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Sample records for 23na izmenenie formy

  1. Low-spin states of 23Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of 23Na via the 22Ne(p,γ)23Na and 23Na(γ,γ)23Na reactions is presented. Only a limited number of resonances has been studied, selected on the basis of strong excitation of the lowest levels of which the spin was unknown. As a result the spins are now known of all levels of 23Na with excitation energies up to 7 MeV, except for a few high-spin states which are too weakly excited in the decay of the known 22Ne(p,γ) resonances. The mean lifetimes of the 23Na levels at 4.43 and 7.89 MeV were found to be 350±70 and 220±17 attoseconds (1 attosecond = 10-18 seconds) respectively. 97 refs.; 22 figs.; 12 tabs

  2. 23Na and 1H NMR Microimaging of Intact Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olt, Silvia; Krötz, Eva; Komor, Ewald; Rokitta, Markus; Haase, Axel

    2000-06-01

    23Na NMR microimaging is described to map, for the first time, the sodium distribution in living plants. As an example, the response of 6-day-old seedlings of Ricinus communis to exposure to sodium chloride concentrations from 5 to 300 mM was observed in vivo using 23Na as well as 1H NMR microimaging. Experiments were performed at 11.75 T with a double resonant 23Na-1H probehead. The probehead was homebuilt and equipped with a climate chamber. T1 and T2 of 23Na were measured in the cross section of the hypocotyl. Within 85 min 23Na images with an in-plane resolution of 156 × 156 μm were acquired. With this spatial information, the different types of tissue in the hypocotyl can be discerned. The measurement time appears to be short compared to the time scale of sodium uptake and accumulation in the plant so that the kinetics of salt stress can be followed. In conclusion, 23Na NMR microimaging promises great potential for physiological studies of the consequences of salt stress on the macroscopic level and thus may become a unique tool for characterizing plants with respect to salt tolerance and salt sensitivity.

  3. Study of thermal neutron capture in /sup 23/Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ming; Shi Zongren; Zeng Xiantang; Li Guohua; Ding Dazhao

    1987-11-01

    Energies and intensities of 117 gamma-rays produced by the capture of thermal neutron in /sup 23/Na are measured by using a single Ge(Li) detector and a pair spectrometer. 107 gamma-rays are placed in the decay scheme consisting of 35 levels. The neutron binding energy is found to be 6959.51 (21) keV. The parameters of /sup 24/Na energy level density are determined with the Back-Shift Fermi Gas Model. The /sup 23/Na(n, ..gamma..)/sup 24/Na reaction is mainly a statistical process from the resonance capture of 2.85 keV state.

  4. Study of thermal neutron capture in /sup 23/Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ming; Shi Zongren; Zeng Xiantang; Li Guohua; Ding Dazhao

    1989-04-01

    Energies and intensities of 117 gamma-rays produced by the capture of thermal neutrons in /sup 23/Na are measured by using a single Ge(Li) detector and a pair spectrometer. 107 gamma-rays are placed in a decay scheme consisting of 35 levels. The neutron binding energy is found to be 6959.51 (21) keV. The parameters of /sup 24/Na energy-level density are determined with the Back-Shift Fermi Gas Model. The /sup 23/Na(/ital n/,..gamma..) /sup 24/Na reaction is mainly a statistical process from the resonance capture of the 2.85 keV state.

  5. Protons from the alpha-particle bombardment of 23Na

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuperus, J.

    1964-01-01

    Resonances in the yield of ground-state protons from alpha-particle bombardment of 23Na were investigated in the energy range Eα = 1.0 – 3.3 MeV. At least thirty-eight resonances were observed. Resonance energies and strengths are presented. At nine resonances angular distribution measurements lead

  6. Imaging of tumor viability in lung cancer. Initial results using {sup 23}Na-MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzler, T.; Apfaltrer, P.; Haneder, S.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Fink, C. [University Medical Center Mannheim Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Konstandin, S.; Schad, L. [University Medical Center Mannheim Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Schmid-Bindert, G.; Manegold, C. [University Medical Center Mannheim Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Interdisciplinary Thoracic Oncology; Wenz, F. [University Medical Center Mannheim Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-04-15

    {sup 23}Na-MRI has been proposed as a potential imaging biomarker for the assessment of tumor viability and the evaluation of therapy response but has not yet been evaluated in patients with lung cancer. We aimed to assess the feasibility of {sup 23}Na-MRI in patients with lung cancer. Three patients with stage IV adenocarcinoma of the lung were examined on a clinical 3 Tesla MRI system (Magnetom TimTrio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). Feasibility of {sup 23}Na-MRI images was proven by comparison and fusion of {sup 23}Na-MRI with {sup 1}H-MR, CT and FDG-PET-CT images. {sup 23}Na signal intensities (SI) of tumor and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the spinal canal were measured and the SI ratio in tumor and CSF was calculated. One chemonaive patient was examined before and after the initiation of combination therapy (Carboplatin, Gemcitabin, Cetuximab). All {sup 23}Na-MRI examinations were successfully completed and were of diagnostic quality. Fusion of {sup 23}Na-MRI images with {sup 1}H-MRI, CT and FDG-PET-CT was feasible in all patients and showed differences in solid and necrotic tumor areas. The mean tumor SI and the tumor/CSF SI ratio were 13.3 {+-} 1.8 x 103 and 0.83 {+-} 0.14, respectively. In necrotic tumors, as suggested by central non-FDG-avid areas, the mean tumor SI and the tumor/CSF ratio were 19.4 x 103 and 1.10, respectively. {sup 23}Na-MRI is feasible in patients with lung cancer and could provide valuable functional molecular information regarding tumor viability, and potentially treatment response. (orig.)

  7. Skin sodium measured with (23) Na MRI at 7.0 T

    OpenAIRE

    Linz, P.; Santoro, D.; Renz, W.; J. Rieger; Ruehle, A.; Ruff, J; Deimling, M.; Rakova, N.; Muller, D.N.; Luft, F. C.; Titze, J.; Niendorf, T

    2015-01-01

    Skin sodium (Na+ ) storage, as a physiologically important regulatory mechanism for blood pressure, volume regulation and, indeed, survival, has recently been rediscovered. This has prompted the development of MRI methods to assess Na+ storage in humans (23 Na MRI) at 3.0 T. This work examines the feasibility of high in-plane spatial resolution 23 Na MRI in skin at 7.0 T. A two-channel transceiver radiofrequency (RF) coil array tailored for skin MRI at 7.0 T (f = 78.5 MHz) is proposed. Specif...

  8. Elastic Scattering between Ultracold 23Na and 85Rb Atoms in the Triplet State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Qiu-Bo; ZHANG Yong-Sheng; SUN Jin-Feng; YU Ke

    2011-01-01

    @@ The elastic scattering Properties between ultracold 23Na and 85Rd atoms for the triplet state(a3∑u+ )are researched.The s-wave scattering lengts of 23Na and 85Rb are calculate by the Numerov ana semtc asstc method with two kinds of interatomic potentials, which are the interpolation potential and Lennard-Jones potential(LJ12,6)by the same phase 4φ Shape resonances appear clearly in the l= 5 partial waves for the a- Lu state.Moreover, the s-wave scattering cross section, total cross section and energy positions of shape resonances are also discussed.%The elastic scattering properties between ultracold 23Na and 85 Rb atoms for the triplet state (a3Σu+ ) are researched. The s-wave scattering lengths of 23Na and 85Rb are calculated by the Numerov and semiclassical method with two kinds of interatomic potentials, which are the interpolation potential and Lennard-Jones potential (LJ12,6) by the same phase φ. Shape resonances appear clearly in the l= 5 partial waves for the a3 Σu+state. Moreover, the s-wave scattering cross section, total cross section and energy positions of shape resonances are also discussed.

  9. {sup 23}Na-MRI of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme after intraoperative radiotherapy: technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haneder, Stefan; Buesing, Karen A.; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Ong, Melissa M. [Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Giordano, Frank A.; Wenz, Frederik [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Konstandin, Simon; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg University, Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Brehmer, Stefanie; Schmiedek, Peter [Heidelberg University, Department of Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    We report the first case of an intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) in a patient with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) who was followed up with a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method - {sup 23}Na-MRI - in comparison to a standard contrast-enhanced {sup 1}H-MRI and {sup 18}F-FET-PET. A 56-year-old female patient with diagnosed GBM in July 2012 underwent tumor resection, radiochemotherapy, and three cycles of chemotherapy. After a relapse, 6 months after the initial diagnosis, an IORT was recommended which was performed in March 2013 using the INTRABEAM system (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Germany) with a 3-cm applicator and a surface dose of 20 Gy. Early post-operative contrast-enhanced and 1-month follow-up {sup 1}H-MRI and a {sup 18}F-FET-PET were performed. In addition, an IRB-approved {sup 23}Na-MRI was performed on a 3.0-T MR scanner (MAGNETOM TimTrio, Siemens Healthcare, Germany). After re-surgery and IORT in March 2013, only a faint contrast enhancement but considerable surrounding edema was visible at the medio-posterior resection margins. In April 2013, new and progressive contrast enhancement, edema, {sup 23}Na content, and increased uptake in the {sup 18}F-FET-PET were visible, indicating tumor recurrence. Increased sodium content within the area of contrast enhancement was found in the {sup 23}Na-MRI, but also exceeding this area, very similar to the increased uptake depicted in the {sup 18}F-FET-PET. The clearly delineable zone of edema in both examinations exhibits a lower {sup 23}Na content compared to areas with suspected proliferating tumor tissue. {sup 23}Na-MRI provided similar information in the suspicious area compared to {sup 18}F-FET-PET, exceeding conventional {sup 1}H-MRI. Still, {sup 23}Na-MRI remains an investigational technique, which is worth to be further evaluated. (orig.)

  10. Consistent Data Assimilation of Structural Isotopes: 23Na and 56Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuseppe Palmiotti

    2010-09-01

    A new approach is proposed, the consistent data assimilation, that allows to link the integral data experiment results to basic nuclear parameters employed by evaluators to generate ENDF/B point energy files in order to improve them. Practical examples are provided for the structural materials 23Na and 56Fe. The sodium neutron propagation experiments, EURACOS and JANUS-8, are used to improve via modifications of 23Na nuclear parameters (like scattering radius, resonance parameters, Optical model parameters, Statistical Hauser-Feshbach model parameters, and Preequilibrium Exciton model parameters) the agreement of calculation versus experiments for a series of measured reaction rate detectors slopes. For the 56Fe case the EURACOS and ZPR3 assembly 54 are used. Results have shown inconsistencies in the set of nuclear parameters used so that further investigation is needed. Future work involves comparison of results against a more traditional multigroup adjustments, and extension to other isotope of interest in the reactor community.

  11. 23Na and 1H NMR studies on melittin channels activated by tricyclic tranquilizers.

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, H.; Matsunaga, K.; Kawazura, H

    1992-01-01

    A dynamic 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique was applied to the exchange system of Na+ ions present inside and outside large unilamellar vesicles at an equivalent concentration. Addition of melittin to phosphatidylcholine vesicles did not induce any detectable Na+ transport across the membrane but subsequent addition of a trace of chlorpromazine or imipramine did induce Na+ transport. Because the formation of a drug-melittin adduct in a solution was detected by 1H NMR, the activa...

  12. Three new low-energy resonances in the $^{22}$Ne(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$Na reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Cavanna, F; Aliotta, M; Anders, M; Bemmerer, D; Best, A; Böltzig, A; Broggini, C; Bruno, C G; Caciolli, A; Corvisiero, P; Davinson, T; di Leva, A; Elekes, Z; Ferraro, F; Formicola, A; Fülöp, Zs; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Gyürky, Gy; Imbriani, G; Junker, M; Menegazzo, R; Mossa, V; Pantaleo, F R; Prati, P; Scott, D A; Somorjai, E; Straniero, O; Strieder, F; Szücs, T; Takács, M P; Trezzi, D

    2015-01-01

    The $^{22}$Ne(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$Na reaction takes part in the neon-sodium cycle of hydrogen burning. This cycle affects the synthesis of the elements between $^{20}$Ne and $^{27}$Al in asymptotic giant branch stars and novae. The $^{22}$Ne(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$Na reaction rate is very uncertain because of a large number of unobserved resonances lying in the Gamow window. At proton energies below 400\\,keV, only upper limits exist in the literature for the resonance strengths. Previous reaction rate evaluations differ by large factors. In the present work, the first direct observations of the $^{22}$Ne(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$Na resonances at 156.2, 189.5, and 259.7\\,keV are reported. Their resonance strengths have been derived with 2-7\\% uncertainty. In addition, upper limits for three other resonances have been greatly reduced. Data were taken using a windowless $^{22}$Ne gas target and high-purity germanium detectors at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in the Gran Sasso laboratory of the National I...

  13. High spin states in 26Mg and 23Na populated by heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments were used to produce high-spin states in sd-shell nuclei. Beams of 18O and 15N were extracted from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory EN tandem van de Graaff accelerator. Alpha particles from the 12C(18O,α)26Mg and 12C-(15N,α)23Na reactions were detected with a Borkowski-Kopp proportional counter at the focal plane of an Enge split-pole magnetic spectrograph. The differential cross sections extracted for many levels in the respective residual nuclei were averaged over several bombarding energies. These cross sections were analyzed in the framework of the Hauser-Feshbach formalism applicable to compound nuclear reactions. Both reactions are shown to be generally well predicted by the statistical model, though an apparent anomaly exists for certain states observed in the 12C(15N,α)23Na reaction. Several of the high-spin states are discussed in terms of the rotational model, and levels in 23Na are compared to high-spin state predictions from large basis shell model calculations

  14. Three New Low-Energy Resonances in the 22Ne (p ,γ )23Na Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanna, F.; Depalo, R.; Aliotta, M.; Anders, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Best, A.; Boeltzig, A.; Broggini, C.; Bruno, C. G.; Caciolli, A.; Corvisiero, P.; Davinson, T.; di Leva, A.; Elekes, Z.; Ferraro, F.; Formicola, A.; Fülöp, Zs.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Gyürky, Gy.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.; Menegazzo, R.; Mossa, V.; Pantaleo, F. R.; Prati, P.; Scott, D. A.; Somorjai, E.; Straniero, O.; Strieder, F.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M. P.; Trezzi, D.; LUNA Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    The 22Ne (p ,γ )23Na reaction takes part in the neon-sodium cycle of hydrogen burning. This cycle affects the synthesis of the elements between 20Ne and 27Al in asymptotic giant branch stars and novae. The 22Ne(p ,γ )23Na reaction rate is very uncertain because of a large number of unobserved resonances lying in the Gamow window. At proton energies below 400 keV, only upper limits exist in the literature for the resonance strengths. Previous reaction rate evaluations differ by large factors. In the present work, the first direct observations of the 22Ne (p ,γ )23Na resonances at 156.2, 189.5, and 259.7 keV are reported. Their resonance strengths are derived with 2%-7% uncertainty. In addition, upper limits for three other resonances are greatly reduced. Data are taken using a windowless 22Ne gas target and high-purity germanium detectors at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in the Gran Sasso laboratory of the National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Italy, taking advantage of the ultralow background observed deep underground. The new reaction rate is a factor of 20 higher than the recent evaluation at a temperature of 0.1 GK, relevant to nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars.

  15. Investigation of Sodium Distribution in Phosphate Glasses Using Spin-Echo {sup 23}Na NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALAM, TODD M.; BOYLE, TIMOTHY J.; BROW, RICHARD K.; CLICK, CAROL C.; CONZONE, SAM; McLAUGHLIN, JAY; ZWANZIGER, JOE

    1999-09-16

    The spatial arrangement of sodium cations for a series of sodium phosphate glasses, xNa{sub 2}O(100-x)P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (x<55), were investigated using {sup 23}Na spin-echo NMR spectroscopy. The spin-echo decay rate is a function of the Na-Na homonuclear dipolar coupling and is related to the spatial proximity of neighboring Na nuclei. The spin-echo decay rate in these sodium phosphate glasses increases non-linearly with higher sodium number density, and thus provides a measure of the Na-Na extended range order. The results of these {sup 23}Na NMR experiments are discussed within the context of several structural models, including a decimated crystal lattice model, cubic dilation lattice model, a hard sphere (HS) random distribution model and a pair-wise cluster hard sphere model. While the experimental {sup 23}Na spin-echo M{sub 2} are described adequately by both the decimated lattice and the random HS model, it is demonstrated that the slight non-linear behavior of M{sub 2} as a function of sodium number density is more correctly described by the random distribution in the HS model. At low sodium number densities the experimental M{sub 2} is inconsistent with models incorporating Na-Na clustering. The ability to distinguish between Na-Na clusters and non-clustered distributions becomes more difficult at higher sodium concentrations.

  16. 23Na-nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of gramicidin-induced ion transport through membranes under equilibrium conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Buster, D C; Hinton, J F; Millett, F S; Shungu, D C

    1988-01-01

    A technique for investigating the gramicidin-facilitated transport of Na+ ions across lipid bilayers of large unilamellar vesicles under the condition of ionic equilibrium has been developed using a combination of heat incubation of the gramicidin with the vesicles and 23Na-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Isolation of the two 23Na-NMR signals from the intra- and extravesicular Na+ with the shift reagent, dysprosium (III) tripolyphosphate, allows the equilibrium flux of Na+ thro...

  17. Direct measurement of the 22Ne(p,γ)23Na reaction cross section at LUNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Federico; LUNA Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The 22Ne(p, γ)23Na reaction takes part in the NeNa cycle of hydrogen burning, influencing the production of the elements between 20Ne and 27Al in red giant stars, asymptotic giant stars and classical novae. The 22Ne(p,γ)27Na reaction rate is very uncertain because of a large number of tentative resonances in the Gamow window, where only upper limits were quoted in literature. A direct measurement of the 22Ne(p, γ)23Na reaction cross section has been carried out at LUNA using a windowless differential-pumping gas target with two high- purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. A new measurement with a 4π bismuth germanate (BGO) summing detector is ongoing. During the HPGe phase of the experiment the strengths of the resonances at 156.2 keV, 189.5 keV and 259.7 keV have been directly measured for the first time and their contribution to the reaction rate has been calculated. The decay scheme of the newly discovered resonances has been established as well and some improved upper limits on the unobserved resonances have been put. The BGO detector with its 70% γ-detection efficiency allows to measure the cross section at lower energy. In order to further investigate the resonances at 71 keV and 105 keV and the direct-capture component, the data taking is ongoing.

  18. Direct measurement of low-energy $^{22}$Ne(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$Na resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Depalo, R; Aliotta, M; Anders, M; Bemmerer, D; Best, A; Boeltzig, A; Broggini, C; Bruno, C G; Caciolli, A; Ciani, G F; Corvisiero, P; Davinson, T; Di Leva, A; Elekes, Z; Ferraro, F; Formicola, A; Fülöp, Zs; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Gyürky, Gy; Imbriani, G; Junker, M; Menegazzo, R; Mossa, V; Pantaleo, F R; Piatti, D; Prati, P; Straniero, O; Szücs, T; Takács, M P; Trezzi, D

    2016-01-01

    The $^{22}$Ne(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$Na reaction is the most uncertain process in the neon-sodium cycle of hydrogen burning. At temperatures relevant for nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars and classical novae, its uncertainty is mainly due to a large number of predicted but hitherto unobserved resonances at low energy. Purpose: A new direct study of low energy $^{22}$Ne(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$Na resonances has been performed at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA), in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Italy. Method: The proton capture on $^{22}$Ne was investigated in direct kinematics, delivering an intense proton beam to a $^{22}$Ne gas target. $\\gamma$ rays were detected with two high-purity germanium detectors enclosed in a copper and lead shielding suppressing environmental radioactivity. Results: Three resonances at 156.2 keV ($\\omega\\gamma$ = (1.48\\,$\\pm$\\,0.10)\\,$\\cdot$\\,10$^{-7}$ eV), 189.5 keV ($\\omega\\gamma$ = (1.87\\,$\\pm$\\,0.06)\\,$\\cdot$\\,10$^{-6}$ eV) and 259.7 keV ($\\o...

  19. 23Na and 1H NMR Relaxometry of Shale at High Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Donghan

    2016-01-01

    Formation evaluation of unconventional reservoirs is challenging due to the coexistence of different phases such as kerogen, bitumen, movable and bound light hydrocarbon and water. Current low-frequency (0.05 T) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) laboratory and logging methods are incapable of quantitatively separating the different phases. We demonstrate the utility of high-field (9 T) NMR 2D T1-T2 measurements for separating hydrocarbon and the clay-interacting aqueous phases in shale based on the difference in the frequency dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation time. Furthermore, we demonstrate 23Na NMR as a promising complementary technique to conventional 1H NMR for shale fluid typing, taking advantage of the fact that sodium ions are only present in the aqueous phase. We validate high-field (9 T) 23Na-1H NMR relaxometry for assessing brine-filled porosity and brine salinity in various porous materials, including porous glass, conventional rocks, clays, and shale, and apply it for differentiating hydro...

  20. 23Na-Magnetresonanzspektroskopie-Untersuchungen zum Verlauf der Narbenentwicklung nach Myokardinfarkt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheffer H

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetresonanzspektroskopie (MRS erlaubt die nichtinvasive Untersuchung der Konzentrationen von Stoffwechselprodukten und Ionen im Herzen. Der Gesamtnatrium (Na-Gehalt könnte für die Untersuchung der Vitalität von Myokardgewebe verwendet werden, jedoch gibt es keine Berichte über die Entwicklung des Na-Gehalts in der chronischen Infarktnarbe im Vergleich zum normalen Myokard. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht die Änderungen des myokardialen Na-Gehalts während der Narbenentwicklung nach einem Myokardinfarkt (MI am Modell der Koronarligatur in der Ratte. Ratten wurden einer Ligatur des Ramus intraventricularis anterior unterzogen. Myokardgewebe von Kontrolltieren sowie infarziertes Gewebe wurden 1, 3, 7, 28 und 56 Tage postoperativ entnommen und der Na-Gehalt mittels 23Na-MRS und Ionenchromatographie bestimmt. Der Na-Gehalt nach MI war zu allen Zeitpunkten bei beiden Bestimmungsmethoden auf Werte zwischen 306 und 160 % des Kontrollwertes erhöht (n = 6-8 je Gruppe, p 0,01 vs. Kontrolle. Der Na-Gehalt ist im chronisch infarzierten Myokardgewebe zu allen Zeitpunkten erhöht. Damit kann überlebendes Myokard von einer Infarktnarbe anhand des Na-Gehalts unterschieden werden. Diese Information könnte in der 23Na-Magnetresonanzbildgebung (MRI zur Bestimmung der Infarktnarbe eine klinische Anwendung finden.

  1. Functional MRI 2.0. {sup 23}Na and CEST imaging; Funktionelle MRT 2.0. {sup 23}Na- und CEST-Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haneder, S. [Uniklinik Koeln, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Koeln (Germany); Konstandin, S. [Universitaet Bremen, MR-Bildgebung und -Spektroskopie, Fachbereich 1 (Physik/Elektrotechnik), Bremen (Germany); Fraunhofer MEVIS, Institut fuer Bildgestuetzte Medizin, Bremen (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    In recent years the purely morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been increasingly flanked by so-called functional imaging methods, such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), to obtain additional information about tissue or pathological processes. This review article presents two MR techniques that can detect physiological processes in the human body. In contrast to all other functional MR imaging techniques, which are based on hydrogen protons, the first technique presented (X-nuclei imaging) uses the spin of other nuclei for imaging and consequently allows a completely different insight into the human body. In this article X-nuclei imaging is focused on sodium ({sup 23}Na) MRI because it currently represents the main focus of research in this field due to the favorable MR properties of sodium. The second MR technique presented is the relatively novel chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging that can detect exchange processes between protons in metabolites and protons in free water. The first part of this article introduces the basic technical principles, problems, advantages and disadvantages of these two MR techniques, whereas the second part highlights the potential clinical applications. Examples illustrate several potential applications in neuroimaging (e. g. stroke and tumors), musculoskeletal imaging (e. g. osteoarthritis and degenerative processes) and abdominal imaging (e. g. kidneys and hypertension). Both techniques inherently contain an incredible potential for future imaging but are still on the threshold of clinical use and are currently under evaluation in many university centers. (orig.) [German] In den letzten Jahren wird die reine morphologische Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) zunehmend von sogenannten funktionellen Bildgebungsmethoden, wie der diffusionsgewichteten Bildgebung (''diffusion-weighted imaging'', DWI), flankiert, um zusaetzliche Informationen ueber Gewebe oder pathologische Prozesse zu

  2. Application of potential harmonic expansion method to BEC: Thermodynamic properties of trapped 23Na atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anasuya Kundu; Barnali Chakrabarti; Tapan Kumar Das

    2005-07-01

    We adopt the potential harmonics expansion method for an ab initio solution of the many-body system in a Bose condensate containing interacting bosons. Unlike commonly adopted mean-field theories, our method is capable of handling two-body correlation properly. We disregard three- and higher-body correlations. This simplification is ideally suited to dilute Bose Einstein condensates, whose number density is required to be so small that the interparticle separation is much larger than the range of two-body interaction to avoid three- and higher-body collisions, leading to the formation of molecules and consequent instability of the condensate. In our method we can incorporate realistic finite range interactions. We calculate energies of low-lying states of a condensate containing 23Na atoms and some thermodynamical properties of the condensate.

  3. Electrocautery versus 23% NaOH infiltration to induce subglottic stenosis in a canine experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauer, Aline D; Fraga, Jose Carlos; Sousa, Joao K; Sanches, Paulo R; Duarte, Marcos E; Ulbrich-Kulczynski, Jane; Filho, Orlando H; Saueressig, Mauricio G

    2007-12-01

    Subglottic stenosis (SGS) is defined as the narrowing of the lower larynx. Difficulties in the management of subglottic stenosis, especially in the pediatric population, justify the development of experimental models. The objective of this study was to compare the two methods of experimental subglottic stenosis induction. Twenty-three dogs were randomly selected and assigned by lottery to either one of the two groups: Gp I (n = 10) of electrocoagulation; and Gp II (n = 13) of 23% NaOH injection. In Gp I, self-interruption electrocoagulation was applied to one point in each of the four quadrants of the cricoid cartilage. In Gp II, 0.2 ml of 23% NaOH was injected in the submucosal layer in the anterior and posterior portions of the cricoid cartilage. Once a week, endoscopy was performed and the caliber of the subglottic region was measured using endotracheal tubes, and the injection was repeated if there were no signs of subglottic stenosis. The animals were killed on day 21; animals that developed respiratory distress were killed before day 21. One animal in Gp I died on day 14 after the injection and during transportation; two animals in Gp II died, one on day 7 due to a tracheoesophageal fistula, and the other of unknown causes on day 5. Significant subglottic stenosis (over 51% obstruction) was found in 67% of the animals in Gp I and in 64% of those in Gp II (P = 0.99). Median time to development of significant stenosis was 21 days in both groups, and required either two or three injections. Mean time for the performance of the procedures was significantly shorter (P subglottic stenosis in dogs, both methods leading to stenosis in the same period of time and after the same number of procedures. However, electrocoagulation was the fastest method.

  4. Measurement of (23)Na(n,2n) cross section in well-defined reactor spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košťál, Michal; Švadlenková, Marie; Baroň, Petr; Milčák, Ján; Mareček, Martin; Uhlíř, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The present paper aims to compare the calculated and experimental reaction rates of (23)Na(n,2n)(22)Na in a well-defined reactor spectra of a special core assembled in the LR-0 reactor. The experimentally determined reaction rate, derived using gamma spectroscopy of irradiated NaF sample, is used for average cross section determination. The resulting value averaged in spectra is 0.91±0.02µb. This cross-section is important as it is included in International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File and is also relevant to the correct estimation of long-term activity of Na coolant in Sodium Fast Reactors. The calculations were performed with the MCNP6 code using ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1, JEFF-3.2, JENDL-3.3, JENDL-4, ROSFOND-2010 and CENDL-3.1 nuclear data libraries. Generally the best C/E agreement, within 2%, was found using the ROSFOND-2010 data set, whereas the worst, as high as 40%, was found using the ENDF/B-VII.0. PMID:26894323

  5. Long Hyperfine Coherence Time of Ultracold Fermionic 23 Na40 K Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jee Woo; Yan, Zoe; Loh, Huanqian; Will, Sebastian; Zwierlein, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold molecules created and trapped at sub uK temperatures allow the full control of the molecule's external and internal degrees of freedom down to a single hyperfine state. In particular, an ensemble of molecules all initialized in a single rotational and hyperfine state can be prepared and be coherently addressed using microwave fields. In this talk, we report on the observation of long coherence time between two hyperfine states of fermionic 23 Na40 K molecules in the ro-vibronic ground state (v = 0 , J = 0). A direct two-photon microwave transition via the J = 1 state is used to prepare a superposition of two lowest hyperfine states of J = 0 , and we perform Ramsey spectroscopy as a direct probe of phase coherence between these states. The fermionic nature of the molecules and the lack of electronic angular momentum in the ro-vibronic ground state heavily suppress the decoherence from collisions and external fields, respectively, and we observe long coherence times upto 0.5 sec for this hyperfine superposition state. The observed long coherence time is a crucial step for applications of trapped dipolar molecules in quantum information processing schemes.

  6. Measurement of (23)Na(n,2n) cross section in well-defined reactor spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košťál, Michal; Švadlenková, Marie; Baroň, Petr; Milčák, Ján; Mareček, Martin; Uhlíř, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The present paper aims to compare the calculated and experimental reaction rates of (23)Na(n,2n)(22)Na in a well-defined reactor spectra of a special core assembled in the LR-0 reactor. The experimentally determined reaction rate, derived using gamma spectroscopy of irradiated NaF sample, is used for average cross section determination. The resulting value averaged in spectra is 0.91±0.02µb. This cross-section is important as it is included in International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File and is also relevant to the correct estimation of long-term activity of Na coolant in Sodium Fast Reactors. The calculations were performed with the MCNP6 code using ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1, JEFF-3.2, JENDL-3.3, JENDL-4, ROSFOND-2010 and CENDL-3.1 nuclear data libraries. Generally the best C/E agreement, within 2%, was found using the ROSFOND-2010 data set, whereas the worst, as high as 40%, was found using the ENDF/B-VII.0.

  7. Dose-dependent changes in renal {sup 1}H-/{sup 23}Na MRI after adjuvant radiochemotherapy for gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haneder, Stefan [University Medical Centre Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Radiology, Cologne (Germany); Budjan, Johannes Michael; Schoenberg, Stefan Oswald [University Medical Centre Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Konstandin, Simon; Schad, Lothar Rudi [University Medical Centre Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Hofheinz, Ralf Dieter [University Medical Centre Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, III. Department of Internal Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Gramlich, Veronika; Wenz, Frederik; Lohr, Frank; Boda-Heggemann, Judit [University Medical Centre Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Combined radiochemotherapy (RCT) for gastric cancer with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) results in ablative doses to the upper left kidney, while image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) allows kidney sparing despite improved target coverage. Renal function in long-term gastric cancer survivors was evaluated with 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and {sup 23}Na imaging. Five healthy volunteers and 13 patients after radiotherapy were included: 11 x IG-IMRT; 1 x 3D-CRT; 1 x ''positive control'' with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of a metastasis between the spleen/left kidney. Radiation doses were documented for the upper/middle/lower kidney subvolumes. Late toxicity was evaluated based on CTC criteria, questionnaire, and creatinine values. Morphological sequences, DWI images, and {sup 23}Na images were acquired using a {sup 1}H/{sup 23}Na-tuned body-coil before/after intravenous water load (WL). Statistics for [{sup 23}Na] (concentration) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated for upper/middle/lower renal subvolumes. Corticomedullary [{sup 23}Na] gradients and [{sup 23}Na] differences after WL were determined. No major morphological alteration was detected in any patient. Minor scars were observed in the cranial subvolume of the left kidney of the 3D-CRT and the whole kidney of the control SBRT patient. All participants presented a corticomedullary [{sup 23}Na] gradient. After WL, a significant physiological [{sup 23}Na] gradient decrease (p < 0.001) was observed in all HV and IG-IMRT patients. In the cranial left kidney of the 3D-CRT patient and the positive control SBRT patient, the decrease was nonsignificant (p = 0.01, p = 0.02). ADC values were altered nonsignificantly in all renal subvolumes (all participants). Renal subvolumes with doses ≥ 35 Gy showed a reduced change of the [{sup 23}Na] gradient after WL (p = 0

  8. Quantitative sodium MR imaging of native versus transplanted kidneys using a dual-tuned proton/sodium ({sup 1}H/{sup 23}Na) coil: initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Chan Hong; Furlan, Alessandro [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kim, Jung-Hwan; Bae, Kyongtae Ty [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Bioengineering, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Zhao, Tiejun [MR R and D Collaborations, Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Shapiro, Ron [Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute, Department of Surgery, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    To compare sodium ({sup 23}Na) characteristics between native and transplanted kidneys using dual-tuned proton ({sup 1}H)/sodium MRI. Six healthy volunteers and six renal transplant patients (3 normal function, 3 acute allograft rejection) were included. Proton/sodium MRI was obtained at 3 T using a dual-tuned coil. Signal to noise ratio (SNR), sodium concentration ([{sup 23}Na]) and cortico-medullary sodium gradient (CMSG) were measured. Reproducibility of [{sup 23}Na] measurement was also tested. SNR, [{sup 23}Na] and CMSG of the native and transplanted kidneys were compared. Proton and sodium images of kidneys were successfully acquired. SNR and [{sup 23}Na] measurements of the native kidneys were reproducible at two different sessions. [{sup 23}Na] and CMSG of the transplanted kidneys was significantly lower than those of the native kidneys: 153.5 ± 11.9 vs. 192.9 ± 9.6 mM (P = 0.002) and 8.9 ± 1.5 vs. 10.5 ± 0.9 mM/mm (P = 0.041), respectively. [{sup 23}Na] and CMSG of the transplanted kidneys with normal function vs. acute rejection were not statistically different. Sodium quantification of kidneys was reliably performed using proton/sodium MRI. [{sup 23}Na] and CMSG of the transplanted kidneys were lower than those of the native kidneys, but without a statistically significant difference between patients with or without renal allograft rejection. (orig.)

  9. Quantitative sodium MR imaging of native versus transplanted kidneys using a dual-tuned proton/sodium (1H/23Na) coil: initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare sodium (23Na) characteristics between native and transplanted kidneys using dual-tuned proton (1H)/sodium MRI. Six healthy volunteers and six renal transplant patients (3 normal function, 3 acute allograft rejection) were included. Proton/sodium MRI was obtained at 3 T using a dual-tuned coil. Signal to noise ratio (SNR), sodium concentration ([23Na]) and cortico-medullary sodium gradient (CMSG) were measured. Reproducibility of [23Na] measurement was also tested. SNR, [23Na] and CMSG of the native and transplanted kidneys were compared. Proton and sodium images of kidneys were successfully acquired. SNR and [23Na] measurements of the native kidneys were reproducible at two different sessions. [23Na] and CMSG of the transplanted kidneys was significantly lower than those of the native kidneys: 153.5 ± 11.9 vs. 192.9 ± 9.6 mM (P = 0.002) and 8.9 ± 1.5 vs. 10.5 ± 0.9 mM/mm (P = 0.041), respectively. [23Na] and CMSG of the transplanted kidneys with normal function vs. acute rejection were not statistically different. Sodium quantification of kidneys was reliably performed using proton/sodium MRI. [23Na] and CMSG of the transplanted kidneys were lower than those of the native kidneys, but without a statistically significant difference between patients with or without renal allograft rejection. (orig.)

  10. Interface Induced Growth and Transformation of Polymer-Conjugated Proto-Crystalline Phases in Aluminosilicate Hybrids: A Multiple-Quantum (23)Na-(23)Na MAS NMR Correlation Spectroscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brus, Jiri; Kobera, Libor; Urbanova, Martina; Doušová, Barbora; Lhotka, Miloslav; Koloušek, David; Kotek, Jiří; Čuba, Pavel; Czernek, Jiri; Dědeček, Jiří

    2016-03-22

    Nanostructured materials typically offer enhanced physicochemical properties because of their large interfacial area. In this contribution, we present a comprehensive structural characterization of aluminosilicate hybrids with polymer-conjugated nanosized zeolites specifically grown at the organic-inorganic interface. The inorganic amorphous Al-O-Si framework is formed by alkali-activated low-temperature transformation of metakaoline, whereas simultaneous copolymerization of organic comonomers creates a secondary epoxide network covalently bound to the aluminosilicate matrix. This secondary epoxide phase not only enhances the mechanical integrity of the resulting hybrids but also introduces additional binding sites accessible for compensating negative charge on the aluminosilicate framework. This way, the polymer network initiates growth and subsequent transformation of protocrystalline short-range ordered zeolite domains that are located at the organic-inorganic interface. By applying an experimental approach based on 2D (23)Na-(23)Na double-quantum (DQ) MAS NMR spectroscopy, we discovered multiple sodium binding sites in these protocrystalline domains, in which immobilized Na(+) ions form pairs or small clusters. It is further demonstrated that these sites, the local geometry of which allows for the pairing of sodium ions, are preferentially occupied by Pb(2+) ions during the ion exchange. The proposed synthesis protocol thus allows for the preparation of a novel type of geopolymer hybrids with polymer-conjugated zeolite phases suitable for capturing and storage of metal cations. The demonstrated (23)Na-(23)Na DQ MAS NMR combined with DFT calculations represents a suitable approach for understanding the role of Na(+) ions in aluminositicate solids and related inorganic-organic hybrids, particularly their specific arrangement and clustering at interfacial areas.

  11. Discrimination of intra- and extracellular 23Na + signals in yeast cell suspensions using longitudinal magnetic resonance relaxography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yajie; Poirer-Quinot, Marie; Springer, Charles S.; Balschi, James A.

    2010-07-01

    This study tested the ability of MR relaxography (MRR) to discriminate intra- (Nai+) and extracellular (Nae+)23Na + signals using their longitudinal relaxation time constant ( T1) values. Na +-loaded yeast cell ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) suspensions were investigated. Two types of compartmental 23Na +T1 differences were examined: a selective Nae+T1 decrease induced by an extracellular relaxation reagent (RR e), GdDOTP 5-; and, an intrinsic T1 difference. Parallel studies using the established method of 23Na MRS with an extracellular shift reagent (SR e), TmDOTP 5-, were used to validate the MRR measurements. With 12.8 mM RR e, the 23Nae+T1 was 2.4 ms and the 23Nai+T1 was 9.5 ms (9.4T, 24 °C). The Na + amounts and spontaneous efflux rate constants were found to be identical within experimental error whether measured by MRR/RR e or by MRS/SR e. Without RR e, the Na +-loaded yeast cell suspension 23Na MR signal exhibited two T1 values, 9.1 (±0.3) ms and 32.7 (±2.3) ms, assigned to 23Nai+ and 23Nae+, respectively. The Nai+ content measured was lower, 0.88 (±0.06); while Nae+ was higher, 1.43 (±0.12) compared with MRS/SR e measures on the same samples. However, the measured efflux rate constant was identical. T1 MRR potentially may be used for Nai+ determination in vivo and Na + flux measurements; with RR e for animal studies and without RR e for humans.

  12. Experimental study of the {sup 22}Ne(p,{gamma}){sup 23}Na reaction and its implications for novae scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Marie-Luise

    2013-08-01

    The {sup 22}Ne(p,{gamma}){sup 23}Na reaction belongs to the catalytic neon-sodium cycle and has an important role in the explosive hydrogen burning. The neon-sodium cycle takes place at temperatures of T = 0.1 - 0.5 GK and is assumed to occur in different astrophysical systems: e.g. in novae, in super novae of type Ia and during the shell-burning of red giant branch stars. The implications of {sup 22}Ne(p,{gamma}){sup 23}Na and the neon-sodium cycle in a nova scenario have been studied by using the nuclear network code libnucnet at GSI in Darmstadt. A nova is an outburst of matter in a binary system consisting of a white dwarf and a red giant star. It is therefore a representative phenomenon for explosive hydrogen burning. For the calculation of the nucleosynthesis during the nova outburst, the code libnucnet requires the initial mass composition of the novae partners, the temperature and density profiles of the nova explosion and the thermonuclear reaction rates of the participating reactions. In the following, the code determined the flow and the final atomic abundance in the neon-sodium cycle during the entire nova process. Additionally, the influence of the temperature profile of the novae outburst as well as the thermonuclear reaction rate of the {sup 22}Ne(p,{gamma}){sup 23}Na reaction on the final atomic abundance in the outburst has been studied. A characteristic measure for the reactions in astrophysical environments is the thermonuclear reaction rate. The reaction rate of {sup 22}Ne(p,{gamma}){sup 23}Na has still strong uncertainties in the temperature range of T = 0.03 - 0.3 GK. These uncertainties are based on insufficient upper limits of the resonance strengths as well as the possible existence of tentative states that are populated in the energy range of E{sup lab}{sub p} = 30 - 300 keV. The research presented in this thesis is dedicated to the experimental study of the {sup 22}Ne(p,{gamma}){sup 23}Na reaction for an improved determination of the

  13. Sepsis does not alter red blood cell glucose metabolism or Na+ concentration: A 2H-, 23Na-NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of sepsis on intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) and glucose metabolism were examined in rat red blood cells (RBCs) by using 23Na- and 2H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Sepsis was induced in 15 halothane-anesthetized female Sprague-Dawley rats by using the cecal ligation and perforation technique; 14 control rats underwent cecal manipulation without ligation. The animals were fasted for 36 h, but allowed free access to water. At 36 h postsurgery, RBCs were examined by 23Na-NMR by using dysprosium tripolyphosphate as a chemical shift reagent. Human RBCs from 17 critically ill nonseptic patients and from 7 patients who were diagnosed as septic were also examined for [Na+]i. Five rat RBC specimens had [Na+]i determined by both 23Na-NMR and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). For glucose metabolism studies, RBCs from septic and control rats were suspended in modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing [6,6-2H2]glucose and examined by 2H-NMR. No significant differences in [Na+]i or glucose utilization were found in RBCs from control or septic rats. There were no differences in [Na+]i in the two groups of patients. The [Na+]i determined by NMR spectroscopy agreed closely with measurements using ICP-AES and establish that 100% of the [Na+]i of the RBC is visible by NMR. Glucose measurements determined by 2H-NMR correlated closely (correlation coefficient = 0.93) with enzymatic analysis. These studies showed no evidence that sepsis disturbed RBC membrane function or metabolism

  14. Sepsis does not alter red blood cell glucose metabolism or Na+ concentration: A 2H-, 23Na-NMR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkiss, R.S.; Song, S.K.; Ling, C.S.; Ackerman, J.J.; Karl, I.E. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The effects of sepsis on intracellular Na+ concentration ((Na+)i) and glucose metabolism were examined in rat red blood cells (RBCs) by using 23Na- and 2H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Sepsis was induced in 15 halothane-anesthetized female Sprague-Dawley rats by using the cecal ligation and perforation technique; 14 control rats underwent cecal manipulation without ligation. The animals were fasted for 36 h, but allowed free access to water. At 36 h postsurgery, RBCs were examined by 23Na-NMR by using dysprosium tripolyphosphate as a chemical shift reagent. Human RBCs from 17 critically ill nonseptic patients and from 7 patients who were diagnosed as septic were also examined for (Na+)i. Five rat RBC specimens had (Na+)i determined by both 23Na-NMR and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). For glucose metabolism studies, RBCs from septic and control rats were suspended in modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing (6,6-2H2)glucose and examined by 2H-NMR. No significant differences in (Na+)i or glucose utilization were found in RBCs from control or septic rats. There were no differences in (Na+)i in the two groups of patients. The (Na+)i determined by NMR spectroscopy agreed closely with measurements using ICP-AES and establish that 100% of the (Na+)i of the RBC is visible by NMR. Glucose measurements determined by 2H-NMR correlated closely (correlation coefficient = 0.93) with enzymatic analysis. These studies showed no evidence that sepsis disturbed RBC membrane function or metabolism.

  15. 23Na NMR and FT-IR studies of sodium complexes with the ionophore lasalocid in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, G.; Gierczyk, B.; Brzezinski, B.; Różalski, B.; Bartl, F.; Zundel, G.; Sośnicki, J.; Grech, E.

