Sample records for 24-h ultraendurance exercise

  1. Reduced efficiency, but increased fat oxidation, in mitochondria from human skeletal muscle after 24-h ultraendurance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernström, Maria; Bakkman, Linda; Tonkonogi, Michail


    The hypothesis that ultraendurance exercise influences muscle mitochondrial function has been investigated. Athletes in ultraendurance performance performed running, kayaking, and cycling at 60% of their peak O(2) consumption for 24 h. Muscle biopsies were taken preexercise (Pre-Ex), postexercise...

  2. Antioxidant responses to an acute ultra-endurance exercise: impact on DNA stability and indications for an increased need for nutritive antioxidants in the early recovery phase. (United States)

    Neubauer, Oliver; Reichhold, Stefanie; Nics, Lukas; Hoelzl, Christine; Valentini, Judit; Stadlmayr, Barbara; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Wagner, Karl-Heinz


    Antioxidant requirements have neither been defined for endurance nor been defined for ultra-endurance athletes. To verify whether an acute bout of ultra-endurance exercise modifies the need for nutritive antioxidants, we aimed (1) to investigate the changes of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants in response to an Ironman triathlon; (2) to particularise the relevance of antioxidant responses to the indices of oxidatively damaged blood lipids, blood cell compounds and lymphocyte DNA and (3) to examine whether potential time-points of increased susceptibility to oxidative damage are associated with alterations in the antioxidant status. Blood that was collected from forty-two well-trained male athletes 2 d pre-race, immediately post-race, and 1, 5 and 19 d later was sampled. The key findings of the present study are as follows: (1) Immediately post-race, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and levels of the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, the ferric reducing ability of plasma and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays increased significantly. Exercise-induced changes in the plasma antioxidant capacity were associated with changes in uric acid, bilirubin and vitamin C. (2) Significant inverse correlations between ORAC levels and indices of oxidatively damaged DNA immediately and 1 d post-race suggest a protective role of the acute antioxidant responses in DNA stability. (3) Significant decreases in carotenoids and γ-tocopherol 1 d post-race indicate that the antioxidant intake during the first 24 h of recovery following an acute ultra-endurance exercise requires specific attention. Furthermore, the present study illustrates the importance of a diversified and well-balanced diet to maintain a physiological antioxidant status in ultra-endurance athletes in reference to recommendations.

  3. No case of exercise-associated hyponatraemia in top male ultra-endurance cyclists: the 'Swiss Cycling Marathon'. (United States)

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas


    The prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatraemia (EAH) has been investigated in endurance athletes such as runners and Ironman triathletes, but not in ultra-endurance road cyclists. We assessed fluid intake and changes in body mass, urine specific gravity and plasma sodium concentration ([Na(+)]) in 65 ultra-endurance road cyclists in a 720-km ultra-cycling marathon, the 'Swiss Cycling Marathon'. The cyclists lost 1.5 (1.7)% body mass (P road cycling race showed no case of EAH. Future studies regarding drinking behaviour in different ultra-endurance disciplines might give insights into why the prevalence of EAH is different in the different disciplines.

  4. Exercise Increases 24-h Fat Oxidation Only When It Is Performed Before Breakfast

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    Kaito Iwayama


    Interpretation: Under energy-balanced conditions, 24-h fat oxidation was increased by exercise only when performed before breakfast. Transient carbohydrate deficits, i.e., glycogen depletion, observed after morning exercise may have contributed to increased 24-h fat oxidation.

  5. Increased platelet oxidative metabolism, blood oxidative stress and neopterin levels after ultra-endurance exercise. (United States)

    de Lucas, Ricardo Dantas; Caputo, Fabrizio; Mendes de Souza, Kristopher; Sigwalt, André Roberto; Ghisoni, Karina; Lock Silveira, Paulo Cesar; Remor, Aline Pertile; da Luz Scheffer, Débora; Guglielmo, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci; Latini, Alexandra


    The purpose of the present investigation was to identify muscle damage, inflammatory response and oxidative stress blood markers in athletes undertaking the ultra-endurance MultiSport Brazil race. Eleven well-trained male athletes (34.3 ± 3.1 years, 74.0 ± 7.6 kg; 172.2 ± 5.1 cm) participated in the study and performed the race, which consisted of about 90 km of alternating off-road running, mountain biking and kayaking. Twelve hours before and up to 15 minutes after the race a 10 mL blood sample was drawn in order to measure the following parameters: lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities, lipid peroxidation, catalase activity, protein carbonylation, respiratory chain complexes I, II and IV activities, oxygen consumption and neopterin concentrations. After the race, plasma lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities were significantly increased. Erythrocyte TBA-RS levels and plasma protein carbonylation were markedly augmented in post-race samples. Additionally, mitochondrial complex II activity and oxygen consumption in post-race platelet-rich plasma were also increased. These altered biochemical parameters were accompanied by increased plasma neopterin levels. The ultra-endurance event provoked systemic inflammation (increased neopterin) accompanied by marked oxidative stress, likely by increasing oxidative metabolism (increased oxidative mitochondrial function). This might be advantageous during prolonged exercise, mainly for efficient substrate oxidation at the mitochondrial level, even when tissue damage is induced.

  6. Assessment of magnetic resonance techniques to measure muscle damage 24 h after eccentric exercise. (United States)

    Fulford, J; Eston, R G; Rowlands, A V; Davies, R C


    The study examined which of a number of different magnetic resonance (MR) methods were sensitive to detecting muscle damage induced by eccentric exercise. Seventeen healthy, physically active participants, with muscle damage confirmed by non-MR methods were tested 24 h after performing eccentric exercise. Techniques investigated whether damage could be detected within the quadriceps muscle as a whole, and individually within the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and vastus intermedius (VI). Relative to baseline values, significant changes were seen in leg and muscle cross-sectional areas and volumes and the resting inorganic phosphate concentration. Significant time effects over all muscles were also seen in the transverse relaxation time (T2) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, with individually significant changes seen in the VL, VM, and VI for T2 and in the VI for ADC. A significant correlation was found between muscle volume and the average T2 change (r = 0.59) but not between T2 and ADC or Pi alterations. There were no significant time effects over all muscles for magnetization transfer contrast images, for baseline pH, phosphocreatine (PCr), phosphodiester, or ATP metabolite concentrations or the time constant describing the rate of PCr recovery following exercise.

  7. Increased fat oxidation and regulation of metabolic genes with ultraendurance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Rehrer, N J; Pilegaard, H


    AIM: Regular endurance exercise stimulates muscle metabolic capacity, but effects of very prolonged endurance exercise are largely unknown. This study examined muscle substrate availability and utilization during prolonged endurance exercise, and associated metabolic genes. METHODS: Data were...... exercise markedly increases plasma fatty acid availability and fat utilization during exercise. Exercise-induced regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in fatty acid recruitment and oxidation may contribute to these changes....

  8. Acute aerobic exercise reduces 24-h ambulatory blood pressure levels in long-term-treated hypertensive patients

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    Emmanuel G. Ciolac


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Even with anti-hypertensive therapy, it is difficult to maintain optimal systemic blood pressure values in hypertensive patients. Exercise may reduce blood pressure in untreated hypertensive, but its effect when combined with long-term anti-hypertensive therapy remains unclear. Our purpose was to evaluate the acute effects of a single session of aerobic exercise on the blood pressure of long-term-treated hypertensive patients. METHODS: Fifty treated hypertensive patients (18/32 male/female; 46.5±8.2 years; Body mass index: 27.8±4.7 kg/m² were monitored for 24 h with respect to ambulatory (A blood pressure after an aerobic exercise session (post-exercise and a control period (control in random order. Aerobic exercise consisted of 40 minutes on a cycle-ergometer, with the mean exercise intensity at 60% of the patient's reserve heart rate. RESULTS: Post-exercise ambulatory blood pressure was reduced for 24 h systolic (126±8.6 vs. 123.1±8.7 mmHg, p=0.004 and diastolic blood pressure (81.9±8 vs. 79.8±8.5 mmHg, p=0.004, daytime diastolic blood pressure (85.5±8.5 vs. 83.9±8.8 mmHg, p=0.04, and nighttime S (116.8±9.9 vs. 112.5±9.2 mmHg, p<0.001 and diastolic blood pressure (73.5±8.8 vs. 70.1±8.4 mmHg, p<0.001. Post-exercise daytime systolic blood pressure also tended to be reduced (129.8±9.3 vs. 127.8±9.4 mmHg, p=0.06. These post-exercise decreases in ambulatory blood pressure increased the percentage of patients displaying normal 24h systolic blood pressure (58% vs. 76%, p=0.007, daytime systolic blood pressure (68% vs. 82%, p=0.02, and nighttime diastolic blood pressure (56% vs. 72%, p=0.02. Nighttime systolic blood pressure also tended to increase (58% vs. 80%, p=0.058. CONCLUSION: A single bout of aerobic exercise reduced 24h ambulatory blood pressure levels in long-term-treated hypertensive patients and increased the percentage of patients reaching normal ambulatory blood pressure values. These effects suggest that

  9. Oxidative Stress Assessment in Response to Ultraendurance Exercise: Thiols Redox Status and ROS Production according to Duration of a Competitive Race

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    Alessandra Vezzoli


    Full Text Available Purpose. Response to an ultraendurance competitive race on thiols redox status, reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and oxidative stress (OxS was investigated according to duration. Methods. Twenty-four elite runners were examined: six completed 50 km and eighteen 100 km. Blood and urine samples were collected before and immediately after the race. Erythrocytes and plasma aminothiols by high-performance liquid chromatography, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, and OxS biomarkers (protein carbonyl (PC, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, 8-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF2α, and 8-OH-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG by immunoenzymatic assays and ROS production by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance were assessed. Results. Significant increases (P between <0.05 and <0.0001 were recorded in plasma total and oxidized aminothiols concentration and TAC (P<0.0001 only after 100 km: plasmatic (ROS production (+12 versus +29%, PC (+54 versus +115%, and TBARS (+28 versus +55% and urinary (8-OH-dG.creatinine−1 (+71 versus +158% and 8-iso-PGF2α.creatinine−1 (+43 versus +135% concentrations for 50 and 100 km (duration 4 h 3′ versus 8 h 42′, respectively. Conclusion. Very prolonged ultraendurance exercise causes an increase in ROS production and OxS depending on specific biomarker examined but always linearly and directly related to exercise duration. Redox status of erythrocytes was preserved. A relationship between running performance and both prerace ROS production and antioxidant-redox status was found in 100 km race.

  10. Twelve weeks of moderate aerobic exercise without dietary intervention or weight loss does not affect 24-h energy expenditure in lean and obese adolescents. (United States)

    Exercise might have a persistent effect on energy expenditure and fat oxidation, resulting in increased fat loss. However, even without weight loss, exercise results in positive metabolic effects. The effect of an aerobic exercise program on 24-h total energy expenditure (TEE), and its components-ba...

  11. Twelve weeks of moderate aerobic exercise without dietary intervention or weight loss does not affect 24-h energy expenditure in lean and obese adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Gert-Jan; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Sunehag, Agneta L.


    Background: Exercise might have a persistent effect on energy expenditure and fat oxidation, resulting in increased fat loss. However, even without weight loss, exercise results in positive metabolic effects. The effect of an aerobic exercise program on 24-h total energy expenditure (TEE) and its co

  12. Reproducibility of 24-h post-exercise changes in energy intake in overweight and obese women using current methodology. (United States)

    Brown, Gemma L; Lean, Michael E; Hankey, Catherine R


    Direct observation(s) of energy intake (EI) via buffet meals served in the laboratory are often carried out within short-term exercise intervention studies. The reproducibility of values obtained has not been assessed either under resting control conditions or post-exercise, in overweight and obese females. A total of fourteen sedentary, pre-menopausal females (BMI 30.0 (SD 5.1) kg/m²) completed four trials; two exercise and two control. Each trial lasted 24 h spanning over 2 d; conducted from afternoon on day 1 and morning on day 2. An exercise session to expend 1.65 MJ was completed on day 1 of exercise trials, and three buffet meals were served during each trial. Reproducibility of post-exercise changes in energy and macronutrient intakes was assessed at each individual buffet meal by intraclass correlation coefficient (r(i)). Only the r(i) values for post-exercise changes in energy (r(i) 0.44 (95 % CI - 0.03, 0.77), P = 0.03) and fat intake (r(i) 0.51 (95 % CI 0.04, 0.81), P = 0.02) at the lunch buffet meal achieved statistical significance; however, these r i values were weak and had large associated 95 % CI, which indicates a large degree of variability associated with these measurements. Energy and macronutrient intakes at the breakfast and evening buffet meals were not reproducible. This study concludes that the frequently used laboratory-based buffet meal method of assessing EI does not produce reliable, reproducible post-exercise changes in EI in overweight and obese women.

  13. The 24-h energy intake of obese adolescents is spontaneously reduced after intensive exercise: a randomized controlled trial in calorimetric chambers.

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    David Thivel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical exercise can modify subsequent energy intake and appetite and may thus be of particular interest in terms of obesity treatment. However, it is still unclear whether an intensive bout of exercise can affect the energy consumption of obese children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To compare the impact of high vs. moderate intensity exercises on subsequent 24-h energy intake, macronutrient preferences, appetite sensations, energy expenditure and balance in obese adolescent. DESIGN: This randomized cross-over trial involves 15 obese adolescent boys who were asked to randomly complete three 24-h sessions in a metabolic chamber, each separated by at least 7 days: (1 sedentary (SED; (2 Low-Intensity Exercise (LIE (40% maximal oxygen uptake, VO(2max; (3 High-Intensity Exercise (HIE (75%VO(2max. RESULTS: Despite unchanged appetite sensations, 24-h total energy intake following HIE was 6-11% lower compared to LIE and SED (p<0.05, whereas no differences appeared between SED and LIE. Energy intake at lunch was 9.4% and 8.4% lower after HIE compared to SED and LIE, respectively (p<0.05. At dinner time, it was 20.5% and 19.7% lower after HIE compared to SED and LIE, respectively (p<0.01. 24-h energy expenditure was not significantly altered. Thus, the 24-h energy balance was significantly reduced during HIE compared to SED and LIE (p<0.01, whereas those of SED and LIE did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: In obese adolescent boys, HIE has a beneficial impact on 24-h energy balance, mainly due to the spontaneous decrease in energy intake during lunch and dinner following the exercise bout. Prescribing high-intensity exercises to promote weight loss may therefore provide effective results without affecting appetite sensations and, as a result, food frustrations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01036360.

  14. Consumo de carboidratos e lipídios no desempenho em exercícios de ultra-resistência Consumption of carbohydrates and lipids in ultra-endurance exercise performance

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    Antonio Marcio Domingues Ferreira


    Full Text Available A nutrição é uma importante ferramenta dentro da prática desportiva. Dentre as modalidades esportivas, a nutrição exerce uma grande influência nos chamados "esportes de desafio", que são as provas de ultra-resistência ou de longa duração. O custo energético de uma prova de ultra-resistência pode variar de 5.000 a 18.000kcal por dia. É amplamente aceito que o consumo de carboidratos antes e durante exercícios prolongados irá retardar o aparecimento da fadiga, poupando o glicogênio hepático e muscular e fornecendo glicose diretamente para os músculos em atividade. Recomenda-se que a dieta de atletas de ultra-resistência possua 70% ou mais, ou de 7 a 10 gramas por quilo de peso corporal de carboidratos. Porém, apesar da melhora apresentada com a nutrição bem planejada, alguns pesquisadores procuram desenvolver novas intervenções nutricionais, visando a melhora do rendimento, que continuam a ser estudadas, como a suplementação com lipídios, através do consumo de triglicerídeos de cadeia média (TCM ou de dietas ricas em lipídios nos dias que antecedem a competição. Sendo assim, esta revisão possui como objetivo elucidar como os carboidratos e os lipídios podem influenciar o desempenho nos exercícios de ultra-resistência.Nutrition is an important tool in the sports universe. Among all sport modalities, nutrition has great influence on the "challenge sports", also known as ultra-endurance competitions. The energetic cost of an ultra-endurance event can vary from 5,000 to 18,000 kcal a day. The diet recommendation for ultra-endurance athletes is 70% or more, or 7 to 10 grams per kilogram of body weight, of carbohydrates. It is fully accepted that the ingestion of carbohydrates before and during prolonged exercises will delay fatigue, saving the hepatic and muscular glycogen and providing glucose directly to the active muscles. However, although well-planned nutrition shows improvement, some researchers continue to

  15. Acute Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Exercise and Continuous Moderate-Intensity Exercise Elicit a Similar Improvement in 24-h Glycemic Control in Overweight and Obese Adults (United States)

    Parker, Lewan; Shaw, Christopher S.; Banting, Lauren; Levinger, Itamar; Hill, Karen M.; McAinch, Andrew J.; Stepto, Nigel K.


    Background: Acute exercise reduces postprandial oxidative stress and glycemia; however, the effects of exercise intensity are unclear. We investigated the effect of acute low-volume high-intensity interval-exercise (LV-HIIE) and continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMIE) on glycemic control and oxidative stress in overweight and obese, inactive adults. Methods: Twenty-seven adults were randomly allocated to perform a single session of LV-HIIE (9 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 1 years; BMI: 29 ± 1 kg·m−2; mean ± SEM) or CMIE (8 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 2.0; BMI: 30 ± 2.0) 1 h after consumption of a standard breakfast. Plasma redox status, glucose and insulin were measured. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was conducted during the 24-h period before (rest day) and after exercise (exercise day). Results: Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; 29 ±13%, p < 0.01; mean percent change ±90% confidence limit), hydrogen peroxide (44 ± 16%, p < 0.01), catalase activity (50 ± 16%, p < 0.01), and superoxide dismutase activity (21 ± 6%, p < 0.01) significantly increased 1 h after breakfast (prior to exercise) compared to baseline. Exercise significantly decreased postprandial glycaemia in whole blood (−6 ± 5%, p < 0.01), irrespective of the exercise protocol. Only CMIE significantly decreased postprandial TBARS (CMIE: −33 ± 8%, p < 0.01; LV-HIIE: 11 ± 22%, p = 0.34) and hydrogen peroxide (CMIE: −25 ± 15%, p = 0.04; LV-HIIE: 7 ± 26%; p = 0.37). Acute exercise provided a similar significant improvement in 24-h average glucose levels (−5 ± 2%, p < 0.01), hyperglycemic excursions (−37 ± 60%, p < 0.01), peak glucose concentrations (−8 ± 4%, p < 0.01), and the 2-h postprandial glucose response to dinner (−9 ± 4%, p < 0.01), irrespective of the exercise protocol. Conclusion: Despite elevated postprandial oxidative stress compared to CMIE, LV-HIIE is an equally effective exercise mode for improving 24-h glycemic control in

  16. Predictors of sudden death and death from pump failure in congestive heart failure are different. Analysis of 24 h Holter monitoring, clinical variables, blood chemistry, exercise test and radionuclide angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, B K; Rasmussen, Verner; Hansen, J F


    One hundred and ninety consecutive patients discharged with congestive heart failure were examined with clinical evaluation, blood chemistry, 24 h Holter monitoring, exercise test and radionuclide angiography. Median left ventricular ejection fraction was 0.30, 46% were in New York Heart Associat......One hundred and ninety consecutive patients discharged with congestive heart failure were examined with clinical evaluation, blood chemistry, 24 h Holter monitoring, exercise test and radionuclide angiography. Median left ventricular ejection fraction was 0.30, 46% were in New York Heart...

  17. The impact of a 24-h ultra-marathon on salivary antimicrobial protein responses. (United States)

    Gill, S K; Teixeira, A M; Rosado, F; Hankey, J; Wright, A; Marczak, S; Murray, A; Costa, R J S


    Depressed oral respiratory mucosal immunity and increased incidence of upper respiratory symptoms are commonly reported after bouts of prolonged exercise. The current study observed the impact of a 24-h continuous overnight ultra-marathon competition (distance range: 122-208 km; ambient temperature range: 0-20 °C) on salivary antimicrobial protein responses and incidence of upper respiratory symptoms. Body mass, unstimulated saliva and venous blood samples were taken from ultra-endurance runners (n=25) and controls (n=17), before and immediately after competition. Upper respiratory symptoms were assessed during and until 4-weeks after event completion. Samples were analyzed for salivary IgA, lysozyme, α-amylase and cortisol in addition to plasma osmolality. Decreased saliva flow rate (p<0.001), salivary IgA (p<0.001) and lysozyme (p=0.015) secretion rates, and increased salivary α-amylase secretion rate (p<0.001) and cortisol responses (p<0.001) were observed post-competition in runners, with no changes being observed in controls. No incidences of upper respiratory symptoms were reported by participants. A 24-h continuous overnight ultra-marathon resulted in the depression of some salivary antimicrobial protein responses, but no incidences of upper respiratory symptoms were evident during or following competition. Salivary antimicrobial protein synergism, effective management of non-infectious episodes, maintaining euhydration, and (or) favourable environmental influences could have accounted for the low prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms.

  18. Relationship between laboratory-measured variables and heart rate during an ultra-endurance triathlon. (United States)

    Laursen, Paul B; Knez, Wade L; Shing, Cecilia M; Langill, Robert H; Rhodes, Edward C; Jenkins, David G


    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between the performance heart rate during an ultra-endurance triathlon and the heart rate corresponding to several demarcation points measured during laboratory-based progressive cycle ergometry and treadmill running. Less than one month before an ultra-endurance triathlon, 21 well-trained ultra-endurance triathletes (mean +/- s: age 35 +/- 6 years, height 1.77 +/- 0.05 m, mass 74.0 +/- 6.9 kg, = 4.75 +/- 0.42 l x min(-1)) performed progressive exercise tests of cycle ergometry and treadmill running for the determination of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), heart rate corresponding to the first and second ventilatory thresholds, as well as the heart rate deflection point. Portable telemetry units recorded heart rate at 60 s increments throughout the ultra-endurance triathlon. Heart rate during the cycle and run phases of the ultra-endurance triathlon (148 +/- 9 and 143 +/- 13 beats x min(-1) respectively) were significantly (P triathlon were significantly related to (r = 0.76 and 0.66; P triathlon and heart rate at the first ventilatory threshold was related to marathon run time (r = 0.61; P triathlon time (r = 0.45; P triathlon at an exercise intensity near their first ventilatory threshold.

  19. Clinical and Laboratory Responses of Cross-Country Skiing for a 24-H World Record: Case Report

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    Markus Niemelä, Jukka Juvonen, Päivikki Kangastupa, Onni Niemelä, Tatu Juvonen


    Full Text Available The physiological consequences of ultra-endurance cross-country skiing in cold conditions are poorly known. We report here clinical, echocardiographic and laboratory findings from a 41-y old male elite skier in a world record trial for 24-h skiing. The athlete completed a total of 406.8 km outdoors with the temperature ranging between -24°C and –5°C during the 24-h period. Post exercise, notable increases from baseline values were observed in myoglobin (50-fold, creatinine kinase (30-fold and proBNP (6-fold, whereas troponin T or troponin I levels remained unchanged. At baseline, echocardiographic findings showed cardiac hypertrophy and after skiing, a 5% reduction of left-ventricular end-diastolic dimension. Increases in markers of kidney (creatinine and liver function (alanine aminotransferase, serum uric acid, C-reactive protein and white blood cell counts were also noted. In addition, electrolyte disturbances including hyponatremia, hypophosphatemia and hypocalcaemia were noted during the follow-up. The data indicates that a prolonged period of high-intensity skiing leads to muscle, heart and kidney affection and activation of inflammation even in an experienced elite skier. The observed health effects underscore the need for strict medical surveillance of participants in extreme sports with long duration.

  20. Nutrition update for the ultraendurance athlete. (United States)

    Getzin, Andrew R; Milner, Cindy; LaFace, Karen M


    Participation in ultraendurance events has been increasing. Appropriate nutrition in training and fueling while racing within the confines of gastrointestinal tolerability is essential for optimal performance. Unfortunately, there has been a paucity of studies looking at this special population of athletes. Recent field studies have helped to clarify appropriate fluid intake and dispel the myth that moderate dehydration while racing is detrimental. Additional current nutrition research has looked at the role of carbohydrate manipulation during training and its effect on macronutrient metabolism, as well as of the benefits of the coingestion of multiple types of carbohydrates for race fueling. The use of caffeine and sodium ingestion while racing is common with ultraendurance athletes, but more research is needed on their effect on performance. This article will provide the clinician and the athlete with the latest nutritional information for the ultraendurance athlete.

  1. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and ultra-endurance running - two incompatible entities?

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    Wilson Mathew G


    Full Text Available Abstract Regular and prolonged exercise is associated with increased left ventricular wall thickness that can overlap with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM. Differentiating physiological from pathological hypertrophy has important implications, since HCM is the commonest cause of exercise-related sudden cardiac death in young individuals. Most deaths have been reported in intermittent 'start-stop' sports such as football (soccer and basketball. The theory is that individuals with HCM are unable to augment stroke volume sufficiently to meet the demands of endurance sports and are accordingly 'selected-out' of participation in such events. We report the case of an ultra-endurance athlete with 25 years of > 50 km competitive running experience, with genetically confirmed HCM; thereby demonstrating that these can be two compatible entities.

  2. Efeito do exercício de ultrarresistência sobre parâmetros de estresse oxidativo Effect of the ultra-endurance exercise on oxidative stress parameters

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    Cláudia Dornelles Schneider


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Exercícios de longa duração podem levar ao desequilíbrio entre os sistemas pró e antioxidante, acarretando dano a lipídeos, proteínas e DNA. Entretanto, alguns estudos avaliando triatlo Ironman observaram proteção aos lipídeos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar parâmetros de estresse oxidativo após uma competição de meio Ironman. MÉTODOS: Participaram 11 sujeitos com idade de 31,1 ± 3,3 anos, massa corporal de 72,4 ± 5,4kg, estatura de 176,2 ± 4,8cm, gordura corporal de 9,8 ± 3,3 %, VO2máx na corrida de 60,7 ± 6,0mL/kg/min. Foram mensurados: dano a lipídeos através da quimiluminescência nos eritrócitos e TBARS no plasma, dano a proteínas através das carbonilas plasmáticas, ácido úrico e compostos fenólicos plasmáticos, assim como a atividade antioxidante enzimática da catalase, superóxido dismutase e glutationa peroxidase nos eritrócitos. RESULTADOS: Houve redução na atividade da enzima superóxido dismutase (23,24 ± 1,49 para 20,77 ± 2,69U SOD/mg proteína, p = 0,045, e aumento no ácido úrico (40,81 ± 10,68 para 60,33 ± 6,71mg/L, p Ultra-endurance exercises can cause imbalance between the pro and antioxidant systems, leading to lipid, protein and DNA damage. Nevertheless, some studies evaluating Ironman triathlon found protection to lipids. PURPOSE: To evaluate oxidative stress parameters after a half-Ironman competition. METHODS: Eleven subjects aged 31.1 ± 3.3 yr, body weight 72.4 ± 5.4 kg, height 176.2 ± 4.8 cm, body fat 9.8 ± 3.3 %, VO2máx on run 60.7 ± 6.0 mL/kg/min, participated in this study. The following data were measured: lipid damage by chemoluminescence in erythrocyte and TBARS in plasma, protein damage by plasmatic carbonyls, uric acid and phenolic compounds, as well as the antioxidant enzymatic activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in erythrocytes. RESULTS: Reduction in superoxide dismutase (23.24 ± 1.49 to 20.77 ± 2.69 U SOD/mg protein, p = 0

  3. Intensity profile during an ultra-endurance triathlon in relation to testing and performance. (United States)

    Barrero, A; Chaverri, D; Erola, P; Iglesias, X; Rodríguez, F A


    We examined the heart rate (HR)-based intensity profile during an ultra-endurance triathlon (UET) estimated from the individual HR-oxygen uptake (˙VO2) relationship during specific graded tests, relating it to race performance. 9 male ultra-endurance triathletes completed the study. Before racing, subjects performed graded exercise tests involving cycle (C) ergometry, treadmill running (R) and free swimming (S) for peak ˙VO2 and HR at ventilatory thresholds (VT). Exercise-specific HR-˙VO2 regression equations were developed. Mean race HR was higher during S (149.2 (10.1) bpm) than during C (137.1 (5.7) bpm) and R (136.2 (10.5) bpm). During C and R, HR was below both VT (11% and 27-28%). HR differences between S and C correlated with C, R and final times. The greatest differences between S and C were related to the worst times in the next stages. These ultra-endurance triathletes performed S at a higher relative intensity, which was inversely correlated with performance in the following stages. The best predictors of final racing time (81%) were weight-adjusted ˙VO2max and HR difference between C and S. A more adequate characterization of the time pattern during the whole race, especially during S, adds new information concerning the intensity profile and cardiovascular demands of an UET race.

  4. Clinical and Laboratory Responses of Cross-Country Skiing for a 24-H World Record: Case Report. (United States)

    Niemelä, Markus; Juvonen, Jukka; Kangastupa, Päivikki; Niemelä, Onni; Juvonen, Tatu


    The physiological consequences of ultra-endurance cross-country skiing in cold conditions are poorly known. We report here clinical, echocardiographic and laboratory findings from a 41-y old male elite skier in a world record trial for 24-h skiing. The athlete completed a total of 406.8 km outdoors with the temperature ranging between -24°C and -5°C during the 24-h period. Post exercise, notable increases from baseline values were observed in myoglobin (50-fold), creatinine kinase (30-fold) and proBNP (6-fold), whereas troponin T or troponin I levels remained unchanged. At baseline, echocardiographic findings showed cardiac hypertrophy and after skiing, a 5% reduction of left-ventricular end-diastolic dimension. Increases in markers of kidney (creatinine) and liver function (alanine aminotransferase), serum uric acid, C-reactive protein and white blood cell counts were also noted. In addition, electrolyte disturbances including hyponatremia, hypophosphatemia and hypocalcaemia were noted during the follow-up. The data indicates that a prolonged period of high-intensity skiing leads to muscle, heart and kidney affection and activation of inflammation even in an experienced elite skier. The observed health effects underscore the need for strict medical surveillance of participants in extreme sports with long duration. Key pointsAn elite athlete was able to ski over 400 km during 24 hours with an outdoor temperature ranging between -5 °C and -24 °C.Several postrace abnormalities occurred in biomarkers of muscle, heart, kidney, liver and inflammation status.Serum troponins, specific markers of myocardial cell damage, remained stable.The report supports careful medical surveillance of participants in extreme sports with long duration.

  5. A influência da suplementação de triglicerídeos de cadeia média no desempenho em exercícios de ultra-resistência Influencia de la suplementacion de trigliceridos de cadena media en ejercicios de máxima resistencia The influence of medium-chain triglycerides supplementation in ultra-endurance exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcio Domingues Ferreira


    ípidos, otorgan una cantidad de energía mayor cuando son oxidados. De esta forma, los TCM parecen ser el combustible ideal para las pruebas de larga duración. Por lo tanto, esta revisión pretende como objetivo aclarar como los TCM pueden influir en el desempeño en pruebas de máxima resistencia.The ultra-endurance competitions represent a great challenge in the world of sports. The energetic cost of an ultra-endurance event can vary from 5,000 to 18,000 kcal a day. Because of this great demand, many strategies to improve performance have been developed during the last years, like the medium-chain triglycerides (MCT supplementation in combination with carbohydrates (CBO. The goal of MCT supplementation is to increase the free fatty acids (FFA utilization as energy source, sparing the body glycogen to the end of the competition. When compared to long-chain triglycerides (LCT, MCT are absorbed faster and transported through the body. Besides that, MCT have a speed of oxidation comparable to CHO, but, since they are lipids, they provide a greater amount of energy when oxidized. Therefore, MCT seem to be the ideal fuel for long-term events. To conclude, the aim of this revision is to elucidate how MCT can influence performance in ultra-endurance exercises.

  6. 24-h Efficacy of Glaucoma Treatment Options. (United States)

    Konstas, Anastasios G P; Quaranta, Luciano; Bozkurt, Banu; Katsanos, Andreas; Garcia-Feijoo, Julian; Rossetti, Luca; Shaarawy, Tarek; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Miglior, Stefano


    Current management of glaucoma entails the medical, laser, or surgical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) to a predetermined level of target IOP, which is commensurate with either stability or delayed progression of visual loss. In the published literature, the hypothesis is often made that IOP control implies a single IOP measurement over time. Although the follow-up of glaucoma patients with single IOP measurements is quick and convenient, such measurements often do not adequately reflect the untreated IOP characteristics, or indeed the quality of treated IOP control during the 24-h cycle. Since glaucoma is a 24-h disease and the damaging effect of elevated IOP is continuous, it is logical that we should aim to understand the efficacy of all treatment options throughout the 24-h period. This article first reviews the concept and value of diurnal and 24-h IOP monitoring. It then critically evaluates selected available evidence on the 24-h efficacy of medical, laser and surgical therapy options. During the past decade several controlled trials have significantly enhanced our understanding on the 24-h efficacy of all glaucoma therapy options. Nevertheless, more long-term evidence is needed to better evaluate the 24-h efficacy of glaucoma therapy and the precise impact of IOP characteristics on glaucomatous progression and visual prognosis.

  7. Effect of a multistage ultraendurance triathlon on aldosterone, vasopressin, extracellular water and urine electrolytes. (United States)

    Knechtle, B; Morales, N P Hernández; González, E Ruvalcaba; Gutierrez, A A Aguirre; Sevilla, J Noriega; Gómez, R Amézquita; Robledo, A R Estrada; Rodríguez, A L Marroquín; Fraire, O Salas; Andonie, J L; Lopez, L C; Kohler, G; Rosemann, T


    Prolonged endurance exercise over several days induces increase in extracellular water (ECW). We aimed to investigate an association between the increase in ECW and the change in aldosterone and vasopressin in a multistage ultraendurance triathlon, the 'World Challenge Deca Iron Triathlon' with 10 Ironman triathlons within 10 days. Before and after each Ironman, body mass, ECW, urinary [Na(+)], urinary [K(+)], urinary specific gravity, urinary osmolality and aldosterone and vasopressin in plasma were measured. The 11 finishers completed the total distance of 38 km swimming, 1800 km cycling and 422 km running within 145.5 (18.8) hours and 25 (22) minutes. ECW increased by 0.9 (1.1) L from 14.6 (1.5) L prerace to 15.5 (1.9) L postrace (P triathlon, but vasopressin did not. The increase in ECW and the increase in aldosterone were not associated.

  8. Effective body water and body mass changes during summer ultra-endurance road cycling. (United States)

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Johnson, Evan C; Ganio, Matthew S; Judelson, Daniel A; Vingren, Jakob L; Kupchak, Brian R; Kunces, Laura J; Muñoz, Colleen X; McKenzie, Amy L; Williamson, Keith H


    Because body mass change (ΔMb) does not represent all water losses and gains, the present field investigation determined if (a) ΔMb equalled the net effective body water change during ultra-endurance exercise and (b) ground speed and exercise duration influenced these variables. Thirty-two male cyclists (age range, 35-52 years) completed a 164-km event in a hot environment, were retrospectively triplet matched and placed into one of three groups based on exercise duration (4.8, 6.3, 9.6 h). Net effective body water loss was computed from measurements (body mass, total fluid intake and urine excreted) and calculations (water evolved and mass loss due to substrate oxidation, solid food mass and sweat loss), including (ΔEBWgly) and excluding (ΔEBW) water bound to glycogen. With all cyclists combined, the mean ΔMb (i.e. loss) was greater than that of ΔEBWgly by 1200 ± 200 g (P = 1.4 × 10(-18)), was similar to ΔEBW (difference, 0 ± 200 g; P = .21) and was strongly correlated with both (R(2) = .98). Analysis of equivalence indicated that ΔMb was not equivalent to ΔEBWgly, but was equivalent to ΔEBW. Due to measurement complexity, we concluded that (a) athletes will not calculate the effective body water calculations routinely and (b) body mass change remains a useful field-expedient estimate of net effective body water change.

  9. Feet swelling in a multistage ultraendurance triathlete: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knechtle B


    Full Text Available Beat Knechtle,1 Matthias Alexander Zingg,2 Patrizia Knechtle,1 Thomas Rosemann,2 Christoph Alexander Rüst2 1Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, 2Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: Recent studies investigating ultraendurance athletes showed an association between excessive fluid intake and swelling of the lower limbs such as the feet. To date, this association has been investigated in single-stage ultraendurance races, but not in multistage ultraendurance races. In this case study, we investigated a potential association between fluid intake and feet swelling in a multistage ultraendurance race such as a Deca Iron ultratriathlon with ten Ironman triathlons within 10 consecutive days. A 49-year-old well-experienced ultratriathlete competed in autumn 2013 in the Deca Iron ultratriathlon held in Lonata del Garda, Italy, and finished the race as winner within 129:33 hours:minutes. Changes in body mass (including body fat and lean body mass, foot volume, total body water, and laboratory measurements were assessed. Food and fluid intake during rest and competing were recorded, and energy and fluid turnovers were estimated. During the ten stages, the volume of the feet increased, percentage body fat decreased, creatinine and urea levels increased, hematocrit and hemoglobin values decreased, and plasma [Na+] remained unchanged. The increase in foot volume was significantly and positively related to fluid intake during the stages. The poststage volume of the foot was related to poststage total body water, poststage creatinine, and poststage urea. This case report shows that the volume of the foot increased during the ten stages, and the increase in volume was significantly and positively related to fluid intake during the stages. Furthermore, the poststage volume of the foot was related to poststage total body water, poststage creatinine, and poststage urea. The continuous feet swelling during the race was

  10. The effect of body weight changes and endurance training on 24h substrate oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Saris, W.H.M.


    The effect of body weight changes and endurance training on 24h substrate oxidation. Pasman WJ, Westerterp MS, Saris WH. Maastricht University, Department of Human Biology, The Netherlands. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of exercise training and dietary macronutrient comp

  11. Energy Balance of Triathletes during an Ultra-Endurance Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Barrero


    Full Text Available The nutritional strategy during an ultra-endurance triathlon (UET is one of the main concerns of athletes competing in such events. The purpose of this study is to provide a proper characterization of the energy and fluid intake during real competition in male triathletes during a complete UET and to estimate the energy expenditure (EE and the fluid balance through the race. Methods: Eleven triathletes performed a UET. All food and drinks ingested during the race were weighed and recorded in order to assess the energy intake (EI during the race. The EE was estimated from heart rate (HR recordings during the race, using the individual HR-oxygen uptake (Vo2 regressions developed from three incremental tests on the 50-m swimming pool, cycle ergometer, and running treadmill. Additionally, body mass (BM, total body water (TBW and intracellular (ICW and extracellular water (ECW were assessed before and after the race using a multifrequency bioimpedance device (BIA. Results: Mean competition time and HR was 755 ± 69 min and 137 ± 6 beats/min, respectively. Mean EI was 3643 ± 1219 kcal and the estimated EE was 11,009 ± 664 kcal. Consequently, athletes showed an energy deficit of 7365 ± 1286 kcal (66.9% ± 11.7%. BM decreased significantly after the race and significant losses of TBW were found. Such losses were more related to a reduction of extracellular fluids than intracellular fluids. Conclusions: Our results confirm the high energy demands of UET races, which are not compensated by nutrient and fluid intake, resulting in a large energy deficit.

  12. Identification of 24h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins. (United States)

    Lewis, Lauren A; Radulović, Željko M; Kim, Tae K; Porter, Lindsay M; Mulenga, Albert


    Ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the United States. This tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus disease. Except for the Powassan virus disease, I. scapularis-vectored TBD agents require more than 24h post attachment to be transmitted. This study describes identification of 24h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ∼19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ∼81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ∼18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and putative tick saliva proteins. Others include proteases and protease inhibitors (∼3%, 5/147), transporters and/or ligand binding proteins (∼6%, 9/147), immunogenic tick saliva housekeeping enzyme-like (17%, 25/147), ribosomal protein-like (∼31%, 46/147), and those classified as miscellaneous (∼24%, 35/147). Notable among the miscellaneous class include antimicrobial peptides (microplusin and ricinusin), myosin-like proteins that have been previously found in tick saliva, and heat shock tick saliva protein. Data in this study provides the foundation for in-depth analysis of I. scapularis feeding during the first 24h, before the majority of TBD agents can be transmitted.

  13. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection. (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu


    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record.

  14. Exercise (United States)

    ... guidelines, an exercise program can help maintain good health. Physical activity Exercise doesn't have to be a rigorous cardiovascular workout to provide benefits. Physical activity in general ...

  15. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of porcine muscle within 24 h postmortem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Honggang; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Palmisano, Giuseppe


    phosphorylation levels in muscle within 24 h PM. The high phosphorylation level of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in early PM may be an adaptive response to slaughter stress and protect muscle cell from apoptosis, as observed in the serine 84 of HSP27. This work indicated that PM muscle proteins underwent significant...... the dimethyl labeling combined with the TiSH phosphopeptide enrichment and LC-MS/MS strategy. This was the first high-throughput quantitative phosphoproteomic study in PM muscle of farm animals. In the work, both the proteome and phosphoproteome were analyzed, and the large number of identified peptides......, phosphopeptides and phosphorylation sites can greatly enrich the current farm animal protein database. The proteins involved in glycometabolism, muscle contraction and heat shock proteins (HSPs) showed significantly changed phosphorylation levels during PM meat development. This work indicated that PM muscle...

  16. Comparing 14-day adhesive patch with 24-h Holter monitoring. (United States)

    Cheung, Christopher C; Kerr, Charles R; Krahn, Andrew D


    Barrett PM, Komatireddy R, Haaser S et al. Comparison of 24-hour Holter monitoring with 14-day novel adhesive patch electrocardiographic monitoring. Am. J. Med. 127(1), 95.e11–95.e17 (2014). The investigation of cardiac arrhythmias in the outpatient ambulatory setting has traditionally been initiated with the Holter monitor. Using the continuous recording over 24 or 48 h, the Holter monitor permits the detection of baseline rhythm, dysrhythmia and conduction abnormalities, including heart block and changes in the ST segment that may indicate myocardial ischemia. However, apart from the bulkiness and inconvenience of the device itself, the lack of extended monitoring results in a diagnostic yield of typically less than 20%. In this study by Barrett et al., 146 patients referred for the evaluation of cardiac arrhythmia were prospectively enrolled to wear both the 24-h Holter monitor and 14-day adhesive patch monitor (Zio Patch) simultaneously. The primary outcome was the detection of any one of six arrhythmias: supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation/flutter, pause >3 s, atrioventricular block, ventricular tachycardia, or polymorphic ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation. The adhesive patch monitor detected more arrhythmia events compared with the Holter monitor over the total wear time (96 vs. 61 events; p Holter monitor detected more events during the initial 24-h monitoring period (61 vs. 52 events; p = 0.013). Novel, single-lead, intermediate-duration, user-friendly adhesive patch monitoring devices, such as the Zio Patch, represent the changing face of ambulatory ECG monitoring. However, the loss of quality, automated rhythm analysis and inability to detect myocardial ischemia continue to remain important issues that will need to be addressed prior to the implementation of these new devices.

  17. No Change of Body Mass, Fat Mass, and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Ultraendurance Swimmers after 12 Hours of Swimming (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Kaul, Rene; Kohler, Gotz


    We evaluated whether ultraendurance swimmers suffer a change of body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, and specific gravity of urine during a 12-hr swim in 12 male Caucasian ultraswimmers. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance of urine samples before and after the race was performed to detect alanine, lactate, and…

  18. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per


    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...

  19. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11-24 Year-Old. (United States)

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N S; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J; Foster, Emma


    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11-24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11-24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults.

  20. Feeding strategies of a female athlete during an ultraendurance running event. (United States)

    Moran, Siobhan T; Dziedzic, Christine E; Cox, Gregory R


    The aim of this case study was to describe the race nutrition practices of a female runner who completed her first 100-km off-road ultraendurance running event in 12 hr 48 min 55 s. Food and fluid intake during the race provided 10,890 kJ (736 kJ/hr) and 6,150 ml (415 ml/hr) of fluid. Hourly reported carbohydrate intake was 44 g, with 34% provided by sports drink. Hourly carbohydrate intake increased in the second half (53 g/hr) compared with the first half (34 g/h) of the race, as the athlete did not have access to individualized food and fluid choices at the early checkpoints and felt satiated in the early stages of the race after consuming a prerace breakfast. Mean sodium intake was 500 mg/hr (52 mmol/L), with a homemade savory broth and sports drink (Gatorade Endurance) being the major contributors. The athlete consumed a variety of foods of varying textures and tastes with no complaints of gastrointestinal discomfort. Despite thinking she would consume sweet foods exclusively, as she had done in training, the athlete preferred savory foods and fluids at checkpoints during the latter stages of the race. This case study highlights the importance of the sports nutrition team in educating athletes about race-day nutrition strategies and devising a simple yet effective system to allow them to manipulate their race-day food and fluid intake to meet their nutritional goals.

  1. A comparison of ultra-endurance cyclists in a qualifying ultra-cycling race for Paris-Brest-Paris and Race Across America-Swiss cycling marathon. (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas


    Ultra-endurance events test the adaptation of human physiology to extreme physical and mental demands, high levels of training, motivation, and physical conditioning among participants. To understand basic differences among participants according to the severity of the race, participants in qualifying events for two ultra-endurance cycling races, differing in length and intensity, were compared on measures of anthropometry, training, and support. One race was four times longer, required supporting teams, and racers typically had little sleep, which should lead to the qualifiers being substantially more highly trained than those from the shorter race. The qualifiers in the longer race had greater intensity in training while the qualifiers in the shorter race relied more on training volume. Different strategies and types of training reflected the different demands of the races. Future studies should evaluate personality and motivational differences in ultra-endurance events and between these athletes and athletes in other sports.

  2. No gender difference in peak performance in ultra-endurance swimming performance - analysis of the 'Zurich 12-h Swim' from 1996 to 2010. (United States)

    Eichenberger, Evelyn; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Christoph, Alexander Rüst; Knechtle, Patrizia; Lepers, Romuald; Rosemann, Thomas


    The aims of the study were to [1] investigate the performance trends at the 'Zurich 12-h Swim' in Switzerland from 1996 to 2010; and [2] determine the gender difference in peak performance in ultraendurance swimming. In total, 113 male and 53 female swimmers competed in this indoor ultraendurance event while swimming in a heated pool. The number of male participants significantly increased (r² = 0.36, P = 0.04) over time while the participation of females remained unchanged (r² = 0.12, P = 0.26). In the age group swimming performances (P swim performances remained unchanged across the years. Females are able to achieve a similar swim performance in an indoor ultra-endurance swim event of ~40 km. Further studies are needed to investigate whether females are able to achieve similar or even better performances than males in openwater ultra-swimming events such as 'Channel Swimming'.

  3. Changes in Biochemical, Strength, Flexibility, and Aerobic Capacity Parameters after a 1700 km Ultraendurance Cycling Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Javier Clemente-Suarez


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research was to study the organic response after ultraendurance cycling race. Selected biochemical, leg strength, flexibility, and aerobic capacity parameters were analyzed in 6 subjects 5 days before and 5 days after completing a 1700 km ultraendurance cycling race. After the race, participants presented a significant decrease in Hb (167.8 ± 9.5 versus 141.6 ± 15.7 mg/dL, strength (29.4 ± 2.7 versus 25.5 ± 3.7 cm in a countermovement jump, and oxygen uptake and heart rate at ventilatory threshold (1957.0 ± 458.4 versus 1755.2 ± 281.5 mL/kg/min and 140.0 ± 9.7 versus 130.8 ± 8.3 bpm, resp.. Testosterone presented a decrease tendency (4.2 ± 2.5 versus 3.9 ± 2.6 ng/L in opposition to the increase tendency of cortisol and ammonium parameters. Transferrin and iron levels presented high values related to an overstimulation of the liver, a normal renal function, a tendency to decrease flexibility, and an increase in aerobic capacity, finding a tendency to increase the absolute maximal oxygen uptake (37.2 ±2.4 versus 38.7 ± 1.8 mL/min in contrast to previous studies conducted with subjects with similar age. These results can be used to program training interventions, recovery times between probes, and nutritional and/or ergonomic strategies in ultraendurance events.

  4. Disturbances of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and transverse tubular system in 24-h electrostimulated fast-twitch skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frías, J A; Cadefau, J A; Prats, C;


    -migration of terminal cisternae and t-tubules from R3 to R4, indicating the presence of triads. This density change may be associated with calcium overload of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, since total calcium rose three- to fourfold in stimulated muscle homogenates. These changes correlate well with ultrastructural...... damage to longitudinal sarcoplasmic reticulum and swelling of t-tubules revealed by electron microscopy. The ultrastructural changes observed here reflect exercise-induced damage of membrane systems that might severely compromise muscle function. Since this process is reversible, we suggest that it may......Chronic low-frequency stimulation of rabbit tibialis anterior muscle over a 24-h period induces a conspicuous loss of isometric tension that is unrelated to muscle energy metabolism (J.A. Cadefau, J. Parra, R. Cusso, G. Heine, D. Pette, Responses of fatigable and fatigue-resistant fibres of rabbit...

  5. A 24-h assessment of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among female hospital cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Korshøj; Krustrup, Peter; Jespersen, Tobias


    of the relationship between physical activity at work and in leisure, and cardiovascular health in this population. Practitioner Summary: This study evaluated the feasibility of methods for objective 24-h sampling of physical activity among cleaners; the methods used were found to be feasible. The cleaners had a high......The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of methods for objective 24-h sampling of physical activity among cleaners. Twenty cleaners participated in three 24-h measurements. Amount of steps, heart rate (HR), cardio-respiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were...... measured. The methods were feasible for the objective 24-h sampling of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness among cleaners. Measurements showed that the cleaners walked 20,198 ± 4,627 steps per day. During working hours, the average cardio-respiratory load was 25 ± 6% of heart rate reserve (HRR...

  6. File list: Unc.Emb.10.AllAg.20-24h_embryos [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  11. Gene expression responses over 24 h to lengthening and shortening contractions in human muscle: major changes in CSRP3, MUSTN1, SIX1, and FBXO32. (United States)

    Kostek, Matthew C; Chen, Yi-Wen; Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Shi, Rongye; Fedele, Mark J; Esser, Karyn A; Rennie, Michael J


    Resistance training using lengthening (eccentric) contractions induces greater increases in muscle size than shortening (concentric) contractions, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clear. Using temporal expression profiling, we compared changes in gene expression within 24 h of an acute bout of each type of contractions conducted simultaneously in the quadriceps of different legs. Five healthy young men performed shortening contractions with one leg while the contralateral leg performed lengthening contractions. Biopsies were taken from both legs before exercise and 3, 6, and 24 h afterwards, in the fed state. Expression profiling (n = 3) was performed using a custom-made Affymetrix MuscleChip containing probe sets of approximately 3,300 known genes and expressed sequence tags expressed in skeletal muscle. We identified 51 transcripts differentially regulated between the two exercise modes. Using unsupervised hierarchical clustering, we identified four distinct clusters, three of which corresponded to unique functional categories (protein synthesis, stress response/early growth, and sarcolemmal structure). Using quantitative RT-PCR (n = 5), we verified expression changes (lengthening/shortening) in SIX1 (3 h, -1.9-fold, P muscle atrophy was differentially expressed: the gene was downregulated after lengthening contractions (3 h, 2.7-fold, P shortening contractions activated distinct molecular pathways as early as 3 h postexercise. The molecular differences might contribute to mechanisms underlying the physiological adaptations seen with training using the two modes of exercise.

  12. Qualitative Analysis of Diagnostic Value of 24-h Proteinuria for Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhuang


    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia (PE is a serious idiopathic disease posing a threat to both mothers and fetuses′ lives during pregnancy, whose main diagnostic criteria include hypertension with proteinuria. However, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG updated the diagnostic criteria for PE and reduced the diagnostic value of proteinuria for patients with PE. Qualitative analysis of the diagnostic value of 24-h proteinuria for patients with PE in China was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic criteria value in the latest ACOG guideline. Methods: Complete clinical data of 65 patients with hypertensive disorder in pregnancy (HDP were collected. All patients were delivered to and hospitalized in Renji Hospital. Adverse outcome was defined in case of the emergence of any serious complication for a mother or the fetus. A retrospective study was conducted according to ACOG guideline, to analyze the relationship between each diagnostic criteria of ACOG guideline and maternal and perinatal outcomes. Spearman correlation test was used to detect the association between each diagnostic criterion, its corresponding value, and the adverse pregnancy outcome. Logistic regression was performed to verify the result of Spearman correlation test. Results: Of 65 HDP patients, the percentage of adverse pregnancy outcome was 63.1%. Adverse pregnancy outcomes constitute diversification. There were 55 cases with 24-h proteinuria value ≥0.3 g, of which the adverse outcome rate was 74.5%. While adverse pregnancy outcomes did not appear in the rest 10 HDP patients with proteinuria <0.3 g/24 h. The statistic difference was significant (P = 0.000. However, no significant difference was found in other criteria groups (impaired liver function: P = 0.417; renal insufficiency: P = 0.194; thrombocytopenia: P = 0.079; and cerebral or visual symptoms: P = 0.296. The correlation coefficient between 24-h proteinuria ≥0.3 g and adverse pregnancy outcomes was 0

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. Effects of sleep fragmentation on appetite and related hormone concentrations over 24 h in healthy men. (United States)

    Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Hursel, Rick; Rutters, Femke; Martens, Eveline A P; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S


    In addition to short sleep duration, reduced sleep quality is also associated with appetite control. The present study examined the effect of sleep fragmentation, independent of sleep duration, on appetite profiles and 24 h profiles of hormones involved in energy balance regulation. A total of twelve healthy male subjects (age 23 (sd 4) years, BMI 24·4 (sd 1·9) kg/m²) completed a 24 h randomised crossover study in which sleep (23.30-07.30 hours) was either fragmented or non-fragmented. Polysomnography was used to determine rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and total sleep time (TST). Blood samples were taken at baseline and continued hourly for the 24 h period to measure glucose, insulin, ghrelin, leptin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and melatonin concentrations. In addition, salivary cortisol levels were measured. Visual analogue scales were used to score appetite-related feelings. Sleep fragmentation resulted in reduced REM sleep (69·4 min compared with 83·5 min; Pdecreased in the morning, and increased in the afternoon (Pdecreased. These results may lead to increased food intake and snacking, thus contributing to a positive energy balance.

  17. C{sub 24}H{sub 14} polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the pyrolysis of catechol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S.; Wornat, M.J. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) of the C{sub 24}H{sub 14} isomer class, some of which are potent mutagens and carcinogens, are produced during the burning of solid fuels. For a clearer understanding of the formation of PAH, pyrolysis experiments have been performed in an isothermal laminar-flow reactor with the model fuel catechol (ortho-dihydroxybenzene) - a phenol-type compound representative of structural entities in complex solid fuels like coal, wood, and biomass. The catechol pyrolysis experiments are conducted at 1000{sup o}C and at a residence time of 0.3 s. The pyrolysis products are analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible absorbance detection and mass spectrometric detection. Product analysis reveals that the C{sub 24}H{sub 14} PAH products of catechol pyrolysis belong to three structural classes: perylene benzologues, fluoranthene benzologues and pyrene benzologues. The 12 C{sub 24}H{sub 14} PAH identified in the present study are: benzo(b)perylene, naphtho(1,2-b)fluoranthene, naphtho(1,2-k)fluoranthene, dibenzo(b,k)fluoranthene, naphtho(2,3-b)fluoranthene, naphtho(2,3-k)fluoranthene, naphtho(1,2-e)pyrene, naphtho(2,3-e)pyrene, naphtho(1,2-a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,e)pyrene, dibenzo(e, l)pyrene, and dibenzo(a,h)pyrene. In addition to these, our earlier identifications of naphtho(2,1-a)pyrene, naphtho(2,3-a)pyrene, and dibenzo(a,i)pyrene among the products of catechol pyrolysis bring the total number of C{sub 24}H{sub 14} PAH identified as products of catechol pyrolysis to 15. Of these 15, 12 have been reported to be mutagens and 6 have been reported to be carcinogens. The UV spectra establishing the identities of the 15 C{sub 24}H{sub 14} catechol pyrolysis products are presented.

  18. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: The 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. (United States)

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun


    High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data. In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8-53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7-45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample. The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885-4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654-4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4-23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1-4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33-1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34-2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49-2.53, P < 0.001) in women. In this

  19. Qualitative Analysis of Diagnostic Value of 24-h Proteinuria for Preeclampsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Zhuang; Yun-Yan Chen; Qiong Zhou; Jian-Hua Lin


    Background: Preeclampsia (PE) is a serious idiopathic disease posing a threat to both mothers and fetuses' lives during pregnancy, whose main diagnostic criteria include hypertension with proteinuria.However, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) updated the diagnostic criteria for PE and reduced the diagnostic value of proteinuria for patients with PE.Qualitative analysis of the diagnostic value of 24-h proteinuria for patients with PE in China was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic criteria value in the latest ACOG guideline.Methods: Complete clinical data of 65 patients with hypertensive disorder in pregnancy (HDP) were collected.All patients were delivered to and hospitalized in Renji Hospital.Adverse outcome was defined in case of the emergence of any serious complication for a mother or the fetus.A retrospective study was conducted according to ACOG guideline, to analyze the relationship between each diagnostic criteria of ACOG guideline and maternal and perinatal outcomes.Spearman correlation test was used to detect the association between each diagnostic criterion, its corresponding value, and the adverse pregnancy outcome.Logistic regression was performed to verify the result of Spearman correlation test.Results: Of 65 HDP patients, the percentage of adverse pregnancy outcome was 63.1%.Adverse pregnancy outcomes constitute diversification.There were 55 cases with 24-h proteinuria value ≥0.3 g, of which the adverse outcome rate was 74.5%.While adverse pregnancy outcomes did not appear in the rest 10 HDP patients with proteinuria <0.3 g/24 h.The statistic difference was significant (P =0.000).However, no significant difference was found in other criteria groups (impaired liver function: P =0.417;renal insufficiency: P =0.194;thrombocytopenia: P =0.079;and cerebral or visual symptoms: P =0.296).The correlation coefficient between 24-h proteinuria ≥0.3 g and adverse pregnancy outcomes was 0.557 (P < 0.005).Impaired liver

  20. Reporting accuracy of population dietary sodium intake using duplicate 24 h dietary recalls and a salt questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyzer, de W.; Dofkova, M.; Lillegaard, I.T.L.; Maeyer, de M.; Frost Andersen, L.; Ruprich, J.; Rehurkova, I.; Geelen, Anouk; Veer, van 't P.; Henauw, de S.; Crispim, S.P.; Boer, de Evelien; Ocke, M.C.; Slimani, N.; Huybrechts, I.


    High dietary Na intake is associated with multiple health risks, making accurate assessment of population dietary Na intake critical. In the
    present study, reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was evaluated by 24 h urinary Na excretion using the EPIC-Soft 24 h dietary recall
    (24-HDR). Par

  1. Glucocorticoids affect 24 h clock genes expression in human adipose tissue explant cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificación Gómez-Abellán

    Full Text Available AIMS: to examine firstly whether CLOCK exhibits a circadian expression in human visceral (V and subcutaneous (S adipose tissue (AT in vitro as compared with BMAL1 and PER2, and secondly to investigate the possible effect of the glucocorticoid analogue dexamethasone (DEX on positive and negative clock genes expression. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: VAT and SAT biopsies were obtained from morbid obese women (body mass index ≥ 40 kg/m(2 (n = 6. In order to investigate rhythmic expression pattern of clock genes and the effect of DEX on CLOCK, PER2 and BMAL1 expression, control AT (without DEX and AT explants treated with DEX (2 hours were cultured during 24 h and gene expression was analyzed at the following times: 10:00 h, 14:00 h, 18:00 h, 22:00 h, 02:00 h and 06:00 h, using qRT-PCR. RESULTS: CLOCK, BMAL1 and PER2 expression exhibited circadian patterns in both VAT and SAT explants that were adjusted to a typical 24 h sinusoidal curve. PER2 expression (negative element was in antiphase with respect to CLOCK and in phase with BMAL1 expression (both positive elements in the SAT (situation not present in VAT. A marked effect of DEX exposure on both positive and negative clock genes expression patterns was observed. Indeed, DEX treatment modified the rhythmicity pattern towards altered patterns with a period lower than 24 hours in all genes and in both tissues. CONCLUSIONS: 24 h patterns in CLOCK and BMAL1 (positive clock elements and PER2 (negative element mRNA levels were observed in human adipose explants. These patterns were altered by dexamethasone exposure.

  2. 24 h continuous observation of sodium layer over Wuhan by lidar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on the dual-wavelength lidar we have developed, the 24 h continuous ob- servation has been realized in its sodium channel by using Faraday atomic filter technology and other relevant technologies. This will facilitate the continuous ob- servation of the sodium layer and the relevant upper atmosphere over Wuhan. A result of about 50 h observation indicates that the daytime column density of so- dium layer over Wuhan is slightly increased compared to that during the nighttime, and the characteristics of the sporadic sodium layer occurring during the daytime are compared with that during the nighttime.

  3. Effect of tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors on ambulatory 24-h blood pressure. (United States)

    Grossman, Chagai; Bornstein, Gil; Leibowitz, Avshalom; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Grossman, Ehud


    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors are increasingly being used in inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD). The risk of cardiovascular disease is elevated in patients with IRD and TNF-α inhibitors reduce this risk. We assessed whether the beneficial effect of TNF-α inhibitors on cardiovascular risk is mediated by blood pressure reduction. We measured blood pressure levels with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements device in patients with IRD before and 3 months after treatment with TNF-α inhibitors. The study population consisted of 15 subjects (6 men; mean age 45.9 ± 14.1 years). Most patients had either rheumatoid arthritis or psoriatic arthritis and adalimumab was the most common TNF-α inhibitor used. Mean 24-h systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels remained the same after treatment (121 ± 12/66 ± 7 before and 123 ± 11/67 ± 10 mm Hg after; p = 0.88 and 0.66, respectively). The study demonstrates that TNF-α inhibitors have no effect on blood pressure levels.

