japanese language tutoring programme for foreign children was conducted from 2003 to 2006. The investigation attempted to shed light on issues of language acquisition among Latin American children who attended three public primary schools in Japan. This article combines extensive participant observation and in-depth…

  5. Machismo: Manifestations of a cultural value in the Latin American casino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W N

    1991-06-01

    Casino operations were observed in twelve Latin American countries. Owners, managers, employees, players, and government regulators in each of these countries were interviewed. The concept of machismo is described in its historical and cultural context. It is then used to illuminate casino operations and the mode of play in existence in these casinos.

  6. Publication and Language Trends of References in Spanish and Latin American Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, David S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined references found in three journals in the field of Spanish and Latin American literary studies. Few previous studies have examined types of publishers producing highly cited/referenced books. The data indicate that the primary publishers of scholarly monographs referenced in the journals are U.S. university presses, foreign…

  7. Characteristics of La Literatura: A Reference Study of Spanish and Latin American Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, David S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the characteristics of scholarly communication, with particular emphasis on the usage of the monograph, in the field of Spanish and Latin American literature over a 30-year period. In addition, this study examines the age of materials referenced in an effort to gain insight into the shelf-life of these…

  8. Gerontological Training Programs Offered by Latin American Universities: Number, Characteristics, and Disciplinary Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Feliciano; Giuliani, María Florencia; Serrat, Rodrigo; Curcio, Carmen-Lucía; Lopes, Alexandra; Maldonado, María de la Luz Martínez; Oliveira, Rita da Cássia

    2017-01-01

    One of the challenges of population aging is to ensure that there are enough trained professionals to meet the changing, specific needs of aging populations. The aim of this study was to describe the number, geographical distribution, and general characteristics of gerontological training programs offered by Latin American universities and to…

  9. CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics in Peru

    CERN Multimedia

    Nick Ellis, Organising Committee

    2013-01-01

    The 7th CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics was held in Arequipa, Peru, from 6 to 19 March 2013. The School is held every other year in a Latin-American country. This was the first time it had been hosted in Peru – a choice that reflects the increasing development of high-energy physics in the country, including collaboration in ALICE and experimental neutrino physics.   Participants in the 7th CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics in the grounds of the El Lago Estelar hotel in Arequipa, Peru. The 2013 School was attended by a total of 69 students, including 19 from Peru, selected from more than 130 applicants. About 80% of the students came from Latin-American countries, with most of the others coming from Europe. All in all, 18 different nationalities were represented. The lecturers and discussion group leaders were also from a variety of different countries including Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Israel, Mexico, Peru, Spain, Switz...

  10. CILA: A New Approach to Problems in the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouston, John Samuel

    This paper attempts to provide a contextual study of CILA--Centro Interamericano de Libros Academicos--a new scheme for the distribution of scholarly books in the Americas. Because of the scheme's peculiar relevance to the needs of Canadian academic libraries, the status of Latin American studies and relevant library collections in Canada are…

  11. The "Other" Internment: Teaching the Hidden Story of Japanese Latin Americans during WWII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonamine, Moe

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how the author teaches 8th graders to imagine the experiences of people from another time in history and make connections to today. Through a role play, the author teaches the hidden story of Japanese Latin Americans during WWII. The role play engages students in exploration of a little-known piece of history--the…

  12. Characteristics of La Literatura: A Reference Study of Spanish and Latin American Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, David S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the characteristics of scholarly communication, with particular emphasis on the usage of the monograph, in the field of Spanish and Latin American literature over a 30-year period. In addition, this study examines the age of materials referenced in an effort to gain insight into the shelf-life of these…

  13. The Teaching of Latin American Legal Systems in U.S. Law Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garro, Alejandro M.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of U.S. law schools shows few institutions offer courses specifically on Latin American legal systems, most teachers of such courses focus on the role of legal institutions in development rather than acquaint students with civil law systems, and teaching materials should be revised and supplemented. (MSE)

  14. Theological Curriculum in Brazil: A Proposal from Latin American Theology and Critical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Cesar Marques

    2013-01-01

    With a focus on Brazilian theological seminaries that self-identify as evangelical and which emphasize teaching, learning, and doing a contextually Latin American theology, this research inquiries into related theoretical fields in order to establish a framework from which these schools may further develop educational approaches more adequate to…

  15. The Importance of Negotiation for Policy Dialogue: Latin American Training Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Maria Clara

    2004-01-01

    Over the past several decades, Latin American countries have supported processes of bringing public policy decisions on education closer to the people concerned. Participation at all levels of decision-making processes has generally been highly valued. Nonetheless, these decentralization efforts came about without governments taking the necessary…

  16. [Social perceptions on genomics in four Latin American countries. Ethical-legal implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Yunta, Eduardo; Valdebenito Herrera, Carolina; Misseroni, Adelio; Fernández Milla, Lautaro; Outomuro, Delia; Schiattino Lemus, Irene; Lolas Stepke, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    The authors analyze under an ethical and legal perspective the consequences and anxieties generated by the human genome project in the population of four Latin American countries: Argentine, Chile, México and Perú, through bibliographical analysis and interviews done to biomedical researches, lawyers and legislators, students and lay civilians.

  17. Two Decades of Planning in Latin American Universities: Trends and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escala, Miguel J.

    The paper provides a framework for identifying trends in planning in Latin American universities for the last 20 years. Identification of the planning trends is based on two main dimensions: the purpose of the relationship between universities and the external environment (organization-centered versus society-centered), and the degree by which the…

  18. 18th meeting of Socine, or the Brand New Latin American Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catarina Pereira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The eighteenth meeting of the Brazilian Society for Cinema and Audiovisual Studies - Socine, took place between 7th and 10th October 2014, at the University of Fortaleza, Brazil. This article is a reflection on the organization of the event and our review of some of the papers presented there, primarily focused on the most recent Latin American cinematographic productions.

  19. Transnational Stakeholders: Latin American Migrant Transnationalism and Civic Engagement in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Ricardo; Felix, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    In the current period of international migration there is no consensus among analysts regarding the relationship between immigrant transnationalism and civic engagement in the United States. Focusing mainly on the transnational behaviors of Latin American migrants, three views predominate: critics argue that immigrant transnationalism hinders…

  20. Tobacco smoking in seven Latin American cities: the CARMELA study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, B M; Schargrodsky, H; Pramparo, P; Boissonnet, C; Wilson, E

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to explore tobacco smoking in seven major cities of Latin America. Methods The Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America (CARMELA) study is a cross-sectional epidemiological study of 11 550 adults between 25 and 64 years old in Barquisimeto, Venezuela; Bogota, Colombia; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Lima, Peru; Mexico City, Mexico; Quito, Ecuador; and Santiago, Chile. Tobacco smoking, including cigarettes, cigars and pipes, was surveyed among other cardiovascular risk factors. Results Santiago and Buenos Aires had the highest smoking prevalence (45.4% and 38.6%, respectively); male and female rates were similar. In other cities, men smoked more than women, most markedly in Quito (49.4% of men vs 10.5% of women). Peak male smoking prevalence occurred among the youngest two age groups (25–34 and 35–44 years old). Men and women of Buenos Aires smoked the highest number of cigarettes per day on average (15.7 and 12.4, respectively). Men initiated regular smoking earlier than women in each city (ranges 13.7–20.0 years vs 14.2–21.1 years, respectively). Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at workplace for more than 5 h per day was higher in Barquisimeto (28.7%), Buenos Aires (26.8%) and Santiago (21.5%). The highest prevalence of former smokers was found among men in Buenos Aires, Santiago and Lima (30.0%, 26.8% and 26.0% respectively). Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high in the seven CARMELA cities, although patterns of smoking varied among cities. A major health and economic burden is inevitable in urban Latin America unless effective comprehensive tobacco control measures recommended by the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are implemented. PMID:20709777

  1. Embracing openness: the challenges of OER in Latin American education

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Paola Mireles Torres

    2013-01-01

    The Open Educational Resources (OER) movement and the Open Access began only over a decade ago. During this period, the progress of the Open Educational Resources movement took place in developed countries for the most part. Recently, new projects have begun to emerge with a strong emphasis on open education. Yet, the concept of openness in education is a very innovative one, and it has not been embraced by many. In some regions, such as Latin America, OER is still in its early stages and fac...

  2. Latin American Consensus: Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Armando

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children born small for gestational age (SGA experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality than those born appropriate for gestational age. In Latin America, identification and optimal management of children born SGA is a critical issue. Leading experts in pediatric endocrinology throughout Latin America established working groups in order to discuss key challenges regarding the evaluation and management of children born SGA and ultimately develop a consensus statement. Discussion SGA is defined as a birth weight and/or birth length greater than 2 standard deviations (SD below the population reference mean for gestational age. SGA refers to body size and implies length-weight reference data in a geographical population whose ethnicity is known and specific to this group. Ideally, each country/region within Latin America should establish its own standards and make relevant updates. SGA children should be evaluated with standardized measures by trained personnel every 3 months during year 1 and every 6 months during year 2. Those without catch-up growth within the first 6 months of life need further evaluation, as do children whose weight is ≤ -2 SD at age 2 years. Growth hormone treatment can begin in SGA children > 2 years with short stature ( 14 years for girls and > 16 years for boys is reached. Blood glucose, thyroid function, HbA1c, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 should be monitored once a year. Monitoring insulin changes from baseline and surrogates of insulin sensitivity is essential. Reduced fetal growth followed by excessive postnatal catch-up in height, and particularly in weight, should be closely monitored. In both sexes, gonadal function should be monitored especially during puberty. Summary Children born SGA should be carefully followed by a multidisciplinary group that includes perinatologists, pediatricians, nutritionists, and pediatric endocrinologists since 10% to 15% will continue to have

  3. Latin American and Caribbean intercomparison of surface contamination monitoring equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, T S; Ramos, M M O; Laranjeira, A S; Santos, D S; Suarez, R C

    2011-03-01

    In October 2009, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) sponsored an intercomparison exercise of surface contamination monitoring equipment, which was held at the Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes, from the Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria, IRD/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro. This intercomparison was performed to evaluate the calibration accessibility in Latin America and the Caribbean. Thirteen countries within the region and IAEA have sent instruments to be compared, but only five countries and IAEA were considered apt to participate. Analysis of instruments, results and discussions are presented and recommendations are drawn.

  4. Chagas Disease Awareness among Latin American Immigrants Living in Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Daniel R.; Traina, Mahmoud I.; Hernandez, Salvador; Smer, Aiman M.; Khamag, Haneen; Meymandi, Sheba K.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 300,000 persons have Chagas disease in the United States, although almost all persons acquired the disease in Latin America. We examined awareness of Chagas disease among Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles, California. We surveyed 2,677 persons (age range = 18–60 years) in Los Angeles who resided in Latin America for at least six months. A total of 62% of the participants recalled seeing triatomines in Latin America, and 27% of the participants reported triatomine bites at least once per year while living abroad. A total of 86% of the participants had never heard of Chagas disease. Of persons who had heard of Chagas disease, 81% believed that it was not serious. More than 95% of those who had heard of Chagas disease would want to be tested and treated. Most Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles recalled exposure to vectors of Chagas disease. However, they have little knowledge of this disease. Increasing awareness of Chagas disease is needed in this high-risk population. PMID:25200261

  5. Arsenic in the human food chain: the Latin American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Nath, Bibhash; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Armienta, María Aurora; Moreno López, Myriam V; Lopez, Dina L; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Cornejo, Lorena; Lauer Macedo, Luciene Fagundes; Filho, Alfredo Tenuta

    2012-07-01

    Many regions of Latin America are widely reported for the occurrence of high arsenic (As) in groundwater and surface water due to a combination of geological processes and/or anthropogenic activities. In this paper, we review the available literature (both in English and Spanish languages) to delineate human As exposure pathways through the food chain. Numerous studies show that As accumulations in edible plants and crops are mainly associated with the presence of high As in soils and irrigation waters. However, factors such as As speciation, type and composition of soil, and plant species have a major control on the amount of As uptake. Areas of high As concentrations in surface water and groundwater show high As accumulations in plants, fish/shellfish, livestock meat, milk and cheese. Such elevated As concentrations in food may result in widespread health risks to local inhabitants, including health of indigenous populations and residents living close to mining industries. Some studies show that As can be transferred from the water to prepared meals, thereby magnifying the As content in the human diet. Arsenic speciation might also change during food preparation, especially during high temperature cooking, such as grilling and frying. Finally, the review of the available literature demonstrates the necessity of more rigorous studies in evaluating pathways of As exposure through the human food chain in Latin America.

  6. Cyber Security and Habeas Data: The Latin American response to information security and data protection

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Parraguez Kobek; Erick Caldera

    2016-01-01

    Habeas Data is not a commonly known concept, yet it is widely acknowledged in certain circles that deal with information security and data protection. Though it has been around for decades, it has recently gained momentum in Latin America. It is the legal notion that protects any and all information pertaining to the individual, from personal to financial, giving them the power to decide how and where such data can be used. At the same time, most Latin American countries have created laws tha...

  7. CLAFA President Cheng Siwei and His Party Visit Three Latin American Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Argentine, Peruvian and Bahamian friendship-with-China organizations and the Organization of American States (OAS), a delegation of the China-Latin America Friendship Association (CLAFA) led by its president Cheng Siwei, vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, paid a visit to the three countries from November 22 to December 9, 2005 and attended the Third Latin America and Caribbean Regional Conference of Friendship Organizations with China held in Buenos Aires. He gave a speech at the headquarters of the OAS in Washington D. C.

  8. Impacts of Climate Variability on Latin American Small-scale Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Defeo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale fisheries (SSFs are social-ecological systems that play a critical role in terms of food security and poverty alleviation in Latin America. These fisheries are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic and climatic drivers acting at multiple scales. We review the effects of climate variability on Latin American SSFs, and discuss the combined effects of two additional human drivers: globalization of markets and governance. We show drastic long-term and large-scale effects of climate variability, e.g., sea surface temperature anomalies, wind intensity, sea level, and climatic indices, on SSFs. These variables, acting in concert with economic drivers, have exacerbated stock depletion rates in Latin American SSFs. The impact of these drivers varied according to the life cycle and latitudinal distribution of the target species, the characteristics of the oceanographic systems, and the inherent features of the social systems. Our review highlights the urgent need to improve management and governance systems to promote resilience as a way to cope with the increasing uncertainty about the impacts of climate and globalization of markets on Latin American SSFs.

  9. Ayurveda in Argentina and other Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra, Jorge Luis; Molho, Rosana

    2010-07-01

    Over the past 20 years the Fundacion Salud de Ayurved Prema Argentina has spread the knowledge of Ayurveda throughout Latin America. The Fundacion is based in Buenos Aires in the Argentine Republic, where it now runs courses in two of the country's major medical schools - at the School of Medicine of the University of Buenos Aires, and the National University of Cordoba's School of Medicine. Based on an MoU with Gujarat Ayurveda University, at Jamnagar, Gujarat, the Fundacion has been accredited as a Collaborating Center for teaching, assistance and research in the field of Ayurvedic Medicine in Argentina. This has led to successful missions to other countries in the region where the Fundacion and its associates have been able to start dialogues with governments, and in places hold sizeable courses. The knowledge of Ayurveda is now spreading throughout South and Central America and hardly a country remains untouched by it.

  10. Segmenting the Latin American travel market to South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinette Kruger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation and motive of research: Tourism growth to South Africa is in decline resulting in an emphasis shift to identify new markets to offset the slowdown in tourism growth. Purpose of research: This study identified viable target markets within the Latin America tourist market using market segmentation based on motivations to travel to South Africa. Results and findings: Four viable segments were identified that should be catered for and, based on the distinct characteristics of each market, marketing strategies are proposed. Practical implications: This study makes a valuable contribution to the current tourism literature by expanding current knowledge of the profile and motives of a, to date, relatively unknown tourist market.

  11. Science in the Press in Nine Latin American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Massarani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present a panorama of the journalistic coverage of science and technology themes in Latin America, taking as a case study 12 newspapers of signifcant impact in the region, involving nine countries. We collected the stories published in the science section from January to April 2006, and analyzed them based on the constructed week methodology and using quantitative tools. In total, our sample amounted to 681 stories. Among our fndings, we observed an important presence of medicine and health issues as main topics of the stories. National science has space in the newspapers, although less than scientifc results from developed countries. Benefts are stressed in the stories, while a low level of controversies is observed. Scientists are the main source for the journalists, with a low representation of the former in stereotyped images in most of the newspapers.

  12. The Abortion Issue in the Development Agenda of Latin American

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lamas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article, which offers a regional overview of the feminist struggle for abortion rights in Latin America, begins by reminding the reader of the context, characterized by poverty and marginalization, in which the region's women become mothers, as well as the deadly consequences of illegal abortion. It subsequently outlines the political tension between some state governments and feminists, particularly the friction that results from interference by the Catholic church hierarchy. The article outlines a few paradigmatic cases that exemplify the Vatican's sensationalist strategy as well as feminist responses by means of networks and taking advantage of regional and international arenas. It argues that abortion rights are a question of social justice and public health and form part of aspirations for democracy. It also makes mention of the theoretical debate on how differences between the sexes are handled by legal systems.

  13. Latin American challenges with the diagnosis and treatment of primary immunodeficiency diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; González-Serrano, Maria; Espinosa-Padilla, Sara; Segundo, Gesmar

    2017-05-01

    diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) is still a challenge in many countries in Latin America (LA), especially those that face social and economic problems. The creation of a society was fundamental to combine efforts that resulted in an effective educational program, establishment of a registry and a network to improve diagnosis. Areas covered: The focus of this article is to portray the scenario of PID in LA covering different aspects from different countries. For this, a questionnaire was sent to countries that participate in the Latin American Society for Immunodeficiencies (LASID) registry, with questions related to PID challenges in LA. We realized that today the greatest challenge is the availability of laboratory tests to investigate newly described PIDs. Expert commentary: Despite being faced with many difficulties, the Latin America Society for Immunodeficiencies is supporting clinical immunologists throughout the continent, which has resulted in a greater awareness of these diseases and an increase in the number of diagnosis.

  14. Zebrafish invade Valparaiso: third meeting and symposium of the Latin American zebrafish network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Kathleen E

    2014-12-01

    Zebrafish are an excellent model system for research and teaching. Because of their relatively low maintenance costs, beautiful and bountiful embryos, and tool box of molecular genetic technique, zebrafish are ideal for countries with smaller research budgets and less well-developed science infrastructure. For these reasons, zebrafish are growing in popularity as a model system for research in Latin America. In response to this growing need, we held the Third Latin American Zebrafish Network (LAZEN) Course and Symposium in Valparaiso, Chile, in April 4-13, 2014. The course covered a wide variety of topics from fish husbandry to outreach and ended with a symposium hosting excellent scientists from Latin America and beyond.

  15. Social epidemiology of mental disorders. A review of Latin-American studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida-Filho, N

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature about the relationships between cultural change and psychopathology produced by Latin American researchers. With the analysis of 22 epidemiological studies, the author shows how culture has been traditionally viewed by social psychiatric research in Latin America as an independent variable associated with the prevalence of mental disorders. Two basic approaches have been analyzed: one of anthropological origin and the other based on sociological explanations. The hypotheses of cultural shock, stress of acculturation and cultural marginalization belong to the first approach, while the second one is manifested by the notions of urban stress, life change, social support and goal-striving stress. Methodological issues were brought about to evaluate the results on the association of cultural processes and psychopathology available in contemporary socio-psychiatric research in Latin America.

  16. Latin American integration and sub-regionalization: political and ideological dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Kuznetsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses regionalism and regionalization in modern Latin America paying special attention to political and ideological factors, which have already shifted political and economic landscape of Latin America and encouraged sub-regional differentiation, with each of the sub-regional integration association following its own (and sometimes competing development pattern. At the same time the region witnesses the consolidation of UNASUR that assumes a leading role trying to converge the sub-regional alternative patterns and to strengthen political and economic ties, based on regional leadership of Brazil, civilizational unity and imminent security threats. The author also uses comparative method to speculate on the model of Latin American integration. 

  17. Paths, Detours, and Connections: Consumption and Its Contribution to Latin American History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Trentmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increase and variety of historical literature in the region in the last decades, the history of consumption, as a proper area of study, has received only modest scholarly attention from Latin American historians. With the aim of contributing to the emerging literature on the subject, this essay illustrates the relevance of studies on the history of consumption for a better and novel understanding of Latin America’s social, economic, and cultural past. It does this: 1 by revisiting the lessons learned from the first debates in the historical literature on consumption; 2 by examining recent developments in the history of consumption in Latin America, and; 3 by identifying future challenges for consumption studies.

  18. Current state and future perspectives of the Latin American Society for Immunodeficiencies (LASID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condino-Neto, A; Sorensen, R U; Gómez Raccio, A C; King, A; Espinosa-Rosales, F J; Franco, J L

    2015-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are genetic diseases that affect the immune system and for the last 20 years, the Latin American Society for Immunodeficiencies (LASID) has been promoting initiatives in awareness, research, diagnosis, and treatment for the affected patients in Latin America. These initiatives have resulted in the development of programmes such as the LASID Registry (with 4900 patients registered as of January 2014), fellowships in basic and clinical research, PID summer schools, biannual meetings, and scientific reports, amongst others. These achievements highlight the critical role that LASID plays as a scientific organisation in promoting science, research and education in this field in Latin America. However, challenges remain in some of these areas and the Society must envision additional strategies to tackle them for the benefit of the patients. In June 2013, a group of experts in the field met to discuss the contributions of LASID to the initiatives of PID in Latin America, and this article summarises the current state and future perspectives of this society and its role in the advance of PIDs in Latin America. Copyright © 2014 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Never tested for HIV in Latin-American migrants and Spaniards: prevalence and perceived barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Hoyos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increasing the uptake of HIV testing and decreasing the number of undiagnosed people is a priority for HIV prevention. Understanding the barriers that hinder people from testing is vital, particularly when working with especially vulnerable populations like migrants. Most data available on migrants are based on African migrants in the UK, while barriers to HIV testing in Latin-American migrants living in Europe remain unexplored. Still, they account for a quarter of new diagnosis in Spain and suffer higher rates of delayed diagnosis. Methods: Between May 2008 and March 2011, a mobile unit offered free rapid HIV tests in different Spanish cities. We compared the prevalence of no previous testing, adjusting for potential confounders by two multivariate logistic models, and described differences in perceived barriers to testing in Latin-American migrants living in Spain versus Spaniards. Participants included men who have sex with men (MSM, men who have sex exclusively with women (MSW, and women. Results: Of the 5920 individuals who got tested and answered a self-administered questionnaire, 36.5% were MSM (20.4% previously untested, 28.9% were MSW (49% previously untested and 34.6% were women (53% previously untested. Almost one quarter were Latin-American, of whom 30% had never been tested versus 45% of untested Spaniards. After adjusting for potential confounders, Spaniards were more likely to report no previous testing than Latin-Americans among women and MSW all together (Odds Ratio (OR=2.0; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.7–2.4 and among MSM (OR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.2–2.0. Among the 2455 who had never undergone an HIV test before, main barriers to testing were low perceived risk (54% Spaniards vs. 47% Latin-American and concerns arising from the loss of anonymity (19.5% vs. 16.9%. Fear of rejection or discrimination and fear of legal problems were a barrier for <2%. Conclusions: Latin-American migrants living in Spain were more

  20. Sociopolitical development, work salience, and vocational expectations among low socioeconomic status African American, Latin American, and Asian American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A; Wang, Qiu; Moore, Traymanesha; Gregory, Shannon R; Hatcher, Keisha M; Voight, Adam M

    2010-05-01

    Structural barriers constrain marginalized youths' development of work salience and vocational expectations. Sociopolitical development (SPD), the consciousness of, and motivation to reduce, sociopolitical inequality, may facilitate the negotiation of structural constraints. A structural model of SPD's impact on work salience and vocational expectations was proposed and its generalizability tested among samples of low-socioeconomic-status African American, Latin American, and Asian American youth, with Educational Longitudinal Study data. Measurement and temporal invariance of these constructs was first established before testing the proposed model across the samples. Across the three samples, 10th-grade SPD had significant effects on 10th-grade work salience and vocational expectations; 12th-grade SPD had a significant effect on 12th-grade work salience. Tenth-grade SPD had significant indirect effects on 12th-grade work salience and on 12th-grade vocational expectations for all three samples. These results suggest that SPD facilitates the agentic negotiation of constraints on the development of work salience and vocational expectations. Given the impact of adolescent career development on adult occupational attainment, SPD may also foster social mobility among youth constrained by an inequitable opportunity structure.

  1. [From passive to active: policies for Latin American emigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletta, H

    1988-12-01

    The conventional view of emigration holds that it represents a loss of resources from a country and that the only possible policy response is to discourage new emigration while promoting return of those who have left. A new policy is needed based on a fuller understanding of the potential benefits of emigration for the country of origin. The cost of emigration is usually counted as the loss of educational investment, the loss of labor force, and the loss of the contributions to development that would have been made by talented emigrants. But such views usually do not include a serious treatment of the economic problems of labor supply and demand in general or of skilled labor in particular. Underemployment or unemployment of highly educated persons and overproduction of educated persons are problems throughout Latin America and much of the developing world. A truer evaluation of the costs of education which considered decreasing marginal costs rather than average costs per student, nominally variable costs that actually behave as fixed costs, and an adequate assignment of costs for students leaving school before graduating would lead to much lower estimates of average cost per university student in Latin America. Significant emigration may actually result indirectly in an increase in national income by reducing pressure on the labor market and allowing wages to rise for remaining workers. Remittances for emigrants and repatriation of savings may contribute significantly to national income and balance of payments, and may compensate for or even exceed the economic losses of emigration. National policy for emigrants should aim at maximizing the economic benefits of emigration by providing incentives for the accumulation of capital obtained abroad and its transfer to the country of origin. The 1st major goal of emigration policy should be to maintain affective and social ties between the emigrant and the country of origin as a necessary condition for channeling

  2. Book Review on: Patrick Barrett, Daniel Chavez and Cesar Rodriguez Garavito. The New Latin American Left. Utopia Reborn?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Icaza Garza (Rosalba)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBarret, Chavez and Rodriguez main task in The New Latin American Left. Utopia Reborn?, is that of identifying what are the factors that can explain the emergence of a new left in Latin America. The result is a nicely edited collection of expert voices on leftist politics in the region th

  3. Genome-wide study of the defective sucrose fermenter strain of Vibrio cholerae from the Latin American cholera epidemic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garza, D.R.; Thompson, C.C.; Loureiro, E.C.; Dutilh, B.E.; Inada, D.T.; Junior, E.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Nunes, M.R.; Lima, C.P. de; Silvestre, R.V.; Nunes, K.N.; Santos, E.C.; Edwards, R.A.; Vicente, A.C.; Sá Morais, L.L. de

    2012-01-01

    The 7th cholera pandemic reached Latin America in 1991, spreading from Peru to virtually all Latin American countries. During the late epidemic period, a strain that failed to ferment sucrose dominated cholera outbreaks in the Northern Brazilian Amazon region. In order to understand the genomic

  4. Genome-wide study of the defective sucrose fermenter strain of Vibrio cholerae from the Latin American cholera epidemic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garza, D.R.; Thompson, C.C.; Loureiro, E.C.; Dutilh, B.E.; Inada, D.T.; Junior, E.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Nunes, M.R.; Lima, C.P. de; Silvestre, R.V.; Nunes, K.N.; Santos, E.C.; Edwards, R.A.; Vicente, A.C.; Sá Morais, L.L. de

    2012-01-01

    The 7th cholera pandemic reached Latin America in 1991, spreading from Peru to virtually all Latin American countries. During the late epidemic period, a strain that failed to ferment sucrose dominated cholera outbreaks in the Northern Brazilian Amazon region. In order to understand the genomic char

  5. Use of antibacterial fixed-dose combinations in the private sector in eight Latin American Countries between 1999 and 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirtz, Veronika J.; Mol, Peter G. M.; Verdijk, Jonneke; Stichele, Robert H. Vander; Taxis, Katja

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assesses the safety and rationale of antibacterial fixed-dose combinations in the private sector in Latin America and determine the extent of their use. METHODS: Analysis of FDCs was based on retail sales data for eight Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexi

  6. "In our own words": Defining medical professionalism from a Latin American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschel, Klaus; Repetto, Paula; Bernales, Margarita; Barros, Jorge; Perez, Ivan; Snell, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Latin America has experienced a tremendous growth in a number of medical schools, and there are concerns about their quality of training in critical areas such as professionalism. Medical professionalism is a cultural construct. The aim of the study was to compare published definitions of medical professionalism from Latin American and non-Latin American regions and to design an original and culturally sound definition. A mixed methods approach was used with three phases. First, a systematic search and thematic analysis of the literature were conducted. Second, a Delphi methodology was used to design a local definition of medical professionalism. Third, we used a qualitative approach that combined focus groups and personal interviews with students and deans from four medical schools in Chile to understand various aspects of professionalism education. The data were analyzed using NVivo software. A total of 115 nonrepeated articles were identified in the three databases searched. No original definitions of medical professionalism from Latin America were found. Twenty-six articles met at least one of the three decisional criteria defined and were fully reviewed. Three theoretical perspectives were identified: contractualism, personalism, and deontology. Attributes of medical professionalism were classified in five dimensions: personal, interpersonal, societal, formative, and practical. Participants of the Delphi panel, focus groups, and personal interviews included 36 medical students, 12 faculties, and four deans. They took a personalistic approach to design an original definition of medical professionalism and highlighted the relevance of respecting life, human dignity, and the virtue of prudence in medical practice. Students and scholars differed on the value given to empathy and compassion. This study provides an original and culturally sound definition of medical professionalism that could be useful in Latin American medical schools. The methodology used in the

  7. Neonatal and pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in developing Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Javier; González, Álvaro; Castillo, Andrés; Caneo, Luiz Fernando

    To review the principles of neonatal-pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy, prognosis, and its establishment in limited resource-limited countries in Latino America. The PubMed database was explored from 1985 up to the present, selecting from highly-indexed and leading Latin American journals, and Extracorporeal Life Support Organization reports. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation provides "time" for pulmonary and cardiac rest and for recovery. It is used in the neonatal-pediatric field as a rescue therapy for more than 1300 patients with respiratory failure and around 1000 patients with cardiac diseases per year. The best results in short- and long-term survival are among patients with isolated respiratory diseases, currently established as a standard therapy in referral centers for high-risk patients. The first neonatal/pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation Program in Latin America was established in Chile in 2003, which was also the first program in Latin America to affiliate with the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. New extracorporeal membrane oxygenation programs have been developed in recent years in referral centers in Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Mexico, Perú, Costa Rica, and Chile, which are currently funding the Latin American Extracorporeal Life Support Organization chapter. The best results in short- and long-term survival are in patients with isolated respiratory diseases. Today extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy is a standard therapy in some Latin American referral centers. It is hoped that these new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation centers will have a positive impact on the survival of newborns and children with respiratory or cardiac failure, and that they will be available for an increasing number of patients from this region in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. latin American literary testimony: historical foreshadowing of gender in the revolutionary discourse of the sixties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The foundation of testimonio in Latin American literary field, initiated at the end of the ‘60, makes part of the institutionalization of the Cuban revolution, process where its projection to the rest of Latin America constitued a central problem. This paper studies political preconditions of testimonio. In particular, it analizes certain aspects of Cuban revolutionary discourse that anticipate features eventually developed by the literary genre, in the ways the relation between literature and politics is represented, and in the subjects of discourse that are proposed as embodiments of such relation. The paper introduces the question of Cuban revolution, as regards the exemplary status it acquired in Latin America during the sixties. Then, it examines the literary positioning represented by testimonio, as the corollary of a reflexive reconsideration operated by some Latin American writers and critics, concerning their historical role. Finally, it considers three representative documents of Cuban revolution and its continental projection: History will absolve me, by Fidel Castro, and Reminiscences of the Cuban revolutionary war and Bolivian diary, by Ernesto Guevara. We show the textual configuration of a revolutionary subject whose legitimity emerges not only from a political experience which testimony enunciates, but also from particular ways of living and representing literature in the context of a revolutionary practice. In the end of the sixties, the continental literary field would reaffirm such features as its discourse legitimating criteria, during the institutionalization of testimonio as its privileged genre.

  9. The Challenge of Providing Renal Replacement Therapy in Developing Countries: The Latin American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrador, Gregorio T; Rubilar, Ximena; Agazzi, Evandro; Estefan, Janette

    2016-03-01

    The costs of health care place developing countries under enormous economic pressure. Latin America is a region characterized by wide ethnic and per capita gross domestic product variations among different countries. Chronic kidney failure prevalence and incidence, as well as provision of renal replacement therapy (RRT), have increased in all Latin American countries over the last 20 years. From an ethical point of view, life-sustaining therapies such as RRT should be available to all patients with chronic kidney disease who might benefit. However, even among Latin American countries with similar per capita incomes and health care expenditures, only some have been able to achieve universal access to RRT. This indicates that it is not just a problem of wealth or distribution of scarce health care resources, but one of social justice. Strategies to increase the availability of RRT and renal palliative-supportive care, as well as implementation of interventions to prevent chronic kidney disease development and progression, are needed in Latin America and other developing countries.

  10. Intimate Partner Violence and Depression Among Latin American Women in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Ruiz, Paula; Toner, Brenda; Mason, Robin; Vidal, Carolina; McKenzie, Kwame

    2015-12-01

    Research from the United States suggests that Latin American immigrant and refugee women are one of the groups most greatly impacted by intimate partner violence (IPV) and associated mental health consequences including higher rates of depression than women from other ethno-racial groups. In Canada, little is known about the experience of IPV and mental health among this population. Even in the broader North American context, how Latin American women themselves perceive the connection between IPV and depression is unknown. This paper presents the findings of a pilot study that examined the perceived relationship between IPV and depression among Spanish-Speaking Latin American Women in Toronto, Canada. The theoretical framework guiding this qualitative study combined an ecological model for understanding gender based violence and mental health with critical intersectionality theory. Using a convenience and snowball sampling method, semi-structured interviews (n = 12) were conducted and thematic content analysis was completed supported by Nvivo9(®) qualitative data management software. All participants had experienced some form of IPV in their adult lives, with psychological violence being the most common. Women perceived a powerful connection between IPV and depression, a link made stronger by the accumulation of other adverse life experiences including childhood abuse, war traumas and migration. The results suggest that IPV is just one of the challenges experienced by Latin American refugee and immigrant women. IPV is experienced in the context of other traumatic experiences and social hardships that may work to intensify the association of IPV and depression in this population.

  11. An Overview of Latin American Health Policies and Debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Cristina Laurell

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It is now 15 years since the publication of Investing in Health (World Bank, 1993, a report which set the course for health care system reform in Latin America and around of the world. Since that time a great many studies about the reforms have been published and new reforms have been launched to “correct” the defects of the earlier ones. The objective of this paper is to call into question the entire current political debate over health care, as well as to clarify key concepts and practices. To this end I will analyze the current vogue of interrelated proposals for a second reform of the state. I will examine debates over insurance as a way of grant universal coverage; the separation between the regulation, financing and provision of health services; and the public private partnerships for the construction, financing, and management of hospitals. This paper will also examine the development of a new scientific discourse around “evidence-based policies” and academic referral networks. The goal of this paper is not to offer a comprehensive treatment of these issues, but rather to question some assumptions and contribute to the larger debate.

  12. Transformational development in a changing context: A Latin American perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique J.W.M. van Zeeland

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the challenges for the strategies and practices of transformational development in a changing context. This reflection is based on contributions received during the process of dialogues and regional consultations, realised from August 2012 until March 2014, of the ACT Alliance, an international coalition of churches and faith-based organisations (FBOs working in the areas of humanitarian response, development and advocacy. The main processes that affect the changing development context are addressed, such as the ongoing globalisation as well as the consequences, mainly regarding the shrinking space for civil society. It discusses the concepts of human development and of transformational development, based on a people-centred development vision, a human rights-based approach and advocacy, which addresses the root causes and effects of poverty, inequality and injustice. Transformational development practices, from Latin America, are presented and analysed. The article concludes that the changing development context also offers opportunities, especially regarding regional and global alliances of FBOs, civil society organisations and of social movements.

