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Sample records for 24-hour dietary recall

  1. Validation of triple pass 24-hour dietary recall in Ugandan children by simultaneous weighed food assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Engoru, Charles; Ssenyondo, Tonny; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Amorut, Denis; Nakuya, Margaret; Arimi, Margaret; Frost, Gary; Maitland, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Background Undernutrition remains highly prevalent in African children, highlighting the need for accurately assessing dietary intake. In order to do so, the assessment method must be validated in the target population. A triple pass 24 hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation has been described but not previously validated in African children. This study aimed to establish the relative validity of 24-hour dietary recalls of daily food consumption in healthy African children living in Mbale and Soroti, eastern Uganda compared to simultaneous weighed food records. Methods Quantitative assessment of daily food consumption by weighed food records followed by two independent assessments using triple pass 24-hour dietary recall on the following day. In conjunction with household measures and standard food sizes, volumes of liquid, dry rice, or play dough were used to aid portion size estimation. Inter-assessor agreement, and agreement with weighed food records was conducted primarily by Bland-Altman analysis and secondly by intraclass correlation coefficients and quartile cross-classification. Results 19 healthy children aged 6 months to 12 years were included in the study. Bland-Altman analysis showed 24-hour recall only marginally under-estimated energy (mean difference of 149kJ or 2.8%; limits of agreement -1618 to 1321kJ), protein (2.9g or 9.4%; -12.6 to 6.7g), and iron (0.43mg or 8.3%; -3.1 to 2.3mg). Quartile cross-classification was correct in 79% of cases for energy intake, and 89% for both protein and iron. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the separate dietary recalls for energy was 0.801 (95% CI, 0.429-0.933), indicating acceptable inter-observer agreement. Conclusions Dietary assessment using 24-hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation resulted in similar and acceptable estimates of dietary intake compared with weighed food records and thus is considered a valid method for daily dietary intake assessment of

  2. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire Versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Kelly, Michael J; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE × 100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors.

  3. Usability of a smartphone food picture app for assisting 24-hour dietary recall: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, Nobuko; Pope, Benjamin T; Bilgiç, Pelin; Orr, Barron J; Suzuki, Asuka; Kim, Angela Sarah; Merchant, Nirav C; Roe, Denise J

    2015-04-01

    The Recaller app was developed to help individuals record their food intakes. This pilot study evaluated the usability of this new food picture application (app), which operates on a smartphone with an embedded camera and Internet capability. Adults aged 19 to 28 years (23 males and 22 females) were assigned to use the Recaller app on six designated, nonconsecutive days in order to capture an image of each meal and snack before and after eating. The images were automatically time-stamped and uploaded by the app to the Recaller website. A trained nutritionist administered a 24-hour dietary recall interview 1 day after food images were taken. Participants' opinions of the Recaller app and its usability were determined by a follow-up survey. As an evaluation indicator of usability, the number of images taken was analyzed and multivariate Poisson regression used to model the factors determining the number of images sent. A total of 3,315 food images were uploaded throughout the study period. The median number of images taken per day was nine for males and 13 for females. The survey showed that the Recaller app was easy to use, and 50% of the participants would consider using the app daily. Predictors of a higher number of images were as follows: greater interval (hours) between the first and last food images sent, weekend, and female. The results of this pilot study provide valuable information for understanding the usability of the Recaller smartphone food picture app as well as other similarly designed apps. This study provides a model for assisting nutrition educators in their collection of food intake information by using tools available on smartphones. This innovative approach has the potential to improve recall of foods eaten and monitoring of dietary intake in nutritional studies.

  4. A step towards using urinary nitrogen as a tool for validating 24-hour dietary recall interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, H A

    1987-09-01

    In an active population, can urinary nitrogen output provide a satisfactory basis for estimating protein intake without preliminary screening to rule out metabolic disease? A successful demonstration would justify comparing average protein intake for active groups derived from 24-hour recall interviews with that obtained from 24-hour urine specimens. This could then be a practical test of the hypothesis that 24-hour recall data provide valid estimates for groups. Volunteers (45) from a university population limited their diet for four days to a commercially prepared liquid diet and provided a 24-hour urine specimen beginning on the morning of the fourth day. For men, average daily intake of protein was 112.8 grams and the estimated intake based on urinary nitrogen was 114.5. Corresponding data for women were 84.6 and 83.9. Screening for metabolic disease seems unnecessary but persons restricting their intake to less than their caloric needs will have their protein intake overestimated on the basis of urinary nitrogen measurement.

  5. Dietary patterns are similar in multiple 24-hour recalls and a dietary screening tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary patterns (DP) have been associated with nutritional and health status of older adults but are usually derived by comprehensive dietary assessment methods. We designed a dietary screening tool (DST) to assess DP using a population-specific data-based approach from a cohort of the Geisinger R...

  6. Dietary Patterns are similar using a population specific diet screening tool and multiple 24-hour recalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary patterns (DP) are associated with nutritional and health status of older adults but requires comprehensive dietary assessment methods. We designed a dietary screening tool (DST) to assess DP using a population-specific data-based approach from a Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS) cohort. Thi...

  7. 24-hour dietary recalls as reference calibration measurements in EPIC: from statistical theory to epidemiological application

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    Slimani, N.

    2002-01-01

    Large multi-centre cohort studies have been set up with the aim of increasing the statistical power to detect an association between diet and disease by including study populations varying both in dietary exposures and outcome diseases. However, such studies raise also new statistical and methodolog

  8. Identifying nutrients that are under-reported by an automated 24-hour dietary recall method in overweight and obese women after weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underreporting of energy intake by 15-50% is a common problem in dietary assessment. Evidence suggests overweight/obese respondents are more likely to under-report than normal weight. This study compared Automated Self-Administered 24-hour recall (ASA24)-reported dietary intake to true intake in ove...

  9. Validation of the Portuguese self-administered computerised 24-hour dietary recall among second-, third- and fourth-grade children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current methods for assessing children's dietary intake, such as interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall (24-h DR), are time consuming and resource intensive. Self-administered instruments offer a low-cost diet assessment method for use with children. The present study assessed the validity of ...

  10. Racial Differences in Misclassification of Healthy Eating Based on Food Frequency Questionnaire and 24-Hour Dietary Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olendzki, B; Procter-Gray, E; Magee, M F; Youssef, G; Kane, K; Churchill, L; Ockene, J; Li, W

    2017-01-01

    To examine the agreement in nutrient intake and alternate healthy eating indices (AHEI) between a self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall (24HR) measurements of diet by race, among urban older women. Cross-sectional observational study. Urban neighborhoods in Washington, DC, USA. Community-dwelling White and Black women aged 65 and older. In 2014 and 2015, 49 White and 44 Black older women were queried on diet using both FFQ and 24-hour recalls. The correlation coefficients of 55 nutrient intake measures and agreements on healthy eating classification between the two instruments were compared overall and by race. The mean correlation coefficient (rho) was 0.46 for Whites and 0.23 for Blacks. For 47 measures, rho was lower for Blacks. Whites had a strong correlation of ≥0.5 for 28 items, while Blacks had strong correlations for only 3 items. Based on FFQ, the mean (SD) of AHEI were 54.0 (10.3) for Whites and 45.9 (8.8) for Blacks (peating unhealthy based on the 24HR, versus 2.6% and 0% based on the FFQ. The FFQ has limited ability to accurately assess nutrient intake among older Black women, and tends to underestimate racial differences in healthy eating. The FFQ should be further improved for use in racial disparities research of healthy eating in older age, using a larger sample of older women with racial and geographic diversities.

  11. Dietary quality varies according to data collection instrument: a comparison between a food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério Melo Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the agreement between the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index – Revised (BHEI-R, estimated by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and multiple 24-hour recalls (24h-R. The Wilcoxon paired test, partial correlations (PC, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, and Bland-Altman method were used. The total BHEI-R scores and its components (“total fruits”, “whole fruits”, “total vegetables”, “integral cereals”, “saturated fat”, “sodium”, and “energy intake derived from solid fat, added sugar, and alcoholic beverages” were statistically different, with the ICC and PC indicating poor concordance and correlation. The mean concordance estimated for the total BHEI-R and its components varied from 68% for “integral cereals” to 147% for “whole fruits”. The suitable concordance limits were violated for most of the components of the BHEI-R. Poor concordance was observed between the BHEI-R estimated by the FFQ and by multiple 24h-R, which indicated a strong reliability of the BHEI-R on the instrument used to collect information on food consumption.

  12. A 24-hour dietary recall for assessing the intake pattern of choline among Bangladeshi pregnant women at their third trimester of pregnancy

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    Shatabdi Goon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maternal choline intake during the third trimester of human pregnancy can modify systemic and local epigenetic marks in fetal-derived tissues, promoting better pregnancy outcomes, increased immunity, as well as improved mental and physical work capacity with proper memory and cognitive development. 103 pregnant women presenting to the antenatal care of Azimpur Maternity Hospital of Dhaka, Bangladesh in their third trimester of pregnancy were randomly selected for this cross sectional study exploring dietary intake patterns of choline. A dietary recall form was administered to estimate frequency and amount of food consumption of foods for the previous 24 hours. Most women reported diets that delivered less than the recommended choline intake (mean ± SD; 189.5 ± 98.2 providing only 42.72% of total RDA value. The results of this study may indicate that dietary choline among pregnant, Bangladeshi women may not be adequate to meet the needs of both, the mother and fetus. Further studies are warranted to determine clinical implications. Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  13. Estimated dietary intakes of flavonols, flavanones and flavones in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) 24 hour dietary recall cohort.

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    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Fedirko, Veronika; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Ericson, Ulrica; Amiano, Pilar; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Dilis, Vardis; Naska, Androniki; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Cassidy, Aedin; Overvad, Kim; Peeters, Petra H M; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María-José; Quirós, J Ramón; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Johansson, Gerd; Johansson, Ingegerd; Drake, Isabel; Crowe, Francesca L; Barricarte, Aurelio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Norat, Teresa; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Touillaud, Marina; Salvini, Simonetta; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas; Boeing, Heiner; Förster, Jana; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A

    2011-12-01

    Flavonols, flavanones and flavones (FLAV) are sub-classes of flavonoids that exert cardioprotective and anti-carcinogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. We aimed to estimate the FLAV dietary intake, their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. FLAV intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven study centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on FLAV was compiled using data from US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded using recipes, estimations and flavonoid retention factors in order to increase its correspondence with the 24 h dietary recall. Our results showed that the highest FLAV-consuming centre was the UK health-conscious group, with 130·9 and 97·0 mg/d for men and women, respectively. The lowest FLAV intakes were 36·8 mg/d in men from Umeå and 37·2 mg/d in women from Malmö (Sweden). The flavanone sub-class was the main contributor to the total FLAV intake ranging from 46·6 to 52·9 % depending on the region. Flavonols ranged from 38·5 to 47·3 % and flavones from 5·8 to 8·6 %. FLAV intake was higher in women, non-smokers, increased with level of education and physical activity. The major food sources were citrus fruits and citrus-based juices (especially for flavanones), tea, wine, other fruits and some vegetables. We concluded that the present study shows heterogeneity in intake of these three sub-classes of flavonoids across European regions and highlights differences by sex and other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.

  14. Development and Pilot Testing of 24-Hour Multiple-Pass Recall to Assess Dietary Intake of Toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-Born Mothers Living in Norway

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    Navnit Kaur Grewal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop, test, and evaluate a 24-h recall procedure to assess the dietary intake of toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-born mothers living in Norway. A protocol for a 24-h multiple-pass recall procedure, registration forms, and visual tools (a picture library for food identification and portion size estimation was developed and tested in 12 mothers from Somalia and Iraq with children aged 10–21 months. Five female field workers were recruited and trained to conduct the interviews. Evaluation data for the 24-h recall procedure were collected from both the mothers and the field workers. Nutrient intake was calculated using a Norwegian dietary calculation system. Each child’s estimated energy intake was compared with its estimated energy requirement. Both the mothers and the field workers found the method feasible and the visual tools useful. The estimated energy intake corresponded well with the estimated energy requirement for most of the children (within mean ± 2 SD, except for three. The pilot study identified the need for additional foods in the picture library and some crucial aspects in training and supervising the field workers to reduce sources of error in the data collection.

  15. Reproducibility of two, three, four and five 24-hour recalls in peri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-10

    Jun 10, 2011 ... However, the assessment of dietary intake relies on the study of ... transformed values of selected nutrients and food groups, for two, three, four and five repeated 24-hour ... reported number of days of recall among adolescents varies from ... and vitamins were selected based on the fact that they play an.

  16. Assessing Child Nutrient Intakes Using a Tablet-Based 24-Hour Recall Tool in Rural Zambia.

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    Caswell, Bess L; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Dyer, Brian; Siamusantu, Ward; Klemm, Rolf D W; Palmer, Amanda C

    2015-12-01

    Detailed dietary intake data in low-income populations are needed for research and program evaluation. However, collection of such data by paper-based 24-hour recall imposes substantial demands for staff time and expertise, training, materials, and data entry. To describe our development and use of a tablet-based 24-hour recall tool for conducting dietary intake surveys in remote settings. We designed a 24-hour recall tool using Open Data Kit software on an Android tablet platform. The tool contains a list of local foods, questions on portion size, cooking method, ingredients, and food source and prompts to guide interviewers. We used this tool to interview caregivers on dietary intakes of children participating in an efficacy trial of provitamin A-biofortified maize conducted in Mkushi, a rural district in central Zambia. Participants were children aged 4 to 8 years not yet enrolled in school (n = 938). Dietary intake data were converted to nutrient intakes using local food composition and recipe tables. We developed a tablet-based 24-hour recall tool and used it to collect dietary data among 928 children. The majority of foods consumed were maize, leafy vegetable, or small fish dishes. Median daily energy intake was 6416 kJ (1469 kcal). Food and nutrient intakes assessed using the tablet-based tool were consistent with those reported in prior research. The tool was easily used by interviewers without prior nutrition training or computing experience. Challenges remain to improve programming, but the tool is an innovation that enables efficient collection of 24-hour recall data in remote settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Comparison of a Household Consumption and Expenditures Survey with Nationally Representative Food Frequency Questionnaire and 24-hour Dietary Recall Data for Assessing Consumption of Fortifiable Foods by Women and Young Children in Cameroon.

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    Engle-Stone, Reina; Brown, Kenneth H

    2015-06-01

    Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) are potential sources of data on dietary patterns for planning fortification programs, but they rarely have been compared with individual-level dietary assessment methods. To compare apparent consumption of fortifiable foods estimated from the Third Cameroon Household Survey (ECAM3) with the results of a national dietary survey using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall (24HR) methods among women aged 15 to 49 years and children aged 12 to 59 months. We estimated coverage and frequency of consumption in the previous week (ECAM3 and FFQ) and coverage and amount consumed on the previous day (ECAM3 and 24HR) of refined vegetable oil, wheat flour, sugar, and bouillon cubes. Coverage in the past week as measured by the ECAM3 and FFQ, respectively, was 64% vs. 54% for oil, 60% vs. 92% for flour, 69% vs. 78% for sugar, and 85% vs. 96% for bouillon cubes. The different methods identified similar patterns of coverage among subgroups for oil, but patterns for other foods were variable. Frequency of consumption and previous-day coverage were lower with the ECAM3 than with the FFQ and 24HR, likely reflecting infrequent acquisition relative to intake. For women, the mean amounts consumed on the previous day (among consumers) were 43 vs. 29 g of oil, 71 vs. 83 g of flour, 42 vs. 32 g of sugar, and 5.0 vs. 2.4 g of bouillon cubes (ECAM and 24HR, respectively). HCES provide useful information on patterns of food access but inadequate information on individual consumption amounts to estimate appropriate food fortification levels. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Children’s School-Breakfast Reports and School-Lunch Reports (in 24-hour Dietary Recalls): Conventional and Reporting-Error-Sensitive Measures Show Inconsistent Accuracy Results for Retention Interval and for Breakfast Location

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    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Guinn, Caroline H.; Smith, Albert F.; Hitchcock, David B.; Royer, Julie A.; Puryear, Megan P.; Collins, Kathleen L.; Smith, Alyssa L.

    2017-01-01

    Validation-study data were analyzed to investigate retention interval (RI) and prompt effects on accuracy of fourth-grade children’s reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch (in 24-hour recalls), and accuracy of school-breakfast reports by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria). Randomly-selected fourth-grade children at 10 schools in four districts were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch, and interviewed under one of eight conditions (two RIs [short (prior-24-hour recall obtained in afternoon); long (previous-day recall obtained in morning)] crossed with four prompts [forward (distant-to-recent), meal-name (breakfast, etc.), open (no instructions), reverse (recent-to-distant)]). Each condition had 60 children (half girls). Of 480 children, 355 and 409 reported meals satisfying criteria for reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch, respectively. For breakfast and lunch separately, a conventional measure—report rate—and reporting-error-sensitive measures—correspondence rate and inflation ratio—were calculated for energy per meal-reporting child. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio—but not report rate—showed better accuracy for school-breakfast and school-lunch reports with the short than long RI; this pattern was not found for some prompts for each sex. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better school-breakfast report accuracy for the classroom than cafeteria location for each prompt, but report rate showed the opposite. For each RI, correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better accuracy for lunch than breakfast, but report rate showed the opposite. When choosing RI and prompts for recalls, researchers and practitioners should select short RIs to maximize accuracy. Recommendations for prompt selections are less clear. As report rates distort validation-study accuracy conclusions, reporting-error-sensitive measures are recommended. PMID:26865356

  19. Daily calcium intake in male children and adolescents obtained from the rapid assessment method and the 24-hour recall method

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    Falk Bareket

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to rapidly assess nutrient intake, Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ have been developed and proven to be reliable for quick, user friendly analysis in adults. However, the accuracy of these questionnaires in children has been studied to a limited extent. The aim of this study was to compare the daily calcium intake values obtained from the Rapid Assessment Method (RAM, an FFQ, for assessing daily calcium intake in child and adolescent males with the values obtained from the 24-hour recall method. Methods Subjects included 162 child and adolescent males, aged 9–16 years, subdivided into elementary school (ES, 9–12 years and high school (HS, 14–16 years age groups. Results Daily calcium intake was significantly lower in ES compared with HS, using both methods. The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC between RAM values and those obtained using the 24-hour recall questionnaire were significant yet moderate (ICC = 0.46 and 0.43 for ES and HS, respectively. However, daily calcium intake obtained using RAM was significantly higher when compared with the 24-hour recall values in both ES (1576 +/- 1101 vs. 1003 +/- 543 mg, in RAM and 24-hour, respectively and in HS males (1873 +/- 739 vs. 1159 +/- 515 mg, in RAM and 24-hour, respectively. Conclusion RAM overestimates daily calcium intake as compared with the 24-hour recall method in both child and adolescent males.

  20. O recordatório de 24 horas como instrumento na avaliação do consumo alimentar de cálcio, fósforo e vitamina D em crianças e adolescentes de baixa estatura The 24-hour recall for the assessment of dietary calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D intakes in stunted children and adolescents

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    Aline Lopes Bueno

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar em que medida o Recordatório Alimentar de 24 horas como instrumento de avaliação do consumo alimentar contribui para a avaliação de parâmetros biológicos envolvidos no metabolismo de cálcio, fósforo e vitamina D em crianças e adolescentes de baixa estatura. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 59 crianças e adolescentes com baixa estatura do Ambulatório de Baixa Estatura do Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital das Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Causas orgânicas, genéticas e endócrinas de baixa estatura foram excluídas da avaliação. Foram dosados cálcio, fósforo, creatinina, vitamina D, paratormônio fosfatase alcalina no soro e cálcio, fósforo, creatinina e sódio em urina de Recordatório Alimentar de 24h foi empregado para estimar o consumo dietético. RESULTADOS: Foi constatada ingestão reduzida de cálcio e vitamina D, em relação ao recomendado para idade e sexo. Verificou-se correlação negativa entre paratormônio e vitamina D dietética (r= -0,46; pOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to verify the extent to which the 24 hour recall, used as a tool to assess dietary intake, contributes to the assessment of biological parameters involved in the metabolism of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D in stunted children and adolescents. METHODS: A total of 59 stunted children and adolescents seen at the outpatient clinic that specializes in stunting of the Endocrinology Service of Hospital das Clínicas in Porto Alegre, were assessed. Organic, genetic and endocrine causes of stunting were excluded from the assessment. Serum calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, vitamin D, parathormone and alkaline phosphatase and urine calcium, phosphorus, creatinine and sodium were measured. The 24 hour recall was used to determine dietary intake of these nutrients. RESULTS: Calcium and vitamin D intakes were low according to the values recommended for the two genders and studied age groups. There was a negative correlation

  1. Validity of a multipass, web-based, 24-hour self-administered recall for assessment of total energy intake in blacks and whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Lenore; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Ang, Alfonso; Jardack, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    To date, Web-based 24-hour recalls have not been validated using objective biomarkers. From 2006 to 2009, the validity of 6 Web-based DietDay 24-hour recalls was tested among 115 black and 118 white healthy adults from Los Angeles, California, by using the doubly labeled water method, and the results were compared with the results of the Diet History Questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire developed by the National Cancer Institute. The authors performed repeated measurements in a subset of 53 subjects approximately 6 months later to estimate the stability of the doubly labeled water measurement. The attenuation factors for the DietDay recall were 0.30 for blacks and 0.26 for whites. For the Diet History Questionnaire, the attenuation factors were 0.15 and 0.17 for blacks and whites, respectively. Adjusted correlations between true energy intake and the recalls were 0.50 and 0.47 for blacks and whites, respectively, for the DietDay recall. For the Diet History Questionnaire, they were 0.34 and 0.36 for blacks and whites, respectively. The rate of underreporting of more than 30% of calories was lower with the recalls than with the questionnaire (25% and 41% vs. 34% and 52% for blacks and whites, respectively). These findings suggest that Web-based DietDay dietary recalls offer an inexpensive and widely accessible dietary assessment alternative, the validity of which is equally strong among black and white adults. The validity of the Web-administered recall was superior to that of the paper food frequency questionnaire.

  2. Lessons from Studies to Evaluate an Online 24-Hour Recall for Use with Children and Adults in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Gilsing, Anne M.; Hobin, Erin; Solbak, Nathan M.; Wallace, Angela; Haines, Jess; Mayhew, Alexandra J.; Orr, Sarah K.; Raina, Parminder; Robson, Paula J.; Sacco, Jocelyn E.; Whelan, Heather K.

    2017-01-01

    With technological innovation, comprehensive dietary intake data can be collected in a wide range of studies and settings. The Automated Self-Administered 24-h (ASA24) Dietary Assessment Tool is a web-based system that guides respondents through 24-h recalls. The purpose of this paper is to describe lessons learned from five studies that assessed the feasibility and validity of ASA24 for capturing recall data among several population subgroups in Canada. These studies were conducted within a childcare setting (preschool children with reporting by parents), in public schools (children in grades 5–8; aged 10–13 years), and with community-based samples drawn from existing cohorts of adults and older adults. Themes emerged across studies regarding receptivity to completing ASA24, user experiences with the interface, and practical considerations for different populations. Overall, we found high acceptance of ASA24 among these diverse samples. However, the ASA24 interface was not intuitive for some participants, particularly young children and older adults. As well, technological challenges were encountered. These observations underscore the importance of piloting protocols using online tools, as well as consideration of the potential need for tailored resources to support study participants. Lessons gleaned can inform the effective use of technology-enabled dietary assessment tools in research. PMID:28146125

  3. Evaluation of under- and overreporting of energy intake in the 24-hour diet recalls in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, P; Slimani, N; Ciampi, A; Trichopoulou, A; Naska, A; Lauria, C; Veglia, F; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Ocké, M C; Brustad, M; Braaten, T; José Tormo, M; Amiano, P; Mattisson, I; Johansson, G; Welch, A; Davey, G; Overvad, K; Tjønneland, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Thiebaut, A; Linseisen, J; Boeing, H; Hemon, B; Riboli, E

    2002-12-01

    To evaluate under- and overreporting and their determinants in the EPIC 24-hour diet recall (24-HDR) measurements collected in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Cross-sectional analysis. 24-HDR measurements were obtained by means of a standardised computerised interview program (EPIC-SOFT). The ratio of reported energy intake (EI) to estimated basal metabolic rate (BMR) was used to ascertain the magnitude, impact and determinants of misreporting. Goldberg's cut-off points were used to identify participants with physiologically extreme low or high energy intake. At the aggregate level the value of 1.55 for physical activity level (PAL) was chosen as reference. At the individual level we used multivariate statistical techniques to identify factors that could explain EI/BMR variability. Analyses were performed by adjusting for weight, height, age at recall, special diet, smoking status, day of recall (weekday vs. weekend day) and physical activity. Twenty-seven redefined centres in the 10 countries participating in the EPIC project. In total, 35 955 men and women, aged 35-74 years, participating in the nested EPIC calibration sub-studies. While overreporting has only a minor impact, the percentage of subjects identified as extreme underreporters was 13.8% and 10.3% in women and men, respectively. Mean EI/BMR values in men and women were 1.44 and 1.36 including all subjects, and 1.50 and 1.44 after exclusion of misreporters. After exclusion of misreporters, adjusted EI/BMR means were consistently less than 10% different from the expected value of 1.55 for PAL (except for women in Greece and in the UK), with overall differences equal to 4.0% and 7.4% for men and women, respectively. We modelled the probability of being an underreporter in association with several individual characteristics. After adjustment for age, height, special diet, smoking status, day of recall and physical activity at work, logistic regression analyses

  4. DASH for Health: Validation of Web-based 24-Hour Recall Questionnaire Designed for a Lifestyle Modification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DASH eating plan is nationally recognized and recommended by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among others, as a healthful way to reduce hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, and as being an overall healthy diet for all Americans. We created a web-based nutrition and physical activity...

  5. Dietary carbohydrate deprivation increases 24-hour nitrogen excretion without affecting postabsorptive hepatic or whole body protein metabolism in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; de Sain-van der Velden, MGM; Stellaard, F; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    Because insulin is an important regulator of protein metabolism, we hypothesized that physiological modulation of insulin secretion, by means of extreme variations in dietary carbohydrate content, affects postabsorptive protein metabolism. Therefore, we studied the effects of three isocaloric diets

  6. Dietary carbohydrate deprivation increases 24-hour nitrogen excretion without affecting postabsorptive hepatic or whole body protein metabolism in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; de Sain-van der Velden, MGM; Stellaard, F; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2003-01-01

    Because insulin is an important regulator of protein metabolism, we hypothesized that physiological modulation of insulin secretion, by means of extreme variations in dietary carbohydrate content, affects postabsorptive protein metabolism. Therefore, we studied the effects of three isocaloric diets

  7. Geneva 24 hours swim

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The 18th edition of the Geneva 24 hours swim competition will take place at the Vernets Swimming Pool on the 4th and 5th of October. More information and the results of previous years are given at: http://www.carouge-natation.com/24_heures/home_24_heures.htm Last year, CERN obtained first position in the inter-company category with a total of 152.3 kms swam by 45 participants. We are counting on your support to repeat this excellent performance this year. For those who would like to train, the Livron swimming pool in Meyrin is open as from Monday the 8th September. For further information please do not hesitate to contact us. Gino de Bilio and Catherine Delamare

  8. Geneva 24 Hours Swim

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The 18th edition of the Geneva 24 hours swim competition will take place at the Vernets Swimming Pool on the 4th and 5th of October. More information and the results of previous years are given at: http://www.carouge-natation.com/24_heures/home_24_heures.htm Last year, CERN obtained first position in the inter-company category with a total of 152.3 kms swam by 45 participants. We are counting on your support to repeat this excellent performance this year. For those who would like to train, the Livron swimming pool in Meyrin is open as from Monday the 8th September. For further information please do not hesitate to contact us. Gino de Bilio and Catherine Delamare

  9. Excel VBA 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Urtis, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Master VBA automation quickly and easily to get more out of Excel Excel VBA 24-Hour Trainer, 2nd Edition is the quick-start guide to getting more out of Excel, using Visual Basic for Applications. This unique book/video package has been updated with fifteen new advanced video lessons, providing a total of eleven hours of video training and 45 total lessons to teach you the basics and beyond. This self-paced tutorial explains Excel VBA from the ground up, demonstrating with each advancing lesson how you can increase your productivity. Clear, concise, step-by-step instructions are combined wit

  10. HTML5 24-Hour Trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Lowery, Joseph W

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive written and interactive instruction for learning HTML5 HTML is the core technology for building websites. Today, with HTML5 opening the Internet to new levels of rich content and dynamic interactivity, developers are looking for information to learn and utilize HTML5. HTML5 24-Hour Trainer provides that information, giving new and aspiring web developers the knowledge they need to achieve early success when building websites. Covers the most basic aspects of a web page, including a brief introduction to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) Provides lessons that are backed up by prof

  11. Java programming 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, Yakov

    2015-01-01

    Quick and painless Java programming with expert multimedia instruction Java Programming 24-Hour Trainer, 2nd Edition is your complete beginner's guide to the Java programming language, with easy-to-follow lessons and supplemental exercises that help you get up and running quickly. Step-by-step instruction walks you through the basics of object-oriented programming, syntax, interfaces, and more, before building upon your skills to develop games, web apps, networks, and automations. This second edition has been updated to align with Java SE 8 and Java EE 7, and includes new information on GUI b

  12. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  13. Does an Adolescent’s Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Kerr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24, were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01, detailed description (p < 0.05 and portion size matching (p < 0.05. Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods. The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05 and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8% compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents’ accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days.

  14. Recalls of Food and Dietary Supplements

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Food producers recall their products from the marketplace when the products are mislabeled or when the food may present a health hazard to consumers because the...

  15. Recalls of Food and Dietary Supplements

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Food producers recall their products from the marketplace when the products are mislabeled or when the food may present a health hazard to consumers because the food...

  16. 24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…

  17. Comparisons of four dietary assessment methods during pregnancy in Taiwanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ching Lyu

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The combinations of 24-hour recalls for the short-term dietary changes and the CFFQ for long-term dietary patterns are suggested as appropriate dietary assessment methods during pregnancy in Taiwan.

  18. Recurrence Within 24 Hours of Unprovoked Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and risk factors of acute recurrence of unprovoked seizures within 24 hours of admission to an Emergency Department (ED were analyzed by a retrospective chart review at Schneider Children’s Hospital, New York.

  19. Iterative Development of an Online Dietary Recall Tool: INTAKE24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Emma; Bradley, Jennifer; Poliakov, Ivan; Jackson, Dan; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J.; Foster, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Collecting large-scale population data on dietary intake is challenging, particularly when resources and funding are constrained. Technology offers the potential to develop novel ways of collecting large amounts of dietary information while making it easier, more convenient, intuitive, and engaging for users. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24 h dietary recall tool developed for use in national food and nutrition surveys. The development of INTAKE24 was a four-stage iterative process of user interaction and evaluation with the intended end users, 11–24 years old. A total of 80 11–24 years old took part in the evaluation, 20 at each stage. Several methods were used to elicit feedback from the users including, ‘think aloud’, ‘eye tracking’, semi-structured interviews, and a system usability scale. Each participant completed an interviewer led recall post system completion. Key system developments generated from the user feedback included a ‘flat’ interface, which uses only a single interface screen shared between all of the various activities (e.g., free text entry, looking up foods in the database, portion size estimation). Improvements to the text entry, search functionality, and navigation around the system were also influenced through feedback from users at each stage. The time to complete a recall using INTAKE24 almost halved from the initial prototype to the end system, while the agreement with an interviewer led recall improved. Further developments include testing the use of INTAKE24 with older adults and translation into other languages for international use. Our future aim is to validate the system with recovery biomarkers. PMID:28208763

  20. Iterative Development of an Online Dietary Recall Tool: INTAKE24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Simpson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Collecting large-scale population data on dietary intake is challenging, particularly when resources and funding are constrained. Technology offers the potential to develop novel ways of collecting large amounts of dietary information while making it easier, more convenient, intuitive, and engaging for users. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24 h dietary recall tool developed for use in national food and nutrition surveys. The development of INTAKE24 was a four-stage iterative process of user interaction and evaluation with the intended end users, 11–24 years old. A total of 80 11–24 years old took part in the evaluation, 20 at each stage. Several methods were used to elicit feedback from the users including, ‘think aloud’, ‘eye tracking’, semi-structured interviews, and a system usability scale. Each participant completed an interviewer led recall post system completion. Key system developments generated from the user feedback included a ‘flat’ interface, which uses only a single interface screen shared between all of the various activities (e.g., free text entry, looking up foods in the database, portion size estimation. Improvements to the text entry, search functionality, and navigation around the system were also influenced through feedback from users at each stage. The time to complete a recall using INTAKE24 almost halved from the initial prototype to the end system, while the agreement with an interviewer led recall improved. Further developments include testing the use of INTAKE24 with older adults and translation into other languages for international use. Our future aim is to validate the system with recovery biomarkers.

  1. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  2. WordPress 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Plumley, George

    2015-01-01

    Create and expand feature-rich sites with no programming experience Ready to build, maintain, and expand your web site with WordPress but have no prior programming experience? WordPress 24-Hour Trainer, 3rd Edition is your book-and-video learning solution that walks you step-by-step through all the important features you will need to know. Lessons range from focused, practical everyday tasks to more advanced, creative features. Learn from an industry professional how to enter content, create pages, manage menus, utilize plug-ins, connect to social media, create membership and e-commerce site

  3. Reporting accuracy of population dietary sodium intake using duplicate 24 h dietary recalls and a salt questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyzer, de W.; Dofkova, M.; Lillegaard, I.T.L.; Maeyer, de M.; Frost Andersen, L.; Ruprich, J.; Rehurkova, I.; Geelen, Anouk; Veer, van 't P.; Henauw, de S.; Crispim, S.P.; Boer, de Evelien; Ocke, M.C.; Slimani, N.; Huybrechts, I.

    2015-01-01

    High dietary Na intake is associated with multiple health risks, making accurate assessment of population dietary Na intake critical. In the
    present study, reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was evaluated by 24 h urinary Na excretion using the EPIC-Soft 24 h dietary recall
    (24-HDR). Par

  4. The use of computerised 24 h dietary recalls in the French SU.VI.MAX Study: number of recalls required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennen, L I; Bertrais, S; Galan, P; Arnault, N; Potier de Couray, G; Hercberg, S

    2002-07-01

    The 24 h dietary recall is a widely used method to estimate nutritional intakes in epidemiological studies. The objective of the present study was to estimate the number of recalls necessary for an accurate estimation of nutrient intake in French adults followed for 4 y. Participants of the SU.VI.MAX study (intervention study on the effects of antioxidant supplementation on chronic diseases) who completed a 24 h dietary recall every 2 months for at least 1 y. Inter- and intra-individual variance ratios (S(w)/S(b)) were calculated by analysis of variance for two time periods: year 1 and 2 (n=4955) and year 3 and 4 (n=1458). The number of recalls necessary was calculated using an accuracy of 0.9. The highest intra-individual/inter-individual variance ratio in the first period was seen for beta-carotene and the lowest for carbohydrate. The number of recalls necessary was five for carbohydrate and calcium intake and 16 for beta-carotene. For proteins, total and saturated fat, fibre, vitamin C and iron eight recalls were required, while nine, 11 and 10 recalls were necessary for mono- and polyunsaturated fat and vitamin E, respectively. The variance ratios in the second period were all lower and fewer recalls were therefore required. The same difference in number of recalls required between the two time periods was observed when only those subjects were included who completed at least 18 recalls (n=727). These results indicate that for an accurate estimation of carbohydrate intake only, already five recalls are necessary. Fewer recalls may be needed during long-time follow-up. The SU.VI.MAX Study has support from public and private sectors: Fruit d'Or Recherche, Candia, Lipton, Kellogg's, Céréal, CERIN, Estée Lauder, L'Oréal, Peugeot, Jet Service, RP Scherer, Sodexho, France Telecom, Santogen, Becton Dickinson, Fould Springer, Boehringer Diagnostic, Seppic Givaudan Lavirotte, Le grand Canal, Danone and Knorr.

  5. Human prolactin - 24-hour pattern with increased release during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassin, J. F.; Weitzman, E. D.; Kapen, S.; Frantz, A. G.

    1972-01-01

    Human prolactin was measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay at 20-minute intervals for a 24-hour period in each of six normal adults, whose sleep-wake cycles were monitored polygraphically. A marked diurnal variation in plasma concentrations was demonstrated, with highest values during sleep. Periods of episodic release occurred throughout the 24 hours.

  6. Modeling dietary fiber intakes in US adults: implications for public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to simulate the application of the dietary recommendations to increase dietary fiber (DF)-containing foods. This study used 24-hour dietary recalls from NHANES 2003-2006 to model the impact of different approaches of increasing DF with current dietary patterns of US adults...

  7. The standardized computerized 24-h dietary recall method EPIC-Soft adapted for pan-European dietary monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Casagrande, C.; Nicolas, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The EPIC-Soft program (the software initially developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) was recommended as the best way to standardize 24-HDRs for future pan-European dietary monitor...... aspects related to its implementation are reported elsewhere. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2011) 65, S5-S15; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2011.83...

  8. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11-24 Year-Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N S; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J; Foster, Emma

    2016-06-09

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11-24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11-24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults.

  9. US EPA Region 9 24-Hour PM-25 Designated Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Designated Areas for particulate matter less than 2.5 microns, according to the 24-Hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Nonattainment areas are...

  10. Dietary intake of different types and characteristics of processed meat which might be associated with cancer risk--results from the 24-hour diet recalls in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Norat, Teresa; González, Carlos Alberto; Dorronsoro Iraeta, Miren; Morote Gómez, Patrocinio; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Pozo, Basilio G; Ardanaz, Eva; Mattisson, Irene; Pettersson, Ulrika; Palmqvist, Richard; Guelpen, Bethany van; Bingham, Sheila A; McTaggart, Alison; Spencer, Elizabeth A; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Stripp, Connie; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kesse, Emmanuelle; Boeing, Heiner; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Bellos, George; Pala, Valeria; Masala, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Pezzo, Mariarosaria Del; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Peeters, Petra H M; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Slimani, Nadia; Riboli, Elio

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is increasing evidence for a significant effect of processed meat (PM) intake on cancer risk. However, refined knowledge on how components of this heterogeneous food group are associated with cancer risk is still missing. Here, actual data on the intake of PM subcategories is given;

  11. Epidemiology of hyperbilirubinemia in the first 24 hours after birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrinkoub F

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Jaundice is one of the most frequent problems observed in newborns. Our purpose was to investigate the incidence and the risk factors on jaundice noted in the first 24 hours after birth.Methods: All newborns observed to have jaundice within the first 24 hours after birth were enrolled prospectively in this study. Laboratory evaluations included blood group typing of mother and newborn, hemoglobin and hematocrit, complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, reticulocyte count, G6PD activity, maternal indirect and neonatal direct Coombs test, and serum total, conjugated, and unconjugated bilirubin. In all cases, gender, birth weight, Apgar scores, gestational age, mode of delivery, birth trauma, cephalhematoma, maternal age, parity, or any siblings with neonatal jaundice were recorded. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Student's t-, and chi-square tests.Results: Of a total of 2096 newborns delivered in one year, 122 (5.8% developed jaundice within the first 24 hours after birth. Risk factors for hyperbilirubinemia were ABO incompatibility, prematurity, infection, G6PD deficiency, cephalhematoma, asphyxia, and Rh disease. There were no statistically significant relationships between jaundice and maternal age, parity, mode of delivery, neonatal gender or previous siblings with jaundice (p>0.05.Conclusions: Jaundice observed in the initial 24 hours after birth was infrequent, but clinically significant. All newborns should be followed by repeated exams within the first 24 hours after birth and before discharge, especially if the maternal blood group is O.

  12. [A 24-hour solid state Holter recording and analyzing system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, C; Duan, H; Yan, X; Lu, W

    1998-01-01

    The design and functions of a new type of multi-channel solid-state Holter system were introduced in this paper. The flash memory card based recorder can record 24 hours or more of data from up to all 12 leads. The full function scanner software can analysis automatically and archive with complete editing capabilities.

  13. Estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from casual urinary sodium concentrations in Western populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Ian J; Dyer, Alan R; Chan, Queenie

    2013-01-01

    High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed...... the utility of casual (spot) urine specimens in estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake in the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure. There were 5,693 participants recruited in 1984-1987 at the ages of 20-59 years from 29 North American...... and European samples. Participants were randomly assigned to test or validation data sets. Equations derived from casual urinary sodium concentration and other variables in the test data were applied to the validation data set. Correlations between observed and estimated 24-hour sodium excretion were 0...

  14. Effect of a 24+ hour fast on breast milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Deena R; Goldstein, Lee; Lahat, Eli; Braunstein, Rony; Stahi, Dvorah; Bar-Haim, Adina; Berkovitch, Matitiahu

    2009-05-01

    In this preliminary prospective study, breast milk is sampled surrounding 4 religious fast days to determine the effect of a more than 24-hour fast on breast milk composition. The participants are 48 healthy women nursing healthy babies between 1 and 6 months of age. Samples are collected within 2 days before the fast (baseline), immediately after the fast, and 24 hours after fast completion. Samples are tested for sodium, calcium, phosphorus, triglycerides, total protein, and lactose. From baseline to immediately after fast, mean sodium, calcium, and protein levels increase (P = .013, P < .0001, and P < .0001, respectively) and mean phosphorus and lactose levels decrease (P < .0001 and P = .003, respectively). Mean triglycerides are unchanged. Twenty-four hours after fast, parameters are no longer significantly different from baseline except for elevated mean protein levels (P = .022) and lactose that is still reduced (P = .017). A fast of this nature is statistically associated with certain biochemical changes in breast milk.

  15. Unsupervised/supervised learning concept for 24-hour load forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, M. (Electrical Engineering Inst. ' Nikola Tesla' , Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Babic, B. (Electrical Power Industry of Serbia, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Sobajic, D.J.; Pao, Y.-H. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science)

    1993-07-01

    An application of artificial neural networks in short-term load forecasting is described. An algorithm using an unsupervised/supervised learning concept and historical relationship between the load and temperature for a given season, day type and hour of the day to forecast hourly electric load with a lead time of 24 hours is proposed. An additional approach using functional link net, temperature variables, average load and last one-hour load of previous day is introduced and compared with the ANN model with one hidden layer load forecast. In spite of limited available weather variables (maximum, minimum and average temperature for the day) quite acceptable results have been achieved. The 24-hour-ahead forecast errors (absolute average) ranged from 2.78% for Saturdays and 3.12% for working days to 3.54% for Sundays. (Author)

  16. Effect of intraoperatory peritoneal bupivacaine irrigation on inmediate, 24 hour

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the response on inmediate, 24 hour abdominal pain and referred shoulder pain (omalgia), when an intraperitoneal irrigation of bupivacaine was used as opposed to saline irrigation, in a group of patients who has laparoscopy done in a medical center in Cali, between April and June of 2000. Material and methods: After previous authorization and consentment by all 100 patients, a placebo was applied to 50 patients and bupivacaine to the other 50 patients, without randomizat...

  17. Aggressive behavior during the first 24 hours of psychiatric admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Crestani Calegaro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between aggression in the first 24 hours after admission and severity of psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients.METHODS: This cross-sectional study included psychiatric patients admitted to Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria, in Santa Maria, southern Brazil, from August 2012 to January 2013. At their arrival at the hospital, patients were interviewed to fill in the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS form, and any aggressive episodes in the first 24 hours after admission were recorded using the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare patients according to aggressiveness: aggressive versus non-aggressive, hostile versus violent, and aggressive against others only versus self-aggressive.RESULTS: The sample was composed of 110 patients. Aggressive patients in general had higher BPRS total scores (p = 0.002 and individual component scores, and their results showed more activation (p < 0.001 and thinking disorders (p = 0.009, but less anxious-depression (p = 0.008. Violent patients had more severe psychomotor agitation (p = 0.027, hallucinations (p = 0.017 and unusual thought content (p = 0.020. Additionally, self-aggressive patients had more disorientation (p = 0.011 and conceptual disorganization (p = 0.007.CONCLUSIONS: Aggression in psychiatric patients in the first 24 hours after admission is associated with severity of psychopathology, and severity increases with severity of patient psychosis and agitation.

  18. Effect of intraoperatory peritoneal bupivacaine irrigation on inmediate, 24 hour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro Hernando

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the response on inmediate, 24 hour abdominal pain and referred shoulder pain (omalgia, when an intraperitoneal irrigation of bupivacaine was used as opposed to saline irrigation, in a group of patients who has laparoscopy done in a medical center in Cali, between April and June of 2000. Material and methods: After previous authorization and consentment by all 100 patients, a placebo was applied to 50 patients and bupivacaine to the other 50 patients, without randomization. The drug came in unmarked bottles, some of which had the medication and some had only saline and nobody knew beforehand which one was given to the patient. Its effect on post surgical pain was evaluated throught the cromatic visual analog scale, which subjectively determines the intensity of the pain according to colors which range from white to dark red, with a numerical equivalent from 0 to 10, in the following manner: zero (0 no pain , 2 mild, 4 moderate, 6 strong, 8 sevre and 10 intolerable pain. The scale was measured in the postoperative room two hours after procedure. A telephonic follow up was done at 24 hours after surgery, applying the visual analog scale on abdominal and shoulder pain. The information was processed using Epi Info 2000. An univariante and bivariante analysis was done. A comparasion was established using the differences in averages with inmediate abdominal pain and omalgia, and at 24 hours according to the use or not bupivacaine. Results: The variable are described in a univariante manner in relation to the distribution of pain at 2 and 24 hours, as well as the shoulder pain, where the mean score of pain decreases from 3.8, to 2.1 to 1.1 respectively. The variables were also described in a bivariant way comparing the drug and its effect on the intensity of pain at 2 and 24 hours, and the omalgia, where no statistically significant difference was found between the drug, the saline and the scales of pain. The relationship between

  19. Development of a Web-Based 24-h Dietary Recall for a French-Canadian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jacques

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls can provide high-quality dietary intake data, but are considered expensive, as they rely on trained professionals for both their administration and coding. The objective of this study was to develop an automated, self-administered web-based 24-h recall (R24W for a French-Canadian population. The development of R24W was inspired by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Questions about the context of meals/snacks were included. Toppings, sauces and spices frequently added to each food/dish were suggested systematically. A list of frequently forgotten food was also suggested. An interactive summary allows the respondent to track the progress of the questionnaire and to modify or remove food as needed. The R24W prototype was pre-tested for usability and functionality in a convenience sample of 29 subjects between the ages of 23 and 65 years, who had to complete one recall, as well as a satisfaction questionnaire. R24W includes a list of 2865 food items, distributed into 16 categories and 98 subcategories. A total of 687 recipes were created for mixed dishes, including 336 ethnic recipes. Pictures of food items illustrate up to eight servings per food item. The pre-test demonstrated that R24W is easy to complete and to understand. This new dietary assessment tool is a simple and inexpensive tool that will facilitate diet assessment of individuals in large-scale studies, but validation studies are needed prior to the utilization of the R24W.

  20. Dietary reporting errors on 24 h recalls and dietary questionnaires are associated with BMI across six European countries as evaluated with recovery biomarkers for protein and potassium intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freisling, Heinz; van Bakel, Marit M. E.; Biessy, Carine; May, Anne M.; Byrnes, Graham; Norat, Teresa; Rinaldi, Sabina; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Grioni, Sara; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ocke, Marga C.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romaguera, Dora; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Crowe, Francesca L.; Tumino, Rosario; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Boeing, Heiner; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H.; Slimani, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Whether there are differences between countries in the validity of self-reported diet in relation to BMI, as evaluated using recovery biomarkers, is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate BMI-related reporting errors on 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and on dietary questionnaires (DQ) using biomar

  1. Ex Situ Perfusion of Human Limb Allografts for 24 Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole L; Alghanem, Fares; Rakestraw, Stephanie L; Sarver, Dylan C; Nicely, Bruce; Pietroski, Richard E; Lange, Paul; Rudich, Steven M; Mendias, Christopher L; Rojas-Pena, Alvaro; Magee, John C; Bartlett, Robert H; Ozer, Kagan

    2017-03-01

    Vascularized composite allografts, particularly hand and forearm, have limited ischemic tolerance after procurement. In bilateral hand transplantations, this demands a 2 team approach and expedited transfer of the allograft, limiting the recovery to a small geographic area. Ex situ perfusion may be an alternative allograft preservation method to extend allograft survival time. This is a short report of 5 human limbs maintained for 24 hours with ex situ perfusion. Upper limbs were procured from brain-dead organ donors. Following recovery, the brachial artery was cannulated and flushed with 10 000 U of heparin. The limb was then attached to a custom-made, near-normothermic (30-33°C) ex situ perfusion system composed of a pump, reservoir, and oxygenator. Perfusate was plasma-based with a hemoglobin concentration of 4 to 6 g/dL. Average warm ischemia time was 76 minutes. Perfusion was maintained at an average systolic pressure of 93 ± 2 mm Hg, flow 310 ± 20 mL/min, and vascular resistance 153 ± 16 mm Hg/L per minute. Average oxygen consumption was 1.1 ± 0.2 mL/kg per minute. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation continually displayed contraction until the end of perfusion, and histology showed no myocyte injury. Human limb allografts appeared viable after 24 hours of near-normothermic ex situ perfusion. Although these results are early and need validation with transplantation, this technology has promise for extending allograft storage times.

  2. Diversity of dietary patterns observed in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimani, N.; Fahey, M.; Welch, A.A.; Wirfalt, E.; Stripp, C.; Bergstrom, E.; Linseisen, J.; Schulze, M.B.; Bamia, C.; Chloptsios, Y.; Veglia, F.; Panico, S.; Bueno de Mesquita, B.; Ocké, M.C.; Brustadt, M.; Lund, E.; Gonzalez, C.A.; Barcos, A.; Berglund, G.; Winkvist, A.; Mulligan, A.; Appleby, P.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Kesse, E.; Ferrari, P.; Staveren, van W.A.; Riboli, E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the diversity in dietary patterns existing across centres/regions participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Design and setting: Single 24-hour dietary recall measurements were obtained by means of standardised face-to-face

  3. Dietary intake of zinc in the population of Jiangsu Province, China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.; Boonstra, A.; Shi, Z.; Pan, X.; Yuan, B.; Dai, Yue; Zhao, J.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Kok, F.J.; Zhou, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate dietary zinc and other divalent minerals intake among the population of Jiangsu Province. Methods: 3,867 subjects aged 4-89 years were representatively sampled in two urban and six rural areas of Jiangsu Province. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls on three con

  4. Diversity of dietary patterns observed in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimani, N.; Fahey, M.; Welch, A.A.; Wirfalt, E.; Stripp, C.; Bergstrom, E.; Linseisen, J.; Schulze, M.B.; Bamia, C.; Chloptsios, Y.; Veglia, F.; Panico, S.; Bueno de Mesquita, B.; Ocké, M.C.; Brustadt, M.; Lund, E.; Gonzalez, C.A.; Barcos, A.; Berglund, G.; Winkvist, A.; Mulligan, A.; Appleby, P.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Kesse, E.; Ferrari, P.; Staveren, van W.A.; Riboli, E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the diversity in dietary patterns existing across centres/regions participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Design and setting: Single 24-hour dietary recall measurements were obtained by means of standardised face-to-face interv

  5. Noninvasive 24-hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Wiinberg, N; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients have disturbed systemic hemodynamics with reduced arterial blood pressure, but this has not been investigated during daily activity and sleep. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were measured by an automatic ambulant...... device for monitoring blood pressure in 35 patients with cirrhosis and 35 healthy matched controls. During the daytime, SBP, DBP, and MAP were significantly lower in the patients than in the controls (median 118 vs. 127; 70 vs. 78; 86 vs. 94 mm Hg, P pressures......, but surprisingly normal arterial blood pressure during the nighttime, and the circadian variation in blood pressure and HR is diminished, probably because of an almost unaltered cardiac output during the 24 hours. These results may reflect a major defect in the ability of optimal regulation of blood pressure...

  6. Reporting accuracy of population dietary sodium intake using duplicate 24 h dietary recalls and a salt questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keyzer, Willem; Dofková, Marcela; Lillegaard, Inger Therese L; De Maeyer, Mieke; Andersen, Lene Frost; Ruprich, Jirí; Řehůřková, Irena; Geelen, Anouk; van 't Veer, Pieter; De Henauw, Stefaan; Crispim, Sandra Patricia; de Boer, Evelien; Ocké, Marga; Slimani, Nadia; Huybrechts, Inge

    2015-02-14

    High dietary Na intake is associated with multiple health risks, making accurate assessment of population dietary Na intake critical. In the present study, reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was evaluated by 24 h urinary Na excretion using the EPIC-Soft 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR). Participants from a subsample of the European Food Consumption Validation study (n 365; countries: Belgium, Norway and Czech Republic), aged 45-65 years, completed two 24 h urine collections and two 24-HDR. Reporting accuracy was calculated as the ratio of reported Na intake to that estimated from the urinary biomarker. A questionnaire on salt use was completed in order to assess the discretionary use of table and cooking salt. The reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was assessed using two scenarios: (1) a salt adjustment procedure using data from the salt questionnaire; (2) without salt adjustment. Overall, reporting accuracy improved when data from the salt questionnaire were included. The mean reporting accuracy was 0·67 (95 % CI 0·62, 0·72), 0·73 (95 % CI 0·68, 0·79) and 0·79 (95 % CI 0·74, 0·85) for Belgium, Norway and Czech Republic, respectively. Reporting accuracy decreased with increasing BMI among male subjects in all the three countries. For women from Belgium and Norway, reporting accuracy was highest among those classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2: 0·73, 95 % CI 0·67, 0·81 and 0·81, 95 % CI 0·77, 0·86, respectively). The findings from the present study showed considerable underestimation of dietary Na intake assessed using two 24-HDR. The questionnaire-based salt adjustment procedure improved reporting accuracy by 7-13 %. Further development of both the questionnaire and EPIC-Soft databases (e.g. inclusion of a facet to describe salt content) is necessary to estimate population dietary Na intakes accurately.

  7. Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work-social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns.

  8. Cognitive Performance during a 24-Hour Cold Exposure Survival Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Taber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Survivor of a ship ground in polar regions may have to wait more than five days before being rescued. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore cognitive performance during prolonged cold exposure. Core temperature (Tc and cognitive test battery (CTB performance data were collected from eight participants during 24 hours of cold exposure (7.5°C ambient air temperature. Participants (recruited from those who have regular occupational exposure to cold were instructed that they could freely engage in minimal exercise that was perceived to maintaining a tolerable level of thermal comfort. Despite the active engagement, test conditions were sufficient to significantly decrease Tc after exposure and to eliminate the typical 0.5–1.0°C circadian rise and drop in core temperature throughout a 24 h cycle. Results showed minimal changes in CTB performance regardless of exposure time. Based on the results, it is recommended that survivors who are waiting for rescue should be encouraged to engage in mild physical activity, which could have the benefit of maintaining metabolic heat production, improve motivation, and act as a distractor from cold discomfort. This recommendation should be taken into consideration during future research and when considering guidelines for mandatory survival equipment regarding cognitive performance.

  9. Preparation and results of a 24-hour orbital flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, G S

    1963-01-01

    The space age presents man with unprecedented opportunities for discovery and for cooperative endeavors to benefit all mankind. My flight of August 6-7, 1961 was conducted for the purpose of determining whether man can stay and work effectively and whether all systems of the spaceship can operate successfully during a period of 24 hours in space. The flight of Vostok II represents an experimental step in a logical sequence which included the first earth orbiting flight of USSR citizen Yuri A. Gagarin. Preparation for the flight included the study of theoretical and applied subjects, testing in various kinds of apparatus which provide acceleration, heat and isolation experience, brief airborne weightless flights and parachute landings, in addition to extensive training in a real spacecraft having simulators for normal and emergency contingencies of space flight. The actual flight was therefore carried out with a sense of confidence and familiarity and with continuous close radio contact with ground centers from whom my fellow cosmonauts served as spokesmen. Sequential boosters totaling 600 000 kg thrust placed the 4731 kg spaceship into a perfect orbit varying in altitude from 178-246 km in a plane 64 degrees 58' inclined to the equator. The spaceship made 17 orbits around the earth landing 25 hours, 18 minutes after take-off. The cabin had full atmospheric pressure and a comfortable habitability which could be extended for 10 days. I was able to maneuver the spaceship and perform many other control functions, make observations and take pictures of the earth and its cloud cover, eat meals and sleep all with good efficiency. I experienced mild symptoms suggestive of seasickness which were aggravated by head turning, ameliorated by sleep and entirely relieved by resumption of g-loading during descent. Altogether analyses of the physical and structural performance of the spaceship and the continuously monitored physiological responses of the pilot indicate that all

  10. Exploring the experiences patients who undergo 24hour Video- electroencephalography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antigoni Fountouki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a frequent neurological disorder well-known by ancient times. The most accurate and valid diagnostic tool for epilepsy, is electroencephalography which provides details on the brain's function by recording brain cells' waves. Aim of the study was the exploration of the patients' total experience at a psychological and emotional level during a 24hour EEG. Materials and Methods: The sample included 40 subjects aged 18-40 years with a history or suspicion of epileptic symptoms. Due to the study's explorative/explicative nature, a qualitative research design was used. Data collection was performed through semi-structured interviews, direct observations and field notes. Following patients' permission, the interviews were recorded and the verbatim data was analyzed via thematic content analysis. Results: The verbatim text was the raw material where key words or phrases with autonomous meaning, relevant to the study's aims where subsequently organized in 4 major themes and 20 sub-categories, namely: Emotional-Psychological state (Positive: Joy, Optimism, Positive Thinking, Self-Confidence. Negative: Sadness, Anxiety, Fear, Panic, Pessimism. Behavior of patients (Calmness, Comfort, Nervousness, Aggravation. Options for patient involvement (TV, Reading, Music, Sleep, Lack of internet. Interpersonal relationships (family, friendly. Conclusions: During achieving the study's aims, many methodological and practical obstacles have been encountered as it proved to be particularly challenging to encompass patients' emotions and accurately cite their experiences during the EEG. However, results that have been revealed are adequate in formulating a holistic picture about the psychological state and the emotions that patients experience during the procedure.

  11. Feasibility of repeated 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft, among preschoolers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Amiano, P.; Ege, Majken

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives:This study evaluates the feasibility among preschoolers of the 2 Ã 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) method combined with a food-recording booklet (FRB), using EPIC-Soft pc-program for the 24-HDR (the software developed to conduct 24-HDRs in the European Prospective Investigati...

  12. Nutritional behavior of cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race: a field study report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bescós Raúl

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about behavior of energy intake in ultra-endurance cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race is scarce. The nutritional strategy during such an event is an important factor which athletes should plan carefully before the race. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the nutritional intake of ultra-endurance cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race with the current nutritional guidelines for endurance events. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship among the nutritional and performance variables. Methods Using a observational design, nutritional intake of eight males (mean ± SD: 36.7 ± 4.7 years; 71.6 ± 4.9 kg; 174.6 ± 7.3 cm; BMI 23.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2 participating in a 24-hour team relay cycling race was assessed. All food and fluid intake by athletes were weighed and recorded. Additionally, distance and speed performed by each rider were also recorded. Furthermore, before to the race, all subjects carried out an incremental exercise test to determine two heart rate-VO2 regression equations which were used to estimate the energy expenditure. Results The mean ingestion of macronutrients during the event was 943 ± 245 g (13.1 ± 4.0 g/kg of carbohydrates, 174 ± 146 g (2.4 ± 1.9 g/kg of proteins and 107 ± 56 g (1.5 ± 0.7 g/kg of lipids, respectively. This amount of nutrients reported an average nutrient intake of 22.8 ± 8.9 MJ which were significantly lower compared with energy expenditure 42.9 ± 6.8 MJ (P = 0.012. Average fluid consumption corresponded to 10497 ± 2654 mL. Mean caffeine ingestion was 142 ± 76 mg. Additionally, there was no relationship between the main nutritional variables (i.e. energy intake, carbohydrates, proteins, fluids and caffeine ingestion and the main performance variables (i.e. distance and speed. Conclusions A 24-hour hours cycling competition in a team relay format elicited high energy demands which were not compensated by energy intake of the athletes despite

  13. Duplicate 24-hour diet study 1994 organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumann RA; Hoogerbrugge R; Zoonen P van; LOC

    1999-01-01

    Duplicate diet samples collected in 1994 were analysed for organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides. It was not possible to evaluate wether dietary intake exceeded the established Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). For the other organophosphorous compounds as well as for the organoclorine pestic

  14. Relative Validity of Three Food Frequency Questionnaires for Assessing Dietary Intakes of Guatemalan Schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Marcinkevage

    Full Text Available To determine the relative validity of three food frequency questionnaires (FFQs compared with results from 24-hour dietary recalls for measuring dietary intakes in Guatemalan schoolchildren.A cross-sectional study of primary caregivers (mothers or grandmothers of 6-11 year-old children. Caregivers completed one of three constructed FFQs to measure the child's dietary consumption in the last week: FFQ1 did not incorporate portion sizes; FFQ2 provided portion sizes; and FFQ3 incorporated pictures of median portion sizes. During the same week, each caregiver also completed three 24-hour dietary recalls. Results from the FFQ were compared with corresponding results from the 24-hour dietary recalls.Santa Catarina Pinula, peri-urban Guatemala City.Caregivers (n = 145 of 6-11 year-old children: 46 completed FFQ1, 49 completed FFQ2, and 50 completed FFQ3.The mean values for all nutrients obtained from the 24-hour dietary recall were lower than for those obtained from the FFQs, excluding folic acid in FFQ3, cholesterol and zinc in FFQ2, and cholesterol, folic acid, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and zinc in FFQ1. Energy-adjusted Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.07 (protein to 0.54 (cholesterol for FFQ1 and from 0.05 to 0.74 for FFQ2 and FFQ3. Agreement by both methods (FFQ and 24-hour dietary recalls of classifying children into the same or adjacent quartiles of energy-adjusted nutrient consumption ranged from 62.0% for cholesterol to 95.9% for vitamin B12 across all three FFQs.Our FFQs had moderate to good relative validity in measuring energy and nutrient intakes for 6-11 year-old Guatemalan children. More evidence is needed to evaluate their reproducibility and applicability in similar populations.

  15. Evaluation of dietary Intake and Food Patterns of Adolescent Girls in Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Montazerifar; Mansour Karajibani; Ali Reza Dashipour

    2012-01-01

    Background: The evidence suggests a relationship between lifestyle and diet-related risk factors.Objective: This study assessed the dietary intake and habits of high school girls in Sistan and Bluchistan province, in southeastern Iran.Methods: In a cross-sectional, descriptive study, 753 high school girls aged 14-18 years old wereenrolled by a clustered random sampling method. Dietary intake and food habits were evaluatedby a two-day, 24-hour dietary recall, and a food frequency questionna...

  16. A review of the design and validation of web- and computer-based 24-h dietary recall tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timon, Claire M; van den Barg, Rinske; Blain, Richard J; Kehoe, Laura; Evans, Katie; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Eileen R

    2016-12-01

    Technology-based dietary assessment offers solutions to many of the limitations of traditional dietary assessment methodologies including cost, participation rates and the accuracy of data collected. The 24-h dietary recall (24HDR) method is currently the most utilised method for the collection of dietary intake data at a national level. Recently there have been many developments using web-based platforms to collect food intake data using the principles of the 24HDR method. This review identifies web- and computer-based 24HDR tools that have been developed for both children and adult population groups, and examines common design features and the methods used to investigate the performance and validity of these tools. Overall, there is generally good to strong agreement between web-based 24HDR and respective reference measures for intakes of macro- and micronutrients.

  17. Pooled results from 5 validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for energy and protein intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    We pooled data from 5 large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as references to clarify the measurement properties of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. The studies were conducted in widely differing U.S. adult populations from...

  18. Pooled results from five validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for potassium and sodium intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have pooled data from five large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as referents to assess food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. We reported on total potassium and sodium intakes, their densities, and their ratio. Results were...

  19. Dietary patterns in Them and Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, P; Jørgensen, I M; Paerregaard, A;

    1982-01-01

    Four-day weighing and 24-hour recall were used to record food consumption in groups of 30 men, aged 50-59 years, in 2 areas of Denmark: Them, a rural Danish community, and Copenhagen. Fat consumption was found to be higher in Them, whereas alcohol consumption was higher in Copenhagen. The absolut...... daily intake of dietary fiber was higher in Them than in Copenhagen. These observations document changes due to industrialization of food production, modern distribution, and marketing methods....

  20. Short- and long-term reliability of adult recall of vegetarian dietary patterns in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira Martins, Marcia C; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Singh, Pramil; Fraser, Gary E

    2015-01-01

    Past dietary patterns may be more important than recent dietary patterns in the aetiology of chronic diseases because of the long latency in their development. We developed an instrument to recall vegetarian dietary patterns during the lifetime and examined its reliability of recall over 5·3 and 32·6 years on average. The short-term/5-year recall ability study (5-RAS) was done using 24 690 participants from the cohort of the Adventist Health Study-2 (mean age 62·2 years). The long-term/33-year recall ability study (33-RAS) included an overlap population of 1721 individuals who joined the Adventist Health Study-1 and Adventist Health Study-2 (mean age 72·5 years). Spearman correlation coefficients for recall of vegetarian status were 0·78 and 0·72 for the 5-RAS and 33-RAS, respectively, when compared with 'reference' data. For both time periods sensitivity and positive predictive values were highest for the lacto-ovo-vegetarian and non-vegetarian patterns (vegans, lacto-ovo-vegetarians, pesco-vegetarians, semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians). In the 5-RAS analyses, male, non-black, younger, and more educated participants, lifetime Adventists, and those with more stability of consumption of animal products generally showed higher recall ability. Somewhat similar tendencies were shown for the 33-RAS analyses. Our findings show that the instrument has higher reliability for recalled lacto-ovo-vegetarian and non-vegetarian than for vegan, semi- and pesco-vegetarian dietary patterns in both short- and long-term recalls. This is in part because these last dietary patterns were greatly contaminated by recalls that correctly would have belonged in the adjoining category that consumed more animal products.