  4. Effects of 24 h ultra-marathon on biochemical and hematological parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huey-June Wu; Kung-Tung Chen; Bing-Wu Shee; Huan-Cheng Chang; Yi-Jen Huang; Rong-Sen Yang


    AIM: To analyze detailed changes in hematology and biochemistry tests parameters before and after a longdistance race in ultramarathon runners. METHODS: Blood samples of 11 participants were obtained for standard analysis before, immediately after, two days after and nine days after the 2002 International Ultramarathon 24 h Race and the International Association of Ultrarunners (IAU) Asia 24 h Championship. RESULTS: Total bilirubin (BIL-T), direct bilirubin (BIL-D), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) increased statistically significantly (P<0.05) the race. Significant declines (P<0.05) in red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) were detected two days and nine days d after the race. 2 d after the race, total protein (TP), concentration of albumin and globulin decreased significantly. While BIL, BIL-D and ALP recovered to their original levels. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) remained unchanged immediately after the race, but it was significantly decreased on the second and ninth days after the race.CONCLUSION: Ultra-marathon running is associated with a wide range of significant changes in hematological parameters, several of which are injury related. To provide appropriate health care and intervention, the man who receives athletes on high frequent training program high intensity training programs must monitor their liver and gallbladder function.

  5. [Sugar and exercise: its importance in athletes]. (United States)

    Peinado, Ana B; Rojo-Tirado, Miguel A; Benito, Pedro J


    Muscle glycogen, the predominant form of stored glucose in the body, and blood glucose are the main energy substrates for muscle contraction during exercise. Sucrose is an ideal substance for athletes to incorporate because it provides both glucose and fructose. Therefore, it is essential that athletes monitor their diet to maintain and increase muscle glycogen deposits, since they are a major limiting factor of prolonged exercise performance. Carbohydrate-rich diets are also recommended for endurance and ultra-endurance exercise, because they are associated with increased muscle glycogen stores, as well as delayed onset of fatigue. In addition, high carbohydrate diets and carbohydrate intake before and during exercise have shown to be beneficial due to increased concentrations of hepatic glycogen and maintenance of blood glucose. The effect of carbohydrate intake on athletic performance mainly depends on the characteristics of the exercise, the type and amount of carbohydrate ingested and the time of intake. A combination of these factors must be taken into account when analysing individual athletic performance.

  6. Disruption of transitional stages in 24-h blood pressure in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E Katz


    Full Text Available Patients with kidney replacement exhibit disrupted circadian rhythms. Most studies measuring blood pressure use the dipper/non-dipper classification, which does not consider analysis of transitional stages between low and high blood pressure, confidence intervals nor shifts in the time of peak, while assuming subjective onsets of night and day phases. In order to better understand the nature of daily variation of blood pressure in these patients, we analyzed 24h recordings from 41 renal transplant recipients using the non-symmetrical double-logistic fitting assessment which does not assume abruptness nor symmetry in ascending and descending stages of the blood pressure profile, and a cosine best-fitting regression method (Cosinor. Compared with matched controls, double-logistic fitting showed that the times for most of transitional stages (ascending systolic and descending systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure had a wider distribution along the 24 h. The proportion of individuals without daily blood pressure rhythm in the transplanted group was larger only for systolic arterial pressure, and the amplitude showed no significant difference. Furthermore, the transplant recipient group had a less pronounced slope in descending systolic and ascending mean blood pressure. Cosinor analysis confirmed the phase related changes, showing a wider distribution of times of peak (acrophases. We conclude that daily disruptions in renal transplant recipients can be explained not only by absence in diurnal variation, but also in changes in waveform-related parameters of the rhythm, and that distortions in the phase of the rhythm are the most consistent finding for the patients.

  7. Effects of environmental noise exposure on 24-h ambulatory vascular properties in adults. (United States)

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Hsieh, Hsiu-Hui; Bao, Bo-Ying; Lai, Jim-Shoung


    Exposure to environmental noise has been associated with hypertension, but the related mechanism of vascular structural changes is unclear. This repeated-measure study investigated the effects of noise exposure on the 24-h ambulatory vascular structural properties in 66 adults aged 18-32 years. Individual noise exposure and personal vascular parameters were measured simultaneously in all subjects. Linear mixed-effects regressions were used to estimate the effects. A 1-A-weighted decibel (dBA) increase was significantly associated with the transient effects of 1.39 (95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.79) %mL/mmHg in arterial compliance at nighttime but -1.70 (-2.05, -1.10) kdynes·s/cm(5) in arterial resistance during the daytime and -2.38 (-3.44, -1.64) kdynes·s/cm(5) in arterial resistance at nighttime among all subjects. Such effects were observed in arterial distensibility only during the daytime after the 30-min (-1.84 [-2.61, -1.29] %/mmHg) and 60-min (-2.06 [-2.95, -1.44] %/mmHg) time-lagged noise exposures. For 24-h environmental noise, a 1-dBA increment was significantly associated with a sustained increase of 1.25 (1.10, 1.42) %mL/mmHg in arterial compliance but a decrease of 2.12 (-2.51, -1.80) kdynes·s/cm(5) in arterial resistance. Environmental noise exposure may have transient and sustained effects on adult vascular properties.

  8. Urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio versus 24-h proteinuria in the screening for nephropathy in HIV patients. (United States)

    Antonello, Vicente Sperb; Poli-De-Figueiredo, Carlos Eduardo; Antonello, Ivan Carlos Ferreira; Tovo, Cristiane Valle


    To determine the correlation between protein-to-creatinine ratio and 24-h urinary protein, proteinuria was measured in 45 patients attending a public HIV clinic in Porto Alegre, Brazil, using 24-h urinary protein excretion (24hUP) and urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio. Spearman's correlation test was done to evaluate the association between spot protein-to-creatinine ratio and 24hUP. The limits of agreement between the two methods were analysed by the Bland-Altman method. For protein excretion creatinine ratio and 24hUP were +0.112 and -0.097 g/day. A strong correlation (r = 0.957) was found between protein-to-creatinine ratio and 24hUP excretion. The conclusion is that the protein-to-creatinine ratio in spot urine specimens is an accurate, convenient and reliable screening method to estimate the urinary protein excretion in HIV patients to detect abnormal urinary protein loss. Further studies are required to evaluate renal disease in HIV patients with chronic renal disease and higher urinary protein excretion.

  9. Ixodes scapularis Tick Saliva Proteins Sequentially Secreted Every 24 h during Blood Feeding (United States)

    Pinto, Antônio F. M.; Moresco, James; Yates, John R.; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Mulenga, Albert


    Ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA. This study describes LC-MS/MS identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of I. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (BD), and spontaneously detached (SD). The 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%), protease inhibitors (7.4%), unknown function proteins (22%), immunity/antimicrobial (2.6%), lipocalin (3.1%), heme/iron binding (2.6%), extracellular matrix/ cell adhesion (2.2%), oxidant metabolism/ detoxification (6%), transporter/ receptor related (3.2%), cytoskeletal (5.5%), and housekeeping-like (39.7%). Notable observations include: (i) tick saliva proteins of unknown function accounting for >33% of total protein content, (ii) 79% of proteases are metalloproteases, (iii) 13% (76/582) of proteins in this study were found in saliva of other tick species and, (iv) ticks apparently selectively inject functionally similar but unique proteins every 24 h, which we speculate is the tick's antigenic variation equivalent strategy to protect important tick feeding functions from host immune system. The host immune responses to proteins present in 24 h I. scapularis saliva will not be effective at later feeding stages. Rabbit proteins identified in our study suggest the tick's strategic use of host proteins to modulate the feeding site. Notably fibrinogen, which is central to blood clotting and wound healing, was detected in high abundance in BD and SD saliva, when the tick is preparing to terminate feeding and detach from the host. A remarkable tick adaptation is that the feeding lesion is completely healed when the tick detaches from the host. Does the tick concentrate fibrinogen at the feeding site to aide in promoting healing of the feeding lesion? Overall, these data provide broad insight into molecular mechanisms regulating different tick

  10. Ixodes scapularis Tick Saliva Proteins Sequentially Secreted Every 24 h during Blood Feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Kwon Kim


    Full Text Available Ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (TBD agents in the USA. This study describes LC-MS/MS identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of I. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (BD, and spontaneously detached (SD. The 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%, protease inhibitors (7.4%, unknown function proteins (22%, immunity/antimicrobial (2.6%, lipocalin (3.1%, heme/iron binding (2.6%, extracellular matrix/ cell adhesion (2.2%, oxidant metabolism/ detoxification (6%, transporter/ receptor related (3.2%, cytoskeletal (5.5%, and housekeeping-like (39.7%. Notable observations include: (i tick saliva proteins of unknown function accounting for >33% of total protein content, (ii 79% of proteases are metalloproteases, (iii 13% (76/582 of proteins in this study were found in saliva of other tick species and, (iv ticks apparently selectively inject functionally similar but unique proteins every 24 h, which we speculate is the tick's antigenic variation equivalent strategy to protect important tick feeding functions from host immune system. The host immune responses to proteins present in 24 h I. scapularis saliva will not be effective at later feeding stages. Rabbit proteins identified in our study suggest the tick's strategic use of host proteins to modulate the feeding site. Notably fibrinogen, which is central to blood clotting and wound healing, was detected in high abundance in BD and SD saliva, when the tick is preparing to terminate feeding and detach from the host. A remarkable tick adaptation is that the feeding lesion is completely healed when the tick detaches from the host. Does the tick concentrate fibrinogen at the feeding site to aide in promoting healing of the feeding lesion? Overall, these data provide broad insight into molecular mechanisms regulating different tick

  11. Case study: nutritional strategies of a cyclist with celiac disease during an ultraendurance race. (United States)

    Black, Katherine Elizabeth; Skidmore, Paula; Brown, Rachel Clare


    Food intolerance is becoming increasingly prevalent, and increasing numbers of athletes have celiac disease. This poses challenges as dietary recommendations for exercise are largely based on gluten-containing carbohydrate-rich foods. The K4 cycle race covers 384 km around the Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand. Lack of sleep, darkness, and temperature variations pose a number of nutritional challenges. Limited food choices present those with celiac disease with even greater challenges. This case study describes the intakes of one such athlete during training and competing in the K4. Nutritional intakes were obtained during training using weighed-food records and during the race via dietary recall and the weighing of foods pre- and post-race. As simple substitution of gluten-containing foods for gluten-free foods leads to increased energy intake, alternatives need to be considered. During the race, insufficient energy was consumed to meet the nutritional guidelines for endurance performance. This was probably due to the nature of the course, racing conditions, the consistency of gluten-free food, and, toward the end of the race, sensory-specific satiety.

  12. Combined solar thermal and photovoltaic power plants - An approach to 24h solar electricity? (United States)

    Platzer, Werner J.


    Solar thermal power plants have the advantage of being able to provide dispatchable renewable electricity even when the sun is not shining. Using thermal energy strorage (TES) they may increase the capacity factor (CF) considerably. However in order to increase the operating hours one has to increase both, thermal storage capacity and solar field size, because the additional solar field is needed to charge the storage. This increases investment cost, although levelised electricity cost (LEC) may decrease due to the higher generation. Photovoltaics as a fluctuating source on the other side has arrived at very low generation costs well below 10 ct/kWh even for Central Europe. Aiming at a capacity factor above 70% and at producing dispatchable power it is shown that by a suitable combination of CSP and PV we can arrive at lower costs than by increasing storage and solar field size in CSP plants alone. Although a complete baseload power plant with more than 90% full load hours may not be the most economic choice, power plants approaching a full 24h service in most days of the year seem to be possible at reasonably low tariffs.

  13. Radiative cooling to deep sub-freezing temperatures through a 24-h day-night cycle (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui


    Radiative cooling technology utilizes the atmospheric transparency window (8-13 μm) to passively dissipate heat from Earth into outer space (3 K). This technology has attracted broad interests from both fundamental sciences and real world applications, ranging from passive building cooling, renewable energy harvesting and passive refrigeration in arid regions. However, the temperature reduction experimentally demonstrated, thus far, has been relatively modest. Here we theoretically show that ultra-large temperature reduction for as much as 60 °C from ambient is achievable by using a selective thermal emitter and by eliminating parasitic thermal load, and experimentally demonstrate a temperature reduction that far exceeds previous works. In a populous area at sea level, we have achieved an average temperature reduction of 37 °C from the ambient air temperature through a 24-h day-night cycle, with a maximal reduction of 42 °C that occurs when the experimental set-up enclosing the emitter is exposed to peak solar irradiance.

  14. Temporal variability in urinary phthalate metabolite excretion based on spot, morning, and 24-h urine samples: Considerations for epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Kranich, Selma K.; Jørgensen, Niels;


    Urinary phthalate excretion is used as marker of phthalate exposure in epidemiological studies. Here we examine the reliability of urinary phthalate levels in exposure classification by comparing the inter- and intrasubject variation of urinary phthalate metabolite levels. Thirty-three young...... healthy men each collected two spot, three first-morning, and three 24-h urine samples during a 3-month period. Samples were analyzed for the content of 12 urinary metabolites of 7 different phthalates. Variability was assessed as intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). For the metabolites of diethyl...... of exposures for these two phthalates in population studies and hence an attenuation of the power to detect possible exposure-outcome associations. The only slightly higher ICCs for 24-h pools compared to first-morning and spot urine samples does not seem to justify the extra effort needed to collect 24-h...

  15. Tuberculosis in hospitalized patients: clinical characteristics of patients receiving treatment within the first 24 h after admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Rossato Silva


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients hospitalized for tuberculosis, comparing those in whom tuberculosis treatment was started within the first 24 h after admission with those who did not. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study involving new tuberculosis cases in patients aged ≥ 18 years who were hospitalized after seeking treatment in the emergency room. Results: We included 305 hospitalized patients, of whom 67 (22.0% received tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission ( ≤24h group and 238 (88.0% did not (>24h group. Initiation of tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission was associated with being female (OR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.06-3.74; p = 0.032 and with an AFB-positive spontaneous sputum smear (OR = 4.19; 95% CI: 1.94-9.00; p 24h groups, respectively, the ICU admission rate was 22.4% and 15.5% (p = 0.258; mechanical ventilation was used in 22.4% and 13.9% (p = 0.133; in-hospital mortality was 22.4% and 14.7% (p = 0.189; and a cure was achieved in 44.8% and 52.5% (p = 0.326. Conclusions: Although tuberculosis treatment was initiated promptly in a considerable proportion of the inpatients evaluated, the rates of in-hospital mortality, ICU admission, and mechanical ventilation use remained high. Strategies for the control of tuberculosis in primary care should consider that patients who seek medical attention at hospitals arrive too late and with advanced disease. It is therefore necessary to implement active surveillance measures in the community for earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Development of a Web-Based 24-h Dietary Recall for a French-Canadian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jacques


    Full Text Available Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls can provide high-quality dietary intake data, but are considered expensive, as they rely on trained professionals for both their administration and coding. The objective of this study was to develop an automated, self-administered web-based 24-h recall (R24W for a French-Canadian population. The development of R24W was inspired by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Questions about the context of meals/snacks were included. Toppings, sauces and spices frequently added to each food/dish were suggested systematically. A list of frequently forgotten food was also suggested. An interactive summary allows the respondent to track the progress of the questionnaire and to modify or remove food as needed. The R24W prototype was pre-tested for usability and functionality in a convenience sample of 29 subjects between the ages of 23 and 65 years, who had to complete one recall, as well as a satisfaction questionnaire. R24W includes a list of 2865 food items, distributed into 16 categories and 98 subcategories. A total of 687 recipes were created for mixed dishes, including 336 ethnic recipes. Pictures of food items illustrate up to eight servings per food item. The pre-test demonstrated that R24W is easy to complete and to understand. This new dietary assessment tool is a simple and inexpensive tool that will facilitate diet assessment of individuals in large-scale studies, but validation studies are needed prior to the utilization of the R24W.

  17. Parabens in 24 h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank from 1995 to 2012. (United States)

    Moos, Rebecca K; Koch, Holger M; Angerer, Jürgen; Apel, Petra; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Brüning, Thomas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike


    Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care and consumer products, food and pharmaceuticals. Due to their ubiquity, humans are constantly exposed to these chemicals. We assessed exposure to nine parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, n- and iso-propyl-, n- and iso-butyl-, benzyl-, pentyl- and heptyl paraben) in the German population from 1995 to 2012 based on 660 24h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) using on-line HPLC coupled to isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.5 μg/L for all parabens. We detected methyl-, ethyl- and n-propyl paraben in 79-99% of samples, followed by n-butyl paraben in 40% of samples. We infrequently detected iso-butyl-, iso-propyl- and benzyl paraben in 24%, 4% and 1.4% of samples, respectively. Urinary concentrations were highest for methyl paraben (median 39.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 319 μg/L) followed by n-propyl paraben (4.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 74.0 μg/L) and ethyl paraben (2.1 μg/L; 95th percentile 39.1 μg/L). Women had significantly higher urinary levels for all parabens than men, except for benzyl paraben. Samples from the ESB revealed that over the investigation period of nearly 20 years urinary paraben levels remained surprisingly constant; only methyl paraben had a significant increase, for both men and women. We found strong correlations between methyl- and n-propyl paraben and between n- and iso-butyl paraben. These results indicate that parabens are used in combination and arise from common sources of exposure. Urinary excretion factors are needed to extrapolate from individual urinary concentrations to actual doses.

  18. Postmortem redistribution of the heroin metabolites morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide in rabbits over 24 h. (United States)

    Maskell, Peter D; Albeishy, Mohammed; De Paoli, Giorgia; Wilson, Nathan E; Seetohul, L Nitin


    The interpretation of postmortem drug levels is complicated by changes in drug blood levels in the postmortem period, a phenomena known as postmortem drug redistribution. We investigated the postmortem redistribution of the heroin metabolites morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide in a rabbit model. Heroin (1 mg/kg) was injected into anesthetised rabbit; after 1 h, an auricular vein blood sample was taken and the rabbit was euthanised. Following death rabbits were placed in a supine position at room temperature and divided into three groups namely (1) immediate autopsy, (2) autopsy after 30 minutes and (3) autopsy 24 h after death. Various samples which included femoral blood, cardiac blood, lung, liver, kidney, vitreous humour, subcutaneous and abdominal fat, liver, bone marrow and skeletal muscle were taken. The samples were analysed with a validated LC-MS/MS method. It was observed that within minutes there was a significant increase in free morphine postmortem femoral blood concentration compared to the antemortem sample (0.01 ± 0.01 to 0.05 ± 0.02 mg/L).Various other changes in free morphine and metabolite concentrations were observed during the course of the experiment in various tissues. Principal component analysis was used to investigate possible correlations between free morphine in the various samples. Some correlations were observed but gave poor predictions (>20 % error) when back calculating. The results suggest that rabbits are a good model for further studies of postmortem redistribution but that further study and understanding of the phenomena is required before accurate predictions of the blood concentration at the time of death are possible.

  19. [Validity of the 24-h previous day physical activity recall (PDPAR-24) in Spanish adolescents]. (United States)

    Cancela, José María; Lago, Joaquín; Ouviña, Lara; Ayán, Carlos


    Introducción: El control del nivel de práctica de actividad física que realizan los adolescentes, de sus factores determinantes y susceptibilidad al cambio resulta indispensable para intervenir sobre la epidemia de obesidad que afecta a la sociedad española. Sin embargo, el número de cuestionarios validados para valorar la actividad física en adolescentes españoles es escaso. Objetivos: Evaluar la validez del cuestionario24hPrevious Day Physical Activity Recall (PDPAR-24) cuando es aplicado a la población de adolescentes españoles. Método: Participaron en este estudio estudiantes de 14-15 años de dos centros de educación secundaria del norte de Galicia. Como criterio objetivo de la actividad física realizada se utilizó el registro proporcionado por el acelerómetro Actigraph GT3X.Se monitorizó a los sujetos durante un día por medio del acelerómetro y al día siguiente se administró el cuestionario de auto-informe. Resultados: Un total de 79 alumnos (15.16 ± 0.81 años, 39% mujeres) finalizaron el estudio. Se observan correlaciones positivas estadísticamente significativas de tamaño medio a grande en ambos sexos (r=0.50-0.98), para la actividad física ligera y moderada. Las correlaciones observadas son más elevadas a medida que aumenta la intensidad de la actividad física realizada. Conclusiones: El cuestionario de auto-informe PDPAR-24 puede ser considerado como una herramienta válida a la hora de valorar el nivel de actividad física en adolescentes españoles.

  20. Validation of web-based, multiple 24-h recalls combined with nutritional supplement intake questionnaires against nitrogen excretions to determine protein intake in Dutch elite athletes. (United States)

    Wardenaar, F C; Steennis, J; Ceelen, I J M; Mensink, M; Witkamp, R; de Vries, J H M


    Information on dietary composition is vitally important for elite athletes to optimise their performance and recovery, which requires valid tools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the validity of assessing protein intake using three web-based 24-h recalls and questionnaires, by comparing these with three urinary N excretions on the same day. A total of forty-seven Dutch elite top athletes, both disabled and non-disabled, aged between 18 and 35 years, with a BMI of 17·5-31 kg/m2, exercising >12 h/week were recruited. Estimated mean dietary protein intake was 109·6 (sd 33·0) g/d by recalls and questionnaires v. 141·3 (sd 38·2) g/d based on N excretions in urine; the difference was 25·5 (sd 21·3) % between the methods (Pprotein intake of 0·65 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·79). On an individual level, under-reporting was larger with higher protein intakes than with lower intakes. No significant differences were found in reporting absolute differences between subcategories (sex, under-reporting, BMI, collection of recalls within a certain amount of time and using protein supplements or not). In conclusion, combined, multiple, 24-h recalls and questionnaires underestimated protein intake in these young elite athletes more than that reported for non-athlete populations. The method proved to be suitable for ranking athletes according to their protein intake as needed in epidemiological studies. On an individual level, the magnitude of underestimation was about equal for all athletes except for those with very high protein intakes.

  1. Effect of elastic-band exercise on muscle damage and inflammatory responses in Taekwondo athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keivan Gadruni


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Elastic bands offer variable elastic resistance (ER throughout a range of motion and their incorporation with exercise movements has been used for variable strength training and rehabilitation purposes. Objective: Investigate the effect of acute bout of progressive elastic-band exercise on muscle damage and inflammatory response in Taekwondo athletes (TKD compared with untrained ones.METHODS: Fourteen (TKD, n = 7 and untrained, n = 7 men performed 3 sets of progressive resistance elastic exercise. Blood samples were taken pre-exercise and also immediately and 24h post exercise. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS, creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity, total leukocyte counts, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP were analyzed.RESULTS: Only DOMS increased in untrained group, but elevation of DOMS was observed in both groups (TKD and untrained at 24h after exercise (p<0.05. CK and LDH activity increased in both groups significantly. Also TKD group only showed CK increasing 24h post exercise (p<0.05. Total circulating leukocyte counts increased immediately in post exercise experiments and decreased in 24h ones in both groups (p<0.05. Serum IL-6 immediately increased in both groups and 24h post exercises but there was no significant difference between immediate and 24h post exercise experiments in TKD group. Furthermore, CRP just increased 24h after exercise in both groups (p<0.05.CONCLUSION: Progressive resistance elastic exercise induced muscle damage and inflammation in TKD athletes, but also had smaller changes in comparison with untrained group and other forms of exercise.

  2. The standardized computerized 24-h dietary recall method EPIC-Soft adapted for pan-European dietary monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Casagrande, C.; Nicolas, G.


    Background/Objectives: The EPIC-Soft program (the software initially developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) was recommended as the best way to standardize 24-HDRs for future pan-European dietary monitor...

  3. Why 24-h urine albumin excretion rate method still is used for screening of diabetic nephropathy in Isfahan laboratories?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Teimoury


    Full Text Available Background: The first step in diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy is measurement of albumin in a spot urine sample. The aim of this study was assessment of the accuracy of urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR in random urine specimens (RUS for microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria screening in Iranian diabetic patients. Methods: A total of 200 diabetic patients participated to our study. 24 h timed urine specimens followed by RUS were collected. 24-h urine albumin excretion (24-h urinary albumin excretion (UAE and UACR in RUS were measured. Data were analyzed by Pearson′s correlation, receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and McNemar test. Results: A total of 165 patients finalized the study. Pearson′s correlation of coefficient for 24-h UAE versus UACR was 0.64. The area under ROC curve for UACR was 0.83 in microalbuminuria and 0.91 in macroalbuminuria. The cutoff point of 30 mg/g in UACR method had 86% sensitivity and 60% specificity for microalbuminuria screening and cut-off point of 300 mg/g had 75% sensitivity and 99% specificity for macroalbuminuria screening respectively. Conclusions: UACR in RUS showed acceptable performance as a screening test for diagnosis of both micro and macroalbuminuria in Iranian diabetic patients.

  4. [Use of customer relationship management to improve healthcare for citizens. The 24h Andalusian Health Service: Healthline]. (United States)

    Quero, Manuel; Ramos, María Belén; López, Wilfredo; Cubillas, Juan José; González, José María; Castillo, José Luis


    Salud Responde (in English: Healthline) is a Health Service and Information Centre of the taxpayer-funded Andalusian Health System (AHS) that offers a Telephone Health Advisory Service called SA24h, among other services. The main objective of SA24h is to inform and advise citizens on health issues and the available health resources of the AHS. SA24h has a Customer Relationship Management information technology tool that organises information at various levels of specialization. Depending on the difficulty of the query, the citizen is attended by professionals with distinct profiles, providing a consensual response within the professionals working within Salud Responde or within other healthcare levels of the AHS. SA24h provided responses to 757,168 patient queries from late 2008 to the end of 01/12/2015. A total of 9.38% of the consultations were resolved by the non-health professionals working at Salud Responde. The remaining 84.07% were resolved by health staff. A total of 6.5% of users were referred to accident and emergency facilities while 88.77% did not need to attend their general practitioner within the next 24hours, thus avoiding unnecessary visits to health care facilities.

  5. Bias in protein and potassium intake collected with 24-h recalls (EPIC-Soft) is rather comparable across European populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispim, S.P.; Geelen, A.; Freisling, H.; Souverein, O.W.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Ocke, M.C.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Andersen, L.F.; Ruprich, J.; Keizer, de W.; Huybrechts, I.; Lafay, L.; DeMagistris, M.S.; Ricceri, F.; Tumino, R.; Krogh, V.; Bueono-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Beulens, J.W.J.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Naska, A.; Crowe, F.L.; Boeing, H.; McTaggart, A.R.; Kaaks, R.; Veer, van 't P.; Slimani, N.


    Purpose: We investigated whether group-level bias of a 24-h recall estimate of protein and potassium intake, as compared to biomarkers, varied across European centers and whether this was influenced by characteristics of individuals or centers. Methods: The combined data from EFCOVAL and EPIC studie

  6. Time dependent effects of stress prior to encoding on event-related potentials and 24 h delayed retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaedflieg, C.W.E.M.; Schwabe, L.; Meyer, T.; Smeets, T.J.M.


    Stress can exert profound effects on memory encoding. Here, we investigated whether (sub)cortical information processing during encoding and memory retrieval at a 24 h delayed test are affected by the temporal proximity between stress and memory encoding. Sixty-four participants engaged in the Maast

  7. Effects of the long-acting calcium channel blocker barnidipine hydrochloride on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure. (United States)

    Kuwajima, Iwao; Abe, Keishi


    The effect of the long acting calcium channel blocker, barnidipine hydrochloride (barnidipine) on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was evaluated in J-MUBA (Japanese Multicentre Study on Barnidipine with Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring). Following an observation period of two weeks, antihypertensive treatment with barnidipine was continued for at least six months. At the end of each period, ABP were measured. The patients were divided into high- and low-range groups based on ABP measurement. Throughout the 24 h, barnidipine exerted an excellent antihypertensive effect in the high-range group, but not in the low-range group. Barnidipine had comparable effects in the daytime and nighttime in inverted dippers and non-dippers, but it was more effective on daytime ABP than on nighttime ABP in dippers and in extreme dippers. Morning blood pressure before and after waking was evaluated before and after barnidipine administration in 233 patients. Barnidipine inhibited increases in blood pressure before and after waking, especially in surge-type patients whose blood pressure increased rapidly after waking. A positive correlation among 24-h ABP, daytime and night time ABP, morning blood pressure, and clinic blood pressure during the observation period and the antihypertensive effect of barnidipine was observed, with barnidipine exhibiting stronger antihypertensive effects in patients with persistently high blood pressure. It was concluded that the antihypertensive effects of barnidipine are maintained for 24 h but it has no excessive hypotensive effects on lower blood pressure and is thus a safe antihypertensive agent.

  8. Evaluation of a method for determination of the subcutaneous blood flow in the forefoot continuously over 24 h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Bülow, J


    A method is presented which allows for continuous registration of forefoot blood flow over 24 h. Blood flow was estimated by the radioactive Xenon washout method and a portable CdTe detector system was used to measure the tracer disappearance rate. Since the semiconductor detector is placed very...

  9. Validation of Tikhonov adaptively regularized gamma variate fitting with 24-h plasma clearance in cirrhotic patients with ascites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesolowski, Carl Adam [Memorial University of Newfoundland, Radiology, St. John' s, NL (Canada); General Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada); Ling, Lin [Memorial University of Newfoundland, Radiology, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Xirouchakis, Elias; Giamalis, Ioannis G.; Burroughs, Andrew K. [Royal Free Hospital, The Royal Free Sheila Sherlock Liver Centre, London (United Kingdom); Burniston, Maria T. [Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust, Department of Medical Physics, London (United Kingdom); Puetter, Richard C. [University of California, San Diego, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, La Jolla, CA (United States); Babyn, Paul S. [University of Saskatchewan, Radiology, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)


    The aim was to compare late-time extrapolation of plasma clearance (CL) from Tikhonov adaptively regularized gamma variate fitting (Tk-GV) and from mono-exponential (E1) fitting. Ten {sup 51}Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid bolus IV studies in adults - 8 with ascites - assessed for liver transplantation, with 12-16 plasma samples drawn from 5-min to 24-h, were fit with Tk-GV and E1 models and CL results were compared using Passing-Bablok fitting. The 24-h CL(Tk-GV) values ranged from 11.4 to 79.7 ml/min. Linear regression of 4- versus 24-h CL(Tk-GV) yielded no significant departure from a slope of 1, whereas the 4- versus 24-h CL(E1) slope, 1.56, was significantly increased. For CL(Tk-GV-24-h) versus CL(E1-24-h), there was a biased slope and intercept (0.85, 5.97 ml/min). Moreover, the quality of fitting of 24-h data was significantly better for Tk-GV than for E1, as follows. For 10 logarithm of concentration curves, higher r values were obtained for each Tk-GV fit (median 0.998) than for its corresponding E1 fit (median 0.965), with p < 0.0001 (paired t-test of z-statistics from Fisher r-z transformations). The E1 fit quality degraded with increasing V/W [volume of distribution (l) per kg body weight, p=0.003]. However, Tk-GV fit quality versus V/W was uncorrelated (p=0.8). CL(E1) values were dependent on sample time and the quality of fit was poor and degraded with increasing ascites, consistent with current opinion that CL(E1) is contraindicated in ascitic patients. CL(Tk-GV) was relatively more accurate and the good quality of fit was unaffected by ascites. CL(Tk-GV) was the preferred method for the accurate calculation of CL and was useful despite liver failure and ascites. (orig.)

  10. Water and sodium intake habits and status of ultra-endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-marathon conducted in a hot ambient environment: an observational field based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Ricardo JS


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anecdotal evidence suggests ultra-runners may not be consuming sufficient water through foods and fluids to maintenance euhydration, and present sub-optimal sodium intakes, throughout multi-stage ultra-marathon (MSUM competitions in the heat. Subsequently, the aims were primarily to assess water and sodium intake habits of recreational ultra-runners during a five stage 225 km semi self-sufficient MSUM conducted in a hot ambient environment (Tmax range: 32°C to 40°C; simultaneously to monitor serum sodium concentration, and hydration status using multiple hydration assessment techniques. Methods Total daily, pre-stage, during running, and post-stage water and sodium ingestion of ultra-endurance runners (UER, n = 74 and control (CON, n = 12 through foods and fluids were recorded on Stages 1 to 4 by trained dietetic researchers using dietary recall interview technique, and analysed through dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM, hydration status, and serum sodium concentration were determined pre- and post-Stages 1 to 5. Results Water (overall mean (SD: total daily 7.7 (1.5 L/day, during running 732 (183 ml/h and sodium (total daily 3.9 (1.3 g/day, during running 270 (151 mg/L ingestion did not differ between stages in UER (p vs. CON. Exercise-induced BM loss was 2.4 (1.2% (p p > 0.05 vs. CON pre-stage. Asymptomatic hyponatraemia (n = 8 UER, corresponding to 42% of sampled participants. Pre- and post-stage urine colour, urine osmolality and urine/plasma osmolality ratio increased (p p  Conclusion Water intake habits of ultra-runners during MSUM conducted in hot ambient conditions appear to be sufficient to maintain baseline euhydration levels. However, fluid over-consumption behaviours were evident along competition, irrespective of running speed and gender. Normonatraemia was observed in the majority of ultra-runners throughout MSUM, despite sodium ingestion under benchmark recommendations.

  11. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exercise can improve or maintain some aspects of cognitive function, such as your ability to shift quickly ... activity, and ignore irrelevant information. For more on cognitive function and exercise, see "Do Exercise and Physical ...

  12. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can ... yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a ...

  13. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... A-Z > Exercise: Benefits of Exercise: Health Benefits In This Topic Health Benefits Benefits for Everyday Life ... Try Exercise: How to Stay Active The information in this topic was provided by the National Institute ...

  14. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You ... activity campaign from the National Institute on Aging. Exercise or Physical Activity? Some people may wonder what ...

  15. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion. (United States)

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl


    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children's discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother's 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child's salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake.

  16. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ... or difficulty walking. To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, ...

  17. Safety and Efficacy of 24-h Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery in Well-Controlled Pregnant Women With Type 1 Diabetes (United States)

    Murphy, Helen R.; Kumareswaran, Kavita; Elleri, Daniela; Allen, Janet M.; Caldwell, Karen; Biagioni, Martina; Simmons, David; Dunger, David B.; Nodale, Marianna; Wilinska, Malgorzata E.; Amiel, Stephanie A.; Hovorka, Roman


    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of closed-loop insulin delivery in well-controlled pregnant women with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 12 women with type 1 diabetes (aged 32.9 years, diabetes duration 17.6 years, BMI 27.1 kg/m2, and HbA1c 6.4%) were randomly allocated to closed-loop or conventional CSII. They performed normal daily activities (standardized meals, snacks, and exercise) for 24 h on two occasions at 19 and 23 weeks’ gestation. Plasma glucose time in target (63–140 mg/dL) and time spent hypoglycemic were calculated. RESULTS Plasma glucose time in target was comparable for closed-loop and conventional CSII (median [interquartile range]: 81 [59–87] vs. 81% [54–90]; P = 0.75). Less time was spent hypoglycemic (<45 mg/dL [0.0 vs. 0.3%]; P = 0.04), with a lower low blood glucose index (2.4 [0.9–3.5] vs. 3.3 [1.9–5.1]; P = 0.03), during closed-loop insulin delivery. CONCLUSIONS Closed-loop insulin delivery was as effective as conventional CSII, with less time spent in extreme hypoglycemia. PMID:22011408

  18. Effect of moderate cold exposure on 24-h energy expenditure: similar response in postobese and nonobese women. (United States)

    Buemann, B; Astrup, A; Christensen, N J; Madsen, J


    Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation rates were measured two times in eight postobese women and eight matched controls. On one occasion the subjects were exposed to a room temperature of 16 degrees C, on the other to 24 degrees C. Cold exposure elicited a 2% increment in 24-h EE (P Sleeping EE was found to be 5% lower in the postobese women than in the controls (P = 0.04). The postobese group also had higher 24-h nonprotein respiratory quotient than the control group (P = 0.04), which was due to a 26% lower lipid-to-carbohydrate oxidation ratio. The study demonstrates that the thermogenic response to cold is normal in women susceptible to obesity, but it supports previous reports of a slightly lower basal EE and lower lipid-to-carbohydrate oxidation ratio in postobese subjects.

  19. Temporal and topographic profiles of cyclooxygenase-2 expression during 24 h of focal brain ishemia in rats. (United States)

    Yokota, Chiaki; Kaji, Tomohito; Kuge, Yuji; Inoue, Hiroyasu; Tamaki, Nagara; Minematsu, Kazuo


    Substantial increases in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA and protein levels were demonstrated in the peri-infarct and focal ischemic areas after 3-24 and 12-24 h, respectively, in rats. In the ischemic core, significant increases in COX-2 mRNA followed 6 h of ischemia, though the peak level was about one-third of that in the peri-infarct area. Increases in COX-2 protein in the ischemic core were not observed during ischemic periods. Diffuse, neuronal COX-2 staining was found in peri-infarct areas as well as in discrete, immunoreactive neurons in the ischemic core. Robust increases in prostaglandin E2 levels in the peri-infarct area were demonstrated following 24 h of ischemia. Prostaglandin production as well as COX-2 expression in ischemic tissues depended on the degree and duration of the reduction in cerebral blood flow.

  20. Long-term blood pressure changes induced by the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake: assessment by 24 h ambulatory monitoring. (United States)

    Giorgini, Paolo; Striuli, Rinaldo; Petrarca, Marco; Petrazzi, Luisa; Pasqualetti, Paolo; Properzi, Giuliana; Desideri, Giovambattista; Omboni, Stefano; Parati, Gianfranco; Ferri, Claudio


    An increased rate of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events has been described during and immediately after earthquakes. In this regard, few data are available on long-term blood pressure control in hypertensive outpatients after an earthquake. We evaluated the long-term effects of the April 2009 L'Aquila earthquake on blood pressure levels, as detected by 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Before/after (mean±s.d. 6.9±4.5/14.2±5.1 months, respectively) the earthquake, the available 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data for the same patients were extracted from our database. Quake-related daily life discomforts were evaluated through interviews. We enrolled 47 patients (25 female, age 52±14 years), divided into three groups according to antihypertensive therapy changes after versus before the earthquake: unchanged therapy (n=24), increased therapy (n=17) and reduced therapy (n=6). Compared with before the quake, in the unchanged therapy group marked increases in 24 h (P=0.004), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.02) systolic blood pressure were observed after the quake. Corresponding changes in 24 h (P=0.005), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.009) diastolic blood pressure were observed. Daily life discomforts were reported more frequently in the unchanged therapy and increased therapy groups than the reduced therapy group (P=0.025 and P=0.018, respectively). In conclusion, this study shows that patients with unchanged therapy display marked blood pressure increments up to more than 1 year after an earthquake, as well as long-term quake-related discomfort. Our data suggest that particular attention to blood pressure levels and adequate therapy modifications should be considered after an earthquake, not only early after the event but also months later.

  1. The accuracy of the 24-h activity recall method for assessing sedentary behaviour: the physical activity measurement survey (PAMS) project. (United States)

    Kim, Youngwon; Welk, Gregory J


    Sedentary behaviour (SB) has emerged as a modifiable risk factor, but little is known about measurement errors of SB. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of 24-h Physical Activity Recall (24PAR) relative to SenseWear Armband (SWA) for assessing SB. Each participant (n = 1485) undertook a series of data collection procedures on two randomly selected days: wearing a SWA for full 24-h, and then completing the telephone-administered 24PAR the following day to recall the past 24-h activities. Estimates of total sedentary time (TST) were computed without the inclusion of reported or recorded sleep time. Equivalence testing was used to compare estimates of TST. Analyses from equivalence testing showed no significant equivalence of 24PAR for TST (90% CI: 443.0 and 457.6 min · day(-1)) relative to SWA (equivalence zone: 580.7 and 709.8 min · day(-1)). Bland-Altman plots indicated individuals that were extremely or minimally sedentary provided relatively comparable sedentary time between 24PAR and SWA. Overweight/obese and/or older individuals were more likely to under-estimate sedentary time than normal weight and/or younger individuals. Measurement errors of 24PAR varied by the level of sedentary time and demographic indicators. This evidence informs future work to develop measurement error models to correct for errors of self-reports.

  2. Prediction of hypertensive crisis based on average, variability and approximate entropy of 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. (United States)

    Schoenenberger, A W; Erne, P; Ammann, S; Perrig, M; Bürgi, U; Stuck, A E


    Approximate entropy (ApEn) of blood pressure (BP) can be easily measured based on software analysing 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), but the clinical value of this measure is unknown. In a prospective study we investigated whether ApEn of BP predicts, in addition to average and variability of BP, the risk of hypertensive crisis. In 57 patients with known hypertension we measured ApEn, average and variability of systolic and diastolic BP based on 24-h ABPM. Eight of these fifty-seven patients developed hypertensive crisis during follow-up (mean follow-up duration 726 days). In bivariate regression analysis, ApEn of systolic BP (Phypertensive crisis. The incidence rate ratio of hypertensive crisis was 14.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8, 631.5; Phypertensive crisis. A combination of these two measures had a positive predictive value of 75%, and a negative predictive value of 91%, respectively. ApEn, combined with other measures of 24-h ABPM, is a potentially powerful predictor of hypertensive crisis. If confirmed in independent samples, these findings have major clinical implications since measures predicting the risk of hypertensive crisis define patients requiring intensive follow-up and intensified therapy.

  3. Sleep and cognitive function of crewmembers and mission controllers working 24-h shifts during a simulated 105-day spaceflight mission (United States)

    Barger, Laura K.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Burke, Tina M.; Chinoy, Evan D.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Lockley, Steven W.; Czeisler, Charles A.


    The success of long-duration space missions depends on the ability of crewmembers and mission support specialists to be alert and maintain high levels of cognitive function while operating complex, technical equipment. We examined sleep, nocturnal melatonin levels and cognitive function of crewmembers and the sleep and cognitive function of mission controllers who participated in a high-fidelity 105-day simulated spaceflight mission at the Institute of Biomedical Problems (Moscow). Crewmembers were required to perform daily mission duties and work one 24-h extended duration work shift every sixth day. Mission controllers nominally worked 24-h extended duration shifts. Supplemental lighting was provided to crewmembers and mission controllers. Participants' sleep was estimated by wrist-actigraphy recordings. Overall, results show that crewmembers and mission controllers obtained inadequate sleep and exhibited impaired cognitive function, despite countermeasure use, while working extended duration shifts. Crewmembers averaged 7.04±0.92 h (mean±SD) and 6.94±1.08 h (mean±SD) in the two workdays prior to the extended duration shifts, 1.88±0.40 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h work shift, and then slept 10.18±0.96 h (mean±SD) the day after the night shift. Although supplemental light was provided, crewmembers' average nocturnal melatonin levels remained elevated during extended 24-h work shifts. Naps and caffeine use were reported by crewmembers during ˜86% and 45% of extended night work shifts, respectively. Even with reported use of wake-promoting countermeasures, significant impairments in cognitive function were observed. Mission controllers slept 5.63±0.95 h (mean±SD) the night prior to their extended duration work shift. On an average, 89% of night shifts included naps with mission controllers sleeping an average of 3.4±1.0 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h extended duration work shift. Mission controllers also showed impaired cognitive function during extended

  4. Endurance exercise induces mRNA expression of oxidative enzymes in human skeletal muscle late in recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lotte; Plomgaard, Peter S.; Grønløkke, L.


    exercise. To test the hypothesis that mRNA expression of many oxidative enzymes is up-regulated late in recovery (10-24 h) after exercise, male subjects (n=8) performed a 90-min cycling exercise (70% VO(2-max)), with muscle biopsies obtained before exercise (pre), and after 10, 18 and 24 h of recovery......-responsive oxidative enzymes is up-regulated in human skeletal muscle at 10-24 h of recovery, supporting that exercise-induced adaptations of these oxidative enzymes can be the result of the cumulative effects of transient changes in mRNA expression.......Exercise-induced adaptations in skeletal muscle oxidative enzymes are suggested to result from the cumulative effects of transient changes in gene expression after each single exercise session. However, for several oxidative enzymes, no changes in mRNA expression are detected up to 8 h after...

  5. Brain glycogen supercompensation following exhaustive exercise. (United States)

    Matsui, Takashi; Ishikawa, Taro; Ito, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Masahiro; Inoue, Koshiro; Lee, Min-Chul; Fujikawa, Takahiko; Ichitani, Yukio; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Soya, Hideaki


    Brain glycogen localized in astrocytes, a critical energy source for neurons, decreases during prolonged exhaustive exercise with hypoglycaemia. However, it is uncertain whether exhaustive exercise induces glycogen supercompensation in the brain as in skeletal muscle. To explore this question, we exercised adult male rats to exhaustion at moderate intensity (20 m min(-1)) by treadmill, and quantified glycogen levels in several brain loci and skeletal muscles using a high-power (10 kW) microwave irradiation method as a gold standard. Skeletal muscle glycogen was depleted by 82-90% with exhaustive exercise, and supercompensated by 43-46% at 24 h after exercise. Brain glycogen levels decreased by 50-64% with exhaustive exercise, and supercompensated by 29-63% (whole brain 46%, cortex 60%, hippocampus 33%, hypothalamus 29%, cerebellum 63% and brainstem 49%) at 6 h after exercise. The brain glycogen supercompensation rates after exercise positively correlated with their decrease rates during exercise. We also observed that cortical and hippocampal glycogen supercompensation were sustained until 24 h after exercise (long-lasting supercompensation), and their basal glycogen levels increased with 4 weeks of exercise training (60 min day(-1) at 20 m min(-1)). These results support the hypothesis that, like the effect in skeletal muscles, glycogen supercompensation also occurs in the brain following exhaustive exercise, and the extent of supercompensation is dependent on that of glycogen decrease during exercise across brain regions. However, supercompensation in the brain preceded that of skeletal muscles. Further, the long-lasting supercompensation of the cortex and hippocampus is probably a prerequisite for their training adaptation (increased basal levels), probably to meet the increased energy demands of the brain in exercising animals.

  6. Immunohistochemical detection of interleukin-6 in human skeletal muscle fibers following exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Keller, Charlotte; Keller, Pernille


    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is produced by many different cell types. Human skeletal muscles produce and release high amounts of IL-6 during exercise; however, the cell source of origin in the muscle is not known. Therefore, we studied the protein expression of IL-6 by immunohistochemistry in human muscle...... tissue from biopsies obtained at time points 0, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, and 24 h in relation to 3 h of bicycle exercise performed by healthy young males (n=12) and in resting controls (n=6). The IL-6 expression was clearly increased after exercise and remained high even by 24 h, relative to pre-exercise or resting...

  7. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can Do Like most people, ... active on a regular basis is one of the healthiest things you can do for yourself. Studies ...

  8. Restructuring and redistribution of actinides in Am-MOX fuel during the first 24 h of irradiation (United States)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Miwa, Shuhei; Sekine, Shin-ichi; Yoshimochi, Hiroshi; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Koyama, Shin-ichi


    In order to confirm the effect of minor actinide additions on the irradiation behavior of MOX fuel pellets, 3 wt.% and 5 wt.% americium-containing MOX (Am-MOX) fuels were irradiated for 10 min at 43 kW/m and for 24 h at 45 kW/m in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. Two nominal values of the fuel pellet oxygen-to-metal ratio (O/M), 1.95 and 1.98, were used as a test parameter. Emphasis was placed on the behavior of restructuring and redistribution of actinides which directly affect the fuel performance and the fuel design for fast reactors. Microstructural evolutions in the fuels were observed by optical microscopy and the redistribution of constituent elements was determined by EPMA using false color X-ray mapping and quantitative point analyses. The ceramography results showed that structural changes occurred quickly in the initial stage of irradiation. Restructuring of the fuel from middle to upper axial positions developed and was almost completed after the 24-h irradiation. No sign of fuel melting was found in any of the specimens. The EPMA results revealed that Am as well as Pu migrated radially up the temperature gradient to the center of the fuel pellet. The increase in Am concentration on approaching the edge of the central void and its maximum value were higher than those of Pu after the 10-min irradiation and the difference was more pronounced after the 24-h irradiation. The increment of the Am and Pu concentrations due to redistribution increased with increasing central void size. In all of the specimens examined, the extent of redistribution of Am and Pu was higher in the fuel of O/M ratio of 1.98 than in that of 1.95.

  9. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can Do ... can do for yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a lot ...

  10. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can Do ... can do for yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a lot ...

  11. Evaluation of repolarization dynamics using the QT-RR regression line slope and intercept relationship during 24-h Holter ECG. (United States)

    Fujiki, Akira; Yoshioka, Ryozo; Sakabe, Masao


    QT-RR linear regression consists of two parameters, slope and intercept, and the aim of this study was to evaluate repolarization dynamics using the QT-RR linear regression slope and intercept relationship during 24-h Holter ECG. This study included 466 healthy subjects (54.6 ± 14.6 years; 200 men and 266 women) and 17 patients with ventricular arrhythmias, consisted of 10 patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF) and 7 patients with torsades de pointes (TDP). QT and RR intervals were measured from ECG waves based on a 15-s averaged ECG during 24-h Holter recording using an automatic QT analyzing system. The QT interval dependence on the RR interval was analyzed using a linear regression line for each subject ([QT] = A[RR] + B; where A is the slope and B is the y-intercept). The slope of the QT-RR regression line in healthy subjects was significantly greater in women than in men (0.185 ± 0.036 vs. 0.161 ± 0.033, p Holter ECG may become a simple useful marker for abnormality of ventricular repolarization dynamics.

  12. Effect of Androctonus bicolor scorpion venom on serum electrolytes in rats: A 24-h time-course study. (United States)

    Al-Asmari, A; Khan, H A; Manthiri, R A


    Black fat-tailed scorpion (Androctonus bicolor) belongs to the family Buthidae and is one of the most venomous scorpions in the world. The effects of A. bicolor venom on serum electrolytes were not known and therefore investigated in this study. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups with five animals in each group. One of the groups served as control and received vehicle only. The animals in the remaining groups received a single subcutaneous injection of crude A. bicolor venom (200 μg/kg bodyweight) and were killed at different time intervals including 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after venom injection. The results showed that scorpion venom caused significant increase in serum sodium levels within 30 min after injection which slightly subsided after 1 h and then persisted over 24 h. Serum potassium levels continued to significantly increase until 4 h and then slightly subsided. There were significant decreases in serum magnesium (Mg(+)) levels following scorpion venom injection, at all the time points during the course of study. Serum calcium levels were significantly increased during the entire course of study, whereas serum chloride was significantly decreased. In conclusion, A. bicolor envenomation in rats caused severe and persistent hypomagnesemia with accompanied hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypercalcemia. It is important to measure serum Mg(+) levels in victims of scorpion envenomation, and patients with severe Mg(+) deficiency should be treated accordingly.

  13. Ingestion of nutrition bars high in protein or carbohydrate does not impact 24-h energy intakes in healthy young adults. (United States)

    Trier, Catherine M; Johnston, Carol S


    Sales of nutrition bars increased almost 10-fold to $1.7billion over the past decade yet few studies have examined the impact of bar ingestion on dietary parameters. In this crossover trial, 24-h energy intakes were assessed in free-living college students ingesting a high-protein (HP, 280kcal) or a high-carbohydrate (HC, 260kcal) nutrition bar upon waking. Fifty-four students entered the trial, and 37 participants completed the three test days. Daily energy intakes ranged from 1752±99kcal for the non-intervention day to 1846±75 and 1891±110kcal for the days the HP and HC bars were consumed respectively (p=0.591). However, for individuals who reported high levels of physically activity (n=11), daily energy intakes increased significantly compared to the control day for the HC bar day (+45%; p=0.030) and HP bar day (+22%; p=0.038). Macro- and micro-nutrient intakes differed significantly across test days in the total sample mirroring the nutrient profile of the specific bars. These data suggest that young adults adjust caloric intakes appropriately following the ingestion of energy-dense nutrition bars over a 24-h period. Moreover, nutrition bars may represent a unique opportunity to favorably influence nutrient status of young adults.

  14. Temporal variability in urinary excretion of bisphenol A and seven other phenols in spot, morning, and 24-h urine samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold


    of bisphenol A (BPA) and seven other phenols. All analytes were determined using TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS. Two spot, three first morning and three 24-h urine samples were collected from 33 young Danish men over a three months period. Temporal variability was estimated by means of intraclass correlation coefficients...... (ICCs). More than 70% of the urine samples had detectable levels of BPA, triclosan (TCS), benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and sum of 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,5-dichlorophenol (σDCP). We found low to moderate ICCs for BPA (0.10-0.42) and σDCP (0.39-0.72), whereas the ICCs for BP-3 (0.69-0.80) and TCS (0.......55-0.90) were higher. The ICCs were highest for the two spot urine samples, which were collected approximately 4 days apart, compared with the 24-h urine samples and the first morning urine samples, which were collected approximately 40 days apart. A consequence of the considerable variability in urinary...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Lahart


    Full Text Available Multiday ultra-endurance races present athletes with a significant number of physiological and psychological challenges. We examined emotions, the perceived functionality (optimal-dysfunctional of emotions, strategies to regulate emotions, sleep quality, and energy intake-expenditure in a four-man team participating in the Race Across AMerica (RAAM; a 4856km continuous cycle race. Cyclists reported experiencing an optimal emotional state for less than 50% of total competition, with emotional states differing significantly between each cyclist over time. Coupled with this emotional disturbance, each cyclist experienced progressively worsening sleep deprivation and daily negative energy balances throughout the RAAM. Cyclists managed less than one hour of continuous sleep per sleep episode, high sleep latency and high percentage moving time. Of note, actual sleep and sleep efficiency were better maintained during longer rest periods, highlighting the importance of a race strategy that seeks to optimise the balance between average cycling velocity and sleep time. Our data suggests that future RAAM cyclists and crew should: 1 identify beliefs on the perceived functionality of emotions in relation to best (functional-optimal and worst (dysfunctional performance as the starting point to intervention work; 2 create a plan for support sufficient sleep and recovery; 3 create nutritional strategies that maintain energy intake and thus reduce energy deficits; and 4 prepare for the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation so that they are able to appropriately respond to unexpected stressors and foster functional working interpersonal relationships

  16. Body mass change and ultraendurance performance: a decrease in body mass is associated with an increased running speed in male 100-km ultramarathoners. (United States)

    Rüst, Christoph A; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Wirth, Andrea; Rosemann, Thomas


    We investigated, in 50 recreational male ultrarunners, the changes in body mass, selected hematological and urine parameters, and fluid intake during a 100-km ultramarathon. The athletes lost (mean and SD) 2.6 (1.8) % in body mass (p Running speed was significantly and negatively related to the change in body mass (p running speed (r = 0.33, p = 0.0182) and the change in body mass (r = 0.44, p = 0.0014) and significantly and negatively to both postrace serum [Na⁺] (r = -0.42, p = 0.0022) and the change in serum [Na⁺] (r = -0.38, p = 0.0072). This field study showed that recreational, male, 100-km ultramarathoners dehydrated as evidenced by the decrease in >2 % body mass and the increase in urine-specific gravity. Race performance, however, was not impaired because of the loss in body mass. In contrast, faster athletes lost more body mass compared with slower athletes while also drinking more. The concept that a loss of >2% in body mass leads to dehydration and consequently impairs endurance performance must be questioned for ultraendurance athletes competing in the field. For practical applications, a loss in body mass during a 100-km ultramarathon was associated with a faster running speed.

  17. Effect of unaccustomed eccentric exercise on proprioception of the knee in weight and non-weight bearing tasks. (United States)

    Vila-Chã, Carolina; Riis, Simone; Lund, Ditte; Møller, Anders; Farina, Dario; Falla, Deborah


    The study investigates the effects of eccentric exercise of the quadriceps on proprioception of the knee in weight and non-weight bearing tasks. Proprioception of the exercised leg was assessed at 120° and 150° of knee extension in 15 healthy adults (age 25.0 ± 3.6 yrs) before, immediately after, and 24h following eccentric exercise of the quadriceps. Three tests of proprioception were performed: 1. matching the position of the exercised leg (right leg) to the reference leg (left leg) in sitting (non-weight bearing matching task); 2. repositioning the exercised leg after active movement in sitting (non-weight bearing repositioning task); 3. repositioning the exercised leg after active movement in standing (weight bearing task). Maximum knee extension force was reduced by 77.0 ± 12.3 % immediately after the exercise, and by 82.7 ± 16.2% 24h post exercise, with respect to baseline (Peccentric exercise (12.3 ± 5.6, Pexercise (8.1 ± 4.5, Pexercise (5.2 ± 3.0°, Peccentric exercise by adopting a more extended knee position of the exercised limb. Furthermore, the subjects showed higher variability in their performance immediately post exercise (Peccentric exercise did not affect the repositioning errors in the weight bearing task. In conclusion, eccentric exercise of the quadriceps impairs proprioception of the knee both immediately after and 24h post exercise, but only in non-weight bearing tasks.

  18. A step towards personalized sports nutrition: carbohydrate intake during exercise. (United States)

    Jeukendrup, Asker


    There have been significant changes in the understanding of the role of carbohydrates during endurance exercise in recent years, which allows for more specific and more personalized advice with regard to carbohydrate ingestion during exercise. The new proposed guidelines take into account the duration (and intensity) of exercise and advice is not restricted to the amount of carbohydrate; it also gives direction with respect to the type of carbohydrate. Studies have shown that during exercise lasting approximately 1 h in duration, a mouth rinse or small amounts of carbohydrate can result in a performance benefit. A single carbohydrate source can be oxidized at rates up to approximately 60 g/h and this is the recommendation for exercise that is more prolonged (2-3 h). For ultra-endurance events, the recommendation is higher at approximately 90 g/h. Carbohydrate ingested at such high ingestion rates must be a multiple transportable carbohydrates to allow high oxidation rates and prevent the accumulation of carbohydrate in the intestine. The source of the carbohydrate may be a liquid, semisolid, or solid, and the recommendations may need to be adjusted downward when the absolute exercise intensity is low and thus carbohydrate oxidation rates are also low. Carbohydrate intake advice is independent of body weight as well as training status. Therefore, although these guidelines apply to most athletes, they are highly dependent on the type and duration of activity. These new guidelines may replace the generic existing guidelines for carbohydrate intake during endurance exercise.

  19. Intravenous Bolus versus Continuous Infusion of Famotidine or Ranitidine on 24 H Intragastric Acidity in Fasting Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson


    Full Text Available Infusions of H2-receptor antagonists may be clinically indicated to maintain intragastric pH above 4 to reduce acute gastric mucosal lesions or to treat patients with bleeding peptic ulcers. Eight fasting healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive ranitidine infusion alone (150 mg/day, ranitidine infusion plus 50 mg bolus injection of ranitidine (total of 200 mg/day, famotidine infusion alone (40 mg/day or famotidine infusion plus 40 mg bolus injection of famotidine (total of 80 mg/day. Gastric fluid contents were aspirated for 24 h and collected as half-hourly samples in which pH measurements were made. Measures analyzed were mean and median pH, percentage pH at or below 3, 4 or 5 for the 24 h period, daytime, evening and nighttime. The data for each of the variables were analyzed as a Latin square crossover design of variance therapy; base pH before treatment administration in each crossover phase was employed as the covariant. Significant differential treatment means were tested by Newman-Keul’s multiple range test at the 5% level of significance. The mean and median evening pH were higher after famotidine than after ranitidine infusion, but all other pH readings were similar when using these doses. The addition of an initial loading bolus of 50 mg ranitidine to the ranitidine infusion did not result in any added differences in pH, whereas the addition of an initial loading bolus of 40 mg famotidine to the famotidine infusion resulted in a higher 24 h median pH, as well as a lower percentage of pH values of 4 or below, 16.6% versus 28.5%, P<0.05. However, the loading doses of ranitidine and famotidine were not equivalent in potency, and studies are needed to compare the potency of equivalent doses of ranitidine and famotidine when given by bolus plus infusion. Also the clinical relevance of these findings needs to be explored further in the type of individuals potentially requiring intravenous H2-receptor antagonists.

  20. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24 h postmain shock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014 M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake (United States)

    Parsons, Tom; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Edward; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.


    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  1. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24h post mainshock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014M=6.0 West Napa earthquake (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Ned; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.


    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M= 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  2. Migraine aura lasting 1-24 h in children: a sequence of EEG slow-wave abnormalities vs. vascular events. (United States)

    Parain, D; Hitzel, A; Guegan-Massardier, E; Lebas, A; Blondeau, C; Fédina, I; Feray, D; Véra, P; Mihout, B


    The aim of this study was to describe the abnormalities associated with migraine aura lasting 1-24 h in children as shown by EEG, trancranial Doppler (TCD) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this retrospective study, 11 patients each underwent EEG, TCD and brain SPECT on the day of admission and the day thereafter. On the day of admission, the migrainous hemisphere of all patients showed that the mean velocities were decreased in the middle cerebral artery by TCD, slow-wave abnormalities were recorded after several hours of aura by EEG and the SPECT showed hypoperfusion. On the day after, in the same hemisphere, slow waves were recorded only in the occipital area by EEG, and SPECT showed slight hyperperfusion. In these patients, there was a clear sequence of EEG, TCD and SPECT abnormalities.

  3. A review of the design and validation of web- and computer-based 24-h dietary recall tools. (United States)

    Timon, Claire M; van den Barg, Rinske; Blain, Richard J; Kehoe, Laura; Evans, Katie; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Eileen R


    Technology-based dietary assessment offers solutions to many of the limitations of traditional dietary assessment methodologies including cost, participation rates and the accuracy of data collected. The 24-h dietary recall (24HDR) method is currently the most utilised method for the collection of dietary intake data at a national level. Recently there have been many developments using web-based platforms to collect food intake data using the principles of the 24HDR method. This review identifies web- and computer-based 24HDR tools that have been developed for both children and adult population groups, and examines common design features and the methods used to investigate the performance and validity of these tools. Overall, there is generally good to strong agreement between web-based 24HDR and respective reference measures for intakes of macro- and micronutrients.