  13. Multivariate analysis of burnout syndrome in Latin-American priests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Herrera, Helena; Pedrosa, Ignacio; Vicente Galindo, Ma Purificación; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Galindo Villardón, M Purificación; García-Cueto, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Burnout syndrome is a highly prevalent disorder in a wide range of professional groups, and is associated with substantial psychophysiological alterations. Nevertheless, this syndrome has not been analyzed in depth among the clergy, a group which fulfils a fundamental social function and has to deal with numerous stressors that increase the risk of burnout onset. In the present study, the authors assessed 881 Catholic priests from Latin America. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-22, the General Health Questionnaire-28 and the CAGE were applied; we also recorded the priests' rates of cigarette-smoking. Specific cut-off points were set for burnout syndrome in priests. The original factor structures of the questionnaires are confirmed in the clerical sample, and the reliability is adequate. As regards the dimensions of the syndrome as a function of the countries studied, no statistically significant differences were found, except for the exhaustion dimension. The authors established the typology that defines the relevance and effect of each dimension, as well as its prevalence in this group, with a figure of 25.39%. Furthermore, burnout shows a clear relationship with general health and may be associated with addiction to substances such as alcohol or tobacco.

  14. Free trade agreements and their impact on latin american migrations: An approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ernesto Buitrago R.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the causes of international migration and the potential impact of FTAs (Free TradeAgreements on latin american migrations. The first part describes the economic and non-economic causes for migration. The second one shows the potential impact of FTAs in the economy (job creation/destruction by sectors in CAFTA countries and Colombia.The last part shows that there is little correlation between the commercial openness (FTAs and the reduction of poverty. Poverty seems to be increasing in the studied countries –even more in those with the most open commercial regimens, than in those with the most closed ones. Data proves that openness doesn’t reduce the poverty automatically; on the contrary, in some (regional or subregional cases it increases and causes a major determinant of international migration in latin american countries.

  15. Democracy, Support for Democracy and Corruption. A Longitudinal Study of Latin American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Grassi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although often unable to satisfactorily solve the problem, democracy (especially enduring democracy is commonly believed to reduce corruption. Yet, both Transparency International and the World Bank continue to attach a high risk of corruption to Latin American countries: corruption and impunity remain prevalent in the area, despite consolidating democratic regimes and recent anticorruption reforms. Using level of democracy and its endurance, as well as information on the perceptions of democratic performance and corruption obtained from the Latinobarometro, we analyzed a panel data covering the period 2005-2010 in 14 Latin American countries. Our main results show that levels of democracy and citizens' assessment of government fairness have a positive impact on corruption. However, satisfaction towards democracy has the opposite effect: when citizens believed democratic governments and public administrations to be efficient, they also perceived that gains against corruption had significantly decreased.

  16. La Traduccion de la Nueva Novela Latinoamericana al Ingles (English Translation of the New Latin American Novel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Ayona, Gerardo

    1978-01-01

    While distinguishing between literary criticism and the scientific study of translation, Latin American translations are analyzed according to the identification of "speech facts," levels of stylistic performance, translating from scratch, and the stylistic features of Rabassa. (NCR)

  17. La Traduccion de la Nueva Novela Latinoamericana al Ingles (English Translation of the New Latin American Novel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Ayona, Gerardo

    1978-01-01

    While distinguishing between literary criticism and the scientific study of translation, Latin American translations are analyzed according to the identification of "speech facts," levels of stylistic performance, translating from scratch, and the stylistic features of Rabassa. (NCR)

  18. Do foreign portfolio flows increase risk in emerging stock markets? Evidence from six Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo, Diego A.; Castaño, Milena M.

    2011-01-01

    Foreign portfolio flows have been blamed for causing instability in emerging markets, especially during financial crises. This study measured the effect of foreign capital flows on volatility and exposure to world market risk in the six largest Latin American stock markets: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico and Peru, for around 10 years including the 2008 World financial crisis. This will test whether these flows cause instability for those markets and increase their exposure to inte...

  19. Knowledge and attitudes of Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists regarding intrauterine contraceptives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamondes, Luis; Makuch, Maria Y; Monteiro, Ilza; Marin, Victor; Lynen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background Intrauterine contraceptives (IUCs), including the copper intrauterine device and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), are among the reversible contraceptive methods with high effectiveness. However, use is low in many settings, including some Latin American countries, mainly due to the influences of myths, fears, and negative attitudes, not only of users and potential users, but also of different cadres of health care professionals. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of a group of Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists regarding IUCs. Methods A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting organized in Chile in 2014 to present and discuss updated information about contraception. Obstetricians and gynecologists from 12 Latin American countries, who reported that they provide daily contraception services in both the public and private sectors, participated in the meeting. Participants who agreed to take part in the survey responded to a multiple-choice questionnaire on issues regarding knowledge, use, and attitudes about IUCs. Results Of the 210 obstetricians and gynecologists participating in the meeting, the respondents to each question varied from 168 (80.0%) to 205 (97.6%). Almost 50% recognized that the failure rate of combined oral contraceptives, patches, and vaginal rings is 8%–10%. Furthermore, 10% of the participants did not recognize the high contraceptive effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods. Additionally, almost 80% of the respondents answered that they did not offer IUCs to nulligravidas and almost 10% did not offer IUCs to adolescents, albeit almost 90% of the respondents reported that nulligravidas are candidates for an LNG-IUS. Conclusion Some deficiencies and contradictions in terms of knowledge and attitudes were identified from the answers of the Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists who participated in the survey. The knowledge and

  20. Tourism and Economic Growth in Latin American Countries: A Panel Data Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenio-Martín, Juan Luis; Morales, Noelia Martín; Scarpa, Riccardo

    2004-01-01

    We consider the relationship between tourism and economic growth for Latin American countries since 1985 until 1998. The analysis proposed is based on a panel data approach and the Arellano-Bond estimator for dynamic panels. We obtain estimates of the relationship between economic growth and growth in tourists per capita conditional on main macroeconomic variables. We show that the tourism sector is adequate for the economic growth of medium or low-income countries, though not necessarily for...

  1. 7th CERN - Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mulders, M; CLASHEP 2013; CLASHEP2013

    2015-01-01

    The CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lecture notes on the Standard Model of electroweak interactions, quantum chromodynamics, flavour physics, quantum chromodynamics under extreme conditions, cosmic-ray physics, cosmology, recent highlights of LHC results, practical statistics for particle physicists and a short introduction to the principles of particle physics instrumentation.

  2. Determinants of economic growth and bank intermediation: empirical analysis for Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Carton, Christine; Ronquillo, Cely

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the contribution of the banking sector to the economic growth of 16 Latin American countries, from 1979 to 2006. The econometric procedure is based on a panel data technique with fixed effects, classifying the countries in two samples according to their income level. Findings tend to corroborate the positive effects of banking expansion on growth rates, according to the predictions of endogenous growth models. However, they also indicate that credit acti...

  3. Dynamic Correlation Analysis of Financial Spillover to Asian and Latin American Markets in Global Financial Turmoil

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew S. Yiu; Wai-Yip Alex Ho; Lu Jin

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the spillover of financial crises by studying the dynamics of correlation between eleven Asian and six Latin American stock markets vis-¨¤-vis the US stock market. A regional factor that drives common movements of stock markets in each region is identified for the period from 1993 to early 2009. We then estimate the time-varying volatility correlation between the regional factor and the US stock market by an asymmetric dynamic conditional correlation model. We find tha...

  4. Carbon sequestration potential of second-growth forest regeneration in the Latin American tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Chazdon, Robin L; Broadbent, Eben N.; Rozendaal, Danaë M. A.; Bongers, Frans; Zambrano, Angélica María Almeyda; Aide, T. Mitchell; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M.; Boukili, Vanessa; Pedro H. S. Brancalion; Craven, Dylan; Jarcilene S Almeida-Cortez; Cabral, George A. L.; de Jong, Ben; Denslow, Julie S.

    2016-01-01

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We estimate the age and spatial extent of lowland second-growth forests in the Latin American tropics and model their potential aboveground carbon accumulation over four decades. Our model shows that, i...

  5. 8th CERN - Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Zanderighi, G; CLASHEP 2015; CLASHEP2015

    2016-01-01

    The CERN–Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lecture notes on the Standard Model of electroweak interactions, flavour physics, neutrino physics, Higgs physics, new physics beyond the standard model, quantum chromodynamics under extreme conditions, cosmology, an introduction to experimental facilities at the high-energy frontier, and practical statistics for particle physicists.

  6. Visual representation of Latin Americans in National geographics

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The National Geographic Magazine is one of the American media products recognizable and read by millions of people all over the world. The Magazine considers itself as an educational, quasi – scholarly publication for the ‘increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge’. With this authority and more than one century tradition, National Geographic disseminates knowledge about different topics, including people and their cultures. What makes the Magazine especially popular and influential is th...

  7. Mother-Youth Acculturation Gaps and Health-Risking/Emotional Problems among Latin-American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Margit; Arbona, Consuelo; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Kaplan, Charles D

    2015-07-20

    Second-generation Latin-American adolescents tend to show higher levels of various health-risking behaviors and emotional problems than first-generation Latin-American adolescents. This cross-sectional study of 40 mother-adolescent dyads examined the association of mother-youth acculturation gaps to youth adjustment problems. Intergenerational acculturation gaps were assessed as a bidimensional self-report component and a novel observational measurement component. The Latin-American adolescents were predominantly second-generation of Mexican descent (M age = 13.42 years, SD = 0.55). Most of the mothers were born in Mexico (M age = 39.18 years, SD = 5.17). Data were collected from mothers, adolescents, and coders, using questionnaires, structured interviews, and videotaped mother-youth interaction tasks. Findings revealed generally weak support for the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis. In addition, stronger relative adherence to their heritage culture by the adolescents was significantly (p acculturation processes. Mother-youth acculturation gaps in orientation to the heritage culture were the most salient dimension, changing the focus on the original formulation of the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis.

  8. Pharmacogenetics in Latin American populations: regulatory aspects, application to herbal medicine, cardiovascular and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeiro, Idania; Remírez-Figueredo, Diadelis; García-Mesa, Milagros; Dorado, Pedro; LLerena, Adrián

    2012-01-01

    Meeting report of the "Second Symposium on Pharmacology of Cytochrome P450 and Transporters" organized by the Cuban Society of Pharmacology in collaboration with the European Society of Pharmacogenetics and Theranostics (ESPT) and the Ibero-American Network of Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics (www.ribef.com). The Symposium covered different topics on pharmacogenetics and its clinical implications, focusing on Latin-American populations. The activities of the ESPT were also presented and discussed. The topics addressed were regulatory aspects, the use of pharmacogenetics in pre-clinical research, herbal medicine, and natural products, ending with a discussion about translation into clinical practice, specifically for cardiovascular disorders and psychiatry. Finally, the implication for population diversity in Latin America was also discussed. The RIBEF initiative represents a promising step towards the inclusion of Latin American populations among those to benefit from the implementation of pharmacogenetics in clinical practice. Among current RIBEF activities, the CEIBA.FP Consortium aims to study the variability of pheno- and genotypes in Hispanics that are relevant to pharmacogenetics. For this purpose, populations from Mexico, Cuba, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Colombia, Brasil, Perú, Chile, Uruguay, Argentina, Portugal, and Spain are currently being studied. The meeting's main conclusion was that population pharmacogenetic studies as well as academic clinical trials might need to be conducted in the different geographic locations/countries. This is important in order to improve drug safety, dosage recommendations, and pharmacovigilance programs, because environmental and ethnic factors vary across locations.

  9. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-04

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimal waist circumference cutoff value for defining the metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal Latin American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümel, Juan E; Legorreta, Deborah; Chedraui, Peter; Ayala, Felix; Bencosme, Ascanio; Danckers, Luis; Lange, Diego; Espinoza, Maria T; Gomez, Gustavo; Grandia, Elena; Izaguirre, Humberto; Manriquez, Valentin; Martino, Mabel; Navarro, Daysi; Ojeda, Eliana; Onatra, William; Pozzo, Estela; Prada, Mariela; Royer, Monique; Saavedra, Javier M; Sayegh, Fabiana; Tserotas, Konstantinos; Vallejo, Maria S; Zuñiga, Cristina

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine an optimal waist circumference (WC) cutoff value for defining the metabolic syndrome (METS) in postmenopausal Latin American women. A total of 3,965 postmenopausal women (age, 45-64 y), with self-reported good health, attending routine consultation at 12 gynecological centers in major Latin American cities were included in this cross-sectional study. Modified guidelines of the US National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III were used to assess METS risk factors. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis was used to obtain an optimal WC cutoff value best predicting at least two other METS components. Optimal cutoff values were calculated by plotting the true-positive rate (sensitivity) against the false-positive rate (1 - specificity). In addition, total accuracy, distance to receiver operator characteristic curve, and the Youden Index were calculated. Of the participants, 51.6% (n = 2,047) were identified as having two or more nonadipose METS risk components (excluding a positive WC component). These women were older, had more years since menopause onset, used hormone therapy less frequently, and had higher body mass indices than women with fewer metabolic risk factors. The optimal WC cutoff value best predicting at least two other METS components was determined to be 88 cm, equal to that defined by the Adult Treatment Panel III. A WC cutoff value of 88 cm is optimal for defining METS in this postmenopausal Latin American series.

  11. Constructing coincident indices of economic activity for the Latin American economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Issler

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has three main contributions. The first is to propose an individual coincident indicator for the following Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico. In order to obtain similar series to those traditionally used in business-cycle research in constructing coincident indices (output, sales, income and employment we were forced to back-cast several individual country series which were not available in a long time-series span. The second contribution is to establish a chronology of recessions for these countries, covering the period from 1980 to 2012 on a monthly basis. Based on this chronology, the countries are compared in several respects. The final contribution is to propose an aggregate coincident indicator for the Latin American economy, which weights individual-country composite indices. Finally, this indicator is compared with the coincident indicator (The Conference Board - TCB of the U.S. economy. We find that the U.S. indicator Granger-causes the Latin American indicator in statistical tests

  12. Latin-american identifity and education in José Marti´s La Edad de Oro magazine

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Fábio Inácio; UNISSA

    2007-01-01

    This study aims at analyzing José Martí´s thought (1853-1895) in relation to the future Cuban men and, and consequently, the Latin-American men, shown in La Edad de Oro magazine, published in New york in its four editions from July to october, 1889. Beyond the immediateness of the work for organizing the Cuban independentista fight, José Martí thought on the men´s formation in Latin America, a process they overpassed at a first moment by what he understood as the revival of the Latin-American...

  13. Analysis of the features of the entrepreneurship and leadership in the Asian and Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Martín Moreno Zacarías

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the necessary skills to transform entrepreneurial activities into business largely depends on the so-called "Triple Helix development ¨. This is the relationship University-Industry-Government. This relationship leads to the transformation of business ideas, into real companies, through education, economic and financial support and the support given to businesses experiences. This article reviews the concepts and definitions of various authors regarding the importance of entrepreneurial activities and the leadership approach to carry out such business. The article takes the examples of activities undertaken in this regard in different countries of Asia and Latin America, including Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile in Latin America and Japan, Malaysia and the Philippines in Asia. These countries are included in international systems of measurement of entrepreneurship worldwide. According to the information available, such ratings are declining in Asia whilst increasing in Latin America. It is important to note however that in both groups of countries there is a different entrepreneurial development. In the countries of Asia, the entrepreneurs seek to achieve business innovation while Latin American countries, the entrepreneurs are moved by the economic necessity to seek other options to complete their consumption needs. In a general basis, the triple helix could be observed in the entrepreneurial activity in most Asian countries.

  14. [Latin-American Dialysis and Kidney Transplantation Registry: data on the treatment of end-stage renal disease in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusumano, A M; Romao, J E; Poblete Badal, H; Elgueta Miranda, S; Gomez, R; Cerdas Calderon, M; Almaguer Lopez, M; Moscoso, J; Leiva Merino, R; Sánchez Polo, J V; Garcia, G G; Franco Acosta, B V; Saavedra Lopez, A; Mena, E; Gonzalez, C; Milanes, C L

    2008-01-01

    Latin America, a region composed of a series of neighboring countries that share their history, Latin ancestry and language (Spanish or Portuguese), includes Mexico, Central America, the Spanish Caribbean islands, and South America. The Latin-American Dialysis and Kidney Transplantation Registry, which has been operative since 1991, collects data from 20 countries (Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Venezuela and Uruguay), where 97% of Latin Americans live. The prevalence of renal replacement therapy (RRT) has increased from 119 patients per million (pmp) in 1991 to 478.2 in 2005 (147,158 patients [57%] on chronic hemodialysis, 58,251 [23%] on peritoneal dialysis and 52,565 [20%] living with a functioning kidney graft). The incidence rate also increased from 27.8 pmp in 1992 to 167 in 2005. The increment in prevalence and incidence occurred in all Latin- American countries. The transplantation rate increased from 3,7 pmp in 1987 to 15 pmp in 2005 (7,968 kidney transplants performed this year, the cumulative number being 98,415). Access to RRT was available for every patient diagnosed with end-stage renal disease only in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Venezuela and Uruguay. In Latin America, the incidence and prevalence of RRT increased year by year. Only in some countries is access to RRT available to 100% of diagnosed patients. Detection and prevention programs for chronic kidney disease are needed in the region. Meanwhile, access to RRT has to be improved for everybody who needs it.

  15. Latin American Marxism paper . The editorial policy of Jorge Abelardo Ramos in the early sixties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Ribadero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the Marxism in the Latin-American thought has been indicated in repeated opportunities. Its aptitude to generate diverse political and cultural projects was a central characteristic of the above mentioned tradition, opened across different agents and institutions from the arrival of the writings of Marx and Engels to Latin America at the end of the XIXth century. Nevertheless, good part of this history is still partial, anchored in national perspectives and little commits an outrage against the study of its material forms, this is, to those aspects across which the Marxist speech managed to shape a specific materiality, so much for the theoretical making as the action of militants, workers, students and intellectuals. The work aims to propose an exploration of the Latin-American Marxism from the perspective of the reconstruction of its printed world, from delineating a series of problems, topics and reflections settled in the study of the publishing house Coyoacán of Jorge Abelardo Ramos in the early 1960s in Argentina

  16. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalskys, Irina; Fisberg, Mauro; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; Yépez, Martha Cecilia; Pareja, Rossina G; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Z; Tucker, Katherine L; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael

    2015-09-16

    Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region.

  17. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalskys, Irina; Fisberg, Mauro; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; Yépez, Martha Cecilia; Pareja, Rossina G.; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Z.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region. PMID:26389952

  18. Female participation in the labour force of selected Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, F; Briggs, D K

    1979-08-01

    Along with other regions of the developing world, Latin America is characterised by low participation rates of females in the labor force. About 1 in 5 Latin American women of working age are economically active. A woman's decision to enter or remain in the work force depends on financial expediency, availability of employment, her own education and skills, and most importantly, the expectations and attitudes of her family, society, and herself, with regard to the traditional role of housewife and mother. Using the path analysis models, data from 17 Latin American countries were examined in relation to labor force participation and selected social, economic, and demographic characteristics. The 3 most important variables were female education, fertility, and urbanization, but the most significant predictor was the proportion of 15-19 year olds receiving secondary education. The amount of this age group accounted for more than two-thirds of the variation in levels of labor force participation. Statistics were taken from the United Nations Demographic and Statistical Yearbooks and publications of the International Labour Office. Labor force pariticipation was higher for women aged 20-24 than for those aged 40-44 in every country except Nicaragua, where the 2 age ranges showed the same participation rate.

  19. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kovalskys

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region.

  20. Contribution of Latin American Countries to Cancer Research and Patent Generation: Recent Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Santos, Martin; Anaya-Ruiz, Maricruz; Bandala, Cindy

    2017-01-01

    Data mining publications and patent data can provide decision support for scientists, inventors and industry in the field of cancer research. The main objective of this article it to identify trends of research and patent generation productivity originating from Latin American countries in the field of cancer. Publications were collected from the Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed database; and patents were collected from Latipat Espacenet databases. Data from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2014 were searched for documents with specific words in cancer as a ''topic'' and a list of 20 Latin American countries as affiliation country. A total of 12,989 items published and 244 patent applications including "cancer" were retrieved. Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Chile and Peru were highest contributors in cancer research, while Brazil, Mexico, Cuba and Argentina were highest contributors in cancer patent applications. The analysis of the data from this study provides an overview of research and patent activity in Latin America in the cancer field, which can be useful to help health policy makers and people in academia to shape up cancer research in the future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Differences on Primary Care Labor Perceptions in Medical Students from 11 Latin American Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reneé Pereyra-Elías

    Full Text Available The shortage in Latin-American Primary Care (PC workforce may be due to negative perceptions about it. These perceptions might be probably influenced by particular features of health systems and academic environments, thus varying between countries.Observational, analytic and cross-sectional multicountry study that evaluated 9,561 first and fifth-year medical students from 63 medical schools of 11 Latin American countries through a survey. Perceptions on PC work was evaluated through a previously validated scale. Tertiles of the scores were created in order to compare the different countries. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated using simple and multiple Poisson regression with robust variance.Approximately 53% of subjects were female; mean age was 20.4±2.9 years; 35.5% were fifth-year students. Statistically significant differences were found between the study subjects' country, using Peru as reference. Students from Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Paraguay perceived PC work more positively, while those from Ecuador showed a less favorable position. No differences were found among perceptions of Bolivian, Salvadoran, Honduran and Venezuelan students when compared to their Peruvian peers.Perceptions of PC among medical students from Latin America vary according to country. Considering such differences can be of major importance for potential local specific interventions.

  2. 2nd Latin American Workshop on Magnetism, Magnetic Materials, and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, J

    1994-01-01

    During August 24-27, 1993, approximately 60 scientists from the Americas, Europe and Japan, gathered in the city of Guanajuato, in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, at the II Latin American Workshop on Magnetism, Magnetic Materials and their Applications. The group of scientists converging into the beautiful city of Guanajuato had come from Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Venezuela, Cuba, several places in Mexico, U. S. A. , Japan, Spain, France, Italy, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Denmark. The event attested to the success of the previous Workshop on Magnetism, Magnetic Materials and their Applications, held in Havana, Cuba, in 1991, as well as to the interest, level of activity and quality of the work being carried out in Latin America in the area of magnetism and magnetic materials. Equally important to everyone present was the fact that we had come to honor a friend, Professor L. M. Falicov, on his sixtieth birthday. The choice of a Latin American Workshop on magnetism as a Festschrift for Leo Falicov was,...

  3. Latin American consensus on hypertension in patients with diabetes type 2 and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jaramillo, Patricio; Sánchez, Ramiro A; Diaz, Margarita; Cobos, Leonardo; Bryce, Alfonso; Parra Carrillo, Jose Z; Lizcano, Fernando; Lanas, Fernando; Sinay, Isaac; Sierra, Iván D; Peñaherrera, Ernesto; Bendersky, Mario; Schmid, Helena; Botero, Rodrigo; Urina, Manuel; Lara, Joffre; Foss, Milton C; Márquez, Gustavo; Harrap, Stephen; Ramírez, Agustín J; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2013-02-01

    The present document has been prepared by a group of experts, members of cardiology, endocrinology and diabetes societies of Latin American countries, to serve as a guide to physicians taking care of patients with diabetes, hypertension and comorbidities or complications of both conditions. Although the concept of 'metabolic syndrome' is currently disputed, the higher prevalence in Latin America of that cluster of metabolic alterations has suggested that 'metabolic syndrome' is a useful nosographic entity in the context of Latin American medicine. Therefore, in the present document, particular attention is paid to this syndrome in order to alert physicians on a particularly high-risk population, usually underestimated and undertreated. These recommendations result from presentations and debates by discussion panels during a 2-day conference held in Bucaramanga, in October 2012, and all the participants have approved the final conclusions. The authors acknowledge that the publication and diffusion of guidelines do not suffice to achieve the recommended changes in diagnostic or therapeutic strategies, and plan suitable interventions overcoming knowledge, attitude and behavioural barriers, preventing both physicians and patients from effectively adhering to guideline recommendations.

  4. [Latin American consensus on hypertension in patients with diabetes type 2 and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jaramillo, Patricio; Sánchez, Ramiro A; Diaz, Margarita; Cobos, Leonardo; Bryce, Alfonso; Parra-Carrillo, Jose Z; Lizcano, Fernando; Lanas, Fernando; Sinay, Isaac; Sierra, Iván D; Peñaherrera, Ernesto; Bendersky, Mario; Schmid, Helena; Botero, Rodrigo; Urina, Manuel; Lara, Joffre; Foss, Milton C; Márquez, Gustavo; Harrap, Stephen; Ramírez, Agustín J; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2014-04-01

    The present document has been prepared by a group of experts, members of cardiology, endocrinology, internal medicine, nephrology and diabetes societies of Latin American countries, to serve as a guide to physicians taking care of patients with diabetes, hypertension and comorbidities or complications of both conditions. Although the concept of metabolic syndrome is currently disputed, the higher prevalence in Latin America of that cluster of metabolic alterations has suggested that metabolic syndrome is a useful nosography entity in the context of Latin American medicine. Therefore, in the present document, particular attention is paid to this syndrome in order to alert physicians on a particular high-risk population, usually underestimated and undertreated. These recommendations result from presentations and debates by discussion panels during a 2-day conference held in Bucaramanga, in October 2012, and all the participants have approved the final conclusions. The authors acknowledge that the publication and diffusion of guidelines do not suffice to achieve the recommended changes in diagnostic or therapeutic strategies, and plan suitable interventions overcoming knowledge, attitude and behavioural barriers, preventing both physicians and patients from effectively adhering to guideline recommendations.

  5. Latin Lessons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Integration presents challenges and opportunities for Chinese companies in Latin America On December 3 the Third Summit of Latin American and Caribbean States lowered its curtain in Caracas, capital of Venezuela, officially signing into effect the formation of the Community of Latin A merican and Caribbean States (CELAC) as the new leading regional bloc, which symbolized further integration of the region and a milestone after Latin America’s independence fighters first raised the battle cry for a united Latin America 200 years ago. As the second largest trade partner and the third largest investor of the region,

  6. Knowledge and attitudes of Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists regarding intrauterine contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahamondes L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Luis Bahamondes,1 Maria Y Makuch,1 Ilza Monteiro,1 Victor Marin,2 Richard Lynen3 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Central, Petróleos Mexicanos, México City, Mexico; 3Bayer HealthCare, Newark, NJ, USA Background: Intrauterine contraceptives (IUCs, including the copper intrauterine device and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS, are among the reversible contraceptive methods with high effectiveness. However, use is low in many settings, including some Latin American countries, mainly due to the influences of myths, fears, and negative attitudes, not only of users and potential users, but also of different cadres of health care professionals. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of a group of Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists regarding IUCs.Methods: A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting organized in Chile in 2014 to present and discuss updated information about contraception. Obstetricians and gynecologists from 12 Latin American countries, who reported that they provide daily contraception services in both the public and private sectors, participated in the meeting. Participants who agreed to take part in the survey responded to a multiple-choice questionnaire on issues regarding knowledge, use, and attitudes about IUCs.Results: Of the 210 obstetricians and gynecologists participating in the meeting, the respondents to each question varied from 168 (80.0% to 205 (97.6%. Almost 50% recognized that the failure rate of combined oral contraceptives, patches, and vaginal rings is 8%–10%. Furthermore, 10% of the participants did not recognize the high contraceptive effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods. Additionally, almost 80% of the respondents answered that they did not offer IUCs to nulligravidas and almost 10% did

  7. Social adaptation of Latin American youth gangs in Spain: Gangs and street youth organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Soriano Gatica

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article carries out a brief summary of the evolution of the phenomenon of what are known as “Latino gangs” in Spain since the late 1990s. The upsurge of these new street youth organisations is closely linked with the mass arrival of thousands of young Latin Americans in Spain during the past decade, and the consequent integration challenges that this has brought for both the welcoming society and for the young newcomers. In the sphere of public policy inSpain, there have been two main approaches to the phenomenon: one which is more oriented towards repression than prevention, and the other, known as the “Barcelona model”, which has promoted a process of normalisation and integration of these groups into Spanish society. The second option makes it possible for different social actors to carry out coordinated actions, and may serve as a guideline for developing similar initiatives in different countries in Europe and Latin America.

  8. Concerning at distance: digital activism and social media empowerment between Latin-American migrants in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David RAMIREZ PLASCENCIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on developing some important points about the use of social platforms in the life of Latin-Americans in Spain, particularly Mexican, Colombian and Venezuelan migrants. It shows the outcomes of data collected on closed groups in Facebook. The main topic centers on how social networks catalyze the spread of political engagement and public activism in between migrants concerning public matters in their homelands. Final outcomes will show that there is a clear inclination in using social platforms to discuss, organize and participate in public activism focused on resolving homeland problems. In this context, these virtual spaces serve as a link to stay in touch with their communities in Latin-America. Migrants are not only using social networks to make new relations in their new context but to ensure not to lose the connection with their friends and relatives, and of course, participate in social and political activism.

  9. The Latin American Giant Observatory: Contributions to the 34th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2015)

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, W; Araujo, C; Areso, O; Arnaldi, H; Asorey, H; Audelo, M; Barros, H; Bertou, X; Bonnett, M; Calderon, R; Calderon, M; Campos-Fauth, A; Carramiñana, A; Carrasco, E; Carrera, E; Cazar, D; Cifuentes, E; Cogollo, D; Conde, R; Cotzomi, J; Dasso, S; De Castro, A; De La Torre, J; De León, R; Estupiñan, A; Galindo, A; Garcia, L; Berisso, M Gómez; González, M; Guevara, W; Gulisano, A M; Hernández, H; Jaimes, A; López, J; Mantilla, C; Martín, R; Martínez-Mendez, A; Martínez, O; Martins, E; Masías-Meza, J J; Mayo-García, R; Melo, T; Mendoza, J; Miranda, P; Montes, E; Morales, E; Morales, I; Moreno, E; Murrugarra, C; Nina, C; Núñez, L A; Núñez-Castiñeyra, A; Otiniano, L; Peña-Rodríguez, J; Perenguez, J; Pérez, H; Perez, Y; Perez, G; Pinilla-Velandia, S; Ponce, E; Quishpe, R; Quispe, F; Ramelli, M; Reyes, K; Rivera, H; Rodriguez, J; Rodríguez-Pascual, M; Romero, M; Rubio-Montero, A J; Salazar, H; Salinas, J; Sarmiento-Cano, C; Sidelnik, I; Haro, M Sofo; Suárez-Durán, M; Subieta, M; Tello, J; Ticona, R; Torres, I; Torres-Niño, L; Truyenque, J; Valencia-Otero, M; Vargas, S; Vásquez, N; Villasenor, L; Zamalloa, M; Zavala, L

    2016-01-01

    The Latin American Giant Observatory (LAGO) is an extended cosmic ray observatory composed by a network of water-Cherenkov detectors spanning over different sites located at significantly different altitudes (from sea level up to more than $5000$\\,m a.s.l.) and latitudes across Latin America, covering a huge range of geomagnetic rigidity cut-offs and atmospheric absorption/reaction levels. This detection network is designed to measure the temporal evolution of the radiation flux at ground level with extreme detail. The LAGO project is mainly oriented to perform basic research in three branches: high energy phenomena, space weather and atmospheric radiation at ground level. LAGO is built and operated by the LAGO Collaboration, a non-centralized collaborative union of more than 30 institutions from ten countries. These are the contributions of the LAGO Collaboration to the 34th International Cosmic Ray Conference, 30 July - 6 August 2015, The Hague, The Netherlands

  10. LATINMAG: A Latin-American Collaborative Network in Paleo, Geo, Rock and Environmental Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constanzo, V.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Rapalini, A.; Trindade, R.

    2007-12-01

    In recent years research in paleo, geo, rock and environmental magnetism has experienced significant development in Latin-America with new research groups being settled in several countries including Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Venezuela and Uruguay (among others). The LATINMAG network, established in May 2007, follows previous attempts to congregate ancient and newborn Latin-American research groups. It was conceived as a forum for scientific discussion and regional collaboration of these groups, including scientific meetings and interchange programs for students and researchers. Its first bi-annual meeting is going to be held in November 2008 in Caracas, Venezuela. More information is available at http://www.geofisica.unam.mx/LIMNO/LATINMAG.

  11. Body mass index and waist circumference of Latin American adult athletes with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T Foley

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine both body mass index (BMI status and waist circunference (WC in a large international sample of adult Special Olympics participants from Latin America. It also explored the association of age and sex with obesity in this population. Materials and methods. BMI and WC records from a total of 4 174 (2 683 male and 1 491 female participant records from the Special Olympics International Health Promotion database were examined. Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was quite high (i.e. >40%, but generally lower than studies involving adults with intellectual disabilities from Europe and the USA. Chi-square analyses revealed that both increasing age and being female significantly predicted levels of overweight, obesity, and WC. Conclusions. These results suggest that efforts need to be made to prevent and reduce rates of overweight and obesity among Latin American Special Olympics participants,particularly women.

  12. Interaction of science and diplomacy: Latin American, the United States and nuclear energy, 1945-1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, R.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear programs in Argentina and Brazil can be traced to August 1945 when their scientific communities articulated responses to the atomic bombings of Japan. They culminated in attempts to develop independent nuclear programs, sharply opposed by the United States, during the nationalist governments of Juan Peron and Getulio Vargas. This dissertation, based on primary sources from the three nations, analyzes these programs and the American responses. Latin America entered the nuclear age attempting to control natural resources, to improve scientific establishments, and to appraise Latin American-United States relations. Despite some clear warnings about nuclear dangers, the new form of energy was seen as the solution to industrial problems, poverty, and outside political interference. International opposition, which may have included nuclear threats from the United States, blocked Argentina's first attempt in 1947. After 1948, Peron wanted a nuclear program for cheap energy and prestige. The qualifications of the Brazilian scientists gave more substance to their program. The program originated in August, 1945, but assumed national proportion with the government of Vargas in 1951. Lack of American cooperation forced Vargas to establish a secret program with Germany. American troops intervened taking over the German equipment already completed. The final collapse came about with Vargas' suicide in August, 1954.