  1. Feasibility of 2 x 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft, among schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Amiano, P.; Ege, Majken

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 x 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft (the software de...

  2. Evaluation of 2 × 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, against a 7-day food-record method among schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Amiano, P.; Ege, Majken

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives:The aim of this study was to evaluate the estimated energy, nutrient and food intake from the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 Ã 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet (...

  3. Diversity of dietary patterns observed in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Fahey, M.; Welch, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the diversity in dietary patterns existing across centres/regions participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). DESIGN AND SETTING: Single 24-hour dietary recall measurements were obtained by means of standardised face-to-face int......OBJECTIVE: To describe the diversity in dietary patterns existing across centres/regions participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). DESIGN AND SETTING: Single 24-hour dietary recall measurements were obtained by means of standardised face......-to-face interviews using the EPIC-SOFT software. These have been used to present a graphic multi-dimensional comparison of the adjusted mean consumption of 22 food groups. SUBJECTS: In total, 35 955 men and women, aged 35-74 years, participating in the EPIC nested calibration study. RESULTS: Although wide...

  4. A potential tool for clinicians; evaluating a computer-led dietary assessment method in overweight and obese women during weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Dietary assessment methods used in overweight/obese participants have been scrutinized for underreporting energy. Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of a computer-administered, 24-hour recall method (ASA24) to measure energy and nutrient intake in overweight/obese women and to further...

  5. Effect of "no added salt diet" on blood pressure control and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion in mild to moderate hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Rahim

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of Hypertension as a major cardiovascular threat is increasing. The best known diet for hypertensives is 'no added salt diet'. In this study we evaluated the effect of 'no added salt diet' on a hypertensive population with high dietary sodium intake by measuring 24 hour urinary sodium excretion. Methods In this single center randomized study 80 patients (60 cases and 20 controls not on any drug therapy for hypertension with mild to moderate hypertension were enrolled. 24 hour holter monitoring of BP and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion were measured before and after 6 weeks of 'no added salt diet'. Results There was no statistically significant difference between age, weight, sex, Hyperlipidemia, family history of hypertension, mean systolic and diastolic BP during the day and at night and mean urinary sodium excretion in 24 hour urine of case and control groups. Seventy eight percent of all patients had moderate to high salt intake. After 6 week of 'no added salt diet' systolic and diastolic BP significantly decreased during the day (mean decrease: 12.1/6.8 mmhg and at night (mean decrease: 11.1/5.9 mmhg which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (P 0.001 and 0.01. Urinary sodium excretion of 24 hour urine decreased by 37.1 meq/d ± 39,67 mg/dl in case group which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (p: 0.001. Only 36% of the patients, after no added salt diet, reached the pretreatment goal of 24 hour urinary sodium excretion of below 100 meq/dl (P:0.001. Conclusion Despite modest effect on dietary sodium restriction, no added salt diet significantly decreased systolic and diastolic BP and so it should be advised to every hypertensive patient. Trial Registration Clinicaltrial.govnumber NCT00491881

  6. Assessing response to stroke thrombolysis: validation of 24-hour multimodal magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce C V; Tu, Hans T H; Christensen, Søren; Desmond, Patricia M; Levi, Christopher R; Bladin, Christopher F; Hjort, Niels; Ashkanian, Mahmoud; Sølling, Christine; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Davis, Stephen M; Ostergaard, Leif; Parsons, Mark W

    2012-01-01

    Imaging is used as a surrogate for clinical outcome in early-phase stroke trials. Assessment of infarct growth earlier than the standard 90 days used for clinical end points may be equally accurate and more practical. To compare assessment of the effect of reperfusion therapies using 24-hour vs day 90 magnetic resonance imaging. Infarct volume was assessed on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at baseline and 24 hours after stroke onset and on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images at day 90. The DWI and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery lesions were manually outlined by 2 independent raters, and the volumes were averaged. Interrater consistency was assessed using the median difference in lesion volume between raters. Referral center. Patients  Imaging data were available for 83 patients; 77 of these patients received thrombolysis. Infarct volume at 24 hours and 90 days. The 24-hour DWI infarct volume had a strong linear correlation with day 90 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery infarct volume (r = 0.98, 95% confidence interval, 0.97-0.99). Recanalization had a significant effect on infarct evolution between baseline and 24 hours but not between 24 hours and day 90. Infarct growth from baseline was significantly reduced by recanalization, whether assessed at 24 hours or day 90. Infarct volume at either time point predicted functional outcome independent of age and baseline stroke severity. Interrater agreement was better for DWI than fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (1.4 mL [8%] vs 1.8 mL [17%]; P = .002). Assessment of final infarct volume using DWI at 24 hours captures the effect of reperfusion therapies on infarct growth and predicts functional outcome similarly to imaging at day 90. This has the potential to reduce loss to follow-up in trials and may add early prognostic information in clinical practice.

  7. Comparisons of Office and 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kun-Tai; Chiu, Shuenn-Nan; Weng, Wen-Chin; Lee, Pei-Lin; Hsu, Wei-Chung

    2017-03-01

    To compare office blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour ambulatory BP (ABP) monitoring to facilitate the diagnosis and management of hypertension in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Children aged 4-16 years with OSA-related symptoms were recruited from a tertiary referral medical center. All children underwent overnight polysomnography, office BP, and 24-hour ABP studies. Multiple linear regression analyses were applied to elucidate the association between the apnea-hypopnea index and BP. Correlation and consistency between office BP and 24-hour ABP were measured by Pearson correlation, intraclass correlation, and Bland-Altman analyses. In the 163 children enrolled (mean age, 8.2 ± 3.3 years; 67% male). The prevalence of systolic hypertension at night was significantly higher in children with moderate-to-severe OSA than in those with primary snoring (44.9% vs 16.1%, P = .006). Pearson correlation and intraclass correlation analyses revealed associations between office BP and 24-hour BP, and Bland-Altman analysis indicated an agreement between office and 24-hour BP measurements. However, multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that 24-hour BP (nighttime systolic BP and mean arterial pressure), unlike office BP, was independently associated with the apnea-hypopnea index, after adjustment for adiposity variables. Twenty-four-hour ABP is more strongly correlated with OSA in children, compared with office BP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing the intake of obesity-related foods and beverages in young children: comparison of a simple population survey with 24 hr-recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Andrew C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an increasing focus on obesity prevention there is a need for simple, valid tools to assess dietary indicators that may be the targets of intervention programs. The objective of this study was to determine the relative validity of previous day dietary intake using a newly developed parent-proxy questionnaire (EPAQ for two to five year old children. Methods A convenience sample of participants (n = 90 recruited through preschools and the community in Geelong, Australia provided dietary data for their child via EPAQ and interviewer-administered 24-hour dietary recall (24 hr-recall. Comparison of mean food and beverage group servings between the EPAQ and 24 hr-recall was conducted and Spearman rank correlations were computed to examine the association between the two methods. Results Mean servings of food/beverage groups were comparable between methods for all groups except water, and significant correlations were found between the servings of food and beverages using the EPAQ and 24-hr recall methods (ranging from 0.57 to 0.88. Conclusion The EPAQ is a simple and useful population-level tool for estimating the intake of obesity-related foods and beverages in children aged two to five years. When compared with 24-hour recall data, the EPAQ produced an acceptable level of relative validity and this short survey has application for population monitoring and the evaluation of population-based obesity prevention interventions for young children.

  9. A Comparison of 4- and 24-Hour Urine Samples for the Diagnosis of Proteinuria in Pregnancy

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    Afsane Amirabi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy, and it is vital to diagnosis the condition as early as possible. Proteinuria is an important symptom of preeclampsia, and repeated urine analysis to screen for the condition is part of the standard antenatal care. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between 4- and 24-hour urine total protein values to examine whether the 4-hour urine samples could be used for the diagnosis of proteinuria in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 110 pregnant (after gestational week 20 of pregnancy patients who were hypertensive (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg and had proteinuria as defined by positive urinary protein of at least 1+ in dipstick. Patients' urine samples were collected over 24 hours; the first 4 hours were collected separately from the next 20-hours. Patients, who did not collect the 24-hour urine, were excluded from the study. One hundred patients met the criteria, and were included in the study. The urine volume, total protein and creatinine levels of 4- and 24-hours samples were measured. The correlation between 4-hour and 24-hour samples was examined using Pearson correlation test. Results: Of the 100 patients, 42 had no proteinuria, 44 had mild proteinuria, and 14 had severe proteinuria. The urine protein values of 4-hour samples correlated with those of the 24-hours samples for patients with mild and severe forms of the disease (P<0.001, r=0.86. Conclusion: This study showed there was a correlation between 4-hour and 24-hour urine proteins. The finding indicates that a random 4-hour sample might be used for the initial assessment of proteinuria

  10. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

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    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH, which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a to compare energy intake (EI using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water (DLW; and (b to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH was not statistically different from TEE (DLW (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively. No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001. In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  11. Effect of fast food consumption on dietary intake and likelihood of meeting MyPyramid recommendations in adults: Results from What We Eat In America, NHANES, 2003-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fast food (FF) consumption on food and nutrient intakes and likelihood of meeting recommendations outlined in USDA’s MyPyramid Food Guidance System. Adults 19-50 years of age (n=2,160) who completed two 24-hour dietary recalls in the What We ...

  12. Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Obesity in Older People in China: Data from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS)

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyue Xu; John Hall; Julie Byles; Zumin Shi

    2015-01-01

    Background: No studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity among older Chinese people, by considering gender and urbanization level differences. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (2745 individuals, aged ≥ 60 years). Dietary data were obtained using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Height, Body Weight, and Waist Circumference were measured. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dieta...

  13. [Evaluation of 24-hour home help services in a community by the focus group interview method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, T; Maeda, A; Motohashi, Y

    1999-11-01

    The 24-hour home help services that provide day and night care services at home becomes a public health interest in Japan. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the system of 24-hour home help services in a community that has successfully developed it. Participants of this focus group interview were home helpers who were actually engaged in 24-hour home help services in A town of Akita Prefecture. The focus group session was tape-recorded and the tapes were transcribed. The transcripts were evaluated and summarized in order to identify major categories and number of descriptive statements in each category. The results were as follows. First, the home helpers considered that their system of 24-hour home help services could be technically transferred to other communities in Japan. Secondary, the political leadership and the democratic system of community participation were the essential elements for promoting the 24-hour home help services. Thirdly, the regular meetings for discussion about cases and opinion exchanges were required more extensively in the future.

  14. Insights about serum sodium behavior after 24 hours of continuous renal replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Thiago Gomes; Martins, Cassia Pimenta Barufi; Mendes, Pedro Vitale; Besen, Bruno Adler Maccagnan Pinheiro; Zampieri, Fernando Godinho; Park, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratorial factors associated with serum sodium variation during continuous renal replacement therapy and to assess whether the perfect admixture formula could predict 24-hour sodium variation. Methods Thirty-six continuous renal replacement therapy sessions of 33 patients, in which the affluent prescription was unchanged during the first 24 hours, were retrieved from a prospective collected database and then analyzed. A mixed linear model was performed to investigate the factors associated with large serum sodium variations (≥ 8mEq/L), and a Bland-Altman plot was generated to assess the agreement between the predicted and observed variations. Results In continuous renal replacement therapy 24-hour sessions, SAPS 3 (p = 0.022) and baseline hypernatremia (p = 0.023) were statistically significant predictors of serum sodium variations ≥ 8mEq/L in univariate analysis, but only hypernatremia demonstrated an independent association (β = 0.429, p < 0.001). The perfect admixture formula for sodium prediction at 24 hours demonstrated poor agreement with the observed values. Conclusions Hypernatremia at the time of continuous renal replacement therapy initiation is an important factor associated with clinically significant serum sodium variation. The use of 4% citrate or acid citrate dextrose - formula A 2.2% as anticoagulants was not associated with higher serum sodium variations. A mathematical prediction for the serum sodium concentration after 24 hours was not feasible. PMID:27410407

  15. Dietary Intakes of Adolescent Girls in Relation to Weight Status

    OpenAIRE

    K Bidad; Sh Anari; Tavasoli, S; L Nazemi; N Gholami; S Zadhush; Moayeri, H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: To examine macronutrient and micronutrient intake of adolescent girls of Tehran, capital of Iran to discover any malnutrition in relation to weight status and dieting.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Four hundred 11- to 17-year-old students were selected by multistage clus­ter sampling from secondary and high schools of Tehran. The information about dietary intakes was taken by food fre­quency questionnaire and 24-hour recall form. The students'...

  16. Asymptomatic rhythm and conduction abnormalities in children with acute rheumatic fever: 24-hour electrocardiography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, Mehmet; Işıkay, Sedat; Olgun, Haşim; Ceviz, Naci

    2010-12-01

    Some rhythm and conduction abnormalities can occur in children with acute rheumatic fever. These abnormalities have been defined based on standard electrocardiography; however, the real prevalence of these abnormalities has not been investigated previously by the evaluation of long-term electrocardiographic recordings. In this study, we evaluated the asymptomatic rhythm and conduction abnormalities in children with acute rheumatic fever by evaluating the 24-hour electrocardiography. We evaluated the standard electrocardiography and the 24-hour electrocardiography of 64 children with acute rheumatic fever. On standard electrocardiography, the frequency of the first-degree atrioventricular block was found to be 21.9%. Electrocardiography at 24 hours detected three additional and separate patients with a long PR interval. Mobitz type I block and atypical Wenckebach periodicity were determined in one patient (1.56%) on 24-hour electrocardiography. While accelerated junctional rhythm was detected in three patients on standard electrocardiography, it was present in nine patients according to 24-hour electrocardiography. Premature contractions were present in 1.7% of standard electrocardiography, but in 29.7% of 24-hour electrocardiography. Absence of carditis was found to be related to the presence of accelerated junctional rhythm (p > 0.05), and the presence of carditis was found to be related to the presence of premature contractions (p = 0.000). In conclusion, our results suggest that in children with acute rheumatic fever, the prevalence of rhythm and conduction abnormalities may be much higher than determined on standard electrocardiography. Further studies are needed to clarify whether or not these abnormalities are specific to acute rheumatic fever.

  17. Comparison of anthropometric and training characteristics between recreational male marathoners and 24-hour ultramarathoners

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    Rüst CA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Patrizia Knechtle,2 Thomas Rosemann11Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, SwitzerlandBackground: Of the anthropometry and training variables used to predict race performance in a 24-hour ultrarun, the personal best marathon time is the strongest predictor in recreational male 24-hour ultramarathoners. This finding raises the question of whether similarities exist between male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and male recreational marathoners.Methods: The association between age, anthropometric variables (ie, body mass, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, skeletal muscle mass, limb circumference, and skinfold thickness at the pectoral, mid axillary, triceps, subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac, front thigh, and medial calf sites, previous experience and training characteristics (ie, volume, speed, and personal best time, and race time for 79 male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and 126 male recreational marathoners was investigated using bivariate and multivariate analysis.Results: The 24-hour ultramarathoners were older (P < 0.05, had a lower circumference at both the upper arm (P < 0.05 and thigh (P < 0.01, and a lower skinfold thickness at the pectoral, axillary, and suprailiac sites (P < 0.05 compared with the marathoners. During training, the 24-hour ultramarathoners were running for more hours per week (P < 0.001 and completed more kilometers (P < 0.001, but were running slower (P < 0.01 compared with the marathoners. In the 24-hour ultramarathoners, neither anthropometric nor training variables were associated with kilometers completed in the race (P > 0.05. In the marathoners, percent body fat (P < 0.001 and running speed during training (P < 0.0001 were related to marathon race times.Conclusion: In summary, differences in anthropometric and training predictor variables do

  18. [Assessment of arterial wall stiffness by 24-hour blood pressure monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneva, V A; Kuznetsova, T Yu

    2016-01-01

    Arterial wall stiffness is an early marker of cardiovascular diseases. The gold standard for assessment of the stiffness of large vessels is presently pulse wave velocity (PWV). Work is in progress on the study of the reference values of PWV in people of different genders and ages. 24-hour blood pressure (BP) monitoring is not only a procedure that can estimate diurnal BP variability, but also monitor the indicators of vascular wall stiffness in a number of cases over a 24-hour period. The given review highlights the pathophysiology of arterial stiffness, methods for its assessment, and the aspects of use in therapeutic practice.

  19. Regulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the ischaemic forefoot during 24 hours. Studies using the 133-Xenon wash-out technique continuously over 24 hours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelnes, R.

    1988-01-01

    A method for continuous measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the forefoot during 24 hours (SBF) is described. The method is based on the radioisotope wash-out principle using 133-Xenon. A portable semiconductor detector is placed just above a local depot of 1-2 ..mu..Ci 133-Xenon in 0.1 ml isotonic saline injected into the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the forefoot. The detector is connected to a memory unit allowing for storage of data. Due to the short distance, the recorded elimination rate constant must be corrected for combined convection and diffusion of the radioactive indicator. After reconstructive vascular surgery, the 24-hour blood flow pattern normalized although the ankle/arm systolic blood pressure index did not come within normal range. SBF during day-time activities decreased by up to 50% postoperatively. This is caused by the reappearance of the local, sympathetic, veno-arteriolar vasoconstrictor response. During sleep SBF increased by 71%. The term postreconstructuve hyperamia seems improper, at least in a long-term context, normalization of preoperative ischaemia is a more correct notation. The coefficient of variation of nocturnal SBF was calculated to 10%. The method thus seems apt as a monitor in medical therapy for occlusive arterial disease. Changes of lambda has, however, to be considered in each study. 94 refs. (EG).

  20. Estimation of blood pressure variability from 24-hour ambulatory finger blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omboni, S.; Parati, G.; Castiglioni, P.; Rienzo, M. di; Imholz, B.P.M.; Langewouters, G.J.; Wesseling, K.H.; Mancia, G.

    1998-01-01

    Portapres is a noninvasive, beat-to-beat finger blood pressure (BP) monitor that has been shown to accurately estimate 24-hour intra-arterial BP at normal and high BPs. However, no information is available on the ability of this device to accurately track ambulatory BP variability. In 20 ambulatory

  1. Oropharyngeal 24-Hour pH Monitoring in Children With Airway-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesallam, Tamer A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Diagnosis and clinical presentation of pediatric laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is still controversial. The aims of this work were to study the possibility of performing 24-hour oropharyngeal pH monitoring for children in the outpatient clinic setup and to explore the results of this test in correlation to airway-related problems. Methods In this descriptive qualitative study, 26 children suffering from airway-related problems were included. Oropharyngeal 24-hour pH monitoring was performed for all subjects in the outpatient clinic setting. The distribution of airway diagnoses among the study group was studied versus the results of the pH monitoring. Results There were 16 males and 10 females participated in the study with a mean age of 6.88 (SD, ±5.77) years. Thirty-five percent of the patients were under the age of 3 years (range, 11 months to 3 years). Eight-five percent of the patients tolerated the pH probe insertion and completed 24-hour of pH recording. Laryngomalacia and subglottic stenosis (SGS) were more frequently reported in the positive LPR patients (77%). Conclusion Oropharyngeal 24-hour pH monitoring can be conducted for children in the outpatient setup even in young age children below 3 years old. Among the positive LPR group, SGS and laryngomalacia were the most commonly reported airway findings. PMID:27090271

  2. Mood-Dependent Cognitive Change in a Man with Bipolar Disorder Who Cycles Every 24 Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Dominic; Mansell, Warren

    2008-01-01

    A case study of a bipolar patient whose mood changes every 24 hours is described to illustrate the changes in cognitive processing and content during different phases of bipolar disorder. The participant completed a battery of questionnaires and tasks on 4 separate occasions: twice when depressed and twice when manic. Depression tended to be…

  3. Impact of Different Normality Thresholds for 24-hour ABPM at the Primary Health Care Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grezzana, Guilherme Brasil; Moraes, David William; Stein, Airton Tetelbon; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. Primary health care (PHC) physicians should be prepared to act appropriately in the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors. However, the rates of patients with control of blood pressure (BP) remain low. The impact of the reclassification of high BP by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) can lead to different medical decisions in PHC. Objective To evaluate the agreement between the BP measured by a conventional method by PHC physicians and by 24-hour ABPM, considering different BP normal thresholds for the 24-hour ABPM according to the V Brazilian ABPM Guidelines and the European Society of Hypertension Guidelines. Methods A cross-sectional study including 569 hypertensive patients. The BP was initially measured by the PHC physicians and, later, by 24-hour ABPM. The BP measurements were obtained independently between the two methods. The therapeutic targets for the conventional BP followed the guidelines by the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8), the V ABPM Brazilian Guidelines, and the 2013 European Hypertension Guidelines. Results There was an accuracy of 54.8% (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.51 - 0.58%) for the BP measured with the conventional method when compared with the 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 85% (95%CI 80.8 - 88.6%), specificity of 31.9% (95%CI 28.7 - 34.7%), and kappa value of 0.155, when considering the European Hypertension Guidelines. When using more stringent thresholds to characterize the BP as "normal" by ABPM, the accuracy was 45% (95%CI 0.41 - 0.47%) for conventional measurement when compared with 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 86.7% (95%CI 0.81 - 0.91%), specificity of 29% (95%CI 0.26 - 0.30%), and kappa value of 0.103. Conclusion The BP measurements obtained by PHC physicians showed low accuracy when compared with those obtained by 24-hour ABPM, regardless of the threshold set by the different guidelines. PMID:28099585

  4. Impact of Different Normality Thresholds for 24-hour ABPM at the Primary Health Care Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Brasil Grezzana

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. Primary health care (PHC physicians should be prepared to act appropriately in the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors. However, the rates of patients with control of blood pressure (BP remain low. The impact of the reclassification of high BP by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM can lead to different medical decisions in PHC. Objective: To evaluate the agreement between the BP measured by a conventional method by PHC physicians and by 24-hour ABPM, considering different BP normal thresholds for the 24-hour ABPM according to the V Brazilian ABPM Guidelines and the European Society of Hypertension Guidelines. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 569 hypertensive patients. The BP was initially measured by the PHC physicians and, later, by 24-hour ABPM. The BP measurements were obtained independently between the two methods. The therapeutic targets for the conventional BP followed the guidelines by the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8, the V ABPM Brazilian Guidelines, and the 2013 European Hypertension Guidelines. Results: There was an accuracy of 54.8% (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.51 - 0.58% for the BP measured with the conventional method when compared with the 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 85% (95%CI 80.8 - 88.6%, specificity of 31.9% (95%CI 28.7 - 34.7%, and kappa value of 0.155, when considering the European Hypertension Guidelines. When using more stringent thresholds to characterize the BP as "normal" by ABPM, the accuracy was 45% (95%CI 0.41 - 0.47% for conventional measurement when compared with 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 86.7% (95%CI 0.81 - 0.91%, specificity of 29% (95%CI 0.26 - 0.30%, and kappa value of 0.103. Conclusion: The BP measurements obtained by PHC physicians showed low accuracy when compared with those obtained by 24-hour ABPM, regardless of the threshold set by the different guidelines.

  5. Static stretching can impair explosive performance for at least 24 hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Monoem; Dridi, Amir; Chtara, Moktar; Chaouachi, Anis; Wong, Del P; Behm, David; Chamari, Karim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static vs. dynamic stretching (DS) on explosive performances and repeated sprint ability (RSA) after a 24-hour delay. Sixteen young male soccer players performed 15 minutes of static stretching (SS), DS, or a no-stretch control condition (CC) 24 hours before performing explosive performances and RSA tests. This was a within-subject repeated measures study with SS, DS, and CC being counterbalanced. Stretching protocols included 2 sets of 7 minutes 30 seconds (2 repetitions of 30 seconds with a 15-second passive recovery) for 5 muscle groups (quadriceps, hamstring, calves, adductors, and hip flexors). Twenty-four hours later (without any kind of stretching in warm-up), the players were tested for the 30-m sprint test (with 10- and 20-m lap times), 5 jump test (5JT), and RSA test. Significant differences were observed between CC, SS, and DS with 5JT (F = 9.99, p effect size [ES] = 0.40), 10-m sprint time (F = 46.52, p stretching protocols in the total time (F = 1.55, p > 0.05), average time (F = 1.53, p > 0.05), and fastest time (F = 2.30, p > 0.05), except for the decline index (F = 3.54, p negative effect on explosive performances up to 24 hours poststretching with no major effects on the RSA. Conversely, the DS of the same muscle groups are highly recommended 24 hours before performing sprint and long-jump performances. In conclusion, the positive effects of DS on explosive performances seem to persist for 24 hours.

  6. PLASMA VOLUME EXPANSION 24-HOURS POST-EXERCISE: EFFECT OF DOUBLING THE VOLUME OF REPLACEMENT FLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartholomew Kay

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of two volumes (1.5 L or 3.0 L of commercially available electrolyte beverage (1.44 mM·L-1 Na+ taken during a 24-hour recovery period post-exercise, on plasma volume (PV expansion 24-hours post-exercise were assessed. A simple random-order crossover research design was used. Subjects (n = 9 males: age 21 ± 4 years, body mass 80.0 ± 9.0 kg, peak incremental 60-second cycling power output 297 ± 45 W [means ± SD] completed an identical exercise protocol conducted in hot ambient conditions (35oC, 50% relative humidity on two occasions; separated by 7-days. On each occasion, subjects received a different volume of 24-hour fluid intake (commercial beverage in random order. In each case, the fluid was taken in five equal aliquots over 24-hours. PV expansions 24-hours post-exercise were estimated from changes in haemoglobin and haematocrit. Dependent t-testing revealed no significant differences in PV expansions between trials, however a significant expansion with respect to zero was identified in the 3.0 L trial only. Specifically, PV expansions (% were; 1.5 L trial: (mean ± SE 2.3 ± 2.0 (not significant with respect to zero, 3.0 L trial: 5.0 ± 2.0 (p < 0.05, with respect to zero. Under the conditions imposed in the current study, ingesting the greater volume of the beverage lead to larger mean PV expansion

  7. Prevention effect of travoprost on high intraocular pressure within 24 hours after diabetic retinopathy vitrectomy

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    Xue Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical significance of travoprost for prevention of high intraocular pressure(IOPwithin 24 hours after diabetic retinopathy(DRvitrectomy.METHODS: A total of 102 patients(102 eyeswith DR who underwent vitrectomy and related literatures were analyzed and compared. All patients were randomly assigned to group A(vitrectomy combined with intravitreal silicone oil, C3F8 or balanced salt solution tamponade group, 51 patients 51 eyesor group B(surgical therapy is the same as the group A, while instilling one drop of 0.04g/L travoprost eyedrops in the inferior cul-de-sac about 60 minutes before the surgery, 51 patients 51 eyes. The changes of IOP, best-corrected visual acuity(BCVAand ophthalmoscope observations within 24 hours respectively before and after the surgery were counted and analyzed.RESULTS: The mean IOP of each group within 24 hours after the surgery was higher than the contralateral eyes(t=2.17 and 2.09, Pt=2.41 and 2.28, Pχ2=4.86 and 3.99,Pt=1.43, P>0.05.CONCLUSION: The preliminary result in our scrutiny showed that the preoperative treatment of 0.04g/L travoprost eyedrops was well tolerated with the significant reduction in the incidence of high IOP and decrease in BCVA within 24 hours after DR vitrectomy. It has clinical significance about the prevention of visual impairment owing to high IOP within 24 hours after DR vitrectomy.

  8. Dietary reporting errors on 24 h recalls and dietary questionnaires are associated with BMI across six European countries as evaluated with recovery biomarkers for protein and potassium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisling, Heinz; van Bakel, Marit M E; Biessy, Carine; May, Anne M; Byrnes, Graham; Norat, Teresa; Rinaldi, Sabina; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Grioni, Sara; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romaguera, Dora; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Crowe, Francesca L; Tumino, Rosario; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Boeing, Heiner; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H; Slimani, Nadia

    2012-03-01

    Whether there are differences between countries in the validity of self-reported diet in relation to BMI, as evaluated using recovery biomarkers, is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate BMI-related reporting errors on 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and on dietary questionnaires (DQ) using biomarkers for protein and K intake and whether the BMI effect differs between six European countries. Between 1995 and 1999, 1086 men and women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition completed a single 24-HDR, a DQ and one 24 h urine collection. In regression analysis, controlling for age, sex, education and country, each unit (1 kg/m²) increase in BMI predicted an approximately 1·7 and 1·3 % increase in protein under-reporting on 24-HDR and DQ, respectively (both P 0·15). In women, but not in men, the DQ yielded higher mean intakes of protein that were closer to the biomarker-based measurements across BMI groups when compared with 24-HDR. Results for K were similar to those of protein, although BMI-related under-reporting of K was of a smaller magnitude, suggesting differential misreporting of foods. Under-reporting of protein and K appears to be predicted by BMI, but this effect may be driven by 'low-energy reporters'. The BMI effect on under-reporting seems to be the same across countries.

  9. [Identification of paroxysmal, transient arrhythmias: Intermittent registration more efficient than the 24-hour Holter monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, Tijn; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Sandström, Herbert; Persson, Mats; Hörnsten, Rolf

    2015-01-06

    Many patients suffer from palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. These patients are often referred for Holter ECG (24 hour), although the sensitivity for detecting arrhythmias is low. A new method, short intermittent regular and symptomatic ECG registrations at home, might be a convenient and more sensitive alternative also suitable for primary health care. In this case report we present a patient who had contacted health care several times during a seven year period for paroxysmal palpitations. Routine examination with 24 hour Holter ECG and event recorder did not result in a diagnosis. Using intermittent handheld ECG registration at home, a paroxysmal supraventricular arrhythmia was diagnosed. Further investigation revealed that the patient had a concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome.

  10. [24-hour systolic wave increment index monitoring in patients with low-renin arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valieva, Z S; Chikhladze, N M; Rogoza, A N; Iarovaia, E B; Bosykh, E G; Chazova, I E

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the circadian rhythm of blood pressure (BP) and daily reflected wave values in patients with low-renin hypertension with normal and elevated aldosterone production. The investigation included 66 patients. 24-hour BP monitoring was carried out and arterial wall rigidity and reflected wave values were assessed in all the patients. The patients with hyperaldosteronemia were found to have not only statistically significant severer hypertension, impaired circadian rhythms of BP, but also impaired augmentation index (Aix)--mainly its nocturnal increase. A positive correlation was found between nocturnal Aix and resting plasma aldosterone concentrations (r = -0.31; p = 0.002). The findings suggest the expediency of 24-hour systolic wave increment index monitoring in hypertensive patients ofthis category.

  11. Influence of Overweight on 24-Hour Urine Chemistry Studies and Recurrent Urolithiasis in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jae Dong; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Myung, Soon Chul; Moon, Young Tae; Kim, Kyung Do; Chang, In Ho

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the influence of overweight on 24-hour urine chemistry studies and recurrent urolithiasis (UL) in children. Materials and Methods A retrospective cohort study was designed to assess children who presented with UL at a pediatric institution between 1985 and 2010. We calculated body mass index percentile (BMIp) adjusted for gender and age according to the 2007 Korean Children and Adolescents Growth Chart and stratified the children into 3 BMI categories: lower body weigh...

  12. Characterisation of sleep in intensive care using 24-hour polysomnography: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Rosalind; McKinley, Sharon; Cistulli, Peter; Fien, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many intensive care patients experience sleep disruption potentially related to noise, light and treatment interventions. The purpose of this study was to characterise, in terms of quantity and quality, the sleep of intensive care patients, taking into account the impact of environmental factors. Methods This observational study was conducted in the adult ICU of a tertiary referral hospital in Australia, enrolling 57 patients. Polysomnography (PSG) was performed over a 24-hour pe...

  13. Leg skinfold thicknesses and race performance in male 24-hour ultra-marathoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The association of skinfold thicknesses with race performance has been investigated in runners competing over distances of ≤50 km. This study investigated a potential relation between skinfold thicknesses and race performance in male ultra-marathoners completing >50 km in 24 hours. Variables of anthropometry, training, and previous performance were related to race performance in 63 male ultra-marathoners aged 46.9 (standard deviation [SD] 10.3) years, standing 1.78 (SD 0.07) m in height, and weighing 73.3 (SD 7.6) kg. The runners clocked 146.1 (SD 43.1) km during the 24 hours. In the bivariate analysis, several variables were associated with race performance: body mass (r = −0.25); skinfold thickness at axilla (r = −0.37), subscapula (r = −0.28), abdomen (r = −0.31), and suprailiaca (r = −0.30); the sum of skinfold thicknesses (r = −0.32); percentage body fat (r = −0.32); weekly kilometers run (r = 0.31); personal best time in a marathon (r = −0.58); personal best time in a 100-km ultra-run (r = −0.31); and personal best performance in a 24-hour run (r = 0.46). In the multivariate analysis, no anthropometric or training variable was related to race performance. In conclusion, in contrast to runners up to distances of 50 km, skinfold thicknesses of the lower limbs were not related to race performance in 24-hour ultra-marathoners. PMID:21566757

  14. Patients in 24-hour home care striving for control and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swedberg Lena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article concerns Swedish patients receiving 24-hour home care from health care assistants (HC assistants employed by the municipality. Home care is a complex interactive process involving the patient, family, HC assistants as well as professional care providers. Previous studies exploring patient perspectives on home care have been based mainly on patient interviews. In contrast, the present study took a broad perspective on patients’ experiences and thoughts by combining field observations on care situations with patient and HC assistant interviews. The aim of the study presented in this article was to promote a new and broadened understanding of patients receiving 24-hour home care by constructing a theoretical model to illuminate their main concern. Methods Field observations and semi-structured interviews were conducted with four patients receiving 24-hour home care and their HC assistants. Grounded theory methodology was used. Results The core process identified was Grasping the lifeline, which describes compensatory processes through which patients strived for control and safe care when experiencing a number of exposed states due to inadequate home care. Patients tried to take control by selecting their own HC assistants and sought safe hands by instructing untrained HC assistants in care procedures. When navigating the care system, the patients maintained contacts with professional care providers and coordinated their own care. When necessary, a devoted HC assistant could take over the navigating role. The results are illuminated in a theoretical model. Conclusions The results accentuate the importance to patients of participating in their own care, especially in the selection of HC assistants. The model illustrates some challenging areas for improvement within the organisation of 24-hour home care, such as personnel continuity and competence, collaboration, and routines for acute care. Furthermore, it may be

  15. Exercising in the Fasted State Reduced 24-Hour Energy Intake in Active Male Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Bachman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fasting prior to morning exercise on 24-hour energy intake was examined using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Participants (12 active, white males, 20.8±3.0 years old, VO2max:   59.1±5.7 mL/kg/min fasted (NoBK or received breakfast (BK and then ran for 60 minutes at 60%  VO2max. All food was weighed and measured for 24 hours. Measures of blood glucose and hunger were collected at 5 time points. Respiratory quotient (RQ was measured during exercise. Generalized linear mixed models and paired sample t-tests examined differences between the conditions. Total 24-hour (BK: 19172±4542 kJ versus NoBK: 15312±4513 kJ; p<0.001 and evening (BK: 12265±4278 kJ versus NoBK: 10833±4065; p=0.039 energy intake and RQ (BK: 0.90±0.03 versus NoBK: 0.86±0.03; p<0.001 were significantly higher in BK than NoBK. Blood glucose was significantly higher in BK than NoBK before exercise (5.2±0.7 versus 4.5±0.6 mmol/L; p=0.025. Hunger was significantly lower for BK than NoBK before exercise, after exercise, and before lunch. Blood glucose and hunger were not associated with energy intake. Fasting before morning exercise decreased 24-hour energy intake and increased fat oxidation during exercise. Completing exercise in the morning in the fasted state may have implications for weight management.

  16. Intraocular Pressure Fluctuations and 24-Hour Continuous Monitoring for Glaucoma Risk in Wind Instrument Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Crom, Ronald M P C; Webers, Carroll A B; van Kooten-Noordzij, Marina A W; Michiels, Agnes C; Schouten, Jan S A G; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Beckers, Henny J M

    2017-08-30

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of playing a wind instrument on intraocular pressure (IOP) and to monitor 24-hour (IOP) fluctuations in wind musicians of symphony and wind orchestras to compare IOP levels during normal daily activities with IOP levels during playing. Professional and amateur musicians of symphony and wind orchestras were invited to participate. A total of 42 participants, 9 with glaucoma, underwent a routine ophthalmologic examination. IOP measurements were taken before and immediately after 20 minutes of playing wind instruments. In addition, 6 participants underwent 24-hour IOP monitoring with the Triggerfish (Sensimed AG, Switzerland) sensing contact lens, during which they kept an activity logbook. Eleven professionals and 31 amateur musicians participated in the study. A total of 7 eyes of 6 patients underwent additional 24-hour IOP monitoring. Mean IOP before playing was 13.6±2.6 mm Hg, IOP change after playing was +1.5±2.2 mm Hg with a significant difference between professionals (2.5±1.5 mm Hg) and amateurs (1.1±2.3 mm Hg). There were no significant differences in IOP change between subjects with or without glaucoma. During 24-hour IOP monitoring there were slight increases in IOP while playing an instrument, but also during other activities and overnight. These latter IOP levels were similar or even higher than the IOP rise caused by playing a wind instrument. IOP often rises after playing wind instruments, but similar or even higher IOP levels seem to occur during common other daily activities or at night. These peaks may be relevant for glaucomatous field progression and treatment of glaucoma patients.

  17. Intermittent short ECG recording is more effective than 24-hour Holter ECG in detection of arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, Tijn; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Wester, Per; Sandström, Herbert; Hörnsten, Rolf

    2014-04-01

    Many patients report symptoms of palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. These patients are often referred for 24-hour Holter ECG, although the sensitivity for detecting relevant arrhythmias is comparatively low. Intermittent short ECG recording over a longer time period might be a convenient and more sensitive alternative. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of 24-hour Holter ECG with intermittent short ECG recording over four weeks to detect relevant arrhythmias in patients with palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. prospective, observational, cross-sectional study. Clinical Physiology, University Hospital. 108 consecutive patients referred for ambiguous palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. All individuals underwent a 24-hour Holter ECG and additionally registered 30-second handheld ECG (Zenicor EKG® thumb) recordings at home, twice daily and when having cardiac symptoms, during 28 days. Significant arrhythmias: atrial fibrillation (AF), paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT), atrioventricular (AV) block II-III, sinus arrest (SA), wide complex tachycardia (WCT). 95 patients, 42 men and 53 women with a mean age of 54.1 years, completed registrations. Analysis of Holter registrations showed atrial fibrillation (AF) in two patients and atrioventricular (AV) block II in one patient (= 3.2% relevant arrhythmias [95% CI 1.1-8.9]). Intermittent handheld ECG detected nine patients with AF, three with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) and one with AV-block-II (= 13.7% relevant arrhythmias [95% CI 8.2-22.0]). There was a significant difference between the two methods in favour of intermittent ECG with regard to the ability to detect relevant arrhythmias (P = 0.0094). With Holter ECG, no symptoms were registered during any of the detected arrhythmias. With intermittent ECG, symptoms were registered during half of the arrhythmia episodes. Intermittent short ECG recording during four weeks is more effective in detecting AF and PSVT in

  18. [Development of software of the 24-hour dynamic ECG monitoring and analyzing system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Y; Fang, K R; Ren, C S

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a PC-computer program of a digital remote ECG monitoring system. In addition to current monitor's capabilities of real time displaying of dynamic ECG wave, over-limit alarming, and so on, it has developed most functions of the Holter system, that are recording the data of ECG more than 24 hours, reviewing and analyzing the ECG data, and giving out reports.

  19. Role of 24 hour telephonic helpline in delivery of mental health services

    OpenAIRE

    Bir Singh Chavan; Rohit Garg; Rachna Bhargava

    2012-01-01

    Background: A large number of persons with psychiatric disorders are not seeking treatment due to various reasons, thus contributing to the huge treatment gap. One of the ways to bring these people into treatment is through telephonic helplines. Materials and Methods: Following a large number of suicides in the city of Chandigarh in 2003, The department of Psychiatry, GMCH, Chandigarh was designated as nodal center for the prevention of suicide. A 24-hour suicide prevention helpline was set u...

  20. Circadian polymorphisms in night owls, in bipolars, and in non-24-hour sleep cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Daniel F; Klimecki, Walter T; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Rex, Katharine M; Murray, Sarah S; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Tranah, Gregory J; Loving, Richard T; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Rhee, Min Kyu; Shadan, Farhad F; Poceta, J Steven; Jamil, Shazia M; Kline, Lawrence E; Kelsoe, John R

    2014-10-01

    People called night owls habitually have late bedtimes and late times of arising, sometimes suffering a heritable circadian disturbance called delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). Those with DSPS, those with more severe progressively-late non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and those with bipolar disorder may share genetic tendencies for slowed or delayed circadian cycles. We searched for polymorphisms associated with DSPS in a case-control study of DSPS research participants and a separate study of Sleep Center patients undergoing polysomnography. In 45 participants, we resequenced portions of 15 circadian genes to identify unknown polymorphisms that might be associated with DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, or bipolar comorbidities. We then genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both larger samples, using Illumina Golden Gate assays. Associations of SNPs with the DSPS phenotype and with the morningness-eveningness parametric phenotype were computed for both samples, then combined for meta-analyses. Delayed sleep and "eveningness" were inversely associated with loci in circadian genes NFIL3 (rs2482705) and RORC (rs3828057). A group of haplotypes overlapping BHLHE40 was associated with non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and less robustly, with delayed sleep and bipolar disorder (e.g., rs34883305, rs34870629, rs74439275, and rs3750275 were associated with n=37, p=4.58E-09, Bonferroni p=2.95E-06). Bright light and melatonin can palliate circadian disorders, and genetics may clarify the underlying circadian photoperiodic mechanisms. After further replication and identification of the causal polymorphisms, these findings may point to future treatments for DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, and possibly bipolar disorder or depression.

  1. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in children with familial dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinovitch, Naomi; Nussinovitch, Moshe; Peleg, Edna; Rosenthal, Talma

    2005-04-01

    Familial dysautonomia (Riley Day syndrome) is a genetic disease. The present study of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in children with familial dysautonomia was carried out to investigate the pattern of blood pressure in this syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only description of patients with 24-hour blood pressure monitoring. Vasomotor instability reflected in extreme hypertension and hypotension was recorded by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in three patients with familial dysautonomia: a 16-year old girl, a 14-year old boy and a 3-year old boy. Recordings were taken on a routine school day in the first two patients and during hospitalization in the third. Patients 1 and 2 displayed circadian rhythm but with significantly higher than normal blood pressure and heart rate. Patient 3 exhibited these fluctuations to a lesser degree. Postural hypotension without compensatory tachycardia was frequently seen in all three patients. Unusual variability in blood pressure was recorded during routine activities in patients 1 and 2 and during an acute attack in patient 3. Close monitoring of antihypertensive therapy should be considered in familial dysautonomia patients in whom blood pressure reaches excessive levels.

  2. "Simple febrile seizures plus (SFS+)": more than one febrile seizure within 24 hours is usually okay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Marie F; Ng, Yu-Tze

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether children with recurrent febrile seizures within a 24-hour period need to be worked up differently from children with simple febrile seizures. Inclusion criteria included the following: (i) children with first seizure cluster between 4 months and 3 years of age, (ii) children who had more than one febrile seizure within 24 hours, and (iii) children who returned to baseline between and after each event. Thirty-two patients met the inclusion criteria over a 3-year period. All patients underwent brain CT and/or MRI and EEG. All head CTs were normal. Two children had abnormal MRI findings - both benign: one is thought to represent postictal changes, and the other one is an incidental arachnoid cyst. Of the 4 abnormal EEGs, one showed epileptiform discharges, while the others showed generalized ictal or postictal features. We propose the term "simple febrile seizures plus (SFS+)" to describe children who have more than one seizure within 24 hours but who are otherwise not different in presentation from children with SFS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Stress relaxation properties of four orthodontic aligner materials: A 24-hour in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Luca; Martines, Elisa; Mazzanti, Valentina; Arreghini, Angela; Mollica, Francesco; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the stress release properties of four thermoplastic materials used to make orthodontic aligners when subjected to 24 consecutive hours of deflection. Four types of aligner materials (two single and two double layered) were selected. After initial yield strength testing to characterize the materials, each sample was subjected to a constant load for 24 hours in a moist, temperature-regulated environment, and the stress release over time was measured. The test was performed three times on each type of material. All polymers analyzed released a significant amount of stress during the 24-hour period. Stress release was greater during the first 8 hours, reaching a plateau that generally remained constant. The single-layer materials, F22 Aligner polyurethane (Sweden & Martina, Due Carrare, Padova, Italy) and Duran polyethylene terephthalate glycol-modified (SCHEU, Iserlohn, Germany), exhibited the greatest values for both absolute stress and stress decay speed. The double-layer materials, Erkoloc-Pro (Erkodent, Pfalzgrafenweiler, Germany) and Durasoft (SCHEU), exhibited very constant stress release, but at absolute values up to four times lower than the single-layer samples tested. Orthodontic aligner performance is strongly influenced by the material of their construction. Stress release, which may exceed 50% of the initial stress value in the early hours of wear, may cause significant changes in the behavior of the polymers at 24 hours from the application of orthodontic loads, which may influence programmed tooth movement.

  4. Assessment of heart rate variability in breath holding children by 24 hour Holter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Osman; Ciftel, Murat; Ozturk, Kezban; Kilic, Omer; Kahveci, Hasan; Laloğlu, Fuat; Ceylan, Ozben

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism in children with breath holding may be generalised autonomic dysregulation. Thus, we performed cardiac rhythm and heart rate variability analyses using 24-hour Holter monitoring to evaluate the cardiac effects of autonomic dysregulation in children with breath-holding spells. We performed cardiac rhythm and heart rate analyses using 24-hour Holter monitors to evaluate the cardiac effects of autonomic dysregulation in children during a breath-holding spell. Our study group consisted of 68 children with breath-holding spells - 56 cyanotic type and 12 pallid type - and 39 healthy controls. Clinical and heart rate variability results were compared between each spell type - cyanotic or pallid - and the control group; significant differences (p50 ms, and square root of the mean of the sum of squares of the differences between adjacent NN intervals values were found between the pallid and cyanotic groups. Holter monitoring for 24 hours and heart rate variability parameters, particularly in children with pallid spells, are crucial for evaluation of cardiac rhythm changes.

  5. Physiological Load and Psychological Stress During a 24-hour Work Shift Among Finnish Firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaikkonen, Piia; Lindholm, Harri; Lusa, Sirpa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe physiological load and psychological stress of Finnish firefighters during a 24-hour work shift. R-R intervals were recorded during 24-hour work shifts. Short-time Fourier transform was used to analyze heart rate variability during shifts. HRmean, HRpeak, and square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of the differences between adjacent R-to-R peak intervals of the 24-hour shift was 73 ± 7 bpm (38 ± 4% of HRmax), 156 ± 16 bpm (82 ± 8% of HRmax), and 42 ± 14 ms. Mean VO2 was 11 ± 2 (% of VO2max) and VO2peak 72 ± 11 (% of VO2max). Physiological load and psychological stress were temporarily high, even in young, fit firefighters. As the relative work load may increase and recovery processes slow down among aging employees, fatigue may occur unless work arrangements are well-designed.

  6. 24-hour central aortic systolic pressure and 24-hour central pulse pressure are related to diabetic complications in type 1 diabetes - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    ± 13, 121 ± 13, 119 ± 16 and 121 ± 13 mmHg (p arterial pressure and conventional risk factors), 24 h-CASP and 24 h-CPP increased with diabetes, albuminuria degree, previous......BACKGROUND: Non-invasive measurements of 24 hour ambulatory central aortic systolic pressure (24 h-CASP) and central pulse pressure (24 h-CPP) are now feasible. We evaluate the relationship between 24 h central blood pressure and diabetes-related complications in patients with type 1 diabetes...... cardiovascular disease (CVD), retinopathy and autonomic dysfunction (p ≤ 0.031).Odds ratios per 1 standard deviation increase in 24 h-CASP, 24 h-CPP and 24 h systolic blood pressure (24 h-SBP) were for CVD: 3.19 (1.68-6.05), 1.43 (1.01-2.02) and 2.39 (1.32-4.33), retinopathy: 4.41 (2.03-9.57), 1.77 (1...

  7. [Evaluation of dietary intake of indigenous and alien populations in Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinchik, A N; Asaulenko, V I; Baturin, A K; Peskova, E V; Baĭgarin, E K

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the investigation of the actual food consumption in 102 adult residents of both sexes in settlements Harp, Aksarka and Beloyarsk in Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District - YNAD. The dietary intake of individuals were studied by 24-hour recall methodology adopted for Russian features in the Institute of Nutrition of RAMS. An assessment of differences of the actual consumption of energy and nutrients for newcomers and indigenous populations were performed.

  8. Validation of an Online Food Frequency Questionnaire against Doubly Labelled Water and 24 h Dietary Recalls in Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of easy-to-use and accurate methods to assess the intake of energy, foods and nutrients in pre-school children is needed. KidMeal-Q is an online food frequency questionnaire developed for the LifeGene prospective cohort study in Sweden. The aims of this study were to compare: (i energy intake (EI obtained using KidMeal-Q to total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water and (ii the intake of certain foods measured using KidMeal-Q to intakes acquired by means of 24 h dietary recalls in 38 children aged 5.5 years. The mean EI calculated using KidMeal-Q was statistically different (p < 0.001 from TEE (4670 ± 1430 kJ/24 h and 6070 ± 690 kJ/24 h, respectively. Significant correlations were observed for vegetables, fruit juice and candy between KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. Only sweetened beverage consumption was significantly different in mean intake (p < 0.001, as measured by KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. In conclusion, KidMeal-Q had a relatively short answering time and comparative validity to other food frequency questionnaires. However, its accuracy needs to be improved before it can be used in studies in pre-school children.

  9. Mifepristone and misoprostol administered simultaneously versus 24 hours apart for abortion: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creinin, Mitchell D; Schreiber, Courtney A; Bednarek, Paula; Lintu, Hanna; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Meyn, Leslie A

    2007-04-01

    Mifepristone and oral misoprostol are typically used for medical abortion in women up to 49 days of gestation, with a 36- to 48-hour interval between the medications. Alternative routes of misoprostol administration allow for use beyond 49 days of gestation. We designed this randomized, noninferiority trial to compare the efficacy, adverse effects, and acceptability of misoprostol 800 mcg vaginally administered simultaneously with, or 24 hours after, mifepristone 200 mg orally for abortion in women up to 63 days of gestation. The 1,128 participants swallowed mifepristone 200 mg and were then randomized to self-administer misoprostol intravaginally immediately in the office (group 1) or 24 hours later at home (group 2). Subjects returned for an evaluation, including transvaginal ultrasonography, 7+/-1 days after initiating treatment. Women who had not aborted were offered a second dose of misoprostol and returned for another evaluation in approximately 1 week. A phone contact was also attempted approximately 5 weeks after treatment. Treatment was considered a failure if a suction aspiration was performed for any indication. The complete abortion rate for group 1 (95.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 93.0-96.8%) was statistically noninferior to that for group 2 (96.9%, 95% CI 95.1-98.2%) (P=.003). The abortion rates between groups did not significantly differ by gestational age. Adverse effects were mostly similar, although nausea, diarrhea, and warmth or chills were significantly more common in group 1. Mifepristone 200 mg and misoprostol 800 mcg vaginally used simultaneously is as effective for abortion as compared with regimens using a 24-hour dosing interval. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00269568 I.

  10. Heterogeneity of Prognostic Studies of 24-Hour Blood Pressure Variability: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kathryn S.; Heneghan, Carl J.; Stevens, Richard J.; Adams, Emily C.; Nunan, David; Ward, Alison

    2015-01-01

    In addition to mean blood pressure, blood pressure variability is hypothesized to have important prognostic value in evaluating cardiovascular risk. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of blood pressure variability within 24 hours. Using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library to April 2013, we conducted a systematic review of prospective studies of adults, with at least one year follow-up and any day, night or 24-hour blood pressure variability measure as a predictor of one or more of the following outcomes: all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, all cardiovascular events, stroke and coronary heart disease. We examined how blood pressure variability is defined and how its prognostic use is reported. We analysed relative risks adjusted for covariates including the appropriate mean blood pressure and considered the potential for meta-analysis. Our analysis of methods included 24 studies and analysis of predictions included 16 studies. There were 36 different measures of blood pressure variability and 13 definitions of night- and day-time periods. Median follow-up was 5.5 years (interquartile range 4.2–7.0). Comparing measures of dispersion, coefficient of variation was less well researched than standard deviation. Night dipping based on percentage change was the most researched measure and the only measure for which data could be meaningfully pooled. Night dipping or lower night-time blood pressure was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events. The interpretation and use in clinical practice of 24-hour blood pressure variability, as an important prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events, is hampered by insufficient evidence and divergent methodologies. We recommend greater standardisation of methods. PMID:25984791

  11. Heterogeneity of prognostic studies of 24-hour blood pressure variability: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kathryn S; Heneghan, Carl J; Stevens, Richard J; Adams, Emily C; Nunan, David; Ward, Alison

    2015-01-01

    In addition to mean blood pressure, blood pressure variability is hypothesized to have important prognostic value in evaluating cardiovascular risk. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of blood pressure variability within 24 hours. Using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library to April 2013, we conducted a systematic review of prospective studies of adults, with at least one year follow-up and any day, night or 24-hour blood pressure variability measure as a predictor of one or more of the following outcomes: all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, all cardiovascular events, stroke and coronary heart disease. We examined how blood pressure variability is defined and how its prognostic use is reported. We analysed relative risks adjusted for covariates including the appropriate mean blood pressure and considered the potential for meta-analysis. Our analysis of methods included 24 studies and analysis of predictions included 16 studies. There were 36 different measures of blood pressure variability and 13 definitions of night- and day-time periods. Median follow-up was 5.5 years (interquartile range 4.2-7.0). Comparing measures of dispersion, coefficient of variation was less well researched than standard deviation. Night dipping based on percentage change was the most researched measure and the only measure for which data could be meaningfully pooled. Night dipping or lower night-time blood pressure was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events. The interpretation and use in clinical practice of 24-hour blood pressure variability, as an important prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events, is hampered by insufficient evidence and divergent methodologies. We recommend greater standardisation of methods.

  12. Heterogeneity of prognostic studies of 24-hour blood pressure variability: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn S Taylor

    Full Text Available In addition to mean blood pressure, blood pressure variability is hypothesized to have important prognostic value in evaluating cardiovascular risk. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of blood pressure variability within 24 hours. Using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library to April 2013, we conducted a systematic review of prospective studies of adults, with at least one year follow-up and any day, night or 24-hour blood pressure variability measure as a predictor of one or more of the following outcomes: all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, all cardiovascular events, stroke and coronary heart disease. We examined how blood pressure variability is defined and how its prognostic use is reported. We analysed relative risks adjusted for covariates including the appropriate mean blood pressure and considered the potential for meta-analysis. Our analysis of methods included 24 studies and analysis of predictions included 16 studies. There were 36 different measures of blood pressure variability and 13 definitions of night- and day-time periods. Median follow-up was 5.5 years (interquartile range 4.2-7.0. Comparing measures of dispersion, coefficient of variation was less well researched than standard deviation. Night dipping based on percentage change was the most researched measure and the only measure for which data could be meaningfully pooled. Night dipping or lower night-time blood pressure was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events. The interpretation and use in clinical practice of 24-hour blood pressure variability, as an important prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events, is hampered by insufficient evidence and divergent methodologies. We recommend greater standardisation of methods.

  13. Comparing Serum and 24-hour Urine Calcium between Preeclamptic and Non-preeclamptic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Shahbazian

    2014-02-01

    Results: No statistically significant difference was found between serum calcium means in the two groups (p=0.07, though mean of 24-hour urine calcium in preeclamptic patients was significantly lower than that of control group (p=0.0003. In preeclamptic group, the degree of hypocalciuria was related to disordered liver enzymes, serum creatinine greater than 1.2 mg/dl, thrombocytopenia and proteinuria more than 2g/24h. Conclusion: Preeclampsia is associated with hypocalciuria; the more hypocalciuria there exists , the more preeclampsia is observed.

  14. [The changes in mental working capacity of operators during 24-hour shift work conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kal'nysh, V V; Shvets', A V; Ieshchenko, O I

    2011-01-01

    Psychophysiological peculiarities of influence of a 24-hour shift work on the efficiency of operators have been discussed. It was shown that servicemen operators develop significant fatigue as a result of 24 hrs duty services. The informative psychophysiological characteristics which can be reliable indicators of fatigue level are highlighted. Individual psychophysiological indicators of fatigue level, according to different mechanisms of its development, have been proposed. The hypothesis about the existence of several compensatory mechanisms for maintenance of long duty operators' working capacity has been formulated.

  15. Lack of effect of a 24-hour infusion of iloprost in intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, C R; Waller, P C; Carter, C; Cameron, H A; Parnell, L; Ramsay, L E; Preston, F E; Greaves, M

    1987-04-15

    24 hour infusion of iloprost was compared with placebo infusion in 19 patients with stable intermittent claudication using a double blind, balanced crossover design. Despite significant inhibition of platelet aggregation to ADP and collagen (p less than 0.001) and the typical cardiovascular and gastrointestinal side effects, there was no significant effect on treadmill exercise times at any time up to 6 weeks after infusion. The 95% confidence limits indicated that an improvement of more than 25% was unlikely to occur. No significant changes in B thromboglobulin, platelet aggregate ratio, bleeding time, whole blood viscosity and euglobulin clot lysis time were demonstrated.

  16. Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the forefoot during 24 hours. Labeling pattern and reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Bülow, J; Tønnesen, K H

    1987-01-01

    Wash-out of 133xenon from a local depot in the subcutaneous adipose tissue in the forefoot was measured continuously during 24 hours on subsequent recordings in 51 feet (normal circulation: 10, intermittent claudication: 22 and ischaemic nocturnal rest pain: 19) with a mean time interval of 26 da...... was calculated to 10%, and for the ratio of blood flow from day to night to 5%. The method is thus considered apt as a monitor in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease, for example, surgery and medical therapy. As predominant source of error is the formation of oedema....

  17. Wearable cameras can reduce dietary under-reporting: doubly labelled water validation of a camera-assisted 24 h recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemming, Luke; Rush, Elaine; Maddison, Ralph; Doherty, Aiden; Gant, Nicholas; Utter, Jennifer; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2015-01-28

    Preliminary research has suggested that wearable cameras may reduce under-reporting of energy intake (EI) in self-reported dietary assessment. The aim of the present study was to test the validity of a wearable camera-assisted 24 h dietary recall against the doubly labelled water (DLW) technique. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was assessed over 15 d using the DLW protocol among forty adults (n 20 males, age 35 (sd 17) years, BMI 27 (sd 4) kg/m2 and n 20 females, age 28 (sd 7) years, BMI 22 (sd 2) kg/m2). EI was assessed using three multiple-pass 24 h dietary recalls (MP24) on days 2-4, 8-10 and 13-15. On the days before each nutrition assessment, participants wore an automated wearable camera (SenseCam (SC)) in free-living conditions. The wearable camera images were viewed by the participants following the completion of the dietary recall, and their changes in self-reported intakes were recorded (MP24+SC). TEE and EI assessed by the MP24 and MP24+SC methods were compared. Among men, the MP24 and MP24+SC measures underestimated TEE by 17 and 9%, respectively (Pcamera (MP24+SC) reduced the magnitude of under-reporting by 8% for men and 6% for women compared with the MP24 alone (Pcameras enhance the accuracy of self-report by providing passive and objective information regarding dietary intake. High-definition image sensors and increased imaging frequency may improve the accuracy further.

  18. [How does sleep deprivation during 24 hours on call duty affect the cognitive performance orthopaedic residents?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albergo, J I; Fernández, M C; Zaifrani, L; Giunta, D H; Albergo, L

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is usually present in residents during their training program. The purpose of our study was to analyze the cognitive performance of a group of orthopaedic residents before and after 24 hours on call duty. We include orthopaedic residents and their cognitive functions were evaluated by the following tests: Continuous Performance Test (CPT 2), Digit Spam (Versión 5), 1 letter Fonologic Fluence y Pasat Test. All the tests were done after a sleeping period at home of at least 6 hours and after being on call (sleeping less than 3 hours). Nineteen residents were included in the study. The median age was 27 ± 1.89 and 15 were male. The mean hours of sleeping at home was 6.5 (range 6-8) and after on call duty was 1.5 (range 0.5-3). Statistical difference were found in CPT 2 test en terms of correct answers (p=0.007), omissions (p=0.004) and perseverations (p=0.036). No significant differences were found in the other tests. Sleep deprivation after 24 hours on call duty affects cognitive performance of orthopaedic residents, increasing the number of errors and omissions. Copyright © 2015 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Body Mass Index Predicts 24-Hour Urinary Aldosterone Levels in Patients With Resistant Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudenbostel, Tanja; Ghazi, Lama; Liu, Mingchun; Li, Peng; Oparil, Suzanne; Calhoun, David A

    2016-10-01

    Prospective studies indicate that hyperaldosteronism is found in 20% of patients with resistant hypertension. A small number of observational studies in normotensive and hypertensive patients suggest a correlation between aldosterone levels and obesity while others could not confirm these findings. The correlation between aldosterone levels and body mass index (BMI) in patients with resistant hypertension has not been previously investigated. Our objective was to determine whether BMI is positively correlated with plasma aldosterone concentration, plasma renin activity, aldosterone:renin ratio, and 24-hour urinary aldosterone in black and white patients. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a large diverse cohort (n=2170) with resistant hypertension. The relationship between plasma aldosterone concentration, plasma renin activity, aldosterone:renin ratio, 24-hour urinary aldosterone, and BMI was investigated for the entire cohort, by sex and race (65.3% white, 40.3% men). We demonstrate that plasma aldosterone concentration and aldosterone:renin ratio were significantly correlated to BMI (Phypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Efficacy of fesoterodine over 24 hours in subjects with overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staskin, David; Michel, Martin C; Nitti, Victor; Morrow, Jon D; Wang, Joseph; Guan, Zhonghong

    2010-04-01

    Fesoterodine is an antimuscarinic agent indicated for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fesoterodine versus placebo over selected intervals during a 24-hour period in subjects with OAB. In a post hoc analysis, data were analyzed from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 12-week phase III trials in which subjects with a history of OAB symptoms for >or=6 months were treated with morning doses of fesoterodine 4 mg, fesoterodine 8 mg, or placebo. These trials are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00220363 and NCT00138723). Changes were evaluated in number of micturitions, urgency episodes, urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes, and mean voided volume (MVV) divided into three 8-hour intervals: 08:00-15:59 (daytime), 16:00-23:59 (evening), and 00:00-07:59 (nighttime). Comparisons with placebo were made using analysis of covariance (for least squares mean changes) and Wilcoxon rank sum test (for median percent changes); differences were considered significant at p fesoterodine 4 mg and fesoterodine 8 mg compared with placebo during each 8-hour time interval (all p fesoterodine doses compared with placebo during all time intervals (all p Fesoterodine 4 mg and 8 mg given once daily demonstrated efficacy over placebo for OAB symptoms during all three 8-hour intervals of a 24-hour period, thus providing clinical support for once-daily dosing. Limitations include that this was a post hoc analysis.

  1. Sleep in healthy elderly subjects: a 24-hour ambulatory polysomnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigli, G L; Placidi, F; Diomedi, M; Maschio, M; Silvestri, G; Scalise, A; Marciani, M G

    1996-04-01

    It is still debated whether the deterioration of the sleep pattern, frequently reported by elderly subjects, is due only to aging per se. Other factors associated with aging or modifications of biological rhythms could also be involved. Elderly subjects frequently complain of daytime sleepiness, but it is not clear whether this actually represents a return to a polyphasic structure of sleep, or only a consequence of a disturbed night sleep. Ten healthy, independent and active elderly subjects (age > 72 years) were elevated by means of 24-hour ambulatory polysomnography. Findings of nocturnal sleep were compared with sleep of the same group in the 24-hour period and with sleep of young healthy controls. We observed a fragmentation of nocturnal sleep, but a fairly good representation of stages and a preservation of cyclicity. Except for three cases, with early or late times of sleep onset and wake-up, sleep disruption did not seem to be related to modification of circadian rhythms. Only three subjects presented undesired daytime naps, whereas the others either did not show daytime sleep at all, or were used to having their siesta after lunch since their young adulthood. In normal aging, daytime sleep does not constitute a social problem. Ambulatory polysomnography is a valid alternative to laboratory recordings in the identification of daytime sleep.