  4. Exercise enhances memory consolidation in the aging brain. (United States)

    Snigdha, Shikha; de Rivera, Christina; Milgram, Norton W; Cotman, Carl W


    Exercise has been shown to reduce age-related losses in cognitive function including learning and memory, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Memory formation occurs in stages that include an initial acquisition phase, an intermediate labile phase, and then a process of consolidation which leads to long-term memory formation. An effective way to examine the mechanism by which exercise improves memory is to introduce the intervention (exercise), post-acquisition, making it possible to selectively examine memory storage and consolidation. Accordingly we evaluated the effects of post-trial exercise (10 min on a treadmill) on memory consolidation in aged canines both right after, an hour after, and 24 h after acute exercise training in concurrent discrimination, object location memory (OLM), and novel object recognition tasks. Our study shows that post-trial exercise facilitates memory function by improving memory consolidation in aged animals in a time-dependent manner. The improvements were significant at 24 h post-exercise and not right after or 1 h after exercise. Aged animals were also tested following chronic exercise (10 min/day for 14 consecutive days) on OLM or till criterion were reached (for reversal learning task). We found improvements from a chronic exercise design in both the object location and reversal learning tasks. Our studies suggest that mechanisms to improve overall consolidation and cognitive function remain accessible even with progressing age and can be re-engaged by both acute and chronic exercise.

  5. Characterization of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma NPY levels in normal volunteers over a 24-h timeframe. (United States)

    Baker, Dewleen G; Bertram, Tobias Moeller; Patel, Piyush M; Barkauskas, Donald A; Clopton, Paul; Patel, Sejal; Geracioti, Thomas D; Haji, Uzair; O'Connor, Daniel T; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Hauger, Richard L


    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is abundant in mammals, where it contributes to diverse behavioral and physiological functions, centrally and peripherally, but little information is available in regard to NPY cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/plasma concentration relationships and dynamics. Since plasma NPY levels are commonly used as proxy "biomarkers" for central NPY activity in stress and mental health research in humans this study aims to better characterize the CSF/plasma NPY relationships. Subjects were eleven healthy male volunteers, admitted to the clinical research center for placement of an indwelling CSF catheter, as well as venous catheter, for 24-h collection of CSF NPY (cNPY) and plasma NPY (pNPY) samples. As observed in prior studies, group mean (SE) cNPY concentrations [792.1 (7.80) pg/mL] were higher than pNPY concentrations [220.0 (3.63) pg/mL]. For the eleven normal volunteers who had sufficient common (hourly) pNPY and cNPY data points, analysis of pNPY/cNPY concentration ratios and lagged cross-correlation analysis was completed. Average pNPY/cNPY concentration ratios ranged from .20 to .40 across study subjects, with a mean of .29. pNPY/cNPY cross correlation analyses, computed at varying time lags, were non-significant. An attempt was made to analyze the circadian rhythmicity of NPY secretion, but circadian components were not detectable. Using 24-h data collection, we characterized CSF/plasma NPY relationships, including presentation of evidence of weak CSF and plasma correlations, an important consideration for study design of NPY in stress or mental health.

  6. RESP-24: a computer program for the investigation of 24-h breathing abnormalities in heart failure patients. (United States)

    Maestri, R; Pinna, G D; Robbi, E; Varanini, M; Emdin, M; Raciti, M; La Rovere, M T


    In this paper, we describe a computer program (RESP-24) specifically devised to assess the prevalence and characteristics of breathing disorders in ambulant chronic heart failure patients during the overall 24 h period. The system works on a single channel respiratory signal (RS) recorded through a Holter-like portable device. In the pre-processing stage RESP-24 removes noise, baseline drift and motion artefacts from the RS using a non-linear filter, enhances respiratory frequency components through high-pass filtering and derives an instantaneous tidal volume (ITV) signal. The core processing is devoted to the identification and classification of the breathing pattern into periodic breathing (PB), normal breathing or non-classifiable breathing using a 60 s segmentation, and to the identification and estimation of apnea and hypopnea events. Sustained episodes of PB are detected by cross analysis of both the spectral content and time behavior of the ITV signal. User-friendly interactive facilities allow all the results of the automatic analysis procedure to be edited. The final report provides a set of standard and non-standard parameters quantifying breathing abnormalities during the 24 h period, the night-time and the day-time, including the apnea/hypopnea index, the apnea index, the total time spent in apnea or in hypopnea and the prevalence of non-apneic and apneic PB. The accuracy of these measurements was appraised on a data set of 14 recordings, by comparing them with those provided by a trained analyst. The mean and standard deviation of the error of the automatic procedure were below respectively 6 and 8% of the reference value for all parameters considered and the mean total classification accuracy was 92%. In most cases, the individual error was <12%. We conclude that measurements provided automatically by the RESP-24 software are suitable for screening purposes and clinical trials, although a preventive check of signal quality should be recommended.

  7. Pulse Arrival Time Based Cuff-Less and 24-H Wearable Blood Pressure Monitoring and its Diagnostic Value in Hypertension. (United States)

    Zheng, Yali; Poon, Carmen C Y; Yan, Bryan P; Lau, James Y W


    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has become an essential tool in the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Current standard ABPM devices use an oscillometric cuff-based method which can cause physical discomfort to the patients with repeated inflations and deflations, especially during nighttime leading to sleep disturbance. The ability to measure ambulatory BP accurately and comfortably without a cuff would be attractive. This study validated the accuracy of a cuff-less approach for ABPM using pulse arrival time (PAT) measurements on both healthy and hypertensive subjects for potential use in hypertensive management, which is the first of its kind. The wearable cuff-less device was evaluated against a standard cuff-based device on 24 subjects of which 15 have known hypertension. BP measurements were taken from each subject over a 24-h period by the cuff-less and cuff-based devices every 15 to 30 minutes during daily activities. Mean BP of each subject during daytime, nighttime and over 24-h were calculated. Agreement between mean nighttime systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) measured by the two devices evaluated using Bland-Altman plot were -1.4 ± 6.6 and 0.4 ± 6.7 mmHg, respectively. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) statistics was used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the cuff-less approach in the detection of BP above the hypertension threshold during nighttime (>120/70 mmHg). The area under ROC curves were 0.975/0.79 for nighttime. The results suggest that PAT-based approach is accurate and promising for ABPM without the issue of sleep disturbances associated with cuff-based devices.

  8. 24-h Fluid Kinetics and Perception of Sweat Losses Following a 1-h Run in a Temperate Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric K. O'Neal


    Full Text Available This study examined 24-h post-run hydration status and sweat loss estimation accuracy in college age runners (men = 12, women = 8 after completing a 1-h self-paced outdoor run (wet bulb globe temperature = 19.9 ± 3.0 °C. Sweat losses (1353 ± 422 mL; 1.9% ± 0.5% of body mass were significantly greater (p < 0.001 than perceived losses (686 ± 586 mL. Cumulative fluid consumption equaled 3876 ± 1133 mL (218 ± 178 mL during with 37% of fluid ingested lost through urine voids (1450 ± 678 mL. Fluid balance based on intake and urine production equaled +554 ± 669 mL at 12 h and +1186 ± 735 mL at 24 h. Most runners reported euhydrated (pre-run urine specific gravity (USG = 1.018 ± 0.008 with no changes (p = 0.33 at hours 12 or 24 when both genders were included. However, USG was higher (p = 0.004 at 12 h post-run for men (1.025 ± 0.0070 vs. 1.014 ± 0.007, who consumed 171% ± 40% of sweat losses at 12 h vs. 268% ± 88% for women. Most runners do not need intervention concerning between bout hydration needs in temperate environments. However, repeated USG measurements were able to identify runners who greatly under or over consumed fluid during recovery. Practitioners can use multiple USG assessments as cheap method to detect runners who need to modify their hydration strategies and should promote assessment of sweat losses by change in body mass, as runners had poor perception of sweat losses.

  9. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström


    Full Text Available Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH, which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a to compare energy intake (EI using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water (DLW; and (b to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH was not statistically different from TEE (DLW (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively. No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001. In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  10. Temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolite levels in bedtime, morning, and 24-h urine samples for 50 adults in North Carolina. (United States)

    Morgan, Marsha K; Sobus, Jon R; Barr, Dana Boyd; Croghan, Carry W; Chen, Fu-Lin; Walker, Richard; Alston, Lillian; Andersen, Erik; Clifton, Matthew S


    Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control insects in both agricultural and residential settings worldwide. Few data are available on the temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolites in the urine of non-occupationally exposed adults. In this work, we describe the study design and sampling methodology for the Pilot Study to Estimate Human Exposures to Pyrethroids using an Exposure Reconstruction Approach (Ex-R study). Two major objectives were to quantify the concentrations of several pyrethroid metabolites in bedtime, first morning void (FMV), and 24-h urine samples as concentration (wet weight), specific-gravity (SG) corrected, creatinine (CR) corrected, and excretion rate values for 50 Ex-R adults over a six-week monitoring period and to determine if these correction approaches for urine dilution reduced the variability of the biomarker levels. The Ex-R study was conducted at the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Human Studies Facility in Chapel Hill, North Carolina USA and at participants' homes within a 40-mile radius of this facility. Recruitment of participants and field activities occurred between October 2009 and May 2011. Participants, ages 19-50 years old, provided daily food, activity, and pesticide-use diaries and collected their own urine samples (bedtime, FMV, and 24-h) during weeks 1, 2, and 6 of a six-week monitoring period. A total of 2503 urine samples were collected from the study participants. These samples were analyzed for the pyrethroid metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), cis/trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis/trans-DCCA), and 2-methyl-3-phenylbenzoic acid (MPA) using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Only 3-PBA was frequently detected (>50%) in the adult urine samples. Median urinary 3-PBA levels were 0.88 ng/mL, 0.96 ng/mL-SG, 1.04 ng/mg, and 1.04 ng/min for concentration, SG-corrected, CR-corrected, and excretion rate values, respectively

  11. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of medicines for a variety of illnesses. Prevent or Delay Disease Scientists have found that staying physically active and exercising regularly can help prevent or delay many diseases and disabilities. In some ...

  12. D- and E-region effects in the auroral zone during a moderately active 24-h period in July 2005

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    J. K. Hargreaves


    Full Text Available The effects of energetic electron precipitation into the auroral region at a time of enhanced solar wind have been investigated during a continuous period of 24 h, using the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT radar, an imaging riometer, and particle measurements on an orbiting satellite. The relative effects in the E region (120 km and D region (90 km are found to vary during the day, consistent with a gradual hardening of the incoming electron spectrum from pre-midnight to morning. Whereas the night spectra are single peaked, the daytime spectra are found to be double peaked, suggesting the presence of two distinct populations.

    A comparison between the radiowave absorption observed with the riometer and values estimated from the radar data shows generally good agreement, but with some discrepancies suggesting the occurrence of some small-scale features. The height and thickness of the absorbing region are estimated. Two periods of enhanced precipitation and the related radio absorption, one near magnetic midnight and one in the early morning, are studied in detail, including their horizontal structure and movement of the absorption patches.

    A sharp reduction of electron flux recorded on a POES satellite is related to the edge of an absorption region delineated by the imaging riometer. The observed particle flux is compared with a value deduced from the radar data during the overpass, and found to be in general agreement.

  13. Time dependent effects of stress prior to encoding on event-related potentials and 24 h delayed retrieval. (United States)

    Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Schwabe, Lars; Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom


    Stress can exert profound effects on memory encoding. Here, we investigated whether (sub)cortical information processing during encoding and memory retrieval at a 24 h delayed test are affected by the temporal proximity between stress and memory encoding. Sixty-four participants engaged in the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST) or a no-stress control condition either immediately before (i.e., proximate condition) or 30 min before (i.e., distant condition) a picture encoding task. In general, stress decreased the number of freely recalled and recognized pictures and increased the number of false alarms. However, timing of stress exposure did not differentially affect picture recall, recognition or selective attention processes (i.e., LPP). Nevertheless, stress-induced cortisol responses and correctly recognized neutral pictures were positively associated within the proximate stress condition but negatively associated within the distant stress condition. These findings suggest that the time at which a stressor is applied might differentially impact the association between stress-induced cortisol elevations and memory formation and indicate the need for a finer delineation of the time window during which glucocorticoids affect memory formation processes.

  14. Food intake during the previous 24 h as a percentage of usual intake: a marker of hypoxia in infants with bronchiolitis: an observational, prospective, multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrard François


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia associated with bronchiolitis is not always easy to assess on clinical grounds alone. The aim of this study was to determine the value of food intake during the previous 24 hours (bottle and spoon feeding, as a percentage of usual intake (24h FI, as a marker of hypoxia, and to compare its diagnostic value with that of usual clinical signs. Methods In this observational, prospective, multicenter study, 18 community pediatricians, enrolled 171 infants, aged from 0 to 6 months, with bronchiolitis (rhinorrhea + dyspnea + cough + expiratory sounds. Infants with risk factors (history of prematurity, chronic heart or lung disorders, breast-fed infants, and infants having previously been treated for bronchial disorders were excluded. The 24h FI, subcostal, intercostal, supracostal retractions, nasal flaring, respiratory rate, pauses, cyanosis, rectal temperature and respiratory syncytial virus test results were noted. The highest stable value of transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2 was recorded. Hypoxia was noted if SpO2 was below 95% and verified. Results 24h FI ≥ 50% was associated with a 96% likelihood of SpO2 ≥ 95% [95% CI, 91–99]. In univariate analysis, 24h FI  Conclusion In practice, the measure of 24 h FI may be useful in identifying hypoxia and deserves further study.

  15. Validation of an Online Food Frequency Questionnaire against Doubly Labelled Water and 24 h Dietary Recalls in Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström


    Full Text Available The development of easy-to-use and accurate methods to assess the intake of energy, foods and nutrients in pre-school children is needed. KidMeal-Q is an online food frequency questionnaire developed for the LifeGene prospective cohort study in Sweden. The aims of this study were to compare: (i energy intake (EI obtained using KidMeal-Q to total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water and (ii the intake of certain foods measured using KidMeal-Q to intakes acquired by means of 24 h dietary recalls in 38 children aged 5.5 years. The mean EI calculated using KidMeal-Q was statistically different (p < 0.001 from TEE (4670 ± 1430 kJ/24 h and 6070 ± 690 kJ/24 h, respectively. Significant correlations were observed for vegetables, fruit juice and candy between KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. Only sweetened beverage consumption was significantly different in mean intake (p < 0.001, as measured by KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. In conclusion, KidMeal-Q had a relatively short answering time and comparative validity to other food frequency questionnaires. However, its accuracy needs to be improved before it can be used in studies in pre-school children.

  16. Creatine supplementation does not decrease oxidative stress and inflammation in skeletal muscle after eccentric exercise. (United States)

    Silva, Luciano A; Tromm, Camila B; Da Rosa, Guilherme; Bom, Karoliny; Luciano, Thais F; Tuon, Talita; De Souza, Cláudio T; Pinho, Ricardo A


    Thirty-six male rats were used; divided into 6 groups (n = 6): saline; creatine (Cr); eccentric exercise (EE) plus saline 24 h (saline + 24 h); eccentric exercise plus Cr 24 h (Cr + 24 h); eccentric exercise plus saline 48 h (saline + 48 h); and eccentric exercise plus Cr 48 h (Cr + 48 h). Cr supplementation was administered as a solution of 300 mg · kg body weight(-1) · day(-1) in 1 mL water, for two weeks, before the eccentric exercise. The animals were submitted to one downhill run session at 1.0 km · h(-1) until exhaustion. Twenty-four and forty-eight hours after the exercise, the animals were killed, and the quadriceps were removed. Creatine kinase levels, superoxide production, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, carbonyl content, total thiol content, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, interleukin-1b (IL-1β), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kb), and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) were analysed. Cr supplementation neither decreases Cr kinase, superoxide production, lipoperoxidation, carbonylation, total thiol, IL-1β, NF-kb, or TNF nor alters the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxides in relation to the saline group, respectively (P eccentric exercise. The present study suggests that Cr supplementation does not decrease oxidative stress and inflammation after eccentric contraction.

  17. The importance of utilizing 24-h Holter monitoring as a non-invasive method of predicting the mechanism of supraventricular tachycardia. (United States)

    Al Mehairi, M; Al Ghamdi, S A; Dagriri, K; Al Fagih, A


    Despite the emergence of advanced invasive technology in identifying the various types of arrhythmia mechanisms, 24-h ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring as a non-invasive method remains an invaluable informative tool in delineating such mechanisms. Furthermore, one observational study has supported the utilization of 24-h Holter monitoring in exploring AV Node (AVN) characteristics sufficiently in correlation with invasive studies when limited to patients without Wolf Parkinson White syndrome showing a positive predictive value of 98% in their supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) assessment (Fukuda et al., 2005). We describe in this report suspected tachycardia initiation mechanism in three SVT cases based on 24-h Holter recordings. Premature atrial contraction with subsequent AVN fast pathway conduction block initiated the common type AVN re-entrant tachycardia (AVNRT). Dual AVN physiology was documented during the electrophysiological studies in all three cases and a definitive therapy was achieved by the AVN slow pathway modification.

  18. Low-load high volume resistance exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis more than high-load low volume resistance exercise in young men.

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    Nicholas A Burd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the effect of resistance exercise intensity (%1 repetition maximum-1RM and volume on muscle protein synthesis, anabolic signaling, and myogenic gene expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifteen men (21+/-1 years; BMI=24.1+/-0.8 kg/m2 performed 4 sets of unilateral leg extension exercise at different exercise loads and/or volumes: 90% of repetition maximum (1RM until volitional failure (90FAIL, 30% 1RM work-matched to 90%FAIL (30WM, or 30% 1RM performed until volitional failure (30FAIL. Infusion of [ring-13C6] phenylalanine with biopsies was used to measure rates of mixed (MIX, myofibrillar (MYO, and sarcoplasmic (SARC protein synthesis at rest, and 4 h and 24 h after exercise. Exercise at 30WM induced a significant increase above rest in MIX (121% and MYO (87% protein synthesis at 4 h post-exercise and but at 24 h in the MIX only. The increase in the rate of protein synthesis in MIX and MYO at 4 h post-exercise with 90FAIL and 30FAIL was greater than 30WM, with no difference between these conditions; however, MYO remained elevated (199% above rest at 24 h only in 30FAIL. There was a significant increase in AktSer473 at 24h in all conditions (P=0.023 and mTORSer2448 phosphorylation at 4 h post-exercise (P=0.025. Phosporylation of Erk1/2Tyr202/204, p70S6KThr389, and 4E-BP1Thr37/46 increased significantly (P<0.05 only in the 30FAIL condition at 4 h post-exercise, whereas, 4E-BP1Thr37/46 phosphorylation was greater 24 h after exercise than at rest in both 90FAIL (237% and 30FAIL (312% conditions. Pax7 mRNA expression increased at 24 h post-exercise (P=0.02 regardless of condition. The mRNA expression of MyoD and myogenin were consistently elevated in the 30FAIL condition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that low-load high volume resistance exercise is more effective in inducing acute muscle anabolism than high-load low volume or work matched resistance exercise modes.

  19. Long-term invariant parameters obtained from 24-h Holter recordings: A comparison between different analysis techniques (United States)

    Cerutti, Sergio; Esposti, Federico; Ferrario, Manuela; Sassi, Roberto; Signorini, Maria Gabriella


    Over the last two decades, a large number of different methods had been used to study the fractal-like behavior of the heart rate variability (HRV). In this paper some of the most used techniques were reviewed. In particular, the focus is set on those methods which characterize the long memory behavior of time series (in particular, periodogram, detrended fluctuation analysis, rescale range analysis, scaled window variance, Higuchi dimension, wavelet-transform modulus maxima, and generalized structure functions). The performances of the different techniques were tested on simulated self-similar noises (fBm and fGn) for values of α, the slope of the spectral density for very small frequency, ranging from -1 to 3 with a 0.05 step. The check was performed using the scaling relationships between the various indices. DFA and periodogram showed the smallest mean square error from the expected values in the range of interest for HRV. Building on the results obtained from these tests, the effective ability of the different methods in discriminating different populations of patients from RR series derived from Holter recordings, was assessed. To this extent, the Noltisalis database was used. It consists of a set of 30, 24-h Holter recordings collected from healthy subjects, patients suffering from congestive heart failure, and heart transplanted patients. All the methods, with the exception at most of rescale range analysis, were almost equivalent in distinguish between the three groups of patients. Finally, the scaling relationships, valid for fBm and fGn, when empirically used on HRV series, also approximately held.

  20. Sleep-like behavior and 24-h rhythm disruption in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome. (United States)

    Heise, I; Fisher, S P; Banks, G T; Wells, S; Peirson, S N; Foster, R G; Nolan, P M


    Down syndrome is a common disorder associated with intellectual disability in humans. Among a variety of severe health problems, patients with Down syndrome exhibit disrupted sleep and abnormal 24-h rest/activity patterns. The transchromosomic mouse model of Down syndrome, Tc1, is a trans-species mouse model for Down syndrome, carrying most of human chromosome 21 in addition to the normal complement of mouse chromosomes and expresses many of the phenotypes characteristic of Down syndrome. To date, however, sleep and circadian rhythms have not been characterized in Tc1 mice. Using both circadian wheel-running analysis and video-based sleep scoring, we showed that these mice exhibited fragmented patterns of sleep-like behaviour during the light phase of a 12:12-h light/dark (LD) cycle with an extended period of continuous wakefulness at the beginning of the dark phase. Moreover, an acute light pulse during night-time was less effective in inducing sleep-like behaviour in Tc1 animals than in wild-type controls. In wheel-running analysis, free running in constant light (LL) or constant darkness (DD) showed no changes in the circadian period of Tc1 animals although they did express subtle behavioural differences including a reduction in total distance travelled on the wheel and differences in the acrophase of activity in LD and in DD. Our data confirm that Tc1 mice express sleep-related phenotypes that are comparable with those seen in Down syndrome patients with moderate disruptions in rest/activity patterns and hyperactive episodes, while circadian period under constant lighting conditions is essentially unaffected.

  1. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Campos Monteiro de Castro


    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29% died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33% up to 24 hours and 97 (54% up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53, 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88, male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47. A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71. Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred.

  2. Twice daily melatonin peaks in Siberian but not Syrian hamsters under 24 h light:dark:light:dark cycles. (United States)

    Raiewski, Evan E; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Evans, Jennifer A; Glickman, Gena L; Gorman, Michael R


    The daily pattern of blood-borne melatonin varies seasonally under the control of a multi-oscillator circadian pacemaker. Here we examine patterns of melatonin secretion and locomotor activity in Siberian and Syrian hamsters entrained to bimodal LDLD8:4:8:4 and LD20:4 lighting schedules that facilitate novel temporal arrangements of component circadian oscillators. Under LDLD, both species robustly bifurcated wheel-running activity in distinct day scotophase (DS) and night scotophase (NS) bouts. Siberian hamsters displayed significant melatonin increases during each scotophase in LDLD, and in the single daily scotophase of LD20:4. The bimodal melatonin secretion pattern persisted in acutely extended 16 h scotophases. Syrian hamsters, in contrast, showed no significant increases in plasma melatonin during either scotophase of LDLD8:4:8:4 or in LD20:4. In this species, detectable levels were observed only when the DS of LDLD was acutely extended to yield 16 h of darkness. Established species differences in the phase lag of nocturnal melatonin secretion relative to activity onset may underlie the above contrast: In non-bifurcated entrainment to 24 h LD cycles, Siberian hamsters show increased melatonin secretion within ≈ 2 h after activity onset, whereas in Syrian hamsters, detectable melatonin secretion phase lags activity onset and the L/D transition by at least 4 h. The present results provide new evidence indicating multi-oscillator regulation of the waveform of melatonin secretion, specifically, the circadian control of the onset, offset and duration of nocturnal secretion.

  3. Impact of exercise and dietary fatty acid composition from a high-fat diet on markers of hunger and satiety. (United States)

    Cooper, J A; Watras, A C; Paton, C M; Wegner, F H; Adams, A K; Schoeller, D A


    To compare the effects of both dietary fatty acid composition and exercise vs. sedentary conditions on circulating levels of hunger and satiety hormones. Eight healthy males were randomized in a 2 × 2 crossover design. The four treatments were 3 days of HF diets (50% of energy) containing high saturated fat (22% of energy) with exercise (SE) or sedentary (SS) conditions, and high monounsaturated fat (30% of energy) with exercise (UE) or sedentary (US) conditions. Cycling exercise was completed at 45% of VO(2)max for 2h daily. On the third HF day, 20 blood samples were drawn over a 24h period for each hormone (leptin, insulin, ghrelin, and peptide YY (PYY)). A visual analog scale (VAS) was completed hourly between 0800 and 2200. Average 24h leptin and insulin levels were lower while 24h PYY was higher during exercise vs. sedentary conditions. FA composition did not differentially affect 24h hormone values. VAS scores for hunger and fullness did not differ between any treatment but did correlate with ghrelin, leptin, and insulin. High saturated or unsaturated fat diets did not differ with respect to markers of hunger or satiety. Exercise decreased 24h leptin and insulin while increasing PYY regardless of FA composition.

  4. Exercise Headaches (United States)

    ... exercise headaches if you: Exercise in hot weather Exercise at high altitude Have a personal or family history of migraine You're likely ... verify that you have the harmless variety of exercise headache, rather than the type ... images of the structures within your brain. Magnetic resonance ...

  5. Preliminary nutritional assessment of the Ecuadorian diet based on a 24-h food recall survey in Ecuador. (United States)

    Sánchez-Llaguno, S N; Neira-Mosquera, J A; Pérez-Rodríguez, F; Moreno Rojas, R


    Objetivos: Realizar una evaluación nutricional de la dieta ecuatoriana y determinar el porcentaje de contribución de la ingesta de diferentes nutrientes en función del tipo de comida (desayuno, almuerzo, comida, merienda, y cena) y de la Referencia de Ingesta Dietética (RID). Métodos: Se realizó una encuesta piloto basada en el método del recordatorio de alimentación de 24 h en tres regiones concretas de Ecuador y se procesó la información recogida, se analizó y se comparó con las RID establecidas para la población latinoamericana. Resultados: El estudio encontró diferencias significativas para energía y ciertas vitaminas en hombres y en mujeres, además de determinar que la mayor contribución energética se obtenía en la comida, seguida de la merienda y el desayuno. Las comidas intermedias (almuerzo, merienda y cena) contribuían de una manera significativamente menor en la dieta diaria en comparación con otros tipos de comidas. Además, se observó que las ingestas analizadas no alcanzaban las RID para hidratos de carbono, algunas vitaminas (tiamina, ácido pantoténico, biotina, folato, vitamina D y vitamina E) y minerales (Ca, K, Cu, Mn, I y Fe). La ingesta de NA estaba bastante por encima de las RID y el Límite Superior Tolerable proporcionado por la USDA, lo que indica un problema de salud pública en relación con este electrolito. Conclusiones: Esta encuesta piloto puede considerarse como un punto de partida para obtener una visión más profunda de la dieta ecuatoriana. Esto permitirá determinar los patrones de consumo que afectan al bienestar de la población y establecer efectos positivos y efectos adversos del patrón de consumo en Ecuador.

  6. Free fruit at workplace intervention increases total fruit intake: a validation study using 24 h dietary recall and urinary flavonoid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz; Bredsdorff, Lea; Alinia, Sevil;


    , isorhamnetin, tamarixetin, kaempferol, hesperetin, naringenin, eriodictyol, daidzein, genistein, and phloretin, were measured using HPLC-electrospray ionization-MS. Results: The 24 h urinary excretion of total flavonoids and the estimated intake of fruits were significantly correlated (r(s) = 0.31, P...

  7. Feasibility of 2 x 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft, among schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Amiano, P.; Ege, Majken


    Background/Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 x 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft (the software de...

  8. Three 15-min bouts of moderate postmeal walking significantly improves 24-h glycemic control in older people at risk for impaired glucose tolerance (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three 15-min bouts of postmeal walking with 45 min of sustained walking on 24-h glycemic control in older persons at risk for glucose intolerance. Inactive older (=60 years of age) participants (N = 10) were recruited from the community a...

  9. Dietary reporting errors on 24 h recalls and dietary questionnaires are associated with BMI across six European countries as evaluated with recovery biomarkers for protein and potassium intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freisling, Heinz; van Bakel, Marit M. E.; Biessy, Carine; May, Anne M.; Byrnes, Graham; Norat, Teresa; Rinaldi, Sabina; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Grioni, Sara; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ocke, Marga C.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romaguera, Dora; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Crowe, Francesca L.; Tumino, Rosario; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Boeing, Heiner; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H.; Slimani, Nadia


    Whether there are differences between countries in the validity of self-reported diet in relation to BMI, as evaluated using recovery biomarkers, is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate BMI-related reporting errors on 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and on dietary questionnaires (DQ) using biomar

  10. Structural biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid within 24 h after a traumatic spinal cord injury: a descriptive analysis of 16 subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouw, M.H.; Kwon, B.K.; Verbeek, M.M.; Vos, P.E.; Kampen, A. van; Fisher, C.G.; Street, J.; Paquette, S.J.; Dvorak, M.F.; Boyd, M.C.; Hosman, A.J.F.; Meent, H. van de


    Study design:Prospective cohort study.Objectives:To characterize the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron specific enolase (NSE), S-100beta, tau and neurofilament heavy chain (NFH) within 24 h of an acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), and to corre

  11. Off-hours admission and mortality in two pediatric intensive care units without 24-h in-house senior staff attendance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Babette; Jansen, Nicolaas J. G.; Bollen, Casper W.; van Vught, Adrianus J.; van der Heide, Douwe; Albers, Marcel J. I. J.


    To compare risk-adjusted mortality of children non-electively admitted during off-hours with risk-adjusted mortality of children admitted during office hours to two pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) without 24-h in-house attendance of senior staff. Prospective observational study, performed bet

  12. Validation of digital photographs, as a tool in 24-h recall, for the improvement of dietary assessment among rural populations in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarte Claudia E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvement of traditional methods for dietary assessment is necessary, especially in rural areas where it is more difficult to succeed with self-reporting methods. This study presents and validates a method for improving accuracy when measuring food and nutrient intake of individuals in rural areas. It is called the “Food photography 24-h recall method” (FP 24-hR and is a modified 24-h recall with the addition of a digital food photography record and a photo atlas. Methods The study was carried out in a rural area in the tropical region of Bolivia; 45 women participated. Validation of the method was made by comparing it with a reference method, the Weighed Food Record (WFR. During the FP 24-hR, digital photographs were taken by the subjects of all food consumed during a day and a 24-h recall questionnaire was conducted by an interviewer. An estimate of the amount of food consumed was made using a photo atlas and the photographs taken by the subjects. For validation, comparison was made between the calculations, by both methods, of the levels of food, and nutrient, intake. Results The comparison was made in 10 food categories; most of which were somewhat underestimated from −2.3% (cassava to −6.8% (rice, except for beverages (+1.6% and leafy vegetables (+8.7%, which were overestimated. Spearman’s correlation coefficients were highly significant (r from 0.75 for eggs to 0.98 for potato and cassava. Nutrient intakes calculated with data from both methods showed small differences from -0.90% (vitamin C to -5.98% (fat. Although all nutrients were somewhat underestimated, Pearson′s coefficients are high (>0.93 for all and statistically significant. Bland Altman analysis showed that differences between both methods were random and did not exhibit any systematic bias over levels of food and nutrient intake, with acceptable 95% limits of agreement. Conclusion The FP 24-hR exhibits acceptable differences when compared with

  13. Exercise-induced metallothionein expression in human skeletal muscle fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Keller, Pernille; Keller, Charlotte;


    in both type I and II muscle fibres. This is the first report demonstrating that MT-I + II are significantly induced in human skeletal muscle fibres following exercise. As MT-I + II are antioxidant factors that protect various tissues during pathological conditions, the MT-I + II increases post exercise......Exercise induces free oxygen radicals that cause oxidative stress, and metallothioneins (MTs) are increased in states of oxidative stress and possess anti-apoptotic effects. We therefore studied expression of the antioxidant factors metallothionein I and II (MT-I + II) in muscle biopsies obtained...... in response to 3 h of bicycle exercise performed by healthy men and in resting controls. Both MT-I + II proteins and MT-II mRNA expression increased significantly in both type I and II muscle fibres after exercise. Moreover, 24 h after exercise the levels of MT-II mRNA and MT-I + II proteins were still highly...

  14. Effects of concentric and repeated eccentric exercise on muscle damage and calpain-calpastatin gene expression in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, K.; Overgaard, K.; Nedergaard, A.


    , and was compared to a control-group (n = 6). Muscle strength and soreness and plasma creatine kinase and myoglobin were measured before and during 7 days following exercise bouts. Muscle biopsies were collected from m. vastus lateralis of both legs prior to and at 3, 24 h and 7 days after exercise and quantified...... for muscle Ca2+-content and mRNA levels for calpain isoforms and calpastatin. Exercise reduced muscle strength and increased muscle soreness predominantly in the eccentric leg (P ... eccentric exercise bout (P muscle Ca2+-content did not differ between interventions. mRNA levels for calpain 2 and calpastatin were upregulated exclusively by eccentric exercise 24 h post-exercise (P

  15. Simulation Exercises (United States)

    Tansey, Pat


    Describes five simulation exercises: a problem for a student teacher, an industrial relations game, a series of student problems; an international relations crisis, and a sociological exercise on public and private opinions. (LS)

  16. The effects of compression garments on performance of prolonged manual-labour exercise and recovery. (United States)

    Chan, Val; Duffield, Rob; Watsford, Mark


    This study investigated the effects of wearing compression garments during and 24 h following a 4-h exercise protocol simulating manual-labour tasks. Ten physically trained male participants, familiar with labouring activities, undertook 4 h of work tasks characteristic of industrial workplaces. Participants completed 2 testing sessions, separated by at least 1 week. In the experimental condition, participants wore a full-length compression top and compression shorts during the exercise protocol and overnight recovery, with normal work clothes worn in the control condition. Testing for serum creatine kinase and C-reactive protein, handgrip strength, knee flexion and extension torque, muscle stiffness, perceived muscle soreness and fatigue as well as heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) responses to 4-min cycling were performed before, following, and 24 h after exercise. Creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and rating of perceived fatigue increased following the exercise protocol (p 0.05). Knee extension torque was significantly higher in the control condition at 24 h postexercise (3.1% ± 5.4% change; compression: 2.2% ± 11.1% change), although no other variables were different between conditions at any time. However, compression demonstrated a moderate-large effect (d > 0.60) to reduce perceived muscle soreness, fatigue, and RPE from standardised warm-up at 24 h postexercise. The current findings suggest that compression may assist in perceptual recovery from manual-labour exercise with implications for the ability to perform subsequent work bouts.

  17. Central amygdala opioid transmission is necessary for increased high-fat intake following 24-h food deprivation, but not following intra-accumbens opioid administration. (United States)

    Parker, Kyle E; Johns, Howard W; Floros, Ted G; Will, Matthew J


    Previous research has demonstrated a dissociation of certain neural mediators that contribute to the increased consumption of a high-fat diet that follows intra-accumbens (Acb) administration of μ-opioid receptor agonists vs. 24-h food deprivation. These two models, both which induce rapid consumption of the diet, have been shown to involve a distributed corticolimbic circuitry, including the amygdala. Specifically, the central amygdala (CeA) has been shown to be involved in high-fat feeding within both opioid and food-deprivation driven models. The present experiments were conducted to examine the more specific role of CeA opioid transmission in mediating high-fat feeding driven by either intra-Acb administration of the μ-opioid agonist d-Ala2-NMe-Phe4-Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO) or 24-h home cage food deprivation. Injection of DAMGO into the Acb (0.25 μg/0.5 μl/side) increased consumption of the high-fat diet, but this feeding was unaffected by administration of opioid antagonist, naltrexone (5 μg/0.25 μl/side) administered into the CeA. In contrast, intra-CeA naltrexone administration attenuated high-fat intake driven by 24-h food deprivation, demonstrating a specific role for CeA opioid transmission in high-fat consumption. Intra-CeA naltrexone administration alone had no effect on baseline feeding levels within either feeding model. These findings suggest that CeA opioid transmission mediates consumption of a palatable high-fat diet driven by short-term negative-energy balance (24-h food deprivation), but not intra-Acb opioid receptor activation.

  18. The acceptability of repeat Internet-based hybrid diet assessment of previous 24-h dietary intake: administration of the Oxford WebQ in UK Biobank. (United States)

    Galante, Julieta; Adamska, Ligia; Young, Alan; Young, Heather; Littlejohns, Thomas J; Gallacher, John; Allen, Naomi


    Although dietary intake over a single 24-h period may be atypical of an individual's habitual pattern, multiple 24-h dietary assessments can be representative of habitual intake and help in assessing seasonal variation. Web-based questionnaires are convenient for the participant and result in automatic data capture for study investigators. This study reports on the acceptability of repeated web-based administration of the Oxford WebQ--a 24-h recall of frequency from a set food list suitable for self-completion from which energy and nutrient values can be automatically generated. As part of the UK Biobank study, four invitations to complete the Oxford WebQ were sent by email over a 16-month period. Overall, 176 012 (53% of those invited) participants completed the online version of the Oxford WebQ at least once and 66% completed it more than once, although only 16% completed it on all four occasions. The response rate for any one round of invitations varied between 34 and 26%. On most occasions, the Oxford WebQ was completed on the same day that they received the invitation, although this was less likely if sent on a weekend. Participants who completed the Oxford WebQ tended to be white, female, slightly older, less deprived and more educated, which is typical of health-conscious volunteer-based studies. These findings provide preliminary evidence to suggest that repeated 24-h dietary assessment via the Internet is acceptable to the public and a feasible strategy for large population-based studies.

  19. Evaluation of reduction of Fraser incubation by 24h in the EN ISO 11290-1 standard on detection and diversity of Listeria species. (United States)

    Gnanou Besse, Nathalie; Favret, Sandra; Desreumaux, Jennifer; Decourseulles Brasseur, Emilie; Kalmokoff, Martin


    The EN ISO 11290-1 method for the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from food is carried out using a double enrichment in Fraser broths. While the method is effective it is also quite long requiring 4-7 days to process a contaminated food, and may be adversely affected by inter-strain and/or inter-species competition in samples containing mixed Listeria populations. Currently, we have little information on the impact of competition on food testing under routine conditions. Food samples (n=130) were analyzed using the standard method and the evolution of Listeria populations in 89 naturally contaminated samples followed over the entire enrichment process. In most instances, maximum increase in L. monocytogenes population occurred over the first 24h following sub-culture in Full Fraser broth and strain recovery was similar at both 24 and 48 h, indicating that the second enrichment step can be reduced by 24h without impacting the recovery of L. monocytogenes or affecting the sensitivity of the method. In approximately 6% of naturally contaminated samples the presence of competing Listeria species adversely impacted L. monocytogenes population levels. Moreover, these effects were more pronounced during the latter 24h of the Fraser enrichment, and potentially could affect or complicate the isolation of these strains.

  20. Exercise addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask


    of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels......Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications...

  1. Exercise addiction. (United States)

    Landolfi, Emilio


    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.

  2. Accuracy of GFR estimation formula in determination of glomerular filtration rate in kidney donors: Comparison with 24 h urine creatinine clearance. (United States)

    Hafeez, Abdul Rauf; Idrees, Muhammad Khalid; Akhtar, Syed Fazal


    To determine the accuracy of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD), Cockcroft-Gault (CG), and chronic kidney disease epidemiology (CKD-EPI) formulas in potential kidney donors compared with 24-h urine creatinine clearance, we studied 207 potential live kidney donors in our center. There were 126 (60.9%) males and 81 (39.1%) females. Male:female ratio was 1.6:1. The age of the donors ranged from 18-58 years, with mean age of 35.30 ± 9.23 years and most of the individuals were below 40 years of age. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated and venous blood samples were obtained for the measurement of serum creatinine and every study participant was instructed to collect 24-h urine. GFR was calculated based on 24-h urine creatinine clearance and the formulas. The accuracy of GFR estimation formula was taken as positive if the GFR calculated by the formulas and urine creatinine clearance fell between 90-120 mL/min/1.73 m(2). The accuracy of the MDRD formula was 48.8% and the CG formula was 41.5% whereas the accuracy of the CKD-EPI formula was 78.2%. The accuracy of the eGFR using the MDRD formula was significantly higher in males than females (57.9% vs. 33.3% P = 0.001), while there was no statistically significant difference in the eGFR between them in case of the use of the CG and the CKD-EPI formulas. BMI and obesity had no effect on the accuracy of eGFR by the use of the different formulas. The performance of GFR estimation formulas was sub optimal and these either underestimated and/or over-estimated the GFR in healthy subjects. CKD-EPI is closer to 24 -h urinary creatinine clearance in the calculation of eGFR. However, none of the eGFR formulas can be used in renal transplant donors because of their low accuracy, and 24-h urine creatinine clearance should be used for evaluation of the GFR in this population.

  3. Modification over time of pulse wave velocity parallel to changes in aortic BP, as well as in 24-h ambulatory brachial BP. (United States)

    Oliveras, A; Segura, J; Suarez, C; García-Ortiz, L; Abad-Cardiel, M; Vigil, L; Gómez-Marcos, M A; Sans Atxer, L; Martell-Claros, N; Ruilope, L M; de la Sierra, A


    Arterial stiffness as assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) is a marker of preclinical organ damage and a predictor of cardiovascular outcomes, independently of blood pressure (BP). However, limited evidence exists on the association between long-term variation (Δ) on aortic BP (aoBP) and ΔcfPWV. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of ΔBP with ΔcfPWV over time, as assessed by office and 24-h ambulatory peripheral BP, and aoBP. AoBP and cfPWV were evaluated in 209 hypertensive patients with either diabetes or metabolic syndrome by applanation tonometry (Sphygmocor) at baseline(b) and at 12 months of follow-up(fu). Peripheral BP was also determined by using validated oscillometric devices (office(o)-BP) and on an outpatient basis by using a validated (Spacelabs-90207) device (24-h ambulatory BP). ΔcfPWV over time was calculated as follows: ΔcfPWV=[(cfPWVfu-cfPWVb)/cfPWVb] × 100. ΔBP over time resulted from the same formula applied to BP values obtained with the three different measurement techniques. Correlations (Spearman 'Rho') between ΔBP and ΔcfPWV were calculated. Mean age was 62 years, 39% were female and 80% had type 2 diabetes. Baseline office brachial BP (mm Hg) was 143±20/82±12. Follow-up (12 months later) office brachial BP (mm Hg) was 136±20/79±12. ΔcfPWV correlated with ΔoSBP (Rho=0.212; P=0.002), Δ24-h SBP (Rho=0.254; PSBP (Rho=0.232; P=0.001), Δnighttime SBP (Rho=0.320; PSBP, Δdaytime SBP, Δnighttime SBP and ΔaoSBP. ΔcfPWV was independently associated with Δ24-h SBP (β-coefficient=0.195; P=0.012) and ΔaoSBP (β-coefficient= 0.185; P=0.018). We conclude that changes in both 24-h SBP and aoSBP more accurately reflect changes in arterial stiffness than do office BP measurements.

  4. Accuracy of GFR estimation formula in determination of glomerular filtration rate in kidney donors: Comparison with 24 h urine creatinine clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rauf Hafeez


    Full Text Available To determine the accuracy of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR using the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD, Cockcroft-Gault (CG, and chronic kidney disease epidemiology (CKD-EPI formulas in potential kidney donors compared with 24-h urine creatinine clearance, we studied 207 potential live kidney donors in our center. There were 126 (60.9% males and 81 (39.1% females. Male:female ratio was 1.6:1. The age of the donors ranged from 18-58 years, with mean age of 35.30 ± 9.23 years and most of the individuals were below 40 years of age. The body mass index (BMI was calculated and venous blood samples were obtained for the measurement of serum creatinine and every study participant was instructed to collect 24-h urine. GFR was calculated based on 24-h urine creatinine clearance and the formulas. The accuracy of GFR estimation formula was taken as positive if the GFR calculated by the formulas and urine creatinine clearance fell between 90-120 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . The accuracy of the MDRD formula was 48.8% and the CG formula was 41.5% whereas the accuracy of the CKD-EPI formula was 78.2%. The accuracy of the eGFR using the MDRD formula was significantly higher in males than females (57.9% vs. 33.3% P = 0.001, while there was no statistically significant difference in the eGFR between them in case of the use of the CG and the CKD-EPI formulas. BMI and obesity had no effect on the accuracy of eGFR by the use of the different formulas. The performance of GFR estimation formulas was sub optimal and these either underestimated and/or over-estimated the GFR in healthy subjects. CKD-EPI is closer to 24 -h urinary creatinine clearance in the calculation of eGFR. However, none of the eGFR formulas can be used in renal transplant donors because of their low accuracy, and 24-h urine creatinine clearance should be used for evaluation of the GFR in this population.

  5. Exercise and age (United States)

    ... It is never too late to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry if you ... to tie your shoes Alternative Names Age and exercise Images Benefit of regular exercise Flexibility exercise Exercise and age ...

  6. Anabolic responses to acute and chronic resistance exercise are enhanced when combined with aquatic treadmill exercise. (United States)

    Lambert, Brad S; Shimkus, Kevin L; Fluckey, James D; Riechman, Steven E; Greene, Nicholas P; Cardin, Jessica M; Crouse, Stephen F


    Aquatic treadmill (ATM) running may simultaneously promote aerobic fitness and enhance muscle growth when combined with resistance training (RT) compared with land-treadmill (LTM) running. Therefore, we examined acute and chronic physiological responses to RT, concurrent RT-LTM, and concurrent RT-ATM. Forty-seven untrained volunteers (men: n = 23, 37 ± 11 yr, 29.6 ± 4.6 kg/m(2); women: n = 24, 38 ± 12 yr, 27.53 ± 6.4 kg/m(2)) from the general population were tested for V̇o2max, body composition, and strength before and after training. All groups performed 12 wk of RT (2 wk, 3 × 8-12 sets at 60 to approximately 80% 1-repetition maximum). The RT-LTM and RT-ATM groups also performed 12 wk of LTM or ATM training (2 wk immediately post-RT and 1 wk in isolation, 60-85% V̇o2max, 250-500 kcal/session). Additionally, 25 subjects volunteered for muscle biopsy prior to and 24 h post-acute exercise before and after training. Stable isotope labeling (70% (2)H2O, 3 ml/kg) was utilized to quantify 24 h post-exercise myofibrillar fractional synthesis rates (myoFSR). Mixed-model ANOVA revealed that RT-ATM but not RT-LTM training produced greater chronic increases in lean mass than RT alone (P exercise elicited higher 24-h myoFSRs compared with RT (+5.68%/day, P exercise and training elicit greater skeletal muscle anabolism than RT alone or RT-LTM.

  7. Effects of Different Exercise Modes on the Urinary Metabolic Fingerprint of Men with and without Metabolic Syndrome. (United States)

    Siopi, Aikaterina; Deda, Olga; Manou, Vasiliki; Kellis, Spyros; Kosmidis, Ioannis; Komninou, Despina; Raikos, Nikolaos; Christoulas, Kosmas; Theodoridis, Georgios A; Mougios, Vassilis


    Exercise is important in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of risk factors that raises morbidity. Metabolomics can facilitate the optimization of exercise prescription. This study aimed to investigate whether the response of the human urinary metabolic fingerprint to exercise depends on the presence of MetS or exercise mode. Twenty-three sedentary men (MetS, n = 9, and Healthy, n = 14) completed four trials: resting, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CME), and resistance exercise (RE). Urine samples were collected pre-exercise and at 2, 4, and 24 h for targeted analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Time exerted the strongest differentiating effect, followed by exercise mode and health status. The greatest changes were observed in the first post-exercise samples, with a gradual return to baseline at 24 h. RE caused the greatest responses overall, followed by HIIE, while CME had minimal effect. The metabolic fingerprints of the two groups were separated at 2 h, after HIIE and RE; and at 4 h, after HIIE, with evidence of blunted response to exercise in MetS. Our findings show diverse responses of the urinary metabolic fingerprint to different exercise modes in men with and without metabolic syndrome.

  8. Effects of Different Exercise Modes on the Urinary Metabolic Fingerprint of Men with and without Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterina Siopi


    Full Text Available Exercise is important in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, a cluster of risk factors that raises morbidity. Metabolomics can facilitate the optimization of exercise prescription. This study aimed to investigate whether the response of the human urinary metabolic fingerprint to exercise depends on the presence of MetS or exercise mode. Twenty-three sedentary men (MetS, n = 9, and Healthy, n = 14 completed four trials: resting, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE, continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CME, and resistance exercise (RE. Urine samples were collected pre-exercise and at 2, 4, and 24 h for targeted analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Time exerted the strongest differentiating effect, followed by exercise mode and health status. The greatest changes were observed in the first post-exercise samples, with a gradual return to baseline at 24 h. RE caused the greatest responses overall, followed by HIIE, while CME had minimal effect. The metabolic fingerprints of the two groups were separated at 2 h, after HIIE and RE; and at 4 h, after HIIE, with evidence of blunted response to exercise in MetS. Our findings show diverse responses of the urinary metabolic fingerprint to different exercise modes in men with and without metabolic syndrome.

  9. Effects of Different Exercise Modes on the Urinary Metabolic Fingerprint of Men with and without Metabolic Syndrome (United States)

    Siopi, Aikaterina; Deda, Olga; Manou, Vasiliki; Kellis, Spyros; Kosmidis, Ioannis; Komninou, Despina; Raikos, Nikolaos; Christoulas, Kosmas; Theodoridis, Georgios A.; Mougios, Vassilis


    Exercise is important in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of risk factors that raises morbidity. Metabolomics can facilitate the optimization of exercise prescription. This study aimed to investigate whether the response of the human urinary metabolic fingerprint to exercise depends on the presence of MetS or exercise mode. Twenty-three sedentary men (MetS, n = 9, and Healthy, n = 14) completed four trials: resting, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CME), and resistance exercise (RE). Urine samples were collected pre-exercise and at 2, 4, and 24 h for targeted analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Time exerted the strongest differentiating effect, followed by exercise mode and health status. The greatest changes were observed in the first post-exercise samples, with a gradual return to baseline at 24 h. RE caused the greatest responses overall, followed by HIIE, while CME had minimal effect. The metabolic fingerprints of the two groups were separated at 2 h, after HIIE and RE; and at 4 h, after HIIE, with evidence of blunted response to exercise in MetS. Our findings show diverse responses of the urinary metabolic fingerprint to different exercise modes in men with and without metabolic syndrome. PMID:28134772

  10. A pilot study to investigate the effect of a hydration regime upon immediate and 24 h delayed MRI contrast agent reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, William [Medical Imaging, Leighton Hospital, Mid Cheshire Hospital Trust, Middlewich Road, Crewe, Cheshire CW1 4QJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Marshall, Gill [Chair of Faculty Academic Standards International Projects Leader, Faculty of Health and Social Care, St. Martin' s College, Lancaster LA1 3JD (United Kingdom); Coals, Jacqui [Medical Imaging, Leighton Hospital, Mid Cheshire Hospital Trust, Middlewich Road, Crewe, Cheshire CW1 4QJ (United Kingdom)


    Purpose: Adverse reaction rates to gadolinium based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents which occur immediately post-injection are well documented. However little research has investigated delayed reaction rates (i.e. 30 min-24 h). This study evaluated the rate of immediate and delayed adverse reaction rates to a gadolinium based MRI contrast agent (Dotarem) and investigated the effect of a hydration regime on the rate of adverse events. Method: Fifty-eight patients received no preparation, prior to administration of the contrast agent, whilst another 58 underwent a hydration protocol. The patients had their answers to a questionnaire recorded immediately after the scanning procedure and also via a follow-up telephone call 24 h later. Results: In the unprepared group 9 patients (15.5%) experienced immediate adverse events, i.e. within 0-30 min, whereas 24 (41.4%) experienced delayed reactions (30 min-24 h) after administration of the contrast agent. In the hydrated patient group 6 (10.3%) experienced an immediate adverse event, whilst 8 (13.7%) experienced delayed events post-injection. The difference in the total reaction rates for the unprepared and hydrated groups was statistically significant for immediate and delayed reactions. The difference in the rates of delayed headache, nausea, dizziness and problems with the injection site, for the unprepared and hydrated groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: An oral hydration regime administered to patients, both before and after MRI contrast agent administration significantly reduced the total number of immediate and delayed reactions. It also significantly reduced delayed headache, nausea, dizziness and problems at the injection site. Whilst this pilot study had methodological shortcomings, the strength of the relationship demonstrated are worthy of further investigation.

  11. Nocturnal sleep-related variables from 24-h free-living waist-worn accelerometry: International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (United States)

    Tudor-Locke, C; Mire, E F; Barreira, T V; Schuna, J M; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kurpad, A; Kuriyan, R; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Zhao, P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T


    Objectives: We describe the process of identifying and defining nocturnal sleep-related variables (for example, movement/non-movement indicators of sleep efficiency, waking episodes, midpoint and so on) using the unique 24-h waist-worn free-living accelerometer data collected in the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE). Methods: Seven consecutive days of 24-h waist-worn accelerometer (GT3X+, ActiGraph LLC) data were collected from over 500 children at each site. An expert subgroup of the research team with accelerometry expertize, frontline data collectors and data managers met on several occasions to categorize and operationally define nocturnal accelerometer signal data patterns. The iterative process was informed by the raw data drawn from a sub set of the US data, and culminated in a refined and replicable delineated definition for each identified nocturnal sleep-related variable. Ultimately based on 6318 participants from all 12 ISCOLE sites with valid total sleep episode time (TSET), we report average clock times for nocturnal sleep onset, offset and midpoint in addition to sleep period time, TSET and restful sleep efficiency (among other derived variables). Results: Nocturnal sleep onset occurred at 2218 hours and nocturnal sleep offset at 0707 hours. The mean midpoint was 0243 hours. The sleep period time of 529.6 min (8.8 h) was typically accumulated in a single episode, making the average TSET very similar in duration (529.0 min). The mean restful sleep efficiency ranged from 86.8% (based on absolute non-movement of 0 counts per minute) to 96.0% (based on relative non-movement of <100 counts per minute). Conclusions: These variables extend the potential of field-based 24-h waist-worn accelerometry to distinguish and categorize the underlying robust patterns of movement/non-movement signals conveying magnitude, duration, frequency and periodicity during the nocturnal sleep period. PMID:27152185

  12. Autonomic neuropathy in nondiabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects is associated with urinary albumin excretion rate and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure: the Fredericia Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Anne-Catherine; Vestbo, Else; Frøland, Anders


    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of parental type 2 diabetes on the autonomic nervous system and to determine whether autonomic neuropathy is present and associated with changes in 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in nondiabetic subjects......, Redmond, WA), and UAER was determined through three overnight urine samples. The subjects with parental type 2 diabetes had significantly lower heart rate variation in all three bedside tests (P diabetes. The prevalence of autonomic neuropathy in the nondiabetic...... offspring with parental type 2 diabetes (6.7%) was significantly (P neuropathy was associated with a higher fasting insulin level (P


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The title compound has been obtained on allowing [C6H3(CO23(Et2NH23] to react with SnBr4. The molecular structure of Et2NH2C6H3(CO23SnBr2.4H2O has been determined on the basis of the infrared data. The suggested structure is a dimer in which each tin atom is hexacoordinated by two chelating C6H3(CO233- anions and two Br atoms. Cy2NH2+cations are involved through hydrogen bonds with non-coordinating CO2 groups. The suggested structure is a cage.

  14. Modification over time of pulse wave velocity parallel to changes in aortic BP, as well as in 24-h ambulatory brachial BP.


    Oliveras, Anna; Segura, Julián; Suárez, Carmen; García-Ortiz, Luis; Abad-Cardiel, María; Vigil, Luis; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A.; Sans Atxer, Laia; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Ruilope, Luis Miguel; Sierra, Alejandro De la; RESCEN Study


    Arterial stiffness as assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) is a marker of preclinical organ damage and a predictor of cardiovascular outcomes, independently of blood pressure (BP). However, limited evidence exists on the association between long-term variation (Δ) on aortic BP (aoBP) and ΔcfPWV. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of ΔBP with ΔcfPWV over time, as assessed by office and 24-h ambulatory peripheral BP, and aoBP. AoBP and cfPWV were evaluated in 209 hypertens...

  15. Low-volume intense exercise elicits post-exercise hypotension and subsequent hypervolemia, irrespective of which limbs are exercised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James (Jim David Cotter


    Full Text Available Introduction: Exercise reduces arterial and central venous blood pressures during recovery, which contributes to its valuable anti-hypertensive effects and to facilitating hypervolemia. Repeated sprint exercise potently improves metabolic function, but its cardiovascular effects (esp. hematological are less well characterised, as are effects of exercising upper versus lower limbs. The purposes of this study were to identify the acute (<24 h profiles of arterial blood pressure and blood volume for (i sprint intervals versus endurance exercise, and (ii sprint intervals using arms versus legs. Methods: Twelve untrained males completed three cycling exercise trials; 50-min endurance (legs, and 5*30-s intervals using legs or arms, in randomised and counterbalanced sequence, at a standardised time of day with at least eight days between trials. Arterial pressure, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit were measured before, during and across 22 h after exercise, the first 3 h of which were seated rest. Results: The post-exercise hypotensive response was larger after leg intervals than endurance (AUC: 7540 ± 3853 vs. 3897 ± 2757 mm Hg·min, p=0.049, 95% CI: 20 to 6764, whereas exercising different limbs elicited similar hypotension (arms: 6420 ± 3947 mm Hg·min, p=0.48, CI: -1261 to 3896. In contrast, arterial pressure at 22 h was reduced after endurance but not after leg intervals (-8 ± 8 vs. 0 ± 7 mm Hg, p=0.04, CI: 7 ± 7 or reliably after arm intervals (-4 ± 8 mm Hg, p=0.18 vs leg intervals. Regardless, plasma volume expansion at 22 h was similar between leg intervals and endurance (both +5 ± 5%; CI: -5 to 5% and between leg and arm intervals (arms: +5 ± 7%, CI: -8 to 5%. Conclusions: These results emphasise the relative importance of central and/or systemic factors in post-exercise hypotension, and indicate that markedly diverse exercise profiles can induce substantive hypotension and subsequent hypervolemia. At least for endurance

  16. Low-Volume Intense Exercise Elicits Post-exercise Hypotension and Subsequent Hypervolemia, Irrespective of Which Limbs Are Exercised (United States)

    Graham, Matthew J.; Lucas, Samuel J. E.; Francois, Monique E.; Stavrianeas, Stasinos; Parr, Evelyn B.; Thomas, Kate N.; Cotter, James D.


    Introduction: Exercise reduces arterial and central venous blood pressures during recovery, which contributes to its valuable anti-hypertensive effects and to facilitating hypervolemia. Repeated sprint exercise potently improves metabolic function, but its cardiovascular effects (esp. hematological) are less well-characterized, as are effects of exercising upper versus lower limbs. The purposes of this study were to identify the acute (<24 h) profiles of arterial blood pressure and blood volume for (i) sprint intervals versus endurance exercise, and (ii) sprint intervals using arms versus legs. Methods: Twelve untrained males completed three cycling exercise trials; 50-min endurance (legs), and 5*30-s intervals using legs or arms, in randomized and counterbalanced sequence, at a standardized time of day with at least 8 days between trials. Arterial pressure, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit were measured before, during and across 22 h after exercise, the first 3 h of which were seated rest. Results: The post-exercise hypotensive response was larger after leg intervals than endurance (AUC: 7540 ± 3853 vs. 3897 ± 2757 mm Hg·min, p = 0.049, 95% CI: 20 to 6764), whereas exercising different limbs elicited similar hypotension (arms: 6420 ± 3947 mm Hg·min, p = 0.48, CI: −1261 to 3896). In contrast, arterial pressure at 22 h was reduced after endurance but not after leg intervals (−8 ± 8 vs. 0 ± 7 mm Hg, p = 0.04, CI: 7 ± 7) or reliably after arm intervals (−4 ± 8 mm Hg, p = 0.18 vs. leg intervals). Regardless, plasma volume expansion at 22 h was similar between leg intervals and endurance (both +5 ± 5%; CI: −5 to 5%) and between leg and arm intervals (arms: +5 ± 7%, CI: −8 to 5%). Conclusions: These results emphasize the relative importance of central and/or systemic factors in post-exercise hypotension, and indicate that markedly diverse exercise profiles can induce substantive hypotension and subsequent hypervolemia. At least for endurance

  17. Immunohistochemical detection of interleukin-6 in human skeletal muscle fibers following exercise. (United States)

    Penkowa, Milena; Keller, Charlotte; Keller, Pernille; Jauffred, Sune; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund


    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is produced by many different cell types. Human skeletal muscles produce and release high amounts of IL-6 during exercise; however, the cell source of origin in the muscle is not known. Therefore, we studied the protein expression of IL-6 by immunohistochemistry in human muscle tissue from biopsies obtained at time points 0, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, and 24 h in relation to 3 h of bicycle exercise performed by healthy young males (n=12) and in resting controls (n=6). The IL-6 expression was clearly increased after exercise and remained high even by 24 h, relative to pre-exercise or resting individuals. The IL-6 immunostainings of skeletal muscle cells were homogeneous and without difference between muscle fiber types. The IL-6 mRNA peaked immediately after the exercise, and, in accordance, the IL-6 protein expression within muscle cells was most pronounced around 3 h post-exercise. However, the finding that plasma IL-6 concentration peaked in the end of exercise indicates a high turnover of muscle-derived IL-6. In conclusion, the finding of marked IL-6 protein expression exclusively within skeletal muscle fibers following exercise demonstrates that skeletal muscle fibers of all types are the dominant cell source of exercise-induced release of IL-6 from working muscle.