  13. [Which are the most influential journals, books and scientists in Latin American biology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Benavides-Varela, Catalina; Morera, Bernal

    2004-03-01

    A survey was distributed by e-mail to 553 biologists who study the Neotropics, in order to identify the journals, books and researchers with the greatest influence over Latin American biology. The biologists' database of the Revista de Biología Tropical was used to obtain their addresses. One third of them answered. The Revista de Biología Tropical is considered the most influential journal in the region. The majority of other influential journals are published in developed countries. The thematic distribution of answers, as well as independent assessments found in the literature, indicate that these and other survey results are not biased by the use of the journal's database. By subject, marine and ecological journals are the most influential. In contrast with American science, there are no researchers or books that clearly dominate the field. These results hint to the subjectivity of many awards and qualifications and possibly reflect a lack of tradition regarding appearance of local scientists in the mass media, the small capacity of world wide diffusion for local research and the low priority of science in the Iberoamerican culture. Latin American journals should improve, specially through efficient communication with authors, stringent rejection of inferior manuscripts and through widespread and timely distribution. The marked dominance by male researchers may reflect the lower number of women in the field, and social inequality. Despite the absence of "superstars", there was a correlation: most scientists in the "list of outstanding researchers" were from large countries. The publication of the most influential journal in one of the smallest countries of the region might reflect the relatively long period of existence of the Revista (half a century), the lack of other alternatives in the region and the journal's inclusion in international indices. Recommendations for Latin American science include a selection of the best journals to receive financial

  14. Latin American immigrants have limited access to health insurance in Japan: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguimoto S Pilar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japan provides universal health insurance to all legal residents. Prior research has suggested that immigrants to Japan disproportionately lack health insurance coverage, but no prior study has used rigorous methodology to examine this issue among Latin American immigrants in Japan. The aim of our study, therefore, was to assess the pattern of health insurance coverage and predictors of uninsurance among documented Latin American immigrants in Japan. Methods We used a cross sectional, mixed method approach using a probability proportional to estimated size sampling procedure. Of 1052 eligible Latin American residents mapped through extensive fieldwork in selected clusters, 400 immigrant residents living in Nagahama City, Japan were randomly selected for our study. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire developed from qualitative interviews. Results Our response rate was 70.5% (n = 282. Respondents were mainly from Brazil (69.9%, under 40 years of age (64.5% and had lived in Japan for 9.45 years (SE 0.44; median, 8.00. We found a high prevalence of uninsurance (19.8% among our sample compared with the estimated national average of 1.3% in the general population. Among the insured full time workers (n = 209, 55.5% were not covered by the Employee's Health Insurance. Many immigrants cited financial trade-offs as the main reasons for uninsurance. Lacking of knowledge that health insurance is mandatory in Japan, not having a chronic disease, and having one or no children were strong predictors of uninsurance. Conclusions Lack of health insurance for immigrants in Japan is a serious concern for this population as well as for the Japanese health care system. Appropriate measures should be taken to facilitate access to health insurance for this vulnerable population.

  15. Immigrant advantage? Substance use among Latin American immigrant and native-born youth in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Kulis, Stephen; Luengo, Maria Angeles; Nieri, Tanya; Villar, Paula

    2008-04-01

    This article reports the results of a descriptive study conducted with middle school and high school age youth residing in northwestern Spain. The main outcome of the study is to advance knowledge about the drug use attitudes and behaviors of immigrants versus native youth in a social context where Latin American immigrants share a common language and a set of core cultural norms with the host society. The research was conducted by a bi-national Spain-US research team as a preliminary study leading to the development of joint culturally appropriate prevention interventions for youth in the northern region of Galicia, Spain. Surveys were administered in Spring 2005 to 817 students in 7th to 10th grades in 10 urban, secondary schools with high immigrant enrollment. The sample included Spanish natives (two-thirds) and Latin American immigrants (one-third), mainly from Colombia, Argentina, and Venezuela. Multiple regression analyses predicted substance use intentions, and a composite variable measuring lifetime and last 30-day frequency and amount of alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use. Controlling for the fact that the immigrant students were generally older and performing less well academically than natives, and for other predictors, Latin American immigrant youth were less at risk than native youth on their intentions to use substances and on their reported actual substance use. In a mediational analysis, most of the key explanatory variables in youth substance use etiology failed to account for the immigrant versus native differences, including a range of risk and protective factors for substance use, substance use norms, strength of ethnic identity, and degree of social integration within native-born social networks. Differential access to drugs mediated the immigrant-native gap in substance use intentions but did not mediate differences in actual substance use.

  16. Evolution of Framingham cardiovascular risk score in HIV-infected patients initiating EFV- and LPV/r-based HAART in a Latin American cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cecchini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epidemiological studies suggest that some antiretroviral drugs may contribute to increase cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients. However, data from Latin American countries are limited, as impact of HAART on cardiovascular risk remains understudied. In this context, we aimed to evaluate if 10-year Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Score (FCRS increases in patients following exposure to EFV- and LPV/r-based HAART in a Latin American cohort. Materials and Methods: Retrospective 48-week cohort study. We reviewed clinical charts of randomly selected samples of patients initiating (according to national guidelines EFV first-line HAART and LPV/r first- or second-line (but first PI-based HAART assisted at a reference HIV centre in Buenos Aires, Argentina (period 2004–2012. Each patient could only be included in one arm. FCRS was calculated according to National Institutes of Health risk assessment tool (http://cvdrisk.nhlbi.nih.gov/. Results: A total of 357 patients were included: 249 in EFV arm and 108 in LPV/r arm (80 as first line and 28 as second line, but first PI-based HAART. Baseline characteristics (median, interquartile range: age, 38 (33–45 years; male, 247 (69%; viral load, 98200 (20550–306000 copies/mL; CD4 T-cell count, 115 (60–175 cel/µL; total cholesterol, 159 (135–194 mg/dL; HDL: 39 (31–41 mg/dL; LDL: 94 (72–123 mg/dL; current smoker, 29%; on antihypertensive drugs: 14 (4%, diabetic: 4 (1%. Most frequent accompanying nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs were 3TC (92% and zidovudine (AZT; 76%. Baseline FCRS was low, moderate and high for 93%, 7% and 0% of patients on EFV arm and 96.7%, 1.7% and 1.7% on LPV/r arm. On EFV arm, an increase in FCRS category (low to moderate or moderate to high was observed in 1 patient (0.9% at 24 weeks and 6 (5,6% at 48 weeks; 5 (4.7% decreased category. On LPV/r arm no one varied FCRS category at 24 weeks and 2 (3.4% increased from low to moderate at 48 weeks

  17. Profile and professional expectations of medical students from 11 Latin American countries: the Red-LIRHUS project

    OpenAIRE

    Mayta-Trist?n, Percy; Pereyra-El?as, Rene?; Montenegro-Idrogo, Juan Jos?; Mejia, Christian R.; Mezones-Holgu?n, Edward; ,; Sanchez-Pozo, Adriana; Cardozo-L?pez, Juan Pablo; Luizaga-Panozo, Silvia; Theodorus-Villar, Rhanniel; Vidal, Milisen; Sep?lveda-Morales, Roxana; Abudin?n A, Gabriel; Alfaro-Toloza, Patricio; Olmos-de-Aguilera, Romina

    2017-01-01

    Background Latin America is undergoing a human resource crisis in health care in terms of labor shortage, misdistribution and poor orientation to primary care. Workforce data are needed to inform the planning of long-term strategies to address this problem. This study aimed to evaluate the academic and motivational profile, as well as the professional expectations, of Latin American medical students. Results We conducted an observational, cross-sectional, multi-country study evaluating medica...

  18. Trends in dietary patterns of Latin American populations Tendencias en el consumo de alimentos en poblaciones latinoamericanas

    OpenAIRE

    Bermudez, Odilia I.; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2003-01-01

    It is important to characterize the level and magnitude of changes in food consumption patterns in Latin American populations as they undergo demographic and developmental transitions because of the effects of such changes on the development and progression of chronic diseases. This paper examines trends in food intake across regions in Latin America. Although trends in apparent food consumption differ in magnitude and timing, the overall patterns of change are remarkably consistent. Intakes ...

  19. Budget transparency on maternal health spending: a case study in five Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malajovich, Laura; Alcalde, Maria Antonieta; Castagnaro, Kelly; Barroso, Carmen

    2012-06-01

    Progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow and uneven, including in Latin America, where 23,000 women die each year from preventable causes. This article is about the challenges civil society organizations in Latin America faced in assessing budget transparency on government spending on specific aspects of maternity care, in order to hold them accountable for reducing maternal deaths. The study was carried out by the International Planned Parenthood, Western Hemisphere Region and the International Budget Partnership in five Latin American countries--Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama and Peru. It found that only in Peru was most of the information they sought available publicly (from a government website). In the other four countries, none of the information was available publicly, and although it was possible to obtain at least some data from ministry and health system sources, the search process often took a complex course. The data collected in each country were very different, depending not only on the level of budget transparency, but also on the existence and form of government data collection systems. The obstacles that these civil society organizations faced in monitoring national and local budget allocations for maternal health must be addressed through better budgeting modalities on the part of governments. Concrete guidelines are also needed for how governments can better capture data and track local and national progress.

  20. Plagiarism Allegations Account for Most Retractions in Major Latin American/Caribbean Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Renan Moritz V R; de Albuquerque Rocha, Karina; Catelani, Fernanda; Fontes-Pereira, Aldo José; Vasconcelos, Sonia M R

    2016-10-01

    This study focuses on retraction notices from two major Latin American/Caribbean indexing databases: SciELO and LILACS. SciELO includes open scientific journals published mostly in Latin America/the Caribbean, from which 10 % are also indexed by Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge Journal of Citation Reports (JCR). LILACS has a similar geographical coverage and includes dissertations and conference/symposia proceedings, but it is limited to publications in the health sciences. A search for retraction notices was performed in these two databases using the keywords "retracted", "retraction" "withdrawal", "withdrawn", "removed" and "redress". Documents were manually checked to identify those that actually referred to retractions, which were then analyzed and categorized according to the reasons alleged in the notices. Dates of publication/retraction and time to retraction were also recorded. Searching procedures were performed between June and December 2014. Thirty-one retraction notices were identified, fifteen of which were in JCR-indexed journals. "Plagiarism" was alleged in six retractions of this group. Among the non-JCR journals, retraction reasons were alleged in fourteen cases, twelve of which were attributed to "plagiarism". The proportion of retracted articles for the SciELO database was approximately 0.005 %. The reasons alleged in retraction notices may be used as signposts to inform discussions in Latin America on plagiarism and research integrity. At the international level, these results suggest that the correction of the literature is becoming global and is not limited to mainstream international publications.

  1. Latin American critical ('Social') epidemiology: new settings for an old dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breilh, Jaime

    2008-08-01

    Epidemiology's role as the 'diagnostic' arm of public health has submitted epidemiological reasoning and practice to the crossfire of oppositional social values and demands. In Latin America, the visible signs of extreme social and political authoritarianism and inequity, as well as the growing unfairness of the World economy, inspired a culture of social critique and a corresponding academic reform movement, which nurtured a profound social awareness among health scientists. Aims The authors' aim is to call attention to the need to overcome this scientific North/South divide. An imperative, at a moment when the demolition of health standards under the pressures of global economic acceleration and 'unhealthy health policies,' confront us all with the common challenge of cross-fertilizing the strengths of academic traditions from both South and North. The present paper offers a fresh perspective from the South about the relevance of progressive Latin American public health (termed 'collective health') by highlighting a number of its hard scientific contributions which, unfortunately, remain almost unknown to mainstream medical and public health researchers outside Latin America. An armed form of structural greed has now placed the world on the brink of destruction. At the same time, however, fresh winds blow in the continent. This paper is an invitation to confront the menacing forces producing our unhealthy societies and an opportunity to form fraternal partnerships on the intercultural road to a better world, where only an epidemiology of dignity and happiness will make sense.

  2. Canada's International Development Research Centre's eco-health projects with Latin Americans: origins, development and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Donald C; Crissman, Charles C; Orozco, A Fadya

    2006-01-01

    Since its founding in 1970, Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) has supported research by concerned Latin American researchers on environments and human health relationships. Framing of such relationships has changed through different periods. Participant observation, bibliographic searches, document review, and interviews with key IDRC staff. From the early years of multiple different projects, IDRC developed more focussed interest in tropical diseases, pesticides, agriculture and human health in the 1980s. The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in the early 1990s gave impetus to examination of links between ecosystems and human health or "EcoHealth". Projects in Latin America built on earlier work but extended it in methods (transdisciplinarity, community participation, gendered approach) and scope (broader land use and development paradigm issues tackled). A key IDRC-funded activity in Latin America was "EcoSalud", an Ecuadorian effort, which has worked with farming communities, agricultural researchers, health practitioners and local politicians to advance integrated pest management, better recognize and treat poisonings and improve pesticide-related policies. ONGOING CHALLENGES INCLUDE: mobilizing sufficient resources for the primary prevention focus of EcoHealth activities when primary care infrastructure remains stretched, promoting micro-level change in diverse communities and ecosystems, and addressing power structures at the global level that profoundly affect environmental change.

  3. Homophobic Attitudes and Associated Factors Among Adolescents: A Comparison of Six Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Enrique; León, Manuela

    2016-09-01

    Homophobic attitudes are still very common in the world, although there are large differences between countries. This study analyzed the responses of almost 30,000 8th- and 9th-grade students from six countries who participated in the Latin American component of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study. Higher levels of homophobia were found in the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, and Paraguay than in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico. Homophobic attitudes were positively associated with being male, having lower levels of empathy, spending less time with friends and the media, having aggressive attitudes, and being more religious, in particular non-Catholic Christian.

  4. The BIS and the Latin American debt crisis of the 1980s

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Piet; Maes, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    The Latin American debt crisis, which broke out in August 1982, was the first global financial crisis in the postwar period. While the crisis started in the "periphery", it constituted a threat to the "core" of the world economy, as the banking system was under severe pressure. Alongside the IMF, the BIS played an important role in coordinating the international response to the crisis. Moreover, a lot of work at the BIS in the second half of the 1970s had aimed at restraining the debt build-u...

  5. Proceedings of the 2011 CERN - Latin American School of High-Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grojean, C.; Mulders, M.; Spiropulu (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    The CERN-Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures on quantum field theory, quantum chromodynamics, flavour physics and CP-violation, physics beyond the Standard Model, neutrino physics, particle cosmology, ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and heavy-ion physics, as well as a presentation of recent results form the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and short introduction to the principles of particle physics instrumentation.

  6. Latin American World War I Historiography: the Cases of Argentina, Mexico and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Ramírez Bacca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17227/01234870.41folios187.204 The text provides a critical review of the Latin American historiography during the First World War. The author focuses on Argentina, Mexico and Colombia in order to account for the lines of work, categories of analysis and the recent contributions on the issue. In the same way, it takes into account the Western historiographical context, poses questions and dialogues based on recent studies as well as highlights the limitations and explains the reason for the identified historiographical gaps.

  7. [Conceptualizing mental health into practice: considerations from the Latin American social medicine/collective health perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolkiner, Alicia; Gómez, Sara Ardila

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to discuss about the possibilities of a mental health definition from the perspective of the Latin American social medicine/collective health movement. Some relations between that movement and the mental health are pointed out. A historical analysis of that movement is presented. The conceptualizations of the health-sickness-care process are considered, emphasizing the complexity, rights perspective and the reference to life, in contrast with the objetivation/medicalization trend. Finally, these ideas are linked with the current debates on the Mental Health field.

  8. 9th CERN - Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The CERN – Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics is targeted particularly at students in experimental HEP who are in the final years of work towards their PhDs. However, it is anticipated that some post-doctoral students in experimental HEP, and some students in phenomenology, including some masters students, will also be accepted. It should be noted that some pre-knowledge of the subjects is necessary in order to be able to profit fully from the lecture courses.

  9. Testing for an Environmental Kuznets Curve in Latin-American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Bengochea-Morancho

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents empirical estimates of Environmental Kuznets Curves for a panel of Latin-American countries over the period 1975-1998. It uses a new econometric technique that allows for more flexible assumptions in a panel data framework with a large time dimension. Unlike most previous studies we test for slope heterogeneity of the income coefficient in the search of a common empirical relation between carbon dioxide emissions and income. Our results point to the existence of some heterogeneity among countries, but with specific patterns for those sharing certain characteristics.

  10. Latin American culture and reading: text commentary and analysis of teaching as a resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mondaca

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This present article develops an active learning pedagogical approach to enhance the process of reading comprehension in the XXI century classroom, through the incorporation of the Latin American culture in the use of educational resource of text analysis, which allows learners to generate a sense of belonging and cultural identity from elements such as literature, history, poetry, music, art, among others elements that make up the latinoamerican realm. This sense of cultural belonging involves learners in topics that are familiar to their contexts, recreating appreciation for reading.

  11. 5th CERN - Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Spiropulu, M; CLASHEP 2009; CLASHEP2009

    2010-01-01

    The CERN-Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures on quantum field theory, quantum chromodynamics, physics beyond the Standard Model, neutrino physics, flavour physics and CP violation, particle cosmology, high-energy astro-particle physics, and heavy-ion physics, as well as trigger and data acquisition, and commissioning and early physics analysis of the ATLAS and CMS experiments. Also included are write-ups of short review projects performed by the student discussions groups.

  12. Special situations in inflammatory bowel disease: First Latin American consensus of the Pan American Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (PANCCO) (Second part).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto-Furusho, J K; Bosques-Padilla, F; Daffra, P; De Paula, J A; Etchevers, J; Galiano, M T; Ibañez, P; Juliao, F; Kotze, P G; Marroquín de la Garza, J M; Monreal Robles, R; Rocha, J L; Steinwurz, F; Vázquez-Frías, R; Veitia, G; Zaltman, C

    This is the first Latin American Consensus of the Pan American Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (PANCCO) regarding special situations in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this consensus is to raise awareness in the medical community in all Latin American countries with respect to pregnancy, vaccinations, infections, neoplasms, including colorectal cancer, and pediatric issues in patients with IBD. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Latin American special project: kidney health cooperation project between Uruguay and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Laura; Plata-Cornejo, Raúl; Fernández-Cean, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Uruguay and Bolivia are two countries that show heterogenicity of the Latin American region, including the national income, the expenditure on health and the services for renal care. In Bolivia, there is manpower shortage for renal care with only 5 nephrologists per million people (pmp) and the prevalence of patients on dialysis is only 200 pmp. This is much lower than the mean prevalence rate of renal replacement therapy for Latin America as a whole. Uruguay on the other hand has more dedicated renal resources with 50 nephrologists pmp, and renal replacement therapy is provided to ~ 1,000 dialysis patients pmp. In November 2012, a collaborative project financed by the Uruguayan International Cooperation Agency was signed by both the Uruguay and Bolivia Ministries of Health, and the goal was to develop a comprehensive program for the prevention and management of all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Bolivia. The specific objectives were to: a) promote renal healthcare in the primary healthcare setting, b) identify kidney disease in populations at risk, and c) optimize patient care at all stages of CKD, including dialysis and transplantation supported with a national ESRD registry in Bolivia. As a first step, delegates from the Bolivian Health Ministry, visited Uruguay in April 2014, primarily to strengthen the development of tools required for developing and maintaining a national registry. In addition, during this visit, a meeting with the president of the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH) culminated in designing a training program for peritoneal dialysis. This highly cooperative relationship is advancing the prevention and care of CKD in Bolivia and may serve as a model for international approaches to advance system level CKD care in countries with limited healthcare resources.

  14. Challenges in the management of Chagas disease in Latin-American migrants in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Maillo, B; López-Vélez, R

    2017-05-01

    Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America. Due to migration the infection has crossed borders and it is estimated that 68,000-120,000 people with Chagas disease are currently living in Europe and 30% of them may develop visceral involvement. However, up to 90% of Chagas disease cases in Europe remain undiagnosed. The challenges which have to be overcome in Chagas disease in non-endemic countries are focused on related downing barriers to health care access, and related to screening, diagnostic tools and therapeutic management. The aim of this review is to highlight how healthcare management for Latin American migrants with Chagas disease in Europe may be improved. Medical literature was searched using PubMed. No limits were placed with respect to the language or date of publication although most of the articles selected were articles published in the last five years. Chosen search terms were "Chagas disease" AND ("migrants" OR "screening" OR "transmission" OR "treatment"; OR "knowledge" OR "non-endemic countries"); migrants AND ("Public health" OR "Health Service Accessibility" OR "Delivery of Health care"); and "Congenital Chagas disease". Healthcare management of migrant populations with Chagas disease in Europe has to be improved: -Surveillance programmes are needed to measure the burden of the disease; -screening programmes are needed; -administrative and cultural barriers in the access to health care for migrants should be reduced; -education programmes on Chagas disease should be performed -research on new diagnostic tools and therapeutic options are required. This review highlights the needs of profound changes in the health care of Latin American migrants with Chagas disease in Europe. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genealogical information and the structure of rural Latin-American populations: reality and fantasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, E E; Adams, J

    1996-01-01

    Genetic data organized in the form of genealogies can provide much information regarding the history and genetic structure of human populations. A large proportion of the population of Latin America is organized in small rural semi-isolated communities, with little immigration, and until the last 50-100 years, little emigration. These communities have a strong sense of their genealogical history, and this "genealogical conscience' is a frequent leitmotif in modern Latin-American literature. In this communication, we compare the characteristics of fictitious genealogies described in two masterpieces of Latin-American literature, García Márquez' Cien Años de Soledad (A Hundred Years of Solitude), and Verissimo's O Tempo e o Vento (Time and the Wind), with one existing well-studied population in Argentina, Aicuña. All three populations exhibit a number of common characteristics, such as histories of long periods of civil war, and large pedigrees with complex paths of inheritance resulting in complex patterns of inbreeding. Genetic themes common to all three are: (1) the use of genealogical records to substantiate the property of the land or the political power of a kinship; (2) the genealogical registry of biological descendants, independent of their legal or marital status in the clan; (3) the existence of pedigrees of the aristocratic branches in the same kindreds, which illustrate the legal principle of primogeniture; (4) the value of last names as indicators of kinships and the extent of genetic isolation, and (5) the awareness of the deleterious consequences of consanguinity.

  16. Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Gerald Michael

    1986-01-01

    Notes the problematical elements of diversity within Latin America, establishes priorities for the social studies curriculum, and reviews what should be taught about its geography, resources, people, religion, customs, economics, politics, history, and international relationships. Lists Latin American Studies programs and published instructional…

  17. Credit Market Behavior during Turbulent Economic Environments: An Example for a Latin American Country Credit Market Behavior during Turbulent Economic Environments: An Example for a Latin American Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Mena

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The variability of the economy's growth in Latin American Countries (LACs tends to far exceed that found in developed nations. Huge recessions are frequent in LACs. Typically, these recessions are accompanied by major exchange-rate-policy breakdowns. In turn, these output and exchange rate changes drastically alter private expectations concerning the future behavior of these variables. As a result, discrete and significant changes in private behavioral functions occur. This typically affects crucial monetary policy indicators, such as interest rates and credit. This turbulent economic environment makes it particularly troublesome for econometricians to test theoretical propositions dealing with credit market behavior, as well as for policymakers to interpret and forecast credit and interest rate behavior. This paper illustrates this issue using Chile as a case study. A simple theoretical model of business credit is developed, which is then used to interpret the developments in Chile's credit market during 1980-1986. Using a partial equilibrium analysis, it is shown how the contemporaneous correlation between output and credit demand can change sign, whenever the economy is subject to unanticipated recessions and devaluations. The analysis is a timely one for policymakers in many LDCs, who are currently on the path of transforming their economies to free-market open-economies. The variability of the economy's growth in Latin American Countries (LACs tends to far exceed that found in developed nations. Huge recessions are frequent in LACs. Typically, these recessions are accompanied by major exchange-rate-policy breakdowns. In turn, these output and exchange rate changes drastically alter private expectations concerning the future behavior of these variables. As a result, discrete and significant changes in private behavioral functions occur. This typically affects crucial monetary policy indicators, such as interest rates and credit. This

  18. Socioenvironmentalism and Nature 's Rights in Latin American Integration for Good Lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Paiva Marques Júnior

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The proposed of reconstruction of legal, economic, political and social instability in the countries of South America necessarily permeates an analysis of movement enshrined by the New Latin American Constitutionalism Democratic founded on the idea of   buen vivir. The exhaustion of the Continental-European neoconstitucional model in South America is evident primarily from the Constitution of Ecuador (2008 and the Constitu- tion of Bolivia (2009, quite innovative in terms of political and democratic relationships, the result of this constitutional motion. They are seeking a more participatory democratic model, inclusive, egalitarian and horizontal in the relationship between citizens and the state. In light of this new legal-political phenomenon becomes urgent revision of tradi- tional concepts that permeate socioenvironmentalism, the rights of nature and partici- patory democracy. Legal recognition of nature as a subject of dignity and rights requires rationality and sensitivity of lawyers and implies an epistemological reinterpretation of the recognition of dignity and rights for all living beings, since, from the anthropocentric view - European cartesian matrix, these features were reserved only to humans for the effectiveness of Latin American integration project for the good living.

  19. Immigration experience of Latin American working women in Alicante, Spain: an ethnographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana González-Juárez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to describe the experience of Latin American working women regarding immigration, taking into account the expectations and conditions in which this process takes place.METHOD: ethnographic qualitative study. Data collection was performed by means of semi-structured interviews with 24 Latin American immigrant women in Spain. The information collected was triangulated through two focal groups.RESULTS: the expectations of migrant women focus on improving family living conditions. Social support is essential for their settling and to perform daily life activities. They declare they have adapted to the settlement country, although they live with stress. They perceive they have greater sexual freedom and power with their partners but keep greater responsibility in childcare, combining that with the role of working woman.CONCLUSIONS: migrant women play a key role in the survival of households, they build and create new meanings about being a woman, their understanding of life, their social and couple relationships. Such importance is shaped by their expectations and the conditions in which the migration process takes place, as well as their work integration.

  20. Falls among elderly persons in Latin America and the Caribbean and among elderly Mexican-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A; Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos S

    2005-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for falls among community-dwelling elders in Latin America and the Caribbean and among elderly Mexican-Americans in the southwestern United States. Data for the study came from a project called Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean (Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento en América Latina y el Caribe) (the "SABE project") (surveys from seven cities, with a total of 9,765 subjects) and from the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (H-EPESE) (1,483 subjects). The overall prevalence of falls across the seven SABE cities and the H-EPESE ranged from 21.6% in Bridgetown, Barbados, to 34.0% in Santiago, Chile. In multiple logistic regression analyses, female gender, increased age, high depressive symptoms, and having any functional limitations were significant independent risk factors for falls in most of the cities studied as well as among the elderly Mexican-Americans. In several of the cities, significant risk factors also included diabetes, urinary incontinence, and arthritis. The prevalence of falls had a large variation among the countries studied. Some of the risk factors that we identified could be modified so as to help prevent falls in older people in these populations. The factors deserving attention include depressive symptoms, functional limitations, diabetes, and urinary incontinence.

  1. Massive open online courses in health sciences from Latin American institutions: A need for improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culquichicón, Carlos; Helguero-Santin, Luis M; Labán-Seminario, L Max; Cardona-Ospina, Jaime A; Aboshady, Omar A; Correa, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have undergone exponential growth over the past few years, offering free and worldwide access to high-quality education. We identified the characteristics of MOOCs in the health sciences offered by Latin American institutions (LAIs). Methods: We screened the eight leading MOOCs platforms to gather their list of offerings. The MOOCs were classified by region and subject. Then, we obtained the following information: Scopus H-index for each institution and course instructor, QS World University Ranking® 2015/16 of LAI, and official language of the course. Results: Our search identified 4170 MOOCs worldwide. From them, 205 MOOCs were offered by LAIs, and six MOOCs were health sciences related. Most of these courses (n = 115) were offered through Coursera. One health science MOOC was taught by three instructors, of which only one was registered in Scopus (H-index = 0). The remaining five health science MOOCs had solely one instructor (H-index = 4 [0-17]). The Latin American country with the highest participation was Brazil (n = 11). Conclusion: The contribution of LAI to MOOCs in the health sciences is low.

  2. What Goes On Inside Latin American Math and Science Classrooms: A Video Study of Teaching Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Näslund-Hadley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Beyond common associated factors, such as teacher characteristics and socio-economic background of students, little is known about how student achievement in math and science is related to differences in the teaching approaches used in Latin American classrooms. This paper highlights the main findings of a qualitative study on cross-country differences in teaching practices in three Latin American countries. Of the three countries selected for the study, Paraguay and the Dominican Republic perform at the bottom of the regional comparative test, Second Regional Comparative and Explanatory Study (SERCE, and the Mexican state of Nuevo Leon is one of the top performers. Our findings, based on a large sample of videotape recordings from sixth-grade classrooms in the three countries, indicate that inquiry based instruction appears to be associated with higher levels of learning. Teachers who actively engage students in activities that promote analytical and critical-thinking skills and move beyond a procedural understanding may lead to better performance on the SERCE assessments. However, drill, practice, and memorization predominate in all three countries.

  3. Animals in the Zika Virus Life Cycle: What to Expect from Megadiverse Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Marina Galvão; Martinez, Nádia; Abdalla, Lívia; Duarte Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes; Chame, Marcia

    2016-12-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) was first isolated in 1947 in primates in Uganda, West Africa. The virus remained confined to the equatorial regions of Africa and Asia, cycling between infecting monkeys, arboreal mosquitoes, and occasionally humans. The ZIKV Asiatic strain was probably introduced into Brazil in or around late 2013. Presently, ZIKV is in contact with the rich biodiversity in all Brazilian biomes, bordering on other Latin American countries. Infections in Brazilian primates have been reported recently, but the overall impact of this virus on wildlife in the Americas is still unknown. The current epidemic in the Americas requires knowledge on the role of mammals, especially nonhuman primates (NHPs), in ZIKV transmission to humans. The article discusses the available data on ZIKV in host animals and issues of biodiversity, rapid environmental change, and impact on human health in megadiverse Latin American countries. The authors reviewed scientific articles and recent news stories on ZIKV in animals, showing that 47 animal species from three orders (mammals, reptiles, and birds) have been investigated for the potential to establish a sylvatic cycle. The review aims to contribute to epidemiological studies and the knowledge on the natural history of ZIKV. The article concludes with questions that require urgent attention in epidemiological studies involving wildlife in order to understand their role as ZIKV hosts and to effectively control the epidemic.

  4. Health status sensed by the adult Latin American immigrant population in the city of Seville, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-López, J R; Rodríguez-Gázquez, M A; Lomas-Campos, M M

    2015-06-01

    The immigrant population in Seville has grown over the last 10 years, most of which are Latin Americans. Our aim was to describe the health status perceived in this emerging population. In 2011, a cross-sectional study was performed on a representative sample of 190 Latin American immigrants between the ages of 25 and 44 years residing in Seville (Spain). The self-sensed health status was 18% excellent, 28% very good, 42% good, 11% regular, and 1% poor. The average number of days of satisfactory health status during the last month was 22. Statistically significant differences were found: (a) higher satisfactory perception of health in men than in women (30 vs. 9%) and (b) higher average number of days with excellent health in people with satisfactory perception than those with an unsatisfactory perception of their health status (23 and 15, respectively). Logistic regression, educational level, number of days of good health, and doing physical exercise were the variables that best explained the satisfactory perception of health status. Most people studied have a positive self-assessment of their health status, especially men, who engage in physical activity and those who have 3 and more weeks of good health per month. Our results permit us to support, to a large extent, the theory of the "healthy immigrant".

  5. Visibility of latin american scientific publications: the example of Bolivia (Portuguese original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Pabón Escobar

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on the state of the art of scientific publications in Latin American countries generally restricts itself to its supposedly low visibility. This affirmation is generally conditioned to the exclusive use of large international databases, mainly of the USA and Europe, which include thousands of scientific publications that have marginalized a large part of the scientific literature produced in peripheral countries. Given this fact of low visibility, it became imperative for some Latin American countries, beginning in the 90s (20th Century, to develop their own mechanisms of projection of the results of their own scientific production. The experiences constitute an example for countries that, having significant scientific production, still do not have the means to facilitate access to local scientific publications. Although Bolivia still remains distant from these initiatives, a series of studies were identified that show the existence of a tradition of publication in scientific magazines and interest in their visibility, on a local and international level, which demands attention to the most adequate mechanisms in order to carry this out.

  6. The Effects of Electoral Rules on Women’s Success in Latin American Presidential Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel KOUBA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Several women have been successful candidates in Latin American presidential elections during the last decade. But this historical success has been limited to only a few countries in the region. What are the main causes of this variation? The article develops arguments stemming from the institutionalist theory and proposes that electoral-institutional characteristics of the countries should be considered to be important determinants. The variables which increase the electoral system permissiveness for women are the electoral formula for the presidential election, the constitutional rules that prohibit the election of relatives of former presidents, the presence of legislative quotas for the election of women and the prohibition of immediate presidential reelection. The effect of institutional permissiveness is not automatic but is conditional based on the level of human development. Methodologically, we estimate a regression model to explain the percentage of votes for women in the last three presidential elections in 19 Latin American countries. The validity of the model is further confirmed through the identification and analysis of outliers and influential cases.

  7. Immigration experience of Latin American working women in Alicante, Spain: an ethnographic study 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Juárez, Liliana; Noreña-Peña, Ana Lucía

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to describe the experience of Latin American working women regarding immigration, taking into account the expectations and conditions in which this process takes place. METHOD: ethnographic qualitative study. Data collection was performed by means of semi-structured interviews with 24 Latin American immigrant women in Spain. The information collected was triangulated through two focal groups. RESULTS: the expectations of migrant women focus on improving family living conditions. Social support is essential for their settling and to perform daily life activities. They declare they have adapted to the settlement country, although they live with stress. They perceive they have greater sexual freedom and power with their partners but keep greater responsibility in childcare, combining that with the role of working woman. CONCLUSIONS: migrant women play a key role in the survival of households, they build and create new meanings about being a woman, their understanding of life, their social and couple relationships. Such importance is shaped by their expectations and the conditions in which the migration process takes place, as well as their work integration. PMID:25493683

  8. [Nutritional Sciences' Journals in Ibero Latin American countries in the XXIst Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culebras, J M

    2012-11-01

    The presence of nutrition as an independent matter in the educational programs of the Spanish Faculties of Medicine has been scanty until the end of the XXth century. We have witnessed an important development of the specific opportunities for the nutritional sciences in terms of quality and quantity in the XXIst century. Only one Ibero Latin American journal, Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición (ALAN, ISSN 0004-0622), was present in the Journal Citation Reports, Science Edition among the 51 journals under the heading of Nutrition & Dietetics. Three more ibero latin American journals have been incorporated to JCR in the XXIst century, Nutrición Hospitalaria (Nutr Hosp, ISSN 0212-1611) in 2006, Revista de Nutricao (Rev Nutr, ISSN 1415-5273) and Revista Española de Nutrición Comunitaria (Rev Esp Nutr Comunit, ISSN 1135-3074) in 2007. The four journals are having a growing importance in other electronic platforms, rendering an important service to the scientific society, not only in their environment, but also in the rest of the world. Although English language dominates scientific communications, the critical mass of already existing journals in Spanish and the area of influence of this language is a good stimulus for continuing its utilization.