    2000-01-01

    Lasalocid forms 1:1 or 2:2 complexes with sodium ions. The process of complexation was studied in different solvents at various temperatures by 23Na NMR. The formation constants and Δ G values were determined. The nature of the complex between lasalocid and Na + ions was also studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. In chloroform, a 2:2 complex of lasalocid and Na + ions is formed. A continuous absorption is observed in the far FT-IR spectrum of this complex. It indicates the large Na + polarizability due to fast fluctuations of the Na + ions in multiminima potentials, in the dimeric structure.

  16. Sodium-23 magnetic resonance imaging during and after transient cerebral ischemia: multinuclear stroke protocols for double-tuned 23Na/1H resonator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterling, Friedrich; Ansar, Saema; Handwerker, Eva

    2012-11-01

    A double-tuned 23Na/1H resonator system was developed to record multinuclear MR image data during and after transient cerebral ischemia. 1H-diffusion-, 1H perfusion, 1H T2-, 1H arterial blood flow- and 23Na spin density-weighted images were then acquired at three time points in a rodent stroke model: (I) during 90 min artery occlusion, (II) directly after arterial reperfusion and (III) one day after arterial reperfusion. Normal 23Na was detected in hypoperfused stroke tissue which exhibited a low 1H apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and no changes in 1H T2 relaxation time during transient ischemia, while 23Na increased and ADC values recovered to normal values directly after arterial reperfusion. For the first time, a similar imaging protocol was set-up on a clinical 3T MRI site in conjunction with a commercial double-tuned 1H/23Na birdcage resonator avoiding a time-consuming exchange of resonators or MRI systems. Multinuclear 23Na/1H MRI data sets were obtained from one stroke patient during both the acute and non-acute stroke phases with an aquisition time of 22 min. The lesion exhibiting low ADC was found to be larger compared to the lesion with high 23Na at 9 h after symptom onset. It is hoped that the presented pilot data demonstrate that fast multinuclear 23Na/1H MRI preclinical and clinical protocols can enable a better understanding of how temporal and regional MRI parameter changes link to pathophysiological variations in ischemic stroke tissue.

  17. Crystalline phase of sodium germanate system determined by x-ray diffraction and 23Na magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystalline products of sodium germanate glasses system with composition from 10 mol% to 50 mol% Na2O have been investigated using 23Na magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Fitting of the 23Na NMR spectra of the crystalline phases concerning different crystallographically sodium atom in sodium germanate system are reasonably reproducible as observed by the spectra obtained. The line shape simulations of the 23Na NMR spectra yielded NMR quadrupolar parameters such as nuclear quadrupole coupling constants (CQ), asymmetry parameters (η), and isotropic chemical shifts (δi). 23Na NMR isotropic chemical shift may also provide further information on the structural environment of the sodium atom. A simple correlation between structure and NMR parameters to be tested can be used to probe the structure of sodium germanate glasses. The experimental 23Na chemical shifts correlate well with an empirical shift parameter based on the total oxygen-cation bond valence and Na-O distances of all oxygen atoms in the first coordination sphere of the sodium cation. In this study the different phases in the sodium germanate system were identified. These results show that 23Na NMR can provide examples of the types of structural information for sodium germanate system. (Author)

  18. Practical design of a 4 Tesla double-tuned RF surface coil for interleaved 1H and 23Na MRI of rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alecci, M.; Romanzetti, S.; Kaffanke, J.; Celik, A.; Wegener, H. P.; Shah, N. J.

    2006-08-01

    MRI is proving to be a very useful tool for sodium quantification in animal models of stroke, ischemia, and cancer. In this work, we present the practical design of a dual-frequency RF surface coil that provides 1H and 23Na images of the rat head at 4 T. The dual-frequency RF surface coil comprised of a large loop tuned to the 1H frequency and a smaller co-planar loop tuned to the 23Na frequency. The mutual coupling between the two loops was eliminated by the use of a trap circuit inserted in the smaller coil. This independent-loop design was versatile since it enabled a separate optimisation of the sensitivity and RF field distributions of the two coils. To allow for an easy extension of this simple double-tuned coil design to other frequencies (nuclei) and dimensions, we describe in detail the practical aspects of the workbench design and MRI testing using a phantom that mimics in vivo conditions. A comparison between our independent-loop, double-tuned coil and a single-tuned 23Na coil of equal size obtained with a phantom matching in vivo conditions, showed a reduction of the 23Na sensitivity (about 28 %) because of signal losses in the trap inductance. Typical congruent 1H and 23Na rat brain images showing good SNR ( 23Na: brain 7, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid 11) and spatial resolution ( 23Na: 1.25 × 1.25 × 5 mm 3) are also reported. The in vivo SNR values obtained with this coil were comparable to, if not better than, other contemporary designs in the literature.

  19. Study of the {sup 22}Ne(p,γ){sup 23}Na reaction at LUNA with a 4π BGO summing detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takacs, Marcell Peter; Bemmerer, Daniel; Szuecs, Tamas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: LUNA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The {sup 22}Ne(p,γ){sup 23}Na reaction takes part in the neon-sodium cycle of hydrogen burning. This cycle is active in asymptotic giant branch stars as well as in novae and contributes to the nucleosythesis of neon and sodium isotopes. In order to reduce the uncertainties in the predicted nucleosynthesis yields, new experimental efforts to measure the {sup 22}Ne(p,γ){sup 23}Na cross section directly at the astrophysically relevant energies are needed. In the first, recently completed phase of the LUNA {sup 22}Ne(p,γ){sup 23}Na experiment, selected low-energy resonances were studied with two high-purity germanium detectors. In the present talk, the preparations for the second experimental phase are reported. In this phase, a 4π bismuth germanate summing detector will be used to address the lowest-energy resonances as well as direct capture.

  20. Structural analysis of alkali cations in mixed alkali silicate glasses by 23Na and 133Cs MAS NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Minami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the structural analysis of Na+ and Cs+ in sodium cesium silicate glasses by using 23Na and 133Cs magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR spectroscopy. In the NMR spectra of cesium silicate crystals, the peak position shifted to higher magnetic field for structures with larger Cs+ coordination numbers and to lower magnetic field for smaller Cs+ coordination numbers. The MAS NMR spectra of xNa2O-yCs2O-2SiO2 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.33, 0.5, 0.66, 0.8, 1.0; x + y = 1 glass reveal that the average coordination number of both the alkali cations decreases with increasing Cs+/(Na+ + Cs+ ratio. In addition, the coordination number of Na+ in xNa2O-yCs2O-2SiO2 glass is smaller than that of Cs+. This difference between the average coordination numbers of the alkali cations is considered to be one structural reason of the mixed alkali effect.

  1. Positive and Negative Mixed Glass Former Effects in Sodium Borosilicate and Borophosphate Glasses Studied by (23)Na NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storek, Michael; Adjei-Acheamfour, Mischa; Christensen, Randilynn; Martin, Steve W; Böhmer, Roland

    2016-05-19

    Glasses with varying compositions of constituent network formers but constant mobile ion content can display minima or maxima in their ion transport which are known as the negative or the positive mixed glass former effect, MGFE, respectively. Various nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are used to probe the ion hopping dynamics via the (23)Na nucleus on the microscopic level, and the results are compared with those from conductivity spectroscopy, which are more sensitive to the macroscopic charge carrier mobility. In this way, the current work examines two series of sodium borosilicate and sodium borophosphate glasses that display positive and negative MGFEs, respectively, in the composition dependence of their Na(+) ion conductivities at intermediate compositions of boron oxide substitution for silicon oxide and phosphorus oxide, respectively. A coherent theoretical analysis is performed for these glasses which jointly captures the results from measurements of spin relaxation and central-transition line shapes. On this basis and including new information from (11)B magic-angle spinning NMR regarding the speciation in the sodium borosilicate glasses, a comparison is carried out with predictions from theoretical approaches, notably from the network unit trap model. This comparison yields detailed insights into how a variation of the boron oxide content and thus of either the population of silicon or phosphorus containing network-forming units with different charge-trapping capabilities leads to nonlinear changes of the microscopic transport properties. PMID:27092392

  2. The 12C(12C,α)20Ne and 12C(12C,p)23Na reactions at the Gamow peak via the Trojan Horse Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Guardo, L.; Gulino, M.; Indelicato, I.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Spartá, R.

    2016-05-01

    A measurement of the 12C(14N,α20Ne)2H and 12C(14N,p23Na)2Hreactions has been performed at a 14N beam energy of 30.0 MeV. The experiment aims to explore the extent to which contributing 24Mg excited states can be populated in the quasi-free reaction off the deuteron in 14N. In particular, the 24Mg excitation region explored in the measurement plays a key role in stellar carbon burning whose cross section is commonly determined by extrapolating high-energy fusion data. From preliminary results, α and proton channels are clearly identified. In particular, ground and first excited states of 20Ne and 23Na play a major role.

  3. The Na+ transport in gram-positive bacteria defect in the Mrp antiporter complex measured with 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Kamil; Hägerhäll, Cecilia; Drakenberg, Torbjörn

    2014-01-15

    (23)Na nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has previously been used to monitor Na(+) translocation across membranes in gram-negative bacteria and in various other organelles and liposomes using a membrane-impermeable shift reagent to resolve the signals resulting from internal and external Na(+). In this work, the (23)Na NMR method was adapted for measurements of internal Na(+) concentration in the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, with the aim of assessing the Na(+) translocation activity of the Mrp (multiple resistance and pH) antiporter complex, a member of the cation proton antiporter-3 (CPA-3) family. The sodium-sensitive growth phenotype observed in a B. subtilis strain with the gene encoding MrpA deleted could indeed be correlated to the inability of this strain to maintain a lower internal Na(+) concentration than an external one. PMID:24139955

  4. Sodium ion dynamics in a sulfonate based ionomer system studied by 23Na solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane-sulphonate) (PAMPS) ionomer containing both sodium and quaternary ammonium cations functionalised with an ether group, has been characterised in terms of its thermal properties, ionic conductivity and sodium ion dynamics. The ether oxygen was incorporated to reduce the Na+ association with the anionic sulfonate groups tethered to the polymer backbone, thereby promoting ion dissociation and ultimately enhancing the ionic conductivity. This functionalised ammonium cation led to a significant reduction in the ionomer Tg compared to an analogue system without an ether group, resulting in an increase in ionic conductivity of approximately four orders of magnitude. The sodium ion dynamics were probed by 23Na solid-state NMR, which allowed the signals from the dissociated (mobile) and bound Na+ cations to be distinguished. This demonstrates the utility of 23Na solid-state NMR as a probe of sodium dynamics in ionomer systems

  5. The 12C(12C,α20Ne and 12C(12C,p23Na reactions at the Gamow peak via the Trojan Horse Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumino A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A measurement of the 12C(14N,α20Ne2H and 12C(14N,p23Na2Hreactions has been performed at a 14N beam energy of 30.0 MeV. The experiment aims to explore the extent to which contributing 24Mg excited states can be populated in the quasi-free reaction off the deuteron in 14N. In particular, the 24Mg excitation region explored in the measurement plays a key role in stellar carbon burning whose cross section is commonly determined by extrapolating high-energy fusion data. From preliminary results, α and proton channels are clearly identified. In particular, ground and first excited states of 20Ne and 23Na play a major role.

  6. A new study of the $^{22}$Ne(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$Na reaction deep underground: Feasibility, setup, and first observation of the 186 keV resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Cavanna, F; Menzel, M -L; Aliotta, M; Anders, M; Bemmerer, D; Broggini, C; Bruno, C G; Caciolli, A; Corvisiero, P; Davinson, T; di Leva, A; Elekes, Z; Ferraro, F; Formicola, A; Fülöp, Zs; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Gyürky, Gy; Imbriani, G; Junker, M; Menegazzo, R; Prati, P; Alvarez, C Rossi; Scott, D A; Somorjai, E; Straniero, O; Strieder, F; Szücs, T; Trezzi, D

    2014-01-01

    The $^{22}$Ne(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$Na reaction takes part in the neon-sodium cycle of hydrogen burning. This cycle is active in asymptotic giant branch stars as well as in novae and contributes to the nucleosythesis of neon and sodium isotopes. In order to reduce the uncertainties in the predicted nucleosynthesis yields, new experimental efforts to measure the $^{22}$Ne(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$Na cross section directly at the astrophysically relevant energies are needed. In the present work, a feasibility study for a $^{22}$Ne(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$Na experiment at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) 400\\,kV accelerator deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory, Italy, is reported. The ion beam induced $\\gamma$-ray background has been studied. The feasibility study led to the first observation of the $E_{\\rm p}$ = 186\\,keV resonance in a direct experiment. An experimental lower limit of 0.12\\,$\\times$\\,10$^{-6}$\\,eV has been obtained for the resonance strength. Informed by the feasibility study,...

  7. Scan time reduction in {sup 23}Na-Magnetic Resonance Imaging using the chemical shift imaging sequence. Evaluation of an iterative reconstruction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingaertner, Sebastian; Konstandin, Simon; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Wetterling, Friedrich [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Dublin Univ. (Ireland) Trinity Inst. of Neuroscience; Fatar, Marc [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Neurology; Neumaier-Probst, Eva [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate potential scan time reduction in {sup 23}Na-Magnetic Resonance Imaging with the chemical shift imaging sequence (CSI) using undersampled data of high-quality datasets, reconstructed with an iterative constrained reconstruction, compared to reduced resolution or reduced signal-to-noise ratio. CSI {sup 23}Na-images were retrospectively undersampled and reconstructed with a constrained reconstruction scheme. The results were compared to conventional methods of scan time reduction. The constrained reconstruction scheme used a phase constraint and a finite object support, which was extracted from a spatially registered {sup 1}H-image acquired with a double-tuned coil. The methods were evaluated using numerical simulations, phantom images and in-vivo images of a healthy volunteer and a patient who suffered from cerebral ischemic stroke. The constrained reconstruction scheme showed improved image quality compared to a decreased number of averages, images with decreased resolution or circular undersampling with weighted averaging for any undersampling factor. Brain images of a stroke patient, which were reconstructed from three-fold undersampled k-space data, resulted in only minor differences from the original image (normalized root means square error < 12%) and an almost identical delineation of the stroke region (mismatch < 6%). The acquisition of undersampled {sup 23}Na-CSI images enables up to three-fold scan time reduction with improved image quality compared to conventional methods of scan time saving.

  8. In Situ 13C and 23Na Magic Angle Spinning NMR Investigation of Supercritical CO2 Incorporation in Smectite-Natural Organic Matter Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, Geoffrey M.; Hoyt, David W.; Burton, Sarah D.; Ferguson, Brennan O.; Varga, Tamas; Kirkpatrick, Robert J.

    2014-01-29

    This paper presents an in situ NMR study of clay-natural organic polymer systems (a hectoritehumic acid [HA] composite) under CO2 storage reservoir conditions (90 bars CO2 pressure, 50°C). The 13C and 23Na NMR data show that supercritical CO2 interacts more strongly with the composite than with the base clay and does not react to form other C-containing species over several days at elevated CO2. With and without organic matter, the data suggest that CO2 enters the interlayer space of Na-hectorite equilibrated at 43% relative humidity. The presence of supercritical CO2 also leads to increased 23Na signal intensity, reduced line width at half height, increased basal width, more rapid 23Na T1 relaxation rates, and a shift to more positive resonance frequencies. Larger changes are observed for the hectorite-HA composite than for the base clay. In light of recently reported MD simulations of other polymer-Na-smectite composites, we interpret the observed changes as an increase in the rate of Na+ site hopping in the presence of supercritical CO2, the presence of potential new Na+ sorption sites when the humic acid is present, and perhaps an accompanying increase in the number of Na+ ions actively involved in site hopping. The results suggest that the presence of organic material either in clay interlayers or on external particle surfaces can significantly affect the behavior of supercritical CO2 and the mobility of metal ions in reservoir rocks.

  9. Strengths of the resonances at 436, 479, 639, 661, and 1279 keV in the $^{22}$Ne(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$Na reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Depalo, Rosanna; Ferraro, Federico; Slemer, Alessandra; Al-Abdullah, Tariq; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Anders, Michael; Bemmerer, Daniel; Elekes, Zoltán; Mattei, Giovanni; Reinicke, Stefan; Schmidt, Konrad; Scian, Carlo; Wagner, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The $^{22}$Ne(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$Na reaction is included in the neon-sodium cycle of hydrogen burning. A number of narrow resonances in the Gamow window dominates the thermonuclear reaction rate. Several resonance strengths are only poorly known. As a result, the $^{22}$Ne(p,$\\gamma$)$^{23}$Na thermonuclear reaction rate is the most uncertain rate of the cycle. Here, a new experimental study of the strengths of the resonances at 436, 479, 639, 661, and 1279 keV proton beam energy is reported. The data have been obtained using a tantalum target implanted with $^{22}$Ne. The strengths $\\omega\\gamma$ of the resonances at 436, 639, and 661 keV have been determined with a relative approach, using the 479 and 1279 keV resonances for normalization. Subsequently, the ratio of resonance strengths of the 479 and 1279 keV resonances was determined, improving the precision of these two standards. The new data are consistent with, but more precise than, the literature with the exception of the resonance at 661 keV, which i...

  10. Prezentacja sprawozdań finansowychw formie elektronicznej przez największe jednostki gospodarcze w Polsce w kontekście oczekiwań interesariuszy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michalak

    2010-12-01

    oczekiwań interesariuszy dotyczących zawartości i formy sprawozdań finansowych w wersji elektronicz-nej. W części drugiej zostały przeanalizowane trendy w rozwoju elektronicznej komunikacji z interesariuszami. W części trzeciej zaprezentowano metodykę i wyniki badań empirycznych prowadzonych przez autora. Badania literaturowe i empiryczne autora wskazują na istnienie istotnej luki między oczekiwaniami interesariuszy a praktyką prezentacji sprawozdań finanso-wych w formie elektronicznej przez jednostki gospodarcze. Możliwości zwiększenia użyteczności sprawozdań finansowych w formie elektronicznej nie są wykorzystane ze względu na zachowawcze podejście jednostek sporządzających sprawozdania finansowe. Podejście to polega na prostym odwzorowaniu wersji papierowej w wersji elektronicznej sprawozdania.

  11. Investigating the astrophysical 22Ne(p, γ23Na and 22Mg(p, γ23Al reactions with a multi-channel scattering formalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser P. R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The reaction 22Ne(p, γ23Na is key to the NeNa cycle of stellar nucleogenesis, and better understanding of the 22Mg(p, γ23Al reaction is needed to understand the 22Na puzzle in ONe white dwarf novae. We aim to study these reactions using a multi-channel algebraic scattering (MCAS formalism for low-energy nucleon-nucleus scattering, recently expanded to investigate radiative capture. As a first step towards this goal, we here calculate the energy levels of the mass-23 (Ne, Mg, Na, Al nuclei. This is not only because the resonant structure of these nuclei are related to the astrophysical -rates of interest, but also because the interaction parameters determined for describing the energy levels are an integral part of the future calculation of the astrophysical reactions when using the MCAS scheme.

  12. Measurement of thermal neutron distribution from a medical cyclotron using auto radiography with 23Na activation detector and medical imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the generated activity of 18F was 100 GBq, about 1015 neutrons are emitted by the nuclear reaction in target of the medical cyclotron. These neutrons induce activity in the cyclotron and the indoor concrete of the cyclotron room, and will contribute to the exposure of the staff maintaining the cyclotron. This paper describes the basic characteristics of the thermal neutron measurement method of 23Na activation detector by auto radiography (ARG) using the medical imaging plate (IP). Simple linear regression lines were able to describe the relationship between the scanner unit and the activity of 24Na. The optimal S value and exposure time of ARG method was found to be 1,000 and 24 hours. This method that uses the salt instead of gold foil allows hospitals to measure the thermal neutron fluencies easily at many locations for the radiation safety management of routine work and the decommissioning of the cyclotron facility. (author)

  13. Investigating the astrophysical 22Ne(p,γ)23Na and 22Mg(p,γ)23Al reactions with a multi-channel scattering formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction 22Ne(p,γ)23Na is key to the NeNa cycle of stellar nucleogenesis, and a better understanding of the 22Mg(p,γ)23Al reaction is needed to understand the 22Na puzzle in ONe white dwarf novae. We aim at studying these reactions using a multi-channel algebraic scattering (MCAS) formalism for low-energy nucleon-nucleus scattering, recently expanded to investigate radiative capture. As a first step towards this goal, we here calculate the energy levels of the mass-23 (Ne, Mg, Na, Al) nuclei. This is not only because the resonant structure of these nuclei are related to the astrophysical γ-rates of interest, but also because the interaction parameters determined for describing the energy levels are an integral part of the future calculation of the astrophysical reactions when using the MCAS scheme. (authors)

  14. High-resolution laser spectroscopy of the X1Sigma + and (1)3Sigma + states of 23Na85Rb molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Shunji; Ebi, Tsuyoshi; Tanimura, Mari; Ikoma, Heiji; Matsubara, Kensuke; Baba, Masaaki; Katô, Hajime

    1996-07-01

    High-resolution spectra of the B1Π→X1Σ+ transition of 23Na85Rb molecule are measured by the technique of the Doppler-free optical-optical double resonance polarization spectroscopy (OODRPS). The molecular constants of the X1Σ+(v″=5-30) levels are determined, and the potential energy curve is constructed up to v″=30 by the RKR method. The time-resolved fluorescence intensity following the excitation to the B1Π(v'=5,J'= around 20) level is measured, and the lifetime of the B1Π(v'=5) level in collisionless limit is determined to be 17.8 ns. The absolute value of the electric dipole moment of the B1Π-X1Σ+ transition is determined to be 7.0 D in the region of 3.73 Ålines to the (1)3Σ+ state from the B1Π(v'=8,J'=15) level, which is perturbed by the (1)3Π1(v0,N=J=15) level, are measured by the Doppler-free OODRPS. The energy spacing between the F1 and F3 components of the (1)3Σ+(v=4,N=15) level is observed to be smaller than 0.001 cm-1. The hyperfine splittings, which are described by Hund's case (bβS), are observed, and the hyperfine constants ANa and ARb of the (1)3Σ+(v=4) level are determined to be 0.0293 and 0.0336 cm-1, respectively. The hyperfine splittings are identified as originating from the Fermi contact interaction. From the analysis, it is concluded that the electron spins in the (1)3Σ+ state are almost equally populated to the 5sRb and 3sNa orbitals.

  15. [Application of near infrared spectroscopy to qualitative identification and quantitative determination of Puccinia strii formis f. sp. tritici and P. recondita f. sp. tritici].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Long; Ma, Zhan-Hong; Zhao, Long-Lian; Li, Jun-Hui; Wang, Hai-Guang

    2014-03-01

    To realize qualitative identification and quantitative determination of Puccinia strii formis f. sp. tritici (Pst) and P. recondita f. sp. tritici (Prt), a qualitative identification model was built using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with distinguished partial least squares (DPLS), and a quantitative determination model was built using NIRS combined with quantitative partial least squares (QPLS). In this study, 100 pure samples including 50 samples of Pst and 50 samples of Prt were obtained, and 120 mixed samples including three replicates of mixed urediospores of the two kinds of pathogen in different proportions (the content of Pst was within the range of 2. 5% 100% with 2. 5% as the gradient) were obtained. Then the spectra of the samples were collected using MPA spectrometer, respectively. Both pure samples and mixed samples were divided into training set and testing set with the ratio equal to 2:1. Qualitative identification model and quantitative determination model were built using internal cross-validation method in the spectral region 4,000--10,000 cm(-1) based on the training sets from pure samples and mixed samples, respectively. The results showed that the identification rates of the Pst-Prt qualitative identification model for training set and testing set were both up to 100. 00% when scatter correction was used as the preprocessing method of the spectra and the number of principal components was 3. When 'range normalization + scatter correction' was used as the preprocessing method of the spectra and the number of principal components was 6, determination coefficient (RZ), standard error of calibration (SEC) and average absolute relative deviation(AARD) of the Pst-Prt quantitative determination model for training set were 99.36%, 2.31% and 8.94%, respectively, and R2, standard error of prediction (SEP) and AARD for testing set were 99.37%, 2.29% and 5. 0%, respectively. The results indicated that qualitative identification

  16. A new study of the {sup 22}Ne(p, γ){sup 23}Na reaction deep underground: Feasibility, setup and first observation of the 186 keV resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanna, F.; Corvisiero, P.; Ferraro, F.; Prati, P. [Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Genova (Italy); Depalo, R. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padova (Italy); Menzel, M.L.; Anders, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Aliotta, M.; Bruno, C.G.; Davinson, T.; Scott, D.A. [University of Edinburgh, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Bemmerer, D.; Szuecs, T. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Broggini, C.; Menegazzo, R.; Rossi Alvarez, C. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Caciolli, A. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padova (Italy); Di Leva, A.; Imbriani, G. [Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Elekes, Z.; Fueloep, Z.; Gyuerky, G.; Somorjai, E. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Formicola, A.; Junker, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Gervino, G. [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Torino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Guglielmetti, A.; Trezzi, D. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, and INFN, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Gustavino, C. [INFN, Sezione di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Roma (Italy); Straniero, O. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, Teramo (Italy); Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Strieder, F. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Collaboration: LUNA Collaboration

    2014-11-15

    The {sup 22}Ne(p,γ){sup 23}Na reaction takes part in the neon-sodium cycle of hydrogen burning. This cycle is active in asymptotic giant branch stars as well as in novae and contributes to the nucleosythesis of neon and sodium isotopes. In order to reduce the uncertainties in the predicted nucleosynthesis yields, new experimental efforts to measure the {sup 22}Ne(p,γ){sup 23}Na cross section directly at the astrophysically relevant energies are needed. In the present work, a feasibility study for a {sup 22}Ne(p,γ){sup 23}Na experiment at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) 400 kV accelerator deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory, Italy, is reported. The ion-beam-induced γ-ray background has been studied. The feasibility study led to the first observation of the E{sub p}=186 keV resonance in a direct experiment. An experimental lower limit of 0.12 x 10{sup -6} eV has been obtained for the resonance strength. Informed by the feasibility study, a dedicated experimental setup for the {sup 22}Ne(p,γ){sup 23}Na experiment has been developed. The new setup has been characterized by a study of the temperature and pressure profiles. The beam heating effect that reduces the effective neon gas density due to the heating by the incident proton beam has been studied using the resonance scan technique, and the size of this effect has been determined for a neon gas target. (orig.)

  17. Application of 1H and 23Na magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy to define the HRBC up-taking of MRI contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabi, Luisella; Paleari, Lino; Biondi, Luca; Linati, Laura; De Miranda, Mario; Ghelli, Stefano

    2003-09-01

    The up-take of Gd(III) complexes of BOPTA, DTPA, DOTA, EDTP, HPDO3A, and DOTP in HRBC has been evaluated by measuring the lanthanide induced shift (LIS) produced by the corresponding dysprosium complexes (DC) on the MAS-NMR resonances of water protons and free sodium ions. These complexes are important in their use as MRI contrast agents (MRI-CA) in diagnostics. 1H and 23Na MAS-NMR spectra of HRBC suspension, collected at 9.395 T, show only one signal due to extra- and intra-cellular water (or sodium). In MAS spectra, the presence of DC in a cellular compartment produces the LIS of only the nuclei (water proton or sodium) in that cellular compartment and this LIS can be related to the DC concentrations (by the experimental curves of LIS vs. DC concentrations) collected in the physiological solution. To obtain correct results about LIS, the use of MAS technique is mandatory, because it guarantees the only the nuclei staying in the same cellular compartment where the LC is present show the LIS. In all the cases considered, the addition of the DC to HRBC (100% hematocrit) produced a shift of only the extra-cellular water (or sodium) signal and the gradient of concentration ( GC) between extra- and intra-cellular compartments resulted greater than 100:1, when calculated by means of sodium signals. These high values of GC are direct proofs that none of the tested dysprosium complexes crosses the HRBC membrane. Since the DC are iso-structural to the gadolinium complexes the corresponding gadolinium ones (MRI-CA) do not cross the HRBC membrane and, consequently, they are not up-taken in HRBC. The GC values calculated by means of water proton signals resulted much lower than those obtained by sodium signals. This proves that the choice of the isotope is a crucial step in order to use this method in the best way. In fact, GC value depends on the lowest detectable LIS which, in turn, depends on the nature of the LC (lanthanide complex) and the observed isotopes.

  18. Nové formy marketingu

    OpenAIRE

    Khalilova, Nazila

    2008-01-01

    The bachelor thesis "New trends in marketing communication" focuses on the new methods in a communication mix, such as guerilla, buzz, mobile, direct and event marketing, and product placement. The primary goal of the thesis is to define these tools and show the importance of implementing these methods in a globalised world. Samples of implementations of these new tools are shown on both, the Azerbaijanian and world market, in the practical part of the thesis. Also, Azerbaijanian market is sh...

  19. Elektronické formy marketingu

    OpenAIRE

    Habart, Lukáš

    2009-01-01

    Obsahem této bakalářské práce je analýza marketingu společnosti. Ve své práci se budu zabývat, zda společnost dostatečně využívá zejména elektronického marketingu, shrnu nejvýznamnější druhy elektronického marketingu, jeho trendy a vyberu pro společnost nejlépe vyhovující.

  20. Competitive binding exchange between alkali metal ions (K+, Rb+, and Cs+) and Na+ ions bound to the dimeric quadruplex [d(G4T4G4)]2: a 23Na and 1H NMR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesare Marincola, Flaminia; Virno, Ada; Randazzo, Antonio; Mocci, Francesca; Saba, Giuseppe; Lai, Adolfo

    2009-12-01

    A comparative study of the competitive cation exchange between the alkali metal ions K+, Rb+, and Cs+ and the Na+ ions bound to the dimeric quadruplex [d(G4T4G4)]2 was performed in aqueous solution by a combined use of the 23Na and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The titration data confirm the different binding affinities of these ions for the G-quadruplex and, in particular, major differences in the behavior of Cs+ as compared to the other ions were found. Accordingly, Cs+ competes with Na+ only for the binding sites at the quadruplex surface (primarily phosphate groups), while K+ and Rb+ are also able to replace sodium ions located inside the quadruplex. Furthermore, the 1H NMR results relative to the CsCl titration evidence a close approach of Cs+ ions to the phosphate groups in the narrow groove of [d(G4T4G4)]2. Based on a three-site exchange model, the 23Na NMR relaxation data lead to an estimate of the relative binding affinity of Cs+ versus Na+ for the quadruplex surface of 0.5 at 298 K. Comparing this value to those reported in the literature for the surface of the G-quadruplex formed by 5'-guanosinemonophosphate and for the surface of double-helical DNA suggests that topology factors may have an important influence on the cation affinity for the phosphate groups on DNA.

  1. Estimation of covariances of {sup 16}O, {sup 23}Na, Fe, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu neutron nuclear data in JENDL-3.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nakajima, Yutaka; Kawano, Toshihiko; Oh, Soo-Youl; Matsunobu, Hiroyuki; Murata, Toru

    1997-10-01

    Covariances of nuclear data have been estimated for 6 nuclides contained in JENDL-3.2. The nuclides considered are {sup 16}O, {sup 23}Na, Fe, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu, which are regarded as important for the nuclear design study of fast reactors. The physical quantities for which covariances are deduced are cross sections, resolved and unresolved resonance parameters, and the first order Legendre-polynomial coefficient for the angular distribution of elastically scattered neutrons. As for {sup 235}U, covariances were obtained also for the average number of neutrons emitted in fission. The covariances were estimated by using the same methodology that had been used in the JENDL-3.2 evaluation in order to keep a consistency between mean values and their covariances. The least-squares fitting code GMA was used in estimating covariances for reactions of which JENDL-3.2 cross sections had been evaluated by taking account of measurements. In nuclear model calculations, the covariances were calculated by the KALMAN system. The covariance data obtained were compiled in the ENDF-6 format, and will be put into the JENDL-3.2 Covariance File which is one of JENDL special purpose files. (author). 193 refs.

  2. Akademickie i pozaakademickie formy edukacji w marketingu

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, David; Kozielski, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This article is a missionary tract arguing for marketing education as a fundamental requirement for a successful marketing career. Marketing can be defined as a process for understanding markets, for quantifying present and forecasting future value required by different customer groups, ensuring the sourcing of identified demand, ensuring effective communication between market constituents and for measuring the effectiveness of the value delivered. This is not just common sense, it is require...

  3. FORMY DYSKRYMINACJI KOBIET NA POLSKIM RYNKU PRACY

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinowska-Nawrotek, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the analysis of gender inequalities in the professional sphere on the Polish labour markets from 1992 till 2003. In the beginning the definition and the forms of discrimination against women on the labour market were presented. Next the trial of the identification and the materialization of discrimination of women on the Polish labour market was raised on the basis of statistical data (GUS, Eurostat) and the results of public survey (bulletins of CB...

  4. The brute-force polarization of 23Na and the 23Na(n,γ)24Na reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Na target has been polarized by brute force to 22% and the γ radiation produced by polarized thermal neutron capture has been investigated. The 2+ channel spin contribution has been determined model independently and unambiguously for 22 primary transitions. The average 2+ channel contribution is 5.8(5)%. Spins of final levels are in agreement with previous assignments. For three levels spin restrictions have been made. The energies of positive parity levels are in agreement with a shell model calculation in the complete sd shell. (Auth.)

  5. Modes of strategic technology partnering Formy realizacji strategicznych partnerstw technologicznych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Puślecki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to verify the organizational modes of strategic technological partnering. The author used a classification of modes of technology cooperation in terms of inter-organizational dependence to discuss major trends and characteristics of different forms of inter-firm partnering on the basis of the MERIT-CATI database. In the article the following forms of technological cooperation were presented: joint-ventures (JV, R&D pacts, technology exchange agreements and research contracts, customer-supplier relations, X-licensing as well as R&D contracts. The verification of such forms of technology partnering was made in years 1980-1996 on the basis of the empirical material taken from MERIT-CATI database.

  6. Sodium 3D COncentration MApping (COMA 3D) Using 23Na and Proton MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Milton L.; Harrington, Michael G.; Schepkin, Victor D.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2014-01-01

    Functional changes of sodium 3D MRI signals were converted into millimolar concentration changes using an open-source fully automated MATLAB toolbox. These concentration changes are visualized via 3D sodium concentration maps, and they are overlaid over conventional 3D proton images to provide high-resolution co-registration for easy correlation of functional changes to anatomical regions. Nearly 5000/hour concentration maps were generated on a personal computer (ca. 2012) using 21.1 T 3D sodium MRI brain images of live rats with spatial resolution of 0.8×0.8×0.8 mm3 and imaging matrices of 60×60×60. The produced concentration maps allowed for non-invasive quantitative measurement of in vivo sodium concentration in the normal rat brain as a functional response to migraine-like conditions. The presented work can also be applied to sodium-associated changes in migraine, cancer, and other metabolic abnormalities that can be sensed by molecular imaging. The MATLAB toolbox allows for automated image analysis of the 3D images acquired on the Bruker platform and can be extended to other imaging platforms. The resulting images are presented in a form of series of 2D slices in all three dimensions in native MATLAB and PDF formats. The following is provided: (a) MATLAB source code for image processing, (b) the detailed processing procedures, (c) description of the code and all sub-routines, (d) example data sets of initial and processed data. The toolbox can be downloaded at: http://www.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/~truongm/COMA3D/ PMID:25261742

  7. Second-Scale Nuclear Spin Coherence Time of Trapped Ultracold $^{23}$Na$^{40}$K Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jee Woo; Loh, Huanqian; Will, Sebastian A; Zwierlein, Martin W

    2016-01-01

    Coherence, the stability of the relative phase between quantum states, lies at the heart of quantum mechanics. Applications such as precision measurement, interferometry, and quantum computation are enabled by physical systems that have quantum states with robust coherence. With the creation of molecular ensembles at sub-$\\mu$K temperatures, diatomic molecules have become a novel system under full quantum control. Here, we report on the observation of stable coherence between a pair of nuclear spin states of ultracold fermionic NaK molecules in the singlet rovibrational ground state. Employing microwave fields, we perform Ramsey spectroscopy and observe coherence times on the scale of one second. This work opens the door for the exploration of single molecules as a versatile quantum memory. Switchable long-range interactions between dipolar molecules can further enable two-qubit gates, allowing quantum storage and processing in the same physical system. Within the observed coherence time, $10^4$ one- and two-...

  8. New and advanced sequences for 23Na NMR imaging, implemented on a 7 T system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer

    2009-01-01

    sodium is excited then it is possible to follow the sodium gradient over time and to determine the cell state earlier than today.   Methods   1. Implementation of multi quantum coherence techniques for sodium pool quantification   2. Development and implementation of the Non Negative Least Square (NNLS......) relaxation analysis for sodium pool quantification   3. Development of novel optimal control quadrupolar coupling band specific excitation experiments   4. Implementation of novel imaging methods for sodium imaging of the "invisible", fast relaxing, sodium pool   5. Implementation of newly proposed...... quadrupolar sodium specific experiments   6. Development of new experiments for sodium quantification purposes   Results   I have shown that it is applicable to use these techniques for in vivo systems on a 7 T experimental scanner. The sodium pool population and the cells under investigation dictate which...

  9. Sodium 3D COncentration MApping (COMA 3D) using 23Na and proton MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Milton L.; Harrington, Michael G.; Schepkin, Victor D.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2014-10-01

    Functional changes of sodium 3D MRI signals were converted into millimolar concentration changes using an open-source fully automated MATLAB toolbox. These concentration changes are visualized via 3D sodium concentration maps, and they are overlaid over conventional 3D proton images to provide high-resolution co-registration for easy correlation of functional changes to anatomical regions. Nearly 5000/h concentration maps were generated on a personal computer (ca. 2012) using 21.1 T 3D sodium MRI brain images of live rats with spatial resolution of 0.8 × 0.8 × 0.8 mm3 and imaging matrices of 60 × 60 × 60. The produced concentration maps allowed for non-invasive quantitative measurement of in vivo sodium concentration in the normal rat brain as a functional response to migraine-like conditions. The presented work can also be applied to sodium-associated changes in migraine, cancer, and other metabolic abnormalities that can be sensed by molecular imaging. The MATLAB toolbox allows for automated image analysis of the 3D images acquired on the Bruker platform and can be extended to other imaging platforms. The resulting images are presented in a form of series of 2D slices in all three dimensions in native MATLAB and PDF formats. The following is provided: (a) MATLAB source code for image processing, (b) the detailed processing procedures, (c) description of the code and all sub-routines, (d) example data sets of initial and processed data. The toolbox can be downloaded at: http://www.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/~truongm/COMA3D/.

  10. Sodium 3D COncentration MApping (COMA 3D) using (23)Na and proton MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Milton L; Harrington, Michael G; Schepkin, Victor D; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-10-01

    Functional changes of sodium 3D MRI signals were converted into millimolar concentration changes using an open-source fully automated MATLAB toolbox. These concentration changes are visualized via 3D sodium concentration maps, and they are overlaid over conventional 3D proton images to provide high-resolution co-registration for easy correlation of functional changes to anatomical regions. Nearly 5000/h concentration maps were generated on a personal computer (ca. 2012) using 21.1T 3D sodium MRI brain images of live rats with spatial resolution of 0.8×0.8×0.8 mm(3) and imaging matrices of 60×60×60. The produced concentration maps allowed for non-invasive quantitative measurement of in vivo sodium concentration in the normal rat brain as a functional response to migraine-like conditions. The presented work can also be applied to sodium-associated changes in migraine, cancer, and other metabolic abnormalities that can be sensed by molecular imaging. The MATLAB toolbox allows for automated image analysis of the 3D images acquired on the Bruker platform and can be extended to other imaging platforms. The resulting images are presented in a form of series of 2D slices in all three dimensions in native MATLAB and PDF formats. The following is provided: (a) MATLAB source code for image processing, (b) the detailed processing procedures, (c) description of the code and all sub-routines, (d) example data sets of initial and processed data. The toolbox can be downloaded at: http://www.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/~truongm/COMA3D/.

  11. Characterization of 22Ne implanted target by 22Ne(p,γ)23Na resonance reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of nuclear reactions relevant to astrophysical scenario, often require measurement of cross section in picobarn to nano-barn range (1 barn = 10−24 cm2). So we need targets which are isotopically pure and can withstand high beam load over a long time. Even the backings used should contain no or very low concentration of impurities. Implantation technique has been found to be one of the most effective methods to produce such targets

  12. Vybrané formy vstupu podniku na zahraniční trh

    OpenAIRE

    Bitnarová, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to provide a comprehensive overview of the possible forms of entry on foreign markets. Various inputs are compared according to an advantages and disadvantages. Diploma thesis is focused on trading with West Africa, particularly with Nigeria. Therefore I will bring the importance of the process of discussions and negotiations with respect to awareness of differences in cultural aspects of the negotiations and contracts. In conclusion, I refer to the establishment of ...

  13. Penzijní připojištění a jeho formy

    OpenAIRE

    Lášková Dlabačová, Milada

    2011-01-01

    This Diploma thesis „Types of Supplementary Pension Insurance” deals with pension scheme systems in the Czech Republic. This subject is particularly important, given the upcoming pension reforms. This paper defines the purpose of pension schemes, and further highlights the benefits for pension plan participants, employers and employees. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the existing options available on the Czech pension insurance market, mutual comparison of the existing pens...

  14. Bezpośrednie formy demokracji przemysłowej w krajach Europy Zachodniej

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf, Stanisław

    1985-01-01

    The author his made an attempt at determining the role of new forms of work organization for the industrial life democratization in the West. Growing interest taken in these forms recently is connected with the fact that they allow to mitigate the difficulties accumulating in the enterprise. From among the analyzed forms of organization of work such as job rotation, job enlargement, job enrichment and autonomous groups, mainly the two last mentioned forms afford a higher autonomy for em...

  15. Pracovní doba a flexibilní formy práce

    OpenAIRE

    Rombaldová, Karolína

    2011-01-01

    Suitable working time arrangements, implementation of flexible forms of work and a provision of sufficient rest periods are vital prerequisites for the creation of favourable working conditions leading to a satisfaction of both employees and employers. This bachelor thesis deals with the legal regulation of working hours and rest periods in the Labour Code, comparison of the duration of working hours in the Czech Republic and other countries of the European Union and furthermore deals with th...

  16. Sofistikované formy násilí na pracovišti

    OpenAIRE

    Mládková, Libuše

    2013-01-01

    Various forms of workplace violence can sort between socially pathological phenomena that can affect how the affected workers and their families, colleagues and the organization itself, as well as society at large. Psychological terror in the workplace must be taken seriously because the consequences are complex. Relationships to others are an essential part of our lives and not just the work. It is therefore no coincidence that the good relations in the workplace, the organization pays. M...

  17. Formy násilí na pracovišti

    OpenAIRE

    Veselá, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    The thesis focuses on violence in the workplace. The theoretical part explains all important terms related to bullying in the workplace. The aim is to determine how the problem is perceived and awareness of mobbing and other forms of violence. The analytical section interprets results of the questionnaire, to do this. The survey was conducted at the Fire and Rescue Service Central Region.

  18. Formy regionální kooperace z pohledu podpory produkce

    OpenAIRE

    KARBULKA, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was the analysis of a local action group and definition of its potential in the field of local production support. This namely concerned Local action group Hlubocko - Lišovsko. Analyses of primary data showed that local action group support local production.

  19. Formy regionální kooperace z pohledu podpory produkce

    OpenAIRE

    TONDROVÁ, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    In my bachelor thesis I looked at the analysis of the activities of Local action group. Specifically, the Local action group Pomalší. The main task was to characterize the aktivity of Local action group Pomalší and to define its potential in promoting production.

  20. Formy kompenzace stresu u vedoucích pracovníků

    OpenAIRE

    Šíma, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    The Bachelor Thesis deals with the issueof stress in managersand with the way managers compensate their stress. This Bachelor thesis concentrated the theoretical part on the causes, clasification, signs, consequences and compensation of stress with focus on work stress related to managers

  1. Tvorba zájezdu podle druhu(formy) cestovního ruchu

    OpenAIRE

    Tomšů, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to create an untraditional incoming tourism original tour based on the demand of the foreign travel agency which consists of a recognizing mainly of the South Moravian region and a staying in Priessnitz's health resort in Jesenik with a wellness program. The South Moravia is very attractive region as well as mentioned helth resort. This thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part basic terms are characterized, the tour is created in the second part. The whol...