  18. Discrimination between patients with melancholic depression and healthy controls: comparison between 24-h cortisol profiles, the DST and the Dex/CRH test. (United States)

    Paslakis, Georgios; Krumm, Bertram; Gilles, Maria; Schweiger, Ulrich; Heuser, Isabella; Richter, Inga; Deuschle, Michael


    Diurnal (24-h) cortisol profiles were compared to DST and Dex/CRH test outcomes with regard to their discriminative power in depressive disorder. With regard to several statistical measures (effect sizes, area under the curve) we found 24-h cortisol profiles to better discriminate between healthy controls and inpatients with the melancholic subtype of depression compared to the DST and Dex/CRH test. In search of a shortened time interval we found the 2-h time window 1000-1200 h of the cortisol profile to be the one with the highest sensitivity (83.3%) and specificity (87.9%). The specificity of the DST was 93.3% and somewhat higher than that of the cortisol profiles and the Dex/CRH test (87.9% and 78.8.%, respectively). However, the sensitivity of the DST was very low (30.8%), in fact similar to that of the Dex/CRH test (30.8%), but much lower than that of the 1000-1200 h interval (83.3%). The assessment of cortisol in plasma is an easy to perform, cost-saving method for the evaluation of the HPA system activity, which may have a series of clinical and scientific implications for the depressive disorder.

  19. Dietary reporting errors on 24 h recalls and dietary questionnaires are associated with BMI across six European countries as evaluated with recovery biomarkers for protein and potassium intake. (United States)

    Freisling, Heinz; van Bakel, Marit M E; Biessy, Carine; May, Anne M; Byrnes, Graham; Norat, Teresa; Rinaldi, Sabina; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Grioni, Sara; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romaguera, Dora; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Crowe, Francesca L; Tumino, Rosario; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Boeing, Heiner; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H; Slimani, Nadia


    Whether there are differences between countries in the validity of self-reported diet in relation to BMI, as evaluated using recovery biomarkers, is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate BMI-related reporting errors on 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and on dietary questionnaires (DQ) using biomarkers for protein and K intake and whether the BMI effect differs between six European countries. Between 1995 and 1999, 1086 men and women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition completed a single 24-HDR, a DQ and one 24 h urine collection. In regression analysis, controlling for age, sex, education and country, each unit (1 kg/m²) increase in BMI predicted an approximately 1·7 and 1·3 % increase in protein under-reporting on 24-HDR and DQ, respectively (both P 0·15). In women, but not in men, the DQ yielded higher mean intakes of protein that were closer to the biomarker-based measurements across BMI groups when compared with 24-HDR. Results for K were similar to those of protein, although BMI-related under-reporting of K was of a smaller magnitude, suggesting differential misreporting of foods. Under-reporting of protein and K appears to be predicted by BMI, but this effect may be driven by 'low-energy reporters'. The BMI effect on under-reporting seems to be the same across countries.

  20. The Association of Knowledge and Behaviours Related to Salt with 24-h Urinary Salt Excretion in a Population from North and South India (United States)

    Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Rogers, Kris; Shivashankar, Roopa; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Gupta, Priti; He, Feng J.; MacGregor, Graham A.; Webster, Jacqui; Krishnan, Anand; Maulik, Pallab K.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce


    Consumer knowledge is understood to play a role in managing risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and may be influenced by level of education. The association between population knowledge, behaviours and actual salt consumption was explored overall, and for more-educated compared to less-educated individuals. A cross-sectional survey was done in an age-and sex-stratified random sample of 1395 participants from urban and rural areas of North and South India. A single 24-h urine sample, participants’ physical measurements and questionnaire data were collected. The mean age of participants was 40 years, 47% were women and mean 24-h urinary salt excretion was 9.27 (8.87–9.69) g/day. Many participants reported favourable knowledge and behaviours to minimise risks related to salt. Several of these behaviours were associated with reduced salt intake—less use of salt while cooking, avoidance of snacks, namkeens, and avoidance of pickles (all p behaviours between more-versus less-educated groups and no clear evidence that level of education influenced salt intake. Several consumer behaviours related to use of salt during food preparation and consumption of salty products were related to actual salt consumption and therefore appear to offer an opportunity for intervention. These would be a reasonable focus for a government-led education campaign targeting salt. PMID:28212309

  1. Incidence of error in oestrus detection based on secondary oestrus signs in a 24-h tie-stalled dairy herd with low fertility. (United States)

    Ranasinghe, R M S B K; Nakao, T; Kobayashi, A


    Oestrus detection error and conception rates after AI based only on secondary oestrus signs were evaluated in a high yielding, 24-h tie-stalled dairy herd with low fertility, using milk progesterone profiles. Oestrus detection was based on the secondary oestrus signs such as restlessness, swelling, congestion of vulva and clear mucus discharge. Sixty eight AI conducted after observing the secondary oestrus signs in 44 animals were included in the study. Of the 68 AI, 53 (77.9%) were conducted in the follicular phase, and 13 (19.1%) and 2 (2.9%) were carried out in the luteal phase and during pregnancy, respectively. The overall error in oestrus detection based on milk progesterone profiles was 22.1%. The oestrus detection error did not differ significantly among different secondary oestrus signs. None of the AI conducted in the luteal phase resulted in conception, whereas 20.8% of AI conducted in the follicular phase resulted in conception. No significant difference in the conception rates among the groups of cows with different secondary oestrus signs was shown. The high incidence of oestrus detection error in this study might have been caused by the detection of cows in oestrus based only on secondary oestrus signs due to the confinement of animals. In conclusion, there was a high incidence of heat detection error in the 24-h tie-stalled dairy herd and oestrus detection based only on secondary oestrus signs resulted in low conception rate.

  2. Simulation of near-infrared photodiode detectors based onβ-FeSi2/4H-SiC heterojunctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Hong-Bin; He Xin; Quan Ru-Dai; Cao Lin; Chen Zhi-Ming


    In this paper,we propose a near-infrared p-type β-FeSi2/n-type 4H-SiC heterojunction photodetector with semiconducting silicide (β-FeSi2) as the active region for the first time.The optoelectronic characteristics of the photodetector are simulated using a commercial simulator at room temperature.The results show that the photodetector has a good rectifying character and a good response to near-infrared light.Interface states should be minimized to obtain a lower reverse leakage current.The response spectrum of the β-FeSi2/4H-SiC detector,which consists of a p-type/β-FeSi2 absorption layer with a doping concentration of 1 x 1015 cm-3 and a thickness of 2.5 μm,has a peak of 755 mA/W at 1.42 μm.The illumination of the SiC side obtains a higher responsivity than that of the β-FeSi2 side.The results illustrate that the/β-FeSi2/4H-SiC heterojunction can be used as a near-infrared photodetector compatible with near-infrared optically-activated SiC-based power switching devices.

  3. Gastroesophageal reflux and respiratory tract infection in tube-fed elderly patients. A comparison between scintigraphy and 24-h pH monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Shigehiko; Koichi, Katsuyuki; Tofuku, Yohei [Ishikawa-Ken Saiseikai Kanazawa Hospital (Japan)


    Aspiration pneumonia in patients who received enteral feeding via a nasogastric tube may result from retrograde colonization from the stomach, and this may be more likely when the gastroesophageal reflux is severe and the gastric pH is relative high. We investigated 11 elderly patients fed via nasogastric tube with suspected recurrent aspiration pneumonia by means of esophageal scintigraphy, 24-h pH monitoring, gastric pH and concentrations of gram-negative bacilli in gastric aspirates. The grade of respiratory tract infection (RTI) was evaluated by the frequency of episodes of fever with respiratory symptoms. The correlation between the grade of RTI and reflux index by scintigraphy was statistically significant (p<0.05), but the correlation between the grade of RTI and reflux rate by 24-h pH monitoring was not statistically significant. Although the correlation between gastric pH and log (base 10) concentration of gram-negative bacilli/ml of gastric aspirates was statistically significant (p<0.001), the correlation between the grade of RTI and gastric pH was not statistically significant. Scintigraphy was superior for evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux resulting in aspiration pneumonia in the tube-fed elderly patients. (author).

  4. Eplerenone restores 24-h blood pressure circadian rhythm and reduces advanced glycation end-products in rhesus macaques with spontaneous hypertensive metabolic syndrome. (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Wen; Liu, Yuli; Wang, Jue; Peng, Ying; Shang, Haibao; Hou, Ning; Hu, Xiaomin; Ding, Yi; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Can; Zeng, Fanxin; Mao, Jiaming; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Dongwei; Sun, Xueting; Li, Chuanyun; Xiao, Rui-Ping; Zhang, Xiuqin


    Hypertension is often associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and serves as a risk factor of MetS and its complications. Blood pressure circadian rhythm in hypertensive patients has been suggested to contribute to cardiovascular consequences and organ damage of hypertension. But circadian changes of BP and their response to drugs have not been clearly investigated in non-human primates (NHPs) of MetS with hypertension. Here, we identified 16 elderly, hypertensive MetS rhesus monkeys from our in-house cohort. With implanted telemetry, we investigate BP changes and its circadian rhythm, together with the effect of antihypertensive drugs on BP and its diurnal fluctuation. MetS hypertensive monkeys displayed higher BP, obesity, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia. We also confirmed impaired 24-h BP circadian rhythm in MetS hypertensive monkeys. Importantly, Eplerenone, a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker, exerts multiple beneficial effects in MetS hypertensive monkeys, including BP reduction, 24-h BP circadian rhythm restoration, and decreased plasma concentration of inflammation factors and advanced glycation end-products. In summary, we identified a naturally-developed hypertensive MetS NHP model, which is of great value in the studies on pathogenesis of MetS-associated hypertension and development of novel therapeutic strategies. We also provided multiple novel mechanistic insights of the beneficial effect of Eplerenone on MetS with hypertension.

  5. Nanoscale probing of the lateral homogeneity of donors concentration in nitridated SiO2/4H-SiC interfaces (United States)

    Fiorenza, Patrick; Di Franco, Salvatore; Giannazzo, Filippo; Roccaforte, Fabrizio


    In this paper, nanoscale resolution scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) and local capacitance-voltage measurements were used to probe the interfacial donor concentration in SiO2/4H-SiC systems annealed in N2O. Such nitrogen-based annealings are commonly employed to passivate SiO2/SiC interface traps, and result both in the incorporation of N-related donors in SiC and in the increase of the mobility in the inversion layer in 4H-SiC MOS-devices. From our SCM measurements, a spatially inhomogeneous donor distribution was observed in the SiO2/4H-SiC system subjected to N2O annealing. Hence, the effect of a phosphorus implantation before the oxide deposition and N2O annealing was also evaluated. In this case, besides an increased average donor concentration, an improvement of the lateral homogeneity of the active doping was also detected. The possible implications of such a pre-implantation doping of the near-interface region on 4H-SiC MOS-devices are discussed.

  6. The effect of acute exercise on GLUT4 levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of sled dogs. (United States)

    Schnurr, Theresia M; Reynolds, Arleigh J; Komac, Alyssa M; Duffy, Lawrence K; Dunlap, Kriya L


    Using sled dogs as exercise model, our objectives of this study were to 1) assess the effects of one acute bout of high-intensity exercise on surface GLUT4 concentrations on easily accessible peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and 2) compare our findings with published research on exercise induced GLUT4 in skeletal muscle. During the exercise bout, dogs ran 5 miles at approximately 90% of VO2 max. PMBC were collected before exercise (baseline), immediately after exercise and after 24h recovery.GLUT4 was measured via ELISA. Acute exercise resulted in a significant increase on surface GLUT4 content on PBMC. GLUT4 was increased significantly immediately after exercise (~ 50%; p0.05). An effect of acute exercise on GLUT4 levels translocated to the cell membrane was observed, with GLUT4 levels not yet returned to baseline after 24h post-exercise. In conclusion, the present investigation demonstrated that acute high-intensity exercise increased GLUT4 content at the surface of PBMC of sled dogs as it has been reported in skeletal muscle in other species. Our findings underline the potential use of peripheral blood mononuclear cell GLUT4 protein content as minimally invasive proxy to investigate relationships between insulin sensitivity, insulin resistance, GLUT4 expression and glucose metabolism.

  7. Impaired neuromuscular function during isometric, shortening, and lengthening contractions after exercise-induced damage to elbow flexor muscles. (United States)

    Turner, Tanya S; Tucker, Kylie J; Rogasch, Nigel C; Semmler, John G


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise-induced damage of the elbow flexor muscles on steady motor performance during isometric, shortening, and lengthening contractions. Ten healthy individuals (age 22+/-4 yr) performed four tasks with the elbow flexor muscles: a maximum voluntary contraction, a one repetition maximum (1 RM), an isometric task at three joint angles (short, intermediate, and long muscle lengths), and a constant-load task during slow (approximately 7 degrees/s) shortening and lengthening contractions. Task performance was quantified as the fluctuations in wrist acceleration (steadiness), and electromyography was obtained from the biceps and triceps brachii muscles at loads of 10, 20, and 40% of 1 RM. Tasks were performed before, immediately after, and 24 h after eccentric exercise that resulted in indicators of muscle damage. Maximum voluntary contraction force and 1-RM load declined by approximately 45% immediately after exercise and remained lower at 24 h ( approximately 30% decrease). Eccentric exercise resulted in reduced steadiness and increased biceps and triceps brachii electromyography for all tasks. For the isometric task, steadiness was impaired at the short compared with the long muscle length immediately after exercise (Pshortening compared with the lengthening contractions after exercise (P=0.01), and steadiness remained impaired for shortening contractions 24 h later (P=0.01). These findings suggest that there are profound effects for the performance of these types of fine motor tasks when recovering from a bout of eccentric exercise.

  8. Compulsive Exercise (United States)

    ... a good thing, but in the case of exercise, a healthy activity can sometimes turn into an unhealthy compulsion. Rachel is a good example of how an overemphasis on physical fitness or weight control can become unhealthy. Read on ...

  9. Maintenance of ovulation inhibition with a new progestogen-only pill containing drospirenone after scheduled 24-h delays in pill intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijkers, Ingrid J M; Heger-Mahn, Doris; Drouin, Dominique


    OBJECTIVES: Traditional progestogen-only pills (POPs) have stringent daily timing and missed pill rules that might affect contraceptive reliability. A new-generation oestrogen-free pill has been developed, containing 4-mg drospirenone with a unique regimen of 24 active treatment days followed....... This property distinguishes this new-generation oestrogen-free pill from traditional POPs by allowing the same "safety window" or flexibility in intake as combined oral contraceptives without compromising contraceptive reliability. IMPLICATIONS: Delayed or forgotten pill intake is very common. Ovulation...... inhibition by the new-generation oestrogen-free pill, containing 4-mg drospirenone for 24 days followed by a 4-day treatment-free period, was maintained despite four 24-h delays in tablet intake, so the impact of delayed intake on contraceptive reliability will be low....

  10. Disproportionately increased 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in young men with low birth weight during a high-fat overfeeding challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Lilleøre, Søren Kruse; Astrup, Arne


    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) associates with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. LBW individuals exhibit disproportionately reduced peripheral insulin action and increased fat oxidation after a 5-day high-fat overfeeding (HFO) challenge. Furthermore, LBW men exhibit increased...... with NBW men during the entire 24-h period (P = 0.06) and during nighttime (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that disproportionally enhanced fat oxidation in LBW individuals during short-term HFO represents a compensatory response to reduced subcutaneous adipose tissue expandability and storage capacity...... nocturnal fat oxidation during energy balance and low energy expenditure (EE) during fasting. We hypothesized that short-term HFO could further unmask key defects of whole-body energy metabolism in LBW men. METHODS: Eighteen LBW (2717 ± 268 g) and 26 normal birth weight (NBW) (3893 ± 207 g) healthy young...

  11. Characteristics and formation of [AlO4Al12(OH)24(H2O)12]7+ in electrolysis process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘会娟; 曲久辉; 张素娟; 胡承志


    [AlO4Al12(OH)24(H2O)12]7+(Al13) formation in electrolysis process is studied. The results detected by 27Al NMR spectroscopy show that high content of Al13 polymer is formed in the partially hydrolyzed aluminum solution prepared by controlled electrolysis process. In the produced electrolyte of total Al concentration (Al) 2.0 mol* L-1 with a basicity (B = OH/Al molar ratios) of 2.0, the content of Al13 polymer is over 60% of total Al. Dynamic light scattering shows that the size distribution of the final electrolyte solutions ( = 2.0 mol*L-1) is trimodal with B = 2.0 and bimodal with B = 2.5. The aggregates of Al13 complexes increase the particle size of partially hydrolyzed aluminum solution.

  12. Effect of Pre-Hospital Ticagrelor During the First 24 h After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montalescot, Gilles; van 't Hof, Arnoud W; Bolognese, Leonardo;


    elevation myocardial infarction to open the Coronary artery) study. BACKGROUND: The ATLANTIC trial in patients with ongoing ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction showed that pre-hospital ticagrelor was safe but did not improve pre-PCI coronary reperfusion compared with in-hospital ticagrelor. We...... hypothesized that the effect of pre-hospital ticagrelor may not have manifested until after PCI due to the rapid transfer time (31 min). METHODS: The ATLANTIC-H(24) analysis included 1,629 patients who underwent PCI, evaluating platelet reactivity, Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction flow grade 3, ≥ 70% ST-segment...... elevation resolution, and clinical endpoints over the first 24 h. RESULTS: Following PCI, largest between-group differences in platelet reactivity occurred at 1 to 6 h; coronary reperfusion rates numerically favored pre-hospital ticagrelor, and the degree of ST-segment elevation resolution was significantly...

  13. Absolute 24 h quantification of 99Tcm-DMSA uptake in patients with severely reduced kidney function: a comparison with 51Cr-EDTA clearance. (United States)

    van de Wiele, C; van den Eeckhaut, A; Verweire, W; van Haelst, J P; Versijpt, J; Dierckx, R A


    The aim of this study was to determine whether absolute 24 h DMSA uptake measurements (%DMSA) correlate well with 51Cr-EDTA clearance measurements in patients with severely reduced kidney function (SRKF). Between 1990 and 1997, 55 of 482 patients who underwent EDTA clearance measurements also underwent %DMSA within 1 week. Of these, 31 were women and 24 were men (mean age 60 years; range 19-77 years). EDTA clearance was determined using the slope-intercept method. Absolute depth- and background-corrected %DMSA were determined 24 h following the injection of 185 MBq per 1.73 m2 freshly prepared 99Tcm-DMSA. All patients had EDTA clearance 20 ml.min-1 (mean +/- S.D. = 30.9 +/- 13.8 ml.min-1), whereas 37 patients (group B: 22 women and 15 men, mean age 62.0 years, range 19-77 years) had EDTA clearance DMSA for the patients as a whole and for group A (r = 0.87, P = 0.73; r = 0.79, P = 0.0001 respectively). The regression equation suggests that %DMSA is not a marker of early renal dysfunction. In group B, the r-value (r = 0.48, P = 0.004) suggests that %DMSA is reliable as a marker of severe renal dysfunction to the extent that it provides rough information. In conclusion, %DMSA may not be used as a marker of early renal impairment. Additionally, in patients with severely reduced kidney function (EDTA clearance < 20 ml.min-1), it only provides a rough estimate.

  14. Preliminary findings of recanalization and stenting for symptomatic vertebrobasilar artery occlusion lasting more than 24 h: A retrospective analysis of 21 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yingkun, E-mail: [Cerebrovascular Center, Henan Provincial People' s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Wang, Ziliang [Cerebrovascular Center, Henan Provincial People' s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Li, Tianxiao, E-mail: [Cerebrovascular Center, Henan Provincial People' s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Jiang, Wei-Jian [Stroke Center, People' s Liberation Army Second Artillery Corps General Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhu, Liangfu; Xue, Jiangyu; Bai, Weixing [Cerebrovascular Center, Henan Provincial People' s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Hui, Ferdinand [Cerebrovascular Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States)


    Purpose: To evaluate the technical feasibility, safety and short-term treatment effects of recanalization and stenting for intracranial symptomatic vertebrobasilar artery occlusion (VBAO) lasting more than 24 h. Methods and materials: Twenty-one consecutive patients with VBAO refractory to aggressive medical treatment were enrolled into this study and underwent recanalization and stenting. The rate of recanalization was evaluated radiographically and the functional outcome was examined using modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores. Results: Median time between imaging-documented occlusion and endovascular recanalization was 10.5 days (IR, Interquartile Range: 6.5–18); technique success ratio of recanalization was 95.2%. There were 3 periprocedural complications. Median mRS score was 4 (IR, 2.5–5) prior to procedure and 4 (IR, 1–5) at discharge (P < 0.05). One stroke and one death occurred within 30 days after recanalization. Mean duration of clinical follow-up was 15.5 months. One transient ischemic attack, one stroke and one death occurred beyond 30-day window. Mean angiographic follow-up was 10.6 months in 10 patients. Four patients developed in-stent restenosis or occlusion, and two of them were symptomatic. Subgroup analyses revealed better functional recovery (lower mRS) in patients with vertebral artery occlusion (VAO) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Endovascular recanalization and stenting for symptomatic VBAO lasting more than 24 h were technically feasible and patients with VAO benefited from the treatment with significant functional recovery. However, the complexity of the procedure and high risk of complication should prompt extreme caution.

  15. Alteraciones de la motricidad del cuerpo del esófago en pacientes con enfermedad por reflujo gastroesofágico sin reflujo patológico en la monitorización de pH de 24 h


    Acevedo F,Alberto; Espinoza, Jorge


    Background: In a high proportion of patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease, 24 h esophageal pH monitoring is normal. Aim: To study esophageal motility in patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease and normal 24 h esophageal pH monitoring. Patients and methods: Fourteen patients (12 women, aged 28 to 74 years old) with esophageal reflux disease and normal 24 pH monitoring and 14 asymptomatic controls (8 women, aged 19 to 69 years old), were studied. Symptoms w...

  16. Exercise induces transient transcriptional activation of the PGC-1a gene in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Saltin, Bengt; Neufer, P. Darrell


    Endurance exercise training induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor co-activator 1a (PGC-1a) has recently been identified as a nuclear factor critical for coordinating the activation of genes required for mitochondrial biogenesis in cell...... culture and rodent skeletal muscle. To determine whether PGC-1a transcription is regulated by acute exercise and exercise training in human skeletal muscle, seven male subjects performed 4 weeks of one-legged knee extensor exercise training. At the end of training, subjects completed 3 h of two......-legged knee extensor exercise. Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of both the untrained and trained legs before exercise and after 0, 2, 6 and 24 h of recovery. Time to exhaustion (2 min maximum resistance), as well as hexokinase II (HKII), citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl...

  17. Exercise gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smaerup, M.; Grönvall, E.; Larsen, S. B.;


    Purpose The purpose of the study was to identify possible reasons for a modest level of exercise compliance during computer-assisted training for vestibular rehabilitation. Method Qualitative design and analysis of 14 semi-structured interviews with seven participants before and after a period......, but their knowledge and understanding of the training programme were insufficient. The participants asked for a greater variation in the exercises and asked for closer contact with the physiotherapist. When Mitii is used for vestibular rehabilitation, the system has some limitations. Conclusions The modest level...... understanding of the training programme with supplying information on the parts of the vestibular system addressed by the training. Implications for Rehabilitation Computer-assisted technologies should generate feedback on the quality of user performance and inform the patient of the relevance of the exercise...

  18. Number of spermatozoa in the crypts of the sperm reservoir at about 24 h after a low-dose intrauterine and deep intrauterine insemination in sows. (United States)

    Tummaruk, P; Tienthai, P


    The aim of this study was to investigate the number of spermatozoa in the crypts of the utero-tubal junction (UTJ) and the oviduct of sows approximately 24 h after intrauterine insemination (IUI) and deep intrauterine insemination (DIUI) and compared with that of conventional artificial insemination (AI). Fifteen crossbred Landrace x Yorkshire (LY) multiparous sows were used in the experiment. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed every 4 h to examine the time of ovulation in relation to oestrous behaviour. The sows were inseminated with a single dose of diluted fresh semen by the AI (n = 5), IUI (n = 5) and DIUI (n = 5) at approximately 6-8 h prior to the expected time of ovulation, during the second oestrus after weaning. The sperm dose contained 3000 x 10(6) spermatozoa in 100 ml for AI, 1,000 x 10(6) spermatozoa in 50 ml for IUI and 150 x 10(6) spermatozoa in 5 ml for DIUI. The sows were anaesthetized and ovario-hysterectomized approximately 24 h after insemination. The oviducts and the proximal part of the uterine horns (1 cm) on each side of the reproductive tracts were collected. The section was divided into four parts, i.e. UTJ, caudal isthmus, cranial isthmus and ampulla. The spermatozoa in the lumen in each part were flushed several times with phosphate buffer solution. After flushing, the UTJ and all parts of the oviducts were immersed in a 10% neutral buffered formalin solution. The UTJ and each part of the oviducts were cut into four equal parts and embedded in a paraffin block. The tissue sections were transversely sectioned to a thickness of 5 mum. Every fifth serial section was mounted and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The total number of spermatozoa from 32 sections in each parts of the tissue (16 sections from the left side and 16 sections from the right side) was determined under light microscope. The results reveal that most of the spermatozoa in the histological section were located in groups in the epithelial crypts. The means of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasani S.H.


    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examined the effect of a pre-exercise meal with different glycemic index (GI on plasma IL-6 concentration and glucose metabolism during sub-max exercise (endurance performance run. Material : Ten men completed 1 h running at 70%-75% VO2max on a level treadmill on three occasions. In each trial, one of the three prescribed beverages as meal, i.e. high GI and low GL or placebo was consumed by the subjects 45 min before exercise. Blood samples were collected before, after, 1h and 24h after exercise. Result: Concentration of Plasma IL-6 in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups, IL-6 tended to significantly increase after exercise in groups (all P < 0.05, also there was significant difference for plasma IL-6 concentration between placebo and low glycemic groups in after exercise (P=.003 and 1hour after exercise (P=.005 . CK was significantly elevated at all- time points after exercise in 3 groups (all P < 0.05. Concentration of serum CK in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups but there not significantly. The consumption of the LGI beverage before exercise could minimize the increasing of plasma IL-6 concentration immediately after exercise and during the 1 h recovery period compared with the HGI beverage and Pla. Conclusion: This result suggested that the LGI beverage consumed as pre-exercise meal could modify the inflammatory response in prolonged exercise.

  20. Exercise-Induced Asthma (United States)

    ... management of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: A practice parameter. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. 2010;105:S1. Krafczyk ... up exercise on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2012;44:383. Asthma ...

  1. Antihypertensive efficacy of telmisartan vs ramipril over the 24-h dosing period, including the critical early morning hours: a pooled analysis of the PRISMA I and II randomized trials. (United States)

    Williams, B; Lacourcière, Y; Schumacher, H; Gosse, P; Neutel, J M


    Cardiovascular risk is subject to circadian variation, with peak morning incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke correlating with the early morning blood pressure (BP) surge (EMBPS). Ideally, antihypertensive therapy should maintain control of BP throughout the 24-h dosing cycle. In two sister studies, Prospective, Randomized Investigation of the Safety and efficacy of Micardis vs Ramipril Using ABPM (ambulatory BP monitoring) (PRISMA) I and II, BP control was compared in patients with essential hypertension (24-h mean baseline ambulatory BP approximately 148/93 mm Hg) randomized to the angiotensin receptor blocker, telmisartan (80 mg; n=802), or the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ramipril (5 or 10 mg; n=811), both dosed in the morning. The primary end point was the change from baseline in mean ambulatory systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) during the final 6 h of the 24-h dosing cycle. The adjusted mean treatment differences in the last 6-h mean ambulatory SBP/DBP were -5.8/-4.2 mm Hg after 8 weeks and -4.1/-3.0 mm Hg after 14 weeks, in favour of telmisartan (P<0.0001 for all four comparisons). Secondary end point results, including the mean 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, day- and night-time BP and 24-h BP load, also significantly favoured telmisartan (P<0.0001). Both treatments were well tolerated; adverse events, including cough, were less common with telmisartan. These findings suggest that telmisartan is more effective than ramipril throughout the 24-h period and during the EMBPS; this may be attributable to telmisartan's long duration of effect, which is sustained throughout the 24-h dosing period.

  2. Physiopathological, Epidemiological, Clinical and Therapeutic Aspects of Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Urso


    Full Text Available Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH is dilutional hyponatremia, a variant of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH, characterized by a plasma concentration of sodium lower than 135 mEq/L. The prevalence of EAH is common in endurance (<6 hours and ultra-endurance events (>6 hours in duration, in which both athletes and medical providers need to be aware of risk factors, symptom presentation, and management. The development of EAH is a combination of excessive water intake, inadequate suppression of the secretion of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH (due to non osmotic stimuli, long race duration, and very high or very low ambient temperatures. Additional risk factors include female gender, slower race times, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Signs and symptoms of EAH include nausea, vomiting, confusion, headache and seizures; it may result in severe clinical conditions associated with pulmonary and cerebral edema, respiratory failure and death. A rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment with a hypertonic saline solution is essential in the severe form to ensure a positive outcome.

  3. [Exercise addiction]. (United States)

    Petit, A; Lejoyeux, M


    Socially valorised, sport like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. A review of the English and French literatures from 1979 to 2012 was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following key words alone or combined :sport, dependence, exercise, addiction. Exercise dependence is defined as a craving for physical activity that leads to extreme exercise intensity and generates physiological and psychological symptoms. Measurement scales have been proposed to make the diagnosis. No epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence of exercise dependence in the general population, although some studies suggest a frequency ranging from 10 to 80%. Disorders begin with a search for pleasure in physical effort, which then gives way to an obsession for sport resulting in a need to practice a sport more and more frequently and intensely. This addiction is more common among alcohol and illicit drug addicts than among the general population, while the rate of eating disorders can reach 40%. Personality traits most often associated are perfectionism, extraversion, and sensation seeking, while possible links between sporting activity and intensive doping will be discussed.

  4. Compulsive Exercise (United States)

    ... and increase the risk of premature bone loss ( osteoporosis ). And of course, working their bodies so hard leads to exhaustion and constant fatigue. An even more serious risk is the stress that excessive exercise can place on the heart, particularly when someone ...

  5. Eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Michael; Heinemeier, Katja Maria


    Eccentric exercise can influence tendon mechanical properties and matrix protein synthesis. mRNA for collagen and regulatory factors thereof are upregulated in animal tendons, independent of muscular contraction type, supporting the view that tendon, compared with skeletal muscle, is less sensitive...

  6. TNF-α and TNFR1 responses to recovery therapies following acute resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy R. Townsend


    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effect of two commonly used therapeutic modalities a. neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES and b. cold water immersion (CWI on circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and monocyte TNF-α receptor (TNFR1 expression following intense acute resistance exercise and subsequent recovery. Thirty (n=30 resistance trained men (22.5 ± 2.7 y performed an acute heavy resistance exercise protocol on three consecutive days followed by one of three recovery methods (CON, NMES, and CWI. Circulating TNF-α levels were assayed and TNFR1 expression on CD14+ monocytes was measured by flow cytometry measured PRE, immediately post (IP, 30-minutes post (30M, 24 hours post (24H, and 48 hours post (48H exercise. Circulating TNF-α was elevated at IP (p = 0.001 and 30M (p = 0.005 and decreased at 24H and 48H recovery from IP in CON (p = 0.015 and CWI (p = 0.011. TNF-α did not significantly decrease from IP during recovery in NMES. TNFR1 expression was elevated (p < 0.001 at 30M compared to PRE and all other time points. No significant differences between groups were observed in TNFR1 expression. During recovery (24H, 48H from muscle damaging exercise, NMES treatment appears to prevent the decline in circulating TNF-α observed during recovery in those receiving no treatment or CWI.

  7. Comparative effects on rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells cultures after 24-h exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar-García, Samuel; Silva-Ramírez, Ana Sonia; Ramirez-Lee, Manuel A.; Rosas-Hernandez, Hector [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas (Mexico); Rangel-López, Edgar [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suárez, Laboratorio de Aminoacidos Excitadores (Mexico); Castillo, Claudia G. [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Santamaría, Abel [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suárez, Laboratorio de Aminoacidos Excitadores (Mexico); Martinez-Castañon, Gabriel A. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Estomatologia (Mexico); Gonzalez, Carmen, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas (Mexico)


    The aim of this work was to compare the effects of 24-h exposure of rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells to 7.8 nm AgNPs. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and current treatments lead to diverse side-effects; for this reason, it is imperative to investigate new approaches, including those alternatives provided by nanotechnology, like nanomaterials (NMs) such as silver nanoparticles. Herein, we found that C6 rat glioma cells, but no primary astrocytes, decreased cell viability after AgNPs treatment; however, both cell types diminished their proliferation. The decrease of glioma C6 cells proliferation was related with necrosis, while in primary astrocytes, the decreased proliferation was associated with the induction of apoptosis. The ionic control (AgNO{sub 3}) exerted a different profile than AgNPs; the bulk form did not modify the basal effect in each determination, whereas cisplatin, a well-known antitumoral drug used as a comparative control, promoted cytotoxicity in both cell types at specific concentrations. Our findings prompt the need to determine the fine molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the differential biological responses to AgNPs in order to develop new tools or alternatives based on nanotechnology that may contribute to the understanding, impact and use of NMs in specific targets, like glioblastoma cells.

  8. Qualitative similarities in cognitive impairment associated with 24 h of sustained wakefulness and a blood alcohol concentration of 0.05%. (United States)

    Falleti, Marina G; Maruff, Paul; Collie, Alexander; Darby, David G; McStephen, Michael


    Previous studies that have quantified fatigue-related cognitive impairment as blood alcohol concentration (BAC) equivalents have been limited by two issues: the effect of practice on tests of cognition and, more importantly, the statistic used to quantify change in cognitive performance. The current study addressed these issues by adopting an ABACA design, which allowed for the adequate control of practice effects, and by using effect size metrics, which enabled direct comparisons to be made in performance impairments as a result of fatigue (i.e. sustained wakefulness of 24 h) and alcohol (i.e. BAC of 0.05%). Cognitive performance under the fatigue and alcohol conditions required the use of the CogState battery. It was demonstrated that fatigue caused greater impairment than alcohol on the speed of continuous attention and memory and learning, and on the accuracy of complex matching. Alcohol was more detrimental than fatigue only on the accuracy of memory and learning. Performances on the remaining tasks were the same for both the fatigue and alcohol conditions. These differences and similarities in performance impairment are discussed emphasizing the deleterious cognitive effects of relatively short periods of sustained wakefulness.

  9. Successful outcome after endovascular thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke with basis on perfusion-diffusion mismatch after 24 h of symptoms onset (United States)

    Mattei, Tobias A.; Rehman, Azeem A.; Goulart, Carlos R.; Sória, Marília G.; Rizelio, Vanessa; Meneses, Murilo S.


    Background: Although intravenous thrombolysis is the Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) within 3 h, combined intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis with endovascular techniques may be able to extend this traditional time window. Case Description: We present the clinical evolution of a 45-year-old male presenting with acute left hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small diffusion restriction at the right basal ganglia with perfusion compromise in the entire right middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Angiography revealed a complete occlusion of MCA at its M1 segment. The patient underwent endovascular mechanical thrombectomy with additional intra-arterial thrombolysis more than 24 hours after the onset of the initial symptoms and experienced complete vessel recanalization. At 1 year, the patient had global independence with minor residual motor impairment in the left arm. Conclusions: We report the case of a successful thrombolytic therapy following AIS performed more than 24 h after the initial symptoms based on the presence of a perfusion-diffusion mismatch. This report is expected to stimulate the development of future prospective studies with special focus on the role of perfusion-diffusion mismatch in patient selection for treatment of AIS, especially in those presenting outside the traditional time window. PMID:27313971

  10. Electric properties of La2O3/SiO2/4H-SiC MOS capacitors with different annealing temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng Wang


    Full Text Available In this work, we describe a rapid thermal annealing (RTA process for the La2O3/SiO2/4H-SiC interface and investigate its effect on the material’s electrical properties. Our results indicate that the trap charge density and interface state density (Dit are reduced as the RTA temperature increases due to the termination of residual carbon and dangling bonds. We demonstrate that the sample obtained after RTA at 500 °C has the highest breakdown electric field (Efb (7 MV/cm due to a decrease in the trap charge density and an improvement in the interfacial properties. However, when the RTA temperature reaches 600 °C or higher, a lower Efb value (1.2 MV/cm is obtained due to leakage routes generated by the crystallization of La2O3. Based on our results, we conclude that the ideal choice for the RTA temperature is 500 °C.

  11. Cough and exhaled nitric oxide levels: what happens with exercise? (United States)

    Petsky, Helen L; Kynaston, Jennifer Anne; McElrea, Margaret; Turner, Catherine; Isles, Alan; Chang, Anne B


    Cough associated with exertion is often used as a surrogate marker of asthma. However, to date there are no studies that have objectively measured cough in association with exercise in children. Our primary aim was to examine whether children with a pre-existing cough have an increase in cough frequency during and post-exercise. We hypothesized that children with any coughing illness will have an increase in cough frequency post-exercise regardless of the presence of exercise-induced broncho-constriction (EIB) or atopy. In addition, we hypothesized that Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels decreases post-exercise regardless of the presence of EIB or atopy. Children with chronic cough and a control group without cough undertook an exercise challenge, FeNO measurements and a skin prick test, and wore a 24-h voice recorder to objectively measure cough frequency. The association between recorded cough frequency, exercise, atopy, and presence of EIB was tested. We also determined if the change in FeNO post exercise related to atopy or EIB. Of the 50 children recruited (35 with cough, 15 control), 7 had EIB. Children with cough had a significant increase in cough counts (median 7.0, inter-quartile ranges, 0.5, 24.5) compared to controls (2.0, IQR 0, 5.0, p = 0.028) post-exercise. Presence of atopy or EIB did not influence cough frequency. FeNO level was significantly lower post-exercise in both groups but the change was not influenced by atopy or EIB. Cough post-exertion is likely a generic response in children with a current cough. FeNO level decreases post-exercise irrespective of the presence of atopy or EIB. A larger study is necessary confirm or refute our findings.

  12. Transient global amnesia: a complication of incremental exercise testing. (United States)

    Richardson, R S; Leek, B T; Wagner, P D; Kritchevsky, M


    Incremental exercise testing is routinely used for diagnosis, rehabilitation, health screening, and research. We report the case of a 71-yr-old patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who suffered an episode of transient global amnesia (TGA) several minutes after successfully completing an incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer. TGA, which is known to be precipitated by physical or emotional stress in about one-third of cases, is a transient neurological disorder in which memory impairment is the prominent deficit. TGA has a benign course and requires no treatment although 24-h observation is recommended. Recognition of TGA as a potential complication of incremental graded exercise testing is important to both aid diagnosis of the amnesia and to spare a patient unnecessary evaluation.

  13. Differential effects of sauna-, diuretic-, and exercise-induced hypohydration. (United States)

    Caldwell, J E; Ahonen, E; Nousiainen, U


    The physiological effects on submaximal and maximal exercise of three methods commonly used by athletes for achieving rapid weight loss were determined by measuring cardiorespiratory variables in 62 nonendurance athletes. A mean weight loss of 4.1% was achieved by those who followed either a sauna (SAU), diuretic (DIU), or exercise (ACT) protocol, compared with the average weight loss of 1.2% in the control group. At maximal exercise O2 consumption, O2 pulse, blood lactate concentration, and work load decreased in SAU and DIU groups relative to the ACT group, whereas only a few differences were observed at the aerobic threshold. Weight loss achieved over a 48-h period was less detrimental to an athlete than was a more rapid (24-h) weight reduction achieved through sauna bathing or the use of diuretics. We conclude that not only the quantity of weight loss but also the method itself may limit physical performance.

  14. The Effect of a Bout of Resistance Exercise on 8-Hydroxy-2’-Deoxyguanosine in Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Rahimi


    Full Text Available Introduction: As a result of the natural metabolism in cells, free radicals and reactive species of oxygen are continuously produced and increase under physical and psychological stress conditions. Oxidative stress is a condition in which the reactive oxygen species production exceeds the antioxidant system capacity to neutralize these peroxidants. In these situations, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids are damaged. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of acute resistance exercise (RE on 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, marker of DNA oxidation. Methods: In this quasi-experimental research, nine resistances trained (RT and nine untrained (UT men were randomly selected. All subjects performed a RE protocol including 4 sets of the bench press, leg press, sited bar shoulder press, arm curls and lat pull down exercises using high intensity (80% of 1RM. Blood draws occurred before and immediately after exercise and urine samples were collected before, immediately after, 3h after and 24 h after resistance exercise for the measurement of plasma lactate and urinary 8-OHdG excretion. Results: Urinary 8-OHdG concentrations were significantly lower at post and 24h post exercise in RT compared with UT (P<0.05. The concentration of 8-OHdG was significantly elevated post, 3h post and 24h post exercise in UT as compared with pre exercise status (P<0.05. However, 8-OHdG was significantly elevated 24h post exercise in RT as compared with pre exercise status (P<0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicated that oxidative DNA damage was lower in bodybuilding athletes compared to the untrained. This may be due to regular resistance training status in athletes and it is possible that antioxidant capacity is improved in athletes due to performing regular resistance training.

  15. Acute exercise increases brain region-specific expression of MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, GLUT1, and COX IV proteins. (United States)

    Takimoto, Masaki; Hamada, Taku


    The brain is capable of oxidizing lactate and ketone bodies through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). We examined the protein expression of MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), and cytochrome-c oxidase subunit IV (COX IV) in the rat brain within 24 h after a single exercise session. Brain samples were obtained from sedentary controls and treadmill-exercised rats (20 m/min, 8% grade). Acute exercise resulted in an increase in lactate in the cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus, but not the brainstem, and an increase in β-hydroxybutyrate in the cortex alone. After a 2-h exercise session MCT1 increased in the cortex and hippocampus 5 h postexercise, and the effect lasted in the cortex for 24 h postexercise. MCT2 increased in the cortex and hypothalamus 5-24 h postexercise, whereas MCT2 increased in the hippocampus immediately after exercise, and remained elevated for 10 h postexercise. Regional upregulation of MCT2 after exercise was associated with increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine-related kinase B proteins, but not insulin-like growth factor 1. MCT4 increased 5-10 h postexercise only in the hypothalamus, and was associated with increased hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression. However, none of the MCT isoforms in the brainstem was affected by exercise. Whereas GLUT 1 in the cortex increased only at 18 h postexercise, COX IV in the hippocampus increased 10 h after exercise and remained elevated for 24 h postexercise. These results suggest that acute prolonged exercise induces the brain region-specific upregulation of MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, GLUT1, and COX IV proteins.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Vanderthommen


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare an electrostimulated to an active recovery strategy after a submaximal isometric fatiguing exercise. Nineteen healthy men completed three sessions (separated by at least 4 weeks which included a knee extensors provocation exercise consisting of 3 sets of 25 isometric contractions. Contraction intensity level was fixed respectively at 60%, 55% and 50% of previously determined maximal voluntary contraction for the first, second and third sets. This provocation exercise was followed by either an active (AR recovery (25 min pedaling on a cycle ergometer, an electrostimulated (ESR recovery (25-min continuous and non-tetanic (5 Hz stimulation of the quadriceps or a strictly passive recovery (PR. Peak torques of knee extensors and subjective perception of muscle pain (VAS, 0-10 were evaluated before (pre-ex, immediately after the provocation exercise (post-ex, after the recovery period (post-rec, as well as 75 minutes (1h15 and one day (24h after the exercise bout. Time course of peak torque was similar among the different recovery modes: ~ 75% of initial values at post-ex, ~ 90% at post-rec and at 1h15. At 24h, peak torque reached a level close to baseline values (PR: 99.1 ± 10.7%, AR: 105.3 ± 12.2%, ESR: 104.4 ± 10.5%. VAS muscle pain scores decreased rapidly between post-ex and post-rec (p < 0.001; there were no significant differences between the three recovery modes (p = 0.64. In conclusion, following a submaximal isometric knee extension exercise, neither electrostimulated nor active recovery strategies significantly improved the time course of muscle function recovery

  17. Correlation analysis of urine protein and creatinine ratio and 24h urinary protein quantitation%尿蛋白与肌酐比值和24 h尿蛋白定量的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨尿蛋白/肌酐比值和24 h尿蛋白之间的关系。方法:收治肾病患者102例,将尿蛋白/肌酐与24 h尿蛋白定量进行相关性分析;采用 ROC 曲线分析确定尿蛋白/肌酐比值相对于24 h 尿蛋白定量最佳诊断点。结果:尿蛋白/肌酐比值与24 h尿蛋白定量呈显著相关性(P<0.05)。结论:尿蛋白/肌酐比值可替代24 h尿蛋白定量监测肾脏病患者尿蛋白排泄情况。%Objective:To investigate the relationship between urinary protein/creatinine ratio and 24 h urinary protein.Methods:102 cases of admitted patients with nephropathy were selected.We did a correlation analysis of urine protein/creatinine and 24 h urine protein quantitative.We used the ROC curve analysis to determine the quantitative diagnosis of optimal point of urine protein/creatinine ratio compared with 24 h urine protein.Results:The ratio of urine protein/creatinine was significantly correlated with the quantitative of urine protein of 24 h(P<0.05).Conclusion:Urine protein/creatinine ratio can replace 24 h quantitative urine protein for the monitoring of urinary protein excretion of kidney disease patients.

  18. Visfatin mRNA expression in human subcutaneous adipose tissue is regulated by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydelund-Larsen, Lone; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Nielsen, Søren;


    Visfatin [pre-beta-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF)] is a novel adipokine that is produced by adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver and has insulin-mimetic actions. Regular exercise enhances insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we therefore examined visfatin mRNA expression...... in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from healthy young men at time points 0, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, and 24 h in relation to either 3 h of ergometer cycle exercise at 60% of Vo(2 max) or rest. Adipose tissue visfatin mRNA expression increased threefold at the time points 3, 4.......5, and 6 h in response to exercise (n = 8) compared with preexercise samples and compared with the resting control group (n = 7, P = 0.001). Visfatin mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was not influenced by exercise. The exercise-induced increase in adipose tissue visfatin was, however, not accompanied...

  19. Exploring the physiologic role of human gastroesophageal reflux by analyzing time-series data from 24-h gastric and esophageal pH recordings. (United States)

    Lu, Luo; Mu, John C; Sloan, Sheldon; Miner, Philip B; Gardner, Jerry D


    Our previous finding of a fractal pattern for gastric pH and esophageal pH plus the statistical association of sequential pH values for up to 2 h led to our hypothesis that the fractal pattern encodes information regarding gastric acidity and that depending on the value of gastric acidity, the esophagus can signal the stomach to alter gastric acidity by influencing gastric secretion of acid or bicarbonate. Under our hypothesis values of gastric pH should provide information regarding values of esophageal pH and vice versa. We used vector autoregression, a theory-free set of inter-related linear regressions used to measure relationships that can change over time, to analyze data from 24-h recordings of gastric pH and esophageal pH. We found that in pH records from normal subjects, as well as from subjects with gastroesophageal reflux disease alone and after treatment with a proton pump inhibitor, gastric pH values provided important information regarding subsequent values of esophageal pH and values of esophageal pH provided important information regarding subsequent values of gastric pH. The ability of gastric pH and esophageal pH to provide information regarding subsequent values of each other was reduced in subjects with gastroesophageal reflux disease compared to normal subjects. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that depending on the value of gastric acidity, the esophagus can signal the stomach to alter gastric acidity, and that this ability is impaired in subjects with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  20. Effects of living at two ambient temperatures on 24-h blood pressure and neuroendocrine function among obese and non-obese humans: a pilot study (United States)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko; Sugenoya, Junichi


    The effects of environmental temperature on blood pressure and hormones in obese subjects in Japan were compared in two seasons: summer vs winter. Five obese (BMI, 32 ± 5 kg/m2) and five non-obese (BMI, 23 ±3 kg/m2) men participated in this experiment at latitude 35°10' N and longitude 136°57.9' E. The average environmental temperature was 29 ± 1 °C in summer and 3 ± 1 °C in winter. Blood samples were analyzed for leptin, ghrelin, catecholamines, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin and glucose. Blood pressure was measured over the course of 24 h in summer and winter. A Japanese version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire was also administered each season. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures in obese men were significantly higher in winter (lower environmental temperatures) than in summer (higher environmental temperatures). Noradrenaline and dopamine concentrations were also significantly higher at lower environmental temperatures in obese subjects, but ghrelin, TSH, fT3, fT4, insulin and glucose were not significantly different in summer and winter between obese and non-obese subjects. Leptin, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in winter in obese than non-obese men. Results from the POMS questionnaire showed a significant rise in Confusion at lower environmental temperatures (winter) in obese subjects. In this pilot study, increased blood pressure may have been due to increased secretion of noradrenaline in obese men in winter, and the results suggest that blood pressure control in obese men is particularly important in winter.

  1. No effect of route of exposure (oral; subcutaneous injection) on plasma bisphenol A throughout 24h after administration in neonatal female mice. (United States)

    Taylor, Julia A; Welshons, Wade V; Vom Saal, Frederick S


    Route of administration of chemicals in adults is an important factor in pharmacokinetics of chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA), the monomer with estrogenic activity used to make polycarbonate plastic products and to line food and beverage cans. Based on findings in adults it has been proposed (CERHR, 2007) that non-oral routes of administration in newborn rodents would also lead to high exposure relative to oral administration. However, in fetuses and neonates, the enzyme that conjugates BPA (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase) is expressed at low levels, suggesting that there may be no differences in pharmacokinetics between oral and non-oral dosing. We thus conducted an analysis of plasma concentrations of unconjugated 3H-BPA after HPLC separation in postnatal day 3 female mice throughout the 24h after administering 3H-BPA orally or via subcutaneous injection at doses above and below the current EPA reference dose. We found no significant difference in plasma BPA based on route of administration in neonatal mice at either dose. However, compared to data from other studies conducted with adults, there was a markedly higher plasma BPA level after oral administration of BPA in newborn mice. This finding sets aside the belief that non-oral administration of BPA renders data as not suitable for consideration of the hazard posed by low-dose exposure to BPA during neonatal life. Therefore the large numbers of BPA studies that used non-oral administration at very low doses during the neonatal period should not be dismissed by scientists or the regulatory community based on route of administration.

  2. Entering markets and bodies: increasing levels of the novel plasticizer Hexamoll® DINCH® in 24 h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank. (United States)

    Schütze, André; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Apel, Petra; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M


    DINCH (diisononylcyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate) was introduced into the world market in 2002 as a non-aromatic plasticizer and phthalate substitute. We analyzed 300 urine samples (24 h voids) of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB for Human tissues, ESB Hum) for specific DINCH metabolites by on-line HPLC-MS/MS with isotope dilution quantification. Urine samples of the ESB Hum were from the years 1999, 2003, 2006, 2009 and 2012, chosen to investigate the appearance and a possible trend of DINCH exposure since its market introduction. No DINCH metabolites were detected in the 1999 and 2003 samples. From 2006 on, the percentage of samples with DINCH metabolites above the LOQ increased significantly over the years (7% in 2006, 43% in 2009 and 98% in 2012). The cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid-mono(hydroxy-isononyl) ester (OH-MINCH) was the predominant metabolite. Median (and 95th percentile) concentrations (in μg/l) increased from 0.75, p<0.001). The median (95th percentile) DINCH intake in 2012 was calculated to be 0.14 (1.07)μg/kg body weight/day which is considerably below daily intakes currently deemed tolerable. DINCH is regarded to have a preferred toxicological profile over certain anti-androgenic phthalates. The continuation of DINCH measurements in the ESB Hum and other human biomonitoring studies like the German Environmental Survey (GerES) allows tracking the development of DINCH body burdens, the distribution of exposure levels and daily intakes, providing basic data for future toxicological assessment and further epidemiological studies.

  3. Nutrient Intake Is Insufficient among Senegalese Urban School Children and Adolescents: Results from Two 24 h Recalls in State Primary Schools in Dakar (United States)

    Fiorentino, Marion; Landais, Edwige; Bastard, Guillaume; Carriquiry, Alicia; Wieringa, Frank T.; Berger, Jacques


    Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal). The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Children attending urban state primary schools in the Dakar area were selected through a two-stage random cluster sampling (30 schools × 20 children). Dietary intake data were obtained from two 24 h recalls and blood samples were collected from 545 children (aged 5–17 years, 45% fat to global energy intake in one third of the children. Proportions of children with insufficient intake were: 100% for calcium, 100% for folic acid, 79% for vitamin A, 69% for zinc, 53% for vitamin C and 46% for iron. Insufficient iron and protein intake were risk factors for iron deficiency (odds ratio, OR 1.5, 2.2). Insufficient zinc intake and energy intake from protein were risk factors for zinc deficiency (OR 1.8, 3.0, 1.7, 2.9). Insufficient iron and vitamin C intake, and insufficient energy intake from protein were risk factors for marginal vitamin A status (OR 1.8, 1.8, 3.3). To address nutritional deficiencies associated with a diet deficient in energy, protein and micronutrients, nutrition education or school feeding programs are needed in urban primary schools of Senegal. PMID:27775598

  4. Exercise and Compulsive Behavior. (United States)

    Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa

    Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term…

  5. Effects of exercise on circadian rhythms and mobility in aging Drosophila melanogaster


    Rakshit, Kuntol; Wambua, Rebecca; Giebultowicz, Tomasz M.; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M.


    Daily life functions such as sleep and feeding oscillate with circa 24 h period due to endogenous circadian rhythms generated by circadian clocks. Genetic or environmental disruption of circadian rhythms is associated with various aging-related phenotypes. Circadian rhythms decay during normal aging, and there is a need to explore strategies that could avert age-related changes in the circadian system. Exercise was reported to delay aging in mammals. Here, we investigated whether daily exerci...

  6. Knee proprioception after exercise-induced muscle damage. (United States)

    Torres, R; Vasques, J; Duarte, J A; Cabri, J M H


    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether exercise-induced quadriceps muscle damage affects knee proprioception such as joint position sense (JPS), force sense and the threshold to detect passive movement (TTDPM). Fourteen young men performed sets of eccentric quadriceps contractions at a target of 60% of the maximal concentric peak torque until exhaustion; the exercise was interrupted whenever the subject could not complete two sets. Muscle soreness, JPS, the TTDPM and force sense were examined before the exercise as well as one, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after exercise. The results were compared using one-way repeated-measure ANOVA. Plasma CK activity, collected at the same times, was analyzed by the Friedman's test to discriminate differences between baseline values and each of the other assessment moments (pproprioception assessment, JPS at 30 and 70 degrees of knee flexion and force sense were significantly decreased up to 48 h, whereas TTDPM decreased significantly at only one hour and 24 h after exercise, at 30 and 70 degrees of the knee flexion, respectively. The results allow the conclusion that eccentric exercise leading to muscle damage alters joint proprioception, suggesting that there might be impairment in the intrafusal fibres of spindle muscles and in the tendon organs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasani S.H.


    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examined the effect of meal with different glycaemic index (GI on plasma IL-6 concentration and glucose metabolism after maximal lengthening contractions of the knee extensors. Using a cross-over design, Material : 10 healthy males completed 5 sets of 10 lengthening (eccentric contractions at 120% 1 repetition-maximum. Subjects were randomized to consume the GI beverage (high-GI, low-GI (15% weight per volume; 3 g/kg BM or placebo in three times within 10 min following exercise, and again at 50 and 110 min during recovery time. Blood samples were collected before exercise and after 0.60, 180 min and 24 h of recovery. Results: Concentration of plasma IL-6 in HGI group was less than LGI and Pla groups. IL-6 tended to significantly increase after exercise in recovery time in 3 groups (all P < 0.05, except for 24 hours (P = 1.00, furthermore there was significant difference for IL-6 between placebo and high glycemic groups in 3hours after exercise (P=.016. Concentration of serum CK in HGI group was less than LGI and Pla groups, CK was significantly elevated at all times points during recovery in 3 groups (all P < 0.05, except for 1 hour after exercise in HGI group (P = 0.31, but there was no significant difference for CK between groups. Conclusion: In summary, consuming HGI carbohydrate during recovery from exercise attenuate plasma IL-6 concentration.

  8. Water and sodium intake habits and status of ultra-endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-marathon conducted in a hot ambient environment: an observational field based study (United States)


    Background Anecdotal evidence suggests ultra-runners may not be consuming sufficient water through foods and fluids to maintenance euhydration, and present sub-optimal sodium intakes, throughout multi-stage ultra-marathon (MSUM) competitions in the heat. Subsequently, the aims were primarily to assess water and sodium intake habits of recreational ultra-runners during a five stage 225 km semi self-sufficient MSUM conducted in a hot ambient environment (Tmax range: 32°C to 40°C); simultaneously to monitor serum sodium concentration, and hydration status using multiple hydration assessment techniques. Methods Total daily, pre-stage, during running, and post-stage water and sodium ingestion of ultra-endurance runners (UER, n = 74) and control (CON, n = 12) through foods and fluids were recorded on Stages 1 to 4 by trained dietetic researchers using dietary recall interview technique, and analysed through dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM), hydration status, and serum sodium concentration were determined pre- and post-Stages 1 to 5. Results Water (overall mean (SD): total daily 7.7 (1.5) L/day, during running 732 (183) ml/h) and sodium (total daily 3.9 (1.3) g/day, during running 270 (151) mg/L) ingestion did not differ between stages in UER (p  0.05 vs. CON pre-stage). Asymptomatic hyponatraemia (<135 mmol/L) was evident pre- and post-stage in n = 8 UER, corresponding to 42% of sampled participants. Pre- and post-stage urine colour, urine osmolality and urine/plasma osmolality ratio increased (p < 0.001) as competition progressed in UER, with no change in CON. Plasma volume and extra-cellular water increased (p < 0.001) 22.8% and 9.2%, respectively, from pre-Stage 1 to 5 in UER, with no change in CON. Conclusion Water intake habits of ultra-runners during MSUM conducted in hot ambient conditions appear to be sufficient to maintain baseline euhydration levels. However, fluid over-consumption behaviours were evident along competition

  9. Dissociated time course recovery between rate of force development and peak torque after eccentric exercise. (United States)

    Molina, Renato; Denadai, Benedito S


    This study investigated the association between isokinetic peak torque (PT) of quadriceps and the corresponding peak rate of force development (peak RFD) during the recovery of eccentric exercise. Twelve untrained men (aged 21·7 ± 2·3 year) performed 100 maximal eccentric contractions for knee extensors (10 sets of 10 repetitions with a 2-min rest between each set) on isokinetic dynamometer. PT and peak RFD accessed by maximal isokinetic knee concentric contractions at 60° s(-1) were obtained before (baseline) and at 24 and 48 h after eccentric exercise. Indirect markers of muscle damage included delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity. The eccentric exercise resulted in elevated DOMS and CK compared with baseline values. At 24 h, PT (-15·3%, P = 0·002) and peak RFD (-13·1%, P = 0·03) decreased significantly. At 48 h, PT (-7·9%, P = 0·002) was still decreased but peak RFD have returned to baseline values. Positive correlation was found between PT and peak RFD at baseline (r = 0·62, P = 0·02), 24 h (r = 0·99, P = 0·0001) and 48 h (r = 0·68, P = 0·01) after eccentric exercise. The magnitude of changes (%) in PT and peak RFD from baseline to 24 h (r = 0·68, P = 0·01) and from 24 to 48 h (r = 0·68, P = 0·01) were significantly correlated. It can be concluded that the muscle damage induced by the eccentric exercise affects differently the time course of PT and peak RFD recovery during isokinetic concentric contraction at 60° s(-1). During the recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage, PT and peak RFD are determined but not fully defined by shared putative physiological mechanisms.

  10. Strength and Balance Exercises (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Strength and Balance Exercises Updated:Sep 8,2016 If ... Be Safe While Being Active - Stretching & Flexibility Exercises - Strength & Balance Exercises - Problems & Solutions for Being Active - FAQs ...

  11. Can exercise mimetics substitute for exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Kiens, Bente; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen


    Exercise leads to changes in muscle phenotype with important implications for exercise performance and health. A recent paper in Cell by Narkar et al. (2008) shows that many of the adaptations in muscle phenotype elicited by exercise can be mimicked by genetic manipulation and drug treatment...

  12. Exercise training upregulates nitric oxide synthases in the kidney of rats with chronic heart failure. (United States)

    Ito, Daisuke; Ito, Osamu; Mori, Nobuyoshi; Cao, Pengyu; Suda, Chihiro; Muroya, Yoshikazu; Hao, Kiyotaka; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Kohzuki, Masahiro


    There is an interaction between heart and kidney diseases, which is a condition termed cardiorenal syndrome. Exercise training has cardioprotective effects, involving upregulation of endothelial (e) nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the cardiovascular system. However, the effects of exercise training on NOS in the kidney with heart disease are unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exercise training upregulates NOS in the kidney, left ventricle and aorta of rats with chronic heart failure (CHF). Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent left coronary artery ligation (LCAL) to induce CHF and were randomly assigned to sedentary or treadmill exercise groups 4 weeks after LCAL. Three days after exercising for 4 weeks, urine samples were collected for 24 h and blood samples were collected following decapitation. Nitric oxide synthase activity and protein expression were examined. Significant interactions between CHF and exercise training were observed on parameters of cardiac and renal function. Exercise training improved cardiac function, decreased plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels, decreased urinary albumin excretion and increased creatinine clearance in CHF rats. Nitric oxide synthase activity, eNOS expression and neuronal (n) NOS expression were significantly decreased in the left ventricle and kidney of CHF rats. Exercise training significantly increased NOS activity and eNOS and nNOS expression. Upregulation of NOS in the kidney and left ventricle may contribute, in part, to the renal and cardiac protective effects of exercise training in cardiorenal syndrome in CHF rats.

  13. A comparison of 2H2O and phenylalanine flooding dose to investigate muscle protein synthesis with acute exercise in rats (United States)

    Gasier, Heath G.; Riechman, Steven E.; Wiggs, Michael P.; Previs, Stephen F.; Fluckey, James D.