  9. Perceptions of Latin American scientists about science and post-graduate education: Introduction to the 5th issue of CBP-Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes-Lima, Marcelo; Polcheira, Cássia; Trigueiro, Michelangelo; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira

    2008-11-01

    Although science and engineering (S&E) publications and doctoral degree awards in Latin America had experienced an impressive growth in the past decades, a qualitative evaluation of this increased output must be performed. Previous studies have indicated that growth in visibility of Latin American science - determined by ratio of citations per paper - has not kept pace with the increase in number of publications. In the present editorial, we analyzed - by means of a 12-item questionnaire - the individual perceptions of forty senior researchers involved in CBP-Latin America (29 Brazilians and 11 non-Brazilians) plus a special group composed by six extraordinary Latin American scientists (the "masters"). The questionnaire - using 6-point Likert-like scale for quantification of perception - focused on issues surrounding doctoral educational system as well as the governmental educational policies and publication pressure from funding agencies. In general, the most striking result was the perception (by 82% of respondents) of lack of job opportunities for people holding a PhD diploma in the field of comparative biochemistry and physiology. Other major trends include (i) lack of satisfaction with governmental policies for science and post-graduate education due to policies promoting mass production for papers and PhD diplomas (65-77% of respondents felt that way) (ii) that current PhD students are doing an adequate job, but have not improved in quality as compared to those from 10 years ago (the same was observed for PhD thesis in terms of present versus past), and (iii) that research infrastructure and the curricula of post-graduate courses do not constitute a problem, but (iv) recent-PhDs are not as fit as they should be in paper-writing skills, especially as perceived by Brazilian respondents. The general perceptions were very similar among Brazilians, non-Brazilians and "masters". The use of a larger study-population, with scientists of more diverse fields is the

  10. Latin American Cultural Resiliency to External Foreign Policy: Strategic Implications for the United States as China Extends Into Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    34Mao’s Steps in Monroe’s Backyard: Towards a United States-China Hegemonic Struggle in Latin America?" Revista Brasileira De Política Internacional...34Mao’s Steps in Monroe’s Backyard: Towards a United States-China Hegemonic Struggle in Latin America?" Revista Brasileira De Política Internacional Vol...Power." Revista Brasileira de Política Internacional Vol. 57 (2014) https://nduezproxy.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?d

  11. El Que No Tiene Dingo, Tiene Mandingo: The Inadequacy of the "Mestizo" as a Theoretical Construct in the Field of Latin American Studies--The Problem and Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Andrew Juan

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the "mestizo" paradigm as a theoretical construct used in Latin American studies denies the historical and cultural contributions of Africans to Latin American society and that it is fundamentally inaccurate and racist. Discusses ways of correcting these misconceptions. (GR)

  12. Teaching Afro-Latin American Culture through Film: "Raices de mi corazon" and Cuba's "Guerrita de los Negros"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown an absence of Afro-Latin American culture at all levels of Spanish instruction. In this essay, I propose the use of film to expand the undergraduate curriculum. Film provides both a visual and cultural narrative for the understanding of Latin American history, culture, and literature, and is an invaluable resource for teaching…

  13. Social security reform in Central and Eastern Europe: variations on a Latin American theme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzer, B E

    After Chile reformed its social security system in 1981, several other Latin American countries and certain Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either a single- or multitier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems retain some form of public program and add mandatory individual accounts. Most of the CEE countries did not want to incur the high transition costs associated with the Chilean model. The switch to a market economy had already strained their economies. Also, the countries' desire to adopt the European Union's Euro as their currency--a move that required a specific debt ceiling--limited the amount of additional debt they could incur. This article describes the CEE reforms and makes some comparisons with the Latin American experience. Most of the CEE countries have chosen a mixed system and have restructured the pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) tier, while the Latin American countries have both single- and multi-tier systems. Some CEE countries have set up notional defined contribution (NDC) schemes for the PAYGO tier in which each insured person has a hypothetical account made up of all contributions during his or her working life. Survivors and disability programs in CEE have remained in the public tier, but in most of the Latin American programs the insured must purchase a separate insurance policy. Issues common to both regions include: Administrative costs are high and competition is keen, which has led to consolidation and mergers among the companies and a large market share controlled by a few companies. Benefits are proportionately lower for women than for men. A large, informal sector is not covered by social security. This sector is apparently much larger in Latin America than in the CEE countries. Issues that are unique

  14. Constructing coincident indices of economic activity for the Latin American economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Issler

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has three main contributions. The first is to propose an individual coincident indicator for the following Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico. In order to obtain similar series to those traditionally used in business-cycle research in constructing coincident indices (output, sales, income and employment we were forced to back-cast several individual country series which were not available in a long time-series span. The second contribution is to establish a chronology of recessions for these countries, covering the period from 1980 to 2012 on a monthly basis. Based on this chronology, the countries are compared in several respects. The final contribution is to propose an aggregate coincident indicator for the Latin American economy, which weights individual-country composite indices. Finally, this indicator is compared with the coincident indicator (The Conference Board - TCB of the U.S. economy. We find that the U.S. indicator Granger-causes the Latin American indicator in statistical testsEsse artigo tem 3 contribuições à literatura de ciclos de negócios. A primeira é a de construir indicadores coincidentes de atividade econômica para Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colômbia e México, usando pesos idênticos para as séries de Emprego, Produção, Renda, e Vendas. Para tal, tivemos que fazer o back-cast de algumas séries chave para poder construir esses indicadores. A segunda é a de estabelecer uma cronologia de recessões para esses países no período 1980-2012 em bases mensais. Com base na última, fazemos comparações em várias dimensões. Finalmente, nossa última contribuição é propor um índice coincidente agregado para a América Latina, que é comparado ao índice agregado dos EUA. Esta comparação indica que o índice coincidente dos EUA Granger-causa o da América Latina, mas a recíproca não é verdadeira

  15. The challenge of changing the inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine in Latin America: declaration of the Latin American Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (SLIPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falleiros-Arlant, Luiza Helena; Avila-Agüero, María Luisa; Brea del Castillo, José; Mariño, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    Even though we have already covered 99% of the path to eradicate poliomyelitis from the world, this disease is still causing paralysis in children. Its eradication means not only the end of wild poliovirus circulation, but vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation as well. Taking into account different factors such as: current epidemiological data, adverse events of the attenuated oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV), the availability of an injectable inactivated vaccine (IPV) without the potential of causing the severe adverse events of the oral vaccine (OPV), the efficacy and effectiveness of the IPV in several countries of the world where it has been used for several years, the rationale of changing the vaccination schedule in different Latin American countries; the Latin American Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (SLIPE) announces its recommendation of switching to IPV in Latin America, by this Declaration, with an Action Plan for 2014-2015 period as regards vaccination against polio policies in Latin America. 1. The optimal proposed schedule consists of four IPV doses (three doses in the primary schedule plus a booster dose), whether IPV is combined or not with other indicated vaccines in the immunization program of the country. During the OPV to IPV transition phase, an alternative schedule is acceptable; 2. Countries should set optimal strategies in order to maintain and improve vaccination coverage, and implement a nominal immunization registry; 3. Improving the Epidemiological Surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) and setting up an environmental surveillance program; 4. Setting up strategies for introducing IPV in National Immunization Programs, such as communicating properly with the population, among others; 5. Bringing scientific societies closer to decision makers; 6. Ensuring optimal supply and prices for IPV introduction; 7. Training vaccination teams; 8. Enhancing the distribution and storing logistics of vaccines. In addition to the

  16. Group Violence and Migration Experience among Latin American Youths in Justice Enforcement Centers (Madrid, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez García, José Manuel; Martín López, María Jesús

    2015-10-30

    Group violence among Latin American immigrant youth has led to ongoing debates in political, legal, and media circles, yet none of those many perspectives has arrived at a solid, empirically supported definition for the phenomenon. This study aims to explore the relationship between the immigrant experience and violent group behavior in youths from Latin America serving prison sentences in Justice Enforcement Centers in the Community of Madrid. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 juveniles, and content analysis was applied to the resulting transcripts, employing Grounded Theory to create an axial codification of intra- and inter-categorical contents, and Delphi panels for quality control. The research team delved into 62 topics, addressing participants' perceptions of the immigrant experience and its effects on five socialization settings (neighborhood, school, family, peer group, and significant other), and each one's relationship to violent behavior. The results led us to believe the young people's immigration experiences had been systematically examined. Their personal and social development was influenced by negative socioeconomic conditions, ineffective parental supervision, maladjustment and conflict at school, and experiences of marginalization and xenophobia. All those conditions favored affiliation with violent groups that provided them instrumental (economic and material), expressive, or affective support.

  17. Science, technology and innovation policies for development the Latin American experience

    CERN Document Server

    Dutrénit, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the implementation of science, technology and innovation (STI) policy in eight Latin American countries and the different paths these policies have taken. It provides empirical evidence to examine the extent to which STI policies are contributing to the development of the region, as well as to the solution of market failures and the stimulus of the region’s innovation systems. Since the pioneering work of Solow (1957), it has been recognized that innovation is critical for economic growth both in developed and in less-developed countries. Unfortunately Latin America lags behind world trends, and although over the last 20 years the region has established a more stable and certain macroeconomic regime, it is also clear that these changes have not been enough to trigger a process of innovation and productivity to catch-up. Against this rather grim scenario there is some optimism emerging throughout the region. After many years of inaction the region has begun to invest in science, technology...

  18. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida spp. bloodstream isolates from Latin American hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godoy Patrício

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available From March 1999 to March 2000, we conducted a prospective multicenter study of candidemia involving five tertiary care hospitals from four countries in Latin America. Yeast isolates were identified by classical methods and the antifungal susceptibility profile was determined according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards microbroth assay method. During a 12 month-period we were able to collect a total of 103 bloodstream isolates of Candida spp. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species accounting for 42% of all isolates. Non-albicans Candida species strains accounted for 58% of all episodes of candidemia and were mostly represented by C. tropicalis (24.2% and C. parapsilosis (21.3%. It is noteworthy that we were able to identify two cases of C. lusitaniae from different institutions. In our casuistic, non-albicans Candida species isolates related to candidemic episodes were susceptible to fluconazole. Continuously surveillance programs are needed in order to identify possible changes in the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns of yeasts that may occurs after increasing the use of azoles in Latin American hospitals.

  19. Dyslipidemia in a cohort of HIV-infected Latin American children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewinski, Margaret; Megazzini, Karen; Hance, Laura Freimanis; Cruz, Miguel Cashat; Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Della Negra, Marinella; Ferreira, Flavia Gomes Faleiro; Marques, Heloisa; Hazra, Rohan

    2011-10-01

    In order to describe the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in a cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents in Latin America and to determine associations with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we performed this cross-sectional analysis within the NICHD International Site Development Initiative pediatric cohort study. Eligible children had to be at least 2 years of age and be on HAART. Among the 477 eligible HIV-infected youth, 98 (20.5%) had hypercholesterolemia and 140 (29.4%) had hypertriglyceridemia. In multivariable analyses, children receiving protease inhibitor (PI)-containing HAART were at increased risk for hypercholesterolemia [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =  2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-5.6] and hypertriglyceridemia (AOR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.9-6.4) compared with children receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-containing HAART. In conclusion, HIV-infected youth receiving PI-containing HAART in this Latin American cohort were at increased risk for hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia compared with those receiving NNRTI-containing HAART.

  20. Dyslipidemia in a Cohort of HIV-infected Latin American Children Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewinski, Margaret; Megazzini, Karen; Freimanis Hance, Laura; Cruz, Miguel Cashat; Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Della Negra, Marinella; Ferreira, Flavia Gomes Faleiro; Marques, Heloisa

    2011-01-01

    In order to describe the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in a cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents in Latin America and to determine associations with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we performed this cross-sectional analysis within the NICHD International Site Development Initiative pediatric cohort study. Eligible children had to be at least 2 years of age and be on HAART. Among the 477 eligible HIV-infected youth, 98 (20.5%) had hypercholesterolemia and 140 (29.4%) had hypertriglyceridemia. In multivariable analyses, children receiving protease inhibitor (PI)-containing HAART were at increased risk for hypercholesterolemia [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3–5.6] and hypertriglyceridemia (AOR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.9–6.4) compared with children receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-containing HAART. In conclusion, HIV-infected youth receiving PI-containing HAART in this Latin American cohort were at increased risk for hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia compared with those receiving NNRTI-containing HAART. PMID:20889625

  1. Quality assessment of chronologies in Latin American pollen records: a contribution to centennial to millennial scale studies of environmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.A. Flantua; H. Hooghiemstra; M. Blaauw

    2015-01-01

    The newly updated inventory of the Latin American Pollen Database (LAPD) offers an important overview of data available for multi-proxy and multi-site purposes. However, heterogeneous paleoecological databases are not suitable to be integrated without an uncertainty assessment of existing chronologi

  2. Quality assessment of chronologies in Latin American pollen records: a contribution to centennial to millennial scale studies of environmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flantua, S.G.A.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Blaauw, M.

    2015-01-01

    The newly updated inventory of the Latin American Pollen Database (LAPD) offers an important overview of data available for multi-proxy and multi-site purposes. However, heterogeneous paleoecological databases are not suitable to be integrated without an uncertainty assessment of existing chronologi

  3. Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lauren Ila

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the…

  4. Los Arboles Hablan: A Spanish Language Curriculum Unit Based on the Study of Latin American Rain Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuman, John P.

    "Los Arboles Hablan," a video-based curriculum that promotes the learning of Spanish as a second language through study of the Latin American rain forests is described. The 12-session unit was designed for use at the middle school level and integrates science, social science, and environmental education with content focusing on the…

  5. Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lauren Ila

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the…

  6. Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lauren Ila

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the women…

  7. Educating "Barbaros": Educational Policies on the Latin American Frontiers between Colonies and Independent Republics (Araucania, Southern Chile/Sonora, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holck, Lasse; Saiz, Monika Contreras

    2010-01-01

    This article compares the methods and means employed by the state to enforce the education of (semi-)autonomous indigenous groups in southern Chile and northwestern Mexico (Sonora), border regions in the Latin American periphery, covering the transition from colonial times to the consolidation of independent republics until the middle of the…

  8. The Certificate Program in Western European Area and in Latin American Area Studies as Incentives to Study French and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblauwe, Claude

    The University of San Francisco developed a certificate program in Western European area studies covering French-speaking countries, and subsequently a Latin American area studies program for Spanish-speaking countries, in response to uneven language enrollments and as a means of increasing intermediate-level enrollment. The French program begins…

  9. Ten Years of "Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education" RELEA: Achievements and Challenges for International Astronomy Education Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretones, Paulo S.; Jafelice, Luiz C.; Horvath, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    This study reviews 10 years of "Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education" (RELEA), showing that the journal has become a valuable resource for publishing and highlights its pathway as scholarly journal. Furthermore, it is also a call to astronomy education specialists to consolidate their efforts considering similar journals…

  10. Latin American collaboration to the CERN-LHC accelerator assembly and its projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajo B, L. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Summary of Latin American (LA) scientists main contributions to the construction of a heavy ion detector assembly currently operating at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva,Switzerland is given with description of the provided support for posterior data analysis. This joint effort highlights the much needed recognition of LA as a technologically emerging region. It has also shown a net benefit in development of science for our region. Details are given on the LHC-Alice experiment where several LA countries have contributed with innovative technological solutions. These include the ability to build part of the numerous detectors, including the central barrel as well as acquired knowledge on aspects concerning high energy dosimetry and radiation damage. (Author)

  11. THE SPANISH AND LATIN AMERICAN CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF WORK LIFE BALANCE: KEYS FOR INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Romeo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current global economic crisis has led us to ask how to generate competitive advantages that have an impact on organizational effectiveness without jeopardizing the employees’ quality of life. The importance of the development of health and safety policies (Montero, Araque, & Rey, 2009, and within these, family-friendly policies promoting the work-life balance (WLB of employees (Leon & Chinchilla, 2010; Urcelay, 2005 has been pointed out by various authors in our country. This article reviews the main Spanish and Latin American contributions on work-life balance (WLB published in the last eight years, and presents the research work of the ASH-PsicoSAO Group (University of Barcelona related to this topic. The objective of our work is to contribute to both the scientific and the occupational fields, with particular attention to the role of supervisor.

  12. Wealth gradients in early childhood cognitive development in five Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schady, Norbert; Behrman, Jere; Araujo, Maria Caridad; Azuero, Rodrigo; Bernal, Raquel; Bravo, David; Lopez-Boo, Florencia; Macours, Karen; Marshall, Daniela; Paxson, Christina; Vakis, Renos

    2015-01-01

    Research from the United States shows that gaps in early cognitive and non-cognitive ability appear early in the life cycle. Little is known about this important question for developing countries. This paper provides new evidence of sharp differences in cognitive development by socioeconomic status in early childhood for five Latin American countries. To help with comparability, we use the same measure of receptive language ability for all five countries. We find important differences in development in early childhood across countries, and steep socioeconomic gradients within every country. For the three countries where we can follow children over time, there are few substantive changes in scores once children enter school. Our results are robust to different ways of defining socioeconomic status, to different ways of standardizing outcomes, and to selective non-response on our measure of cognitive development.

  13. Monstrosity and War Memories in Latin American Post-conflict Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara D'Argenio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between inhumanity, monstrosity, war and memory in two Latin American films: Días de Santiago (Peru, 2004 and La sombra del caminante (Colombia, 2004. These aesthetically innovative films tackle the internal armed conflicts that have occurred in Colombia and Peru in recent years. Focusing on former soldiers’ reintegration into civilian life, they display war as a traumatic experience that produces monstrosity, understood as a dehumanisation of the individual. By analysing the tropes of monstrosity and the haunting past, and the films’ aesthetics, I show how the performance of the monster articulates a tension between inhumanity and humanness, which can be read as a metaphor for the tension between the acts of remembering, investigating and forgetting within post-conflict societies.

  14. Challenges of SOA adoption in the Telco domain for Latin American researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mendioroz-Cotelo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Telecommunication service providers such as Mobile Network Operators are currently under the vortex arising from paradigm shifts imposed by the omnipresence of the Internet. The adoption of Service Oriented Architecture and the shift to Next Generation Networks constitute some of the efforts of these organizations at the conflence toward these new business models. This article introduces a review of the concepts behind these proposals within Telco organizations, identifis gaps and discusses about the challenges that research and development groups are facing in the Latin American context; obstacles to overcome for converging and creating a synergic environment of common interests oriented to the innovation around the subject.

  15. Stigma of poverty. The discursive construction of ­"South" term in Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GÓMEZ QUINTERO, Juan David

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects a general knowledge and a macro-paradigmatic contribution of developmentalist discourses, in particular, its modernist and Eurocentric roots. In particular we analyze the artificiality of the discursive construction of certain categories that represent geopolitical stigma of poverty, such as ­Third World® or ­South® or ­underdeveloped® adopted in the field of international relations and the development cooperation. It notes that there are not metaphors opposite (North-South in its own right, the ­South® is not the opposite of the ­North®, but its negative extension, as evidenced by the imaginarium of most Latin American countries. The metaphors that stigmatize poverty are symbolic discourse used to define in a European way the identity of the winner (rich people.

  16. Carbon sequestration potential of second-growth forest regeneration in the Latin American tropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chazdon, Robin L.; Broadbent, Eben N.; Rozendaal, Danaë M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We...... area). Over 40 years, these lands can potentially accumulate a total aboveground carbon stock of 8.48 Pg C (petagrams of carbon) in aboveground biomass via low-cost natural regeneration or assisted regeneration, corresponding to a total CO2 sequestration of 31.09 Pg CO2. This total is equivalent...... estimate the age and spatial extent of lowland second-growth forests in the Latin American tropics and model their potential aboveground carbon accumulation over four decades. Our model shows that, in 2008, second-growth forests (1 to 60 years old) covered 2.4 million km2 of land (28.1% of the total study...

  17. SSA 04-1 SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN LATIN AMERICAN GUIDELINES FROM OTHERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Agustin

    2016-09-01

    The presentation will focus on the different guidelines we have actually in hands (JNCHT 8, ESH / ESC, ISH) and compare them to the last Latin-American Society of Hypertension Guidelines to be published in this year.In this way, we will focus our attention in the socio-economic problem of the different countries in LA and the differences we have included in our Guidelines due to the actual needs in LA.Additionally we will specially mention the special populations from LA like andineans, people living over 500m from sea level, and the different black populations that are different from those described in North America.Relating treatment the need to use generic forms of drugs related to the economic difficulties to access to original drugs will also be discussed.Finally the need for further studies relating epidemiology, prevalence of hypertension and the morbi-mortality related will be presented.

  18. Exploring Two Inflationary Regimes in Latin-American Economies:. a Binary Time Series Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brida, Juan Gabriel; Garrido, Nicolas

    The aim of this paper is to apply the methods of Symbolic Time Series Analysis (STSA) to a series of inflation from a group of Latin-American economies. Starting with a partition of two inflation regimes, we use data symbolization for identifying temporal patterns. Afterwards the statistical information obtained from the patterns is used to estimate the parameters of a nonlinear model proposed by Brida (2000).1 We compare the performance of the model against a naive benchmark predictor to verify its power to anticipate the qualitative behavior of the inflation time series. When the use of STSA is made through pure optimization criteria, the performance of the model is poor. However, when the partition of the space of states is made according to economics intuition, the performance of the model increases considerably.

  19. Attitudes towards Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination in the Latin American Andean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanodi, Oroma

    2017-09-08

    This commentary explores the distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV) and HPV-related diseases, and factors affecting attitudes towards HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination in the Latin American Andean region. Lack of knowledge of HPV, known negative attitudes or incorrect assumptions about HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination provide a basis upon which to develop targeted HPV awareness and preventive health media campaigns. For maximal effect, media campaigns should use the internet, radio, and television to address health care providers, parents, and students. Additional programming can be developed for clinics to use in-house with their clients. Ministries of Education, Finance, and Health all have roles to play to increase national HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination awareness.

  20. Attitudes towards Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination in the Latin American Andean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oroma Nwanodi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This commentary explores the distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV and HPV-related diseases, and factors affecting attitudes towards HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination in the Latin American Andean region. Lack of knowledge of HPV, known negative attitudes or incorrect assumptions about HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination provide a basis upon which to develop targeted HPV awareness and preventive health media campaigns. For maximal effect, media campaigns should use the internet, radio, and television to address health care providers, parents, and students. Additional programming can be developed for clinics to use in-house with their clients. Ministries of Education, Finance, and Health all have roles to play to increase national HPV, HPV-related diseases, and HPV vaccination awareness.

  1. Illicit drug use in seven Latin American countries: critical perspectives of families and familiars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jaqueline da; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa; Loyola, Cristina Maria Douat; Albarracín, Daniel Gonzalo Eslava; Diaz, Jorge; Funes, Gladys Magdalena Rodríguez; Hernández, Mabell Granados; Torres, Ruth Magdalena Gallegos; Rodriguez, Ruth Jakeline Oviedo

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional multi-centre study explored how family members and friends of illicit drug users perceived protective and risk factors, treatment facilities and policies and laws regarding illicit drug use. Family members and friends of illicit drug users were recruited in 10 urban health care outpatient units in 7 Latin American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico) to complete a questionnaire. The majority of the respondents chose psycho-social factors over genetic or biological explanations as causes of drug problems. Respondents felt that families and governments were responsible for preventing drug problems. Church/religious institutions were most often mentioned in the context of accessible treatment. When asked about access to treatment facilities, the majority said that there were not enough. Shame about drug use, cost, and limited treatment options were most often cited as barriers to treatment.

  2. Social integration of Latin-American immigrants in Spain: the influence of the community context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, Asur; Herrero, Juan

    2012-11-01

    The main goal of this study is to analyze the degree to which several community elements such as insecurity, discrimination and informal community support might have an influence on the social integration of Latin-American immigrants, a group at risk of social exclusion in Spain. Multivariate linear regression analyses results showed that informal community support is positively related to social integration whereas insecurity is negatively related. The statistical relationship between discrimination and social integration disappears once levels of informal community support are taken into account. A better understanding of the factors that either promote or inhibit the social integration progress of immigrant population is important to orientate public policies and intervention programs that contribute to the adaptation of this population to the host society.

  3. Energy profiles of selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Report series No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    Countries in this report include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. These ten countries are the most important oil and gas producers in the Latin American and the Caribbean region. In the following sections, the primary energy supply (oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power whenever they are applicable), primary energy consumption, downstream oil sector development, gas utilization are discussed for each of the ten countries. The report also presents our latest forecasts of petroleum product consumption in each country toward 2000, which form the basis of the outlook for regional energy production and consumption outlined in Report No 1. Since the bulk of primary energy supply and demand is hydrocarbons for many countries, brief descriptions of the important hydrocarbons policy issues are provided at the end of the each country sections.

  4. 13th Latin American Conference on the Applications of the Mössbauer Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Caetano, E; Torres, C; Pizarro, C; Alfonso, L; LACAME 2012

    2014-01-01

    Proceedings of the Thirteenth Latin American Conference on the Applications of the Mössbauer Effect, Medellin, Colombia, November 11-16, 2012. The broad scope of the Applications of the Mössbauer Effect to interdisciplinary subjects makes this volume an outstanding source of information to researchers and graduate students, who will find the unique results of Mössbauer spectroscopy a valuable aid and complement to their research in conjunction with other techniques. In this volume, applications to mineralogy, catalysis, soil science, amorphous materials, nanoparticles, magnetic materials, nanotechnology, metallurgy, corrosion, and magnetism, have been put together in original works produced by invited speakers and different research teams across the continent. Reprinted from Hyperfine Interactions (HYPE) Volume

  5. 'Boots for my Sancho': structural vulnerability among Latin American day labourers in Berkeley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, Juan Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the structural vulnerability of Latin American undocumented day labourers in Northern California, as it is expressed in conversations on street corners where they wait for work. The intimate aspects of migrant experience become exemplified in jokes about the Sancho - a hypothetical character who has moved in on a day labourer's family and who enjoys the money he sends home. Joking turns to more serious topics of nostalgia and tensions with family far away, elements that come together with the fears and threats of labour on the corner and affect the way day labourers see themselves. Sexuality is rearticulated in the absence of women and masculinity becomes enmeshed in the contingencies of unregulated work and long-term separation from the people the men support. Together, these elements result in the articulation of threat to the immigrant body itself, which is exemplified by anxieties over homosexual propositions on the corner.

  6. 10th Latin American Conference on the Applications of the Mössbauer Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Partiti, C; Gancedo, J. R; Larica, C; LACAME 2006

    2009-01-01

    Proceedings of the 10th Latin American Conference on the Applications of the Mössbauer Effect, LACAME 2006, held in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil, 5-9 November 2006. This volume demonstrates the way in which researchers, on a wide range of topics, many interdisciplinary, find the applications of the Mössbauer Effect an outstanding method whose results, sometimes unique, complements and improves the information obtained by other techniques to deepen the understanding of the matter under research. This volume comprises research papers recording original investigations on applications to diverse areas like archaeology, metallurgy, soil science, geology, industrial applications, new instrumentation, corrosion, and chemical applications. The papers present the latest scientific work of various regional investigators. Reprinted from Hyperfine Interactions (HYPE) Volume

  7. Latin American consensus on the use of transcranial Doppler in the diagnosis of brain death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler evaluates cerebral hemodynamics in patients with brain injury and is a useful technical tool in diagnosing cerebral circulatory arrest, usually present in the brain-dead patient. This Latin American Consensus was formed by a group of 26 physicians experienced in the use of transcranial Doppler in the context of brain death. The purpose of this agreement was to make recommendations regarding the indications, technique, and interpretation of the study of transcranial ultrasonography in patients with a clinical diagnosis of brain death or in the patient whose clinical diagnosis presents difficulties; a working group was formed to enable further knowledge and to strengthen ties between Latin American physicians working on the same topic. A review of the literature, concepts,and experiences were exchanged in two meetings and via the Internet. Questions about pathophysiology, equipment, techniques, findings, common problems, and the interpretation of transcranial Doppler in the context of brain death were answered. The basic consensus statements are the following: cerebral circulatory arrest is the final stage in the evolution of progressive intracranial hypertension, which is visualized with transcranial Doppler as a "pattern of cerebral circulatory arrest". The following are accepted as the standard of cerebral circulatory arrest: reverberant pattern, systolic spikes, and absence of previously demonstrated flow. Ultrasonography should be used - in acceptable hemodynamic conditions - in the anterior circulation bilaterally (middle cerebral artery) and in the posterior (basilar artery) territory. If no ultrasonographic images are found in any or all of these vessels, their proximal arteries are acceptable to be studied to look for a a pattern of cerebral circulatory arrest.

  8. The Stimulation of Students’ Interest in the Teaching by Competency-based Approach: Latin American Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhyzhko Olena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of scientific-pedagogical research, which consisted in identifying, what are the best strategies of stimulation of students’ interest in the teaching by competency-based approach studying the works of Latin American scientists. With support in the pedagogic-comparative study the author has found out that in the Mexican education system the competency-based approach has been implemented since 2009 through the new national educational policies and Reform of Basic Education in which documents it is argued that competence means putting in play knowledge, attitudes, skills and values for achieving purposes in certain contexts and situations. One of the key tasks of the teacher is to lead and keep the attention of his/her students towards certain goals. Motivation to learning represents the socio-emotional or psychosocial variables (social identity, attitude to the subject, motivation, involved in learning on par with the educational variables (teacher, methodology, learning context; individual variables (subject learning abilities, aptitudes, needs, personality; socio-demographic variables (student’s age, sex, socio-economic and socio-cultural level; sociopolitical context variables (importance in the society of knowledge that provides the subject. The study has showed that the best strategies for stimulation of students’ interest in the learning by competency-based approach, following the Latin American scientists, are, among others, modeling, adapting, making the content of the studied discipline “accessible” to the student’s needs; developing students’ autonomy in learning; promoting conscious learning; establishing dynamic and equitable system of interrelations in the class; creating positive psychological environment; raising the illustrative and dynamic teaching; ensuring the self-control and self-regulation; using the error as part of the learning process (and not as punitive.

  9. Stress and psychopathology in latin-american immigrants: the role of coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, Camila; Kirchner, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Increased migration into Spain requires the development of preventive strategies that help both immigrants and the host society to deal with the associated risk factors and thus avoid the emergence of psychopathology. To determine the level of psychopathology in Latin-American immigrants who reside in Barcelona and its relationship to the coping strategies used to mitigate the effects of the stress linked to migration. The sample comprised 210 Latin-American immigrants over the age of 18. Sampling was based on consecutive cases, and participants were contacted through an NGO. Employment is the stressor that most affects immigrants. Psychopathological symptoms are common among the immigrant population, and there is a relationship between the use of avoidance coping strategies and greater symptomatology. The longer immigrants have been in the host country, the less they make use of approach strategies. The migratory process produces high levels of stress that are linked to psychopathology. Being subjected to a prolonged stressor has a destabilizing effect on both mental and physical health and can lead to a deterioration in social relationships due to more intense feelings of anger and frustration. Coping strategies appear to be more widely used among immigrants than in the indigenous population, and this may indicate the high levels of stress to which the former are subject and the attempts they make to deal with it. The limitations of the study include the source of data collection and the fact that most of the instruments used have not been validated in the participants' countries of origin. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet): Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero C, C.; Arceo M, C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.; Radl, A. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. del Libertador 8250, C1429 BNP CABA (Argentina); Taja, M.; Seoane, A.; De Luca, J. [Universidad Nacionald de La Plata, Av. 7 No. 1776, La Plata 1900, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Stuck O, M. [Instituto de Radioproteccion y Dosimetria, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Valdivia, P., E-mail: lbdnet@googlegroups.co [Comision Chilena de Energia, Amutanegui 95, Santiago Centro, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-10-15

    Biological dosimetry is a necessary support for national radiation protection programs and emergency response schemes. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet) was formally founded in 2007 for mutual assistance in case of radiation emergencies and for providing support to other Latin American countries that do not have bio dosimetry laboratories. In the frame of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Projects RLA/9/54 and RLA/9/61 the following activities have been performed: a) An international intercomparison exercise organized during 2007-2008 included six European countries and LBDNet laboratories. Relevant parameters related with dose assessment were evaluated through triage and conventional scoring criteria. A new approach for statistical data analysis was developed including assessment of inter-laboratory reproducibility and intra-laboratory repeatability. Overall, the laboratory performance was satisfactory for mutual cooperation purposes. b) In 2009, LBDNet and two European countries carried out a digital image intercomparison exercise involving dose assessment from metaphase images distributed electronically through internet. The main objectives were to evaluate scoring feasibility on metaphase images and time response. In addition a re-examination phase was considered in which the most controversial images were discussed jointly, this allowed for the development of a homogeneous scoring criteria within the network. c) A further exercise was performed during 2009 involving the shipment of biological samples for biological dosimetry assessment. The aim of this exercise was to test the timely and properly sending and receiving blood samples under national and international regulations. A total of 14 laboratories participated in this joint IAEA, PAHO and WHO. (Author)

  11. Republic of Argentina: Argentina is the envy of other Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, D

    1984-05-01

    Argentina's economic and political history may appear grim by US standards, but it is envied by many other Latin American nations, and by Latin American standards its demographic situation is enviable as well. A low population growth rate combined with abundant natural resources means that the poverty of its neighbors has not hit Argentina. Almost everyone eats well and the staple is beef -- about 240 pounds per capita per year. Final figures for the 1980 census of population and housing report a total of 27.9 million people, an increase of 17% from the 23.8 million people counted in 1970. The average annual rate of increase was 1.5% a year. With the exception of Uruguay, this is the lowest rate of increase in continental Latin America. The birthrate of 24 births/1000 population is third only to Chile and Uruguay as the lowest in continental Latin America, although the death rate is about average at 9/1000. After several decades of decline, the death rate is rising again because the population is aging. A current problem is the emigration of Argentinians to other countries, a problem that is most severe among highly trained professionals. Over 1/3 of those who leave Argentina come to the US, with Spain and Canada receiving the next highest numbers. At its current growth rate, Argentina's population will double in 46 years. It is estimated that the population was 29.1 million in 1983; it is projected to be 34.5 million by the year 2000 and 39.6 million by 2020. Over 1/3 of the population live in and around Gran Buenos Aires, the largest metropolitan area in South America and among the ten largest in the world. There is a large core of Spanish descendents still living, but some other European countries are well represented also. The 1980 census recorded 7.1 million households; the average number of persons per household was 3.9. There were 8.2 million dwellings counted in 1980, with an average of 3.3 people per dwelling. 13% of all dwellings were unoccupied at the

  12. PREFACE: XII Latin American workshop on plasma physics (17-21 September 2007, Caracas, Venezuela)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerta, Julio

    2008-10-01

    Some years ago a group of Latin American physicists took the initiative to consult about the viability of organizing a meeting on plasma physics for researchers and students of the region. The result was that it was not only a good idea, but a necessity in order to show and share everyone's work, and to keep updated on latest advances and technologies on plasma physics. It was decided that for new researchers as well as students of Physics, it would prove to be the best way to keep them posted on such matters. This was the birth of a series of meetings known as Latin American workshops on plasma physics that take place every two years in a different Latin American country. In Venezuela we have had the opportunity to organize two editions of this interesting and important reunion of physicists. The first of these Latin American workshops on plasma physics was held in Cambuquira (Brazil) in 1982. After organizing the first six editions of the workshop, the VII LAWPP meeting was realized in Caracas in January 1997. It was designed with a structure similar to the first edition. It developed in two stages, a first week devoted to short courses with lecturers in different fields of plasma physics and a second week for contributed and invited presentations. Participants from sixteen different countries were present, half of them from this continent and the other half from overseas, demonstrating the international character of this meeting. There have been four more editions of the workshop and once again, we have had the opportunity to organize this latest edition of the series: the XII Latin American workshop on plasma physics, which took place in Caracas, Venezuela from the 17th to the 21st of September 2007. The structure was modified, because contributed and review papers were together during the first stage, with short courses realized during the second one, called mini-courses, and given by several high level contributors such as José Boedo, Leopoldo Soto, Claude

  13. The Latin American Journal of Astronomy Education (RELEA): contributions and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretones, P. S.; Jafelice, L. C.; Horvath, J. E.