  2. Prognostic value of 24-hour ambulatory ECG (Holter) monitoring in Boxer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõtsküla, P F; Linney, C; Palermo, V; Connolly, D J; French, A; Dukes McEwan, J; Fuentes, V Luis

    2013-01-01

    Boxer dogs are reported to be predisposed to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), but the natural history has not been well characterized and inconsistent diagnostic criteria have been applied to identify affected dogs. Echocardiographic examination findings are unremarkable in many affected Boxer dogs, and in these dogs, 24-hour ambulatory ECG (Holter) monitoring often is used for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, despite limited information available relating Holter findings to outcome. Boxers with complex ventricular arrhythmias at initial presentation will have shorter survival times. The objective was to investigate the prognostic value of Holter monitoring in Boxer dogs. One hundred and twenty-two Boxer dogs seen at 3 university referral hospitals. Retrospective study. Survival times were obtained for Boxer dogs evaluated by echocardiography and a 24-hour Holter ECG. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate the median survival time and Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to identify variables independently associated with cardiac mortality. Outcome data were obtained for 122/163 dogs meeting the inclusion criteria. Of the 70 dogs that had died, 45 were considered to have suffered cardiac-related deaths. Median survival was significantly longer in dogs with a left ventricular systolic diameter (LVIDs) ≤ 35 mm compared with those with LVIDs > 35 mm (P 4.5 years, and male sex were independent predictors of cardiac mortality. Holter monitoring in Boxer dogs provides valuable prognostic information. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Recall Listing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recalls.gov Find recalls from around the world Global Recall Portal Related Links Recalls Safety Education Regulations, Laws & Standards Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small Business Resources OnSafety Blogs International Newsroom ...

  4. Comparison of 24-hour intragastric pH using four liquid formulations of lansoprazole and omeprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V K

    1999-12-01

    The results of previous studies evaluating the effect of four liquid formulations of proton-pump inhibitors on 24-hour intragastric pH are described. Patients with a gastrostomy who were resident in a Veterans Affairs medical center or its affiliated nursing home were eligible for enrollment in one of four open-label studies in which each patient served as his own control. Patients underwent 24-hour intragastric pH studies before and after receiving seven consecutive days of one of the following liquid formulations of a proton-pump inhibitor administered once daily: omeprazole granules 20 mg in orange juice, lansoprazole granules 30 mg in orange juice, simplified omeprazole suspension 20 mg, and simplified lansoprazole suspension 30 mg. The suspensions were prepared with 10 mL of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate solution. Mean intragastric pH was measured, as was the time pH stayed above 3.0 and 4.0 during the 24-hour period. Six to 14 patients participated in each study. The mean posttreatment pH was 4.9+/-0.8, 4.7+/-0.6, 4.1+/-1.5, and 5.1+/-1.1 for omeprazole granules in orange juice, lansoprazole granules in orange juice, simplified omeprazole suspension, and simplified lansoprazole suspension, respectively. Both drugs in orange juice maintained pH above 4.0 longer than 14 hours and above 3.0 for close to 20 hours, which are the levels deemed optimal for healing erosive esophagitis and duodenal ulcers, respectively. Simplified lansoprazole suspension maintained pH above those thresholds for the optimal times, but simplified omeprazole suspension did not (20 and 15 hr above 3.0, 17 and 12 hr above 4.0 for lansoprazole and omeprazole, respectively). Further development of liquid formulations of proton-pump inhibitors may have important implications for the treatment of acid-related diseases in patients, including children, who are unable to swallow capsules.

  5. Effects of renal sympathetic denervation on 24-hour blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Stefanie Zuern

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In patients with arterial hypertension, increased blood pressure (BP variability contributes to end organ damage independently from mean levels of arterial BP. Increased BP variability has been linked to alterations in autonomic function including sympathetic overdrive. We hypothesized that catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (RDN confers beneficial effects on BPV. Methods and Results: Eleven consecutive patients with therapy-refractory arterial hypertension (age 68.9±7.0 years; baseline systolic BP 189±23mmHg despite medication with 5.6±2.1 antihypertensive drugs underwent bilateral RDN. Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was performed before RDN and six months thereafter. BPV was primarily assessed by means of standard deviation of 24-hour systolic arterial blood pressures (SDsys. Secondary measures of BPV were maximum systolic blood pressure (MAXsys and maximum difference between two consecutive readings of systolic BP (deltamaxsys over 24 hours. Six months after RDN, SDsys, MAXsys and deltamaxsys were significantly reduced from 16.9±4.6mmHg to 13.5±2.5mmHg (p=0.003, from 190±22mmHg to 172±20mmHg (p<0.001 and from 40±15mmHg to 28±7mmHg (p=0.006, respectively, without changes in concomitant antihypertensive therapy. Reductions of SDsys, MAXsys and deltamaxsys were observed in 10/11 (90.9%, 11/11 (100% and 9/11 (81.8% patients, respectively. Although we noted a significant reduction of systolic office blood pressure by 30.4±27.7mmHg (p=0.007, there was only a trend in reduction of average systolic BP assessed from ABPM (149±19mmHg to 142±18mmHg; p=0.086.Conclusions: In patients with therapy-refractory arterial hypertension, RDN leads to significant reductions of BP variability. Effects of RDN on BPV over 24 hours were more pronounced than on average levels of BP.

  6. Chest physiotherapy in preterm infants with RDS in the first 24 hours of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, D; Yeh, T F; Mora, A; Cuevas, D; Pyati, S; Pildes, R S

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate if chest physiotherapy is beneficial to premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) during the first 24 hours of life, 20 infants were randomly assigned to two groups; 10 infants in Group I received routine chest physiotherapy and suction, and 10 infants in Group II received suction only. The birth weight, gestational age, postnatal age, Apgar scores, blood gases, acid-base status, and ventilatory requirements prior to study were comparable between the two groups. There were no significant differences between the groups in the amount of endotracheal secretions removed, the PO2/FIO2 ratio, blood gases, and pH during the study. The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), Grade I and II intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and mortality was comparable. However, five of 10 Group I and zero of 10 Group II infants developed Grade III or IV IVH (P less than 0.05).

  7. Turbulent diffusion on the solar photosphere through 24-hour continuous observations of magnetic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannattasio, F.; Berrilli, F.; Del Moro, D.; Bellot Rubio, L.; Orozco Suarez, D.; Gosic, M.

    2012-12-01

    Solar atmosphere is a unique laboratory for the study of turbulent flows under extreme conditions (e.g. very high Reynolds numbers). The turbulent nature of the flow may be approached by determining how magnetic flux elements are transported on the solar surface, and measuring the spatio-temporal scales on which these small magnetic structures are organized. The process involved is diffusion. Several works explored this topic, both by simulations and observations, and the results are often contradictory, ranging from fully-developed turbulent scenarios to normal-diffusive motions. We analyze 24-hour continuous Hinode SOT observations of a supergranular region (for the first time these long scales are explored), studying the evolution of the mutual distance between magnetic element pairs and its scaling laws, in order to investigate the diffusion process. We find a super-diffusive behavior, with a gamma index depending on the spatial scale selected.

  8. Simultaneous Administration Compared With a 24-Hour Mifepristone-Misoprostol Interval in Second-Trimester Abortion: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Dina Fatima; Blum, Jennifer; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Nhu; Nga, Nguyen Thi Bach; Chi, Huynh Thi Kim; Martin, Roxanne; Winikoff, Beverly

    2016-11-01

    To compare outcomes with simultaneous administration of mifepristone and misoprostol with a regimen in which the drugs are administered at a 24-hour interval for second-trimester abortion. In this placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, participants were randomized to receive mifepristone either 24 hours before or at the same time as misoprostol. Participants were hospitalized to receive 400 micrograms buccal misoprostol at 3-hour intervals up to 48 hours or until uterine expulsion. The primary outcome was the proportion of women who experienced uterine expulsion within 24 hours after the first misoprostol dose and this required 504 women to examine our hypothesis that this rate would be 85% in the 24-hour interval arm compared with 70% in the simultaneous arm. Secondary outcomes included total abortion time from mifepristone and misoprostol. From February 2013 to April 2014, 509 women were enrolled. Women in the 24-hour interval arm were more likely to abort within 24 hours (94.4% compared with 85.0%, relative risk 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.18). At 48 hours, the rate was similar in the two arms (96.8% [24-hour interval] and 95.7% [simultaneous], relative risk 1.01, 95% CI 0.97-1.04). Median misoprostol dosing time was shorter in the 24-hour interval arm (7.7 compared with 13 hours; Pmisoprostol doses required (three compared with five; Pmisoprostol simultaneously results in lower expulsion rates within 24 hours of taking misoprostol, longer median misoprostol treatment times, and requires more misoprostol doses. At 48 hours, both regimens work equally well. Simultaneous dosing results in less total time from the first clinical contact to complete abortion. ClinicalTrials.gov, https://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01768299.

  9. Heart rate variability and arrhythmic patterns of 24-hour Holter electrocardiography among Nigerians with cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Rasaaq Ayodele; Ikwu, Amanze Nkemjika; Balogun, Michael Olabode; Akintomide, Anthony Olubunmi; Ajayi, Olufemi Eyitayo; Adeyeye, Victor Oladeji; Mene-Afejuku, Tuoyo Omasan; Bamikole, Olaniyi James; Ogunyemi, Suraj Adefabi; Ajibare, Adeola Olubunmi; Oketona, Omolola Abiodun

    2015-01-01

    Facilities for Holter electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring in many Nigerian hospitals are limited. There are few published works in Nigeria on the use of 24-hour Holter ECG in cardiac arrhythmic evaluation of patients with cardiovascular diseases. To study the clinical indications, arrhythmic pattern, and heart rate variability (HRV) among subjects referred for 24-hour Holter ECG at our Cardiac Care Unit. Three-hundred and ten patients (134 males and 176 females) were studied consecutively over a 48-month period using Schiller type (MT-101) Holter ECG machine. Out of the 310 patients reviewed, 134 were males (43.2%) and 176 were females (56.8%). The commonest indication for Holter ECG was palpitation followed by syncope in 71 (23%) and 49 (15.8%) of subjects, respectively. Premature ventricular complex and premature atrial complex were the commonest types of arrhythmia in 51.5% and 15% subjects, respectively. Ventricular arrhythmia was more prevalent in dilated cardiomyopathy patients (85.7%). The HRV of subjects with palpitation, stroke, and diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy, using standard deviation of normal to normal intervals average (milliseconds), were 107.32±49.61, 79.15±49.15, and 66.50±15.54, respectively. The HRV, using standard deviation of averages of normal to normal intervals average (milliseconds), of patients with palpitation, stroke, and diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy were 77.39±62.34, 57.82±37.05, and 55.50±12.71, respectively. Palpitation and syncope were the commonest indications for Holter ECG among our subjects. The commonest arrhythmic patterns were premature ventricular complex and premature atrial complex, with ventricular arrhythmia being more prevalent in dilated cardiomyopathy. There was a reduction in HRV in patients with stroke and diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

  10. Normal limits for heart rate as established using 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Aida; Gebauer, Roman A; Grollmuss, Oswin; Vít, Pavel; Reich, Oleg; Janousek, Jan

    2008-10-01

    To the best of our knowledge, normal limits of heart rate with respect to gender, and as established using 24-hour ambulatory Holter electrocardiography, have yet to be published for the entire age range of children and adolescents. To establish the normal limits for heart rate in newborns, infants, children, and adolescents of both genders. We obtained 24-hour Holter recordings from 616 healthy subjects aged from birth to 20 years with structurally normal hearts. The subjects were not receiving medication, and had not been submitted to prior cardiac intervention. Off-line analysis was performed with Mars 8000 scanners, analysing 5 consecutive RR intervals by the software available for automatic calculation of heart rate. All subjects were in sinus rhythm. Best-fit non-linear regressions were applied to correlate age and gender with minimum and mean heart rate, as well as with maximal RR-interval, and to calculate the 5th, 25th, 75th and 95th percentiles. We observed significant gender-dependent differences in heart rate for persons aged 10 years and older, with the males exhibiting lower minimal and mean heart rates, and higher RR-intervals, than the females. Correlation of heart rate with age and gender could be established with sufficient accuracy using non-linear regression (p less than 0.0001): Minimum heart rate (male: R(2)=0.778, female: R(2) = 0.664) and mean heart rate (male: R(2) = 0.820, female: R(2) = 0.736) decreased with age, while the maximal RR-interval prolonged (male: R(2) = 0.562, female: R(2) = 0.486). Age and gender-related graphs of centiles were constructed. Heart rate, as documented using Holter recodings, can be correlated with age and gender, permitting establishments of normal gender-specific limits for children and adolescents.

  11. A 24-Hour Study of the Hypothalamo-Pituitary Axes in Huntington's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirini Kalliolia

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterised by motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Patients exhibit other symptoms including sleep and mood disturbances, muscle atrophy and weight loss which may be linked to hypothalamic pathology and dysfunction of hypothalamo-pituitary axes.We studied neuroendocrine profiles of corticotropic, somatotropic and gonadotropic hypothalamo-pituitary axes hormones over a 24-hour period in controlled environment in 15 healthy controls, 14 premanifest and 13 stage II/III Huntington's disease subjects. We also quantified fasting levels of vasopressin, oestradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, free total thyroxine, prolactin, adrenaline and noradrenaline. Somatotropic axis hormones, growth hormone releasing hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like factor binding protein-3 were quantified at 06:00 (fasting, 15:00 and 23:00. A battery of clinical tests, including neurological rating and function scales were performed.24-hour concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone did not differ significantly between the Huntington's disease group and controls. Daytime growth hormone secretion was similar in control and Huntington's disease subjects. Stage II/III Huntington's disease subjects had lower concentration of post-sleep growth hormone pulse and higher insulin-like growth factor-1:growth hormone ratio which did not reach significance. In Huntington's disease subjects, baseline levels of hypothalamo-pituitary axis hormones measured did not significantly differ from those of healthy controls.The relatively small subject group means that the study may not detect subtle perturbations in hormone concentrations. A targeted study of the somatotropic axis in larger cohorts may be warranted. However, the lack of significant results despite many

  12. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion: The 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286-4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P intake ≥50 percentile (P sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the abovementioned variables as covariates yielded identical results. Our data suggest that age, sex, education level, occupation, total energy intake, obesity, and hypertension management status are associated with excessive sodium intake in Korean adults using nationally representative data. Factors associated with high sodium intake should be considered in policy

  13. Association between sleep duration and 24-hour urine free cortisol in the MrOS Sleep Study.

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    Madhu N Rao

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Short sleep duration is associated with adverse health outcomes, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. It has been postulated that short sleep duration may elevate cortisol levels, but studies have had conflicting results. It is unclear whether these differing findings may be due to methodological issues, such as assessment of sleep duration. Specifically, objective versus subjective methods of measuring habitual sleep duration may account for the conflicting results found in epidemiological studies. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to determine whether habitual sleep duration, measured objectively (by actigraphy and subjectively (by self-report, was associated with 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC, a measure of integrated cortisol secretion. Our secondary goal was to determine whether slow wave sleep (SWS, determined by polysomnography was associated with 24-hour UFC. DESIGN/SETTING: Cross sectional study of community dwelling older men. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: 325 men (mean age = 76.6 years, SD = 5.5 from the Portland site of the MrOS Sleep Study, who underwent 24-hour urine collection, polysomnography, actigraphy and sleep questionnaire. PRIMARY OUTCOME: 24-hour UFC. RESULTS: In this study of community dwelling older men, self-reported sleep duration was inversely related to 24-hour UFC levels. Participants reporting 5 to 8 hours of habitual sleep. However, sleep duration determined by actigraphy was not associated with 24-hour UFC in either univariable or multivariable regression models. SWS was not associated with 24-hour UFC. CONCLUSION: Objectively measured (i.e., actigraphic sleep duration is not associated with 24-hour UFC in these community dwelling older men. This finding, together with prior studies, suggests that elevated levels of integrated cortisol secretion is not the mechanisms by which short sleep duration leads to adverse health outcomes.

  14. Sensitivity and specificity of 24-hour urine chemistry levels for detecting elevated calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M. Adrian; Singer, Eric A; Golijanin, Dragan J; Monk, Rebeca D; Erturk, Erdal; Bushinsky, David A

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The gold standard for determining likelihood of calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate (CaPhos) stone formation in urine is supersaturation of CaOx and CaPhos. Our objective was to investigate whether traditional measurement of total calcium, oxalate and phosphate in a 24-hour urine collection is sufficiently sensitive and specific for detecting elevated supersaturation to preclude the more expensive supersaturation test. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 150 consecutive patients with nephrolithiasis who underwent measurement of CaOx supersaturation (CaOxSS) and CaPhos supersaturation (CaPhosSS), as well as total calcium, oxalate and phosphate in a 24-hour urine collection. We used various cut-off values to determine sensitivity and specificity of 24-hour urine measurements for detecting elevated CaOxSS and CaPhosSS. Results In men and women, the sensitivity of 24-hour calcium for detecting elevated CaOxSS was 71% and 79%, respectively; for oxalate, sensitivity was 59% and 36%, respectively. In men and women, the sensitivity of 24-hour calcium for detecting elevated CaPhosSS was 74% and 88%, respectively; for phosphate, sensitivity was 57% and 8%, respectively. In men and women, the specificity of 24-hour calcium for detecting elevated CaOxSS was 55% and 48%, respectively; it was 60% for detecting elevated CaPhosSS in both men and women. Conclusion Traditional 24-hour urine analysis is sensitive, but not specific, for detecting elevated CaOxSS and CaPhosSS. Most patients with abnormal 24-hour urine analysis have normal supersaturation, and treatment decisions based on traditional urine analysis would lead to overtreatment in these patients. PMID:18542745

  15. Relationship between silent atrial fibrillation and the maximum heart rate in the 24-hour Holter: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Marcelo Lapa; Kruse, José Cláudio Lupi; Leiria, Tiago Luiz Luz; Pires, Leonardo Martins; Gensas, Caroline Saltz; Gomes, Daniel Garcia; Boris, Douglas; Mantovani, Augusto; Lima, Gustavo Glotz de

    2014-12-01

    Occurrences of asymptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) are common. It is important to identify AF because it increases morbidity and mortality. 24-hour Holter has been used to detect paroxysmal AF (PAF). The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between occurrence of PAF in 24-hour Holter and the symptoms of the population studied. Cross-sectional study conducted at a cardiology hospital. 11,321 consecutive 24-hour Holter tests performed at a referral service were analyzed. Patients with pacemakers or with AF throughout the recording were excluded. There were 75 tests (0.67%) with PAF. The mean age was 67 ± 13 years and 45% were female. The heart rate (HR) over the 24 hours was a minimum of 45 ± 8 bpm, mean of 74 ± 17 bpm and maximum of 151 ± 32 bpm. Among the tests showing PAF, only 26% had symptoms. The only factor tested that showed a correlation with symptomatic AF was maximum HR (165 ± 34 versus 147 ± 30 bpm) (P = 0.03). Use of beta blockers had a protective effect against occurrence of PAF symptoms (odds ratio: 0.24, P = 0.031). PAF is a rare event in 24-hour Holter. The maximum HR during the 24 hours was the only factor correlated with symptomatic AF, and use of beta blockers had a protective effect against AF symptom occurrence.

  16. Heart rate variability and arrhythmic patterns of 24-hour Holter electrocardiography among Nigerians with cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo RA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rasaaq Ayodele Adebayo, Amanze Nkemjika Ikwu, Michael Olabode Balogun, Anthony Olubunmi Akintomide, Olufemi Eyitayo Ajayi, Victor Oladeji Adeyeye, Tuoyo Omasan Mene-Afejuku, Olaniyi James Bamikole, Suraj Adefabi Ogunyemi, Adeola Olubunmi Ajibare, Omolola Abiodun OketonaCardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: Facilities for Holter electrocardiography (ECG monitoring in many Nigerian hospitals are limited. There are few published works in Nigeria on the use of 24-hour Holter ECG in cardiac arrhythmic evaluation of patients with cardiovascular diseases.Objective: To study the clinical indications, arrhythmic pattern, and heart rate variability (HRV among subjects referred for 24-hour Holter ECG at our Cardiac Care Unit.Methods: Three-hundred and ten patients (134 males and 176 females were studied consecutively over a 48-month period using Schiller type (MT-101 Holter ECG machine.Results: Out of the 310 patients reviewed, 134 were males (43.2% and 176 were females (56.8%. The commonest indication for Holter ECG was palpitation followed by syncope in 71 (23% and 49 (15.8% of subjects, respectively. Premature ventricular complex and premature atrial complex were the commonest types of arrhythmia in 51.5% and 15% subjects, respectively. Ventricular arrhythmia was more prevalent in dilated cardiomyopathy patients (85.7%. The HRV of subjects with palpitation, stroke, and diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy, using standard deviation of normal to normal intervals average (milliseconds, were 107.32±49.61, 79.15±49.15, and 66.50±15.54, respectively. The HRV, using standard deviation of averages of normal to normal intervals average (milliseconds, of patients with palpitation, stroke, and diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy were 77.39±62.34, 57.82±37.05, and 55.50±12.71, respectively.Conclusion: Palpitation and syncope were the

  17. [Fluctuation of intraocular pressure in 24-hour telemonitoring compared to tonometry during normal office hours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, C; Antal, S; Henrici, K; Grossjohann, R; Tost, F H

    2009-01-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a clinically relevant factor in glaucoma progression. As a dynamic parameter the IOP depends on various internal and exogenic influencing factors. Therefore, we analysed intraindividual IOD variations between ambulant care and 24-h home-monitoring using self-tonometry. This study is based on paper-based glaucoma cards of 25 patients with primary open angle glaucoma. Additionally, all patients participated in a telemedical home-monitoring study with self-measurements of IOP and blood pressure stored in an electronic patient record. The glaucoma cards contained a total number of 409 IOP values with documentation periods from 0.5 to 10 years. In the teletonometry project all 25 patients were observed for 6 months with 1490 recorded IOP values. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software. Average IOP values for all 25 glaucoma patients were 16.3 +/- 2.9 mmHg for both eyes in glaucoma card documentation, whereas the electronic patient records showed IOP averages of 18.9 +/- 4.7 mmHg for right eyes and 18.2 +/- 4.4 mmHg for left eyes. Corresponding to the practice opening hours the glaucoma cards contained no IOP records from 12:00 pm to 01:30 pm as well as between 06:00 pm and 07:15 am. In these time periods 17 % of all IOP values recorded in 24-hour teletonometry were higher than 20 mmHg. However, statistical analysis and clinical evaluation of device parameters and measurement characteristics revealed sporadic measuring errors. The additional involvement of self-tonometry in telemedical 24-h home-monitoring is a feasible method to record and detect intraday IOP fluctuations. Compared to single IOP measurements documented in common paper-based glaucoma cards, the 24-h electronic patient record showed more frequent circadian IOP variations. As a result, self-tonometry and home-monitoring can be a useful link to fill the gap between singular ambulant IOP measurement and hospitalisation with 24-hour IOP profiles.

  18. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovey, Euan R; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L; Oliver, Brian G; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Marks, Guy B

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  19. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euan R Tovey

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for

  20. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder Revisited – A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbazza, Corrado; Bromundt, Vivien; Eckert, Anne; Brunner, Daniel P.; Meier, Fides; Hackethal, Sandra; Cajochen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is governed by two major factors: a homeostatic hourglass process (process S), which rises linearly during the day, and a circadian process C, which determines the timing of sleep in a ~24-h rhythm in accordance to the external light–dark (LD) cycle. While both individual processes are fairly well characterized, the exact nature of their interaction remains unclear. The circadian rhythm is generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (“master clock”) of the anterior hypothalamus, through cell-autonomous feedback loops of DNA transcription and translation. While the phase length (tau) of the cycle is relatively stable and genetically determined, the phase of the clock is reset by external stimuli (“zeitgebers”), the most important being the LD cycle. Misalignments of the internal rhythm with the LD cycle can lead to various somatic complaints and to the development of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD). Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) is a CRSD affecting up to 50% of totally blind patients and characterized by the inability to maintain a stable entrainment of the typically long circadian rhythm (tau > 24.5 h) to the LD cycle. The disease is rare in sighted individuals and the pathophysiology less well understood. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old sighted male, who developed a misalignment of the internal clock with the external LD cycle following the treatment for Hodgkin’s lymphoma (ABVD regimen, four cycles and AVD regimen, four cycles). A thorough clinical assessment, including actigraphy, melatonin profiles and polysomnography led to the diagnosis of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) with a free-running rhythm of tau = 25.27 h. A therapeutic intervention with bright light therapy (30 min, 10,000 lux) in the morning and melatonin administration (0.5–0.75 mg) in the evening failed to entrain the free-running rhythm, although a longer treatment duration and more intense therapy

  1. Effectiveness of Prompts on Fourth-Grade Children’s Dietary Recall Accuracy Depends on Retention Interval and Varies by Gender1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne D; Smith, Albert F; Hitchcock, David B; Guinn, Caroline H; Royer, Julie A; Collins, Kathleen L; Smith, Alyssa L; Puryear, Megan P; Vaadi, Kate K; Finney, Christopher J; Miller, Patricia H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary recall accuracy is related to retention interval (RI) (i.e., time between to-be-reported meals and the interview), and possibly to prompts. To the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated their combined effect. Objective: The combined influence of RI and prompts on children’s recall accuracy was investigated in this study. Two RIs [short (prior-24-h recall obtained in afternoon) and long (previous-day recall obtained in morning)] were crossed with 4 prompts [forward (distant-to-recent), meal-name (breakfast, lunch, etc.), open (no instructions), and reverse (recent-to-distant)], creating 8 conditions. Methods: Fourth-grade children (n = 480; 50% girls) were randomly selected from consenting children at 10 schools in 4 districts in a southern state during 3 school years (2011–2012, 2012–2013, and 2013–2014). Each child was observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch, and interviewed one time under 1 of the 8 conditions. Condition assignment was constrained so that each had 60 children (30 girls). Accuracy measures were food-item omission and intrusion rates, and energy correspondence rate and inflation ratio. For each measure, linear models determined effects of RI, prompt, gender, and interactions (2-way, 3-way); race/ethnicity, school year, and district were control variables. Results: RI (P values < 0.015) and prompt (P values < 0.005) were significant for all 4 accuracy measures. RI × prompt (P values < 0.001) was significant for 3 accuracy measures (not intrusion rate). Prompt × gender (P = 0.005) was significant for omission rate. RI × prompt × gender was significant for intrusion rate and inflation ratio (P values < 0.001). For the short vs. long RI across prompts and genders, accuracy was better by 33–50% for each accuracy measure. Conclusions: To obtain the most accurate recalls possible from children, studies should be designed to use a short rather than long RI. Prompts affect children’s recall accuracy

  2. A 24-hour study to investigate persistent chemical exposures associated with clandestine methamphetamine laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDyke, Mike; Erb, Nicola; Arbuckle, Shawn; Martyny, John

    2009-02-01

    The clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine continues to be a concern across the United States. Although the exposures associated with the actual production process have been evaluated, the persistence of those exposures in a residential setting have not been investigated. This study was designed to document the contamination associated with two red phosphorous methamphetamine "cooks" conducted in a residence and the associated exposures up to 24 hours after the cook. The two cooks were conducted on the first day of the study, and exposures associated with different occupant activity levels were measured the following day. Airborne methamphetamine levels during the cook ranged from 520 microg/m(3) to 760 microg/m(3). On Day 2, airborne levels of methamphetamine ranged from 70 microg/m(3) to 210 microg/m(3) and increased with moderate to high activity levels within the residence. The majority of the methamphetamine measured during both days had a particle size of less than 1 mum, suggesting that the methamphetamine is formed as a condensation aerosol and is readily resuspended from contaminated surfaces. Significant methamphetamine contamination was found in the carpeting and likely was associated with the elevated levels of methamphetamine during activity. Levels of hydrogen chloride and iodine were also detected on Day 2 of the project although at very low levels. The study concluded that exposures may still present a significant inhalation exposure well after the actual cook.

  3. Obtaining liver tridimensional scaffold through the decellularization of rabbit whole liver in 24 hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Schliamser; Ayelen, Rinaldi; Romina, Comin; Alba Nelly, Borchert; Adrian, Nari Gustavo; Alicia, Salvatierra Nancy; Mariana Paula, Cid

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, we development a new protocol for liver decellularization in which the hole decellularization was reached over 24 h. Introduction: the availability of transplantable livers is not sufficient to fulfill the current demand for grafts, with the search for therapeutic alternatives having generated different lines of research, one of which is the use of decellularized three-dimensional biological matrices and subsequent cell seeding to obtain a functional organ. Objective: to produce a decellularization protocol from rabbit liver to generate a three-dimensional matrixin which the time period involved didn't pass 24 h. Methods: The decellularization is obtained through the use of water and SDS (0,1-0,3 %), after freezing at -80 degrees, is the best alternative of different physical and/or chemical mechanisms to break down organ cells and leave only the extracellular matriz. After 24 h of retrograde perfusion, a decellularized translucent matrix was generated. To evaluate if the decellularization protocol was successful, with the extracellular matrix being preserved, we carried out histological (light microscopy) and biochemical (DNA quantification) studies. Results: the decellularization process was verified by macroscopic observation of the organ using microscopic observation corroborated the macroscopic results, with the hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining showing no cells or nuclear material. In addition, the DNA quantification was less than 10% in the decellularized liver compared to control. Finally,the time taken to develop the decellularization protocol was less than 24 hours.

  4. Sudden cardiac arrest risk stratification based on 24-hour Holter ECG statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Keisuke; Shiobara, Masahito; Nakamura, Saya; Yamashiro, Koichiro; Yana, Kazuo; Ono, Takuya

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using indices obtained from a long term Holter ECG record for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) risk stratification. The ndices tested were the QT-RR interval co-variability and the alternans ratio percentile (ARP(θ)) which is defined as the θ(th) percentile of alternans ratios over a 24 hour period. The QT-RR interval co-variabilities are evaluated by the serial correlation coefficient between QT and RR trend sequences (QTRC). Previously reported Kalman filter technique and a simple smoothing spline method for the trend estimation are compared. Parameter θ in the alternans ratio percentile index was optimized to achieve the best classification accuracy. These indices were estimated from 26 cardiovascular outpatients for Holter ECG record. Patients were classified into high and low risk groups according to their clinical diagnosis, and the obtained indices were compared with those of 25 control subjects. A risk stratification using the two indices QTRC and ARP(θ) yielded an average sensitivity of 0.812 and a specificity of 0.925. The sensitivities and specificities of all three categories exceeded 0.8 except for the sensitivity to detect the high-risk patient group. Other short-term ECG parameters may need to be incorporated in order to improve the sensitivity.

  5. Depressive Symptoms and 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans: The SABPA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hamer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances in circadian rhythm might play a central role in the neurobiology of depression. We examined the association between depressive symptoms and 24-hour ambulatory BP in a sample of 405 (197 black and 208 Caucasian urbanized African teachers aged 25 to 60 yrs (mean 44.6 ± 9.6 yrs. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the self-administered 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. After adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity, participants with severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 15 had higher odds of hypertension defined from ambulatory BP and/or use of antihypertensive medication (odds ratio = 2.19, 95% CI, 1.00–4.90 in comparison to participants with no symptoms. Compared to Caucasians with no depressive symptoms, those with severe symptoms had blunted nocturnal systolic BP drop of 4.7 mmHg (95% CI, −0.5 to 10.0, P=0.07. In summary, depressive symptoms were associated with the circadian BP profile in black and Caucasian Africans.

  6. Comparison of 24-hour Holter monitoring with 14-day novel adhesive patch electrocardiographic monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Paddy M; Komatireddy, Ravi; Haaser, Sharon; Topol, Sarah; Sheard, Judith; Encinas, Jackie; Fought, Angela J; Topol, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are remarkably common and routinely go undiagnosed because they are often transient and asymptomatic. Effective diagnosis and treatment can substantially reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiac arrhythmias. The Zio Patch (iRhythm Technologies, Inc, San Francisco, Calif) is a novel, single-lead electrocardiographic (ECG), lightweight, Food and Drug Administration-cleared, continuously recording ambulatory adhesive patch monitor suitable for detecting cardiac arrhythmias in patients referred for ambulatory ECG monitoring. A total of 146 patients referred for evaluation of cardiac arrhythmia underwent simultaneous ambulatory ECG recording with a conventional 24-hour Holter monitor and a 14-day adhesive patch monitor. The primary outcome of the study was to compare the detection arrhythmia events over total wear time for both devices. Arrhythmia events were defined as detection of any 1 of 6 arrhythmias, including supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation/flutter, pause greater than 3 seconds, atrioventricular block, ventricular tachycardia, or polymorphic ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation. McNemar's tests were used to compare the matched pairs of data from the Holter and the adhesive patch monitor. Over the total wear time of both devices, the adhesive patch monitor detected 96 arrhythmia events compared with 61 arrhythmia events by the Holter monitor (P Holter monitor. Prolonged duration monitoring for detection of arrhythmia events using single-lead, less-obtrusive, adhesive-patch monitoring platforms could replace conventional Holter monitoring in patients referred for ambulatory ECG monitoring. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ambulatory arterial stiffness index derived from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang; Dolan, Eamon; Gao, Ping-Jin; Guo, Hui-Feng; Nawrot, Tim; Stanton, Alice V; Zhu, Ding-Liang; O'Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A

    2006-03-01

    We hypothesized that 1 minus the slope of diastolic on systolic pressure during 24-hour ambulatory monitoring (ambulatory arterial stiffness index [AASI]) might reflect arterial stiffness. We compared AASI with established measures of arterial stiffness and studied its distribution in Chinese and European populations. We used 90207 SpaceLabs monitors and the SphygmoCor device to measure AASI, central and peripheral pulse pressures, the central (CAIx) and peripheral (PAIx) systolic augmentation indexes, and aortic pulse wave velocity. In 166 volunteers, the correlation coefficient between AASI and pulse wave velocity was 0.51 (Ppressure (r=0.50). AASI increased with age and mean arterial pressure but decreased with body height. Both before and after adjustment for arterial wave reflections by considering height and heart rate as covariates, AASI correlated more (Ppressure. Among normotensive subjects, the 95th percentile of AASI was 0.55 in Chinese and 0.57 in 1617 Europeans enrolled in the International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring. The upper boundary of the 95% prediction interval of AASI in relation to age ranged from 0.53 at 20 years to 0.72 at 80 years. In conclusion, AASI is a new index of arterial stiffness that can be easily measured under ambulatory conditions. Pending additional validation in outcome studies, normal values of AASI are probably <0.50 and 0.70 in young and older subjects, respectively.

  8. VIRTUAL DETERMINATION OF BLOOD GLUCOSE OBTAINED FROM FED RATS AND FROM 24-HOUR FASTED RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maria Treis Trindade

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The normal blood glucose in rats is 100 mg glucose / 100 ml of blood plasma. After a 24hhour fast, a decrease around 30% of this value occurs. This reduction can reach 45% in a prolonged fast. Several processes controlled by neurohormonal mechanisms prevent a more pronounced decrease in blood glucose of animals subjected to fast. These processes are hepatic glycogenolysis, hepatic gluconeogenesis, decrease of glucose utilization and increase of fatty acids use by muscle tissue, and ketone bodies utilization by the central nervous system. OBJECTIVES: This study presents a learning object, mediated by computer, which simulates the determination of blood glucose (glycemia obtained from fed rats and from 24-hour fasted rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At first, cartoons were planned in order to show the biochemical and methodology fundamentals. The most representative images were selected, edited and inserted into an animation developed with the aid of the Adobe ® Flash 8 software. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS: The animated simulation of a standard glucose curve, followed by virtual evaluation of glucose in blood plasma samples were developed, associated with some questions. This object has been used by students of Biochemistry I (Pharmacy-UFRGS since second semester of 2009. The navigation features, design and interactivity have been evaluated as excellent by about 80% of them. CONCLUSION: Therefore, this learning object can be considered an adequate teaching resource as well as an innovative support in the construction of theoretical and practical knowledge of Biochemistry. Available at: http://www.ufrgs.br/gcoeb/dosagemglicemia/

  9. Neonatal family care for 24 hours per day: effects on maternal confidence and breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wataker, Heidi; Meberg, Alf; Nestaas, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    In family care (FC) program for neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), parents are encouraged to reside together with their infant for 24 hours a day to actively be involved in the care. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of FC on maternal confidence and breast-feeding. Maternal confidence and rate of breast-feeding were assessed in 31 mothers offered FC that included special family rooms in the NICU, and in 30 mothers from a comparable NICU providing traditional care without such facilities. One week prior to hospital discharge, mothers in the FC group felt better informed regarding nursing issues and had more confidence in interpretation of the infants regarding feeding issues and in caregiving without staff attendance (P skill level for interpretation of the infant's signals and knowledge about breast-feeding (P < .05). Despite similar rate of breast-feeding at discharge, more infants in the FC group were breastfed 3 months after discharge (P < .05). An FC program in the NICU promoted better maternal confidence during the hospital stay and 3 months after discharge compared with traditional care.

  10. Measurement of low dietary fiber intake as a risk factor for chronic constipation in children

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Mauro B. [UNIFESP; Vitolo, Marcia R.; Aguirre, Andrea NC [UNIFESP; Fagundes-Neto, Uyssis [UNIFESP

    1999-01-01

    Background: Scarce information exists regarding dietary fiber intake in children with chronic constipation. the objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the intake of fiber as a risk factor for chronic constipation.Methods: Fifty-two children with a mean age of 6.8 +/- 3.2 years who had chronic constipation were age and gender matched with 52 children with normal intestinal habits. the fiber content of the diet was evaluated with a 24-hour dietary recall. Two tables of fiber compo...

  11. [Evaluation of dietary pattern and nutritional status of residents in southeast coastal area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Na; Shen, Minghao; Huang, Yixiang; Lu, Lijuan; Zheng, Shangpin; Chen, Kai

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the dietary pattern and nutritional status of urban residents in southeast coastal area. A dietary survey concerning 1332 persons aged 18 and over was carried out with dietary inquiry and 24-hour recall methods from August to December in 2009. The intakes of cereal, meat, eggs, seafood were enough. The consumption of milk and dairy products, vegetables, fruits was insufficient while the amount of oil was too high. Among them, the intake of milk and dairy products was only 1/3 of suggested values in Dietary Guideline and Balanced Diet Pagoda for Chinese Residents. The intakes of protein, retinol, iron and selenium were sufficient, while those of calcium, thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid were too less than the dietary reference intakes (DRIs). The dietary pattern of urban residents in Ningbo was not reasonable. Nutrition education should be strengthened to guide residents for planning reasonable and balanced diets.

  12. Evaluation of the international standardized 24-h dietary recall methodology (GloboDiet) for potential application in research and surveillance within African settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglago, Elom Kouassivi; Landais, Edwige; Nicolas, Geneviève; Margetts, Barrie; Leclercq, Catherine; Allemand, Pauline; Aderibigbe, Olaide; Agueh, Victoire Damienne; Amuna, Paul; Annor, George Amponsah; El Ati, Jalila; Coates, Jennifer; Colaiezzi, Brooke; Compaore, Ella; Delisle, Hélène; Faber, Mieke; Fungo, Robert; Gouado, Inocent; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Hounkpatin, Waliou Amoussa; Konan, Amoin Georgette; Labzizi, Saloua; Ledo, James; Mahachi, Carol; Maruapula, Segametsi Ditshebo; Mathe, Nonsikelelo; Mbabazi, Muniirah; Mirembe, Mandy Wilja; Mizéhoun-Adissoda, Carmelle; Nzi, Clement Diby; Pisa, Pedro Terrence; El Rhazi, Karima; Zotor, Francis; Slimani, Nadia

    2017-06-19

    Collection of reliable and comparable individual food consumption data is of primary importance to better understand, control and monitor malnutrition and its related comorbidities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), including in Africa. The lack of standardised dietary tools and their related research support infrastructure remains a major obstacle to implement concerted and region-specific research and action plans worldwide. Citing the magnitude and importance of this challenge, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO) launched the "Global Nutrition Surveillance initiative" to pilot test the use of a standardized 24-h dietary recall research tool (GloboDiet), validated in Europe, in other regions. In this regard, the development of the GloboDiet-Africa can be optimised by better understanding of the local specific methodological needs, barriers and opportunities. The study aimed to evaluate the standardized 24-h dietary recall research tool (GloboDiet) as a possible common methodology for research and surveillance across Africa. A consultative panel of African and international experts in dietary assessment participated in six e-workshop sessions. They completed an in-depth e-questionnaire to evaluate the GloboDiet dietary methodology before and after participating in the e-workshop. The 29 experts expressed their satisfaction on the potential of the software to address local specific needs when evaluating the main structure of the software, the stepwise approach for data collection and standardisation concept. Nevertheless, additional information to better describe local foods and recipes, as well as particular culinary patterns (e.g. mortar pounding), were proposed. Furthermore, food quantification in shared-plates and -bowls eating situations and interviewing of populations with low literacy skills, especially in rural settings, were acknowledged as requiring further specific considerations and appropriate solutions. An overall

  13. Association between symptoms and frequency of arrhythmias on 24-hour Holter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Ghazala; Ahmad, Mansoor; Khan, Abdul Rasheed

    2009-11-01

    To determine association between patient's symptoms and incidence of arrhythmia on 24-hour electrocardiographic Holter monitoring. A cross-sectional descriptive study. The Cardiology Department, Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, from January to June 2007. Patients above 15 years of age, of either gender, referred for Holter monitoring with symptoms of palpitations, dizziness and syncope were evaluated for arrhythmia. The symptoms were documented by the patients in their symptom diaries (historical logs) during Holter monitoring. Patients who had permanent pacemaker implants were excluded. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate the frequencies and percentages of different symptoms, different arrhythmias were noted on Holter monitoring and the age of patients was noted. Chi-square test was applied to calculate p-values with significant at value less than 0.05. The mean age of patients was 53.71 +/- 15.52 years. There were 54% females and 46% males. Eighty two percent had documented arrhythmias on their Holter monitoring reports. The complaints for which patients were referred included dizziness in 24%, palpitations in 61% and syncope in 15%. On analysis of the historical logs of patients only 64% had symptoms during Holter monitoring and 23% had concurrence of their symptoms with an arrhythmia. Patients who had sinus exit block (p=0.02) and sinus arrest (p=0.002) had significant association with arrhythmia. Twenty percent patients with dizziness, 50% patients with palpitations and 12% of patients who presented with syncope had documented arrhythmias. Twenty four hour Holter monitoring is an important investigation for evaluation of patients with palpitation, dizziness and syncope. Arrhythmias were detected frequently in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. One must be careful to avoid attributing a symptom to an arrhythmia until a close temporal relationship is demonstrated.

  14. Role of 24 hour telephonic helpline in delivery of mental health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bir Singh Chavan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A large number of persons with psychiatric disorders are not seeking treatment due to various reasons, thus contributing to the huge treatment gap. One of the ways to bring these people into treatment is through telephonic helplines. Materials and Methods: Following a large number of suicides in the city of Chandigarh in 2003, The department of Psychiatry, GMCH, Chandigarh was designated as nodal center for the prevention of suicide. A 24-hour suicide prevention helpline was set up as an immediate measure to help persons in crisis. Apart from providing telephonic counseling to persons in crisis, the helpline coordinated with police, media, schools, radio stations etc., to reduce the number of suicides in the city. Results: Majority of the callers were males (65.93%, between 20 to 39 years old (56.34%, married (79.50%, had less than 12 years of formal education (60.68%, and were earning less than Rs. 5000/month (56.80%. 72.96% callers had contacted the mental health services for the first time. A significant number of persons (434, 13.26% called the helpline for marital, academic, stress-related problems. Majority of the calls were received between 8 A.M. and 2 P.M. The number of suicides in the city of Chandigarh showed a decline in the following years since the helpline was set up. Conclusions: The telephonic helpline seems to be a very effective way of getting persons into contact with health services. They are cost-effective, the person can maintain his confidentiality and devoid of stigma.

  15. Associations of Ischemic Lesion Volume With Functional Outcome in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: 24-Hour Versus 1-Week Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucker, Amber; Boers, Anna M; Bot, Joseph C J; Berkhemer, Olvert A; Lingsma, Hester F; Yoo, Albert J; van Zwam, Wim H; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; van der Lugt, Aad; Dippel, Diederik W J; Roos, Yvo B W E M; Majoie, Charles B L M; Marquering, Henk A

    2017-05-01

    Ischemic lesion volume (ILV) on noncontrast computed tomography at 1 week can be used as a secondary outcome measure in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Twenty-four-hour ILV on noncontrast computed tomography has greater availability and potentially allows earlier estimation of functional outcome. We aimed to assess lesion growth 24 hours after stroke onset and compare the associations of 24-hour and 1-week ILV with functional outcome. We included 228 patients from MR CLEAN trial (Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands), who received noncontrast computed tomography at 24-hour and 1-week follow-up on which ILV was measured. Relative and absolute lesion growth was determined. Logistic regression models were constructed either including the 24-hour or including the 1-week ILV. Ordinal and dichotomous (0-2 and 3-6) modified Rankin scale scores were, respectively, used as primary and secondary outcome measures. Median ILV was 42 mL (interquartile range, 21-95 mL) and 64 mL (interquartile range: 30-120 mL) at 24 hours and 1 week, respectively. Relative lesion growth exceeding 30% occurred in 121 patients (53%) and absolute lesion growth exceeding 20 mL occurred in 83 patients (36%). Both the 24-hour and 1-week ILVs were similarly significantly associated with functional outcome (both P<0.001). In the logistic analyses, the areas under the curve of the receiver-operator characteristic curves were similar: 0.85 (95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.90) and 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.91) for including the 24-hour and 1-week ILV, respectively. Growth of ILV is common 24-hour poststroke onset. Nevertheless, the 24-hour ILV proved to be a valuable secondary outcome measure as it is equally strongly associated with functional outcome as the 1-week ILV. URL: http://www.isrctn.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN10888758. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Randomization to plant-based dietary approaches leads to larger short-term improvements in Dietary Inflammatory Index scores and macronutrient intake compared with diets that contain meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Wirth, Michael D; Shivappa, Nitin; Wingard, Ellen E; Fayad, Raja; Wilcox, Sara; Frongillo, Edward A; Hébert, James R

    2015-02-01

    Studies have examined nutrient differences among people following different plant-based diets. However, all of these studies have been observational. The aim of the present study was to examine differences in nutrient intake and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) scores among overweight and obese (body mass index 25.0-49.9 kg/m(2)) adults randomized to receive dietary instruction on a vegan (n = 12), vegetarian (n = 13), pescovegetarian (n = 13), semivegetarian (n = 13), or omnivorous (n = 12) diet during a 6-month randomized controlled trial. Nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and DII score were assessed via two 24-hour dietary recalls (Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall) at baseline and at 2 and 6 months. Differences in nutrient intake and the DII were examined using general linear models with follow-up tests at each time point. We hypothesized that individuals randomized to the vegan diet would have lower DII scores and greater improvements in fiber, carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol at both 2 and 6 months as compared with the other 4 diets. Participants randomized to the vegan diet had significantly greater changes in most macronutrients at both time points, including fat and saturated fat, as well as cholesterol and, at 2 months, fiber, as compared with most of the other diet groups (Ps plant-based dietary approaches, such as vegan and vegetarian diets, should be given consideration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of cimetidine and pirenzepine in combination on 24 hour intragastric acidity in subjects with previous duodenal ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J G; Deakin, M; Ramage, J K

    1986-01-01

    Intragastric pH was monitored during 24 hours in eight volunteers with duodenal ulcer disease in remission, while on placebo, cimetidine 400 mg bd, pirenzepine 50 mg bd, cimetidine 400 mg bd + pirenzepine 50 mg bd, cimetidine 200 mg bd + pirenzepine 25 mg bd. The control of intragastric acidity during the 24 hour period by the combination of low dose cimetidine and pirenzepine was significantly better than with cimetidine, or pirenzepine alone in full dosage. This difference was most apparent after breakfast but was still present after lunch when cimetidine had no significant effect. Combination treatment is a logical approach when continuous control of intragastric acidity is needed, but a three times daily regimen will be necessary to cover the 24 hours. PMID:3754233

  18. Does aerobic exercise increase 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure among workers with high occupational physical activity? - A RCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krause, Niklas; Clays, Els

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE High occupational physical activity (OPA) increases cardiovascular risk and aerobic exercise has been recommended for reducing this risk. This paper investigates the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) among cleaners with high OPA.......9–3.8). Cleaners with high aerobic workload exhibited particularly high 24-hour ABP increases: systolic 6.0 mm Hg (95% CI 2.4–9.6), and diastolic 3.8 mm Hg (95% CI 1.3–6.4). CONCLUSION Aerobic exercise increased 24-hour ABP among cleaners. This adverse effect raises questions about the safety and intended benefits...... of aerobic exercise, especially among workers with high OPA and a demanding aerobic workload. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN86682076. Unique identifier ISRCTN86682076. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION Trial Number ISRCTN86682076....

  19. Prognostic value of reading-to-reading blood pressure variability over 24 hours in 8938 subjects from 11 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    In previous studies, of which several were underpowered, the relation between cardiovascular outcome and blood pressure (BP) variability was inconsistent. We followed health outcomes in 8938 subjects (mean age: 53.0 years; 46.8% women) randomly recruited from 11 populations. At baseline, we...... assessed BP variability from the SD and average real variability in 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings. We computed standardized hazard ratios (HRs) while stratifying by cohort and adjusting for 24-hour BP and other risk factors. Over 11.3 years (median), 1242 deaths (487 cardiovascular) occurred, and 1049......, 577, 421, and 457 participants experienced a fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular, cardiac, or coronary event or a stroke. Higher diastolic average real variability in 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings predicted (Por=1.07) with the exception of cardiac and coronary events (HR: or=0.58). Higher systolic...

  20. Validation of digital photographs, as a tool in 24-h recall, for the improvement of dietary assessment among rural populations in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarte Claudia E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvement of traditional methods for dietary assessment is necessary, especially in rural areas where it is more difficult to succeed with self-reporting methods. This study presents and validates a method for improving accuracy when measuring food and nutrient intake of individuals in rural areas. It is called the “Food photography 24-h recall method” (FP 24-hR and is a modified 24-h recall with the addition of a digital food photography record and a photo atlas. Methods The study was carried out in a rural area in the tropical region of Bolivia; 45 women participated. Validation of the method was made by comparing it with a reference method, the Weighed Food Record (WFR. During the FP 24-hR, digital photographs were taken by the subjects of all food consumed during a day and a 24-h recall questionnaire was conducted by an interviewer. An estimate of the amount of food consumed was made using a photo atlas and the photographs taken by the subjects. For validation, comparison was made between the calculations, by both methods, of the levels of food, and nutrient, intake. Results The comparison was made in 10 food categories; most of which were somewhat underestimated from −2.3% (cassava to −6.8% (rice, except for beverages (+1.6% and leafy vegetables (+8.7%, which were overestimated. Spearman’s correlation coefficients were highly significant (r from 0.75 for eggs to 0.98 for potato and cassava. Nutrient intakes calculated with data from both methods showed small differences from -0.90% (vitamin C to -5.98% (fat. Although all nutrients were somewhat underestimated, Pearson′s coefficients are high (>0.93 for all and statistically significant. Bland Altman analysis showed that differences between both methods were random and did not exhibit any systematic bias over levels of food and nutrient intake, with acceptable 95% limits of agreement. Conclusion The FP 24-hR exhibits acceptable differences when compared with

  1. 24-HOUR ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY IN CLINICAL HEALTHY CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIELS, WIRE-HAIRED DACHSHUNDS AND CAIRN TERRIERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Caroline Elisabeth; Vesterholm, Stina; Ludvigsen, Trine Pagh

    2010-01-01

    24-HOUR ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY IN CLINICAL HEALTHY CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIELS, WIRE-HAIRED DACHSHUNDS AND CAIRN TERRIERS. CE Rasmussen1, S Vesterholm1, TP Ludvigsen1, SG Moesgaard1, HD Pedersen2, J Häggström3, LH Olsen1. 1. Department of Basic Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Life...... two and nine years old and clinical healthy based on history, clinical examination, echocardiography, serum biochemistry and complete blood count. All dogs were Holter recorded for 24 hours using a CF-life recorder with electrodes placed in a two-lead precordial position. A blinded semiautomatic...

  2. Interchangeability between 24-hour collection and single spot urines for vanillylmandelic and homovanillic acid levels in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangemi, Giuliana; Barco, Sebastiano; Reggiardo, Giorgio; Viscardi, Elisabetta; Di Cataldo, Andrea; Garaventa, Alberto; Melioli, Giovanni; Conte, Massimo

    2013-12-01

    The determination of the two urinary catecholamine metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) is of crucial importance for the diagnosis and follow-up of neuroblastoma (NB). The standard practice for their measurement requires the use of 24-hour collections that are time consuming and difficult to obtain. In this article, we directly demonstrate that 24-hour collections and single spot urines are interchangeable for the determination of HVA and VMA expressed as ratio on creatinine concentration. This study can be useful for a faster management of NB at onset.

  3. The Relationship Between Daytime, Nighttime and 24-Hour Heart Rate with Urinary Albumin and Protein Excretion in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış AFŞAR

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Autonomic nervous system dysfunction (ASD has been widely observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP and heart rate measurements have been found to associate with ASD in patient with Type 2 diabetes. Since albumin excretion is also related with ASD in type 2 diabetes; in the current study, the relationships between daytime, nighttime and 24- hour heart rates with 24 hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE and 24-hour urinary protein excretion (UPE were analyzed in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL and METHODS: All patients underwent following procedures: history taking, physical examination, BP measurement, 12 lead electrocardiographic evaluations, routine urine analysis, biochemical analysis, 24-hour urine collection to measure UAE, UPE and creatinine clearance. 24-hour ABP and heart rate monitoring were performed for all patients. RESULTS: In total 80 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were included. Stepwise linear regression revealed that logarithmically converted 24-hour UAE were independently related with 24- hour ambulatory SBP, (P:0.001 and heart rate (night (P<0.0001. Stepwise linear regression revealed that logarithmically converted 24-hour UPE were independently related with age (P:0.032, with averaged fasting blood glucose (P:0.023, with 24-hour ambulatory SBP, (P:0.002 and with heart rate (night (P:0.001. CONCLUSION: Nighttime heart rate, but not daytime and 24-hour heart rate was related with both 24-hour UAE and UPE in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

  4. Estimating Usual Dietary Intake Distributions: Adjusting for Measurement Error and Nonnormality in 24-Hour Food Intake Data

    OpenAIRE

    Nusser, Sarah M.; Fuller, Wayne A.; Guenther, Patricia M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have developed a method for estimating the distribution of an unobservable random variable from data that are subject to considerable measurement error and that arise from a mixture of two populations, one having a single-valued distribution and the other having a continuous unimodal distribution. The method requires that at least two positive intakes be recorded for a subset of the subjects in order to estimate the variance components for the measurement error model. Published in...

  5. One fourth of acutely admitted patients use over-the-counter-drugs 24 hours prior to hospitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Magnus; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Use of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs is increasing and is poorly registered, which can lead to complications. The most commonly used OTC drugs are analgesics, and their usage is highest among elderly patients. Our study investigates the use of OTC drugs 24 hours prior to hospitalisat...

  6. EDTA improves stability of whole blood C-peptide and insulin to over 24 hours at room temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J McDonald

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: C-peptide and insulin measurements in blood provide useful information regarding endogenous insulin secretion. Conflicting evidence on sample stability and handling procedures continue to limit the widespread clinical use of these tests. We assessed the factors that altered the stability of insulin and C-peptide in blood. METHODS: We investigated the impact of preservative type, time to centrifugation, storage conditions and duration of storage on the stability of C-peptide and insulin on three different analytical platforms. RESULTS: C-peptide was stable for at least 24 hours at room temperature in both centrifuged and whole blood collected in K(+-EDTA and serum gel tubes, with the exception of whole blood serum gel, which decreased to 78% of baseline at 24 hours, (p = 0.008. Insulin was stable at room temperature for 24 hours in both centrifuged and whole blood collected in K(+-EDTA tubes. In contrast insulin levels decreased in serum gel tubes both centrifuged and whole blood (66% of baseline, p = 0.01 and 76% of baseline p = 0.01, by 24 hours respectively. C-peptide and insulin remained stable after 6 freeze-thaw cycles. CONCLUSIONS: The stability of C-peptide and insulin in whole blood K(+-EDTA tubes negates the need to conform to strict sample handling procedures for these assays, greatly increasing their clinical utility.

  7. Knemometry is more sensitive to systemic effects of inhaled corticosteroids in children with asthma than 24-hour urine cortisol excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo; Nilsson, Erik; Nørgaard, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pharmacodynamic assessment of the systemic effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) is often done by measuring 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC) excretion. Knemometry assessing short-term lower-leg growth rate (LLGR) is a more rarely used alternative. Objective: The primary aim...

  8. Self-renewal and differentiation capacity of urine-derived stem cells after urine preservation for 24 hours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Lang

    Full Text Available Despite successful approaches to preserve organs, tissues, and isolated cells, the maintenance of stem cell viability and function in body fluids during storage for cell distribution and transportation remains unexplored. The aim of this study was to characterize urine-derived stem cells (USCs after optimal preservation of urine specimens for up to 24 hours. A total of 415 urine specimens were collected from 12 healthy men (age range 20-54 years old. About 6 × 10(4 cells shed off from the urinary tract system in 24 hours. At least 100 USC clones were obtained from the stored urine specimens after 24 hours and maintained similar biological features to fresh USCs. The stored USCs had a "rice grain" shape in primary culture, and expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, high telomerase activity, and normal karyotypes. Importantly, the preserved cells retained bipotent differentiation capacity. Differentiated USCs expressed myogenic specific proteins and contractile function when exposed to myogenic differentiation medium, and they expressed urothelial cell-specific markers and barrier function when exposed to urothelial differentiation medium. These data demonstrated that up to 75% of fresh USCs can be safely persevered in urine for 24 hours and that these cells stored in urine retain their original stem cell properties, indicating that preserved USCs could be available for potential use in cell-based therapy or clinical diagnosis.

  9. Comparison of rate assessment between resting heart rate and 24-hour Holter monitoring in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisukwattana, Akanis; Krittayaphong, Rungroj

    2012-02-01

    Target heart rate in rate control strategy has been proposed by the Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) study. There is limited data on the correlation of measured heart rate at rest and during Holter monitoring. To evaluate the proportion of achieved target heart rate between resting heart rate measuring and 24-hour Holter monitoring in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation who receive rate control strategy. Patients with chronic atrial fibrillation who archived target resting heart rate under rate control strategy at Siriraj Hospital and who underwent 24-hour Holter monitoring were studied to evaluate the correlation between two methods of heart rate control. 47 patients were enrolled. Underlying cardiac conditions were as follows: hypertensive heart disease 44.7%, valvular heart disease 25%, coronary artery disease 17% and dilated cardiomyopathy 12.8%. There were 10 patients (21.3%) whose achieving target resting heart rate was not correlated with 24-hour Holter monitoring. Three patients (6.4%) underwent permanent pacemaker implantation due to sick sinus syndrome (SSS) or tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome. In chronic atrial fibrillation patients that receive rate control strategy, evaluation of only resting heart rate might not be enough for long-term evaluation and treatment and 24-hour monitoring may be an additional helpful test in order to more precisely adjust medication for long-term treatment and detection of SSS.

  10. Does Aerobic Exercise Increase 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Among Workers With High Occupational Physical Activity?-A RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krause, Niklas; Clays, Els; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    High occupational physical activity (OPA) increases cardiovascular risk and aerobic exercise has been recommended for reducing this risk. This paper investigates the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) among cleaners with high OPA. Hundred and sixteen cleaners between 18 and 65 years were randomized. During the 4-month intervention period, the aerobic exercise group (AE) (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (2 × 30 minutes/week), while the reference group (REF) (n = 59) attended lectures. Between-group differences in 4-month ABP changes were evaluated by intention-to-treat analysis using a repeated-measure 2 × 2 multiadjusted mixed-models design. Relative to REF, 24-hour ABP significantly increased in AE: systolic 3.6 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-5.7) and diastolic 2.3 mm Hg (95% CI 0.9-3.8). Cleaners with high aerobic workload exhibited particularly high 24-hour ABP increases: systolic 6.0 mm Hg (95% CI 2.4-9.6), and diastolic 3.8 mm Hg (95% CI 1.3-6.4). Aerobic exercise increased 24-hour ABP among cleaners. This adverse effect raises questions about the safety and intended benefits of aerobic exercise, especially among workers with high OPA and a demanding aerobic workload. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN86682076. Unique identifier ISRCTN86682076. Trial Number ISRCTN86682076.

  11. Relationship of wall-to-lumen ratio of retinal arterioles with clinic and 24-hour blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Massimo; Agabiti Rosei, Claudia; Paini, Anna; Aggiusti, Carlo; Cancarini, Anna; Duse, Sarah; Semeraro, Francesco; Rizzoni, Damiano; Agabiti Rosei, Enrico; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza

    2014-05-01

    Wall-to-lumen ratio of retinal arterioles might serve as an in vivo parameter of vascular damage. We analyzed the impact of brachial clinic blood pressure (BP), of central BP, and of 24-hour BP on wall-to-lumen ratio (WLR) of retinal arterioles. In 295 subjects (147 men; age range, 22-72 years; mean age, 54±7 years), WLR of retinal arterioles was assessed in vivo using scanning laser Doppler flowmetry. In addition, clinic and 24-hour BP values were measured. Central hemodynamics was assessed by pulse wave analysis. In treated patients with essential hypertension (n=100), a higher WLR (0.29±0.18 versus 0.23±0.13; P=0.009) was observed in comparison with normotensive individuals (n=119); no significant differences were observed between treated and untreated hypertensive patients (0.29±0.18 versus 0.28±0.18; P=0.7). WLR of retinal arterioles was significantly related to clinic systolic (r=0.18; P=0.002) and pulse pressure (r=0.20; P=0.001), to 24-hour systolic (r=0.25; P=0.0001) and pulse pressure (r=0.17; P=0.005), and to central systolic (r=0.16; P=0.006) and pulse pressure (r=0.18; P=0.002). Multiple regression analysis revealed that only mean systolic 24-hour BP was independently associated with an increased WLR of retinal arterioles. In this large group of hypertensive patients and normotensive individuals, 24-hour systolic BP seems to be the strongest determinant of increased WLR of retinal arterioles.

  12. Microleakage of two self-adhesive cements in the enamel and dentin after 24 hours and two months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jaberi Ansari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Microleakage is a main cause of restorative treatment failure. In this study, we compared occlusal and cervical microleakage of two self-adhesive cements after 24 hours and two months.In this in-vitro experimental study, class II inlay cavities were prepared on 60 sound human third molars. Composite inlays were fabricated with Z100 composite resin. The teeth were randomly assigned to six groups. RelyX-Arc (control, RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem were used for the first three groups and specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. The same cements were used for the remaining three groups, but the specimens were stored for 2 months. The teeth were subjected to 500 thermal cycles (5°C and 55°C and immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 hours and then sectioned mesiodistally and dye penetration was evaluated in a class II cavity with occlusal and cervical margins using X20 magnification stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests.After 24 hours, cements had significant differences only in cervical margin microleakage (P=0.0001 and microleakage of RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was significantly more than that of RelyX-Arc (both P=0.0001. Cervical microleakage in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was greater than occlusal (P=0.0001 and P=0.001, respectively. Microleakage was not significantly different between the occlusal and cervical margins after 2 months.Cervical microleakage was greater than occlusal in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem after 24h. The greatest microleakage was reported for the cervical margin of RelyX-Unicem after 24 hours.

  13. Recalls API

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — CPSC provides accessibility to recalls via a recall database. The information is publicly available to consumers and businesses as well as software and application...

  14. Recalls API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This Recalls API allows you to tap into a list of (1) drug and food safety recalls from the Food and Drug Administration, Food Safety and Inspection Service, and...

  15. Measuring children's diets: evaluation of dietary assessment techniques in infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, L A; Carlgren, G

    1984-12-01

    Epidemiological studies of dietary habits in infancy and childhood face a number of difficulties, which are more or less specific for these ages. In connection with studies on dietary habits of Swedish infants and children an evaluation of different dietary assessment techniques was performed. Breastfeeding data obtained in retrospective interviews at six months had good validity. The reliability of breastfeeding and weaning data decreased over time. Short questions on food frequencies, often used in research and clinical practice, were shown to be a poor screening instrument and suffered from biases when used in groups of four- and eight-year-old children. Group mean estimations of dietary intake of four- and eight-year-old children obtained by 24-hour recalls were close to those of seven-day records from the same individuals. Dietary intake in a 13-year-old group according to 24-hour recall and dietary history differed significantly; the dietary history gave much higher estimations. The reliability of dietary history in a small group of 13-year-old boarding school children was fairly good. The internal validity of food recording was examined by use of chemical analysis of duplicate portions. Generally, there was good agreement between the records and the analysed duplicates. The intake of a number of nutrients varied during the week, often showing a maximum towards the weekend. The intake of vitamin C was higher in winter time, otherwise no seasonal variation was found. The intra-individual variation in dietary intake is illustrated and its consequences for dietary studies are discussed.

  16. Effect of high myopia on 24-hour intraocular pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ying-xin; WANG Ning-li; WU Lie; ZHEN Yi; WANG Tao; REN Cai-xia; PENG Xiao-xia; HAO Jie; XIA Yan-ting

    2012-01-01

    Background As intraocular pressure (lOP) and lOP fluctuation are known risk factors for glaucoma,it is important to understand the effects of high myopia on these ocular parameters.The aim of this study was to investigate if primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients with high myopia exhibit higher lOP and greater lOP fluctuations at resting conditions over 24 hours.@@Methods We designed a prospective control clinical study.Eighty-two eyes of 82 high-tension Chinese POAG patients only on prostaglandin analogue locally were divided into 3 groups according to various myopic grades (<-6.0 D,n=27 and between -0.76 and -5.99 D,n=33) or without myopia (-0.75 to 0.75 D,n=22).Single time lOP at 10 am,mean corrected 24-hour lOP,mean corrected night lOP,24-hour lOP fluctuation and lOPs of 10 am,2 pm,6 pm,10 pm,2 am,6 am and 8 am were measured.@@Results The lOP was higher in POAG patients with high myopia over those POAG alone in three ways:the elevated lOP value was 0.65 mmHg measured in single time lOP at 10 am,0.84 mmHg in mean corrected 24-hour lOP,0.97 mmHg in mean corrected night lOP.The 24-hour lOP fluctuation was lower in the two myopia groups than in non-myopia group.Further,using repeated measurement analysis of variance,there was no statistical significance among groups regarding the lOPs at the seven time points (P=0.77) and there was no interaction between groups and time points (P=0.71),but the difference of lOPs at the seven time points in same group was statistically significant (P=0.01).@@Conclusion High-tension POAG patients with high myopia,even on pharmacological glaucoma therapy,still have higher lOp,but 24-hour lOP fluctuation at resting conditions was lower in these patients.