    The primary objective of this investigation was to determine whether 2H2O and phenylalanine (Phe) flooding dose methods yield comparable fractional rates of protein synthesis (FSR) in skeletal muscle following a single bout of high-intensity resistance exercise (RE). Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned by body mass to either 4-h control (CON 4 h; n = 6), 4-h resistance exercise (RE 4 h; n = 6), 24-h control (CON 24 h; n = 6), or 24-h resistance exercise (RE 24 h; n = 6). The RE groups were operantly conditioned to engage in a single bout of high-intensity, “squat-like” RE. All rats were given an intraperitoneal injection of 99.9% 2H2O and provided 4.0% 2H2O drinking water for either 24 (n = 12) or 4 h (n = 12) prior to receiving a flooding dose of l-[2,3,4,5,6-3H]Phe 16 h post-RE. Neither method detected an effect of RE on FSR in the mixed gastrocnemius, plantaris, or soleus muscle. Aside from the qualitative similarities between methods, the 4-h 2H2O FSR measurements, when expressed in percent per hour, were quantitatively greater than the 24-h 2H2O and Phe flooding in all muscles (P < 0.001), and the 24-h 2H2O was greater than the Phe flooding dose in the mixed gastrocnemius and plantaris (P < 0.05). In contrast, the actual percentage of newly synthesized protein was significantly higher in the 24- vs. 4-h 2H2O and Phe flooding dose groups (P < 0.001). These results suggest that the methodologies provide “qualitatively” similar results when a perturbation such as RE is studied. However, due to potential quantitative differences between methods, the experimental question should determine what approach should be used. PMID:19366878

  14. Early Exercise Affects Mitochondrial Transcription Factors Expression after Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongshan Hu


    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that exercise training is neuroprotective after stroke, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. To clarify this critical issue, the current study investigated the effects of early treadmill exercise on the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors. Adult rats were subjected to ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. Expression of two genes critical for transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1 (PGC-1 and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1, were examined by RT-PCR after five days of exercise starting at 24 h after ischemia. Mitochondrial protein cytochrome C oxidase subunit IV (COX IV was detected by Western blot. Neurological status and cerebral infarct volume were evaluated as indices of brain damage. Treadmill training increased levels of PGC-1 and NRF-1 mRNA, indicating that exercise promotes rehabilitation after ischemia via regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis.

  15. Exercise & NSAID: Effect on muscle protein synthesis in knee osteoarthritis patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, S.G.; Miller, Ben F; Hansen, M


    the contralateral leg remained rested. Twenty-four hours after exercise, we determined circulating concentrations of inflammatory parameters and measured FSR of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein fractions of vastus lateralis muscle and patellar tendon collagen protein by the direct incorporation method using...... collagen protein (P = 0.52). No overall significant effect of the drug was seen on either of the tissue protein fractions (P > 0.05) or on the interaction between the drug and exercise on FSR in tendon collagen (P = 0.21), muscle myofibrillar (P = 0.68), or sarcoplasmic protein, FSR (P = 0.16).CONCLUSION......:In elderly patients with knee OA, an acute bout of moderate exercise significantly increases FSR of muscle myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein, but not tendon collagen, 24 h after exercise. NSAID administration in patients with knee OA reduced the level of circulating prostaglandin F2α but did not diminish...

  16. Heat shock protein translocation and expression response is attenuated in response to repeated eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, K.; Bayer, M.L.; Overgaard, K.


    and cytoskeletal protein fractions. The first bout of exercise reduced muscle strength and increased muscle soreness predominantly in the eccentric leg (P ... weeks between bouts, and were compared with a control group (n = 6). Muscle biopsies collected from m. vastus lateralis of both legs prior to and at 3 h, 24 h and 7 days after exercise were quantified for mRNA levels and/or for HSP27, alpha beta-crystallin and inducible HSP70 content in cytosolic...... eccentric exercise bout. Our results show that HSP translocation and expression responses are induced by muscle damaging exercise, and suggest that such HSP responses are closely related to the extent of muscle damage Udgivelsesdato: 2009/7...

  17. Heart-Healthy Exercise (United States)

    ... week of vigorous exercise. The more minutes you exercise, the more health benefits you will gain. Moderate exercise includes activities that ... for optimal health benefits. You can achieve the benefits of moderate exercise with only 30 minutes a day, 5 days ...

  18. Exercise After Pregnancy (United States)

    ... moderate-intensity exercise. Remember, even 10 minutes of exercise benefits your body. If you exercised vigorously before pregnancy ... want to join a gym but want the benefits of having someone to exercise with, ask a friend to be your workout ...

  19. Exercise and Fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, Wim; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.


    Physical exercise affects the equilibrium of the internal environment. During exercise the contracting muscles generate force or power and heat. So physical exercise is in fact a form of mechanical energy. This generated energy will deplete the energy stocks within the body. During exercise, metabol

  20. Exercise-Induced Asthma (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma A A ... previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with exercise-induced ...

  1. Bone repair: Effects of physical exercise and LPS systemic exposition. (United States)

    Nogueira, Jonatas E; Branco, Luiz G S; Issa, João Paulo M


    Bone repair can be facilitated by grafting, biochemical and physical stimulation. Conversely, it may be delayed lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Physical exercise exerts beneficial effects on the bone, but its effect on bone repair is not known. We investigated the effect of exercise on the LPS action on bone healing through bone densitometry, quantitative histological analysis for bone formation rate and immunohistochemical markers in sedentary and exercised animals. Rats ran on the treadmill for four weeks. After training the rats were submitted to a surgical procedure (bone defect in the right tibia) and 24h after the surgery LPS was administered at a dose of 100μg/kg i.p., whereas the control rats received a saline injection (1ml/kg, i.p.). Right tibias were obtained for analysis after 10days during which rats were not submitted to physical training. Physical exercise had a positive effect on bone repair, increasing bone mineral density, bone mineral content, bone formation rate, type I collagen and osteocalcin expression. These parameters were not affected by systemic administration of LPS. Our data indicate that physical exercise has an important osteogenic effect, which is maintained during acute systemic inflammation induced by exposure to a single dose of LPS.

  2. Rapid upregulation and clearance of distinct circulating microRNAs after prolonged aerobic exercise (United States)

    Park, Joseph; Min, Pil-Ki; Isaacs, Stephanie; Parker, Beth A.; Thompson, Paul D.; Troyanos, Chris; D'Hemecourt, Pierre; Dyer, Sophia; Thiel, Marissa; Hale, Andrew; Chan, Stephen Y.


    Short nonprotein coding RNA molecules, known as microRNAs (miRNAs), are intracellular mediators of adaptive processes, including muscle hypertrophy, contractile force generation, and inflammation. During basal conditions and tissue injury, miRNAs are released into the bloodstream as “circulating” miRNAs (c-miRNAs). To date, the impact of extended-duration, submaximal aerobic exercise on plasma concentrations of c-miRNAs remains incompletely characterized. We hypothesized that specific c-miRNAs are differentially upregulated following prolonged aerobic exercise. To test this hypothesis, we measured concentrations of c-miRNAs enriched in muscle (miR-1, miR-133a, miR-499–5p), cardiac tissue (miR-208a), and the vascular endothelium (miR-126), as well as those important in inflammation (miR-146a) in healthy male marathon runners (N = 21) at rest, immediately after a marathon (42-km foot race), and 24 h after the race. In addition, we compared c-miRNA profiles to those of conventional protein biomarkers reflective of skeletal muscle damage, cardiac stress and necrosis, and systemic inflammation. Candidate c-miRNAs increased immediately after the marathon and declined to prerace levels or lower after 24 h of race completion. However, the magnitude of change for each c-miRNA differed, even when originating from the same tissue type. In contrast, traditional biomarkers increased after exercise but remained elevated 24 h postexercise. Thus c-miRNAs respond differentially to prolonged exercise, suggesting the existence of specific mechanisms of c-miRNA release and clearance not fully explained by generalized cellular injury. Furthermore, c-miRNA expression patterns differ in a temporal fashion from corollary conventional tissue-specific biomarkers, emphasizing the potential of c-miRNAs as unique, real-time markers of exercise-induced tissue adaptation. PMID:24436293

  3. Substantial elevation of interleukin-6 concentration in peritendinous tissue, in contrast to muscle, following prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Olesen, Jens; Gemmer, Carsten;


    . The present study represents the first attempt to simultaneously measure IL-6 in plasma, skeletal muscle and peritendinous connective tissue in response to prolonged exercise. Six healthy well-trained volunteers completed a 36 km run (flat, 12 km h(-1)). IL-6 was measured before, 2 h post-exercise and 24 h...... of the run (50-fold increase). Using the microdialysis technique, the interstitial concentration of IL-6 was found to increase dramatically from 0 +/- 0 pg ml(-1) to 3618 +/- 1239 pg ml(-1) in the peritendinous tissue in the hours following the exercise. The pattern of changes was similar in plasma...... and peritendinous tissue, although approximately 100-fold higher in the latter. For comparison the interstitial muscle concentration was found to be 465 +/- 176 pg ml(-1) when measured 2 h post-exercise and 223 +/- 113 pg ml(-1) and 198 +/- 96 pg ml(-1) 48 h and 96 h post-exercise, respectively. The present study...

  4. Aerobic exercise attenuates inhibitory avoidance memory deficit induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats. (United States)

    Fernandes, Jansen; Baliego, Luiz Guilherme Zaccaro; Peixinho-Pena, Luiz Fernando; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Venancio, Daniel Paulino; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; de Mello, Marco Tulio; Arida, Ricardo Mario


    The deleterious effects of paradoxical sleep deprivation (SD) on memory processes are well documented. Physical exercise improves many aspects of brain functions and induces neuroprotection. In the present study, we investigated the influence of 4 weeks of treadmill aerobic exercise on both long-term memory and the expression of synaptic proteins (GAP-43, synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD-95) in normal and sleep-deprived rats. Adult Wistar rats were subjected to 4 weeks of treadmill exercise training for 35 min, five times per week. Twenty-four hours after the last exercise session, the rats were sleep-deprived for 96 h using the modified multiple platform method. To assess memory after SD, all animals underwent training for the inhibitory avoidance task and were tested 24h later. The aerobic exercise attenuated the long-term memory deficit induced by 96 h of paradoxical SD. Western blot analysis of the hippocampus revealed increased levels of GAP-43 in exercised rats. However, the expression of synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD-95 was not modified by either exercise or SD. Our results suggest that an aerobic exercise program can attenuate the deleterious effects of SD on long-term memory and that this effect is not directly related to changes in the expression of the pre- and post-synaptic proteins analyzed in the study.

  5. Dietary selenium and prolonged exercise alter gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in equine skeletal muscle. (United States)

    White, S H; Johnson, S E; Bobel, J M; Warren, L K


    Untrained Thoroughbred horses (6 mares and 6 geldings; 11 yr [SE 1] and 565 kg [SE 11]) were used to evaluate antioxidant gene expression and enzyme activity in blood and skeletal muscle in response to prolonged exercise after receiving 2 levels of dietary selenium for 36 d: 0.1 (CON; = 6) or 0.3 mg/kg DM (SEL; = 6). Horses were individually fed 1.6% BW coastal bermudagrass hay, 0.4% BW whole oats, and a mineral/vitamin premix containing no Se. Sodium selenite was added to achieve either 0.1 or 0.3 mg Se/kg DM in the total diet. On d 35, horses underwent 2 h of submaximal exercise in a free-stall exerciser. Blood samples were obtained before (d 0) and after 34 d of Se supplementation and on d 35 to 36 immediately after exercise and at 6 and 24 h after exercise. Biopsies of the middle gluteal muscle were obtained on d 0, before exercise on d 34, and at 6 and 24 h after exercise. Supplementation with Se above the NRC requirement (SEL) increased serum Se ( = 0.011) and muscle thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity ( = 0.051) but had no effect on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in plasma, red blood cell (RBC) lysate, or muscle in horses at rest. Serum creatine kinase activity increased ( SEL immediately following exercise. Muscle expression of was unchanged at 6 h but increased ( = 0.005) 2.8-fold 24 h after exercise, whereas muscle TrxR activity remained unchanged. Glutathione peroxidase activity increased in plasma (P impact of prolonged exercise on the activities of antioxidant enzymes varied. Furthermore, changes in enzyme activity did not necessarily align with enzyme gene expression following exercise. A higher level of Se intake elevated Se status of untrained horses, increased GPx activity, and lessened lipid peroxidation following exercise, suggesting that Se may be beneficial for mitigating oxidative muscle damage and aiding in postexercise recovery.

  6. Comparison of changes in markers of muscle damage induced by eccentric exercise and ischemia/reperfusion. (United States)

    Su, Q-S; Zhang, J-G; Dong, R; Hua, B; Sun, J-Z


    To examine the effects of eccentric exercise (EE) and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) on the markers of muscle damage, 72 rats were randomly assigned to the EE group, I/R group and control group (C), respectively. The rats in EE ran downhill on a treadmill with a 16 ° inclination at a constant speed for 90 min, and the rats in the I/R group underwent 90 min of four-limb ischemia, followed by 24, 48 and 72 h of reperfusion. Blood and tissue samples were collected immediately, 24, 48 and 72 h after exercise or reperfusion. Quantitative analyses showed that the I/R group had a significantly larger mitochondrial volume at 24 h after reperfusion compared with the C, and there were more disrupted Z-lines in the EE group and more disrupted mitochondria in the I/R group at 24 h after exercise or reperfusion. When compared with the C, a significantly lower total antioxidant capacity and higher interleukin-6 value were observed after exercise or reperfusion. Our data suggest that although EE and I/R result in some similar changes in the muscle damage markers, there are still some differences. The EE- and I/R-induced muscle damage may be due to different mechanisms.

  7. Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Muscle Soreness and Inflammation During Recovery From Strenuous Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yen Chen


    Full Text Available Although parties or get-togethers with alcoholic beverages after sporting competitions are popular, studies on the effects of alcohol ingestion after strenuous exercise on muscle damage and inflammation in non-drinkers’ are few and ambiguous. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alcohol ingestion during recovery from an acute bout of exercise on muscle soreness and inflammatory markers in regular exercisers who do not regularly consume alcohol. Male participants (n = 15 completed two bouts of exercise on a rowing ergometer for 2000 m in a randomized fashion. All participants ingested 5 mL of alcoholic (AL or placebo (PL beverage per kg of body weight within 10 min post-exercise. Blood samples for blood alcohol, creatine kinase (CK, C-reactive protein (CRP, and interleukin (IL-6 concentrations were collected pre-exercise (T0, and at 1 (T1, 3 (T2, and 24 h (T3 post-ingestion. Self-reported muscle soreness was assessed at the same time points. Lactate levels were measured before exercise and within 1 h post-exercise. Muscle soreness was significantly lower in the AL than the PL trials at T3 (p < 0.05. Although CK, IL-6 and CRP levels were significantly higher during recovery than before exercising, there was no significant difference between the AL and PL trials. In addition, no significant difference in lactate concentrations between the two trials was evident in the 1 h after exercise. For regular exercisers, the alcoholic beverage ingested did not increase CK, IL-6, or CRP compared to their placebo trial, despite attenuated muscle soreness. Comparisons between drinkers and non-drinkers of high fitness ingesting permissible alcohol doses should be performed in the future.   Keywords: alcohol, inflammation, strenuous exercise, muscle damage

  8. Changes in passive tension after stretch of unexercised and eccentrically exercised human plantarflexor muscles. (United States)

    Reisman, Simone; Allen, Trevor J; Proske, Uwe


    The study measured the effect of stretch on passive mechanical properties in unexercised and eccentrically exercised plantarflexor muscles, to obtain insight into how stretch might serve athletes as a warm-up strategy. Passive torque, voluntary contraction strength and muscle soreness were measured before and after a large amplitude stretch given before and after a period of eccentric exercise and at 0, 1, 2 and 24 h later. Stretch of the unexercised muscle led to a 20% fall in passive torque which recovered within an hour. About 40% of the fall could be recovered immediately with a voluntary contraction. After eccentric exercise there was a rise in passive torque by 20% at 2 h post-exercise. This rise was postulated to result from an injury contracture in muscle fibres damaged by the exercise. It was accompanied by a fall in maximum voluntary torque and the development of muscle soreness at 24 h. Stretch of the exercised muscle led to a fall in passive torque and rise in pain threshold. It is proposed that in response to a stretch there is a fall in passive tension in the muscle due to stable cross-bridges in sarcomeres which could be recovered with a voluntary contraction and an additional component attributable to the elastic filament, titin. The size of the fall was not significantly different between exercised and unexercised muscle. These observations provide a physiological basis for the effects of passive stretches on skeletal muscle and help to explain why they are used as a popular warm-up strategy.

  9. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones (United States)

    Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise; Osteopenia - exercise ... your bones strong and lower your risk of osteoporosis and fractures as you get older. Before you begin an exercise program, talk with your health care provider if: ...

  10. Endocannabinoids and exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, A; McDaniel, WF


    Exercise induces changes in mental status, particularly analgesia, sedation, anxiolysis, and a sense of wellbeing. The mechanisms underlying these changes remain unknown. Recent findings show that exercise increases serum concentrations of endocannabinoids, suggesting a possible explanation for a nu

  11. Physical Activity (Exercise) (United States)

    ... page Subscribe to ePublications email updates. Enter email address Submit Home > ePublications > Our ePublications > Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) ...

  12. Exercise and immunity (United States)

    ... term exercise (such as marathon running and intense gym training) could actually cause harm. Studies have shown ... 20 to 30 minute walks Going to the gym every other day Playing golf regularly Exercise makes ...

  13. Exercise and Asthma (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Exercise and Asthma Page Content Article Body Almost every child (and ... of Pediatrics about asthma and exercise. What is asthma Asthma is the most common chronic medical problem ...

  14. Diabetes, insulin and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Galbo, H


    The metabolic and hormonal adaptations to single exercise sessions and to exercise training in normal man and in patients with insulin-dependent as well as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are reviewed. In insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes good metabolic control is best obtained...... of the patient's reaction to exercise is desirable, which necessitates frequent self-monitoring of plasma glucose. It may often be necessary to diminish the insulin dose before exercise, and/or to ingest additional carbohydrate during or after exercise. In non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes, exercise...... by a regular pattern of life which will lead to a fairly constant demand for insulin from day to day. Exercise is by nature a perturbation that makes treatment of diabetes difficult: Muscle contractions per se tend to decrease the plasma glucose concentration whereas the exercise-induced response of the so...

  15. Exercise during Pregnancy (United States)

    ... high blood pressure Severe anemia What are the benefits of exercise during pregnancy? Regular exercise during pregnancy ... a stationary bike is a better choice. Modified yoga and modified Pilates—Yoga reduces stress, improves flexibility, ...

  16. Getting Exercise in College (United States)

    ... This (and other evidence) suggests that the real benefits of exercise may not come right after a workout but ... in life. You'll likely discover a subtler benefit of exercise as well: greater self-confidence. This may make ...

  17. Exercise-induced asthma (United States)

    ... Exercise-induced asthma To use the sharing features on this page, ... such as running, basketball, or soccer. Use Your Asthma Medicine Before you Exercise Take your short-acting, ...

  18. Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm (United States)

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  19. Assessing Exercise Limitation Using Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Stickland


    Full Text Available The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET is an important physiological investigation that can aid clinicians in their evaluation of exercise intolerance and dyspnea. Maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max is the gold-standard measure of aerobic fitness and is determined by the variables that define oxygen delivery in the Fick equation (V˙O2 = cardiac output × arterial-venous O2 content difference. In healthy subjects, of the variables involved in oxygen delivery, it is the limitations of the cardiovascular system that are most responsible for limiting exercise, as ventilation and gas exchange are sufficient to maintain arterial O2 content up to peak exercise. Patients with lung disease can develop a pulmonary limitation to exercise which can contribute to exercise intolerance and dyspnea. In these patients, ventilation may be insufficient for metabolic demand, as demonstrated by an inadequate breathing reserve, expiratory flow limitation, dynamic hyperinflation, and/or retention of arterial CO2. Lung disease patients can also develop gas exchange impairments with exercise as demonstrated by an increased alveolar-to-arterial O2 pressure difference. CPET testing data, when combined with other clinical/investigation studies, can provide the clinician with an objective method to evaluate cardiopulmonary physiology and determination of exercise intolerance.

  20. Effects of previous physical exercise to chronic stress on long-term aversive memory and oxidative stress in amygdala and hippocampus of rats. (United States)

    Dos Santos, Tiago Marcon; Kolling, Janaína; Siebert, Cassiana; Biasibetti, Helena; Bertó, Carolina Gessinger; Grun, Lucas Kich; Dalmaz, Carla; Barbé-Tuana, Florencia María; Wyse, Angela T S


    Since stressful situations are considered risk factors for the development of depression and there are few studies evaluating prevention therapies for this disease, in the present study we evaluated the effect of previous physical exercise in animals subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS), an animal model of depression, on behavior tasks. We also investigated some parameters of oxidative stress and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, immunocontent and gene expression of alpha subunits in amygdala and hippocampus of rats. Young male rats were randomized into four study groups (control, exercised, stressed, exercised+stressed). The animals were subjected to controlled exercise treadmill for 20min,three times a week, for two months prior to submission to the CVS (40days). Results show that CVS impaired performance in inhibitory avoidance at 24h and 7days after training session. CVS induced oxidative stress, increasing reactive species, lipoperoxidation and protein damage, and decreasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The activity of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase was decreased, but the immunocontents and gene expression of catalytic subunits were not altered. The previous physical exercise was able to improve performance in inhibitory avoidance at 24h after training; additionally, exercise prevented oxidative damage, but was unable to reverse completely the changes observed on the enzymatic activities. Our findings suggest that physical exercise during the developmental period may protect against aversive memory impairment and brain oxidative damage caused by chronic stress exposure later in life.

  1. Cyber Exercise Playbook (United States)


    all parties benefit from the exercise experience. Exercises are not performed to make an organization look bad; instead, they help to train and...techniques it utilized to attack a security posture. All parties benefit from an exercise that underscores the RT motto: ”we win, we lose. 23 Appendix...Jason Kick November 2014 Cyber Exercise Playbook The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of The

  2. Exercise in Pregnancy



    Context: Health professionals who care for pregnant women should discuss potential health benefits and harms of exercise. Although most pregnant women do not meet minimal exercise recommendations, there are a growing number of physically active women who wish to continue training throughout pregnancy. Evidence Acquisition: A search of the Web of Science database of articles and reviews available in English through 2014. The search terms exercise pregnancy, strenuous exercise pregnancy, and vi...

  3. Why Exercise Is Wise (United States)

    ... each day. Here are some of the reasons: Exercise benefits every part of the body, including the mind. ... conditions may affect how — and how much — you exercise. Doctors know that most people benefit from regular exercise, even those with disabilities or ...

  4. Kids and Exercise (United States)

    ... or when playing tag. The Many Benefits of Exercise Everyone can benefit from regular exercise. Kids who are active will: have stronger muscles ... better outlook on life Besides enjoying the health benefits of regular exercise, kids who are physically fit sleep better. They' ...

  5. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition. (United States)

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  6. Stretch Band Exercise Program (United States)

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald


    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

  7. Prenatal exercise research. (United States)

    Field, Tiffany


    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise.

  8. Crystal structure, magnetic, thermal behavior, and spectroscopic studies of two new bimetallic hydrogenselenites: [Cu2-xNix (HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O], (x = 0.62; 0.91) (United States)

    Hentech, I.; Zehani, K.; Kabadou, A.; Ben Salah, A.; Loukil, M.; Bessais, L.


    Two new iso-structural bimetallic hydrogenselenites [Cu2-xNix(HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O] (x = 0.62; 0.91) have been synthesized from solution and characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. They crystallized in the orthorhombic Pnma space group with the following lattice parameters: for Cu1.09Ni0.91(HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O: a = 9.0931 (2) Å, b = 17.7717 (4) Å, c = 7.1620 (2) Å, Z = 4, and for Cu1.38Ni0.62(HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O: a = 9.0931 (4) Å, b = 17.7467 (7) Å, c = 7.1717 (3) Å; Z = 4. The crystal structure of this compound consists by a three-dimensional framework, but it may be described as a bi-dimensional structure consisting of layers, parallel to the (010) plane formed by two types of (Cu/Ni) octahedral and (HSeO3)- trigonal pyramids. The magnetic measurement, thermal and spectroscopic studies were performed for these compounds. The magnetic results reveal the appearance of a weak ferromagnetic behavior at low temperature (Tc = 16 K for x = 0.91 and 18.8 K for x = 0.62). The DSC analysis enabled us to locate two endothermic peaks. The first peak can be attributed to a completely dehydration of the material, in this transformation, the compounds undergo a structural phase transition which can favor a non-centrosymmetric phase at high temperature confirmed by the thermodiffractograms measurement. The second peak for these samples is due to the ferro-paraelectric phase transition which can be explained by an order- disorder transition.

  9. The 3,7 l V6 TDI for the 24 hours of Le Mans. A new idea triumphs; Der 3,7 l V 6 TDI fuer die 24h von Le Mans. Sieg einer neuen Idee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baretzky, U.; Diel, H.; Kotauschek, W.; Kuntz, P.; Dreyer, S.; Schneider, A.; Ullrich, W.; Muehlmeier, M. [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany); Hatz, W. [Porsche AG (Germany)


    With the victories at the 24 h of le Mans in 2011 and 2012 AUDI has shown impressively, that engines with much smaller capacities than usually used can be extremely successful. Due to a number of innovative technical solutions combined with an unusual but leading architecture this very compact engine has offered the platform for a number of victories. At last even combined with an MGU as E-tron Quattro. Thanks to extremely low consumption figures the engine is a technology carrier for a number of customer relevant solutions. Those will become available for our customers after having been tested successfully in the hardest endurance race. (orig.)

  10. Ethinyl oestradiol administration in women suppresses synthesis of collagen in tendon in response to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Koskinen, Satu O; Petersen, Susanne G;


    Women are at greater risk than men of sustaining certain kinds of injury and diseases of collagen-rich tissues. To determine whether a high level of oestradiol has an acute influence on collagen synthesis in tendons at rest and in response to exercise, one-legged kicking exercise was performed...... for 60 min at 67% of maximum power by healthy, young oral contraceptive (OC) users when circulating synthetic (ethinyl) oestradiol was high (n = 11, HE-OC) and compared to similar women who had never used OCs when circulating endogenous oestrogen was low (n = 12, LE-NOC). Interstitial fluid was collected...... 24 h post-exercise through microdialysis catheters placed anterior to the patellar tendon in both legs and subsequently analysed for the amino-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP), a marker of tendon collagen synthesis. To determine the long-term effect of OC usage, patellar tendon cross...

  11. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  12. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse


    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  13. The effects of impact and non-impact exercise on circulating markers of collagen remodelling in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Donnelly, Alan E; Swanton, Alan


    Exercise has been shown to influence collagen synthesis and degradation. The aim of this study was to determine whether the stimulus for these changes is metabolic or mechanical. Eight healthy adults aged 22 +/- 4 years (mean +/- s) completed two exercise bouts-a 10 km road run and a deep water...... running session. Blood samples were collected before exercise and on days 1, 2, 3, 6 and 10 after exercise for measurement of creatine kinase activity, type IV collagen antigenicity, and concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)- 9, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)- 1 and -2......, and the MMP-2/TIMP-2 complex. Serum creatine kinase was elevated 24 h after the road run, but unchanged after the deep water running session. Serum collagen IV antigenicity decreased after both the road run and the deep water running session, suggesting suppressed type IV collagen synthesis in response...

  14. Morning and evening exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Yun Seo


    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that exercise may contribute to preventing pathological changes, treating multiple chronic diseases, and reducing mortality and morbidity ratios. Scientific evidence moreover shows that exercise plays a key role in improving health-related physical fitness components and hormone function. Regular exercise training is one of the few strategies that has been strictly adapted in healthy individuals and in athletes. However, time-dependent exercise has different outcomes, based on the exercise type, duration, and hormone adaptation. In the present review, we therefore briefly describe the type, duration, and adaptation of exercise performed in the morning and evening. In addition, we discuss the clinical considerations and indications for exercise training.

  15. Acute effects of concentric and eccentric exercise on glucose metabolism and interleukin-6 concentration in healthy males. (United States)

    Philippe, M; Krüsmann, P J; Mersa, L; Eder, E M; Gatterer, H; Melmer, A; Ebenbichler, C; Burtscher, M


    Acute muscle-damaging eccentric exercise (EE) negatively affects glucose metabolism. On the other hand, long-term eccentric endurance exercise seems to result in equal or superior positive effects on glucose metabolism compared to concentric endurance exercise. However, it is not known if acute non-muscle-damaging EE will have the same positive effects on glucose metabolism as acute concentric exercise (CE). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) released from the exercising muscles may be involved in the acute adaptations of glucose metabolism after CE and non-muscle-damaging EE. The aim of this study was to assess acute effects of uphill walking (CE) and non-muscle-damaging downhill walking (EE) on glucose metabolism and IL-6 secretion. Seven sedentary non-smoking, healthy males participated in a crossover trial consisting of a 1 h uphill (CE) and a 1 h downhill (EE) walking block on a treadmill. Venous blood samples were drawn before (pre), directly after (acute) and 24 h after (post) exercise. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed before and 24 h after exercise. Glucose tolerance after 1 and 2 hours significantly improved 24 hours after CE (-10.12±3.22%: P=0.039; -13.40±8.24%: P=0.028). After EE only the 1-hour value was improved (-5.03±5.48%: P=0.043). Acute IL-6 concentration rose significantly after CE but not after EE. We conclude that both a single bout of CE and a single bout of non-muscle-damaging EE elicit positive changes in glucose tolerance even in young, healthy subjects. Our experiment indicates that the overall metabolic cost is a major trigger for acute adaptations of glucose tolerance after exercise, but only the IL-6 production during EE was closely related to changes in glycaemic control.

  16. Small heat shock proteins translocate to the cytoskeleton in human skeletal muscle following eccentric exercise independently of phosphorylation. (United States)

    Frankenberg, Noni T; Lamb, Graham D; Overgaard, Kristian; Murphy, Robyn M; Vissing, Kristian


    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are a subgroup of the highly conserved family of HSPs that are stress inducible and confer resistance to cellular stress and injury. This study aimed to quantitatively examine whether type of contraction (concentric or eccentric) affects sHSPs, HSP27 and αB-crystallin, localization, and phosphorylation in human muscle. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies from 11 healthy male volunteers were obtained pre- and 3 h, 24 h, and 7 days following concentric (CONC), eccentric (ECC1), and repeated bout eccentric (ECC2) exercise. No changes were apparent in a control group (n = 5) who performed no exercise. Eccentric exercise induced muscle damage, as evidenced by increased muscle force loss, perceived muscle soreness, and elevated plasma creatine kinase and myoglobin levels. Total HSP27 and αB-crystallin amounts did not change following any type of exercise. Following eccentric exercise (ECC1 and ECC2) phosphorylation of HSP27 at serine 15 (pHSP27-Ser15) was increased approximately 3- to 6-fold at 3 h, and pαB-crystallin-Ser59 increased ~10-fold at 3 h. Prior to exercise most of the sHSP and psHSP pools were present in the cytosolic compartment. Eccentric exercise resulted in partial redistribution of HSP27 (~23%) from the cytosol to the cytoskeletal fraction (~28% for pHSP27-Ser15 and ~7% for pHSP27-Ser82), with subsequent full reversal within 24 h. αB-crystallin also showed partial redistribution from the cytosolic to cytoskeletal fraction (~18% of total) 3 h post-ECC1, but not after ECC2. There was no redistribution or phosphorylation of sHSPs with CONC. Eccentric exercise results in increased sHSP phosphorylation and translocation to the cytoskeletal fraction, but the sHSP translocation is not dependent on their phosphorylation.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and effects on thromboxane B2 production following intravenous administration of flunixin meglumine to exercised thoroughbred horses. (United States)

    Knych, H K; Arthur, R M; McKemie, D S; Chapman, N


    Flunixin meglumine is commonly used in horses for the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries. The current ARCI threshold recommendation is 20 ng/mL when administered at least 24 h prior to race time. In light of samples exceeding the regulatory threshold at 24 h postadministration, the primary goal of the study reported here was to update the pharmacokinetics of flunixin following intravenous administration, utilizing a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). An additional objective was to characterize the effects of flunixin on COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition when drug concentrations reached the recommended regulatory threshold. Sixteen exercised adult horses received a single intravenous dose of 1.1 mg/kg. Blood samples were collected up to 72 h postadministration and analyzed using LC-MS. Blood samples were collected from 8 horses for determination of TxB(2) and PGE(2) concentrations prior to and up to 96 h postflunixin administration. Mean systemic clearance, steady-state volume of distribution and terminal elimination half-life was 0.767 ± 0.098 mL/min/kg, 0.137 ± 0.12 L/kg, and 4.8 ± 1.59 h, respectively. Four of the 16 horses had serum concentrations in excess of the current ARCI recommended regulatory threshold at 24 h postadministration. TxB(2) suppression was significant for up to 24 h postadministration.

  18. Transient increase in homocysteine but not hyperhomocysteinemia during acute exercise at different intensities in sedentary individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Iglesias-Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available Considering that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the purpose of this study was to determine the kinetics of serum homocysteine (tHcy and the vitamins involved in its metabolism (folates, B(12, and B(6 in response to acute exercise at different intensities. Eight sedentary males (18-27 yr took part in the study. Subjects were required to complete two isocaloric (400 kcal acute exercise trials on separate occasions at 40% (low intensity, LI and 80% VO(2peak (high intensity, HI. Blood samples were drawn at different points before (pre4 and pre0 h, during (exer10, exer20, exer30, exer45, and exer60 min, and after exercise (post0, post3, and post19 h. Dietary, genetic, and lifestyle factors were controlled. Maximum tHcy occurred during exercise, both at LI (8.6 (8.0-10.1 µmol/L, 9.3% increase from pre0 and HI (9.4 (8.2-10.6 µmol/L, 25.7% increase from pre0, coinciding with an accumulated energy expenditure independent of the exercise intensity. From this point onwards tHcy declined until the cessation of exercise and continued descending. At post19, tHcy was not different from pre-exercise values. No values of hyperhomocysteinemia were observed at any sampling point and intensity. In conclusion, acute exercise in sedentary individuals, even at HI, shows no negative effect on tHcy when at least 400 kcal are spent during exercise and the nutritional status for folate, B(12, and B(6 is adequate, since no hyperhomocysteinemia has been observed and basal concentrations were recovered in less than 24 h. This could be relevant for further informing healthy exercise recommendations.

  19. A single bout of high-intensity aerobic exercise facilitates response to paired associative stimulation and promotes sequence-specific implicit motor learning. (United States)

    Mang, Cameron S; Snow, Nicholas J; Campbell, Kristin L; Ross, Colin J D; Boyd, Lara A


    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the impact of a single bout of high-intensity aerobic exercise on 1) long-term potentiation (LTP)-like neuroplasticity via response to paired associative stimulation (PAS) and 2) the temporal and spatial components of sequence-specific implicit motor learning. Additionally, relationships between exercise-induced increases in systemic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and response to PAS and motor learning were evaluated. Sixteen young healthy participants completed six experimental sessions, including the following: 1) rest followed by PAS; 2) aerobic exercise followed by PAS; 3) rest followed by practice of a continuous tracking (CT) task and 4) a no-exercise 24-h retention test; and 5) aerobic exercise followed by CT task practice and 6) a no-exercise 24-h retention test. The CT task included an embedded repeated sequence allowing for evaluation of sequence-specific implicit learning. Slope of motor-evoked potential recruitment curves generated with transcranial magnetic stimulation showed larger increases when PAS was preceded by aerobic exercise (59.8% increase) compared with rest (14.2% increase, P = 0.02). Time lag of CT task performance on the repeated sequence improved under the aerobic exercise condition from early (-100.8 ms) to late practice (-75.2 ms, P 0.16). Systemic BDNF increased on average by 3.4-fold following aerobic exercise (P = 0.003), but the changes did not relate to neurophysiological or behavioral measures (P > 0.42). These results indicate that a single bout of high-intensity aerobic exercise can prime LTP-like neuroplasticity and promote sequence-specific implicit motor learning.

  20. Diabetes and exercise. (United States)

    Lumb, Alistair


    Exercise has a beneficial effect on metabolic parameters affecting cardiovascular risk, such as lipids and blood glucose, and is a key component in both the prevention and the management of type 2 diabetes. Glycaemic control improves with both aerobic and resistance exercise in type 2 diabetes, but no glycaemic benefit is seen in type 1 diabetes. This probably results from glucose fluctuations commonly seen with exercise. Low and moderate intensity exercise are generally associated with a fall in blood glucose, and high intensity exercise can be associated with a rise in blood glucose. Trial evidence is suggestive of a reduction in cardiovascular risk with exercise, although evidence from prospective, randomised controlled trials is certainly not conclusive.

  1. Compliance with physical exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Anne Sofie; Bønnelycke, Julie; Rosenkilde Larsen, Mads


    Aims: Sixty-one healthy, sedentary, moderately overweight young men participated in a randomised controlled trial to examine the effects of two different doses of endurance exercise on health behaviour and exercise compliance. Methods: Participants were randomised to a sedentary control group......, a moderate (MOD; 300 kcal/day) or a high-dose (HIGH; 600 kcal/day) endurance exercise group for 12 weeks. A sub-set of the subjects were interviewed using pre-determined, qualitative questions to elucidate physical activity and health behaviour. In combination with the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB...... improved various metabolic health parameters. The MOD group was untroubled by the exercise load and had a positive attitude towards exercise. The HIGH group expressed increased fatigue, less positivity and perceived exercise as time-consuming. The MOD group described themselves as more energetic...

  2. Water exercise in pregnancy. (United States)

    Katz, V L


    Exercise in the water offers several physiological advantages to the pregnant woman. The hydrostatic force of water pushes extravascular fluid into the vascular spaces, producing an increase in central blood volume that may lead to increased uterine blood flow. This force is proportional to the depth of immersion. The increase in blood volume is proportional to the woman's edema. A marked diuresis and natriuresis accompanies the fluid shifts. The buoyancy of water supports the pregnant women. Water is thermoregulating. Studies of pregnant women exercising in the water have shown less fetal heart rate changes in the water than on land in response to exertion. Pregnant women's heart rates and blood pressures during water exercise are lower than on land exercise, reflecting the immersion-induced increase in circulating blood volume. The physiology of water exercise offers some compensation for the physiological changes of exercise on land that may beneficially affect pregnancy.

  3. Voluntary exercise protects against stress-induced decreases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein expression. (United States)

    Adlard, P A; Cotman, C W


    Exercise is increasingly recognized as an intervention that can reduce CNS dysfunctions such as cognitive decline, depression and stress. Previously we have demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is increased in the hippocampus following exercise. In this study we tested the hypothesis that exercise can counteract a reduction in hippocampal BDNF protein caused by acute immobilization stress. Since BDNF expression is suppressed by corticosterone (CORT), circulating CORT levels were also monitored. In animals subjected to 2 h immobilization stress, CORT was elevated immediately following, and at 1 h after the cessation of stress, but remained unchanged from baseline up to 24 h post-stress. The stress protocol resulted in a reduction in BDNF protein at 5 and 10 h post-stress that returned to baseline at 24 h. To determine if exercise could prevent this stress-induced reduction in BDNF protein, animals were given voluntary access to running wheels for 3 weeks prior to the stress. Stressed animals, in the absence of exercise, again demonstrated an initial elevation in CORT (at 0 h) and a subsequent decrease in hippocampal BDNF at the 10 h time point. Exercising animals, both non-stressed and stressed, demonstrated circulating CORT and hippocampal BDNF protein levels that were significantly elevated above control values at both time points examined (0 and 10 h post-stress). Thus, the persistently high CORT levels in exercised animals did not affect the induction of BDNF with exercise, and the effect of immobilization stress on BDNF protein was overcome. To examine the role of CORT in the stress-related regulation of BDNF protein, experiments were carried out in adrenalectomized (ADX) animals. BDNF protein was not downregulated as a result of immobilization stress in ADX animals, while there continued to be an exercise-induced upregulation of BDNF. This study demonstrates that CORT modulates stress-related alterations in BDNF protein. Further, exercise

  4. Identification of patients at low risk of dying after acute myocardial infarction, by simple clinical and submaximal exercise test criteria. (United States)

    Campbell, S; A'Hern, R; Quigley, P; Vincent, R; Jewitt, D; Chamberlain, D


    A consecutive series of 559 hospital survivors of acute myocardial infarction aged less than 66 years were studied; 93 were designated prospectively as low-risk because they were suitable for early submaximal exercise testing and had none of the following clinical or exercise test 'risk factors': (1) angina for at least one month prior to infarction; (2) symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias, or (3) recurrent ischaemic pain, both after the first 24 h of infarction; (4) cardiac failure; (5) cardiomegaly; and (6) an abnormal exercise test (angina, ST-depression or poor blood pressure response). Altogether 301 patients were exercised; their mortality over a median follow-up of 2.4 years was 10.2%, versus 24.6% in the 258 patients not exercised (P = 0.0005). Absence of clinical 'risk factors' alone, in the exercised patients, identified 156 with a mortality of 5.4% versus 15.6% in the 145 with at least one clinical 'risk factor' (P = 0.004). The fully defined low-risk group comprised 93 of the former patients who had neither clinical nor exercise test 'risk factors'. None of these patients died compared with 19 of those with at least one 'risk factor' (mortality = 14.7%; P = 0.002). Their respective rates of non-fatal reinfarction were similar and never exceeded 5% per annum. Therefore, simple clinical and exercise test criteria can positively identify low-risk patients after infarction in whom secondary prevention may be inappropriate.

  5. Exercise in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajarajeswaran P


    Full Text Available Physical exercise has attracted increased interest in rehabilitation of oncological patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and summarize the evidence of physical exercise in preventing cancer, its ability in attenuating the effect of cancer and its treatments and to provide guidelines for exercise prescription Review of recent literature by electronic search of MEDline (Pub Med, Cancer lit, Cochrane libraries, CINAHL were done using Keywords and the variables were identified and systematically evaluated. There is strong evidence for reduced risk of colorectal and breast cancer with possible association for prostate, endometrial and lung cancer with increasing physical activity. Exercise helps cancer survivors cope with and recover from treatment; exercise may improve the health of long term cancer survivors and extend survival. Physical exercise will benefit throughout the spectrum of cancer. However, an understanding of the amount, type and intensity of exercise needed has not been fully elucidated. There is sufficient evidence to promote exercise in cancer survivors following careful assessment and tailoring on exercise prescription.

  6. How physical exercise changes rat myotendinous junctions: an ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Curzi


    Full Text Available Myotendinous junctions can be easily injured by overloading or trauma, and exercise training may be a way of increasing their resistance to mechanical stress. To this end, we examined herein the morphological changes induced by moderate exercise training in the myotendinous junctions of extensor digitorum longus and gastrocnemius muscles in rats. Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this investigation. Six of them were trained to run on a treadmill for 1 h/day, 3 days/week over 10 weeks in order for them to achieve a running rate of 25 m/min at the end of the training period. Six age-matched sedentary rats were used as controls. The rats were sacrificed 24 h after the final training session, and the extensor digitorum longum (EDL and the gastrocnemium were excised; the myotendinous junctions (MTJ were then prepared and observed with electron microscopy. Digitation branching was evaluated by counting the bifurcations in the MTJ protrusions. Our observations indicate that exercise does indeed induce changes in MTJ morphology. In both muscles the number of bifurcated interdigitations increased significantly, as well as, in gastrocnemius, the branching of the finger-like processes. It was demonstrated that the MTJ is able to adapt to an increase in tensile force by enlarging the muscle-tendon contact area and, consequently, mechanical resistance.

  7. Vitamin D2 supplementation amplifies eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage in NASCAR pit crew athletes. (United States)

    Nieman, David C; Gillitt, Nicholas D; Shanely, R Andrew; Dew, Dustin; Meaney, Mary Pat; Luo, Beibei


    This study determined if 6-weeks vitamin D2 supplementation (vitD2, 3800 IU/day) had an influence on muscle function, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) in National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) NASCAR pit crew athletes. Subjects were randomized to vitD2 (n=13) and placebo (n=15), and ingested supplements (double-blind) for six weeks. Blood samples were collected and muscle function tests conducted pre- and post-study (leg-back and hand grip dynamometer strength tests, body weight bench press to exhaustion, vertical jump, 30-s Wingate test). Post-study, subjects engaged in 90 min eccentric-based exercise, with blood samples and DOMS ratings obtained immediately after and 1- and 2-days post-exercise. Six weeks vitD2 increased serum 25(OH)D2 456% and decreased 25(OH)D3 21% versus placebo (peccentric exercise bout induced EIMD and DOMS, with higher muscle damage biomarkers measured in vitD2 compared to placebo (myoglobin 252%, 122% increase, respectively, p=0.001; creatine phosphokinase 24 h post-exercise, 169%, 32%, peccentric exercise.

  8. The influence of eccentric exercise on mRNA expression of skeletal muscle regulators. (United States)

    Jensky, Nicole E; Sims, Jennifer K; Rice, Judd C; Dreyer, Hans C; Schroeder, E Todd


    To evaluate change in myostatin, follistatin, MyoD and SGT mRNA gene expression using eccentric exercise to study mechanisms of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Young (28+/-5 years) and older (68+/-6 years) men participated in a bout of maximal single-leg eccentric knee extension on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60 degrees /s: six sets, 12-16 maximal eccentric repetitions. Muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis were obtained from the dominant leg before exercise and 24 h after exercise. Paired t tests were used to compare change (pre versus post-exercise) for normalized gene expression in all variables. Independent t tests were performed to test group differences (young vs. older). A probability level of Peccentric exercise. Similarly, we did not observe significant change in myostatin (-3.83+/-8.8; P=0.23), follistatin (-2.66+/-5.2; P=0.17), MyoD (-0.13+/-3.1; P=0.90), or SGT (-1.6+/-3.5; P=0.19) mRNA expression in older subjects. Furthermore, the non-significant changes in mRNA expression were not different between young and older subjects, P>0.23 for all variables. Our data suggests that a single bout of maximal eccentric exercise does not alter myostatin, follistatin, MyoD or SGT mRNA gene expression in young or older subjects.

  9. Calpains, skeletal muscle function and exercise. (United States)

    Murphy, Robyn M


    1. Skeletal muscle fibres contain ubiquitous (mu-calpain and m-calpain) and muscle-specific (calpain-3) Ca(2+)-dependent proteases. The physiological roles of the calpains are not well understood, although ubiquitous calpains have been associated with apoptosis and myogenesis and calpain-3 is likely involved in sarcomeric remodelling. A defect in the expression of calpain-3 results in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy Type 2A. 2. At resting [Ca(2+)](i), calpains are present predominantly in their full-length, unautolysed/unactivated forms. Once activated, mu-calpain and calpain-3 appear in their autolysed forms and this measurement can be used to determine when in vivo activation occurs. Endogenously expressed mu-calpain and calpain-3 are activated within a physiological [Ca(2+)] range in a Ca(2+)- and time-dependent manner. 3. In skeletal muscle, mu-calpain is a freely diffusible protein that binds rapidly when [Ca(2+)](i) is increased. Calpain-3 is tightly bound in skeletal muscle fibres at the N2A line of the large elastic protein titin. 4. Overall, neither mu-calpain nor calpain-3 are activated immediately following sprint, endurance or eccentric exercise, despite the frequent episodes of high cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] that would occur during these types of muscle contractions. Importantly, however, a substantial proportion of calpain-3, but not mu-calpain, is activated 24 h after a single bout of eccentric exercise. 5. In vitro studies have shown that calpain-3 becomes activated if exposed for a prolonged period of time (> 1 h) to resting cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] that are approximately two- to fourfold higher than normal. This suggests that the small but sustained increase in [Ca(2+)](i) that likely occurs after eccentric contractions is both high and long enough to result in calpain-3 activation and supports the role for calpain-3 in sarcomeric remodelling.

  10. Comprehensive regional and temporal gene expression profiling of the rat brain during the first 24 h after experimental stroke identifies dynamic ischemia-induced gene expression patterns, and reveals a biphasic activation of genes in surviving tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickhag, Karl Mattias; Wieloch, Tadeusz; Gidö, Gunilla


    In order to identify biological processes relevant for cell death and survival in the brain following stroke, the postischemic brain transcriptome was studied by a large-scale cDNA array analysis of three peri-infarct brain regions at eight time points during the first 24 h of reperfusion following......-dehydrogenase1, and Choline kinase) or cell death-regulating genes such as mitochondrial CLIC. We conclude that a biphasic transcriptional up-regulation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways occurs in surviving...... tissue, concomitant with a progressive and persistent activation of cell proliferation signifying tissue regeneration, which provide the means for cell survival and postischemic brain plasticity....

  11. Validation of protein intake assessed from weighed dietary records against protein estimated from 24 h urine samples in children, adolescents and young adults participating in the Dortmund Nutritional and Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bokhof, Beate; Günther, Anke L B; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele


    from a simultaneously collected 24 h urine sample. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses including 439 participants of the Dortmund Nutritional and Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study from four age groups (3-4, 7-8, 11-13 and 18-23 years). Mean differences, Pearson correlation coefficients (r), cross.......5 (95 % CI -18.7, -8.3) g/d at age 18-23 years. Correlation coefficients were r = 0.7 for the total study sample and ranged from r = 0.5 to 0.6 in the different age groups. Both methods classified 85 % into the same/adjacent quartile for the whole study group (83-86 % for the different age groups) and 2...

  12. Evaluation of the antihypertensive effect of barnidipine, a dihydropyridine calcium entry blocker, as determined by the ambulatory blood pressure level averaged for 24 h, daytime, and nighttime. Barnidipine Study Group. (United States)

    Imai, Y; Abe, K; Nishiyama, A; Sekino, M; Yoshinaga, K


    We evaluated the effect of barnidipine, a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, administered once daily in the morning in a dose of 5, 10, or 15 mg on ambulatory blood pressure (BP) in 34 patients (51.3+/-9.6 years). Hypertension was diagnosed based on the clinic BP. The patients were classified into groups according to the ambulatory BP: group 1, dippers with true hypertension; group 2, nondippers with true hypertension; group 3, dippers with false hypertension; and Group 4, nondippers with false hypertension. Barnidipine reduced the clinic systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) in all groups and significantly reduced the average 24 h ambulatory BP (133.0+/-16.5/90.7+/-12.3 mm Hg v 119.7+/-13.7/81.8+/-10.3 mm Hg, P Barnidipine significantly reduced the daytime ambulatory SBP in groups 1, 2, and 3, but not in group 4, and significantly reduced daytime ambulatory DBP in group 1 but not in groups 2, 3, and 4. Barnidipine significantly reduced the nighttime ambulatory SBP only in group 2 and the nighttime ambulatory DBP in groups 2 and 4. Once-a-day administration of barnidipine influenced 24 h BP on true hypertensives (the ratio of the trough to peak effect > 50%), but had minimal effect on low BP such as the nocturnal BP in dippers and the ambulatory BP in false hypertensives. These findings suggest that barnidipine can be used safely in patients with isolated clinic ("white coat") hypertension and in those with dipping patterns of circadian BP variation whose nocturnal BP is low before treatment.

  13. Aerobic and combined exercise sessions reduce glucose variability in type 2 diabetes: crossover randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele R Figueira

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of aerobic (AER or aerobic plus resistance exercise (COMB sessions on glucose levels and glucose variability in patients with type 2 diabetes. Additionally, we assessed conventional and non-conventional methods to analyze glucose variability derived from multiple measurements performed with continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS.Fourteen patients with type 2 diabetes (56±2 years wore a CGMS during 3 days. Participants randomly performed AER and COMB sessions, both in the morning (24 h after CGMS placement, and at least 7 days apart. Glucose variability was evaluated by glucose standard deviation, glucose variance, mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE, and glucose coefficient of variation (conventional methods as well as by spectral and symbolic analysis (non-conventional methods.Baseline fasting glycemia was 139±05 mg/dL and HbA1c 7.9±0.7%. Glucose levels decreased immediately after AER and COMB protocols by ∼16%, which was sustained for approximately 3 hours. Comparing the two exercise modalities, responses over a 24-h period after the sessions were similar for glucose levels, glucose variance and glucose coefficient of variation. In the symbolic analysis, increases in 0 V pattern (COMB, 67.0±7.1 vs. 76.0±6.3, P = 0.003 and decreases in 1 V pattern (COMB, 29.1±5.3 vs. 21.5±5.1, P = 0.004 were observed only after the COMB session.Both AER and COMB exercise modalities reduce glucose levels similarly for a short period of time. The use of non-conventional analysis indicates reduction of glucose variability after a single session of combined exercises.Aerobic training, aerobic-resistance training and glucose profile (CGMS in type 2 diabetes (CGMS exercise. ID: NCT00887094.

  14. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises (United States)

    ... this page: // Pelvic floor muscle training exercises To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are a series of exercises ...

  15. 出生24h内新生儿肺出血病因与死因分析%Pathogenesis and death cause of neonatal pulmonary hemorrhage within postnatal 24h

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘绍基; 陈克正


    Objective To investigate the pathogenesis and death cause of neonatal pulmonary hem orrhage (NPH) within postnatal 24 h and speculate their relation to fetal pulmonary hemorrhage. Methods To select the 114 cases of NPH within postnatal 24 h confirmed by pathological examination. According to the pathologic and clinic diagnosis materials, the pathogenesis and death cause of NPH within postnatal 24 h and their relation to fetal pulmonary hemorrhage were analyzed. Results Of the 114 cases with NPH,there were 6 cases of petechial pulmonary hemorrhage,60 cases of focal pulmonary hemorrhage and 48 cases of diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage. The discovery time of NPH were 28 cases at 0~6 h ,71 cases at 7~12 h and 15 cases at 13~24 h after birth. The pathogenesis in 114 cases of NPH could be divided into identical 2 major factors: 110 cases of the oxygen deficient factor consisting of amniotic fluid aspiration pneumonia( 62 cases) .hyaline membrane disease(24 cases) .complexity cyanotic congenital heart disease(7 cases),congenital pulmonary a-genesis(7 cases),neonatal asphyxia (7 cases),intracranial hemorrhage(2 cases) and hypoxic ischemic en-cephalopathy(1 cases) .respectively. Four cases were due to infection including sepsis which was caused by intrauterine infection. The death causes in 114 cases of NPH included hypoxia (113 cases) which consisted of pulmonary hemorrhage (74 cases) .amniotic fluid aspiration pneumonia(15 cases) .hyaline membrane dis-ease(12 cases),complexity cyanotic congenital heart disease(7 cases),congenital pulmonary agenesis(2 ca-ses) ,intracranial hemorrhage(2 cases) .neonatal asphyxia (1 cases) .and infectious factor(1 case) of sepsis which was caused by intrauterine infection. In 114 cases,82 cases had fetal distress,74 cases died from NPH directly including 3 cases with fetal distress died within a few minutes after birth. Conclusion Oxygen defi-cient is an important factor in pathogenesis and death cause of NPH within postnatal 24 h. The

  16. Cutting Edge Exercises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ On August 24, a fleet of three guided missile destroyers and several missile-carrying speedboats darted into the South China Sea. They were on the way to a military exercise in "attack and anti-attack maritime maneuvering formations and surface ship formations." The exercise was a component in a military campaign coded "Sword-2010."

  17. Exercises in Computational Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens


    A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16).......A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16)....

  18. Lab Exercises for Kinesiology. (United States)

    Mills, Brett D.; And Others

    This monograph presents descriptions of various exercises and athletic activities with a kinesiological and biomechanical analysis of the muscle systems involved. It is intended as examples of laboratory activities and projects in a college course in kinesiology. A listing of the required laboratory exercises precedes the examples. Specific…

  19. Exercise through Menopause. (United States)

    Stuhr, Robyn M.


    Menopause is associated with many different health effects and symptoms. This paper explains that regular exercise can play a critical role in protecting health and battling the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, pelvic floor atrophy, and joint stiffness associated with menopause. Exercise programs for menopausal women should…

  20. Easy Exercises for Teens (United States)

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Easy Exercises for Teens KidsHealth > For Teens > Easy Exercises for Teens A A A en español Ejercicios fáciles para ... not enough.) What more should we do? First, teens should do 60 minutes or more of physical ...

  1. Exercise Against Depression. (United States)

    Artal, Michal; Sherman, Carl


    Physical activity is useful for preventing and easing depression symptoms. When prescribing exercise as an adjunct to medication and psychotherapy, physicians must consider each patient's individual circumstances. Hopelessness and fatigue can make physical exercise difficult. A feasible, flexible, and pleasurable program has the best chance for…

  2. Saliva composition and exercise. (United States)

    Chicharro, J L; Lucía, A; Pérez, M; Vaquero, A F; Ureña, R


    Little attention has been directed toward identifying the changes which occur in salivary composition in response to exercise. To address this, our article first refers to the main aspects of salivary gland physiology. A knowledge of the neural control of salivary secretion is especially important for the understanding of the effects of exertion on salivary secretion. Both salivary output and composition depend on the activity of the autonomic nervous system and any modification of this activity can be observed indirectly by alternations in the salivary excretion. The effects of physical activity (with reference to factors such as exercise intensity and duration, or type of exercise protocol) on salivary composition are then considered. Exercise might indeed induce changes in several salivary components such as immunoglobulins, hormones, lactate, proteins and electrolytes. Saliva composition might therefore be used as an alternative noninvasive indicator of the response of the different body tissues and systems to physical exertion. In this respect, the response of salivary amylase and salivary electrolytes to incremental levels of exercise is of particular interest. Beyond a certain intensity of exercise, and coinciding with the accumulation of blood lactate (anaerobic threshold or AT), a 'saliva threshold' (Tsa) does indeed exist. Tsa is the point during exercise at which the levels of salivary alpha-amylase and electrolytes (especially Na+) also begin to rise above baseline levels. The occurrence of the 2 thresholds (AT and Tsa) might, in turn, be attributable to the same underlying mechanism, that of increased adrenal sympathetic activity at high exercise intensities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Physical exercise provides multiple benefits to an individual. It is known that exercising regularly can prevent coronary heart disease, hypertension and obesity and improve flexibility. The effect of exercise on visual reaction time needs to be studied, a s the existing data on the benefit of aerobic exercise on psychomotor functions is insufficient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Online Visual reaction time is measured before and after exercise. Subjects were instructed to run on the spot with a springy step in ex aggerated motion for 50 to 60 counts at 2 counts per second, maintaining a constant rhythm. RESULTS: We observed that reaction time was significantly lower after performance of exercise. Individuals reported improved mental alertness, feel good factor, bet ter mood and increase circulation. CONCLUSION: Improving reaction times in sports can help the athlete to optimize his performance in making decisions and increasing attention span for example getting off the starting blocks sooner or successfully making c ontact with the ball. In addition this study shows that use of physical exercise helps improve cognitive function. Exercise proves to be a cheap non pharmacological alternative to improve cognitive performance.

  4. Myocellular enzyme leakage, polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation and delayed onset muscle soreness induced by isokinetic eccentric exercise. (United States)

    Croisier, J L; Camus, G; Deby-Dupont, G; Bertrand, F; Lhermerout, C; Crielaard, J M; Juchmès-Ferir, A; Deby, C; Albert, A; Lamy, M


    To address the question of whether delayed onset muscular soreness (DOMS) following intense eccentric muscle contraction could be due to increased production of the arachidonic acid derived product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). 10 healthy male subjects were submitted to eccentric and concentric isokinetic exercises on a Kin Trex device at 60 degrees/s angular velocity. Exercise consisted of 8 stages of 5 maximal contractions of the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups of both legs separated by 1 min rest phases. There was an interval of at least 30 days between eccentric and concentric testing, and the order of the two exercise sessions was randomly assigned. The subjective presence and intensity of DOMS was evaluated using a visual analogue scale, immediately, following 24 h and 48 h after each test. Five blood samples were drawn from an antecubital vein: at rest before exercise, immediately after, after 30 min recovery, 24 h and 48 h after the tests. The magnitude of the acute inflammatory response to exercise was assessed by measuring plasma levels of polymorphonuclear elastase ([EL]), myeloperoxidase ([MPO]) and PGE2 ([PGE2]). Using two way analysis of variance, it appeared that only eccentric exercise significantly increased [EL] and DOMS, especially of the hamstring muscles. Furthermore, a significant decrease in eccentric peak torque of this muscle group only was observed on day 2 after eccentric work (- 21%; P < 0.002). Serum activity of creatine kinase and serum concentration of myoglobin increased significantly 24 and 48 h after both exercise tests. However, these variables reached significantly higher values following eccentric contractions 48 h after exercise. Mean [PGE2] in the two exercise modes remained unchanged over time and were practically equal at each time point. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that the magnitude of polymorphonuclear (PMN) activation, muscle damage, and DOMS are greater after eccentric than after concentric muscle

  5. Carbohydrate restricted recovery from long term endurance exercise does not affect gene responses involved in mitochondrial biogenesis in highly trained athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line; Gejl, Kasper D; Ørtenblad, Niels;


    The aim was to determine if the metabolic adaptations, particularly PGC-1α and downstream metabolic genes were affected by restricting CHO following an endurance exercise bout in trained endurance athletes. A second aim was to compare baseline expression level of these genes to untrained. Elite...... endurance athletes (VO2max 66 ± 2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), n = 15) completed 4 h cycling at ~56% VO2max. During the first 4 h recovery subjects were provided with either CHO or only H2O and thereafter both groups received CHO. Muscle biopsies were collected before, after, and 4 and 24 h after exercise. Also...