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this work is to present an analysis of articles published by the Latin American Journal of Astronomy Education (RELEA) since its beginning (2004) to the present. We analyzed the 59 articles available on the website of the journal (http://www.relea.ufscar.br), published in 15 issues. The articles were classified by: year of publication, issue, author's institutions, grade level, focus of the study and content. The results show that the number of articles is still small - although the journal has been initially qualified as B3 within the Journal Ranking scheme Qualis CAPES and in the latest ranking (current) advanced to the concept B1 in the Qualis, it is too early to expect an increase in the number of articles submitted. Among the main factors for the relatively low number of articles we can mention that the initially nominated Editorial Board did not succeed in a proper dissemination of the journal and call for papers, the ongoing absence of a ``critical mass'' of astronomy education researchers and the lack of publishing tradition in the area. Important aspects of the writing of articles submitted are also discussed, such as refereeing, acceptance rate of articles, participation of authors from countries other than Brazil and theoretical and methodological frameworks, as well as the recent editorial restructuration of the international Editorial Board of the RELEA and the nomination of Associate Editors from Brazil. Concluding, it is possible to note the contribution to the field up to the moment through citations in other works in the field. However, it is necessary to advance with regard to: publishing more articles, articles from greater variety of Latin American countries, training of the community for a minimum quality of the writing of articles submitted for publication in a journal aimed at education research. In this sense, additional analyses of the published papers would be desirable. Finally, it is pointed out the need for greater

  14. Renal replacement therapy in Latin American end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa-Diez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Marinovich, Sergio; Fernandez, Sdenka; Lugon, Jocemir; Poblete-Badal, Hugo; Elgueta-Miranda, Susana; Gomez, Rafael; Cerdas-Calderon, Manuel; Almaguer-Lopez, Miguel; Freire, Nelly; Leiva-Merino, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Gaspar; Luna-Guerra, Jorge; Bochicchio, Tomasso; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Cano, Nuria; Iron, Norman; Cuero, Cesar; Cuevas, Dario; Tapia, Carlos; Cangiano, Jose; Rodriguez, Sandra; Gonzalez, Haydee; Duro-Garcia, Valter

    2014-08-01

    The Latin American Dialysis and Renal Transplant Registry (RLADTR) was founded in 1991; it collects data from 20 countries which are members of Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nefrología e Hipertension. This paper presents the results corresponding to the year 2010. This study is an annual survey requesting data on incident and prevalent patients undergoing renal replacement treatment (RRT) in all modalities: hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and living with a functioning graft (LFG), etc. Prevalence and incidence were compared with previous years. The type of renal replacement therapy was analyzed, with special emphasis on PD and transplant (Tx). These variables were correlated with the gross national income (GNI) and the life expectancy at birth. Twenty countries participed in the surveys, covering 99% of the Latin American. The prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) under RRT in Latin America (LA) increased from 119 patients per million population (pmp) in 1991 to 660 pmp in 2010 (HD 413 pmp, PD 135 pmp and LFG 111 pmp). HD proportionally increased more than PD, and Tx HD continues to be the treatment of choice in the region (75%). The kidney Tx rate increased from 3.7 pmp in 1987 to 6.9 pmp in 1991 and to 19.1 in 2010. The total number of Tx's in 2010 was 10 397, with 58% deceased donors. The total RRT prevalence correlated positively with GNI (r(2) 0.86; P global incidence rate correlated significantly only with GNI (r(2) 0.63; P < 0.05). Diabetes remained the leading cause of ESRD. The most frequent causes of death were cardiovascular (45%) and infections (22%). Neoplasms accounted for 10% of the causes of death. The prevalence of RRT continues to increase, particularly in countries with 100% public health or insurance coverage for RRT, where it approaches rates comparable to those displayed by developed countries with a better GNI. The incidence also continues to increase in both countries that have not yet extended its coverage to 100% of the

  15. Renal replacement therapy in Latin American end-stage renal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa-Diez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Marinovich, Sergio; Fernandez, Sdenka; Lugon, Jocemir; Poblete-Badal, Hugo; Elgueta-Miranda, Susana; Gomez, Rafael; Cerdas-Calderon, Manuel; Almaguer-Lopez, Miguel; Freire, Nelly; Leiva-Merino, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Gaspar; Luna-Guerra, Jorge; Bochicchio, Tomasso; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Cano, Nuria; Iron, Norman; Cuero, Cesar; Cuevas, Dario; Tapia, Carlos; Cangiano, Jose; Rodriguez, Sandra; Gonzalez, Haydee; Duro-Garcia, Valter

    2014-01-01

    The Latin American Dialysis and Renal Transplant Registry (RLADTR) was founded in 1991; it collects data from 20 countries which are members of Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nefrología e Hipertension. This paper presents the results corresponding to the year 2010. This study is an annual survey requesting data on incident and prevalent patients undergoing renal replacement treatment (RRT) in all modalities: hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and living with a functioning graft (LFG), etc. Prevalence and incidence were compared with previous years. The type of renal replacement therapy was analyzed, with special emphasis on PD and transplant (Tx). These variables were correlated with the gross national income (GNI) and the life expectancy at birth. Twenty countries participed in the surveys, covering 99% of the Latin American. The prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) under RRT in Latin America (LA) increased from 119 patients per million population (pmp) in 1991 to 660 pmp in 2010 (HD 413 pmp, PD 135 pmp and LFG 111 pmp). HD proportionally increased more than PD, and Tx HD continues to be the treatment of choice in the region (75%). The kidney Tx rate increased from 3.7 pmp in 1987 to 6.9 pmp in 1991 and to 19.1 in 2010. The total number of Tx's in 2010 was 10 397, with 58% deceased donors. The total RRT prevalence correlated positively with GNI (r2 0.86; P < 0.05) and life expectancy at birth (r2 0.58; P < 0.05). The HD prevalence and the kidney Tx rate correlated significantly with the same indexes, whereas the PD rate showed no correlation with these variables. A tendency to rate stabilization/little growth was reported in the most regional countries. As in previous reports, the global incidence rate correlated significantly only with GNI (r2 0.63; P < 0.05). Diabetes remained the leading cause of ESRD. The most frequent causes of death were cardiovascular (45%) and infections (22%). Neoplasms accounted for 10% of the causes of death. The

  16. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of neuropathic pain: consensus of a group of Latin American experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Juan Carlos; Amaya, Abraham; Casasola, Oscar de León; Chinchilla, Nelson; De Giorgis, Marcelo; Florez, Sandra; Genis, Miguel Angel; Gomez-Barrios, Juan Vicente; Hernández, John Jairo; Ibarra, Eduardo; Moreno, Carlos; Orrillo, Enrique; Pasternak, Danilo; Romero, Sabina; Vallejo, Mariana; Velasco, Maritza; Villalobos, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    These consensus guidelines have been developed by a group of Latin American experts in pain management, to point out patterns and make practical recommendations to guide the diagnosis, identify warning signs (yellow and red flags), and establish comprehensive medical management (pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment) and monitoring plans for patients enduring neuropathic pain. From the viewpoint of pharmacologic management, drugs are classified into groups according to efficacy, availability/accessibility, and safety criteria. Drugs are recommended for use depending on the disease and particular circumstances of each patient, with an approach that favors multimodal treatment while taking into consideration the idiosyncrasies of medical practice in Latin America.

  17. Well-being, social capital and international migration. The case of the Latin American and Andean Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Leal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to introduce the concept of Latin American and Andean Spain. In order to do this the author collects data about the massive migration between Latin America and the Andean region to Spain. Then, two theoretical perspectives are proposed as an explanation of this phenomenon: push and pull theory, linked to the concept of well-being, and social capital theory associated with the concept of migration network. In third place, it is analyzed some evidence from Colombia that supports the theoretical framework. Finally, contemporary return migration dynamics from Spain are discussed

  18. O novo na sociologia latino-americana Novelty in Latin American sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Oliver Costilla

    2005-12-01

    da produção e da vida, ao humanismo e ao comunitarismo radical renovado, têm que se encontrar com os velhos objetivos de libertação nacional e social do mundo atual, adaptados às novas condições.The paper examines several current characteristics of social sciences in Latin America, in parallel to the development of the subcontinent in recent years. The starting point is the sign that the contradictory combination in Latin America of an intellectuality that has a high cultural level and the existence of social and political movements in an explosive social situation creates wide possibilities for the development of sociology. The crisis of social sciences follows those significant changes, seeking new analytical perspectives able to demonstrate the pace of contemporary changes. Strictly speaking, the article tries to demonstrate that what Latin American sociology sees as novelty is a regression to the critical thinking that characterized it in the past. One of the most important legacies of Latin American sociological history is the study and classification, from a perspective of totality, of social structures and sociopolitical processes as a basis to examine actors' stances and the dynamics of social institutions. Therefore, there is room for a healthy trend in social sciences: overcoming empiricism, regaining theory. A founding need for Latin America today is to update its search for development: how is it possible to be up to the world, to universalize in order to live a historical moment with all its social potential, overcoming backwards and age-worn ways of production and life. And more: how to co-participate in the criticism of new modern and postmodern ways, envisaging new models of civilization, criticizing liberal democracy and Latin Americans' national States of competition, and encouraging the recovery of the democratic public in face of the tendency to state authoritarianism. The contributions that Latin America can give to the criticism and the

  19. Genetic characterization of Latin-American Creole cattle using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J V; Martínez, A M; Acosta, A; Alvarez, L A; Armstrong, E; Camacho, E; Cañón, J; Cortés, O; Dunner, S; Landi, V; Marques, J R; Martín-Burriel, I; Martínez, O R; Martínez, R D; Melucci, L; Muñoz, J E; Penedo, M C T; Postiglioni, A; Quiróz, J; Rodellar, C; Sponenberg, P; Uffo, O; Ulloa-Arvizu, R; Vega-Pla, J L; Villalobos, A; Zambrano, D; Zaragoza, P; Gama, L T; Ginja, C

    2012-02-01

    Genetic diversity in and relationships among 26 Creole cattle breeds from 10 American countries were assessed using 19 microsatellites. Heterozygosities, F-statistics estimates, genetic distances, multivariate analyses and assignment tests were performed. The levels of within-breed diversity detected in Creole cattle were considerable and higher than those previously reported for European breeds, but similar to those found in other Latin American breeds. Differences among breeds accounted for 8.4% of the total genetic variability. Most breeds clustered separately when the number of pre-defined populations was 21 (the most probable K value), with the exception of some closely related breeds that shared the same cluster and others that were admixed. Despite the high genetic diversity detected, significant inbreeding was also observed within some breeds, and heterozygote excess was detected in others. These results indicate that Creoles represent important reservoirs of cattle genetic diversity and that appropriate conservation measures should be implemented for these native breeds in order to minimize inbreeding and uncontrolled crossbreeding.

  20. Los museos latinoamericanos de ciencia y la equidad Latin American science museums and equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Tagüeña

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available América Latina y el Caribe constituyen una región muy variada, pero culturalmente afín. Los orígenes de sus países, sus riquezas y también sus problemas son muy semejantes; inclusive se encuentran puntos claros de contacto en aspectos más fundamentales, como la visión del mundo de cada sociedad. En toda esta región existe una corriente democratizadora muy fuerte que busca sociedades más justas y educadas. La ciencia juega un papel fundamental en el desarrollo como una poderosa arma de tolerancia y equidad. Por ello debe ser divulgada al mayor número posible de latinoamericanos. Para ayudar a lograr esta meta se creó la Red de Popularización de la Ciencia y la Tecnología para América Latina y el Caribe (Red POP, auspiciada por ORCYT-Unesco, que es una red interactiva que agrupa a centros y programas de popularización de la ciencia y la tecnología y que favorece el intercambio, la capacitación y el aprovechamiento de recursos entre sus miembros.Latin America and the Caribbean form a region of great variations yet marked by cultural resemblances. The origins of the region's countries, of their wealth, and also of their problems are quite similar. Indeed, there are clear points of contact in the most basic aspects, such as each society's worldview. Throughout the region there is a very strong democratizing trend that seeks more just and more educated societies. Science plays a key role in development as a powerful weapon for tolerance and equity and therefore should be disseminated among the greatest possible number of Latin Americans. Red POP the Network for the Popularization of Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean - was created to help reach this goal. Under the auspices of ORCYT-UNESCO, Red POP is an interactive network of centers and programs that work to bring science and technology to the public at large. It fosters exchange, skill-acquisition, and resource use among its members. Based on the network

  1. Latin American women’s experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamberlin Nina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used. Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades. This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women’s experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal. Women’s personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1 a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2 complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support. Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it

  2. Carbon sequestration potential of second-growth forest regeneration in the Latin American tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazdon, Robin L.; Broadbent, Eben N.; Rozendaal, Danaë M. A.; Bongers, Frans; Zambrano, Angélica María Almeyda; Aide, T. Mitchell; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M.; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H. S.; Craven, Dylan; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S.; Cabral, George A. L.; de Jong, Ben; Denslow, Julie S.; Dent, Daisy H.; DeWalt, Saara J.; Dupuy, Juan M.; Durán, Sandra M.; Espírito-Santo, Mario M.; Fandino, María C.; César, Ricardo G.; Hall, Jefferson S.; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C.; Junqueira, André B.; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G.; Lohbeck, Madelon; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A.; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R. F.; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A.; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S.; Rodríguez-Velazquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, Isabel Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B.; Steininger, Marc K.; Swenson, Nathan G.; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D. M.; Vester, Hans; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G. Bruce; Poorter, Lourens

    2016-01-01

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We estimate the age and spatial extent of lowland second-growth forests in the Latin American tropics and model their potential aboveground carbon accumulation over four decades. Our model shows that, in 2008, second-growth forests (1 to 60 years old) covered 2.4 million km2 of land (28.1% of the total study area). Over 40 years, these lands can potentially accumulate a total aboveground carbon stock of 8.48 Pg C (petagrams of carbon) in aboveground biomass via low-cost natural regeneration or assisted regeneration, corresponding to a total CO2 sequestration of 31.09 Pg CO2. This total is equivalent to carbon emissions from fossil fuel use and industrial processes in all of Latin America and the Caribbean from 1993 to 2014. Ten countries account for 95% of this carbon storage potential, led by Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. We model future land-use scenarios to guide national carbon mitigation policies. Permitting natural regeneration on 40% of lowland pastures potentially stores an additional 2.0 Pg C over 40 years. Our study provides information and maps to guide national-level forest-based carbon mitigation plans on the basis of estimated rates of natural regeneration and pasture abandonment. Coupled with avoided deforestation and sustainable forest management, natural regeneration of second-growth forests provides a low-cost mechanism that yields a high carbon sequestration potential with multiple benefits for biodiversity and ecosystem services. PMID:27386528

  3. Genome Analysis of Latin American Cervical Cancer: Frequent Activation of the PIK3CA Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hong; Villagran, Guillermo; Boland, Joseph F; Im, Kate M; Polo, Sarita; Zhou, Weiyin; Odey, Ushie; Juárez-Torres, Eligia; Medina-Martínez, Ingrid; Roman-Basaure, Edgar; Mitchell, Jason; Roberson, David; Sawitzke, Julie; Garland, Lisa; Rodríguez-Herrera, Maria; Wells, David; Troyer, Jennifer; Pinto, Francisco Castillo; Bass, Sara; Zhang, Xijun; Castillo, Miriam; Gold, Bert; Morales, Hesler; Yeager, Meredith; Berumen, Jaime; Alvirez, Enrique; Gharzouzi, Eduardo; Dean, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer mortality for women living in poverty, causing more than 28,000 deaths annually in Latin America and 266,000 worldwide. To better understand the molecular basis of the disease, we ascertained blood and tumor samples from Guatemala and Venezuela and performed genomic characterization. We performed human papillomavirus (HPV) typing and identified somatically mutated genes using exome and ultra-deep targeted sequencing with confirmation in samples from Mexico. Copy number changes were also assessed in the exome sequence. Cervical cancer cases in Guatemala and Venezuela have an average age of diagnosis of 50 years and 5.6 children. Analysis of 675 tumors revealed activation of PIK3CA and other PI3K/AKT pathway genes in 31% of squamous carcinomas and 24% of adeno- and adenosquamous tumors, predominantly at two sites (E542K, E545K) in the helical domain of the PIK3CA gene. This distribution of PIK3CA mutations is distinct from most other cancer types and does not result in the in vitro phosphorylation of AKT. Somatic mutations were more frequent in squamous carcinomas diagnosed after the age of 50 years. Frequent gain of chromosome 3q was found, and low PIK3CA mutation fractions in many tumors suggest that PI3K mutation can be a late event in tumor progression. PI3K pathway mutation is important to cervical carcinogenesis in Latin America. Therapeutic agents that directly target PI3K could play a role in the therapy of this common malignancy. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Scientific research in malaria: bibliometric assessment of the Latin-American contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Urbano, Marcela; Lopez-Isaza, Andres F; Hurtado-Hurtado, Natalia; Gomez-Suta, Daniela; Murillo-Abadia, Jonathan; Delgado-Osorio, Nathalia; Lagos-Grisales, Guillermo J; Villegas, Soraya; Medina-Morales, Diego A; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a parasitic disease of high global impact in public health, including Latin America. There should be more researched, particularly in this region. A bibliometric assessment of the Latin American contributions about malaria was done. Bibliometric study at SCI (1980-2013), MEDLINE/ GOPUBMED (1802-2013), Scopus (1959-2013), SCIELO (2004-2013), LILACS (1980-2013). The studies were characterized by study type, year of publication, city/country of origin, journals and more productive authors, citations and H index. At SCI, 2,806 articles were retrieved (5.13% of the total). Brazil was the highest producer (31.41%), followed by Colombia (14.3%) and Mexico (9.5%). The region received 39,894 citations, 32.2% from Brazil (H index=51), 12.75% Mexico (H index=38), 11.2% Colombia (H index=33). At Scopus, there are 4,150 articles (4.9% of the total), 33.0% Brazil, 11.3% Colombia and 8.8% Mexico; 17% in Brazil were from Universidad de São Paulo; 23.6% of Colombia from Universidad de Antioquia; 15.4% of Mexico from Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública. At Medline there were 4,278 records (36.8% Brazil). At SciELO there are 792 records (45.3% Brazil). At LILACS there were 1744 records (34.3% Brazil). Brazil has the highest output of the region, as Venezuela the scientific production in Malaria was related with the burden of disease. This was not the case for Colombia. Scientific production at bibliographical databases, particularly regionals, is low, compared to the high incidence of this disease that requires more research and control.

  5. Latin American Marketing Project. Grade 10 Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antilla, Madeline; DeMonet, J.

    In this lesson, students work as marketing teams hired by a U.S. fast food company to study the feasibility of selling fast food in Latin America. Teams are composed of cultural, production, marketing, and advertising experts. Each marketing team will investigate a product and a Latin American country. Teams will present their research and…

  6. PREFACE: 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, J. Albino

    2014-04-01

    The Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES) started in Caracas-Venezuela, and over time the symposia have taken place in 9 different Latin American countries. The last five events took place in Mérida-Venezuela (2002), Havana-Cuba (2004), Puebla-Mexico (2006), Puerto Iguazú-Argentina (2008) and Maragogi-Brazil (2011). During the last years, in the different SLAFES editions, the aim has been to bring together researches from Latina America and invite renowned scientists from around the world to a unique forum to discuss the latest developments regarding Solid state Physics. The 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI) was held in Villa de Leyva-Colombia, from September 30 to October 04, 2013. The 21st SLAFES version featured the participation of experts in various areas of Solid State Physics from countries such as Belgium, Germany, United States, Spain, Ireland, Chile, Argentina and Brazil, had 270 submitted works and was attended by 140 researchers. The development of this event was made possible by financial support from the Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Universidad del Norte-CO, Universidad de Magdalena-CO, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco-BR and the Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exatas, Naturales y Física. Editors Professor J Albino Aguiar Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: albino@df.ufpe.br Professor Jairo Roa-Rojas Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales Departamento de Física Universidad Nacional de Colombia A.A. 5997 Bogotá DC, Colombia e-mail: jroar@unal.edu.co Professor Carlos Arturo Parra Vargas Grupo Física de Materiales Escuela de Física Universidad Padagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia Tunja Colombia e-mail: carlos.parra@uptc.edu.co Professor David A Land\\'i nez Téllez Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales Departamento de Física Universidad Nacional de Colombia A.A. 5997 Bogotá DC

  7. Human rights and mental health among Latin American women in situations of state-sponsored violence. Bibliographic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykes, M B; Brabeck, M M; Ferns, T; Radan, A

    1993-12-01

    The Task Force of the American Psychological Association Division 35, Psychology of Women, conducted a literature review of resources from Latin America to examine the social dimensions of state-sponsored violence in Latin America, their effects on socialization and community, and some responses of women surviving these experiences. It limited its review to works of women's groups, progressive organizations, and individual women exploring the effects of war and state-sponsored violence on women's mental health. Recurring emergent themes included the false dichotomy of violence committed against women in public versus that committed in private, silencing of women accompanies state imposed terror, collective resistance to such terror. The resources addressed 3 types of women's experiences of violence: exile within and beyond one's national borders; torture--an extreme form of state-sponsored violence; and nontraditional, culturally appropriate interventions--alternatives to Western models. This review motivated the Task Force to call on their colleagues to contribute to the on-going documentation of state-sponsored violence. Task Force members identified several areas for collaborative research and/or theory development. Psychologists should question the validity of clinical neutrality and examine the particular meanings of non-neutrality within different cultures. For example, some Latin American psychologists reject diagnoses of intrapsychic syndromes (e.g., post-traumatic stress syndrome) and propose concepts that center on the nexus of individuals and social life. The Task Force sees great opportunities for US psychologists to network and to form solidarity-based relationships with Latin American women. It has identified many women's groups working in Latin America. Human rights organizations (e.g., Americas Watch) have formed women's projects. Further work should be done to improve resource exchanges.

  8. Regional overview of Latin American and Caribbean energy production, consumption, and future growth. Report series No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    The Latin American and Caribbean region - comprising Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean - is relatively well endowed with energy resources, although the distribution of these resources is uneven across countries. The region produces more energy than it consumes, and the surplus energy, which amounts to 3.6 million barrels of oil equivalent per day (boe/d), is mostly oil. While the region`s total oil (crude and products) exports decreased from 4.4 million barrels per day (b/d) in 1981 to 3.8 million b/d in 1992, its net oil exports increased from about 1.6 million b/d in 1981 to 2.8 million b/d in 1992. In 1993, the surplus oil in Latin America and the Caribbean remained at 2.8 million b/d. This report analyzes the key issues of the Latin American and Caribbean energy industry and presents the future outlook for oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power developments in the region. In addition, the status of biomass energy, geothermal, and other noncommercial energy in the region will be briefly discussed in the context of overall energy development. The rest of the report is organized as follows: Section II assesses the current situation of Latin American and Caribbean energy production and consumption, covering primary energy supply, primary energy consumption, downstream petroleum sector development, and natural gas utilization. Section III presents the results of our study of future energy growth in Latin America. Important hydrocarbons policy issues in the region are discussed in Section IV, and a summary and concluding remarks are provided in Section V.

  9. Genome-wide study of the defective sucrose fermenter strain of Vibrio cholerae from the Latin American cholera epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rios Garza

    Full Text Available The 7th cholera pandemic reached Latin America in 1991, spreading from Peru to virtually all Latin American countries. During the late epidemic period, a strain that failed to ferment sucrose dominated cholera outbreaks in the Northern Brazilian Amazon region. In order to understand the genomic characteristics and the determinants of this altered sucrose fermenting phenotype, the genome of the strain IEC224 was sequenced. This paper reports a broad genomic study of this strain, showing its correlation with the major epidemic lineage. The potentially mobile genomic regions are shown to possess GC content deviation, and harbor the main V. cholera virulence genes. A novel bioinformatic approach was applied in order to identify the putative functions of hypothetical proteins, and was compared with the automatic annotation by RAST. The genome of a large bacteriophage was found to be integrated to the IEC224's alanine aminopeptidase gene. The presence of this phage is shown to be a common characteristic of the El Tor strains from the Latin American epidemic, as well as its putative ancestor from Angola. The defective sucrose fermenting phenotype is shown to be due to a single nucleotide insertion in the V. cholerae sucrose-specific transportation gene. This frame-shift mutation truncated a membrane protein, altering its structural pore-like conformation. Further, the identification of a common bacteriophage reinforces both the monophyletic and African-Origin hypotheses for the main causative agent of the 1991 Latin America cholera epidemics.

  10. What Does Latin American Social Medicine Do When It Governs? The Case of the Mexico City Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurell, Asa Cristina

    2003-01-01

    Latin American social medicine (LASM) emerged as a movement in the 1970s and played an important role in the Brazilian health care reform of the 1980s, both of which focused on decentralization and on health care as a social right. The dominant health care reform model in Latin America has included a market-driven, private subsystem for the insured and a public subsystem for the uninsured and the poor. In contrast, the Mexico City government has launched a comprehensive policy based on social rights and redistribution of resources. A universal pension for senior citizens and free medical services are financed by grants, eliminating routine government corruption and waste. The Mexico City policy reflects the influence of Latin American social medicine. In this article, I outline the basic traits of LASM and those of the prevailing health care reform model in Latin America and describe the Mexico City social and health policy, emphasizing the influence of LASM in values, principles, and concrete programs. PMID:14652327

  11. Effects of 24 weeks of Tai Chi Exercise on Postural Control among Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jihe; Chang, Shuwan; Cong, Yan; Qin, Meiqin; Sun, Wei; Lian, Jianhua; Yao, Jian; Li, Weiping; Hong, Youlian

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 24 weeks of Tai Chi Quan on the postural control of elderly women. A total of 43 women aged 55-68 years participated in the study. A Tai Chi group (n = 22) underwent an organized Tai Chi exercise, whereas the control group (n = 21) maintained a habitual, no-regular-exercise lifestyle. A Good Balance tester (Metitur, Finland) was used to measure the time, paths and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) of subjects during stance while shifting COP to targeted positions shown on a monitor. After 24 weeks, the Tai Chi group showed significantly shorter total (18.6%, p = 0.005), mediolateral (21.9%, p = 0.002) and anteroposterior (18.3%, p = 0.002) COP sway paths than the control group. The results indicate that 24 weeks of the Tai Chi exercise improved the efficiency of postural control for elderly women.

  12. Effects of 24-week Tai Chi exercise on the knee and ankle proprioception of older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuwan; Zhou, Jihe; Hong, Youlian; Sun, Wei; Cong, Yan; Qin, Meiqin; Lian, Jianhua; Yao, Jian; Li, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of regular Tai Chi (TC) exercise on the kinaesthesia of the knee and ankle joints of older women. A total of 43 women aged 55-68 years participated in this study. In a 24-week study period, the TC group (n = 22) underwent an organized TC exercise, whereas the control group (n = 21) maintained a sedentary lifestyle. Customized instruments were used to measure the threshold for the detection of the passive motion of the knee and ankle joints. After 24 weeks, the TC group showed a significantly smaller threshold for the detection of passive motion of knee extension (31.4%, p = 0.009), knee flexion (27.0%, p = 0.044), and ankle dorsal flexion (28.9%, p = 0.014) than the control group. Other comparisons showed no significant differences. The 24-week TC exercise benefited the lower-limb kinaesthesia of the knee joint flexion and extension and ankle dorsal flexion.

  13. Characterization of bovine MHC DRB3 diversity in Latin American Creole cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovambattista, Guillermo; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Ripoli, Maria Veronica; Matsumoto, Yuki; Franco, Luz Angela Alvarez; Saito, Hideki; Onuma, Misao; Aida, Yoko

    2013-04-25

    In cattle, bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLAs) have been extensively used as markers for diseases and immunological traits. However, none of the highly adapted Latin American Creole breeds have been characterized for BoLA gene polymorphism by high resolution typing methods. In this work, we sequenced exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 179 cattle (113 Bolivian Yacumeño cattle and 66 Colombian Hartón del Valle cattle breeds) using a polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) method. We identified 36 previously reported alleles and three novel alleles. Thirty-five (32 reported and three new) and 24 alleles (22 reported and two new) were detected in Yacumeño and Hartón del Valle breeds, respectively. Interestingly, Latin American Creole cattle showed a high degree of gene diversity despite their small population sizes, and 10 alleles including three new alleles were found only in these two Creole breeds. We next compared the degree of genetic variability at the population and sequence levels and the genetic distance in the two breeds with those previously reported in five other breeds: Holstein, Japanese Shorthorn, Japanese Black, Jersey, and Hanwoo. Both Creole breeds presented gene diversity higher than 0.90, a nucleotide diversity higher than 0.07, and mean number of pairwise differences higher than 19, indicating that Creole cattle had similar genetic diversity at BoLA-DRB3 to the other breeds. A neutrality test showed that the high degree of genetic variability may be maintained by balancing selection. The FST index and the exact G test showed significant differences across all cattle populations (FST=0.0478; p<0.001). Results from the principal components analysis and the phylogenetic tree showed that Yacumeño and Hartón del Valle breeds were closely related to each other. Collectively, our results suggest that the high level of genetic diversity could be explained by the multiple origins of the Creole germplasm (European, African and

  14. Low-cost improvements in prehospital trauma care in a Latin American city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola-Risa, C; Mock, C N; Lojero-Wheatly, L; de la Cruz, O; Garcia, C; Canavati-Ayub, F; Jurkovich, G J

    2000-01-01

    Prehospital care is a critical component of efforts to lower trauma mortality. In less-developed countries, scarce resources dictate that any improvements in prehospital care must be low in cost. In one Latin American city, recent efforts to improve prehospital care have included an increase in the number of sites of ambulance dispatch from two to four and introduction of the Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) course. The effect of increased dispatch sites was evaluated by comparing response times before and after completion of the change. The effect of PHTLS was evaluated by comparing prehospital treatment for the 3 months before initiation of the course (n = 361 trauma patients) and the 6 months after (n = 505). Response time decreased from a mean of 15.5 +/- 5.1 minutes, when there were two sites of dispatch, to 9.5 +/- 2.7 minutes, when there were four sites. Prehospital trauma care improved after initiation of the PHTLS course. For all trauma patients, use of cervical immobilization increased from 39 to 67%. For patients in respiratory distress, there were increases in the use of oropharyngeal airways (16-39%), in the use of suction (10-38%), and in the administration of oxygen (64-87%). For hypotensive patients, there was an increase in use of large-bore intravenous lines from 26 to 58%. The improved prehospital treatment did not increase the mean scene time (5.7 +/- 4.4 minutes before vs. 5.9 +/- 6.8 minutes after). The percent of patients transported who died in route decreased from 8.2% before the course to 4.7% after. These improvements required a minimal increase (16%) in the ambulance service budget. Increase in sites of dispatch and increased training in the form of the PHTLS course improved the process of pre-hospital care in this Latin American city and resulted in a decrease in prehospital deaths. These improvements were low cost and should be considered for use in other less developed countries.

  15. Late-onset systemic lupus erythematosus in Latin Americans: a distinct subgroup?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catoggio, L J; Soriano, E R; Imamura, P M; Wojdyla, D; Jacobelli, S; Massardo, L; Chacón Díaz, R; Guibert-Toledano, M; Alvarellos, A; Saurit, V; Manni, J A; Pascual-Ramos, V; Silva de Sauza, A W; Bonfa, E; Tavares Brenol, J C; Ramirez, L A; Barile-Fabris, L A; De La Torre, I Garcia; Alarcón, G S; Pons-Estel, B A

    2015-07-01

    To examine the characteristics of patients who developed late onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the GLADEL (Grupo Latino Americano de Estudio del Lupus) cohort of patients with SLE. Patients with SLE of less than two years of disease duration, seen at 34 centers of nine Latin American countries, were included. Late-onset was defined as >50 years of age at time of first SLE-related symptom. Clinical and laboratory manifestations, activity index (SLEDAI), and damage index (SLICC/ACR- DI) were ascertained at time of entry and during the course (cumulative incidence). Features were compared between the two patient groups (lupus, adjusting for other variables. Of the 1480 patients included, 102 patients (6.9 %) had late-onset SLE, 87% of which were female. Patients with late-onset SLE had a shorter follow-up (3.6 vs. 4.4 years, p diagnosis (10.1 vs. 5.8 months, p  0.05). In multivariable analysis, late onset was independently associated with higher odds of ocular (OR = 3.66, 95% CI = 2.15-6.23), pulmonary (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.01-4.11), and cardiovascular (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.04-2.98) involvement and lower odds of cutaneous involvement (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.21-0.80), number of cumulative SLE criteria (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.64-0.97), use of cyclophosphamide (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.24-0.95), and anti-RNP antibodies (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.20-0.91). A Cox regression model revealed a higher risk of dying in older onset than the younger-onset SLE (OR = 2.61, 95% CI = 1.2-5.6). Late-onset SLE in Latin Americans had a distinct disease expression compared to the younger-onset group. The disease seems to be mild with lower cumulative SLE criteria, reduced renal/mucocutaneous involvements, and less use of cyclophosphamide. Nevertheless, these patients have a higher risk of death and of ocular, pulmonary, and cardiovascular involvements. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Latin American Regional Cooperative Security: Civil-Military Relations and Economic Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    and Argentina and Brazil supported opposing sides in the Chaco War (1932- 1936 ) between Bolivia and Paraguay over the boundary separating their...Miguel, “War in Latin America the Peaceful Continent?” in Latin America an Interdisciplinary Approach, Ed. Julio Lopez-Arias and Gladys Varona-Lacey...Europe, Colorado: Westview Press, 1998. Nogués, Julio and Rosalinda Quintanilla, “Latin America’s Integration and the Multilateral Trading System

  17. Tax structure in Latin American : its impact on the real economy

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Vázquez, Jorge; Vulovic, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review the structure of tax systems in Latin America and analyze their impact on the real economy - economic growth, macro-economic stability, and income redistribution. We find that in Latin America relatively higher reliance on direct taxes slows economic growth, although this effect is smaller than in the ‘Rest of the World.’ However, unlike in most other countries, higher reliance on direct taxes in Latin America does not appear to play a significant rol...

  18. Indigenous Peoples, States and Higher Education. Lessons from Latin American experiences and their potential for ongoing processes in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades a significant number of indigenous and/or intercultural universities and other higher education institutions (HEIs have been created in several Latin American countries. Additionally, “conventional” universities and other HEIs have established degrees, diplomas, and various types of special programs aimed at the inclusion of indigenous people. Some of these educational modalities have been created by indigenous peoples’ organizations and /or leaders, others by universities and other “conventional” HEIs, sometimes through partnerships between these types of institutions and indigenous organizations, while other initiatives have been driven by States. In Argentina these processes are comparatively newer than in several other countries in the region. This article presents an overview of the types of experiences being developed in several Latin American countries, highlights their main achievements and challenges, and suggests some potentially useful lessons for ongoing processes in Argentina.

  19. CERN – Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics | Arequipa, Peru | 6-19 March 2013

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The CERN – Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics targets particularly at students in experimental HEP who are in the final years of work towards their PhDs.   However, it is anticipated that some post-doctoral students in experimental HEP, and some students in phenomenology, including some Masters students, will also be accepted. It should be noted that some pre-knowledge of the subjects is necessary in order to be able to profit fully from the lecture courses. Demand for admission to the CERN – Latin-American Schools of High-Energy Physics exceeds the number of available places, so a competitive selection is made based on information provided on the application form and the letter of recommendation from the candidate's professor or supervisor. The application deadline is 16 November 2012 More information here.

  20. Teología feminista latinoamericana de la liberación: balance y futuro (Latin American feminist theology of liberation: balance and future.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Velez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available KOINONIA/ASETTMINGA/MUTIRÃO DE REVISTAS DE TEOLOGIA LATINO-AMERICANASTeología feminista latinoamericana de la liberación: balance y futuro  (Latin American feminist theology of liberation: balance and future.

  1. Introducing Hyperworld(s: Language, Culture, and History in the Latin American world(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Allatson

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This introduction to the January 2008 special edition of PORTAL engages with the processes by which, in the early 21st century—an information age of hypertechnology, post-nationalism, post-Fordism, and dominating transnational media—culture and economy have become fused, and globalizations tend towards the mercantilization, commodification, and privatization of human experience. We recognize that access to the technologies of globalizations is uneven. Although cyberspace and other hypertechnologies have become an integral part of workspaces, and of the domestic space in most households, across Western industrialized societies, and for the middle and upper-classes everywhere, this is not a reality for most people in the world, including the Latin American underclasses, the majority of the continent’s population. But we also agree with pundits who note how that limited access has not prevented a ‘techno-virtual spillover’ into the historical-material world. More and more people are increasingly touched by the techno-virtual realm and its logics, with a resultant transformation of global imaginaries in response to, for instance, the global spread of privatised entertainment and news via TV, satellites and the internet, and virtualized military operations (wars on terror, drugs, and rogue regimes. Under these hyperworldizing conditions, we asked, how might we talk about language, culture and history in Latin America, especially since language has an obvious, enduring importance as a tool for communication, and as the means to define culture and give narrative shape to our histories and power struggles? Our central term ‘hyperworld(s’ presents us with numerous conceptual and epistemological challenges, not least because, whether unintended or not, it evokes cyberspace, thus gesturing toward either the seamless integration of physical and virtual reality, or its converse, a false opposition between the material and the virtual. The term

  2. A produção da "cidade latino-americana" The production of "the Latin American city"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Gorelik

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho propõe uma análise histórica da categoria "cidade latino-americana" como construção cultural. O argumento central é que, durante o período compreendido entre o segundo pós-guerra e a década de 1970, a idéia de "cidade latino-americana" funcionou como uma categoria do pensamento social, como uma figura do imaginário intelectual e político em amplas regiões do continente. Este texto procura reconstruir os principais itinerários conceituais e ideológicos da categoria, suas funções políticas e institucionais na conjuntura específica da região. Esse modo de entender a categoria "cidade latino-americana" em sua configuração histórica específica, sugere o autor, pode oferecer uma via produtiva para os estudos culturais latino-americanos.This paper suggests a historical analysis of the category "Latin American city" as a cultural construct. The central argument is that, during the period between the post-war and the 1970's, the idea of a Latin American city became a category of social thought, as part of the intellectual and political imagination in several regions of the continent. The text tries to rebuild the main conceptual and ideological turns, their political and institutional functions within the specific regional circumstances. The article suggests that this approach to the "Latin American city" category in its precise historical configuration may be a productive path for Latin-American cultural studies.