  2. Rodina, její formy a přeměny

    OpenAIRE

    Tesařová, Žaneta

    2014-01-01

    My bachelor thesis deals with the issue of family, its changes and different forms of family life. The work is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part focuses on the definition of family from different points of view. It also describes its functions and compares traditional and modern families. An essential part of this work deals with modern or more precisely postmodern family. It is concerned with the theme of marriage and its alternatives, as well as questions abo...

  3. The effects of pre-salting methods on salt and water distribution of heavily salted cod, as analyzed by (1)H and (23)Na MRI, (23)Na NMR, low-field NMR and physicochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjónsdóttir, María; Traoré, Amidou; Jónsson, Ásbjörn; Karlsdóttir, Magnea Gudrún; Arason, Sigurjón

    2015-12-01

    The effect of different pre-salting methods (brine injection with salt with/without polyphosphates, brining and pickling) on the water and salt distribution in dry salted Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fillets was studied with proton and sodium NMR and MRI methods, supported by physicochemical analysis of salt and water content as well as water holding capacity. The study indicated that double head brine injection with salt and phosphates lead to the least heterogeneous water distribution, while pickle salting had the least heterogeneous salt distribution. Fillets from all treatments contained spots with unsaturated brine, increasing the risk of microbial denaturation of the fillets during storage. Since a homogeneous water and salt distribution was not achieved with the studied pre-salting methods, further optimizations of the salting process, including the pre-salting and dry salting steps, must be made in the future. PMID:26041245

  4. Vitamin D improves viral response in hepatitis C genotype 2-3 na(i)ve patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Assy Nimer; Abu Mouch

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To examine whether vitamin D improved viral response and predicted treatment outcome in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2-3.METttODS:Fifty patients with chronic HCV genotype 2-3 were randomized consecutively into two groups:Treatment group [20 subjects,age 48 ± 14 years,body mass index (BMI) 30 ± 6,65% male],who received 180 μg pegylated α-interferon-2a plus oral ribavirin 800 mg/d (Peg/RBV),together with oral vitamin D3 (Vitamidyne D drops; 2000 IU/d,10 drops/d,normal serum level > 32 ng/mL) for 24 wk; and control group (30 subjects,age 45 ± 10 years,BMI 26 ± 3,60% male),who received identical therapy without vitamin D.HCV RNA was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.Undetectable HCV RNA at 4,12 and 24 wk after treatment was considered as rapid virological response,complete early virological response,and sustained virological response (SVR),respectively.Biomarkers of inflammation were measured.RESULTS:The treatment group with vitamin D had higher BMI (30±6 vs 26 ± 3,P < 0.02),and high viral load (> 400 000 IU/mL,65% vs 40%,P < 0.01)than controls.Ninety-five percent of treated patients were HCV RNA negative at week 4 and 12.At 24 wk after treatment (SVR),19/20 (95%) treated patients and 23/30 (77%) controls were HCV RNA negative (P < 0.001).Baseline serum vitamin D levels were lower at baseline (20 ± 8 ng/mL) and increased after 12 wk vitamin D treatment,to a mean level of (34 ± 11 ng/mL).Logistic regression analysis identified vitamin D supplement [odds ratio (OR) 3.0,95% CI 2.0-4.9,P <0.001],serum vitamin D levels (< 15 or > 15 ng/mL,OR 2.2,P < 0.01),and BMI (< 30 or > 30,OR 2.6,P < 0.01) as independent predictors of viral response.Adverse events were mild and typical of Peg/RBV.CONCLUSION:Low vitamin D levels predicts negative treatment outcome,and adding vitamin D to conventional Peg/RBV therapy for patients with HCV genotype 2-3 significantly improves viral response.

  5. Low-energy resonances in the 22Ne(p,γ23Na reaction directly observed at LUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavanna Francesca

    2015-01-01

    A study of this reaction has been carried out at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA, in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, using a windowless gas target and two high-purity germanium detectors. Several resonances have been observed for the first time in a direct experiment.

  6. TRADIČNÉ NÁSTROJE VERZUS NOVÉ FORMY A TRENDY V MARKETINGOVEJ KOMUNIKÁCII PODNIKOV NA SLOVENSKU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Grančičová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes taking place in the marketing environment of companies since the beginning of the 21st century can be described as fundamental. Marketing reacts to them by changing its orientation and developing its tools, as well as the means of their use in practice. In marketing communication, and especially in establishing the communication mix, the following aspects are becoming key: below-the-line activities, direct marketing, the internet, social networks and creative communication campaigns with the aim of promoting communication among customers (WoM. In the context of the above-mentioned trends and using data from a questionnaire-based survey, this article evaluates the quality of marketing communication of Slovak companies, with an emphasis on the extent of use of current trends and new forms in their marketing communication. This analysis also includes a statistical verification of how the use of new trends and forms of marketing communication depends on selected factors, as well as an evaluation of the impact of these factors on the given area. The selection of factors, such as company size, presence of foreign capital, sector, or primary market orientation of the company, was based on a logical assumption of their potential relevance for the studied subject. The article concludes by summarizing the established facts and outlining both existing problems and their possible solutions. The main finding is that the marketing communication of Slovak companies has not yet seen the expected shift as regards the importance of the individual forms of communication. In other words, traditional forms of communication are still prevailing. The use of alternative forms of marketing is another problem, since they are generally not seen as trustworthy, they are underestimated, and there is a general lack of experience regarding their use.

  7. Cestovní pojištění a jeho formy v ČR

    OpenAIRE

    HOŠKOVÁ, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The subject of my work „Travel insurance and its forms in Czech Republic“ is to discribe the travel insurance. In the first part, there is insurance discribed in the theory. The second part is focus on travel insurance. I selected sixt insurance companies and I focus on their history and offer in the travel insurance. In the end I compared products of those insurance companies including calculation of insurance rate.

  8. Formy działania jednostek samorządu terytorialnego w odniesieniu do pieczy zastępczej

    OpenAIRE

    Szwaja, Jacek Z.

    2012-01-01

    Artykuł recenzowany / peer-reviewed article Local government units are legally obliged to carry out a number of tasks in the foster care system for children. These tasks generally referred to the Family and Guardianship Code specifi es support for families and foster care system. The proper execution of these tasks requires appropriate forms of action. The paper presents: the type and form of tasks as well as and the legal action and actual actions taken in the field by the various local g...

  9. Formy náhradní rodinné péče v ČR

    OpenAIRE

    NAUŠOVÁ, Jitka

    2008-01-01

    My work contains the basic forms of substitute family care in the Czech republic and also a brief history of adoption and foster-parent´s care. It describes a family, its importance and functions. It mentions the defects in a family and parenhood. It makes clear both the criteria of child´s location in the substitute family care and the selection of the applicants. It shows the way how to ask for the substitute family care. The legal norms how make substitute family care posible are mentioned...

  10. Střešní zahrady - návrh extenzivní a intenzivní formy

    OpenAIRE

    Vášová, Denisa

    2012-01-01

    Green roof – design of extensive and intensive form This diploma thesis discusses the benefits and importance of the creation of roof gardens, especially in cities. It introduces green roofs as an ecological and aesthetical part of buildings. A Brief History provides an overview of the original idea of roof gardens and their development through the ages until today recent since 1989, when we got to the fresh wind from the western countries and development in this sector began to spread acr...

  11. Mzdový systém a formy odměňování

    OpenAIRE

    Fialová, Miroslava

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation work deals with characteristic of the wage system in the Czech republic and analysis of company remuneration in Center of social services Prague. The wage system can be also expressed as a group of standards, rules and regulations that regulate the employment and bonuses in company and the employees’ motivation to better performance. The literature search deals interpretation of relations between employer and employees and providing benefits. In the practical part is m...

  12. Vybrané formy podnikání a jejich zdaňování

    OpenAIRE

    Ištvánková, Šárka

    2015-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá zdaňováním příjmů fyzických osob z podnikání a jiné samostatné činnosti. Jejím cílem je porovnat daňovou zátěž živnostníků a společnosti s ručením omezeným a na základě zjištěných poznatků navrhnout kroky vedoucí k daňové optimalizaci. Za pomoci modelové situace porovnává, za kterých podmínek je vhodné podnikat jako živnostník a kdy jako společnost s ručením omezeným u konkrétního poplatníka. The bachelor thesis deals with taxation of personal business and o...

  13. Alternativní formy finančního řešení rizikovosti

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Michal

    2010-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with a considerable innovation of modern finance, insurance securitization. For better understanding of this concept it is important to consider insurance securitization in a broader context of financial securitization, which is presented in the first chapter. In the second part of this work the factors which have led to the development of insurance securitization are mentioned. Then there is a short comparison of insurance securitization with financial securitizatio...

  14. Formy vybraných kovů ve vodních systémech.

    OpenAIRE

    Němec, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Technika difuzního gradientu v tenkém filmu (DGT) byla použita ke stanovení koncentrací labilních forem vybraných kovů (Cu, Ni, Pb) v odpadní vodě odcházející z Fakulty chemické VUT v Brně.

  15. Biodosažitelné formy vybraných nutrientů v luštěninách

    OpenAIRE

    Landauf, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the quantitative determination of bioaccessible contents of selected elements (Cu, Fe, Zn) in legumes: chickpeas, pea, lentil, soybean, bean. The UBM in-vitro test was used for the study of bioaccessible forms. This method simulates human digestion using synthetic gastric juices. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used for the determination of the total content of selected elements in legumes and their bioaccessible contents in gastric and gastro-intestinal human tract....

  16. Změna právní formy společnosti s ručením omezeným

    OpenAIRE

    Dančíková, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Bachelor thesis was delail on process of change legal form in limited liability company and join-stock company. Details was written on law, accounting and tax therms. Theoretical part are rules of leading of limited liability company and join-stock company and rule sof change of legal form. In the practical part is simulated change of legal form. The final part are summarized impact of change of law form.

  17. Formy zlepšujících (KAIZEN) aktivit ve firmách z vybraných oborů

    OpenAIRE

    Sukdolák, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the thesis is to analyze continuous improvement (Kaizen) activities in companies, which operates in the Czech Rep. Based on this analysis, defining criteria for optimal selection of forms of continuous improvement activities, and aplling suitable tools and methods of continuous process improvement will follow.

  18. Szacowanie podstawy opodatkowania w podatku od towarów i usług jako formy przeciwdziałania oszustwom podatkowym – wybrane zagadnienia

    OpenAIRE

    Witczak, Radosław

    2013-01-01

    The problem of tax assessment in the VAT tax was presented. The provisions point out different methods of assessment of the tax base. The analyse of use of different methods in assessment of the tax base in VAT was given. The associated enterprises can also diminish tax liabilities in the VAT. Tax authorities can assess the turnover in such situation but the provisions curtail the tax assessment. The possibility of changing the provisions in this respect was discussed.

  19. Komparace zdanění zisků podnikatelů podle právní formy podnikání

    OpenAIRE

    Homolková, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    This diploma Thesis was focused on comparison of profit taxation by legal form of business. Two legal forms were chosen - sole trader and limited company. The main objective was to compare the effective rate of taxation of defined incomes in the period 2003 to 2009. The maximum amount of income produced was set to 5 million CZK. A secondary goal of this work was to describe and analyze which types of income can one reach through doing business via Ltd. In the final analysis, when compared wit...

  20. Vybrané právní formy podnikání zahraničního subjektu v ČR

    OpenAIRE

    Pacovský, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The work deals with the topic of entry of foreign entrepreneurs to the Czech market on the background of two different forms of business - franchising and a limited liability company. The main topic concentrates on the comparison of legislation and contractual framework of these two business forms, primarily focusing on intellectual property and the protection of intangible assets. The work presents general legal provisions related to contracts in the field of intellectual property rights, in...

  1. Analýza přesnosti výroby lamel formy pneumatiky vyráběných SLM technologií

    OpenAIRE

    Tomeš, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Práce se zprvu věnuje analýze a hodnocení stávající výroby lamel na dvou SLM zařízeních PXL a M2 Cusing, firem Phenix Systems a Concept Laser. Vzorky z obou strojů prošly stejným výrobním procesem a stejným procesem měření a vyhodnocení tak, aby mohlo proběhnout porovnání mezi jednotlivými stroji. Na vzorcích se porovnává geometrická přesnost, drsnost povrchu, mechanické vlastnosti a materiálová struktura. Pro lamely bylo nutné vytvořit digitální metodiku hodnocení geometrie. V další části pr...

  2. Ultracold collisions in a dual species 23Na-133Cs magneto-optical trap%磁光阱中超冷钠-铯原子碰撞的实验研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐润东; 刘文良; 武寄洲; 马杰; 肖连团; 贾锁堂

    2016-01-01

    The production and research of ultracold heteronuclear molecules have aroused the great interest recently. On the one hand, these molecules are extremely popular in experiments for exploring the collision dynamic behaviors in threshold, photoassociative spectrum and strong dipole-dipole interactions. On the other hand, ultracold polar molecules populated at deeply bound levels in the singlet ground state are the right candidates to investigate quantum memories for quantum simulation, and to study strongly interacting quantum degenerate gases. The precise knowledge of cold collision processes between two different types of alkali atoms is necessary for understanding and utilizing ultracold heteronuclear molecules, sympathetic cooling, and thus formation of two species BEC. The goal of the present investigation is to study the collisions between ultracold sodium atoms and cesium atoms. We systematically demonstrate simultaneously trapping ultracold sodium and cesium atoms in a dual-species magneto-optical trap (MOT). The sodium atom trap loss rate coefficient βNa-Cs is measured as a function of Na trapping laser intensity. At low intensities, the trap loss is dominated by ground-state hyperfine-changing collisions, while at high intensities, collisions involving excited atoms are more important. A strong interspecies collision-induced loss for Na atoms in the MOT is observed. In order to obtain the trap loss coefficient βNa-Cs, we proceed in two steps. First, the Cs repumping laser is blocked to avoid the formation of ultraold Cs atoms. The loading process of Na atoms is recorded when the Cs trapping laser is on. Second, the loading curves of the Na atoms are obtained as Cs atoms are present with the repumping laser beams. The total losses PNa and P′Na are acquired by fitting the two loading curves of trapped Na atoms. Thus, the trap loss coefficientβNa-Cs can be derived from the difference between total losses PNa and P′Na divided by the density of the Cs atoms. The coefficient βNa-Cs decreases in a range of 5–10 mW/cm2, which originates from the hyperfine-state changing (HFC) collision. A Doppler model is used to calculate the Na atom trap depth, in that the atom trap depth and exoergic energy determine the behavior of the collisional trap loss rate coefficient. The three corresponding calculated critical intensities of Na trapping laser are 7.98, 14.82, 16.2 mW/cm2 respectively in the Na-Cs HFC collision process. The first calculated critical intensity value agrees well with the experimental result. Our work provides a valuable insight into HFC collision between Na and Cs atoms and also paves the way for the production of ultracold NaCs molecules using Photoassociation (PA) technology. Furthermore, the experimental results lay a great basis for the obtainments of high sensitive heteronuclear NaCs molecular PA spectrum and the creation of deeply bound ground state molecules.

  3. Nieformalne związki jedno i dwupłciowe jako alternatywne formy życia małżeńsko-rodzinnego. Analiza jakości i stabilności relacji

    OpenAIRE

    Jankowiak, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the characteristics of alternative forms of marriage and family life with special consideration of cohabitation and homosexual relations. These untraditional kinds of partnership relations are more and more common and become new socialization patterns. An analysis was carried out of the satisfaction and stability of informal same- and different sex relations and a comparison of these relations was made to the intimate relations of marriages in order to esta...

  4. The Problem of Form in Objects under Redevelopment (On the Basis of Bytom Market Square Redevelopment Design) / Problem Formy W Obiektach Przebudowywanych (Na Przykładzie Projektu Realizacyjnego Przebudowy Bytomskiego Rynku)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryńczuk, Paweł

    2015-03-01

    The author believes that if a designer has performed many design or research works entailing solutions to various problems, it is recommendable to consider and become aware of previously used methods whose application might have been unwitting or instinctive. The outcome of such reflection can be worth describing and recording in order to formulate a set of guidelines useful in the future. Such methods, being intuitive in nature, are often tied to the designer's subconsciousness, thus are rarely expressed in a clear manner. By using own methods a designer can prove that space should be composed in a given way in order to address specific needs and defined objectives. All this is aimed at preventing accidental formation of space. An example of reasoning serving the aforementioned purpose can be found in a method referred to as CQC or Composition Quality Control, the application of which facilitates intentional shaping of an architectural piece of work. Autor uważa uważa, że jeśli projektant ma za sobą wiele prac projektowych lub też prac badawczych, które połączone były z rozwiązywaniem różnych problemów, to warto zastanowić się i uświadomić sobie sposoby, które dotychczas - może nieświadomie lub odruchowo - były stosowane. Wynik refleksji warto opisać i zapisać po to, żeby ująć go w układ wskazań na przyszłość. Metody te, mając charakter intuicyjny, często związane są z podświadomością projektanta, w związku z tym rzadko można spotkać je jako wyrażone w sposób wyraźny. Stosując metody własne można dowieść, że przestrzeń winna być komponowana tak, a nie inaczej dla określonych potrzeb i wytyczonych celów tak, aby jej forma nie była przypadkowa. Przykładem takiego rozumowania jest przyjeta metoda KJK, której zastosowanie pomaga w swiadomym kształtowaniu dzieła architektonicznego.

  5. Financování příspěvkových organizací z pohledu jejich hospodářsko - právní formy

    OpenAIRE

    Bienová, Lucie

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes funding of social services in view of different economic-legal forms. There are an accounting and funding of allowance organizations and other forms of companies and their advantages and disadvantages. The practical part is illustrated by Rest home "V Podzámčí" including its financial analysis and its cost calculation.

  6. Priame formy účasti občanov na činnosti orgânov štâtnej moci a sprâvy v ĆSSR

    OpenAIRE

    Palúš, Igor

    1991-01-01

    In his paper the author analyses the participation of citizens in the activity of state and administrative organs, within the system of federal Czechoslovak authorities. The introductory part consists of considerations of the conception of participation of the working people in control of the socialist community, stressing by the way the mutual importance of political and economic postulates in the process of managing the social and national matters. In the essential part of th...

  7. Metody a formy práce s mládeží v domech dětí a mládeže a v nízkoprahových klubech

    OpenAIRE

    JAKEŠ, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis describes ways and methods of work with children and young people in community centers. Theoretical part states the expression of ?Leisure Time? and historical development of the way people have spent their free time, based on literature. It deals with the problem of bringing up young people in their free time and also with the field of Leisure Time Pedagogy. The thesis includes a list of institutions offering meaningful activities to children and young people within the ...

  8. Šikana na pracovišti v prostředí českých univerzit: výskyt, formy a organizační souvislosti

    OpenAIRE

    Zábrodská, Kateřina; Květon, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Workplace bullying (or mobbing) refers to a destructive form of behaviour that occurs within organisations and that inflicts psychological and social harm on targeted employees, creates a hostile work environment, and affects organisations negatively. This article presents findings from the first Czech study into workplace bullying and other forms of negative workplace behaviour in Czech universities. The aim of the study was to analyse the incidence of bullying among university employees and...

  9. Application of the probe Horiba U-23 in the analysis of physical-chemical parameters of groundwater influences on the Osamu Utsumi uranium mine in Caldas-MG; Aplicacao da sonda Horiba U-23 na analise de parametros fisico-quimicos das aguas subterraneas sobre influencia da mina de uranio Osamu Utsumi em Caldas-MG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Flavio H.S., E-mail: flaviohsmoreira2@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Alberti, Heber L.C.; Silva, Nivaldo C., E-mail: heber@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: ncsilva@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Fleming, Peter Marshall, E-mail: pmf@cnen.gov.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, BH (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This study presents data on the analysis of physical-chemical parameters of groundwater in the uranium mine Osamu Utsumi, belonging to the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil - INB, in the municipality of Caldas. This work is part of the team responsible for the evaluation of Plano de Recuperacao de Areas Degradadas (PRAD), team consists of researchers from Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas - LAPOC and of the Centro de Desenvolvimento Tecnologico Nuclear - CDTN, units of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN. Sampling was carried out in eleven wells in the 'bota-fora 4' area and digs mine. Analyses of groundwater quality were performed using the multiparameter probe Horiba U23, recent acquisition of LAPOC. The results characterize the groundwater of ten wells monitored as acidic and with a high electrical conductivity, due to the impacts caused by drainage Mining Acid (DAM)

  10. Экслибрисы Юрия Орлова получили признание в Польше

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Graafik Juri Orlov sai Poolas toimunud Rahvusvahelisel graafiliste väikevormide ja eksliibriste biennaalil (XIII Międzyanrodowe Biennale Małej Formy Graficznej i Ekslibrisu, Ostrów Wielkopolski 2009) laureaadi tiitli

  11. Discrimination of press fit candidate microorganism (Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus licheniformis) by restriction fragment length polymorphic analysis of the 16SrRNA gene; 16S rRNA idenshi no sengen danpen kchotakei kaiseki niyoru atsunyukoho biseibutsu (Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus licheni-formis) no shikibetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Shinji; Otsuka, Makiko; Ichimura, Naoya; Yonebayashi, Eiji; Enomoto, Heiji

    1999-09-01

    In MeOH viewed as one of the improvement method for recovery of the petroleum with hope, the development of discrimination technique of press fit candidate microorganism and oil reservoir resident microorganism which exists in the test object oil reservoir was tried in order to monitor the survival situation of the microorganism which inserted in the oil reservoir under pressure. 16S rRNA amplified by the PCR using the universal primer The microorganism that it cut off the gene at restriction enzyme HhaI,MspI, AluI and inhabits oil reservoir water and oil reservoir rock in the object oil reservoir by ( necessarily TaqI ) and restriction fragment length polymorphic analysis was classified. As the result, the effectiveness of the this PCR-RFLP method was indicated the microorganism which showed RFLP pattern which is identical with the press fit candidate microorganism in the oil reservoir resident microorganism for the discrimination of the press fit candidate microorganism without existing. And, it was indicated that the this PCR-RFLP method was effective for the investigation of oil reservoir resident microbial community which can positively utilize source of nutrition inserted to oil reservoir with the press fit candidate microorganism under pressure, and it was possible to grasp oil reservoir resident microorganism to be especially considered in MEOR. (translated by NEDO)

  12. 德兴斑岩铜矿成矿流体来源及其演化的氧同位素证据%OXYGEN ISOTOPE IMPLICATION FOR SOURCE AND EVOLUTION OF ORE-FORMI NG FLUIDS IN DEXING PPRPHYRY COPPER DEPOSIT, JIANGXI PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金章东; 朱金初; 李福春; 卢新卫; 黄耀生

    2000-01-01

    与原始岩浆组成(δ18O=8.36×10 -3)相比,铜厂花岗闪长斑岩的氧同位素在纵向上存在着3个特征区段:①中段(标高0~80 m之间) 样品接近原始岩浆18O值;②上段:在此之上的样品δ18O值变化区间很大(5. 43~10.86)×10-3,有富集18O的,也有亏损18O的;③下段: 标高在0 m以下深部未/弱蚀变斑岩样品的δ18O值均一,亏损18O,集中在(6.8±0. 5)×10-3范围内.研究表明,这种现象是岩浆流体、深部非岩浆流体和浅部大气降水等3种不同来源的热液流体在不同温度、水/岩比环境下发生水岩交换综合形成的.

  13. 水蒸气法提取黑皮油松松针挥发油及GC/MS分析%Volatile Oil Extraction from Pinus tabulae formis var .mukdensis Uyeke Pine Needle by Vapor Method and Its GC-MS Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王得道; 朱玉; 刘洪章

    2013-01-01

      For the purpose of optimizing the extraction process of volatile oil from the Pinus tabulae f ormis var .mukdensis Uyeki pine needle and providing scientific basis for its further development ,the volatile oil was ex-tracted from the Pinus tabulae f ormis var .mukdensis Uyeki pine needle by vapor method .The effects of the particle sides ,ratio of material to liquid ,soaking time and extracting time on the extraction yield of volatile oil were studied through orthogonal experiment .Then ,the chemical constituents of volatile oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) .The results showed that the optimum conditions for extrac-ting the volatile oil from the Pinus tabulae f ormis var .mukdensis Uyeki pine needle :particle size was 100 ,ratio of material to liquid was 1∶16 ,soaking time was 16 h ,extracting time was 8 h ;Gas chromatography-mass spec-trometry technology identified 23 compounds ,accounting for 57 .84% of the total volatile oil ,including olefin tired accounted for 25 .13% ,12 .2% aromatic hydrocarbon ,lipid accounted for 9 .54% ,and a small amount of alcohol ,ester compounds .%  为优选黑皮油松挥发油的最佳提取条件,为黑皮油松松针的进一步综合开发利用提供科学依据,采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取马尾松松针挥发油,通过正交试验,研究颗粒大小、液料比、浸泡时间以及提取时间对黑皮油松松针挥发油提取得率的影响进行研究,并用气相色谱-质谱联用技术对其挥发油中化学成分进行分析。结果表明:黑皮油松最佳提取条件为颗粒大小100目,料液比1∶16,浸泡时间16 h ,提取时间8 h ;气相色谱-质谱联用技术从黑皮油松松针挥发油中鉴定出23种化合物,占挥发油总量的57.84%,其中烯烃类占25.13%,芳香烃占12.2%,脂类占9.54%,以及少量的醇、酯类化合物。

  14. Rodzina dotknięta przemocą – możliwości i formy pomocy na podstawie badań Specjalistycznych Ośrodków Wsparcia dla Ofiar Przemocy w Rodzinie w regionie dolnośląskim/ Violence Affected Family – Possibilities and Forms of Assistance Based on the Research of Specialist Centers of Support for Victims of Domestic Violence in the Region of Lower Silesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATA ŚWIĄTEK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Family has always created an indispensable environment for a man to fulfill his needs and for his development. Family makes our lives meaningful, helps to put plans into practice and to assign goals. The need for belonging to a family constitutes a value dear to all communities. In the literature of the subject there exists a general division into functional and non-functional families. One of the factors determining a family's capability is violence. It influences the quality of the offspring upbringing, family relationships and bonds. In its air social competence of parents declines and their attitude to family-related responsibilities deteriorates. The issue of domestic violence is tackles by specialists of the area of law, psychology, sociology, pedagogy and medicine, who are studying sources and methods of fighting with this phenomenon. Its social damage is so devastating that its unambiguous definition is almost impossible. In the face of a serious threat generated by domestic violence in recent years, there have been held campaigns, workshops, local and nationwide conferences to promote assistance to violence-stricken victims. Preventive schemes have also been developed to restrain violence in schools and local community. Violence affected individuals can seek help in centers founded especially for this purpose and maintained by local councils (MOPS or county councils (PCPR, as well as non-government organizations and associations. A comprehensive support for families suffering from domestic violence is provided by Emergency Intervention Centers and Specialist Centers of Support for Victims of domestic Violence. In the region of Lower Silesia there exist two institutions of such a character, one inWroclaw and the other one in Walbrzych. Their activity involves therapeutic tasks, aid and provision for victims of domestic violence.

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1252 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1252 ref|YP_001130163.1| O-antigen polymerase [Prosthecochloris vibrio...formis DSM 265] gb|ABP36661.1| O-antigen polymerase [Chlorobium phaeovibrioides DSM 265] YP_001130163.1 0.002 27% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-07-0095 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-07-0095 ref|YP_001130163.1| O-antigen polymerase [Prosthecochloris vibrio...formis DSM 265] gb|ABP36661.1| O-antigen polymerase [Prosthecochloris vibrioformis DSM 265] YP_001130163.1 0.33 27% ...

  17. What is a networked business?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santana Tapia, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    Due to increasing competitive pressure in their market, many enterprises are implementing changes to the way they conduct business. These changes range from implementing new IT, to redesigning the structure of the organization and entering into all kinds of cooperations with other enterprises, formi

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-2845 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-2845 ref|NP_066350.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Malawimonas jakobi...formis] gb|AAG13717.1|AF295546_43 NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Malawimonas jakobiformis] NP_066350.1 0.71 22% ...

  19. Nonracemic, chiral homoenolate reagents derived from (cycloalk-1-enyl)methyl carbamates and evaluation of their configurational stabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özlügedik, M.; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard; Wibbeling, B.;

    2002-01-01

    Several (cycloalk-1-enyl)methyl N,N-diisopropylcarbamates 11 were synthesised by three different methods and their asymmetric deprotonation by butyllithium/(-)-sparteine was investigated. The ratios of epimeric ion pairs 18·4/epi-18·4 were determined by (stereospecific) trimethylsilylation, formi...

  20. AcEST: DK947711 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available on-ATPase regulat... 39 0.008 sp|P03331|GAG_FRSF5 Gag polyprotein OS=Friend spleen focus-formi... 32 1.3 sp|...LERIV 263 >sp|P03331|GAG_FRSF5 Gag polyprotein OS=Friend spleen focus-forming virus (isolate 502) GN=gag PE=

  1. Biblioteka Narodowa Malty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowska Ewa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available W artykule przedstawiono historię i współczesne funkcjonowanie Biblioteki Narodowej Malty. Szczególną uwagę zwrócono na liczne formy aktywności naukowo-kulturalnej i działalność edukacyjno-marketingową instytucji.

  2. Coastal polynyas in the southwestern Weddell Sea: ice production and bottom water formation

    OpenAIRE

    Haid, Verena; Timmermann, Ralph; Ebner, Lars; Heinemann, Günther

    2011-01-01

    Coastal polynyas are areas in the ice-covered ocean from which the sea-ice cover has been mechanically removed, primarily by winds. They are areas of enhanced exchange processes between ocean and atmosphere. The increased heat flux allows for exceptionally high freezing rates, which lead to locally increased brine-rejection. In the southwestern Weddell Sea, wide continental shelves and a weak exchange with the open ocean provide conditions that allow for substantial salinity enrichment, formi...

  3. Back Street Bounty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID SPARKES

    2010-01-01

    @@ As soon as I stepped into the main street of the old city in Pingyao.Shanxi Province.I had a feeling I would not like the place.In fact.I basically made my mind up on the spot that I disliked it.It looked overly touristy.clichéd and lacking in the authenticity I was hoping for.My escape from Beijing's expat scene was looking shaky.

  4. Morfologičeskie i sintaktiko-semantičeskie modeli v imperativnom značenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fekete Egon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available (ruski V nastojaščej rabote rassmatrivajutsja: (a morfologičeskie formy imperativa v serbskom jazyke i (b drugie grammatičeskie sredstva, s pomošč'ju kotoryh možno vyrazit' imperativnye značenija (prezens, buduščee vremja, glagol'nye pričastija, infinitiv, imena suščestvitel'nye, narečija i meždometija.

  5. Preparation and crystallographic analysis of gliclazide polymorphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A J Rajamma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of gliclazide in the pharmaceutical industry, a large number of research groups have been engaged in various investigations aiming to enhance its biomedical application. But, very limited efforts have been made to study polymorphism of gliclazide. Therefore, this study focuses on solvent-induced polymorphism of gliclazide and its characterization by thermal methods. Three polymorphs namely, Form-I, II and III and an amorphous powder were produced from different solvents and solvent mixtures. Crystals were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction and single crystal x-ray diffraction. Polymorph Form-I is found to exist in centro-symmetric triclinic P-1 space group and has endothermic peak at 162.93°. Form-II has endothermic peak from 171.2° to 172.35° and exists in centro-symmetric monoclinic P2 1 /a space group while Form-III has endothermic peak from 168.93° to 169.86° and exists in centro-symmetric monoclinic P2 1 /n space group. The equilibrium solubility values of Form-I, II, III and the amorphous form were 0.4825±0.025, 0.2341±0.042, 0.2581±0.038 and 0.5213±0.072 mg/ml, respectively. The Form-I has relatively higher solubility and similar to that of amorphous gliclazide. Form-II and Form-III are relatively most stable and least soluble. However, there was no remarkable difference in their aqueous solubility under the conditions in which study was conducted.

  6. Rapid detection of malto-oligosaccharide-forming bacterial amylases by high performance anion-exchange chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Larsen, K. L.; Zimmermann, W.

    2000-01-01

    High performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection was applied for the rapid analysis of malto-oligosaccharides formed by extracellular enzyme preparations from 49 starch-degrading bacterial strains isolated from soil and compost samples. Malto-oligosaccharide-formi......-oligosaccharide-forming amylases, indicated by a predominant formation of maltohexaose from starch, were produced by enzyme preparations from four of the isolates growing at pH 7.0 and 10....

  7. Zaključenje, punovažnost i dokazivanje elektronskih ugovora: komparativna analiza

    OpenAIRE

    Trnavci, Genc

    2009-01-01

    Pravna regulacija transakcija elektronskim putem doživjela je pravi procvat u posljednje vrijeme. Usporedna zakonodavastva posebnu pažnju su posvetila problemima u vezi sa zaključivanjem elektronskih ugovora, odnosno postizanjem pravno relevantne suglasnosti prilikom njihovog zaključenja, dokazivanju postojanja i tumačenju sadržaja elektronskih ugovora i elektronskoj formi kao uvjetu punovažnosti ugovora. Zahtjevom primjene sigurnog (naprednog, kvalificiranog) elektronskog potpisa pravni prop...

  8. The Relationship with Self Esteem Between Assertiveness Levels of Sub-Elite In-Door Soccer Players

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar SUCAN; TURAN, Mehmet Behzat; Osman PEPE; Doğan DOĞAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was investigated the relationship with self esteem between assertiveness levels of sub-elite in-door soccer players. For this aim, 18–28 aged, 86 male and 91 female athletes studying 7 universities which joined in-door soccer championship of Turkish University Sport Federation was participated to study volunteerly.Participants were performed socio- demographic data formi Rathus Assertiveness Schedule and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Data were analyzed by using IBM ...

  9. Activation methods of retrospective dosimetry using biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    23Na and 32S are stable isotopes which are present in humans - 23Na in blood and other tissues, 32S in hair. When human body is irradiated by neutrons, nuclear reactions 23Na(n,γ)24Na and 32S(n,p)32P occur, the products, 24Na and 32P, being radioactive. The induced activity can be used for retrospective assessment of the neutron dose. The principle of this dosimetry application is described. As a particular case, the relations between the activity and neutron dose were derived for irradiation of a human by the fission neutron spectrum. (orig.)

  10. Study of the astrophysically important $\\boldsymbol{^{23}\\mathrm{Na}(\\alpha,p)^{26}\\mathrm{Mg}}$ and $\\boldsymbol{^{23}\\mathrm{Na}(\\alpha,n)^{26}\\mathrm{Al}}$ reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Avila, M L; Almaraz-Calderon, S; Ayangeakaa, A D; Dickerson, C; Hoffman, C R; Jiang, C L; Kay, B P; Lai, J; Nusair, O; Pardo, R C; Santiago-Gonzalez, D; Talwar, R; Ugalde, C

    2016-01-01

    The $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,p)^{26}$Mg and $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,n)^{26}$Al reactions are important for our understanding of the $^{26}$Al abundance in massive stars. The aim of this work is to report on a direct and simultaneous measurement of these astrophysically important reactions using an active target system. The reactions were investigated in inverse kinematics using $^{4}$He as the active target gas in the detector. We measured the excitation functions in the energy range of about 2 to 6 MeV in the center of mass. We have found that the cross sections of the $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,p)^{26}$Mg and the $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,n)^{26}$Al reactions are in good agreement with previous experiments, and with statistical model calculations.

  11. Double Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Crystal Chemistry at the Lattice Positions of Diamagnetic Atoms, Both Structural, and Foreign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shchepkin, V.D.; Vainshtein, D.I.; Dautov, R.A.; Vinokurov, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    Double nuclear magnetic resonance (DNMR) with Jeener's pulsed sequence on proton and fluorine frequencies was used to investigate the electric quadrupole interactions of (i) 23Na in Na2Cd(SO4)2·2H2O, B20=±218.5±1 kHz, B22=±98±5 kHz, (ii) of 23Na, which enter the crystal, CaF2:Na+ (0.07 wt. %) B20=±8

  12. Observation of a re-entrant phase transition in the molecular complex tris(μ2-3,5-diisopropyl-1,2,4-triazolato-κ2N1:N2trigold(I under high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H. Woodall

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a molecular crystal that exhibits four successive phase transitions under hydrostatic pressure, driven by aurophilic interactions, with the ground-state structure re-emerging at high pressure. The effect of pressure on two polytypes of tris(μ2-3,5-diisopropyl-1,2,4-triazolato-κ2N1:N2trigold(I (denoted Form-I and Form-II has been analysed using luminescence spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction and first-principles computation. A unique phase behaviour was observed in Form-I, with a complex sequence of phase transitions between 1 and 3.5 GPa. The ambient C2/c mother cell transforms to a P21/n phase above 1 GPa, followed by a P21/a phase above 2 GPa and a large-volume C2/c supercell at 2.70 GPa, with the previously observed P21/n phase then reappearing at higher pressure. The observation of crystallographically identical low- and high-pressure P21/n phases makes this a rare example of a re-entrant phase transformation. The phase behaviour has been characterized using detailed crystallographic theory and modelling, and rationalized in terms of molecular structural distortions. The dramatic changes in conformation are correlated with shifts of the luminescence maxima, from a band maximum at 14040 cm−1 at 2.40 GPa, decreasing steeply to 13550 cm−1 at 3 GPa. A similar study of Form-II displays more conventional crystallographic behaviour, indicating that the complex behaviour observed in Form-I is likely to be a direct consequence of the differences in crystal packing between the two polytypes.

  13. Teacher’s electronic portfolio in professional standard of teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naydenova Irina S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urgent questions related to the teacher professional standard, especially with the construction of its portfolio in electronic formis raised in the article. Today the most important indicator for the quality of teacher education is a professional competences of teachers which in demand with the era of postmodernism. However, attention is paid to such modern aspects of didactics as the digitization of learning and application of gadget technology in the educational process. The article analyzes the components, which today a teacher uses in the field of education and science of measuring the quality of social and emotional development of the student.

  14. Primjena informacijske i komunikacijske tehnologije (ICT) u slovenskom obrazovnom sustavu

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlič, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Istraživački projekt Didaktički aspekti primjene informacijske i komunikacijske tehnologije (ICT) – učenje i vježbanje pokriva slijedeće teme: analiza ICT-a, kreiranje i određivanje didaktičkih aspekata ICT-a u slovenskom obrazovnom sustavu, kreiranje i određivanje didaktičkih formi, metoda, pristupa, modela informacijske i komunikacijske tehnologije u obrazovanju i vježbanju, njihove praktične vrijednosti te kompatibilnost sa suvremenim ciljevima obrazovnih sustava.

  15. Pravna kultura srednjovjekovne Dalmacije između usmenosti i pismenosti

    OpenAIRE

    Lonza, Nella

    2013-01-01

    Analizom izvorne građe, uz primjenu komparativnih i teorijskih saznanja, autorica razmatra proces širenja pisanih oblika u privatnopravnim poslovima, sudskom postupku i normativnim oblicima u srednjovjekovnoj Dalmaciji. Revidirajući neka uvriježena shvaćanja u pravnopovijesnoj literaturi, analizira prijelazne faze i rani “suživot” usmenih i pisanih pravnih formi, vrijeme oblikovanja “pisanog standarda” te katalizatore tog procesa. Također prikazuje strategije stranaka u korištenju pisanih pra...

  16. Dynamika tożsamości instytucjonalnej wyrażana w zachowaniach komunikacyjnych wewnętrznych i zewnętrznych komunikatorów

    OpenAIRE

    Krawczak, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Wydział Neofilologii: Katedra Ekokomunikacji Instytucje stanowią najdoskonalsze formy społecznej organizacji, które zostały powołane do sfery publicznej w celu realizowania specyficznych funkcji. Niniejsza dysertacja zmierza do określenia dynamiki instytucjonalnej tożsamości wyrażanej przez wewnętrznych i zewnętrznych komunikatorów w zachowaniach komunikacyjnych. Kolektywna aktywność instytucji jest osiągalna dzięki działalności wyżej wymienionych komunikatorów tj. ludzkich agensów komunik...

  17. Transfer technologii a gospodarka

    OpenAIRE

    Mączyński, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    Transfer technologii jest obecnie kluczem do konkurencyjności i rozwoju ekonomicznego państw. Już wiele lat temu tacy ekonomiści, jak Robert Solow i Joseph Schumpeter, uznali inwestowanie w nowe technologie i ich upowszechnianie za siłę napędową wzrostu gospodarczego. Transfer technologii wpływa na tempo i kierunki rozwoju gospodarczego, strukturę gospodarki, a także na powstawanie jej nowych gałęzi, w tym wysoko zaawansowanych technologicznie. Rynek technologii tworzy nowe formy walki konkur...

  18. Morfologija kristala i rentgenografske osobitosti brazilijanita s različitih lokaliteta

    OpenAIRE

    Čobić, Andrea; Zebec, Vladimir; Scholz, Ricardo; Bermanec, Vladimir; de Brito Barreto, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Četrdeset i četiri kristala brazilijanita s nekoliko lokaliteta iz Brazila, Ruande i Kanade je mjereno na dvokružnom refleksnom goniometru u svrhu određivanja morfologije. Zabilježeno je 20 formi, od kojih šest do sada nije opisano. Sve plohe u zoni [001] su prutane paralelno kristalografskoj osi c. Sve prutane forme u [001] zoni daju višestruke signale. Forma {110} daje višestruke signale od kojih su dva uvijek oštra. Postoji iznimka gdje na jednom kristalu samo jedna ploha, (110), daje samo...

  19. You can be a wizard of IDS. Is your practice ready to form an integrated delivery system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Nick A

    2007-09-01

    To combat declining reimbursement and strengthen their positions in a highly competitive provider environment, leaders of large medical groups may consider forming an integrate delivery system (IDS) to gain a business advantage. Managing the array of organizational, operational, financial and human relationships affected by an IDS requires careful planning, good timing and a bit of luck. This article, the first of a two-part series, examines what questions physician practice leaders should ask--and answer--before formiing an IDS. PMID:17910216

  20. Društveno-gospodarske reforme 1950-1952. i njihov odraz na upravu Narodne Republike Hrvatske

    OpenAIRE

    Holjevac Tuković, Ana

    2004-01-01

    U članku su u kraćim crtama prikazane društveno-gospodarske prilike 1950-ih u Jugoslaviji, koje su uvjetovale provođenje niza reformi. Istaknute su glavne odrednice ideološko-političkih promjena uvjetovane pokušajima uvođenja samoupravljanja. Nadalje se analizira državna uprava i upravne reforme na saveznoj razini kao i njihov odraz na republike, odnosno upravu u Hrvatskoj. Posebno je naznačen proces napuštanja upravnih organizacijskih formi uspostavljenih u poslijeratnoj fazi državne uprave ...

  1. Diarylethene Materials for Rewritable Volume Holographic Data Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国栋; 何庆声; 丁德华; 邬敏贤; 金国藩; 蒲守智; 张复实; 刘学东; 袁鹏

    2003-01-01

    The photochromic diarylethene, 1,2-bis(2-methyl-5-(4-formyIphenyl)-thien-3-yl)perfluorocyclopentene ( 1 a) is studied and its applicable potential in rewritable volume holographic data storage is verified. Holographic recording films of 10-μm thickness have been fabricated. The refractive index modulation (△n = 1.15 × 10-3) between the open- and close-ring forms is detected to be large enough so that the films are suitable for the production of volume holographic storage. The experiments of angle multiplexing and rewriting holograms show that the materials are fit for volume holographic data storage.

  2. Ples i upotreba droga kao značenjske prakse u sociologiji rave-kulture

    OpenAIRE

    KRNIĆ, Rašeljka

    2013-01-01

    Potreba za modificiranjem ili odbacivanjem pojma subkulture javlja se početkom devedesetih, uglavnom kao reakcija na pojavu plesne elektronske glazbe i kulture koja oko nje nastaje. Upravo na tom primjeru postavlja se teza o promjenjivoj i kompleksnoj prirodi suvremenih mladenačkih kulturnih praksi, formi i stilova koji, da bi se razumjeli, zahtijevaju novu perspektivu i nove analitičke alate. Osim što su rave-kultura i različite scene elektronske glazbe poslužile kao “teren” n...