  6. Endurance exercise induces REDD1 expression and transiently decreases mTORC1 signaling in rat skeletal muscle (United States)

    Hayasaka, Miki; Tsunekawa, Haruka; Yoshinaga, Mariko; Murakami, Taro


    Abstract Working muscle conserves adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for muscle contraction by attenuating protein synthesis through several different pathways. Regulated in development and DNA damage response 1 (REDD1) is one candidate protein that can itself attenuate muscle protein synthesis during muscle contraction. In this study, we investigated whether endurance exercise induces REDD1 expression in association with decreased mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex I (mTORC1) signaling and global protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle. After overnight fasting, rats ran on a treadmill at a speed of 28 m/min for 60 min, and were killed before and immediately, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after exercise. REDD1 mRNA and corresponding protein levels increased rapidly immediately after exercise, and gradually decreased back to the basal level over a period of 6 h in the gastrocnemius muscle. Phosphorylation of mTOR Ser2448 and S6K1 Thr389 increased with the exercise, but diminished in 1–3 h into the recovery period after cessation of exercise. The rate of protein synthesis, as determined by the surface sensing of translation (SUnSET) method, was not altered by exercise in fasted muscle. These results suggest that REDD1 attenuates exercise‐induced mTORC1 signaling. This may be one mechanism responsible for blunting muscle protein synthesis during exercise and in the early postexercise recovery period. PMID:25539833

  7. Use of cis-[18F] fluoro-proline for assessment of exercise-related collagen synthesis in musculoskeletal connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Dorthe; Kjaer, Andreas; Heinemeier, Katja Maria


    Protein turnover in collagen rich tissue is influenced by exercise, but can only with difficulty be studied in vivo due to use of invasive procedure. The present study was done to investigate the possibility of applying the PET-tracer, cis-[(18)F]fluoro-proline (cis-Fpro), for non-invasive assess......Protein turnover in collagen rich tissue is influenced by exercise, but can only with difficulty be studied in vivo due to use of invasive procedure. The present study was done to investigate the possibility of applying the PET-tracer, cis-[(18)F]fluoro-proline (cis-Fpro), for non......-invasive assessment of collagen synthesis in rat musculoskeletal tissues at rest and following short-term (3 days) treadmill running. Musculoskeletal collagen synthesis was studied in rats at rest and 24 h post-exercise. At each session, rats were PET scanned at two time points following injection of cis-FPro: (60...

  8. Diabetes, Nutrition, and Exercise. (United States)

    Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Sinclair, Alan J


    Aging is associated with body composition changes that lead to glucose intolerance and increased risk of diabetes. The incidence of diabetes increases with aging, and the prevalence has increased because of the increased life expectancy of the population. Lifestyle modifications through nutrition and exercise in combination with medications are the main components of diabetes management. The potential benefits of nutrition and exercise intervention in older people with diabetes are enormous. Nutrition and exercise training are feasible even in frail older people living in care homes and should take into consideration individual circumstances, cultural factors, and ethnic preferences.

  9. The use of carbohydrates during exercise as an ergogenic aid. (United States)

    Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C


    system. Carbohydrate ingestion during exercise also benefits athletes involved in intermittent/team sports. These athletes are advised to follow similar carbohydrate feeding strategies as the endurance athletes, but need to modify exogenous carbohydrate intake based upon the intensity and duration of the game and the available endogenous carbohydrate stores. Ample carbohydrate intake is also important for those athletes who need to compete twice within 24 h, when rapid repletion of endogenous glycogen stores is required to prevent a decline in performance. To support rapid post-exercise glycogen repletion, large amounts of exogenous carbohydrate (1.2 g·kg⁻¹·h⁻¹) should be provided during the acute recovery phase from exhaustive exercise. For those athletes with a lower gastrointestinal threshold for carbohydrate ingestion immediately post-exercise, and/or to support muscle re-conditioning, co-ingesting a small amount of protein (0.2-0.4 g·kg⁻¹·h⁻¹) with less carbohydrate (0.8 g·kg⁻¹·h⁻¹) may provide a feasible option to achieve similar muscle glycogen repletion rates.

  10. Labeling exercise fat-burning increases post-exercise food consumption in self-imposed exercisers. (United States)

    Fenzl, Navina; Bartsch, Katja; Koenigstorfer, Joerg


    The goal of the study was to determine whether the label given to an exercise bout affects immediate post-exercise food intake. The authors hypothesized that explicitly labeling an exercise bout 'fat-burning' (vs. labeling an exercise bout 'endurance' exercise) would increase post-exercise food intake in individuals who self-impose physical activity, because they are more likely to see the label as signal of activated fat metabolism and license to reward oneself. No such effect was expected for individuals who do not self-impose physical activity but consider exercise enjoyable. Ninety-six participants took part in an experiment manipulating the label given to an exercise bout (fat-burning exercise or endurance exercise) between participants. They cycled on an ergometer for 20 minutes at a consistent work rate (55-65% of predicted VO2 max) and were offered ad libitum food (i.e., pretzel pieces) after the exercise bout. The results showed that self-imposed exercisers, that is, individuals with low behavioral regulation and individuals with high psychological distress, high fatigue levels, and low positive well-being when exercising, ate more food after exercise when the bout was labeled fat-burning exercise rather than endurance exercise. The results help develop health interventions, indicating that the tendency to compensate for energy expended following physical activity depends on both the label given to the exercise bout and the degree to which individuals self-impose physical activity.

  11. Exercise as a provocative test in early renal disease in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Baker, L; Deckert, T


    The value of exercise as a provocative test for early renal disease in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes was re-evaluated. Three carefully characterized groups of males were studied: 10 non-diabetic controls, 16 diabetic patients (group 1) with normal urinary albumin excretion (less than 15...... micrograms/min) and 14 Albustix-negative diabetics (group 2) with increased urinary albumin excretion (15-122 micrograms/min). Assignment to a study group was made on the basis of three 24-h urine collections, and the groups were well matched for age, weight, height, and serum creatinine concentration....... The two diabetic groups were similar with regard to duration of disease (13 +/- 6 versus 16 +/- 3 years), metabolic control (HbA1c: 8.4 +/- 1.4 versus 8.7 +/- 1.3%) and degree of diabetic complications (beat-to-beat variation and retinopathy). An exercise protocol of 450 and 600 kpm/min workloads...

  12. Insulin resistance, exercise capacity and body composition in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Dige-Petersen, H; Ibsen, H


    for the difference between the means; -0.5; -7.9), but the insulin sensitivity index was similar: 312 versus 362 I(2) min(-1) pmol(-1) kg(-1) (28; -129). The two groups were similar in terms of body composition, exercise capacity and composition of usual diet. Resting and 24-h diastolic blood pressures were...... being highly selected as to confounding factors. The increased blood pressure in the hypertension prone subjects could not be attributed to differences in body composition, exercise capacity or dietary habits....... parents were both normotensive, were studied. Subjects or parents with diabetes and morbid obesity were excluded. METHODS: The study comprised (1) a frequent sampling oral glucose tolerance test; (2) an isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study; (3) an analysis of body composition by dual-energy X...

  13. Aquatic Exercise for the Aged. (United States)

    Daniel, Michael; And Others

    The development and implementation of aquatic exercise programs for the aged are discussed in this paper. Program development includes a discussion of training principles, exercise leadership and the setting up of safe water exercise programs for the participants. The advantages of developing water exercise programs and not swimming programs are…

  14. Skeletal muscle gene expression in response to resistance exercise: sex specific regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burant Charles F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms underlying the sex differences in human muscle morphology and function remain to be elucidated. The sex differences in the skeletal muscle transcriptome in both the resting state and following anabolic stimuli, such as resistance exercise (RE, might provide insight to the contributors of sexual dimorphism of muscle phenotypes. We used microarrays to profile the transcriptome of the biceps brachii of young men and women who underwent an acute unilateral RE session following 12 weeks of progressive training. Bilateral muscle biopsies were obtained either at an early (4 h post-exercise or late recovery (24 h post-exercise time point. Muscle transcription profiles were compared in the resting state between men (n = 6 and women (n = 8, and in response to acute RE in trained exercised vs. untrained non-exercised control muscle for each sex and time point separately (4 h post-exercise, n = 3 males, n = 4 females; 24 h post-exercise, n = 3 males, n = 4 females. A logistic regression-based method (LRpath, following Bayesian moderated t-statistic (IMBT, was used to test gene functional groups and biological pathways enriched with differentially expressed genes. Results This investigation identified extensive sex differences present in the muscle transcriptome at baseline and following acute RE. In the resting state, female muscle had a greater transcript abundance of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and gene transcription/translation processes. After strenuous RE at the same relative intensity, the time course of the transcriptional modulation was sex-dependent. Males experienced prolonged changes while females exhibited a rapid restoration. Most of the biological processes involved in the RE-induced transcriptional regulation were observed in both males and females, but sex specificity was suggested for several signaling pathways including activation of notch signaling and TGF-beta signaling in females

  15. Possible in vivo tolerance of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil to low-grade exercise-induced endotoxaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Camus


    Full Text Available To address the question of whether translocation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS into the blood could be involved in the process of exercise-induced polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN activation, 12 healthy male subjects who took part in a sprint triathlon (1.5 km river swim, 40 km bicycle race, 10 km road race were studied. While there was no detectable amount of endotoxin in the blood samples drawn at rest, exercise was followed by the appearance of circulating endotoxin molecules at the end of competition in four subjects, and after one and 24 h recovery in three and seven athletes, respectively. The concentrations of plasma granulocyte myeloperoxidase ([MPO], were significantly higher immediately after exercise and one hour later than baseline values (P<0.001. This variable returned to pre-race levels the day after exercise, despite the presence of detectable amounts of LPS, at that time, in seven athletes. The absence of significant correlation (r=0.26;P=0.383 and temporal association between [MPO]and plasma endotoxin levels led us to conclude that endotoxaemia was not involved in the process of exercise-induced PMN degranulation observed in our subjects.

  16. The Effect of Eight Weeks of Intense Aerobic Exercise on Chemerin and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Moradi


    Full Text Available Background & aim: Adipokines, including omentin and chemerin, are cytokines that are mainly secreted by adipose tissue. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks of intense aerobic exercise on chemerin and omentin plasma levels in female Sprague Dawely rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, 35 two-month old Sprague Dawely rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (15 rats and training (20 rats. The training program included aerobic exercises which were conducted increasingly five times a week for 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken 24 h after the last training session. After eight weeks, an independent t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. Results: The results showed that there was significant difference between omentin serum levels (p=0.012 and chemerin serum levels (p=0.003 in rats that had undergone exercises with high intensity program as compared to the control group. In addition, no significant correlation was observed between omentin and chemerin levels (p=0.08. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study as well as the importance of omentin and chemerin level changes, it seems that the training time must be more than 8 weeks and the exercise intensity should be tailored to the individual's fitness level. Otherwise, subjects are not able to perform the exercise program properly.

  17. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy vs. far-infrared vs. passive modalities on recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage in highly-trained runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Hausswirth

    Full Text Available Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC, far infrared (FIR or passive (PAS modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being] were recorded before, immediately after (post, post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h, while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities.

  18. Exercise stress test (United States)

    ... Heart disease - treadmill References Balady GJ, Morise AP. Exercise testing. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015: ...

  19. Exercise and Posture (United States)

    ... Have Spondylitis? Treatment Information Medications Exercise & Posture Diet & Nutrition Medication & Diet Dietary Supplements Changing Your Diet The London AS / Low Starch Diet Complementary Treatments Possible Complications Iritis or Anterior Uveitis Fatigue in Spondylitis Pain in ...

  20. Osteoporosis and exercise


    Todd, J; Robinson, R.


    Osteoporosis is a common medical problem. Lifestyle measures to prevent or help treat existing osteoporosis often only receive lip service. The evidence for the role of exercise in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis is reviewed.

  1. Exercise as medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Saltin, Bengt


    This review provides the reader with the up-to-date evidence-based basis for prescribing exercise as medicine in the treatment of 26 different diseases: psychiatric diseases (depression, anxiety, stress, schizophrenia); neurological diseases (dementia, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis...

  2. Exercises in analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gasiński, Leszek


    This second of two Exercises in Analysis volumes covers problems in five core topics of mathematical analysis: Function Spaces, Nonlinear and Multivalued Maps, Smooth and Nonsmooth Calculus, Degree Theory and Fixed Point Theory, and Variational and Topological Methods. Each of five topics corresponds to a different chapter with inclusion of the basic theory and accompanying main definitions and results, followed by suitable comments and remarks for better understanding of the material. Exercises/problems are presented for each topic, with solutions available at the end of each chapter. The entire collection of exercises offers a balanced and useful picture for the application surrounding each topic. This nearly encyclopedic coverage of exercises in mathematical analysis is the first of its kind and is accessible to a wide readership. Graduate students will find the collection of problems valuable in preparation for their preliminary or qualifying exams as well as for testing their deeper understanding of the ...

  3. Why Exercise Is Cool (United States)

    ... do a push-up or swing across the monkey bars at the playground? Those are exercises that ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  4. Parkinson's Disease: Exercise (United States)

    ... many types of exercise. Biking, running, tai chi, yoga , Pilates, dance , weight training, non-contact boxing, qi gong and more all have been shown to have positive effects on symptoms for people with Parkinson’s. Researchers in ...

  5. Cardiovascular control during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Mohr, Thomas; Jensen, Christina M R


    We studied the role of the central nervous system, neural feedback from contracting skeletal muscles, and sympathetic activity to the heart in the control of heart rate and blood pressure during 2 levels of dynamic exercise.......We studied the role of the central nervous system, neural feedback from contracting skeletal muscles, and sympathetic activity to the heart in the control of heart rate and blood pressure during 2 levels of dynamic exercise....

  6. Exercise in Individuals with CKD


    Johansen, Kirsten L.; Painter, Patricia


    There are few studies evaluating exercise in the nondialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. This review covers the rationale for exercise among patients with CKD not requiring dialysis and the effects of exercise training on physical functioning, progression of kidney disease, and cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, we address the issue of the risk of exercise and make recommendations for implementation of exercise in this population.

  7. Do Exercises Suitable To Yourself

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    IF You Are Thin—Choose fast, bursting exercises to build up your muscles. Take such exercises for 20 minutes everyday or 50 minutes every other day. For example, weight training and working particularly on isolated parts of your body. If You Are Stout—Choose slow, low intensity endurance exercises. Continue such exercises for a long time and you can effectively mobilize the fat stored in your body to participate in the supply of consumed energy; besides slow exercises can help

  8. Exercise and cancer. (United States)

    Knobf, M Tish; Winters-Stone, Kerri


    There are an estimated 13.7 million cancer survivors in the United States. Persistent and late effects of cancer therapy have contributed to an increased risk for co-morbid illness and higher all-cause mortality. Physical exercise is a targeted rehabilitative intervention following cancer therapy and a health promotion risk reduction intervention for patients as they transition into survivorship. This chapter provides a brief overview of the research on exercise and cancer survivor outcomes with a specific focus on randomized controlled trials (RCT) on the effects of exercise on body composition and bone health. There were 17 RCT trials that were identified with body composition outcomes. There was no change in weight in 16/17 trials, 4 reported decreases in percent fat mass and 2 reported increases in lean mass. Eight exercise trials were identified with bone outcomes, two of which had pharmacologic comparison arms. These trials demonstrated preservation of bone in the intervention group compared with loss in the usual care or placebo control group. The majority of trials were with breast cancer survivors, the largest survivor group. Many are overweight or obese at diagnosis; weight gain continues to increase after therapy; and treatment is associated with bone loss. The findings of the 25 trials reviewed suggest that exercise maintains weight and bone mass in a high risk population. However, differences in design, measurement of body composition and bone mass and lack of targeted exercise to the specific outcomes warrants additional research to improve the quality of life for survivors.

  9. Differential resetting process of circadian gene expression in rat pineal glands after the reversal of the light/dark cycle via a 24 h light or dark period transition. (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Dong, Yue; Yang, Zhiqiu; Kato, Hisanori; Ni, Yinhua; Fu, Zhengwei


    Although studies involving the circadian response to time-zone transitions indicate that the circadian clock usually takes much longer to phase advance than delay, the discrepancy between the circadian resetting induced by photoperiod alteration via a dark or light period transition has yet to be investigated. In mammals, the pineal gland is an important component in the photoneuroendocrine axis, regulating biological rhythms. However, few studies have systematically examined the resetting process of pineal clock-gene expression to date. We investigated the resetting processes of four clock genes (Bmal1, Cry1, Per1, Dec1) and AANAT in the rat pineal gland after the light-dark (LD) reversal via a 24 h light or dark period transition. The resynchronization of the SCN-driven gene AANAT was nearly complete in three days in both situations, displaying similar resetting rates and processes after the differential LD reversals. The resetting processes of the clock genes were characterized by gene-specific, phase-shift modes and differential phase-shift rates between the two different LD reversal modes. The resetting processes of these clock genes were noticeably lengthened after the LD reversal via the light period transition in comparison to via the dark period transition. In addition, among the four examined clock genes, Per1 adjusted most rapidly after the differential LD reversals, while the rhythmic Cry1 expression adjusted most slowly.

  10. Toward Pillared Metal Sulfides: Encapsulation and Rietveld Structural Characterization of the Al 13O 4(OH) 24(H 2O) 7+12Cluster into MoS 2and WS 2 (United States)

    Heising, Joy; Bonhomme, François; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.


    The synthesis of [Al 13O 4(OH) 24(H 2O) 12] xMS 2( x=0.02-0.05, M=Mo; x=0.02-0.055, M=W) was accomplished by a precipitative encapsulation technique using single layers of MS 2. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), 27Al MAS-NMR, room temperature electrical conductivity measurements, and surface area measurements. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns show an expansion of approximately 9.9 Å. 27Al MAS-NMR indicates that the cluster is intact between the MS 2layers. One-dimensional electron density mapping and Rietveld refinement performed on the powder diffraction data show that the cluster is oriented with its C 3symmetry axis perpendicular to the layers. The samples exhibit conductivity values from 3 to 14 S/cm. TGA shows that the cluster is completely stable to 100°C, and largely stable to 330°C. Surface area measurements suggest that the space between the clusters is not accessible.

  11. Changes of Work Efficiency and Heart Rate Variability after 24h Sleep Deprivation%24h睡眠剥夺后作业效率与心率变异性的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李津强; 胡文东; 文治洪; 马进


    目的:探索24h睡眠剥夺(Sleep Deprivation,SD)后作业效率和心率变异性的变化.方法:通过观察8名健康男性在24h睡眠剥夺前后的作业效率、主观脑力负荷和心率变异性的变化,寻找与脑力疲劳相关的敏感指标.结果:在24h睡眠剥夺后,NASA-TLX评分呈显著性增加(p<0.05),75°立位时HF呈显著性减少(p<0.05),TINN、LF/HF呈显著性增加(p<0.05).结论:NAsA-TLX量表从主观感受上很好的反映了脑力疲劳后工作绩效下降的变化,HRV的变化主要原因在于24h SD后迷走神经活性降低,交感神经相对加强.

  12. A Reduction in Maximal Incremental Exercise Test Duration 48 h Post Downhill Run Is Associated with Muscle Damage Derived Exercise Induced Pain (United States)

    Chrismas, Bryna C. R.; Taylor, Lee; Siegler, Jason C.; Midgley, Adrian W.


    Purpose: To examine whether exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) and muscle soreness reduce treadmill maximal incremental exercise (MIE) test duration, and true maximal physiological performance as a consequence of exercise induced pain (EIP) and perceived effort. Methods: Fifty (14 female), apparently healthy participants randomly allocated into a control group (CON, n = 10), or experimental group (EXP, n = 40) visited the laboratory a total of six times: visit 1 (familiarization), visit 2 (pre 1), visit 3 (pre 2), visit 4 (intervention), visit 5 (24 h post) and visit 6 (48 h post). Both groups performed identical testing during all visits, except during visit 4, where only EXP performed a 30 min downhill run and CON performed no exercise. During visits 2, 3, and 6 all participants performed MIE, and the following measurements were obtained: time to exhaustion (TTE), EIP, maximal oxygen consumption (V·O2max), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), maximum heart rate (HRmax), maximum blood lactate (BLamax), and the contribution of pain to terminating the MIE (assessed using a questionnaire). Additionally during visits 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 the following markers of EIMD were obtained: muscle soreness, maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation (VA), creatine kinase (CK). Results: There were no significant differences (p ≥ 0.32) between any trials for any of the measures obtained during MIE for CON. In EXP, TTE decreased by 34 s (3%), from pre 2 to 48 h post (p MVC, and VA. The exact mechanisms responsible for this require further investigation. PMID:28337151

  13. The susceptibility of the knee extensors to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage is not affected by leg dominance but by exercise order. (United States)

    Hody, S; Rogister, B; Leprince, P; Laglaine, T; Croisier, J-L


    The aims of this study were first to compare the response of dominant and non-dominant legs to eccentric exercise and second, to examine whether there is an effect of exercise order on the magnitude of symptoms associated with intense eccentric protocols. Eighteen young men performed three sets of 30 maximal eccentric isokinetic (60° s(-1)) contractions of the knee extensors (range of motion, ROM: 0°-100°, 0 = full extension) using either dominant or non-dominant leg. They repeated a similar eccentric bout using the contralateral leg 6 weeks later. The sequence of leg's use was allocated to create equally balanced groups. Four indirect markers of muscle damage including subjective pain intensity, maximal isometric strength, muscle stiffness and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity were measured before and 24 h after exercise. All markers changed significantly following the eccentric bout performed either by dominant or non-dominant legs, but no significant difference was observed between legs. Interestingly, the comparison between the first and second eccentric bouts revealed that muscle soreness (-42%, Pexercise-induced muscle damage and supports for the first time the existence of a contralateral protection against exercise-induced muscle damage in the lower limbs.

  14. Exercise improves cognitive responses to psychological stress through enhancement of epigenetic mechanisms and gene expression in the dentate gyrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Collins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have shown previously that exercise benefits stress resistance and stress coping capabilities. Furthermore, we reported recently that epigenetic changes related to gene transcription are involved in memory formation of stressful events. In view of the enhanced coping capabilities in exercised subjects we investigated epigenetic, gene expression and behavioral changes in 4-weeks voluntarily exercised rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Exercised and control rats coped differently when exposed to a novel environment. Whereas the control rats explored the new cage for the complete 30-min period, exercised animals only did so during the first 15 min after which they returned to sleeping or resting behavior. Both groups of animals showed similar behavioral responses in the initial forced swim session. When re-tested 24 h later however the exercised rats showed significantly more immobility behavior and less struggling and swimming. If rats were killed at 2 h after novelty or the initial swim test, i.e. at the peak of histone H3 phospho-acetylation and c-Fos induction, then the exercised rats showed a significantly higher number of dentate granule neurons expressing the histone modifications and immediate-early gene induction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, irrespective of the behavioral response in the novel cage or initial forced swim session, the impact of the event at the dentate gyrus level was greater in exercised rats than in control animals. Furthermore, in view of our concept that the neuronal response in the dentate gyrus after forced swimming is involved in memory formation of the stressful event, the observations in exercised rats of enhanced neuronal responses as well as higher immobility responses in the re-test are consistent with the reportedly improved cognitive performance in these animals. Thus, improved stress coping in exercised subjects seems to involve enhanced cognitive capabilities possibly resulting from

  15. Exercise increases insulin signaling in the hippocampus: physiological effects and pharmacological impact of intracerebroventricular insulin administration in mice. (United States)

    Muller, Alexandre P; Gnoatto, Jussânia; Moreira, Julia D; Zimmer, Eduardo R; Haas, Clarissa B; Lulhier, Francisco; Perry, Marcos L S; Souza, Diogo O; Torres-Aleman, Ignácio; Portela, Luis V


    Increasing evidence indicates that physical exercise induces adaptations at the cellular, molecular, and systemic levels that positively affect the brain. Insulin plays important functional roles within the brain that are mediated by insulin-receptor (IR) signaling. In the hippocampus, insulin improves synaptic plasticity, memory formation, and learning via direct modulation of GABAergic and glutamatergic receptors. Separately, physical exercise and central insulin administration exert relevant roles in cognitive function. We here use CF1 mice to investigate (i) the effects of voluntary exercise on hippocampal insulin signaling and memory performance and (ii) whether central insulin administration alters the effects of exercise on hippocampal insulin signaling and memory performance. Adult mice performed 30 days of voluntary exercise on running wheel and afterward both, sedentary and exercised groups, received intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of saline or insulin (0.5-5 mU). Memory performance was assessed using the inhibitory avoidance and water maze tasks. Hippocampal tissue was measured for [U-(14)C] glucose oxidation and the immunocontent of insulin receptor/signaling (IR, pTyr, pAktser473). Additionally, the phosphorylation of the glutamate NMDA receptor NR2B subunit and the capacity of glutamate uptake were measured, and immunohistochemistry was used to determine glial reactivity. Exercise significantly increased insulin peripheral sensitivity, spatial learning, and hippocampal IR/pTyrIR/pAktser473 immunocontent. Glucose oxidation, glutamate uptake, and astrocyte number also increased relative to the sedentary group. In both memory tasks, 5 mU icv insulin produced amnesia but only in exercised animals. This amnesia was associated a rapid (15 min) and persistent (24 h) increase in hippocampal pNR2B immunocontent that paralleled the increase in glial reactivity. In conclusion, physical exercise thus increased hippocampal insulin signaling and improved

  16. The effects of a single bout of exercise on motor memory interference in the trained and untrained hemisphere. (United States)

    Lauber, Benedikt; Franke, Steffen; Taube, Wolfgang; Gollhofer, Albert


    Increasing evidence suggests that cardiovascular exercise has positive effects on motor memory consolidation. In this study, we investigated whether a single session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) mitigates the effects of practicing an interfering motor task. Furthermore, learning and interference effects were assessed in the actively trained and untrained limb as it is known that unilateral motor learning can cause bilateral adaptations. Subjects performed a ballistic training and then the HIIT either before (HIIT_before) or after (HIIT_after) practicing an interfering accuracy task (AT). The control group (No_HIIT) did not participate in the HIIT but rested instead. Performance in the ballistic task (BT) was tested before and after the ballistic training, after the exercise and practice of the AT and 24h later. After ballistic training, all groups showed comparable increases in performance in the trained and untrained limb. Despite the practice of the AT, HIIT_before maintained their BT performance after the high-intensity interval training whereas HIIT_after (trend) & No_HIIT showed prominent interference effects. After 24h, HIIT_before still did not show any interference effects but further improved ballistic motor performance. HIIT_after counteracted the interference resulting in a comparable BT performance after 24h than directly after the ballistic training while No_HIIT had a significantly lower BT performance in the retention test. The results were similar in the trained and untrained limb. The current results imply that a single session of cardiovascular exercise can prevent motor interference in the trained and untrained hemisphere. Overall learning was best, and interference least, when HIIT was performed before the interfering motor task.

  17. 小动脉闭塞性卒中患者24 h微量白蛋白尿与脑微出血的相关性:回顾性病例系列研究%Correlation of 24 h microalbuminuria and cerebral microbleeds in patients with small artery occlusion: a retrospective case series study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海献; 张敏; 钟富强; 赵雷; 郜宪林


    Objective To investigate the risk factors for cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) and its correlation with the 24 h microalbuminuria (mALB) in patients with small artery occlusion (SAO).Methods The patients with SAO were enrolled.CMBs were detected with susceptibility-weighted imaging.The demographic and clinical characteristics and 24 h mALB of the patients were compared.Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent risk factors for CMB in patients with SAO.Spearman correlation analysis was used to investigate the correlation between the 24 h mALB and the degree of CMBs.Results A total of 90 patients with SAO were enrolled and 35 patients (38.89%) had CMBs.CMBs mainly distributed in basal ganglia/thalamus and infratentorial (62%) regions.The Age (70.8 ± 5.4 vs.67.3 ± 8.1; t =2.461,P =0.016),proportion of hypertension (80.0% vs.52.7% ;x2 =6.851,P =0.009),and 24 h mALB levels (16.257 ± 6.031 mg/24 h vs.11.910 ±5.458 mg/24 h; t =3.536,P =0.001) in the CBM group were significantly higher than those in the non-CMB group.Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that the 24 h mALB and the severity of CMB in patients with SAO showed a significant positive correlation (rs =0.795,P =0.000).The higher the 24 h mALB level was,the more severe the CMB degree would be.Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only 24 h mALB was the only independent risk factor for CMBs in patients with SAO (odds ratio,1.100,95% confidence interval 1.031-1.176; P =0.002).Conclusions The 24 h mALB is an independent risk factor for CMB in patients with SAO.The 24 h mALB level is positively correlated with the severity of CMB,and it may be used as a marker for small vascular injury.%目的 探讨小动脉闭塞性卒中(small artery occlusion,SAO)患者脑微出血(cerebralmicrobleed,CMB)的危险因素及其与24 h微量白蛋白尿(microalbuminuria,mALB)的相关性.方法 纳入SAO患者,采用磁敏感加权成像检测CMB,并对患者的人

  18. The beneficial effects of regular exercise on cognition in REM sleep deprivation: behavioral, electrophysiological and molecular evidence. (United States)

    Zagaar, Munder; Alhaider, Ibrahim; Dao, An; Levine, Amber; Alkarawi, Ahmed; Alzubaidy, Mariam; Alkadhi, Karim


    Inadequate sleep is prevalent in modern societies and is known to profoundly impair cognitive function. We examined the impact of 4 weeks of regular treadmill exercise on sleep deprivation induced spatial learning and memory, synaptic plasticity and related signaling molecules in area CA1 of the rat hippocampus. Rats were exercised on a treadmill and subsequently sleep-deprived for 24h using the modified multiple platform technique. Testing of learning and short-term memory performance in the radial arm water maze showed that although sedentary sleep deprived rats were severely impaired, exercised sleep deprived rats' performance was normal. Extracellular recording from area CA1 of anesthetized rats revealed that early phase LTP (E-LTP) was markedly impaired in the sedentary sleep deprived animals, but was normal in the exercised sleep deprived group. Additionally, immunoblot analysis of CA1 area before (basal) and after expression of E-LTP indicated that the significant down-regulation of the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (P-CaMKII) levels in sleep deprived animals was prevented by the regular exercise regimen. The results suggest that the regular exercise protocol prevents the sleep deprivation induced impairments in short-term memory and E-LTP by preventing deleterious changes in the basal and post-stimulation levels of P-CaMKII and BDNF associated with sleep deprivation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane


    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  20. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal SK


    Full Text Available Shashi K AgarwalMedical Director, Agarwal Health Center, NJ, USAAbstract: Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular disease, lifestyle changes, physical activity, good health

  1. Exercise for knee osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Baker, K; McAlindon, T


    Adverse outcomes in knee osteoarthritis include pain, loss of function, and disability. These outcomes can have devastating effects on the quality of life of those suffering from the disease. Treatments have generally targeted pain, assuming that disability would improve as a direct result of improvements in pain. However, there is evidence to suggest that determinants of pain and disability differ. In general, treatments have been more successful at decreasing pain rather than disability. Many of the factors that lead to disability can be improved with exercise. Exercise, both aerobic and strength training, have been examined as treatments for knee osteoarthritis, with considerable variability in the results. The variability between studies may be due to differences in study design, exercise protocols, and participants in the studies. Although there is variability among studies, it is notable that a majority of the studies had a positive effect on pain and or disability. The mechanism of exercise remains unclear and merits future studies to better define a concise, clear exercise protocol that may have the potential for a public health intervention.

  2. Fish under exercise. (United States)

    Palstra, Arjan P; Planas, Josep V


    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish well-being. Here, we review existing data on teleost fish that indicate that sustained exercise at optimal speeds enhances muscle growth and has consequences for flesh quality. Potential added benefits of sustained exercise may be delay of ovarian development and stimulation of immune status. Exercise could represent a natural, noninvasive, and economical approach to improve growth, flesh quality as well as welfare of aquacultured fish: a FitFish for a healthy consumer. All these issues are important for setting directions for policy decisions and future studies in this area. For this purpose, the FitFish workshop on the Swimming Physiology of Fish ( ) was organized to bring together a multidisciplinary group of scientists using exercise models, industrial partners, and policy makers. Sixteen international experts from Europe, North America, and Japan were invited to present their work and view on migration of fishes in their natural environment, beneficial effects of exercise, and applications for sustainable aquaculture. Eighty-eight participants from 19 different countries contributed through a poster session and round table discussion. Eight papers from invited speakers at the workshop have been contributed to this special issue on The Swimming Physiology of Fish.

  3. Daily expression patterns for mRNAs of GH, PRL, SL, IGF-I and IGF-II in juvenile rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus, during 24-h light and dark cycles. (United States)

    Ayson, Felix G; Takemura, Akihiro


    Most animals respond to changes in the external environment in a rhythmic fashion. In teleost fishes, daily rhythms are observed in plasma concentrations of some hormones but it is not clear whether these rhythms are exogenous or are entrained by predictable cues. We investigated whether the expression patterns for the mRNAs of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and somatolactin (SL) in the pituitary gland, and insulin-like growth factor-I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) in the liver, follow a daily rhythm when juvenile rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) are reared under a normal 24-h light and dark cycle (LD), and when they are exposed to either continuous light (LL) or darkness (DD). Hormone mRNA levels were determined by real time PCR. Under LD conditions, GH mRNA expression in the pituitary was significantly lower during the light phase than during the dark phase suggesting a diurnal rhythm of expression. The rhythm disappeared when fish were exposed to LL or DD conditions. PRL mRNA expression pattern was irregular in all 3 conditions. Very low levels of SL mRNA were observed during the mid day under LD conditions. The expression pattern of SL mRNA became irregular under LL and DD conditions. No pattern could be observed in the expression profile of IGF-I and II mRNA in the liver during LD and LL conditions but a single peak in mRNA level was observed under DD conditions in both IGF-I and II. The results indicate that except for GH, the daily expression pattern for the mRNAs of the hormones examined do not seem to follow a rhythm according to light and dark cycles.

  4. An integrated approach based on uniform quantization for the evaluation of complexity of short-term heart period variability: Application to 24 h Holter recordings in healthy and heart failure humans (United States)

    Porta, A.; Faes, L.; Masé, M.; D'Addio, G.; Pinna, G. D.; Maestri, R.; Montano, N.; Furlan, R.; Guzzetti, S.; Nollo, G.; Malliani, A.


    We propose an integrated approach based on uniform quantization over a small number of levels for the evaluation and characterization of complexity of a process. This approach integrates information-domain analysis based on entropy rate, local nonlinear prediction, and pattern classification based on symbolic analysis. Normalized and non-normalized indexes quantifying complexity over short data sequences (˜300 samples) are derived. This approach provides a rule for deciding the optimal length of the patterns that may be worth considering and some suggestions about possible strategies to group patterns into a smaller number of families. The approach is applied to 24h Holter recordings of heart period variability derived from 12 normal (NO) subjects and 13 heart failure (HF) patients. We found that: (i) in NO subjects the normalized indexes suggest a larger complexity during the nighttime than during the daytime; (ii) this difference may be lost if non-normalized indexes are utilized; (iii) the circadian pattern in the normalized indexes is lost in HF patients; (iv) in HF patients the loss of the day-night variation in the normalized indexes is related to a tendency of complexity to increase during the daytime and to decrease during the nighttime; (v) the most likely length L =3 indicates that stable patterns (i.e., those with no variations) are more present during the daytime, while highly variable patterns (i.e., those with two unlike variations) are more frequent during the nighttime; (vii) during the daytime in HF patients, the percentage of highly variable patterns increases with respect to NO subjects, while during the nighttime, the percentage of patterns with one or two like variations decreases.

  5. Interleukin-5, interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels obtained within 24-h of admission do not predict high-risk infection in children with febrile neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Aggarwal


    Full Text Available Purpose: Biomarkers that can predict the severity of febrile neutropenia (FN are potential tools for clinical practice. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the reliability of plasma interleukin (IL levels as indicators of high-risk FN. Materials and Methods: Children with haematological malignancies and FN were enrolled prospectively. A blood sample was obtained within 24-h of admission for estimation of IL-5, IL-6, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α level by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients were stratified into three groups. Group I (low-risk: No focus of infection; Group II: Clinical/radiological focus of infection; Group III: Microbiologically proven infection or FN related mortality. Groups II and III were analysed as high-risk. The cytokines were assessed at three different cut-off levels. Results: A total of 52 episodes of FN in 48 patients were evaluated. The mean age was 6 years (range: 2-13. Primary diagnosis included acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (82%, non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (13% and acute myeloid leukaemia (5%. Absolute neutrophil count was < 200 cells/μl in half and 200-500 in 23%. Majority were categorised as Group I (69%, followed by Group II (16% and III (15%. The range of IL-5 was too narrow and similar in the two risk-groups to be of any relevance. The best sensitivity of TNF-α and IL-6 for high-risk group was 78% and 70%, respectively. The highest specificity observed was 35%. The negative predictive value of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α exceeded 80%. Conclusion: IL-5, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α failed as predictors of clinically localised or microbiologically documented infection in children with chemotherapy induced FN. However, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α could be useful in excluding the possibility of high-risk infection.

  6. Investigation of Leakage Current Mechanisms in La2O3/SiO2/4H-SiC MOS Capacitors with Varied SiO2 Thickness (United States)

    Wang, Yucheng; Jia, Renxu; Zhao, Yanli; Li, Chengzhan; Zhang, Yuming


    In this study, the material and electrical properties of La2O3/SiO2/4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors are systematically characterized. Thermal oxidization SiO2 with varying thickness (0 nm, 3.36 nm, 5 nm, 8 nm, and 30 nm) were coated with La2O3 using atomic layer deposition on n-type 4H-SiC. The stacking oxides were measured using atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the MOS capacitors were measured by capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements. The results demonstrate that the main gate current leakage mechanisms are dependent on the thickness of the SiO2 oxide under the applied electric field. The primary mechanism for current leakage from the La2O3/4H-SiC MOS capacitor follows the Schottky emission mechanism due to its low conduction band offset. In contrast, the current leakage mechanism for the capacitor with a 3.36 nm SiO2 layer follows the Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism on account of its high trap charge density in the gate dielectric and at the interface. When the thickness of the SiO2 layer increases to 8 nm, lower leakage current is observed by reason of the low trap charge density and high conduction band offset when E ≤ 5 MV/cm. As the electric field strength increases to 5 MV/cm and 5.88 MV/cm (30 nm SiO2: 4.8 MV/cm), the main current leakage mechanism changes to the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling mechanism, which indicates that the La2O3/SiO2 stacking structure can improve the properties of MOS capacitors.

  7. Diabetes and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ruderman, N B; Schneider, S H


    This review describes (1) the metabolic and hormonal response to exercise in normal and diabetic man, and (2) the potential benefits of physical training in diabetes. Whereas in normal man plasma glucose varies little during exercise, the insulin-dependent diabetic subject may experience...... its site of injection. The response to exercise of noninsulin-dependent diabetic subjects and of diabetic subjects with autonomic neuropathy is also described. Physical training improves glucose tolerance in some noninsulin-dependent diabetic subjects and in insulin-dependent patients, it may diminish...... insulin requirements. It may also have a role in retarding the development of cardiovascular complications. Physical training is not totally innocuous, however, and in many patients with diabetes special precautions are required....

  8. Exercise and obesity. (United States)

    Okay, Douglas M; Jackson, Paul V; Marcinkiewicz, Marek; Papino, M Novella


    Obesity and overweight are linked to a wide range of medical conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnea, and coronary artery disease. Overweight and obese patients who are unable to lose weight with diet alone can benefit from well-structured exercise. Potentially, an individual exercise prescription can become one of the most important components of an obesity treatment program, along with an appropriate diet. Short-term (exercise combined with appropriate diet and counseling can produce a significant weight loss. No consensus exists on the amount of physical activity necessary to maintain the weight loss achieved during a short-term intervention. Long-term intervention is frequently influenced by weight regain related to complex interactions between physiologic and psychosocial factors.

  9. Physical exercise and fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Chiden Bueno


    Full Text Available Fibromyalgic syndrome is a non-inflammatory rheumatic disease which affects primarily Caucasianwomen. Fibromyalgic syndrome can be classified as primary, when there is no other associated pathology; orsecondary, when it is diagnosed related to some other pathology. The fibromyalgic patient needs to receivemultidisciplinary treatment and different areas should work together to promote the improvement of symptoms.The most common classical symptom of this disease is the chronic and diffuse pain. The specialized literaturepresents several works that point out the effects and benefits of physical exercise as a non-pharmacologicaltreatment for patients with fibromyalgic syndrome. Aerobic activity, stretching and strength training are amongthe physical exercises. Thus, this review aimed to highlight the several ways physical exercise can be useful tothe fibromyalgic patient, especially concerning the improvement of symptoms.

  10. Exercise acts as a drug; the pharmacological benefits of exercise. (United States)

    Vina, J; Sanchis-Gomar, F; Martinez-Bello, V; Gomez-Cabrera, M C


    The beneficial effects of regular exercise for the promotion of health and cure of diseases have been clearly shown. In this review, we would like to postulate the idea that exercise can be considered as a drug. Exercise causes a myriad of beneficial effects for health, including the promotion of health and lifespan, and these are reviewed in the first section of this paper. Then we deal with the dosing of exercise. As with many drugs, dosing is extremely important to get the beneficial effects of exercise. To this end, the organism adapts to exercise. We review the molecular signalling pathways involved in these adaptations because understanding them is of great importance to be able to prescribe exercise in an appropriate manner. Special attention must be paid to the psychological effects of exercise. These are so powerful that we would like to propose that exercise may be considered as a psychoactive drug. In moderate doses, it causes very pronounced relaxing effects on the majority of the population, but some persons may even become addicted to exercise. Finally, there may be some contraindications to exercise that arise when people are severely ill, and these are described in the final section of the review. Our general conclusion is that exercise is so effective that it should be considered as a drug, but that more attention should be paid to the dosing and to individual variations between patients.

  11. Exercise 5+6 - Introduction to Control and Lab Exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten Mejlhede


    Exercises for the 2nd AAU and ECN EWTEC affiliated PhD course. The laboratory exercises are including both numerical and experimental work. A simulink model is provided to make realtime control on the laboratory setups. The groups are welcome to modify the program during the exercises. The groups...

  12. Exercise and NSAIDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Susanne Germann; Miller, Ben F; Hansen, Mette


    The purpose of this study was to determine muscle and tendon protein fractional synthesis rates (FSR) at rest and after a one-legged kicking exercise in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) receiving either placebo or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).......The purpose of this study was to determine muscle and tendon protein fractional synthesis rates (FSR) at rest and after a one-legged kicking exercise in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) receiving either placebo or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)....

  13. Exercise boosts immune response. (United States)

    Sander, Ruth


    Ageing is associated with a decline in normal functioning of the immune system described as 'immunosenescence'. This contributes to poorer vaccine response and increased incidence of infection and malignancy seen in older people. Regular exercise can enhance vaccination response, increase T-cells and boost the function of the natural killer cells in the immune system. Exercise also lowers levels of the inflammatory cytokines that cause the 'inflamm-ageing' that is thought to play a role in conditions including cardiovascular disease; type 2 diabetes; Alzheimer's disease; osteoporosis and some cancers.

  14. Exercise following burn injury. (United States)

    de Lateur, Barbara J; Shore, Wendy S


    Fatigue is a major barrier to recovery for burned individuals. Studies indicate that a slow return to normal or near-normal muscle strength is the natural course of recovery. With no special interventions, other than the "usual care" tailored to the needs of the individual, postburn patients will make gradual improvement in strength and aerobic capacity. Using the principle of initial condition (the worse the initial condition, the greater the response to exercise intervention) the authors outline an augmented exercise program that should result in a robust improvement in aerobic capacity.

  15. Exercise and Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) (United States)

    ... exercise is very beneficial for healthy individuals, increasing cardiovascular and muscular fitness, improving mood, controlling weight and lowering the risk of systemic hypertension and heart disease. Exercise may help lower the risk of chronic illnesses ...

  16. Kegel exercises - self-care (United States)

    ... this page: // Kegel exercises - self-care To use the sharing features ... and move up and down. How to do Kegel Exercises Once you know what the movement feels ...

  17. Exercise, the Brain, and Hypertension. (United States)

    Peri-Okonny, Poghni; Fu, Qi; Zhang, Rong; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen


    Exercise training is the cornerstone in the prevention and management of hypertension and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, blood pressure (BP) response to exercise is exaggerated in hypertension often to the range that raises the safety concern, which may prohibit patients from regular exercise. This augmented pressor response is shown to be related to excessive sympathetic stimulation caused by overactive muscle reflex. Exaggerated sympathetic-mediated vasoconstriction further contributes to the rise in BP during exercise in hypertension. Exercise training has been shown to reduce both exercise pressor reflex and attenuate the abnormal vasoconstriction. Hypertension also contributes to cognitive impairment, and exercise training has been shown to improve cognitive function through both BP-dependent and BP-independent pathways. Additional studies are still needed to determine if newer modes of exercise training such as high-intensity interval training may offer advantages over traditional continuous moderate training in improving BP and brain health in hypertensive patients.

  18. Exercise for Your Bone Health (United States)

    ... have a degree in exercise physiology, physical education, physical therapy, or a similar specialty. Be sure to ask if he or she is familiar with the special needs of people with osteoporosis. A Complete Osteoporosis Program Remember, exercise is only ...

  19. Exercises to help prevent falls (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000493.htm Exercises to help prevent falls To use the sharing features on this page, ... even more serious injuries. Exercising can help prevent falls because it can: Make your muscles stronger and ...

  20. Curcumin and Piperine Supplementation and Recovery Following Exercise Induced Muscle Damage: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barthélémy Delecroix, Abd Elbasset Abaïdia, Cédric Leduc, Brian Dawson, Grégory Dupont


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of oral consumption of curcumin and piperine in combination on the recovery kinetics after exercise-induced muscle damage. Forty-eight hours before and following exercise-induced muscle damage, ten elite rugby players consumed curcumin and piperine (experimental condition or placebo. A randomized cross-over design was performed. Concentric and isometric peak torque for the knee extensors, one leg 6 seconds sprint performance on a non-motorized treadmill, counter movement jump performance, blood creatine kinase concentration and muscle soreness were assessed immediately after exercise, then at 24h, 48h and 72h post-exercise. There were moderate to large effects of the exercise on the concentric peak torque for the knee extensors (Effect size (ES = -1.12; Confidence interval at 90% (CI90%: -2.17 to -0.06, the one leg 6 seconds sprint performance (ES=-1.65; CI90% = -2.51to -0.80 and the counter movement jump performance (ES = -0.56; CI90% = -0.81 to -0.32 in the 48h following the exercise. There was also a large effect of the exercise on the creatine kinase level 72h after the exercise in the control group (ES = 3.61; CI90%: 0.24 to 6.98. This decrease in muscle function and this elevation in creatine kinase indicate that the exercise implemented was efficient to induce muscle damage. Twenty four hours post-exercise, the reduction (from baseline in sprint mean power output was moderately lower in the experimental condition (-1.77 ± 7.25%; 1277 ± 153W in comparison with the placebo condition (-13.6 ± 13.0%; 1130 ± 241W (Effect Size = -1.12; Confidence Interval 90%=-1.86 to -0.86. However, no other effect was found between the two conditions. Curcumin and piperine supplementation before and after exercise can attenuate some, but not all, aspects of muscle damage.

  1. Specific warm-up exercise is the best for vertical countermovement jump in young volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Nazário de Rezende

    Full Text Available Abstract We evaluated the effect of performing various distinct warm-up exercises on vertical countermovement jump (VCMJ performance. Eight volleyball players (age 15.4 ± 0.5 yrs performed five different warm-up activities (in a counterbalanced, randomized crossover study over five days, at 24-h intervals: stretching (4 × 30 s, 30 s between sets, cycloergometer (5 min at 50 W + 5 min at 100 W, resistance exercise (leg press 45°, 3 × 5 repetitions maximum, 3-min pause between sets, specific vertical jumping (4 × 10 VCMJ, 2-min pause between sets, and no warm-up at all (control condition. Beginning 3 min after their warm-up, the players performed 3 attempts (at intervals of 3 min of VCMJ (on a contact carpet, and each player's best jump was considered in the analysis. All warm-up activities presented higher VCMJ performance (p< 0.05 than the control condition, with the exception of stretching. Vertical jumping revealed a large effect size(0.8 than other interventions. We conclude that in practical terms, vertical jumps are the best warm-up exercise (when applied by itself to acutely improve VCMJ performance in volleyball players, but that other exercises can make a complementary contribution.

  2. Muscle soreness, swelling, stiffness and strength loss after intense eccentric exercise. (United States)

    Cleak, M J; Eston, R G


    High-intensity eccentric contractions induce performance decrements and delayed onset muscle soreness. The purpose of this investigation was to study the magnitude and time course of such decrements and their interrelationships in 26 young women of mean(s.d.) age 21.4(3.3) years. Subjects performed 70 maximal eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors on a pulley system, specially designed for the study. The non-exercised arm acted as the control. Measures of soreness, tenderness, swelling (SW), relaxed elbow joint angle (RANG) and isometric strength (STR) were taken before exercise, immediately after exercise (AE), analysis of variance and at 24-h intervals for 11 days. There were significant (P < 0.01, analysis of variance) changes in all factors. Peak effects were observed between 24 and 96 h AE. With the exception of STR, which remained lower (P < 0.01), all variables returned to baseline levels by day 11. A non-significant correlation between pain and STR indicated that pain was not a major factor in strength loss. Also, although no pain was evident, RANG was decreased immediately AE. There was no relationship between SW, RANG and pain. The prolonged nature of these symptoms indicates that repair to damaged soft tissue is a slow process. Strength loss is considered particularly important as it continues when protective pain and tenderness have disappeared. This has implications for the therapeutic management of patients with myopathologies and those receiving eccentric exercise for rehabilitation. PMID:1490222

  3. Abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training: fat burning or hydrocarbon source redistribution? (United States)

    Kuo, Chia-Hua; Harris, M Brennan


    Fat burning, defined by fatty acid oxidation into carbon dioxide, is the most described hypothesis to explain the actual abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training. This hypothesis is strengthened by evidence of increased whole-body lipolysis during exercise. As a result, aerobic training is widely recommended for obesity management. This intuition raises several paradoxes: first, both aerobic and resistance exercise training do not actually elevate 24 h fat oxidation, according to data from chamber-based indirect calorimetry. Second, anaerobic high-intensity intermittent training produces greater abdominal fat reduction than continuous aerobic training at similar amounts of energy expenditure. Third, significant body fat reduction in athletes occurs when oxygen supply decreases to inhibit fat burning during altitude-induced hypoxia exposure at the same training volume. Lack of oxygen increases post-meal blood distribution to human skeletal muscle, suggesting that shifting the postprandial hydrocarbons towards skeletal muscle away from adipose tissue might be more important than fat burning in decreasing abdominal fat. Creating a negative energy balance in fat cells due to competition of skeletal muscle for circulating hydrocarbon sources may be a better model to explain the abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise than the fat-burning model.

  4. Single dose of intra-muscular platelet rich plasma reverses the increase in plasma iron levels in exercise-induced muscle damage:A pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zekine Punduk; Onur Oral; Nadir Ozkayin; Khalid Rahman; Rana Varol


    Background: Platelet rich plasma (PRP) therapy is widely used in enhancing the recovery of skeletal muscle from injury. However, the impact of intramuscular delivery of PRP on hematologic and biochemical responses has not been fully elucidated in exercise-induced muscle damage. The purpose of this investigation the effects of intramuscular delivery of PRP on hematologic and biochemical responses and recovery strategy muscle damage induced by high intensity muscle exercise (exercise-induced muscle damage, EIMD). Methods: Moderately active male volunteers participated in this study and were assigned to a control group (control, n=6) and PRP administration group (PRP, n=6). The subjects performed exercise with a load of 80%one repetition maximum (1RM) maximal voluntary contraction of the elbow flexors until point of exhaustion of the non-dominant arm was reached. The arms were treated with saline or autologous PRP post-24 h EIMD. Venous blood samples were obtained in the morning to establish a baseline value and 1–4 days post-exercise and were analyzed for serum ferritin, iron, iron binding capacity (IBC), creatinine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Results: The baseline levels of plasma iron, ferritin, IBC, CK, LDH, AST, and ALT were similar in both the control and PRP groups. However, 24-h following exercise a significant increase in these parameters was observed in both groups between 1 and 4 days during the recovery period. Interestingly, PRP administration decreased plasma iron levels compared to the control on the second day post-exercise. Plasma IBC increased in PRP group from Days 2 to 4 post-exercise compared to the control group whilst PRP administration had no effect on plasma ferritin, CK, AST, ALT, or LDH. Conclusion: Acute exhaustive exercise increased muscle damage markers, including plasma iron, IBC, and ferritin levels, indicating muscle damage induced by exercise. PRP

  5. Cognitive Aging and Physical Exercise. (United States)

    Woo, Ellen; Sharps, Matthew J.


    Younger (n=58) and older (n=49) adults completed the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test and recall tests of verbal and visual stimuli with maximum and minimum semantic support. Category support did not help young adults who exercised less. Older adults' exercise had no effect on use of category support; less-frequent exercisers had poorer results…

  6. Exercises in Urban Reconnaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Tripodi


    Full Text Available Exercises in Urban Reconnaissance is a toolbox to examine and disentangle urban complexities. Not the city, not the urban territory, not the urbanization process but the irreducible condition produced by the dialectical relation and the semantic stratification resulting from these factors.

  7. Cutting Edge Exercises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    On August 24, a fleet of three guided missile destroyers and several missile-carrying speed-boats darted into the South China Sea. They were on the way to a military exercise in "attack and anti-attack maritime maneuvering formations

  8. Computer Exercises in Meteorology. (United States)

    Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith

    Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…

  9. Diet and Exercise (United States)

    ... Transplant recipients need to be aware of the important role of a healthy diet and exercise plan in ... Living donation increases the existing organ supply. It's important to get to know your transplant team. I am looking for >> About organ allocation About ...

  10. Exercise in Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Ersbøll, Anne S; Damm, Peter


    in the first trimester and the risk of miscarriage. A systematic review based on the EMBASE and PUBMED databases was conducted and 5 studies assessing the association between early pregnancy exercise and miscarriage were identified. Diverging findings were reported making no clear conclusion possible. New...

  11. An exercise in safety

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    On 14 October, a large-scale evacuation exercise took place. Ten buildings (1-2-3-4-50-51-52-53-58-304), with a total capacity of almost 1900 people, were successfully evacuated.   The exercise, which for the first time involved all of the central buildings on the Meyrin site, was organised by the PH Department in collaboration with the HSE Unit, the GS Department and the safety officers of all the various departments involved. On the day, around 400 people were evacuated in just a few minutes.  “It took us three months to prepare for the exercise,” explains Niels Dupont, safety officer for the PH Department, who organised the exercise. “Around 100 people: safety officers, firefighters, emergency guides, observers, representatives from the control centre, etc. attended four preparatory meetings and five training sessions. We also purchased equipment such as evacuation chairs, high-visibility vests and signs to mark the evacuation route.” The dec...

  12. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior? (United States)

    Dimmock, James A; Guelfi, Kym J; West, Jessica S; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben


    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.

  13. Carnitine and physical exercise. (United States)

    Heinonen, O J


    Carnitine plays a central role in fatty acid (FA) metabolism. It transports long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for beta-oxidation. Carnitine also modulates the metabolism of coenzyme-A (CoA). It is not surprising that the use of supplementary carnitine to improve physical performance has become widespread in recent years, although there is no unequivocal support to this practice. However, critical reflections and current scientific-based knowledge are important because the implications of reduced or increased carnitine concentrations in vivo are not thoroughly understood. Several rationales have been forwarded in support of the potential ergogenic effects of oral carnitine supplementation. However, the following arguments derived from established scientific observations may be forwarded: (i) carnitine supplementation neither enhances FA oxidation in vivo or spares glycogen or postpones fatigue during exercise. Carnitine supplementation does not unequivocally improve performance of athletes; (ii) carnitine supplementation does not reduce body fat or help to lose weight; (iii) in vivo pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is fully active already after a few seconds of intense exercise. Carnitine supplementation induces no further activation of PDC in vivo; (iv) despite an increased acetyl-CoA/free CoA ratio, PDC is not depressed during exercise in vivo and therefore supplementary carnitine has no effect on lactate accumulation; (v) carnitine supplementation per se does not affect the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max); (vi) during exercise there is a redistribution of free carnitine and acylcarnitines in the muscle but there is no loss of total carnitine. Athletes are not at risk for carnitine deficiency and do not have an increased need for carnitine. Although there are some theoretical points favouring potential ergogenic effects of carnitine supplementation, there is currently no scientific basis for healthy individuals or athletes to use carnitine

  14. Effects of acute exercise on lipid content and dietary lipid uptake in liver and skeletal muscle of lean and diabetic rats. (United States)

    Janssens, Sharon; Jonkers, Richard A M; Groen, Albert K; Nicolay, Klaas; van Loon, Luc J C; Prompers, Jeanine J


    Insulin resistance is associated with ectopic lipid accumulation. Physical activity improves insulin sensitivity, but the impact of exercise on lipid handling in insulin-resistant tissues remains to be elucidated. The present study characterizes the effects of acute exercise on lipid content and dietary lipid partitioning in liver and skeletal muscle of lean and diabetic rats by use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). After baseline measurements, rats were randomized to exercise or no-exercise groups. A subset of animals was subjected to MRS directly after 1 h of treadmill running for measurement of total intrahepatocellular lipid (IHCL) and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content (n=7 lean and diabetic rats). The other animals were administered 13C-labeled lipids orally after treadmill visit (with or without exercise) followed by MRS measurements after 4 and 24 h to determine the 13C enrichment of IHCL and IMCL (n=8 per group). Total IHCL and IMCL content were fivefold higher in diabetic vs. lean rats (Plean and diabetic rats (Plean rats (Plean and diabetic rats, lipid uptake was 44% reduced after acute exercise (Plean and diabetic rats, and exercise differentially affects dietary lipid uptake in muscle and liver.

  15. Personality, emotional intelligence and exercise. (United States)

    Saklofske, Donald H; Austin, Elizabeth J; Rohr, Betty A; Andrews, Jac J W


    The associations of personality and self-report emotional intelligence (EI) with attitudes to exercise and self-reported exercise behaviour were investigated in a sample of 497 Canadian undergraduates. A positive attitude to exercise was negatively associated with Neuroticism and uncorrelated with other personality traits and EI. Exercise behaviour was positively associated with Extraversion and EI and negatively associated with Neuroticism. Structural equation modelling indicated that EI mediated the relationship between personality and exercise behaviour. The interpretation of this result in terms of EI having some properties of a coping style is discussed.

  16. Vitamin D2 Supplementation Amplifies Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in NASCAR Pit Crew Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Nieman


    Full Text Available This study determined if 6-weeks vitamin D2 supplementation (vitD2, 3800 IU/day had an influence on muscle function, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD, and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS in National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR NASCAR pit crew athletes. Subjects were randomized to vitD2 (n = 13 and placebo (n = 15, and ingested supplements (double-blind for six weeks. Blood samples were collected and muscle function tests conducted pre- and post-study (leg-back and hand grip dynamometer strength tests, body weight bench press to exhaustion, vertical jump, 30-s Wingate test. Post-study, subjects engaged in 90 min eccentric-based exercise, with blood samples and DOMS ratings obtained immediately after and 1- and 2-days post-exercise. Six weeks vitD2 increased serum 25(OHD2 456% and decreased 25(OHD3 21% versus placebo (p < 0.001, p = 0.036, respectively, with no influence on muscle function test scores. The post-study eccentric exercise bout induced EIMD and DOMS, with higher muscle damage biomarkers measured in vitD2 compared to placebo (myoglobin 252%, 122% increase, respectively, p = 0.001; creatine phosphokinase 24 h post-exercise, 169%, 32%, p < 0.001, with no differences for DOMS. In summary, 6-weeks vitD2 (3800 IU/day significantly increased 25(OHD2 and decreased 25(OHD3, had no effect on muscle function tests, and amplified muscle damage markers in NASCAR pit crew athletes following eccentric exercise.

  17. Can exercise prevent cognitive decline? (United States)

    Behrman, Sophie; Ebmeier, Klaus P


    As the tolerability of pharmacological agents decreases with age, exercise may be particularly helpful as a possible treatment or stabiliser of mood and cognitive function in older age. Exercise has been most commonly evaluated for the treatment of depression. Exercise interventions designed primarily for treatment of physical conditions in the elderly do appear to confer psychological benefits as well, with reduction in depressive symptoms over the course of treatment. The effects of exercise on reducing depressive symptoms are not dissimilar to the effects of antidepressant drugs and cognitive behaviour therapy. Exercise may be a useful low-tech intervention for people with mild to moderate depression. In particular, exercise may be helpful in the elderly and in patients who have had insufficient response to, or are intolerant of, pharmacotherapy. Mastery of a new skill and positive feedback from others may increase feelings of self-esteem and improve mood. Exercise may distract participants from persistent negative thoughts. Exercise has been shown to improve executive function acutely in adults of all ages. It is possible that dance routines or other exercise regimens requiring some cognitive input may confer additional benefit to cognitive function. Exercise has a moderate effect on the ability of people with dementia to perform activities of daily living and may improve cognitive function. Midlife exercise may also have an impact on later cognitive function.

  18. Exercise Intolerance in Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brassard, Patrice; Gustafsson, Finn


    Exercise tolerance is affected in patients with heart failure (HF). Although the inability of the heart to pump blood to the working muscle has been the conventional mechanism proposed to explain the lowered capacity of patients with HF to exercise, evidence suggests that the pathophysiological...... mechanisms associated with their exercise intolerance is more complex. Recent findings indicate that lowered cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygenation likely represent limiting factors for exercise capacity in patients with HF. After an overview of cardiac and peripheral responses during acute and chronic...... exercise in healthy individuals, we succinctly review cardiac and noncardiac mechanisms by which HF influences exercise tolerance. We then consider how HF, comorbidity, and HF treatment influence CBF and oxygenation at rest and during exercise. Finally, we provide suggestions for further research...