  3. Latin American Literature in Translation and Publishing Mediation: Some Notes for the Analysis of the Italian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Carini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of these study is to analyse the editorial and translation processes to understand how they can modify and manipulate the textual sense of an original literary work and how the same elements can provoke errors and misunderstandings in the literary reception of readers and critics. The field of work will be the italian translations of some literary works of Latin American writers of the XX century.

  4. Audiovisual Translation and Subtitling. Spanish and Latin American Spanish subtitles: Analysis of Sex And The City translation

    OpenAIRE

    González Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Subtitling is one of the most common types of audiovisual translation used nowadays. Besides, subtitling may become even a more complex process if we are dealing with Spanish language, which is one of the most extensive languages in the world. For this reason, we have decided to analyze and compare two different variants of Spanish: Peninsular Spanish and Latin American Spanish. Therefore, we can find some factors such as culture and language variants which may influence in these two varietie...

  5. Personnel from Chambers of Commerce of Latin-American & Caribbean Countries Trained in China for the First Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ On December 4, the First Training Seminar for Personnel from Chambers of Commerce of Latin-American & Caribbean Countries, held by the Ministry of Commerce and CCPIT (China Council for the Promotion of International Trade), held the opening ceremony in Beijing.Over 20 leaders of Chambers of Commerce from 12 countries such as Grenada, Ecuador, Haiti, Uruguay, Brazil, Saint Lucia,Guatemala, Costa Rica, Peru, Panama, Nigeria, etc., attended this training.

  6. [The anatomical pathology, an indispensable discipline, and its only Latin American journal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Velasco, Alicia; Valencia-Mayoral, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    As a medical discipline, pathological anatomy was born between the 16th and 17th centuries, when the bases for scientific and technological development, as we know them today, were established. Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771), one of the greatest clinicians of the 18th century, introduced the concept of correlation between clinical manifestations and pathological anatomic structures. Just like that the pathology has contributed to the characterization of many diseases. Correlation of anatomopathological changes with signs and symptoms of disease is still common practice to date, which constitutes the basis for one of the most relevant pedagogical activities in medicine: the clinical pathological conference. The American Society of Investigative Pathology describes pathology as "the medical specialty that provides the scientific foundation of medical practice". Advances in this discipline have been transmitted mainly in periodical publications as early as the 19th century, and many scientific journals dedicated to communication of relevant findings from all over the world have been created since. The uninterrupted publication of a scientific journal for 51 years, the journal Patología. Revista Latinoamericana, dedicated to one of the most important medical disciplines is, undoubtedly, an achievement worthy of celebration, for being the only one in Spanish in Latin America.

  7. Reference ranges for the urinary steroid profile in a Latin-American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Brito, D; Correa Vidal, M T; de la Torre, X; García-Mir, V; Ledea Lozano, O; Granda Fraga, M

    2013-08-01

    The urinary steroid profile has been used in clinical endocrinology for the early detection of enzyme deficiencies. In the field of doping, its evaluation in urine samples is used to diagnose the abuse of substances prohibited in sport. This profile is influenced by sex, age, exercise, diet, and ethnicity, among others; laboratories own reference ranges might compensate for ethnic differences among population and inter-laboratory biases. This paper shows the reference ranges obtained in the Antidoping Laboratory of Havana for the following steroid profile parameters: ten androgens (testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5α-androstan-3α,17β-diol, 5β-androstan-3α,17β-diol, dehydroepiandrosterone, epiandrosterone, 11β-hydroxyandrosterone and 11β-hydroxyetiocholanolone), three estrogens (estradiol, estriol and estrone), two pregnanes (pregnanediol and pregnanetriol) and two corticosteroids (cortisol and tetrahydrocortisol). The urine samples (male: n = 2454 and female: n = 1181) and data obtained are representative of population from Latin-American countries like Cuba, Venezuela, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Guatemala and Chile. Urine samples were prepared by solid-phase extraction followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and liquid-liquid extraction with an organic solvent in basic conditions. Trimethylsilyl derivatives were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Reference ranges were established for each sex, allowing the determination of abnormal profiles as a first diagnostic tool for the detection of the abuse of androgenic anabolic steroids. The comparison with the Caucasian population confirms that the urinary steroid profile is influenced by ethnicity.

  8. Relationship between subjective social status and perceived health among Latin American immigrant women

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    Mª Visitación Sanchón-Macias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to explore the relationship between socioeconomic status and subjective social status and explain how subjective social status predicts health in immigrant women. METHODS: cross-sectional study based on data from 371 Latin American women (16-65 years old from a total of 7,056 registered immigrants accesse through community parthers between 2009-2010. Socioeconomic status was measured through education, income and occupation; subjective social status was measured using the MacArthur Scale, and perceived health, using a Likert scale. RESULTS: a weak correlation between socioeconomic and subjective social status was found. In the bivariate analysis, a significantly higher prevalence of negative perceived health in women with no education, low income, undocumented employment was observed. In the multivariate analysis, higher odds of prevalence of negative perceptions of health in the lower levels of the MacArthur scale were observed. No significant differences with the rest of the variables were found. CONCLUSIONS: the study suggests that subjective social status was a better predictor of health status than the socioeconomic status measurements. Therefore, the use of this measurement may be relevant to the study of health inequalities, particularly in socially disadvantaged groups such as immigrants.

  9. Knowledge of Latin American Obstetricians and Gynecologists regarding Heavy Menstrual Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamondes, Luis; Marin, Victor; Ciarmatori, Silvia; Silva-Filho, Agnaldo L; Acuña, Juan Manuel; Makuch, Maria Y

    2016-01-01

    Background. Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a common gynecological complaint affecting quality of life. Objectives. To assess knowledge on diagnosis and treatments of HMB of Latin American (LA) obstetricians and gynecologists (OBGYNs). Methods. A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting, organized to provide updated information on topics of reproductive medicine to OBGYNs from 12 LA countries who were invited to respond to a multiple-choice questionnaire. Results. Of the 210 OBGYNs participating in the survey, from 169 (80.4%) to 203 (96.7%) answered the questions. Most respondents (80%) gave accurate answers regarding the amount of blood loss which defines HMB, underreported the proportion of women who consulted due to HMB, and were aware that the use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) with ethynyl estradiol is not an adequate treatment in women with HMB. Female OBGYNs and those who worked in the private sector were more prone to report a higher possibility of improvement of HMB with a COC that contained estradiol valerate and dienogest or with a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system. Conclusions. In general, the respondents were aware of the importance of HMB in gynecological practice and of the new medical treatments and underreported the proportion of women who consulted due to HMB.

  10. Knowledge of Latin American Obstetricians and Gynecologists regarding Heavy Menstrual Bleeding

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    Luis Bahamondes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB is a common gynecological complaint affecting quality of life. Objectives. To assess knowledge on diagnosis and treatments of HMB of Latin American (LA obstetricians and gynecologists (OBGYNs. Methods. A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting, organized to provide updated information on topics of reproductive medicine to OBGYNs from 12 LA countries who were invited to respond to a multiple-choice questionnaire. Results. Of the 210 OBGYNs participating in the survey, from 169 (80.4% to 203 (96.7% answered the questions. Most respondents (80% gave accurate answers regarding the amount of blood loss which defines HMB, underreported the proportion of women who consulted due to HMB, and were aware that the use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs with ethynyl estradiol is not an adequate treatment in women with HMB. Female OBGYNs and those who worked in the private sector were more prone to report a higher possibility of improvement of HMB with a COC that contained estradiol valerate and dienogest or with a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system. Conclusions. In general, the respondents were aware of the importance of HMB in gynecological practice and of the new medical treatments and underreported the proportion of women who consulted due to HMB.

  11. Knowledge of Latin American Obstetricians and Gynecologists regarding Heavy Menstrual Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Victor; Ciarmatori, Silvia; Silva-Filho, Agnaldo L.; Acuña, Juan Manuel; Makuch, Maria Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a common gynecological complaint affecting quality of life. Objectives. To assess knowledge on diagnosis and treatments of HMB of Latin American (LA) obstetricians and gynecologists (OBGYNs). Methods. A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting, organized to provide updated information on topics of reproductive medicine to OBGYNs from 12 LA countries who were invited to respond to a multiple-choice questionnaire. Results. Of the 210 OBGYNs participating in the survey, from 169 (80.4%) to 203 (96.7%) answered the questions. Most respondents (80%) gave accurate answers regarding the amount of blood loss which defines HMB, underreported the proportion of women who consulted due to HMB, and were aware that the use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) with ethynyl estradiol is not an adequate treatment in women with HMB. Female OBGYNs and those who worked in the private sector were more prone to report a higher possibility of improvement of HMB with a COC that contained estradiol valerate and dienogest or with a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system. Conclusions. In general, the respondents were aware of the importance of HMB in gynecological practice and of the new medical treatments and underreported the proportion of women who consulted due to HMB. PMID:27648073

  12. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Qin, Hua; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

  13. Socioeconomic Status Is Not Related with Facial Fluctuating Asymmetry: Evidence from Latin-American Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto-Sánchez, Mirsha; Cintas, Celia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio Cesar; Ramallo, Virginia; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Castillo, Lucía; Gomez-Valdés, Jorge; Everardo, Paola; De Avila, Francisco; Hünemeier, Tábita; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, Williams; Fuentes, Macarena; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovani; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rosique, Javier; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; González-José, Rolando

    2017-01-01

    The expression of facial asymmetries has been recurrently related with poverty and/or disadvantaged socioeconomic status. Departing from the developmental instability theory, previous approaches attempted to test the statistical relationship between the stress experienced by individuals grown in poor conditions and an increase in facial and corporal asymmetry. Here we aim to further evaluate such hypothesis on a large sample of admixed Latin Americans individuals by exploring if low socioeconomic status individuals tend to exhibit greater facial fluctuating asymmetry values. To do so, we implement Procrustes analysis of variance and Hierarchical Linear Modelling (HLM) to estimate potential associations between facial fluctuating asymmetry values and socioeconomic status. We report significant relationships between facial fluctuating asymmetry values and age, sex, and genetic ancestry, while socioeconomic status failed to exhibit any strong statistical relationship with facial asymmetry. These results are persistent after the effect of heterozygosity (a proxy for genetic ancestry) is controlled in the model. Our results indicate that, at least on the studied sample, there is no relationship between socioeconomic stress (as intended as low socioeconomic status) and facial asymmetries. PMID:28060876

  14. [Parasitology and entomology in the 29th century in Latin American narrative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenone, H

    2000-01-01

    In the present review of twelve pieces produced by distinguished 20th century Latin American writers--Jorge Luis Borges from Argentina, Jorge Amado and João Ubaldo Ribeiro from Brazil, José Donoso from Chile, Gabriel García Márquez from Colombia, Alejo Carpentier from Cuba, Miguel Angel Asturias from Guatemala, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Mario Vargas Llosa from Perú, Horacio Quiroga and Mario Benedetti from Uruguay and Arturo Uslar-Pietri from Venezuela--paragraphs or parts of paragraphs in which parasitological or entomological situations of the most varied hues are referred to or described, have been extracted in a selective form. Sometimes in these descriptions appear, local or regional expressions, without ignoring colorful folklore representations. For a easier interpretation these or part of these paragraph sentences have been arranged by thematic similarities. In a varied and kaleidoscopic vision, it will be possible to find protozoiasis (malaria, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, amebiasis), helminthiases (ascariasis, hydatidosis, trichinosis, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, onchocerciasis), parasitoses produced by arthropods (pediculosis, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis), passing progressively to hemaphagous arthropods (mosquitoes, gnats, horse flies, bedbugs, ticks), venomous arthropods (Latrodectus spiders, scorpions, wasps, bees), mechanical vectors (flies and cockroaches), culminating with a conjunction of bucolic arthropods (butterflies, crickets, grasshoppers cicadas, ants, centipedes, beetles, glow worms, dragonflies).

  15. Esbozo de un feminismo latinoamericano Outlines of a Latin American feminism

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    María Luisa Femenías

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available ¿Existe un feminismo latinoamericano? Creemos que sí, y que tienen sus propias raíces y su propio perfil, que abreva de las múltiples corrientes teóricas y filosóficas de los desarrollos actuales del feminismo. Creemos además que la situación periférica del continente le permite tomar y situar diversas lecturas, trazar redes conceptuales y aceptar el desafío de pensar y plantear sus propios problemas. Este artículo pretende dar cuenta de algunos de esos desafíos y recorridos.Does a Latin American feminism exist? We believe it does and that it has its own roots and profile which derives from different theoretical and philosophical lines of the most important feminist achievements. We also believe that the so-called peripheral situation of the continent allows to situate and locate different readings, draw conceptual maps and accept that feminism's own challenges. This paper intends to map out some of challenges and trajectories.

  16. Do Latin American scientific journals follow dual-use review policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, Edith Gladys; Bernacchi, Adriana Silvina

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, a number of journals have implemented dual-use policies in order to analyze whether the papers submitted for publication could raise concern because of the potential for misuse of their content. In this context, an analysis was performed on Latin American scientific journals to examine whether they apply formal written dual-use review policies and whether they inform their authors and reviewers about potentially sensitive issues in this area, as other international journals do. Peer-reviewed life sciences journals indexed in Latindex from Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, and Chile were analyzed. The Guide for Authors and the Instructions to Referees of 216 journals included in the Latindex catalogue (which means that they meet the best quality standards of the Latindex system) were screened for biosecurity-related information using the keywords biosecurity, biological weapons, and dual-use research of concern. Results showed that the screened publications had a total lack of dual-use review policies, even though some of them pointed out ethical behaviors to be followed related to authorship, plagiarism, simultaneous submission, research results misappropriation, ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, guiding principles for the care and use of animals in research, research standard violations, and reviewer bias, among others.

  17. Adult education as a human right: The Latin American context and the ecopedagogic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadotti, Moacir

    2011-08-01

    This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well as technical. All along the history of contemporary education it is essential to highlight the importance of the CONFINTEA conferences for the construction of an expanded vision of this concept. Adult education is understood as a human right. The right to education does not end when a person has reached the so-called "proper" age; it continues to be a right for the duration of everyone's entire life. This article explores Paulo Freire's contribution, particularly the methodology of MOVA (Youth and Adult Literacy Movement). It also presents the ecopedagogic perspective, which was inspired by Paulo Freire's legacy. Finally, this article stresses the need to support a long-term policy for adult education, following the recommendations of the Civil Society International Forum (FISC) and CONFINTEA VI, both held in Belém, Brazil, in 2009.

  18. Work, malaise, and well-being in Spanish and Latin-American doctors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Paola; Blanch, Josep M

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the relations between the meanings of working and the levels of doctors work well-being in the context of their working conditions. METHOD The research combined the qualitative methodology of textual analysis and the quantitative one of correspondence factor analysis. A convenience, intentional, and stratified sample composed of 305 Spanish and Latin American doctors completed an extensive questionnaire on the topics of the research. RESULTS The general meaning of working for the group located in the quartile of malaise included perceptions of discomfort, frustration, and exhaustion. However, those showing higher levels of well-being, located on the opposite quartile, associated their working experience with good conditions and the development of their professional and personal competences. CONCLUSIONS The study provides empirical evidence of the relationship between contextual factors and the meanings of working for participants with higher levels of malaise, and of the importance granted both to intrinsic and extrinsic factors by those who scored highest on well-being. PMID:27191157

  19. Antimicrobial Sensitivity of Avibacterium paragallinarum Isolates from Four Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Galaz, G A; Morales-Erasto, V; Peñuelas-Rivas, C G; Blackall, P J; Soriano-Vargas, E

    2016-09-01

    The antimicrobial sensitivity of 11 reference strains and 66 Avibacterium paragallinarum isolates from four Latin American countries was investigated. All 11 reference strains were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, fosfomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The 11 reference strains were all resistant to lincomycin. All isolates (100%) from Mexico, Panama, and Peru were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, and fosfomycin. The Ecuadorian isolates showed some level of resistance to all 16 agents tested. The Ecuadorian isolates were significantly more sensitive to erythromycin, lincomycin, and streptomycin, and significantly more resistant to gentamicin, kanamycin, penicillin, and tetracycline, than the Mexican isolates. A total of 57.5% (38/66) of tested isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR), with 16 MDR patterns detected in 88.4% (23/26) of the antimicrobial-resistant isolates from Ecuador, and 8 MDR patterns detected in 42.8% (15/35) of the antimicrobial-resistant isolates from Mexico. In conclusion, the variation in antimicrobial sensitivity patterns between isolates from Ecuador and Mexico emphasizes the importance of active, ongoing monitoring of A. paragallinarum isolates.

  20. Environmental health literacy within the Italian Asbestos Project: experience in Italy and Latin American contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marsili

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of multidisciplinary approaches to foster scientific research in public health and strengthen its impact on society is nowadays unavoidable. Environmental health literacy (EHL may be defined as the ability to search for, understand, evaluate, and use environmental health information to promote the adoption of informed choices, the reduction of health risks, the improvement of quality of life and the protection of the environment. Both public health and environmental health literacy involve access to and dissemination of scientific information (including research findings, individual and collective decision-making and critical thinking. Specific experiences in environmental health literacy have been developed within the Italian National Asbestos Project (Progetto Amianto in Latin American countries where the use of asbestos is still permitted, and in Italy where a specific effort in EHL has been dedicated to the risks caused by the presence of fluoro-edenite fibers in the town of Biancavilla (Sicily. Taking into account the different geographical and socio-economic contexts, both public health and environmental health literacy were addressed to a wide range of stakeholders, within and outside the health domain.

  1. Universal health coverage in Latin American countries: how to improve solidarity-based schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titelman, Daniel; Cetrángolo, Oscar; Acosta, Olga Lucía

    2015-04-04

    In this Health Policy we examine the association between the financing structure of health systems and universal health coverage. Latin American health systems encompass a wide range of financial sources, which translate into different solidarity-based schemes that combine contributory (payroll taxes) and non-contributory (general taxes) sources of financing. To move towards universal health coverage, solidarity-based schemes must heavily rely on countries' capacity to increase public expenditure in health. Improvement of solidarity-based schemes will need the expansion of mandatory universal insurance systems and strengthening of the public sector including increased fiscal expenditure. These actions demand a new model to integrate different sources of health-sector financing, including general tax revenue, social security contributions, and private expenditure. The extent of integration achieved among these sources will be the main determinant of solidarity and universal health coverage. The basic challenges for improvement of universal health coverage are not only to spend more on health, but also to reduce the proportion of out-of-pocket spending, which will need increased fiscal resources.

  2. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Lankao, P.; Borbor Cordova, M.; Qin, H.

    2013-12-01

    We explore whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

  3. Professionalism and Occupational Well-Being: Similarities and Differences Among Latin American Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Martín, Montserrat; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Vivanco, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Context: Empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning are described as key elements of professionalism. The first recipients of their benefits are professionals themselves. Paradoxically, scarce studies have reported association between professionalism and occupational well-being. The main purpose of this study was to characterize the influence that empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning, play in the occupational well-being of physicians and nurses working in Latin American healthcare institutions. Materials and Methods: The Jefferson Scale of Empathy, the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration, the Jefferson Scale of Physicians Lifelong Learning, and the Scale of Collateral Effects (somatization, exhaustion, and work alienation), were administered to 522 physicians and nurses working in institutions of Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, and Argentina. Internal reliability was calculated. Gender and discipline were used as explanatory variables in comparison analysis. Two-way analysis of variance was performed to examine differences due to the main effects of the gender, and discipline, and to determine possible combined effects. Correlation analysis was performed to measure associations between collateral effects and age, and between collateral effects and professionalism. Results: A total of 353 (68%) surveys were returned fully completed. Adequate reliability was confirmed in all instruments. No differences were found among countries for collateral effects. Correlation analysis confirmed in physicians an inverse association between empathy and collateral effects (P = -0.16; p gender confirmed higher somatization in women physicians and nurses than in men groups (p stereotypes, play in the interaction between professionalism and occupational well-being. PMID:28179893

  4. INTRODUCING INSTITUTIONAL VARIABLES IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL KUZNETS CURVE (EKC: A LATIN AMERICAN STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ITALO ARBULÚ VILLANUEVA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have examined the relationship between environmental degradation and per capita income.However, most of them did not take into account institutional quality and just focused on macroeconomicdeterminants. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap in the literature by assessing the effects on theEnvironmental Kuznets Curve (EKC when institutional quality variables are introduced, especially those related tocorruption and rent-seeking behavior.This study considers 18 Latin American economies and panel data for 1998–2005. A standard reducedformmodeling approach with pool estimation was employed and, in order to introduce the heterogeneity of thedifferent countries, three different models were estimated. The first model corresponds to the basic EnvironmentalKuznets Curve (Basic Model, the second model introduced a sets of additional economic variables (ExtendedModel Nº 1, and finally, the third one introduced institutional variables into the previous formulation (ExtendedModel Nº 2.The expected results from this investigation lead us to support the EKC hypothesis while confirming theimportance of improvements in political institutions and governance for better environmental performances in theregion.

  5. Constitutionalism (s and reframing Hermeneutics : Reflections from the Critical Perspective Latin American

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    Ivone Fernandes Morcilo Lixa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available At the end of XX century, news and diffuse law speeches will pointing the emergence of innovative theoretical models self-proclaimed “critical”. In Brazil, in this context, is inaugurated an innovative and revolutionary face of constitutionalism which expands the power of the judiciary, for the preservation of democratic order and fundamental rights. On this track changes a new feature is the extensive social rights catalog that redefines the hermeneutic field, hitherto of modern formal legalistic tradition. However, the desire to consolidate and ensure both institutional and cultural fundamental rights, is being wit- nessing the first decade of XX century in Brazil as well as in some Latin American coun- tries, expanding the field of democratization and social policies. In this context, while it is being implemented a new constitutional paradigm from plurinationality, demodiversity and new rights linked to rationality, there is the expansion of the role of the judiciary which ultimately provoque a distortion of jurisdiction and hermeneutic fundamentals that serves as its legitimacy. It is from this unprecedented complexity that since Mark of the tradition of critical thinking, the juridical thinkers are forced to rethink hermeneutics from a new logic, new foundations and new epistemological elements, shifting the her- meneutical question to a different dimension than have been given by modern rationality and beyond what was bequeathed to the positivist tradition: the external field of norma- tive valuation. Challenge between oscillations and divergences can not be overlooked.

  6. Los atolladeros de la economía latinoamericana The difficulties of the Latin American economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Katz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El agravamiento de la crisis global acentúa las limitaciones de la economía latinoamericana para atemperar la turbulencia. Las enormes reservas terminarán socorriendo a los banqueros europeos si no hay avances en la moneda común. El extractivismo exportador impide repetir el desarrollo manufacturero asiático y refuerza la preeminencia de las empresas transnacionales. La batalla de los estudiantes chilenos ilustra cómo las resistencias sociales tienden a converger con la nueva oleada mundial de protesta juvenil.The aggravation of the global crisis stresses the limitations of the Latin American economy to restrain the turbulence. The huge reserves ended up rescuing European bankers because there was no improvement in the common currency. The exporting extraction prevents the repetition of the Asian manufacturing development, and it strengthens the transnational companies’ pre‑eminence. The Chilean students’ fight shows how the social resistances tend to converge on the new worldwide wave of young people’s protest.

  7. The brazilian constitution as third generation product: convergence and differences between the latin american constitutionalism and legal garantism theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Urquhart Cademartori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the phenomenon of the latinamerican constitutionalism, its characteristics, critical issues and its challenges facing the European constitutional models, such as the legal garantism and neoconstitutionalism. That being said, this work compares the recent theoretical proposals within the Latin American constitutional theory with the European tradition. In this way, we delimit the aspects of main Latin American constitutionalism theory and contrast European constitutional theories, such as Ferrajoli’s legal garantism and representatives of neoconstitutionalism such as Dworkin, Alexy, Müller and Haberle. In this work, we seek to understand and explain the so-called "third generation constitutions”, in order to think properly of the Brazilian constitutionalism and the influence of the new legal institutions and procedural safeguards contained in our Constitution which give means to make possible fundamental and social rights. After that, we examine the affinities that Latin American constitutionalism has found in the legal garantism theory, which enables fundamental and social rights, and which has been largely accepted in countries similar to Brazil despite of its European origins.

  8. Optimal search strategy for clinical trials in the Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature Database (LILACS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldemar Araujo Castro

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To define and disseminate the optimal search strategy for clinical trials in the Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature (LILACS. This strategy was elaborated based on the optimal search strategy for MEDLINE recommended by Cochrane Collaboration for the identification of clinical trials in electronic databases. DESIGN: Technical information. SETTING: Clinical Trials and Meta-Analysis Unit, Federal University of São Paulo, in conjunction with the Brazilian Cochrane Center, São Paulo, Brazil. (http://www.epm.br/cochrane. DATA: LILACS/CD-ROM (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information Database, 27th edition, January 1997, edited by BIREME (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information Center. LILACS Indexes 670 journals in the region, with abstracts in English, Portuguese or Spanish; only 41 overlap in the MEDLINE-EMBASE. Of the 168.902 citations since 1982, 104,016 are in human trials, and 38,261 citations are potentiality clinical trials. Search strategy was elaborated combining headings with text word in three languages, adapting the interface of the LILACS. We will be working by locating clinical trials in LILACS for Cochrane Controlled Trials Database. This effort is being coordinated by the Brazilian Cochrane Center.

  9. Admixture and genetic relationships of Mexican Mestizos regarding Latin American and Caribbean populations based on 13 CODIS-STRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Flores, J; Zuñiga-Chiquette, F; Rubi-Castellanos, R; Álvarez-Miranda, J L; Zetina-Hérnandez, A; Martínez-Sevilla, V M; González-Andrade, F; Corach, D; Vullo, C; Álvarez, J C; Lorente, J A; Sánchez-Diz, P; Herrera, R J; Cerda-Flores, R M; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2015-02-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) of the combined DNA index system (CODIS) are probably the most employed markers for human identification purposes. STR databases generated to interpret DNA profiles are also helpful for anthropological purposes. In this work, we report admixture, population structure, and genetic relationships of Mexican Mestizos with respect to Latin American and Caribbean populations based on 13 CODIS-STRs. In addition, new STR population data were included from Tijuana, Baja California (Northwest, Mexico), which represents an interesting case of elevated genetic flow as a bordering city with the USA. Inter-population analyses included CODIS-STR data from 11 Mexican Mestizo, 12 Latin American and four Caribbean populations, in addition to European, Amerindian, and African genetic pools as ancestral references. We report allele frequencies and statistical parameters of forensic interest (PD, PE, Het, PIC, typical PI), for 15 STRs in Tijuana, Baja California. This Mexican border city was peculiar by the increase of African ancestry, and by presenting three STRs in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, probably explained by recurrent gene flow. The Amerindian ancestry in Central and Southeast of Mexico was the greatest in Latin America (50.9-68.6%), only comparable with the North of Central America and Ecuador (48.8-56.4%), whereas the European ancestry was prevalent in South America (66.7-75%). The African ancestry in Mexico was the smallest (2.2-6.3%) in Latin America (≥ 2.6%), particularly regarding Brazil (21%), Honduras (62%), and the Caribbean (43.2-65.2%). CODIS-STRs allowed detecting significant population structure in Latin America based on greater presence of European, Amerindian, and African ancestries in Central/South America, Mexican Mestizos, and the Caribbean, respectively.

  10. Evolution of gut microbiota composition from birth to 24 weeks in the INFANTMET Cohort.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hill, Cian J

    2017-01-17

    The gut is the most extensively studied niche of the human microbiome. The aim of this study was to characterise the initial gut microbiota development of a cohort of breastfed infants (n = 192) from 1 to 24 weeks of age.

  11. The Planning of Latin American Universities: In Search of Its Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escala, Miguel J.

    College planning in Latin America is discussed, with attention to underdevelopment, political instability, and the economic crisis of the 1980s. Alternative planning approaches used in U.S. higher education institutions are considered. Latin America refers to 18 Spanish-speaking republics of the Western Hemisphere, along with Brazil and Haiti. The…

  12. Exclusion Factors in Latin American Higher Education: A Preliminary Analyze From University Governing Board Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Diego; Rodríguez-Gómez, David; Gairín, Joaquín

    2017-01-01

    Access to higher education has increased substantially in Latin America, but inequalities in access to and completion of higher education still remain. In this regard, identifying vulnerable groups and exclusion factors is a priority in Latin America's university systems. The aim of this article is to understand in depth governing board…

  13. The Planning of Latin American Universities: In Search of Its Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escala, Miguel J.

    College planning in Latin America is discussed, with attention to underdevelopment, political instability, and the economic crisis of the 1980s. Alternative planning approaches used in U.S. higher education institutions are considered. Latin America refers to 18 Spanish-speaking republics of the Western Hemisphere, along with Brazil and Haiti. The…

  14. Youth, Gener & TIC: Imaginaries in the Construction of Information Society in Latin American

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    Bonder, Gloria

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects upon the social imaginary that sustains the dissemination of new information and communication technologies (ICTs as a condition for them to be accepted and granted social and subjective meaning. Based on applied research on digital literacy programs for Latin American youth, the paper delves into the construction of youth both as a category and as a social group. It analyzes the main characteristics and problems of youth in current environments, especially in Latin America, providing data on their access to ICTs. Based on a typology of the programs reviewed and a comparative analysis of adults and youth representations and assessment of ICTs, the article examines the dominant educational discourses and practices that encourage access to technology of excluded or at-risk youth population. It also discusses the ways in which these programs characterize and implement a gender equity approach.A partir de una investigación aplicada sobre programas de alfabetización digital de jóvenes latinoamericanas/os, el artículo ofrece una reflexión sobre los imaginarios sociales que sostienen la difusión de las nuevas tecnologías de información y comunicación (TIC como condición para su aceptación y asignación de sentido social y subjetivo. Incursiona en el proceso de construcción de la juventud como concepto y como grupo social, presentando las principales características y problemáticas que experimentan las y los jóvenes en los contextos actuales, especialmente en América Latina, y brinda datos sobre su acceso a las TIC. A través de una tipología de los programas estudiados y de un análisis comparado de las representaciones y valoraciones de las TIC por parte de adultos y jóvenes, interroga sobre los discursos y las prácticas educativas dominantes que incentivan el acceso de la juventud excluida o en riesgo al mundo tecnológico y sobre las formas en que caracterizan y aplican al enfoque de equidad de género.

  15. Gated communities in Latin American cities Barrios cerrados en ciudades latinoamericanas

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    Lucía Demajo Meseguer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban space in many Latin American cities is proliferating these last decades in a gated community form, being defined as enclosed housing developments, with controlled access and security devices. The search for security, the contact with nature and exclusivity are some common features of these urbanizations. These features are usually presented by advertising agencies as vital needs for this modern society. Development of gated communities entails consequences associated with urban space fragmentation, privatization of public space, social segregation and lack of a community belonging sense; hence the need to question these types of developments and to intervene to modify them. Interventions, both aimed to redirect the emerging urban model and to carry out specific actions in the already existing gated communities, should bet on following traditional neighborhood models. This article pretends to analyze the gated communities’ phenomenon occurring in Latin America, detecting it consequences and proposing possible intervention measures.

    El espacio urbano de algunas ciudades latinoamericanas está proliferando, en las últimas décadas, en forma de barrios cerrados; entendidos como áreas de viviendas cerradas, con acceso controlado y dispositivos de seguridad. La búsqueda de la seguridad, el contacto con la naturaleza y la exclusividad son algunos rasgos comunes de estos barrios que, en muchos casos, la publicidad trata de convertir en necesidades vitales para la sociedad. Los barrios cerrados llevan consigo consecuencias relacionadas con la fragmentación del espacio urbano, la privatización del espacio público, la segregación social y el sentimiento de comunidad; de ahí, la necesidad de cuestionarse este tipo de emprendimientos y de intervenir sobre ellos. Las intervenciones, ya sean dirigidas a redireccionar el modelo urbano emergente, como actuaciones puntuales en BC ya existentes, deberían apostar por seguir modelos de barrio

  16. ART integration in oral health care systems in Latin American countries as perceived by directors of oral health

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    Oswaldo Ruiz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a situation analysis of: a prevalence of ART training courses; b integration of ART into the oral healthcare systems and; c strengths and weaknesses of ART integration, in Latin American countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A structured questionnaire, consisting of 18 questions, was emailed to directors of national or regional oral health departments of all Latin American countries and the USA. For two countries that had not responded after 4 weeks, the questionnaire was sent to the Dean of each local Dental School. The questions were related to ART training courses, integration of ART in the dental curriculum and the oral healthcare system, barriers to ART implementation in the public health system and recommendations for ART implementation in the services. Factor analysis was used to construct one factor in the barrier-related question. Means and percentages were calculated. RESULTS: The response rate, covering 55% of all Latin American countries, was 76%. An ART training course had been given in all Latin American countries that responded, with more than 2 having been conducted in 64.7% of the respondent countries. ART was implemented in public oral health services in 94.7 % of the countries, according to the respondents. In 15.8% of the countries, ART was applied throughout the country and in 68.4%, in some areas or regions of a country. ART had been used for more, or less, than three years in 42.1% and 47.4% of the countries, respectively. Evaluation and monitoring activities to determine the effectiveness of ART restorations and ART sealants had been carried out in 42.1% of the countries, while evaluation training courses had taken place in only 3 countries (15.8%. Respondents perceived the "increase in the number of treated patients" as the major benefit of ART implementation in public oral health services. The major perceived barrier factors to ART implementation were "operator opinion" and "high

  17. Report from the Latin American Spondyloarthritis Society for Education and Research in Immunology and Medicine organization 2012 workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Molano, Wilson; Toloza, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Marwin; Uribe, Carlos Vinicio Caballero; Pineda, Carlos; Londoño, John; Santos, Pedro; Jaimes, Diego; Diaz, Mario; Chalem, Phillipe; Villota, Orlando; Sierra, Rita; Puche, William; Salas, José; Yara, José; Hamilton, Gordon; Pardo, Carlos; Mercado, Beatriz; Valle-Oñate, Rafael

    2013-09-01

    The first annual meeting of the Latin American Spondyloarthritis Society for Education and Research in Immunology and Medicine (LASSERIM) was held in Bogotá, Colombia, in September 2012 and was attended by key opinion leaders, researchers, and rheumatologists. The meeting included presentations and discussions from renowned speakers during 2 days and a coaching leadership exercise led by an expert in the field followed by an open forum. Two groups defined a priori discussed the establishment of a professional network and organization to be involved in the identification, assessment, and effective resolution of health care issues in Latin America.A broad spectrum of topics were discussed but focused on the following: pharmacoeconomics in general rheumatology, spondyloarthritis and chronic back pain, therapeutic interventions in rheumatoid arthritis, ultrasonography in spondyloarthritis, impact of social media in medicine and global trends in leadership, quality of life, and innovation. A special workshop on coaching in health care and coaching as a tool to implement LASSERIM goals was part of the 2-day conference.LASSERIM will be working in the future on education, research, and innovation in the field of rheumatology and immunology. A special focus will be on spondyloarthritis, by promoting research, open discussions, and by conducting carefully planned research studies to impact on the quality of life of patients and doctors from Latin American countries.