  3. ORGANIZACIJSKI OBLICI SUVREMENIH TERORISTIČKIH ORGANIZACIJA

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Periša, Ivona

    2012-01-01

    Kategorije „hijerarhija“ i „mreža“ koje imaju ključnu ulogu u literaturi o terorizmu temeljne su kategorije teorije organizacije. U slučaju terorističkih organizacija, dodatak mrežnih elemenata temeljno hijerarhijskoj strukturi smatra se nužnim za održavanje operativne učinkovitosti suočene sa stalnim prijetnjama i represijom. To dovodi do nastanka hibridnih formi što mrežnim i hijerarhijskim elementima omogućuje da pojačaju svoje relativne prednosti i nadoknade zajedničke slabosti. Ovi eleme...

  4. 各向异性网格下具有数值积分的非协调有限元逼近%Nonconforming Finite Element Approximation on Anisotropic Meshes with Numerical Quadrature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨乔; 石东洋

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we mainly discuss the nonconforming finite element method for second order elliptic boundary value problems on anisotropic meshes. By changing the discretization form(i.e., by use of numerical quadrature in the procedure of computing the left load ), we obtain the optimal estimate O(h), which is as same as in the traditional finite element analysis when the load f∈H1(Ω)∩C0(Ω) which is weaker than the previous studies. The results obtained in this paper are also valid to the conforming triangular element and nonconforming Carey's element.

  5. Stare nje i (ne)moć. U povodu 100. obljetnice rođenja Simone de Beauvoir

    OpenAIRE

    Polić, Rajka

    2009-01-01

    Na pragu starosti, sa šezdeset godina, Simone de Beauvoir piše o egzistencijalnim pitanjima starih ljudi. Svojom knjigom Starost pokušava razriješiti dvojbe koje se emancipiranoj osobi starenjem nezaobilazno postavljaju. Starost je nužnost dugog života za koju nismo dovoljno pripremljeni pa je Simone de Beauvoir temu obuhvatila kao antropološko, ekonomsko, sociološko, povijesno, političko i civilizacijsko pitanje. Napisana u formi eseja, knjiga je obilato protkana osobnošću autorice. Pišuć...

  6. Have Library Symbols Been Changed by Cultural Differences? A Comparative Study of the Example of the Logos of Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Anameriç, Hakan; Kruszewski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Pierwotna wersja arykułu została wygłoszona w formie referatu podczas: 5th International Conference on Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Libraries 4 - 7 June 2013, "La Sapienza" University, Rome Italy. Artykuł złożono do druku u organizatora konferencji. This article analyses some visual artifacts which are using by libraries. Due to the spaciousness of the topic they focused on two of the main and popular artifacts: the watchwords and the logos of libraries from two cultural areas, ...

  7. Structural and mechanistic investigations on Salmonella typhimurium acetate kinase (AckA: identification of a putative ligand binding pocket at the dimeric interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chittori Sagar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium can utilize acetate as the sole source of carbon and energy. Acetate kinase (AckA and phosphotransacetylase (Pta, key enzymes of acetate utilization pathway, regulate flux of metabolites in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, TCA cycle, glyoxylate bypass and fatty acid metabolism. Results Here we report kinetic characterization of S. typhimurium AckA (StAckA and structures of its unliganded (Form-I, 2.70 Å resolution and citrate-bound (Form-II, 1.90 Å resolution forms. The enzyme showed broad substrate specificity with kcat/Km in the order of acetate > propionate > formate. Further, the Km for acetyl-phosphate was significantly lower than for acetate and the enzyme could catalyze the reverse reaction (i.e. ATP synthesis more efficiently. ATP and Mg2+ could be substituted by other nucleoside 5′-triphosphates (GTP, UTP and CTP and divalent cations (Mn2+ and Co2+, respectively. Form-I StAckA represents the first structural report of an unliganded AckA. StAckA protomer consists of two domains with characteristic βββαβαβα topology of ASKHA superfamily of proteins. These domains adopt an intermediate conformation compared to that of open and closed forms of ligand-bound Methanosarcina thermophila AckA (MtAckA. Spectroscopic and structural analyses of StAckA further suggested occurrence of inter-domain motion upon ligand-binding. Unexpectedly, Form-II StAckA structure showed a drastic change in the conformation of residues 230–300 compared to that of Form-I. Further investigation revealed electron density corresponding to a citrate molecule in a pocket located at the dimeric interface of Form-II StAckA. Interestingly, a similar dimeric interface pocket lined with largely conserved residues could be identified in Form-I StAckA as well as in other enzymes homologous to AckA suggesting that ligand binding at this pocket may influence the function of these

  8. Capitolo III. Fenomeni religiosi all’origine della pittura rupestre

    OpenAIRE

    Piazza, Simone

    2013-01-01

    1– L’eremitismo Il portico della basilica di Sant’Angelo in Formis conserva un breve ciclo pittorico del xii secolo che narra la vita dell’eremita Paolo di Tebe, nato all’inizio del iii secolo (tav. 51 a). Nelle quattro lunette ai lati della porta d’ingresso è raccontato l’incontro che, all’età di centotredici anni, secondo quanto tramandato da san Girolamo, il venerando Paolo avrebbe avuto con il monaco novantenne Antonio venuto in visita presso la sua dimora, una grotta nel deserto della Te...

  9. Sodium-23 MRI of whole spine at 3 Tesla using a 5-channel receive-only phased-array and a whole-body transmit resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malzacher, Matthias; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Konstandin, Simon; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Haneder, Stefan [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; University Hospital of Cologne, Koeln (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-05-01

    Sodium magnetic resonance imaging ({sup 23}Na MRI) is a unique and non-invasive imaging technique which provides important information on cellular level about the tissue of the human body. Several applications for {sup 23}Na MRI were investigated with regard to the examination of the tissue viability and functionality for example in the brain, the heart or the breast. The {sup 23}Na MRI technique can also be integrated as a potential monitoring instrument after radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The main contribution in this work was the adaptation of {sup 23}Na MRI for spine imaging, which can provide essential information on the integrity of the intervertebral disks with respect to the early detection of disk degeneration. In this work, a transmit-only receive-only dual resonator system was designed and developed to cover the whole human spine using {sup 23}Na MRI and increase the receive sensitivity. The resonator system consisted of an already presented {sup 23}Na whole-body resonator and a newly developed 5-channel receive-only phased-array. The resonator system was first validated using bench top and phantom measurements. A threefold SNR improvement at the depth of the spine (∝7 cm) over the whole-body resonator was achieved using the spine array. {sup 23}Na MR measurements of the human spine using the transmit-only receive-only resonator system were performed on a healthy volunteer within an acquisition time of 10 minutes. A density adapted 3D radial sequence was chosen with 6 mm isotropic resolution, 49 ms repetition time and a short echo time of 540 μs. Furthermore, it was possible to quantify the tissue sodium concentration in the intervertebral discs in the lumbar region (120 ms repetition time) using this setup.

  10. Sodium-23 MRI of whole spine at 3 Tesla using a 5-channel receive-only phased-array and a whole-body transmit resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium magnetic resonance imaging (23Na MRI) is a unique and non-invasive imaging technique which provides important information on cellular level about the tissue of the human body. Several applications for 23Na MRI were investigated with regard to the examination of the tissue viability and functionality for example in the brain, the heart or the breast. The 23Na MRI technique can also be integrated as a potential monitoring instrument after radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The main contribution in this work was the adaptation of 23Na MRI for spine imaging, which can provide essential information on the integrity of the intervertebral disks with respect to the early detection of disk degeneration. In this work, a transmit-only receive-only dual resonator system was designed and developed to cover the whole human spine using 23Na MRI and increase the receive sensitivity. The resonator system consisted of an already presented 23Na whole-body resonator and a newly developed 5-channel receive-only phased-array. The resonator system was first validated using bench top and phantom measurements. A threefold SNR improvement at the depth of the spine (∝7 cm) over the whole-body resonator was achieved using the spine array. 23Na MR measurements of the human spine using the transmit-only receive-only resonator system were performed on a healthy volunteer within an acquisition time of 10 minutes. A density adapted 3D radial sequence was chosen with 6 mm isotropic resolution, 49 ms repetition time and a short echo time of 540 μs. Furthermore, it was possible to quantify the tissue sodium concentration in the intervertebral discs in the lumbar region (120 ms repetition time) using this setup.

  11. Whole body sodium MRI at 3T using an asymmetric birdcage resonator and short echo time sequence: first images of a male volunteer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterling, Friedrich; Corteville, Dominique M.; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Rennings, Andreas; Konstandin, Simon; Nagel, Armin M.; Stark, Helmut; Schad, Lothar R.

    2012-07-01

    Sodium magnetic resonance imaging (23Na MRI) is a non-invasive technique which allows spatial resolution of the tissue sodium concentration (TSC) in the human body. TSC measurements could potentially serve to monitor early treatment success of chemotherapy on patients who suffer from whole body metastases. Yet, the acquisition of whole body sodium (23Na) images has been hampered so far by the lack of large resonators and the extremely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) achieved with existing resonator systems. In this study, a 23Na resonator was constructed for whole body 23Na MRI at 3T comprising of a 16-leg, asymmetrical birdcage structure with 34 cm height, 47.5 cm width and 50 cm length. The resonator was driven in quadrature mode and could be used either as a transceiver resonator or, since active decoupling was included, as a transmit-only resonator in conjunction with a receive-only (RO) surface resonator. The relative B1-field profile was simulated and measured on phantoms, and 3D whole body 23Na MRI data of a healthy male volunteer were acquired in five segments with a nominal isotropic resolution of (6 × 6 × 6) mm3 and a 10 min acquisition time per scan. The measured SNR values in the 23Na-MR images varied from 9 ± 2 in calf muscle, 15 ± 2 in brain tissue, 23 ± 2 in the prostate and up to 42 ± 5 in the vertebral discs. Arms, legs, knees and hands could also be resolved with applied resonator and short time-to-echo (TE) (0.5 ms) radial sequence. Up to fivefold SNR improvement was achieved through combining the birdcage with local RO surface coil. In conclusion, 23Na MRI of the entire human body provides sub-cm spatial resolution, which allows resolution of all major human body parts with a scan time of less than 60 min.

  12. The use Na, Li, K cations for modification of ZSM-5 zewolite to control hydrocarbon cold-start emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubeva V.; Rohatgi U.; Korableva, A.; Anischenko, O.; Kustov, L.; Nissenbaum, V; Viola, M.B.

    2012-08-29

    This paper addresses the problem of controlling hydrocarbon emissions from cold-start of engines by investigating the adsorbents which could adsorb the hydrocarbons at cold temperatures and hold them to 250-300 ?. The materials, that has been studied, are based on the modification of ZSM-5 (SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} = 35) zeolite with Li, K, Na cations. It has been shown that the introduction of Li, Na and K in an amount that is equivalent to the content of Al in zeolite results in occurrence of toluene temperature desorption peaks at high-temperatures. The toluene temperature desorption curves for 5%Li-ZSM-5 and 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 zeolites are identical and have peak toluene desorption rate between 200 to 400 ?. Upon analysis of toluene adsorption isotherms for 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 and 5%Li-ZSM-5, it was concluded that the toluene diffusion inside of the modified zeolites channels is extremely slow and the sorption capacity of 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 is higher than with 5%Li-ZSM-5. The 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 didn't change toluene temperature programmed desorption (TPD) rate of curve after the treatment in environment with 10% ?{sub 2}? at 750-800 ? for about 28 h. The 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 zeolite is very promising as adsorbent to control the cold-start hydrocarbon emissions.

  13. Nejnovější účinné látky přírodního původu pro anti-aging kosmetiku

    OpenAIRE

    Fleková, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce studuje problematiku vybraných moderních anti-aging látek v kosmetických prostředcích. V literární rešerši byly popsány základní vlastnosti kůže a faktory ovlivňující její stárnutí. Dále byly popsány základní fyzikální formy kosmetických prostředků, základní kosmetické suroviny a nejnovější trendy v použití anti-aging látek. V experimentální části byly připraveny celkem čtyři fyzikální formy kosmetických prostředků – tonika, séra, masky a krémy. V této práci byly testován...

  14. Calculation of the elastic collision properties of Na and Li atoms at ultracold temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ji-Cai; Zhang Ying; Du Bing-Ge; Sun Jin-Feng

    2009-01-01

    This paper firstly reports a theoretical study of elastic scattering properties in a mixture of 23Na and 7Li atoms at cold and ultracold temperatures in detail.Based on the new constructed accurate singlet X1∑+g and the triplet a3∑+u states interatomic potentials for 23Na7Li mixture,it calculates the scattering lengths and the effective ranges by three computational methods,and obtains good agreements.Using the mass scaling method,it also calculates 23Na6Li scattering lengths and s-wave and total elastic cross sections,whose rich resonance structures were found and interpreted in terms of quasibound diatomic levels trapped behind a centrifugal barrier.

  15. Sodium MRI in human heart: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottomley, Paul A

    2016-02-01

    This paper offers a critical review of the properties, methods and potential clinical application of sodium ((23)Na) MRI in human heart. Because the tissue sodium concentration (TSC) in heart is about ~40 µmol/g wet weight, and the (23)Na gyromagnetic ratio and sensitivity are respectively about one-quarter and one-11th of that of hydrogen ((1)H), the signal-to-noise ratio of (23)Na MRI in the heart is about one-6000th of that of conventional cardiac (1)H MRI. In addition, as a quadrupolar nucleus, (23)Na exhibits ultra-short and multi-component relaxation behavior (T1 ~ 30 ms; T2 ~ 0.5-4 ms and 12-20 ms), which requires fast, specialized, ultra-short echo-time MRI sequences, especially for quantifying TSC. Cardiac (23)Na MRI studies from 1.5 to 7 T measure a volume-weighted sum of intra- and extra-cellular components present at cytosolic concentrations of 10-15 mM and 135-150 mM in healthy tissue, respectively, at a spatial resolution of about 0.1-1 ml in 10 min or so. Currently, intra- and extra-cellular sodium cannot be unambiguously resolved without the use of potentially toxic shift reagents. Nevertheless, increases in TSC attributable to an influx of intra-cellular sodium and/or increased extra-cellular volume have been demonstrated in human myocardial infarction consistent with prior animal studies, and arguably might also be seen in future studies of ischemia and cardiomyopathies--especially those involving defects in sodium transport. While technical implementation remains a hurdle, a central question for clinical use is whether cardiac (23)Na MRI can deliver useful information unobtainable by other more convenient methods, including (1)H MRI.

  16. Measurements of gamma rays from keV-neutron resonance capture by odd-Z nuclei in the 2s-1d shell region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igashira, Masayuki; Lee, Sam Yol; Mizuno, Satoshi; Hori, Jun-ichi [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Research Lab. for Nuclear Reactors; Kitazawa, Hideo

    1998-03-01

    Measurements of gamma rays from keV-neutron resonance capture by {sup 19}F, {sup 23}Na, and {sup 27}Al, which are odd-Z nuclei in the 2s-1d shell region, were performed, using an anti-Compton HPGe spectrometer and a pulsed neutron source by the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. Capture gamma rays from the 27-, 49-, and 97-keV resonances of {sup 19}F, the 35- and 53-keV resonances of {sup 23}Na, and the 35-keV resonance of {sup 27}Al were observed. Some results are presented. (author)

  17. A Practical Multinuclear Transceiver Volume Coil for in-vivo MRI/MRS at 7T

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chunsheng; Li, Ye; Wu, Bing; Xu, Duan; Nelson, Sarah; Daniel B Vigneron; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2011-01-01

    A practical multinuclear transceiver RF volume coil with improved efficiency for in-vivo small animal 1H/13C/23Na MR applications at the ultrahigh magnetic field of 7T is reported. In the proposed design, the coil’s resonance frequencies for 1H and 13C are realized by using a traditional double-tuned approach while the resonant frequency for 23Na, which is only some 4-MHz away from the 13C frequency, is tuned based upon 13C channel by easy-operating capacitive “frequency switches”. In contras...

  18. The potential of the ground state of NaRb

    CERN Document Server

    Docenko, O; Ferber, R; Pashov, A; Knoeckel, H; Tiemann, E

    2003-01-01

    The X$^{1}\\Sigma ^{+}$ state of NaRb was studied by Fourier transform spectroscopy. An accurate potential energy curve was derived from more than 8800 transitions in isotopomers $^{23}$Na$^{85}$Rb and $^{23}$Na$^{87}$Rb. This potential reproduces the experimental observations within their uncertainties of 0.003 \\rcm to 0.007 \\rcm. The outer classical turning point of the last observed energy level ($v''=76$, $J''=27$) lies at $\\approx 12.4$ \\AA, leading to a energy of 4.5 \\rcm below the ground state asymptote.

  19. Optical pumping effect in absorption imaging of F=1 atomic gases

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sooshin; Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Shin, Y

    2016-01-01

    We report our study of the optical pumping effect in absorption imaging of $^{23}$Na atoms in the $F=1$ hyperfine spin states. Solving a set of rate equations for the spin populations under a probe beam, we obtain an analytic expression for the optical signal of the $F=1$ absorption imaging. Furthermore, we verify the result by measuring the absorption spectra of $^{23}$Na Bose-Einstein condensates prepared in various spin states with different probe beam pulse durations. The analytic result can be used in quantitative analysis of $F=1$ spinor condensate imaging and readily applied to other alkali atoms with $I=3/2$ nuclear spin such as $^{87}$Rb.

  20. A polarized alkali ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam foil technique has been applied to detect nuclear vector polarization of a 10 keV 23Na+ beam. The result was about 70% of the atomic beam polarization thus limiting the depolarization by the surface ionizer to at most 30%. In a Coulomb excitation experiment with a tensor polarized 42 MeV 23Na7+ beam an effect of 0.011 +- 0.003 was measured yielding a value of t20 approx. 0.04 for the beam polarization. The depolarization during the acceleration process can be estimated to be about 0.8. (orig.)

  1. Nuclear physics research. Progress report, April 1, 1984-March 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaction products arising from the interaction of 11B + 12C and 10B + 13C have been studied in the energy range 4 23Na excitation energy of 60 MeV. Above this excitation energy, the experimental uncertainties make this point less clear. Up to an excitation energy of 60 MeV in 23Na, a fusion limitation based on reaching a critical density of compound nucleus states like the yrast or statistical yrast line can not be responsible for the fusion cross section limitations observed for these entrance channels. The present data suggests that competing entrance channel processes are responsible for the observed fusion cross section limitations

  2. 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles in an antiferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate

    OpenAIRE

    Stoof, H.T.C.; Vliegen, E.; Al Khawaja, U.

    2001-01-01

    We show that an antiferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate, which can for instance be created with 23-Na atoms in an optical trap, has not only singular line-like vortex excitations, but also allows for singular point-like topological excitations, i.e., 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles. We discuss the static and dynamic properties of these monopoles.

  3. Study of $\\boldsymbol{(\\alpha,p)}$ and $\\boldsymbol{(\\alpha,n)}$ reactions with a Multi-Sampling Ionization Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Avila, M L; Almaraz-Calderon, S; Ayangeakaa, A D; Dickerson, C; Hoffman, C R; Jiang, C L; Kay, B P; Lai, J; Nusair, O; Pardo, R C; Santiago-Gonzalez, D; Talwar, R; Ugalde, C

    2016-01-01

    A large number of $(\\alpha,p)$ and $(\\alpha,n)$ reactions are known to play a fundamental role in nuclear astrophysics. This work presents a novel technique to study these reactions with the active target system MUSIC whose segmented anode allows the investigation of a large energy range of the excitation function with a single beam energy. In order to verify the method, we performed a direct measurements of the previously measured reactions $^{17}$O$(\\alpha,n)^{20}$Ne, $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,p)^{26}$Mg, and $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,n)^{26}$Al. These reactions were investigated in inverse kinematics using $^{4}$He gas in the detector to study the excitation function in the range of about 2 to 6 MeV in the center of mass. We found good agreement between the cross sections of the $^{17}$O$(\\alpha,n)^{20}$Ne reaction measured in this work and previous measurements. Furthermore we have successfully performed a simultaneous measurement of the $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,p)^{26}$Mg and $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,n)^{26}$Al reactions.

  4. Polymorphism of Metallic Sodium under Nanoconfinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskov, A V; Nefedov, D Yu; Charnaya, E V; Haase, J; Michel, D; Kumzerov, Yu A; Fokin, A V; Bugaev, A S

    2016-01-13

    (23)Na NMR studies of sodium nanoparticles confined to porous glass with the 3.5 nm mean pore size were carried out. The emergence of the second component of the NMR line was observed below 240 K that evidences the occurrence of another modification of metallic sodium. The phase transition temperature is much higher than the martensite transformation temperature in bulk sodium.

  5. Evaluation of sodium-23 neutron capture cross section data for the ENDF/B V-III file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of neutron cross sections of 23Na, material number 1156, for the ENDF/B File is described. Cross sections were evaluated between 10-5 eV and 15 MeV. Experimental data available up to March 1971 were included in the evaluation

  6. Sodium MRI of the human heart at 7.0 T: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graessl, Andreas; Ruehle, Anjuli; Waiczies, Helmar; Resetar, Ana; Hoffmann, Stefan H; Rieger, Jan; Wetterling, Friedrich; Winter, Lukas; Nagel, Armin M; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the feasibility of three-dimensional (3D) and whole heart coverage (23)Na cardiac MRI at 7.0 T including single-cardiac-phase and cinematic (cine) regimes. A four-channel transceiver RF coil array tailored for (23)Na MRI of the heart at 7.0 T (f = 78.5 MHz) is proposed. An integrated bow-tie antenna building block is used for (1)H MR to support shimming, localization and planning in a clinical workflow. Signal absorption rate simulations and assessment of RF power deposition were performed to meet the RF safety requirements. (23) Na cardiac MR was conducted in an in vivo feasibility study. 3D gradient echo (GRE) imaging in conjunction with Cartesian phase encoding (total acquisition time T(AQ)  = 6 min 16 s) and whole heart coverage imaging employing a density-adapted 3D radial acquisition technique (T(AQ)  = 18 min 20 s) were used. For 3D GRE-based (23)Na MRI, acquisition of standard views of the heart using a nominal in-plane resolution of (5.0 × 5.0) mm(2) and a slice thickness of 15 mm were feasible. For whole heart coverage 3D density-adapted radial (23)Na acquisitions a nominal isotropic spatial resolution of 6 mm was accomplished. This improvement versus 3D conventional GRE acquisitions reduced partial volume effects along the slice direction and enabled retrospective image reconstruction of standard or arbitrary views of the heart. Sodium cine imaging capabilities were achieved with the proposed RF coil configuration in conjunction with 3D radial acquisitions and cardiac gating. Cardiac-gated reconstruction provided an enhancement in blood-myocardium contrast of 20% versus the same data reconstructed without cardiac gating. The proposed transceiver array enables (23)Na MR of the human heart at 7.0 T within clinical acceptable scan times. This capability is in positive alignment with the needs of explorations that are designed to examine the potential of (23)Na MRI for the assessment of cardiovascular and

  7. Validation of the sodium void reactivity effect prediction using JEFF-3.1 nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tommasi, J., E-mail: jean.tommasi@cea.f [CEA, DEN, CEA-Cadarache, DER/SPRC Bldg, 230, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Archier, P.; Ruggieri, J.M. [CEA, DEN, CEA-Cadarache, DER/SPRC Bldg, 230, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2010-11-15

    Near 60 Na void experiments performed in the zero power reactors MASURCA (CEA-Cadarache) and ZPPR (Argonne West - Idaho) have been analyzed using JEFF-3.1 nuclear data and the ERANOS-2.1 (deterministic) and TRIPOLI-4 (Monte-Carlo) codes. Some comparative calculations have been performed also using either JEFF-3.1, ENDF/B-VII.0 or JENDL-3.3 nuclear data for {sup 23}Na, as these three {sup 23}Na evaluations show marked differences. The Na void experiments have been selected to cover spectral conditions ranging from the relatively hard flux in the outer zone of a small fast reactor to the relatively soft flux in the inner zone of a large fast reactor. For in-fuel Na void patterns, there is a good agreement between ERANOS and TRIPOLI computations, while the deterministic calculations significantly underestimate the leakage component for Na void patterns in fertile regions. The agreement between ERANOS-2.1 + JEFF-3.1 predictions and experimental values is excellent for in-fuel Na void patterns in MASURCA experiments, but a significant underestimation of the leakage component occurs for in-fuel Na void patterns in ZPPR. For fertile Na void patterns, there is a clear underestimation of the leakage component, quantitatively different for MASURCA and ZPPR experiments. Variations in {sup 23}Na cross-section data also result in significant differences: ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3 nuclear data for {sup 23}Na increase noticeably the predicted Na void worth values with respect to JEFF-3.1 data. The three {sup 23}Na evaluations differ at high energy (>500 keV, and especially >2 MeV), and this stresses the need for accurate additional measurements in this energy range.

  8. Finanční optimalizace dovozu zboží do tuzemska v režimu volného oběhu z pohledu deklaranta

    OpenAIRE

    Sobotová, Dagmar

    2007-01-01

    Bakalářská práce si klade za hlavní cíl optimalizaci finanční nákladovosti dovozu zboží ze třetích zemí do tuzemska z pohledu deklaranta. Při dosahování tohoto cíle vycházím z metod výpočtu celní hodnoty a z mezinárodních dodacích podmínek INCOTERMS 2000. Závěr učiněný v mé práci potvrzuje, že je možné docílit určité formy finanční optimalizace dovozu zboží pro deklaranta.

  9. Franchising ako jedna z možných foriem vstupu podniku na medzinárodné trhy

    OpenAIRE

    Telgárska, Lýdia

    2006-01-01

    Práca pojednáva o franchisingu zo všeobecného hľadiska, to znamená teoretické vymedzenie, hlavné rysy franchisingu a výhody a nevýhody tejto formy podnikania. Ďalej sa zaoberá franchisingovými zmluvami, postupom ich uzatvárania a vzťahmi, ktoré vznikajú medzi poskytovateľom a príjemcom franšízy. Taktiež sa v nej rozoberajú špecifické rysy medzinárodného franchisingu a v neposlednej rade aplikácia franchisingu v medzinárodnej spoločnosti Starbucks.

  10. Free Vibration of Piezo-Nanowires Using Timoshenko Beam Theory with Consideration of Surface and Small Scale Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oveisi Atta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available W pracy badano wpływ efektów powierzchniowych na poprzeczne drgania swobodne nanodrutów piezoelektrycznych (nanowires, NW. Model dynamiczny NW stworzono posługujac sie nielokalna teoria belki Timoszenki. Stosujac te teorie, przy uwzglednieniu zarówno efektów powierzchniowych i efektów nielokalnych, obliczono czestotliwosci drgan własnych nanodrutu. Uzyskane rozwiazanie, o formie zamknietej, pozwala takze obliczyc podstawowe napiecie wyboczenia. Ponadto, zbadano wpływ efektów małej skali na resztkowe naprezenie powierzchniowe i potencjał elektryczny. Wyniki pracy moga byc uzyteczne przy projektowaniu przyrzadów wykorzystujacych nanodruty piezoelektryczne.

  11. 江蓠原生质体分离成功

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1988-01-01

    由上海水产大学王素娟教授承担的农业部生物技术重点项目“琼胶藻类原生质体分离与培养研究”课题,取得重大进展。养殖系研究生周一红在王素娟教授指导下,对江蓠属龙须菜(Gracilaria Lemanei formis)进行的原生质体分离与培养成株研究,经过反复试验探索,终于获得了大量有活力的原生质体。

  12. Viðhorf ungmenna til kannabis: Samanburður á nemendum 10. bekkjar grunnskóla og 3. árs nemum framhaldsskóla

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Rut Tryggvadóttir 1989

    2015-01-01

    Markmið þessarar rannsóknar var að reyna að varpa ljósi á viðhorf ungmenna til kannabis og kannabisneyslu. Einnig var skoðað hvort aldur og félagsleg staða hefði áhrif á viðhorf og neyslu ungmenna á kannabis. Við framkvæmd rannsóknarinnar var notast við megindlega rannsóknaraðferð í formi spurningalista. Hann var lagður fyrir nemendur á 3. ári í Fjölbrautaskóla Suðurlands, sem náð hafa 18 ára aldri. Til samanburðar var notast við gögn úr ESPAD (the European School Survey Project on Alcohol an...

  13. Lögleiðing kannabisefna

    OpenAIRE

    Sigurður Magnús Sigurðsson 1985

    2012-01-01

    Þessi ritgerð eða rannsókn fjallar um hvort lögleiðsla kannabisefna á Íslandi muni hafa neikvæð eða jákvæð áhrif fyrir samfélagið. Í aldanna rás hefur mannkynið haft mikla reynslu af kannabis/marijúana plöntunni og afurðum hennar. Kannabisefni birtast okkur í ýmsu formi, svo sem í fatnaði, byggingavörum og jafnvel í matvælum, en stærsta ágreiningsefnið hvað kannabis varðar er hampurinn sem marijúana plantan framleiðir. Manneskjur geta reykt, borðað eða drukkið þessa afurð plöntunnar með...

  14. Wybrane Aspekty Zużywania Się Połączeń Wpustowych I Wielowypustowych W Procesie Eksploatacji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gębura Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available W artykule przedstawiono wybrane wady połączeń wielowypustowych: mimośrodowości, przekoszenia, zwiększonych luzów. Przedstawiono znaczenie tych wad dla poprawności funkcjonowania całego zespołu napędowego. Zaprezentowano swoisty katalog tych wad w formie: wizualnego zużycia, pomiarów mechanicznych płaszczyzn przyporu, opisu matematycznego przebiegów dynamiki ruchu takiego połączenia, zobrazowań dla metod FAM-C i FDM-A. Zaznaczono skutki długotrwałej eksploatacji połączeń wielowypustowych o nadmiernym zużyciu dla bezpieczeństwa latania

  15. Daňové benefity zaměstnanců

    OpenAIRE

    Česal, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá možnostmi daňově výhodného odměňování zaměstnanců pomocí zaměstnaneckých výhod. Popisuje jak peněžní, tak nepeněžní formy odměňování a motivování pracovníků a zároveň ukazuje jejich dopady na daňové zatížení mzdy. Druhá část práce se věnuje aplikaci vybraných forem odměn s následnou ukázkou jejich uplatnění v podniku.

  16. E-learning jako forma wspomagania procesu nauczania informatyki

    OpenAIRE

    Winnicki, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Wydział Studiów Edukacyjnych We współczesnym świecie dobra edukacja jest ważnym elementem jego prawidłowego rozwoju. Szybko rozwijająca się technologia XXI wieku sprawia, że każdy nauczyciel powinien sukcesywnie włączać ją w codzienny tryb swoich zajęć. Szkoły, chcąc być atrakcyjnymi i ciekawymi dla ucznia, będą musiały dostosować swoje formy i metody pracy z uczniem, przez uwzględnienie nowych technologii. W przedstawionej przeze mnie koncepcji pracy doktorskiej omówiłem planowany cyk...

  17. Vyhledávání objektu v digitálních snímcích

    OpenAIRE

    Šramko, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Tato práce se venuje detekci objektu v digitálních snímcích. Popisuje teoretické predpokladyk vyhledávání pomocí algoritmu template matching a SURF a jejich následné využití prirešení korespondencního problému. Dále se práce venuje návrhu, implementaci a testováníaplikace využívající zmínené algoritmy v jazyku C++ za využití knihoven OpenCV a Qt.Na záver popisuje formy testování a shrnuje získané výsledky. This work deals with pattern matching in digital images. It describes theoretical pr...

  18. Gŭqín (古琴) – muzyczny instrument filozofów. W jaki sposób gra na gu qin i słuchanie muzyki na nim wykonywanej prowadzi do mądrości?

    OpenAIRE

    Mazur, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    Gŭqín, starożytny, chiński instrument strunowy sam w sobie jest zjawiskiem niezwykłym. Prawdopodobnie jest najstarszym instrumentem solowym, zachowanym do naszych czasów w formie nie zmienionej, co najmniej od 2500 lat. Wraz z upływem czasu instrument i muzyka na nim wykonywana obrosły w symbolikę nadającą sztuce gry na gŭqín wymiar kosmologiczny i filozoficzny. Gŭqín stał się jednym z atrybutów chińskiego mędrca-filozofa, a zrozumienie znaczenia instrumentu stało się obowiązkowym elementem w...

  19. Háðheimildamyndir. Samanburður við form heimildamynda, staða kvikmyndagerðamannsins og almenn umfjöllun

    OpenAIRE

    Kristín Henný Moritz 1987

    2015-01-01

    Upphaf heimildamynda (e. documentary) má rekja allt aftur til upphaf kvikmyndagerðar. Háðheimildamyndir (e. mockumentary) eru uppspunnar heimildir kvikmyndaðar og settar fram í formi heimilda. Háðheimildamyndir er náskyldar heimildamyndum og hægt er að yfirfæra þær yfir á form og flokkun heimildamynda samkvæmt kenningum kvikmyndafræðingsins Bill Nichols. Í þessari ritgerð rýni ég í tilgang háðheimildamynda, stöðu kvikmyndagerðamanns kvikmyndanna og þær undirgreinar kvikmyndafræðinnar sem þær ...

  20. Effects of phosphorous fertilizer on seedlings growth and nodulation capabilities of some popular agroforestry tree species of Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Belal Uddin; Sharif Ahmed Mukul; Mohammed Abu Sayed Arfin Khan; Mohammed Kamal Hossain

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of Phosphorous (P) fertilizer (I.e. TSP or triple super phosphate @ 80 kg/hm2) on seedling growth and nodulation capabilities of three potentially important agroforestry tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Albizia lebbeck and Albizia procera) of Bangladesh. The study was conducted in nursery beds with six-month-old polybag seedlings of A. Auriculi formis, A. Lebbeck and A. Procera. The effects of P fertilizer on seedling growth and nodulation were compared with that of the seedlings grown in control (I.e. Unfertilized soil). The observations revealed that the seedling growth was enhanced significantly with the application of P fertilizer.hegrowth was found more pronounced in A. Auriculiformis, whereas it was not apparent and shows depressed growth in case of A. Lebbeck. The study also suggests that the nodulation in terms of nodule number and size was also increased significantly with the application of P fertilizer.

  1. Branding vlastní značky s přesahem do obalového designu

    OpenAIRE

    Domorád, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá vývojem mé vlastní značky, především definováním základních a důležitých informací v daném tématu. Představí vývoj vlastní značky, její jméno, logo, barevnost, charakter a vizuální formy. Stěžejním prvkem jsou sítotiskem tištěné prototypy papírových produktů a jejich prezentace na webu. This thesis deals with the development of my own brand, primarily by defining the basic and important information on the topic. Introduces the development of their own brand, ...

  2. Turystyka literacka i filmowa

    OpenAIRE

    Stasiak, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Turystyka literacka i filmowa jest na początku XXI w. jedną z najdynamiczniej rozwijających się form turystyki kulturowej. Jej celem są zarówno miejsca i obiekty związane z życiem i działalnością twórców, jak i uwiecznione w dziełach plenery. Szczególne zainteresowanie turystów wzbudzają interaktywne teatralne formy zwiedzania, udział w różnorodnych wydarzeniach kulturalnych, wędrówki szlakami tematycznymi etc. W artykule zaprezentowano fenomen turystyki literacko-filmowej na świecie i w Euro...

  3. Model e-marketingu pro firmu SSK Třinec, a.s.

    OpenAIRE

    Klusová, Alena

    2007-01-01

    Tato práce je zaměřena na marketing, internet a zejména na spojení marketingu a internetu, tzv. elektronický marketing. V teoretické části je popsán marketing, formy elektronického marketingu a nejrozsáhlejší forma elektronického marketingu, což je webová prezentace. Praktická část je v prvé řadě věnována charakteristice společnosti S.S.K., a.s., dále analýze webové prezentace společnosti a návrhu nového webu společnosti.

  4. Neolitička keramička figurica iz Pupićine peći

    OpenAIRE

    Hulina, Mateja

    2012-01-01

    U ovom radu predstavljena je keramička figurica iz srednjeg neolitika pronađena u špilji Pupićina peć u sjeveroistočnoj Istri. Figurica je najvjerojatnije antropomorfna, a sačuvane su samo noge i donji dio trupa. Ovo je jedina do sada objavljena neolitička figurica iz Istre i jedna od malobrojnih s hrvatske obale i zaleđa koje su ovdje također detaljnije opisane. Najbliže tipološke paralele za figuricu iz Pupićine peći mogu se pronaći u Bugarskoj, u obliku kamenih figurica/privjesaka M-formi...

  5. Germination and initial growth of tree seedlings on deforested and natural forest soil at Dulhazara, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M Mohitul

    2012-12-01

    The destruction of natural forest is increasing due to urbanization, industrialization, settlement and for the agricultural expansion over last few decades, and studies for their recovery need to be undertaken. With this aim, this comparative study was designed to see the effects of deforested soil on germination and growth performance of five different tree species. In the experiment, five species namely Gmelina arborea, Swietenia mahagoni, Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Acacia auriculiformis and Syzygium grande were germinated for six weeks on seedbeds and raised in pots (25cm diameter, 30cm height), that were filled with two soil and type of land use: deforested and adjacent natural forest of Dulhazara Safari Park. Growth performance of seedling was observed up to 15 months based on height, collar diameter and biomass production at the end. Our results showed that the germination rate was almost similar in both type of land uses. Height growth of D. turbinatus, G. arborea and S. mahagoni seedlings was almost similar and A. auriculi formis and S. grande lower in deforested soil compared to natural forest soil, while collar diameter ofA. auriculi formis, G. arborea, S. grande and S. mahagoni lower and D. turbinatus similar in deforested soil compared to natural forest soil. After uprooting at 19 months, S. mahagoni seedlings were showed significantly (parborea showed significantly (p< or =0.05) lower and S. grande almost similar oven dry biomass in deforested soil compared to natural forest soil. Oven dry biomass of D. turbinatus seedlings at 19 month age in deforested soil was 21.96g (n=5) and in natural forest soil 18.86g (n=5). However, differences in germination rate and growth performance for different tree species indicated that soil are not too much deteriorated through deforestation at Dulhazara and without any failure such deforested lands would be possible to bring under forest through plantation. PMID:23342503

  6. $\\mathbf{\\alpha}$-induced reaction cross sections in the mass range $\\mathbf{A \\approx 20 - 50}$: a critical review

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In a recent review it was shown that the cross sections of $\\alpha$-induced reactions in the $A \\approx 20 - 50$ mass range follow a general and smooth trend in most cases. For comparison of cross sections of different targets at various energies the method of reduced cross sections $\\sigma_{\\rm{red}}$ and reduced energies $E_{\\rm{red}}$ was used. Four outliers were identified: $^{36}$Ar and $^{40}$Ar with unusally small cross sections and $^{23}$Na and $^{33}$S with unusually large cross sections. New data for $^{23}$Na were presented at this NPA-7 conference; contrary to the previous data, these new data fit into the general systematics. In addition, a relation between the most effective energy $E_0$ for astrophysical reaction rates (the so-called Gamow window) and the reduced energy $E_{\\rm{red}}$ is presented.

  7. Proton induced γ-ray emission yields for external beam analysis of F and Na in aerosol samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) is commonly used as a complementary technique of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) for the analysis of light elements in aerosol samples. In order to get the best operating conditions of PIGE for F and Na determination in aerosol samples relative to thin reference standards in an external beam setup, the γ-ray yields of the reaction 19F (p, p' γ) 19F (Eγ=110 keV and 197 keV) and 23Na (p, p' γ) 23Na (Eγ=440 keV) were measured for incident protons in the energy range of 1.8-2.9 MeV at the external beam facility of the 1.7 MV tandem accelerator in Beijing Normal University. (authors)

  8. Determination of boron, fluorine and some medium Z elements in diet samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the study on 'Reference Asian Man' project, dried food from different Asian countries, in powdered form, was analyzed applying different techniques. Boron was determined by measuring prompt alphas in 11B(p,α)8Be reaction with 800 keV protons. Coulomb excitation was used for F and Na determination based on 19F(p,p'γ)19F (γ-rays: 110 and 197 keV) and 23Na(p,p'γ)23Na (γ-ray: 440 keV) reactions with 2.3 MeV protons. The elements Sc, Co, Zn, Rb, Ag and Ce were determined by neutron activation analysis. The elements Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr and Mo were determined by X-ray fluorescence technique. (author)

  9. Three dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of sodium ions using stochastic excitation and oscillating gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic imaging of 23Na holds promise as a non-invasive method of mapping Na+ distributions, and for differentiating pools of Na+ ions in biological tissues. However, due to NMR relaxation properties of 23Na in vivo, a large fraction of Na+ is not visible with conventional NMR imaging methods. An alternate imaging method, based on stochastic excitation and oscillating gradients, has been developed which is well adapted to measuring nuclei with short T2. Contemporary NMR imaging techniques have dead times of up to several hundred microseconds between excitation and sampling, comparable to the shortest in vivo 23Na T2 values, causing significant signal loss. An imaging strategy based on stochastic excitation has been developed which greatly reduces experiment dead time by reducing peak radiofrequency (RF) excitation power and using a novel RF circuit to speed probe recovery. Continuously oscillating gradients are used to eliminate transient eddy currents. Stochastic 1H and 23Na spectroscopic imaging experiments have been performed on a small animal system with dead times as low as 25μs, permitting spectroscopic imaging with 100% visibility in vivo. As an additional benefit, the encoding time for a 32x32x32 spectroscopic image is under 30 seconds. The development and analysis of stochastic NMR imaging has been hampered by limitations of the existing phase demodulation reconstruction technique. Three dimensional imaging was impractical due to reconstruction time, and design and analysis of proposed experiments was limited by the mathematical intractability of the reconstruction method. A new reconstruction method for stochastic NMR based on Fourier interpolation has been formulated combining the advantage of a several hundredfold reduction in reconstruction time with a straightforward mathematical form

  10. Effects of nuclear data library and ultra-fine group calculation for large size sodium-cooled fast reactor OECD benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper summarizes calculation results for an international benchmark proposed by the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor core Feed-back and transient response (SFR-FT) under the framework of the Working Party on scientific issues of Reactor Systems (WPRS) of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD. It focuses on the large size oxide-fueled SFR. Library effect for core performance characteristics and reactivity feedback coefficients is analyzed using sensitivity analysis. The effect of ultra-fine energy group calculation in effective cross section generation is also analyzed. The discrepancy is about 0.4% for a neutron multiplication factor by changing JENDL-4.0 with JEFF-3.1. That is about -0.1% by changing JENDL-4.0 with ENDF/B-VII.1. The main contributions to the discrepancy between JENDL-4.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1 are 240Pu capture, 238U inelastic scattering and 239Pu fission. Those to the discrepancy between JENDL-4.0 and JEFF-3.1 are 23Na inelastic scattering, 56Fe inelastic scattering, 238Pu fission, 240Pu capture, 240Pu fission, 238U inelastic scattering, 239Pu fission and 239Pu nu-value. As for the sodium void reactivity, JEFF-3.1 and ENDF/B-VII.1 underestimate by about 8% compared with JENDL-4.0. The main contributions to the discrepancy between JENDL-4.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1 and 23Na elastic scattering, 23Na inelastic scattering and 239Pu fission. That to the discrepancy between JENDL-4.0 and JEFF-3.1 is 23Na inelastic scattering. The ultra-fine energy group calculation increases the sodium void reactivity by 2%. (author)

  11. Ground Band and Excited Band of Spin-1 BEC in Cigar Shaped Laser Trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Wei; LI Zhi-Bing; BAO Cheng-Guang

    2007-01-01

    The wavefunctions that conserve the total spin are constructed for the fully condensed states and the states with one particle excited. A set of equations are deduced for the spatial longitudinal wavefunctions and the chemical potentials. These equations are solved numerically for 23Na and 87Rb condensates. The deformed trap shows significant effects on the spectrum. This implies that the spin effect of the spinor BEC are more easily detected in an optical trap of larger aspect ratio.

  12. Magnetic resonance-determined sodium removal from tissue stores in hemodialysis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlmann, Anke; Dörfelt, Kathrin; Eicher, Florian; Linz, Peter; Kopp, Christoph; Mössinger, Irina; Horn, Stephan; Büschges-Seraphin, Beatrix; Wabel, Peter; Hammon, Matthias; Cavallaro, Alexander; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Kotanko, Peter; Levin, Nathan W.; Johannes, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported sodium is stored in skin and muscle. The amounts stored in hemodialysis (HD) patients are unknown. We determined whether 23Na magnetic resonance imaging (sodium-MRI) allows assessment of tissue sodium and its removal in 24 HD patients, and 27 age-matched healthy controls. We also studied 20 HD patients before and shortly after HD with a batch dialysis system with direct measurement of sodium in dialysate and ultrafiltrate. Age was associated with higher tissue sodi...