  19. Prophylactic tolperisone for post-exercise muscle soreness causes reduced isometric force--a double-blind randomized crossover control study. (United States)

    Bajaj, Prem; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Madeleine, Pascal; Svensson, Peter


    The role of tolperisone hydrochloride, a centrally acting muscle relaxant in relieving painful muscle spasm is recently being discussed. The present study hypothesizes that the prophylactic use of tolperisone hydrochloride may effectively relieve post-exercise muscle soreness, based on the spasm theory of exercise pain. Twenty male volunteers, aged 25.2 +/- 0.82 years (mean +/- SEM) participated in 10 sessions in which they received oral treatment with placebo or the centrally acting muscle relaxant tolperisone hydrochloride (150 mg) three times daily for 8 days, in randomized crossover double-blind design. Time course assessments were made for pressure pain threshold, Likert's pain score (0-5), pain areas, range of abduction, isometric force, and electromyography (EMG) root mean square (RMS) during maximum voluntary isometric force on day 1 and 6, immediately after an eccentric exercise of first dorsal interosseous muscle, and 24 and 48 h after the exercise. Treatment with placebo or tolperisone hydrochloride was initiated immediately after the assessments on the first day baseline assessments. On the sixth day baseline investigations were repeated and then the subjects performed six bouts of standardized intense eccentric exercise of first dorsal interosseous muscle for provocation of post-exercise muscle soreness (PEMS). Perceived intensity of warmth, tiredness, soreness and pain during the exercise bouts were recorded on a 10 cm visual analogue pain scale. VAS scores and pressure pain thresholds did not differ between tolperisone and placebo treatment. All VAS scores increased during the exercise bouts 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 as compared to bout 1. Increased pain scores and pain areas were reported immediately after, 24 and 48 h after exercise. Pressure pain thresholds were reduced at 24 and 48 h after the exercise in the exercised hand. Range of abduction of the index finger was reduced immediately after the exercise and was still reduced at 24 h as compared to the

  20. Acute and long-term effect of antihypertensive treatment on exercise-induced albuminuria in incipient diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer; Mogensen, C E


    The aim of the study was to clarify whether antihypertensive treatment could affect the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in diabetics during exercise (450 kpm/min, followed by 600 kpm/min, 20 min each). Young male insulin-dependent diabetics with normal UAE (n = 9......) and diabetics with incipient nephropathy (n = 7) were examined in an acute study. Five patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy participated in a long-term study. Incipient diabetic nephropathy is defined as persistently elevated UAE (greater than 15 micrograms/min), but no clinical proteinuria.......0%). However, no difference was observed in UAE, in patients with normal UAE or those with incipient nephropathy. Five of the patients with incipient nephropathy were followed with repeated exercise tests before and during 2.6 years of antihypertensive treatment, using metoprolol 200 mg/24 h and subsequently...

  1. Endorphins, Exercise, and Addictions: A Review of Exercise Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Leuenberger


    Full Text Available Endorphins are endogenous opioids released from the pituitary gland that are believed to mediate analgesia, induce euphoria, and play a role in the reward system in the brain. It has been suggested that endorphins are responsible for creating the relaxed psychological state known as runners high. Studies examining the relationship between vigorous exercise and blood plasma endorphin levels have produced conflicting results. Some indicate a significant increase of endorphins during or after exercise while others do not. Inconsistent methods and experimental techniques have made it difficult to determine a relationship between exercise and endorphin elevations. Research has shown that opioidergic activity plays a role in addictions by mediating the development of reinforcing qualities of certain activities and substances. A newly-established condition known as exercise dependence defines exercise as an addiction, characterized by a compulsion to exercise excessively even when the consequences are harmful to an individuals health, family relationships, and personal wealth (Griffiths, 1997; Hausenblas and Downs, 2002; Loumidis and Wells, 1998. Various surveys and questionnaires have been validated for determining the level of an individuals dependence on and need for exercise. As researchers define a clear relationship between vigorous exercise and increased endorphin levels, causes of exercise dependence can be more concretely determined. Exercise dependence is not currently recognized by the DSM-IV, but its presence in certain human behaviors (similar to those of alcoholics and drug addicts indicate that it should be precisely defined.

  2. Automatic evaluations and exercise setting preference in frequent exercisers. (United States)

    Antoniewicz, Franziska; Brand, Ralf


    The goals of this study were to test whether exercise-related stimuli can elicit automatic evaluative responses and whether automatic evaluations reflect exercise setting preference in highly active exercisers. An adapted version of the Affect Misattribution Procedure was employed. Seventy-two highly active exercisers (26 years ± 9.03; 43% female) were subliminally primed (7 ms) with pictures depicting typical fitness center scenarios or gray rectangles (control primes). After each prime, participants consciously evaluated the "pleasantness" of a Chinese symbol. Controlled evaluations were measured with a questionnaire and were more positive in participants who regularly visited fitness centers than in those who reported avoiding this exercise setting. Only center exercisers gave automatic positive evaluations of the fitness center setting (partial eta squared = .08). It is proposed that a subliminal Affect Misattribution Procedure paradigm can elicit automatic evaluations to exercising and that, in highly active exercisers, these evaluations play a role in decisions about the exercise setting rather than the amounts of physical exercise. Findings are interpreted in terms of a dual systems theory of social information processing and behavior.

  3. Effects of light emitting diode (LED) therapy and cold water immersion therapy on exercise-induced muscle damage in rats. (United States)

    Camargo, Mariana Zingari; Siqueira, Cláudia Patrícia Cardoso Martins; Preti, Maria Carla Perozim; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; de Lima, Franciele Mendes; Dias, Ivan Frederico Lupiano; Toginho Filho, Dari de Oliveira; Ramos, Solange de Paula


    The aim of this work is to analyze the effects of LED therapy at 940 nm or cold water immersion therapy (CWI) after an acute bout of exercise on markers of muscle damage and inflammation. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: animals kept at rest (control), exercised animals (E), exercised + CWI (CWI), and exercised + LED therapy (LED). The animals swam for 100 min, after which blood samples were collected for lactate analysis. Animals in the E group were returned to their cages without treatment, the CWI group was placed in cold water (10°C) for 10 min and the LED group received LED irradiation on both gastrocnemius muscles (4 J/cm(2) each). After 24 h, the animals were killed and the soleus muscles were submitted to histological analysis. Blood samples were used for hematological and CK analyses. The results demonstrated that the LED group presented fewer areas of muscle damage and inflammatory cell infiltration and lower levels of CK activity than the E group. Fewer areas of damaged muscle fiber were observed in the LED group than in CWI. CWI and LED did not reduce edema areas. Hematological analysis showed no significant effect of either treatment on leukocyte counts. The results suggest that LED therapy is more efficient than CWI in preventing muscle damage and local inflammation after exercise.

  4. Exhaustive exercise modifies different gene expression profiles and pathways in LPS-stimulated and un-stimulated whole blood cultures. (United States)

    Abbasi, Asghar; Hauth, Melanie; Walter, Michael; Hudemann, Jens; Wank, Veit; Niess, Andreas M; Northoff, Hinnak


    Exhaustive exercise can interfere with immunity, causing transient immunosuppression and infections/inflammation in athletes. We used microarray technology to analyze the gene expression profiles of whole blood in short time (1h) LPS-stimulated and un-stimulated cultures drawn before, 30min after, 3h after and 24h after a half-marathon run. Four male and 4 female athletes participated. Exercise induced differential expression of genes known to be involved in innate immunity/inflammatory response, metabolic response, DNA methylation, apoptosis and regulation of brain function. Several genes with prominent anti-inflammatory function were up-regulated in un-stimulated cultures, including ARG-1, SOCS3, DUSP-1, ORMs, IRAK3, and GJB6. Some of these genes were also strongly up-regulated in LPS-stimulated cultures (ARG-1, ORM2, and GJB6). Some genes were strongly up-regulated through exercise in LPS-stimulated cultures, but not in un-stimulated cultures (TNIP3, PLAU, and HIVEP1). There was also a row of genes, which were strongly down-regulated by exercise in LPS-stimulated cultures, notably IFN-β1 and CXCL10. Exercise also significantly changed the expression of genes (OLIG2, TMEM106B) which are known to be related to brain function and expression of which has never been documented in peripheral blood. In summary, exhaustive exercise, in addition to modifying gene expression in un-stimulated cells, could also interfere with the early gene expression response to endotoxin. There was an anti-inflammatory bias of gene regulation by exercise, including genes involved in the negative regulation of TLRs signalling. The results of the present study demonstrate that some potentially important effects of exercise can only be detected in relation to pathogen stimulation.

  5. Lymphocyte enzymatic antioxidant responses to oxidative stress following high-intensity interval exercise. (United States)

    Fisher, G; Schwartz, D D; Quindry, J; Barberio, M D; Foster, E B; Jones, K W; Pascoe, D D


    The purposes of this study were to 1) examine the immune and oxidative stress responses following high-intensity interval training (HIIT); 2) determine changes in antioxidant enzyme gene expression and enzyme activity in lymphocytes following HIIT; and 3) assess pre-HIIT, 3-h post-HIIT, and 24-h post-HIIT lymphocyte cell viability following hydrogen peroxide exposure in vitro. Eight recreationally active males completed three identical HIIT protocols. Blood samples were obtained at preexercise, immediately postexercise, 3 h postexercise, and 24 h postexercise. Total number of circulating leukocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils, as well as lymphocyte antioxidant enzyme activities, gene expression, cell viability (CV), and plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels, were measured. Analytes were compared using a three (day) × four (time) ANOVA with repeated measures on both day and time. The a priori significance level for all analyses was P HIIT. No significant increases in lymphocyte SOD, CAT, or GPX gene expression were found. A significant increase in TBARS was found immediately post-HIIT on days 1 and 2. Lymphocyte CV in vitro significantly increased on days 2 and 3 compared with day 1. Additionally, there was a significant decrease in CV at 3 h compared with pre- and 24 h postexercise. These findings indicate lymphocytes respond to oxidative stress by increasing antioxidant enzyme activity. Additionally, HIIT causes oxidative stress but did not induce a significant postexercise lymphocytopenia. Analyses in vitro suggest that lymphocytes may become more resistant to subsequent episodes of oxidative stress. Furthermore, the analysis in vitro confirms that lymphocytes are more vulnerable to cytotoxic molecules during recovery from exercise.

  6. Properties of Exercise Strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Gerdes, Alex; Jeuring, Johan; 10.4204/EPTCS.44.2


    Mathematical learning environments give domain-specific and immediate feedback to students solving a mathematical exercise. Based on a language for specifying strategies, we have developed a feedback framework that automatically calculates semantically rich feedback. We offer this feedback functionality to mathematical learning environments via a set of web services. Feedback is only effective when it is precise and to the point. The tests we have performed give some confidence about the correctness of our feedback services. To increase confidence in our services, we explicitly specify the properties our feedback services should satisfy, and, if possible, prove them correct. For this, we give a formal description of the concepts used in our feedback framework services. The formalisation allows us to reason about these concepts, and to state a number of desired properties of the concepts. Our feedback services use exercise descriptions for their instances on domains such as logic, algebra, and linear algebra. ...

  7. RENEB accident simulation exercise


    Brzozowska, Beata; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Baert, Annelot; Beaton-Green, Lindsay; Barrios, Leonardo; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Bassinet, Celine; Beinke, Christina; Benedek, Anett; Beukes, Philip; Bortolin, Emanuela; Buraczewska, Iwona; Burbidge, Christopher; De Amicis, Andrea; De Angelis, Cinzia


    Purpose: The RENEB accident exercise was carried out in order to train the RENEB participants in coordinating and managing potentially large data sets that would be generated in case of a major radiological event. Materials and methods: Each participant was offered the possibility to activate the network by sending an alerting email about a simulated radiation emergency. The same participant had to collect, compile and report capacity, triage categorization and exposure scenario results ob...

  8. Cardiac output during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, C; Rasmussen, P.; Sørensen, H.


    Several techniques assessing cardiac output (Q) during exercise are available. The extent to which the measurements obtained from each respective technique compares to one another, however, is unclear. We quantified Q simultaneously using four methods: the Fick method with blood obtained from...... the right atrium (Q(Fick-M)), Innocor (inert gas rebreathing; Q(Inn)), Physioflow (impedance cardiography; Q(Phys)), and Nexfin (pulse contour analysis; Q(Pulse)) in 12 male subjects during incremental cycling exercise to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (FiO2  = 12%). While all four methods reported...... a progressive increase in Q with exercise intensity, the slopes of the Q/oxygen uptake (VO2) relationship differed by up to 50% between methods in both normoxia [4.9 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.2, 6.0 ± 0.4, 4.8 ± 0.2 L/min per L/min (mean ± SE) for Q(Fick-M), Q(Inn), QP hys and Q(Pulse), respectively; P = 0...

  9. Exercise Prevents Mental Illness (United States)

    Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.


    Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.

  10. Neurobiology of exercise. (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf; Booth, Frank W; Cotman, Carl W; Edgerton, V Reggie; Fleshner, Monika R; Gandevia, Simon C; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F; Levin, Barry E; Moran, Timothy H; Russo-Neustadt, Amelia A; Salamone, John D; Van Hoomissen, Jacqueline D; Wade, Charles E; York, David A; Zigmond, Michael J


    Voluntary physical activity and exercise training can favorably influence brain plasticity by facilitating neurogenerative, neuroadaptive, and neuroprotective processes. At least some of the processes are mediated by neurotrophic factors. Motor skill training and regular exercise enhance executive functions of cognition and some types of learning, including motor learning in the spinal cord. These adaptations in the central nervous system have implications for the prevention and treatment of obesity, cancer, depression, the decline in cognition associated with aging, and neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's dementia, ischemic stroke, and head and spinal cord injury. Chronic voluntary physical activity also attenuates neural responses to stress in brain circuits responsible for regulating peripheral sympathetic activity, suggesting constraint on sympathetic responses to stress that could plausibly contribute to reductions in clinical disorders such as hypertension, heart failure, oxidative stress, and suppression of immunity. Mechanisms explaining these adaptations are not as yet known, but metabolic and neurochemical pathways among skeletal muscle, the spinal cord, and the brain offer plausible, testable mechanisms that might help explain effects of physical activity and exercise on the central nervous system.

  11. BMA Probabilistic Forecasting for the 24-h TIGGE Multi-model Ensemble Forecasts of Surface Air Temperature%基于TIGGE多模式集合的24小时气温BMA概率预报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建国; 谢正辉; 赵琳娜; 贾炳浩


    利用TIGGE (THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble)单中心集合预报系统(ECMWF、United Kingdom Meteorological Office、China Meteorological Administration和NCEP)以及由此所构成的多中心模式超级集合预报系统24小时地面日均气温预报,结合淮河流域地面观测率定贝叶斯模型平均(Bayesian model averaging,BMA)参数,从而建立地面日均气温BMA概率预报模型.由此针对淮河流域进行地面日均气温BMA概率预报及其检验与评估,结果表明BMA模型比原始集合预报效果好;单中心的BMA概率预报都有较好的预报效果,其中ECMWF最好.多中心模式超级集合比单中心BMA概率预报效果更好,采用可替换原则比普通的多中心模式超级集合BMA模型计算量小,且在上述BMA集合预报系统中效果最好.它与原始集合预报相比其平均绝对误差减少近7%,其连续等级概率评分提高近10%.基于采用可替换原则的多中心模式超级集合BMA概率预报,针对研究区域提出了极端高温预警方案,这对防范高温天气有着重要意义.%Bayesian model averaging (BMA) probability forecast models were established through calibration of their parameters using 24-h ensemble forecasts of average daily surface air temperature provided by single-center ensemble prediction systems (EPSs) from the following agencies: the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO), the China Meteorological Administration (CMA), and the United States National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and its multi-center model grand-ensemble (GE) EPSs in the THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE), and observations in the Huaihe basin. The BMA probability forecasts of average daily surface air temperature for different EPSs were assessed by comparison with observations in the Huaihe basin. The results suggest that performance was better in the BMA predictive models than

  12. [Exercise addiction: a literature review]. (United States)

    Demetrovics, Zsolt; Kurimay, Tamás


    Exercise in appropriate quantity and of proper quality contributes significantly to the preserve our health. On the contrary, excessive exercise may be harmful to health. The term 'exercise addiction' has been gaining increasing recognition to describe the latter phenomenon. The exact definition of exercise addiction and its potential associations with other disorders is still under study, although according to the authors this phenomenon can be primarily described as a behavioral addiction. Accordingly, exercise addiction, among other behavioral and mental disorders, can be well describe within the obsessive-compulsive spectrum suggested by Hollander (1993). There are several tools used to assess exercise addiction. The authors here present the Hungarian version of the Exercise Dependence Scale (Hausenblas és Downs, 2002) and the Exercise Addiction Inventory (Terry, Szabo és Griffiths, 2004). Exercise addiction has many symptoms in common and also shows a high comorbidity with eating disorders and body image disorders. It may be more closely associated with certain sports but more data is needed to demonstrate this specificity with more certainty. Sel-evaluation problems seem to have a central role in the etiology from a psychological aspect. The relevance of neurohormonal mechanisms is less clear. The authors emphasize the importance of further research on exercise addiction. One important question to be answered is if this disorder is an independent entity to be classified as a distinct clinical disorder or is it rather a subgroup of another disorder.

  13. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?


    Dimmock, James A.; Guelfi, Kym J.; Jessica S. West; Tasmiah Masih; Ben Jackson


    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes...

  14. Exercise-induced albuminuria vs circadian variations in blood pressure in type 1 diabetes (United States)

    Tadida Meli, Isabelle Hota; Tankeu, Aurel T; Dehayem, Mesmin Y; Chelo, David; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Sobngwi, Eugene


    AIM To investigated the relationship between exercise-induced ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM) abnormalities in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) adolescents. METHODS We conducted a case-control at the National Obesity Center of the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon. We compared 24 h ABPM and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) at rest and after a standardized treadmill exercise between 20 Cameroonian T1DM patients and 20 matched controls. T1DM adolescents were aged 12-18 years, with diabetes for at least one year, without proteinuria, with normal office blood pressure (BP) and renal function according to the general reference population. Non-diabetic controls were adolescents of general population matched for sex, age and BMI. RESULTS Mean duration of diabetes was 4.2 ± 2.8 years. The mean 24 h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were respectively 116 ± 9 mmHg in the diabetic group vs 111 ± 8 mmHg in the non-diabetic (P = 0.06), and 69 ± 7 mm Hg vs 66 ± 5 mm Hg (P = 0.19). There was no difference in the diurnal pattern of BP in diabetes patients and non-diabetic controls (SBP: 118 ± 10 mmHg vs 114 ± 10 mmHg, P = 0.11; DBP: 71 ± 7 mmHg vs 68 ± 6 mmHg, P = 0.22). Nighttime BP was higher in the diabetic group with respect to SBP (112 ± 11 mmHg vs 106 ± 7 mmHg, P = 0.06) and to the mean arterial pressure (MAP) (89 ± 9 mmHg vs 81 ± 6 mmHg, P = 0.06). ACR at rest was similar in both groups (5.5 mg/g vs 5.5 mg/g, P = 0.74), but significantly higher in diabetes patients after exercise (10.5 mg/g vs 5.5 mg/g, P = 0.03). SBP was higher in patients having exercise-induced albuminuria (116 ± 10 mmHg vs 108 ± 10 mmHg, P = 0.09). CONCLUSION Exercise-induced albuminuria could be useful for early diagnosis of kidney damage in adolescents with T1DM.

  15. Metabolic responses during postprandial exercise. (United States)

    Kang, Jie; Raines, Emily; Rosenberg, Joseph; Ratamess, Nicholas; Naclerio, Fernando; Faigenbaum, Avery


    To examine metabolic interaction between meal and exercise, 10 men and 10 women completed three trials: (1) exercise (E), (2) consumption of a meal (M), and (3) consumption of a meal followed by exercise (M+E). All trials commenced after an overnight fast and were preceded by a rest period in which resting metabolic rate (RMR) was determined. The meal contained 721 kilocalories composed of 41%, 36%, and 23% of carbohydrate, lipids, and protein, respectively. Exercise protocol consisted of three continuous 10-minute cycling at 50%, 60%, and 70% VO2peak. Measurement began 60 min after the start of the meal and included VO2 that was used to determine meal-induced thermogenesis (MIT). VO2 was greater (p exercise at 50% VO2peak than at rest. It appears that postprandial exercise of mild intensities can potentiate MIT, thereby provoking a greater increase in energy expenditure.

  16. Understanding Exercise, Diet and Lung Disease (United States)

    ... National Jewish Health developed this list of the benefits of exercise. Remember, exercise is good for you! Exercise will ... 14 Beginning and Maintaining an Exercise Program Make exercise a ... each day and you will see the benefits. If you are active, you will have the ...

  17. Automatic Activation of Exercise and Sedentary Stereotypes (United States)

    Berry, Tanya; Spence, John C.


    We examined the automatic activation of "sedentary" and "exerciser" stereotypes using a social prime Stroop task. Results showed significantly slower response times between the exercise words and the exercise control words and between the sedentary words and the exercise control words when preceded by an attractive exerciser prime. Words preceded…

  18. Exercise HIMALAYAN SERPENT: feedback article. (United States)

    France, K; Mellor, A


    Exercise HIMALAYAN SERPENT was open to junior doctors from the United Kingdom (UK) Armed Forces and aimed to educate potential expedition doctors on aspects of high altitude and wilderness medicine as well as conducting adventurous training (AT) and medical research. This was the first time such an exercise had been undertaken and this article explores the views of those junior doctors taking part to assess whether the exercise met the aims and objectives it set out.

  19. Exercise and pregnancy: a review. (United States)

    Bell, R; O'Neill, M


    The effects of pregnancy on the maternal cardiorespiratory system include increases in oxygen consumption, cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume, and plasma volume. The increase in oxygen reserve seen in early pregnancy is reduced later, suggesting that maternal exercise may present a greater physiologic stress in the third trimester. Evidence suggests that weight-bearing exercise produces a greater decrease in oxygen reserve than nonweight-bearing exercise. Furthermore, to maintain a heart rate below 140 beats per minute during pregnancy, the intensity of weight-bearing exercise must be reduced. Nonweight-bearing, water-based exercise results in smaller fetal heart rate changes and a lower maternal heart rate than the same exercise performed on land. Exercising in the supine position in late pregnancy has raised concerns because cardiac output in the supine position is lower than in the lateral position at rest, presumably because the gravid uterus partially obstructs the inferior vena cava. Sustained exercise produces a training effect on the mother, although reported associations between this effect and the experience of labor are not consistent. Short-term changes in fetal heart rate provide circumstantial evidence that physical activity can influence the fetus. Acute effects of exercise that can potentially affect the fetus include hyperthermia, changes in uteroplacental flow, reduced levels of maternal glucose, and increased uterine contractions. Moderate to high levels of sustained maternal exercise have been associated with reduced birthweight. Much research remains to be done on the effects of specific exercise regimens during pregnancy, the effects on previously sedentary women, and the long-term health consequences to the offspring of women who perform vigorous exercise during pregnancy.

  20. Exercise decreases lipogenic gene expression in adipose tissue and alters adipocyte cellularity during weight regain after weight loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Danielle Giles


    Full Text Available Exercise is a potent strategy to facilitate long-term weight maintenance. In addition to increasing energy expenditure and reducing appetite, exercise also favors the oxidation of dietary fat, which likely helps prevent weight re-gain. It is unclear whether this exercise-induced metabolic shift is due to changes in energy balance, or whether exercise imparts additional adaptations in the periphery that limit the storage and favor the oxidation of dietary fat. To answer this question, adipose tissue lipid metabolism and related gene expression were studied in obese rats following weight loss and during the first day of relapse to obesity. Mature, obese rats were weight-reduced for 2 weeks with or without daily treadmill exercise (EX. Rats were weight maintained for 6 weeks, followed by relapse on: a ad libitum low fat diet (LFD, b ad libitum LFD plus EX, or c a provision of LFD to match the positive energy imbalance of exercised, relapsing animals. 24h retention of dietary- and de novo-derived fat were assessed directly using 14C palmitate/oleate and 3H20, respectively. Exercise decreased the size, but increased the number of adipocytes in both retroperitoneal (RP and subcutaneous (SC adipose depots, and prevented the relapse-induced increase in adipocyte size. Further, exercise decreased the expression of genes involved in lipid uptake (CD36 & LPL, de novo lipogenesis (FAS, ACC1, and triacylglycerol synthesis (MGAT & DGAT in RP adipose during relapse following weight loss. This was consistent with the metabolic data, whereby exercise reduced retention of de novo-derived fat even when controlling for the positive energy imbalance. The decreased trafficking of dietary fat to adipose tissue with exercise was explained by reduced energy intake which attenuated energy imbalance during refeeding. Despite having decreased expression of lipogenic genes, the net retention of de novo-derived lipid was higher in both the RP and SC adipose of exercising

  1. Histomorphometric analysis of the Achilles tendon of Wistar rats treated with laser therapy and eccentric exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. de Souza


    Full Text Available Abstract: Low-level laser therapy is recommended for the treatment of tendinopathies despite the contradictory results related to the ideal dose of energy, wavelength and time of application. This study aimed to assess the effects of laser therapy and eccentric exercise on tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon of Wistar rats. Forty-eight adult male rats were randomly distributed into four groups (L= laser; E= eccentric exercise; LE = laser and eccentric exercise; and R= rest. Laser therapy (904nm/3J/cm2 and/or eccentric exercise (downhill walking; 15o incline treadmill; 12m/min; 50min/day was started 24h after induction of unilateral tendinopathy and remained for 20 days. At 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after lesion induction, three rats from each group were euthanized and the tendons were collected for histological and morphometric analyses. There was no difference among groups or among times for the characteristics hemorrhage (p=0.4154, fibrinous adhesion formation (p=0.0712, and organization of collagen fibers (p=0.2583 and of the connective tissue (p=0.1046. For these groups, regardless of the time, eccentric exercise led to epitenon thickening (p=0.0204, which was lower in the group treated with laser therapy. Histological analysis revealed differences (p=0.0032 in the number of inflammatory cells over time. They were more numerous in the group that only exercised. This result was confirmed by morphometric analysis, which showed a significant interaction (groups x time for this characteristic. Eccentric exercise increased (p=0.0014 the inflammatory infiltrate over time (3 and 21 days. However, association with laser therapy reduced inflammatory reaction. On the other hand, the combination of the treatments increased angiogenesis in morphometric (p=0.0000 and histological (p=0.0006 analyses compared with the other groups, while the isolated application of low-level laser reduced this characteristic over time. Animals maintained at rest presented the

  2. Exercise, Eating, Estrogen, and Osteoporosis. (United States)

    Brown, Jim


    Osteoporosis affects millions of people, especially women. Three methods for preventing or managing osteoporosis are recommended: (1) exercise; (2) increased calcium intake; and (3) estrogen replacement therapy. (CB)

  3. Circadian pattern and the effect of standardized physical exercise on procollagen IIA N-peptide (PIIANP) in rheumatoid arthritis at different stages and in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Friesgaard; Lottenburger, T; Lindegaard, Hanne Merete;


    Background: Variant collagen IIA is re-expressed in diseased cartilage. Low procollagen IIA N-peptide (PIIANP) levels in serum have recently been reported in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated circadian rhythmicity and effect of physical activity on PIIANP in early and longstanding RA...... and in healthy subjects. Methods: Patients with early and longstanding RA and controls were included. Fasting and serial blood samples were collected during 24 h. PIIANP response to physical activity was studied before and serially after standardized exercise. Results and conclusion: In RA at different stages...

  4. Impacting patient-centred outcomes in COPD: breathlessness and exercise tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. O'Donnell


    Full Text Available The physiological hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is expiratory flow limitation. However, it is the resultant air trapping and associated increases in lung volume (hyperinflation that provide a mechanistic link between the physiological impairment and the characteristic symptoms of COPD, such as dyspnoea (breathlessness, exercise intolerance and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL. During exercise, the negative consequences of hyperinflation are particularly apparent. Delayed lung emptying and increased end-expiratory lung volume are aggravated, and tidal volume cannot rise to meet the increased ventilatory demands. Dyspnoea intensity rises abruptly to intolerable levels, and further increases in ventilation can only be achieved by rapid breathing. This rebounds to cause greater hyperinflation in a vicious cycle. As a result, patients with COPD often prematurely stop or avoid activity, leading to deconditioning, increased dyspnoea, worsening of disease and, ultimately, reduced HRQoL. The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines recommend long-acting bronchodilators as first-line maintenance treatment in COPD. Once-daily tiotropium 18 µg, a long-acting anticholinergic agent with 24-h efficacy, has been consistently shown to relieve dyspnoea and improve exercise tolerance and health status. These improvements may allow patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to increase their daily activities, thereby reversing the cycle of chronic inactivity and muscle deconditioning.

  5. The Effect of Limonium sinense (Girard Kuntze on Fatigue and Recovery after Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxia Cao


    Full Text Available To evaluate the physical and chemical properties of polysaccharides from selenium-rich tea and the effects of these polysaccharides on swimming performance and recovery from swimming-induced fatigue in mice. By setting up a 5-week endurance exercise model in mice and the mice were given by oral gavage different doses of Limonium sinense (Girard Kuntze (LSK. The swimming exhaustion time of mice was recorded and the concentrations of blood glucose, Blood Ureanitrogen (BUN, Blood Lactic Acid (BLA and the contents of hepatic glycogen and Malonaldehyde (MDA as well as the activity of Hepatic Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured immediately and at 24 h after exhaustive exercise. LSK were Se-binding glycoproteins and could prolong the swimming exhaustion time, improve the carbohydrate metabolism, significantly increase the activity of GSH-Px and reduce the content of MDA in liver tissue of mice. LSK have an anti-fatigue effect in mice and the underlying mechanism is related to regulating the carbohydrate metabolism and improving tissue lipid peroxidation caused by excessive exercise.

  6. Physiological disturbance and recovery dynamics of bonefish (Albula vulpes), a tropical marine fish, in response to variable exercise and exposure to air. (United States)

    Suski, Cory D; Cooke, Steven J; Danylchuk, Andy J; O'Connor, Constance M; Gravel, Marie-Ange; Redpath, Tara; Hanson, Kyle C; Gingerich, Andrew J; Murchie, Karen J; Danylchuk, Sascha E; Koppelman, Jeffrey B; Goldberg, Tony L


    Current understanding of the stress response in fishes has largely come from studies of freshwater-adapted salmonids, with proportionately few comparative studies having examined marine fishes. The current study sought to quantify the magnitude of physiological disturbances, recovery dynamics, and post-exercise behaviour in bonefish (Albula vulpes; a tropical marine fish) exposed to several different exercise and air exposure regimens. Results showed that metabolic disturbances (lactate production, hyperglycemia) increased following exercise and exposure to air, and that the magnitude of metabolic disturbance was proportional to the duration of the stressful event. Fish required between 2-4 h to return to resting values. Exercise and exposure to air also resulted in significant increases in plasma Ca2+, Cl- and Na+, but the magnitude of these ionic changes did not vary with exercise or exposure to air duration and required over 4-h to return to baseline levels. Mortality following exercise was observed only for fish that had been exposed to air for 3 min and not in fish that had been exposed to air for 1 min. Together, results from this study provide a physiological basis for management strategies that can improve the post-release survival of bonefish that have been caught during a catch-and-release angling event.

  7. Interactions between immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems following strenuous physical exercise. (United States)

    Menicucci, Danilo; Piarulli, Andrea; Mastorci, Francesca; Sebastiani, Laura; Laurino, Marco; Garbella, Erika; Castagnini, Cinzia; Pellegrini, Silvia; Lubrano, Valter; Bernardi, Giulio; Metelli, Maria; Bedini, Remo; L'abbate, Antonio; Pingitore, Alessandro; Gemignani, Angelo


    Physical exercise represents a eustress condition that promotes rapid coordinated adjustments in the immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems, for maintaining homeostasis in response to increased metabolic demands. Compared to the tight multisystem coordination during exercise, evidence of between-systems cross talk in the early post exercise is still lacking. This study was aimed at identifying possible interactions between multiple systems following strenuous physical exercise (Ironman race) performed by twenty well-trained triathletes. Cardiac hemodynamics, left ventricle systolic and diastolic function and heart rate variability were measured along with plasma concentrations of immune messengers (cytokines and C-reactive protein) and stress-related hormones (catecholamines and cortisol) both 24h before and within 20 min after the race. Observed changes in antiinflammatory pathways, stress-related hormones and cardiovascular function were in line with previous findings; moreover, correlating parameters' changes (post versus pre-race) highlighted a dependence of cardiovascular function on the post-race biohumoral milieu: in particular, individual post-race variations of heart rate and diastolic function were strongly correlated with individual variations of anti-inflammatory cytokines, while individual baroreflex sensitivity changes were linked to IL-8 increase. Multiple correlations between anti-inflammatory cytokines and catecholamines were also found according with the autonomic regulation of immune function. Observed post-race cytokine and hormone levels were presumptively representative of the increases reached at the effort end while the cardiovascular parameters after the race were measured during the cardiovascular recovery; thus, results suggest that sustained strenuous exercise produced a stereotyped cardiovascular early recovery, whose speed could be conditioned by the immune and stress-related hormonal milieu.

  8. Type of Ground Surface during Plyometric Training Affects the Severity of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage from a bout of plyometric exercise (PE; 10 × 10 vertical jumps performed in aquatic, sand and firm conditions. Twenty-four healthy college-aged men were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Aquatic (AG, n = 8, Sand (SG, n = 8 and Firm (FG, n = 8. The AG performed PE in an aquatic setting with a depth of ~130 cm. The SG performed PE on a dry sand surface at a depth of 20 cm, and the FG performed PE on a 10-cm-thick wooden surface. Plasma creatine kinase (CK activity, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS, knee range of motion (KROM, maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC of the knee extensors, vertical jump (VJ and 10-m sprint were measured before and 24, 48 and 72 h after the PE. Compared to baseline values, FG showed significantly (p < 0.05 greater changes in CK, DOMS, and VJ at 24 until 48 h. The MIVC decreased significantly for the SG and FG at 24 until 48 h post-exercise in comparison to the pre-exercise values. There were no significant (p > 0.05 time or group by time interactions in KROM. In the 10-m sprint, all the treatment groups showed significant (p < 0.05 changes compared to pre-exercise values at 24 h, and there were no significant (p > 0.05 differences between groups. The results indicate that PE in an aquatic setting and on a sand surface induces less muscle damage than on a firm surface. Therefore, training in aquatic conditions and on sand may be beneficial for the improvement of performance, with a concurrently lower risk of muscle damage and soreness.

  9. Skeletal muscle alterations and exercise performance decrease in erythropoietin-deficient mice: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mille-Hamard Laurence


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Erythropoietin (EPO is known to improve exercise performance by increasing oxygen blood transport and thus inducing a higher maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max. Furthermore, treatment with (or overexpression of EPO induces protective effects in several tissues, including the myocardium. However, it is not known whether EPO exerts this protective effect when present at physiological levels. Given that EPO receptors have been identified in skeletal muscle, we hypothesized that EPO may have a direct, protective effect on this tissue. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to confirm a decrease in exercise performance and highlight muscle transcriptome alterations in a murine EPO functional knock-out model (the EPO-d mouse. Methods We determined VO2max peak velocity and critical speed in exhaustive runs in 17 mice (9 EPO-d animals and 8 inbred controls, using treadmill enclosed in a metabolic chamber. Mice were sacrificed 24h after a last exhaustive treadmill exercise at critical speed. The tibialis anterior and soleus muscles were removed and total RNA was extracted for microarray gene expression analysis. Results The EPO-d mice’s hematocrit was about 50% lower than that of controls (p  1.4 and 115 were strongly down-regulated (normalized ratio  Conclusions Our results showed that the lack of functional EPO induced a decrease in the aerobic exercise capacity. This decrease was correlated with the hematocrit and reflecting poor oxygen supply to the muscles. The observed alterations in the muscle transcriptome suggest that physiological concentrations of EPO exert both direct and indirect muscle-protecting effects during exercise. However, the signaling pathway involved in these protective effects remains to be described in detail.

  10. Role of Creatine Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Cardiovascular Function and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I. C. Kingsley


    Full Text Available Many degenerative diseases are associated with increased oxidative stress. Creatine has the potential to act as an indirect and direct antioxidant; however, limited data exist to evaluate the antioxidant capabilities of creatine supplementation within in vivo human systems. This study aimed to investigate the effects of oral creatine supplementation on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses following exhaustive cycling exercise. Following preliminary testing and two additional familiarization sessions, 18 active males repeated two exhaustive incremental cycling trials (T1 and T2 separated by exactly 7 days. The subjects were assigned, in a double-blind manner, to receive either 20 g of creatine (Cr or a placebo (P for the 5 days preceding T2. Breath-by-breath respiratory data and heart rate were continually recorded throughout the exercise protocol and blood samples were obtained at rest (preexercise, at the end of exercise (postexercise, and the day following exercise (post24 h. Serum hypdroperoxide concentrations were elevated at postexercise by 17 ± 5% above preexercise values (p = 0.030. However, supplementation did not influence lipid peroxidation (serum hypdroperoxide concentrations, resistance of low density lipoprotein to oxidative stress (t1/2max LDL oxidation and plasma concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (retinol, α-carotene, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, lycopene and vitamin C. Heart rate and oxygen uptake responses to exercise were not affected by supplementation. These findings suggest that short-term creatine supplementation does not enhance non-enzymatic antioxidant defence or protect against lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive cycling in healthy males.

  11. Ryanodine receptor fragmentation and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak after one session of high-intensity interval exercise. (United States)

    Place, Nicolas; Ivarsson, Niklas; Venckunas, Tomas; Neyroud, Daria; Brazaitis, Marius; Cheng, Arthur J; Ochala, Julien; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Girard, Sebastien; Volungevičius, Gintautas; Paužas, Henrikas; Mekideche, Abdelhafid; Kayser, Bengt; Martinez-Redondo, Vicente; Ruas, Jorge L; Bruton, Joseph; Truffert, Andre; Lanner, Johanna T; Skurvydas, Albertas; Westerblad, Håkan


    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient way of improving physical performance in healthy subjects and in patients with common chronic diseases, but less so in elite endurance athletes. The mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of HIIT are uncertain. Here, recreationally active human subjects performed highly demanding HIIT consisting of 30-s bouts of all-out cycling with 4-min rest in between bouts (≤3 min total exercise time). Skeletal muscle biopsies taken 24 h after the HIIT exercise showed an extensive fragmentation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release channel, the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1). The HIIT exercise also caused a prolonged force depression and triggered major changes in the expression of genes related to endurance exercise. Subsequent experiments on elite endurance athletes performing the same HIIT exercise showed no RyR1 fragmentation or prolonged changes in the expression of endurance-related genes. Finally, mechanistic experiments performed on isolated mouse muscles exposed to HIIT-mimicking stimulation showed reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS)-dependent RyR1 fragmentation, calpain activation, increased SR Ca(2+) leak at rest, and depressed force production due to impaired SR Ca(2+) release upon stimulation. In conclusion, HIIT exercise induces a ROS-dependent RyR1 fragmentation in muscles of recreationally active subjects, and the resulting changes in muscle fiber Ca(2+)-handling trigger muscular adaptations. However, the same HIIT exercise does not cause RyR1 fragmentation in muscles of elite endurance athletes, which may explain why HIIT is less effective in this group.

  12. Efficiency of emergency exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zander, N. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Oberschleissheim/Neuherberg (Germany); Sogalla, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheim (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)


    In order to cope with accidents beyond the design basis within German nuclear power plants which possibly lead to relevant radiological consequences, the utilities as well as the competent authorities exist emergency organisations. The efficiency, capacity for teamwork and preparedness of such organisations should be tested by regular, efficient exercise activities. Such activities can suitably be based on scenarios which provide challenging tasks for all units of the respective emergency organisation. Thus, the demonstration and further development of the efficiency of the respective organisational structures, including their ability to collaborate, is promoted. (orig.)

  13. Exercise Motivation and Exercise Attribution of Recreational Athletes (United States)

    Jaurigue, Jerson Jalandoni


    This descriptive study determined the exercise motivation and exercise attribution of recreational athletes in one of the major cities in Panay Island. A total of 75 purposively selected respondents who are regular members in a particular club for at least a year and have finished at least a college degree participated in the study. To gather data…

  14. A influência da suplementação de triglicerídeos de cadeia média no desempenho em exercícios de ultra-resistência Influencia de la suplementacion de trigliceridos de cadena media en ejercicios de máxima resistencia The influence of medium-chain triglycerides supplementation in ultra-endurance exercise performance


    Antonio Marcio Domingues Ferreira; Paula Edila Botelho Barbosa; Rolando Bacis Ceddia


    As competições de ultra-resistência representam um grande desafio no mundo esportivo. O gasto energético de uma prova de ultra-resistência pode variar de 5.000 a 18.000kcal por dia. Por causa dessa grande demanda, várias estratégias para melhora do desempenho têm sido desenvolvidas nos últimos anos, como a suplementação de triglicerídeos de cadeia média (TCM) em combinação com carboidratos (CBO). A suplementação de TCM visa aumentar a utilização dos ácidos graxos livres (AGL) como fonte de en...

  15. Differential cortical neurotrophin and cytogenetic adaptation after voluntary exercise in normal and amnestic rats. (United States)

    Hall, J M; Vetreno, R P; Savage, L M


    Voluntary exercise (VEx) has profound effects on neural and behavioral plasticity, including recovery of CNS trauma and disease. However, the unique regional cortical adaption to VEx has not been elucidated. In a series of experiments, we first examined whether VEx would restore and retain neurotrophin levels in several cortical regions (frontal cortex [FC], retrosplenial cortex [RSC], occipital cortex [OC]) in an animal model (pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency [PTD]) of the amnestic disorder Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. In addition, we assessed the time-dependent effect of VEx to rescue performance on a spontaneous alternation task. Following 2-weeks of VEx or stationary housing conditions (Stat), rats were behaviorally tested and brains were harvested either the day after VEx (24-h) or after an additional 2-week period (2-wk). In both control pair-fed (PF) rats and PTD rats, all neurotrophin levels (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], nerve growth factor [NGF], and vascular endothelial growth factor) increased at the 24-h period after VEx in the FC and RSC, but not OC. Two-weeks following VEx, BDNF remained elevated in both FC and RSC, whereas NGF remained elevated in only the FC. Interestingly, VEx only recovered cognitive performance in amnestic rats when there was an additional 2-wk adaptation period after VEx. Given this unique temporal profile, Experiment 2 examined the cortical cytogenetic responses in all three cortical regions following a 2-wk adaptation period after VEx. In healthy (PF) rats, VEx increased the survival of progenitor cells in both the FC and RSC, but only increased oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OLPs) in the FC. Furthermore, VEx had a selective effect of only recovering OLPs in the FC in PTD rats. These data reveal the therapeutic potential of exercise to restore cortical plasticity in the amnestic brain, and that the FC is one of the most responsive cortical regions to VEx.

  16. Depression and Anxiety: Exercise Eases Symptoms (United States)

    ... and exercise shows that the psychological and physical benefits of exercise can also help reduce anxiety and improve mood. ... such as running or bicycling. The mental health benefits of exercise and physical activity may last only if you ...

  17. Upper Body Exercise: 'Jarming' Instead of Jogging. (United States)

    Rogers, Cindy Christian


    The virtues of "armchair exercise" and "jarming" (jogging with the arms) are being extolled far and wide. The relative merits of arm and leg exercise are discussed. People who could benefit from arm exercise are described. (MT)

  18. Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment | View Video Back About Video Struggling with Low Back Pain? Many people are surprised to learn that carefully selected exercise can actually reduce back pain. Some exercises can ...

  19. Effects of high-intensity interval exercise versus continuous moderate-intensity exercise on postprandial glycemic control assessed by continuous glucose monitoring in obese adults. (United States)

    Little, Jonathan P; Jung, Mary E; Wright, Amy E; Wright, Wendi; Manders, Ralph J F


    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of acute high-intensity interval training (HIIT) compared with continuous moderate-intensity (CMI) exercise on postprandial hyperglycemia in overweight or obese adults. Ten inactive, overweight or obese adults (41 ± 11 yrs, BMI = 36 ± 7 kg/m(2)) performed an acute bout of HIIT (10 × 1 min at approximately 90% peak heart rate (HRpeak) with 1-min recovery periods) or matched work CMI (30 min at approximately 65% HRpeak) in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. Exercise was performed 2 h after breakfast, and glucose control was assessed by continuous glucose monitoring under standardized dietary conditions over 24 h. Postprandial glucose (PPG) responses to lunch, dinner, and the following day's breakfast were analyzed and compared with a no-exercise control day. Exercise did not affect the PPG responses to lunch, but performing both HIIT and CMI in the morning significantly reduced the PPG incremental area under the curve (AUC) following dinner when compared with control (HIIT = 110 ± 35, CMI = 125 ± 34, control = 162 ± 46 mmol/L × 2 h, p HIIT = 125 ± 53, CMI = 186 ± 55, control = 194 ± 96 mmol/L × 2 h) and the PPG spike (HIIT = Δ2.1 ± 0.9, CMI = Δ3.0 ± 0.9, control = Δ3.0 ± 1.5 mmol/l) following breakfast on the following day were significantly lower following HIIT compared with both CMI and control (p HIIT, CMI, or control for any meal (p > 0.05 for all). We conclude that a single session of HIIT has greater and more lasting effects on reducing incremental PPG when compared with CMI.

  20. Obesity and Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Celik


    Full Text Available Obesity is defined as the accumulation of abnormal or excessive fat in fat tissues that substantially disrupt health. The main reasons of obesity are excessive and unbalanced diet and lack of physical activity. Obesity and santral obesity leads to many diseases. Body mass index (weight (kg/lenght (m2 has been used extensively to define categories of body weight. All healthy adults aged 18-65 yr need moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity for a minimum of 30 min on five days each week or vigorous-intensity aerobic activitiy for a minimum of 20 min on three days each week. Also combination of these activities can be performed. It is recommended that muscle strengthening and stretching activities are performed for a minimum of two days each week. Activities of daily living that tend to be light intensity should be added. There are many benefits of regular physical activity and aerobic exercise tranning that are associated with a decrease in cardiovascular mortality. Some risks of the exercises may also be taken into account.

  1. Exercise induced rhabdomyolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružič Maja


    Full Text Available Introduction. Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life threatening disease, characterized by the release of intracellular calcium from skeletal muscles and can result in acute renal failure. Case report. A nineteen year old boy was admitted to the Clinic for Infective Diseases of Clinical Center Novi Sad. The disease was developing gradually and the symptoms were dizziness, muscle pain and dark color of urine. Due to the pathological level of aminotransferase he was hospitalized on the fourth day of the disease beginning with a suspicious diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis. In the hospital course of the disease, a further elevation of serum aminotransferases, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were registered. Additional serological analyses were done to exclude other possible causes of acute liver lesion. In the neurological status prolonged decontraction of quadriceps muscle was detected and the electromyography was suspicious on neuromyositis. Conclusion. Excessive muscular activity with the strenuous exercise is the leading, but very frequently overlooked, cause of rhabdomyolysis in healthy people. Excessive physical exercise may lead to elevation of the serum activity of aminotransferases and to suspicion of hepatitis.

  2. 2017 MERIT exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Slide from HR public meeting. In 2017, the annual advancement exercise MARS will be replaced by the annual performance evaluation and recognition exercise MERIT. The HR Department has invited staff members to attend two information meetings “2017 MERIT Public Sessions”, the purpose of which is to explain the “general principles of the Merit, Evaluation and Recognition Integrated Toolkit”. The first meeting was held in English on Tuesday, 6 December. The second meeting will be in French on Thursday, 15 December at 10.00, in room 774-R-013 (Prévessin site). The Staff Association appreciates the HR Department’s efforts to inform staff members, especially regarding the changes between the MARS system and the MERIT system. Nevertheless, we find it useful if we inform you, from our side, taking up the issues we find the most pertinent. Benchmark jobs and the new salary scale The HR presentation looks back on the changes that took place in September 20...

  3. Airflow obstruction and exercise. (United States)

    Cooper, Christopher B


    The primary abnormality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is chronic airway inflammation which results in airflow limitation. Disease progression is usually depicted as an accelerated decline in FEV(1) over time. However, COPD patients also manifest progressive static hyperinflation due to the combined effects of reduced lung elastic recoil and increased airway resistance. Superimposed on static hyperinflation are further increases in operational lung volumes (dynamic hyperinflation) brought on during exercise, exacerbations or tachypnea. An important consequence of exertional dyspnea is activity limitation. COPD patients have been shown to spend only a third of the day walking or standing compared with age-matched healthy individuals who spend more than half of their time in these activities. Furthermore, the degree of activity limitation measured by an accelerometer worsens with disease progression. COPD patients have been shown to have an accelerated loss of aerobic capacity (VO(2)max) and this correlates with mortality just as is seen with hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Thus physical inactivity is an important therapeutic target in COPD. Summarizing; airflow obstruction leads to progressive hyperinflation, activity limitation, physical deconditioning and other comorbidities that characterize the COPD phenotype. Targeting the airflow obstruction with long-acting bronchodilator therapy in conjunction with a supervised exercise prescription is currently the most effective therapeutic intervention in earlier COPD. Other important manifestations of skeletal muscle dysfunction include muscle atrophy and weakness. These specific problems are best addressed with resistance training with consideration of anabolic supplementation.

  4. Age-related differences in the dose-response relationship of muscle protein synthesis to resistance exercise in young and old men. (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Selby, Anna; Rankin, Debbie; Patel, Rekha; Atherton, Philip; Hildebrandt, Wulf; Williams, John; Smith, Kenneth; Seynnes, Olivier; Hiscock, Natalie; Rennie, Michael J


    We investigated how myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle anabolic signalling were affected by resistance exercise at 20-90% of 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) in two groups (25 each) of post-absorptive, healthy, young (24 +/- 6 years) and old (70 +/- 5 years) men with identical body mass indices (24 +/- 2 kg m(-2)). We hypothesized that, in response to exercise, anabolic signalling molecule phosphorylation and MPS would be modified in a dose-dependant fashion, but to a lesser extent in older men. Vastus lateralis muscle was sampled before, immediately after, and 1, 2 and 4 h post-exercise. MPS was measured by incorporation of [1,2-(13)C] leucine (gas chromatography-combustion-mass spectrometry using plasma [1,2-(13)C]alpha-ketoisocaparoate as surrogate precursor); the phosphorylation of p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70s6K) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1) was measured using Western analysis with anti-phosphoantibodies. In each group, there was a sigmoidal dose-response relationship between MPS at 1-2 h post-exercise and exercise intensity, which was blunted (P men. At all intensities, MPS fell in both groups to near-basal values by 2-4 h post-exercise. The phosphorylation of p70s6K and 4EBP1 at 60-90% 1 RM was blunted in older men. At 1 h post-exercise at 60-90% 1 RM, p70s6K phosphorylation predicted the rate of MPS at 1-2 h post-exercise in the young but not in the old. The results suggest that in the post-absorptive state: (i) MPS is dose dependant on intensity rising to a plateau at 60-90% 1 RM; (ii) older men show anabolic resistance of signalling and MPS to resistance exercise.

  5. Should Athletes Stretch before Exercise?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KarlB.Fields,MD; CraigM.Burnworth,MD; Martha Delaney·MA


    @@ KEY POINTS Traditional stretching routines performed during warm-up procedures before exercise can increase flexibility for a short time, but there is little scientific evidence that such routines can improve exercise performance, reduce delayed-onset muscular soreness, or prevent injuries.

  6. Gastroenteropancreatic hormonal changes during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Galbo, H; Sonne, B


    Peripheral plasma concentrations of gastroenteropancreatic peptides were measured during a 3-h period of bicycle exercise at 40% of maximal oxygen uptake in six normal men. Marked increases (P......Peripheral plasma concentrations of gastroenteropancreatic peptides were measured during a 3-h period of bicycle exercise at 40% of maximal oxygen uptake in six normal men. Marked increases (P...

  7. Reducing anxiety sensitivity with exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.A.J.; Berry, A.C.; Rosenfield, D.; Powers, M.B.; Behar, E.; Otto, M.W.


    Background. Exercise interventions repeatedly have been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of depression, and initial studies indicate similar efficacy for the treatment of anxiety conditions. To further study the potential beneficial role of prescriptive exercise for anxiety-related conditio

  8. Reducing anxiety sensitivity with exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.A.J.; Berry, A.C.; Rosenfield, D.; Powers, M.B.; Behar, E.; Otto, M.W.


    Background: Exercise interventions repeatedly have been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of depression, and initial studies indicate similar efficacy for the treatment of anxiety conditions. To further study the potential beneficial role of prescriptive exercise for anxiety-related conditio

  9. Prescriptive Exercise for Older Adults. (United States)

    Piscopo, John


    In addition to physical benefits, exercise also provides a natural way to sustain mental alertness in the aging individual by supplying oxygen to the brain. A table focuses on 10 specific health-fitness problems with suggested prescriptive exercises designed to ameliorate the condition. (MT)

  10. Biologic Influences on Exercise Adherence. (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.


    Diagnostic profiles of 362 male participants in an exercise program were analyzed to determine the biological variables between exercise adherence and symptoms of coronary disease. Findings indicated that individuals with lower metabolic capacity tended to adhere longer, to be less fit, were leaner, and began with more symptoms related to coronary…

  11. Exercise attenuates renal dysfunction with preservation of myocardial function in chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael da Silva Luiz

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that exercise improves renal and cardiac functions in patients with chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term aerobic swimming exercise with overload on renal and cardiac function in rats with 5/6 nefrectomy (5/6Nx. Eight Wistar rats were placed into 4 groups: Control (C, Control+Exercise (E, Sedentary 5/6Nx (NxS and 5/6Nx+Exercise (NxE. The rats were subjected to swimming exercise sessions with overload for 30 min five days per week for five weeks. Exercise reduced the effect of 5/6Nx on creatinine clearance compared to the NxS group. In addition, exercise minimized the increase in mean proteinuria compared to the NxS group (96.9±10.0 vs. 51.4±9.9 mg/24 h; p<0.05. Blood pressure was higher in the NxS and NxE groups compared to the C and E groups (216±4 and 178±3 vs. 123±2 and 124±2 mm Hg, p<0.05. In the 200 glomeruli that were evaluated, the NxS group had a higher sclerosis index than did the NxE group (16% vs. 2%, p<0.05. Echocardiography demonstrated a higher anterior wall of the left ventricle (LV in diastole in the NxS group compared with the C, E and NxE groups. The NxS group also had a higher LV posterior wall in diastole and systole compared with the E group. The developed isometric tension in Lmax of the heart papillary muscle was lower in the NxS group compared with the C, E and NxE groups. These results suggested that exercise in 5/6Nx animals might reduce the progression of renal disease and lessen the cardiovascular impact of a reduction in renal mass.

  12. Exercise Based- Pain Relief Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadeh, Mahdi Hossein

    in the current study was to use exercise induced- muscle damage followed by ECC as an acute pain model and observe its effects on the sensitivity of the nociceptive system and blood supply in healthy subjects. Then, the effect of a repeated bout of the same exercise as a healthy pain relief strategy......Exercise-based pain management programs are suggested for relieving from musculoskeletal pain; however the pain experienced after unaccustomed, especially eccentric exercise (ECC) alters people´s ability to participate in therapeutic exercises. Subsequent muscle pain after ECC has been shown...... to cause localized pressure pain and hyperalgesia. A prior bout of ECC has been repeatedly reported to produce a protective adaptation known as repeated bout effect (RBE). One of the main scopes of the current project was to investigate the adaptations by which the RBE can be resulted from. The approach...

  13. Effects of BCAA, arginine and carbohydrate combined drink on post-exercise biochemical response and psychological condition. (United States)

    Hsu, Mei-Chich; Chien, Kuei-Yu; Hsu, Cheng-Chen; Chung, Chia-Jung; Chan, Kuei-Hui; Su, Borcherng


    This study investigated the effects of BCAA, arginine and carbohydrate combined beverage (BCAA Drink) on biochemical responses and psychological conditions during recovery after a single bout of exhaustive exercise. Fourteen healthy males were assigned to drink either BCAA Drink (BA trial) or placebo (PL trial) on two sessions separated by 2 weeks. Blood samples of each subject were collected before exercise, 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 120 min and 24 h after exercise. No significant differences in the levels of lactate, ammonia, creatine kinase and glycerol between the two groups were observed at any of the time points. However, the levels of glucose and insulin were significantly higher in the BA trial as compared to those in the PL trial at the 40 and 60 min recovery points. Furthermore, the testosterone-to-cortisol ratio at the 120 min recovery point was significantly higher in the BA trial as compared to that in the PL trial. The results indicate the occurrence of anabolic response during the recovery period. The benefit of BCAA Drink was also performed by Profile of Mood States to assess the psychological condition. Fatigue score increased immediately at exhaustion in both groups, but the decrease in the fatigue score at 120 min recovery point was significant only in BA trial. These data indicate that a single bout of exhaustive exercise enhanced the feeling of fatigue. The detrimental consequence was reduced by an ingestion of BCAA Drink.

  14. Early detection of skeletal muscle injury by assay of creatine kinase MM isoforms in serum after acute exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apple, F. S.; Hellsten, Ylva; Clarkson, P. M.


    concentric strength--a form of exercise previously shown to cause significant increases of CK in serum at 24 h and muscle soreness 48 h after exercise. Total CK and CK-MM isoform activities in serum were determined before and at 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, and 6 h after exercise. Using thin-film agarose gels......We could detect skeletal muscle injury early after an acute exercise bout by measuring creatine kinase (CK, EC MM isoforms in serum. Eleven men performed 120 alternating-arm, eccentric (muscle lengthening) biceps contractions with the intensity of each contraction being 110% of maximal...... and a rapid isoelectric focusing technique, we separated the MM isoforms into MM3 (skeletal muscle form), MM2, and MM1 (in vivo conversion forms). The isoforms reflected the MM form released into the serum from tissue as well as the conversion of one form to another. There were no significant increases...

  15. A comparison of fat mass and skeletal muscle mass estimation in male ultra-endurance athletes using bioelectrical impedance analysis and different anthropometric methods Comparación de la masa grasa y muscular estimada en atletas varones de ultra-resistencia utilizando la bioimpedancia eléctrica y diferentes métodos antropométricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Knechtle


    Full Text Available Two hundred and fifty seven male Caucasian ultraendurance athletes were recruited, pre-race, before different swimming, cycling, running and triathlon races. Fat mass and skeletal muscle mass were estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and anthropometric methods in order to investigate whether the use of BIA or anthropometry would be useful under field conditions. Total body fat estimated using BIA was significantly high (P Se reclutaron a 257 hombres caucasianos que eran atletas de alto rendimiento, antes de competir en diferentes pruebas triatlón de natación, ciclismo y carrera. Se estimaron la masa grasa y la masa de músculo esquelético utilizando un análisis de impedancia bioeléctrica (BIA y métodos antropométricos con el fin de investigar si el uso de BIA o de la antropometría sería útil en tales condiciones de campo. La grasa corporal total estimada por BIA fue significativamente mayor en comparación con la antropometría (P < 0,001. Cuando se compararon los resultados entre BIA y antropometría, se encontraron niveles de concordancia bajos a moderados. Estos resultados concuerdan con las diferencias halladas con el análisis Bland-Altman, lo que indica que la ecuación antropométrica de Ball et al. posee el mayor grado de concordancia (desviación = -3,0 ± 5,8 kg con BIA, con Stewart et al. (desviación = -6,4 ± 6,3 kg, Faulkner (desviación = -4,7 ± 5,8 kg y Wilmore-Siri (desviación = -4,8 ± 6,2 kg. La estimación de la masa de músculo esquelético fue significativamente superior con BIAS que con antropometría (P < 0,001. Los resultados de la ICC y del método Bland-Altman muestran que la ecuación antropométrica de Lee et al. (desviación = -5,4 ± 5,3 kg produjo el mayor grado de concordancia. El método combinado de Janssen et al. entre antropometría y BIA mostró el menor grado de concordancia (desviación = -12,5 ± 5,7 kg. Hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los resultados

  16. Subcellular fractionation reveals HSP72 does not associate with SERCA in human skeletal muscle following damaging eccentric and concentric exercise. (United States)

    Frankenberg, Noni T; Lamb, Graham D; Vissing, Kristian; Murphy, Robyn M


    Through its upregulation and/or translocation, heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) is involved in protection and repair of key proteins after physiological stress. In human skeletal muscle we investigated HSP72 protein after eccentric (ECC1) and concentric (CONC) exercise and repeated eccentric exercise (ECC2; 8 wk later) and whether it translocated from its normal cytosolic location to membranes/myofibrils. HSP72 protein increased ~2-fold 24 h after ECC1, with no apparent change after CONC or ECC2. In resting (nonstressed) human skeletal muscle the total pool of HSP72 protein was present almost exclusively in the cytosolic fraction, and after each exercise protocol the distribution of HSP72 protein remained unaltered. Overall, the amount of HSP72 protein in the cytosol increased 24 h after ECC1, matching the fold increase that was measured in total HSP72 protein. To better ascertain the capabilities and limitations of HSP72, using quantitative Western blotting we determined the HSP72 protein content to be 11.4 μmol/kg wet weight in resting human vastus lateralis muscle, which is comprised of Type I (slow-twitch) and Type II (fast-twitch) fibers. HSP72 protein content was similar in individual Type I or II fiber segments. After physiological stress, HSP72 content can increase and, although the functional consequences of increased amounts of HSP72 protein are poorly understood, it has been shown to bind to and protect protein pumps like SERCA and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. Given no translocation of cytosolic HSP72, these findings suggest eccentric contractions, unlike other forms of stress such as heat, do not trigger tight binding of HSP72 to its primary membrane-bound target proteins, in particular SERCA.

  17. The impact of a repeated bout of eccentric exercise on muscular strength, muscle soreness and creatine kinase. (United States)

    Smith, L L; Fulmer, M G; Holbert, D; McCammon, M R; Houmard, J A; Frazer, D D; Nsien, E; Israel, R G


    The purpose of this study was to determine if there were any beneficial or detrimental effects regarding delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), serum creatine kinase (CK), and maximum concentric strength at 80% of 1-RMconc, if a bout of eccentric exercise was repeated at 48 h after an initial bout. A secondary purpose was to determine whether unaccustomed eccentrics might affect plasma cholesterol (TC). Twenty-six men were randomly assigned to a control (Group 1) or experimental group (Group 2). Both groups performed three sets (12 repetitions per set) of the eccentric phase of a chest press, at 80% of one repetition maximum (1-RMconc); Group 2 repeated this exercise 48 h later. DOMS and CK were measured before, and every 24 h for 8 days after; TC was measured before, and every 24 h for 4 days. Maximum strength during the concentric phase of a chest press (1-RMconc) was measured before and at 48-h intervals after. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a significant time effect (P < 0.05) for DOMS, CK and strength, but no significant difference between groups (P < 0.05). An interesting finding was the significant (P < 0.05) reduction in TC at 24, 48 and 72 h, after exercise in both groups, which we hypothesized was associated with cellular repair. From these results we concluded that when a bout of eccentrics is repeated 48 h after an initial bout, there is no change in the characteristic time-course and/or intensity of DOMS, CK or 1-RMconc. PMID:7894959

  18. Youth Exercise Intention and Past Exercise Behavior: Examining the Moderating Influences of Sex and Meeting Exercise Recommendations (United States)

    Downs, Danielle Symons; Graham, George M.; Yang, Stephen; Bargainnier, Sandra; Vasil, Jay


    The study purposes were to examine: (a) the determinants of exercise intention and past exercise behavior (PEB) using the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, and (b) the moderating influences of sex and exercise group (meeting or not meeting exercise guidelines). Participants (n = 676 adolescents) completed self-reported measures of…

  19. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Exercise versus Moderate Continuous Exercise on Glucose Homeostasis and Hormone Response in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Using Novel Ultra-Long-Acting Insulin.