  17. Metabolic effects of isoenergetic nutrient exchange over 24 hours in relation to obesity in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, M E; James, W P

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four hour whole body indirect calorimetry has been used to study the effects of feeding, during a sedentary test day, isoenergetic diets which varied in fat (3 or 40 per cent of total energy) and carbohydrate (82 or 45 per cent) content. Three groups of women were studied: lean, obese and 'post-obese' after slimming. Energy expenditure was greater in absolute terms in the obese women. Twenty-four hour energy expenditure was lower by only 3-7 per cent when fasting compared to that when fed to achieve energy balance. There were no large differences in energy expenditure between the two diets or between the groups but the thermogenic effect of the high carbohydrate diet was significantly greater than that of the high fat diet (5.8 vs 3.5 per cent of energy expenditure: P less than 0.01). The post-obese tended to have lower energy expenditure per kg FFM than controls when fasting and when high-fat fed, but this pattern was not shown by the obese. Sleeping energy expenditure was particularly low in the post-obese group when high-fat fed. Dirunal variations in RQ appear to show more marked rise in morning RQ from the nocturnal minimum in the obese and post-obese, which might be evidence for an energy-saving mechanism through greater availability of stored dietary carbohydrate.

  18. OPPORTUNITIES AND ADVANTAGES OF THE 24-HOUR BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING IN CHILDREN AS PART OF THE OUTPATIENT EXAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Pal'tseva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The 24 hour blood pressure monitoring has gone beyond the scope of the scientific research for the last decade and is now more widely used in practical healthcare, including pediatrics to identify changes of pressure both towards hypertension and hypotension. It is obviously advantageous to prove pathologic changes in the blood pressure level, as well as to give an objective evaluation of its intensity and duration. This article is devoted to identification of the diagnostic value for the daily blood pressure monitoring outpatient conditions and development of the optimal monitoring regimes to be used among children.Key words: 24 hour blood pressure monitoring, arterial hypertension, arterial hypotension, vegetovascular dystonia, children.

  19. Assessment of Microvolt T Wave Alternans in Children with Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot during 24-Hour Holter Electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doksöz, Önder; Meşe, Timur; Karaarslan, Utku; Ceylan, Gökhan; Demirpençe, Savaş; Tavlı, Vedide; Ünal, Nurettin

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to examine microvolt T wave alternans (MTWA) in 24-hour Holter electrocardiography (ECG) of children with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) to assess associations of MTWA with ventricular arrhythmias, ECG parameters, and echocardiographic findings. Holter ECG records and archive files of 56 repaired TOF patients (62.5% male) who were analyzed retrospectively. Subjects' ECG parameters and MTWA values were compared with age-sex-matched control group. T wave changes were analyzed by time-domain-modified moving average method from the three channels of 24-hour Holter ECG. Mean age was 123.4 ± 48.3 months. Median MTWA value was 55.5 μV in the control group, whereas 95.5 μV in patients group (P Holter ECG in repaired TOF patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Targeted Temperature Management for 48 vs 24 Hours and Neurologic Outcome After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Hans; Søreide, Eldar; de Haas, Inge

    2017-01-01

    Importance: International resuscitation guidelines recommend targeted temperature management (TTM) at 33°C to 36°C in unconscious patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest for at least 24 hours, but the optimal duration of TTM is uncertain. Objective: To determine whether TTM at 33°C for 48....... Secondary outcomes included 6-month mortality, including time to death, the occurrence of adverse events, and intensive care unit resource use. Results: In 355 patients who were randomized (mean age, 60 years; 295 [83%] men), 351 (99%) completed the trial. Of these patients, 69% (120/175) in the 48-hour......: In unconscious survivors from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest admitted to the ICU, targeted temperature management at 33°C for 48 hours did not significantly improve 6-month neurologic outcome compared with targeted temperature management at 33°C for 24 hours. However, the study may have had limited power...

  1. 24-hour evaluation of dental plaque bacteria and halitosis after consumption of a single placebo or dental treat by dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeusette, Isabelle C; Román, Aurora Mateo; Torre, Celina; Crusafont, Josep; Sánchez, Nuria; Sánchez, Maria C; Pérez-Salcedo, Leire; Herrera, David

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether consumption of a single dental treat with specific mechanical properties and active ingredients would provide a 24-hour effect on dental plaque bacteria and halitosis in dogs. ANIMALS 10 dogs of various breeds from a privately owned colony that had received routine dental scaling and polishing 4 weeks before the study began. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 1 placebo or dental treat first. A 4-week washout period was provided, and then dogs received the opposite treatment. Oral plaque and breath samples were collected before and 0.5, 3, 12, and 24 hours after treat consumption. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) concentration was measured in breath samples. Total aerobic, total anaerobic, Porphyromonas gulae, Prevotella intermedia-like, Tannerella forsythia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum bacterial counts (measured via bacterial culture) and total live bacterial counts, total live and dead bacterial counts, and bacterial vitality (measured via quantitative real-time PCR assay) were assessed in plaque samples. RESULTS Compared with placebo treat consumption, dental treat consumption resulted in a significant decrease in breath VSCs concentration and all plaque bacterial counts, without an effect on bacterial vitality. Effects of the dental treat versus the placebo treat persisted for 12 hours for several bacterial counts and for 24 hours for breath VSCs concentration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Although clinical benefits should be investigated in larger scale, longer-term studies, results of this study suggested that feeding the evaluated dental treat may help to decrease oral bacterial growth in dogs for 12 hours and oral malodor for 24 hours. A feeding interval of 12 hours is therefore recommended.

  2. Study on Operation Optimization of Pumping Station's 24 Hours Operation under Influences of Tides and Peak-Valley Electricity Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Gong; Jilin, Cheng; Lihua, Zhang; Rentian, Zhang

    2010-06-01

    According to different processes of tides and peak-valley electricity prices, this paper determines the optimal start up time in pumping station's 24 hours operation between the rating state and adjusting blade angle state respectively based on the optimization objective function and optimization model for single-unit pump's 24 hours operation taking JiangDu No.4 Pumping Station for example. In the meantime, this paper proposes the following regularities between optimal start up time of pumping station and the process of tides and peak-valley electricity prices each day within a month: (1) In the rating and adjusting blade angle state, the optimal start up time in pumping station's 24 hours operation which depends on the tide generation at the same day varies with the process of tides. There are mainly two kinds of optimal start up time which include the time at tide generation and 12 hours after it. (2) In the rating state, the optimal start up time on each day in a month exhibits a rule of symmetry from 29 to 28 of next month in the lunar calendar. The time of tide generation usually exists in the period of peak electricity price or the valley one. The higher electricity price corresponds to the higher minimum cost of water pumping at unit, which means that the minimum cost of water pumping at unit depends on the peak-valley electricity price at the time of tide generation on the same day. (3) In the adjusting blade angle state, the minimum cost of water pumping at unit in pumping station's 24 hour operation depends on the process of peak-valley electricity prices. And in the adjusting blade angle state, 4.85%˜5.37% of the minimum cost of water pumping at unit will be saved than that of in the rating state.

  3. Efficacy and duration of benazepril plus amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide on 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamerson, Kenneth A; Devereux, Richard; Bakris, George L; Dahlöf, Björn; Pitt, Bertram; Velazquez, Eric J; Weir, Matthew; Kelly, Roxzana Y; Hua, Tsushung A; Hester, Allen; Weber, Michael A

    2011-02-01

    The combination of benazepril plus amlodipine was shown to be more effective than benazepril plus hydrochlorothiazide in reducing cardiovascular events in the Avoiding Cardiovascular Events through Combination Therapy in Patients Living with Systolic Hypertension (ACCOMPLISH) trial. There was a small difference in clinic systolic blood pressure between the treatment arms favoring benazepril plus amlodipine. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring provides a more rigorous estimate of blood pressure effects. A subset of 573 subjects underwent ambulatory blood pressure monitoring during year 2. Readings were obtained every 20 minutes during a 24-hour period. Between-treatment differences (benazepril plus amlodipine versus benazepril plus hydrochlorothiazide) in mean values were analyzed using ANOVA. Treatment comparisons with respect to categorical variables were made using Pearson's χ². At year 2, the treatment groups did not differ significantly in 24-hour mean daytime or nighttime blood pressures (values of 123.9, 125.9, and 118.1 mm Hg for benazepril plus amlodipine group versus 122.3, 124.1, and 116.9 for the benazepril plus hydrochlorothiazide group), with mean between-group differences of 1.6, 1.8, and 1.2 mm Hg, respectively. Blood pressure control rates (24-hour mean systolic blood pressure amlodipine rather than hydrochlorothiazide shown in the ACCOMPLISH trial was not caused by differences in blood pressure, but instead intrinsic properties (metabolic or hemodynamic) of the combination therapies.

  4. Flow cytometric comparison of platelets from a whole blood and finger-prick sample: impact of 24 hours storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, Albe C; Stander, Andre; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the validity and laboratory utility of flow cytometry when analyzing platelet activation by studying CD41, CD42b, CD62P and CD63. We compare flow cytometry results from citrated whole-blood and finger-prick samples directly after collection and also after storing both a finger-prick and whole-blood sample for 24 hours. Citrated whole-blood and finger-prick samples were taken from three healthy individuals on two occasions, and a total of 60,000 cells were analyzed for each of the four phycoerythrin-labeled monoclonal antibodies. Half of each sample was analyzed immediately after sampling while the other half was kept in the fridge at 6 °C for 24 hours before analysis. No significant difference was found between the sampling methods or the period of time before analysis. Results therefore suggest that an appropriately prepared finger-prick sample can be used for platelet function analysis, and samples can be stored for 24 hours in the fridge at 6 °C before analysis.

  5. Non-24-hour sleep–wake syndrome improved by low-dose valproic acid: a case report

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    Kurita M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Masatake Kurita,1–3 Takahiro Moriya,2 Satoshi Nishino,2,4 Eishin Hirata,4 Noriyasu Hirasawa,5 Yoshiro Okubo,3 Tadahiro Sato4 1Wakamiya Hospital, Koutokukai, Yoshihara, Yamagata, 2Department of Cellular Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Sendagi, Tokyo, 4Sato Hospital, Koutokukai, Kunugizuka, Nanyo, Yamagata, 5Laboratory of Pharmacotherapy of Life-Style Related Diseases, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan Abstract: A woman was diagnosed with non-24-hour sleep–wake syndrome and depressive symptoms. Her depressive symptoms did not respond to standard doses of several antidepressants or mood stabilizers. Furthermore, her sleep–wake cycle remained non-entrained despite treatment with a melatonin-related drug, vitamin B12, and phototherapy. Ultimately, her sleep–wake rhythm was restored to a 24-hour pattern with a low dose of valproic acid, and her depressive symptoms tended to improve as a result of synchronization without antidepressants. Low-dose valproic acid appears to be one of the effective means of entraining circadian rhythms in patients with non-24-hour sleep–wake syndrome, which in turn likely improves associated depressive symptoms. Keywords: circadian rhythm sleep disorder, mood stabilizers, vitamin B12, melatonin, phototherapy, antidepressants, depression

  6. Evaluation of in-hospital electrocardiography versus 24-hour Holter for rate control in dogs with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelzer, A R; Kraus, M S; Rishniw, M

    2015-07-01

    To determine if the in-clinic ECG-derived heart rate could predict the at-home Holter-derived 24-hour average heart rate (Holter24h ), and whether it is useful to identify slow versus fast atrial fibrillation in dogs. 82 pairs of 1-minute ECGs and 24-hour Holter recordings were acquired in 34 dogs with atrial fibrillation. The initial 24-hour Holter was used to test if the ECG heart rate can identify dogs with "slow" versus "fast" atrial fibrillation based on a Holter24h threshold value of 140 bpm. ECG heart rate overestimated Holter24h by 26 bpm (95% CI: 3 bpm, 48 bpm; P Holter24h HR Ä140 bpm; an in-clinic ECG-derived HR <160 bpm had a sensitivity and specificity of 91% each. In-clinic ECG assessment of heart rate in dogs with atrial fibrillation does not reliably predict the heart rate in their home environment. However, an in-clinic heart rate greater than 155 bpm is useful in identifying "fast" atrial fibrillation, allowing clinicians to stratify which case may benefit from antiarrhythmic therapy. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  7. Association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and hypertension subtypes in untreated Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Xu, Ting-Yan; Ding, Feng-Hua; Staessen, Jan A; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-02-01

    The association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and ambulatory hypertension subtypes has not yet been examined in untreated Chinese patients. We measured left ventricular mass index by echocardiography (n=619), the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (n=1047), and aortic pulse wave velocity by tonometry (n=1013) in 1047 untreated subjects (mean age, 50.6 years; 48.9% women). Normotension was a 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure Hypertension subtypes were isolated diastolic hypertension and mixed systolic plus diastolic hypertension. We assessed associations of interest by multivariable-adjusted linear models. Using normotension as reference, mixed hypertension was associated with higher (P≤0.003) left ventricular mass index (+4.31 g/m(2)), urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.63 mg/mmol), and pulse wave velocity (+0.76 m/s); and isolated diastolic hypertension was associated with similar left ventricular mass index and pulse wave velocity (P≥0.39), but higher urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.24 mg/mmol; P=0.002). In younger participants (hypertension are major determinants of target organ damage irrespective of age and target organ, whereas 24-hour diastolic blood pressure and isolated diastolic hypertension only relate to the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio below middle age.

  8. Dietary intake of cancer patients on radiotherapy La ingesta dietética de los pacientes con cáncer en radioterapia

    OpenAIRE

    L. F. Pistóia; C. H. de Abreu Nunes; B. Andreatta Gottschall; E. I. Rabito

    2012-01-01

    The dietary intake of cancer patients can affect their nutritional status. Objectives: To assess the dietary intake and nutritional status of head and neck cancer patients on radiotherapy. Methods: 24-hour recalls and anthropometric measures were taken during the first and third weeks of radiotherapy. Results: Of the 62 patients, significant reductions were found in arm muscle area (p = 0.001) and arm muscle circumference (p < 0.001), and 69% of patients had an average weight loss of 5.7% in ...

  9. Comparison of the effects of energy drink versus caffeine supplementation on indices of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Amy M; Schmidt, Julia M; McCain, Keith R; Fraer, Mony

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular events associated with energy drink consumption have been reported, but few data exist to delineate the hemodynamic effects of energy drinks. To compare the effects of an energy drink versus caffeine supplementation on blood pressure (BP) indices as measured by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). Healthy, nonsmoking, normotensive volunteers (aged 18-45 years) taking no medications were enrolled in a single-center, open-label, 2-period crossover pilot study. During each study period, subjects received either an energy drink (Red Bull Energy Drink, each dose containing 80 mg of caffeine and 1000 mg of taurine in an 8.3-oz serving) or a control (compounded caffeine solution, each dose containing 80 mg of caffeine solution in 8 oz of bottled water) at 0800, 1100, 1500, and 1900 hours and underwent 24-hour ABPM. The study periods were separated by a washout period (4-30 days). Mean 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial (MAP) BP; BP load; and percent nocturnal dipping were compared between study periods. Nine subjects (5 females, mean [SD] age 27.7 [5.0] years) completed the study. Mean 24-hour SBP (123.2 vs 117.4 mm Hg, p = 0.04), DBP (73.6 vs 68.2 mm Hg, p = 0.02), and MAP (90.1 vs 84.8 mm Hg, p = 0.03) were significantly higher during energy drink supplementation versus caffeine supplementation. Daytime DBP (77.0 vs 72.0 mm Hg, p = 0.04) also was significantly higher with the energy drink versus caffeine supplementation. Trends in higher daytime SBP (127.0 vs 121.9 mm Hg, p = 0.05) and MAP (93.6 vs 88.6 mm Hg, p = 0.05) were recorded with energy drink supplementation versus caffeine supplementation. Nighttime SBP and DBP loads were significantly higher with the energy drink, but nocturnal dipping did not differ significantly between study periods. Single-day energy drink supplementation increased mean 24-hour and daytime BP compared to caffeine control in this pilot study. Additional research is

  10. The Quantification of EEG Continuity by 24-hour Recordings in Intraventricular Hemorrhaging and Periventricular Leukomalacia : Its Prognostic Value in Comparison with Conventional EEG Recordings

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, Kazuya; Ogawa, Teruyuki; Sonoda, Hirotomi

    1995-01-01

    Investigation was made of the prognostic value of quantified 24-hour electroencephalogram (EEG) continuity by 24-hour EEG recordings early in the postnatal period as compared follow-up, conventional EEG recordings up to fullterm was evaluated for low-birth weight infants with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Of twelve infants, 24-hour EEG recordings were performed on eight, and a total of 58 follow-up EEG recordings were obtained from the twelve. The 2...

  11. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene I/D genotype affected metoprolol-induced reduction in 24-hour average heart rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-wei; LIU Hong; CHEN Guo-liang; HUANG Yi-ling; HAN Lu-lu; XU Zhi-min; JIANG Xiong-jing; LI Yi-shi

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic factors can influence antihypertensive response to metoprolol, and many studies focused on the relationship between the genotype in β1-adrenergic receptor and blood pressure (BP), little was known about the association of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genotype with the therapeutic result of metoprolol. The present study aimed to investigate whether the ACE gene insertion (I) / deletion (D) polymorphism Is related to the response to metoprolol in Chinese Han hypertensive patients.Methods Ninety-six patients with essential hypertension received metoprolol (100 mg once daily) as monotherapy for 8 weeks. Twenty-four hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and dynamic electrocardiogram were performed before and after treatment. Genotyping analysis was performed using PCR. The association of the ACE gene I/D polymorphism with variations in BP and heart rate (HR) was observed after the 8-week treatment.Results The patients with ACE gene II polymorphism showed greater reduction in 24-hour average HR than those with ID or DD polymorphisms (P=0.045), no effect of this genotype on the reduction in seating HR or in BP was observed. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, BP and HR at baseline, the ACE gene I/D polymorphism was still an independent predictor for variations in 24-hour average HR.Conclusions The II polymorphism in ACE gene could be a candidate predictor for greater reduction in 24-hour average HR in Chinese Han hypertensive patients treated by metoprolol. Greater benefits would be obtained by patients with II polymorphism from the treatment with metoprolol. Larger studies are warranted to validate this finding.

  12. Incidence of and factors associated with perioperative cardiac arrest within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery.

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    Siriphuwanun, Visith; Punjasawadwong, Yodying; Lapisatepun, Worawut; Charuluxananan, Somrat; Uerpairojkit, Ketchada

    2014-01-01

    To determine the incidence of and factors associated with perioperative cardiac arrest within 24 hours of receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery. This retrospective cohort study was approved by the ethical committee of Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Thailand. We reviewed the data of 44,339 patients receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery during the period from January 1, 2003 to March 31, 2011. The data included patient characteristics, surgical procedures, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, anesthesia information, location of anesthesia performed, and outcomes. Data of patients who had received topical anesthesia or monitoring anesthesia care were excluded. Factors associated with cardiac arrest were identified by univariate analyses. Multiple regressions for the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to determine the strength of factors associated with cardiac arrest. A forward stepwise algorithm was chosen at a P-value cardiac arrest in patients receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery was 163 per 10,000. Factors associated with 24-hour perioperative cardiac arrest in emergency surgery were age of 2 years or younger (RR =1.46, CI =1.03-2.08, P=0.036), ASA physical status classification of 3-4 (RR =5.84, CI =4.20-8.12, Psurgery (upper intra-abdominal, RR =2.67, CI =2.14-3.33, Pcardiac, RR =3.61, CI =2.60-4.99, Pcardiac arrest within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery was high and associated with multiple factors such as young age (≤2 years old), cardiovascular and respiratory comorbidities, increasing ASA physical status classification, preoperative shock, and surgery site. Perioperative care providers, including surgeons, anesthesiologists, and nurses, should be prepared to manage promptly this high risk group of surgical patients.

  13. Correlation between 24-hour profile of blood pressure and ventricular arrhythmias and their prognostic significance in patients with arterial hypertension

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    Đorđević Dragan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH, apart from arterial hypertension, is a risk factor for electrophysiologic heart condition disorder and sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study was to examine a relationship between complex ventricular arrhythmias and parameters of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in the patients with arterial hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH, as well as their prognostic significance during a five-year follow-up. Methods. Ninety patients with arterial hypertension and LVH were included in this study (mean age 55.2±8.3 years. There were 35 healthy people in the control group (mean age 54.5±7.1 years. Left ventricular mass index was 171.9±32.4 g/m2 in the LVH group and 102.4±13.3 g/m2 in the control group. Clinical examination, echocardiogram, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and 24-hour holter monitoring were done in all of the examined persons. Ventricular arrhythmias were classified by the Lown classification. Results. In the LVH group there were 54 (60.0% of the patients with ≥ III Lown class. The best predictor of a Lown class were left ventricular mass index by using multivariate stepwise regression analyses (β = 0.212; p < 0.05 and small decrease of diastolic blood pressure during the night (β = -0.293; p < 0.01. The main predictor of bad prognosis was left ventricular mass index during a five year follow-up (β = 0.302; p < 0.01, for stepwise regression model: F = 8.828; p < 0.01, adjusted R2 = 0.091. Conclusion. Left ventricular arrhythmias are frequent in patients with lower decrease of blood pressure during the night. There was no correlation between the degree of ventricular arrhythmias and parameters from 24-hour blood pressure monitoring and a five-year prognosis in the patients with arterial hypertension and LVH. A bad five-year follow-up outcome of hypertensive disease depends on left ventricular mass index.

  14. The antimicrobial effect of 0.1 ppm ozonated water on 24-hour plaque microorganisms in situ

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    Syed Sadatullah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ozone is a known oxidant present in the atmosphere and is commercially produced by simple ozonizer machines. It is a powerful antimicrobial agent in its gaseous and aqueous forms. Ozone readily dissolves in water and retains its antimicrobial property even in the dissolved state. In this study, the effect of 0.1 ppm ozonated water was analyzed on 24-hour supragingival plaque (SP samples in situ. SP was collected from the two most posterior teeth in the contra-lateral quadrants before and after a 30-second rinse with either distilled water (control group or 0.1 ppm ozonated water (test group. The plaque was used to count the number of total bacteria, total anaerobic bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans on selective agar media. The statistical analysis of the number of colony forming units (CFUs obtained demonstrated a significant antimicrobial effect of ozonated water on the total bacteria (p = 0.01 and anaerobes (p = 0.02. A reduction in the post-rinse CFU count for Streptococcus mutans was also observed, but the effect was not statistically significant (p = 0.07. The Candida species was only grown from one sample. Ozonated water at the 0.1 ppm concentration was effective in reducing the load of 24-hour plaque bacteria, but it did not eliminate them completely.

  15. Evaluation of pirenzepine on gastric acidity in healthy volunteers using ambulatory 24 hour intragastric pH-monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, A; Fimmel, C J; Bron, B A; Loizeau, E; Blum, A L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of pirenzepine on 24 hour intragastric acidity was studied in 10 healthy volunteers using ambulatory 24 hour intragastric pH-monitoring in a double blind crossover study. Tests were performed on the seventh day of ingestion of either placebo, 75 mg pirenzepine or 150 mg pirenzepine per day. The drugs were given at two doses at 8.30 am and 8.30 pm. Mean nocturnal hydrogen ion activity during placebo treatment was 68 mmol/l +/- 9 SEM and was reduced by 75 mg (26%, p less than 0.01) and 150 mg of pirenzepine (36%, p less than 0.01), respectively. Mean diurnal hydrogen ion activity was 32 mmol/l +/- 6 SEM and was not significantly reduced (p greater than 0.1) by either dose of pirenzepine (4% and 12% respectively). Thus, the effect of pirenzepine on intragastric acidity is small, even with high doses of the drug, and becomes apparent only during the night. PMID:3882525

  16. A randomized, controlled trial to assess short-term black pepper consumption on 24-hour energy expenditure and substrate utilization

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    Annalouise O’Connor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Thermogenic ingredients may play a role in weight management. In vitro and rodent work suggests that components of black pepper may impact energy expenditure, and in humans, other TPRV1 agonists e.g. capsaicin, augment EE. Objectives: To determine the impact of BP on 24-hour EE, respiratory quotient, and biochemical markers of metabolism and satiety, a randomized, controlled, cross-over study of black pepper (0.5mg/meal versus no pepper control was conducted in post-menopausal women. Subjects spent two 24-hour periods in a whole room indirect calorimeter. Results: Post-meal glucose, insulin, gut peptides and catecholamines were measured. Energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, or biochemical markers assessed did not differ significantly between the black pepper and no pepper control study days. Conclusions: Our findings do not support a role for black pepper in modulating energy expenditure in overweight postmenopausal women. Future work targeting alternative populations, administering black pepper in the fasted state, or in combination with other spices, may reveal the thermogenic effect of this spice.Trial registration: This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01729143.Key words: Black pepper, piperine, energy expenditure, metabolic chamber

  17. Continuous stroke unit electrocardiographic monitoring versus 24-hour Holter electrocardiography for detection of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, Timolaos; Güntner, Janina; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Marquardt, Lars; Reichardt, Christine; Becker, Rüdiger; Reinhardt, Roland; Hepp, Thomas; Kirchhof, Paulus; Aleynichenko, Elena; Ringleb, Peter; Hacke, Werner; Veltkamp, Roland

    2012-10-01

    Cardioembolism in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (pxAF) is a frequent cause of ischemic stroke. Sensitive detection of pxAF after stroke is crucial for adequate secondary stroke prevention; the optimal diagnostic modality to detect pxAF on stroke units is unknown. We compared 24-hour Holter electrocardiography (ECG) with continuous stroke unit ECG monitoring (CEM) for pxAF detection. Patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were prospectively enrolled. After a 12-channel ECG on admission, all patients received 24-hour Holter ECG and CEM. Additionally, ECG monitoring data underwent automated analysis using dedicated software to identify pxAF. Patients with a history of atrial fibrillation or with atrial fibrillation on the admission ECG were excluded. Four hundred ninety-six patients (median age, 69 years; 61.5% male) fulfilled all inclusion criteria (ischemic stroke: 80.4%; transient ischemic attack: 19.6%). Median stroke unit stay lasted 88.8 hours (interquartile range, 65.0-122.0). ECG data for automated CEM analysis were available for a median time of 64.0 hours (43.0-89.8). Paroxysmal AF was documented in 41 of 496 patients (8.3%). Of these, Holter detected pxAF in 34.1%; CEM in 65.9%; and automated CEM in 92.7%. CEM and automated CEM detected significantly more patients with pxAF than Holter (PHolter ECG. The comparative usefulness of prolonged or repetitive Holter ECG recordings requires further evaluation.

  18. The effects of roxatidine acetate on 24-hour intragastric acidity. Investigations in healthy volunteers and comparison with ranitidine and placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merki, H S; Witzel, L; Kaufmann, D; Kempf, M; Neumann, J; Scheurle, E; Röhmel, J; Walt, R P

    1988-01-01

    In a series of double-blind randomised studies in normal volunteers with continuous intragastric pH monitoring, the effects of different dosage regimens of roxatidine acetate, a new H2-receptor antagonist, were compared with placebo and ranitidine. Roxatidine acetate 75 mg twice daily decreased median 24-hour gastric acidity from pH 1.6 to 3.2 and median nocturnal acidity from 1.5 to 3.0. Roxatidine acetate 150 mg at bedtime raised median 24-hour pH in the same 17 subjects to 2.4 and nocturnal pH to 5.9. In the second experiment, in 14 volunteers, roxatidine acetate 150 mg at bedtime was as effective as ranitidine 300 mg at night, raising median nocturnal pH from 1.4 to 6.65 compared to 6.7 for ranitidine. However, when drugs were taken after the evening meal (post cenam nocte; PCN) roxatidine acetate 150 mg was less potent than ranitidine 300 mg, with median night-time pH rising from 1.3 to 3.2 and 4.0, respectively, in 28 volunteers. Roxatidine acetate 300 mg PCN produced the greatest rise of pH, to 4.9, suggesting that the true potency ratio of the 2 drugs is between 1 and 2.

  19. 24-hour creatinine clearance reliability for estimation of glomerular filtration rate in different stages of chronic kidney disease

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    El-Minshawy Osama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR is considered the best overall index of renal function currently used. Measurement of 24 hours urine/plasma creatinine ratio (UV/P is usually used for estimation of GFR. However little is known about its accuracy in different stages of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD aim: is to evaluate performance of UV/P in classification of CKD by comparing it with isotopic GFR (iGFR. 136 patients with CKD were enrolled in this study 80 (59% were males, 48 (35% were diabetics. Mean age 46 ± 13. Creatinine Clearance (Cr.Cl estimated by UV/P and Cockroft-Gault (CG was done for all patients, iGFR was the reference value. Accuracy of UV/P was 10%, 31%, 49% within ± 10%, ± 30%, ± 50% error respectively, r 2 = 0.44. CG gave a better performance even when we restrict our analysis to diabetics only, the accuracy of CG was 19%, 47%, 72% in ± 10%, ± 30% and ± 50% errors respectively, r 2 = 0.63. Both equations gave poor classification of CKD. In conclusion, UV/P has poor accuracy in estimation of GFR, The accuracy worsened as kidney disease becomes more severe. We conclude 24 hours CrCl. is not good substitute for measurement of GFR in patients with CKD.

  20. QTc interval prolongation in HIV-infected patients: a case–control study by 24-hour Holter ECG recording

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    Fiorentini Alessandra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim of the study was to assess QTc interval by a 24-hour ECG recording in a group of HIV-infected individuals with a basal prolonged QTc. The risk factors associated with QTc prolongation and the indices of cardiovascular autonomic control were also evaluated. Methods A case–control study was performed using as cases 32 HIV-infected patients with prolonged (>440 msec QTc interval as assessed by Holter ECG, and as controls 64 HIV-infected subjects with normal QTc interval. Autonomic function was evaluated by heart rate variability analysis during 24-hour recording. Results Duration of HIV disease was significantly longer among cases than among controls (p=0.04. Waist/hip ratio was also higher among cases than among controls (p=0.05. Frequency domain analysis showed the absence of physiologic decrease of low frequency (LF in the night period in both cases and controls. The LF night in cases showed a statistically significant reduction when compared with controls (p=0.007. Conclusions In our study group, QTc interval prolongation was associated with a longer duration of HIV infection and with a greater waist/hip ratio. HIV patients with QTc interval prolongation and with a longer duration of HIV infection were more likely to have an impairment of parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiac component.

  1. Presentations by ambulance under the NSW Mental Health Act to an emergency department with a 24-hour mental health team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopek, Michaela A; Francis, Jeryl Lynn

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the presentations of patients by ambulance, under Section 20 of the NSW Mental Health Act of 2007, to a hospital emergency department (ED) with a 24-hour Mental Health Team. Patient records between December 2013 and December 2014 were audited and analysed in Excel. There were 47 such presentations: 51% required a mental health admission. Patients required management for up to six of the nine identified mental health and physical problems. As the number of clinical problems in these patients increased, the length of their stay and the likelihood of discharge to home increased. The need for psychiatric admission did not appear to prolong their length of stay, though chemical sedation did. The availability of an ED mental health team did assist in achieving a length of stay that was in keeping with Australian National Emergency Access Target guidelines. A 24-hour ED mental health team provided specialised assessment and management for patients, alongside the necessary emergency medical intervention. This team assisted in easing the increasing pressure on the ED and minimising the patients' length of stay. The team redirected patients requiring admission, facilitated timely discharge of others and revoked Section 20 when less restrictive care was appropriate. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  2. Parental dietary patterns and social determinants of children's dietary patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana SALLES-COSTA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To identify dietary patterns in children up to thirty months of age and verify whether they are associated with parental dietary patterns, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Methods This is a cross-sectional study with baseline data from a population-based study composed of 1,085 households from a representative sample of a metropolitan region in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The children's food intake was evaluated by two 24-hour recalls, and the dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis stratified into two groups according to the children's age: 6 to 17 months; and 18 to 30 months. The explanatory variables collected by a structured questionnaire were socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, age at introduction of complementary foods, and parental dietary pattern. A Food Frequency Questionnaire was administered to assess parental dietary pattern, which was determined by principal component analysis. Multivariate linear regression estimated the effect of each explanatory variable on the children's dietary patterns. Results Three dietary patterns were identified in children aged 6-17 months (basic-mixed; mixed-plus; and milk-flours and two dietary patterns were identified in children aged 18-30 months: basic-mixed and mixed-plus. Multivariate linear regression showed that complementary feeding (b=0.108; p=0.004 was positively associated with the basic-mixed dietary pattern, and family income (b=0.002; p£0.01, with the mixed-plus dietary pattern. A negative association was found between the traditional parental dietary pattern and children's mixed-plus pattern in children aged 6-17 months (b=0.152; p=0.006 and in children aged 18-30 months (b=0.152; p=0.016. In children aged up to 18 months, parental education level (b=0.368; p£0.01 was positively associated with the mixed-plus dietary pattern. Conclusion Family income, parental education level, and parental dietary patterns are

  3. Association between 24-hour urine sodium and potassium excretion and diet quality in six-year-old children: a cross sectional study

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    Kristbjornsdottir Oddny K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited data is available on sodium (Na and potassium (K intake in young children estimated by 24 hour (24h excretion in urine. The aim was to assess 24h urinary excretion of Na and K in six-year-old children and its relationship with diet quality. Methods The study population was a subsample of a national dietary survey, including six-year-old children living in the greater Reykjavik area (n=76. Three day weighed food records were used to estimate diet quality. Diet quality was defined as adherence to the Icelandic food based dietary guidelines. Na and K excretion was analyzed from 24h urine collections. PABA check was used to validate completeness of urine collections. The associations between Na and K excretion and diet quality were estimated by linear regression, adjusting for gender and energy intake. Results Valid urine collections and diet registrations were provided by 58 children. Na and K excretion was, mean (SD, 1.64 (0.54 g Na/24h (approx. 4.1 g salt/24h and 1.22 (0.43 g K/24h. In covariate adjusted models Na excretion decreased by 0.16 g Na/24h (95% CI: 0.31, 0.06 per 1-unit increase in diet quality score (score range: 1–4 while K excretion was increased by 0.18 g K/24h (95% CI: 0.06, 0.29. Conclusions Na intake, estimated by 24h urinary excretion was on average higher than recommended. Increased diet quality was associated with lower Na excretion and higher K excretion in six-year-old children.

  4. Estimating the Distribution of Dietary Consumption Patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-02-01

    In the United States the preferred method of obtaining dietary intake data is the 24-hour dietary recall, yet the measure of most interest is usual or long-term average daily intake, which is impossible to measure. Thus, usual dietary intake is assessed with considerable measurement error. We were interested in estimating the population distribution of the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), a multi-component dietary quality index involving ratios of interrelated dietary components to energy, among children aged 2-8 in the United States, using a national survey and incorporating survey weights. We developed a highly nonlinear, multivariate zero-inflated data model with measurement error to address this question. Standard nonlinear mixed model software such as SAS NLMIXED cannot handle this problem. We found that taking a Bayesian approach, and using MCMC, resolved the computational issues and doing so enabled us to provide a realistic distribution estimate for the HEI-2005 total score. While our computation and thinking in solving this problem was Bayesian, we relied on the well-known close relationship between Bayesian posterior means and maximum likelihood, the latter not computationally feasible, and thus were able to develop standard errors using balanced repeated replication, a survey-sampling approach.

  5. HYPERCONNECTED YOUTH. COMMUNICATION AND VITUAL SOCIABILITY CASE STUDY ABOUT DISCONNECTION IN MEDIA FOR 24 HOURS IN SPANISH COLLEGE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Cáceres Zapatero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This collaboration presents the results of a study conducted with 190 college students who had a 24 hours media disconnection experience. The aim was to know the feelings experienced and how the situation affected their interpersonal and communication relationships. We wanted that students could learn, reflect and analyze their own communication habits in order to identify opportunities, challenges and risks; and also become aware of their dependence on media every day. The work tried to promote responsible use of the Internet and other media. Young people were invited to express, through a questionnaire, their feelings. Answers were coded and processed with SPSS software. The results show that hyperconnection is their way of relating and being in the world, that its absence causes discomfort and technologically mediated communication has replaced a major part of the face to face communication.

  6. Incidence of and factors associated with perioperative cardiac arrest within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery

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    Siriphuwanun V

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Visith Siriphuwanun,1 Yodying Punjasawadwong,1 Worawut Lapisatepun,1 Somrat Charuluxananan,2 Ketchada Uerpairojkit2 1Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Mueang District, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: To determine the incidence of and factors associated with perioperative cardiac arrest within 24 hours of receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery. Patients and methods: This retrospective cohort study was approved by the ethical committee of Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Thailand. We reviewed the data of 44,339 patients receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery during the period from January 1, 2003 to March 31, 2011. The data included patient characteristics, surgical procedures, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA physical status classification, anesthesia information, location of anesthesia performed, and outcomes. Data of patients who had received topical anesthesia or monitoring anesthesia care were excluded. Factors associated with cardiac arrest were identified by univariate analyses. Multiple regressions for the risk ratio (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were used to determine the strength of factors associated with cardiac arrest. A forward stepwise algorithm was chosen at a P-value <0.05. Results: The incidence (within 24 hours of perioperative cardiac arrest in patients receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery was 163 per 10,000. Factors associated with 24-hour perioperative cardiac arrest in emergency surgery were age of 2 years or younger (RR =1.46, CI =1.03–2.08, P=0.036, ASA physical status classification of 3–4 (RR =5.84, CI =4.20–8.12, P<0.001 and 5–6 (RR =33.98, CI =23.09–49.98, P<0.001, the anatomic site of surgery (upper intra-abdominal, RR =2.67, CI =2.14–3.33, P<0.001; intracranial, RR =1.74, CI =1.35–2.25, P<0.001; intrathoracic, RR =2.35, CI =1.70–3

  7. Effects of roxatidine acetate on 24-hour gastric acidity. Early evening versus bedtime administration in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemery, P; Congard, P; Galmiche, J P; Bonfils, S

    1988-01-01

    The gastric antisecretory activity of roxatidine acetate was studied on 24-hour intragastric pH in 12 healthy male volunteers. The study was randomised, double-blind and double-dummy where either roxatidine acetate 150 mg as a slow release granulated formulation or placebo were administered at 7.30 pm or 10 pm. Roxatidine acetate 150 mg produced a significant decrease in the number of hours during which gastric acidity ranged between pH 1.5 and 4.0 which was consistent with the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug. There was no significant difference between the median intragastric pH values for early evening and bedtime administration of roxatidine acetate. The present data confirm that roxatidine acetate 150 mg inhibits gastric acid secretion but while a single evening dose is effective in controlling intragastric pH the results suggest there is no clear advantage in an early evening dose compared with a bedtime dose.

  8. 24-hour energy expenditure and substrate oxidation rates are unaffected by body fat distribution in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemann, B; Astrup, A; Quaade, F; Madsen, J

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure (EE) and nonprotein respiratory quotient (RQnp) were measured by indirect calorimetry in 19 upper-body-obese (UBO) and 15 lower-body-obese (LBO) women with similar body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent. The measurements were performed in a respiration chamber on a predetermined physical activity program and a controlled diet. No differences between the UBO and LBO groups were found in 24-hour, daytime, and sleeping EE after adjustment for differences in fat-free mass (FFM). Furthermore, no group effect was observed in RQnp, but a positive correlation was found between RQnp and age. Despite the fact that an increased free fatty acid (FFA) turnover has been found in UBO subjects, the present study does not support the contention that upper-body obesity is accompanied by an increased lipid oxidation.

  9. One fourth of acutely admitted patients use over-the-counter-drugs 24 hours prior to hospitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Magnus; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    to hospitalisation and the effects of this intake. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Junior physicians on call interviewed patients admitted to the medical admission unit at South-West Jutland Hospital in Esbjerg using a modified chart template. Adult patients aged 15 and older admitted during a two-week period in August 2012...... were included. Patients were asked about consumed OTC drugs, dosage, indication and effect. RESULTS: From a total of 349 admissions, 188 usable chart templates were registered (54%), and information on OTC usage was registered on 165 of these (88%). The patients where elderly (median: 70 years) and 43......, 60% felt an effect of the intake and the majority felt an effect on pain symptoms. CONCLUSION: One in four patients used OTC drugs 24 hours prior to hospitalisation and primarily analgesics were used. Most patients used OTC drugs relevantly and half with a positive effect. The intake is poorly...

  10. Ambulatory arterial stiffness index and 24-hour ambulatory pulse pressure as predictors of mortality in Ohasama, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuya, Masahiro; Staessen, Jan A; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Thijs, Lutgarde; Metoki, Hirohito; Asayama, Kei; Obara, Taku; Inoue, Ryusuke; Li, Yan; Dolan, Eamon; Hoshi, Haruhisa; Hashimoto, Junichiro; Totsune, Kazuhito; Satoh, Hiroshi; Wang, Ji-Guang; O'Brien, Eoin; Imai, Yutaka

    2007-04-01

    Ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) and pulse pressure (PP) are indexes of arterial stiffness and can be computed from 24-hour blood pressure recordings. We investigated the prognostic value of AASI and PP in relation to fatal outcomes. In 1542 Ohasama residents (baseline age, 40 to 93 years; 63.4% women), we applied Cox regression to relate mortality to AASI and PP while adjusting for sex, age, BMI, 24-hour MAP, smoking and drinking habits, diabetes mellitus, and a history of cardiovascular disease. During 13.3 years (median), 126 cardiovascular and 63 stroke deaths occurred. The sex- and age-standardized incidence rates of cardiovascular and stroke mortality across quartiles were U-shaped for AASI and J-shaped for PP. Across quartiles, the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for cardiovascular and stroke death significantly deviated from those in the whole population in a U-shaped fashion for AASI, whereas for PP, none of the HRs departed from the overall risk. The hazard ratios for cardiovascular mortality across ascending AASI quartiles were 1.40 (P=0.04), 0.82 (P=0.25), 0.64 (P=0.01), and 1.35 (P=0.03). Additional adjustment of AASI for PP and sensitivity analyses by sex, excluding patients on antihypertensive treatment or with a history of cardiovascular disease, or censoring deaths occurring within 2 years of enrollment, produced confirmatory results. In a Japanese population, AASI predicted cardiovascular and stroke mortality over and beyond PP and other risk factors, whereas in adjusted analyses, PP did not carry any prognostic information.

  11. Prognostic Significance of Initial Serum Albumin and 24 Hour Daily Protein Excretion before Treatment in Multiple Myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Hong; Hsu, Shun-Neng; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying; Lin, Chin; Chang, Ping-Ying; Chen, Yeu-Chin; Ho, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Renal failure is a common morbidity in multiple myeloma (MM). Although proteinuria has been increasingly reported in malignancies, it is not routinely used to refine risk estimates of survival outcomes in patients with MM. Here we aimed to investigate initial serum albumin and 24-hour daily protein excretion (24-h DPE) before treatment as prognostic factors in patients with MM. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 102 patients with myeloma who were ineligible for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation between October 2000 and December 2012. Initial proteinuria was assessed before treatment by quantitative analysis of 24-hour urine samples. The demographic and laboratory characteristics, survival outcome, and significance of pre-treatment 24-h DPE and albumin in the new staging system of MM were analyzed. Pre-treatment proteinuria (>300 mg/day) was present in 66 patients (64.7%). The optimal cut-off value of 24-h DPE before treatment was 500 mg/day. Analysis of the time-dependent area under the curve showed that the serum albumin and 24-h DPE before treatment were better than 24-h creatinine clearance rate and β2-microglobulin. A subgroup analysis showed that an initial excess proteinuria (24-h DPE ≥ 500 mg) was associated with poor survival status (17.51 vs. 34.24 months, p = 0.002). Furthermore, initial serum albumin was an independent risk factor on multivariate analysis (albumin and 24-h DPE before treatment showed significant prognostic factors in patients with MM, and the new A-DPE staging system may be utilized instead of the International Staging System. Its efficacy should be evaluated by further large prospective studies.

  12. Prognostic Significance of Initial Serum Albumin and 24 Hour Daily Protein Excretion before Treatment in Multiple Myeloma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Hong Chen

    Full Text Available Renal failure is a common morbidity in multiple myeloma (MM. Although proteinuria has been increasingly reported in malignancies, it is not routinely used to refine risk estimates of survival outcomes in patients with MM. Here we aimed to investigate initial serum albumin and 24-hour daily protein excretion (24-h DPE before treatment as prognostic factors in patients with MM. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 102 patients with myeloma who were ineligible for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation between October 2000 and December 2012. Initial proteinuria was assessed before treatment by quantitative analysis of 24-hour urine samples. The demographic and laboratory characteristics, survival outcome, and significance of pre-treatment 24-h DPE and albumin in the new staging system of MM were analyzed. Pre-treatment proteinuria (>300 mg/day was present in 66 patients (64.7%. The optimal cut-off value of 24-h DPE before treatment was 500 mg/day. Analysis of the time-dependent area under the curve showed that the serum albumin and 24-h DPE before treatment were better than 24-h creatinine clearance rate and β2-microglobulin. A subgroup analysis showed that an initial excess proteinuria (24-h DPE ≥ 500 mg was associated with poor survival status (17.51 vs. 34.24 months, p = 0.002. Furthermore, initial serum albumin was an independent risk factor on multivariate analysis (<2.8 vs. ≥ 2.8, hazard ratio = 0.486, p = 0.029. Using the A-DPE staging system, there was a significant survival difference among patients with stage I, II, and III MM (p < 0.001. Initial serum albumin and 24-h DPE before treatment showed significant prognostic factors in patients with MM, and the new A-DPE staging system may be utilized instead of the International Staging System. Its efficacy should be evaluated by further large prospective studies.

  13. Intracranial Pressure Elevation 24 Hours after Ischemic Stroke in Aged Rats is Prevented by Early, Short Hypothermia Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Anne Murtha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is predominantly a senescent disease, yet most preclinical studies investigate treatment in young animals. We recently demonstrated that short-duration hypothermia-treatment completely prevented the dramatic intracranial pressure (ICP rise seen post-stroke in young rats. Here, our aim was to investigate whether a similar ICP rise occurs in aged rats and to determine whether short-duration hypothermia is an effective treatment in aged animals. Experimental Middle Cerebral Artery occlusion (MCAo - 3 hour occlusion was performed on male Wistar rats aged 19-20 months. At one hour after stroke-onset, rats were randomized to 2.5 hours hypothermia-treatment (32.5 °C or normothermia (37 °C. ICP was monitored at baseline, for 3.5 hours post-occlusion, and at 24 hours post-stroke. Infarct and edema volumes were calculated from histology. Baseline pre-stroke ICP was 11.2 ± 3.3 mmHg across all animals. Twenty-four hours post-stroke, ICP was significantly higher in normothermic animals compared to hypothermia-treated animals (27.4 ± 18.2 mmHg vs. 8.0 ± 5.0 mmHg, p = 0.03. Infarct and edema volumes were not significantly different between groups. These data demonstrate ICP may also increase 24 hours post-stroke in aged rats, and that short-duration hypothermia treatment has a profound and sustained preventative effect. These findings may have important implications for the use of hypothermia in clinical trials of aged stroke patients.

  14. Evaluation of reasons for staying and waiting for more than 24 hours in the emergency ward of Imam Hossein hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Alimohammadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Standardization of hospital emergency units is a major goal in developed countries to decrease the duration of patients stay in these units. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of long-term staying in an emergency ward. Methods: In the present 2-month cross-sectional study, patients referring to the emergency ward of Imam Hossein hospital were assessed. The patients’ demographic data, including age, the presenting symptoms and signs, reasons for delays, and the final outcome in relation to the location of hospitalization and discharge information were recorded. Data were reported as frequencies and percentages. The results were reported as means and standard deviations using SPSS version 20. Results: Of 10087 patients admitted into the emergency ward during a 2-month period, 75 patients (0.7% needed to stay and wait for more than 24 hours. The mean ± standard deviation of the patients’ ages was 62.5 ± 20.2 years, with 60% of the patients being over 60 years of age. The most common reason for overcrowding in the emergency ward was a lack of empty beds, with the need for ICU beds as the most important reason for bed deficiency in 59% of the cases. Nervous system problems were the most common reasons for referring to the emergency unit (41% in patients under study. Finally, 81% of the patients were hospitalized, 10% died, 7% were discharged based on personal request and 1.3% were transferred to another hospital. Conclusion: The prevalence of patients staying and waiting in the emergency ward for more than 24 hours was 0.7%. Lack of empty ICU beds was the most important reason for such delays; however, paraclinical problems had no role in these delays which were associated with the death of 10% of patients

  15. Biomechanical evaluation of three fixation modalities for preperitoneal inguinal hernia repair: a 24-hour postoperative study in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guérin G

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gaëtan Guérin, Xavier Bourges, Frédéric Turquier Covidien-Surgical Solutions, Research and Development, Trévoux, France Purpose: Tacks and sutures ensure a strong fixation of meshes, but they can be associated with pain and discomfort. Less invasive methods are now available. Three fixation modalities were compared: the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh; the fibrin glue Tisseel™ with Bard™ Soft Mesh; and the SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system with Bard™ Soft Mesh. Materials and methods: Meshes (6 cm ×6 cm were implanted in the preperitoneal space of swine. Samples were explanted 24 hours after surgery. Centered defects were created, and samples (either ten or eleven per fixation type were loaded in a pressure chamber. For each sample, the pressure, the mesh displacement through the defect, and the measurements of the contact area were recorded. Results: At all pressures tested, the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh both exhibited a significantly lower displacement through the defect and retained a significantly higher percentage of its initial contact area than either the Bard™ Soft Mesh with Tisseel™ system or the Bard™ Soft Mesh with SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system. Dislocations occurred with the Bard™ Soft Mesh with Tisseel™ system and with the Bard™ Soft Mesh with SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system at physiological pressure (<225 mmHg. No dislocation was recorded for the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh. Conclusion: At 24 hours after implantation, the mechanical fixation of the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh was found to be significantly better than the fixation of the Tisseel™ system or the SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system. Keywords: hernia, mesh, fixation, ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh

  16. Dietary salt intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Riddell, Lynn J; Campbell, Karen J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2013-01-01

    To determine the association among dietary salt, fluid, and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and weight status in a nationally representative sample of Australian children aged 2 to 16 years. Cross-sectional data from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Consumption of dietary salt, fluid, and SSB was determined via two 24-hour dietary recalls. BMI was calculated from recorded height and weight. Regression analysis was used to assess the association between salt, fluid, SSB consumption, and weight status. Of the 4283 participants, 62% reported consuming SSBs. Older children and those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) were more likely to consume SSBs (both Ps consumption (r = 0.42, P consumption (r = 0.35, P consumption and SSB consumption within consumers of SSBs. Furthermore, SSB consumption was associated with obesity risk. In addition to the known benefits of lowering blood pressure, salt reduction strategies may be useful in childhood obesity prevention efforts.

  17. CT perfusion imaging and CT subtraction angiography in the diagnosis of ischemic cerebrovascular disease within 24 hours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管小亭; 于学英; 刘翔; 龙洁; 戴建平

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of the clinical use of CT perfusion imaging (CTPI) and CT subtraction angiography (CTSA) for diagnosing acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease (AICVD). Methods Twenty-four patients with AICVD onset within 24 hours were examined with regular CT, CTPI, and CTSA. Some cases received CTPI, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), digital subtraction angiography (DSA) or single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) during follow-up examinations.Results Of the 24 cases, 11 had negative results from regular CT scans 3-6 hours after onset of stroke in 6 cases, 6-12 hours in 3 cases, and 12-24 hours in 2 cases. Ten of these cases were then confirmed by CTPI as having ischemic lesions, 2 with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and 1 case with transient ischemic attack (TIA) with CTPI negative. Of the 24 cases, 13 had positive results from regular CT, 9 were diagnosed with ischemic lesions larger by using CTPI than regular CT, 1 case had MCAO and 1 had internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO). There were 4 cases with ischemic lesions observed with regular CT having nearly the same range as that of lacunar infarctions using CTPI. Another 4 cases had more than 2 lesion areas. The peak time (PT), mean transit time (MTT) and relative flow (RF) of 24 cases were markedly different. The sides of ischemic lesions compared to each other and the core of the lesion compared to peripheral zones were also altered significantly (P<0.01).Conclusions Combined CTPI with CTSA can detect acute ischemic lesions at early and hyper-early stages and could distinguish between TIA, lacunar infarction and a larger area of infarction. Using semiquantitative blood perfusion analysis status, CTPI with CTSA could define position, area and range of the ischemic lesion and penumbra. These scans can also analyze the brain blood perfusion status. It is important to early diagnose the occlusion of the entire division of the internal

  18. Characterization of lymphocyte subsets over a 24-hour period in Pineal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (PALT in the chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNulty John A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeostatic trafficking of lymphocytes in the brain has important relevance to the understanding of CNS disease processes. The pineal gland of the chicken contains large accumulations of lymphocytes that suggest an important role related to homeostatic circadian neuro-immune interactions. The purpose of this initial study was to characterize the lymphocyte subsets in the pineal gland and quantitate the distribution and frequency of lymphocyte phenotypes at two time points over the 24-hour light:dark cycle. Results PALT comprised approximately 10% of the total pineal area. Image analysis of immunocytochemically stained sections showed that the majority of lymphocytes were CD3+ (80% with the remaining 20% comprising B-cells and monocytes (Bu-1+, which tended to distribute along the periphery of the PALT. T-cell subsets in PALT included CD4+ (75–80%, CD8+ (20–25%, TCRαβ/Vβ1+ (60%, and TCRγδ+ (15%. All of the T-cell phenotypes were commonly found within the interfollicular septa and follicles of the pineal gland. However, the ratios of CD8+/CD4+ and TCRγδ+/TCRαβ/Vβ1+ within the pineal tissue were each 1:1, in contrast to the PALT where the ratios of CD8+/CD4+ and TCRγδ+/TCRαβ/Vβ1+ each approximated 1:4. Bu-1+ cells were only rarely seen in the pineal interstitial spaces, but ramified Bu-1+ microglia/macrophages were common in the pineal follicles. Effects of the 24-h light:dark cycle on these lymphocyte-pineal interactions were suggested by an increase in the area of PALT, a decline in the density of TCRαβ/Vβ1+ cells, and a decline in the area density of Bu-1+ microglia at the light:dark interphase (1900 h compared to the dark:light interphase (0700 h. Conclusion The degree of lymphocyte infiltration in the pineal suggests novel mechanisms of neuro-immune interactions in this part of the brain. Our results further suggest that these interactions have a temporal component related to the 24-hour light

  19. Report from 24 hours reproductive health hotline in Shanghai:a preliminary analysis on first 9 months hotline data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓宇; 童传良; 陈军玲; 肖志琴; 程利南

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To study reproductive health needs of Shanghai people, and to develop appropriate measures to meet their needs.Methods: Statistical analysis of 24 hours reproductive health hotline data 4,000 random sampled sex questions, comparing answers from differen t gender and different questions (sex questions vs other non-sex questions).Results: During the first 9 months a total of 44,216 calls wer e received by medical staff. The callers included various age groups (aged 12-7 8), different marital status, from Shanghai and outside. In total, the numbers o f men and women on hotline calls were almost same. The contents of the hotline c ounseling covered all aspects of reproductive health care; among them, the issue concerning male and female sex problems and prenatal and infant health care con stituted 26.5% and 34% respectively. Men asked questions about sex more frequent ly than women, whereas women asked questions more about baby care. Questions a bout sex problems were asked more often in the late evening until next early mor ning. Conclusions: Shanghai people showed higher needs in sexual heal th care, prenatal care and baby care. When they came across some related problem s or confusions, they would like to receive the professional instant counseling. Relevant health care programmes should be established in order to meet the fer tile-aged public's reproductive health needs.

  20. Inter- and intraobserver agreement in 24-hour combined multiple intraluminal impedance and pH measurement in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilic, Denisa; Höfs, Carolin; Weitmann, Sandra; Nöh, Frank; Fröhlich, Thorsten; Skopnik, Heino; Köhler, Henrik; Wenzl, Tobias G; Schmidt-Choudhury, Anjona

    2011-09-01

    Assessment of intra- and interobserver agreement in multiple intraluminal impedance (MII) measurement between investigators from different institutions. Twenty-four 18- to 24-hour MII tracings were randomly chosen from 4 different institutions (6 per center). Software-aided automatic analysis was performed. Each result was validated by 2 independent investigators from the 4 different centers (4 investigator combinations). For intraobserver agreement, 6 measurements were analyzed twice by the same investigator. Agreement between investigators was calculated using the Cohen kappa coefficient. Interobserver agreement: 13 measurements showed a perfect agreement (kappa > 0.8); 9 had a substantial (kappa 0.61-0.8), 1 a moderate (kappa coefficient 0.41 to 0.6), and 1 a fair agreement (kappa coefficient 0.11-0.4). Median kappa value was 0.83. Intraobserver agreement: 5 tracings showed perfect and 1 showed a substantial agreement. The median kappa value was 0.88. Most measurements showed substantial to perfect intra- and interobserver agreement. Still, we found a few outliers presumably caused by poorer signal quality in some tracings rather than being observer dependent. An improvement of analysis results may be achieved by using a standard analysis protocol, a standardized method for judging tracing quality, better training options for method users, and more interaction between investigators from different institutions.

  1. A 24-Hour Global Campaign To Assess Precision Timing of the Millisecond Pulsar J1713+0747

    CERN Document Server

    Dolch, T; Cordes, J M; Chatterjee, S; Bassa, C; Bhattacharyya, B; Champion, D J; Cognard, I; Crowter, K; Demorest, P B; Hessels, J W T; Janssen, G H; Jenet, F A; Jones, G; Jordan, C; Karuppusamy, R; Keith, M; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; Lazarus, P; Lazio, T J W; Lee, K J; McLaughlin, M A; Roy, J; Shannon, R M; Stairs, I H; Stovall, K; Verbiest, J P W; Madison, D R; Palliyaguru, N; Perrodin, D; Ransom, S M; Stappers, B W; Zhu, W W; Dai, S; Desvignes, G; Guillemot, L; Liu, K; Lyne, A G; Perera, B B P; Petroff, E; Rankin, J M; Smits, R

    2014-01-01

    The radio millisecond pulsar J1713+0747 is regarded as one of the highest-precision clocks in the sky, and is regularly timed for the purpose of detecting gravitational waves. The International Pulsar Timing Array collaboration undertook a 24-hour global observation of PSR J1713+0747 in an effort to better quantify sources of timing noise in this pulsar, particularly on intermediate (1 - 24 hr) timescales. We observed the pulsar continuously over 24 hr with the Arecibo, Effelsberg, GMRT, Green Bank, LOFAR, Lovell, Nancay, Parkes, and WSRT radio telescopes. The combined pulse times-of-arrival presented here provide an estimate of what sources of timing noise, excluding DM variations, would be present as compared to an idealized root-N improvement in timing precision, where N is the number of pulses analyzed. In the case of this particular pulsar, we find that intrinsic pulse phase jitter dominates arrival time precision when the S/N of single pulses exceeds unity, as measured using the eight telescopes that ob...

  2. Evidence review of technology and dietary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, JoAnn D; Littlefield, Laurel A; Estep, Gary; Martin, Hope; Rogers, Toby J; Boswell, Carol; Shriver, Brent J; Roman-Shriver, Carmen R

    2010-12-01

    Diets high in fruit and vegetable consumption are associated with a decrease in chronic diseases. Dietary factors are linked to 4 of the 10 leading noncommunicable causes of death: cardiovascular disease, some cancers, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. Accurately measuring dietary patterns has many challenges. Dietary intake measurement has traditionally relied on self-report instruments such as 24-hour recall, food record, and food frequency questionnaires to record consumption history. These methods have inherent limitations in detecting small but important changes in fruit and vegetable consumption patterns. Promising advances in technology have made more sophisticated techniques for recording dietary intake possible. Computers and Web-based programs, handheld personal digital assistants with cameras and telephone cards, smart phones, cameras, and video recorders options may reduce the burden of recording what has been consumed. Furthermore, technology-based methods of dietary assessment may provide a higher degree of reliability and validity in visually determining fruit and vegetable consumption, and additional study is warranted. The purpose of this article is to present a review of the evidence on the effectiveness of technology-based methods for dietary assessment, which included fruit and vegetable consumption. One hundred and eighty-seven articles published between 1998 and 2008 were initially identified. Fifteen met the study inclusion criteria and were evaluated by an interdisciplinary team using the Stetler Strength of Evidence Scale. Six technology-based methods for dietary assessment were identified. Findings from validity and reliability testing of technology-based methods are encouraging and need replication. Clinically important features offered through technology may reduce reporting burden and offer behavioral feedback to users. Methodologically sound, empirical research into using technology-based application for dietary assessment in a variety of

  3. Dietary adequacy in Asian Indians with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, N; Bhatt, S P; Sakhuja, A; Srivastava, S; Agarwal, S

    2008-03-01

    Malnutrition is endemic in developing countries, which also bear the brunt of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. HIV and its complications have a significant impact on nutritional status. Malnutrition and HIV have deleterious interactions. Dietary inadequacy is a major cause of malnutrition and few studies have been done to assess dietary adequacy in HIV-infected individuals and the factors affecting intake. Dietary intake of 71 consecutive patients was determined using 24-hour dietary recall, with the help of a questionnaire and a structured interview, and then compared with the recommended dietary allowances (RDA). The dietary intake of energy, total fat, fibre, vitamin C and iron were significantly less than the recommended RDA. There was no difference in protein intake. Only 5.7% of males and 16.7% of females reached the recommended energy allowance. The recommended protein allowance was reached by 43.4% males and 44.4% females and 41.5% males and 38.9% females consumed more than the upper limit of the recommended fat intake. Intake of major nutrients was also significantly less when compared to the national average intake. On bivariate analysis, the factors affecting these inadequacies were found to be annual per-capita income, dependency on another for livelihood, CD4 counts more than 200/cubic millimeter and absence of antiretroviral therapy. On multivariate analysis, only dependency on another was found to significantly influence energy intake. Dietary intake of many food constituents is significantly less in HIV patients than that recommended. Dietary counselling and efforts to improve food security are important in management of these patients.

  4. The role of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in hypertensive patients with normal-tension glaucoma

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    Marjanović Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Extreme dippers are patients with a nocturnal fall of blood pressure (BP of more than 20%, dippers have normal diurnal rhythm and decrease of BP of 10-15%, while patients with a nocturnal BP fall of less than 10% are considered to be non-dippers. Objective. The aim of this study was to compare 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring results of normaltension glaucoma (NTG patients with NTG suspects, as well as to determine whether NTG patients are more prone to daytime/nighttime systemic arterial BP and heart rate oscillations in comparison to NTG suspects. Methods. This was a prospective, cross-sectional and observational study of 57 hypertensive patients (39 female and 18 male, all examined at the Eye and the Cardiology Clinic, Clinical Center of Serbia in Belgrade, between November 2011 and March 2012. Before 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, complete ophthalmological examination was performed (intraocular pressure was measured with both Goldmann applanation and dynamic contour tonometer, as well as with computerized perimetry and Heidelberg retinal tomography. Results. There was no statistically significant difference between NTG patients and NTG suspects both in systolic daytime (131.86-141.81 mmHg, SD=±14.92 vs. 129.67-141.83 mmHg, SD=±13; p=0.53 and nighttime measurements (117.1-129.7 mmHg, SD=±18.96 vs. 112.11-127.59 mmHg, SD=±16.53; p=0.53 as well as diastolic daytime (74.55-80.37 mmHg, SD=±8.72 vs. 75.19-82.41 mmHg, SD=±7.72; p=0.58 and nighttime measurements (65.66-71.48 mmHg, SD=±8.73 vs. 67.12-73.78 mmHg, SD=±7.11; p=0.34. There was no statistically significant difference between NTG patients and NTG suspects in heart rate during the day (72.73-76.36 beats per minute [bpm], SD=±5.44 vs. 72.15-76.45 bpm, SD=±4.59; p=0.43 nor during the night (64.4-71.9 bpm, SD=±6.74 vs. 68.02-72.48 bpm, SD=±4.76; p=0.11. Conclusion. No statistically significant difference was found between NTG patients and NTG suspects in regard to

  5. Low reproducibility of 2 x 24-hour continuous esophageal pH monitoring in infants and children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Kruse-Andersen, Søren; Husby, Steffen

    2003-01-01

    be taken into consideration when evaluating gastroesophageal reflux disease in infants and children by means of pH monitoring. The day-to-day variability limits the use of simultaneous pH monitoring and dietary challenges as a procedure to identify a possible causative relation between GERD and dietary...... the degree of reproducibility to endoscopic evidence of mucosal injury. Upper endoscopy and 2 x 24-hr consecutive pH monitoring were performed in 30 infants and children referred for gastroesophageal reflux disease. The monitoring was performed without dietary or activity restrictions in order to assess......, yielding an overall reproducibility of 70%. The limits of agreement for RI at day 2 were 0.2-3.3 times the initially obtained value at day 1. No difference was found in terms of reproducibility between groups with and without esophageal mucosal changes (erythema and esophagitis). No significant difference...