  13. Tissue sodium storage: evidence for kidney-like extrarenal countercurrent systems?

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmeister, Lucas H.; Perisic, Stojan; Titze, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence from chemical analysis of tissue electrolyte and water composition has shown that body Na+ content in experimental animals is not constant, does not always readily equilibrate with water, and cannot be exclusively controlled by the renal blood purification process. Instead, large amounts of Na+ are stored in the skin and in skeletal muscle. Quantitative non-invasive detection of Na+ reservoirs with 23NaMRI suggests that this mysterious Na+ storage is not only an animal researc...

  14. Quantum Spin Nematic States in Bose-Einstein Condensates

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Fei

    2001-01-01

    We review some recent results on discrete symmetries and topological order in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of $^{23}Na$. For spin one bosons with two-body scatterings dominated by a total spin equal to two channel, the BECs are in quantum spin nematic states at a low density limit. We study spin correlations in condensates at different limits and analyze hidde$ symmetries using a non-perturbative approach developed recently. We further more investigate the influence of hidden $Z_2$...

  15. Three dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of sodium ions using stochastic excitation and oscillating gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, B.deB. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic imaging of {sup 23}Na holds promise as a non-invasive method of mapping Na{sup +} distributions, and for differentiating pools of Na{sup +} ions in biological tissues. However, due to NMR relaxation properties of {sup 23}Na in vivo, a large fraction of Na{sup +} is not visible with conventional NMR imaging methods. An alternate imaging method, based on stochastic excitation and oscillating gradients, has been developed which is well adapted to measuring nuclei with short T{sub 2}. Contemporary NMR imaging techniques have dead times of up to several hundred microseconds between excitation and sampling, comparable to the shortest in vivo {sup 23}Na T{sub 2} values, causing significant signal loss. An imaging strategy based on stochastic excitation has been developed which greatly reduces experiment dead time by reducing peak radiofrequency (RF) excitation power and using a novel RF circuit to speed probe recovery. Continuously oscillating gradients are used to eliminate transient eddy currents. Stochastic {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na spectroscopic imaging experiments have been performed on a small animal system with dead times as low as 25{mu}s, permitting spectroscopic imaging with 100% visibility in vivo. As an additional benefit, the encoding time for a 32x32x32 spectroscopic image is under 30 seconds. The development and analysis of stochastic NMR imaging has been hampered by limitations of the existing phase demodulation reconstruction technique. Three dimensional imaging was impractical due to reconstruction time, and design and analysis of proposed experiments was limited by the mathematical intractability of the reconstruction method. A new reconstruction method for stochastic NMR based on Fourier interpolation has been formulated combining the advantage of a several hundredfold reduction in reconstruction time with a straightforward mathematical form.

  16. Relations entre mobilité du sodium, libération du sel et des composés d'arôme en bouche et perception de la flaveur : application à des modèles fromagers

    OpenAIRE

    Boisard, Lauriane

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to understand the effects of changes in the composition of model cheeses on mobility, release and perception of flavor molecules (salt, aroma compounds). Six flavoured model cheeses were formulated (3 lipid/protein (L/P) ratios and 2 salt contents). The microstructure and the rheological properties of the model cheeses were characterized respectively by confocal microscopy and by uniaxial compression test. The mobility of sodium ions was analyzed by 23Na NMR. The kinet...

  17. Solvent history dependence of gramicidin A conformations in hydrated lipid bilayers.

    OpenAIRE

    LoGrasso, P V; Moll, F; Cross, T A

    1988-01-01

    Reconstituted lipid bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and gramicidin A' have been prepared by cosolubilizing gramicidin and DMPC in one of three organic solvent systems followed by vacuum drying and hydration. The conformational state of gramicidin as characterized by 23Na NMR, circular dichroism, and solid state 15N NMR is dependent upon the cosolubilizing solvent system. In particular, two conformational states are described; a state in which Na+ has minimal interactions wit...

  18. Studies on NaXe Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The chemical shift of 23Na in excimer NaXe was measured by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, which is in good agreement with the theoretical value obtained by ab initio calculations. The bond length, dissociation energy, dipole of NaXe and Mulliken charges at Na and Xe in NaXe were calculated, respectively. The spectra of ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering of NaXe were also measured.

  19. Surface modification of g-Al2O3 by sodium ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    1H/23Na double resonance NMR techniques were employed to study the modification of surface hydroxyls on g-Al2O3 by sodium ions. 1H→23Na cross polarization (CP) experiment can resolve three kinds of sodium cations that are closely associated with surface hydroxyl groups, while the signal of deposited salt-Na2CO3, which is not connected to surface hydroxyl groups, is completely suppressed. 1H{23Na} spin echo double resonance experiments reveal the surface modification in more detail. At low Na+ coverage (5%, 10%), the acidic hydroxyl groups are preferentially coordinated with sodium ions, while both the acidic and the basic hydroxyl groups are accessible for sodium ions at high coordination that causes proton of the OH groups to be easily dissolved, which is evidenced by the fact that with calcination temperature of the catalysts increasing, the acidic hydroxyl groups are preferentially removed and only the basic hydroxyl groups remain when the calcination temperature is raised to 600℃.

  20. Exploitation of inverse reaction kinematics in a search for non-fusion yield in the heavy residue spectra of light heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present work was to subject the heavy residues which result from the 11B +12C interaction to a specific experimental test to determine whether or not the residues do indeed result from fusion-evaporation through the 23Na compound nucleus. Of particular concern is the possible presence of direct transfer and incomplete fusion strength. The test which is employed in the present work exploits the fact that in a nearly symmetric system such as 11B + 12C, the laboratory energy of the fusion products is essentially independent of which entrance channel nucleus is used as the target and which is used as the projectile, while the energy of direct transfer and incomplete fusion products depends strongly on which nucleus is the target or projectile. A careful, mass-by-mass comparison of the heavy residue energy spectra has been made for the two reactions 12C(11B,X) and 11B(12C,X). For the present experimental data, the systems leading to the 23Na compound nucleus, an accurate extraction of the fusion cross section is important as the authors can now clearly say that the fusion cross sections and, therefore, the critical angular momenta were correctly determined in earlier works. Therefore, a critical density of states can not be responsible for the limitations occurring in the entrance channels leading to the 23Na compound system

  1. Nuclear magnetic relaxation studies on polyelectrolytes with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the longitudinal and transverse relaxation times (T1 and T2) of 1H and 23Na in water-polyelectrolytes systems were carried out. The polyelectrolyte samples used were sodium polystyrene sulfonate, sodium lignosulfonate and sodium cellulose sulfate. The water content (Wc's) of the samples was varied from 0 to 2.0 (grams of water per gram of polyelectrolyte). A minimum value for 1HT1 values of water in the system was observed at a temperature ranging from -25 to -40 degree C. The temperature where the 1HT1 minimum value was observed depended on Wc, corresponding to the crystallization of water in each system. From 1HT1 two groups of water molecules (bound and free water) are considered to exist in water-polyelectrolyte systems. The calculated τc values of bound water increased with decreasing temperature from the order of 10-7 sec to 10-6 sec. The observed 23Na in the water-polyelectrolyte systems relaxed with a single T1. 23NaT2 values showed that the relaxation process was separated into two fractions

  2. Measurement of proton induced thick target γ-ray yields on B, N, Na, Al and Si from 2.5 to 4.1 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, M.; Ferraccioli, G.; Melon, B.; Nannini, A.; Perego, A.; Salvestrini, L.; Lagoyannis, A.; Preketes-Sigalas, K.

    2016-01-01

    Thick target yields for proton induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) on low-Z nuclei, namely B, N, Na, Al and Si, were measured for proton energies from 2.5 to 4.1 MeV and emission angles of 0°, 45° and 90°, at the 3 MV Tandetron laboratory of INFN-LABEC in Florence. The studied reactions were: 10B(p,α‧γ)7Be (Eγ = 429 keV), 10B(p,p‧γ)10B (Eγ = 718 keV) and 11B(p,p‧γ)11B (Eγ = 2125 keV) for boron; 14N(p,p‧γ)14N (Eγ = 2313 keV) for nitrogen; 23Na(p,p‧γ)23Na (Eγ = 441 and 1636 keV) and 23Na(p,α‧γ)20Ne (Eγ = 1634 keV) for sodium; 27Al(p,p‧γ)27Al (Eγ = 844 and 1014 keV) and 27Al(p,α‧γ)24Mg (Eγ = 1369 keV) for aluminum; 28Si(p,p‧γ)28Si (Eγ = 1779 keV) and 29Si(p,p‧γ)29Si (Eγ = 1273 keV) for silicon. The PIGE thick target yields have been measured with an overall uncertainty typically better than 10%. The use of the measured thick target yield to benchmark and validate experimental cross sections available in the literature is demonstrated.

  3. Faktoring – jedna z hlavních forem financování malých a středních podniků

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müllerová Libuše

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Faktoring představuje službu, kterou poskytují specializované faktoringové společnosti svým klientům v souvislosti s postoupením nebo se správou pohledávek. Ve své podstatě se jedná o určitý způsob úvěrování, využívaný zejména malými a středními podniky. V praxi existuje několik forem faktoringu v závislosti na tom, do jaké míry přechází na faktora vlastnictví pohledávek a rizika jejich nesplacení. Podle toho se pak faktoringové transakce promítají do účetnictví faktora i klienta. Vzhledem k tomu, že tato služba ani její formy není upravená žádným právním předpisem, postupují faktoringové společnosti často tak, že podmínky ve smlouvách – z důvodu daňových – často zakrývají svojí formou skutečný stav. Uvedený příspěvek základní formy faktoringu vymezuje, popisuje jejich správné účtování včetně daňových dopadů. Factoring is a service, which is offered by specialized factoring agencies to their clients in case of transfer (sale or governance of receivables. In fact, it represents a specific mode of crediting which is mostly preferred by small and medium enterprises. In practices of factoring several forms are differentiated depending on scale of property and risk transfer to the factor. According to these circumstances the factoring transactions are recognized by the factor and the client. The factoring services are not so far regulated by any legal provision. For this reason factoring agencies are proceeding in such a way, that contract conditions – because of tax considerations – hide by their form the substance. The paper describes the factoring forms and interprets their correct recognition on accounting, including tax consequences.

  4. Study on Soil Fertility of Different Forest Types in Jialing River Source%嘉陵江源头几种林地土壤肥力状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭胡燕; 刘瑞英; 杨改河; 任学敏; 王得祥

    2011-01-01

    Based on analysis of soil pH, the content of organic matter and main nutrient at the different levels of soil under seven different forest types (Quercus aliena BI. Var. Acuteserrate, Betula albo-sinensis, Pinus tabulaeformis , Pinus armandii , Abies fargesii , coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, shrub forest)in Jialing river of source, this paper studied on soil fertility of different forest types. The result showed that the soil in Pinus armandii, Pinus tabulae formis and coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest were near neutral, the soil in Quercus aliena BI. Var. Acuteserrate, Betula albo-sinensis and shrub forest were slightly acidic, the soil in Abies fargesii was acidic. The soil pH, the contents of soil organic matter, total N and P, alkali-hydro N and available P tended to decrease with soil depth. The soil fertility was increased in the order of Pinus armandii <Lpinus tabulae formis <coniferous and broad-leaved mixed ioresKQuercus aliena BI. Var. Acuteserrate<shrub forest<Abies fargesii<L Betula albo-sinensis.%以嘉陵江源头风景区7种林型(锐齿栎林、红桦林、油松林、华山松林、巴山冷杉林、针阔混交林及灌木林)土壤为研究对象,通过对林地土壤不同层次pH、有机质及主要养分含量的测定,分析不同林型下土壤肥力的差异状况.结果表明,华山松林、油松林和针阔混交林的土壤趋于中性,锐齿栎林、红桦林、灌木林的土壤趋于弱酸性,而巴山冷杉林的土壤呈酸性.随土壤深度增加,土壤pH升高,土壤有机质、全氮、全磷、碱解氮、有效磷含量均呈下降趋势.土壤综合肥力优劣为华山松林<油松林<针阔混交林<锐齿栎林<灌木林<巴山冷杉林<红桦林.

  5. Kennsla í fjölmiðlalæsi í íslenskum framhaldsskólum

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa Ófeigsdóttir 1983

    2016-01-01

    Fjölmiðlar gegna mikilvægu upplýsinga- og afþreyingarhlutverki í nútímasamfélagi. Sú færni sem felst í að geta greint skilaboð frá þeim með gagnrýnum hætti er því gríðarlega mikilvæg. Fjölmiðlar í dag eru á margvíslegu formi. Efni þeirra geta ýmist hafa farið í gegnum rýningarferli hliðvarða eða ritstjórna eða það getur einfaldlega verið texti skrifaður af óþekktri manneskju um málefni sem henni þykir áhugavert. Það getur reynst þrautin þyngri að greina ástæðurnar sem liggja að baki smíði fjö...

  6. Modelovanje određenih elemenata digitalnih atlasnih karata sa aspekta geografskih informacionih sistema/Modeling certain digital atlas map elements from the geographical information systems aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola S. Stamenković

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Atlasi i GIS važni su elementi prikaza modela životnog prostora. U radu je predstavljen model upotrebe GIS tehnologije u izradi određenih elemenata atlasnih karata. To podrazumeva definisanje osnovnih matematičkih elemenata karata digitalnog atlasa i mogućih struktura i formi baza prostornih podataka. Geografski elementi atlasnih karata, pretprocesiranje u GIS i strukturiranje karata digitalnog atlasa podržano GIS-om čine osnovne teme rada. Naglašava se mesto GIS tehnologije u procesu izrade atlasnih karata sa dva aspekta. Jedan aspekt predstavlja okvir geografskih informacionih sistema i mogućnosti koje pružaju, a drugi aspekt predstavljaju kartografske metode, odnosno sistem kartografskih metoda u čijem okruženju se izrađuju atlasne karte. / Besides geographic maps, atlases represent the most important cartographic models of environment. Nowadays, contemporary geographic information systems (GISare increasingly used ' in planning, designing and predicting the conditions and processes of complex dynamic spatial systems. Collecting data and information for a specific geographical map and GIS represents its basis.

  7. Nýtist Scrum við annað en hugbúnaðarþróun?

    OpenAIRE

    Hinrik Reynisson 1990

    2014-01-01

    Í ritgerð þessari er leitast eftir því að svara því hvort möguleiki sé að nota Scrum aðferðina, sem er hluti af Agile aðferðafræði, í öðrum verkefnum en hugbúnaðarþróun. Ljóst er að Scrum hefur aðallega verið notað í hugbúnaðarþróun þó svo að dæmi séu til um að það hafi verið notað í öðrum verkefnum. Þátttakendur rannsóknarinnar voru sjö talsins. Eru þeir allir starfsmenn hugbúnaðarfyrirtækja og hafa haldgóða reynslu af notkun á Scrum. Rannsóknin var gerð í formi viðtala þar sem viðmælendur v...

  8. Podatkowa Księga Przychodów i Rozchodówjako źródło prognozowania i ocenykondycji finansowej mikroprzedsiębiorstwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Jaworski

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Głównym celem artykułu jest zaprezentowanie modelu prognozowania i oceny kondycji finansowej przedsiębiorstw prowadzących podatkową księgę przychodów i rozchodów (KPiR. W pierwszej części artykułu dokonano analizy struktury systemów ewidencyjnych funkcjonujących w sektorze mikroprzedsiębiorstw w Polsce. Następnie omówiono pojemność informacyjną dominującej formy ewidencyjnej, czyli podatkowej księgi przychodów i rozchodów, a także wskazano na ewidencje najczęściej jej towarzyszące. W kolejnych punktach artykułu skupiono się na prostych i możliwych do wykorzystania w małej firmie metodach prognozowania sytuacji finansowej oraz w konsekwencji omówiono i zweryfikowano procedury jej oceny.

  9. SDS-PAGE in conjunction with match lane statistical analysis for the detection of meat adulteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of seven meat types and two component mixtures of them were made. Banding patterns of resulting denstograms in conjunction with cluster analysi and match lane statistical analysis were used for the detection of meat adulteration. The use of beef as a reference meat have resulted in a clear distinction from goat, pork, chicken, turkey, camel meats and their mixture and camel meat. The use of pork meat as a reference was more assurate because of the low degrees of matching with all meats and their mixtures and consequently high abilities of differentiations. The purpose of identification. the purpose of identification of meat species arises from the desire of human, in general, to confirm what he eat ? for moslems the establisment that meat is free from pork type is most important. Another economic purpose is the detection of adulteration of valuable meat by less valuable types. Several attempts in different laboratories were done to serve this object but most of analytical techniques. Barbieri and formi (1999) were able to detect 5% of meat type in mixtures by isolelectric focusing and 1% of meat type by PCR technique in beef, pork, chicken and turkey meats. By crossover immunoelectrophoresis technique, zanon and vianello (1998) were also to detect a limit of 5% of specific meat in mixuters of beef, pork, mutton/lamb, horse and chicken meats

  10. Stefnumiðuð markaðsáætlun fyrir rafræna akstursdagbók. Úr smiðju Uppvís ehf.

    OpenAIRE

    Hreinn Þorvaldsson 1989

    2016-01-01

    Markmiðið með ritgerðinni er að greina markaðs- og rekstrarumhverfi fyrirtækisins Uppvís ehf. með tilliti til nýrrar vöru fyrirtækisins, rafrænnar akstursdagbókar. Tilgangur slíkrar vinnu er að þróa og leggja fram nothæfa, stefnumiðaða markaðsáætlun sem er hagnýt fyrir fyrirtækið. Ritgerðin byggir á eigindlegri rannsóknaraðferð en gagna var aflað í formi þriggja viðtala á tímabilinu 25. janúar til 11. apríl. Viðtölin voru tekin við verkefnastjóra rafrænu akstursdagbókarinnar. Í fræðilega hlut...

  11. Hugurinn ber þig hálfa leið : hvernig birtist trú á eigin getu í líkamsrækt og námi?

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen Baldursdóttir 1990

    2014-01-01

    Kenningin um trú á eigin getu (self-efficacy) er sett fram af Albert Bandura. Bandura lýsir trú á eigin getu sem formi af sjálfstrú sem hefur áhrif á daglegt líf okkar. Trú á eigin getu er trú viðkomandi um hvort þeir hafi það sem til þarf til að sýna vissa hegðun sem umhverfið væntir af okkur. Í þessari rannsókn var trú á eigin getu í líkamsrækt og námi skoðað. Tilgangur rannsóknarinnar var að reyna að varpa ljósi á hvernig trú á eigin getu hefur áhrif á fólk í námi, sem og í líkamsrækt....

  12. A Report of Two Cases of TGM1 Mutations in Iranian Patients with Lamelar Ichthyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl FARAJI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveAutosomal Recessive Congenital Ichthyosis (ARCI is a rare, heterogenous keratinization disorder of the skin, classically divided into two clinical subtypes, Lamellar Ichthyosis (LI and Nonbullous Congenital Ichthyosi-formis Erythroderma (NCIE. Lamellar Ichtyosis is caused by mutations in the TGM1 gene that encodes transglutaminase 1 enzyme, which is critical for the assembly of the cornified cell envelope in terminally differentiating keratinocytes. TGM1 is a complex enzyme existing as both cytosolic and membrane-bound forms.Moreover, TGM1 is proteolytically processed, and the major functionally active form consists of a membrane-bound 67/33/10-kDa complex with a myristoylated and palmitoylated amino-terminal 10-kDa membrane anchorage fragment. In this study, all 14 coding exons of TGM1 gene were investigated using PCRsequencing method in three Iranian patients with different phenotypes which are often caused by homozygote or compound heterozygote mutations and a homozygote mutation (G218S in exon 4 and  three heterozygote mutations (R37K, D58N, D86N in exon 2 were observed. The mutation (D86N was seen in two patients simultaneously.Key words: TGM1gene, mutation, ARCI, lamellar, ichthyosis, sequencing.

  13. Základní anorganické výroby Tvorba e-learningových studijních materiálů

    OpenAIRE

    Valenčík, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Bakalářská práce pojednává o e-learningu (objasnění pojmu, formy, využití, klady a zápory), o systémech LMS, LCMS a základních prvcích pro tvorbu interaktivních učebních pomůcek, které napomáhají zvýšit kvalitu e-learningu. Výstupem je výukový software obsahující vizuální animace pro výuku základních anorganických výrob v chemickém průmyslu (výrobu kyselin, kovů, plynů, atd.) určených zejména pro studenty 1. ročníku FCH VUT v Brně, ale i pro širokou veřejnost. Vizualizace byly vypracovány pom...

  14. Kindergarten Children’s Interesting Math Study%幼儿园幼儿趣味数学的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春莲

    2014-01-01

    数学作为一门数量和空间形式的学科,有着抽象性和逻辑性等特点。对于幼儿来说,如果只是把数学知识教给他们,会显得非常枯燥。因此,在对幼儿进行数学教学时,一定要让数学变得趣味化,才能很好地把数学知识传授给幼儿。而游戏是幼儿的基本活动形式,是孩子生活经验的反映,在幼儿园里是孩子们开展频率最高的活动。%Mathematics as a quantity and space forms of discipline,has characteristics of abstract and logical. For children,if only the mathematics knowledge to teach children,will be very boring. Therefore,we in mathematics teaching of young children,must make math interesting,can well the mathematics knowledge to young children. And the game is children’s basic activity form,is a reflection of the child life experience,is the children in the kindergarten to carry out the activities of the highest frequency.

  15. 龙须菜的生物学作用及应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朝阳; 孙晓庆

    2007-01-01

      龙须菜(Gracilaria lemanei formis)又名江蓠、鹿角菜、凤菜等,是红藻门(Rhodophyta)、江蓠属(Gracilaria)的一个种,是产琼胶藻的优良品种.龙须菜新鲜的藻体具有毒体的风味和营养保健功能,可用作鲍鱼饵料或者加工成海洋蔬菜作为风味食品,并且其多糖成分具有抗肿瘤作用.最近研究还表明,龙须菜具有较强的产氧和氮、磷吸收能力,可作为生物滤器控制水域富营养化,修复养殖环境,净化养殖环境的作用.龙须菜具有很好的开发及应用前景,因此,其研究越来越受到人们的重视.……

  16. Field evaluation of durum wheat landraces for prevailing abiotic and biotic stresses in highland rainfed regions of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Mohammadi; Behzad Sadeghzadeh; Hasan Ahmadi; Nowzar Bahrami; Ahmed Amri

    2015-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses are major limiting factors for high crop productivity worldwide. A landrace collection consisting of 380 durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) entries originating in several countries along with four check varieties were evaluated for biotic stresses:yellow rust (Puccinia stri formis Westendorf f. sp. tritici) and wheat stem sawfly (WSS) Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera:Cephidae), and abiotic stresses:cold and drought. The main objectives were to (i) quantify phenotypic diversity and identify variation in the durum wheat landraces for the different stresses and (ii) characterize the agronomic profiles of landraces in reaction to the stresses. Significant changes in reactions of landraces to stresses were observed. Landraces resistant to each stress were identified and agronomically characterized. Percentage reduction due to the stresses varied from 11.4% (yellow rust) to 21.6% (cold stress) for 1000-kernel weight (TKW) and from 19.9 (yellow rust) to 91.9%(cold stress) for grain yield. Landraces from Asia and Europe showed enhanced genetic potential for both grain yield and cold tolerance under highland rainfed conditions of Iran. The findings showed that TKW and yield productivity could be used to assess the response of durum wheat landraces to different stresses. In conclusion, landraces showed high levels of resistance to both biotic and abiotic stresses, and selected landraces can serve in durum wheat breeding for adaptation to cold and drought-prone environments.

  17. Antropodidaktický přístup k interakcím učitel–žák ve výuce matematiky na 1. stupni školy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Sarrazy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Článek se zabývá interakcemi jako jednou z hlavních složek učitelova didaktického působení. První část je věnována charakterizaci formy těchto interakcí ve třech různých didaktických kontextech: v „předávaném kontextu", „intermediálním kontextu" a „institucionalizujícím kontextu". Pozornost se soustřeďuje na funkce, které interakce plní v didaktickém systému, a jejich kognitivní efekty. Druhá část se zabývá fatickými interakcemi; jejím cílem je ukázat, jak učitelé postupují, jestliže se snaží sjednotit své vzdělávací poslání se specifickými problémy, které vznikají z různorodosti potřeb jednotlivých žáků.

  18. Fosfor a jeho sloučeniny v životním prostředí

    OpenAIRE

    Lefnerová, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá problematikou fosforu ve vodách, hlavně v zahradních jezírkách, rozebírá jeho vlastnosti, formy výskytu a negativní vliv při nadměrném výskytu. Další část se zaměřuje na nejčastější metody odstranění fosforu z vod a metody stanovení ve vodách a půdách. Pro práci je důležitá především kapitola o mobilní analytice. Poslední část pojednává přímo o koupacích ekologických jezírkách a Svazu zakládání a údržby zeleně. Rozebírá cíle tohoto svazu a snahu o zavedení kont...

  19. The 2-10 keV luminosity as a Star Formation Rate indicator

    CERN Document Server

    Ranalli, P; Setti, G

    2003-01-01

    Radio and far infrared luminosities of star-forming galaxies follow a tight linear relation. Making use of ASCA and BeppoSAX observations of a well-defined sample of nearby star-forming galaxies, we argue that tight linear relations hold between the X-ray, radio and far infrared luminosities. The effect of intrinsic absorption is investigated taking NGC3256 as a test case. It is suggested that the hard X-ray emission is directly related to the Star Formation Rate. Star formation processes may also account for most of the 2-10 keV emission from LLAGNs of lower X-ray luminosities (for the same FIR and radio luminosity). Deep Chandra observations of a sample of radio-selected star-forming galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field North show that the same relation holds also at high (0.2< z< 1.3) redshift. The X-ray/radio relations also allow a derivation of X-ray number counts up to very faint fluxes from the radio Log N-Log S, which is consistent with current limits and models. Thus the contribution of star-formi...

  20. 绿色威雷防治几种主要森林害虫试验研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄宏伟

    2006-01-01

    栗山天牛[Massicus raddei(Blessig)]、松纵坑切梢小蠹[Tomicus pinipreda Linnaeus]和美国白蛾[Hyphantria cunea(Drury)]是我省的主要森林害虫,分别危害柞树[Quercus spp.],油松[Pinus tablae formis]杨树[Populus spp.]等针阔叶林,其发生面积达百万亩以上。前两种害虫为干、枝蛀虫,使受害林木枝、千千疮百孔,木材失去利用价值,后一种为食叶害虫,使受害树冠叶片全失,三种害虫危害严重时导致林木死亡。为提高防治技术水平,有效控制害虫的发生危害,实现持续控灾,我们选用了高效、低毒、低残留量、环保无公害型的农药—8%绿色威雷触破式微胶囊新药剂,在辽宁省抚顺市、辽阳市、本溪地区的林分内首次进行三种害虫防治试验。

  1. 5-Minutes Neighbourhood

    OpenAIRE

    Kejdová, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Řešené území se nachází v městské části Brno - Trnitá na nábřeží řeky Svitavy. Předmětem diplomové práce je architektonická studie vybrané části návrhu městské prostorové struktury s intenzivním využitím intravilánu města, řešené v předdiplomovém projektu, který předcházel vlastní diplomové práci. Návrh umožní míchání většího množství různých funkcí na relativně malé zastavěné ploše, která sníží nároky na dopravu a zajistí obyvatelům domu různé formy bydlení, služeb i zaměstnání. Půdorysný tv...

  2. Návrh přední časti trupu letounu TL-4000 a zástavby motoru

    OpenAIRE

    Löffelmann, František

    2014-01-01

    Práce řeší zástavbu motoru Continental IO-550N do čtyřmístného celokompozitového letounu. Byl proveden rozbor hmot nesených motorovým ložem a podle předpisu CS-23 bylo vypočítáno zatížení lože a příďového podvozku, který je na loži přímo zavěšen. Na základě dostupných informací o obdobných letounech bylo navrženo konstrukční řešení lože, které bylo dimenzováno s ohledem na pevnostní analýzu v systému Nastran/Patran. Dále bylo navrženo vyztužení motorové přepážky, kryty motoru a formy pro jeji...

  3. Montessori, Freire og UNICEF : eiga þau samleið?

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Sigtryggsson 1984

    2013-01-01

    Menntun á erindi við alla og á sér stað í flestum löndum og við margvíslegar aðstæður. Hér verður fjallað um ævi og kenningar tveggja frömuða, á sviði menntunar þar sem fátækt og eymd var við líði, þeirra Paulo Freire og Mariu Montessori. Þá verður fjallað um handbók UNICEF um barnvænt skólastarf. Þetta verður gert með þá spurningu í huga: hvort hægt sé að ganga inn í skólastarf hjá UNICEF á hugmyndafræðilegum forsendum þeirra Freire eða Montessori? Þetta verður gert í hefðbundnu formi rannsó...

  4. Podnikatelský záměr

    OpenAIRE

    Elčknerová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá podnikatelským záměrem rozvoje firmy, která provozuje velkoobchod a maloobchod s obuví. Řeší dílčí cíl v rámci tohoto podnikatelského záměru, a to změnu právní formy podnikání z fyzické osoby, vedoucí daňovou evidenci, na právnickou osobu – společnost s ručením omezeným, vedoucí účetnictví. První část je zaměřena na teoretický úvod do problematiky. Druhá část specifikuje podnikatelský plán, analyzuje současnou situaci firmy a řeší otázku rozdílů výkaznictví pro...

  5. Řešení vybraných problémů v rámci mikrologistiky daného podniku

    OpenAIRE

    Vinický, Jaroslav

    2007-01-01

    Práce hodnotí možnosti zavedení dílčích logistických, kvalitativních a výrobních procesů při plánování výrobní linky. V práci jsou popisovány jednotlivé metody, které umožňují docílit zkapacitnění výrobní linky. V oblati mikrologistiky se jedná především o formy zásobování - milkrun, zásobování zezadu, přeseřízení v taktu, nivelizace, v oblasti kvality - Poka-Yoke, 5S a v oblasti výroby - Hanedashi, ztaktování linky, flexibilní počet lidí na lince....

  6. Assesment of air concentration in water depending on pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Uttendorfský, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce pojednává o koncentraci vzduchu ve vodě. Hlavní koncepce vychází z Henryho zákona o rozpouštění plynů v kapalinách v závislosti na tlaku. Je zde uvedeno jeho základní odvození, faktory ovlivňující rozpustnost a formy Henryho konstanty. Dále je věnována pozornost využití aerace v průmyslu a konstrukci aeračních systémů. Pro realizaci experimentu slouží speciální zařízení na bázi plynového akumulátoru. Naměřené hodnoty byly vyjádřeny pomocí tabulek a grafů. Údaje z experim...

  7. Molecular mapping of a stripe rust resistance gene in Chinese wheat cultivar Mianmai 41

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yong; LI Sheng-rong; WEI Yu-ming; ZHOU Qiang; DU Xiao-ying; HE Yuan-jiang; ZHENG You-liang

    2015-01-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia stri formis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat. Chinese wheat cultivar Mianmai 41 showed high resistance against most of the prevailing Pst races in China. Genetic analysis of the F1, F2 and F2:3 populations from a cross between Mianmai 41 and a susceptible line Mingxian 169 indicated that resistance to Pst race CYR32 was conferred by a single dominant gene, temporarily designated as YrMY41. Molecular marker analysis placed the gene on chromosome 1B near the centromere. Six co-dominant genomic SSR markers Xwmc329, Xwmc406, Xgwm18, Xgwm131, Xgwm413, and Xbarc312, and one STS marker Xwe173 linked with the resistance gene. The two closest lfanking SSR markers were Xgwm18 and Xwmc406, with genetic distances of 2.0 and 4.9 cM, respectively. A seedling test with 29 Pst isolates indicated the reaction patterns of Mianmai 41 were different from those of lines carrying Yr3, Yr9, Yr10, Yr15, Yr26, and YrCH42 on chromosome 1B. Al elic tests indicated that YrMY41 is likely a new al ele at Yr26 locus.

  8. Application of full 42 Factorial Design for the Development and Characterization of Insecticidal Soap from Neem Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. KOVO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the extraction, characterization and production of insecticidal soap from Neem oil using full 42 factorial design. Soxhlet extractor was used for the extraction purpose and two solvent was chosen to determine which is better. N-hexane gives a Neem oil yield of 45.43% while ethanol gives a yield of 46.38%, confirming the earlier literature result giving ethanol as better solvent for Neem oil extraction. The basic properties of the oil were determined as follows, saponification value 215.95ml/g, acid value 1.122g/mol, unsaponifiable matter 19.66 etc. The Neem oil was found to have a colour of golden yellow due to the presence of Nimbidin.Full 42 factorial design and mathematical model was applied to the extraction process and a first order regression equation of the form:Y = 9.548 + 0.144X1 + 0.1931X2 + 0.1892 X12was obtained growing the individual effect of time and solvent type as parameter and their interaction in the entire extraction process the Neem insecticidal soap was found to be effective in insect and pest control.

  9. Selected Aspects of Numerical Analysis of Layered Flexible Structures Subjected to Impact of Soft Core Projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morka Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Przedmiotem pracy jest wskazanie istotnych aspektów numerycznej analizy zagadnienia ud­erzenia pocisków z miękkim rdzeniem w pakiet cienkich wiotkich warstw ulokowanych na plas­tycznym położu. W celu ilustracji problemu wybrano normalne uderzenie pocisku 7,62x25 mm TT w pakiet 36 warstw Dyneema SB71 swobodnie oparty na podłożu plastycznym. Problem rozwiązano z wykorzystaniem metody elementów skończonych (MES z jawnym schematem (różnic centralnych całkowania równania ruchu w formie macierzowej MES. Na podstawie przeprowad­zonych analiz wykazano, że uzyskanie ekstremalnych deformacji miękkiego rdzenia pocisku oraz plastycznego podłoża w analizie numerycznej w ujęciu Lagrange’a wymaga zastosowania technik adaptacyjnych. Zaproponowana technika R-adaptive spełnia swoja rolę, ale musi być stosowana z rozwagą ze względu na negatywną cechę powodującą utratę masy modelu.

  10. The Relations h ip with Self Esteem Between Assertiveness Levels of Sub - Elite In - Door Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar SUCAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigated the relationship with self esteem between assertiveness levels of sub - elite in - door soccer players. For this aim, 18 – 28 aged, 86 male and 91 female athletes studying 7 universities which joined in - door soccer champio nship of Turkish University Sport Federation was participated to study volunteerly. Participants were performed socio - demographic data formi Rathus Assertiveness Schedule and Coopersmith Self - Esteem Inventory. Data were analyzed by using IBM SPSS (versi on 20.0. Spearman Correlation parameter calculated in order to comment the relationship with data, Multiple regretion analysis was performed for the predictive power of self - esteem for assertiveness levels of participants. According to analysis, a positi ve relationship was found between self esteem and assertivenes levels and it was found that self - esteem levels predictived assertiveness levels substantially. As a result of this study, high self - eseteemed athletes could transfer their feelings to others a nd could increase their assertiveness levels. It was known that highly self - esteemed athletes could increase their performance. Therefore, we could say that necessary studies about athletes’ gaining assertiveness behaviors, should take part of primary stud ies of trainers.

  11. Aplikace moderních technologií pro výrobu modelu hlavolamu ježka v kleci

    OpenAIRE

    Dratva, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Cílem bakalářské práce je výroba zábavného modelu hlavolamu Ježek v kleci. Jednotlivé tvary a rozměry hlavolamu byly navrženy a zkonstruovány ve 3D parametrickém softwaru Autodesk Inventor. Model hlavolamu byl vyroben pomocí metody Fused Deposition Modeling s využitím 3D tiskárny uPrint. Součástí práce byla výroba silikonové formy, která bude sloužit pro odlití potřebného počtu modelů klece z komerčně dostupného materiálu (plast). Práce byla ukončena technicko-ekonomickým zhodnocením s násled...

  12. Aplikace moderních technologií pro návrh výroby prototypu automobilového dílu

    OpenAIRE

    Bachorík, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Cieľom bakalárskej práce je návrh a výroba prototypového dielu pre automobilový priemysel. Jednotlivé tvary a rozmery prototypového dielu boli skonštruované v 3D parametrickom software Autodesk Inventor 2015. Pre výrobu prototypového dielu bola využitá aditívna metóda Fused Deposition Modeling – 3D tlačiareň uPrint. Súčasťou práce bola výroba silikónovej formy pomocou vákuového liateho systému, ktorá slúžila na odliatie určitého počtu prototypových dielov z komerčne dostupných materiálov. V p...

  13. Konstrukce a výroba nástavce nášlapného pedálu jízdního kola

    OpenAIRE

    Jurka, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Bakalářská práce je zaměřena na konstrukci a výrobu nástavce nášlapného pedálu jízdního kola, který bude sloužit při jízdě bez cyklistických treter. Součást bude zkonstruovaná ve 3D parametrickém softwaru Autodesk Inventor. Model součásti bude vyroben pomocí metody Fused Deposition Modeling s využitím 3D tiskárny uPrint. Součástí práce je výroba silikonové formy, která bude sloužit pro odlití plastového modelu nástavce nášlapného pedálu. Práce je ukončena technicko-ekonomickým zhodnocením. ...

  14. "Bei mehreren gleich qualifizierten Bewerbern sind schon kleine Details ausschlaggebend" : Zu Argumentationsstrategien in den Absageschreiben auf Bewerbungen im Deutschen

    OpenAIRE

    Szczęk, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    Článek poukazuje na enormnì variabilitu jazykových prostředků při sdělovánì odmìtnutì ņádosti uchazeče o pracovnì mìsto v německém jazyce. Analyzovaný korpus byl sestaven na základě 500 autentických textů tohoto druhu z let 2000-2004. Analýza je zaměřena na různé formy argumentace uņìvané zaměstnavateli v řečových aktech, které vyjadřujì negativnì odpovědi. Jazyková forma těchto sdělenì se často opakuje, přičemņ zaměstnavatelé volì zejména takový způsob argumentace, ve které nejsou zmiņovány ...

  15. Analyses of the Current Rural Elementary School Music Education Teaching Present Situation and Countermeasures of Application%浅析目前农村小学音乐教育教学现状及应用对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁福和

    2014-01-01

    Music art as the main content of art form,is one of the important performance art form. But development in economy of rural schools,due to the influence of early education,music class in the countryside as long as with simple music element, its status is also not high, the status quo of the rural class,with the time development,on the basis of these problems,the rural music education teaching situation to make some discussions.%音乐艺术①作为艺术形式的主要内容,是艺术表现形式的重要表现手段。但在经济发展不景气的农村学校,由于早期教育的影响,音乐在农村课堂上只能以简单的音乐元素表现出来,其地位也不高,这些农村课堂上的现状,与时代发展相背离。依据这些问题,对农村的音乐教育教学现状做出一些探讨。

  16. miRNA Expression Analyses in Prostate Cancer Clinical Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucay, Nathan; Shahryari, Varahram; Majid, Shahana; Yamamura, Soichiro; Mitsui, Yozo; Tabatabai, Z Laura; Greene, Kirsten; Deng, Guoren; Dahiya, Rajvir; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Saini, Sharanjot

    2015-01-01

    A critical challenge in prostate cancer (PCa) clinical management is posed by the inadequacy of currently used biomarkers for disease screening, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. In recent years, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as promising alternate biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis and prognosis. However, the development of miRNAs as effective biomarkers for prostate cancer heavily relies on their accurate detection in clinical tissues. miRNA analyses in prostate cancer clinical specimens is often challenging owing to tumor heterogeneity, sampling errors, stromal contamination etc. The goal of this article is to describe a simplified workflow for miRNA analyses in archived FFPE or fresh frozen prostate cancer clinical specimens using a combination of quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH). Within this workflow, we optimize the existing methodologies for miRNA extraction from FFPE and frozen prostate tissues and expression analyses by Taqman-probe based miRNA RT-PCR. In addition, we describe an optimized method for ISH analyses formiRNA detection in prostate tissues using locked nucleic acid (LNA)- based probes. Our optimized miRNA ISH protocol can be applied to prostate cancer tissue slides or prostate cancer tissue microarrays (TMA). PMID:26382040

  17. Možnosti uplatnění nových trendů v péči o zaměstnance

    OpenAIRE

    Uchytilová, Iveta

    2008-01-01

    Práce se zabývá péčí o zaměstnance a zejména o moderní trendy v této oblasti. Teoretická část popisuje jedntlivé formy péče o zaměstnance a jejich trendy. Část praktická analyzuje stávající situaci ve firmě LGECZ. Pomocí statistických metod - analýza kontingenčních tabulek a shluková analýza - zjišťuje spokojenost a preference zaměstnanců. Na základě těchto podkladů je navržen nový systém zaměstnaneckých výhod. Systém je zároveň optimalizován z nákladového hlediska....

  18. Komparativní analýza nákladů státního rozpočtu na náhradní péči o dítě v ČR

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesár, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Práce rozebírá a srovnává jednotlivé náhradní péče o dítě v ČR použitím metody minimalizace nákladů (CMA). Základem je přehled současného systému náhradní péče v ČR a popis jeho financování. Analýza je provedena s použitím předpokladu jednoho dítěte nespecifikovaného věku v různých formách péče o dítě. Na tomto příkladu je zjištěna výše nákladů na jednotlivé formy náhradní péče. Cílem práce není zjistit nejefektivnější a nejlepší náhradní péči pro dítě, ale spíše zhodnotit, která ze současnýc...

  19. Cenzura na Internetu

    OpenAIRE

    Žila, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá problémem cenzury na internetu v Číně. Práce popisuje formy a způsoby internetové cenzury v Číně. Zároveň uvádí i možnosti zjištění, ověření a obcházení cenzury pomocí různých nástrojů, aplikací a internetových služeb. Práce obsahuje výsledky provedených testů určených k ověření a zjištění cenzurovaných webových stránek a klíčových slov z různých lokací v Číně. Na základě těchto testů jsou vyvozeny závěry o cenzuře na internetu v Číně. This thesis deals with the p...

  20. miRNA Expression Analyses in Prostate Cancer Clinical Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucay, Nathan; Shahryari, Varahram; Majid, Shahana; Yamamura, Soichiro; Mitsui, Yozo; Tabatabai, Z Laura; Greene, Kirsten; Deng, Guoren; Dahiya, Rajvir; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Saini, Sharanjot

    2015-09-08

    A critical challenge in prostate cancer (PCa) clinical management is posed by the inadequacy of currently used biomarkers for disease screening, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. In recent years, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as promising alternate biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis and prognosis. However, the development of miRNAs as effective biomarkers for prostate cancer heavily relies on their accurate detection in clinical tissues. miRNA analyses in prostate cancer clinical specimens is often challenging owing to tumor heterogeneity, sampling errors, stromal contamination etc. The goal of this article is to describe a simplified workflow for miRNA analyses in archived FFPE or fresh frozen prostate cancer clinical specimens using a combination of quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH). Within this workflow, we optimize the existing methodologies for miRNA extraction from FFPE and frozen prostate tissues and expression analyses by Taqman-probe based miRNA RT-PCR. In addition, we describe an optimized method for ISH analyses formiRNA detection in prostate tissues using locked nucleic acid (LNA)- based probes. Our optimized miRNA ISH protocol can be applied to prostate cancer tissue slides or prostate cancer tissue microarrays (TMA).