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    Othmar Moser

    Full Text Available We investigated blood glucose (BG and hormone response to aerobic high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE and moderate continuous exercise (CON matched for mean load and duration in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM.Seven trained male subjects with T1DM performed a maximal incremental exercise test and HIIE and CON at 3 different mean intensities below (A and above (B the first lactate turn point and below the second lactate turn point (C on a cycle ergometer. Subjects were adjusted to ultra-long-acting insulin Degludec (Tresiba/ Novo Nordisk, Denmark. Before exercise, standardized meals were administered, and short-acting insulin dose was reduced by 25% (A, 50% (B, and 75% (C dependent on mean exercise intensity. During exercise, BG, adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, cortisol, glucagon, and insulin-like growth factor-1, blood lactate, heart rate, and gas exchange variables were measured. For 24 h after exercise, interstitial glucose was measured by continuous glucose monitoring system.BG decrease during HIIE was significantly smaller for B (p = 0.024 and tended to be smaller for A and C compared to CON. No differences were found for post-exercise interstitial glucose, acute hormone response, and carbohydrate utilization between HIIE and CON for A, B, and C. In HIIE, blood lactate for A (p = 0.006 and B (p = 0.004 and respiratory exchange ratio for A (p = 0.003 and B (p = 0.003 were significantly higher compared to CON but not for C.Hypoglycemia did not occur during or after HIIE and CON when using ultra-long-acting insulin and applying our methodological approach for exercise prescription. HIIE led to a smaller BG decrease compared to CON, although both exercises modes were matched for mean load and duration, even despite markedly higher peak workloads applied in HIIE. Therefore, HIIE and CON could be safely performed in NCT02075567

  20. Exercise is recreation not medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andy Smith


    Purpose: This paper responds to the question, is exercise medicine? It does so using a qualitative case study that proposes that exercise is recreation. The study (1) describes and reflects upon an exercise is recreation metaphor, (2) establishes the principles and processes used to develop a sport park within which exercise is recreation, and (3) presents a comparative analysis of the exercise is recreation approach with a UK quality framework for“exercise referrals”. Methods: Four years of documentation were collated and placed into 14 categories: (1) university strategies, (2) plans of the site, (3) policy documents, (4) minutes of a steering group, (5) contemporary documents, (6) organisational charts, (7) responses to local government policies on sport, (8) consultation documents, (9) operational procedures, (10) facility specifications, (11) partnership agreements, (12) material relating to the university’s work on events, (13) notes on the universities sport department, and (14) timetables. These data were analysed through a 4-stage process which used recreation as the analytical theme for a comparative analysis. Results: The characteristics of the exercise is recreation metaphor in this case are (1) a focus on the experience of the user, (2) the promotion of well-being, (3) the importance of community, (4) embracing inclusivity, (5) sport, (6) aesthetics, and (7) leisure time. The principles and processes used to develop the sport park were (1) custodianship, (2) partnerships, (3) values, (4) inter-professional working, (5) local heritage, (6) change, (7) the natural park environment, and (8)“riding the bike as you build it”. The comparative analysis with a UK quality framework for“exercise referrals”clearly shows a difference from an exercise is recreation approach.

  1. Study of the Effectiveness of Vibration in Reduction of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness Resulting after Therapeutic Exercise

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    Full Text Available Introduction: Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS is a common strain resulting during therapeutic exercise with eccentric contractions. This pain can result in loss of interest by the patient and eventually in cancellation of the routine. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether vibration could have an affect on delayed onset muscle soreness. We hypothesized that the vibration training would decrease DOMS. Methods: Subjects comprised of 30 male athletes aged 18-26 years. The athletes were involved in regular sports activities since at least three years. Subjects were assigned randomly into two VT (n=15 and Non-VT (n=15 groups. The measurements included the flexed knee angle (FANG, pressure pain threshold (PPT, muscle soreness (SOR of right quadriceps muscle and maximal isometric force (MIF of both quadriceps muscles together (Base-line. A vibrator was used to apply 50 Hz vibration on the left and right quadriceps muscles for 1 min in the VT group. Then both groups trained eccentric exercise. All parameters were determined again 24 hours post-exercise (After- activity. Results: All subjects showed a loss in MIF, decrease in PPT, FANG and increase in SOR 24h after eccentric exercise (p=0/000. But the parameters were statistically significantly different in the VT and Non-VT groups [MIF (p=0/000, PPT (p=0/001, FANG (p=0/02, SOR (p=0/003]. Conclusion: Therapeutic exercise with eccentric contractions results in DOMS, but vibration training before exercise is effective and beneficial in decreasing DOMS.

  2. Time-course of changes in inflammatory response after whole-body cryotherapy multi exposures following severe exercise.

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    Hervé Pournot

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present investigation was to analyze the effect of two different recovery modalities on classical markers of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD and inflammation obtained after a simulated trail running race. Endurance trained males (n = 11 completed two experimental trials separated by 1 month in a randomized crossover design; one trial involved passive recovery (PAS, the other a specific whole body cryotherapy (WBC for 96 h post-exercise (repeated each day. For each trial, subjects performed a 48 min running treadmill exercise followed by PAS or WBC. The Interleukin (IL -1 (IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, protein C-reactive (CRP and white blood cells count were measured at rest, immediately post-exercise, and at 24, 48, 72, 96 h in post-exercise recovery. A significant time effect was observed to characterize an inflammatory state (Pre vs. Post following the exercise bout in all conditions (p<0.05. Indeed, IL-1β (Post 1 h and CRP (Post 24 h levels decreased and IL-1ra (Post 1 h increased following WBC when compared to PAS. In WBC condition (p<0.05, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-6 remain unchanged compared to PAS condition. Overall, the results indicated that the WBC was effective in reducing the inflammatory process. These results may be explained by vasoconstriction at muscular level, and both the decrease in cytokines activity pro-inflammatory, and increase in cytokines anti-inflammatory.


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    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of continuous exercise and lifestyle-embedded physical activity upon glucose regulation, and assess the feasibility of seven day continuous glucose monitoring (CGM in a normoglycaemic individual. One physically active non-diabetic male [age: 22 y; mass: 71.5 kg; height: 181 cm] underwent 7 days CGM, performing 3 trial conditions: a sedentary control (< 2500 steps, pedometer controlled, a continuous exercise condition (2 x 30 min treadmill running at 70% HRmax, and a lifestyleembedded physical activity condition (100 min fractionalized moderate activity. Diet was standardised andphysical activity levels were monitored via accelerometry throughout. Results showed a significant difference of -0.24 mmol.dL-1 in twenty-four hour mean glucose levels between the sedentary and continuous condition (p = 0.00, and a significant difference of -0.038 mmol.L-1 in twenty-four hour mean glucose levels between thesedentary and lifestyle embedded physical activity condition (p = 0.004. Descriptive results displayed a post exercise decrease in glucose levels (2 h pre-6 h post (5.3 – 5.1 mmol.L-1 with a carryover effect for the following day (reduced mean glucose 24 h pre-post (5.5 ± 0.5 - 5.2 ± 0.3 mmol.L-1 in the continuous exercisecondition. Physical activity counts (c.min-1 during exercise were significantly related to blood glucose levels in the continuous exercise condition (r = 0.51, p = 0.08. Findings show that intra- and inter-day glucose homeostasis may be optimised through bouts of continuous vigorous exercise

  4. Physical Exercise and MS Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Ingemann-Hansen, T; Stenager, E


    The use of physical exercise programmes in the rehabilitation of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been a controversial issue for many years. During the last decade, however, evidence from a number of studies has suggested that exercise is a safe and efficient way to induce improvements...... in a number of physiological functions, which ultimately can lead to functional improvements that have a positive effect on a patients daily life. The purpose of this review is, based on the existing research, to provide clinicians with some easily administrable recommendations for the application of exercise...

  5. Fluid balance and exercise performance. (United States)

    Singh, Rabindarjeet


    Major sporting events in Malaysia are commonly staged in hot environments where the average daytime temperature is generally in the range of 29 to 31°C with the average relative humidity ranging from 80 to 95%. Exercise capacity and exercise performance are reduced when the ambient temperature is high and it has major implications for competitors as well as for spectators and officials. Prolonged exercise leads to progressive water and electrolyte loss from the body as sweat is secreted to promote heat loss. The rate of sweating depends on many factors and increases in proportion to work rate and environmental temperature and humidity. Sweat rates are highly variable and can exceed 2L.h-1 for prolonged periods in high heat. Since dehydration will impair exercise capacity and can pose a risk to health, the intake of fluid during exercise to offset sweat losses is important. Carbohydrate-electrolyte fluid ingestion during exercise has the dual role of providing a source of carbohydrate fuel to supplement the body's limited stores and of supplying water and electrolytes to replace the losses incurred by sweating. The composition of the drinks to be taken will be influenced by the relative importance of the need to supply fuel and water which, in turn depends on the intensity and duration of exercise activity, the ambient temperature, and humidity. Carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions appear to be more effective in improving performance than plain water. There is no advantage to fluid intake during exercise of less than 30-minute duration. Complete restoration of fluid balance after exercise is an important part of the recovery process and becomes even more important in hot, humid conditions. If a second bout of exercise has to be performed after a relatively short interval, the speed of rehydration becomes of crucial importance. Rehydration after exercise requires not only replacement of volume losses, but also replacement of some electrolytes, primarily sodium

  6. Proprioception exercises in medical rehabilitation. (United States)

    Stryła, Wanda; Pogorzała, Adam M; Stępień, Justyna


    Proprioception, or kinesthesia, is the sense of orientation responsible for perception of body and relative position of its parts. Kinaesthesia is received by receptors located in muscles and tendons. In this study a set of proprioception developing exercises was presented. Proprioception should be restored in case of musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. Proprioception training can also be used as a prophylaxis before starting various sporting activities. Proprioception developing exercises have significant meaning for the elderly, who are at risk of balance disorders. These exercises help developing motor memory and at the same time protect from falls.

  7. Exercise-induced pulmonary syndromes. (United States)

    Kyle, J M


    When respiratory distress occurs in the exercise arena, the clinician must differentiate between a potential serious bout of EIA or the commoner EIB. The physician's game day medical kit should include epinephrine for initial treatment in suspected EIA. Sports medicine personnel need to maintain a high index of suspicion for EIB in athletes at risk and confirm the diagnosis with a treadmill exercise challenge test. Initial pharmacologic management should consist of a trial of albuterol inhaler use 15 minutes before exercise. Early identification and treatment of EIB may enhance sports performance as well as enjoyment.

  8. Exercise Video Games and Exercise Self-Efficacy in Children


    Hildemar Dos Santos MD, DrPH; Margaret Dinhluu Bredehoft MPH, DrPH; Frecia M. Gonzalez MPH; Susanne Montgomery PhD


    The aim of this article was to investigate the use of exergaming in promoting exercise behavior among children and to examine the impact of the intervention on participants’ exercise self-efficacy, in addition to assessing physiological changes. A sample of 55 children enrolled in the Family Fit program, where participants were categorized into 2 groups: healthy weight and overweight. Measures were taken at baseline, after the 7-week program, at the 12-week follow-up, and at the 24-month foll...

  9. Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome performed worse than controls in a controlled repeated exercise study despite a normal oxidative phosphorylation capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sluiter Wim


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility that a decreased mitochondrial ATP synthesis causes muscular and mental fatigue and plays a role in the pathophysiology of the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS/ME. Methods Female patients (n = 15 and controls (n = 15 performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET by cycling at a continuously increased work rate till maximal exertion. The CPET was repeated 24 h later. Before the tests, blood was taken for the isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, which were processed in a special way to preserve their oxidative phosphorylation, which was tested later in the presence of ADP and phosphate in permeabilized cells with glutamate, malate and malonate plus or minus the complex I inhibitor rotenone, and succinate with rotenone plus or minus the complex II inhibitor malonate in order to measure the ATP production via Complex I and II, respectively. Plasma CK was determined as a surrogate measure of a decreased oxidative phosphorylation in muscle, since the previous finding that in a group of patients with external ophthalmoplegia the oxygen consumption by isolated muscle mitochondria correlated negatively with plasma creatine kinase, 24 h after exercise. Results At both exercise tests the patients reached the anaerobic threshold and the maximal exercise at a much lower oxygen consumption than the controls and this worsened in the second test. This implies an increase of lactate, the product of anaerobic glycolysis, and a decrease of the mitochondrial ATP production in the patients. In the past this was also found in patients with defects in the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. However the oxidative phosphorylation in PBMC was similar in CFS/ME patients and controls. The plasma creatine kinase levels before and 24 h after exercise were low in patients and controls, suggesting normality of the muscular mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Conclusion The

  10. Exercise Attenuates the Major Hallmarks of Aging (United States)

    Garatachea, Nuria; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Morán, María; Emanuele, Enzo; Joyner, Michael J.; Lucia, Alejandro


    Abstract Regular exercise has multi-system anti-aging effects. Here we summarize how exercise impacts the major hallmarks of aging. We propose that, besides searching for novel pharmaceutical targets of the aging process, more research efforts should be devoted to gaining insights into the molecular mediators of the benefits of exercise and to implement effective exercise interventions for elderly people. PMID:25431878

  11. Work, exercise, and space flight. 3: Exercise devices and protocols (United States)

    Thornton, William


    Preservation of locomotor capacity by earth equivalent, exercise in space is the crucial component of inflight exercise. At this time the treadmill appears to be the only way possible to do this. Work is underway on appropriate hardware but this and a proposed protocol to reduce exercise time must be tested. Such exercise will preserve muscle, bone Ca(++) and cardiovascular-respiratory capacity. In addition, reasonable upper body exercise can be supplied by a new force generator/measurement system-optional exercise might include a rowing machine and bicycle ergometer. A subject centered monitoring-evaluation program will allow real time adjustments as required. Absolute protection for any astronaut will not be possible and those with hypertrophied capacities such as marathoners or weight lifters will suffer significant loss. However, the program described should return the crew to earth with adequate capacity of typical activity on earth including immediate ambulation and minimal recovery time and without permanent change. An understanding of the practical mechanics and biomechanics involved is essential to a solution of the problem.

  12. Integration core exercises elicit greater muscle activation than isolation exercises. (United States)

    Gottschall, Jinger S; Mills, Jackie; Hastings, Bryce


    The American College of Sports Medicine and the United States Department of Health and Human Services advocate core training as a means to improve stability, reduce injury, and maintain mobility. There are countless exercises that target the primary core trunk muscles (abdominal and lumbar) with the aim of providing these benefits. However, it is unknown as to which exercises elicit the greatest activation thereby maximizing functional gains and peak performance. Thus, our purpose was to determine whether integration core exercises that require activation of the distal trunk muscles (deltoid and gluteal) elicit greater activation of primary trunk muscles in comparison with isolation core exercises that only require activation of the proximal trunk muscles. Twenty participants, 10 men and 10 women, completed 16 randomly assigned exercises (e.g., crunch, upper body extension, and hover variations). We measured muscle activity with surface electromyography of the anterior deltoid, rectus abdominus, external abdominal oblique, lumbar erector spinae, thoracic erector spinae, and gluteus maximus. Our results indicate that the activation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles was the greatest during the exercises that required deltoid and gluteal recruitment. In conclusion, when completing the core strength guidelines, an integrated routine that incorporates the activation of distal trunk musculature would be optimal in terms of maximizing strength, improving endurance, enhancing stability, reducing injury, and maintaining mobility.

  13. Intracellular β2-adrenergic receptor signaling specificity in mouse skeletal muscle in response to single-dose β2-agonist clenbuterol treatment and acute exercise. (United States)

    Sato, Shogo; Shirato, Ken; Mitsuhashi, Ryosuke; Inoue, Daisuke; Kizaki, Takako; Ohno, Hideki; Tachiyashiki, Kaoru; Imaizumi, Kazuhiko


    The aim of this study was to clarify the intracellular β2-adrenergic receptor signaling specificity in mouse slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch tibialis anterior (TA) muscles, resulting from single-dose β2-agonist clenbuterol treatment and acute exercise. At 1, 4, and 24 h after single-dose treatment with clenbuterol or after acute running exercise, the soleus and TA muscles were isolated and subjected to analysis. The phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) increased after single-dose clenbuterol treatment and acute exercise in the soleus muscle but not in the TA muscle. Although there was no change in the phosphorylation of Akt after acute exercise in either muscle, phosphorylation of Akt in the soleus muscle increased after single-dose clenbuterol treatment, whereas that in the TA muscle remained unchanged. These results suggest that p38 MAPK and Akt pathways play a functional role in the adaptation to clenbuterol treatment and exercise, particularly in slow-twitch muscles.

  14. Intense Resistance Exercise Promotes the Acute and Transient Nuclear Translocation of Small Ubiquitin-Related Modifier (SUMO-1 in Human Myofibres

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    Sebastian Gehlert


    Full Text Available Protein sumoylation is a posttranslational modification triggered by cellular stress. Because general information concerning the role of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO proteins in adult skeletal muscle is sparse, we investigated whether SUMO-1 proteins will be subjected to time-dependent changes in their subcellular localization in sarcoplasmic and nuclear compartments of human type I and II skeletal muscle fibers in response to acute stimulation by resistance exercise (RE. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken at baseline (PRE, 15, 30, 60, 240 min and 24 h post RE from 6 male subjects subjected to a single bout of one-legged knee extensions. SUMO-1 localization was determined via immunohistochemistry and confocal laser microscopy. At baseline SUMO-1 was localized in perinuclear regions of myonuclei. Within 15 and up to 60 min post exercise, nuclear SUMO-1 localization was significantly increased (p < 0.01, declining towards baseline levels within 240 min post exercise. Sarcoplasmic SUMO-1 localization was increased at 15 min post exercise in type I and up to 30 min post RE in type II myofibres. The changing localization of SUMO-1 proteins acutely after intense muscle contractions points to a role for SUMO proteins in the acute regulation of the skeletal muscle proteome after exercise.

  15. Pronounced effects of accute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catoire, M.; Mensink, M.R.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Muller, M.R.; Schrauwen, P.; Kersten, A.H.


    Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated th

  16. Transient cutaneous vasodilatation and hypotension after drinking in dehydrated and exercising men. (United States)

    Kamijo, Yoshi-Ichiro; Okumoto, Tadashi; Takeno, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Kazunobu; Inaki, Mitsuharu; Masuki, Shizue; Nose, Hiroshi


    We examined whether oropharyngeal stimulation by drinking released the dehydration-induced suppression of cutaneous vasodilatation and decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP) in exercising subjects, and assessed the effects of hypovolaemia or hyperosmolality alone on these responses. Seven young males underwent four hydration conditions. These were two normal plasma volume (PV) trials: normal plasma osmolality (P(osmol), control trial) and hyperosmolality (DeltaP(osmol) = +11 mosmol (kg H(2)O)(-1)); and two low PV trials: isosmolality (DeltaPV = -310 ml) and hyperosmolality (DeltaPV = -345 ml; DeltaP(osmol) = +9 mosmol (kg H(2)O)(-1)), attained by combined treatment with furosemide (frusemide), hypertonic saline and/or 24 h water restriction. In each trial, the subjects exercised at 60% peak aerobic power for approximately 50 min at 30 degrees C atmospheric temperature and 50% relative humidity. When oesophageal temperature (T(oes)) reached a plateau after approximately 30 min of exercise, the subjects drank 200 ml water at 37.5 degrees C within a minute. Before drinking, forearm vascular conductance (FVC), calculated as forearm blood flow divided by MAP, was lowered by 20-40% in hypovolaemia, hyperosmolality, or both, compared with that in the control trial, despite increased T(oes). After drinking, FVC increased by approximately 20% compared with that before drinking (P < 0.05) in both hyperosmotic trials, but it was greater in normovolaemia than in hypovolaemia (P < 0.05). However, no increases occurred in either isosmotic trial. MAP fell by 4-8 mmHg in both hyperosmotic trials (P < 0.05) after drinking, but more rapidly in normovolaemia than in hypovolaemia. PV and P(osmol) did not change during this period. Thus, oropharyngeal stimulation by drinking released the dehydration-induced suppression of cutaneous vasodilatation and reduced MAP during exercise, and this was accelerated when PV was restored.

  17. High-intensity intermittent exercise and its effects on heart rate variability and subsequent strength performance

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    Valéria Leme Gonçalves Panissa


    Full Text Available PRUPOSE: To investigate the effects of a 5-km high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE on heart rate variability (HRV and subsequent strength performance. METHODS: nine trained males performed a control session composed of a half-squat strength exercise (4 x 80% of one repetition maximum – 1RM in isolation and 30-min, 1-, 4-, 8- and 24-h after an HIIE (1-min at the velocity peak:1-min passive recovery. All experimental sessions were performed on different days. The maximum number of repetitions and total weight lifted during the strength exercise were registered in all conditions; in addition, prior to each session, HRV were assessed [beat-to-beat intervals (RR and log-transformed of root means square of successive differences in the normal-to-normal intervals (lnRMSSD]. RESULTS: Performance in the strength exercise dropped at 30-min (31% and 1-h (19% post-HIIE concomitantly with lower values of RR (781±79 ms; 799±134 ms, respectively in the same recovery intervals compared to the control (1015±197 ms. Inferential analysis did not detect any effect of condition on lnRMSSD, however, values were lower after 30-min (3.5±0.4 ms and 1-h (3.3±0.5 ms with moderate and large effect sizes (0.9 and 1.2, respectively compared with the control condition (3.9±0.4 ms. CONCLUSION: Both RR and lnRMSSD seem to be associated with deleterious effects on strength performance, although further studies should be conducted to clarify this association.

  18. Exercise Prevents Memory Impairment Induced by Arsenic Exposure in Mice: Implication of Hippocampal BDNF and CREB. (United States)

    Sun, Bao-Fei; Wang, Qing-Qing; Yu, Zi-Jiang; Yu, Yan; Xiao, Chao-Lun; Kang, Chao-Sheng; Ge, Guo; Linghu, Yan; Zhu, Jun-De; Li, Yu-Mei; Li, Qiang-Ming; Luo, Shi-Peng; Yang, Dang; Li, Lin; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Tian, Guang


    High concentrations of arsenic, which can be occasionally found in drinking water, have been recognized as a global health problem. Exposure to arsenic can disrupt spatial memory; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we tested whether exercise could interfere with the effect of arsenic exposure on the long-term memory (LTM) of object recognition in mice. Arsenic (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/ kg, i.g.) was administered daily for 12 weeks. We found that arsenic at dosages of 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg decreased body weight and increased the arsenic content in the brain. The object recognition LTM (tested 24 h after training) was disrupted by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not 1 mg/ kg arsenic exposure. Swimming exercise also prevented LTM impairment induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not with 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (pCREB) in the CA1 and dentate gyrus areas (DG) of the dorsal hippocampus were decreased by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not by 1 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The decrease in BDNF and pCREB in the CA1 and DG induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure were prevented by swimming exercise. Arsenic exposure did not affect the total CREB expression in the CA1 or DG. Taken together, these results indicated that swimming exercise prevented the impairment of object recognition LTM induced by arsenic exposure, which may be mediated by BDNF and CREB in the dorsal hippocampus.

  19. Exercise Prevents Memory Impairment Induced by Arsenic Exposure in Mice: Implication of Hippocampal BDNF and CREB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Fei Sun

    Full Text Available High concentrations of arsenic, which can be occasionally found in drinking water, have been recognized as a global health problem. Exposure to arsenic can disrupt spatial memory; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we tested whether exercise could interfere with the effect of arsenic exposure on the long-term memory (LTM of object recognition in mice. Arsenic (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/ kg, i.g. was administered daily for 12 weeks. We found that arsenic at dosages of 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg decreased body weight and increased the arsenic content in the brain. The object recognition LTM (tested 24 h after training was disrupted by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not 1 mg/ kg arsenic exposure. Swimming exercise also prevented LTM impairment induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not with 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (pCREB in the CA1 and dentate gyrus areas (DG of the dorsal hippocampus were decreased by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not by 1 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The decrease in BDNF and pCREB in the CA1 and DG induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure were prevented by swimming exercise. Arsenic exposure did not affect the total CREB expression in the CA1 or DG. Taken together, these results indicated that swimming exercise prevented the impairment of object recognition LTM induced by arsenic exposure, which may be mediated by BDNF and CREB in the dorsal hippocampus.

  20. Cognitive Benefits of Exercise Intervention. (United States)

    Archer, T; Ricci, S; Massoni, F; Ricci, L; Rapp-Ricciardi, M


    Exercise, as a potent epigenetic regulator, implies the potential to counteract pathophysiological processes and alterations in most cardiovascular/respiratory cells and tissues not withstanding a paucity of understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms and doseresponse relationships. In the present account, the assets accruing from physical exercise and its influence upon executive functioning are examined. Under conditions of neuropsychiatric and neurologic ill-health, age-related deterioration of functional and biomarker indicators during healthy and disordered trajectories, neuroimmune and affective unbalance, and epigenetic pressures, exercise offers a large harvest of augmentations in health and well-being. Both animal models and human studies support the premise of manifest gains from regular exercise within several domains, besides cognitive function and mood, notably as the agency of a noninvasive, readily available therapeutic intervention.

  1. Benefits of exercise during pregnancy. (United States)

    Prather, Heidi; Spitznagle, Tracy; Hunt, Devyani


    There is a direct link between healthy mothers and healthy infants. Exercise and appropriate nutrition are important contributors to maternal physical and psychological health. The benefits and potential risks of exercise during pregnancy have gained even more attention, with a number of studies having been published after the 2002 American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists guidelines. A review of the literature was conducted by using PubMed, Scopus, and Embase to assess the literature regarding the benefits of exercise during pregnancy. The search revealed 219 publications, which the authors then narrowed to 125 publications. The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the known benefits of exercise to the mother, fetus, and newborn.

  2. The Exercise of Effective Leadership. (United States)

    Blake, Robert R.; Mouton, Jane Srygley


    Describes an exercise that provides a basis for resolving the controversy over which leadership theory is better, the Situational Contingency approach or the one-best-style approach. Thirty-two references are listed. (Author/LLS)

  3. Multivariate statistics exercises and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Härdle, Wolfgang Karl


    The authors present tools and concepts of multivariate data analysis by means of exercises and their solutions. The first part is devoted to graphical techniques. The second part deals with multivariate random variables and presents the derivation of estimators and tests for various practical situations. The last part introduces a wide variety of exercises in applied multivariate data analysis. The book demonstrates the application of simple calculus and basic multivariate methods in real life situations. It contains altogether more than 250 solved exercises which can assist a university teacher in setting up a modern multivariate analysis course. All computer-based exercises are available in the R language. All R codes and data sets may be downloaded via the quantlet download center or via the Springer webpage. For interactive display of low-dimensional projections of a multivariate data set, we recommend GGobi.

  4. Acute exercise improves motor memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Kasper Christen; Roig, Marc; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper


    We have recently shown that a single bout of acute cardiovascular exercise improves motor skill learning through an optimization of long-term motor memory. Here we expand this previous finding, to explore potential exercise-related biomarkers and their association with measures of motor memory...... and skill acquisition. Thirty-two healthy young male subjects were randomly allocated into either an exercise or control group. Following either an intense bout of cycling or rest subjects practiced a visuomotor tracking task. Motor skill acquisition was assessed during practice and retention 1 hour, 24...... hours and 7 days after practice. Plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and lactate were analyzed at baseline, immediately after exercise or rest and during motor...

  5. Exercise training in metabolic myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, J


    , patients with FAODs typically develop symptoms later in exercise than patients with GSDs. Due to the exercise-related symptoms in metabolic myopathies, patients generally have been advised to shun physical training. However, immobility is associated with multiple health issues, and may even cause unwanted...... metabolic adaptations, such as increased dependence on glycogen use and a reduced capacity for fatty acid oxidation, which is detrimental in GSDs. Training has not been studied systematically in any FAODs and in just a few GSDs. However, studies on single bouts of exercise in most metabolic myopathies show...... that particularly moderate intensity aerobic exercise is well tolerated in these conditions. Even low-intensity resistance training of short duration is tolerated in McArdle disease. Training in patients with FAOD potentially can also expand the metabolic bottleneck by increasing expression of the defective...

  6. Exercise-induced cardiac remodeling. (United States)

    Weiner, Rory B; Baggish, Aaron L


    Early investigations in the late 1890s and early 1900s documented cardiac enlargement in athletes with above-normal exercise capacity and no evidence of cardiovascular disease. Such findings have been reported for more than a century and continue to intrigue scientists and clinicians. It is well recognized that repetitive participation in vigorous physical exercise results in significant changes in myocardial structure and function. This process, termed exercise-induced cardiac remodeling (EICR), is characterized by structural cardiac changes including left ventricular hypertrophy with sport-specific geometry (eccentric vs concentric). Associated alterations in both systolic and diastolic functions are emerging as recognized components of EICR. The increasing popularity of recreational exercise and competitive athletics has led to a growing number of individuals exhibiting these findings in routine clinical practice. This review will provide an overview of EICR in athletes.

  7. Exercise and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund


    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with metabolic dysregulation and chronic inflammation, and regular exercise may provide a strong stimulus for improving both. In this review, we first discuss the link between inflammation and metabolism. Next, we give an update on the clinical...... metabolic effects of exercise in T2DM patients with special focus on which parameters to consider for optimizing metabolic improvements. We then discuss the mechanisms whereby exercise exerts its anti-inflammatory and related metabolic effects. Evidence exists that interleukin (IL)-1β is involved...... in pancreatic β-cell damage, whereas tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α appears to be a key molecule in peripheral insulin resistance. Mechanistic studies in humans suggest that moderate acute elevations in IL-6, as provoked by exercise, exert direct anti-inflammatory effects by an inhibition of TNF...

  8. Health Psychology and Exercise Adherence. (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.


    Although the association between vigorous exercise and certain aspects of mental health is well documented, explanations for this relationship are not well understood. Research in this area is reviewed, and recommendations for more study are presented. (CJ)

  9. Obesity, growth hormone and exercise. (United States)

    Thomas, Gwendolyn A; Kraemer, William J; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Maresh, Carl M; Volek, Jeff S


    Growth hormone (GH) is regulated, suppressed and stimulated by numerous physiological stimuli. However, it is believed that obesity disrupts the physiological and pathological factors that regulate, suppress or stimulate GH release. Pulsatile GH has been potently stimulated in healthy subjects by both aerobic and resistance exercise of the right intensity and duration. GH modulates fuel metabolism, reduces total fat mass and abdominal fat mass, and could be a potent stimulus of lipolysis when administered to obese individuals exogenously. Only pulsatile GH has been shown to augment adipose tissue lipolysis and, therefore, increasing pulsatile GH response may be a therapeutic target. This review discusses the factors that cause secretion of GH, how obesity may alter GH secretion and how both aerobic and resistance exercise stimulates GH, as well as how exercise of a specific intensity may be used as a stimulus for GH release in individuals who are obese. Only five prior studies have investigated exercise as a stimulus of endogenous GH in individuals who are obese. Based on prior literature, resistance exercise may provide a therapeutic target for releasing endogenous GH in individuals who are obese if specific exercise programme variables are utilized. Biological activity of GH indicates that this may be an important precursor to beneficial changes in body fat and lean tissue mass in obese individuals. However, additional research is needed including what molecular GH variants are acutely released and involved at target tissues as a result of different exercise stimuli and what specific exercise programme variables may serve to stimulate GH in individuals who are obese.

  10. Exercise and the Cardiovascular System


    Saeid Golbidi; Ismail Laher


    There are alarming increases in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The risk of these diseases is significantly reduced by appropriate lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity. However, the exact mechanisms by which exercise influences the development and progression of cardiovascular disease are unclear. In this paper we review some important exercise-induced changes in cardiac, vascular, and blood tissues and discuss...

  11. Heat Acclimation Improves Exercise Performance (United States)


    induces metabolic adaptations during exercise by reducing the aerobic metabolic rate (32, 42), or decreasing the rate of glycogenolysis (7, 8, 20...metabolic rate (1, 32, 42), or decreasing the rate of glycogenolysis (7, 8, 20). Alternatively, the increased plasma volume (and thus, total blood volume) (3...8. Febbraio MA, Snow RJ, Stathis CG, Hargreaves M, Carey MF. Blunting the rise in body temperature reduces muscle glycogenolysis during exercise in

  12. The Biomechanics of Exercise Countermeasures (United States)

    Cavanagh, Peter R.; Arnold, Steven; Derr, Janice; Sharkey, Neil; Wu, Ge


    The Penn State Zero-gravity Simulator (PSZS) is a device developed by the Center for Locomotion Studies (CELOS) to enable ground studies of exercise countermeasures for the bone loss that has been shown to occur during long-term exposure to zero gravity (0G). The PSZS simulates 0G exercise by providing a suspension system that holds an individual in a horizontal (supine) position above the floor in order to enable exercise on a wall-mounted treadmill. Due to this orientation, exercise performed in the PSZS is free of the force of -ravity in the direction that would normally contribute to ground reaction forces. In order for movements to be more similar to those in 0G, a constant force suspension of each segment (equal to the segment weight) is provided regardless of limb position. During the preliminary development of the PSZS, CELOS researchers also designed an optional gravity-replacement simulation feature for the PSZS. This feature was a prototype tethering system that consisted of a spring tension system to pull an exercising individual toward the treadmill. The immediate application of the tethering system was to be the provision of gravity-replacement loading so that exercise in 0G- and 1G-loading conditions could be compared, and the PSZS could then be used to evaluate exercise countermeasures for bone loss during space flight. This tethering system would also be a model for the further refinement of gravity-replacement systems provided for astronaut usage while performing prescribed exercise countermeasures for bone loss during long-term space flights.

  13. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines (United States)

    Krueger, T.


    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  14. Exercise Testing in Hypertension Patients (United States)


    Chinese Version) before the exercise testing. According to the daily mobility, existing symptoms and physiological adaptability, physical function of the...completed the WHOQOL-BREF and the physical function questionnaire, and the form of general information, includ- ing age, sex and etc. All...sys- tem. During the exercising testing the function of symp a- thetic nerve and parasympathetic nerve will be more active than that in the resting

  15. The importance of exercise to obesity treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Tuğba Pekmez


    Full Text Available Exercise is an important tool for obesity treatment. Exercise decrease the loss of lean body mass which occurs in restricted diets and also increase energy expenditure. This review discusses the effects of exercise on body composition, metabolism and health, as well as the role of exercise inducing and maintaining weight loss. Furthermore this review demonstrate the components of an exercise prescription and examine the benefits of increasing lifestyle activity, combined  with efforts to decrease sedentary behavior.

  16. The importance of exercise to obesity treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülgün Ersoy


    Full Text Available Exercise is an important tool for obesity treatment. Exercise decrease the loss of lean body mass which occurs in restricted diets and also increase energy expenditure. This review discusses the effects of exercise on body composition, metabolism and health, as well as the role of exercise inducing and maintaining weight loss. Furthermore this review demonstrate the components of an exercise prescription and examine the benefits of increasing lifestyle activity, combined with efforts to decrease sedentary behavior.

  17. The importance of exercise to obesity treatment



    Exercise is an important tool for obesity treatment. Exercise decrease the loss of lean body mass which occurs in restricted diets and also increase energy expenditure. This review discusses the effects of exercise on body composition, metabolism and health, as well as the role of exercise inducing and maintaining weight loss. Furthermore this review demonstrate the components of an exercise prescription and examine the benefits of increasing lifestyle activity, combined with efforts to decr...

  18. The relationship between 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and serum cystatin in type 2 diabetes mellitus with normal blood pressure%血压正常的2型糖尿病患者24h动态血压与血清胱抑素C相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈俊; 杨田; 高学文; 刘星


    目的:探讨血压正常的2型糖尿病(T2DM)患者24h动态血压与血清胱抑素C(CysC)的相关性.方法:入选符合纳入标准的T2DM患者82例,据血清CysC水平将患者分为对照组(CysC0.05).对CysC作Pearson相关分析显示,CysC与24hSBP、dSBP、nSBP、24hmPP、dmPP、nmPP、夜间收缩压最低均值、起床前2h收缩压均值及起床后2h收缩压均值呈正相关(P0.05).结论:血压正常的T2DM患者中,其收缩压及平均脉压可能与DN有一定相关性.%Objective:To investigate the relationship between 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and serum cystatin C (Cys C) in type 2 diabetes mellitus with normal blood pressure.Methods: A total of 82 patients with T2DM met the inclusion criteria were enrolled. These 82 cases were divided into control group (Cys C 0.05). Pearson correlation analysis showed that 24hSBP, dSBP, nSBP, 24hmPP, dmPP, nmPP, minimum mean systolic blood pressure at night, 2hSBP before getting up and 2hSBP after getting up were positively correlated with Cys C (P0.05).Conclusion: In T2DM patients with normal blood pressure,the average systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure may be correlated with the DN.

  19. Exercise Effects on Sleep Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunao eUchida


    Full Text Available This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. Thus, research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960’s, with a focus primarily on sleep EEG (CNS sleep changes. Those early studies found only small effects of exercise on sleep. More recent sleep research has explored not only CNS functioning, but somatic physiology as well. As physical exercise mostly affects somatic functions, endocrine and autonomic nervous system (ANS changes that occur during sleep should be affected by daytime exercise. Since endocrinological, metabolic and autonomic changes can be measured during sleep, it should be possible to assess exercise effects on somatic physiology in addition to CNS sleep quality, building from standard polysomnographic (PSG techniques. Incorporating measures of somatic physiology in the quantitative assessment of sleep could further our understanding of sleep's function as an auto-regulatory, global phenomenon.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvi Shah


    Full Text Available This article presents a theoretical basis for techniques of physical exercises developed by Joseph Pilates. Themethod, as a part of the so-called Body Mind Exercises group, first gained recognition among professionaldancers, actors and choreographers but has become more popular and is now regularly applied in sport, fitnessand physiotherapy.Pilates is a uniquely precise and intelligent approach to exercise and body-conditioning,which gives you a leaner, suppler, more toned body and a calmer, more relaxed mind.The initial part of thepaper presents historical background, principles of performing exercises and benefits using the Pilates Method.Pilates is a gentle, non-aerobic exercise method, which lengthens and strengthens the muscles, and improvesposture, without stressing the joints or the heart. The Pilates method incorporates both physical and mentalelements. The technique focuses on the ‘‘power house’’ or what is known today as the core; in Pilates, thisincludes the abdominal, gluteal, and paraspinal muscles in particular.The final part of the article includesdetailed pilates mat exercise programme (basic, intermediate, advanced and evidence for the use of pilatesexercises. The author hopes to encourage the environment of physiotherapists to enhance their professionalskills with elements of Pilates’ method

  1. Practical exercises in diversity

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    On 4 July, the Bulletin took part in an interactive workshop in the framework of the CERN Diversity programme. And it was time very well spent. Read on…   Discussion on the theme "unconscious bias". The participants begin to gather in the Pump Room (Building 2016) around 1.30 p.m. With name-tags stuck to our chests, we take our places at Table 7, which we now realise we selected for ourselves at random. Some people have already arrived, and after some tentative, courteous introductions, the atmosphere at the “sevens table” begins to warm up. A few minutes later, the workshop begins. Alan Richter, CEO of HR consultancy firm QED Consulting is the Master of Ceremonies. First exercise, “the circle”, or how to prove that diversity starts right under your nose. Skiers to the left, non-skiers to the right. The overwhelming majority are skiers. How do the non-skiers feel about finding themselves in the minority? Uncomfortable? Exc...

  2. 心房颤动24 h和48 h对犬心房肌有效不应期及L型钙电流的影响%Effects of 24 h and 48 h atrial fibrillation on L-type calcium currents in canine atrial myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲; 孙娟; 张广伟; 王欢; 侯月梅


    Objective To evaluate the effects of 24 h and 48 h atrial fibrillation(AF) on L-type calcium current (ICa-L)in atrial myocytes,and to investigate its possible mechanism and concordance.Methods Eighteen healthy adult mongrel canines were randomly divided into three groups:control group,24 h AF group and 48 h AF group,6 in each group.AF model was established by right atrial pacing with 600 bpm.The effective refractory period(ERP) of right atrial was measured by program stimulation.The atrial myocytes isolated from 24 h and 48 h AF canine,L-type calcium channel currents in atrial myocytes were recorded by patch clamp technique in the whole cell mode.The expressions of L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel(LVDCC) α1c protein in atrium were measured by immunohistochemistry in three groups,semi-quantitative analysis of α1c protein expression was performed with pathological image analytic system.Results In 24 h AF group and 48 h AF group,AF can be induced in all the experiment animal.The pattern of ERP with an rapid drop in 6 h followed by a more gradual decline during hours 6 through 48 as the result of rapid pacing.The mean ERP was decreased by (12.13 ± 2.24) ms after 6 hours of pacing (from 141.00 ± 15.23 to 129.50 ± 8.64) ms (P < 0.01).Similarly,after 24 h pacing the mean ERP was decreased by (19.23 ± 2.14) ms (P< 0.01),and by (28.15 ±4.26) ms after 48 h pacing(P<0.01).Compared with control group(-6.69±0.08)pA/pF,the peak density of ICa-L was significantly reduced in 24 h AF group(-4.83±0.30)pA/pF,and it was reduced more in 48 h AF group(-3.70±0.50)pA/pF.Compared with control group,the protein expression of LVDCC α1c decreased significantly in group of 48 h and 24 h AF(P<0.05),but in the group of 48 h AF it decreased more (P<0.01).Conclusion The decrease of ICa-L may contribute to ionic basis of acute electrical remodeling of atrial cardiomyocytes caused by 24 h and 48 h AF in canine,which suggested that calcium channels blocker might prevent AF

  3. Pronounced effects of acute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milène Catoire

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44-56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% W(max. Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle.

  4. Satellite cell activity is differentially affected by contraction mode in human muscle following a work-matched bout of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Hyldahl


    Full Text Available Optimal repair and adaptation of skeletal muscle is facilitated by resident stem cells (satellite cells. To understand how different exercise modes influence satellite cell dynamics, we measured satellite cell activity in conjunction with markers of muscle damage and inflammation in human skeletal muscle following a single work- and intensity-matched bout of eccentric (ECC or concentric contractions (CON. Participants completed a single bout of ECC (n=7 or CON (n=7 of the knee extensors. A muscle biopsy was obtained before and 24 h after exercise. Functional measures and immunohistochemical analyses were used to determine the extent of muscle damage and indices of satellite cell activity. Cytokine concentrations were measured using a multiplexed magnetic bead assay. Isokinetic peak torque decreased following ECC (p<0.05 but not CON. Greater histological staining of the damage marker Xin was observed in muscle samples of ECC vs CON. Tenasin C immunoreactivity increased 15 fold (P<0.01 following ECC and was unchanged following CON. The inflammatory cytokines interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1 increased pre- to post-ECC (4.26 ± 1.4 vs. 10.49 ± 5.8 pg/ml, and 3.06 ± 0.7 vs. 6.25 ± 4.6 pg/ml, respectively; p<0.05. There was no change in any cytokine post-CON. Satellite cell content increased 27% pre- to post-ECC (0.10 ± 0.031 vs. 0.127 ± 0.041, respectively; p<0.05. There was no change in satellite cell number in CON (0.099 ± 0.027 vs. 0.102 ± 0.029, respectively. There was no fiber type-specific satellite cell response following either exercise mode. ECC but not CON resulted in an increase in MyoD positive nuclei per myofiber pre- to post-exercise (p<0.05, but there was no change in MyoD DNA binding activity in either condition. In conclusion, ECC but not CON results in functional and histological evidence of muscle damage that is accompanied by increased satellite cell activity 24 h post-exercise.

  5. Effects of diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise on pulmonary function in healthy adults


    Yong, Min-Sik; Lee, Hae-Yong; Lee, Yun-Seob


    [Purpose] The present study investigated effects of diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise on respiratory function. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one subjects were randomly assigned to two groups; the feedback breathing exercise group and the maneuver-diaphragm exercise group. The feedback breathing exercise group was asked to breathe with feedback breathing device, and the maneuver-diaphragm exercise group was asked to perform diaphragm respiration. Respiratory function...

  6. Effects of exercise mode, energy, and macronutrient interventions on inflammation during military training. (United States)

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Margolis, Lee M; Murphy, Nancy E; McClung, Holy L; Martini, Svein; Gundersen, Yngvar; Castellani, John W; Karl, James P; Teien, Hilde K; Madslien, Elisabeth H; Stenberg, Pal H; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J; McClung, James P


    Load carriage (LC) exercise may exacerbate inflammation during training. Nutritional supplementation may mitigate this response by sparing endogenous carbohydrate stores, enhancing glycogen repletion, and attenuating negative energy balance. Two studies were conducted to assess inflammatory responses to acute LC and training, with or without nutritional supplementation. Study 1: 40 adults fed eucaloric diets performed 90-min of either LC (treadmill, mean ± SD 24 ± 3 kg LC) or cycle ergometry (CE) matched for intensity (2.2 ± 0.1 VO2peak L min(-1)) during which combined 10 g protein/46 g carbohydrate (223 kcal) or non-nutritive (22 kcal) control drinks were consumed. Study 2: 73 Soldiers received either combat rations alone or supplemented with 1000 kcal day(-1) from 20 g protein- or 48 g carbohydrate-based bars during a 4-day, 51 km ski march (~45 kg LC, energy expenditure 6155 ± 515 kcal day(-1) and intake 2866 ± 616 kcal day(-1)). IL-6, hepcidin, and ferritin were measured at baseline, 3-h post exercise (PE), 24-h PE, 48-h PE, and 72-h PE in study 1, and before (PRE) and after (POST) the 4-d ski march in study 2. Study 1: IL-6 was higher 3-h and 24-h post exercise (PE) for CE only (mode × time, P Energy expenditure (r = 0.40), intake (r = -0.26), and balance (r = -0.43) were associated (P supplemental nutrition during energy balance. The magnitude of hepcidin response was inversely related to energy balance suggesting that eating enough to balance energy expenditure might attenuate the inflammatory response to military training.

  7. Swimming exercise: impact of aquatic exercise on cardiovascular health. (United States)

    Tanaka, Hirofumi


    Swimming is an exercise modality that is highly suitable for health promotion and disease prevention, and is one of the most popular, most practiced and most recommended forms of physical activity. Yet little information is available concerning the influence of regular swimming on coronary heart disease (CHD). Exercise recommendations involving swimming have been generated primarily from unjustified extrapolation of the data from other modes of exercise (e.g. walking and cycling). Available evidence indicates that, similarly to other physically active adults, the CHD risk profile is more favourable in swimmers than in sedentary counterparts and that swim training results in the lowering of some CHD risk factors. However, the beneficial impact of regular swimming may be smaller than land-based exercises. In some cases, regular swimming does not appear to confer beneficial effects on some CHD risk factors. Moreover, swimming has not been associated with the reduced risks of developing CHD. Thus, extrapolation of research findings using land-based exercises into swimming cannot be justified, based on the available research. Clearly, more research is required to properly assess the effects of regular swimming on CHD risks in humans.

  8. Exercise Video Games and Exercise Self-Efficacy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildemar Dos Santos MD, DrPH


    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to investigate the use of exergaming in promoting exercise behavior among children and to examine the impact of the intervention on participants’ exercise self-efficacy, in addition to assessing physiological changes. A sample of 55 children enrolled in the Family Fit program, where participants were categorized into 2 groups: healthy weight and overweight. Measures were taken at baseline, after the 7-week program, at the 12-week follow-up, and at the 24-month follow-up. Positive changes in exercise self-efficacy were significant for the overweight group, while the healthy weight group maintained their exercise self-efficacy. At the 24-month follow-up, 97% children reported being interested in participating in a future fitness program, and 96% children who did not play sports before the intervention started practicing sports. Exercise self-efficacy is a predictor of physical activity, and incorporating exergaming in a structured program may lead to increased self-efficacy in participants.

  9. Exercise Video Games and Exercise Self-Efficacy in Children. (United States)

    Dos Santos, Hildemar; Bredehoft, Margaret Dinhluu; Gonzalez, Frecia M; Montgomery, Susanne


    The aim of this article was to investigate the use of exergaming in promoting exercise behavior among children and to examine the impact of the intervention on participants' exercise self-efficacy, in addition to assessing physiological changes. A sample of 55 children enrolled in the Family Fit program, where participants were categorized into 2 groups: healthy weight and overweight. Measures were taken at baseline, after the 7-week program, at the 12-week follow-up, and at the 24-month follow-up. Positive changes in exercise self-efficacy were significant for the overweight group, while the healthy weight group maintained their exercise self-efficacy. At the 24-month follow-up, 97% children reported being interested in participating in a future fitness program, and 96% children who did not play sports before the intervention started practicing sports. Exercise self-efficacy is a predictor of physical activity, and incorporating exergaming in a structured program may lead to increased self-efficacy in participants.

  10. A disaster relief exercise (United States)

    Quagliotti, Fulvia; Novaro Mascarello, Laura


    The Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) is an effective tool for military applications, both for properly military operations, such as research missions and road surveillance, and for civilian support after natural disasters, like landslides, floods, and earthquakes, when reaching victims is often hard or it would take too much time for their survival. Information are needed without hazarding the life of the military troops. When roads, bridges and other communication ways are usually not available, the unmanned platform is the only easy and fast way to contact people. It can be launched directly from the operation site and it could take crucial information or carry medication, necessaries and everything that could help rescue teams. The unmanned platform can also be used for the first aid in an emergency situation when the use of a helicopter is too dangerous and other troops could be involved in heavy fighting. The RPAS has some advantages. First is the reduced cost, compared to traditional aircraft, that could enable the user to have several operating units. Secondly, pilots are not on board and therefore, if needed, the crew' rotation and rest do not imply the need to stop operations. The third fact is that, depending on the type of delivery that is used, the operations may take place on a twenty-four hours' base. The main benefit achieved with these three facts is that continuous operation may take place and eventually make up the capacity difference. To sum up, the main motivation behind this employment of UAS is to replace human lives on the cockpits and to assure the execution of Dangerous, Dull and Dirty missions. In May 2015, the ERIDANO Exercise was performed in Moncalieri city, near Turin (Italy) and it was a joint exercise between the Italian Army, National Emergency Service and Politecnico of Turin. The aim was the control and management of emergency situations due to natural disasters. In particular, a flood was simulated. A multicopter was used

  11. Intravenous infusion of H2-saline suppresses oxidative stress and elevates antioxidant potential in Thoroughbred horses after racing exercise. (United States)

    Yamazaki, Masahiko; Kusano, Kanichi; Ishibashi, Toru; Kiuchi, Masataka; Koyama, Katsuhiro


    Upon intensive, exhaustive exercise, exercise-induced reactive oxygen species may exceed the antioxidant defence threshold, consequently resulting in muscular damage or late-onset chronic inflammation. Recently, the therapeutic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of molecular hydrogen (H2) for human rheumatoid arthritis have been demonstrated. However, it is also important to clarify the effects of administrating H2 in large animals other than humans, as H2 is thought to reach the target organ by passive diffusion upon delivery from the blood flow, indicating that the distance from the administration point to the target is critical. However, data on the effects of H2 on oxidative stress in real-life exhaustive exercise in large animals are currently lacking. We here investigated 13 Thoroughbred horses administered intravenous 2-L saline with or without 0.6-ppm H2 (placebo, N = 6; H2, N = 7) before participating in a high-intensity simulation race. Intravenous H2-saline significantly suppressed oxidative stress immediately, 3 h, and 24 h after the race, although the antioxidant capability was not affected throughout the study. The serum creatine kinase, lactate, and uric acid levels were increased in both groups. Taken together, these results indicate that intravenous H2-saline can significantly and specifically suppress oxidative stress induced after exhaustive racing in Thoroughbred horses.

  12. Physical exercise leads to rapid adaptations in hippocampal vasculature: temporal dynamics and relationship to cell proliferation and neurogenesis. (United States)

    Van der Borght, Karin; Kóbor-Nyakas, Dóra E; Klauke, Karin; Eggen, Bart J L; Nyakas, Csaba; Van der Zee, Eddy A; Meerlo, Peter


    Increased levels of angiogenesis and neurogenesis possibly mediate the beneficial effects of physical activity on hippocampal plasticity. This study was designed to investigate the temporal dynamics of exercise-induced changes in hippocampal angiogenesis and cell proliferation. Mice were housed with a running wheel for 1, 3, or 10 days. Analysis of glucose transporter Glut1-positive vessel density showed a significant increase after 3 days of wheel running. Cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus showed a trend towards an increase after 3 days of running and was significantly elevated after 10 days of physical exercise. Ten days of wheel running resulted in a near-significant increase in the number of immature neurons, as determined by a doublecortin (DCX) staining. In the second part of the study, the persistence of the exercise-induced changes in angiogenesis and cell proliferation was determined. The running wheel was removed from the cage after 10 days of physical activity. Glut-1 positive vessel density and hippocampal cell proliferation were determined 1 and 6 days after removal of the wheel. Both parameters had returned to baseline 24 h after cessation of physical activity. The near-significant increase in the number of DCX-positive immature neurons persisted for at least 6 days, indicating that new neurons formed during the period of increased physical activity had survived. Together these experiments show that the hippocampus displays a remarkable angiogenic and neurogenic plasticity and rapidly responds to changes in physical activity.

  13. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction. (United States)

    Kim, Hyunna


    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treatment and complementary treatment. In the behavioral treatment, cognitive behavioral approach (CBT) is representative methods for changing additive thoughts and behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is also the brief approach for persons not ready to change their behavior. Mindfulness behavioral cognitive treatment (MBCT) also the adapted treatment based on CBT. There are different types following the emphatic point, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) or mindfulness oriented recovery enhancement (MORE). It is apparent that therapeutic recreation, music therapy using drumming activity, and art therapy are useful complementary treatment. Exercise rehabilitation contained the systematic procedures and comprehensive activities compared to previous addiction treatments by contents and techniques. Exercise rehabilitation can treat both physical symptoms at first and mental problems in the next step. So more evidence-based exercise rehabilitation researches need to do, but it is highly probable that exercise rehab can apply for smartphone addiction.

  14. Evacuation exercise at the Kindergarten

    CERN Document Server


    Every year fire evacuation exercises are organized through out CERN and our facility's Kindergarten is no exception. Just a few weeks ago, a fire simulation was carried out in the Kindergarten kitchen facility using synthetic smoke. The purpose of the exercise was to teach staff to react in a disciplined and professional manner when in the presence of danger. The simulation is always carried out at a random time so as to ensure that people in the area under the test are not aware of the exercise. For the Kindergarten the exercise was held early in the school year so as to train those who are new to the establishment. The evacuation was a complete success and all went as it was supposed to. When the children and teachers smelt smoke they followed the prescribed evacuation routes and left the building immediately. Once outside the situation was revealed as an exercise and everyone went back to business as usual, everyone that is, except the fire brigade and fire inspector.  The fire brigade checked t...

  15. Beetroot juice and exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ormsbee MJ


    Full Text Available Michael J Ormsbee,1 Jon Lox,1 Paul J Arciero2 1Department of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Sciences, Human Performance Lab, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; 2Department of Health and Exercise Sciences, Human Nutrition and Metabolism Lab, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY, USA Abstract: Increased sales and consumption of organic and natural foods reflect consumers heightened interest in promoting health and improving athletic performance. Of these products, beetroot and its constituents have become increasingly popular in the arena of exercise performance, mainly due to the high concentrations of nitrate. Studies have indicated beetroot juice (BRJ may improve exercise time to exhaustion, running performance, and increase muscular efficiency during moderate intensity exercise. The purpose of this review is to examine the efficacy of BRJ to serve as an ergogenic aid in athletic performance. It appears that BRJ may provide modest performance enhancement; however, more research is needed to clearly identify mechanisms of action and proper dosing patterns to maximize the performance benefits of BRJ. Keywords: beetroot, nitrate, betaine, sports nutrition

  16. Exercise for older patients with chronic disease. (United States)

    Petrella, R J


    Coronary artery disease, hypertension, congestive heart failure, type 2 diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and cognitive disorders become more prevalent as people age. Besides delaying the onset of many of these conditions, regular exercise may improve function and delay disability and morbidity in those who have them. Further, exercise may work synergistically with medication to combat the effects of some chronic diseases. Special adaptations for older patients include lower-intensity exercise (eg, fewer repetitions), low-impact exercise (cycling, exercise while sitting), and modified equipment (smaller weights, special shoes, loose clothing). Unresolved issues include development of optimal strategies for motivating older patients to begin and maintain exercise programs.

  17. Use of cis-[18F]fluoro-proline for assessment of exercise-related collagen synthesis in musculoskeletal connective tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorthe Skovgaard

    Full Text Available Protein turnover in collagen rich tissue is influenced by exercise, but can only with difficulty be studied in vivo due to use of invasive procedure. The present study was done to investigate the possibility of applying the PET-tracer, cis-[(18F]fluoro-proline (cis-Fpro, for non-invasive assessment of collagen synthesis in rat musculoskeletal tissues at rest and following short-term (3 days treadmill running. Musculoskeletal collagen synthesis was studied in rats at rest and 24 h post-exercise. At each session, rats were PET scanned at two time points following injection of cis-FPro: (60 and 240 min p.i. SUV were calculated for Achilles tendon, calf muscle and tibial bone. The PET-derived results were compared to mRNA expression of collagen type I and III. Tibial bone had the highest SUV that increased significantly (p<0.001 from the early (60 min to the late (240 min PET scan, while SUV in tendon and muscle decreased (p<0.001. Exercise had no influence on SUV, which was contradicted by an increased gene expression of collagen type I and III in muscle and tendon. The clearly, visible uptake of cis-Fpro in the collagen-rich musculoskeletal tissues is promising for multi-tissue studies in vivo. The tissue-specific differences with the highest basal uptake in bone are in accordance with earlier studies relying on tissue incorporation of isotopic-labelled proline. A possible explanation of the failure to demonstrate enhanced collagen synthesis following exercise, despite augmented collagen type I and III transcription, is that SUV calculations are not sensitive enough to detect minor changes in collagen synthesis. Further studies including kinetic compartment modeling must be performed to establish whether cis-Fpro can be used for non-invasive in-vivo assessment of exercise-induced changes in musculoskeletal collagen synthesis.

  18. Eccentric exercise testing and training (United States)

    Clarkson, Priscilla M.


    Some researchers and practitioners have touted the benefits of including eccentric exercise in strength training programs. However, others have challenged its use because they believe that eccentric actions are dangerous and lead to injuries. Much of the controversy may be based on a lack of understanding of the physiology of eccentric actions. This review will present data concerning eccentric exercise in strength training, the physiological characteristics of eccentric exercise, and the possible stimulus for strength development. Also a discussion of strength needs for extended exposure to microgravity will be presented. Not only is the use of eccentric exercise controversial, but the name itself is fraught with problems. The correct pronunciation is with a hard 'c' so that the word sounds like ekscentric. The confusion in pronunciation may have been prevented if the spelling that Asmussen used in 1953, excentric, had been adopted. Another problem concerns the expressions used to describe eccentric exercise. Commonly used expressions are negatives, eccentric contractions, lengthening contractions, resisted muscle lengthenings, muscle lengthening actions, and eccentric actions. Some of these terms are cumbersome (i.e., resisted muscle lengthenings), one is slang (negatives), and another is an oxymoron (lengthening contractions). Only eccentric action is appropriate and adoption of this term has been recommended by Cavanagh. Despite the controversy that surrounds eccentric exercise, it is important to note that these types of actions play an integral role in normal daily activities. Eccentric actions are used during most forms of movement, for example, in walking when the foot touches the ground and the center of mass is decelerated and in lowering objects, such as placing a bag of groceries in the car.

  19. Brain temperature and exercise performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars


    Events arising within the central nervous system seem to play a major factor in the aetiology of hyperthermia-induced fatigue. Thus, various studies with superimposed electrical nerve stimulation or transcranial magnetic stimulation have shown that both passive and exercise-induced hyperthermia...... temperature in exercising goats indicate that excessive brain hyperthermia will directly affect motor performance. However, several homeostatic changes arise in parallel with hyperthermia including factors that may influence both peripheral and central fatigue and it is likely that these changes interact...

  20. The Effect of Exercise in PCOS Women Who Exercise Regularly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Purpose To determine the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS in women who exercise regularly. Methods All women under age 45 from an industrial company who had past history of exercising more than 6 months enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Prevalence of PCOS and comparison of BMI between PCOS and non-PCOS subgroups was done. The diagnosis of PCOS was based on the revised 2003 Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM consensus criteria and exclusion of related disorders. Results The prevalence of PCOS in was 8.8%; 95% CI: 8.5%-9.1%. In obese subjects, mean BMI differed significantly between PCOS and non-PCOS women (29.3 ±3.3 kg/m2 vs. 27.8 ± 2 kg/m2, P=0.03. In lean subjects, there was no statistically significant difference in terms of BMI between PCOS and non-PCOS women (21.4 ± 1.9 kg/m2 vs. 21.2 ± 2 kg/m2, P>0.05. Conclusion Obese PCOS patients show more difficulty in losing weight by exercise than lean PCOS patients. The role of hormonal alterations and PCOS per se in the responsiveness of weight loss to exercise remains to be determined.