  6. Prevalence and Perception of 24-Hour Symptom Patterns in Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Cataluña, Juan José; Sauleda, Jaume; Valdés, Luis; Marín, Pilar; Agüero, Ramón; Pérez, Maite; Miravitlles, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined the 24-hour symptom profile in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The main objective of this study was to determine daily variations in the symptoms of patients with stable COPD in Spain, compared with other European countries. Observational study conducted in 8 European countries. The results from the Spanish cohort (n=122) are compared with the other European subjects (n=605). We included patients with COPD whose treatment had been unchanged in the previous 3months. Patients completed questionnaires on morning, day-time, and night-time symptoms of COPD, the COPD assessment test (CAT), the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), and the COPD and asthma sleep impact scale (CASIS). Mean age: 69 (standard deviation [SD]=9) years; mean post-bronchodilator FEV1: 50.5 (SD=19.4)% (similar in Spanish and European cohorts). The proportion of men among the Spanish cohort was greater (91.0% versus 60.7%, P<.0001). A total of 52.5% patients experienced some type of symptom throughout the day, compared to 57.5% of the other Europeans, P<.001). Patients with symptoms throughout the day had poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and higher levels of anxiety/depression than patients without symptoms. Patients with night-time symptoms had a poorer quality of sleep. Spanish patients with symptoms throughout the day had higher CAT scores (16.9 versus 20.5 in the other Europeans, P<.05). Despite receiving treatment, more than half of patients report symptoms throughout the day. These patients have poorer HRQoL and higher levels of anxiety/depression. Among patients with similar lung function, the Spanish cohort was less symptomatic and reported better HRQoL than other Europeans. Copyright © 2015 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Carson, Valerie; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dinh, Thy; Duggan, Mary; Faulkner, Guy; Gray, Casey E; Gruber, Reut; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; LeBlanc, Claire; Okely, Anthony D; Olds, Timothy; Pate, Russell R; Phillips, Andrea; Poitras, Veronica J; Rodenburg, Sophie; Sampson, Margaret; Saunders, Travis J; Stone, James A; Stratton, Gareth; Weiss, Shelly K; Zehr, Lori

    2016-06-01

    Leaders from the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology convened representatives of national organizations, content experts, methodologists, stakeholders, and end-users who followed rigorous and transparent guideline development procedures to create the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep. These novel guidelines for children and youth aged 5-17 years respect the natural and intuitive integration of movement behaviours across the whole day (24-h period). The development process was guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and systematic reviews of evidence informing the guidelines were assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Four systematic reviews (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep, integrated behaviours) examining the relationships between and among movement behaviours and several health indicators were completed and interpreted by expert consensus. Complementary compositional analyses were performed using Canadian Health Measures Survey data to examine the relationships between movement behaviours and health indicators. A stakeholder survey was employed (n = 590) and 28 focus groups/stakeholder interviews (n = 104) were completed to gather feedback on draft guidelines. Following an introductory preamble, the guidelines provide evidence-informed recommendations for a healthy day (24 h), comprising a combination of sleep, sedentary behaviours, light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity. Proactive dissemination, promotion, implementation, and evaluation plans have been prepared in an effort to optimize uptake and activation of the new guidelines. Future research should consider the integrated relationships among movement behaviours, and similar integrated guidelines for other age groups should be developed.

  8. Dietary Intake and Weight Gain Among Adolescents on Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Hannah L H; Belury, Martha A; Secic, Michelle; Thomas, Alicia; Bonny, Andrea E

    2015-06-01

    To examine the relationship between dietary intake and weight gain among adolescent females initiating depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). Prospective observational study. Two urban Adolescent Medicine clinics. 45 postmenarchal females, age 12 to 21, enrolled after self-selecting to initiate DMPA. Participants received 150 mg DMPA intramuscularly every 12 weeks. Height, weight, and 24-hour dietary recall were collected at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Body mass index (BMI) over time calculated as weight (kg)/height (m(2)). Associations between dietary variables and BMI were evaluated with repeated measures analysis of variance modeling. Mean chronological and gynecologic ages were 16.2 ± 1.5 and 4.2 ± 1.8 years, respectively. Mean BMI increased from 23.7 ± 5.3 to 25.3 ± 5.7 over 12 months. Average dietary intake included: 1781.4 ± 554.1 total kilocalories, 228.5 g ± 69.8 carbohydrates, 71.0 g ± 27.3 fat, and 61.0 g ± 20.2 protein. These diet measures were not associated with BMI over time. Dietary fiber, magnesium, and linoleic acid were inversely associated with increased BMI over time (P < .05) CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that general measures of diet (energy, carbohydrates, fat, and protein), as assessed by 24-hour recall, were predictive of weight gain on DMPA. Several nutrients abundant in foods that benefit overall health were inversely associated with increased BMI over time, suggesting that diet quality, rather than quantity, is a more important predictor of DMPA-associated weight gain. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary pattern and its association with the prevalence of obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors among Chinese children.

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    Xianwen Shang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association of dietary pattern with chronic diseases has been investigated widely in western countries. However, information is quite limited among children in China. Our study is aimed to identify the dietary patterns of Chinese children and examine their association with obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: A total of 5267 children were selected using multistage random sampling from 30 primary schools of 5 provincial capital cities in China. Dietary intake was derived from 24 hour dietary recall for three consecutive days. Anthropometric measurements, glucose and lipid profiles were obtained. Factor analysis combined with cluster analysis was used for identifying major dietary patterns. The associations of dietary patterns with obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors were examined by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Three mutually exclusive dietary patterns were identified, which were labeled as the healthy dietary pattern, the transitive dietary pattern, and the Western dietary pattern. Compared with children of the healthy dietary pattern, the multiple-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval (CI of obesity were 1.11 (0.89-1.38 for children with the transitive dietary pattern and 1.80 (1.15-2.81 for children with the Western dietary pattern, which was 1.31 (95%CI 1.09-1.56 and 1.71 (95%CI: 1.13-2.56, respectively, for abdominal obesity. The Western dietary pattern was associated with significantly higher concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<.001, triglycerides (P<.001, systolic blood pressure (P = 0.0435 and fasting glucose (P = 0.0082 and a lower concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.0023, as compared with the healthy dietary pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The Western dietary pattern characterized by red meat, eggs, refined grain and products, was positively associated with odds of obesity, the levels of plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein

  10. Perfusion-CT--Can We Predict Acute Pancreatitis Outcome within the First 24 Hours from the Onset of Symptoms?

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    Joanna Pieńkowska

    Full Text Available Severe acute pancreatitis (AP is still a significant clinical problem which is associated with a highly mortality. The aim of this study was the evaluation of prognostic value of CT regional perfusion measurement performed on the first day of onset of symptoms of AP, in assessing the risk of developing severe form of acute pancreatitis.79 patients with clinical symptoms and biochemical criteria indicative of acute pancreatitis (acute upper abdominal pain, elevated levels of serum amylase and lipase underwent perfusion CT within 24 hours after onset of symptoms. The follow-up examinations were performed after 4-6 days to detect progression of the disease. Perfusion parameters were compared in 41 people who developed severe form of AP (pancreatic and/or peripancreatic tissue necrosis with parameters in 38 consecutive patients in whom course of AP was mild. Blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time and permeability surface area product were calculated in the three anatomic pancreatic subdivisions (head, body and tail. At the same time the patient's clinical status was assessed by APACHE II score and laboratory parameters such as CRP, serum lipase and amylase, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP and bilirubin were compared.Statistical differences in the perfusion parameters between the group of patients with mild and severe AP were shown. Blood flow, blood volume and mean transit time were significantly lower and permeability surface area product was significantly higher in patients who develop severe acute pancreatitis and presence of pancreatic and/or peripancreatic necrosis due to pancreatic ischemia. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of evaluated on admission severity of pancreatitis assessed using APACHE II score and laboratory tests.CT perfusion is a very useful indicator for prediction and selection patients in early stages of acute pancreatitis who are at risk of developing pancreatic and/or peripancreatic

  11. Ambulatory Hypertension Subtypes and 24-Hour Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure as Distinct Outcome Predictors in 8341 Untreated People Recruited From 12 Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Wei, Fang-Fei; Thijs, Lutgarde

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on risk associated with 24-hour ambulatory diastolic (DBP24) versus systolic (SBP24) blood pressure are scarce. METHODS AND RESULTS: We recorded 24-hour blood pressure and health outcomes in 8341 untreated people (mean age, 50.8 years; 46.6% women) randomly recruited from 12...... populations. We computed hazard ratios (HRs) using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. Over 11.2 years (median), 927 (11.1%) participants died, 356 (4.3%) from cardiovascular causes, and 744 (8.9%) experienced a fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular event. Isolated diastolic hypertension (DBP24≥80 mm Hg) did...

  12. A fixed-dose 24-hour regimen of artesunate plus sulfamethoxypyrazine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in eastern Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Ishag; Magzoub, Mamoun; Osman, Maha E

    2006-01-01

    -sulfamethoxypyrazine-pyrimethamine (AS+SMP f) administered at time intervals of 12 hours for a 24-hour therapy was compared with the efficacy of the same drug given as a loose combination (AS+SMP l) with a dose interval of 24 hours for 3 days for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in eastern Sudan. RESULTS...... of the patients. CONCLUSION: both regimens of AS+SMP were effective and safe for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in eastern Sudan. Due to its simplicity, the fixed dose one-day treatment regimen may improve compliance and therefore may be the preferred choice....

  13. Commercial baby food consumption and dietary variety in a statewide sample of infants receiving benefits from the special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2010-10-01

    Dietary variety and exposure to fruits and vegetables in infancy have been associated with nutritional benefits and later acceptance of these foods. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of fruit and vegetable commercial baby food consumption and its relation to dietary variety during infancy. A cross-sectional statewide telephone survey of 733 Maryland mothers and infants receiving benefits from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) was conducted between July 2004 and July 2005. A 24-hour dietary recall was examined to assess infant dietary variety. Among infants from birth to age 5 months, 54% had consumed complementary foods in the past 24 hours; 60% received commercial baby foods. Among infants aged 6 to 12 months, 98% had consumed complementary foods in the past 24 hours; 81% received commercial baby foods. In the latter age range, the average daily number of different types of fruits and vegetables consumed was 1.5±1.2, range 0 to 6). In a multivariate model, infants aged 6 to 12 months who received commercial baby foods consumed a greater variety of fruits and vegetables (β=.54, 95% confidence interval 0.26-0.84; Pbaby food is consumed by a majority of WIC infants, although many mothers introduce it before the recommended age of 6 months. Among infants aged 6 to 12 months, commercial baby food is associated with dietary variety in fruits and vegetables. By encouraging consumption of fruits and vegetables after 6 months of age, either through the provision of commercial baby foods and/or education and resources related to the preparation of fruits and vegetables for infants, WIC can increase dietary variety and appropriate introduction of complementary foods among infants. Copyright © 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlation between quality and quantity of dietary carbohydrate and obesity in a group of women from Ahvaz

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    Farideh Shishehbor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Obesity and being overweight are one of current nutritional disorders found in many developed and developing countries such as Iran, it seems that recently the role of carbohydrates in the formation of such illness has been considered. Studies conducted in the field of obesity and quality and quantity of carbohydrate (glycemic index and glycemic load have had inconsistent results. Therefore, This study evaluates the relationship between dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and some indicators of obesity. Material & Methods: The subjects were 95 healthy Iranian females aged 25-55 y .dietary GI, GL assessed from six24 hour food recalls. Anthropometric measurements were taken according to standard methods. Information such as history of disease and genetics was collected by a questionnaire. Independent sample t test, correlation confident ، one–way ANOVA Were used to investigate the correlation between dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and anthropometric measurements. Results: The mean dietary GI was 72.8 and the mean dietary GL was 154.4. After making the necessary adjustments for potential dietary and non-dietary confounding factors, no significant association was seen between dietary GI, GL and BMI, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio in healthy women. Conclusion: The fact that there was no relation between dietary GI and GL and anthropometric measurements in healthy women may be due to the fact that results obtained from overweight samples were not reported in the current study.

  15. Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Obesity in Older People in China: Data from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS

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    Xiaoyue Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: No studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity among older Chinese people, by considering gender and urbanization level differences. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (2745 individuals, aged ≥ 60 years. Dietary data were obtained using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Height, Body Weight, and Waist Circumference were measured. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Multinomial and Poisson regression models were used to examine the association between dietary patterns and Body Mass Index (BMI status/central obesity. Results: The prevalence of general and central obesity was 9.5% and 53.4%. Traditional dietary pattern (high intake of rice, pork and vegetables was inversely associated with general/central obesity; modern dietary pattern (high intake of fruit, fast food, and processed meat was positively associated with general/central obesity. The highest quartile of traditional dietary pattern had a lower risk of general/central obesity compared with the lowest quartile, while an inverse picture was found for the modern dietary pattern. These associations were consistent by gender and urbanization levels. Conclusions: Dietary patterns are associated with general/central obesity in older Chinese. This study reinforces the importance of a healthy diet in promoting healthy ageing in China.

  16. Duplicate portion sampling combined with spectrophotometric analysis affords the most accurate results when assessing daily dietary phosphorus intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Alarcon, Miguel; Zambrano, Esmeralda; Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Agil, Ahmad; Olalla, Manuel

    2012-08-01

    The assessment of daily dietary phosphorus (P) intake is a major concern in human nutrition because of its relationship with Ca and Mg metabolism and osteoporosis. Within this context, we hypothesized that several of the methods available for the assessment of daily dietary intake of P are equally accurate and reliable, although few studies have been conducted to confirm this. The aim of this study then was to evaluate daily dietary P intake, which we did by 3 methods: duplicate portion sampling of 108 hospital meals, combined either with spectrophotometric analysis or the use of food composition tables, and 24-hour dietary recall for 3 consecutive days plus the use of food composition tables. The mean P daily dietary intakes found were 1106 ± 221, 1480 ± 221, and 1515 ± 223 mg/d, respectively. Daily dietary intake of P determined by spectrophotometric analysis was significantly lower (P < .001) and closer to dietary reference intakes for adolescents aged from 14 to 18 years (88.5%) and adult subjects (158.1%) compared with the other 2 methods. Duplicate portion sampling with P analysis takes into account the influence of technological and cooking processes on the P content of foods and meals and therefore afforded the most accurate and reliable P daily dietary intakes. The use of referred food composition tables overestimated daily dietary P intake. No adverse effects in relation to P nutrition (deficiencies or toxic effects) were encountered.

  17. A mobile phone user interface for image-based dietary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ziad; Khanna, Nitin; Kerr, Deborah A.; Boushey, Carol J.; Delp, Edward J.

    2014-02-01

    Many chronic diseases, including obesity and cancer, are related to diet. Such diseases may be prevented and/or successfully treated by accurately monitoring and assessing food and beverage intakes. Existing dietary assessment methods such as the 24-hour dietary recall and the food frequency questionnaire, are burdensome and not generally accurate. In this paper, we present a user interface for a mobile telephone food record that relies on taking images, using the built-in camera, as the primary method of recording. We describe the design and implementation of this user interface while stressing the solutions we devised to meet the requirements imposed by the image analysis process, yet keeping the user interface easy to use.

  18. Glutamic Acid – the Main Dietary Amino Acid – and Blood Pressure: The INTERMAP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamler, Jeremiah; Brown, Ian J; Daviglus, Martha L; Chan, Queenie; Kesteloot, Hugo; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Zhao, Liancheng; Elliott, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background Data are available indicating an independent inverse relationship of dietary vegetable protein to the blood pressure (BP) of individuals. Here we assess whether BP is associated with glutamic acid intake (the predominant dietary amino acid, especially in vegetable protein) and with each of four other amino acids higher relatively in vegetable than animal protein (proline, phenylalanine, serine, cystine). Methods and Results Cross-sectional epidemiological study; 4,680 persons ages 40–59 -- 17 random population samples in China, Japan, U.K., U.S.A.; BP measurement 8 times at 4 visits; dietary data (83 nutrients, 18 amino acids) from 4 standardized multi-pass 24-hour dietary recalls and 2 timed 24-hour urine collections. Dietary glutamic acid (percent of total protein intake) was inversely related to BP. Across multivariate regression models (Model 1 controlled for age, gender, sample, through Model 5 controlled for 16 non-nutrient and nutrient possible confounders) estimated average BP differences associated with glutamic acid intake higher by 4.72% total dietary protein (2 s.d.) were −1.5 to −3.0 mm Hg systolic and −1.0 to −1.6 mm Hg diastolic (Z-values −2.15 to −5.11). Results were similar for the glutamic acid-BP relationship with each other amino acid also in the model, e.g., with control for 15 variables plus proline, systolic/diastolic pressure differences −2.7/−2.0 (Z −2.51, −2.82). In these 2-amino acid models, higher intake (2 s.d.) of each other amino acid was associated with small BP differences and Z-values. Conclusions Dietary glutamic acid may have independent BP lowering effects, possibly contributing to the inverse relation of vegetable protein to BP. PMID:19581495

  19. Dietary Intake of Some Essential Micronutrients in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective Based on the data collected in the 1992 national nutrition survey in China, the food consumption and nutrients intake were calculated, and the consumption of some micronutrients was evaluated. Method Dietary data were obtained by using a three days' inventory change plus food weighing in combination with 24 hours recall method for three consecutive days. The food consumption and nutrients intake were calculated in accordance with the Chinese food composition table. The consumption of some micronutrients was evaluated in reference to the Chinese RDAs. Results The average intakes of niacin, ascorbic acid and vitamin E were sufficient, whereas that of zinc, selenium and thiamin were between 80% and 90% RDAs. The consumption of calcium, retinol equivalent and riboflavin was low compared with the Chinese RDAs. Calcium was the most insufficient nutrient in Chinese diet. Conclusion Food fortification seems necessary for improving the nutritional status of some micronutrients in China.

  20. 24 hours on-call and acute fatigue no longer worsen resident mood under the 80-hour work week regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Michael; Civetta, Joseph; Bartus, Christine; Walsh, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Studies in on-call residents have shown that mood is worsened by fatigue as indicated by increased scores on measures of depression, anxiety, confusion, and anger using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). In prior sleep deprivation studies, mood has been shown to be more affected than either cognitive or motor performances. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the 80-hour work week regulations on resident mood in general and in a post-call period (PC). Institutional Review Board approval was obtained to survey the residents and publish the results. POMS is a 65-item adjective questionnaire that includes subscales for measuring tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, depression-dejection, vigor-activity, fatigue-inertia, and confusion-bewilderment, with the summation of the scales forming a total mood disturbance score. Surgical residents were tested at a 9 am didactic curriculum session (9 am has been shown to correlate with the nadir of performance). Residents were tested after nights off call (NOC) or after PC. Time asleep in the preceding 24 hours and other demographic data were also collected. Acute fatigue (AF) was defined as mood questionnaires were administered on 4 occasions to 51 surgical residents, 35 men and 16 women at levels PGY-1 through PGY-5. Overall, 33 tests (27%) were taken after PC and 90 (73%) were taken after NOC. Acute fatigue residents had a mean sleep time of 2.2 (+/-1.5) hours, whereas rested (R) residents had a mean sleep time of 6.7 (+/-2.2) hours (whether PC or NOC). No statistical differences in mean values of vigor, anger, depression, concentration, fatigue, tension, or total score were observed between PC and NOC or between AF and R residents. There was no significant relationship between acute sleep deprivation and total mood disturbance, whether PC or NOC. In linear relationships, NOC total score and hours slept had r2 = 0.01 (p = 0.44), whereas PC total score and hours slept had r2 = 0.07 (p = 0.14). Although POMS was

  1. Heart rate variability parameters of myxomatous mitral valve disease in dogs with and without heart failure obtained using 24-hour Holter electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M S; Muzzi, R A L; Araújo, R B; Muzzi, L A L; Ferreira, D F; Nogueira, R; Silva, E F

    2012-06-16

    Time-domain heart rate variability (HRV) parameters and the correlation between echocardiography and Holter examinations in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) were determined. Holter examination was also performed at different time frames: an entire 24-hour period, a four-hour period during sleep, and a four-hour period while awake. Ten healthy (control group) and 28 MMVD dogs, 15 with and 13 without heart failure, were evaluated. The SDANN (sd of the mean normal RR intervals for all five-minute segments during 24-hour Holter) and pNN(50) (percentage of differences between adjacent normal RR intervals that are >50 ms computed over 24-hour Holter) variables were significantly lower in the dogs with MMVD heart failure. The differences in HRV between the groups were only detected during the 24-hour evaluation period (PHolter and echocardiography examinations when considering pNN(50), SDANN, and LA/AO (left atrial to aortic root ratio) (r=0.92; P<0.05), indicating that both are important in evaluating MMVD dogs. SDANN and pNN(50) are measures of parasympathetic control of the heart, and thus, it is possible to infer that the MMVD dogs exhibit parasympathetic withdrawal during the development of heart failure.

  2. Evaluation of 24-Hour Arterial Stiffness Indices and Central Hemodynamics in Healthy Normotensive Subjects versus Treated or Untreated Hypertensive Patients: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Omboni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Central blood pressure (BP and vascular indices estimated noninvasively over the 24 hours were compared between normotensive volunteers and hypertensive patients by a pulse wave analysis of ambulatory blood pressure recordings. Methods. Digitalized waveforms obtained during each brachial oscillometric BP measurement were stored in the device memory and analyzed by the validated Vasotens technology. Averages for the 24 hours and for the awake and asleep subperiods were computed. Results. 142 normotensives and 661 hypertensives were evaluated. 24-hour central BP, pulse wave velocity (PWV, and augmentation index (AI were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than in the normotensive group (119.3 versus 105.6 mmHg for systolic BP, 75.6 versus 72.3 mmHg for diastolic BP, 10.3 versus 10.0 m/sec for aortic PWV, −9.7 versus −40.7% for peripheral AI, and 24.7 versus 11.0% for aortic AI, whereas reflected wave transit time (RWTT was significantly lower in hypertensive patients (126.6 versus 139.0 ms. After adjusting for confounding factors a statistically significant between-group difference was still observed for central BP, RWTT, and peripheral AI. All estimates displayed a typical circadian rhythm. Conclusions. Noninvasive assessment of 24-hour arterial stiffness and central hemodynamics in daily life dynamic conditions may help in assessing the arterial function impairment in hypertensive patients.

  3. Bath water contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria in 24-hour home baths, hot springs, and public bathhouses of Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Oana, Kozue; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Bath water samples were collected from 116 hot springs, 197 public bathhouses, and 38 24-hour home baths in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, during the period of April 2009 to November 2011, for determining the presence and extent of contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Cultures positive for Legionella were observed in 123 of the 3,314 bath water samples examined. The distribution and abundance of Legionella and/or combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria were investigated to clarify the contamination levels. The abundance of Legionella was demonstrated to correlate considerably with the levels of combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Legionella spp. were obtained from 61% of the water samples from 24-hour home baths, but only from 3% of the samples from public bathhouses and hot springs. This is despite the fact that a few outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in Nagano Prefecture as well as other regions of Japan have been traced to bath water contamination. The comparatively higher rate of contamination of the 24-hour home baths is a matter of concern. It is therefore advisable to routinely implement good maintenance of the water basins, particularly of the 24-hour home baths.

  4. Inability of coronary blood flow reserve measurements to assess the efficacy of coronary angioplasty in the first 24 hours in unselected patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G-J. Laarman (GertJan); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); H. Suryapranata (Harry); M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); P.R. Jonkers; P.J. de Feyter (Pim)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractTo determine functional and anatomic changes in the first 24 hours after coronary angioplasty, we studied at random 15 patients (9 men, mean age 60 years) who underwent coronary angioplasty of 16 coronary arteries. Quantitative coronary angiography and coronary flow reserve measurements

  5. 24-HOUR DIFFUSIVE SAMPLING OF 1,3-BUTADIENE IN AIR ONTO CARBONPAK X SOLID ADSORBENT WITH THEMAL DESORPTION/GC/MS ANALYSIS - FEASIBILITY STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffusive sampling of 1,3-butadiene for 24 hours onto the graphitic adsorbent Carbopack X contained in a stainless steel tube badge (6.3 mm OD, 5 mm ID, and 90 mm in length) with analysis by thermal desorption/GC/MS has been evaluated in controlled tests. A test matrix of 42 tr...

  6. Inability of coronary blood flow reserve measurements to assess the efficacy of coronary angioplasty in the first 24 hours in unselected patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G-J. Laarman (GertJan); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); H. Suryapranata (Harry); M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); P.R. Jonkers; P.J. de Feyter (Pim)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractTo determine functional and anatomic changes in the first 24 hours after coronary angioplasty, we studied at random 15 patients (9 men, mean age 60 years) who underwent coronary angioplasty of 16 coronary arteries. Quantitative coronary angiography and coronary flow reserve measurements

  7. 49 CFR 375.607 - What must I do if I am able to tender a shipment for final delivery more than 24 hours before a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the agreed delivery date or the first day of the period of time of delivery as specified in the bill... for final delivery more than 24 hours before a specified date? 375.607 Section 375.607 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS TRANSPORTATION OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN...

  8. Fiber intake, not dietary energy density, is associated with subsequent change in BMI z-score among sub-groups of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I Iqbal; Heitmann, Berit L

    2008-01-01

    , and body weight change over 3 years among Danish children. METHODS: Multiple regression analyses were performed using anthropometric and dietary data of 398 boys and girls (8-10 years) who were enrolled in 1997/1998 and followed up in 2000/2001. Validated 24-hour recall interviews were conducted in order......, there was a direct association with excess weight gain. A high energy intake was associated with a higher weight gain among overweight than among normal-weight boys. No significant association between dietary energy density and subsequent excess weight change was seen. The prevalence of overweight increased from 27......OBJECTIVE: Results from short-term studies demonstrate that energy density influences energy intake, but in children and adolescents the long-term effects of energy density and obesity development are sparse. We examined the longitudinal relationship between dietary energy density, fiber intake...

  9. Dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition are associated with the risk for diabetes and dyslipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Su Jin; Lee, Jung Eun; Paik, Hee-Young; Park, Min Sun

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted on dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition in Asian populations. We examined the cross-sectional associations in dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition, including the glycemic index (GI) with dyslipidemia and diabetes among the Korean adult population. We analyzed 9,725 subjects (3,795 men and 5,930 women, ≥ 20 years) from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Dietary information was collected using single 24-hour recall. Reduced rank regression was used to derive dietary patterns from 22 food groups as predictor variables and four dietary factors related to the quantity and quality of carbohydrates as response variables. Two dietary patterns were identified: 1) the balanced pattern was characterized by high intake of various kinds of foods including white rice, and 2) the rice-oriented pattern was characterized by a high intake of white rice but low intake of vegetables, fruits, meat, and dairy products. Both patterns had considerable amounts of total carbohydrate, but GI values differed. The rice-oriented pattern was positively associated with hypertriglyceridemia in men and low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in both men and women. The balanced pattern had no overall significant association with the prevalence of dyslipidemia or diabetes, however, men with energy intake above the median showed a reduced prevalence of diabetes across quintiles of balanced pattern scores. The results show that dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition are associated with prevalence of dyslipidemia and diabetes in the Korean adult population. PMID:22977690

  10. Modest validity and fair reproducibility of dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funtikova, Anna N; Benítez-Arciniega, Alejandra A; Fitó, Montserrat; Schröder, Helmut

    2015-03-01

    Cluster analysis is widely used to analyze dietary patterns. We aimed to analyze the validity and reproducibility of the dietary patterns defined by cluster analysis derived from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We hypothesized that the dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis have fair to modest reproducibility and validity. Dietary data were collected from 107 individuals from population-based survey, by an FFQ at baseline (FFQ1) and after 1 year (FFQ2), and by twelve 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HDR). Repeatability and validity were measured by comparing clusters obtained by the FFQ1 and FFQ2 and by the FFQ2 and 24-HDR (reference method), respectively. Cluster analysis identified a "fruits & vegetables" and a "meat" pattern in each dietary data source. Cluster membership was concordant for 66.7% of participants in FFQ1 and FFQ2 (reproducibility), and for 67.0% in FFQ2 and 24-HDR (validity). Spearman correlation analysis showed reasonable reproducibility, especially in the "fruits & vegetables" pattern, and lower validity also especially in the "fruits & vegetables" pattern. κ statistic revealed a fair validity and reproducibility of clusters. Our findings indicate a reasonable reproducibility and fair to modest validity of dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlation of spot urine protein-creatinine ratio with 24-hour urinary protein in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Basanagouda Biradar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic nephropathy is the major cause for chronic renal failure (CRF and proteinuria is an independent risk factor for end stage renal disease. Hence, early identification and quantification of proteinuria is of prime importance in the diagnosis and management. Methods: This study was conducted amongst 42 diabetic subjects from HSK hospital, Bagalkot. Twenty four-hour urine protein and random urine protein to creatinine ratio (P:C was determined. Pearson′s correlation, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were determined using 24-hour urinary protein as a gold standard for spot urine P:C ratio. ROC curve and area under curve was also determined using SPSS (11.5 software. All the results were expressed in mean±SD. Results: Forty two diabetes mellitus patients participated in this study. The average of 24 hour urinary protein was 1.6 ± 1.7 gm/day. The spot urine P:C ratio was 1.27 ± 1.55. There was a positive correlation between 24 hours urinary protein and spot urine P:C ratio (r = 0.925, p < 0.0001. The area under the ROC curve for urine P:C ratio at various cutoff was 0.947 (95% confidence interval: 0.831-0.992, p < 0.0001. The sensitivity and specificity was 80.65% and 100% respectively at P:C ratio cutoff of 0.3. Conclusions: The random urine P:C ratio predicts the amount of 24-hour urinary protein excretion with high accuracy. Hence it can be used as a faster diagnostic substitute for 24-hour urinary protein estimation.

  12. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary assessment in Malay adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Foo, Leng Huat

    2012-01-01

    Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) must be tailored to the target populations because dietary habits vary within the populations due to differences in cultural and lifestyles practices. Limited information is available to assess the validity of FFQ used among Malaysian adolescents. To construct the validity and reproducibility of a newly developed FFQ in assessing habitual nutrients intake over the past year of 170 Malay adolescent boys and girls in Kelantan, Malaysia. The FFQ that consisted of 124 food items was assessed, whereas three days of 24-hours dietary recalls (DR) was administered as the standard criteria method. Estimated mean intake for most nutrients assessed by the FFQ were higher as compared to the three DRs (pMalaysia.

  13. The effect of long-term dexfenfluramine treatment on 24-hour energy expenditure in man. A double-blind placebo controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, L; Astrup, A; Andersen, T;

    1990-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of long-term treatment with dexfenfluramine (dF) on 24-hour energy expenditure (EE), 10 obese females were studied in a double-blind design. Shortly before and 4 weeks after cessation of a 13 months treatment period with either dF (30 mg/day) or placebo (PL...... C and at a humidity between 3 and 11 g/m3. Discontinuation of dF treatment did not change energy expenditure significantly from placebo, neither when expressed in kJ/kg lean body mass nor in kJ/kg body weight. After cessation of treatment total 24-hour EE decreased likewise nonsignificantly by 2...... differences. The conclusion is therefore that dF possesses no significant thermogenic effect during long-term administration in human obese subjects....

  14. Correlation between 5-Minute {sup 99m}Tc-Pertechnetate Uptake and 24-Hour {sup 131}I Uptake in Patients with Thyroid Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chan Woo; Won, Kyu Chang; Yoon, Hyun Dae; Cho, In Ho; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Shin, Dong Gu; Lee, Hyoung Woo; Shim, Bong Sup; Lee, Hyun Woo [Yeungnam University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    The 20-minute {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate uptake became readily available for routine use and it replaced {sup 131}I for thyroid imaging. However measuring thyroid uptake during a 5-minute minimizes pertechnetate uptake by the salivary glands and presence of contaminated saliva from those glands in to the pharynx and esophagus. A study was carried out to determine the suitability of the utility of a 5-minute and 20-minute interval from administration of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate to imaging and uptake measurement as a replacement for the 24 hour standard originally established with {sup 131}I, and to evaluate the relationship between 5-minute {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate uptake and other thyroid functions. A 5-minute and 20-minute uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate were measured in 70 patients with thyroid disease at Yeungnam University Hospital from March 1, 1991 to Feb. 29, 1992. The results were as follows. 1) The 5-minute {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate uptake in Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, simple goiter non toxic nodular goiter, subacute thyroiditis and euthyroid were 18.2%, 14.6%, 2.8%, 3.2%, 1.2% and 1.1%, respectively. There was a significant difference between the mean of the euthyroid group and the mean of the Graves' disease. So differentiation between them can be easily made. 2) The 5 minute {sup 99m}Tc- pertechnetate thyroid uptake was well correlated with 24 hour {sup 131}I thyroid uptake (r=0.75, p<0.001). These data provided an equation for estimating the 24 hour uptake of iodide given the 5 minute pertechnetate uptake: Estimated 24-hour '1{sup 31}I thyroid Uptake = 7.188{sup *}In (5 minute {sup 99m}Tc-Pertechnetate uptake)+16.94 3) The 20-minute {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake was well correlated with 24-hour {sup 131}I uptake (r=0.72, p<0.001) and 5-minute {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake (r=0.96, p<0.001). 4) In the Graves' disease, The 5-minute {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake was well

  15. Value of random urinary homovanillic acid and vanillylmandelic acid levels in the diagnosis and management of patients with neuroblastoma: comparison with 24-hour urine collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchman, M; Morris, C L; Ramnaraine, M L; Bowers, L D; Krivit, W

    1985-02-01

    Urinary homovanillic acid (HVA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) levels were determined in random samples and in 24-hour collections from 13 patients with neuroblastoma and 22 patients without neuroblastoma. Random sample levels were compared with levels in 24-hour collections and showed a positive correlation of 95% for HVA (N = 59) and 93% for VMA (N = 52). No false positives or false negatives occurred using random samples for diagnosis. Nonneuroblastoma (normal) HVA (N = 126) and VMA (N = 119) levels are reported for different age groups. Sequential random HVA and VMA determinations in patients with neuroblastoma during and after therapy are shown. Random urinary HVA and VMA levels are shown to be adequate for utilization in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma and sequential determinations of random HVA and VMA are shown to be helpful in the follow-up of those patients.

  16. Do Implant Overdentures Improve Dietary Intake? A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, N.M.; Gray-Donald, K.; Awad, M.A.; Johnson-Down, L.; Wollin, S.; Feine, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    People wearing mandibular two-implant overdentures (IOD) chew food with less difficulty than those wearing conventional complete dentures (CD). However, there is still controversy over whether or not this results in better dietary intake. In this randomized clinical trials (RCT), the amounts of total dietary fiber (TDF), macronutrients, 9 micronutrients, and energy in diets consumed by persons with IOD and CD were compared. Male and female edentate patients ≥ 65 yrs (n = 255) were randomly divided into 2 groups and assigned to receive a maxillary CD and either a mandibular IOD or a CD. One year following prosthesis delivery, 217 participants (CD = 114, IOD = 103) reported the food and quantities they consumed to a registered dietician through a standard 24-hour dietary recall method. The mean and median values of TDF, macro- and micronutrients, and energy consumed by both groups were calculated and compared analytically. No significant between-group differences were found (ps > .05). Despite quality-of-life benefits from IODs, this adequately powered study reveals no evidence of nutritional advantages for independently living medically healthy edentate elders wearing two-implant mandibular overdentures over those wearing conventional complete dentures in their dietary intake at one year following prosthesis delivery (International Clinical Trials ISRCTN24273915). PMID:24158335

  17. Dietary Antioxidant and Flavonoid Intakes Are Reduced in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Elżbieta Zujko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine sources and patterns of antioxidant and flavonoid intakes in the elderly (61–74 yrs in comparison with young (20–40 yrs and middle age (41–60 yrs groups in a cross-sectional study. More than 6000 subjects of both genders, aged 20–74 years, participants of the National Multicenter Health Survey (WOBASZ took part in this study. Daily food consumption was estimated by the single 24-hour dietary recall. Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC and flavonoid content (FC were calculated according to the amount of food consumed by the participants combined with antioxidant capacity and flavonoid contents in foods. Food consumption, dietary TAC, and FC were significantly lower in the elderly, especially elderly women in comparison to the young and middle age groups. The consumption of tea, coffee, and apples was associated with the largest contribution to dietary TAC and FC in all participants. Despite high nutrient density of the energy-adjusted diet of ageing people, the elderly consumed the lowest amounts of antioxidants and flavonoids due to the lowest food intake.

  18. Improving wear time compliance with a 24-hour waist-worn accelerometer protocol in the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE)

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Barreira, Tiago V.; Schuna, John M.; Mire, Emily F; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Estelle V. Lambert; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Tim; Onywera, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background We compared 24-hour waist-worn accelerometer wear time characteristics of 9–11 year old children in the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) to similarly aged U.S. children providing waking-hours waist-worn accelerometer data in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods ...

  19. Pentazocine Alone Versus Pentazocine Plus Diclofenac for Pain Relief in the First 24 Hours after Caesarean Section: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egede, John Okafor; Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Umeora, Odidika Ugochukwu; Ozumba, Benjamin Chukwuma; Onoh, Robinson Chukwudi; Obuna, Johnson Akuma; Ekem, Napoleon

    2017-04-01

    Postoperative pain is one of the main postoperative adverse outcomes following caesarean section. Its management still remains a challenge especially in a low resource setting. To compare the efficacy of intramuscular pentazocine alone and combined intramuscular pentazocine with diclofenac for pain relief within 24 hours after caesarean section. This was a double blind randomized control study of post caesarean section pain management of 140 participants between April and December, 2015 at the Federal Teaching hospital, Abakaliki. Inclusion criteria involved consenting and low risk parturients who had caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia. The participants were randomly grouped into Pentazocine-Placebo (PP) group and Pentazocine-Diclofenac (PD) group. The PP group received pentazocine 30 mg every 4 hours for 24 hours and 3 milliliters of water for injection as placebo 12 hourly for 24 hours while the PD group received pentazocine 30 mg every 4 hours and diclofenac 75 mg every 12 hours for 24 hours. The level of pain control was assessed using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The data was analysed with IBM SPSS version 20.0. The level of significance was set at section analgesia achieved better pain relief, faster onset of postoperative ambulation, bowel sound auscultation and oral feeding than the use of PP (p-value ≤0.002). However, the use of PD is more expensive than PP (p-value =0.0001). There was no difference between the two groups of participants on the passage of flatus and duration of hospital stay (p-value≥0.05). The use of PP was associated with more maternal side effects (p-value=0.009). There was no difference on the level of satisfaction between the two groups of participants (p-value≥0.05). The use of PD for post caesarean section analgesia is more effective in achieving a satisfactory pain relief and has less side effects.

  20. Disproportional decrease in office blood pressure compared with 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure with antihypertensive treatment: dependency on pretreatment blood pressure levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Roland E; Schmidt, Stephanie T; Riemer, Thomas; Dechend, Ralf; Hagedorn, Ina; Senges, Jochen; Messerli, Franz H; Zeymer, Uwe

    2014-11-01

    The long-term relationship between 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and office BP in patients on therapy is not well documented. From a registry we included all patients in whom antihypertensive therapy needed to be uptitrated. Drug treatment included the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren or an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker or drugs not blocking the renin-angiotensin system, alone or on top of an existing drug regimen. In all patients, office BP and 24-hour ABP were obtained at baseline and after 1 year with validated devices. In the study population of 2722 patients, there was a good correlation between the change in office BP and 24-hour ABP (systolic: r=0.39; PABP in a 1:1 fashion, for example, a decrease of 10, 20, and 30 mm Hg corresponded to a decrease of ≈7.2, 10.5, and 13.9 mm Hg in systolic ABP, respectively. The disproportionally greater decrease in systolic office BP compared with ABP was dependent on the level of the pretreatment BP, which was consistently higher for office BP than ABP. The white coat effect (difference between office BP and ABP) was on average 10/5 mm Hg lower 1 year after intensifying treatment and the magnitude of that was also dependent on pretreatment BP. There was a disproportionally greater decrease in systolic office BP than in ABP, which for both office BP and ABP seemed to depend on the pretreatment BP level.

  1. Reductions in Mean 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure After 6-Week Treatment With Canagliflozin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Raymond R; Machin, Israel; Ren, Jimmy; Trujillo, Angelina; Kawaguchi, Masato; Vijapurkar, Ujjwala; Damaraju, Chandrasekharrao V; Pfeifer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the early effects of canagliflozin on blood pressure (BP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension. Patients were randomized to canagliflozin 300 mg, canagliflozin 100 mg, or placebo for 6 weeks and underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring before randomization, on day 1 of treatment, and after 6 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in mean 24-hour systolic BP (SBP) from baseline to week 6. Overall, 169 patients were included (mean age, 58.6 years; glycated hemoglobin, 8.1%; seated BP 138.5/82.7 mm Hg). At week 6, canagliflozin 300 mg provided greater reductions in mean 24-hour SBP than placebo (least squares mean -6.2 vs -1.2 mm Hg, respectively; P=.006). Numerical reductions in SBP were observed with canagliflozin 100 mg. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated, with side effects similar to those reported in previous studies. These results suggest that canagliflozin rapidly reduces BP in patients with T2DM and hypertension. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. User experiences of wearable activity monitor among 3-6-year-old preschool children – Are children willing to wear monitor 7 days 24 hours per day?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Määttä

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted as a part of long-term DAGIS project that aims to improve the health behaviors and diminish socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviors among preschool children in Finland. A large cross-sectional survey is conducted in autumn 2015. Children (N=800, aged 3-6 years wear Actigraph WGT3X-BT accelerometer for seven days, 24 hours per day. Simultaneously with accelerometer use, parents fill in diary with informing the user experiences of accelerometer and possible non-wearing times. Parents are advised that the child wears accelerometer 24 hours and remove the belt only when in water (e.g. in shower. The accelerometer data are checked straight after data collection. Choi (2011 wear time analyses are conducted for data. The device acceptability, compliance for wearing times and reported barriers for using accelerometer 24 hours in seven days among 3-6-year-old children are reported. Conclusions This study provides new information about the usability of wearable activity monitors among 3-6-year-old children, an age group that is less studied.

  3. Comparison of an Additional Transdermal Fentanyl Patch Compared to Intravenous NSAID and Opioid Analgesics within 24 Hours of an Uterine Artery Embolization for Myoma and Adenomyosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Suk Yun; Kang, Byung Chul; Rho, Kyung Min [Dept. of Radiology, Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an additional transdermal fentanyl patch compared to intravenous analgesics in pain control during the 24-hour period following uterine artery embolization (UAE) for myoma and adenomyosis. Between September 2009 and August 2010, 42 patients underwent UAE for myoma or adenomyosis. Of these, 21 received an intravenous opioid (pethidine) and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (group A), and 21 received an additional transdermal fentanyl patch (group B). Pain perception levels were established verbally on a 0-10 scale during the 24-hour period following UAE. Differences in pain trends, mean dose of intravenous pethidine, and adverse effects were compared between the two groups. Pain perception was most severe at 6 hours after UAE and the mean pain level of group B at that time was 6.3 {+-} 0.7, which was significantly lower than that of group A, 8.2 {+-} 0.7 (p<0.05). The mean dose of intravenous pethidine was 114.3 {+-} 59.5 mg in group A and 90.5 {+-} 49.0 mg in group B, while the incidence of nausea was 67% in group A and 77% in group B. In both cases, the differences were not significantly different (p>0.05), and no evidence of respiratory distress was demonstrated. The addition of a transdermal fentanyl patch to intravenous analgesics is effective in reducing post-embolization pain during the 24-hour period after UAE.

  4. Evaluation of dietary Intake and Food Patterns of Adolescent Girls in Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Montazerifar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evidence suggests a relationship between lifestyle and diet-related risk factors.Objective: This study assessed the dietary intake and habits of high school girls in Sistan and Bluchistan province, in southeastern Iran.Methods: In a cross-sectional, descriptive study, 753 high school girls aged 14-18 years old wereenrolled by a clustered random sampling method. Dietary intake and food habits were evaluatedby a two-day, 24-hour dietary recall, and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ.Results: The analysis of dietary intakes showed that energy, calcium, zinc, vitamin C and folate intake, compared to the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI, were found to be lower. The, infrequent intake of milk and dairy products, fruits and vegetables, and a high consumption of empty calorie foods e.g. salty snacks, sweets, soft drinks and junk foods were seen among adolescents.Conclusions: The adolescent girls had an improper dietary intake and food habits. Thus, the implementation of nutrition education programs in schools and the designing of proper patternstowards healthier food choices could help improve eating behaviors, the health maintenance of adolescents, and also prevent diet- related diseases in adulthood.

  5. Estimates of Dietary Sodium Consumption in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin-Ramirez, Eloisa; Arcand, JoAnne; Ezekowitz, Justin A

    2015-12-01

    Estimating dietary sodium intake is a key component of dietary assessment in the clinical setting of HF to effectively implement appropriate dietary interventions for sodium reduction and monitor adherence to the dietary treatment. In a research setting, assessment of sodium intake is crucial to an essential methodology to evaluate outcomes after a dietary or behavioral intervention. Current available sodium intake assessment methods include 24-hour urine collection, spot urine collections, multiple day food records, food recalls, and food frequency questionnaires. However, these methods have inherent limitations that make assessment of sodium intake challenging, and the utility of traditional methods may be questionable for estimating sodium intake in patients with HF. Thus, there are remaining questions about how to best assess dietary sodium intake in this patient population, and there is a need to identify a reliable method to assess and monitor sodium intake in the research and clinical setting of HF. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the current methods for sodium intake assessment, addresses the challenges for its accurate evaluation, and highlights the relevance of applying the highest-quality measurement methods in the research setting to minimize the risk of biased data.

  6. Associations between dietary patterns and self-reported hypertension among Brazilian adults: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selem, Soraya Sant'Ana de Castro; Castro, Michelle Alessandra de; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2014-08-01

    Hypertension is a prevalent cardiovascular disease, the important modifiable risk factor of which is diet. The aim of this study was to derive dietary patterns and to test associations with self-reported hypertension and other characteristics, namely demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors. Data were obtained from the population-based cross-sectional study titled Health Survey of the City of São Paulo, with a random sample of residents of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, aged older than 20 years of both sexes (n=1,102). In 2008, a structured questionnaire with information about socioeconomic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and dietary factors was applied. Dietary intake was estimated by two 24-hour dietary recalls, adjusted by Multiple Source Method. Dietary patterns were obtained through exploratory principal component factor analysis. Poisson regression was used to assess relationships. Three dietary patterns were identified: prudent (fruits, vegetables, whole-grain bread, white cheeses, juices, reduced-fat milk/nonfat milk), traditional (rice, beans, bread/toast/crackers, butter/margarine, whole milk, coffee/teas, sugar), and modern (sodas, pastries/sandwiches/pizzas, yellow cheeses, pastas, sauces, alcoholic beverages, sweets, processed meats). Hypertension and demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors, as well as the presence of health insurance, were associated with adherence to one or more identified dietary patterns. These results suggest the existence of a target audience for planning and executing public policies of food and nutrition to prevent and control hypertension.

  7. Correlation of random urine protein creatinine (P-C ratio with 24-hour urine protein and P-C ratio, based on physical activity: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Ali Sadjadi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Seyed-Ali Sadjadi1,2, Navin Jaipaul1,21Jerry L Pettis Memorial VA Medical Center, 2Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA, USAAbstract: Quantification of proteinuria is usually predicated upon 24-hour urine collection. Multiple factors influence urine collection and the rate of protein and creatinine excretion. Urine collection is often incomplete, and therefore creatinine and protein excretion rates are underestimated. A random urine protein-creatinine (P-C ratio has been shown over the years to be a reliable alternative to the 24-hour collection for detection and follow up of proteinuria. However, urine protein excretion may be influenced by physical activity. We studied 48 patients with proteinuria and varying levels of physical activity to determine the correlation between the measures of urine protein excretion. The correlation coefficient (r between 24-hour urine total protein and random urine P-C ratio was 0.75 (P < 0.01 in the overall study population, but varied according to the level of proteinuria and physical activity in a stratified analysis: r = 0.99 (P < 0.001 and r = 0.95 (P < 0.01 in bedridden patients; r = 0.44 (P = not significant [NS] and r = 0.54 (P = NS in semiactive patients; and r = 0.44 (P = NS and r = 0.58 (P < 0.05 in active patients with nephrotic- (>3500 mg/day and non-nephrotic (<3500 mg/day range proteinuria, respectively. The correlation appeared to be stronger between random urine and 24-hour urine P-C ratio for the overall study population (r = 0.84; P < 0.001, and when stratified according to the level of proteinuria and physical activity: r = 0.99 (P < 0.001 and r = 0.92 (P < 0.01 in bedridden patients; r = 0.61 (P = NS and r = 0.54 (P = NS in semiactive patients; and r = 0.64 (P < 0.02 and r = 0.52 (P < 0.05 in active patients with nephrotic and non-nephrotic range proteinuria, respectively. We conclude that the random urine P-C ratio is a reliable and practical way of estimating and

  8. Ambulatory 24-hour cardiac oxygen consumption and blood pressure-heart rate variability: effects of nebivolol and valsartan alone and in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Joseph L; Khan, Safi U; Saleem, Osman; Osmond, Peter J

    2015-07-01

    We compared an angiotensin receptor blocker (valsartan; VAL), a beta-blocker (nebivolol; NEB) and the combination of NEB/VAL with respect to 24-hour myocardial oxygen consumption (determined by 24-hour ambulatory heart rate-central systolic pressure product [ACRPP]) and its components. Subjects with hypertension (systolic blood pressure >140 or diastolic blood pressure >90; n = 26) were studied in a double-blinded, double-dummy, forced-titration, crossover design with 3 random-order experimental periods: VAL 320 mg, NEB 40 mg, and NEB/VAL 320/40 mg daily. After 4 weeks of each drug, ambulatory pulse wave analysis (MobilOGraph) was performed every 20 minutes for 24 hours. All three treatments resulted in nearly identical brachial and central systolic blood pressures. NEB alone or in combination with VAL resulted in lower ACRPP (by 11%-14%; P heart rate (by 18%-20%; P heart rate were also lower with NEB and NEB/VAL than VAL. Results in African Americans, the majority subpopulation, were similar to those of the entire treatment group. We conclude that the rate-slowing effects of NEB cause ambulatory cardiac myocardial oxygen consumption to be lower with NEB monotherapy or NEB/VAL combination therapy than with VAL monotherapy. NEB/VAL is not superior to NEB alone in controlling heart rate, blood pressure, or ACRPP. Heart rate variability but not ACRPP variability is reduced by NEB or the combination NEB/VAL. There is no attenuation of beta-blocker-induced rate-slowing effects of in African Americans. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimation of hand hygiene opportunities on an adult medical ward using 24-hour camera surveillance: validation of the HOW2 Benchmark Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, Thomas; Kelly, J William; Blackhurst, Dawn; Steed, Connie; Boeker, Sue; McElveen, Danielle C

    2014-06-01

    We previously published a formula to estimate the number of hand hygiene opportunities (HHOs) per patient-day using the World Health Organization's "Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" methodology (HOW2 Benchmark Study). HHOs can be used as a denominator for calculating hand hygiene compliance rates when product utilization data are available. This study validates the previously derived HHO estimate using 24-hour video surveillance of health care worker hand hygiene activity. The validation study utilized 24-hour video surveillance recordings of 26 patients' hospital stays to measure the actual number of HHOs per patient-day on a medicine ward in a large teaching hospital. Statistical methods were used to compare these results to those obtained by episodic observation of patient activity in the original derivation study. Total hours of data collection were 81.3 and 1,510.8, resulting in 1,740 and 4,522 HHOs in the derivation and validation studies, respectively. Comparisons of the mean and median HHOs per 24-hour period did not differ significantly. HHOs were 71.6 (95% confidence interval: 64.9-78.3) and 73.9 (95% confidence interval: 69.1-84.1), respectively. This study validates the HOW2 Benchmark Study and confirms that expected numbers of HHOs can be estimated from the unit's patient census and patient-to-nurse ratio. These data can be used as denominators in calculations of hand hygiene compliance rates from electronic monitoring using the "Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" methodology. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. QT intervals and QT dispersion determined from a 12-lead 24-hour Holter recording in patients with coronary artery disease and patients with heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S.; Rasmussen, V.; Torp-Pedersen, C.;

    2008-01-01

    modes of lead selection was used: all 12-leads (QTdisp 12), only precordial leads (QTdisp 6), and one pair of preselected leads (QTdisp 2) in a 24-hour Holter recording every fourth hour each comprising 10 consecutive measurements in 54 healthy subjects, 29 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD......), and 29 patients with heart failure (HF). RESULTS: A significant circadian variation was observed in healthy subjects when modes QTdisp 12 and QTdisp 6 were used (Mean +/- SD 35.58 +/- 16.48 ms; P ... in QTdisp 12 (Mean +/- SD 33.13 +/- 14.86 ms; P detected in healthy subjects and in patients with uncomplicated CAD, but not in those who...

  11. [The normalisation of blood sugar using a non-miniaturised artifical pancreas. Application for 24 hours in 7 insulin-dependent diabetics (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, G; Klein, J C; Tardieu, M C; Tchobroutsky, G

    1977-06-25

    Seven insulin-dependent diabetic were treated for 24 to 36 hours by intravenous injections of insulin adapted to variations in blood glucose using a fairly voluminous automatic regulation device. This artificial pancreas consists of a modified Technicon blood sugar apparatus which provides continuous estimation of blood glucose using non-haemolysed whole blood by a glucose oxidase method with an inertia time of 6 minutes, a table calculator and a newly developed interpretation and command electronic unit (GlucostatR). Normalisation of blood glucose was obtained for at least 24 hours, during and between meals, during a period following an oral glucose load and throughout the night.

  12. Prognostic indices among hypertensive heart failure patients in Nigeria: the roles of 24-hour Holter electrocardiography and 6-minute walk test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mene-Afejuku, Tuoyo O; Balogun, Michael O; Akintomide, Anthony O; Adebayo, Rasaaq A

    2017-01-01

    Hypertensive heart failure (HHF) is associated with a poor prognosis. There is paucity of data in Nigeria on prognosis among HHF patients elucidating the role of 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram (ECG) in concert with other risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic utility of 24-hour Holter ECG, the 6-minute walk test (6-MWT), echocardiography, clinical and laboratory parameters among HHF patients. A total of 113 HHF patients were recruited and followed up for 6 months. Thirteen of these patients were lost to follow-up, and as a result only 100 HHF patients were analyzed. All the patients underwent baseline laboratory tests, echocardiography, 24-hour Holter ECG and the 6-MWT. HHF patients were analyzed as "mortality vs alive" and as "events vs no-events" based on the outcome at the end of 6 months. Events was defined as HHF patients who were rehospitalized for heart failure (HF), had prolonged hospital stay or died. No-events group was defined as HHF patients who did not meet the criteria for the events group. HHF patients in the mortality group (n = 7) had significantly higher serum urea (5.71 ± 2.07 mmol/L vs 3.93 ± 1.45 mmol/L, p = 0.003) than that in those alive. After logistic regression, high serum urea conferred increased mortality risk (p = 0.035). Significant premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) on 24-hour Holter ECG following logistic regression were also significantly higher (p = 0.015) in the mortality group than in the "alive" group (n = 93) at the end of the 6-month follow-up period. The 6-minute walk distance (6-MWD) was least among the HHF patients who died (167.26 m ± 85.24 m). However, following logistic regression, the 6-MWT was not significant (p = 0.777) for predicting adverse outcomes among HHF patients. Patients in the events group (n = 41) had significantly higher New York Heart Association (NYHA) class (p = 0.001), Holter-detected ventricular tachycardia (VT; p = 0.009), Holter-detected atrial fibrillation (AF

  13. Dietary patterns in Them and Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, P; Jørgensen, I M; Paerregaard, A

    1982-01-01

    Four-day weighing and 24-hour recall were used to record food consumption in groups of 30 men, aged 50-59 years, in 2 areas of Denmark: Them, a rural Danish community, and Copenhagen. Fat consumption was found to be higher in Them, whereas alcohol consumption was higher in Copenhagen. The absolut...

  14. Relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population. Materials and methods. A 140-item SFFQ and two 24-hour dietary recalls (24DRs were administered. Foods were categorized into 29 food groups used to derive dietary patterns via factor analy­sis. Pearson and intraclass correlations coefficients between dietary pattern scores identified from the SFFQ and 24DRs were assessed. Results. Pattern 1 was high in snacks, fast food, soft drinks, processed meats and refined grains; pattern 2 was high in fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, and dairy products; and pattern 3 was high in legumes, eggs, sweetened foods and sugars. Pearson correlation oefficients between the SFFQ and the 24DRs for these patterns were 0.66 (P<0.001, 0.41 (P<0.001 and 0.29 (P=0.193 respectively. Conclusions. Our data indicate reasonable validity of the SFFQ, using fac­tor analysis, to derive major dietary patterns in comparison with two 24DR.

  15. Dietary exposure to aluminium of urban residents from cities in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qi; Wang, Jing; Li, Min; Liang, Xuxia; Dai, Guangwei; Hu, Zhikun; Wen, Jian; Huang, Qiong; Zhang, Yonghui

    2013-01-01

    A dietary survey was conducted over three consecutive days by using 24-hour dietary recall in the Pearl River Delta of South China to investigate the dietary consumption status. A total of 1702 food samples, 22 food groups, were collected, and aluminium concentrations of foods were determined by using ICP-MS. Weekly dietary exposure to aluminium of the average urban residents of South China was estimated to be 1.5 mg kg⁻¹ body weight, which amounted to 76% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake. Wheat-made products (53.5%) contributed most to the dietary exposure, followed by vegetables (12.2%). The high-level consumers' weekly exposure to aluminium was 11.1 mg kg⁻¹ body weight, which amounted to 407% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake. The results indicated that the general urban residents in South China might be safe from aluminium exposure, but the high-level consumers might be at some risk of aluminium exposure. The foods contributing to aluminium exposure were processed food with aluminium-containing food additives. It is necessary to take effective measures to control the overuse of aluminium-containing food additives.

  16. Effect of dietary counselling on the nutritional status of end-stage renal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajira, Bibi; Manzoor, Maryam; Samiullah, Muhammad; Chawla, Rattan Kaur

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of dietary counselling on the nutritional status of end-stage renal disease patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis. This study was conducted at the Institute of Kidney Diseases, Peshawar, Pakistan, from November to December 2015, and comprised patients of either gender with protein energy wasting. The nutritional status assessment was based on four categories, including biochemical indicators (haemoglobin, serum albumin and cholesterol), measure of body mass index, reduced body fatness, decreased muscle mass and low protein or energy intake. Energy and nutrients intake of patients before and after counselling were estimated by 24-hour dietary recall method. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the 100 patients, 74(74%) were males and 26(26%) were females. The overall mean age was 41.45±17.44 years. Dietary counselling was significantly effective in increasing the intake of energy (p=0.010), protein (p=0.003) and fats (p=0.002). There was significant improvement in mid-upper arm circumference (pDietary counselling was found to be effective in improving the nutritional status and dietary intake of end-stage renal disease patients.

  17. Severity of depressive symptoms and accuracy of dietary reporting among obese women with major depressive disorder seeking weight loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whited, Matthew C; Schneider, Kristin L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Ma, Yunsheng; Waring, Molly E; DeBiasse, Michele A; Busch, Andrew M; Oleski, Jessica L; Merriam, Philip A; Olendzki, Barbara C; Crawford, Sybil L; Ockene, Ira S; Lemon, Stephenie C; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-01-01

    An elevation in symptoms of depression has previously been associated with greater accuracy of reported dietary intake, however this association has not been investigated among individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. The purpose of this study was to investigate reporting accuracy of dietary intake among a group of women with major depressive disorder in order to determine if reporting accuracy is similarly associated with depressive symptoms among depressed women. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake was calculated based on three 24-hour phone-delivered dietary recalls from the baseline phase of a randomized trial of weight loss treatment for 161 obese women with major depressive disorder. Regression models indicated that higher severity of depressive symptoms was associated with greater reporting accuracy, even when controlling for other factors traditionally associated with reporting accuracy (coefficient  =  0.01 95% CI = 0.01 - 0.02). Seventeen percent of the sample was classified as low energy reporters. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake increases along with depressive symptoms, even among individuals with major depressive disorder. These results suggest that any study investigating associations between diet quality and depression should also include an index of reporting accuracy of dietary intake as accuracy varies with the severity of depressive symptoms.

  18. Relationship between dietary calcium intake and adiposity in female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Burbano, José; Fajardo Vanegas, Pamela; Robles Rodríguez, Julieta; Pazmiño Estévez, Karina

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence and magnitude of obesity in children and adolescents increase rapidly. Besides genetic and environmental factors, calcium intake has recently been identified as a dietary factor that is inversely related with body mass index and development of overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between dietary calcium intake and body mass index and fat distribution in female adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study where anthropometric variables (weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference) were collected in 244 female adolescents to establish total body adiposity and fat distribution. A 24-hour recall and a food frequency questionnaire were used to assess total calorie, calcium, and dairy products intake. Calcium intake was inversely related to body mass index (P.05), and waist to hip ratio (P<.05).Overweight (8.3%) and obese (0.7%) adolescents had a lower mean calcium intake than adolescents of normal weight (P=.06). Dietary calcium intake and, to a lesser extent, consumption of dairy products are inversely related to total and abdominal adiposity, and also to the prevalence of overweight in this group of adolescents. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary sodium, adiposity, and inflammation in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haidong; Pollock, Norman K; Kotak, Ishita; Gutin, Bernard; Wang, Xiaoling; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Parikh, Samip; Harshfield, Gregory A; Dong, Yanbin

    2014-03-01

    To determine the relationships of sodium intake with adiposity and inflammation in healthy adolescents. A cross-sectional study involved 766 healthy white and African American adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. Dietary sodium intake was estimated by 7-day 24-hour dietary recall. Percent body fat was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Fasting blood samples were measured for leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. The average sodium intake was 3280 mg/day. Ninety-seven percent of our adolescents exceeded the American Heart Association recommendation for sodium intake. Multiple linear regressions revealed that dietary sodium intake was independently associated with body weight (β = 0.23), BMI (β = 0.23), waist circumference (β = 0.23), percent body fat (β = 0.17), fat mass (β = 0.23), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (β = 0.25), leptin (β = 0.20), and tumor necrosis factor-α (β = 0.61; all Ps recommended by the American Heart Association. High sodium intake is positively associated with adiposity and inflammation independent of total energy intake and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption.

  20. Retrieval opportunities while multitasking improve name recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, Elizabeth; Shaughnessy, John J

    2008-11-01

    In two experiments we tested whether providing retrieval opportunities while people were multitasking would improve memory for names. College students (n=195) in Experiment 1 did addition problems and intermittently were "introduced" to 12 face-name pairs to learn. For half the names students were given three within-list retrieval opportunities. Name recall (cued with the faces) was tested either immediately or after 24 hours. Retrieval opportunities improved name recall with both immediate and delayed tests. Experiment 2 more closely resembled the multitasking required in a real-life social situation. College students (n=98) viewed a videotape and were asked to learn the names of 12 dormitory residents who were introduced during an ongoing conversation. Retrieval opportunities were provided for 8 of the 12 residents by having them appear three additional times in the video without repeating their names. Retrieval opportunities improved name recall, but the effect was much smaller than in Experiment 1. The present research demonstrates that distributed retrieval can be effective when people are multitasking including when the multitasking involves a conversation.

  1. Comparison between two standardized cultural methods and 24 hour duplex SYBR green real-time PCR assay for Salmonella detectionin meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibato, Elisabetta; Fiore, Alfonsina; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; Filetici, Emma; Orefice, Leucio; Losio, Marina Nadia; De Medici, Dario

    2011-07-01

    Food-borne diseases caused by Salmonella represent a worldwide public health problem. Salmonella must be absent in an established amount depending on the kind of the product and usually cultural methods have to be applied to evaluate the compliance of the products. ISO 6579:2002 in Europe and FSIS MLG 4.04.:2008 in the USA have usually been employed to detect Salmonella in meat, poultry and egg products. A Real Time PCR method using probes has recently been validated against the NMKL (Nordic Committee on Food Analysis) standard method. This method has been modified using the less expensive Sybr Green Real Time PCR approach and applied directly in the 18 hours preenrichment broth for the purpose of detecting Salmonella in meat products in less than 24 hours. The purpose of this study was to: - compare the effectiveness of ISO and FSIS cultural methods; - develop a new 24 hour duplex Sybr Green Real Time PCR-melting curve analysis; - evaluate the performance of Salmonella, Standard Method, Rapid Method, SYBR Green Real Time PCR. The equivalence between ISO and FSIS methods was demonstrated and the use of SYBR Green Real Time PCR as a screening tool for negative results seems appealing especially to evaluate compliance with the HACCP systems.

  2. Self-Perception of Swallowing-Related Problems in Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Patients Diagnosed with 24-Hour Oropharyngeal pH Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer A. Mesallam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Swallowing difficulty is considered one of the nonspecific symptoms that many patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux complain of. However, the relationship between laryngopharyngeal reflux and swallowing problems is not clear. The purpose of this work is to explore correlation between swallowing-related problems and laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR in a group of patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal pH monitoring and to study the effect of laryngopharyngeal reflux on the patients’ self-perception of swallowing problems. Methods. 44 patients complaining of reflux-related problems were included in the study. Patients underwent 24-hour oropharyngeal pH monitoring and were divided into positive and negative LPR groups based on the pH monitoring results. All patient filled out the Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI and Reflux Symptom Index (RSI questionnaires. Comparison was made between the positive and negative LPR groups regarding the results of the DHI and RSI ratings. Also, correlation between DHI scores, RSI scores, and pH monitoring results was studied. Results. Significant difference was reported between positive and negative LPR groups regarding DHI scores, RSI scores, and overall rating of swallowing difficulty. There was significant correlation demonstrated between DHI scores, RSI scores, and 24-hour oropharyngeal pH results. Conclusion. Laryngopharyngeal reflux appears to have a significant impact on patients’ self-perception of swallowing problems as measured by DHI.