  1. Cation substitution in β-tricalcium phosphate investigated using multi-nuclear, solid-state NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, Andrew T.; Mee, Martin [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Mallinson, Phillip M.; Fong, Shirley K. [AWE, Aldermaston, Berkshire (United Kingdom); Gan, Zhehong [Center of Interdisciplinary Magnetic Resonance, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Dupree, Ray [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Holland, Diane, E-mail: d.holland@warwick.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    The substitution of aluminium, gallium and sodium cations into β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP; Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}) has been investigated, and the Ca sites involved successfully determined, using a combination of 1D {sup 31}P, {sup 27}Al, {sup 71}Ga, {sup 23}Na and {sup 43}Ca (natural abundance) NMR and 2D {sup 27}Al({sup 31}P), {sup 71}Ga({sup 31}P) and {sup 23}Na({sup 31}P) rotary-resonance-recoupled heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation (R{sup 3}-HMQC) NMR. Over the compositional range studied, substitution of Ca{sup 2+} by Al{sup 3+} or Ga{sup 3+} was observed only on the Ca(5) site, whilst substitution by Na{sup +} was confined to the Ca(4) site. Some AlPO{sub 4} or GaPO{sub 4} second phase was observed at the highest doping levels in the Al{sup 3+} and Ga{sup 3+} substituted samples. - Graphical abstract: 2D contour plots with skyline projections showing recoupling of {sup 27}Al, {sup 71}Ga and {sup 23}Na to different {sup 31}P sites. - Highlights: • β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} has been prepared pure and also with Al{sup 3+}, Ga{sup 3+} and Na{sup +} substituents. • Multi-nuclear 1D NMR and heteronuclear X({sup 31}P) recoupling have been used. • Models for substitution correctly predict site preference and occupancy. • Progressive changes in {sup 31}P spectra have been explained. • Al{sup 3+} and Ga{sup 3+} substitute onto the Ca(5) site, and Na{sup +} onto the Ca(4) site.

  2. Tracking Sodium-Antimonide Phase Transformations in Sodium-Ion Anodes: Insights from Operando Pair Distribution Function Analysis and Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Phoebe K; Griffin, John M; Darwiche, Ali; Borkiewicz, Olaf J; Wiaderek, Kamila M; Chapman, Karena W; Morris, Andrew J; Chupas, Peter J; Monconduit, Laure; Grey, Clare P

    2016-02-24

    Operando pair distribution function (PDF) analysis and ex situ (23)Na magic-angle spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS ssNMR) spectroscopy are used to gain insight into the alloying mechanism of high-capacity antimony anodes for sodium-ion batteries. Subtraction of the PDF of crystalline NaxSb phases from the total PDF, an approach constrained by chemical phase information gained from (23)Na ssNMR in reference to relevant model compounds, identifies two previously uncharacterized intermediate species formed electrochemically; a-Na(3-x)Sb (x ≈ 0.4-0.5), a structure locally similar to crystalline Na3Sb (c-Na3Sb) but with significant numbers of sodium vacancies and a limited correlation length, and a-Na(1.7)Sb, a highly amorphous structure featuring some Sb-Sb bonding. The first sodiation breaks down the crystalline antimony to form first a-Na(3-x)Sb and, finally, crystalline Na3Sb. Desodiation results in the formation of an electrode formed of a composite of crystalline and amorphous antimony networks. We link the different reactivity of these networks to a series of sequential sodiation reactions manifesting as a cascade of processes observed in the electrochemical profile of subsequent cycles. The amorphous network reacts at higher voltages reforming a-Na(1.7)Sb, then a-Na(3-x)Sb, whereas lower potentials are required for the sodiation of crystalline antimony, which reacts to form a-Na(3-x)Sb without the formation of a-Na(1.7)Sb. a-Na(3-x)Sb is converted to crystalline Na3Sb at the end of the second discharge. We find no evidence of formation of NaSb. Variable temperature (23)Na NMR experiments reveal significant sodium mobility within c-Na3Sb; this is a possible contributing factor to the excellent rate performance of Sb anodes.

  3. A novel ion cooling trap for multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Y; Wada, M; Naimi, S; Smorra, C; Sonoda, T; Mita, H; Takamine, A; Okada, K; Ozawa, A; Wollnik, H

    2013-01-01

    A radiofrequency quadrupole ion trap system for use with a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph (MRTOF) for short-lived nuclei has been developed. The trap system consists of two different parts, an asymmetric taper trap and a flat trap. The ions are cooled to a sufficient small bunch for precise mass measurement with MRTOF in only 2 ms cooling time in the flat trap, then orthogonally ejected to the MRTOF for mass analysis. A trapping efficiency of ~27% for 23Na+ and ~5.1% for 7Li+ has been achieved.

  4. Sodium magnetic resonance imaging. Development of a 3D radial acquisition technique with optimized k-space sampling density and high SNR-efficiency; Natrium-Magnetresonanztomographie. Entwicklung einer 3D radialen Messtechnik mit optimierter k-Raum-Abtastdichte und hoher SNR-Effizienz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, Armin Michael

    2009-04-01

    A 3D radial k-space acquisition technique with homogenous distribution of the sampling density (DA-3D-RAD) is presented. This technique enables short echo times (TE<0.5 ms), that are necessary for {sup 23}Na-MRI, and provides a high SNR-efficiency. The gradients of the DA-3D-RAD-sequence are designed such that the average sampling density in each spherical shell of k-space is constant. The DA-3D-RAD-sequence provides 34% more SNR than a conventional 3D radial sequence (3D-RAD) if T{sub 2}{sup *}-decay is neglected. This SNR-gain is enhanced if T{sub 2}{sup *}-decay is present, so a 1.5 to 1.8 fold higher SNR is measured in brain tissue with the DA-3D-RAD-sequence. Simulations and experimental measurements show that the DA-3D-RAD sequence yields a better resolution in the presence of T{sub 2}{sup *}-decay and less image artefacts when B{sub 0}-inhomogeneities exist. Using the developed sequence, T{sub 1}-, T{sub 2}{sup *}- and Inversion-Recovery-{sup 23}Na-image contrasts were acquired for several organs and {sup 23}Na-relaxation times were measured (brain tissue: T{sub 1}=29.0{+-}0.3 ms; T{sub 2s}{sup *}{approx}4 ms; T{sub 2l}{sup *}{approx}31 ms; cerebrospinal fluid: T{sub 1}=58.1{+-}0.6 ms; T{sub 2}{sup *}=55{+-}3 ms (B{sub 0}=3 T)). T{sub 1}- und T{sub 2}{sup *}-relaxation times of cerebrospinal fluid are independent of the selected magnetic field strength (B0 = 3T/7 T), whereas the relaxation times of brain tissue increase with field strength. Furthermore, {sup 23}Na-signals of oedemata were suppressed in patients and thus signals from different tissue compartments were selectively measured. (orig.)

  5. Entrance channel independence in the decay of 47V formed in nearly symmetric and asymmetric reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A light mass CN 47V*, produced via different reaction channels, is observed to have fully energy damped binary decay process, supported by the statistical model calculations based on the transition-state model (TSM). In the present contribution, the decay of excited CN 47V* formed in nearly symmetric and asymmetric reactions 23Na+24Mg (Elab=89.1 MeV) and 35Cl+12C (Elab=200 MeV), respectively, with the same excitation energy ECN*=64.1 MeV, is studied by using the Dynamical Cluster decay Model (DCM) of Gupta and collaborators

  6. Recommendations concerning magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In medicine the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is applied in the form of in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In vivo MRS can be carried out non-invasively. The committee of the Dutch Health Council briefly discusses the qualities and potentialities of the nuclei that will probably be used in future clinical spectroscopy: 31P, 13C, 1H (and possibly 19F and 23Na). The committee discusses several possibilities of combining imaging and spectroscopy. The imaging of nuclei other than protons is also possible with MRS. Potential applications are considered in oncology, cardiology, neurology and hepatology. (Auth.)

  7. K+-dependent paradoxical membrane depolarization and Na+ overload, major and reversible contributors to weakness by ion channel leaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurkat-Rott, Karin; Weber, Marc-André; Fauler, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    M, in accordance with their permanent weakness, and up to 99% were in P2 at a [K(+)](o) of 1.5 mM, in accordance with their paralytic attacks. Of 36 HypoPP patients, 25 had permanent weakness and myoplasmic intracellular Na(+) ([Na(+)](i)) overload (up to 24 mM) as shown by in vivo (23)Na-MRI. Acetazolamide...... that the principle of paradoxical depolarization and loss of function upon [K(+)](o) reduction may apply to other tissues, such as heart or brain, when they become leaky (e.g., because of ischemia)....

  8. Forbidden transitions in a magneto-optical trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, M; Haimberger, C; Bigelow, N P

    2003-11-21

    We report the first observation of a nondipole transition in an ultracold atomic vapor. We excite the 3P-4P electric quadrupole (E2) transition in 23Na confined in a magneto-optical trap, and we demonstrate its application to high-resolution spectroscopy by making the first measurement of the hyperfine structure of the 4P(1/2) level and extracting the magnetic dipole constant A=30.6+/-0.1 MHz. We use cw optical-optical double resonance accompanied by photoionization to probe the transition.

  9. Magnetic-field-induced dynamical instabilities in an antiferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zhengguo; Zhang, Jun; Yi, Su; Wang, Dajun; Zhang, Wenxian

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically investigate four types of dynamical instability, in particular the periodic and oscillatory type IO, in an antiferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate in a nonzero magnetic field, by employing the coupled-mode theory and numerical method. This is in sharp contrast to the dynamical stability of the same system in zero field. Remarkably, a pattern transition from a periodic dynamical instability IO to a uniform one IIIO occurs at a critical magnetic field. All four types of dynamical instability and the pattern transition are ready to be detected in 23Na condensates within the availability of the current experimental techniques.

  10. Material and structural characterization of alkali activated low-calcium brown coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvára, Frantisek; Kopecký, Lubomír; Smilauer, Vít; Bittnar, Zdenek

    2009-09-15

    The waste low-calcium Czech brown coal fly ash represents a considerable environmental burden due to the quantities produced and the potentially high content of leachable heavy metals. The heterogeneous microstucture of the geopolymer M(n) [-(Si-O)(z)-Al-O](n).wH(2)O, that forms during the alkaline activation, was examined by means of microcalorimetry, XRD, TGA, DSC, MIP, FTIR, NMR MAS ((29)Si, (27)Al, (23)Na), ESEM, EDS, and EBSD. The leaching of heavy metals and the evolution of compressive strength were also monitored. The analysis of raw fly ash identified a number of different morphologies, unequal distribution of elements, Fe-rich rim, high internal porosity, and minor crystalline phases of mullite and quartz. Microcalorimetry revealed exothermic reactions with dependence on the activator alkalinity. The activation energy of the geopolymerization process was determined as 86.2kJ/mol. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed no additional crystalline phases associated with geopolymer formation. Over several weeks, the (29)Si NMR spectrum testified a high degree of polymerization and Al penetration into the SiO(4) tetrahedra. The (23)Na NMR MAS spectrum hypothesized that sodium is bound in the form of Na(H(2)O)(n) rather than Na(+), thus causing efflorescence in a moisture-gradient environment. As and Cr(6+) are weakly bonded in the geopolymer matrix, while excellent immobilization of Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+), and Cr(3+) are reported.

  11. Measurement of the relationship of {sup 24} Na activity and the received neutron dose; Medicion de la relacion de la actividad de {sup 24}Na y la dosis de neutrones recibida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossio, S.; Carrelli, J.; Villella, A.; Soppe, E., E-mail: sgossio@arn.gob.ar [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    In cases of criticality accidents it is required a fast dosimetric system that allows to evaluate the doses of the personnel involved. The reaction (n,y) with sodium presented in the body ({sup 23}Na), generates {sup 24}Na, that emits two gamma of 1369KeV and 2754 KeV that can be measured using a whole body counter. The experienced were carried out with the irradiation of {sup 252} Cf of a phantom with a solution of NaCl in water. After the irradiation it was measured the {sup 24}Na activity in the whole body counter, which has a HPGe detector previously calibrated in energy and efficiency. Considering the correction by decay, the quantity of {sup 23}Na presented in the body of an adult and elimination curve of {sup 24}Na, it was established a coefficient of neutronic doses by unity of activity of {sup 24}Na measured in the whole body counter. This method is useful for the retrospective estimation of the doses, as well as to carry out a radiological sorting in case of criticality.

  12. Progress on Nuclear Data Covariances: AFCI-1.2 Covariance Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblozinsky,P.; Oblozinsky,P.; Mattoon,C.M.; Herman,M.; Mughabghab,S.F.; Pigni,M.T.; Talou,P.; Hale,G.M.; Kahler,A.C.; Kawano,T.; Little,R.C.; Young,P.G

    2009-09-28

    Improved neutron cross section covariances were produced for 110 materials including 12 light nuclei (coolants and moderators), 78 structural materials and fission products, and 20 actinides. Improved covariances were organized into AFCI-1.2 covariance library in 33-energy groups, from 10{sup -5} eV to 19.6 MeV. BNL contributed improved covariance data for the following materials: {sup 23}Na and {sup 55}Mn where more detailed evaluation was done; improvements in major structural materials {sup 52}Cr, {sup 56}Fe and {sup 58}Ni; improved estimates for remaining structural materials and fission products; improved covariances for 14 minor actinides, and estimates of mubar covariances for {sup 23}Na and {sup 56}Fe. LANL contributed improved covariance data for {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu including prompt neutron fission spectra and completely new evaluation for {sup 240}Pu. New R-matrix evaluation for {sup 16}O including mubar covariances is under completion. BNL assembled the library and performed basic testing using improved procedures including inspection of uncertainty and correlation plots for each material. The AFCI-1.2 library was released to ANL and INL in August 2009.

  13. 12C+12C reactions at astrophysical energies: Tests of targets behaviour under beam bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    12C(12C,α)20Ne and 12C(12C,p)23Na are the most important reactions during the carbon burning phase in stars. Direct measurements at the relevant astrophysical energy (E=1.5±0.3MeV) are very challenging because of the extremely small cross sections involved and of the high beam-induced background originating from impurities in the targets. In addition, persistent resonant structures at low energies are not well understood and make the extrapolation of the cross section from high energy data very uncertain. As a preliminary step towards the measurements of the 12C(12C,α)20Ne and 12C(12C,p)23Na reactions we intend to investigate the behaviour of targets under beam bombardment, specifically the quantitative measurement of hydrogen and deuterium content of highly pure stable carbon targets in relation to target temperature. Experiments are taking place at the CIRCE accelerator in Caserta, Italy and preliminary results are presented here

  14. First radioactive ions charge bred in REXEBIS at the REX-ISOLDE accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, B H; Fostner, O; Wenander, F; Ames, F; Reisinger, K; Liljeby, L; Skeppstedt, Ö; Jonson, B; Nyman, G H

    2003-01-01

    REXEBIS is the charge breeder of the REX-ISOLDE post accelerator. The radioactive 1$^{+}$ ions produced at ISOLDE are accumulated, phase-space cooled and bunched in the REXTRAP, and thereafter injected into the EBIS with an energy up to 60 keV. The REXEBIS produced the first charge bred ions in August 2001 and has been running nearly non-stop during September to December 2001. It has delivered stable $^{39}$K$^{10+}$ and $^{23}$Na$^{6+}$ beams generated in the ion source in front of REXTRAP with a Na$^{7+}$ current exceeding 70 pA (6x10$^{7}$ p/s). Stable $^{27}$Al$^{7+}$ and $^{23}$Na$^{6+}$ from ISOLDE and also the first radioactive $^{26}$Na$^{7+}$ and $^{24}$Na$^{7+}$ beams (just 5x10$^{5}$ p/s) have been charge bred and accelerated for tests of the experimental setup. Despite some problems with the electron gun, which had one breakdown after about 1500 hours of operation and displays slow changes of the emission conditions, the EBIS is working remarkably stable (24 hours / 7 days a week). We will report ...

  15. Effects of intermittent fasting on age-related changes on Na,K-ATPase activity and oxidative status induced by lipopolysaccharide in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Andrea Rodrigues; Kinoshita, Paula Fernanda; Yshii, Lidia Mitiko; Marques Orellana, Ana Maria; Böhmer, Ana Elisa; de Sá Lima, Larissa; Alves, Rosana; Andreotti, Diana Zukas; Marcourakis, Tania; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa Mitiko

    2015-05-01

    Chronic neuroinflammation is a common characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling is linked to glutamate-nitric oxide-Na,K-ATPase isoforms pathway in central nervous system (CNS) and also causes neuroinflammation. Intermittent fasting (IF) induces adaptive responses in the brain that can suppress inflammation, but the age-related effect of IF on LPS modulatory influence on nitric oxide-Na,K-ATPase isoforms is unknown. This work compared the effects of LPS on the activity of α1,α2,3 Na,K-ATPase, nitric oxide synthase gene expression and/or activity, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, 3-nitrotyrosine-containing proteins, and levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in CNS of young and older rats submitted to the IF protocol for 30 days. LPS induced an age-related effect in neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, and levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in rat hippocampus that was linked to changes in α2,3-Na,K-ATPase activity, 3-nitrotyrosine proteins, and inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression. IF induced adaptative cellular stress-response signaling pathways reverting LPS effects in rat hippocampus of young and older rats. The results suggest that IF in both ages would reduce the risk for deficits on brain function and neurodegenerative disorders linked to inflammatory response in the CNS. PMID:25818175

  16. A monopole/loop dual-tuned RF coil for ultrahigh field MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinqiang; Xue, Rong; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2014-08-01

    Proton and heteronuclear MRI/MRS using dual-tuned (DT) coils could provide both anatomical and metabolic images without repositioning the subject. However, it is technologically challenging to attain sufficiently electromagnetic (EM) decoupling between the heteronuclear channel and proton channel, and keep the imaging areas and profiles of two nuclear channels highly matched. In this study, a hybrid monopole/loop technique was proposed for DT coil design and this technique was validated by implementing and testing a DT (1)H/(23)Na coil for MR imaging at 7T. The RF fields of the monopole ((1)H channel) and regular L/C loop ((23)Na channel) were orthogonal and intrinsically EM decoupled. Bench measurement results demonstrated the isolation between the two nuclear channels was better than -28 dB at both nuclear frequencies. Compared with the conventional DT coil using trap circuits, the monopole/loop DT coil had higher MR sensitivity for sodium imaging. The experimental results indicated that the monopole/loop technique might be a simple and efficient design for multinuclear imaging at ultrahigh fields. Additionally, the proposed DT coils based on the monopole/loop technique can be used as building blocks in designing multichannel DT coil arrays. PMID:25202657

  17. Tunable states of interlayer cations in two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Numata, K. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Dai, W. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Hunger, M. [Institute of Chemical Technology, University of Stuttgart, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-03-31

    The local state of cations inside the Ångstrom-scale interlayer spaces is one of the controlling factors for designing sophisticated two-dimensional (2D) materials consisting of 2D nanosheets. In the present work, the molecular mechanism on how the interlayer cation states are induced by the local structures of the 2D nanosheets is highlighted. For this purpose, the local states of Na cations in inorganic 2D materials, in which the compositional fluctuations of a few percent are introduced in the tetrahedral and octahedral units of the 2D nanosheets, were systematically studied by means of {sup 23}Na magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and {sup 23}Na multiple-quantum MAS (MQMAS) NMR spectroscopy. In contrast with an uniform distribution of Na cations expected so far, various well-defined cation states sensitive to the local structures of the 2D nanosheets were identified. The tunability of the interlayer cation states along with the local structure of the 2D nanosheets, as the smallest structural unit of the 2D material, is discussed.

  18. Structural Characterization of Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites Prepared by Co-Precipitation Using EPR Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Kielmann

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-clay nanocomposites (PCNCs containing either a rubber or an acrylate polymer were prepared by drying or co-precipitating polymer latex and nanolayered clay (synthetic and natural suspensions. The interface between the polymer and the clay nanoparticles was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR techniques by selectively addressing spin probes either to the surfactant layer (labeled stearic acid or the clay surface (labeled catamine. Continuous-wave (CW EPR studies of the surfactant dynamics allow to define a transition temperature T* which was tentatively assigned to the order-disorder transition of the surfactant layer. CW EPR studies of PCNC showed that completely exfoliated nanoparticles coexist with agglomerates. HYSCORE spectroscopy in PCNCs showed couplings within the probe −assigned with DFT computations− and couplings with nuclei of the environment, 1H and 23Na for the surfactant layer probe, and 29Si, 7Li, 19F and 23Na for the clay surface probe. Analysis of these couplings indicates that the integrity of the surfactant layer is conserved and that there are sizeable ionic regions containing sodium ions directly beyond the surfactant layer. Simulations of the very weak couplings demonstrated that the HYSCORE spectra are sensitive to the composition of the clay and whether or not clay platelets stack.

  19. Elastic/Inelastic Measurement Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work scope involves the measurement of neutron scattering from natural sodium (23Na) and two isotopes of iron, 56Fe and 54Fe. Angular distributions, i.e., differential cross sections, of the scattered neutrons will be measured for 5 to 10 incident neutron energies per year. The work of the first year concentrates on 23Na, while the enriched iron samples are procured. Differential neutron scattering cross sections provide information to guide nuclear reaction model calculations in the low-@@energy (few MeV) fast-@@neutron region. This region lies just above the isolated resonance region, which in general is well studied; however, model calculations are difficult in this region because overlapping resonance structure is evident and direct nuclear reactions are becoming important. The standard optical model treatment exhibits good predictive ability for the wide-@@region average cross sections but cannot treat the overlapping resonance features. In addition, models that do predict the direct reaction component must be guided by measurements to describe correctly the strength of the direct component, e.g., @@2 must be known to describe the direct component of the scattering to the first excited state. Measurements of the elastic scattering differential cross sections guide the optical model calculations, while inelastic differential cross sections provide the crucial information for correctly describing the direct component. Activities occurring during the performance period are described.

  20. Polityka bilansowa spółek akcyjnych– uwarunkowania skutecznościoraz skutki rozpoznania przez inwestorów 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Grabowski

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Standardy i normy prawne określające zasady rachunkowości zawierają szereg praw wyboru i pól swobodnego działania. Ich wykorzystywanie w celu oddziaływania na oceny formułowane przez interesariuszy było często poddawane krytyce. Jednak wykorzystanie swobody pozostawionej na płaszczyźnie uregulowań w zakresie rachunkowości nie umożliwia oddziaływania na oceny formułowane przez interesariuszy, jeżeli są spełnione dwa warunki. Warunek I wymaga, aby rynek kapitałowy odznaczał się przynajmniej tzw. efektywnością w średniej formie. Skutkiem odznaczania się przez rynek kapitałowy efektywnością w średniej formie jest między innymi to, że inwestorzy wyceniający akcje danej spółki natychmiast uwzględniają w swych ocenach wszystkie publicznie dostępne informacje dotyczące tej spółki, w tym także dane zawarte w informacji dodatkowej. Warunek II wymaga, aby sprawozdanie finansowe umożliwiało poznanie, jakie wartości (tych pozycji byłyby ujęte, gdyby zastosowano opcjonalną metodę rachunkową. W literaturze przedmiotu opisanych jest wiele badań, których celem było ustalenie, czy tendencyjne ukształtowanie bilansu oraz rachunku zysków i strat umożliwia oddziaływanie na inwestorów giełdowych. Trzeba jednak podkreślić, że praktycznie we wszystkich opracowaniach, koncentrowano się na warunku I, dotyczącym efektywności rynków kapitałowych. Kwestia warunku II odnoszącego się do zawartości informacyjnej sprawozdań finansowych nie była gruntownie badana. To skłoniło współautora niniejszego referatu do podjęcia próby ustalenia, czy opisane powyżej warunki braku skuteczności polityki bilansu handlowego są spełnione. Wyniki, jakie uzyskał autor badania pozwoliły stwierdzić, że pomimo, iż warunek I jest spełniony, polityka bilansu handlowego kształtowana na podstawie MSSF może być nadal skutecznie wykorzystywana do kształtowania ocen formułowanych przez interesariuszy. Wynika to z

  1. Speciation of Cu and Zn in soil solution in a long-term fertilization experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutkowska Beata

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Celem pracy była ocena zmian stężenia Cu i Zn oraz określenie procentowego udziału poszczególnych form tych pierwiastków w roztworze glebowym. Badania prowadzono w warunkach wieloletniego doświadczenia nawozowego zlokalizowa- nego w Stacji Doświadczalnej Wydziału Rolnictwa i Biologii SGGW w Skierniewicach. Roztwór glebowy pozyskano metodą pod- ciśnieniową. Poszczególne, możliwe do wystąpienia formy miedzi i cynku w roztworze glebowym obliczono przy wykorzystaniu programu komputerowego MINTEQA2. Uzyskane wyniki badań wskazują, że stężenie Cu i Zn w roztworze glebowym zwiększa się pod wpływem wyłącznego nawożenia mineralnego (NPK. W warunkach stosowania obornika (CaNPK+FYM zmniejsza się stęże- nie miedzi, a zwiększa stężenie cynku w roztworze glebowy m w stosunku do obiektów' o wyłącznym naw ożeniu mineralnym (NPK, CaNPK. Wapnowanie było czynnikiem wpływającym na zmniejszenie stężenia obydw u badanych pierwiastków w roztworze glebo- wym. Wyniki analizy numerycznej roztw oru glebowego wykazały, że niezależnie od nawożenia dominującą formą miedzi w roztwo- rze glebowym były kompleksy metalo-organiczne. Ich udział w całkow itym stężeniu Cu w roztworze glebowym stanow ił od 76,5 do 85,2%. Pod względem malejącego udziału w roztworze glebowy m poszczególne formy miedzi można uszeregować następująco: kompleksy miedzi z materią organiczną >wolne jony Cu2+ >kompleksy miedzi z węglanami. Natomiast główną formą cynku w roztworze glebowym były wolne jony Zn2+, których udział w ogólnym stężeniu cynku w roztworze glebowym wynosił od 76,9 do 86,4%. Szereg malejącego udziału poszczególnych form cynku w roztworze glebowym przedstawia się następująco: wolne jony Zn2+ >kompleksy Zn z materią organiczną>kompleksy cynku z chlorkami >kompleksy z węglanami.

  2. 木寡糖-地衣芽孢杆菌合生元对保育猪生产性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应琳琳; 张杨

    2015-01-01

    A total of 176 piglets (Duroc×Landrace×Large white),weaned on (28±2)days,were chosen and divided (randomly) into 4 groups with 4 replicates of 11 each.Group A was added 0.2% xylooligosaccharide - bacillus licheni-formis synbiotics and colistin sulfate 20 mg/kg,group B was added 0.2% isxylooligosaccharide - bacillus licheniformis synbiotics with,Group C was added colistin sulfate 20 mg/kg,group D was control group.The feeding period was 30 days. All pigs had free access to diet and water.The experiment results showed that the xylooligosaccharide - bacillus licheni-formis synbiotics and colistin sulfate combined or individual use,all improved the production performance of nursery pigs, and there was no significant difference among the adding groups (P > 0.05).In view of economy,xylooligosaccharide -bacillus licheniformis synbiotics could be used alone to improve the production performance of piglets in practical produc-tion.Compared with the control group, adding 0.2%xylooligosaccharide-bacillus licheniformis synbiotics increased aver-age daily gain by 4.24%,improved feed efficiency by 4.20%,and reduced diarrhea rate by 33.83%.%随机选择176 头健康的(28±2)日龄杜×长×大三元杂交断奶仔猪,体重平均为(7.13±0.06)kg,分4个处理组,分别为试验组A(0.2%木寡糖-地衣芽孢杆菌合生元+硫酸粘杆菌素20 mg/kg)、试验组B(0.2%木寡糖-地衣芽孢杆菌合生元)、试验组C(硫酸粘杆菌素20 mg/kg)、试验组D(空白对照组),每个处理4 个重复,每个重复11 头仔猪. 饲养期30 d,自由采食和饮水. 试验结果表明:木寡糖-地衣芽孢杆菌合生元与硫酸粘杆菌素联用或二者单独使用,均可改善保育猪生产性能,且各添加组间差异不显著(P>0.05). 从经济效益角度考虑,生产中可单独使用木寡糖-地衣芽孢杆菌合生元来提高保育猪生产性能.与对照组相比,0.2%木寡糖-地衣芽孢杆菌合生元可提高仔猪日增重4.24%(P<0.05),降低料肉比4.20%(P

  3. 艾丽丝·默多克小说《黑王子》的对话性解读%Interpretation of Iris Murdoch's Black Prince from Bakhtin's Dialogue Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪春梅

    2012-01-01

    英国当代作家默多克有着颇为独特的小说批评观念,其丰富的小说创作吸收了以往各个时期的小说创作思想和技巧。尤其需要注意的是,默多克小说文本中的对话性形式可以视为她一些小说的突出特征。《黑王子》的外结构与内结构的巧妙设置,类似元小说的侵入式话语,叙述语式中的对话性形式充分体现了文本的对话性,这些特征使《黑王子》成为一个"众声喧哗,疑点重重"的后现代文本。%Iris Murdoch was a most versatile and prominent writer in late 20th century.Her unique perspectives on novel critics and learning from the other early novelists in the history give birth to her imposing number of novels.In my view,one particular characteristic of Iris Murdoch's novels is dialogism.The novel Black Prince,noted for its subtle inner and outer structures,special invaded discourse,dialogism in the narrative form,is a typical example of the usage of Bakhtin's Dialogue Principle.All of these make the novel Black Prince full of ambiguities and uncertainties.

  4. On Translation of English Film Titles%英文电影片名翻译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欢

    2012-01-01

    电影这种艺术形式非常容易被各种文化层次的观众所接受。观众对于电影的第一印象来自片名,电影片名隐含着独特的本国文化。优秀电影片名译作是对文化与信息传递和实现商业价值的前提条件之一。本文通过分析英文电影片名翻译的方法和技巧,指出在翻译的过程中,可以根据具体情况,采用直译、意译、音译这三种翻译方法。%Movie,as an art form,is easily accepted by audiences of various cultural levels.The audience gets the first impression of a film from its title which involves much of their native culture.Good translations of the film titles can not only attract more audience to realize its commercial value,but also be one of prerequisites that make sure the culture and information pass on.The paper mainly discussed the translation of English movie titles,with the consideration of culture,recognizes the distinctions of cultures and languages between English and Chinese.The author draws a conclusion that,in the process of translation,according to the specific circumstances,there are three methods of translation of English film titles,which are literal translation,free translation and transliteration.

  5. Three dimension quantitative structure toxicity relationship study of cytoxicitic phenolic analogues against Tetrahymena pyriformis%梨形四膜虫细胞毒性苯酚类似物的三维定量结构毒性相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远强; 刘跃辉; 丁元; 张娅; 林治华

    2012-01-01

    目的 使用比较分子相似性指数分析(CoMSIA)方法 对梨形四膜虫细胞毒性苯酚类似物进行三维定量结构毒性相关(3D-QSTR)研究.方法 系统分析了立体场、静电场、疏水场对三维结构毒性模型的影响,并建立相应的3D-QSTR预测模型.结果 使用静电场与疏水场协同作用建立了具有良好可靠性和预测能力的3D-QSTR模型(Q2=0.767,r2=0.933).结论 模型具有良好的预测能力,对苯酚类似物的结构修饰具有指导作用.%Objective To use the comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) for constructing three dimension quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (3D-QSTR) models of phenolic analogues with cytotoxicity against Tetrahymena pyri-formis. Methods The contribution of hydrophobic,electrostatic and steric property to 3D-QSTR models were analyzed comprehensively. The optimized 3D-QSTR model was constructed by CoMSIA using electrostatic and hydrophobic properties for phenolic ana-loguesResults The model had good stability (Q2 =0. 767) and predictive ability (r2 =0. 933). Conclusion The electrostatic and hydrophobic counter maps from CoMSIA could guide the structural modification of phenolic analogues directly.

  6. Study on the model relationship between net productivity and stand age,site index, stand density of Chinese pine in northern Hebei%冀北山地油松林净生产力与相关立地因子关系模型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国巧; 刘英华; 李校; 王雄宾

    2013-01-01

    Based on surveies on standard plots of Chinese pine(Pinus tabulae formis), the guiding curve model of tree height with stand age was established to calculate site index of each standard plot. The relationship models of individual biomass with tree height and DBH were established, respectively, to calculate stand biomass. The relationship models of stand biomass with stand age, site index and stand density were established, respectively,in order to obtain the relationship models of stand net productivity with stand age, site index, and stand density. These results will provide a theoretical basis for improving the level of forest management and stand productivity.%为推测林分生产力,提高森林经营水平,在对冀北山地油松林标准地进行调查的基础上,建立树高随林龄的增长而变化的导向曲线模型,通过模型给出各标准地的立地指数;建立油松单株生物量与单株胸径树高关系模型,导出各标准地林分生物量;建立林分生物量与林分密度、林龄及立地指数关系模型,进而建立林分净生产力与林分密度、林龄及立地指数关系模型.

  7. Contents of selected macroelements in soils, potatoes and fodder beets at variable soil reaction / Zawartość wybranych makroelementów w glebach oraz w ziemniakach i burakach pastewnych przy zmiennym odczynie gleby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogóż Antoni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Celem przeprowadzonych badañ było określenie koncentracji wybranych makroelementów w glebie i w roślinach okopowych (ziemniakach i burakach pastewnych przy zmiennym odczynie gleby. Zmiany wartości pH w badanych glebach decydowały o zawartości tych pierwiastków w formach rozpuszczalnych oznaczanych w HCl o stężeniu 0,1 mol·dm-3. Analiza statystyczna wykazała dodatnią zależność pomiędzy wartością pH gleb a zawartością wapnia i magnezu w formie zbliżonej do ogólnej oraz zawartością rozpuszczalnych form fosforu, wapnia i magnezu. Zawartość badanych makroelementów, tj. fosforu, wapnia, magnezu w uprawianych burakach pastewnych oraz ziemniakach zależała od zasobności i form, w jakiej badane pierwiastki występują w glebie, a także od gatunku oraz analizowanej części rośliny. Wraz ze wzrostem wartości pH gleb stwierdzano zwiększenie zawartości fosforu i zmniejszenie zawartości magnezu w korzeniach i częściach nadziemnych buraków. Zawartość wapnia w korzeniach uległa zwiększeniu wraz ze wzrostem wartości pH gleb, natomiast kierunek zmian zawartości tego pierwiastka w ogonkach i blaszkach liściowych buraków nie był jednoznaczny. W bulwach ziemniaków stwierdzono nieznaczne obniżenie się zawartości badanych pierwiastków wraz ze wzrostem wartości pH gleb.

  8. Labour Market Developments in the Maritime Industry of the South Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernacki Dariusz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dwa główne cele badań, to analiza stanu gospodarki morskiej i zatrudnienia w Rejonie Południowego Bałtyku oraz zidentyfikowanie sektorów gospodarki morskiej wykazujących potencjał dla rozwoju i określenie wpływu, jaki będzie to miało na zatrudnienie i wymagane kwalifikacje zawodowe, a także na możliwości wymiany międzyregionalnej pracowników. Badania porównawcze przeprowadzono dla czterech nadmorskich regionów UE, a mianowicie Meklemburgii-Przedpomorza Przedniego(D, województw: Zachodniopomorskiego i Pomorskiego (PL oraz Regionu Kłajpedy (LT. Wskazano na perspektywy rozwoju gospodarczego poszczególnych segmentów gospodarki morskiej i ustalono związany z tym wpływ na rynki pracy w poszczególnych regionach. Analiza porównawcza poszczególnych segmentów gospodarki morskiej Rejonu Południowego Bałtyku umożliwiła zidentyfikowanie różnic w możliwościach ich rozwoju i w efektach popytu na pracę i na kwalifikacje zawodowe dla każdego z regionów. Zjawisko zróżnicowanego potencjału rozwoju rynków pracy w wyróżnionych segmentach gospodarki morskiej w ujęciu międzyregionalnym przedstawiono w formie wielokryterialnych macierzy prognoz popytu na pracę.

  9. 酶法进行海洋低值蛋白资源高值化利用初探%PRELIMINARY STUDY ON VALUE-INCREMENT OF LOW VALUED MARINE PROTEIN BY ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师晓栋; 何海伦; 王运涛; 张玉忠; 高培基

    2001-01-01

    首先分析了?鱼与四角蛤两种低值海洋蛋白资源的营养成分,然后利用两株高产蛋白酶菌株通过液体发酵制备的蛋白酶制剂对两种蛋白资源进行了酶解,经过比较酶解率和肽含量,表明对于四角蛤,菌株SM98013产生的碱性蛋白酶和SM98011产生的中性蛋白酶都可高效酶解;而对于?鱼,菌株SM98013产生的碱性蛋白酶的酶解效率较高。文中对海洋低值蛋白资源的高值化利用的途径进行了讨论。%The contents of the nutritional component in the two kinds of low-value marine proteins were analyzed and hydrolyzed by the neutral and alkaline proteases produced by liquid fermentation with the strains of Bacillus subtilis SM98011 and B. subtilis SM98013, respectively. It was showed that the Mactra veneri formis Deshayes could be effectively hydrolyzed by both neutral and alkaline proteases, otherwise, the Engranlis japonicus was hydrolyzed more effectively by alkaline protease from B. subtilis SM98013 than neutral protease from B. subtilis SM98013. The application possibility of this high-valued marine protein was also discussed.

  10. Comparative modeling and molecular dynamics suggest high carboxylase activity of the Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14 RbcL protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Andrei Santos; Lima, Alex Ranieri Jerônimo; Dall'Agnol, Leonardo Teixeira; de Azevedo, Juliana Simão Nina; da Silva Gonçalves Vianez, João Lídio; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa

    2016-03-01

    Rubisco catalyzes the first step reaction in the carbon fixation pathway, bonding atmospheric CO2/O2 to ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate; it is therefore considered one of the most important enzymes in the biosphere. Genetic modifications to increase the carboxylase activity of rubisco are a subject of great interest to agronomy and biotechnology, since this could increase the productivity of biomass in plants, algae and cyanobacteria and give better yields in crops and biofuel production. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize in silico the catalytic domain of the rubisco large subunit (rbcL gene) of Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14, and identify target sites to improve enzyme affinity for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate. A three-dimensional model was built using MODELLER 9.14, molecular dynamics was used to generate a 100 ns trajectory by AMBER12, and the binding free energy was calculated using MM-PBSA, MM-GBSA and SIE methods with alanine scanning. The model obtained showed characteristics of form-I rubisco, with 15 beta sheets and 19 alpha helices, and maintained the highly conserved catalytic site encompassing residues Lys175, Lys177, Lys201, Asp203, and Glu204. The binding free energy of the enzyme-substrate complexation of Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14 showed values around -10 kcal mol(-1) using the SIE method. The most important residues for the interaction with ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate were Arg295 followed by Lys334. The generated model was successfully validated, remaining stable during the whole simulation, and demonstrated characteristics of enzymes with high carboxylase activity. The binding analysis revealed candidates for directed mutagenesis sites to improve rubisco's affinity. PMID:26936271

  11. Effect of Lectins from Diocleinae Subtribe against Oral Streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Holanda Teixeira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface colonization is an essential step in biofilm development. The ability of oral pathogens to adhere to tooth surfaces is directly linked with the presence of specific molecules at the bacterial surface that can interact with enamel acquired pellicle ligands. In light of this, the aim of this study was to verify inhibitory and antibiofilm action of lectins from the Diocleinaesubtribe against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus oralis. The inhibitory action against planctonic cells was assessed using lectins from Canavaliaensi formis (ConA, Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr, Canavalia maritima (ConM, Canavalia gladiata (CGL and Canavalia boliviana (ConBol. ConBol, ConBr and ConM showed inhibitory activity on S. mutans growth. All lectins, except ConA, stimulated significantly the growth of S. oralis. To evaluate the effect on biofilm formation, clarified saliva was added to 96-well, flat-bottomed polystyrene plates, followed by the addition of solutions containing 100 or 200 µg/mL of the selected lectins. ConBol, ConM and ConA inhibited the S. mutans biofilms. No effects were found on S. oralis biofilms. Structure/function analysis were carried out using bioinformatics tools. The aperture and deepness of the CRD (Carbohydrate Recognition Domain permit us to distinguish the two groups of Canavalia lectins in accordance to their actions against S. mutans and S. oralis. The results found provide a basis for encouraging the use of plant lectins as biotechnological tools in ecological control and prevention of caries disease.

  12. 红茶菌中优势微生物的分离鉴定及系统发育分析%Isolation and Identification of Predominant Microbes from Kombucha and Phylogenic Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔宏萍; 沙大年; 金泰廙; 杭晓敏

    2011-01-01

    In this manuscript, , the predominant microbes were isolated from Kombucha by different medium, 8. 3 106 cfu/mL of yeasts and 1. 4 107 cfu/mL of acetic bacteria were obtained. There were 4 strains of yeasts and 2 strains of acetic bacteria through purified from different colonies. By molecular identified and phylogenic analyzed, the isolate AC1 was identified as Acetobacter - senegalensis, AC2 as Gluconacetobacter saccharivoran, Yl as Pichia membranifaciens, Y2 as Pichia galeiformis, Y3 as Dekkera anomala, Y4 as Zygosaccharomyces bailii.%采用不同的培养基对红茶菌优势微生物进行了分离,共得到酵母菌8.3×106个/mL,醋酸菌1.4×107个/mL,选取不同的菌落进行纯化后得到2株醋酸菌和4株酵母菌.经过分子生物学鉴定和系统发育树分析后,初步确定AC1为醋酸杆菌Acetobacter senegalensis,AC2为葡糖醋杆菌Gluconacetobacter saccharivorans;Y1为膜璞毕赤酵母Pichia membrani aciens,Y2为毕赤酵母Pichia galei formis,Y3为异型德克酵母Dekkera anomala,Y4为拜耳接合酵母Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

  13. The concentration of heavy metals in soils around the wetlands of the Ina valley near Sławęcin / Koncentracja metali ciężkich w glebach mokradeł doliny Iny koło Sławęcina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paprota Dariusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mokradła w górnym odcinku doliny Iny to obszar cenny przyrodniczo i jednocześnie wolny od negatywnego oddziaływania przemysłu. Za ewentualne źródło zanieczyszczeń można przyjąć tu między innymi zanieczyszczenia z pól i łąk w postaci środków ochrony roślin oraz nawozów sztucznych, czy też zrzuty ścieków komunalnych z zabudowań wiejskich jak i niewielkiego miasta Recz. Badaniami objęto gleby mokradeł lewobrzeżnej części doliny Iny w pobliżu Sławęcina. Wykonano cztery charakterystyczne profile glebowe, z których pobrano materiał glebowy do badań laboratoryjnych. W próbkach glebowych oznaczono: zawartość materii organicznej, odczyn w 1 mol KCl·dm-3, w poziomach mineralnych skład granulometryczny oraz koncentrację metali ciężkich w formie wymiennej i ogólnej (Cd, Pb, Cu, Co, Zn, Fe. W wyniku przeprowadzonych badań stwierdzono, że gleby mokradeł doliny Iny koło Sławęcina nie wykazują zanieczyszczenia metalami ciężkimi, przy czym obserwuje się ich większe nagromadzenie w poziomach powierzchniowych murszowych, niż w niżej występującym torfie niskim i niżej występujących osadach.

  14. Production of Dialect Thematic Maps base on ArcGIS and CorelDraw--A case study in Pinghua Dialect Thematic Maps of Guangxi%基于ArcGIS-CorelDraw的方言地图集制作与研究--以广西平话方言地图集为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冬梅; 童新华; 李连进

    2015-01-01

    The geographical distribution of dialect and dialect features with label distribution map form,is an important research topic in Linguistics and geography disciplines concerned.Based on ArcGIS technology and CoreDraw software, the process and key issues of dialect thematic map production were studied in this paper. The spatial distribution features and spatial relationships of different dialects were performed, by adopting the expression function of spatial information of ArcGIS. Meanwhile, the aesthetic property of dialect thematic map was enhanced, by applying the powerful editing landscaping features of CorelDraw. The results show that, to make dialect thematic maps, the combination of ArcGIS and CorelDraw can improve the efficiency of cartography and catrtographic quality, enhance information presentation and readability of the dialect map, and better satisfy the requirements of making dialect thematic maps.%用地图的形式标示方言分布和方言特征的地理空间分布情况,是语言学和地理学学科关注的重要研究课题。文章综合运用ArcGIS的空间信息制图表达功能和CorelDraw的编辑美化功能,突出表达方言特征的空间分布情况和空间关系,增强方言地图的美观性。研究结果表明,结合ArcGIS软件和CorelDraw软件对方言专题图进行编制,有利于提高制图效率和制图质量,增强方言地图的信息表达和可读性,更好地满足方言专题图制作的要求。

  15. Comparative modeling and molecular dynamics suggest high carboxylase activity of the Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14 RbcL protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Andrei Santos; Lima, Alex Ranieri Jerônimo; Dall'Agnol, Leonardo Teixeira; de Azevedo, Juliana Simão Nina; da Silva Gonçalves Vianez, João Lídio; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa

    2016-03-01

    Rubisco catalyzes the first step reaction in the carbon fixation pathway, bonding atmospheric CO2/O2 to ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate; it is therefore considered one of the most important enzymes in the biosphere. Genetic modifications to increase the carboxylase activity of rubisco are a subject of great interest to agronomy and biotechnology, since this could increase the productivity of biomass in plants, algae and cyanobacteria and give better yields in crops and biofuel production. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize in silico the catalytic domain of the rubisco large subunit (rbcL gene) of Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14, and identify target sites to improve enzyme affinity for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate. A three-dimensional model was built using MODELLER 9.14, molecular dynamics was used to generate a 100 ns trajectory by AMBER12, and the binding free energy was calculated using MM-PBSA, MM-GBSA and SIE methods with alanine scanning. The model obtained showed characteristics of form-I rubisco, with 15 beta sheets and 19 alpha helices, and maintained the highly conserved catalytic site encompassing residues Lys175, Lys177, Lys201, Asp203, and Glu204. The binding free energy of the enzyme-substrate complexation of Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14 showed values around -10 kcal mol(-1) using the SIE method. The most important residues for the interaction with ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate were Arg295 followed by Lys334. The generated model was successfully validated, remaining stable during the whole simulation, and demonstrated characteristics of enzymes with high carboxylase activity. The binding analysis revealed candidates for directed mutagenesis sites to improve rubisco's affinity.