  18. PREFACE: 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, Luis; Minotti, Fernando; Kelly, Hector

    2012-06-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions from participants of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP), which was held in Mar del Plata, Argentina, on 20-25 November 2011. This was the 14th session of the series of LAWPP biennial meetings, which started in 1982. The five-day scientific program of LAWPP 2011 consisted of 32 talks and various poster sessions, with the participation of 135 researchers from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, USA, Venezuela, as well as others from Europe and Asia. In addition, a School on Plasma Physics and a Workshop on Industrial Applications of Plasma Technology (AITP) were organized together with the main meeting. The five-day School held in the week previous to the meeting was intended for young scientists starting their research in Plasma Physics. On the other hand, the objective of the AITP Workshop was to enhance regional academic and industrial cooperation in the field of plasma assisted surface technology. Topics addressed at LAWPP 2011 included space plasmas, dusty plasmas, nuclear fusion, non-thermal plasmas, basic plasma processes, plasma simulation and industrial plasma applications. This variety of subjects is reflected in these proceedings, which the editors hope will result in enjoyable and fruitful reading for those interested in Plasma Physics. It is a pleasure to thank the Institutions that sponsored the meeting, as well as all the participants and collaborators for making this meeting possible. The Editors Luis Bilbao, Fernando Minotti and Hector Kelly LAWPP participants Participants of the 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics, 20-25 November 2011, Mar del Plata, Argentina International Scientific Committee Carlos Alejaldre, Spain María Virginia Alves, Brazil Ibere Caldas, Brazil Luis Felipe Delgado-Aparicio, Peru Mayo Villagrán, Mexico Kohnosuke Sato, Japan Héctor Kelly, Argentina Edberto Leal-Quirós, Puerto Rico George Morales, USA Julio Puerta

  19. Current cariology education in dental schools in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignon, Stefania; Gomez, Juliana; Tellez, Marisol; Ruiz, Jaime A; Marin, Lina M; Rangel, Maria C

    2013-10-01

    This study sought to provide an overview of current cariology education in Spanish-speaking Latin American dental schools. Data collection was via an eighteen-item survey with questions about curriculum, methods of diagnosis and treatment, and instructors' perceptions about cariology teaching. The response rate was 62.1 percent (n=54), and distribution of participating schools by country was as follows: Bolivia (four), Chile (four), Colombia (twenty-four), Costa Rica (one), Cuba (one), Dominican Republic (two), El Salvador (two), Mexico (six), Panama (two), Peru (four), Puerto Rico (one), Uruguay (two), and Venezuela (one). Forty percent of the responding schools considered cariology the key axis of a course, with a cariology department in 16.7 percent. All schools reported teaching cariology, but with varying hours and at varying times in the curriculum, and 77.8 percent reported having preclinical practices. The majority reported teaching most main teaching topics, except for behavioral sciences, microbiology, saliva and systemic diseases, caries-risk factors, root caries, erosion, and early caries management strategies. The most frequently taught caries detection methods were visual-tactile (96.3 percent), radiographic (92.6 percent), and the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) (61.1 percent). Respondents said their schools' clinics make an operative treatment decision when radiolucency is in the inner half of enamel (42.3 percent) for radiographic criteria and when the lesion is visually non-cavitated (5.8 percent). All respondents reported that their schools teach preventive strategies, but only 43.4 percent said they tie it to risk assessment and 40.7 percent said they implement nonsurgical management regularly.

  20. Public Outreach and Educational Experiences in Mexico and Latin American communities in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres De Leo-Winkler, Mario; Canalizo, Gabriela; Pichardo, Barbara; Arias, Brenda

    2015-08-01

    I have created and applied diverse methods in public outreach at National Autonomous Univerisity of Mexico (UNAM) since 2001.A student-led volunteer astronomical club has been created, the biggest in Mexico. We serve over 10,000 people per year. We have created public outreach activities for the general audience: archeo-astronomical outings, scientific movie debates, conferences, courses, public telescope viewings. We have also worked with juvenile delinquents to offer them scientific opportunities when released from jail.I've also created and worked the social media for the Institute of Astronomy UNAM, which is currently the biggest social media site on astronomy in Spanish in the world. I've created and organized a mass photo exhibition (over 1 million people served) for the Institute of Astronomy, UNAM which was citizen-funded through an online platform, the first of its kind in the country. Together with my colleages, we created workshops on astronomy for children with the Mexican's government funding.I've participated in several radio and television programs/capsules designed to bring astronomy to the general audience, one in particular ("Astrophysics for Dummies") was very successful in nation-wide Mexican radio.I am currently applying all experiences to develop a new public outreach project on astronomy for the University of California - Riverside and its on-campus and surrounding Latin American communities. We are offering new workshops for blind and deaf children. We want to integrate the Latino community to our outreach activities and offer science in their language in a simple and entertaining fashion. We have also successfully applied astrophotography as a course which brings social-science and arts undergraduate students into natural sciences.Sharing experiences, success and failure stories will help new and experienced educators and public outreach professionals learn and better from past experiences.

  1. Knowledge and attitudes of Latin American gynecologists regarding unplanned pregnancy and use of combined oral contraceptives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamondes, Luis; Lira-Plascencia, Josefina; Martin, Ricardo; Marin, Victor; Makuch, Maria Y

    2015-01-01

    Background Unintended pregnancy is a public health problem and unmet medical need worldwide. It is estimated that in the year 2012, almost 213 million pregnancies occurred, and the global pregnancy rate decreased only slightly from 2008 to 2012. It was also estimated that 85 million pregnancies (40% of all pregnancies) were unintended and that 38% ended in an unintended birth. Objectives To assess knowledge and attitudes of Latin American (LA) obstetricians and gynecologists (OBGYNs) regarding unintended pregnancies and aspects of combined oral contraceptive (COC) use. Methods A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting about contraception in 2014, in which OBGYNs from 12 LA countries who provide attention in contraception were invited to respond to a multiple-choice questionnaire to assess their knowledge and attitudes regarding unplanned pregnancy and some aspects regarding COC use. Results A total of 210 OBGYNs participated in the study. Their knowledge regarding COC failure was low. The participants reported they believed that their patients habitually forgot to take a pill and that their patients did not know what to do in these situations. They were aware of the benefits of COC use; however, they were less prone to prescribe COCs for the purpose of protecting against ovarian and endometrial cancer, and one-quarter of them had doubts about the association between COC use and cancer risk. Conclusion The interviewed LA OBGYNs showed some flaws in terms of knowledge of COC failure rates and the non-contraceptive benefits and risks of COCs. To adequately counsel their patients regarding COC intake, OBGYNs must be updated regarding all aspects of COC use. PMID:25999766

  2. 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics & 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2014-05-01

    The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010), together agreed to carry out this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, on occasion of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of the official program within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial. The event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project ''Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4'', supported by National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya, in 1980, and followed by the Congresses: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006), and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss the recent progress and future views in plasma science, including fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, and plasma applications, and so forth. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by the Workshops: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005), and Caracas (2007). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is a communication forum of the achievements of the plasma-physics regional community, fostering collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The program of the ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included the topics

  3. [The treatment of chronic stable angina with isradipine. A cooperative Latin American study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, O; Alcocer, L; Espinoza, J; Arcos, R; Gómez, G; Mayorga, E; Buzzi, A; Tavella, N; Romero, C; Kuster, F

    1991-04-01

    In order to study the efficacy and tolerance of isradipine, a new Ca++ antagonist for the treatment of stable chronic angina, a multicentric cooperative study was carried out in eight Latin American countries (Argentine, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela), which included 169 patients (60% men and 40% women), average age 62.6 +/- 9.7. Patients with more than 4 biweekly anginal crisis were accepted, with one or more of the following inclusion criteria: coronariographic evidence of obstruction greater than 60% in one or more vessels, IAM history, positive scintigraphy and positive effort test. The trial was single-blind, with placebo during the admission phase (2 weeks) and active treatment for 12 weeks. isradipine was administered in increasing doses of 2.5, 5, and 7 mg thrice a day, according to the presence or absence of anginal crisis. It was observed that the average frequency of weekly pains decreased from 8.2 +/- 7 under placebo to 6.3 +/- 7.5 under isradipine at low doses, and to 2.0 +/- 2.0 (p less than 0.001) under maximum doses. TNT intake decreased parallel also in a significant way. At the end of the trial, 37% of patients had become asymptomatic, and angina had reduced to less than two crisis a week in 33%. A clear relation doses-effect was observed. There was no alteration in laboratory exams neither in ECG. Seven patients had complications derived from the evolutional course of disease (2 IAM, 5 unstable angina and one sudden death). Adverse events were relatively frequent and the majority derived from vasodilator effect (tibial oedema 37%, flushing 17%, headache 23%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. El auge económico latinoamericano The Latin American Economic Boom

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    JOSÉ ANTONIO OCAMPO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo argumenta que el auge latinoamericano reciente tiene su origen en la coincidencia de una bonanza de precios de materias primas (más de productos mineros que agrícolas con condiciones de financiamiento externo excepcionales. Se ha reflejado en una reducción del endeudamiento externo y una acumulación de reservas internacionales, pero no en austeridad fiscal, y ha reforzado la especialización tradicional de la región en exportaciones basadas en recursos naturales. Junto con el menor crecimiento de la oferta laboral, ha facilitado el aumento de la tasa de ocupación y la difusión de los beneficios del auge a un conjunto más amplio de la población, pero no ha logrado revertir el deterioro acumulado en la calidad de los puestos de trabajo.This paper argues that the recent Latin American boom is the joint effect of the commodity price boom (primarily of mineral rather than agricultural goods and exceptional external financial conditions. It has been reflected in a reduction in foreign indebtedness and increased international reserves, but not in fiscal austerity, and has reinforced the traditional specialization of the region in natural resource-based exports. Together with a slower growth of the workforce, it has generated a rapid increase in the employment rate and the diffusion of the benefits of the boom to a broader segment of the population, but it has not reversed the accumulated deterioration in job quality.

  5. Twelve years of scientific production on Medline by Latin American spine surgeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asdrubal Falavigna

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the small contribution of LA in the Science Citation Index (SCI, a growing contribution by LA research to international literature has been observed in recent years. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. PURPOSE: To evaluate the scientific contribution of Latin American (LA Spine Surgeons in the last decade. METHODS: A literature search of publications by LA spinal surgeons on topics concerning the spine or spinal cord was performed using an online database; Pubmed.gov. The results were limited to articles published from January 2000 to December 2011. The quality of the publication was evaluated with the journal impact factor (IF, Oxford classification and number of citations. RESULTS: This study comprised 320 articles published in the Medline database by LA spine surgeons from 2000 to 2011. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of publications by LA spine surgeons. It was observed that 38.4% of LA papers were published in LA journals. 46.6% of the articles were published in journals with an IF lower than 1, and there was no statistically significant difference in the number of articles published in journals with a higher IF during the period. Linear-by-linear association analysis demonstrated an improvement in the level of evidence provided by LA articles published in recent years. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a growth in the number of publications in last 12 years by LA spinal surgeons. It is necessary to discuss a way to increase quantity and quality of scientific publications, mainly through a better education in research.

  6. Professionalism and Occupational Well-Being: Similarities and Differences Among Latin American Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Martín, Montserrat; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Vivanco, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Context: Empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning are described as key elements of professionalism. The first recipients of their benefits are professionals themselves. Paradoxically, scarce studies have reported association between professionalism and occupational well-being. The main purpose of this study was to characterize the influence that empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning, play in the occupational well-being of physicians and nurses working in Latin American healthcare institutions. Materials and Methods: The Jefferson Scale of Empathy, the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration, the Jefferson Scale of Physicians Lifelong Learning, and the Scale of Collateral Effects (somatization, exhaustion, and work alienation), were administered to 522 physicians and nurses working in institutions of Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, and Argentina. Internal reliability was calculated. Gender and discipline were used as explanatory variables in comparison analysis. Two-way analysis of variance was performed to examine differences due to the main effects of the gender, and discipline, and to determine possible combined effects. Correlation analysis was performed to measure associations between collateral effects and age, and between collateral effects and professionalism. Results: A total of 353 (68%) surveys were returned fully completed. Adequate reliability was confirmed in all instruments. No differences were found among countries for collateral effects. Correlation analysis confirmed in physicians an inverse association between empathy and collateral effects (P = -0.16; p teamwork, and lifelong learning have in practitioners' health and welfare, and the role that cultural behaviors, associated to work professional models and social stereotypes, play in the interaction between professionalism and occupational well-being.

  7. Analysis of serious non-AIDS events among HIV-infected adults at Latin American sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloso, W H; Orellana, L C; Grinsztejn, B; Madero, J S; La Rosa, A; Veloso, V G; Sanchez, J; Ismerio Moreira, R; Crabtree-Ramirez, B; Garcia Messina, O; Lasala, M B; Peinado, J; Losso, M H

    2010-10-01

    Acquired immune deficiency appears to be associated with serious non-AIDS (SNA)-defining conditions such as cardiovascular disease, liver and renal insufficiency and non-AIDS-related malignancies. We analysed the incidence of, and factors associated with, several SNA events in the LATINA retrospective cohort. Cases of SNA events were recorded among cohort patients. Three controls were selected for each case from cohort members at risk. Conditional logistic models were fitted to estimate the effect of traditional risk factors as well as HIV-associated factors on non-AIDS-defining conditions. Among 6007 patients in follow-up, 130 had an SNA event (0.86 events/100 person-years of follow-up) and were defined as cases (40 with cardiovascular events, 54 with serious liver failure, 35 with non-AIDS-defining malignancies and two with renal insufficiency). Risk factors such as diabetes, hepatitis B and C virus coinfections and alcohol abuse showed an association with events, as expected. The last recorded CD4 T-cell count prior to index date (P = 0.0056, with an average difference of more than 100 cells/μL) and area under the CD4 cell curve in the year previous to index date (P = 0.0081) were significantly lower in cases than in controls. CD4 cell count at index date was significantly associated with the outcome after adjusting for risk factors. The incidence and type of SNA events found in this Latin American cohort are similar to those reported in other regions. We found a significant association between immune deficiency and the risk of SNA events, even in patients under antiretroviral treatment.

  8. Pigment Dispersion Syndrome Progression to Pigmentary Glaucoma in a Latin American Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Mendieta, Diana Patricia; Rodriguez, Diego Andres; Sepulveda, Ana Irene; Toledo, Jose Daniel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the progression of pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) into pigmentary glaucoma (PG) in a population at the Central Military Hospital in Bogotá, Colombia. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was conducted, based on a review of medical records of patients with PDS evaluated in the Glaucoma Clinic. Data were collected in a database in excel and subsequently analyzed with the software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), performing Chi-square test analysis and Spearman’s rho test. Results: Forty-eight eyes of 24 patients were included. Forty-two percent were women and 58% were men. Pigmentation of the trabecular meshwork was the most frequent clinical sign (100%), followed by Krukenberg’s spindle (91.7%), the least frequent were the iris concavity and iris heterochromia (4.2%), the average of the spherical equivalent was of - 1.33 (SD 2.07). The rate of conversion of PDS to PG was 37.5%, after an average follow-up of 50.7 months. Having an intraocular pressure (IOP) greater than 21 mm Hg was statistically the only significant risk factor for conversion. Conclusion: We found several differences in frequency and clinical signs in these patients in contrast to previous data, probably due to different racial characteristics. The rate of progression is similar to previous reports despite of heterogeneity of these. Having IOP > 21 mm Hg was the only risk factor associated with progression in this sample. How to cite this article: Gomez Goyeneche HF, Hernandez-Mendieta DP, Rodriguez DA, Sepulveda AI, Toledo JD. Pigment Dispersion Syndrome Progression to Pigmentary Glaucoma in a Latin American Population. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(3):69-72. PMID:26997839

  9. Methodology for the development of normative data for ten Spanish-language neuropsychological tests in eleven Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan; Peró-Cebollero, Maribel; Rivera, Diego; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Within the field of neuropsychology, there is a significant lack of normative data for individuals in Latin America. To describe the methodology utilized to obtain the data and create norms for 10 Spanish-language neuropsychological tests administered in 11 Latin-American countries in a sample of 3,977 healthy individuals between the ages 18 and 90. The same data manipulation process was applied to the data collected (regardless of the scale or country) using a regression-based procedure that takes into account sex, age, and educational influences on neuropsychological test scores. Following this procedure, we were able to generate age, education, and sex (if relevant) based norms for each test in each of the 11 countries studied. These norms are presented in the 10 articles that comprise this special issue.

  10. Round ligament lipoma mimicking acute appendicitis in a 24-week pregnant female: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T J; Paulk, D G

    2013-04-01

    An exhaustive search of the literature using the Pub Med database revealed no reports of round ligament lipomas mimicking acute appendicitis in pregnant patients. There are relatively few articles on round ligament lipomas and even less on round ligament lipomas during pregnancy. This case report is on a 27-year-old 24-week pregnant female who presented with signs and symptoms similar to acute appendicitis who in fact had a large right pelvic round ligament lipoma that was causing her pain.

  11. Physical fitness of older adults in senior activity centres after 24-week silver yoga exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuei-Min; Chen, Ming-Hsien; Hong, Shan-Mann; Chao, Hui-Chen; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Li, Chun-Huw

    2008-10-01

    Promoting physical fitness of young-older adults is essential in reducing healthcare expenditures which would occur in the future for those with chronic health problems. The silver yoga exercise programme was developed to accommodate the reduced body flexibility experienced by many older adults and was critically reviewed by experts and pilot-tested with community-dwelling older adults. This study aimed to test older adults' physical fitness after a 24-week silver yoga exercise programme and to examine whether the programme could be further shortened to fit senior activity centres' programme designs. A quasi-experimental, pre-post tests design was used: baseline, at 12-week and at 24-week periods. Convenience samples of 204 subjects were recruited from eight senior activity centres and 176 subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned into three groups based on the centres: (1) Experiment I: complete silver yoga with stretching and meditation, (2) Experiment II: shortened silver yoga without the guided-imagery meditation and (3) Wait-list control. The interventions were conducted three times per week for 24 weeks. Physical fitness indicators included body compositions, cardiovascular-respiratory functions, physical functions and the range of motion. At the end of the 24-week period, the physical fitness of subjects in Experiments I and II had significantly improved whether or not guided-imagery meditation was used and all had better physical fitness than subjects in the control group (all p yoga group and the 55-minute shortened silver yoga group had significantly improved after the interventions. It was recommended that the silver yoga programme be shortened by eliminating the guided-imagery meditation. The shortened silver yoga exercise programme is recommended to be incorporated as an activity programme in community-settings to promote the physical fitness of older adults.

  12. Comparing vowel perception and production in Spanish and Portuguese: European versus Latin American dialects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chládková, K.; Escudero, P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent acoustic descriptions have shown that Spanish and Portuguese vowels are produced differently in Europe and Latin America. The present study investigates whether comparable between-variety differences exist in vowel perception. Spanish, Peruvian, Portuguese, and Brazilian listeners were tested

  13. Prevalence of Chagas Disease in a U.S. Population of Latin American Immigrants with Conduction Abnormalities on Electrocardiogram.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud I Traina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease (CD affects over six million people and is a leading cause of cardiomyopathy in Latin America. Given recent migration trends, there is a large population at risk in the United States (US. Early stage cardiac involvement from CD usually presents with conduction abnormalities on electrocardiogram (ECG including right bundle branch block (RBBB, left anterior or posterior fascicular block (LAFB or LPFB, respectively, and rarely, left bundle branch block (LBBB. Identification of disease at this stage may lead to early treatment and potentially delay the progression to impaired systolic function. All ECGs performed in a Los Angeles County hospital and clinic system were screened for the presence of RBBB, LAFB, LPFB, or LBBB. Patients were contacted and enrolled in the study if they had previously resided in Latin America for at least 12 months and had no history of cardiac disease. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and immunofluorescence assay (IFA tests were utilized to screen for Trypanosoma cruzi seropositivity. A total of 327 consecutive patients were screened for CD from January 2007 to December 2010. The mean age was 46.3 years and the mean length of stay in the US was 21.2 years. Conduction abnormalities were as follows: RBBB 40.4%, LAFB 40.1%, LPFB 2.8%, LBBB 5.5%, RBBB and LAFB 8.6%, and RBBB and LPFB 2.8%. Seventeen patients were positive by both ELISA and IFA (5.2%. The highest prevalence rate was among those with RBBB and LAFB (17.9%. There is a significant prevalence of CD in Latin American immigrants residing in Los Angeles with conduction abnormalities on ECG. Clinicians should consider evaluating all Latin American immigrant patients with unexplained conduction disease for CD.

  14. Prevalence of Chagas Disease in a U.S. Population of Latin American Immigrants with Conduction Abnormalities on Electrocardiogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Salvador; Sanchez, Daniel R.; Dufani, Jalal; Salih, Mohsin; Abuhamidah, Adieb M.; Olmedo, Wilman; Bradfield, Jason S.; Forsyth, Colin J.; Meymandi, Sheba K.

    2017-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD) affects over six million people and is a leading cause of cardiomyopathy in Latin America. Given recent migration trends, there is a large population at risk in the United States (US). Early stage cardiac involvement from CD usually presents with conduction abnormalities on electrocardiogram (ECG) including right bundle branch block (RBBB), left anterior or posterior fascicular block (LAFB or LPFB, respectively), and rarely, left bundle branch block (LBBB). Identification of disease at this stage may lead to early treatment and potentially delay the progression to impaired systolic function. All ECGs performed in a Los Angeles County hospital and clinic system were screened for the presence of RBBB, LAFB, LPFB, or LBBB. Patients were contacted and enrolled in the study if they had previously resided in Latin America for at least 12 months and had no history of cardiac disease. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence assay (IFA) tests were utilized to screen for Trypanosoma cruzi seropositivity. A total of 327 consecutive patients were screened for CD from January 2007 to December 2010. The mean age was 46.3 years and the mean length of stay in the US was 21.2 years. Conduction abnormalities were as follows: RBBB 40.4%, LAFB 40.1%, LPFB 2.8%, LBBB 5.5%, RBBB and LAFB 8.6%, and RBBB and LPFB 2.8%. Seventeen patients were positive by both ELISA and IFA (5.2%). The highest prevalence rate was among those with RBBB and LAFB (17.9%). There is a significant prevalence of CD in Latin American immigrants residing in Los Angeles with conduction abnormalities on ECG. Clinicians should consider evaluating all Latin American immigrant patients with unexplained conduction disease for CD. PMID:28056014

  15. Orlistat 60 mg reduces visceral adipose tissue: a 24-week randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven R; Stenlof, Kaj S; Greenway, Frank L; McHutchison, John; Schwartz, Susan M; Dev, Vidhu B; Berk, Evan S; Kapikian, Roxanne

    2011-09-01

    It is well established that abdominal obesity or upper body fat distribution is associated with increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. The purpose of the present study was to determine if a 24 week weight loss program with orlistat 60 mg in overweight subjects would produce a greater change in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) as measured by computed tomography (CT) scan, compared to placebo. The effects of orlistat 60 mg on changes in total fat mass (EchoMRI-AH and BIA), ectopic fat (CT) and glycemic variables were assessed. One-hundred thirty-one subjects were randomized into a multicenter, double-blind placebo controlled study in which 123 subjects received at least one post baseline efficacy measurement (intent-to-treat population). Both orlistat-and placebo-treated subjects significantly decreased their VAT at 24 weeks with a significantly greater loss of VAT by orlistat treated subjects (-15.7% vs. -9.4%, P orlistat-treated subjects had significantly greater weight loss (-5.93 kg vs. -3.94 kg, P orlistat 60 mg significantly reduces VAT in addition to total body fat compared to placebo treated subjects after a 24 week weight loss program. These results suggest that orlistat 60 mg may be an effective weight loss tool to reduce metabolic risk factors associated with abdominal obesity.

  16. "Carrying Ibuprofen in the Bag": Priority Health Concerns of Latin American Migrants in Spain- A Participatory Qualitative Study.

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    Maria Roura

    Full Text Available An estimated 2.7 million Latin Americans reside in Europe, mostly in Spain. Part of a broader project aimed at developing a research agenda on the health status and determinants of this population, this qualitative study engaged Latin American migrants in the identification of research priorities.We conducted 30 group discussions between November 2012-March 2013 with 84 participants purposively selected for maximum diversity in Madrid and Barcelona (Spain. We facilitated sequences of task-oriented visual activities to explore their views on priority health concerns. We tape-recorded and transcribed discussions and developed a coding frame based on socio-ecological frameworks, which we applied to all the data using NVIVO-10. A final round of eight group discussions allowed us to triangulate and enrich interpretations by including participants' insights.The cumulative toll of daily stresses was the major health concern perceived by a population that conceptualised ill-health as a constellation of symptoms rather than as specific diseases. Work-related factors, legislative frameworks regulating citizenship entitlements and feeling ethnically discriminated were major sources of psycho-social strain. Except for sexually transmitted infections, participants rarely referred to communicable diseases as a concern. The perception that clinicians systematically prescribed painkillers discouraged health seeking and fostered self-medication. Participants felt that the medicalised, chemicalised, sexually liberal and accelerated culture of the host society damaged their own, and the local populations' health.Health systems bear a disproportionate responsibility in addressing health problems rooted in other sectors. Occupational and migration policies should be recognised explicitly as health policies. The mismatch between researchers' emphasis on communicable infections and the health concerns of Latin American migrants highlights the need for greater

  17. Latin American vector in Russia’s Foreign Policy: Identities and interests in the Russian‑Venezuelan Partnership

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    Sitenko Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The crisis in Ukraine, that broke out in 2013 and escalated in 2014, has led to sanction policy and the emergence of significant political divergences between Russian Federation and the West. This has resulted in an intensification of Russia’s foreign and economic policy alliances with its neighboring countries as well as with the rest of the BRICS members. In his interview with Cuba’s Prensa Latina, Vladimir Putin further classified cooperation with Latin American states as one of the key and very promising lines of Russia’s foreign policy.

  18. Gender and Ethnicity as Barriers for Development: Indigenous Women, Access to Resources in Ecuador with a Latin American Perspective

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    Sarah Radcliffe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Placing original research undertaken in Ecuador with Kichwa and Tsáchila women, into the Latin American context, the paper addresses the barriers experienced by indigenous women to voice, rights and resources in the context of development programmes. The paper identifies racism, biased knowledges, and entrenched assumptions about women and indigenous people as the primary factors influencing indigenous women’s marginalization. The paper ends with a discussion of indigenous women’s critiques of development, and their recommendations for the future.

  19. The Latin American School of Human and Medical Genetics: promoting education and collaboration in genetics and ethics applied to health sciences across the continent.

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    Giugliani, Roberto; Baldo, Guilherme; Vairo, Filippo; Lujan Lopez, Monica; Matte, Ursula

    2015-07-01

    The Latin American Network of Human Genetics (RELAGH) created the Latin American School of Human and Medical Genetics (ELAG) to prepare young researchers and professionals of Latin America to deal with the growing challenge of the genomic medicine. ELAG promotes an annually course since 2005, which received 838 students from 17 Latin American countries over these 10 years. ELAG plays an important role to provide education in genetics applied to health sciences to fellows who live in countries with a less favorable economic situation. Influenced, among others, by the humanitarian perspective of José Maria Cantú, one of its founders, ELAG has always favored the discussion of ethical and social issues related to genetics in Latin America. Few initiatives in Latin America lasted 10 consecutive years. One of the factors responsible for the ELAG's success has been its group of faculty members, who contribute to a friendly environment prone to facilitating the exchange of their own experiences with young researchers.

  20. Perceived barriers in accessing food among recent Latin American immigrants in Toronto

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    Vahabi Mandana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective In Canada, recent immigrant households experience more food insecurity than the general population, but limited information is available about the personal, cultural, and social factors that contribute to this vulnerability. This study focused on recent Latin American (LA immigrants to explore their perceived barriers in acquiring safe, nutritious, and culturally-appropriate food. Design A cross-sectional mixed-method design was applied to collect information from a convenience sample of 70 adult Spanish/Portuguese speakers who had arrived in Toronto within the last five years. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with primary household caregivers to obtain responses about barriers to acquiring food for their households; data were analyzed using a thematic analysis technique. Results Four main categories of barriers were identified: limited financial resources; language difficulty; cultural food preferences; and poor knowledge of available community-based food resources and services. Inadequate income was the main impediment in accessing adequate food, and was related to affordability of food items, accessibility of food outlets and transportation cost, and limited time for grocery shopping due to work conditions. Language barriers affected participants’ ability to obtain well-paid employment and their awareness about and access to available community-based food resources. Cultural barriers were related to food preferences and limited access to culturally-appropriate foods and resources. Conclusion The main barrier to food security among our sample of LA newcomers to Toronto is limited financial resources, highlighting the need for policies and strategies that could improve their financial power to purchase sufficient, nutritious, and culturally-acceptable food. Linguistic barriers and limited information among newcomers suggest the need to provide linguistically- and culturally-appropriate information related to community

  1. Perceived barriers in accessing food among recent Latin American immigrants in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana; Damba, Cynthia

    2013-01-03

    In Canada, recent immigrant households experience more food insecurity than the general population, but limited information is available about the personal, cultural, and social factors that contribute to this vulnerability. This study focused on recent Latin American (LA) immigrants to explore their perceived barriers in acquiring safe, nutritious, and culturally-appropriate food. A cross-sectional mixed-method design was applied to collect information from a convenience sample of 70 adult Spanish/Portuguese speakers who had arrived in Toronto within the last five years. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with primary household caregivers to obtain responses about barriers to acquiring food for their households; data were analyzed using a thematic analysis technique. Four main categories of barriers were identified: limited financial resources; language difficulty; cultural food preferences; and poor knowledge of available community-based food resources and services. Inadequate income was the main impediment in accessing adequate food, and was related to affordability of food items, accessibility of food outlets and transportation cost, and limited time for grocery shopping due to work conditions. Language barriers affected participants' ability to obtain well-paid employment and their awareness about and access to available community-based food resources. Cultural barriers were related to food preferences and limited access to culturally-appropriate foods and resources. The main barrier to food security among our sample of LA newcomers to Toronto is limited financial resources, highlighting the need for policies and strategies that could improve their financial power to purchase sufficient, nutritious, and culturally-acceptable food. Linguistic barriers and limited information among newcomers suggest the need to provide linguistically- and culturally-appropriate information related to community-based food programs and resources, as well as accessible

  2. Clandestine induced abortion: prevalence, incidence and risk factors among women in a Latin American country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; White, Peter J; Carcamo, Cesar P; Hughes, James P; Gonzales, Marco A; Garcia, Patricia J; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K

    2009-02-03

    Clandestine induced abortions are a public health problem in many developing countries where access to abortion services is legally restricted. We estimated the prevalence and incidence of, and risk factors for, clandestine induced abortions in a Latin American country. We conducted a large population-based survey of women aged 18-29 years in 20 cities in Peru. We asked questions about their history of spontaneous and induced abortions, using techniques to encourage disclosure. Of 8242 eligible women, 7992 (97.0%) agreed to participate. The prevalence of reported induced abortions was 11.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.9%-12.4%) among the 7962 women who participated in the survey. It was 13.6% (95% CI 12.8%-14.5%) among the 6559 women who reported having been sexually active. The annual incidence of induced abortion was 3.1% (95% CI 2.9%-3.3%) among the women who had ever been sexually active. In the multivariable analysis, risk factors for induced abortion were higher age at the time of the survey (odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% CI 1.07-1.15), lower age at first sexual intercourse (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.84-0.91), geographic region (highlands: OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.23-1.97; jungle: OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.41-2.31 [v. coastal region]), having children (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68-0.98), having more than 1 sexual partner in lifetime (2 partners: OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.23-2.09; > or = 3 partners: OR 2.79, 95% CI 2.12-3.67), and having 1 or more sexual partners in the year before the survey (1 partner: OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.01-1.72; > or = 2 partners: OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.14-2.02). Overall, 49.0% (95% CI 47.6%-50.3%) of the women who reported being currently sexually active were not using contraception. The incidence of clandestine, potentially unsafe induced abortion in Peru is as high as or higher than the rates in many countries where induced abortion is legal and safe. The provision of contraception and safer-sex education to those who require it needs to be greatly improved and could potentially

  3. Life expectancy with and without cognitive impairment in seven Latin American and Caribbean countries.

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    Kimberly Ashby-Mitchell

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of cognitive impairment is an increasing challenge with the ageing of our populations but little is known about the burden in low- and middle- income Latin American and Caribbean countries (LAC that are aging more rapidly than their developed counterparts. We examined life expectancies with cognitive impairment (CILE and free of cognitive impairment (CIFLE in seven developing LAC countries.Data from The Survey on Health, Well-being and Ageing in LAC (N = 10,597 was utilised and cognitive status was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. The Sullivan Method was applied to estimate CILE and CIFLE. Logistic regression was used to determine the effect of age, gender and education on cognitive outcome. Meta-regression models were fitted for all 7 countries together to investigate the relationship between CIFLE and education in men and women at age 60.The prevalence of CI increased with age in all countries except Uruguay and with a significant gender effect observed only in Mexico where men had lower odds of CI compared to women [OR = 0.464 95% CInt (0.268 - 0.806]. Low education was associated with increased prevalence of CI in Brazil [OR = 4.848 (1.173-20.044], Chile [OR = 3.107 (1.098-8.793, Cuba [OR = 2.295 (1.247-4.225] and Mexico [OR = 3.838 (1.368-10.765. For males, total life expectancy (TLE at age 60 was highest in Cuba (19.7 years and lowest in Brazil and Uruguay (17.6 years. TLE for females at age 60 was highest for Chileans (22.8 years and lowest for Brazilians (20.2 years. CIFLE for men was greatest in Cuba (19.0 years and least in Brazil (16.7 years. These differences did not appear to be explained by educational level (Men: p = 0.408, women: p = 0.695.Increasing age, female sex and low education were associated with higher CI in LAC reflecting patterns found in other countries.