  3. Reproducibility and diagnostic value of E100 event recorder for patients with complains on heart arrhythmias and no changes on multiple routine ECGs and 24-hour holter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhviashvili, A; Baganashvili, E; Tan, K Y; Raymakers, F; Sakandelidze, Ts

    2012-02-01

    Aim of the study was to assess reproducibility and diagnostic value of E100 event recorder for patients with complains on heart arrhythmias and no abnormalities on multiple routine ECGs and/or 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring and the second one, an assessment of adherence and attitude of patients to the E100 event recorder, dependent on the results of self- assessment questionnaires. 24 patients with complains on heart arrhythmias were included in the study. All the patients were provided with the REKA E100 event monitors for 5 ± 2 days and self-assessment questionnaires to assess level of adherence and attitude of patients to the E100 event recorder. E100 event recorders revealed junctional rhythm (n=2), AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (n=2), extrasystolic arrhythmias (n=10), atrial fibrillation (n=2), WPW syndrome (n=4), ventricular tachycardia (n=1), sinus tachycardia (n=7) and complete AV block (n=1). Majority of patients consider device as easy to use, comfortable and safe. In comparison with multiple routine ECGs and 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring, E100 event recorders showed higher reproducibility and efficacy for detecting and interpreting heart arrhythmias.

  4. [THE INFLUENCE OF CYTOFLAVIN AND CARDIOXIPIN ON THE PARAMETERS OF 24-HOUR ARTERIAL PRESSURE MONITORING IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC CEREBRAL CIRCULATION INSUFFICIENCY, ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodop'ianova, O A; Moiseeva, I Ia; Rodina, O P; Kustikova, I N; Antropova, N V

    2015-01-01

    This comparative study of the influence of cytoflavin and cardioxipin on the parameters of 24-hour arterial pressure monitoring in 56 patients with chronic cerebral circulation insufficiency, arterial hypertension and hypercholesterolemia included 32 women and 24 men aged 42-72 years divided into 3 groups matchedfor the stage of diseases, age, sex, severity of AH, total cholesterol level, and antihypertensive therapy. Patients of group 1 were treated without cytoflavin and cardioxipin. Those in group 2 received daily i/v droplet infusion of 10 mg/kg cardioxipin (20-30 droplets/min). Patients of group 3 were given daily i/v droplet infusion of 10 ml cytoflavin in 200 ml 0.9% sodium chloride solution for 10 days. 24-hour arterial pressure monitoring was used to estimate the influence of the two drugs on systolic and diastolic pressure, its daily rhythm, AP variability and frequency of elevation. The study showed that both therapeutic modalities improved daily AP rhythm as manifested in a significant increase of the number of patients with the dipper rhythm and a decrease in the number of systolic/diastolic non-dipper patients. Moreover cytoflavin significantly decreased the number of systolic over-dippers compared with control group.

  5. Treatment of burns in the first 24 hours: simple and practical guide by answering 10 questions in a step-by-step form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Ziyad; Piatkowski, Andrzej; Dembinski, Rolf; Reckort, Sven; Grieb, Gerrit; Kauczok, Jens; Pallua, Norbert

    2012-05-14

    Residents in training, medical students and other staff in surgical sector, emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU) or Burn Unit face a multitude of questions regarding burn care. Treatment of burns is not always straightforward. Furthermore, National and International guidelines differ from one region to another. On one hand, it is important to understand pathophysiology, classification of burns, surgical treatment, and the latest updates in burn science. On the other hand, the clinical situation for treating these cases needs clear guidelines to cover every single aspect during the treatment procedure. Thus, 10 questions have been organised and discussed in a step-by-step form in order to achieve the excellence of education and the optimal treatment of burn injuries in the first 24 hours. These 10 questions will clearly discuss referral criteria to the burn unit, primary and secondary survey, estimation of the total burned surface area (%TBSA) and the degree of burns as well as resuscitation process, routine interventions, laboratory tests, indications of Bronchoscopy and special considerations for Inhalation trauma, immediate consultations and referrals, emergency surgery and admission orders. Understanding and answering the 10 questions will not only cover the management process of Burns during the first 24 hours but also seems to be an interactive clear guide for education purpose.

  6. Treatment of burns in the first 24 hours: simple and practical guide by answering 10 questions in a step-by-step form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alharbi Ziyad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Residents in training, medical students and other staff in surgical sector, emergency room (ER and intensive care unit (ICU or Burn Unit face a multitude of questions regarding burn care. Treatment of burns is not always straightforward. Furthermore, National and International guidelines differ from one region to another. On one hand, it is important to understand pathophysiology, classification of burns, surgical treatment, and the latest updates in burn science. On the other hand, the clinical situation for treating these cases needs clear guidelines to cover every single aspect during the treatment procedure. Thus, 10 questions have been organised and discussed in a step-by-step form in order to achieve the excellence of education and the optimal treatment of burn injuries in the first 24 hours. These 10 questions will clearly discuss referral criteria to the burn unit, primary and secondary survey, estimation of the total burned surface area (%TBSA and the degree of burns as well as resuscitation process, routine interventions, laboratory tests, indications of Bronchoscopy and special considerations for Inhalation trauma, immediate consultations and referrals, emergency surgery and admission orders. Understanding and answering the 10 questions will not only cover the management process of Burns during the first 24 hours but also seems to be an interactive clear guide for education purpose.

  7. Prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients receiving CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriphuwanun V

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Visith Siriphuwanun,1 Yodying Punjasawadwong,1 Worawut Lapisatepun,1 Somrat Charuluxananan,2 Ketchada Uerpairojkit2 1Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: To determine prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR within 24 hours of receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery. Patients and methods: A retrospective cohort study approved by the Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai University Hospital Ethical Committee. Data used were taken from records of 751 cardiac arrest patients who received their first CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery between January 1, 2003 and October 31, 2011. The reviewed data included patient characteristics, surgical procedures, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA physical status classification, anesthesia information, the timing of cardiac arrest, CPR details, and outcomes at 24 hours after CPR. Univariate and polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to determine prognostic factors associated with the outcome variable. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The outcomes at 24 hours were death (638/751, 85.0%, survival with complications (73/751, 9.7%, and survival without complications (40/751, 5.3%. The prognostic factors associated with death were: age between 13–34 years (OR =3.08, 95% CI =1.03–9.19; ASA physical status three and higher (OR =6.60, 95% CI =2.17–20.13; precardiopulmonary comorbidity (OR =3.28, 95% CI =1.09–9.90; the condition of patients who were on mechanical ventilation prior to receiving anesthesia (OR =4.11, 95% CI =1.17–14.38; surgery in the upper abdominal site (OR =14.64, 95% CI =2.83–75.82; shock prior to cardiac arrest (OR =6.24, 95% CI =2.53–15

  8. 24 Hours of Meaty Torture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Palesa; Temaswati; Mthethwa

    2011-01-01

    VEGETARIAN for a week! That was the plan.But it’s funny how side effects start kicking in so early when trying to let go of an everyday habit.The first morning of my experiment,I felt like I hadn’t eaten poultry in months(I had devoured a bucket of KFC the night before).Lunch was a disaster.I didn’t know whether to cook or spend an hour searching for a restaurant. That afternoon I received the worst phone call a first-time vegetarian can get:

  9. 24 hours prior to curtain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S; Rosen, C A; Murry, T

    2000-03-01

    A retrospective review was conducted of 40 singers presenting with acute voice problems prior to performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the reasons for seeking emergent voice treatment, the types of acute voice disorders, and the performance outcome. The patients were assessed by age, singing style, years of experience, chief complaint, laryngovideostroboscopic findings, and treatment regimens. The outcomes were classified as full, restricted, or no performance. The majority of patients were classical singers. Laryngovideostroboscopy frequently revealed a pattern of early glottic contact at the mid-portion of the membranous vocal fold in patients with acute laryngitis. Experienced singers uniformly sought treatment many days before their performance compared with inexperienced singers who presented closer in time to performance. Six patients initially withheld information, which had a bearing on their acute management. The results of this study suggest that there is a need to accurately diagnose and treat the singer's emergent problem and educate singers regarding early evaluation of medical problems. With modern evaluation techniques and multi-modality treatment, 85% of the singers proceeded to full performance without negative sequelae.

  10. Managing a 24-hour lifestyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, N. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    This presentation on sleep deprivation highlighted the important factors that can increase the chances for human error because of lack of alertness. Effects that irregular work schedules have on the performance and alertness of employees were also discussed. Sleep deprivation and driver fatigue were listed as the major causes of single vehicle accidents. Alertness enhancing techniques, driving alertness management and other methods by which driver safety can be improved were presented. 22 diapositives.

  11. Metabolic Control With the Bio-inspired Artificial Pancreas in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: A 24-Hour Randomized Controlled Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Monika; Herrero, Pau; Sharkawy, Mohamed El; Pesl, Peter; Jugnee, Narvada; Pavitt, Darrell; Godsland, Ian F; Alberti, George; Toumazou, Christofer; Johnston, Desmond G; Georgiou, Pantelis; Oliver, Nick S

    2015-11-17

    The Bio-inspired Artificial Pancreas (BiAP) is a closed-loop insulin delivery system based on a mathematical model of beta-cell physiology and implemented in a microchip within a low-powered handheld device. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the BiAP over 24 hours, followed by a substudy assessing the safety of the algorithm without and with partial meal announcement. Changes in lactate and 3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were investigated for the first time during closed-loop. This is a prospective randomized controlled open-label crossover study. Participants were randomly assigned to attend either a 24-hour closed-loop visit connected to the BiAP system or a 24-hour open-loop visit (standard insulin pump therapy). The primary outcome was percentage time spent in target range (3.9-10 mmol/l) measured by sensor glucose. Secondary outcomes included percentage time in hypoglycemia (10 mmol/l). Participants were invited to attend for an additional visit to assess the BiAP without and with partial meal announcements. A total of 12 adults with type 1 diabetes completed the study (58% female, mean [SD] age 45 [10] years, BMI 25 [4] kg/m(2), duration of diabetes 22 [12] years and HbA1c 7.4 [0.7]% [58 (8) mmol/mol]). The median (IQR) percentage time in target did not differ between closed-loop and open-loop (71% vs 66.9%, P = .9). Closed-loop reduced time spent in hypoglycemia from 17.9% to 3.0% (P time was spent in hyperglycemia (10% vs 28.9%, P = .01). The percentage time in target was higher when all meals were announced during closed-loop compared to no or partial meal announcement (65.7% [53.6-80.5] vs 45.5% [38.2-68.3], P = .12). The BiAP is safe and achieved equivalent time in target as measured by sensor glucose, with improvement in hypoglycemia, when compared to standard pump therapy. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. Achieving a predictable 24-hour return to normal activities after breast augmentation: part I. Refining practices by using motion and time study principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbetts, John B

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop techniques to predictably return patients receiving inframammary and axillary, subpectoral breast augmentation to full normal activities within 24 hours of their primary breast augmentation. This 5-year study applies motion and time study principles to refine practices in augmentation mammaplasty to reduce perioperative morbidity and shorten patient recovery. Retrospective data for operative times, medications administered, recovery times, times to discharge, and time to return to normal activities were collected from patient chart reviews and patient contacts from 1982 to 1984 (group 1, n = 16, axillary partial retropectoral augmentations) and 1990 (group 2, n = 16, inframammary partial retropectoral augmentations). Videotapes from operative procedures of groups 1 and 2 were analyzed with macromotion and micromotion study principles, and tables of events were formulated for all operating room personnel, detailing every step of each function they performed. The events tables were then refined into detailed scripts by using motion and time study principles. Scripts were used for surgeon and personnel training and for reference during operative procedures. Extensive changes in all aspects of patient care, including patient education, preparation, operative planning, implant selection, anesthesia techniques, surgical techniques, instrumentation, and postoperative care derived from data and videotape studies of patients in groups 1 and 2 were then applied to a third group of patients (group 3), collecting prospective data over a 3-year period (1998 to 2000). Group 3 (n = 627) data included timed events, medications, and time to return to normal activities. Patients in group 3 had substantially shorter anesthesia, operation, and postanesthesia care unit times and time to discharge and time to return to normal activities compared with groups 1 and 2. Of the patients in group 3, 96 percent were able to return to normal activities

  13. Effects of telmisartan on office and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure: an observational study in hypertensive patients managed in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Kontny

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Frederic Kontny1, Terje Risanger2, Arne Bye3, Øyvind Arnesen4, Odd Erik Johansen4 for the TELMIMORE Study Investigators51Dept of Cardiology, Volvat Medical Centre, Oslo, Norway; 2Prinsdal Health Centre, Oslo, Norway; 3Frosta Health Centre, Frosta, Norway; 4Medical Department, Boehringer-Ingelheim Norway KS, Asker, Norway; 5The TELMIMORE Study Investigators are listed at the end of the paperPurpose: Although elevated blood pressure (BP predicts future cardiovascular events, recommended BP targets often is not reached in the general community. In a clinical real-life setting we evaluated BP impact and tolerability of the angiotensin-II receptor blocker telmisartan in patients with essential hypertension.Patients and methods: Patients in this observational study not at target BP started or switched to telmisartan monotherapy (40 or 80 mg or a fixed-dose combination of telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT 80 mg/12.5 mg. Office and 24-hour ambulatory BP (AMBP were measured before and after 8 weeks of treatment and physicians reported perceived drug efficacy and tolerability as “Very good”, “Good”, “Moderate” or “Bad”.Results: 100 patients (34% female, 60 years, BMI 29.4 kg/m2, mean office BP 159/92 mmHg of whom 38% were treatment naïve and 30%, 17%, 9% and 6% respectively were on 1, 2, 3 or 4 BP-lowering drugs, completed 8 weeks of treatment. The proportion of patients with office BP < 140/90 mmHg increased from 3% to 54% for systolic (P < 0.001, 38% to 75% for diastolic (P < 0.001, and 2% to 45% for systolic and diastolic BP (P < 0.001. A significant effect on BP levels was seen in patients being either treatment naïve or on 1 to 3 BP-lowering drugs at study entry, whereas no BP improvement occurred in those who switched from 4 drugs. Overall, mean 24-hour AMBP was reduced from 141/85 to 131/79 mmHg (P < 0.001. Drug efficacy and tolerability were perceived as “Very good” or “Good” by 44%/34% and 66%/27%, respectively

  14. Characterization of pulmonary protein profiles in response to zinc oxide nanoparticles in mice: a 24-hour and 28-day follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan CH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chih-Hong Pan,1,2,* Kai-Jen Chuang,3,4,* Jen-Kun Chen,5 Ta-Chih Hsiao,6 Ching-Huang Lai,2 Tim P Jones,7 Kelly A BéruBé,8 Gui-Bing Hong,9 Kin-Fai Ho,10,11 Hsiao-Chi Chuang12,13 1Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Council of Labor Affairs, Executive Yuan, 2School of Public Health, National Defense Medical Center, 3School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, 4Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, 5Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Nanomedicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, 6Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 7School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, 8School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK; 9Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan; 10Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 11Shenzhen Municipal Key Laboratory for Health Risk Analysis, Shenzhen Research Institute, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China; 12School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, 13Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Although zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs are recognized to cause systemic disorders, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the time-dependent differences that occur after exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanistic differences at 24 hours and 28 days after the exposure of BALB/c mice to ZnONPs via intratracheal instillation. An isobaric tag for the relative and absolute quantitation coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the differential

  15. [Indices of static and dynamic components of pressure load (assessed by 24-hour blood pressure monitoring) and the state of renal function in patients with essential hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelveian, P A; Buniatian, M S; Oshchepkova, E V; Lazareva, N V; Rogoza, A N

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate possible relationship between parameters of blood pressure (BP) profile and glomerular filtration rate in patients (pts) with I-II stage essential hypertension (EH). Material and methods. We studied 120 pts (97 men), aged 23-65 (50,2+/-0,6) years with I (n=98) and II (n=22) stage EH. In BP profile (SL-90207) we calculated 24-hour, daytime, nighttime values of systolic, diastolic, pulse pressures (SBP, DBP, PP), time load (TL), variability and nocturnal fall (NF) of BP. The state of renal function was assessed by measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) calculated by the Cockcroft formula. Results. After nonlinear statistical analysis by Gauss-Newton all patients were divided into three groups according to GFR tertiles. Significant differences were found between these groups by 24-hour, nighttime and daytime values of SBP and DBP. Values of SBP were the lowest in group II. In group II lowest values of PP were also observed, but statistically significant differences were found only in nocturnal PP values between groups II and III. There were no significant differences between groups by TL and NF of BP. In group Ill (high GFR) variability of daytime values of SBP and DBF were significantly higher. Univariate correlation analysis showed statistically significant negative relationship between GFR and nocturnal PP in patients with lowest level of GFR. Positive correlations between nocturnal values of PP and GFR in groups II and III were also observed. Conclusion. These results indicated the presence of strong relationship between high values of nocturnal PP and decreasing of glomerular filtration rate in patients with EH and thus confirmed significance of "constant" and "dynamic" components of pressure load as a marker of impairment of renal function.

  16. Validation of the BPLab® 24-hour blood pressure monitoring system in a pediatric population according to the 1993 British Hypertension Society protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledyaev MY

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mikhail Y Ledyaev, Olga V Stepanova, Anastasia M Ledyaeva Department of Pediatric Disease, Volgograd State Medical University, Volgograd, Russian Federation Background: Automatic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP monitoring (ABPM is a basic procedure performed in adults with arterial hypertension, but ABPM monitors have become widely used in pediatric practice only recently. The main problem is the lack of common normative data sets for ABPM in children and the small number of appropriate monitors that can be used for analysis of the 24-hour BP profile in this age group. The aim of this study was to validate the BPLab® ABPM monitor according to the 1993 British Hypertension Society (BHS-93 protocol, as well as to work out solutions regarding the feasibility of this device in pediatric practice. Methods: Our study included 30 children of both sexes and aged 5–15 years, ie, “older” children according to the BHS-93 protocol. Before starting the study, we obtained ethical approval from the regional scientific ethics committee. All participants and their parents signed their written consent for participation in the study. The data were simultaneously obtained by three experts, who had completed a noninvasive BP measurement training course. BP values were measured using the Korotkoff auscultatory method (Phase I for systolic BP and Phase V for diastolic BP. Discrepancies in the systolic and diastolic BP measurements (n=180; 90 for each expert were analyzed according to the criteria specified in the BHS-93 protocol. Results: The device was graded “A” for both systolic BP and diastolic BP according to the criteria of the BHS-93 protocol. Conclusion: The BPLab ABPM device may be recommended for extensive pediatric use. Keywords: ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, children, device, validation 

  17. Identification of patients with persistent trophoblastic disease after complete hydatidiform mole by using a normal 24-hour urine hCG regression curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Cromvoirt, Suzanne M E; Thomas, Chris M G; Quinn, Michael A; McNally, Orla M; Bekkers, Ruud L M

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a reference 24-hour urine human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) regression curve in patients with complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) as diagnostic tool in the prediction of persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD). From 2004 to 2011, 312 cases suitable for this study were registered at the Hydatidiform Mole Registry of the Royal Women's Hospital Melbourne, Australia. hCG levels of 61 patients diagnosed as having PTD according to FIGO 2000 criteria were compared with the 95th-percentile (p95) of the normal regression curve derived from hCG levels of 251 cases of uneventful CHM. In the test group of 61 patients PTD was diagnosed by FIGO 2000 criteria after a mean (±SD, min.-max.) of 7.6 (±3.4, 3.0-16.7) weeks after evacuation of the mole while in the same group hCG values for the first time exceeded the upper limit of the 95th percentile significantly earlier after 4.5 (±1.9, 2.0-9.9) weeks (PhCG levels of 14% of the cases of uneventful CHM at least once exceeded the upper limit of p95, showing that one single value above p95 is not accurate enough for the diagnosis of PTD. The normal 24-hour urine hCG regression curve may be used as a tool in the follow-up of an individual case of CHM after evacuation. At least one hCG level exceeding the upper limit of p95 within 11weeks after evacuation could be added to the current FIGO criteria, in order to diagnose PTD early, but the lack of it may also prevent unnecessary treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Differences in the Slope of the QT-RR Relation Based on 24-Hour Holter ECG Recordings between Cardioembolic and Atherosclerotic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Akira; Sakabe, Masao

    Objective Detecting paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients with ischemic stroke presenting in sinus rhythm is difficult because such episodes are often short, and they are also frequently asymptomatic. It is possible that the ventricular repolarization dynamics may reflect atrial vulnerability and cardioembolic stroke. Hence, we compared the QT-RR relation between cardioembolic stroke and atherosclerotic stroke during sinus rhythm. Methods The subjects comprised 62 consecutive ischemic stroke patients including 31 with cardioembolic strokes (71.8±12.7 years, 17 men) and 31 with atherosclerotic strokes (74.8±10.8 years, 23 men). The QT and RR intervals were measured from ECG waves based on a 15-sec averaged ECG during 24-hour Holter recording using an automatic QT analyzing system. The QT interval dependence on the RR interval was analyzed using a linear regression line for each subject ([QT]=A[RR]+B; where A is the slope and B is the y-intercept). Results The mean slope of the QT-RR relation was significantly greater in cardioembolic stroke than in atherosclerotic stroke (0.187±0.044 vs. 0.142±0.045, pHolter recordings did not differ between them. An increased slope (≥0.14) of the QT-RR regression line could predict cardioembolic stroke with 97% sensitivity, 55% specificity and a positive predictive value of 64%. Conclusion The increased slope of the QT-RR linear regression line based on 24-hour Holter ECG in patients with ischemic stroke presenting in sinus rhythm may therefore be a simple and useful marker for cardioembolic stroke.

  19. 活性维生素D与24 h尿钙相关性研究%Relevance on active vitamin D and 24-hour urinary calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈治卿

    2009-01-01

    目的 对连续服用活性维生素D 6个月与不定期服用该药治疗骨质疏松患者,测24 h尿钙定量并比较.方法 47例骨质疏松患者连续服用维生素D 6个月为治疗组,37例间断服用活性维生素D 6个月为对照组.美国RUNAR双能X线骨密度仪测定骨密度;美国强生VIPROS 250仪器干化学法测24 h尿钙定量;德国罗氏MODULAR PPISE 900仪器酶速率法测定血液生化指标.结果 治疗组与对照组相比较,差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论 肝肾功能正常的骨质疏松患者,生理剂量内活性维生素D连续服用6个月,对机体是安全的.%Objective To investigate the impact of oral active vitamin D for 6 months on 24-hour urinary calcium. Methods The treatment group was 47 osteoporosis patients who continuously take active vitamin D for 6 months, the 37 cases were the control group for inter-segment taking active vitamin D 6 months. Levels of bone mineral density were measured, the quantitative 24-hour urinary calcium and blood biochemical parameters were all measured. Results The treatment group were of no significant difference compared with the control group, P>0.05. Conclusion The patients with osteoporosis who have normal liver and renal function, continuously take physiological doses of active vitamin D, it is safe.

  20. Antiplatelet Effect Durability of a Novel, 24-Hour, Extended-Release Prescription Formulation of Acetylsalicylic Acid in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbel, Paul A; Bliden, Kevin P; Chaudhary, Rahul; Patrick, Jeff; Liu, Fang; Chen, Gailing; McLeod, Christopher; Tantry, Udaya S

    2016-12-15

    High platelet reactivity and high platelet turnover have been implicated in incomplete platelet inhibition during immediate-release acetylsalicylic acid therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). An extended-release acetylsalicylic acid (ER-ASA; Durlaza) formulation was developed to provide 24-hour antithrombotic effects with once-daily dosing. The objective of the study was to evaluate the antiplatelet effects of ER-ASA in patients with DM. In this open-label, single-center study, patients with DM (n = 40) and multiple cardiovascular risk factors received ER-ASA 162.5 mg/day for 14 ± 4 days. Multiple platelet function tests, serum and urinary thromboxane B2 metabolites, prostacyclin metabolite, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein levels were assessed at 1, 12, 16, and 24 hours post-dose. Patients with high platelet turnover and/or high platelet reactivity were treated with ER-ASA 325 mg/day for 14 ± 4 days, and laboratory analyses were repeated. All patients responded to ER-ASA 162.5 mg/day as measured by arachidonic acid-induced aggregation, and there was no loss of the platelet inhibitory effect of ER-ASA 162.5 mg/day over 24 hours post-dose (p = not significant). The antiplatelet effect was sustained over 24 hours for all platelet function measurements. Mean 1- to 24-hour serum thromboxane B2 levels were low with both doses and were lower with ER-ASA 325 mg/day compared with 162.5 mg/day therapy (p = 0.002). In conclusion, ER-ASA 162.5 mg daily dose provided sustained antiplatelet effects over 24 hours in patients with type 2 DM and multiple cardiovascular risk factors and had a favorable tolerability profile.

  1. Effects of agricultural biodiversity and seasonal rain on dietary adequacy and household food security in rural areas of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Kaibi, Florence K; Steyn, Nelia P; Ochola, Sophie; Du Plessis, Lisanne

    2015-04-25

    Kenya has a high prevalence of underweight and stunting in children. It is believed that both agricultural biodiversity and seasonal rainfall influences household food security and dietary intake. In the present study we aimed to study the effects of agricultural biodiversity and seasonal rains on dietary adequacy and household food security of preschool Kenyan children, and to identify significant relationships between these variables. Two cross-sectional studies were undertaken in resource-poor households in rural Kenya approximately 6 months apart. Interviews were done with mothers/caregivers to collect data from randomly selected households (N = 525). A repeated 24-hour recall was used to calculate dietary intake in each phase while household food security was measured using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). A nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) was calculated for each nutrient as the percent of the nutrient meeting the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) for that nutrient. A mean adequacy ratio (MAR) was calculated as the mean of the NARs. Agricultural biodiversity was calculated for each household by counting the number of different crops and animals eaten either from domestic sources or from the wild. Dietary intake was low with the majority of households not meeting the RNIs for many nutrients. However intake of energy (p food security also increased significantly (p food security and between dietary adequacy and household food security. Furthermore, the effect of seasonality on household food security and nutrient intake was illustrated.

  2. The relationship between dietary supplement use in late pregnancy and birth outcomes: a cohort study in British women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwan, N A; Greenwood, D C; Simpson, N A B; McArdle, H J; Cade, J E

    2010-06-01

    To examine the relationship between dietary supplement use during pregnancy and birth outcomes. A prospective birth cohort. Leeds, UK. One thousand two hundred and seventy-four pregnant women aged 18-45 years. Dietary supplement intake was ascertained using three questionnaires for the first, second and third trimesters. Dietary intake was reported in a 24-hour dietary recall administered by a research midwife at 8-12 weeks of gestation. Information on delivery details and antenatal pregnancy complications was obtained from the hospital maternity records. Birthweight, birth centile and preterm birth. Reported dietary supplement use declined from 82% of women in the first trimester of pregnancy to 22% in the second trimester and 33% in the third trimester. Folic acid was the most commonly reported supplement taken. Taking any type of daily supplement during any trimester was not significantly associated with size at birth taking into account known relevant confounders. Women taking multivitamin-mineral supplements in the third trimester were more likely to experience preterm birth (adjusted OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.2, 9.6, P = 0.02). Regular multivitamin-mineral supplement use during pregnancy, in a developed country setting, is not associated with size at birth. However, it appears to be associated with preterm birth if taken daily in the third trimester. The mechanism for this is unclear and our study's findings need confirming by other cohorts and/or trials in developed countries.

  3. Predictors for Reporting of Dietary Assessment Methods in Food-based Randomized Controlled Trials over a Ten-year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Yasmine; Zammit, Gail

    2016-09-01

    The importance of monitoring dietary intake within a randomized controlled trial becomes vital to justification of the study outcomes when the study is food-based. A systematic literature review was conducted to determine how dietary assessment methods used to monitor dietary intake are reported and whether assisted technologies are used in conducting such assessments. OVID and ScienceDirect databases 2000-2010 were searched for food-based, parallel, randomized controlled trials conducted with humans using the search terms "clinical trial," "diet$ intervention" AND "diet$ assessment," "diet$ method$," "intake," "diet history," "food record," "food frequency questionnaire," "FFQ," "food diary," "24-hour recall." A total of 1364 abstracts were reviewed and 243 studies identified. The size of the study and country of origin appear to be the two most common predictors of reporting both the dietary assessment method and details of the form of assessment. The journal in which the study is published has no impact. Information technology use may increase in the future allowing other methods and forms of dietary assessment to be used efficiently.

  4. [Association between dietary calcium/dairy intakes and overweight/obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanrong; Liu, Yan; Xue, Hongmei; Bao, Yuxin; Luo, Jiao; Tian, Guo; Cheng, Guo

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the intakes of dietary calcium/dairy and the current prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents aged 7-15 in Longquanyi District, Chengdu, and to explore the association of dietary calcium and dairy intake with overweight/obesity. 1738 children and adolescents were recruited in the cross-sectional study using cluster random sampling method. Information on dietary calcium and dairy intakes was collected using 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Height, weight and waist circumference were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI)/waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index standard deviation (BMI SDS). Overweight/obesity was defined based on the criteria of Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC). Participants were grouped into 3 categories indicating lower, moderate and higher intakes of dietary calcium and dairy, respectively. The association of dietary calcium and dairy consumption with (BMI SDS) /WHtR and the prevalence of overweight/obesity was analyzed after being stratified by gender and age. The prevalence of overweight/obesity in boys and girls were 11.92%/7.04% and 8.04%/6.30%, respectively. The intake of dietary calcium and dairy in girls were much higher than that in boys (P overweight (P = 0.03). However, similar results were not observed among girls. Dietary calcium and dairy intakes seemed to be related to overweight/ obesity in boys, however the associations were inconsistent among different age groups. Associations between consumption of calcium, dairy and overweight/obesity were not found among girls.

  5. 76 FR 38669 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Food Reporting Comparison Study (FORCS) and Food and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... previously, ``24-Hour Dietary Recall Method Comparison and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Observational... computerized Automated Self- Administered 24-Hour Recall (ASA24) approach to collecting 24-hour recall (24HR... data collection period with a total cost to the respondents $54,293. There are no Capital...

  6. Failure to recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical analysis shows that if the pattern of rehearsal in free-recall experiments (of necessity, the pattern observed when participants rehearse aloud) be continued without any further interruption by stimuli (as happens during recall), it terminates with the retrieval of the same 1 word over and over again. Such a terminal state is commonly reached before some of the words in the list have been retrieved even once; those words are not recalled. The 1 minute frequently allowed for recall in free-recall experiments is ample time for retrieval to seize up in this way. The author proposes a model that represents the essential features of the pattern of rehearsal; validates that model by reference to the overt rehearsal data from B. B. Murdock, Jr., and J. Metcalfe (1978) and the recall data from B. B. Murdock, Jr., and R. Okada (1970); demonstrates the long-term properties of continued sequences of retrievals and, also, a fundamental relation linking recall to the total time of presentation; and, finally, compares failure to recall in free-recall experiments with forgetting in general.

  7. Metabolic Engineering of Light and Dark Biochemical Pathways in Wild-Type and Mutant Strains of Synechocystis PCC 6803 for Maximal, 24-Hour Production of Hydrogen Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ely, Roger L.; Chaplen, Frank W.R.

    2014-03-11

    This project used the cyanobacterial species Synechocystis PCC 6803 to pursue two lines of inquiry, with each line addressing one of the two main factors affecting hydrogen (H2) production in Synechocystis PCC 6803: NADPH availability and O2 sensitivity. H2 production in Synechocystis PCC 6803 requires a very high NADPH:NADP+ ratio, that is, the NADP pool must be highly reduced, which can be problematic because several metabolic pathways potentially can act to raise or lower NADPH levels. Also, though the [NiFe]-hydrogenase in PCC 6803 is constitutively expressed, it is reversibly inactivated at very low O2 concentrations. Largely because of this O2 sensitivity and the requirement for high NADPH levels, a major portion of overall H2 production occurs under anoxic conditions in the dark, supported by breakdown of glycogen or other organic substrates accumulated during photosynthesis. Also, other factors, such as N or S limitation, pH changes, presence of other substances, or deletion of particular respiratory components, can affect light or dark H2 production. Therefore, in the first line of inquiry, under a number of culture conditions with wild type (WT) Synechocystis PCC 6803 cells and a mutant with impaired type I NADPH-dehydrogenase (NDH-1) function, we used H2 production profiling and metabolic flux analysis, with and without specific inhibitors, to examine systematically the pathways involved in light and dark H2 production. Results from this work provided rational bases for metabolic engineering to maximize photobiological H2 production on a 24-hour basis. In the second line of inquiry, we used site-directed mutagenesis to create mutants with hydrogenase enzymes exhibiting greater O2 tolerance. The research addressed the following four tasks: 1. Evaluate the effects of various culture conditions (N, S, or P limitation; light/dark; pH; exogenous organic carbon) on H2 production profiles of WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 2. Conduct metabolic flux analyses for

  8. Prediction of Appropriate Shocks Using 24-Hour Holter Variables and T-Wave Alternans After First Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation in Patients With Ischemic or Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegers, Joachim; Bergau, Leonard; Expósito, Pascal Muñoz; Bauer, Axel; Fischer, Thomas H; Lüthje, Lars; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Friede, Tim; Zabel, Markus

    2016-07-01

    In patients treated with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), prediction of both overall survival and occurrence of shocks is important if improved patient selection is desired. We prospectively studied the predictive value of biomarkers and indexes of cardiac and renal function and spectral microvolt T-wave alternans testing and 24-hour Holter variables in a population who underwent first ICD implantation. Consecutive patients in sinus rhythm with ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy scheduled for primary or secondary prophylactic ICD implantation were enrolled. Exercise microvolt T-wave alternans and 24-hour Holter for number of ventricular premature contractions (VPCs), deceleration capacity, heart rate variability, and heart rate turbulence were done. Death of any cause and first appropriate ICD shock were defined as end points. Over 33 ± 15 months of follow-up, 36 of 253 patients (14%) received appropriate shocks and 39 of 253 patients (15%) died. Only 3 of 253 patients (1%) died after receiving at least 1 appropriate shock. In univariate analyses, New York Heart Association class, ejection fraction, N-terminal pro brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), renal function, ICD indication, deceleration capacity, heart rate variability, and heart rate turbulence were predictive of all-cause mortality and VPC number and deceleration capacity predicted first appropriate shock. NT-proBNP (≥1,600 pg/ml) was identified as the only independent predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 3.0, confidence interval 1.3 to 7.3, p = 0.014). In contrast, VPC number predicted appropriate shocks (hazard ratio 2.3, confidence interval 1.0 to 5.5, p = 0.047) as the only independent risk marker. In conclusion, NT-proBNP is a strong independent predictor of mortality in a typical prospective cohort of newly implanted patients with ICD, among many electrocardiographic and clinical variables studied. Number of VPCs was identified as a predictor of appropriate shocks

  9. The effect of exercise performed before and 24 hours after blood withdrawal on serum erythropoietin and growth hormone concentrations in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, K; Zoladz, J A; Majerczak, J; Kolodziejski, L; Konturek, S J

    2003-07-01

    In the present experiment we have studied the effect of exercise performed before and 24 h after withdrawal of 450 ml of blood on the serum erythropoietin and growth hormone (GH) levels, in humans. Twelve male subjects (x +/- SD) aged 23.2 +/- 2.6 y, with a body mass of 74.8 +/- 7.2 kg, height 178.0 +/- 7.6 cm, BMI 23.6 +/- 2.1 kg x m(-2), VO2 max 2937 +/- 324 ml x min(-1), participated in this study. The subjects performed twice an incremental exercise test until exhaustion, separated by a period of about 7 - 10 days. The second test was performed 24 h after withdrawal of 450 ml of blood (honorary blood donation). In the control study we found no effect of the incremental exercise on the serum erythropoietin concentration, which amounted to 14.24 +/- 7.66 mU x ml(-1) at rest and 14.97 +/- 6.07 mU x ml(-1) at the end of the incremental test. Serum GH level in the control study rose considerably from 0.158 +/- 0.024 nmol x l(-1) at rest to 1.523 +/- 0.336 nmol x l(-1) at the end of exercise and returned to initial value 2 h after the exercise. During the experiment performed 24 h after withdrawal of 450 ml of blood the serum erythropoietin concentration at rest was significantly elevated (p blood withdrawal was similar to that in control test and exercise caused a rise in the GH level to 1.056 +/- 0.52 nmol x l(-1), significantly less than in control test, but this increment fell to control value 2 h after exercise. The elevated level of erythropoietin 24 h after blood withdrawal was accompanied by a significant increase (p blood hydrogen ion concentration [H +] b at rest from 48.2 +/- 2.8 nmol x l(-1) in the control study to 52.9 +/- 4.5 nmol x l(-1) after blood donation. No effect of blood withdrawal on pre-exercise level of plasma lactate concentration, end-tidal O2 and end-tidal CO2 was found. We concluded that withdrawal of 450 ml of blood, within 24 hours significantly increased serum erythropoietin concentration and caused non-lactic acidosis. A single bout

  10. Nutritional Adequacy of Dietary Intake in Women with Anorexia Nervosa

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    Susan K. Raatz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA dietary survey 2011–2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1–3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps.

  11. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa.

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    Raatz, Susan K; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol; Le Grange, Daniel; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-05-15

    Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) dietary survey 2011-2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI) for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1-3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps.

  12. Refluxo laringofaringeano: estudo prospectivo correlacionando achados laringoscópicos precoces com a pHmanometria de 24 horas de 2 canais Laringopharingeal reflux: prospective study that compare early laryngoscopic finds and 2 channel and 24 hours esophageal testing

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    O. Marambaia

    grau de suspeição do especialista.Introduction: Laryngeal symptoms from the gastroesophageal reflux are increasing and being more common. Studies have shown high association with e "globus", cronic hoarseness and cronic cough. The diagnosis and treatment are different from the well known gastroesophageal reflux disease. Laryngeal endoscopy is the first exam to be done in laryngeal pacients. Laryngeal redness, thickness of space between arytenoids, granuloma, polyp, Reinke's swelling, subglottic's stenosis need a complete clinical investigation. 24 hour pHmetry and manometry are the choice, because its sensibility and espicificity. Aim: compare early clinical and laryngeal finds of laringopharingeal reflux with 24 hours pHmetry and manometry results. Evaluate responses to clinical terapy and dietary. Study design: clinical prospective randomized. Method: 61 adults with those cronic complaints: dry cough, "globus", to hawk, sialorrhoea, hoarseness, halitosis and choking. Pacients with another patology from airways were excluded. The laryngoscopy was important to select only recent lesions to do 24 hours pHmetry and manometry, and after if necessary try clinical treatment. Result: 83,6% had patologic reflux. More frequent symptoms were: hoarseness (72,5%, to hawk (60,8%, to cuugh (29,4%, "globus" (23,5% and sialorrhoea (19,6%. Frequency of associated symptoms: two (67,4%; three (41,2% and four (21,5%. 49 pacients have begun treatment with omeprazole and diet: 83,7% became better after 6 months. 95,9% of the treated patients had improved in laryncoscopy. Conclusions: Laryngeal endoscopy and clinical history had good correltions with 24 hours pHmetry and manometry results. Other studies would estabilsh rules to diagnosis and follow patients with laryngeal endoscopy. Working with other professionals is important to solve problems at this pathology.

  13. Refluxo laringofaringeano: estudo prospectivo correlacionando achados laringoscópicos precoces com a phmanometria de 24 horas de 2 canais Laringopharingeal reflux: prospective study that compare early laryngoscopic finds and 2 channel and 24 hours esophageal testing

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    O. Marambaia

    2002-08-01

    de suspeição do especialista.Introduction: Laryngeal symptoms from the gastroesophageal reflux are increasing and being more common. Studies have shown high association with e "globus", cronic hoarseness and cronic cough. The diagnosis and treatment are different from the well known gastroesophageal reflux disease. Laryngeal endoscopy is the first exam to be done in laryngeal pacients. Laryngeal redness, thickness of space between arytenoids, granuloma, polyp, Reinke's swelling, subglottic's stenosis need a complete clinical investigation. 24 hour pHmetry and manometry are the choice, because its sensibility and espicificity. Aim: compare early clinical and laryngeal finds of laringopharingeal reflux with 24 hours pHmetry and manometry results. Evaluate responses to clinical terapy and dietary. Study design: Clinical prospective: Material and Method: adults with those cronic complaints: dry cough, "globus", to hawk, sialorrhoea, hoarseness, halitosis and choking. Pacients with another patology from airways were excluded. The laryngoscopy was important to select only recent lesions to do 24 hour pHmetry and manometry, and after if necessary try clinical treatment. Results: 83,6% had patologic reflux. More frequent symptoms were: hoarseness (72,5%, to hawk (60,8%, to cough (29,4%, "globus" (23,5% and sialorrhoea (19,6%. Frequency of associated symptoms: two (67,4%; three (41,2% and four (21,5%. 49 pacients have begun treatment with omeprazole and diet: 83,7% became better after 6 months. 95,9% of the treated patients had improved in laryncoscopy. Conclusions: Laryngeal endoscopy and clinical history had good correlation with 24 hour pHmetry and manometry results. Other studies would estabilsh rules to diagnosis and follow patients with laryngeal endoscopy. Working with other professionals is important to solve problems at this pathology.

  14. EXTRAPOLATION TECHNIQUES EVALUATING 24 HOURS OF AVERAGE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD EMITTED BY RADIO BASE STATION INSTALLATIONS: SPECTRUM ANALYZER MEASUREMENTS OF LTE AND UMTS SIGNALS.

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    Mossetti, Stefano; de Bartolo, Daniela; Veronese, Ivan; Cantone, Marie Claire; Cosenza, Cristina; Nava, Elisa

    2016-12-01

    International and national organizations have formulated guidelines establishing limits for occupational and residential electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure at high-frequency fields. Italian legislation fixed 20 V/m as a limit for public protection from exposure to EMFs in the frequency range 0.1 MHz-3 GHz and 6 V/m as a reference level. Recently, the law was changed and the reference level must now be evaluated as the 24-hour average value, instead of the previous highest 6 minutes in a day. The law refers to a technical guide (CEI 211-7/E published in 2013) for the extrapolation techniques that public authorities have to use when assessing exposure for compliance with limits. In this work, we present measurements carried out with a vectorial spectrum analyzer to identify technical critical aspects in these extrapolation techniques, when applied to UMTS and LTE signals. We focused also on finding a good balance between statistically significant values and logistic managements in control activity, as the signal trend in situ is not known. Measurements were repeated several times over several months and for different mobile companies. The outcome presented in this article allowed us to evaluate the reliability of the extrapolation results obtained and to have a starting point for defining operating procedures.

  15. Influence of irrigation protocols on the bond strength of fiber posts cemented with a self-adhesive luting agent 24 hours after endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Jessica Ferraz Carvalho; Lima, Adriano Fonseca; Humel, Maria Malerba Colombi; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini; Marchi, Giselle Maria; Ferraz, Caio Cezar Randi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different irrigation protocols on the bond strength, at different root depths, of fiber posts cemented with a self-adhesive cement 24 hours after endodontic treatment. Fifty-six bovine incisor roots were endodontically prepared and separated into 7 groups (n = 8) according to irrigation protocols: group 1, sterile saline (control); group 2, chlorhexidine (CHX) gel 2% and saline; group 3, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) 5.25% and saline; group 4, CHX and saline (final irrigation with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA] 17%); group 5, NaOCl and saline (final irrigation with EDTA); group 6, CHX and saline (final irrigation with NaOCl and EDTA); and group 7, NaOCl (final irrigation with CHX and EDTA). No statistically significant difference was found among the groups. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the different irrigation protocols did not influence the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement, which presented similar behaviors at the 3 root depths studied.

  16. Control of bleeding by silk ligation and diathermy coagulation during tonsillectomy: A comparison of efficacy of the two techniques in the first 24 hours after surgery

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    Anwar, Khurshid; Ahmad, Rafiq; Khan, Muneeb

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the relative efficacy of silk ligation and diathermy coagulation techniques in controlling bleeding during tonsillectomy in the first 24 hours. Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Department of ENT, Khalifa Gul Nawaz Teaching Hospital, Bannu and this department related consultants’ private clinics from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014. The study included 180 cases. All patients included were having history of recurrent, acute tonsillitis, with more than 6–7 episodes in one year, five episodes per year for two years, or three episodes per year for three years. All the surgeries were performed by dissection method. Haemostasis during the procedure was secured by either ligation with silk 1 or using diathermy. The results were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 for windows. Results: A total of180 cases were included in the study. The ages of the patients ranged from 5 to 40 years with the mean age of 15.56 years and a std.deviation of +/- 8.24. The male to female ratio was 1.25:1. The number of hemorrhages occurring was greater in the ‘diathermy coagulation’ group as compared to the ‘silk ligation’ group. However, the observed difference was statistically insignificant (p >.05). Conclusion: Primary haemorrhage occurring during tonsillectomy is a serious threat and control of bleeding during the procedure should therefore be meticulous. Both suture ligation and coagulation diathermy for control of bleeders during the procedure by dissection method are equally effective. PMID:26430438

  17. Computer simulation of the effect of dDAVP with saline loading on fluid balance after 24-hour head-down tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R. S.; Simanonok, K. E.; Charles, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid loading (FL) before Shuttle reentry is a countermeasure currently in use by NASA to improve the orthostatic tolerance of astronauts during reentry and postflight. The fluid load consists of water and salt tablets equivalent to 32 oz (946 ml) of isotonic saline. However, the effectiveness of this countermeasure has been observed to decrease with the duration of spaceflight. The countermeasure's effectiveness may be improved by enhancing fluid retention using analogs of vasopressin such as lypressin (LVP) and desmopressin (dDAVP). In a computer simulation study reported previously, we attempted to assess the improvement in fluid retention obtained by the use of LVP administered before FL. The present study is concerned with the use of dDAVP. In a recent 24-hour, 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) study involving seven men, dDAVP was found to improve orthostatic tolerance as assessed by both lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and stand tests. The treatment restored Luft's cumulative stress index (cumulative product of magnitude and duration of LBNP) to nearly pre-bedrest level. The heart rate was lower and stroke volume was marginally higher at the same LBNP levels with administration of dDAVP compared to placebo. Lower heart rates were also observed with dDAVP during stand test, despite the lower level of cardiovascular stress. These improvements were seen with only a small but significant increase in plasma volume of approximately 3 percent. This paper presents a computer simulation analysis of some of the results of this HDT study.

  18. Changes in Quality of Native and Frozenthawed Semen in Relation to Two Collections Performed in a 24-hour Interval and Adition of Clarified Egg Yolk to Extender

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    Folková P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of repeated semen collection and the substitution of normal egg yolk with clarified egg yolk to commercially produced semen extender on qualitative parameters of frozen-thawed canine semen. Two semen collections were scheduled in a 24-hour interval and in each of six dogs, three 1st and three 2nd collections were performed. The frozen-thawed sperm samples were prepared either with clarified or normal egg yolk and motility and viability were evaluated. The effect of the sequence of semen collection was demonstrated by significant differences in motility and also in viability of sperms both in native and frozen-thawed ejaculate. The percentage of viable sperms was significantly higher in samples from the 2nd compared to the 1st collection. This trend was the same also in motility except in native ejaculate. The addition of clarified egg yolk was beneficial for higher survival of sperms immediately after thawing and also after 30 min of incubation, compared to samples with normal egg yolk. Sperm motility evaluated after thawing was higher in samples with clarified egg yolk, without an apparent connection with semen collection sequence. The decrease of values of the qualitative parameters of sperms observed in the period of 30 min of incubation was significantly slowed down when clarified egg yolk was used. This was especially obvious in samples from the 2nd collection.

  19. Evaluation of five QT correction formulas using a software-assisted method of continuous QT measurement from 24-hour Holter recordings.

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    Molnar, J; Weiss, J; Zhang, F; Rosenthal, J E

    1996-10-15

    To evaluate and compare QT correction formulas in healthy subjects, we used 24-hour Holter monitoring because it allows the assessment of QT intervals over a large range of rates. Computer-assisted QT-interval measurements were obtained from 21 subjects. QT-RR relations for individuals and the group were fitted by regression analysis to 5 QT prediction formulas: simple Bazett's, modified Bazett's, linear (Framingham), modified Fridericia's and exponential (Sarma's). There were no significant differences in mean squared residuals between formulas. When using individually calculated regression parameters, each formula gave good or acceptable QT correction over the entire range of RR intervals. Simple Bazett's formula (which uses no regression parameters) was unreliable at high rates. Akaike information criteria rank was: Sarma's, Framingham, modified Bazett's, Fridericia's, and simple Bazett's. When group-based regression parameters were applied to individuals, no formula had a clear advantage over simple Bazett's. We conclude that any formula that invokes regression parameters unique to each individual provides satisfactory QT correction. Determination of these parameters requires long-term recording to obtain an adequate range of rates. Group-based regression parameters give poor correction. When individual parameters cannot be determined, as in a 12-lead electrocardiogram, no formula provides an advantage over the familiar simple Bazett's.

  20. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: Exploring the perceptions of stakeholders regarding their acceptability, barriers to uptake, and dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Guy; White, Lauren; Riazi, Negin; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    Engaging stakeholders in the development of guidelines and plans for implementation is vital. The purpose of this study was to examine stakeholders' (parents, teachers, exercise professionals, paediatricians, and youth) perceptions of the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Behaviour Guidelines for Children and Youth ("Movement Guidelines"). Stakeholders (n = 104) engaged in semi-structured focus groups or interviews to discuss the perceived acceptability of the guidelines, potential barriers to implementation, and preferred methods and messengers of dissemination. A thematic analysis was conducted. Overall, there was consistent support across all stakeholder groups, with the exception of youth participants, for the Movement Guidelines. Stakeholders identified a range of barriers to the uptake of the guidelines including concerns with accurately defining key terms such as "recreational" screen time; everyday challenges such as financial and time constraints; and the possibility of the Movement Guidelines becoming just another source of stress and guilt for already busy and overwhelmed parents. Participants identified a range of recommended methods and messengers for future dissemination. School and medical settings were the most commonly recommended settings through which dissemination efforts should be delivered. Overall, participants representing a range of stakeholder groups were receptive to the new Movement Guidelines and endorsed their value. In complementing the Movement Guidelines, messaging and resources will need to be developed that address common concerns participants had regarding their dissemination and implementation.

  1. Dietary intake is not associated to the metabolic syndrome in elderly women

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    Neide Maria Bruscato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metabolic syndrome is a complex metabolic disturbance due to an interaction between genetic factors, poor dietary habits and physical inactivity. Aims: To investigate the role of dietary intake on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a population of elderly, socially active women in Brazil. Patients and Methods : A total of 284 women with mean age 69.3 ± 6.3 years were evaluated in a cross-sectional retrospective study. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to criteria of the International Diabetes Federation. The dietary intake was evaluated through a questionnaire for 24-hour dietary recall. The groups with or without the metabolic syndrome were compared for dietary intake and risk factors for metabolic syndrome by the multiple regression model adjusted for age, smoking, physical activity, educational level, total energy intake and fiber contents of the diet. The odds ratio for the presence of the metabolic syndrome was calculated for each nutrient by quartile for total energy intake adjusted by the residue method. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 32% in the sample. There was not found any association between dietary intake, including all macronutrients and several micronutrients, and the presence of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion : No associations were observed between nutritional factors and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in elderly women, a result possibly due to the fact that these factors have an influence in earlier phases of life, or to a recent modification of dietary habits, which however was not able to prevent the establishment of the syndrome.

  2. Dietary adequacies among South African adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

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    Fariba Kolahdooz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food quality, determined by micronutrient content, is a stronger determinant of nutritional status than food quantity. Health concerns resulting from the co-existence of over-nutrition and under-nutrition in low income populations in South Africa have been fully recognized in the last two decades. This study aimed to further investigate dietary adequacy amongst adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal, by determining daily energy and nutrient intakes, and identifying the degree of satisfaction of dietary requirements. METHODS: Cross-sectional study assessing dietary adequacy from 24-hour dietary recalls of randomly selected 136 adults in Empangeni, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. RESULTS: Results are presented for men (n = 52 and women (n = 84 19-50 and >50 years old. Mean energy intake was greatest in women >50 years (2852 kcal/day and exceeded Dietary Reference Intake's for both men and women, regardless of age. Mean daily energy intake from carbohydrates was 69% for men and 67% for women, above the Dietary Reference Intake range of 45-65%. Sodium was also consumed in excess, and the Dietary Reference Intakes of vitamins A, B12, C, D, and E, calcium, zinc and pantothenic acid were not met by the majority of the population. CONCLUSION: Despite mandatory fortification of staple South African foods, micronutrient inadequacies are evident among adults in rural South African communities. Given the excess caloric intake and the rising prevalence of obesity and other non-communicable diseases in South Africa, a focus on diet quality may be a more effective approach to influence micronutrient status than a focus on diet quantity.

  3. Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans

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    Rabinak, Christine A.; Angstadt, Mike; Sripada, Chandra S.; Abelson, James L.; Liberzon, Israel; Milad, Mohammed R.; Phan, K. Luan

    2012-01-01

    A first-line approach to treat anxiety disorders is exposure-based therapy, which relies on extinction processes such as repeatedly exposing the patient to stimuli (conditioned stimuli; CS) associated with the traumatic, fear-related memory. However, a significant number of patients fail to maintain their gains, partly attributed to the fact that this inhibitory learning and its maintenance is temporary and conditioned fear responses can return. Animal studies have shown that activation of the cannabinoid system during extinction learning enhances fear extinction and its retention. Specifically, CB1 receptor agonists, such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC), can facilitate extinction recall by preventing recovery of extinguished fear in rats. However, this phenomenon has not been investigated in humans. We conducted a study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design, coupling a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and simultaneous skin conductance response (SCR) recording with an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) or placebo (PBO) 2 hours prior to extinction learning in 29 healthy adult volunteers (THC = 14; PBO = 15) and tested extinction retention 24 hours after extinction learning. Compared to subjects that received PBO, subjects that received THC showed low SCR to a previously extinguished CS when extinction memory recall was tested 24 hours after extinction learning, suggesting that THC prevented the recovery of fear. These results provide the first evidence that pharmacological enhancement of extinction learning is feasible in humans using cannabinoid system modulators, which may thus warrant further development and clinical testing. PMID:22796109

  4. Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

    2013-01-01

    Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast-food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (N=196, 25–51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index, AHEI) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (Model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in Model 2 but most were not significant in Model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (AHEI) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast-food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods. PMID:23890353

  5. Epidemiology of Urban Traffic Accident Victims Hospitalized More Than 24 Hours in a Level III Trauma Center, Kashan County, Iran, During 2012-2013

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    Mahdian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Urban traffic accidents are an extensively significant problem in small and busy towns in Iran. This study tried to explore the epidemiological pattern of urban traffic accidents in Kashan and Aran-Bidgol cities, Iran. Objectives This study aimed to assess various epidemiological factors affecting victims of trauma admitted to a main trauma center in Iran. Patients and Methods During a retrospective study, data including age, sex, injury type and pattern, outcome, hospital stay and treatment expenditures regarding urban Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs for one year (March 2012-March 2013 were obtained from the registry of trauma research center, emergency medical services and deputy of health of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. One-way ANOVA and chi-square tests were used to analyze data using SPSS version 16.0. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results A total of 1723 victims (82.6% male, sex ratio of almost 5:1 were considered in this study. Mortality rate in trauma cases hospitalized more than 24 hours during our study was 0.8%. Young motorcyclist men with the rate of more than 103 per 10000 were the most vulnerable group. The most common injury was head injury (73.6% followed by lower limb injury (33.2%. A significant association was found between mechanism of injury and head, lower limb, multiple injuries and high risk age group. Conclusions Urban RTAs are one of the most important problems in Kashan and Aran-Bidgol cities, which impose a great economic burden on health system. Motorcyclists are the most vulnerable victims and multiple trauma and head injury are seen among them extensively.

  6. Spatial characteristics of extreme rainfall over China with hourly through 24-hour accumulation periods based on national-level hourly rain gauge data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yongguang; Xue, Ming; Li, Bo; Chen, Jiong; Tao, Zuyu

    2016-11-01

    Hourly rainfall measurements of 1919 national-level meteorological stations from 1981 through 2012 are used to document, for the first time, the climatology of extreme rainfall in hourly through 24-h accumulation periods in China. Rainfall amounts for 3-, 6-, 12- and 24-h periods at each station are constructed through running accumulation from hourly rainfall data that have been screened by proper quality control procedures. For each station and for each accumulation period, the historical maximum is found, and the corresponding 50-year return values are estimated using generalized extreme value theory. Based on the percentiles of the two types of extreme rainfall values among all the stations, standard thresholds separating Grade I, Grade II and Grade III extreme rainfall are established, which roughly correspond to the 70th and 90th percentiles for each of the accumulation periods. The spatial characteristics of the two types of extreme rainfall are then examined for different accumulation periods. The spatial distributions of extreme rainfall in hourly through 6-h periods are more similar than those of 12- and 24-h periods. Grade III rainfall is mostly found over South China, the western Sichuan Basin, along the southern and eastern coastlines, and in the large river basins and plains. There are similar numbers of stations with Grade III extreme hourly rainfall north and south of 30°N, but the percentage increases to about 70% south of 30°N as the accumulation period increases to 24 hours, reflecting richer moisture and more prolonged rain events in southern China. Potential applications of the extreme rainfall climatology and classification standards are suggested at the end.

  7. Evaluation of the indications and arrhythmic patterns of 24 hour Holter electrocardiography among hypertensive and diabetic patients seen at OAUTHC, Ile-Ife Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Rasaaq A; Ikwu, Amanze N; Balogun, Michael O; Akintomide, Anthony O; Mene-Afejuku, Tuoyo O; Adeyeye, Victor O; Bamikole, Olaniyi J; Bisiriyu, Luqman A; Ajayi, Olufemi E; Ogunyemi, Suraj A; Oketona, Omolola A

    2014-01-01

    There are very limited published studies in Nigeria on the use of 24 hour Holter electrocardiogram (Holter ECG) in the arrhythmic evaluation of hypertensive and diabetic patients. To evaluate indications, arrhythmic pattern of Holter ECG, and heart rate variability (HRV) among patients with hypertensive heart disease (HHD) with or without heart failure and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) seen in our cardiac care unit. Seventy-nine patients (32 males and 47 females) were studied consecutively over a year using Schiller type (MT-101) Holter ECG machine. Out of the 79 patients, 17 (21.5%) had HHD without heart failure, 33 (41.8%) had HHD with hypertensive heart failure (HHF), while 29 (36.7%) were T2DM patients. The mean (standard deviation) ages of HHD without heart failure, HHF and T2DM patients were 59.65 (±14.38), 65.15 (±14.30), and 54.66 (±8.88) respectively. The commonest indication for Holter ECG was palpitation (38%), followed by syncope (20.3%). Premature ventricular contraction was the commonest arrhythmic pattern among the 79 patients, especially among HHF patients. The HRV using standard deviation of all normal-normal intervals was significantly reduced in T2DM patients (81.03±26.33, confidence interval [CI] =71.02-91.05) compared to the HHD without heart failure (119.65±29.86, CI =104.30-135.00) and HHF (107.03±62.50, CI =84.00-129.19). There was a negative correlation between the duration of T2DM and HRV (r=-0.613). Palpitation was the commonest Holter ECG indication and premature ventricular contractions were the commonest arrhythmic pattern among our patients. HRV was reduced in T2DM patients compared with hypertensive patients.

  8. Dietary intakes and some biochemical markers in hemodialysis patients

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    Emine Yassibas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intake of energy and some nutrients is frequently inadequate in dialysis patients because of eating and appetite disorders due to uremic syndrome. Inadequate energy and protein intake cause to malnutrition. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers and dietary intake records have great importance in determining the nutritional status of hemodialysis (HD patients. Therefore this study was planned to determination of daily energy, nutrient intake and some biochemical markers of adult hemodialysis patients. Method and Material:  A hundred and thirty six (male = 73, female = 63 clinically stable HD patients were enrolled in this study. All patients were taken 24-hour dietary recall. The daily energy and nutrient intakes of patients were calculated by food consumption records and anthropometric measurements were taken. Results: The mean age was found 45.5±13.51 years. The ratio of patients with body mass index (BMI below 18.5 kg/m2 was 7.4% and 25 kg/m2 or upper was 16.9%. Blood hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin and total protein levels were below the normal levels. The daily dietary energy and protein intakes were found under the recommended level in the study period. A significant positive correlation was found between daily protein intake and serum albumin levels (r=0.210, p=0.014, daily protein intake and serum total protein levels (r=0.201, p=0.019, daily energy intake and serum total protein levels (r=0.178, p=0.039. Conclusions: HD patients often have low protein and energy intakes and most of them suffer from malnutrition. Therefore nutritional status of patients should be evaluated and periodically nutrition education should be given for improving eating habits and increasing dietary compliance is recommended.

  9. Dietary intake mediates the relationship of body fat to pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Charles F; Olson, KayLoni L; Bodine, Andrew; Lee, Victoria; Habash, Diane L

    2017-02-01

    Prior studies have documented an association of obesity with chronic pain, but the mechanism explaining the association remains unknown. This study evaluated the degree to which dietary intake of foods with anti-inflammatory effects mediates the relationship of body fat to body pain. Ninety-eight community-residing healthy adults (60% women; mean age = 43.2 ± 15.3 years; range: 20-78 years) participated in a home-based study of home environment, food-related behaviors, health, and adiposity. During a 3-hour home visit evaluation, 3 measures of body fat were collected, including height and weight for calculation of body mass index (BMI). Participants also completed a 24-hour food recall interview and self-report measures of bodily pain (BP; BP subscale from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36) and psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Quality of dietary intake was rated using the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Mediation models were conducted with the PROCESS macro in SAS 9.3. Mean BMI was consistent with obesity (30.4 ± 7.8; range: 18.2-53.3), and BP values (73.2 ± 22.1; range: 0-100) and dietary intake quality (59.4 ± 15.5; range: 26.8-88.1) were consistent with population norms. Modeling in PROCESS revealed that Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores mediated the relationship between BMI and BP (bindirect = -0.34, 95% confidence interval = -0.68 to -0.13). The mediation model remained significant when controlling for biomechanical factors (arthritis/joint pain), medication use, psychological distress, age, and education, and models remained significant using the other 2 body fat measures. Thus, the data indicate that dietary intake of foods with anti-inflammatory effects mediates the relationship of body fat to body pain in healthy men and women.

  10. Comparison of estimated energy intake from 224-hour recalls and a seven-day food record with objective measurements of energy expenditure in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothausen, Berit Worm; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Groth, Margit Velsing

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate energy intake (EI) estimated from two nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls (24-HDRs) and a pre-coded seven-day food record (7-dFR) against objective measurements of energy expenditure (EE) in children. Design: A total of 67 78 year-olds and 64...

  11. Recalling academic tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Franklin Gno

    This study was focused on what students remembered about five middle school science tasks when they were juniors and seniors in high school. Descriptions of the five tasks were reconstructed from available artifacts and teachers' records, notes and recollections. Three of the five tasks were "authentic" in the sense that students were asked to duplicate the decisions practitioners make in the adult world. The other two tasks were more typical school tasks involving note taking and preparation for a quiz. All five tasks, however, involved use of computers. Students were interviewed to examine what and how well they recalled the tasks and what forms or patterns of recall existed. Analysis of their responses indicated that different kinds of tasks produced different levels of recall. Authentically situated tasks were remembered much better than routine school tasks. Further, authentic tasks centered on design elements were recalled better than those for which design was not as pivotal. Patterns of recall indicated that participants most often recalled the decisions they made, the scenarios of the authentically situated tasks, the consequences of their tasks and the social contexts of the classroom. Task events, in other words, appeared to form a framework upon which students constructed stories of the tasks. The more salient the events, the richer the story, the deeper and more detailed the recall of the task. Thus, authentic tasks appeared to lend themselves to creating stories better than regular school tasks and therefore such tasks were recalled better. Implications of these patterns of recall are discussed with respect to issues of school learning and assessment.

  12. Socioeconomic, social behaviour and dietary patterns among Malaysian aborigines and rural native Malays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, O; Shamsuddin, Z; Khalid, B A

    1991-09-01

    The socioeconomic, social behaviour and dietary pattern of 100 Aborigines and Malays, aged 7 years and above from Kuala Pangsoon, Selangor Malaysia were studied by using pretested questionnaires. The individual's dietary intake was estimated using 24 hour recall for 3 days within one week which was chosen at random. The household's food consumption pattern was evaluated using food frequency questionnaires. There was no difference in the total income per month for both communities, as well as the educational attainment of the head of household and property ownership. The proportion of smokers among the Aborigines and the Malays was almost similar (33%) but the percentage of heavy smokers was higher among Aborigines compared to Malays. One third of the Aborigines regularly consume alcohol. The main energy source for both communities was rice, sugar and cooking oil whilst fish and eggs were the main sources of protein. More than 50% of the Aborigines take tapioca or tapioca leaves at least once a week compared to less than 20% among the Malays. There was no significant different in the intake of energy, protein and carbohydrate between the groups. However, the Aborigines take less fats and iron compared to the Malays. The difference in terms of smoking, drinking habit and dietary intake may determine the distribution of disease in both communities.