  16. Metodologija postavljanja diferencijalnih jednačina pri istraživanju dinamičkih parametara konstrukcije lansirne rampe na vozilu točkašu / Methodology make of differential equations at investigation of dynamic parameters of constructions of launcher on vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado P. Đurković

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available U radu se određuju optimalni parametri konstrukcije lansirne rampe: položaj tačke vešanja hidrocilindra na rampi, dužina i materijal rampe, koeficijent viskoznog trenja ulja u hidrocilindru, koeficijent krutosti lansirne rampe i hidrocilindra, poprečni presek rampe, itd. Radi toga postavlja se mehanički model sa tri stepena slobode kretanja i odgovarajući model u vidu sistema od tri nelinearne diferencijalne jednačine drugog reda. Numeričkom analizom dobijenog matematičkog modela (primenom programskog jezika Compaq Visual Fortran, Version 6.5 dolazi se do optimalnosti pojedinih parametara. Dobijeni rezultati, predstavljeni u grafičkoj formi, mogu da budu veoma korisni projektantima raketnih lansera, kako stabilnih, tako i mobilnih, pri razvoju novih konstrukcija i modifikaciji postojećih. / This paper determines optimal construction parametrics of a missile launcher place of hydro-cylinder on launcher, length and material of ramp of launcher coefficient of the viscosity of friction oil in hydro-cylinder, coefficient of stiffness of launcher and hydro-cylinder, cross-section of launcher etc. In this purpose appointment mechanical model with three degrees of freedom motion and analogous model of system of three nonlinear differential equation second order. Numerical analysis obtained mathematical model (programming with language Compaq Visual Fortran, Version 6.5 coming to optimal parameters. Obtained results that are presented in graphical shapes can be very useful for designing stable and mobile missile launchers, both for development of new constructions and modification of existing structures.

  17. Investigation of the hydrothermal crystallisation of the perovskite solid solution NaCe{sub 1−x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6} and its defect chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harunsani, Mohammad H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Woodward, David I. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7Al (United Kingdom); Peel, Martin D.; Ashbrook, Sharon E. [School of Chemistry, and EaStCHEM University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, KY16 9ST (United Kingdom); Walton, Richard I., E-mail: r.i.walton@warwick.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    Perovskites of nominal composition NaCe{sub 1−x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6} (0≤x≤1) crystallise directly under hydrothermal conditions at 240 °C. Raman spectroscopy shows distortion from the ideal cubic structure and Rietveld analysis of powder X-ray and neutron diffraction reveals that the materials represent a continuous series in rhombohedral space group R3-bar c. Ce L{sub III}-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy shows that while the majority of cerium is present as Ce{sup 3+} there is evidence for Ce{sup 4+}. The paramagnetic Ce{sup 3+} affects the chemical shift and line width of {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectra, which also show with no evidence for A-site ordering. {sup 2}H MAS NMR of samples prepared in D{sub 2}O shows the inclusion of deuterium, which IR spectroscopy shows is most likely to be as D{sub 2}O. The deuterium content is highest for the cerium-rich materials, consistent with oxidation of some cerium to Ce{sup 4+} to provide charge balance of A-site water. - Graphical abstract: A multi-element A-site perovskite crystallises directly from aqueous, basic solutions at 240 °C; while the paramagnetic effect of Ce{sup 3+} on the {sup 23}Na NMR shows a homogeneous solid-solution, the incorporation of A-site water is also found from {sup 2}H NMR and IR, with oxidation of some cerium to charge balance proved by XANES spectroscopy. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Direct hydrothermal synthesis allows crystallisation of a perovskite solid-solution. • XANES spectroscopy shows some oxidation of Ce{sup 3+} to Ce{sup 4+}. • The paramagnetism of Ce{sup 3+} shifts and broadens the {sup 23}Na solid-state NMR. • The perovskite materials incorporate water as an A-site defect.

  18. Tracking Sodium-Antimonide Phase Transformations in Sodium-Ion Anodes: Insights from Operando Pair Distribution Function Analysis and Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Phoebe K; Griffin, John M; Darwiche, Ali; Borkiewicz, Olaf J; Wiaderek, Kamila M; Chapman, Karena W; Morris, Andrew J; Chupas, Peter J; Monconduit, Laure; Grey, Clare P

    2016-02-24

    Operando pair distribution function (PDF) analysis and ex situ (23)Na magic-angle spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS ssNMR) spectroscopy are used to gain insight into the alloying mechanism of high-capacity antimony anodes for sodium-ion batteries. Subtraction of the PDF of crystalline NaxSb phases from the total PDF, an approach constrained by chemical phase information gained from (23)Na ssNMR in reference to relevant model compounds, identifies two previously uncharacterized intermediate species formed electrochemically; a-Na(3-x)Sb (x ≈ 0.4-0.5), a structure locally similar to crystalline Na3Sb (c-Na3Sb) but with significant numbers of sodium vacancies and a limited correlation length, and a-Na(1.7)Sb, a highly amorphous structure featuring some Sb-Sb bonding. The first sodiation breaks down the crystalline antimony to form first a-Na(3-x)Sb and, finally, crystalline Na3Sb. Desodiation results in the formation of an electrode formed of a composite of crystalline and amorphous antimony networks. We link the different reactivity of these networks to a series of sequential sodiation reactions manifesting as a cascade of processes observed in the electrochemical profile of subsequent cycles. The amorphous network reacts at higher voltages reforming a-Na(1.7)Sb, then a-Na(3-x)Sb, whereas lower potentials are required for the sodiation of crystalline antimony, which reacts to form a-Na(3-x)Sb without the formation of a-Na(1.7)Sb. a-Na(3-x)Sb is converted to crystalline Na3Sb at the end of the second discharge. We find no evidence of formation of NaSb. Variable temperature (23)Na NMR experiments reveal significant sodium mobility within c-Na3Sb; this is a possible contributing factor to the excellent rate performance of Sb anodes. PMID:26824406

  19. New JEFF-3.2 Sodium Neutron Induced Cross-sections Evaluation for Neutron Fast Reactors Applications: from 0 to 20 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archier, P.; Noguère, G.; De Saint Jean, C.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Rouki, C.

    2014-04-01

    In the framework of the ASTRID project, a new 23Na evaluation, containing re-evaluated nuclear data and associated covariances, has been prepared to be submitted for the future JEFF-3.2 library. This work has been motivated mainly because the current JEFF-3.1.1 sodium evaluation showed large differences with microscopic measurements and does not have covariances data. Recent experimental data from IRMM and high resolution measurements from Larson have been simultaneously analyzed with the data assimilation code CONRAD and a good agreement with the evaluated cross-sections has been achieved. Experimental systematic uncertainties have been propagated to the nuclear reaction model parameters in order to produce a coherent set of covariance data. Several figures are provided in this paper to illustrate the new features of this evaluation.

  20. Neutron Inelastic Scattering Measurements for Na, Ge, Zr, Mo and U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacquias, A.; Dessagne, Ph.; Kerveno, M.; Rudolf, G.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Drohé, J. C.; Rouki, C.; Nankov, N.; Nyman, M.; Borcea, C.; Negret, A.; Archier, P.; De Saint Jean, C.; Noguère, G.; Vaglio-Gaudard, C.; Koning, A.; Domula, A.; Zuber, K.; Leal, L. C.

    2014-05-01

    Studies for advanced reactor systems such as sodium-cooled fast reactors designed for recycling of high level waste, accelerator driven systems for transmutation, and systems envisioning the use of the Th/U fuel cycle impose tight requirements on nuclear data for accurate predictions of their operation and safety characteristics. Among the identified needs established by sensitivity studies, neutron inelastic scattering on the main structural materials and actinides and some (n,xn) cross sections for actinides feature prominently. Prompt-gamma spectroscopy and time-of-flight techniques were used to measure (n,xnγ) cross-sections of interest. Experiments were performed at the GELINA neutron time-of-flight facility of IRMM. Results for 235U and 23Na are briefly recalled; pertaining theoretical discussions are mentioned to explain observations concerning 238U. The status of studies on 76Ge, Zr and Mo is also reported.

  1. HIE-ISOLDE Faraday cups tested with ion beams at TRIUMF

    CERN Document Server

    Cantero, E D

    2014-01-01

    The future HIE-ISOLDE Faraday cups for both the intercryomodule regions and the HEBTs have been tested using 34S+7, 4He+, 23Na+6 and 20Ne+5 beams from the ISAC-II accelerator at TRIUMF. Their performance has been characterized together with the Faraday cups from REX-ISOLDE and those from ISAC-II. The measurements were done at E/A = 1.5, 2.85 and 5.5 MeV/u, with beam intensities in the range of 100 pA to 4 nA. The performance of these Faraday cups has been compared under the same beam conditions for different bias voltages up to -350 V. Within the experimental uncertainties, most of them coming from fluctuations in beam intensity, all devices showed similar results. Biasing the Faraday cup repeller ring to voltages of at least -60 V, the escape of secondary electrons was suppressed.

  2. Implementing quantum electrodynamics with ultracold atomic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kasper, V; Jendrzejewski, F; Oberthaler, M K; Berges, J

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the experimental engineering of model systems for the description of QED in one spatial dimension via a mixture of bosonic $^{23}$Na and fermionic $^6$Li atoms. The local gauge symmetry is realized in an optical superlattice, using heteronuclear boson-fermion spin-changing interactions which preserve the total spin in every local collision. We consider a large number of bosons residing in the coherent state of a Bose-Einstein condensate on each link between the fermion lattice sites, such that the behavior of lattice QED in the continuum limit can be recovered. The discussion about the range of possible experimental parameters builds, in particular, upon experiences with related setups of fermions interacting with coherent samples of bosonic atoms. We determine the atomic system's parameters required for the description of fundamental QED processes, such as Schwinger pair production and string breaking. This is achieved by benchmark calculations of the atomic system and of QED itself using function...

  3. Dose evaluation on the basis of 24Na activity in the human body for the criticality accident at JCO Tokai nuclear fuel processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium-24(24Na) generated in human body due to neutron activation was measured by whole body counter (WBC) in JNC Tokai works. Total 148 persons (JCO employees and contractor, public member, fire fighters, etc.) were measured and 24Na was detected in the 62 persons. Neutron energy spectrum around the facility was calculated using ANISN and MCNP code and estimated mean capture probability ξ of neutron for human body at this accident was around 0.25-0.28 at any distance from the center of the precipitation tank. Effective dose equivalent for the 62 persons were estimated based on the calculated conversion factors from 24Na specific activity to neutron dose. Maximum 24Na activity was 7.7 kBq (83 Bq(24Na)/g(23Na)) in total body and the evaluated effective dose equivalent was 47 mSv. (author)

  4. USE OF COVARIANCE MATRICES IN A CONSISTENT (MULTISCALE) DATA ASSIMILATION FOR IMPROVEMENT OF BASIC NUCLEAR PARAMETERS IN NUCLEAR REACTOR APPLICATIONS: FROM METERS TO FEMTOMETERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Palmiotti; M. Salvatores; H. Hiruta; M. Herman; P. Oblozinsky; M. Pigni

    2010-04-01

    A new approach is proposed, the consistent data assimilation, that allows to link the integral data experiment results to basic nuclear parameters employed by evaluators to generate ENDF/B point energy files in order to improve them. A practical example is provided where the sodium neutron propagation experiments, EURACOS and JANUS-8, are used to improve via modifications of 23Na nuclear parameters (like scattering radius, resonance parameters, Optical model parameters, Statistical Hauser-Feshbach model parameters, and Preequilibrium Exciton model parameters) the agreement of calculation versus experiments for a series of measured reaction rate detectors slopes. Future work involves comparison of results against a more traditional multigroup adjustments, and extension to other isotope of interest in the reactor community as 56Fe, actinides, and fission products.

  5. X-ray and MAS NMR characterization of the thermal transformation of Li(Na)-Y zeolite to lithium aluminosilicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high temperature thermal transformation of Li-exchanged Na-Y zeolite has been investigated by X-ray diffraction and /sup 29/Si MAS NMR studies. At 7000C, the zeolite was transformed into an amorphous phase and upon further heating to 8000C, formation of lithium aluminosilicate with high-quartz structure, in addition to an amorphous phase, was noted. When heated above 9000C, the high-quartz structure was transformed into a β-spodumene related solid solution. X-ray and MAS NMR studies indicate the β-spodumene solid solution formed has the composition close to (Li/sub 0.23/Na/sub 0.06/)A iota /sub 0.29/Si/sub 0.71/O/sub 2/, which is in agreement with chemical analysis

  6. Pilarização de esmectita brasileira para fins catalíticos. Emprego de argila pilarizada na alquilação de benzeno com 1-dodeceno Pillarization of Brazilian smectite for the catalytic of purpose. Use of pillared clay in the alkylation of benzene with 1-dodecene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei Quezada M. Leite

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Al-pillared clay was prepared with a Brazilian bentonite from the Campina Grande region (Paraíba, BRAZIL. It was intercalated at 298 K, during 48 hours, with a solution containing [Al3+] = 0.10 mol/L and molar ratio OH/Al = 2.0 prepared at 333 K, and was calcined at 773K. The catalytic activity was evaluated by alkylation of benzene with 1-dodecene. The characterization methods were: X-ray fluorescence and diffraction analysis; 27Al, 29Si and 23Na MAS NMR and textural analysis by N2 adsorption. The thermal stability of the natural clay was improved by the pillaring procedure, as well as the catalytic activity. The intercalated clay presented the highest initial rate of reaction among the systems tested.

  7. Chemosensitivity assay in mice prostate tumor: Preliminary report of flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, ion ratiometric methods of anti-neoplastic drug monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kline Richard

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, ion ratiomateric analysis and NMR peaks characterized drug chemosensitivity of antineoplastic drugs. Hypotheses were: 1. The chemosensitive effect of different cancer cell lines is characteristic; 2. DNA fragmentation, ion ratiometric analysis suggest apoptosis status of tumor cells. Methods PC-3 cell lines were compared with DU-145, LNCaP cell lines in culture for the [Na]i and [Ca]i ion sensing dyes, cell death, NMR peaks and apoptosis staining for chemotherapeutic action of different drugs. Results DNA fragmentation, ratiometric ions and fluorescence endlabelling plots were characteristic for cell lines and drug response. 31P-23Na NMR spectra showed characteristic high phospho-choline and sodium peaks. Conclusion Flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, ion ratiometric methods and NMR peaks indicated apoptosis and offered in vivo drug monitoring method.

  8. Improving heat treatment regime for semi-finished hot-rolled products of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of increasing the rate and temperature of heat treatment of hot-rolled products of 08-12 Kh18N10T steel on the structure, mechanical properties and pickling of scale has been investigated. The procedure of heat treatment: temperature in the furnace 1100-1120 deg C temperature of metal 1090-1100 deg C, rate of strip motion -6.0 m/min permitting to attain the maximum possible efficiency of a continuous hardening unit has been chose, tested and introduced based on the results of laboratory and industrial experiments. The following composition of pickling solutions; 21-23% H2SO4, 3% NaNO3, 2-3% NaCl, at a temperature of 85 deg C has been chosen for obtaining the required quality of surface of strips without decreasing the efficiency of the pickling unit

  9. Nonconventional MRI and microstructural cerebral changes in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enzinger, Christian; Barkhof, Frederik; Ciccarelli, Olga;

    2015-01-01

    MRI has become the most important paraclinical tool for diagnosing and monitoring patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, conventional MRI sequences are largely nonspecific in the pathology they reveal, and only provide a limited view of the complex morphological changes associated with MS....... Nonconventional MRI techniques, such as magnetization transfer imaging (MTI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) promise to complement existing techniques by revealing more-specific information on microstructural tissue changes. Past years have witnessed dramatic advances...... in the acquisition and analysis of such imaging data, and numerous studies have used these tools to probe tissue alterations associated with MS. Other MRI-based techniques-such as myelin-water imaging, (23)Na imaging, magnetic resonance elastography and magnetic resonance perfusion imaging-might also...

  10. Improvement of Sodium Neutronic Nuclear Data for the Computation of Generation IV Reactors; Contribution a l'amelioration des donnees nucleaires neutroniques du sodium pour le calcul des reacteurs de generation IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archier, P.

    2011-09-14

    The safety criteria to be met for Generation IV sodium fast reactors (SFR) require reduced and mastered uncertainties on neutronic quantities of interest. Part of these uncertainties come from nuclear data and, in the particular case of SFR, from sodium nuclear data, which show significant differences between available international libraries (JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0, JENDL-4.0). The objective of this work is to improve the knowledge on sodium nuclear data for a better calculation of SFR neutronic parameters and reliable associated uncertainties. After an overview of existing {sup 23}Na data, the impact of the differences is quantified, particularly on sodium void reactivity effects, with both deterministic and stochastic neutronic codes. Results show that it is necessary to completely re-evaluate sodium nuclear data. Several developments have been made in the evaluation code Conrad, to integrate new nuclear reactions models and their associated parameters and to perform adjustments with integral measurements. Following these developments, the analysis of differential data and the experimental uncertainties propagation have been performed with Conrad. The resolved resonances range has been extended up to 2 MeV and the continuum range begins directly beyond this energy. A new {sup 23}Na evaluation and the associated multigroup covariances matrices were generated for future uncertainties calculations. The last part of this work focuses on the sodium void integral data feedback, using methods of integral data assimilation to reduce the uncertainties on sodium cross sections. This work ends with uncertainty calculations for industrial-like SFR, which show an improved prediction of their neutronic parameters with the new evaluation. (author) [French] Les criteres de surete exiges pour les reacteurs rapides au sodium de Generation IV (RNR-Na) se traduisent par la necessite d'incertitudes reduites et maitrisees sur les grandeurs neutroniques d'interet. Une part

  11. Coherent Control of Ground State NaK Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zoe; Park, Jee Woo; Loh, Huanqian; Will, Sebastian; Zwierlein, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold dipolar molecules exhibit anisotropic, tunable, long-range interactions, making them attractive for the study of novel states of matter and quantum information processing. We demonstrate the creation and control of 23 Na40 K molecules in their rovibronic and hyperfine ground state. By applying microwaves, we drive coherent Rabi oscillations of spin-polarized molecules between the rotational ground state (J=0) and J=1. The control afforded by microwave manipulation allows us to pursue engineered dipolar interactions via microwave dressing. By driving a two-photon transition, we are also able to observe Ramsey fringes between different J=0 hyperfine states, with coherence times as long as 0.5s. The realization of long coherence times between different molecular states is crucial for applications in quantum information processing. NSF, AFOSR- MURI, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, DARPA-OLE

  12. NMR studies of myocardial energy metabolism and ionic homeostasis during ischemia and reperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study several aspects of myocardial energy metabolism and ionic homeostasis during ischemia and reperfusion were investigated in isolated perfused rat hearts, regionally ischemic rabbit hearts, and ex vivo human donor hearts during long term hypothermic cardioplegia. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) spectroscopy was used as a powerful tool to non-destructively follow the time course in changes in intracellular high-energy phosphates, (creatine phosphate and ATP), inorganic phosphate, and pH. In addition, changes in intracellular free magnesium were followed during ischemia and reperfusion. Sodium-23 (23Na) NMR spectroscopy was used to study intracellular sodium during ischemia and reperfusion and during calcium-free perfusion. (author). 495 refs.; 33 figs.; 11 tabs

  13. Applications of high resolution NMR to geochemistry: crystalline, glass, and molten silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear spin interactions and the associated quantum mechanical dynamics which are present in solid state NMR are introduced. A brief overview of aluminosilicate structure is presented and crystalline structure is then reviewed, with emphasis on the contributions made by 29Si NMR spectroscopy. The local structure of glass aluminosilicates as observed by NMR, is presented with analysis of the information content of 29Si spectra. A high-temperature (to 13000C) NMR spectroscopic investigation of the local environment and dynamics of molecular motion in molten aluminosilicates is described. A comparison is made of silicate liquid, glass, and crystalline local structure. The atomic and molecular motions present in a melt are investigated through relaxation time (T1 and T2) measurements as a function of composition and temperature for 23Na and 29Si

  14. Two-dimensional MAS NMR correlation protocols involving double-quantum filtering of quadrupolar spin-pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edén, Mattias

    2010-05-01

    Three two-dimensional (2D) NMR homonuclear correlation techniques invoking double-quantum (2Q) filtration of the central transitions of half-integer spins are evaluated numerically and experimentally. They correlate directly detected single-quantum (1Q) coherences in the t(2) domain with either of 1Q, two-spin 2Q or single-spin multiple-quantum coherence-evolutions in the indirect (t(1)) dimension. We employ experimental (23)Na and (27)Al NMR on sodium sulfite and the natural mineral sillimanite (SiAl(2)O(5)), in conjunction with simulated 2D spectra from pairs of dipolar-recoupled spins-3/2 and 5/2 at different external magnetic fields, to compare the correlation strategies from the viewpoints of 2D spectral resolution, signal sensitivity, implementational aspects and their relative merits for establishing internuclear proximities and quadrupolar tensor orientations. PMID:20202872

  15. Impact of opal nanoconfinement on electronic properties of sodium particles: NMR studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charnaya, E.V., E-mail: charnaya@live.com [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 70101 Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, 198504 (Russian Federation); Lee, M.K. [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 70101 Taiwan (China); MoST Instrument Center at NCKU, Tainan, 70101 Taiwan (China); Chang, L.J. [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 70101 Taiwan (China); Kumzerov, Yu.A.; Fokin, A.V. [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Samoylovich, M.I. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow, 141700 (Russian Federation); Bugaev, A.S. [CSR Institute of Technology “Technomash”, Moscow, 121108 (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-20

    The {sup 23}Na Knight shift of NMR line which is highly correlated with the electron spin susceptibility and density of states at the Fermi level was studied for the sodium loaded opal. The measurements were carried out within a temperature range from 100 to 400 K for solid and melted confined sodium nanoparticles. The NMR line below 305 K was a singlet with the Knight shift reduced compared to that in bulk. Above this temperature the NMR line split reproducibly into two components with opposite trends in the Knight shift temperature dependences which evidenced a nanoconfinement-induced transformation and heterogeneity in the electron system. The findings were suggested to be related to changes in the topology of the Fermi surface.

  16. Impact of opal nanoconfinement on electronic properties of sodium particles: NMR studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 23Na Knight shift of NMR line which is highly correlated with the electron spin susceptibility and density of states at the Fermi level was studied for the sodium loaded opal. The measurements were carried out within a temperature range from 100 to 400 K for solid and melted confined sodium nanoparticles. The NMR line below 305 K was a singlet with the Knight shift reduced compared to that in bulk. Above this temperature the NMR line split reproducibly into two components with opposite trends in the Knight shift temperature dependences which evidenced a nanoconfinement-induced transformation and heterogeneity in the electron system. The findings were suggested to be related to changes in the topology of the Fermi surface

  17. Relaxation-allowed nuclear magnetic resonance transitions by interference between the quadrupolar coupling and the paramagnetic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Wen; Jerschow, Alexej

    2007-02-14

    Of the various ways in which nuclear spin systems can relax to their ground states, the processes involving an interference between different relaxation mechanisms, such as dipole-dipole coupling and chemical shift anisotropy, have become of great interest lately. The authors show here that the interference between the quadrupolar coupling and the paramagnetic interaction (cross-correlated relaxation) gives rise to nuclear spin transitions that would remain forbidden otherwise. In addition, frequency shifts arise. These would be reminiscent of residual anisotropic interactions when there are none. While interesting from a fundamental point of view, these processes may become relevant in magnetic resonance imaging experiments which involve quadrupolar spins, such as (23)Na, in the presence of contrast agents. Geometrical constraints in paramagnetic molecule structures may likewise be derived from these interference effects.

  18. Quantum coherent tractor beam effect for atoms trapped near a nanowaveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadgrove, Mark; Wimberger, Sandro; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2016-07-01

    We propose several schemes to realize a tractor beam effect for ultracold atoms in the vicinity of a few-mode nanowaveguide. Atoms trapped near the waveguide are transported in a direction opposite to the guided mode propagation direction. We analyse three specific examples for ultracold 23Na atoms trapped near a specific nanowaveguide (i.e. an optical nanofibre): (i) a conveyor belt-type tractor beam effect, (ii) an accelerator tractor beam effect, and (iii) a quantum coherent tractor beam effect, all of which can effectively pull atoms along the nanofibre toward the light source. This technique provides a new tool for controlling the motion of particles near nanowaveguides with potential applications in the study of particle transport and binding as well as atom interferometry.

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of metallic sodium nanoparticles in porous glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskov, A. V.; Nefedov, D. Yu.; Charnaya, E. V.; Shevchenko, E. V.; Haase, J.; Michel, D.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.; Fokin, A. V.; Bugaev, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    Sodium nanoparticles embedded in porous glass have been studied by NMR. The measurements have been carried out on pulse spectrometers in magnetic fields of 9.4 and 17.6 T in a wide temperature range. Changes in the magnitude and temperature dependence of the 23Na Knight shift with respect to those in bulk sodium have been discovered. An additional component of the NMR line shifted to high frequencies has been observed in the temperature range from 240 to 100 K. Investigation of the specific heat has revealed a considerable decrease in the melting and crystallization temperatures of sodium under nanoconfinement, which were not accompanied by abrupt changes in the Knight shift.

  20. Measurements of high-energy {gamma}-rays with LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciemala, M. [Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland)], E-mail: Michal.Ciemala@ifj.edu.pl; Balabanski, D. [INRNE, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Csatlos, M. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Daugas, J.M. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon Cedex (France); Georgiev, G. [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse (CSNSM), IN2P3-CNRS and Universite Paris-Sud, Bat 104-108, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Gulyas, J. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Kmiecik, M. [Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Krasznahorkay, A. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Lalkovski, S. [Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia, BG-1164 (Bulgaria); Lefebvre-Schuhl, A. [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse (CSNSM), IN2P3-CNRS and Universite Paris-Sud, Bat 104-108, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Lozeva, R. [Instituut voor Kernen Stralingsfysica (IKS), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Maj, A. [Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Vitez, A. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2009-09-01

    The full-energy peak efficiency calibration and the energy resolution measurements of the 2in.x2in.LaBr{sub 3}{gamma}-ray detector are presented for {gamma}-ray energies in the 700 keV-17.6 MeV range. Measurements were done using a combination of proton-capture nuclear reactions on {sup 27}Al, {sup 23}Na, {sup 39}K, {sup 7}Li and {sup 11}B for high-energy {gamma}-rays, and radioactive sources such as {sup 60}Co and {sup 152}Eu for the lowest energies. At high energies, two {gamma}-rays in a cascade from proton resonance capture were employed using Al, Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and LiBO{sub 2} targets. The obtained results were compared to the simulations performed using a GEANT4 code.

  1. Crossover between itinerant ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetic fluctuations in filled skutterudites MFe4Sb12 (M=Na, Ba, La) as determined by NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear resonance investigations on the 23Na and the 139La nuclei in filled skutterudites MFe4Sb12 (M=Na, La) are reported. In contrast to NaFe4Sb12 for the La compound the effective magnetic moment is remarkably lower and the Curie-Weiss temperature is negative which indicates antiferromagnetic correlations. The spin-lattice relaxation rates 1/T1 exhibit a qualitatively different temperature behavior which provides clear evidence for dissimilar types of itinerant magnetism in the two compounds. For NaFe4Sb12 1/T1 vs. T indicates itinerant ferromagnetism with ordering at Tc=85K, whereas for the La0.9Fe4Sb12 weak itinerant antiferromagnetism with no ordering is found. 1/T1 is analyzed in terms of Moriya's self-consistent renormalization theory (SCR) for itinerant magnetic materials

  2. Applications of high resolution NMR to geochemistry: crystalline, glass, and molten silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, E.

    1985-11-01

    The nuclear spin interactions and the associated quantum mechanical dynamics which are present in solid state NMR are introduced. A brief overview of aluminosilicate structure is presented and crystalline structure is then reviewed, with emphasis on the contributions made by /sup 29/Si NMR spectroscopy. The local structure of glass aluminosilicates as observed by NMR, is presented with analysis of the information content of /sup 29/Si spectra. A high-temperature (to 1300/sup 0/C) NMR spectroscopic investigation of the local environment and dynamics of molecular motion in molten aluminosilicates is described. A comparison is made of silicate liquid, glass, and crystalline local structure. The atomic and molecular motions present in a melt are investigated through relaxation time (T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/) measurements as a function of composition and temperature for /sup 23/Na and /sup 29/Si.

  3. Study of 11B + 12C and 10B + 13C fusion cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to understand the mechanism responsible for fusion cross section limitations in light heavy-ion systems, four entrance channels which form the 23Na compound nucleus have been studied. A limitation mechanism based on a critical density of compound nucleus states does not appear to be responsible for the fusion cross section limitation at energies from approximately one to three times the Coulomb barrier energy. The possibility exists, however, that such a process becomes important at higher energies. To address this question, measurements which utilize the Argonne tandem-linac accelerator have now been completed in the energy range 42.5-80.9 MeV for the 11B + 12C and the 10B + 13C. The preliminary findings of this work are reported here

  4. Quantum coherent tractor beam effect for atoms trapped near a nanowaveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadgrove, Mark; Wimberger, Sandro; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2016-01-01

    We propose several schemes to realize a tractor beam effect for ultracold atoms in the vicinity of a few-mode nanowaveguide. Atoms trapped near the waveguide are transported in a direction opposite to the guided mode propagation direction. We analyse three specific examples for ultracold 23Na atoms trapped near a specific nanowaveguide (i.e. an optical nanofibre): (i) a conveyor belt-type tractor beam effect, (ii) an accelerator tractor beam effect, and (iii) a quantum coherent tractor beam effect, all of which can effectively pull atoms along the nanofibre toward the light source. This technique provides a new tool for controlling the motion of particles near nanowaveguides with potential applications in the study of particle transport and binding as well as atom interferometry. PMID:27440516

  5. Spectrophotometric Determination of Palladium (II) With Semixylenol Orange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Fuzhen

    1999-01-01

      A highly selective, reproducible and rapid spectrophotometry for the determination of palladium (Ⅱ) has been worked out. This method is based on the chelation of Pd (Ⅱ) with semixylenol orange (C24H23NaNO9S) in 1.00 mol.l-1 sulphuric acid medium (H2SO4), to chelate a stable orange complex of Pd (Ⅱ) . Beer′s law is obeyed over the range 0.2-1.6 μg ml-1 Palladium(Ⅱ),its maximum absorption wavelength λmax is at 540 nm,the apparent molar absorptivityε540 is 6.2*104 l mol-1 cm-1.The method has been successfully applied for the determaination of Palladium(Ⅱ)in Pd-C catalyst , Al-Si-Pd and Zr-Pd alloys.

  6. Study of elastic and inelastic neutron cross-sections using time of flight technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High precision neutron scattering data has become increasingly important in the development of nuclear reactors and accelerator systems, astrophysics and space system design, radiation therapy and isotope production, and for shielding considerations. Previous evaluations of the neutron cross-section standards were completed in 1987 and disseminated as NEANDC/INDC and other databases. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for the heavy elements were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not considered standards, but assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross-sections and reduce their uncertainties. The focus of the present work is to measure elastic and inelastic neutron differential scattering cross-sections for 23Na using Time of Flight Technique for a range of energies with a high accuracy level

  7. Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Quarterly technical progress report, September 11, 1994--December 22, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced polymer systems that possess microstructural features that are responsive to temperature, electrolyte concentration, and shear conditions are being synthesized which will be superior to polymers presently used for mobility control in enhanced oil recovery. Improved polymer performance is accomplished by controlling hydrophobic or ampholytic interations between individual polymer chains in solution. The advanced polymers will circumbent major problems inherent in conventional EOR polymers in which molecular weight is usually compromised to allow sufficient solution viscosity and uniform reservoir permeation without plugging the porous media. Accomplishments are reported for the following tasks: quaternary ammonium cyclopolymer synthesis; characterization of molecular structure and solution behavior; {sup 23}Na NMR studies of non-binding to anionic polyelectrolytes and solution rheology.

  8. Double rotation NMR studies of zeolites and aluminophosphate molecular sieves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelinek, R. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Goal is to study the organization and structures of guest atoms and molecules and their reactions on internal surfaces within pores of zeolites and aluminophosphate molecular sieves. {sup 27}Al and {sup 23}Na double rotation NMR (DOR) is used since it removes the anisotropic broadening in NMR spectra of quadrupolar nuclei, thus increasing resolution. This work concentrates on probing aluminum framework atoms in aluminophosphate molecular sieves and sodium extra framework cations in porous aluminosilicates. In aluminophosphates, ordering and electronic environments of the framework {sup 27}Al nuclei are modified upon adsorption of water molecules within the channels; a relation is sought between the sieve channel topology and the organization of adsorbed water, as well as the interaction between the Al nuclei and the water molecules. Extra framework Na{sup +} cations are directly involved in adsorption processes and reactions in zeolite cavities.

  9. Moissanite anvil cell design for giga-pascal nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new design of a non-magnetic high-pressure anvil cell for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments at Giga-Pascal pressures is presented, which uses a micro-coil inside the pressurized region for high-sensitivity NMR. The comparably small cell has a length of 22 mm and a diameter of 18 mm, so it can be used with most NMR magnets. The performance of the cell is demonstrated with external-force vs. internal-pressure experiments, and the cell is shown to perform well at pressures up to 23.5 GPa using 800 μm 6H-SiC large cone Boehler-type anvils. 1H, 23Na, 27Al, 69Ga, and 71Ga NMR test measurements are presented, which show a resolution of better than 4.5 ppm, and an almost maximum possible signal-to-noise ratio

  10. Moissanite anvil cell design for giga-pascal nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Thomas; Herzig, Tobias; Haase, Jürgen

    2014-04-01

    A new design of a non-magnetic high-pressure anvil cell for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments at Giga-Pascal pressures is presented, which uses a micro-coil inside the pressurized region for high-sensitivity NMR. The comparably small cell has a length of 22 mm and a diameter of 18 mm, so it can be used with most NMR magnets. The performance of the cell is demonstrated with external-force vs. internal-pressure experiments, and the cell is shown to perform well at pressures up to 23.5 GPa using 800 μm 6H-SiC large cone Boehler-type anvils. 1H, 23Na, 27Al, 69Ga, and 71Ga NMR test measurements are presented, which show a resolution of better than 4.5 ppm, and an almost maximum possible signal-to-noise ratio.

  11. Coaxial waveguide setup for multinuclear highfield-MRI with traveling waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the increased Larmor frequencies in high-field MR imaging (B0≤7 Tesla), resonant volume coils can no longer be used to generate the homogenous spin excitation field within the human torso. As an alternative approach a coaxial waveguide setup to transmit traveling electromagnetic waves to a defined imaging area is proposed in this work. The object of interest is placed in the hollow inner conductor of the setup and the imaging area is formed by a gap in that conductor. The proposed method is characterized with respect to its transmission efficiency, field homogeneity and the resulting radiofrequency exposure of the patient. In this work numerical simulations (FDTD method) were used for evaluation. Furthermore, a prototype setup with reduced scale was constructed and MRI experiments with multiple test objects and anatomical samples were performed. Higher modes of propagation (TE) were also tested besides the basic coaxial mode (TEM). Due to the frequency independence of the TEM mode, the coaxial waveguide setup could be operated at five different Larmor frequencies from 29 to 297 MHz and MRI experiments with various nuclei (1H, 23Na and 35Cl) were performed. Using a frequency diplexer, combined MRI of 1H and 23Na was possible. The results of this work showed that the proposed method can be used for MRI at multiple frequencies and is therefore suitable for multinuclear MR studies. The achieved transmission efficiency of 0.5-6 μT/√(kW) and the variation in field homogeneity (one order of magnitude) were found to be similar to those of other traveling wave approaches, but are still not generally appropriate for clinical MRI at high fields.

  12. 3D element imaging using NSECT for the detection of renal cancer: a simulation study in MCNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, R. S.; Agasthya, G. A.; Yoriyaz, H.; Kapadia, A. J.

    2013-09-01

    This work describes a simulation study investigating the application of neutron stimulated emission computed tomography (NSECT) for noninvasive 3D imaging of renal cancer in vivo. Using MCNP5 simulations, we describe a method of diagnosing renal cancer in the body by mapping the 3D distribution of elements present in tumors using the NSECT technique. A human phantom containing the kidneys and other major organs was modeled in MCNP5. The element composition of each organ was based on values reported in literature. The two kidneys were modeled to contain elements reported in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and healthy kidney tissue. Simulated NSECT scans were executed to determine the 3D element distribution of the phantom body. Elements specific to RCC and healthy kidney tissue were then analyzed to identify the locations of the diseased and healthy kidneys and generate tomographic images of the tumor. The extent of the RCC lesion inside the kidney was determined using 3D volume rendering. A similar procedure was used to generate images of each individual organ in the body. Six isotopes were studied in this work—32S, 12C, 23Na, 14N, 31P and 39K. The results demonstrated that through a single NSECT scan performed in vivo, it is possible to identify the location of the kidneys and other organs within the body, determine the extent of the tumor within the organ, and to quantify the differences between cancer and healthy tissue-related isotopes with p ≤ 0.05. All of the images demonstrated appropriate concentration changes between the organs, with some discrepancy observed in 31P, 39K and 23Na. The discrepancies were likely due to the low concentration of the elements in the tissue that were below the current detection sensitivity of the NSECT technique.

  13. Investigation of brain injury using in vivo multinuclear magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (MRS) are becoming increasingly important tools to the fields of biochemistry, physiology, and medicine. MRI and MRS studies offer one the opportunity to obtain anatomic images and biochemical information non-invasively and non-destructively, thus making serial repeated measurements possible on the same experimental subject. To investigate brain injury, the non-invasiveness finally allows one to follow the time course of evolution of injury and its effects on the brains metabolism. Although MRI and MRS offer exciting opportunities, much work is needed to overcome the initial problems of signal localization from a specified region of interest. Also, the potential utility of multinuclear (i.e. {sup 13}C, {sup 19}F, {sup 23}Na...) MRI and MRS studies, in assessing brain injury, is yet to be determined. This thesis attacks the aforementioned problems with a series of studies both on phantoms and in vivo. Experiments were performed to determine optimal localization schemes for use in MRS of the brain to overcome the initial problems encountered with MRS studies. The feasibility and utility of multinuclear MRI and MRS was determined in vivo involving {sup 13}C, {sup 19}F, and {sup 23}Na nuclei. The results of these studies have proven that acceptable signal localization for MRS studies is achievable and is not a hindrance for future MRS studies. Also, multinuclear studies have shown that it is feasible to obtain MRI or MRS data from less abundant nuclei and that the information obtained does or can provide useful insights into brain metabolism in pathologic states.

  14. Enzymatic transesterification of soybean oil with ethanol using lipases immobilized on highly crystalline PVA microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microspheres with different degree of crystallinity were used as solid supports for Rhizomucor miehei lipase immobilization, and the enzyme-PVA complexes were used as biocatalysts for the transesterification of soybean oil to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE). The amounts of immobilized enzyme on the polymeric supports were similar for both the amorphous microspheres (PVA4) and the high crystalline microspheres (PVA25). However, the enzymatic activity of the immobilized enzymes was depended on the crystallinity degree of the PVA microspheres: enzymes immobilized on the PVA4 microspheres have shown low enzymatic activity (6.13 U mg−1), in comparison with enzymes immobilized on the high crystalline PVA25 microspheres (149.15 U mg−1). A synergistic effect was observed for the enzyme-PVA25 complex during the transesterification reaction of soybean oil to FAEE: transesterification reactions with free enzyme with the equivalent amount of enzyme that were immobilized onto the PVA25 microspheres (5.4 U) have yielded only 20% of FAEE, reactions with the pure highly crystalline microsphere PVA25 have not yielded FAEE, however reactions with the enzyme-PVA25 complexes have yielded 66.3% of FAEE. This synergistic effect of an immobilized enzyme on a polymeric support has not been observed before for transesterification reaction of triacylglycerides into FAEE. Based on ATR-FTIR, 23Na- and 13C-NMR-MAS spectroscopic data and the interaction of the polymeric network intermolecular hydrogen bonds with the lipases residual amino acids a possible explanation for this synergistic effect is provided. Highlights: • Rhizomucor miehei lipase was immobilized on PVA microspheres (PVA4, PVA12, PVA25). • Polymer-enzyme complex was characterized by XDR, SEM, ATR-FTIR, 13C-CPMAS-NMR, 23Na-MAS-NMR. • Polymer-enzymes (PVA12 and PVA25) enzymes yielded considerable amount of ethyl esters. • Synergistic effect was observed for the polymer-enzyme complexes with high

  15. Insight into sodium silicate glass structural organization by multinuclear NMR combined with first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short and medium range order of silica and sodium silicate glasses have been investigated from a quantitative analysis of 29Si MAS NMR and 23Na, 17O MQMAS NMR spectra. The method described enables the extraction of the underlying 17O NMR parameter distributions of bridging oxygens (BOs) and non-bridging oxygens (NBOs), and yields site populations which are confirmed by 29Si NMR data. The extracted NMR parameter distributions and their variations with respect to the glass chemical composition can then be analyzed in terms of local structural features (bond angles and bond lengths, coordination numbers) with the help of molecular dynamics simulations combined with first-principles calculations of NMR parameters. Correlations of relevant structural parameters with 23Na, 29Si and 17O NMR interactions (isotropic chemical shift δ(iso), quadrupolar coupling constant C(Q) and quadrupolar asymmetry parameter ηQ are re-examined and their applicability is discussed. These data offer better insights into the structural organization of the glass network, including both chemical and topological disorder. Adding sodium to pure silica significantly diminishes the Si-O-Si bond angles and leads to a longer mean Si-O bond length with a slight decrease of the mean Na-O bond length. Moreover, the present data are in favor of a homogeneous distribution of Na around both oxygen species in the silicate network. Finally, our approach was found to be sensitive enough to investigate the effect of addition of a small quantity of molybdenum oxide (about 1 mol%) on the 17O MAS spectrum, opening new possibilities for investigating the Mo environment in silicate glasses. (authors)

  16. Commentary on four recently published papers on chronic pain and spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawl, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    This commentary evaluates four articles dealing with chronic pain from very different perspectives. The first paper by Tsantoulas and McMahon entitled "Opening paths to novel analgesics: the role of potassium channels in chronic pain" evaluates the membrane neurochemistry of the neural cells governing the transmission of pain impulses in the spinal cord and trigeminal systems. As potassium membrane potentials diminish excitability in the nociceptive pain pathways, damage to these pathways may result in excessive transmission of impulses that contribute to "chronic pain". Haneder et al. analyzed degeneration in lumbar discs utilizing 23Na magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to determine whether this would help analyze low back pain versus standard 1H MR imaging. As degenerated discs lose glycosaminoglycan, which attracts 23Na, this imaging could potentially be useful in detecting degenerating intervertebral discs. Mroz et al. analyzed how 445 spinal surgeons handled recurrent lumbar discs (first and second recurrences) herniations in the United States. Surgeons in practice for more than 15 years were more likely to select simple disc revision, while those with fewer years experience and performing more than 200 cases per year were more likely to select revision surgery that included some form of inter-body fusion. Lee et al. performed a multivariate analysis of more than 1532 patients to validate a predictive model of the risk of surgical site infection after various spine surgeries. Outcomes analyzed the frequency of reoperations for irrigation/debridement, and evaluated how patients' comorbidities helped predict the risk of infection (e.g. obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, and the number of levels/extent of surgery). PMID:24843809

  17. Commentary on four recently published papers on chronic pain and spinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Pawl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This commentary evaluates four articles dealing with chronic pain from very different perspectives. The first paper by Tsantoulas and McMahon entitled "Opening paths to novel analgesics: the role of potassium channels in chronic pain" evaluates the membrane neurochemistry of the neural cells governing the transmission of pain impulses in the spinal cord and trigeminal systems. As potassium membrane potentials diminish excitability in the nociceptive pain pathways, damage to these pathways may result in excessive transmission of impulses that contribute to "chronic pain". Haneder et al. analyzed degeneration in lumbar discs utilizing 23 Na magnetic resonance (MR imaging to determine whether this would help analyze low back pain versus standard 1H MR imaging. As degenerated discs lose glycosaminoglycan, which attracts 23 Na, this imaging could potentially be useful in detecting degenerating intervertebral discs. Mroz et al. analyzed how 445 spinal surgeons handled recurrent lumbar discs (first and second recurrences herniations in the United States. Surgeons in practice for more than 15 years were more likely to select simple disc revision, while those with fewer years experience and performing more than 200 cases per year were more likely to select revision surgery that included some form of inter-body fusion. Lee et al. performed a multivariate analysis of more than 1532 patients to validate a predictive model of the risk of surgical site infection after various spine surgeries. Outcomes analyzed the frequency of reoperations for irrigation/debridement, and evaluated how patients′ comorbidities helped predict the risk of infection (e.g. obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, and the number of levels/extent of surgery.