  4. Attitudes towards treatment among patients suffering from sleep disorders. A Latin American survey

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    Lloret Santiago

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although sleep disorders are common, they frequently remain unnoticed by the general practitioner. Few data are available about the willingness and reasons of patients with sleep disturbances to seek for medical assistance. Methods The results of a cross-sectional community-based multinational survey in three major Latin American urban areas, i.e. Buenos Aires, Mexico City and Sao Paulo, are reported. Two-hundred subjects suffering sleep disturbances and 100 non-sufferers were selected from the general population in each city (total number: 600 sufferers vs. 300 non-sufferers. A structured interview was conducted, sleep characteristics, feelings about sleep disturbances and strategies to cope with those problems being recorded. Data were analyzed by employing either t-test or analysis of variance (ANOVA to the Z-transformed proportions. Results 22.7 ± 3.5 % (mean ± SEM of subjects reported to suffer from sleep disturbances every night. About 3 out of 4 (74.2 ± 2.0 % considered their disorder as mild and were not very concerned about it. Only 31 ± 2 % of sufferers reported to have sought for medical help. Although 45 ± 2 % of sufferers reported frequent daily sleepiness, trouble to remember things, irritability and headaches, they did not seek for medical assistance. Among those patients who saw a physician with complaints different from sleep difficulties only 1 out of 3 (33 ± 2 % of patients were asked about quality of their sleep by the incumbent practitioner. Strategies of patients to cope with sleep problems included specific behaviors (taking a warm bath, reading or watching TV (44 ± 1.6 %, taking herbal beverages (17 ± 1.2 % or taking sleeping pills (10 ± 1.1 %. Benzodiazepines were consumed by 3 ± 0.6 % of sufferers. Conclusion Public educational campaigns on the consequences of sleep disorders and an adequate training of physicians in sleep medicine are needed to educate both the public and the general

  5. Sustainable development and migration policies: their treatment within the Latin American economic integration blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmora, L

    1994-01-01

    Without an equal sharing of costs and benefits of natural and human resources worldwide, imbalances and lack of human development lead to migration within and between countries. Economic integration blocks in Latin America provide a context for shared development: in Central America, in the Andean Region, and in the Southern Cone. Over the past 60 years migration policy was based on national protectionism, labor supply, and/or occupation of territory. When economic conditions changed to market economies and world markets, migration policy was redefined. Each of the economic integration blocks has developed its own strategies. The Andean Agreement on Labor Migrations was established to determine the rules for bilateral and multilateral treatment of problems. In the Southern Cone bilateral agreements have been longstanding. Multilateral efforts were recently underway within the Southern Common Market and throughout the region. The Central American Organization for Migrations has spearheaded the adoption of a multilateral strategy. All three regions have made considerable progress in the last three years in constructing multilateral policies for economic integration. Government awareness has been the primary force in these policy changes. Government has come to an understanding that clear domestic and regional migration policies were lacking and that obsolete migration practices of the 1930s did not meet the needs of the 1990s. Migration policy was considered an instrument of development. Movement of economic factors or goods was considered equally with movement of labor. Migration policies must integrate the human rights of migrants into their definitions. Methods of facilitating the movements of populations need to be constructed within the computerization and modernization of the migration administration. Legalization of illegal immigrants has occurred among a number of countries. PROCAM and PRIMCOS were action programs which aimed to integrate migration and

  6. Knowledge and attitudes of Latin American gynecologists regarding unplanned pregnancy and use of combined oral contraceptives

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    Bahamondes L

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Luis Bahamondes,1 Josefina Lira-Plasencia,2 Ricardo Martin,3 Victor Marin,4 Maria Y Makuch1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas (UNICAMP, Campinas, Brazil; 2Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, México, DF, México; 3Hospital Universitario, Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá, Bogotá, Colombia; 4Hospital Central, Petróleos Mexicanos, México, DF, México Background: Unintended pregnancy is a public health problem and unmet medical need worldwide. It is estimated that in the year 2012, almost 213 million pregnancies occurred, and the global pregnancy rate decreased only slightly from 2008 to 2012. It was also estimated that 85 million pregnancies (40% of all pregnancies were unintended and that 38% ended in an unintended birth. Objectives: To assess knowledge and attitudes of Latin American (LA obstetricians and gynecologists (OBGYNs regarding unintended pregnancies and aspects of combined oral contraceptive (COC use. Methods: A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting about contraception in 2014, in which OBGYNs from 12 LA countries who provide attention in contraception were invited to respond to a multiple-choice questionnaire to assess their knowledge and attitudes regarding unplanned pregnancy and some aspects regarding COC use. Results: A total of 210 OBGYNs participated in the study. Their knowledge regarding COC failure was low. The participants reported they believed that their patients habitually forgot to take a pill and that their patients did not know what to do in these situations. They were aware of the benefits of COC use; however, they were less prone to prescribe COCs for the purpose of protecting against ovarian and endometrial cancer, and one-quarter of them had doubts about the association between COC use and cancer risk. Conclusion: The interviewed LA OBGYNs showed some flaws in terms of knowledge of COC failure rates and the non-contraceptive benefits and risks

  7. Country risk premium: theoretical determinants and empirical evidence for latin american countries

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    Selmo Aronovich

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behavior of the country risk premium for Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, from June 1997 to September 1998. It shows that the level of country risk premium is determined by different factors: the US dollar bond market structure; restrictions on the acquisition of emerging market bonds imposed by developed nations regulators; the credit risk measured by the notion of implied risk-neutral probability default; the different ways agents react to country risk due to asymmetric and imperfect information. The empirical investigation shows: the worse the country credit rating, the greater is the impact on international borrowing cost, which implies that negative expectations have greater impact on lower rated Latin American nations' bonds; country risk yield spreads overreacted to changes in the US dollar interest rates in the sample period.Este artigo investiga o comportamento do conceito de prêmio de risco-país para Argentina, Brasil e México, de junho de 1997 até setembro de 1998. Mostra-se que tal prêmio é determinado pelos seguintes fatores: a estrutura do mercado de títulos de dívida em dólares norte-americanos; as restrições à aquisição de títulos de dívida impostas por agentes reguladores de países desenvolvidos; o risco de crédito mensurado pelo conceito de probabilidade de inadimplência risco-nêutra implícita; o modo como os agentes reagem à informação assimétrica ou imperfeita. A evidência empírica revela que: quanto pior a classificação de risco de crédito, maior é o impacto esperado sobre as condições de captação externa, implicando que expectativas desfavoráveis afetam de forma mais acentuada países com baixa classificação de crédito; o valor do spread representativo do risco-país mostrou-se superelástico à variação da taxa de juros de longo prazo do Tesouro norte-americano no período da amostra.

  8. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi's Discrete Typing Units in a cohort of Latin American migrants in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Perez, Angela; Poveda, Cristina; Ramírez, Juan David; Norman, Francesca; Gironés, Núria; Guhl, Felipe; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Fresno, Manuel; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. This is an endemic disease in the Americas, but increased migration to Europe has made it emerge in countries where it was previously unknown, being Spain the second non endemic country in number of patients. T. cruzi is a parasite with a wide genetic diversity, which has been grouped by consensus into 6 Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) affecting humans. Some authors have linked these DTUs either to a specific epidemiological context or to the different clinical presentations. Our main objective was to describe the T. cruzi DTUs identified from a population of chronically infected Latin American migrants attending a reference clinic in Madrid. 149 patients meeting this condition were selected for the study. Molecular characterization was performed by an algorithm that combines PCR of the intergenic region of the mini exon-gene, the 24Sα and 18S regions of rDNA and the variable region of the satellite DNA. A descriptive analysis was performed and associations between geographical/clinical data and the different DTUs were tested. DTUs could be determined in 105 out of 149 patients, 93.3% were from Bolivia, 67.7% were women and median age was 35 years (IQR 29-44). The most common DTU found was TcV (58; 55.2%), followed by TcIV (17; 16.2%), TcII (10; 9.5%) and TcI (4; 3.8%). TcIII and TcVI were not identified from any patient, and 15.2% patients presented mixed infections. In addition, we determined DTUs after treatment in a subset of patients. In 57% patients had different DTUs before and after treatment. DTUs distribution from this study indicates active transmission of T. cruzi is occurring in Bolivia, in both domestic and sylvatic cycles. TcIV was confirmed as a cause of chronic human disease. The current results indicate no correlation between DTU and any specific clinical presentation associated with Chagas disease, nor with geographical origin. Treatment with benznidazole does not always clear T. cruzi

  9. Toxocara seropositivity, atopy and wheezing in children living in poor neighbourhoods in urban Latin American.

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    Lívia Ribeiro Mendonça

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Toxocara canis and T. cati are parasites of dogs and cats, respectively, that infect humans and cause human toxocariasis. Infection may cause asthma-like symptoms but is often asymptomatic and is associated with a marked eosinophilia. Previous epidemiological studies indicate that T. canis infection may be associated with the development of atopy and asthma. OBJECTIVES: To investigate possible associations between Toxocara spp. seropositivity and atopy and childhood wheezing in a population of children living in non-affluent areas of a large Latin American city. METHODS: The study was conducted in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Data on wheezing symptoms were collected by questionnaire, and atopy was measured by the presence of aeroallergen-specific IgE (sIgE. Skin prick test (SPT, total IgE and peripheral eosinophilia were measured. Toxocara seropositivity was determined by the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies, and intestinal helminth infections were determined by stool microscopy. FINDINGS: Children aged 4 to 11 years were studied, of whom 47% were seropositive for anti-Toxocara IgG; eosinophilia >4% occurred in 74.2% and >10% in 25.4%; 59.6% had elevated levels of total IgE; 36.8% had sIgE≥0.70 kU/L and 30.4% had SPT for at least one aeroallergen; 22.4% had current wheezing symptoms. Anti-Toxocara IgG was positively associated with elevated eosinophils counts, total IgE and the presence of specific IgE to aeroallergens but was inversely associated with skin prick test reactivity. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of Toxocara seropositivity was high in the studied population of children living in conditions of poverty in urban Brazil. Toxocara infection, although associated with total IgE, sIgE and eosinophilia, may prevent the development of skin hypersensitivity to aeroallergens, possibly through increased polyclonal IgE and the induction of a modified Th2 immune reaction.

  10. Congenital and perinatal complications of chikungunya fever: a Latin American experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jaime R; Falleiros-Arlant, Luiza H; Dueñas, Lourdes; Pleitez-Navarrete, Jorge; Salgado, Doris M; Castillo, José Brea-Del

    2016-10-01

    During the years 2014 and 2015, the Region of the Americas underwent a devastating epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) of the Asian genotype, resulting in millions of affected individuals. However, epidemiological and clinical information on this experience is scarce. Prior knowledge of congenital and neonatal illness caused by CHIKV is limited and almost exclusively based on data obtained from a single outbreak of the East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype. The effect of chikungunya fever (CHIKF) on pregnancy outcomes and its consequences for infants born to infected mothers at the peak of the epidemic wave in Latin America are reviewed herein. Epidemiological and clinical data on maternal and neonatal infections were collected prospectively and analyzed. One hundred sixty-nine symptomatic newborns with CHIKF seen at four large regional maternity hospitals in three different Central and South American countries were evaluated prospectively. The outcomes of pregnancies in symptomatic infected mothers at two of these clinical centers were also analyzed. The observed vertical transmission rate ranged between 27.7% and 48.29%. The incidence of congenital disease was unrelated to the use of cesarean section or natural delivery. The case fatality rate (CFR) at the only center that reported deaths was 5.3%. The most common clinical manifestations included fever, irritability, rash, hyperalgesia syndrome, diffuse limb edema, meningoencephalitis, and bullous dermatitis. Severe complications included meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, seizures, and acute respiratory failure. Leukocytosis with neutrophilia and normal or increased platelets was a common finding, and in those with signs of meningeal involvement, moderate lymphocytic pleocytosis with normal glucose and protein levels was typical. This study presents the largest number of symptomatic neonates with CHIKF analyzed so far in any region and is the first involving infection with the Asian genotype of CHIKV

  11. Digestive, hepatic, and nutritional manifestations in Latin American children with HIV/AIDS.

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    Velasco-Benítez, Carlos Alberto

    2008-08-01

    The HIV/AIDS infection is increasing in Latin America and the Caribbean regions, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In Latin America, most cases are in Brasil, Mexico, and Colombia. Some causes of the HIV/AIDS infection in Latin America are poverty, limitations on the access to antiretroviral drugs, poor response from governmental and health authorities, migration, and scantiness of research resources. In the pediatric population, perinatal transmission is the main contact mechanism. Several digestive, hepatic, and nutritional manifestations allow the classification of HIV infection in children, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Improvement in knowledge of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, physiopathology; and management of HIV enteropathy and on nutritional care practices of infected HIV children is recommended.

  12. Anti-imperialism and revolution in Latin American protest song (1967-69

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    CAIO DE SOUZA GOMES

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to analyze how the year of 1967 was a rupture moment particularly important in the process of consolidation for the movements of protest songs in Latin America due to the I Encuentro de la Canción Protesta, the very first event that tried to institutionalize and articulate the musical movements that have emerged in Latin America, and that had great impact on the discography produced in the period between 1967 and 1969, scoring the incorporation of new dialogues and references on the sounds of nueva canción.

  13. Has the First Global Financial Crisis Changed the Entrepreneurial Values in Digitalized Marketing-based Societies? The Case of GEM Latin American Countries

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    José Manuel Saiz Álvarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As the world economy is globalized, crises are rapidly spread due to the massive use of ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies, also affecting the entrepreneurial values involved in business creation processes. In this sense, digital marketing has a key role to play, as it can serve as a tool based on technology applied to foster nascent entrepreneurship. Using data for GEM Latin American countries, and applying clustering analysis based on the K-means method, the objective of this work is to test if the actual First Global Financial Crisis (FGFC has altered the entrepreneurial values in Latin American firms. The main result of this work is that the traits of entrepreneurial activity in GEM Latin American countries have progressively shifted from quantity to quality, so digital marketing is having an increasing importance.

  14. Chagas disease among the Latin American adult population attending in a primary care center in Barcelona, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carme Roca

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: The epidemiology of Chagas disease, until recently confined to areas of continental Latin America, has undergone considerable changes in recent decades due to migration to other parts of the world, including Spain. We studied the prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin American patients treated at a health center in Barcelona and evaluated its clinical phase. We make some recommendations for screening for the disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed an observational, cross-sectional prevalence study by means of an immunochromatographic test screening of all continental Latin American patients over the age of 14 years visiting the health centre from October 2007 to October 2009. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological methods: conventional in-house ELISA (cELISA, a commercial kit (rELISA and ELISA using T cruzi lysate (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics (oELISA. Of 766 patients studied, 22 were diagnosed with T. cruzi infection, showing a prevalence of 2.87% (95% CI, 1.6-4.12%. Of the infected patients, 45.45% men and 54.55% women, 21 were from Bolivia, showing a prevalence in the Bolivian subgroup (n=127 of 16.53% (95% CI, 9.6-23.39%. ALL THE INFECTED PATIENTS WERE IN A CHRONIC PHASE OF CHAGAS DISEASE: 81% with the indeterminate form, 9.5% with the cardiac form and 9.5% with the cardiodigestive form. All patients infected with T. cruzi had heard of Chagas disease in their country of origin, 82% knew someone affected, and 77% had a significant history of living in adobe houses in rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in immigrants from Bolivia. Detection of T. cruzi-infected persons by screening programs in non-endemic countries would control non-vectorial transmission and would benefit the persons affected, public health and national health systems.

  15. Emotions in the History of Latin American Popular Education: Constructions for a Thinking-Feeling Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streck, Danilo R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the presence of emotions in the constitution of popular education in Latin America, thus contributing to understand popular education as a thinking-feeling practice. It starts from the assumption that emotions are also historical and cultural expressions that mark societies and their understanding of…

  16. Climate change and topography as drivers of Latin American biome dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flantua, S.G.A.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focuses on Latin America. It uses paleobotanic data which are indicative of past vegetation and climate change on the basis of relationships between fossils left by the modern vegetation and modern environmental conditions. For the first time, palynological data is analyzed spatially in

  17. Seminario latinoamericano de didactica de los medios audiovisuales (Latin American Seminar on Teaching with Audiovisual Aids).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduplan Informa, 1971

    1971-01-01

    This seminar on the use of audiovisual aids reached several conclusions on the need for and the use of such aids in Latin America. The need for educational innovation in the face of a new society, a new type of communication, and a new vision of man is stressed. A new definition of teaching and learning as a fundamental process of communication is…

  18. [Agricultural structures and internal migration in a historical perspective: Latin American case studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, J

    1981-01-01

    This study is concerned with the ways in which changes in the structure of rural life influence internal migration in Latin America. The author describes how changes such as the abolition of slavery affected Peru and Bolivia and how the expansion of the international grain market affected Argentina, particularly regarding migration. Recent changes considered include the mechanization of agriculture and the decline of immigration.

  19. Cite Globally, Analyze Locally: Citation Analysis from a Local Latin American Studies Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadl, Suzanne M.; Todeschini, Marina

    2015-01-01

    This citation analysis examines the use of Spanish- and Portuguese-language books and articles in PhD dissertations on Latin America at the University of New Mexico between 2000 and 2009. Two sets of data are presented: The first identifies the use of Spanish- and Portuguese-language books and articles across 17 academic departments; and the…

  20. Latin America in the 1980’s: The Strategic Environment and Inter-American Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-15

    national integration propounded by its Centro de Altos Estudios Militares. The Brazilian and Peruvian "models," variously adapted by other Latin...by the exercise of crude military power. 32 ENDNOTES 1. Hello Jaguaribe, "La America Latina ante al Siglo XXI," El Trimestre Economico , Vol. XLI

  1. NPC Vice Chairman Cheng Siwei Leads CLAFA Delegation to Four Latin American Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>AChina-Latin America Friendship Association(CLAFA) delegation headed by Cheng Siwei, vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress and president of the CLAFA, paid a friendly visit to Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil and Uruguay from November 10 to 30, 2003 at the invitation of the Ecuadorian-Chinese Friendship Association, the

  2. Successful caspofungin treatment of persistent candidemia in extreme prematurity at 23 and 24 weeks' gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ga Won; Sin, Jong Beom

    2014-03-01

    Systemic fungal infection continues to be a major cause of mortality in extremely low-birth-weight premature infants. Amphotericin B has been recommended as the primary treatment; however, its use is limited due to drug-induced nephrotoxicity and amphotericin B-resistant candidemia. Caspofungin therapy was initiated in seven extremely premature infants at 23 and 24 weeks' gestation with persistent systemic candidiasis despite liposomal amphotericin B treatment. The gestational age was 23(+1)-24(+6) weeks, and birth weight was 530-825 g. Of the seven patients, the peripheral blood cultures of six patients were positive for Candida parapsilosis and one had positive culture for Candida albicans. The dosage of caspofungin was 2 mg/kg/day, and the mean treatment duration was 14 days. All of the persistent candidemia resolved on caspofungin therapy. There was no recurrent candidemia after discontinuing caspofungin. There were no adverse effects, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, anemia, or thrombocytopenia. Caspofungin successfully treated persistent candidemia in extremely premature infants at 23 and 24 weeks' gestational age.

  3. Educational Inequalities among Latin American Adolescents: Continuities and Changes over the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteleto, Letícia; Gelber, Denisse; Hubert, Celia; Salinas, Viviana

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine recent trends in educational stratification for Latin American adolescents growing up in three distinct periods: the 1980s, during severe recession; the 1990s, a period of structural adjustments imposed by international organizations; and the late 2000s, when most countries in the region experienced positive and stable growth. In addition to school enrollment and educational transitions, we examine the quality of education through enrollment in private schools, an important aspect of inequality in education that most studies have neglected. We use nationally representative household survey data for the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s in Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Uruguay. Our overall findings confirm the importance of macroeconomic conditions for inequalities in educational opportunity, suggesting important benefits brought up by the favorable conditions of the 2000s. However, our findings also call attention to increasing disadvantages associated with the quality of the education adolescents receive, suggesting the significance of the EMI framework-Effectively Maintained Inequality-and highlighting the value of examining the quality in addition to the quantity of education in order to fully understand educational stratification in the Latin American context.

  4. Challenges to reduce the ‘10/90 gap’: mental health research in Latin American and Caribbean countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzouk, D; Gallo, C; Olifson, S; Zorzetto, R; Fiestas, F; Poletti, G; Mazzotti, G; Levav, I; Mari, J J

    2008-01-01

    Razzouk D, Gallo C, Olifson S, Zorzetto R, Fiestas F, Poletti G, Mazzotti G, Levav I, Mari JJ. Challenges to reduce the ‘10/90 gap’: mental health research in Latin American and Caribbean countries. Objective: To analyze the status of mental health research in 30 Latin American and Caribbean countries (LAC). Method: Medline and PsycInfo databases were searched to identify the LAC authors. Their publications were classified according to the topic, type of research and target population studied. Scientific indicators of these countries were assessed in other two different databases: Essential Scientific Information and Atlas of Science Project, both from Institute for Scientific Information. Results: Indexed-publications were concentrated in six countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela. Most studies dealt with the burdensome mental disorders but neglected important topics such as violence and other mental health priorities. Conclusion: Mental health research is mostly concentrated in a few LAC countries, but these countries would contribute to reduce the research gap, if they provide research training to their neighbors and engage in bi- or multi-lateral research collaboration on common region priorities. PMID:18759812

  5. Do foreign portfolio flows increase risk in emerging stock markets? Evidence from six Latin American countries 1999-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Agudelo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Foreign portfolio flows have been blamed for causing instability in emerging markets, especially during financial crises. This study measured the effect of foreign capital flows on volatility and exposure to world market risk in the six largest Latin American stock markets: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico and Peru, for around 10 years including the 2008 World financial crisis. This will test whether these flows cause instability for those markets and increase their exposure to international stock market returns. A proprietary database, from Emerging Portoflio.com and time series models, both univariate (ARCH-GARCH and multivariate (VAR, are used to estimate the effect foreign portfolio flows on the risk variables and the causality of these effects. We found no strong evidence to support the hypothesis that foreign flows cause instability in the Latin American stock markets, in spite of some evidence of causing price pressure. Instead, the evidence points to a strong dependence of market returns on international stock and foreign exchange markets, both in means and in volatility, instrumental to transmit crisis to those markets.

  6. A model educational program for people with type 2 diabetes: a cooperative Latin American implementation study (PEDNID-LA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardino, J J; Etchegoyen, G

    2001-06-01

    To implement an educational program in 10 Latin American countries and to evaluate its effect on the clinical, biochemical, and therapeutic aspects as well as the economic cost of diabetes. Educators from each participating country were previously trained to implement the educational model. The patient population included 446 individuals with type 2 diabetes; all patients were education courses. Clinical and therapeutic data and the cost of their pharmacological treatment were collected 6 months before participation in the educational program (-6 months), on entry into the program (time 0), and at 4, 8, and 12 months after initiation of the program. All parameters measured had improved significantly (P educational model, implemented in 10 Latin American countries, reinforce the value of patient education as an essential part of diabetes care. They also suggest that an educational approach promoting healthy lifestyle habits and patient empowerment is an effective strategy with the potential to decrease the development of complications related to diabetes as well as the socioeconomic costs of the disease.

  7. [Mixed vaginitis prevalence in Latin-American women, according to physician perception. Preference, effectiveness and security of clindamycin plus ketoconazole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Bueno, José Alberto; Vázquez Alanís, Alejandro; Olguín Ramírez, Claudia; Dumet Hinostroza, Pablo F; Gutiérrez Ramos, Miguel; De Zordo, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    Vaginitis is an inflammatory process in vaginal mucosa that affects millions of woman worldwide. To evaluate prevalence perception and prescription preference among Latin-American gyneco-obstetricians in mixed vaginitis, and to identify attributes of various active principles. multicentric and transversal study during January 2008. Close Up was used to poll gyneco-obstetricians prescribing clyndamicin plus ketoconazole. 1,198 gyneco-obstetricians were selected to answer a poll (scales and measuring attributes) to identify differences among various therapeutic schemes to mixed vaginitis. 34% of gyneco-obstetricians consider that 30 to 50% of them patients had mixed vaginitis, 38% consider a 50 to 70% of its prevalence, and 20% a 70% or higher figure. In a bad to excellent scale, 97% had very good to excellent results with antimycotic and antibacterial mix, 73% had a bad to good result with antimycotics alone and 79% with antibacterial alone. Clyndamicin plus ketoconazole had a meaningful difference from mean results (standard), and from the second best mix (metronidazole plus nystatin), with a rapid itch healing, efficacy, and relapse decrease. Metronidazole plus nystatin had the highest score in tolerance and treatment period. 90% of polled Latin-American obstetricians prescribe clyndamicin plus ketoconazole as the best available treatment to mixed vaginitis.

  8. Latin-American reading of Hannah Arendt in Norbert Lechner’s early works (1970-1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Camou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The decade that goes from the military coup in Chile (1973 to the democratic recovery in Argentina (1983 draws symbolically a broad territory of new political visions between the “progressive” sectors in Latin American. During those years the idea of “revolution” was losing ground facing a renewed estimate of the virtues of the democracy as axis of the political field. These notes concentrate on analyzing the suggestive reading of Hannah Arendt introduced by Norbert Lechner in Latin American debate on democratization. Our hypothesis says that Lechner maintained a critical permanent dialogue with the German classical and contemporary thought. In particular, the appropriation, adaptation and recreation of Arendt’s work, was fundamental in three planes. At the discursive level, Lechner recreates elements of Arendt’s vision of politics, allowing understanding it as a human activity inherently conflictual and plural. At the institutional level, both authors develop a reflective record halfway between philosophy, social sciences and literature. Finally, at the socio-professional dimension, Lechner finds in Arendt’s figure a promising model of autonomous intellectual, as opposed to the “organic” intellectual, and to the “neutral” expert.

  9. Do foreign exchange and equity markets co-move in Latin American region? Detrended cross-correlation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Usman; Yu, Yugang; Hussain, Muntazir; Zebende, Gilney F.

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of the relationship between foreign exchange markets and stock markets through time varying co-movements. In this sense, we analyzed the time series monthly of Latin American countries for the period from 1991 to 2015. Furthermore, we apply Granger causality to verify the direction of causality between foreign exchange and stock market and detrended cross-correlation approach (ρDCCA) for any co-movements at different time scales. Our empirical results suggest a positive cross correlation between exchange rate and stock price for all Latin American countries. The findings reveal two clear patterns of correlation. First, Brazil and Argentina have positive correlation in both short and long time frames. Second, the remaining countries are negatively correlated in shorter time scale, gradually moving to positive. This paper contributes to the field in three ways. First, we verified the co-movements of exchange rate and stock prices that were rarely discussed in previous empirical studies. Second, ρDCCA coefficient is a robust and powerful methodology to measure the cross correlation when dealing with non stationarity of time series. Third, most of the studies employed one or two time scales using co-integration and vector autoregressive approaches. Not much is known about the co-movements at varying time scales between foreign exchange and stock markets. ρDCCA coefficient facilitates the understanding of its explanatory depth.

  10. The post-Marxism as interpretation of Latin American literary criticism and history: the case of José Carlos Mariátegui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Laverde Ospina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work intends to perform a post-marxist reading of Latin American theory, criticism, historiography and literature histories, with special emphasis on José Carlos Mariátegui, in order to verify the existence of a tradition with different aspects that, woven of continuities, discontinuities and ruptures, have been committed with the construction of a Latin American thought concerning to the aesthetic-literary phenomenon and which aim have been taking part in the democratic and pluralist configuration of the political and cultural ambiences of this continent.

  11. Latin American Economic Reform and Latin Americanization -- An Analysis Based on the Perspective of Property Rights%拉美经济改革与拉美化——基于产权视角的解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞建刚; 张贯之

    2012-01-01

    上世纪80年代末拉美国家以新自由主义为指导,开展了建立已私有化、自由化和全球化为标志的外向型市场经济改革。改革结果没有带来经济的持续增长和收入分配的合理发展,产生了一系列“拉美化”问题。究其根源,是拉美各国经济改革中产权制度分配结构不合理。主要表现在自然资源产权的集团垄断、私有化产权分配过程缺乏公平、外资影响产权结构和大企业与小企业产权不平等四个方面。%At the end of 1980' s, Latin American countries take the new liberalism as the instruction, they implement the export oriented market economic reforms that marked by privatization, liberalization and globalization. But the reform did not bring about the rational development of sustained economic growth and income distribution, which produce a series question of" Latin Americanization". This question stems from the unreasonable allocation structure of property rights in each country of Latin America. The mani- festation is in four aspects :natural resource property rights monopoly, unfair of private property distribu- tion, foreign capital impacts on property structure and Inequality of small and large enterprises property rights, and so on.

  12. [Latin-American Consensus on Difficult-to-Control Asthma. 2008 Update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Asthma, which is more of a syndrome than a disease, usually responds to inhaled corticosteroid treatment, with or without the addition of long-acting beta-agonists. However, in a certain group of patients asthma cannot be controlled despite administering appropriate drugs at high doses. Difficult-to-control asthma cases are the target of this consensus meeting. Clinical practice guidelines and consensus on this subject already exist, so we must emphasize that the objective of this document is to review said guidelines and adapt them to regional situations. It is also necessary to update the guidelines, as new treatment alternatives have appeared in our countries. Difficult-to-control asthma has many different names, such as severe, serious, difficult, refractory, unstable, life-threatening, corticoid-resistant, and corticoid-dependent asthma, among others. The prevalence of difficult-to-control asthma has not clearly been established, but several publications estimate it to represent 5% of the asthma population. However, the significant impact on asthma-related direct and indirect costs and the quality of life impairment in this patient population have been clearly shown. The Latin American Consensus on Difficult-to-Control Asthma submits the following definition: "Inadequately-controlled asthma existing despite appropriate treatment strategy adjusted to the clinical severity level (level 4 or higher of the Global Initiative for Asthma [GINA]), indicated by a physician and administered for at least six months". The correct diagnosis of difficult-to-control asthma usually is made when there is no response to adequate treatment adjusted to the clinical severity level. However, many conditions can mimic difficult-to-control asthma, while others can exacerbate it. Therefore, in order to ensure a correct diagnosis, certain requirements - systematic assessments - must be met which confirm the asthma diagnosis and rule out other conditions. The therapeutic approach to

  13. Differentiation strategies in coffee global value chains through reference to territorial origin in Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marescotti, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For many years coffee has been regarded as a commodity. Recently, new trends both at consumption and production level created new opportunities for de-commodifying the coffee market, by a differentiation based on social, environmental and territorial resources, and consequently for strengthening local agro-food systems and improving the position of farmers in the value chain. In this perspective, territorial origin is one promising lever of differentiation, and there is a growing number of initiatives trying to develop protected Geographical Indications in coffee value chains. This work aims at identifying the different logics surrounding the construction of protected Geographical Indications (GIs in the coffee industry in Latin America, and to discuss the role of history and tradition in relation to the link to specific local resources. Our analysis highlights a variety of typologies of GI initiatives, which follow different logics and strategies, and interpret the concept of “origin” in different ways, especially when compared to the European Union one. However the role that history and traditions play in American coffee GIs is not yet relevant.Durante mucho tiempo, el café ha sido considerado como un producto commodity, de carácter indiferenciado. Recientemente, nuevas tendencias en la producción y el consumo de café han creado nuevas oportunidades para emprender estrategias de diferenciación (de-commodify en el mercado del café, basadas en los recursos locales de carácter social, medioambiental y territorial y, consecuentemente, con una finalidad de impulsar los sistemas agroalimentarios locales y de mejorar la situación de los agricultores en la cadena de valor. Desde esta perspectiva, el origen territorial se convierte en una herramienta prometedora de diferenciación del producto. Existe un número creciente de iniciativas cuyo propósito es desarrollar Indicaciones Geográficas (IGs en el ámbito de las cadenas de valor del

  14. La Capacitacion de Docentes Como Prioridad de los Sistemas Educativos de America Latino y al Caribe (In-Service Teacher Training as a Priority of Latin American and Caribbean Educational Systems).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Victor M.

    Whenever top-level officials in Latin American and Caribbean educational systems are approached, the topic of inservice teacher training is presented as a major priority. This paper outlines some ideas about the subject of inservice teacher training as a priority of educational systems in Latin American and Caribbean countries. The most frequent…

  15. Estudio situacional de siete revistas latinoamericanas de neumología Situational study of seven Latin-American pulmonology journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Oyarzún Gómez

    2007-06-01

    American Thoracic Society. Each journal editor presented a report and answered a questionnaire. RESULTS: Improving information acquisition is the main motivation for pulmonology societies to edit their own journals, whereas disseminating medical knowledge and reporting experiences are the main motivations for authors to submit papers. The most common failing in the manuscripts submitted is poor compliance with the journal guidelines. Improving author-editor-reviewer relationships would be the best strategy for improving the quality of manuscripts. Suggestions for improving Latin American journals included the following: promoting professionalism in editorial tasks; encouraging manuscript reviewers to be more meticulous; and embracing international norms for editing medical journals. The following major problems were reported: a lack of regular, appropriate periodicity of issues; a shortage of original papers that are considered 'milestones' in the specialty; a low rejection rate for submitted papers; a high turnover of editors. CONCLUSION: Based on our findings, we can make the following recommendations: although many journals are available in electronic form, they should also be maintained in print form; each journal should divulge its subscription fee, even if it is included in the annual society membership dues; although each Latin American country might decide to publish its own pulmonology journal, the feasibility of publishing a multinational Latin American pulmonology journal should be explored.

  16. A note on the Pazos-Simonsen mechanism and Kaldor's early research on Latin American inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Vera

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In contrast with the inflationary finance story, inflation acceleration in Latin America has been explained as the result of the interaction of inflation dynamics and the frequency of wage adjustments. Accordingly, small inflation disturbances are connected with a shift from moderate to high inflation (or beyond to hyperinflation though a mechanism that makes adjustment intervals in wage contracts endogenous. Rudiger Dornbusch (1986 labeled this process the "Pazos-Simonsen mechanism". In this note we summarize the basic contribution of both Felipe Pazos (1978 and Mario Henrique Simonsen (1983 and find crucial differences between their views on wage dynamics, specifically regarding the endogeneity of the time interval between wage readjustments. A remarkable affinity with Pazos's view on wage dynamics and inflation is found in an early and almost unknown essay written by Nicholas Kaldor in 1957 (inspired in his brief experience in Latin America.

  17. Capitalism and population in Latin American agriculture: recent trends and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miro, C A; Rodriguez, D

    1982-04-01

    "On the basis of a body of empirical research, the authors explore the relationship between agrarian structure and population [in Latin America]. After an introduction in which they present their theoretical and methodological orientation, they describe the current changing trends in agrarian structure, among which are the 'intensification' of the process of the penetration of capitalistic forms into agriculture." They then discuss the relationships between agrarian structure and demographic variables, particularly fertility and migration. In the final section, some guidelines for future research are presented. This paper is a revised version of an evaluation study carried out to assess the contributions of 14 research projects financed by the Programme of Social Research on Population in Latin America (PISPAL). excerpt

  18. Barriers to the Transfer of Low-carbon Electricity Generation Technologies in Four Latin American Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desgain, Denis DR; Haselip, James Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the conclusions of four national Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) processes in Latin America (2011-2013), as applied to the electricity sector. The primary focus is on the financial and economic barriers identified by countries to the transfer of prioritized low-carbon ene......This article discusses the conclusions of four national Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) processes in Latin America (2011-2013), as applied to the electricity sector. The primary focus is on the financial and economic barriers identified by countries to the transfer of prioritized low...... to the debate about the relationship between financial and economic barriers to technology transfer and electricity market structures, based on a new round of country-driven priorities and analysis, in support of the UNFCCC process on climate change mitigation....

  19. A physical demands analysis of the 24-week British Army Parachute Regiment recruit training syllabus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David M; Rayson, Mark P; Bilzon, James L J

    2008-05-01

    This study assessed the physical demands of the 24-week Combined Infantryman's Course (CIC) for Parachute Regiment (Para) recruits and developed physical selection standards for applicants. Fifty recruits were monitored over five separate periods (35 d in total during weeks 1-2, 5, 9, 15 and 19-20). Energy expenditure (doubly labelled water), physical activity (accelerometry) and cardiovascular strain (% heart rate reserve) were measured. There was no overall progression in both the levels of physiological stress (physical activity counts and energy expenditure) and resultant cardiovascular strain during the first nine weeks of training. Applicants' 2.4 km run time and static lift strength measured at selection predicted 10 mile loaded march performance at the end of CIC Para. The introduction of job-related selection procedures and a more progressive approach to training has reduced the incidence of medical discharge from 14.4% to 5.1% and increased overall pass rates from 43% to 58%.

  20. [Structure of hair on the head and other parts fo body in Latin Americans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Iu V

    2000-01-01

    The structure of hairs from the head, chest, armpits, and pubis of residents of Latin America (Bolivia, Salvador, Panama, Ecuador, Chile, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Peru, Brasil, and Mexico) has been studied. New data on macro- and microscopic characteristics of hairs of the population of the above countries were obtained (color, shape, length, thickness of hair; number of cuticle lines; characteristics of hair layers, shapes of transverse sections, etc.).