  13. Food expenditures, cariogenic dietary practices and childhood dental caries in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldens, C A; Rodrigues, P H; Rauber, F; Chaffee, B W; Vitolo, M R

    2013-01-01

    Family expenditures on food for children may represent an important barrier to the adoption of healthy feeding practices in populations of low socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between cariogenic feeding practices, expenditures on food for children and dental caries. This cross-sectional study included 329 four-year-old children from São Leopoldo in southern Brazil. Cariogenic dietary practices were assessed at 4 years of age using two 24-hour recalls conducted with the children's mothers. Expenditures on food for children were estimated based on all reported food items and the respective amounts ingested. Early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries were assessed by clinical examination at 4 years of age. Cariogenic dietary habits were not associated with lower food expenditures. On the contrary, in multivariable regression analysis, the intake of chocolate (p = 0.007), soft drinks (p = 0.027) and a higher number of meals and snacks per day (p food for children. No statistically significant differences were observed in food expenditures or in the proportion of household income spent on feeding children between caries-free children, those with early childhood caries and those with severe early childhood caries. In conclusion, keeping children free of dental caries does not necessarily increase food expenditures or the proportion of household income spent on feeding children in low-socioeconomic status populations. Some cariogenic dietary practices were associated with greater expenditures on child feeding.

  14. Telephone counseling promotes dietary change in healthy adults: results of a pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Vicky A; Flatt, Shirley W; Pierce, John P

    2008-08-01

    Telephone counseling is increasingly reported to be an effective behavior change strategy, but more studies in broader populations are needed. This uncontrolled pilot trial investigated whether a 3-month/eight-call telephone counseling intervention could promote dietary changes associated with reduced chronic disease risk in adults consuming fiber, and fat were assessed at baseline and at 6 months, each by a set of three 24-hour recalls. Plasma carotenoids were measured on a subsample (n=41) as an objective biomarker of vegetable and fruit intake. Change in mean self-reported dietary intake (ie, vegetables, fruit, whole grains, beans/legumes, fiber, and fat) and plasma carotenoids were compared by paired t tests. The intervention was associated with a significant (P<0.001) increase in vegetable servings per day (baseline 2.1 servings per day, 6 months 3.5 servings per day; 67% increase), fruit servings per day (baseline 1.4 servings per day, 6 months 2.4 servings per day; 71% increase), and whole-grain and/or bean servings per day (baseline 1.0 serving per day, 6 months 1.4 servings per day; 40% increase). These changes were corroborated by a significant (P<0.001) increase in total plasma carotenoids. This 3-month/eight-call telephone counseling intervention was associated with dietary change in healthy adults consuming fewer than five servings per day of vegetables and fruit at study entry.

  15. The contribution of the USDA school breakfast and lunch program meals to student daily dietary intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Weber Cullen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, the National School Breakfast (SBP and School Lunch Program (NSLP meals are provided for free or at a reduced price to eligible children, and are a nutrition safety net for low income children. Consuming both meals could provide 58% of daily intake. This paper evaluates the contribution of SBP and NSLP meals to the dietary intakes of 5–18 year old children participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES from 2007 through 2012. The participants completed 24-hour dietary recalls. Least-square means and standard errors of the mean for energy and food group intakes for the total day and by school meal, and the percent of daily energy and food groups contributed by school meals were computed by analysis of covariance, with BMI, ethnicity, sex, age and poverty level as covariates. Of the 7800 participating children aged 5–18 years in the entire dataset, 448 consumed both SBP-NSLP meals on a weekday. Almost one-half (47% of the day's energy intake was provided by the two school meals. For the major food groups, the contribution of school meals ranged from between 40.6% for vegetables to 77.1% for milk. Overall, these results provide important information on contribution of the SBP and NSLP meals to low income children's daily dietary intake.

  16. The contribution of the USDA school breakfast and lunch program meals to student daily dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Chen, Tzu-An

    2017-03-01

    In the United States, the National School Breakfast (SBP) and School Lunch Program (NSLP) meals are provided for free or at a reduced price to eligible children, and are a nutrition safety net for low income children. Consuming both meals could provide 58% of daily intake. This paper evaluates the contribution of SBP and NSLP meals to the dietary intakes of 5-18 year old children participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2007 through 2012. The participants completed 24-hour dietary recalls. Least-square means and standard errors of the mean for energy and food group intakes for the total day and by school meal, and the percent of daily energy and food groups contributed by school meals were computed by analysis of covariance, with BMI, ethnicity, sex, age and poverty level as covariates. Of the 7800 participating children aged 5-18 years in the entire dataset, 448 consumed both SBP-NSLP meals on a weekday. Almost one-half (47%) of the day's energy intake was provided by the two school meals. For the major food groups, the contribution of school meals ranged from between 40.6% for vegetables to 77.1% for milk. Overall, these results provide important information on contribution of the SBP and NSLP meals to low income children's daily dietary intake.

  17. Reproducibility of 24-hour combined multiple intraluminal impedance (MII) and pH measurements in infants and children. Evaluation of a diagnostic procedure for gastroesophageal reflux disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Kasper; Nielsen, Rasmus G; Markoew, Simone;

    2007-01-01

    without dietary restrictions. Bland-Altman difference versus mean plots and calculation of the limits of agreement (LOA) were used for assessment of the reproducibility of the total number of acidic and nonacidic reflux episodes. LOA for the number of acidic reflux episodes on day 2 were 0.2-5.3 times...

  18. What's Being Served for Dinner? An Exploratory Investigation of the Associations between the Healthfulness of Family Meals and Child Dietary Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofholz, Amanda C; Tate, Allan D; Draxten, Michelle L; Rowley, Seth S; Schulte, Anna K; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; MacLehose, Richard F; Berge, Jerica M

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the healthfulness of foods offered at family meals or the relationship between the food's healthfulness and child overall dietary intake. This exploratory study uses a newly developed Healthfulness of Meal Index to examine the association between the healthfulness of foods served at family dinners and child dietary intake. Direct observational, cross-sectional study. Primarily low-income, minority families (n=120) video recorded 8 days of family dinners and completed a corresponding meal screener. Dietary recalls were completed on the target child (6 to 12 years old). The Healthfulness of Meal Index was used to measure meal healthfulness and included component scores for whole fruit, 100% juice, vegetables, dark green vegetables, dairy, protein, added sugars, and high-sodium foods. Child dietary intake measured by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models estimated the association between the healthfulness of foods served at dinner meals and overall child HEI. The majority of coded meals included foods from protein and high-sodium components; more than half included foods from dairy and vegetable components. Nearly half of the meals had an added-sugar component food (eg, soda or dessert). Few meals served foods from fruit, 100% juice, or dark green vegetable components. Many components served at family dinner meals were significantly associated with child daily intake of those same foods (ie, dark green vegetable, non-dark green vegetables, dairy, and added sugars). The Healthfulness of Meal Index total score was significantly associated with child HEI score. This study represents the first report of a new methodology to collect data of foods served at family dinners. Results indicated a significant association between the majority of components served at family dinner meals and child overall dietary intake. Validation of the Healthfulness of Meal Index and video-recorded family meal methodology is needed to strengthen these

  19. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly...

  20. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  1. Pistachio Product Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes food subject to recall in the United States since March 2009 related to pistachios distributed by Setton Pistachio of Terra Bella, Inc. The FDA...

  2. Peanut Product Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes human and pet food subject to recall in the United States since January 2009 related to peanut products distributed by Peanut Corporation of...

  3. Assessing dietary quality of older Chinese people using the Chinese Diet Balance Index (DBI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyue Xu

    Full Text Available Few studies have applied the Chinese Diet Balance Index (DBI in evaluating dietary quality for Chinese people. The present cross-sectional study assessed dietary quality based on DBI for older people, and the associated factors, in four socioeconomically distinct regions in China.The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS involves 2745 older Chinese people, aged 60 or over, from four regions (Northeast, East Coast, Central and West in 2009. Dietary data were obtained by interviews using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Four indicators: Total Score (TS, Lower Bound Score (LBS, Higher Bound Score (HBS and Diet Quality Distance (DQD from DBI were calculated for assessing dietary quality in different aspects.68.9% of older people had different levels of excessive cereals intake. More than 50% of older people had moderate or severe surplus of oil (64.9% and salt (58.6%. Intake of vegetables and fruit, milk and soybeans, water, and dietary variety were insufficient, especially for milk and soybeans. 80.8% of people had moderate or severe unbalanced diet consumption. The largest differences of DQD scores have been found for people with different education levels and urbanicity levels. People with higher education levels have lower DQD scores (p<0.001, and people living in medium and low urbanicity areas had 2.8 and 8.9 higher DQD scores than their high urbanicity counterparts (p<0.001. Also, significant differences of DQD scores have been found according to gender, marital status, work status and regions (p<0.001.DBI can reveal problems of dietary quality for older Chinese people. Rectifying unbalanced diet intake may lead to prevention of non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Dieticians and health care professionals need to increase dissemination and uptake of nutrition education, with interventions targeted at regions of lower socioeconomic status.

  4. Estimate of dietary exposure to sulphites using Brazilian students as a sample population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popolim, W D; De V C Penteado, M

    2005-11-01

    In Brazil, there is neither a register of the use of sulphites by the food industry nor is research being undertaken on their dietary exposure to the population. The objective of the work reported here was to estimate the dietary exposure to sulphites in two different groups of high school students, a fee-paying school group and a state school group. The data were collected through a 24-hour dietary recall, which provided estimates of sulphited foods and beverages in the diet. The Maximum Permitted Level (MPL), established by the Brazilian legislation for each of the sulphited food and beverages, was used to measure the dietary exposure to this additive. On this basis none of the students could have exceeded the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 0.70 mg SO2/kg bw/day, with a average dietary exposure of 0.07 mg SO2/kg bw/day (p<0.001), with no significant statistical difference (p=0.643) between fee-paying and state school students. Highly exposed consumers (dietary exposure to more than 50% of the ADI, or either, 0.35 mg SO2/kg bw/day, to the maximum of 0.52 mg SO2/kg bw/dia) represented 4.5% of the researched samples and reached these levels of intake due to a consumption beyond 500 ml/day of industrialized packaged fruit juices, and, in the fee-paying school, for associating its consumption with alcoholic beverages like beer and wine.

  5. Dietary phosphorus and blood pressure: international study of macro- and micro-nutrients and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Kesteloot, Hugo; Appel, Lawrence J; Dyer, Alan R; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Chan, Queenie; Brown, Ian J; Zhao, Liancheng; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2008-03-01

    Raised blood pressure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide; improved nutritional approaches to population-wide prevention are required. Few data are available on dietary phosphorus and blood pressure and none are available on possible combined effects of phosphorus, magnesium, and calcium on blood pressure. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure is a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 4680 men and women ages 40 to 59 from 17 population samples in Japan, China, United Kingdom, and United States. Blood pressure was measured 8 times at 4 visits. Dietary intakes were obtained from four 24-hour recalls plus data on supplement use. Dietary phosphorus was inversely associated with blood pressure in a series of predefined multiple regression models, with the successive addition of potential confounders, both nondietary and dietary. Estimated blood pressure differences per 232 mg/1000 kcal (2 SD) of higher dietary phosphorus were -1.1 to -2.3 mm Hg systolic/-0.6 to -1.5 mm Hg diastolic (n=4680) and -1.6 to -3.5 mm Hg systolic/-0.8 to -1.8 mm Hg diastolic for 2238 "nonintervened" individuals, ie, those without special diet/nutritional supplements or diagnosis/treatment for cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Dietary calcium and magnesium, correlated with phosphorus (partial r=0.71 and r=0.68), were inversely associated with blood pressure. Blood pressures were lower by 1.9 to 4.2 mm Hg systolic/1.2 to 2.4 mm Hg diastolic for people with intakes above versus below country-specific medians for all 3 of the minerals. These results indicate the potential for increased phosphorus/mineral intake to lower blood pressure as part of the recommendations for healthier eating patterns for the prevention and control of prehypertension and hypertension.

  6. Dietary characteristics of complementary foods offered to Guatemalan infants vary between urban and rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enneman, Anke; Hernández, Liza; Campos, Raquel; Vossenaar, Marieke; Solomons, Noel W

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to describe and compare the dietary variety, diversity, and origins of complementary foods given to urban and rural Guatemalan infants in the second semester of life. Dietary intake from a total of 128 infants of both sexes, aged 6.0 to 12.0 months on admission, from a low-income district of Guatemala City and a rural Mayan village was collected by means of 3 nonconsecutive 24-hour quantitative intake recalls and breast-feeding histories. We hypothesized that rural/urban, age, and sex differences would occur with respect to dietary variety and diversity scores and descriptive features at 7 levels, that is, animal or plant origin (animal, plant, both, or water); solids or semisolids vs soups and stews vs liquids; infant vs family foods; modern vs traditional foods; processed vs nonprocessed foods; commercial vs noncommercial foods; and fortified vs nonfortified foods. Overall dietary variety and diversity scores did not differ significantly between sampling areas or between sexes. Infants aged 9 to 12 months had a higher dietary variety and diversity than infants aged 6 to 9 months. Plant sources constituted a large part of the diet in both areas. Foods prepared specifically for infants, rather than for the household, were not common, although more common in the urban area than in the rural area. Commercial, processed, and fortified foods were commonly consumed in both settings. It can be concluded that although no geographical differences were seen in dietary variety or diversity, distinctions between types of selected and consumed foods were observed.

  7. Studies on the T sub 3 suppression test with reference to the thyrodial sup 123 I uptake in Graves' disease; Comparison of 24-hour and 3-hour uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Takahiko; Kobayashi, Isao; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Iwashita, Akira; Inukai, Toshihiko; Ohshima, Kihachi; Shimomura, Yohnosuke; Kobayashi, Setsuo (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-06-01

    Eighty-three patients with Graves' disease had been treated with methylmercaptoimidazole (MMI). They were prescribed a maintenance dose of antithyroid drug (MMI, 5 mg/day) at the time of a T{sub 3} suppression test. The 3-hour and 24-hour thyroidal {sup 123}I uptake after T{sub 3} administration (75 {mu}g/day, 2 weeks) were measured (post T{sub 3} uptake). In 38 patients whose post T{sub 3} uptake was below 35% in post T{sub 3} 24-hour uptake, treatment was stopped. The T{sub 3} suppression test was then repeated 1 and 3 months later. During a one-year follow up, 26 remained well, while 12 relapsed within 6 to 12 months. We have observed a good correlation between 3-hour uptake and 24-hour uptake of {sup 123}I after T{sub 3} administration (r=0.847, p<0.001). In 38 patients who showed positive T{sub 3} suppression, most patients with MMI withdrawal produced a marked overshoot of post T{sub 3} 3-hour and 24-hour uptake at one month. Retrospective analysis indicated that there was no significant difference in circulating thyroid hormone levels between remission and relapse groups. The present study provides evidence that 3-hour uptake values are able to be substituted for 24-hour uptake values during a T{sub 3} suppression test. In addition, overshoot of thyroidal uptake after antithyroid drug withdrawal was observed in 3-hour values, similar to 24-hour values. (author).

  8. Adaptive Memory: Animacy Enhances Free Recall but Impairs Cued Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Earl Y.; Serra, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of…

  9. Evaluation of the indications and arrhythmic patterns of 24 hour Holter electrocardiography among hypertensive and diabetic patients seen at OAUTHC, Ile-Ife Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo RA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rasaaq A Adebayo,1 Amanze N Ikwu,1 Michael O Balogun,1 Anthony O Akintomide,1 Tuoyo O Mene-Afejuku,1 Victor O Adeyeye,1 Olaniyi J Bamikole,1 Luqman A Bisiriyu,2 Olufemi E Ajayi,1 Suraj A Ogunyemi,1 Omolola A Oketona1 1Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, 2Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria Background: There are very limited published studies in Nigeria on the use of 24 hour Holter electrocardiogram (Holter ECG in the arrhythmic evaluation of hypertensive and diabetic patients. Objective: To evaluate indications, arrhythmic pattern of Holter ECG, and heart rate variability (HRV among patients with hypertensive heart disease (HHD with or without heart failure and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM seen in our cardiac care unit. Methods: Seventy-nine patients (32 males and 47 females were studied consecutively over a year using Schiller type (MT-101 Holter ECG machine. Results: Out of the 79 patients, 17 (21.5% had HHD without heart failure, 33 (41.8% had HHD with hypertensive heart failure (HHF, while 29 (36.7% were T2DM patients. The mean (standard deviation ages of HHD without heart failure, HHF and T2DM patients were 59.65 (±14.38, 65.15 (±14.30, and 54.66 (±8.88 respectively. The commonest indication for Holter ECG was palpitation (38%, followed by syncope (20.3%. Premature ventricular contraction was the commonest arrhythmic pattern among the 79 patients, especially among HHF patients. The HRV, using standard deviation of all normal-normal intervals was significantly reduced in T2DM patients (81.03±26.33, confidence interval [CI] =71.02–91.05 compared to the HHD without heart failure (119.65±29.86, CI =104.30–135.00 and HHF (107.03±62.50, CI =84.00–129.19. There was a negative correlation between the duration of T2DM and HRV (r=−0.613. Conclusion: Palpitation was the commonest Holter ECG indication and

  10. [Comparison of efficacy between the serum cortisol and 24 hour urine free cortisol in combined dexamethasone suppression test in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, L; Chen, J H; Zhu, H J; Song, A L; Li, M; Chen, S; Pan, H; Gong, F Y; Wang, R Z; Xing, B; Yao, Y; Feng, M; Lu, Z L

    2016-07-19

    To compare the sensitivity and specificity between the 24 hour urine free cortisol (24 h UFC) and serum cortisol in dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome (CS). Combined low dose DST (LDDST) and high dose DST (HDDST) were carried out in 67 cases of CS with surgically confirmed cases in recent 3 years(from January 2011 to November 2015). The serum cortisol and 24 h UFC were collected simultaneously for each subject and the sensitivity and specificity of serum cortisol and 24 h UFC were compared. There were Cushing disease (CD) group (n=53), ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome group (n=7) and ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome group (n=7) according to the etiology of hypercorticordism.There were no significant differences among 3 groups in gender and age.The sensitivity of serum cortisol of different cut off points(50, 110, 140 nmol/L and 50% of control)after LDDST was 97.01%, 86.57%, 83.58% and 70.15% respectively.Meanwhile, the sensitivity of cutoff point of 24 h UFC Cushing syndrome.There was no significant differences in two groups between serum cortisol Cushing disease was 60.38% and 90.57%, and the specificity was 91.43% and 96.00% respectively.There were significant differences between serum cortisol and 24 h UFC in both of sensitivity and specificity (both P<0.05). In addition, if the suppression rate of 24 h UFC in HDDST was adjusted to 60.85% according to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, it could have the best levels of sensitivity (92.6%) with the specificity of 85.7%. If the suppression rate of serum cortisol was adjusted to 61.53% in HDDST according to ROC curve, it could have the best sensitivity (64.8%) with the specificity of 78.6% accordingly. In combined LDDST, the serum cortisol <50 nmol/L had a higher sensitivity than the 24 h UFC<32 nmol when they were used as the criteria in determining the diagnosis of CS.In HDDST, the sensitivity and specificity of suppression rate of 24 h UFC

  11. [Evaluation of sleep apnea, detected by 24-hour ECG Holter monitoring analysis in patients with stable coronary artery disease and ischemic heart failure - correlations with clinical data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frączek-Jucha, Magdalena; Rostoff, Paweł; Łach, Jacek; Nessler, Jadwiga; Gackowski, Andrzej

    2017-06-23

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is frequently undiagnosed in patients with heart failure (HF) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Simple and widely available screening tests are needed to diagnose patients with SA. Measurements of thoracic impedance and heart rate variability during 24-hour ECG Holter (H-EKG) monitoring allows to calculate estimated apnoea-hypopnoea index (eAHI). The aim of the research was to assess prevalence of OSA evaluated with the use of H-EKG and determination of its clinical relevance in patients with CAD and ischeamic HF. The study groups comprised of: 30 consecutive patients with ischeamic HF with reduced LVEF (HFrEF) (group A) and 30 patients with CAD (group B). Control group (C) comprised of 30 patients with arterial hypertension but no CAD nor HF. H-ECG monitoring was performed and eAHI was calculated. On the basis of AHI result group A was subdivided to subgroups A1 (eAHI <15) and A2 (eAHI ≥15). Study groups differed with eAHI values (27,9±19,9 vs. 21,8±17,3 vs. 15,7±12,2; p=0,022). Post hoc analysis revealed that eAHI in group A was higher in comparison to group C (27,9±19,9 vs. 15,7±12,2; p=0,006). SA prevalence was higher in group A compared to group C (70,0% vs. 40,0%; p=0,019). Significant but weak correlation between eAHI and LVEDD was found (r=0,282; p<0,05). Subgroups A1 and A2 did not differ in terms of clinical and demographical parameters, HF symptoms, LVEF and NT-proBNP levels. OSA coexists more frequently with HF than with arterial hypertension Significant but weak correlation between eAHI and LVEDD was demonstrated. However, in patients with symptomatic ischeamic heart failure eAHI ≥15 was not related to NYHA class, lower LVEF and higher NT-proBNP levels.

  12. Defect of {sup 18}F-FDG Uptake Observed in Infarcted Myocardium Showing Reverse Redistribution on Rest / 24-Hour Delayed {sup 201}Tl Myocardial SPECT after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Young; Paeng, Jin Chul; Oh, So Won; Kim, Ji Yeong; Chung, Woo Young [Seoul national University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Reverse redistribution is frequently observed after revascularization in acute myocardial infarction, and usually regarded as a predictor of viable myocardium on stress/rest and 2- to 4-hour redistribution {sup 201}Tl SPECT. However, there is not enough report of reverse redistribution in case of 24-hour delayed SPECT, which is commonly used for viability assessment. In this report, a case of reverse redistribution on rest and 24-hour delayed {sup 201}Tl SPECT is reported with use of automatic segmental quantitative analysis. The myocardium of reverse redistribution was dysfunctional on gated SPECT, and diagnosed as non-viable on {sup 18}F-FDG PET.

  13. THE EVALUATIONAL STUDY ON ACCURACY OF 24 h DIETARY RECALL METHOD ASSISTED WITH ILLUSTRATIVE FOOD PICTURES%食物图谱辅助提高24h回顾法膳食调查准确性的评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴欣耘; 汪之顼; 马秀玲; 武洁姝; 范萍; 李祖文

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of the newly developed food pictures in improving the accuracy of 24 h dietary recall survey. Method Forty inpatients were selected to study the accuracy of recall method in dietary survey with or without illustrative food pictares as compared with the weighing method. The data of food consumption and nutrients intakes were collected for comparison. Results Compared with weighing method, besides egg and beef, all the foods and nutrients were underestimated by 24 h dietary recall method without pictures. The data of fat, vitamin E, sodium, calcium and dietary fiber intakes showed certain degree of positive correlation with those obtained by weighing method, but not correlated in other nutrients and food intakes. The data of foods and nutrients intakes obtained by pictures-assisted 24 h dietary recall method were highly correlated with those obtained by weighing method. Conclusion The newly developed food pictures can improve the accuracy of 24 h dietary recall method. It is easy to carry and use, especially in field work and deserves wider application. IACTA NUTRIMENTA SINICA, 2012,34(6): 558-562].%目的 评价新研制的食物图谱辅助提高24h回顾法膳食调查准确性的效力.方法 选取我院40名普食住院病人,分别用称重法、无图谱辅助的24 h膳食回顾法和有图谱辅助的24 h膳食回顾法对其进行一日膳食调查.将两种24 h膳食回顾法获得的食物消费量和营养素摄入量,与称重法获得的相应数据进行比较,计算与称重法的差值及其比例,比较两种24 h膳食回顾法所获数据与称重法的接近程度,探讨新研制的食物图谱在24 h膳食回顾中的作用.结果 与称重法相比,无图谱辅助的24 h回顾法除鸡蛋和牛内外,其余食物及所有营养素都是低估的,除脂肪、总维生素E、钠、钙和膳食纤维摄入量数据与称重法呈一定程度的正相关,其他营养素和各种食物摄入量

  14. Energy and macronutrient intake and dietary pattern among school children in Bahrain: a cross-sectional study

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    Rasheed Parveen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is increasing in Bahrain and there is lack of information on the energy and macronutrient intake of children. The objective of this research was to study the energy and macronutrient intake as well as food frequency pattern of Bahraini school children. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted on Bahraini school boys and girls aged 6-18 years from all the 11 populated regions of the country. Data on food intake consisted of a 24-hour dietary recall and was obtained by interviewing a sub-sample of the study population. Information was also obtained through a self-administered questionnaire for the entire sample on the weekly frequency of food items that were grouped into 7 categories based on similarity of nutrient profiles. Dietary analysis was performed using the Nutritionist 5 (First Data Bank Version 1.6 1998. Results While the average energy intake of students was close to the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK Reference standards, protein intake substantially exceeded the Reference Nutrient Intake values as did daily sugar consumption. Dietary fiber fell short of the Dietary Recommended Values (UK and 36%-50% students exceeded the Energy % limits for total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. The Polyunsaturated: Saturated fat ratio remained at an unacceptable level of 0.6 for girls and boys. While sweets, snacks and regular soda drinks were popular, milk, fruits and vegetables were not commonly consumed. Conclusions High sugar consumption, low intake of dietary fiber and high energy % of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol by many Bahraini children, is likely to increase their risk of obesity and cardiovascular diseases in later life. Nutrition education programs in schools should emphasize the importance of healthy balanced diets for growth and health maintenance of children as well as dietary prevention of diseases.

  15. Variação sazonal de episódios de taquicardia ventricular avaliados por Holter Seasonal variation of ventricular tachycardia registered in 24-hour Holter monitoring

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    Maurício Pimentel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a variação sazonal de arritmias ventriculares e sua correlação com a temperatura ambiente em pacientes submetidos à realização de Holter em Porto Alegre, Sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados os resultados de Holter de 3.034 pacientes realizados no período de 1996 a 2002. Taquicardia ventricular (TV foi definida pela presença de três ou mais batimentos ventriculares consecutivos, em freqüência igual ou superior a 100 batimentos por minuto. Foram avaliadas a distribuição do percentual de pacientes com TV entre as estações do ano e sua correlação com a temperatura ambiente. RESULTADOS: A idade média foi 59,2 ± 17,4 anos, com predomínio do sexo feminino (61,9%. A distribuição dos pacientes por estações do ano foi: verão 561 (18,5%, outono 756 (24,9%, inverno 843 (27,8% e primavera 874 (28,8%. No verão, 52 pacientes apresentaram TV (9,3%, no outono, 39 (5,2%, no inverno, 56 (6,6% e, na primavera, 60 (6,9% (p = 0,035. Houve aumento relativo de 40% na proporção de pacientes com TV no verão em relação ao inverno. Houve tendência de aumento da proporção de pacientes com TV com o aumento da temperatura (r = 0,57; p = 0,052. CONCLUSÃO: A ocorrência de TV apresenta variação sazonal no Sul do Brasil, com maior proporção de episódios ocorrendo durante o verão. Existe tendência de associação entre aumento da temperatura e TV.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the seasonal variation of ventricular arrhythmias and its correlation with ambient temperature in patients submitted to 24-hour Holter monitoring in the city of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. METHODS: Holter monitoring reports of 3,034 patients from 1996 to 2002 were analyzed. Ventricular tachycardia (VT was defined as the presence of 3 or more consecutive ventricular beats, at a rate equal to or higher than 100 beats per minute. Percentage distribution of patients presenting VT by seasons and its correlation with ambient temperature were analyzed

  16. Salad Consumption in Relation to Daily Dietary Intake and Diet Quality among U.S. Adults, 2003-2012

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    Ruopeng An

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: This study examined salad consumption in relation to daily dietary intake and diet quality among U.S. adults. Methods: Nationally representative sample came from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012 waves. Salad consumption was identified through both Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies codes for salad items and combination code for components of and/or additions to salads. First-difference estimator addressed confounding bias from time-invariant unobservables (e.g., eating habits, taste preferences by using within-individual variations in salad consumption between 2 nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Results: Approximately 28.7% of U.S. adults consumed salad on any given day. Among salad consumers, salad consumption occupied 12.5% of daily total energy, 62.8% vegetable, 11.9% fruit, 18.4% fiber, 9.1% sugar, 20.3% total fat, 14.7% saturated fat, 14.9% cholesterol, and 17.7% sodium intake. Compared to no salad consumption on a dietary recall day, salad consumption was associated with increased daily intake of total energy by 461.5 kJ (110.3 kcal, vegetable 85.0 g, fiber 1.0 g, sugar 5.7 g, total fat 10.0 g, saturated fat 1.3 g, cholesterol 18.7 mg, and sodium 216.3 mg. Salad consumption was associated with an increase in the Healthy Eating Index-2010 score by 4.2. Conclusion: Salad consumption is related to better overall diet quality but also higher total energy, sugar, fat, cholesterol, and sodium intake. Interventions that promote salad consumption should provide low-energy-dense, nutrient-rich salad products. Salad consumers should prudently evaluate the caloric and nutrient content of salad in order to make informed and more healthful diet choices.

  17. Cognitive aspects of dietary assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wirfält, Elisabeth

    1998-01-01

    Imprecise dietary reports are often cited as one reason for weak or non-existent relations between diet and disease in epidemiological studies. Studies in applied cognitive psychology have contributed to the improved utility of general survey questionnaires. However, only a few studies have examined cognitive processes in diet recall, and the designs of dietary assessment instruments that may enhance recall of habitual diet. This paper briefly summarises some research on cognition in diet rec...

  18. Development of a new instrument for evaluating individuals' dietary intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Hong; Kogashiwa, Michiko; Kira, Shohei

    2006-10-01

    With the aim of developing a new dietary instrument for assessing an individual's usual intakes, we evaluated a hand-held personal digital assistant with camera and mobile telephone card, called Wellnavi (Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd, Osaka, Japan). Twenty-eight college students majoring in food and nutrition in Okayama University of Japan voluntarily participated in this study. Applying a cross-sectional study design, participants were asked to keep 1-day weighed food records. Digital images of all recorded foods were obtained simultaneously and sent to registered dietitians by a mobile telephone card. The following day, a 24-hour recall was obtained. These procedures were repeated after 6 months. Participants' opinions about the three methods were determined using a questionnaire. Differences in estimated median nutrient intake among the three methods were compared by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test. Relationships among the nutrient estimates by each method were evaluated using Spearman rank correlation coefficients. We found no significant differences between the Wellnavi method when compared with food records for most nutrients, except zinc, manganese, vitamin E, saturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid, and dietary fiber. The median correlation coefficients for the nutrient estimates were 0.66 between the Wellnavi method and the food records. The survey showed that 57.1% of subjects considered the Wellnavi method the least burdensome of the three methods and the least time consuming (16 minutes) to record daily diet. About half of participants indicated that they would be willing to use the Wellnavi for 1 month to record their diet. This study suggests that a hand-held digital assistant may be a valid and convenient instrument for evaluating dietary intake.

  19. The Clinical Significance of the Pregnant Women 24 Hours Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring%孕妇24h动态血压监测的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the importance of pregnant women 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Methods Choose 510 cases of pregnant women to measure blood pressure, line 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring at the same time, to compare. Results 22 cases of pregnant women to measuring blood pressure is normal, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and diagnosis of gestational hypertension; 13 cases of pregnant women increased blood pressure measurement, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is normal. Conclusion Measuring blood pressure has certain limitation, does not represent a blood pressure throughout the day, if you want to correct diagnosis of pregnancy hypertension disease, pregnant women should be 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.%目的探讨孕妇24h动态血压监测的重要性。方法选择510例孕妇采用偶测血压,同时行24h动态血压监测,加以对比。结果22例孕妇偶测血压正常,24h动态血压监测诊断为妊娠高血压;13例孕妇偶测血压增高,24h动态血压监测正常。结论偶测血压有一定的局限性,不能代表全天血压,要想正确诊断妊娠高血压疾病,孕妇须行24h动态血压监测。

  20. The Intake of Energy and Selected Nutrients by Thai Urban Sedentary Workers: An Evaluation of Adherence to Dietary Recommendations

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    Katiya Ivanovitch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in Thailand’s nutrition and lifestyles have led to increasing diet-related pathologies among people with sedentary occupations. This study examines the extent to which the dietary intake of nutrients and energy by a sample of Thai sedentary workers conforms to the Thai Dietary Reference Intakes (Thai DRIs. The nutrients and energy intake estimates were based on self-reported information collected with a single 24-hour dietary recall and nonweighed 2-day food record. The study participants were Thai adults aged 20–50 years employed in sedentary occupations. A convenience sample of 215 healthy individuals (75 males and 140 females was based on four randomly selected worksites in the Bangkok metropolitan area. For male participants, the study found a median energy intake of 1,485 kcal/day, with 54.4% of energy coming from carbohydrate, 15.9% from protein, and 29.6% from fat. Females’ median energy intake was 1,428 kcal/day, 56% of which came from carbohydrate, 16.2% from protein, and 28.6% from fat. Both genders showed insufficient intake of fiber and most micronutrients. This study provides the material for preventive public health interventions focusing on nutrition-related diseases affecting Thailand’s rapidly growing sedentary workforce.

  1. Dietary exposure to cadmium, lead and nickel among students from the south-east region of Poland

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    Zbigniew Marzec

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of cadmium, lead and nickel was determined among students from three universities in Lublin to assess the levels of exposure to these contaminants compared to PTWI and TDI values. The study was performed in 2006–2010 and involved 850 daily food rations of students from the south–east region of Poland. The technique of 24-hour dietary recall and diet duplicates was used. Cadmium, lead and nickel complexes with ammonium-pyrrolidindithiocarbamate were formed and extracted to the organic phase with 4-methylpentan-2-one – MIBK in which their content was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest intake of the elements studied was observed in 2008. The data show that in none of the cases, the level of intake reached 70 % of PTWI/TDI values and thus the risk of developing diseases related to high exposure to these toxic metals absorbed from foodstuffs was low. The parameters of methods were checked during determinations by adding standard solutions to the samples before mineralization and by using two reference materials: Total diet ARC/CL HDP and Bovine muscle RM NIST 8414. The dietary exposure to lead and cadmium has significantly decreased in recent years whereas the exposures to nickel remain on stable levels.

  2. Assessing dietary quality of older Chinese people using the Chinese Diet Balance Index (DBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyue; Hall, John; Byles, Julie; Shi, Zumin

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have applied the Chinese Diet Balance Index (DBI) in evaluating dietary quality for Chinese people. The present cross-sectional study assessed dietary quality based on DBI for older people, and the associated factors, in four socioeconomically distinct regions in China. The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) involves 2745 older Chinese people, aged 60 or over, from four regions (Northeast, East Coast, Central and West) in 2009. Dietary data were obtained by interviews using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Four indicators: Total Score (TS), Lower Bound Score (LBS), Higher Bound Score (HBS) and Diet Quality Distance (DQD) from DBI were calculated for assessing dietary quality in different aspects. 68.9% of older people had different levels of excessive cereals intake. More than 50% of older people had moderate or severe surplus of oil (64.9%) and salt (58.6%). Intake of vegetables and fruit, milk and soybeans, water, and dietary variety were insufficient, especially for milk and soybeans. 80.8% of people had moderate or severe unbalanced diet consumption. The largest differences of DQD scores have been found for people with different education levels and urbanicity levels. People with higher education levels have lower DQD scores (ppeople living in medium and low urbanicity areas had 2.8 and 8.9 higher DQD scores than their high urbanicity counterparts (ppeople. Rectifying unbalanced diet intake may lead to prevention of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Dieticians and health care professionals need to increase dissemination and uptake of nutrition education, with interventions targeted at regions of lower socioeconomic status.

  3. Nutrient Intake and Dietary Practices of Elite Volleyball Athletes during the Competition Day

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    Janaka Prasanna Gamage

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adequate quality and quantity of athletes’ competition day diet is critically important for better performance and optimum recovery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of nutrient intake and dietary practices of Sri Lankan national volleyball players during a day of a major competition. Dietary practices of 76 athletes (43 males and 33 females were surveyed using 24-hour dietary recall method. Energy and macronutrient intakes were quantitatively assessed in relation to competition using a computerized nutrition analysis software and local food database. Questionnaire was used to examine supplement intake and fluid intake strategies. The results were compared with current nutrition recommendations for these athletes. Mean daily energy intakes were 2309+365 kcal (30.9+5.7 kcal.kg-1.body weight in male and 1829+383 kcal (30.8+6.8 kcal.kg-1.body weight in female athletes. These intake values were 31% and 18% lower than recommended daily energy intake for active Sri Lankan male and female adults, respectively. Daily carbohydrate and protein intakes of all athletes were 5.6+1.0 g.kg-1.day-1 and 0.91+0.37 g.kg-1.day-1, respectively, lower than the recommendations. Total energy, carbohydrate, and protein intake of female athletes were significantly lower than those of males (p<0.05. Frequency of snack intake and calorie content of snacks and main meals in the pre-competition period was sub-optimal. Nutrient intake and dietary practices of national level volleyball players during competition days are sub-optimal and do not meet the current nutrition recommendations. According to the results, it is recommended that athletes use nutrition counselling and strategies for optimizing dietary practices during the competition days.

  4. Relationship between Serum Leptin, Ghrelin and Dietary Macronutrients in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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    Bahram Pourghassem Gargari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrinopathy in women. It may involve an impairment in physiologic regulation of leptin and ghrelin. There is limited, controversial data on the relation of dietary components with leptin and ghrelin in PCOS, so the current study has been conducted to explore the effects of different macronutrients on serum levels of leptin and ghrelin in PCOS and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, we randomly choose 30 PCOS patients and 30 healthy age and body mass index (BMI matched controls. Intake of macronutrients [protein, total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, carbohydrate, dietary fiber] and energy were assessed using 3-day, 24-hour food recall and food frequency questionnaires (FFQ. Fasting hormonal status was measured for each participant. Results: PCOS women had higher levels of serum leptin, insulin, testosterone, and luteinizing hormone (LH, whereas sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG was lower compared to healthy women. There was no significant difference in mean ghrelin concentrations between the groups. Among PCOS women, independent of BMI and total energy intake, we observed an inverse association between leptin concentration and total dietary fat (β=-0.16, P<0.05 and saturated fatty acid (SFA intake (β=-0.58, P<0.05. This relationship was not seen in the healthy subjects. There was no significant association between ghrelin and macronutrients in PCOS and healthy participants. Conclusion: Certain habitual dietary components such as fat and SFA may decrease serum leptin, whereas ghrelin is not influenced by these in PCOS women. More studies are needed to better clarify the effects of dietary macronutrients on serum leptin and ghrelin.

  5. Low-level arsenic exposure: nutritional and dietary predictors in first-grade Uruguayan children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Queirolo, Elena I; Mañay, Nelly; Peregalli, Fabiana; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Lu, Ying; Vahter, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure in children is a public health concern but is understudied in relation to the predictors, and effects of low-level exposure. We examined the extent and dietary predictors of exposure to inorganic arsenic in 5–8 year old children from Montevideo, Uruguay. Children were recruited at school; 357 were enrolled, 328 collected morning urine samples, and 317 had two 24-hour dietary recalls. Urinary arsenic metabolites, i.e. inorganic arsenic (iAs), methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICP-MS), and the sum concentration (U-As) used for exposure assessment. Proportions of arsenic metabolites (%iAs, %MMA and %DMA) in urine were modelled in OLS regressions as functions of food groups, dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. Exposure to arsenic was low (median U-As: 9.9 µg/L) and household water (water As: median 0.45 µg/L) was not a major contributor to exposure. Children with higher consumption of rice had higher U-As but lower %iAs, %MMA, and higher %DMA. Children with higher meat consumption had lower %iAs and higher %DMA. Higher scores on ”nutrient dense” dietary pattern were related to lower %iAs and %MMA, and higher %DMA. Higher intake of dietary folate was associated with lower %MMA and higher %DMA. Overweight children had lower %MMA and higher %DMA than normal-weight children. In summary, rice was an important predictor of exposure to inorganic arsenic and DMA. Higher meat and folate consumption, diet rich in green leafy and red-orange vegetables and eggs, and higher BMI contributed to higher arsenic methylation capacity. PMID:26828624

  6. Dietary adherence and acceptability of five different diets, including vegan and vegetarian diets, for weight loss: The New DIETs study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wendy J; McGrievy, Michael E; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine dietary adherence and acceptability among participants from the New DIETs study who were randomized to one of four plant-based diets (vegan, vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) or an omnivore diet. Primary outcomes at two- and six months included dietary adherence (24-hour dietary recalls), weight loss and changes in animal product intake (mg cholesterol) by adherence status, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Power of Food Scale (PFS), dietary acceptability (Food Acceptability Questionnaire), and impact of diet preference on adherence. No differences were found in dietary adherence or changes in FAQ, TFEQ, or PFS among the groups. At six months, non-adherent vegan and vegetarian participants (n=16) had a significantly greater decrease in cholesterol intake (-190.2 ± 199.2 mg) than non-adherent pesco-vegetarian/semi-vegetarian (n=15, -2.3 ± 200.3 mg, P=0.02) or omnivore participants (n=7, 17.0 ± 36.0, P=0.04). Non-adherent vegan/vegetarian participants lost significantly more weight at six months (-6.0 ± 6.7%) than non-adherent omnivore participants (-0.4 ± 0.6%, P=0.04). Dietary preference had no impact on adherence at six months. Due to equal rates of adherence and acceptability among the diet groups, instructing participants to follow vegan or vegetarian diets may have a greater impact on weight loss and animal product intake than providing instruction in more moderate approaches even among non-adherent participants.

  7. Acculturation, education, nutrition education, and household composition are related to dietary practices among Cambodian refugee women in Lowell, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Jerusha Nelson; Silka, Linda; Bermudez, Odilia I; Wilde, Parke E; Rogers, Beatrice Lorge

    2011-09-01

    Refugees in the United States have higher rates of some chronic diseases than US-born residents or other first-generation immigrants. This may be partially a result of dietary practices in the United States. There is limited information about which factors are related to dietary practices in refugee populations, particularly those who have been in the United States for 10 to 20 years. Research with Cambodian communities may be useful for examining the relationship between refugee characteristics and dietary practices. Two focus groups (n=11) and a survey (n=150) of Cambodian refugee women were conducted in Lowell, MA, from 2007 to 2008. χ(2) analyses, t tests, and analysis of variance tests were used to describe differences in dietary practices (24-hour recall and a targeted qualitative food assessment) by group characteristics. Higher acculturation was related to higher likelihood of eating brown rice/whole grains, and to lower likelihood of eating high-sodium Asian sauces. Higher education was related to higher likelihood of eating vegetables and fruits and to eating white rice fewer times. Nutrition education and receiving dietary advice from a health care provider were related to higher likelihood of eating whole grains/brown rice. Having a child at home was related to a higher likelihood of eating fast food. Among Cambodian refugees who have been in the United States for 10 to 20 years, dietary practices appear to have a relationship with acculturation (positive association), the interrupted education common to refugees (negative association), nutrition education from either programs or health care providers (positive association), and having a child at home (negative association).

  8. Association of dietary calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium intake with caries status among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Han-Shan; Lin, Jia-Rong; Hu, Suh-Woan; Kuo, Hsiao-Ching; Yang, Yi-Hsin

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between caries experience and daily intake of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), and Ca/P ratio. A total of 2248 schoolchildren were recruited based on a population-based survey. Each participant received a dental examination and questionnaire interviews about the 24-hour dietary recalls and food frequency. The daily intake of Ca, P, Mg, and Ca/P ratio were inversely associated with primary caries index, but only the Ca/P ratio remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders. According to the Taiwanese Dietary Reference Intakes, the Ca/P ratio was related to both caries in primary teeth (odds ratio = 0.52, p = 0.02) and in permanent teeth (odds ratio = 0.59, p = 0.02). The daily intakes of Ca/P ratio remained an important factor for caries after considering potential confounding factors.

  9. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary intake of women living in Mexico City

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    HERNÁNDEZ-AVILA MAURICIO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the reproducibility and validity of a 116 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, designed to assess the relation between dietary intake and chronic diseases. Material and methods. To test the reproducibility of the FFQ questionnaire, the FFQ was administered twice to 134 women residing in Mexico City at an interval of approximately one year; to assess the validity we compared results obtained by the FFQs with those obtained by four 4-day 24-hour recalls at three month intervals. Validity and reproducibility were evaluated using regression analysis and Pearson and intraclass correlation coefficients of log-e and calorie-adjusted nutrient scores. Results. Mean values for intake of most nutrients assessed by the two food frequency questionnaires were similar. However, means for the 24-hr recall were significantly lower. Intraclass correlation coefficients for nutrient intakes, assessed by questionnaires, administered one year apart, ranged from 0.38 for cholesterol to 0.54 for crude fiber. Correlation coefficients between energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, measured by diet recalls, and the first FFQ ranged from 0.12 for polyunsaturated fatty acids to 0.67 for saturated fatty acids. Regression coefficients between 24-hr recall and FFQ,s were all significant were significant for all nutrients, except for polyunsaturated fat, folic acid, vitamin E and Zinc. Conclusions. These data indicate that this semi-quantitative FFQ is reproducible and provides a useful estimate by which to categorize individuals by level of past nutrient intake. However, its application outside Mexico City or in different age and gender populations will require additional modifications and validation efforts.

  10. Correlation bethealtyy ween dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and blood lipid levels in a group of women from Ahvaz

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    Farideh Shishebor

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: There are limited number of studies conducted on the correlation between Glycemic index and Glycemic load of a food program and metabolic factors such as blood lipids in Asian countries including Iran. Therefore, this study aimed at analyzing the correlation between Glycemic index and Glycemic load of Iranian food program and blood lipids. Materials & Methods: The subjects were 95 women working in Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences in the range of 20 to 55 years old. Glycemic index and Glycemic load of the food program was analyzed with 24-hour food recall questionnaires (4-6 recall. For calculating GI and GL, Iranian food GI tables, and also, international GI and GL table were used. The levels of blood lipids including HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides of the blood were measured and the level of LDL Cholesterol was calculated using Friedewald formula. Also, Anthropometric measurements were done using standard methods. Resulst: The mean age of subjects in this study was 36 years. GI mean was 72.1 and GL mean was 153.2. In this study, there was no significant relation between HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and Blood TG with Glycemic index and Glycemic load of food program. Conclusion: Unlike findings of west and Asian countries, both dietary GI and GL were not correlated with metabolic factors including blood lipid levels in this study , underreporting of individuals may influence the results of the study.

  11. Taking Advantage of the Strengths of 2 Different Dietary Assessment Instruments to Improve Intake Estimates for Nutritional Epidemiology

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2012-01-24

    With the advent of Internet-based 24-hour recall (24HR) instruments, it is now possible to envision their use in cohort studies investigating the relation between nutrition and disease. Understanding that all dietary assessment instruments are subject to measurement errors and correcting for them under the assumption that the 24HR is unbiased for usual intake, here the authors simultaneously address precision, power, and sample size under the following 3 conditions: 1) 1-12 24HRs; 2) a single calibrated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ); and 3) a combination of 24HR and FFQ data. Using data from the Eating at America\\'s Table Study (1997-1998), the authors found that 4-6 administrations of the 24HR is optimal for most nutrients and food groups and that combined use of multiple 24HR and FFQ data sometimes provides data superior to use of either method alone, especially for foods that are not regularly consumed. For all food groups but the most rarely consumed, use of 2-4 recalls alone, with or without additional FFQ data, was superior to use of FFQ data alone. Thus, if self-administered automated 24HRs are to be used in cohort studies, 4-6 administrations of the 24HR should be considered along with administration of an FFQ.

  12. Compound Cuing in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity…

  13. 依法推进24 h自助图书馆服务初探%Probe into Advancing Library’s 24-hours Self-service in Accordance with the Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘飞云

    2015-01-01

    加强基层服务是公共图书馆服务体系建设的着力点。从依法建设公共图书馆基层服务网点的重要途径、24 h自助图书馆的应用现状、城市副中心24 h自助图书馆建设的必要性、24 h自助图书馆存在问题以及解决对策的法律依据等方面,探讨了依法推进公共图书馆基层服务体系建设的问题。%Strengthening the basic service is the focal point of the construction of public library service system. This paper probes into the issue of advancing public library’s 24-hours self-service in accordance with the law from the aspects of the important paths for constructing public library’s basic service network, the application status of 24-hours self-service library in City’s sub-center, the existing problems in 24-hours self-service library, and the legal basis of the solution, etc.

  14. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Dietary Intake among WIC Families Prior to Food Package Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Angela; Odoms-Young, Angela M.; Schiffer, Linda A.; Berbaum, Michael L.; Porter, Summer J.; Blumstein, Lara; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the diets of African American and Hispanic families in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) prior to the 2009 food package revisions. Methods: Mother-child dyads were recruited from 12 WIC sites in Chicago, IL. Individuals with 1 valid 24-hour recall were included in the analyses…

  15. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Dietary Intake among WIC Families Prior to Food Package Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Angela; Odoms-Young, Angela M.; Schiffer, Linda A.; Berbaum, Michael L.; Porter, Summer J.; Blumstein, Lara; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the diets of African American and Hispanic families in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) prior to the 2009 food package revisions. Methods: Mother-child dyads were recruited from 12 WIC sites in Chicago, IL. Individuals with 1 valid 24-hour recall were included in the analyses…

  16. 称重法和24h膳食回顾法用于评估住院病人一日膳食的比较%Comparison of One-day Diet of Inpatients Assessed by Food Weighted Record and 24h Dietary Recall Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴欣耘; 汪之顼; 马秀玲; 王彬彬; 范萍; 李祖文

    2011-01-01

    目的:评价我院日常开展的24h膳食回顾在评估住院病人膳食摄入状况的准确性。方法:选取我院40名普通饭住院病人,分别用称重法、24h膳食回顾法对其进行一日膳食调查。将24h膳食回顾法获得的食物消费量和营养素摄入量,与称重法获得的相应数据进行比较,计算两者差值占称重法数据的比例,以此判断24h膳食回顾法数据的准确性。结果:在食物消费量方面,除牛肉和鸡蛋外,其余7种食物的2种方法的差值均有显著差异;但相关分析显示2种方法的数据无相关性。在能量和营养素摄入量方面,2种方法调查结果均有差异;2种方法获得的脂肪、总维生素E、钠、钙和膳食纤维摄入量数据呈一定程度的正相关,能量和其它营养素摄入量则未见相关性。结论:缺少必要辅助工具时,一般专业人员实施的24h膳食回顾调查,往往难以获得良好的质量控制,不能获得理想的评估数据。%【Objective】To assess the accuracy of dietary intake by 24h dietary recall study which was adopted in our hospital.【Method】Select 40 samples of inpatients firstly,then investigate their one-day diet by food weighted record and 24h recall study respectively and get the difference between them to assess the accuracy of 24h recall study.【Result】As for food consumption,there was significant difference in difference value on 7 types of food(except beef and egg) between 2 ways,and data in 2 groups were no correlation.Regarding energy and nutrients intake,the results of 2 methods were different.There was positive relationship among fattiness,total vitamin E,sodium,calcium and dietary fiber by 2 ways,but there was no significant relationship between energy and other nutrition intake.【Conclusion】When lacking of necessary aids,the general implementation of 24h dietary recalls couldn't obtain good quality control and was not impossible to get a good assessment data.

  17. How dietary intake methodology is adapted for use in European immigrant population groups - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Joy; Gurinovic, Mirjana; Frost-Andersen, Lene; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2009-07-01

    Immigrants comprise a noteworthy segment of the European population whose numbers are increasing. Research on the dietary habits of immigrants is critical for correctly providing diet counselling and implementing effective interventions. The aim of the present study was to identify the presently used methods and adaptations required for measuring dietary intake in European immigrant groups. A comprehensive review strategy included a structured MEDLINE search, related references and key expert consultations. The review targeted adults from non-European union (European union-15 countries) ethnic groups having the largest populations in Europe. As studies evaluating nutrient intake were scarce, papers evaluating intake at the level of foods were included. Forty-six papers were selected. Although Eastern Europe, Turkey, Africa (North, Sub-Saharan and Afro-Caribbean), Asia and Latin America represented the most numerous immigrant groups, papers on dietary intake were not available for all populations. Interview-administered FFQ and repeated 24 hour recalls were the most frequently applied instruments. Inclusion of ethnic foods and quantification of specific portion sizes of traditional foods and dishes in assessment tools as well as food composition databases were commonly identified problems. For FFQ, food list elaboration required particular consideration to reflect key ethnic foods and relative contribution to nutrient intake. Extra efforts were observed to overcome cultural barriers to study participation. Evaluating dietary intake of immigrant populations requires special attention to various methodological aspects (sampling, recruiting, instruments used, method of administration, food composition database, acculturation, etc.) so as to adequately address the range of socio-cultural factors inherent in these nutritionally at risk target groups.

  18. The correlation between dietary fat intake and blood pressure among people with spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabour, Hadis; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Soltani, Zahra; Mousavifar, Seyede Azemat; Latifi, Sahar; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan; Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have demonstrated the effect of different dietary fats on blood pressure (BP) in general population. However, these associations have not yet been described in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Referred patients to Brain and SCI Research Center between 2011 and 2014 have been invited to participate. Only paraplegic individuals were recruited and patients with injury at cervical or higher thoracic sections were excluded to omit the bias effect of autonomic dysreflexia. Dietary intakes were assessed by recording consumed foods by 24-hour dietary recall interviews using Nutritionist IV 3.5.3 modified for Iranian foods. Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were measured 3 times and the mean values entered analysis. Results: Higher intakes of cholesterol were related to higher BP (P = 0.010 and 0.011 for SBP and DBP, respectively). Similarly, intake of saturated fat was positively correlated to both SBP (P = 0.016, r = 0.21) and DBP (P = 0.011, r = 0.22). The effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on BP was insignificant (P = 0.760 and 0.720 for SBP and DBP, respectively). However, intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was related to lower BP among people with SCI. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that higher intakes of cholesterol and saturated fat are associated with increased BP, whereas DHA is an antihypertensive agent. Dietary modifications with reduction of cholesterol and saturated fat along with intake of additional DHA supplements may help to reduce BP in spinal cord injured-individuals with hypertension. PMID:27648172

  19. Access to healthy food stores modifies effect of a dietary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedick, Nicole M; Ma, Yunsheng; Olendzki, Barbara C; Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Cheng, Jie; Kane, Kevin J; Ockene, Ira S; Pagoto, Sherry L; Land, Thomas G; Li, Wenjun

    2015-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that opening a grocery store in a food desert does not translate to better diet quality among community residents. This study evaluated the influence of proximity to a healthy food store on the effect of a dietary behavioral intervention on diet among obese adults randomized to either a high fiber or American Heart Association diet intervention. Participants were recruited from Worcester County, Massachusetts, between June 2009 and January 2012. Dietary data were collected via 24-hour recalls at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-intervention. Based on in-store inspection data, a store was considered as having adequate availability of healthy foods if it had at least one item available in each of 20 healthy food categories. Linear models evaluated maximum change in dietary outcomes in relation to road distance from residence to the nearest June healthy food store. The analysis was conducted in January to June 2014. On average, participants (N=204) were aged 52 years, BMI=34.9, and included 72% women and 89% non-Hispanic whites. Shorter distance to a healthy food store was associated with greater improvements in consumption of fiber (b=-1.07 g/day per mile, p<0.01) and fruits and vegetables (b=-0.19 servings/day per mile, p=0.03) with and without covariate adjustment. The effectiveness of dietary interventions is significantly influenced by the presence of a supportive community nutrition environment. Considering the nationwide efforts on promotion of healthy eating, the value of improving community access to healthy foods should not be underestimated. NCT00911885. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between dietary indicators anthropometric-factors in children from 1 to 3 years attached to a child stay in the city of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizbeth Martínez-López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parents and mothers develop an intense working life. They seek a place where they can care for their children safely during the time they go to their working hours. Due to the number of hours children spend in these institutions, one of the services offered is food, which provides at least one hot meal and two snacks, representing more than 50% of the food consumed daily. Objetive: The objective was to evaluate the relationship between anthropometric indicators and dietary factors in children 1 to 3 years attached to a private daycare center in Oaxaca City, Oaxaca, Mexico. Methods: For this evaluation weight and height were registered. Nutritional diagnosis was according to WHO percentiles, while dietary factors to meet a nutritional survey and 24-hour recall was applied. Results: 61% of children had normal weight and 39% presented malnutrition (malnutrition, overweight or obesity. Through a survey the three meals provided by the daycare center were analyzed obtaining an energy average of 637.2 kcal, 55% carbohydrates, 31% lipids and 14% protein. It was found that there is a relationship between the two variables (anthropometric and dietary factors; OR = 4.9. Conclusion: The times of food provided by the daycare center are inadequate in terms of energy and macronutrients for children 1 to 3 years old.

  1. Effects of Blood Pressure and Blood Pressure-Lowering Treatment During the First 24 Hours Among Patients in the Third International Stroke Trial of Thrombolytic Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Eivind; Cohen, Geoffrey; Lindley, Richard I; Sandercock, Peter; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Sandset, Else C; Whiteley, William

    2015-12-01

    In patients with acute ischemic stroke, a high blood pressure or a highly variable blood pressure is a common reason for withholding thrombolytic treatment, but guidelines recommend a conservative approach to active blood pressure lowering in this setting. We have performed exploratory analyses to study the clinical effects of blood pressure and early blood pressure-lowering treatment in patients included in a randomized-controlled trial of thrombolytic treatment for acute ischemic stroke. The Third International Stroke Trial (IST-3) randomized 3035 patients with ischemic stroke to recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator 0.9 mg/kg or open control within 6 hours of symptom onset. Blood pressure was measured at randomization, at start of treatment, and at 30 minutes and 1 and 24 hours after start of treatment, and the use of blood pressure-lowering treatment during the first 24 hours was recorded. We have characterized blood pressure by mean systolic blood pressure at baseline, by variability of systolic blood pressure (expressed by the standard deviation and the range between the lowest and the highest pressure), and by the change in systolic blood pressure from baseline to 24 hours. We used logistic regression analysis to explore the associations of blood pressure characteristics or blood pressure-lowering treatment with early adverse events, early death, and functional outcome at 6 months, after adjustment for key prognostic variables. High baseline blood pressure and high blood pressure variability during the first 24 hours were associated with higher numbers of early adverse events and early deaths, and for several analyses, the differences were statistically significant. A larger decline in blood pressure and the use of blood pressure-lowering treatment during the first 24 hours were associated with a reduced risk of poor outcome at 6 months (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.97; P=0.001 and odds ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0

  2. Dietary pattern of Finnish children with low high caries experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemola-Kujala, E; Räsänen, L

    1979-08-01

    The correlations between dietary patterns and caries were studied in a series consisting of 534, 5-, 9- and 13-year-old Finnish rural children from low-fluoride areas (0.10-0.46 parts/10(6)). The food consumption of the children was assessed by the 24-hour recall method. The consumption of sweets was estimated by the dietary history method. Caries was diagnosed by clinical inspection. Children with a low and children with a high caries experience were compared with regard to food and nutrient intakes per 1000 kcal. The intakes of most foods and nutrients were similar in the low-caries and in the high-caries groups. However, the diet of the high-caries groups of 5- and 13-year-olds contained less iron, thiamine and ascorbic acid than the diet of the low-caries groups. The intake of sugar and sugar-containing products per unit of energy was higher in the high-caries groups. This was true for soft drinks in particular. Among the 9-year-olds the proportion of sugar consumed as such was greater in the high-caries than in the low-caries children. With regard to the total monthly consumption of sweets no significant differences were observed between the high- and low-caries groups. Analysis of the energy-standardized consumption of food and nutrients thus showed that the relative proportion of sugar and sugar-containing products was somewhat greater in the diet of the high-caries children than in the diet of the low-caries children, but not as high as could be expected. These products replaced foods with a higher nutritive value with the result that the diet of the high-caries groups was on the whole more refined than the diet of the low-caries groups.

  3. Preventing medical device recalls

    CERN Document Server

    Raheja, Dev

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Medical Device RequirementsIntroductionThe ChallengesSources of ErrorsUnderstanding the Science of Safety     Overview of FDA Quality System Regulation     Overview of Risk Management Standard ISO 14971     Overview of FDA Device Approval Process     Overview of Regulatory Requirements for Clinical TrialsSummaryReferencesPreventing Recalls during Specification WritingIntroductionConduct Requirements Analysis to Identify Missing RequirementsSpecifications for Safety, Durability, and

  4. Selected lifestyle practices in urban African American women--relationships to pregnancy outcome, dietary intakes and anthropometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A A; Knight, E M; Edwards, C H; Oyemade, U J; Cole, O J; Westney, O E; Westney, L S; Laryea, H; Jones, S

    1994-06-01

    The relationships of selected lifestyle factors (cigarette smoking, consumption of alcoholic beverages, recreational drug use, and exercise during pregnancy), all self-reported, to pregnancy outcomes, dietary intake during pregnancy, and maternal anthropometric measurements, were investigated in a group of urban African American pregnant women. The 234 subjects were aged 16-35 years and were free of diabetes and abnormal hemoglobins. The lifestyle data were collected by trained interviewers during the subjects' prenatal clinic visits, and the dietary data by monthly, quantitative 24-hour food recalls conducted during these same visits. Maternal anthropometric measurements were obtained from the subjects' hospital records, and pregnancy outcome data during physical examinations of the newborn infants. Both cigarette smoking and drug use were associated with significantly lower mean birth weight, length, and head circumference, while exercise was associated with a significantly higher mean birth weight, and head circumference (P food energy, protein, total and saturated fat, and zinc. Prepregnancy weight, percent ideal prepregnancy body weight, prepregnancy body mass index, and delivery weight were significantly lower among those reporting drug use before pregnancy. Multiple regression analyses indicated that smoking explained a relatively small proportion of the variance in infant birth weight compared with delivery weight and percent of ideal prepregnancy body weight.

  5. Sensibilidade gustativa ao sal, natriúria e pressão arterial em indivíduos normotensos Salt taste threshold, 24 hour natriuresis and blood pressure variation in normotensive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sperb Antonello

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O estudo avalia sensibilidade gustativa ao sal, excreção urinária de sódio e pressão arterial (PA em normotensos. A hipótese foi de que limiar de sensibilidade gustativa ao sal (LSGS aumentado se associasse a maior natriúria em 24 horas e níveis aumentados de PA. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 24 voluntários sem diagnóstico de HA. Para avaliar LSGS, usou-se soluções de cloreto de sódio (NaCl em diferentes concentrações. Os voluntários foram submetidos à monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial (MAPA de 24 horas e coleta de urina de 24 horas para dosagem de sódio (NaU. Para análise, foram agrupados de acordo com o LSGS, aumentado ou normal. RESULTADOS: Os grupos não diferiram para idade, índice de massa corporal (IMC, variáveis demográficas, uso de álcool, fumo e PA. NaU foi significativamente maior no grupo com LSGS aumentado. Utilizando-se o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson, com significância determinada pelo teste t, houve correlação de forte intensidade entre médias de PA sistólica e diastólica com IMC, de regular intensidade entre LSGS e NaU, assim como para PA sistólica e NaU. CONCLUSÃO: Natriúria de 24 horas foi maior em indivíduos com LSGS aumentado, sugerindo que esta maior avidez ao sal determine maior ingestão de sódio. Houve forte associação entre PA e IMC. Não foi evidenciada associação entre LSGS e PA, diferente do já documentado em pacientes com PA aumentada. Aumentando-se o número de pessoas, faixa etária e pacientes com níveis pressóricos aumentados, talvez se respondam outras perguntas a respeito da relação entre LSGS, natriúria e PA.OBJECTIVE: The study evaluates salt taste sensibility, urinary sodium excretion and blood pressure (BP in normotensive persons. The hypothesis was that a higher salt taste threshold (STT can be associated to a higher 24 hour natriuresis and increased BP levels. METHODS: Twenty four not hypertensive volunteers were selected. To

  6. Sleep deprivation impairs recall of social transmission of food preference in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Jessica I; Pido, Jennifer; Mathews, Hunter; Kieltyka, Ryan; Montemayor, Bertha A; Ward, Christopher P

    2014-01-01

    Evidence indicates that sleep plays an important role in learning and memory, and disruption of sleep especially seems to interfere with hippocampal memory processes. Social transmission of food preference (STFP), a natural test of paired associative learning, has been shown to be dependent on the hippocampus. While social transmission of food preference is not a novel task, it has not been used to examine the role of sleep in memory consolidation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: cage control; sleep-deprived; and device control. Demonstrator rats were given powdered food mixed with a target spice. Test rats then interacted with demonstrator rats before being given a two choice test of powered food with the target spice or a novel spice. Sleep-deprived rats were then placed in an automated device that prevented sleep for 24 hours. After sleep deprivation, animals were given a preference test again to determine memory for the target spice at both 24 hours and 72 hours. Polysomnography was used to validate the method of sleep deprivation. During immediate preference testing, rats demonstrated a clear preference for the food containing the target spice. Rats that experienced 24 hours of sleep deprivation following the initial testing indicated a significant reduction in the recall of the target spice at 24 and 72 hours. The cage control and device animals maintained their preference for food containing the target spice. Therefore, the loss of sleep interfered with memory consolidation for food preference learned via social transmission.

  7. 76 FR 21383 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Reporting Comparison Study (FORCS) and Food and Eating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... Dietary Recall Method Comparison and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Observational Feeding Studies... Automated Self- Administered 24-Hour Recall (ASA24) approach to collecting 24 hour recall (24HR) data with... collection period with a total cost to the respondents of $54,293. There are no Capital costs,...

  8. Temperature variation in the 24 hours before the initial symptoms of stroke Variação da temperatura nas 24 horas anteriores aos sintomas iniciais do acidente vascular cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Morgadinho Santos Coelho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A few studies have performed to evaluate the temperature variation influences over on the stroke rates in Brazil. METHOD: 176 medical records of inpatients were analyzed after having had a stroke between 2004 and 2006 at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein. The temperature preceding the occurrence of the symptoms was recorded, as well as the temperature 6, 12 and 24 hours before the symptoms in 6 different weather substations, closest to their houses in São Paulo. RESULTS: Strokes occurred more frequently after a variation of 3ºC between 6 and 24 hours before the symptoms. There were most hospitalizations between 23-24ºC. CONCLUSION: Incidence of stroke on these patients was increased after a variation of 3º Celsius within 24 hours before the ictus. The temperature variations could be an important factor in the occurrence of strokes in this population.Poucos trabalhos têm estudado a variação sazonal e de temperatura em acidente vascular cerebral (AVC no Brasil. MÉTODO: Foram analisados 176 registros de pacientes com AVC no Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein entre 2004 e 2006. Foram anotadas as temperaturas ambientes do início dos sintomas, bem como as temperaturas de 6, 12 e 24 horas antes dos sintomas, em 6 diferentes subestações metereológicas mais próximas da casa do paciente em São Paulo. RESULTADOS: Houve aumento da incidência do AVC com a variação de 3ºC entre 6 e 24 horas antes do início dos sintomas. Houve um pico de internação entre 23-24ºC. CONCLUSÃO: A variação de temperatura de 3ºC nas 24 horas que antecederam o início dos sintomas pode ter sido um fator importante na ocorrência do AVC.

  9. Patients with Pregnancy-induced Hypertension Disease 24 Hours Ambulatory Blood Pressure Research%妊娠高血压疾病患者24 h动态血压研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension disease (ABPM) variation rule and range, provide the basis for treatment. Methods 105 cases of patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension disease (experimental group) and 100 healthy pregnant women (control group) for 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, analysis the changes of blood pressure variability and circadian rhythm. Results The experimental group with non dipper rhythm and the rhythm of the scoop type primarily, the control is given priority to with non dipper rhythm and scoop type rhythm, comparing the two groups have significant dif erences. Conclusion 24-hour blood pressure variation rule and range of diagnosis and treatment of patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension disease is important.%目的探讨妊娠高血压疾病患者24 h动态血压(ABPM)波动规律及范围,为治疗提供依据。方法对105例妊娠高血压疾病患者(实验组)与100例健康孕妇(对照组)进行24 h动态血压监测,分析血压变异性及昼夜节律的变化。结果实验组以非杓型节律和反杓型节律为主,对照组以非杓型节律和杓型节律为主,两组比较有显著差异。结论24 h血压波动规律及范围,对妊娠高血压疾病患者诊断及治疗有重要意义。

  10. QT variability index on 24-hour Holter independently predicts mortality in patients with heart failure: analysis of Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Insufficienza Cardiaca (GISSI-HF) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Craig P; La Rovere, Maria Teresa; Pinna, Gian Domenico; Goldstein, Robert; Olsen, Cara; Bernardinangeli, Marino; Veniani, Marco; Midi, Paolo; Tavazzi, Luigi; Haigney, Mark

    2011-08-01

    Increased temporal variability of repolarization, as reflected by QT interval variability measured over 10-15 minutes, predicted spontaneous ventricular arrhythmias and death in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients in mild to moderate heart failure (HF). The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that increased mean QT variability over 24 hours would be associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) mortality in a heterogeneous HF population. The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Insufficienza Cardiaca-Heart Failure trial prospectively enrolled subjects with HF of any cause. Twenty-four-hour Holter recordings from 268 subjects were analyzed using a template-matching, semiautomatic algorithm to measure QT and heart rate time series in sequential 5-minute epochs over 24 hours. The QT variability index (QTVI) was expressed as the log ratio of the normalized QT variance over normalized heart rate variance. Total and CV mortality were assessed as a function of continuous and dichotomous QTVI (>-0.84) in univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for significant clinical predictors. After a median of 47 months, there were 53 deaths, of which 44 were from CV causes. A significant association with the outcome was found for QTVI both as continuous and dichotomous variables after adjustment for clinical covariates (age >70, New York Heart Association class III-IV, left ventricular ejection fraction, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, creatinine): QTVI hazard ratio (HR) 4.0 (confidence interval [CI] 1.8-88; P = .008) for total and 4.4 (CI 1.9-10.1; P = .0006) for CV mortality; QTVI >-0.84 HR 2.0 (CI 1.1-3.6; P = .02) for total and 2.1 (CI 1.1-3.8; P = .02) for CV mortality. Increased repolarization lability, as reflected in QTVI measured over 24 hours, is associated with increased risk for total and CV mortality in a heterogeneous population with chronic HF. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. 咸味喜好值、钠摄入量与24h尿钠相关性初探%Pilot Study on the Correlation among Salty Taste Preference, Sodium Intake and 24-hour Urinary Sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李扬; 曾瑜; 周小乔; 黄承钰; 李鸣

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore the correlation among salty taste preference,daily sodium intake,and 24-hour urinary sodium.Methods 12 subjects with heavy-,medium-and light-salty taste preference were provided with three-day diets.The daily sodium intakes and 24-hour urinary sodium were measured.Analysis was conducted to explore the correlation among salty taste preference,daily sodium intake and 24-hour total urine sodium.Results A positive correlation was observed between the salty taste preference and sodium intake (r=0.598,P<0.05),while no correlation was observed between daily sodium intake and 24-hour urinary sodium (r=-0.543,P>0.05).Conclusion The determination of salty taste preference on-site provides a certain reference to evaluate salt intake.%目的 初步探讨人群日常饮食的咸味喜好值、钠摄入量与24 h尿钠之间的相关性.方法 筛选咸味喜好值低、中、高的对象共12名;为其提供3d膳食,称重计算其每日钠摄入量,测定24 h尿钠总量;进一步对咸味喜好值、钠摄入量和24 h尿钠总量做相关性分析.结果 咸味喜好值和钠摄入量之间呈正相关(r=0.598,P<0.05),每日钠摄入量和24 h尿钠相关性未见统计学差异(r=0.543,P>0.05).结论 通过咸味喜好值的现场测定评估食盐摄入量具有一定的参考价值.

  12. Effects of Latanoprost 0.005%/Timolol Maleate 0.5% and Dorzolamide 2%/Timolol Maleate 0.5% Fixed Combinations on 24-hour Intraocular Pressure in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Yüce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the effects of latanoprost/timolol maleate and dorzolamid/timolol maleate fixed combinations on-24 hours intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma. Ma te ri als and Met hod: Forty-eight eyes of 24 patients with open-angle glaucoma were enrolled in the study. They were randomized to receive fixed combinations of either latanoprost/timolol maleate (Group 1 - 24 eyes of 12 patients or dorzolamid/timolol maleate (Group 2 - 24 eyes of 12 patients. Patients who achieved intraocular pressure of ≤ 21 mmHg 3 weeks after combined therapy were hospitalized and intraocular pressure was monitored at hour 06:00, 10:00, 14:00, 18:00, 22:00 and 02:00 for 24 hours. Diurnal and nocturnal fluctuations were determined by measurements done between 06:00 and 18:00 hours and between 22:00 and 02:00, respectively. Mean intraocular pressure and fluctuations of intraocular pressure between the two groups were compared. Re sults: There was no difference between the groups in terms of age, sex, visual acuity and cup/disc ratio (p>0.05. Three weeks after combined therapy, all patients achieved target intraocular pressure of ≤ 21 mmHg. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with regard to mean intraocular pressure over 24 hours (17.1±2.3 mmHg and 17.27±2.3 mmHg for Group 1 and Group 2, respectively; p>0.05. Diurnal fluctuations were 3.6 mmHg for Group 1 and 4.7 mmHg for Group 2; nocturnal fluctuations were 4.3 mmHg for Group 1 and 2.3 mmHg for Group 2. Diurnal fluctuations in Group 1 were lower than in Group 2, while nocturnal fluctuations were lower in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p<0.05. Dis cus si on: Both latanoprost/timolol maleate and dorzolamid/timolol maleate fixed combinations are effective for 24-hour intraocular pressure control. Latanoprost/timolol maleate fixed combination is superior to dorzolamid/timolol maleate in controlling diurnal fluctuations, while dorzolamid/timolol maleate is

  13. A Health Probe in College Students Living in Los Angeles and in Taiwan: Dietary Pattern, Physical Activity and Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Hui; Yang, Hsin Ling; Chen, Yin Chang; Davis, Rebecca; Schwartz, Miriam E.; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine differences of dietary pattern, physical activity and energy balance in 240 college students with 137 of them enrolled in California State University, Los Angeles (LA) and the other 93 enrolled in China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan (TW). A three-day dietary record and a 24-hour physical activity journal were…

  14. Association of uremic pruritus in hemodialysis patients with the number of days of high mean 24-hour particulate matter with a diameter of <2.5 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Hui; Chan, Ming-Jen; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Huang, Wen-Hung

    2017-01-01

    Uremic pruritus (UP) is a common and incapacitating symptom in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). The pathogenesis of UP is multifactorial and complex. Particulate matter (PM), a major air pollutant, is a mixture of particles with various chemical compositions. PM is associated with several allergic diseases, including dermatitis. To assess the role of PM (PM with a diameter of <10 μm [PM10] and PM with a diameter of <2.5 μm [PM2.5]) and other clinical variables in UP in patients on HD, we recruited 866 patients on maintenance HD (MHD). We analyzed the number of days of mean 24-hour PM10 ≥125 μg/m3/12 months (NDPM10) or the number of days of mean 24-hour PM2.5 ≥35 μg/m3/12 months (NDPM2.5) exceeding the standard level in the past 12 months respectively to determine the association with UP. In a multivariate logistic regression, HD duration, serum ferritin levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, and NDPM2.5 ≥116 days/12 months were positively associated with UP. This cross-sectional study showed that the number of days on which the environmental PM2.5 exceeds the standard level might be associated with UP in patients on MHD. PMID:28260912

  15. [Systematic implementation of transthoracic echocardiography, transesophageal echocardiography and 24-hour Holter ECG for the detection of cardiac sources of embolism in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack. A retrospective study of 220 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinsonneau, U; Leblanc, A; Buchet, J-F; Pangnarind-Heintz, V; Le Gal, G; Rohel, G; Paleiron, N; Piquemal, M; Blanchard, C; Zagnoli, F; Paule, P

    2014-09-01

    Embolism of cardiac origin accounts for around 20% of ischemic strokes. ECG and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) are commonly obtained during the evaluation of patient of ischemic stroke but specific indications for the transesophageal (TEE) echocardiography and 24-hour Holter ECG (Holter) remain uncertain. The aim of this study is to report the contribution of TTE, TEE and Holter performed as a routine during the evaluation of patients with ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA). This is a retrospective single-center study of 220 patients hospitalized between 1st January 2007 and 31st December 2010 for a first IS or TIA. One hundred and forty-three IS and 77 TIA are identified. The average age of patients was 66 years (18-88 years). TTE/TEE/24-hour Holter allowed the diagnosis of cardiac sources of embolism in 135 patents (61.3%). TTE/TEE identified potential source of cardiogenic embolism in 126 patients (52.2%). Twenty four-hour Holter ECG tracked supraventricular arrhythmia in 15 patients (6.7%), 9 (4%) which had non-contributory ultrasound assessment. The systematic implementation of TTE/TEE/Holter is useful for identifying potential sources of cardiogenic embolism. The performance of TEE remains above the TTE. Holter should be recommended because it is a cost effective and non-invasive tool. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Multifactor Screener in the 2000 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement: Definition of Acceptable Dietary Data Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII) data on reported intakes over two days of 24-hour recall to make judgments about reasonable frequencies of consumption that were reported on a per day basis.

  17. Associations of Food Stamp Participation With Dietary Quality and Obesity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cindy W.; Hoffnagle, Elena E.; Jensen, Helen H.; Foerster, Susan B.; Nestle, Marion; Cheung, Lilian W.Y.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Willett, Walter C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if obesity and dietary quality in low-income children differed by participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), formerly the Food Stamp Program. METHODS: The study population included 5193 children aged 4 to 19 with household incomes ≤130% of the federal poverty level from the 1999–2008 NHANES. Diet was measured by using 24-hour recalls. RESULTS: Among low-income US children, 28% resided in households currently receiving SNAP benefits. After adjusting for sociodemographic differences, SNAP participation was not associated with a higher rate of childhood obesity (odds ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71–1.74). Both SNAP participants and low-income nonparticipants were below national recommendations for whole grains, fruits, vegetables, fish, and potassium, while exceeding recommended limits for processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverages, saturated fat, and sodium. Zero percent of low-income children met at least 7 of 10 dietary recommendations. After multivariate adjustment, compared with nonparticipants, SNAP participants consumed 43% more sugar-sweetened beverages (95% CI: 8%–89%), 47% more high-fat dairy (95% CI: 7%, 101%), and 44% more processed meats (95% CI: 9%–91%), but 19% fewer nuts, seeds, and legumes (95% CI: –35% to 0%). In part due to these differences, intakes of calcium, iron, and folate were significantly higher among SNAP participants. Significant differences by SNAP participation were not evident in total energy, macronutrients, Healthy Eating Index 2005 scores, or Alternate Healthy Eating Index scores. CONCLUSIONS: The diets of low-income children are far from meeting national dietary recommendations. Policy changes should be considered to restructure SNAP to improve children’s health. PMID:23439902

  18. A comparative evaluation of dietary indicators used in food consumption assessments of at-risk populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Donald; Chotard, Sophie; Oliveira, Leila; Mock, Nancy; Libombo, Marcella

    2008-06-01

    Easy-to-collect dietary indicators have been used increasingly for planning and evaluation of food security interventions. Various indicators have been employed, but rarely has a full set of indicators been compared using a common framework. This paper evaluates the performance of five dietary indicators for the assessment of household energy consumption using a common framework and recent data from Mozambique. Data were analyzed from a 2004 household survey, Current Vulnerability Analysis in Seven Provinces of Mozambique. Households (n = 4,358) were sampled from 42 rural districts using a two-stage design, and a quantitative 24-hour dietary recall was employed. Household energy intake ratios were calculated as the food energy consumed by household members divided by the sum of the members' recommended intakes. Five proxy indicators of household consumption in the previous day were developed: the number of meals, the number of food groups, the number of food items, a score based on a simple weighting of food groups consumed, and a predicted energy intake ratio based on weighting of food groups consumed with previously estimated regression coefficients. The performance of these indicators was assessed using correlations with energy intake, receiver operator characteristic analysis, efficiency of predictions, and prevalence estimate comparisons. Although the predicted energy intake ratio performed best on all these performance criteria, and the simple food-group-weighted score performed second best, differences among the indicators on many of the criteria were relatively small. New assessment systems could take full advantage of easy-to-collect information by using one of these best-scoring indicators, although established systems could continue to use some of the other indicators explored here, such as the food item count, without much loss in accuracy.

  19. NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND DIETARY INTAKE IN NON-CIRRHOTIC ADULT CHRONIC HEPATITIS C PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina B A GOTTSCHALL

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe hepatitis C virus is one of the main causes of liver disease worldwide and may develop nutritional deficiencies.ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to assess and compare different nutritional status methods of adult patients with chronic hepatitis C virus, and to describe inadequacies in dietary intake.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted with adult outpatients with hepatitis C virus at a Brazilian hospital. Nutritional assessment included the 24-hour dietary recall, anthropometry (body weight, height, body mass index, triceps skinfold, mid-upper arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, mid-upper arm muscle area, adductor policis muscle, Subjective Global Assessment, Royal Free Hospital Global Assessment and handgrip strength.ResultsA total of 94 outpatients (ages 30 to 76 years, was included, 46 were men. The prevalence of malnutrition as measured by the different methods was 6.4% (body mass index; 60.6% (handgrip strength, and 53.2% (Royal Free Hospital Global Assessment. There was correlation between mid-upper arm circumference and mid-arm muscle circumference (r=0.821, mid-upper arm circumference and triceps skinfold (r=0.575 and mid-upper arm circumference and mid-upper arm muscle area (r=0.781. Energy and protein intakes were below recommended levels in 49 (52.1% and 44 (46.8% of patients, respectively. Inadequate calcium, potassium, zinc and vitamin C intakes occurred in 92.6%, 97.9%, 63.8% and 60.6% of patients. There was an association between dietary energy and protein intake with Royal Free Hospital Global Assessment (P<0.001 and a tendency for them to be associated with handgrip strength (P=0.076 and P=0.054.ConclusionMalnutrition is frequently in hepatitis C virus patients. They have high prevalence of inadequate energy, protein and micronutrients intake, even in the absence of cirrhosis.

  20. The correlation between dietary fat ‎intake and blood pressure among ‎people with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadis Sabour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated the effect of different dietary fats on blood pressure (BP in general population. However, these associations have not yet been described in people with spinal cord injury (SCI.Methods: Referred patients to Brain and SCI Research Center between 2011 and 2014 have been invited to participate. Only paraplegic individuals were recruited and patients with injury at cervical or higher thoracic sections were excluded to omit the bias effect of autonomic dysreflexia. Dietary intakes were assessed by recording consumed foods by 24-hour dietary recall interviews using Nutritionist IV 3.5.3 modified for Iranian foods. Systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP were measured 3 times and the mean values entered analysis.Results: Higher intakes of cholesterol were related to higher BP (P = 0.010 and 0.011 for SBP and DBP, respectively. Similarly, intake of saturated fat was positively correlated to both SBP (P = 0.016, r = 0.21 and DBP (P = 0.011, r = 0.22. The effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA on BP was insignificant (P = 0.760 and 0.720 for SBP and DBP, respectively. However, intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA was related to lower BP among people with SCI.Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that higher intakes of cholesterol and saturated fat are associated with increased BP, whereas DHA is an antihypertensive agent. Dietary modifications with reduction of cholesterol and saturated fat along with intake of additional DHA supplements may help to reduce BP in spinal cord injured-individuals with hypertension.

  1. 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laxative abuse Lower than normal levels may indicate Addison disease . Risks There are no risks with this test. ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Addison Disease Read more Adrenal Gland Disorders Read more Latest ...

  2. WordPress 24-Hour Trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Plumley, George

    2011-01-01

    The eagerly anticipated second edition, completely updated for WordPress 3.1 As an open source content management system, WordPress allows users to easily build feature-rich web sites with no programming experience. This unique book-and-video package is a friendly, self-paced beginners guide to the latest release of WordPress. Lessons are focused on practical, everyday tasks that users will need to create and maintain their sites: entering new content, creating new pages, managing menus, making content search-engine friendly. Plus you'll find lots of tips based on years of experience teaching

  3. Agurketid? SPOR 2008 - The 24 Hour Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten; Steffensen, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    SPOR festivalen - en slags version 2.0 af den nu hedengange NUMUS-festival, der var en væsentlig platform for ny kompositionsmusik og lydkunst - løb i år af stablen i Musikhuset, Århus, fra 9-10 maj. Som NUMUS har SPOR til hensigt at skabe et seriøst forum for de mere avantgardistiske strømninger...

  4. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs....42 Recall strategy. (a) General. (1) A recall strategy that takes into account the following factors... Administration will review the adequacy of a proposed recall strategy developed by a recalling firm and...

  5. Usual dietary intake among female breast cancer survivors is not significantly different from women with no cancer history: results of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Vitolins, Mara Z; Tooze, Janet A

    2014-06-01

    Dietary intake is a modifiable behavior that may reduce the risk of recurrence and death among breast cancer survivors. Cancer survivors are encouraged to consume a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and whole grains and limit red meat, processed meat, and alcohol intake. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006), this study examined whether breast cancer survivors and women with no history of cancer differed in the distribution of usual intake of foods included in the dietary recommendations for preventing cancer and recurrences. Participants completed one or two 24-hour dietary recalls. The food groups included in this analysis were whole fruit; total vegetables; dark green and orange vegetables; whole grains; red meat; processed meat; alcohol; and calories from solid fat, alcohol, and added sugar. The National Cancer Institute Method was used to estimate the distribution of usual intake and to compare breast cancer survivors (n=102) to noncancer respondents (n=2,684). Using age and cancer survivor as covariates, subgroup estimates of usual intake were constructed. No significant group differences were found, except that survivors reported a greater intake of whole grains. More than 90% of both groups did not meet recommendations for fruits, vegetables, and whole grains; 75.4% and 70.2%, respectively, consumed less than the red meat recommendation; and cancer survivors was not significantly different from women with no history of cancer.

  6. A review on indexes and dietary assessment methods for determining the quality of diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pinheiro Volp

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To summarize the different indexes most frequently used to evaluate the quality of diets, as well as the dietary assessment methods used for scoring, pointing out their advantages and disadvantages. Methods: We performed a literature search, with no daterestriction, on primary indexed sources and in the databases SciELO, PubMed, Medline, Lilacs, Dedalus and ILSI Web of Knowledge. The keywords used were diet (ary quality, diet (ary patterns, diet quality index, Mediterranean diet and nutrition. Then, the cited references were reviewed, classifying the information by index. Results: The most widely indexes used are Diet Quality Index, Healthy Eating Index and Alternative Mediterranean Diet Score, using the food frequency questionnaire or a combination of the 24-hour recall and food (s record (s. Conclusion: The determination of feeding patterns through indices is a relatively easy process; however, to have confidence in the results is necessary to know the biases thateach index and instrument has, as well as its construction and punctuation.

  7. Comparison of Various Databases for Estimation of Dietary Polyphenol Intake in the Population of Polish Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Anna M; Zujko, Małgorzata E; Waśkiewicz, Anna; Terlikowska, Katarzyna M; Piotrowski, Walerian

    2015-11-11

    The primary aim of the study was to estimate the consumption of polyphenols in a population of 6661 subjects aged between 20 and 74 years representing a cross-section of the Polish society, and the second objective was to compare the intakes of flavonoids calculated on the basis of the two commonly used databases. Daily food consumption data were collected in 2003-2005 using a single 24-hour dietary recall. Intake of total polyphenols was estimated using an online Phenol-Explorer database, and flavonoid intake was determined using following data sources: the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) database combined of flavonoid and isoflavone databases, and the Phenol-Explorer database. Total polyphenol intake, which was calculated with the Phenol-Explorer database, was 989 mg/day with the major contributions of phenolic acids 556 mg/day and flavonoids 403.5 mg/day. The flavonoid intake calculated on the basis of the USDA databases was 525 mg/day. This study found that tea is the primary source of polyphenols and flavonoids for the studied population, including mainly flavanols, while coffee is the most important contributor of phenolic acids, mostly hydroxycinnamic acids. Our study also demonstrated that flavonoid intakes estimated according to various databases may substantially differ. Further work should be undertaken to expand polyphenol databases to better reflect their food contents.

  8. Comparison of Various Databases for Estimation of Dietary Polyphenol Intake in the Population of Polish Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Witkowska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the study was to estimate the consumption of polyphenols in a population of 6661 subjects aged between 20 and 74 years representing a cross-section of the Polish society, and the second objective was to compare the intakes of flavonoids calculated on the basis of the two commonly used databases. Daily food consumption data were collected in 2003–2005 using a single 24-hour dietary recall. Intake of total polyphenols was estimated using an online Phenol-Explorer database, and flavonoid intake was determined using following data sources: the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA database combined of flavonoid and isoflavone databases, and the Phenol-Explorer database. Total polyphenol intake, which was calculated with the Phenol-Explorer database, was 989 mg/day with the major contributions of phenolic acids 556 mg/day and flavonoids 403.5 mg/day. The flavonoid intake calculated on the basis of the USDA databases was 525 mg/day. This study found that tea is the primary source of polyphenols and flavonoids for the studied population, including mainly flavanols, while coffee is the most important contributor of phenolic acids, mostly hydroxycinnamic acids. Our study also demonstrated that flavonoid intakes estimated according to various databases may substantially differ. Further work should be undertaken to expand polyphenol databases to better reflect their food contents.

  9. Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

    2013-08-01

    Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower-income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (n = 196, 25-51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans-fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in model 2, but most were not significant in model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High intake of dietary long-chain ω-3 fatty acids is associated with lower blood pressure in children born with low birth weight: NHANES 2003-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilton, Michael R; Raitakari, Olli T; Celermajer, David S

    2013-05-01

    Reduced fetal growth is associated with increased systolic blood pressure. Recently, we found an inverse association between serum ω-3 fatty acids and systolic blood pressure in young adults born with impaired fetal growth. We investigated the associations of dietary intake in childhood of the long-chain ω-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid with blood pressure parameters in children born with reduced birth weight. We analyzed data from 3457 children aged 8 to 15 years participating in the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24-hour dietary recalls, birth weight by questionnaire, and blood pressure was measured. Systolic blood pressure was 1.1 mm Hg higher in those with reduced (pressure was significantly higher in these children (3.4 mm Hg). In the 354 participants with reduced birth weight, when compared with children with the lowest tertile of intake, those who had the highest tertile of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure (-4.9 mm Hg [95% confidence interval, -9.7 to -0.1]) and pulse pressure (-7.7 mm Hg [95% confidence interval, -15.0 to -0.4]). High-dietary intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are associated with lower systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure in children born with reduced birth weight. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that long-chain ω-3 fatty acids reduce blood pressure in those with impaired fetal growth.

  11. An open randomized clinical trial in comparing two artesunate-based combination treatments on Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Nigerian children: artesunate/sulphamethoxypyrazine/pyrimethamine (fixed dose over 24 hours versus artesunate/amodiaquine (fixed dose over 48 hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowunmi Akintunde

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT across malaria zones of the world. Fixed dose ACT with shorter courses and fewer tablets may be key determinants to ease of administration and compliance. Methods Children aged one year to 13 years presenting with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were recruited in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. A total of 250 children each were randomly assigned to receive three doses of artesunate/sulphamethoxypyrazine/pyrimethamine (AS + SMP (12 hourly doses over 24 hours or three doses of artesunate/amodiaquine (AS + AQ (daily doses over 48 hours. Efficacy and safety of the two drugs were assessed using a 28-day follow-up and the primary outcome was PCR- corrected parasitological cure rate and clinical response. Results There were two (0.4% early treatment failures, one in each treatment arm. The PCR corrected cure rates for day 28 was 97.9% in the AS + AQ arm and 95.6% in the AS + SMP arm (p = 0.15. The re-infection rate was 1.7% in the AS + AQ arm and 5.7% in the AS + SMP arm (p = 0.021. The fever clearance time was similar in the two treatment groups: 1 - 2 days for both AS + SMP and AS + AQ (p = 0.271. The parasite clearance time was also similar in the two treatment groups with 1 - 7 days for AS + SMP and 1 - 4 days for AS + AQ (p = 0.941. The proportion of children with gametocytes over the follow-up period was similar in both treatment groups. Serious Adverse Events were not reported in any of the patients and in all children, laboratory values (packed cell volume, liver enzymes, bilirubin remained within normal levels during the follow-up period but the packed cell volume was significantly lower in the AS + SMP group. Conclusions This study demonstrates that AS + SMP FDC given as three doses over 24 hours (12-hour intervals has similar efficacy as AS + AQ FDC given as three doses over 48 hours (24-hour interval for the treatment of

  12. Recalls, Market Withdrawals and Safety Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Safety Recalls, Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts Recalls, Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Safety Alerts Archive. Sign up to receive Recalls, Market Withdrawals and Safety Alerts . Filter by Keyword(s): Filter ...

  13. Large individual differences in free recall

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnow, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Using single factor ANOVA I show that there are large individual differences in free recall ({\\eta} ranges from 0.09-0.26) including the total recall, the balance between recency and primacy, and the initial recall (subsequent recalls show smaller individual differences). All three memory properties are relatively uncorrelated. The variance in the initial position may be a measure of executive control and is correlated with total recall (the smaller the variation, the larger the recall).

  14. The impact of systematic dietary counseling during the first year of life on prevalence rates of anemia and iron deficiency at 12-16 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolini, Gisele Ane; Vitolo, Márcia Regina

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the impact that a program based on maternal dietary counseling covering breastfeeding and healthy complementary feeding had on the prevalence of iron deficiency, anemia and iron deficiency anemia in children aged 12 to 16 months. Newborn infants were randomized at birth to an intervention or a control group. Mothers in the intervention group received home visits during the children's first year of life on a monthly basis up to 6 months, and at 8, 10 and 12 months. The mothers in the control group received visits for data collection when children reached 6 and 12 months. All children were visited at ages between 12 and 16 months and 24-hour dietary recalls and hemoglobin and ferritin tests were conducted. There was no evidence that the intervention had an effect on anemia incidence, which was 66.5% in the intervention group and 61.8% in the control group. There was also no evidence of any difference between the groups in the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia or of iron deficiency. However, a higher percentage of children in the intervention group were exclusively breastfed at 4 and 6 months, and breastfed at 6 and 12 months. Intervention group children also consumed more meat and were fed diets with better iron bioavailability and consumed less cow's milk and calcium than children from the control group. This intervention had no effect on the prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia. Clinical trial registry identification number: NCT00629629.

  15. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were......-segment deviation during Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing, indicated with a specificity of 1.0 or 0.95 according to choice of criterion, implies that the person is in a healthy state....

  16. Study and practice on nursing skills training methods under 24 hours shift system%24h值班制护理技能训练方法的研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽华; 胡野; 金庆跃; 吴玲玲; 周爱君

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨护理专业校内实训基地开展24 h值班制护理技能训练的方法及效果.方法 将2007级高中升大专护理专业2个班级学生各60名分别列为对照班和实验班.对照班采用常规的护理技能教学方法,教师演示、单个项目训练、下临床实习前集中训练考核的方法.实验班除接受以上训练外于第4学期(即下临床实习前一学期),增加24 h值班制护理技能训练方法:教师设计好病案,按照临床要求排班,各班由1名教师带领4名学生(扮演护士)进行护理技能训练,其余学生扮演患者、家属、朋友,住在仿真病区.对2班的教学效果进行评价.结果 实验班与对照班,综合技能考核、毕业理论考核成绩比较均有显著差异.临床带教老师反映校内实训基地开展24 h值班制护理技能训练项目使学生提前适应临床护理工作,有利于提升学生的综合技能.结论 校内实训基地开展24 h值班制护理技能训练方法是行之有效的一种技能训练方法.%Objective To explore a new training method of nursing skills under 24 hours shift system in the practical training base in the college. Methods The practical training base in the college was rebuilt into a simulated hospital. 120 three-year-course nursing students in grade 2007 were divided into the control class and the experimental class with 60 students in each class. The control class adopted routine teaching method, including teacher demonstration, single project training, concentrated training before clinical practice. The experimental class participated in the tutoring mode of nursing skills under 24 hours shift system in simulated hospital. The cases were pre-designed and students acted as patients by tums. One teacher led 4 students into nursing skill training by day shift, evening shift and mid-night shift. The teaching effect was compared between two classes. Results There was significant difference between the two groups in

  17. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...... in healthy subjects without disease, was 1.0 when using as criterion for significant ST-segment deviation a horizontal or descending ST-segment depression of >0.20 mV or ST-segment elevation >/=0.15 mV during Holter monitoring, and acceptable, for example, 0.95, when using as criterion a horizontal...

  18. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C

    1999-01-01

    or descending ST-segment depression of >/=0.15 mV during Holter monitoring or at the exercise test, respectively. Furthermore, the specificity was 0.95 when a horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression of 0.1 mV was displayed in both the Holter and exercise electrocardiographic recording system......BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...

  19. Covariation of Adolescent Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors over 12-Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Dori; Norman, Gregory J.; Sallis, James F.; Calfas, Karen J.; Patrick, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Purpose This study examined covariation among changes in dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors over 12 months among adolescents participating in a health behavior intervention. Evidence of covariation among behaviors would suggest multi-behavior interventions could have synergistic effects. Methods Prospective analyses were conducted with baseline and 12 month assessments from a randomized controlled trial to promote improved diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviors (experimental condition) or SUN protection behaviors (comparison condition). Participants were adolescent girls and boys (N = 878) aged 11 to 15 years on entry. The main outcomes were: diet, based on multiple 24-hour recalls (total fat, grams of fiber, servings of fruit and vegetables, total calories); average daily energy expenditure (kcals/kg) based on 7-Day physical activity recall interviews; daily minutes of moderate-vigorous physical activity minutes from accelerometery; and self-reported daily hours of sedentary behavior. Results Covariation was found between fat and calories (r = .16), fiber and calories (r = .53), fiber and fruit/vegetables (r = .53), calories and fruit/vegetables (r = .34), and fruit and vegetables and sedentary behavior (r = -.12) for the total sample (all p < .01). The pattern of findings was similar for most subgroups defined by sex and study condition. Conclusions The strongest covariation was observed for diet variables that are inherently related (calories and fat, fiber, and fruit/vegetables). Little covariation was detected within or between other diet, physical activity and sedentary behavior domains suggesting that interventions to improve these behaviors in adolescents need to include specific program components for each target behavior of interest. PMID:17950167

  20. Clinical value of 24-hour urinary sodium determination in children with postural tachycardia syndrome%体位性心动过速综合征患儿24h尿钠测定的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳蔚; 张清友; 廖莹; 张春雨; 杜军保

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical value of 24-hour urinary sodium determination in children with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS).Method Fifty-eight POTS children and 10 healthy children (control group) from Peking University First Hospital during June 2012 to May 2014 were enrolled.Their 24-hour urinary sodium and plasma sodium levels were compared.Correlation analysis was done between 24-hour urinary sodium and symptom scores in children with POTS.All patients were treated with oral rehydration salts.The POTS patients were divided into hyponatriuria group (urinary sodium < 124 mmol/24 h) and hypernatriuria group (urinary sodium ≥ 124 mmol/24 h).Kaplan-Meier curve was used to analyze the effects of different 24-hour urinary sodium levels in children with POTS receiving rehydration salts therapy.Result The 24-hour urinary sodium levels of children with POTS were significantly lower than that of control group ((110.0 ± 45.8) vs.(221.3 ± 103.6) mmol/24 h,t =3.339,P =0.008),while no statistical significance was found in plasma sodium between the two groups ((139.7 ± 2.1) vs.(139.7 ± 2.3) mmol/L,t =0.082,P =0.935).Pearson correlation analysis showed that 24-hour urinary sodium and severity of symptoms in children patients were negatively correlated (r =-0.654,P < 0.001).Urinary sodium < 124 mmol/24 h was used as the cut-off value,there were 43 cases in hyponatriuria group and 15 cases in hypernatriuria group.The symptom scores were significantly higher in hyponatriuria group (10.2 ± 3.7 vs.5.0 ± 1.8,P < 0.001),there was no significant difference in other basic information and hemodynamic data between groups (P > 0.05).Logistic regression analysis revealed that urine sodium < 124 mmol/24 h was independent risk factor for effectiveness of rehydration salts in POTS patients (OR =0.043,95% CI:0.004-0.499,P =0.012).Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed the long-term effect of patients receiving oral rehydration salts in hyponatriuria group was

  1. Plainview Milk Cooperative Ingredient Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since June 2009 related to products manufactured by Plainview Milk Products Cooperative.

  2. MANAGEMENT OF UNSAFE FOOD RECALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Górna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the essence of eff ective management to recall unsafe food. The implementation of the development is refl ected in its individual parts. Legal requirements oblige companies to take immediate action when an available product poses a threat to the consumer’s health or life. These actions imply blocking of a suspicious batch or a possible product recall, as well as eff ective communication with supervisory authorities and consumers, if a product has already been available to them. The scope of these regulations is scrupulously listed in private safety standards and food quality, such as BRC, IFS, or in an international norm ISO 22000. The article emphasized the importance of the traceability system to ensure eff ective recall, also analysed the results of the research into the causes and evaluated the eff ectiveness of the food recall.

  3. Rehearsal in immediate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lydia; Ward, Geoff

    2008-06-01

    We report for the first time overt rehearsal data in immediate serial recall (ISR) undertaken at three presentation rates (1, 2.5, and 5 sec/word). Two groups of participants saw lists of six words for ISR and were required either to engage in overt rehearsal or to remain silent after reading aloud the word list during its presentation. Typical ISR serial position effects were obtained for both groups, and recall increased with slower rates. When participants rehearsed, they tended to do so in a cumulative forward order up to Serial Position 4, after which the amount of rehearsal decreased substantially. There were similarities between rehearsal and recall data: Both broke down toward the end of longer sequences, and there were strong positive correlations between the maximum sequence of participants' rehearsals and their ISR performance. We interpret these data as suggesting that similar mechanisms underpin both rehearsal and recall in ISR.

  4. FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...

  5. Dietary Intakes of Adolescent Girls in Relation to Weight Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Bidad

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To examine macronutrient and micronutrient intake of adolescent girls of Tehran, capital of Iran to discover any malnutrition in relation to weight status and dieting.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Four hundred 11- to 17-year-old students were selected by multistage clus­ter sampling from secondary and high schools of Tehran. The information about dietary intakes was taken by food fre­quency questionnaire and 24-hour recall form. The students' body mass indices (BMIs were measured and were classified ac­cording to National Center for Health Statistics /Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2000 growth charts. Partici­pants were also questioned about body image and dieting. Results: 6.7% of adolescent girls were classified as being obese, 14.6% overweight, 75.4% normal and 3.2% underweight. Stu­dents 11-13 year old, had mean intakes lower than estimated average requirement (EAR for folic acid, vitamin E, cal­cium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and sodium, and 14-18 year old students had mean intakes lower than EAR for nia­cin, pyridoxine, folic acid, pantothenic acid, vitamin E, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and zinc. Obese and overweight adolescents had less carbohydrate, thiamin, niacin, iron and selenium intake. The participants, who were dieting, used significantly less amounts of proteins, carbohydrates, thiamin, niacin, iron, selenium, sodium and zinc.Conclusion: Knowing the harmful consequences of nutrient deficiency especially in adolescents, nutrition education must be emphasized in schools to promote nutritional literacy.

  6. The Development, Validation, and User Evaluation of Foodbook24: A Web-Based Dietary Assessment Tool Developed for the Irish Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Breige; Kehoe, Laura; Evans, Katie; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Background The application of technology in the area of dietary assessment has resulted in the development of an array of tools, which are often specifically designed for a particular country or region. Objective The aim of this study was to describe the development, validation, and user evaluation of a Web-based dietary assessment tool “Foodbook24.” Methods Foodbook24 is a Web-based, dietary assessment tool consisting of a 24-hour dietary recall (24HDR) and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) alongside supplementary questionnaires. Validity of the 24HDR component was assessed by 40 participants, who completed 3 nonconsecutive, self-administered 24HDR using Foodbook24 and a 4-day semi-weighed food diary at separate time points. Participants also provided fasted blood samples and 24-hour urine collections for the identification of biomarkers of nutrient and food group intake during each recording period. Statistical analyses on the nutrient and food group intake data derived from each method were performed in SPSS version 20.0 (SPSS Inc). Mean nutrient intakes (and standard deviations) recorded using each method of dietary assessment were calculated. Spearman and Pearson correlations, Wilcoxon Signed Rank and Paired t test were used to investigate the agreement and differences between the nutritional output from Foodbook24 (test method) and the 4-day semi-weighed food diary (reference method). Urinary and plasma biomarkers of nutrient intake were used as an objective validation of Foodbook24. To investigate the user acceptability of Foodbook24, participants from different studies involved with Foodbook24 were asked to complete an evaluation questionnaire. Results For nutrient intake, correlations between the dietary assessment methods were acceptable to very good in strength and statistically significant (range r=.32 to .75). There were some significant differences between reported mean intakes of micronutrients recorded by both methods; however, with the

  7. Tulimbe Nutrition Project: a community-based dietary intervention to combat micronutrient malnutrition in rural southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhe, G

    1997-12-01

    This article describes the community-based nutrition intervention in rural southern Malawi. The program aims to reverse micronutrient deficiencies in vitamin A, iron, and zinc in a society where staple diets are plant-based and contain high levels of anti-nutrients. Anti-nutrients, such as polyphenols, dietary fiber, and phytates, inhibit absorption of iron and zinc. This population's diet was also low in dairy and meat products. The Tulimbe Nutrition Project aimed to modify and diversify diets rather than to supplement or fortify diets. This approach was more culturally acceptable and economically feasible. The approach required changing food selection patterns and methods of preparing and processing indigenous foods. The new diets aimed to enhance the availability, access, and use of micronutrient-rich foods throughout the year. The project was initiated in 1995 in two communities among 300 families with children ranging in age from 3 to 7 years. A baseline assessment with interviews and focus groups was conducted. The assessment for children included a 24-hour dietary recall, anthropometric measurement, and other clinical measurement. Anthropometric and dietary assessments were repeated at 6 and 12 months. New cultivars and technologies were introduced, such as soybeans, short-duration pigeon peas, groundnuts, sunflower seeds, and papaya seedlings. The Malawi Industrial Research and Technology Development Center built and installed solar dryers, seed oil presses, and ovens in each community. People were encouraged to include soaked and fermented maize flour and germinated cereal flours in infant and child porridges. Parents were educated about micronutrient-rich foods, meal frequencies, portion sizes, and food combinations. Information was provided through demonstrations, home visits, plays, songs, and booklets. The program evaluation is in progress.

  8. A comparison of pregnancy outcomes in Ghanaian women with varying dietary diversity: a prospective cohort study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaka, Mahama; Siassi, Fereydoun; Qorbani, Mostafa; Yavari, Parvaneh; Danquah, Ina; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poor dietary intake during pregnancy can have negative repercussions on the mother and fetus. This study therefore aims to explore the dietary diversity (DD) of pregnant women and its associations with pregnancy outcomes among women in Northern Ghana. The main outcome variables to be measured are gestational weight gain and birth weight. Methods and analysis A prospective cohort study design will be used and 600 pregnant women in their first trimester will be systematically recruited at health facilities and followed until delivery. In three follow-up visits after recruitment, information on sociodemographic and general characteristics, physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form, dietary intake (24-hour food recall), anthropometry and pregnancy outcomes will be collected. DD will be measured three times using the minimum DD-women (MDD-W) indicator and the mean of the three values overall will be used to determine low (<5 food groups) and high (≥5 food groups) DD. Data will be analysed using SPSS. Comparisons between groups (categorical data) will be made using the χ2 test for proportions, and t-tests and ANOVA will be performed on continuous variables. Regression analysis will be used to identify independent outcome predictors while controlling for possible confounding factors. The results may help to identify differences in DD between healthy and unhealthy pregnancy outcomes. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by the ethics committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and the ethical review committee of the Tamale Teaching Hospital. Written informed consent will be obtained from all subjects. The results will be published in due course. PMID:27655259

  9. Adesão ao tratamento e controle da pressão arterial por meio da monitoração ambulatorial de 24 horas Blood pressure treatment adherence and control through 24-hour ambulatory monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Brasil Grezzana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS é um importante fator de risco cardiovascular, no entanto os níveis de controle pressórico persistem inadequados. A avaliação da adesão ao tratamento anti-hipertensivo com a utilização da monitoração ambulatorial da pressão arterial (MAPA de 24 horas pode representar um importante auxílio na busca de metas de controle da HAS. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a adesão ao tratamento anti-hipertensivo e a sua relação com os valores de PA obtidos pela MAPA de 24 horas entre pacientes hipertensos de centros de atenção primária à saúde (APS. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 143 pacientes hipertensos de amostra representativa de serviço de APS do município de Antônio Prado, RS. Foi realizada aplicação do teste de Morisky e Green para avaliar a aderência ao tratamento e a verificação do número de medicamentos utilizados, seguida pela aplicação da MAPA de 24 horas. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que 65,7% da amostra foram considerados aderentes ao tratamento proposto, 20,3% eram moderadamente aderentes, enquanto somente 14% foram classificados como não aderentes. Do total de 143 pacientes avaliados, 79 (55,2% foram identificados como HAS controlada (130/80 mmHg, 103 (72% apresentaram ausência de descenso noturno da PA e 60 (41,9% não estavam controlados durante o período de vigília. CONCLUSÃO: Verificamos, no presente estudo, que não há um controle adequado da HAS, com consequente perda de oportunidade dos profissionais envolvidos na APS de ajuste adequado das metas de PA preconizados. Esse fato ocorre a despeito de apropriada adesão ao tratamento anti-hipertensivo dos pacientes vinculados ao ambulatório de APS.BACKGROUND: Although systemic arterial hypertension (SAH is an important cardiovascular risk factor, blood pressure level control often remains inadequate. Assessment of adherence to antihypertensive treatment through 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM may

  10. Padronização da monitorização eletrocardiográfica por 24 horas em cães Standardization of the 24-hour electrocardiographic monitoring in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Leomil Neto

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste estudo foi propor um padrão normal da monitorização eletrocardiográfica dinâmica em cães das raças Doberman, Boxer e Cocker Spaniel (10 animais de cada raça, possibilitando sua utilização como meio de diagnóstico precoce em cães com cardiomiopatia dilatada. O número de complexos QRS foi maior nos cães Cocker Spaniel. Os batimentos ectópicos ventriculares foram mais freqüentes nos da raça Boxer, entretanto as três raças apresentaram menos de 1% de batimentos ectópicos supraventriculares em relação ao total de batimentos. As freqüências cardíacas mínima, média e máxima foram mais altas na raça Cocker Spaniel. Essa raça permaneceu em taquicardia (freqüência igual ou superior a 120bpm por maior tempo do que as outras duas raças e em bradicardia (freqüência igual ou menor a 50bpm por menor tempo, além de apresentar menor quantidade e pausas mais curtas. A variação da freqüência cardíaca demonstrou ser um padrão entre esses animais: na raça Cocker Spaniel, o número de contrações ectópicas isoladas supraventriculares e ventriculares foi inferior a 50 por monitorição de 24 horas; na Boxer, foi inferior a 50 por 24 horas; as assistolias ou pausas maiores do que dois segundos foram freqüentes nas raças Boxer e Doberman e ausentes na Cocker Spaniel; comumente as pausas duraram mais do que três segundos; não se observaram alterações do segmento ST nas três raças.The normal pattern for dynamic eletrocardiographic monitoring of Doberman, Boxer and Cocker Spaniel dogs, enhancing earlier diagnostic of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM was studied. For this, the technique of 24-hour electrocardiographic monitoring was standardized in 10 animals of each referred breeds. QRS complexes were more frequent in Cocker Spaniel than in Doberman and Boxer dogs. Ventricular premature beats were more common in Boxer dogs than in the other two breeds; however, all of then presented less than 1% of

  11. Improved oxygenation 24 hours after transition to airway pressure release ventilation or high-frequency oscillatory ventilation accurately discriminates survival in immunocompromised pediatric patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehya, Nadir; Topjian, Alexis A; Thomas, Neal J; Friess, Stuart H

    2014-05-01

    Children with an immunocompromised condition and requiring invasive mechanical ventilation have high risk of death. Such patients are commonly transitioned to rescue modes of nonconventional ventilation, including airway pressure release ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, for acute respiratory distress syndrome refractory to conventional ventilation. Our aim was to describe our experience with airway pressure release ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in children with an immunocompromised condition and acute respiratory distress syndrome refractory to conventional ventilation and to identify factors associated with survival. Retrospective cohort study. Tertiary care, university-affiliated PICU. Sixty pediatric patients with an immunocompromised condition and acute respiratory distress syndrome refractory to conventional ventilation transitioned to either airway pressure release ventilation or high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. None. Demographic data, ventilator settings, arterial blood gases, oxygenation index, and PaO(2)/FIO(2) were recorded before transition to either mode of nonconventional ventilation and at predetermined intervals after transition for up to 5 days. Mortality in the entire cohort was 63% and did not differ between patients transitioned to airway pressure release ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. For both airway pressure release ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, improvements in oxygenation index and PaO(2)/FIO(2) at 24 hours expressed as a fraction of pretransition values (oxygenation index(24)/oxygenation index(pre) and PaO(2)/FIO(224)/PaO(2)/FIO(2pre)) reliably discriminated nonsurvivors from survivors, with receiver operating characteristic areas under the curves between 0.89 and 0.95 (p for all curves high-frequency oscillatory ventilation were less than 5% reduction in oxygenation index (100% sensitive, 83% specific) or less than 80% increase in PaO(2

  12. 基于粒子群算法的24小时综合无功协调优化%The 24 hours reactive power optimization and coordination based on particle swarm algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兰芝; 王克文

    2016-01-01

    对于电力系统24小时无功协调优化来说,优化方法是使用粒子群优化算法及罚函数法,将所有的不等式约束方程式引入原目标函数作为惩罚项;优化目标是以全天经济费用最小作为目标函数;优化过程为静态优化和综合优化两个阶段。并根据在线负荷预测来确定24个时刻的并联电容器组的投切状态和变压器分接头的位置。将粒子群算法用于求解多目标无功优化问题中能够有效降低有功网损,减少无功补偿成本,而且其收敛性能好、收敛速度快、稳定性好。%For 24 hours reactive power optimization and coordination in the power system , the optimization method is used in particle swarm optimization algorithm and penalty function method to bring all the inequality constraint equa -tions into the original objective function , which is optimized as a penalty term .The optimization goal is the minimum economic cost as the objective function throughout the day , and the optimization procedure is composed of two stages of static and comprehensive optimization .Based on the on-online forecasted load powers , the shunt capacitors switc-hing states and transform tap stalls for 24 hours are determined .The particle swarm algorithm is used to solve the multi-objective reactive power optimization problem , which can not only reduce the active power loss effectively and the cost of reactive power compensation , but also improve the convergence performance , the convergence speed and the stability .

  13. Avaliação dos níveis de retinol no colostro humano coletado no intervalo de 24 horas Evaluation of retinol levels in human colostrum in two samples collected at an interval of 24 hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla D. S. Ribeiro

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a concentração de retinol no colostro coletado em intervalo de 24 h. MÉTODOS: Coletou-se o colostro de 24 puérperas em dois períodos, tempo zero (T0 e tempo 24 h (T24, e um pool da união de T0 e T24. A gordura foi determinada pelo crematócrito, e o retinol por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. RESULTADOS: Quando expresso por volume de leite (µg/dL, o nível de retinol sofreu variações entre T0, T24 e pool: 94,9±58,9; 129±78,6 e 111,9±60,4 µg/dL, respectivamente. Entretanto, quando expresso pela quantidade de gordura (µg/g, não foi observada diferença significativa. CONCLUSÕES: O retinol quantificado no colostro através de coleta única não deve ser utilizado como indicador do estado nutricional em vitamina A, devido à grande variabilidade no decorrer das coletas. Sugere-se que os resultados sejam expressos por grama de gordura, para minimizar as variações em decorrência do volume de leite.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate retinol concentration in colostrum samples collected with a 24 hour interval. METHODS: Colostrum was collected from 24 recently-delivered mothers at two points in time, 0 hours (T0 and 24 hours later (T24, and a pooled sample of colostrum from T0 and T24 was also analyzed. Fat content was determined by creamatocrit, and retinol assayed by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: When expressed in terms of volume of milk (µg/dL, retinol levels varied across T0, T24 and the pooled sample: 94.9±58.9, 129±78.6 and 111.9±60.4 µg/dL, respectively. However, when expressed with relation to fat content (µg/g, no significant difference was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Retinol assayed in colostrum from a single sample should not be used as an indicator of vitamin A nutritional status, due to the great variation between samples collected at different times. It is suggested that results be expressed per gram of fat, in order to minimize variations resulting from the volume of milk.

  14. 对24小时免签证过境人员违规情况的探析%Research on New Type Case of 24 Hours in the Visa Waiver Program of Exit-Entry Frontier Inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚德荣; 熊晓玲

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with the international situation, the Chinese government has implemented the policy of 24 hours in the visa waiver program of exit-entry frontier inspection. In recent months, more and more new type cases of 24 hours in the visa waiver program of exit-entry frontier inspection have been discovered. It has created a bad impression on the exit-entry frontier inspection and involved many fateful consequences. Therefore, we should enhance the understanding of policy and publicize the general and speciifc policies of exit-entry frontier inspection in order to maintain public order of exit-entry frontier inspection. At the same time, we should perfect the procedure and sharing the information to positive feedback without delay.%《中华人民共和国出境入境管理法》根据形势的需要,从改进服务方面入手,完善和创新了关于24小时免办签证临时入境政策,扩大了过境免签适用范围。近阶段,上海出入境边防检查总站机场边检站处理了多起违反24小时免签证过境规定、超过临时入境手续规定的期限停留的违法违规人员。若不及时采取措施,对相关出入境政策、法律进行宣传,将不利于当前口岸秩序管理工作的顺利开展。因此,应严格落实政策,加大宣传力度,完善工作流程,促进信息共享,及时反馈情况。

  15. [Associated factors to dietary intake of fruits and vegetables in Bucaramanga, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa Delgado, Edna Magaly; López Barbosa, Nahyr; Prada Gómez, Gloria Esperanza; Franco Cadena, José Tomás; Landínez Navarro, Ariel

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine associated factors to the consumption of fruit and vegetables (FV) in the adult population of each socioeconomic status (SES) in Bucaramanga, Colombia. We conducted a cross-sectional in a sample of 317 people and we measured socio-demographic, economic and anthropometric variables and dietary factors related to the purchase and consumption of FV. We made a survey, a 24-Hour dietary recall and we did anthropometric measurements. Portion sizes were estimated with a standardized set of utensils and food-photography atlas. Frequencies, measures of central tendency and dispersion were established and Logistic Regression models were used for the bi and multivariate analysis. Average consumption of FV was 162.6 g/day (188.5 g in high SES and 145.7 g in low SES, p = 0.056). On average 2 servings per day of FV (2.3 servings in high SES and 1.5 in low SES, p = 0.055). The prevalence of adequate intake of FV (more than 5 servings / day) was 8.6% (8.9% in high SES and 8.4% in low SES, p = 0.896). The associated factor to consumption of FV was BMI > or =25 (OR: 0.31, CI (95%): 0.11-0.89, p = 0.030), adjusted for occupation, income, SES, and number of family members. FV consumption is low; excess weight is the only variable associated to no-consumption of five or more servings; causes: cost to the consumption of fruit and flavor in the case of vegetables.

  16. Association between Maternal and Child Dietary Diversity: An Analysis of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey.

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    Dickson Abanimi Amugsi

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between maternal and child dietary diversity in a population-based national sample in Ghana.The data for this analysis are from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. We used data obtained from 1187 dyads comprised of mothers' ages 15-49 and their youngest child (ages 6-36 months. Maternal and child dietary diversity scores (DDS were created based on the mother's recall of her own and her child's consumption of 15 food groups, during the 24 hours prior to the in-home survey. The same food groups were used to compose both maternal and child DDS. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the predicted outcome--child DDS--and maternal DDS, taking into account child age and sex, maternal factors (age, education, occupation, literacy, empowerment, number of antenatal visits as an indicator of health care use, household Wealth Index, and urban/rural place of residence.There was a statistically significant positive association between child and maternal DDS, after adjusting for all other variables. A difference of one food group in mother's consumption was associated with a difference of 0.72 food groups in the child's food consumption (95% CI: 0.63, 0.82. Also, statistically significant positive associations were observed such that higher child DDS was associated with older child age, and with greater women's empowerment.The results show a significant positive association between child and maternal DD, after accounting for the influence of child, maternal and household level factors. Since the likely path of influence is that maternal DDS impacts child DDS, public health efforts to improve child health may be strengthened by promoting maternal DDS due to its potential for a widened effect on the entire family.

  17. Dietary patterns in Brazilian patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a cross-sectional study

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    Silvia Marinho Ferolla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with diet. Our aim was to investigate the dietary patterns of a Brazilian population with this condition and compare them with the recommended diet. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 96 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients before any dietetic counseling. All patients underwent abdominal ultrasound, biochemical tests, dietary evaluations, and anthropometric evaluations. Their food intake was assessed by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and 24-hour food recall. RESULTS: The median patient age was 53 years, and 77% of the individuals were women. Most (67.7% participants were obese, and a large waist circumference was observed in 80.2% subjects. Almost 70% of the participants had metabolic syndrome, and 62.3% presented evidence of either insulin resistance or overt diabetes. Most patients (51.5, 58.5, and 61.7%, respectively exceeded the recommendations for energy intake, as well as total and saturated fat. All patients consumed less than the amount of recommended monounsaturated fatty acids, and 52.1 and 76.6% of them consumed less polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber, respectively, than recommended. In most patients, the calcium, sodium, potassium, pyridoxine, and vitamin C intake did not meet the recommendations, and in 10.5-15.5% of individuals, the tolerable upper limit intake for sodium was exceeded. The patients presented a significantly high intake of meats, fats, sugars, legumes (beans, and vegetables and a low consumption of cereals, fruits, and dairy products compared with the recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease exhibited high energy and lipid consumption, most of them had inadequate intake of some micronutrients. The possible role of nutrient-deficient intake in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease warrants investigation.

  18. Dietary Diversity as a Correlate of Undernutrition among School-Age Children in Southwestern Nigeria

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    Olumakaiye, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the association between undernutrition and dietary diversity among school-age children in southwestern Nigeria. Methods: A total of 600 school children were randomly selected from six private and six public schools in the region. A standardized FAO-published 24-hour diet recall…

  19. Recalled emotions and risk judgments

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    Shosh Shahrabani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study is based on a field study of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon war that was conducted in two waves, the first two weeks after the end of the war, and the second 18 months later (2008. The purpose of the study was to examine recalled emotions and perceived risks induced by manipulation using a short videoclip that recalled the sounds of the alarms and the sights of the missile attacks during the war. Before filling in the study questionnaire in 2008, the experimental group watched a short videoclip recalling the events of the war. The control group did not watch the video before filling in the questionnaire. Using the data provided by questionnaires, we analyzed the effect of recalled emotions on perceived risks in two different regions in Israel: the northern region, which was under missile attack daily during the war, and the central region, which was not under missile attacks. The videoclip had a strong effect on the level of recalled emotions in both regions, but it did not affect risk judgments. The results of the analytical framework in the northern region support both the valence approach, in which negative emotion increases pessimism about risk (Johnson and Tversky, 1983, and the modified appraisal tendency theory, which implies different effects for different emotions (Lerner and Keltner, 2000. The current study emphasizes the effects of recalled emotion in the context of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon war on perceived risks among those in the northern region who were under direct attack compared to those who were not directly exposed to the war. Understanding people's responses to stressful events is crucial, not only when these events take place but also over time, since media-induced emotions can influence appraisals and decisions regarding public policies.

  20. Change in the family food environment is associated with positive dietary change in children.

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    Hendrie, Gilly; Sohonpal, Gundeep; Lange, Kylie; Golley, Rebecca

    2013-01-07

    The family food environment is an important influence in the development of children's dietary habits. Research suggests that influences of current dietary behaviour and behaviour change may differ. The aims of this paper were to: (1) investigate the association between the food environment at baseline and change in children's saturated fat intake; and (2) to explore whether a change in the food environment was associated with a change in children's saturated fat intake. Secondary analysis of a 12 week cluster randomised controlled trial in 133 4-13 year old children. Families were randomly allocated to parental education regarding changing to reduced-fat dairy foods or a comparison non-dietary behaviour. The interventions were family focused. Parents received education from a dietitian in 3x30 minute sessions to facilitate behaviour change. Parents completed a comprehensive questionnaire capturing three domains of the food environment--Parent knowledge and attitudes; shaping practices; and behaviours and role modelling. Children's dietary intake was assessed via multiple 24-hour recalls at baseline and week 12. Changes in the family food environment and primary outcome (saturated fat) were calculated. Hierarchical linear regression models were performed to explore the association between baseline and change in food environment constructs and change in saturated fat intake. Standardised Beta are presented (pfood availability (β=-0.2) at baseline was associated with greater reduction in saturated fat intake, where as higher perceived responsibility (β=0.2), restriction (β=0.3) and pressure to eat (β=0.3) were associated with lesser change in saturated fat. An increase in nutrition knowledge (β=-0.2), perceived responsibility (β=-0.3) and restriction (β=-0.3) from baseline to week 12 were associated with greater reduction in saturated fat intake. The present study was one of the first to quantify changes in the family food environment, and identify a number of

  1. Change in the family food environment is associated with positive dietary change in children

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    Hendrie Gilly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family food environment is an important influence in the development of children’s dietary habits. Research suggests that influences of current dietary behaviour and behaviour change may differ. The aims of this paper were to: (1 investigate the association between the food environment at baseline and change in children’s saturated fat intake; and (2 to explore whether a change in the food environment was associated with a change in children’s saturated fat intake. Method Secondary analysis of a 12 week cluster randomised controlled trial in 133 4-13 year old children. Families were randomly allocated to parental education regarding changing to reduced-fat dairy foods or a comparison non-dietary behaviour. The interventions were family focused. Parents received education from a dietitian in 3x30minute sessions to facilitate behaviour change. Parents completed a comprehensive questionnaire capturing three domains of the food environment – Parent knowledge and attitudes; shaping practices; and behaviours and role modelling. Children’s dietary intake was assessed via multiple 24-hour recalls at baseline and week 12. Changes in the family food environment and primary outcome (saturated fat were calculated. Hierarchical linear regression models were performed to explore the association between baseline and change in food environment constructs and change in saturated fat intake. Standardised Beta are presented (p Results After adjustments for child and family demographics, higher levels of perceived food availability (β=-0.2 at baseline was associated with greater reduction in saturated fat intake, where as higher perceived responsibility (β=0.2, restriction (β=0.3 and pressure to eat (β=0.3 were associated with lesser change in saturated fat. An increase in nutrition knowledge (β=-0.2, perceived responsibility (β=-0.3 and restriction (β=-0.3 from baseline to week 12 were associated with greater reduction in

  2. Inhibition of prefrontal protein synthesis following recall does not disrupt memory for trace fear conditioning

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    Dash Pramod K

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent of similarity between consolidation and reconsolidation is not yet fully understood. One of the differences noted is that not every brain region involved in consolidation exhibits reconsolidation. In trace fear conditioning, the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC are required for consolidation of long-term memory. We have previously demonstrated that trace fear memory is susceptible to infusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin into the hippocampus following recall. In the present study, we examine whether protein synthesis inhibition in the mPFC following recall similarly results in the observation of reconsolidation of trace fear memory. Results Targeted intra-mPFC infusions of anisomycin or vehicle were performed immediately following recall of trace fear memory at 24 hours, or at 30 days, following training in a one-day or a two-day protocol. The present study demonstrates three key findings: 1 trace fear memory does not undergo protein synthesis dependent reconsolidation in the PFC, regardless of the intensity of the training, and 2 regardless of whether the memory is recent or remote, and 3 intra-mPFC inhibition of protein synthesis immediately following training impaired remote (30 days memory. Conclusion These results suggest that not all structures that participate in memory storage are involved in reconsolidation. Alternatively, certain types of memory-related information may reconsolidate, while other components of memory may not.

  3. 冠状动脉支架置入24h血清内脏脂肪素变化%Variation in serum visfatin levels 24 hours after coronary stent implantation

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    侯云; 丁世芳; 王慧洁; 蒋桔泉; 付文波; 王华; 陈志楠

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Coronary stent implantation can cause blood vessel damage and wal reconstruction, leading to vascular stent restenosis. Studies have found that visfatin is associated with inflammatory reaction, and exhibits an increased expression at the site of plaque rupture in acute myocardial infarction. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the influence of percutaneous coronary intervention on the levels of visfatin in patients with coronary heart disease. METHODS:Thirty patients with acute myocardial infarction within 12 hours after the onset of the chest pain, 30 patients with unstable pectoris and 30 patients with stable angina pectoris were included. Al patients were successfuly treated by percutaneous coronary intervention. Meanwhile, 30 patients only undergoing coronary angiography but not stenting treatment were selected, and another 30 patients without any treatment served as normal control group. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:According to enzyme-linked immunosorbent method, the visfatin levels of acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, stable angina and coronary angiography groups continue to rise at pre-operation, 30 minutes, 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours after operation, al of which were higher than that in the normal control group (P < 0.05). The results confirmed that within 24 hours after coronary stent implantation the visfatin levels continue to rise.%背景:冠状动脉支架置入会造成血管损伤和管壁重构,从而引起血管支架内的再狭窄。研究发现内脏脂肪素与炎性反应相关,在急性心肌梗死斑块破裂处表达增高。目的:观察经皮冠状动脉支架置入后早期对冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病患者血清内脏脂肪素水平的影响。方法:选取发病12 h内并行急诊冠状动脉支架置入的急性心肌梗死患者30例,同期选取行冠状动脉支架置入的不稳定性心绞痛和稳定性心绞痛患者各30例;同时选择一组仅行冠状动脉造影

  4. Apolo-Prometeu e Dioniso: dois perfis mitológicos do "homem das 24 horas" de Gaston Bachelard Apollo-Prometheus and Dionysus: two mythological profiles of Gaston Bachelard's "24-hour man"

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    Alexander de Freitas

    2006-04-01

    relationship between the epistemology of science and the metaphysics of poetic imagination, two opposed, competing, and complementary traits of Bachelard's philosophy, often expressed by the epithets of "diurnal" and "nocturnal". To study the relationship between these two directions in Bachelard's thought, we start from the analysis of the ambivalence of the following pairs of concepts: epistemological obstacle & material imagination, and psychoanalysis of knowledge & phenomenological method, which structure, theoretically in the case of the former pair, and methodologically in the case of the latter pair, his epistemology of science and his metaphysics of poetic imagination. The results allow us to say that the joining of Bachelard's scientific epistemology and poetical metaphysics is represented in his concept of the "24-hour man". This complex, androgynous man, reader and thinker of the scientific ideas and of the poetical genesis, seems to be an image of the reconciliation of the antinomies expressed by the diurnal and nocturnal facets of the Bachelardian philosophy. Expanding on the imagetic analysis of the "24-hour man" through a myth-analytical hermeneutics, we find the two semblances of Bachelard's philosophy configured, respectively, in the myths of Apollo-Prometheus and Dionysus.