  18. Study on Particular Coring Bit for Lunar Soil Drilling%月球钻探取心特种钻头研制与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大佛; 雷艳; 许少宁

    2013-01-01

      对月壤形成过程和物质组成进行了介绍,并将实际月壤基本物理力学指标与CUG-1型模拟月壤和普通干砂进行对比,认为在月球钻探取样过程中可能遇到具有一定胶结强度的硬质团块。为保证钻探取样顺利进行,需要研制月球钻探用特种取心PDC钻头。基于PDC钻头的碎岩机理,对钻头的负前角、旁通角、出露高度、钻头保径和PDC切削齿的钎焊工艺分别进行了设计,并对钻杆和钻头装配体在钻进过程中的受力过程进行有限元分析。最后,采用所设计的特种取心PDC钻头进行岩石干钻试验,试验结果表明,该钻头能钻进可钻性级别小于或等于6级的岩石,能满足月球钻探需要。%Forming process and composition of lunar soil were introduced in this paper, and the actual lunar soil physical and mechanical indexes were compared with and simulated CUG-1 lunar soil and normal dry sand, it was suggested that hard clods with certain cementing strength might be encountered in lunar coring drilling.To ensure the successful lunar co-ring drilling, a special polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) coring bit should be developed.Based on the breaking rock mechanism of PDC bit, the negative rake angle, bypass angle, exposure height, gauge protection of PDC bit and brazing technologies of PDC cutters were designed respectively;and finite element analysis was made on the force of bit and drill stem assembly during drilling process.At last, the dry drilling test was made by special designed PDC bit, it indicated that the bit would be effective when rock drillability was less than or equal toⅥ, and it could stratify the requirements for lunar soil drilling.

  19. Identification of endoparasites in rats of various habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Priyanto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Tikus merupakan hewan yang habitatnya berdekatan dengan lingkungan manusia. Keberadaannya merupakan faktor resiko penularan beberapa jenis penyakit zoonosis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis tikus di habitat pemukiman, kebun, sawah, dan pasar di Kabupaten Banjarnegara, serta mengidentifikasi zoonotik endoparasit yang terdapat pada organ hati, lambung, usus dan sekum tikus.Metode: Penangkapan tikus dilakukan di 3 kecamatan selama Juli - Oktober 2012. Observasi endoparasit dilakukan pada organ hati dan saluran pencernaan yang meliputi lambung, usus dan sekum. Analisis data secara deskriptif dengan menggambarkan spesies tikus dan endoparasit yang didapat.Hasil: Spesies tikus yang tertangkap dalam penelitian ini adalah Rattus tanezumi, Rattus exulans, Rattus tiomanicus, Rattus argentiventer, Rattus norvegicus dan Suncus murinus. Spesies endoparasit yang menginfeksi hati tikus adalah Capillaria hepatica dan Cystycercus Taenia taeniaeformis. Endoparasit yang menginfeksi organ lambung tikus adalah Masthoporus sp. dan Gongylonema neoplasticum. Nippostrongylus brassilliensis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, Monili formis sp. dan Echinostoma sp. ditemukan menginfeksi organ usus tikus, sedangkan Syphacia muris ditemukan menginfeksi organ sekum. Tidak ditemukan jenis endoparasit yang menginfeksi lebih dari satu jenis organ tikus.Kesimpulan: Endoparasit tikus yang bersifat zoonosis dalam penelitian ini adalah Capillaria hepatica, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana dan Syphacia muris. Tiap jenis endoparasit menginfeksi organ yang spesifik pada tikus. (Health Science Indones 2014;1:49-53Kata kunci:tikus, endoparasit, zoonosis.AbstractBackground: Rat is an animal living around people. It is a risk factor for several types of zoonotic diseases. The aims of this study were to determine the rat species from various habitats including houses, gardens, rice fields, and traditional market

  20. Contents of folates in edible mushrooms commercialised in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil Teor de folatos em cogumelos comestíveis comercializados na cidade de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Prado Zanes Furlani

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, folates were evaluated in the main species of mushroom cultivated in Brazil. The species analysed were Agaricus bisporus (button mushroom, Lentinula edodes (shiitake and Pleorotus ostreatus (shimeji. The five main forms of folate found in foods were determined: tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA, 10-methyl folic acid (10MFA, 5-methyl tetrahydrofolic acid (5MTHFA, 10-formyl folic acid (10FFA and 5-formy tetrahydrofolic acid (5FTHFA. The methodology employed used extraction with phosphate buffer, clean up with trichloroacetic acid and separation of the vitamins by high-performance liquid chromatography, with simultaneous ultraviolet and fluorescence detection. The results obtained for total folate were 551 to 1404 µg.100 g -1 for the button mushroom, 606 to 727 µg.100 g -1 for shiitake and 460 to 1325 µg.100 g-1 for shimeji. The data showed that mushrooms could be considered as sources of folates and that their contribution of these vitamins to the diet was meaningful.O teor de folatos nas principais espécies de cogumelos cultivados no Brasil foi avaliado neste trabalho. As espécies analisadas foram Agaricus bisporus (champignon de Paris, Lentinula edodes (shiitake e Pleorotus ostreatus (shimeji. Foram determinadas as cinco principais formas de folatos presentes em alimentos: tetrahidro ácido fólico (THAF, 10-metil ácido fólico (10MAF, 5-metil tetrahidro ácido fólico (5MTHAF, 10-formil ácido fólico (10FAF e 5formil tetrahidro ácido fólico (5FTHAF. A metodologia empregada utilizou extração com tampão fosfato, limpeza com ácido tricloroacético e separação das vitaminas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, com detecção em série por fluorescência e ultravioleta. Os resultados obtidos para o total de folatos foram 551 a 1404 µg.100 g -1 para o champignon de Paris, 606 a 727 µg.100 g -1 para o shiitake e 460 a 1325 µg.100 g -1 para o shimeji. Os dados mostram que os cogumelos podem ser considerados fontes

  1. Expression of a constitutively active prolactin receptor causes histone trimethylation of the p53 gene in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Dunyong; Tang Peizhi; Huang Jianjun; Zhang Jie; Zhou Weihua; Ameae M.Walker

    2014-01-01

    plays an important pathogenic role in breast cancer through epigenetic modification.Elevated expression of Delta S2 PRLR,achieved by alternate splicing of the pre-mRNA of the full-length form,is a new mechanism contributing to human breast cancer.

  2. 多浆旱生植物霸王18SrRNA基因的克隆及序列分析%Cloning and sequence analysis of 18S rRNA gene fragment from succulent xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡静; 谢俊仁; 王锁民

    2012-01-01

    In order to reveal the relationship between succulent xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum and other plants and to provide evidences for the biologically evolution, total DNA was extracted from leaves of Z. xanthoxylurn seedlings, and the 18S rRNA gene was cloned by PCR using general primers and cloned into pGEM-T vector. The positive clone identified by PCR was sequenced. The sequencing result revealed that the 18S rRNA gene fragment from Z. xanthoxylum contains 1808 bp. Homology comparison with other plants 18S rRNA gene sequences in the GenBank showed that it shared over 96% nucleotide sequence homology, so it is concluded that 18S rRNA is very conservative gene in plants. However, Homology matrix and Blast showed that Z. xanthoxylurn shared high similarity (98%) with the identified 18S rRNA in Galearia fili formis , Cnidoscolus aconiti folius and Hevea brasiliensis. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that Z. xanthoxylum and Panax notoginseng were most consanguineously grouped.%为探讨多浆旱生植物霸王(Zygophyllum xanthoxylum)的生物进化历程及与其他植物的亲缘关系,本研究以霸王叶基因组DNA为模板,使用通用引物扩增其18SrRNA基因片段,并克隆到pGEM—T载体,阳性克隆经鉴定后进行测序。核苷酸序列分析结果表明,该片段长1808bp,所得序列与GenBank中注册的18SrRNA基因序列的同源性均在96%以上。可见,高等植物18SrRNA的基因非常保守。同源性分析与Blast比较结果表明,霸王与小盘木(Galearia filiformis)、驱虫苋(Cnidoscolus aconitifolius)及橡胶树(Herera brasiliensis)同源性最高。系统进化树分析表明,霸王与三七(Panax notoginseng)的亲缘关系最近。

  3. Selected Aspects of the Structural Analysis of the North Dome in the 'Four Domes Pavilion'/ Wybrane Aspekty Analizy Konstrukcyjnej Kopuły Północnej W Pawilonie Czterech Kopuł

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasieńko, Jerzy; Raszczuk, Krzysztof; Moczko, Marta; Piechówka-Mielnik, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    The subject of the paper is north dome of the Four Domes Pavilion in Wroclaw, which was erected according to the project by architect Hans Poelzig in 1913. The geometry of the dome (plan, rise, thickness) has an essential influence on the stress distribution in the structure and may be a crucial factor determining the cracking pattern. The results of the study of archival documents and numerical analysis indicate that there is a need for increasing the bearing capacity of the structure. After carrying out 3D FEM analysis, it was decided to apply strengthening technology based on the FRCM system with carbon and P.B.O. fibers on the surface and on the external ring of the dome. Powszechnie występującą na całym świecie formą przekryć historycznych jest kopuła, która może być realizowana m.in. na rzucie koła, elipsy czy ośmioboku. Geometria kopuły (rzut, wyniesienie oraz grubość) wpływa na rozkład naprężeń w konstrukcji i może być decydującym czynnikiem wpływającym na propagację rys. Przedmiotem pracy jest Pawilon Czterech Kopuł we Wrocławiu, który powstał wg projektu Hansa Poelziga w 1913r. Analiza dokumentacji archiwalnej wykazuje, iż wszelkie zmiany jakich się podejmowano w trakcie realizacji prac były wynikiem: braku czasu, opóźnień w wykonaniu oceny statycznej, przekazaniu rysunków projektowych w nieodpowiedniej skali oraz prowadzenia prac budowlanych w zimie. Efektem powyższych działań jest niedostateczne zbrojenie kopuły, która uległa uszkodzeniom w formie pęknięć południkowych i równoleżnikowych od strony zewnętrznej i wewnętrznej. W wyniku przeprowadzonej analizy konstrukcyjnej przy użyciu Metody Elementów Skończonych (MES) podjęto decyzję o wzmocnieniu przekrycia przy użyciu siatek z włókien węglowych w systemie FRCM oraz wzmocnienie pierścienia górnego przy użyciu siatek z włókien P.B.O. w matrycy mineralnej.

  4. 城市带状绿地林型与温湿效益的关系%Effects of the Forest Type of Urban Green Belts on Temperature and Humidity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玉福; 李树华; 朱春阳

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the ecological benefits on urban green belt of Yuan Dynasty Capital City Wall Relics Park in Beijing were investigated in July of 2010, and four green belts included Robinia pseudoacacia, and Pinus tabulae formis, both of them mixed woodland and lawn, which were studied in this experiment. The air temperature and relative humidity in the same width of green belts were measured once every two hours from 8:00 to 18:00 every day for seven days sequentially. The research showed that three kinds of green belts reached maximum in amplitude on the decrease of temperature, and reached minimum in amplitude on the increase of humidity from 14:00 to 16:00 except the lawn; Base on Duncan's paired comparison (P=0.05), the differences of air temperature between four kinds of green belts reached significance level, and relative humidity between four kinds of green belts reached significance level except between Robinia pseudoacacia and Pinus tabulaeformis; the lawn had a little effect on the decrease of temperature and unobvious effect on the increase of relative humidity; the amplitude of the mixed woodland on lowering temperature and increasing relative humidity was better than pure forest.%选择典型带状绿地——北京市元大都城垣遗址公园西土城段3种不同林型绿地及草坪作为研究对象,采用小尺度定量测定的方法,每天8:00-18:00,每2h一次,连续7d同步测定4块绿地及对照的温度、相对湿度值.结果表明:14:00-16:00时段刺槐纯林、油松纯林和刺槐—油松混交林降温幅度最大、增湿幅度最小;经SPSS方差分析(Duncan's两两比较,P=0.05),4块绿地间的温度差异均达到显著水平,湿度差异除刺槐纯林与油松纯林两者外,其余均达到显著水平;草坪具有一定的降温增湿效应,但效果不明显;混交林型绿地降温增湿幅度最大,明显优于纯林.

  5. Współczesne kierunki zainteresowaniateorii rachunkowości finansowejw świetle zarysu jej rozwoju

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szychta

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available W końcu pierwszej dekady XXI w. rachunkowość ma wielowiekową historię rozwo-ju praktyki, a także stosunkowo bogaty dorobek naukowy w postaci teorii o różnym zakresie i stopniu szczegółowości, powstałych w wyniku zarówno badań dedukcyj-nych, jak i empirycznych. W ostatnich kilku dekadach, wraz z procesami globalizacji, przemianami w sferze gospodarki i społeczeństwa, zwłaszcza w procesach i me-todach zarządzania oraz w technologii przetwarzania i komunikowania informacji, rozszerza się dziedzina przedmiotowa nauki rachunkowości, na którą składają się badania prowadzone w powiązaniu z praktyką rachunkowości oraz wyniki tych badań w formie teorii o różnym charakterze, zakresie i przedmiocie odniesienia. Celem artykułu jest próba zidentyfikowania głównych kierunków i problemów za-interesowania teorii rachunkowości finansowej w pierwszej dekadzie XXI wieku w świetle zarysu kształtowania się nurtów badawczych w tym zakresie rachunko-wości w przeszłości. Ograniczona objętość artykułu pozwoliła uwzględnić tylko naj-ważniejsze – zdaniem autorki – aspekty rozwoju teorii rachunkowości finansowej oraz nazwiska jedynie przedstawicieli prezentowanych nurtów. Niniejsze opraco-wanie stanowi syntezę prowadzonych przez autorkę studiów zagranicznej i polskiej literatury przedmiotu. Zawiera ono rozważania dotyczące istoty i dwóch typów teorii rachunkowości (normatywnych i deskryptywnych, teorii rachunkowości finansowej w ujęciu retrospektywnym, współczesnych wyzwań i problemów teorii rachunko-wości finansowej oraz krytycznych ocen rachunkowości jako nauki.

  6. 新型复合微生物制剂对垃圾填埋场的除臭效果%Deodorant Effect of a New-type Compound Microbiological Preperation in Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪英学; 赵述淼; 吴定心; 李坤; 刘华梅; 梁运祥

    2012-01-01

    The deodorant effect of a new-type compound microbiological preperation in landfill in Zhongxiang, Hubei was studied. The compound microbial deodorants were prepared using Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Bacillus subtilis, B. Lichen-formis, B. Pumilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus and were sprayed directly to rotten garbage from July 28 to Auguest 16, 2010. The results indicated that pollution indexes of NH3, H2S were declined remarkably. In sample point inside landfill, the removal rate of NH3 was 65.85%, and H2S was 87.50%. And in sample point in residential area, the removal rate of NH3 was 59.38%, and H2S was 81.82%.%从2010年7月28日到8月16日,利用农业微生物学国家重点实验室保藏的沼泽红假单胞茵(Rhodopseudomonas palustris)、枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)、地衣芽孢杆菌(B.lichenformis)、短小芽孢杆菌(B.pumilus)、嗜酸乳杆菌(Lactobacillus acidophilus)等5种微生物制成茵剂,采用直接喷洒的方式,治理湖北省钟祥市沿山头垃圾填埋场垃圾恶臭问题.结果表明,治理结束后,垃圾填埋场内采样点处的NH3、H2S的浓度分别下降了65.85%、87.50%,居民区采样点处的NH3、H2S的浓度分别下降了59.38%、81.82%.利用微生物制剂消除垃圾填埋场臭气污染是可行的.

  7. 四参数普适物态方程%Four-Parameter Universal Equation of State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊祥; 金柯; 吴强

    2014-01-01

    多种材料的拉格朗日体模量都符合对压强展开到二阶项的关系。以此为基础,建立了一种四参数物态方程,比三参数物态方程适用压力宽、拟合精度高、外推性能好。方程参数关联一、二、三阶导数,根据 Hugoniot方程与等熵方程的导数关系,可以检验动高压与静高压实验数据是否相互适合。方程以统一形式表述冲击、等熵和等温压缩状态,适用于多种材料、全压力区,是一种普适物态方程。公式简单、运算方便,克服了传统的四参数物态方程结构复杂、公式冗长以及参数间高度关联而失去实用意义的缺陷。%Based on the fact that the Lagrangian bulk moduli of many materials can be expressed as a second order expansion with respect to pressure,a four-parameter equation of state has been proposed which,in comparison with the three-parameter equation of state,can be applied to a wider pressure range and has higher fitting accuracy and good extrapolation behavior.The parameters in the equation are dependent on the first,second and third order derivatives,hence,by using the derivative relations of the Hugoniot and isentropic equations,one can verify if the dynamic high-pressure experimental data match the static high-pressure experimental data.The equation describes shock,isentropic and isothermal compression states in a unified form,is suitable for a variety of materials in a wide pressure range,and therefore can be considered as a universal equation of state.Being simple and easy to operate,our equation overcomes the weakness of conventional four-parameter equations of state which are of no practical use due to their complicated structure,lengthy formula,and high correlation between parameters.

  8. Effect of Gracilaria lemaneiformis on the growth of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and the environment%龙须菜对刺参生长及环境因子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王肖君; 孙慧玲; 谭杰; 高菲; 燕敬平; 陈爱华

    2011-01-01

    Polyculture of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and Gracilaria lemane-iformis was conducted in land-based enclosures at orthogonal design during May~July,2010. A. Japonicus was cultured at densities of 15,20,25 ind/m2 without feed,and G. Lemaneiformis was cultured at densities of 0,180,360 g/m2. The growth and survival of A. Japonicus and G. Lemanei formis were compared for different treatments and the changes of environmental nutrient were also detected. The results showed that the final average weight (Wf) , daily weight gain (Mdwg) and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) of A. Japonicus were significantly affected by the density of A. Japonicus . Wf, Mdwg and SGR of A. Japonicus were not significantly affected by the density of G. Lemaneiformis. The highest Wf, Mdwg and SGR of A. Japonicus were obtained when the density of A. Japonicus and G. Lemaneiformis were 15 ind/m2and 360 g/m2 respectively. The highest yield of G. Lemaneiformis was acquired when the density of A. Japonicus and G. Lemaneiformis were 25 ind/m2 and 360 g/m2 respectively. The highest SGR of G. Lemaneiformis was obtained when the density of A. Japonicus and G. Lemanei formis were 25 ind/m2 and 180 g/m2 respectively. The analysis of water quality showed that the content of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in mud declined most sharply when the density of A. Japonicus was 15 ind/m2. In summary, polycukure of A. Japonicus and G. Lemaneiformis could improve water quality and increase the SGR of A. Japonicus.%2010年5~7月在山东威海乳山杜家岛基地,采用陆基围隔生态学实验方法和正交设计法,在不投饵模式下进行刺参Apostichopus japonicus和龙须菜Gracilaria lemanei ormis混养实验.刺参密度分别为15、20、25 ind/m2,龙须菜初始密度分别为0、180、360 g/m2,比较了不同处理下幼参和龙须菜的生长存活情况,并定期检测环境营养盐的变化.结果表明,刺参平均日增重率(Mdwg)、特定生长率(SGR)受刺参密度的影响显

  9. Tři pohyby lidského života s ohledem na tělesnou výchovu a sportovní praxi podle Jana Patočky Jan Patočka's three movements of human life with respect to physical education and sport practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Martínková

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Článek představuje filosofii Jana Patočky, a to především jeho tři životní pohyby, kterými se zabývá v dílech "Přirozený svět jako filosofický problém", "Kacířské eseje o filosofii dějin" a "Tělo, společenství, jazyk, svět". Patočka tyto tři pohyby lidské existence nazývá "pohyb akceptace", "pohyb obrany" a "pohyb pravdy" (názvy podle knihy "Kacířské eseje o filosofii dějin". Tyto tři životní pohyby dělí toho, k čemu se člověk vztahuje (referent. Referent pak určuje každý jeho pohyb. Nejdříve se v textu věnujeme pojetí člověka jakožto žité tělesnosti a pojmu referent. Dále podle Patočkova díla popisujeme jeho chápání každého ze tří pohybů. Po popsání každého životního pohybu se zabýváme lidským pohybem z hlediska tělesné výchovy (v nejširším pojetí a sportu v rámci daného životního pohybu. Pohyb akceptace je chápán jako zakořenění a přijetí člověka do světa a prvotní pochopení vlastních možností. V kontextu tělesné výchovy se jedná o naučení se zacházet s vlastním tělem a zvládnutí vlastního pohybu coby tělesná bytost, především skrze napodobování ostatních a jejich snahu nás uvést do jejich světa. Pohyb obrany je sférou vlastní zaneprázdněnosti prací a možnostmi, které nacházíme ve světě. Patočka tento pohyb popisuje jako sebeprodloužení, projekci do věcí a sebeobjektivizaci. Člověk zde přebírá různé pravdy a řídí se jimi, aniž by je příliš revidoval. Toto se děje i s lidským pohybem. Formy pohybu jsou již vytvořené a člověk si je má osvojit (např. sportovní formy. Toto se často děje jen s malým sebepoznáním, proto je otázkou, co tento přístup k sobě opravdu způsobuje. Člověk je zde většinou spoután svými pohybovými návyky, o kterých ani neví. Pohyb pravdy je pohybem otřesení těchto domnělých pravd. Je pohybem sebenalézání a připuštění toho, co v p

  10. Przychody z tytułu dotacji unijnychw sprawozdaniu finansowymprzedsiębiorstwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Wrona

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Celem niniejszej publikacji jest przedstawienie sposobów ujęcia w księgach ra-chunkowych i prezentacji w sprawozdaniu finansowym przedsiębiorstw przychodów z tytułu dotacji unijnych. Od wejścia Polski do UE podmioty gospodarcze otrzymały możliwość korzystania z pomocy unijnej w formie dotacji na niespotykaną dotych-czas skalę. Spowodowało to również wiele problemów, w szczególności prawidłowe-go ujęcia w księgach rachunkowych, oraz w sprawozdaniu finansowym – przycho-dów z tytułu dotacji. Stąd też narodził się pomysł przedstawienia głównych zasad ujmowania i prezentacji w księgach rachunkowych i sprawozdaniu finansowym dotacji, jako źródła uzyskiwanego przychodu przez podmioty gospodarcze. W artykule wykorzystano analizę literatury przedmiotu, zapisy ustawy o ra-chunkowości i Międzynarodowych Standardów Rachunkowości oraz dokumentację programów wsparcia ze środków unijnych, a także uregulowania unijne, co umoż-liwiło zaproponowanie rozwiązań w zakresie ujęcia dotacji w sprawozdaniu finan-sowym. Artykuł podzielono na 4 główne punkty. W pierwszej części wprowadzono czy-telnika do funduszy unijnych w okresie programowym 2007–2013, przedstawiając główne instrumenty polityki strukturalnej Unii Europejskiej, podział tych instru-mentów na programy operacyjne w okresie 2007–2013 oraz cele, na które można otrzymać dofinansowanie. W drugiej części artykułu zaprezentowano zasady ujęcia dotacji w sprawozdaniu finansowym, w myśl przepisów ustawy o rachunkowości i MSR. Zgodnie z MSR 20 przedstawiono podejście kapitałowe oraz przychodowe do dotacji rządowych, a także prezentację dotacji w sprawozdaniu finansowym w po-dziale na dotacje do aktywów oraz do przychodów. W części trzeciej artykułu przed-stawiono dotacje do aktywów na przykładzie dotacji inwestycyjnych oraz na bada-nia i rozwój, ze szczególnym wskazaniem w każdym z przykładów zasad ujmowa-nia ich w

  11. Effect analysis of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules combined with Bacillus licheniformis capsule in the treatment of antibiotic associated diarrhea%枯草杆菌二联活菌肠溶胶囊联合地衣芽胞杆菌活菌胶囊治疗老年抗生素相关性腹泻的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁宏伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effect of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules combined with Bacillus licheniformis capsule in the treatment of antibiotic associated diarrhea. Methods 120 patients with an-tibiotic associated diarrhea in our hospital from February 2013 to February 2014 were selected,and were divided into three groups based on random number table,Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules group,Bacillus licheni-formis capsule group,and joint application of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules and Bacillus licheni-formis capsule group.The therapeutic effects among three groups were compared. Results The cure rate of joint applica-tion of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules and Bacillus licheniformis capsule group was higher than that of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules group and Bacillus licheniformis capsule group,the differ-ence was significant (χ2=8.26,P=0.02).The number of diarrhea in healed patients of joint application of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules and Bacillus licheniformis capsule group was less than that of Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules group and Bacillus licheniformis capsule group,the difference was significant (F=91.03, P=0.00). Conclusion Both Bacillus subtilis two (Live) enteric-coated capsules and Bacillus licheniformis capsule are classified into probiotics,and have some effect on treating senile associated diarrhea caused by antibiotics.Joint applica-tion of the two drugs displays remarkable effect on treating antibiotic associated diarrhea,and plays a certain assistant role in clinical treatment.%目的:探讨枯草杆菌二联活菌肠溶胶囊联合地衣芽胞杆菌活菌胶囊对老年抗生素相关性腹泻的临床疗效。方法收集2013年2月~2014年2月本院老年抗生素相关性腹泻患者120例,根据随机数字表法分为枯草杆菌二联活菌肠溶胶囊组、地衣芽胞杆

  12. Wave-packet dynamics in alkaline dimers. Investigation and control through coherent excitation with fs-pulses; Wellenpaketdynamik in Alkali-Dimeren. Untersuchung und Steuerung durch kohaerente Anregung mit fs-Pulsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, F.N.B.

    2007-07-01

    During my PhD thesis I investigated alkaline dimers with coherent control in a molecular beam as well as with pump-probe spectroscopy in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). The aim of the coherent control experiments were the isotope selective ionization with phase- and amplitude-shaped fs-pulses. Chapter 4 described the gained results of isotope selective ionization of NaK and KRb in a molecular beam by using different pulse formers. For the NaK dimer was the reached optimization factor R{sub Ph} and {sub Ampl}{sup 770}=R{sub max}/R{sub min}=25 between maximization and minimization of the isotopomer ratio ({sup 23}Na{sup 39}K){sup +}/({sup 23}Na{sup 41}K){sup +} with phase and amplitude modulation of the fs-pulse with a central wavelength of {lambda}=770 nm. From the electronic ground-state X(1){sup 1}{sigma}{sup +};{nu}''=0 transfers a one-photon-excitation population in the first excited A(2) {sup 1}{sigma}{sup +} state. The coherent control experiment on KRb was used to maximize and minimize the isotopomer ratio ({sup 124}KRb){sup +}/({sup 126}KRb){sup +}. It was the first coherent control experiment with a spectral resolution of 1.84 cm{sup -1}/Pixel. For the phase and amplitude optimization was the received optimization factor between minimization and maximization of the isotopomer ratio R{sub Ph} and {sub Ampl}=R{sub max}/R{sub min}=7 at a central wavelength of 840 nm. The results showed a stepwise excitation process from the electronic ground-state in the first excited (2){sup 1}{sigma}{sup +} state with a further excitation, that is possible over three resonant energy potential curves into the ionic ground-state. In the second part of my thesis I realized pump-probe spectroscopy of Rb{sub 2} dimers in a dark SPOT. (orig.)

  13. Pion absorption in nuclei: The (. pi. /sup + -/,p) reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, C.S.

    1987-05-01

    Reported here is the first experiment to measure the excitation of discrete final states following the (..pi../sup -/,p) reaction. The Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the High Resolution Pion Channel and Spectrometer (..pi..M1-SUSI) at the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Physics were used for this high resolution study of (..pi../sup + -/,p) reactions. An average energy resolution of 500 KeV and 700 KeV was achieved at EPICS and ..pi..M1-SUSI respectively. At EPICS these reactions were measured at T/sub ..pi../ = 120 MeV and theta/sub lab/ = 25/sup 0/ on /sup 24/Mg, /sup 27/Al, /sup 40/Ca and /sup 58/Ni; /sup 12/C(..pi../sup -/,p) was measured at T/sub ..pi../ = 145 MeV. At ..pi..M1-SUSI these reactions were measured at T/sub ..pi../ = 90 MeV and at theta/sub lab/ = 20/sup 0/ on /sup 23/Na and /sup 24/Mg. The measurement includes both the differential cross sections and continuum up to an excitation energy of 40 MeV. In /sup 23/Na, /sup 24/Mg, and /sup 27/Al there are peaks in the low excitation region. The shape of the continuum in an excitation energy range of 10 to 40 MeV was found to be independent of pion charge and target mass. The magnitude of proton yield from all the targets at T/sub ..pi../ = 120 MeV is more than twenty four times larger for ..pi../sup +/ than for ..pi../sup -/. Also, the cross sections for both reactions on /sup 24/Mg is slightly enhanced compared to other nuclei. At T/sub ..pi../ = 90 MeV the ratio of the proton yield for ..pi../sup +/ to ..pi../sup -/ absorption drops down to fourteen. This high ratio and its energy dependence supports the idea of a two nucleon pion absorption model. Pion absorption in the context of both the reaction mechanism and nuclear structure is discussed. 99 refs., 64 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to green fuel oil over sodium based catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T S; Zabeti, M; Lefferts, L; Brem, G; Seshan, K

    2013-08-01

    Upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapors over 20 wt.% Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was studied in a lab-scale fix-bed reactor at 500°C. Characterization of the catalyst using SEM and XRD has shown that sodium carbonate is well-dispersed on the support γ-Al2O3. TGA and (23)Na MAS NMR suggested the formation of new hydrated sodium phase, which is likely responsible for the high activity of the catalyst. Catalytic oil has much lower oxygen content (12.3 wt.%) compared to non-catalytic oil (42.1 wt.%). This comes together with a tremendous increase in the energy density (37 compared to 19 MJ kg(-1)). Decarboxylation of carboxylic acids was favoured on the catalyst, resulting to an oil almost neutral (TAN=3.8mg KOH/g oil and pH=6.5). However, the mentioned decarboxylation resulted in the formation of carbonyls, which correlates to low stability of the oil. Catalytic pyrolysis results in a bio-oil which resembles a fossil fuel oil in its properties.

  15. Dynamics and stability of stationary states for the spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates in a standing light wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deng-Shan; Han, Wei; Shi, Yuren; Li, Zaidong; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2016-07-01

    The spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in a standing light wave can be described by three coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations with a periodic potential. In this paper, nine families of stationary solutions without phase structures in the form of Jacobi elliptic functions are proposed, and their stabilities are analyzed by both linear stability analysis and dynamical evolutions. Taking the ferromagnetic 87Rb atoms and antiferromagnetic (polar) 23Na atoms as examples, we investigate the stability regions of the nine stationary solutions, which are given in term of elliptic modulus k. It is shown that for the same stationary solution the stability regions of condensates with antiferromagnetic (polar) spin-dependent interactions are larger than that of the condensates with ferromagnetic ones. The dn-dn-dn stationary solution is the most stable solution among the nine families of stationary solutions. Moreover, in the same standing light wave, the spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates are more stable than the scalar Bose-Einstein condensate.

  16. A glimpse into the cosmic horizon problem: measuring topological defects in a supersonically expanding toroidal Bose-Einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Avinash; Eckel, Stephen; Spielman, Ian; Campbell, Gretchen

    2016-05-01

    In standard (non-inflationary) cosmology, the expansion of the early universe occurs at a speed larger than the speed of light. This expansion produces a ``horizon problem'': the expansion causes initially near-by points to separate at a velocity larger than that of light and become causally disconnected. We mimic this horizon problem in an ultracold atomic experiment by creating a sonic analog of the expansion of the early universe. Our experiment consists of neutral 23 Na atoms trapped in an all optical ring that expands at supersonic speed. Because information can propagate only at the speed of sound, a supersonic expansion creates causally disconnected regions, whose phase evolve at different rates. After the expansion ends, these regions of different phase recombine, giving rise to spontaneous non-zero winding numbers when integrated around the whole ring in a manner similar to that envisioned by Kibble and Zurek. We measure the resulting winding number distribution as a function of initial radius, final radius, expansion time and sound speeds. We compare to a theory that connects the geometry and speed of expansion to the number of causally disconnected regions, finding good agreement with the winding number distribution predicted according to the geodesic rule.

  17. Long-range interactions between polar bialkali ground-state molecules in arbitrary vibrational levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vexiau, R.; Lepers, M., E-mail: maxence.lepers@u-psud.fr; Aymar, M.; Bouloufa-Maafa, N.; Dulieu, O. [Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, CNRS/Université Paris-Sud/ENS-Cachan, Bât. 505, Campus d’Orsay, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2015-06-07

    We have calculated the isotropic C{sub 6} coefficients characterizing the long-range van der Waals interaction between two identical heteronuclear alkali-metal diatomic molecules in the same arbitrary vibrational level of their ground electronic state X{sup 1}Σ{sup +}. We consider the ten species made up of {sup 7}Li, {sup 23}Na, {sup 39}K, {sup 87}Rb, and {sup 133}Cs. Following our previous work [Lepers et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 032709 (2013)], we use the sum-over-state formula inherent to the second-order perturbation theory, composed of the contributions from the transitions within the ground state levels, from the transition between ground-state and excited state levels, and from a crossed term. These calculations involve a combination of experimental and quantum-chemical data for potential energy curves and transition dipole moments. We also investigate the case where the two molecules are in different vibrational levels and we show that the Moelwyn-Hughes approximation is valid provided that it is applied for each of the three contributions to the sum-over-state formula. Our results are particularly relevant in the context of inelastic and reactive collisions between ultracold bialkali molecules in deeply bound or in Feshbach levels.

  18. Structure and aqueous reactivity of silicate glasses high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research aims at getting a better understanding of the relations which may exist between the chemical composition of the oxide silicate glasses, the structure and the aqueous reactivity. We study the cations present in most glasses, more particularly the radioactive waste glasses, and those which are more liable to bring information both about structure and reactivity. Among the experimental methods used, the nuclear magnetic resonance of multi-quantum magic-angle spinning (NMR MQ-MAS) has been carried out for the structural characterization of the pristine and altered glasses. In the first part, we discuss the possibility of deducting a type of information from a quantitative approach of the 23Na, 27Al and 17O NMR MQ-MAS. In the second part, we apply this method to glasses containing between two and six oxides. The vitreous compositions studied permit to focus our attention on the influence of sodium, aluminum and calcium on their local structural environment. We point out an evolution of the distributions of bond distances and angles in relation to the glass chemical composition. We show the strong potentiality of the 17O used to probe the pristine and altered glasses. The influence of the different cations studied on the rate of glass dissolution is debated from the alterations made on short periods. On the basis of all these data, we discuss the importance of the structural effect which may influence the kinetic phenomena of alteration. (author)

  19. Sensitivity enhancement of remotely coupled NMR detectors using wirelessly powered parametric amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chunqi; Murphy-Boesch, Joseph; Dodd, Stephen; Koretsky, Alan

    2012-09-01

    A completely wireless detection coil with an integrated parametric amplifier has been constructed to provide local amplification and transmission of MR signals. The sample coil is one element of a parametric amplifier using a zero-bias diode that mixes the weak MR signal with a strong pump signal that is obtained from an inductively coupled external loop. The NMR sample coil develops current gain via reduction in the effective coil resistance. Higher gain can be obtained by adjusting the level of the pumping power closer to the oscillation threshold, but the gain is ultimately constrained by the bandwidth requirement of MRI experiments. A feasibility study here shows that on a NaCl/D(2) O phantom, (23) Na signals with 20 dB of gain can be readily obtained with a concomitant bandwidth of 144 kHz. This gain is high enough that the integrated coil with parametric amplifier, which is coupled inductively to external loops, can provide sensitivity approaching that of direct wire connection. PMID:22246567

  20. Density functional theory predictions of isotropic hyperfine coupling constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, L; Calle, P; García de la Vega, J M; Sieiro, C

    2005-02-17

    The reliability of density functional theory (DFT) in the determination of the isotropic hyperfine coupling constants (hfccs) of the ground electronic states of organic and inorganic radicals is examined. Predictions using several DFT methods and 6-31G, TZVP, EPR-III and cc-pVQZ basis sets are made and compared to experimental values. The set of 75 radicals here studied was selected using a wide range of criteria. The systems studied are neutral, cationic, anionic; doublet, triplet, quartet; localized, and conjugated radicals, containing 1H, 9Be, 11B, 13C, 14N, 17O, 19F, 23Na, 25Mg, 27Al, 29Si, 31P, 33S, and 35Cl nuclei. The considered radicals provide 241 theoretical hfcc values, which are compared with 174 available experimental ones. The geometries of the studied systems are obtained by theoretical optimization using the same functional and basis set with which the hfccs were calculated. Regression analysis is used as a basic and appropriate methodology for this kind of comparative study. From this analysis, we conclude that DFT predictions of the hfccs are reliable for B3LYP/TZVP and B3LYP/EPR-III combinations. Both functional/basis set scheme are the more useful theoretical tools for predicting hfccs if compared to other much more expensive methods.

  1. (γ,n) reaction in nuclei of the 12<=A<=238 interval in the intermediate energy region (300 MeV-1000MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absolute cross section of the 12C(γ,n)11C, 19F(γ,n)18F, 23Na(γ,n)22Na, 31P(γ,n)30P, 52Cr(γ,n)51Cr, 55Mn(γ,n)54Mn, 59Co(γ,n)58Co, 75As(γ,n)74As, 103Rh(γn)102Rh, 127I(γ,n)126I, 197Au(γ,n)196Au and 238U(γ,n)237U reactions were determined, experimentally, in the energy range from 300 MeV to 1000 MeV, using Bremsstrahlung photons. The measured cross sections were compared with results estimated by Monte Carlo Method applied to intranuclear cascades initiated by phothons. A functional dependence between the average value of (γ,n) absolute cross section and the mass number, were established. The (γ,n) absolute cross sections from simple relations, which transparencies of complexe nuclei for mesons and nucleons photo produced were also determined. (M.C.K.)

  2. Laser-induced nuclear orientation and gamma anisotropy in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of laser optical pumping to induce nuclear orientation in several isotopes and one isomer of atomic sodium vapor is described. Essentially complete nuclear polarization, P > 90%, has been achieved in stable 23Na when pumping with modest laser intensities (I approx. = 10 mW/cm2). The volume of the sample cell was approximately 10 cc, and was filled with a sodium density of about 10'' atoms/cc. Complete coverage of the Doppler distribution was accomplished with the use of trace amounts (less than or equal to 1 torr) of argon buffer gas to induce velocity changing collisions. A theoretical model which accurately predicts the amount of polarization is developed. The orientation of nuclei which are unstable to gamma decay can manifest itself in anisotropic gamma ray emission. This anisotropy can be used to measure isotope and isomer shifts, from which nuclear properties can be derived. Gamma anisotropy was observed in two systems, 22Na and /sup 24m/Na. From the observed anisotropy in /sup 24m/Na, a negative sign for the g factor is determined. Values are derived for the magnetic moment, μ = 2.56 +- 0.64 nm, and the isomer shift, deltaν/sub 24m/ = 288 +- 191 MHz (D1 line). A model is described which relates various laser and fubber gas parameters to the observed gamma anisotropy lineshape. This model facilitates the extraction of physical parameters from knowledge of the laser frequency at which the anisotropy is a maximum

  3. Cross sections of $\\alpha$-induced reactions for targets with masses $A \\approx 20-50$ at low energies

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A simple reduction scheme using so-called reduced energies $E_{\\rm{red}}$ and reduced cross sections $\\sigma_{\\rm{red}}$ allows the comparison of heavy-ion induced reaction cross sections for a broad range of masses of projectile and target and over a wide energy range. A global behavior has been found for strongly bound projectiles whereas much larger reduced cross sections have been observed for weakly bound and halo projectiles. It has been shown that this simple reduction scheme works also well for $\\alpha$-particle induced reactions on heavy target nuclei, but very recently significant deviations have been seen for $\\alpha$+$^{33}$S and $\\alpha$+$^{23}$Na. Motivated by these unexpected discrepancies, the present study analyses $\\alpha$-induced reaction cross sections for targets with masses $A \\approx 20-50$. The study shows that the experimental data for $\\alpha$-induced reactions on nuclei with $A \\approx 20-50$ deviate slightly from the global behavior of reduced cross sections. However, in general th...

  4. A structural investigation of the alkali metal site distribution within bioactive glass using neutron diffraction and multinuclear solid state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard A; Twyman, Helen L; Rees, Gregory J; Smith, Jodie M; Barney, Emma R; Smith, Mark E; Hanna, John V; Newport, Robert J

    2012-09-21

    The atomic-scale structure of Bioglass and the effect of substituting lithium for sodium within these glasses have been investigated using neutron diffraction and solid state magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR. Applying an effective isomorphic substitution difference function to the neutron diffraction data has enabled the Na-O and Li-O nearest-neighbour correlations to be isolated from the overlapping Ca-O, O-(P)-O and O-(Si)-O correlations. These results reveal that Na and Li behave in a similar manner within the glassy matrix and do not disrupt the short range order of the network former. Residual differences are attributed solely to the variation in ionic radius between the two species. Successful simplification of the 2 bioactive glasses, and an analogous splitting of the Li-O correlations. The observed correlations are attributed to the metal ions bonded either to bridging or to non-bridging oxygen atoms. (23)Na triple quantum MAS (3QMAS) NMR data corroborates the split Na-O correlations. The structural sites present will be intimately related to the release properties of the glass system in physiological fluids such as plasma and saliva, and hence to the bioactivity of the material. Detailed structural knowledge is therefore a prerequisite for optimizing material design. PMID:22868255

  5. New band structures and an unpaired crossing in {sup 78}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, H.; Doering, J.; Johns, G.D.; Kaye, R.A.; Solomon, G.Z.; Tabor, S.L. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); Doering, J. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Devlin, M.; LaFosse, D.R.; Lerma, F.; Sarantites, D.G. [Department of Chemistry, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Baktash, C.; Rudolph, D.; Yu, C. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Birriel, I.; Saladin, J.X.; Winchell, D.F.; Wood, V.Q. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Ragnarsson, I. [Department of Mathematical Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    1999-02-01

    High-spin states in {sup 78}Kr were studied using the {sup 58}Ni({sup 23}Na,3p) reaction at 70 MeV and the {sup 58}Ni({sup 28}Si,{alpha}4p) reaction at 130 MeV. Prompt {gamma}-{gamma} coincidences were measured using the Pitt-FSU detector array and the GAMMASPHERE-MICROBALL array. Results from these experiments have led to 26 new excitation levels, some of which have been grouped into 3 new bands. Spins were assigned based on directional correlations of oriented nuclei. Two of the new negative-parity bands appear to form a signature-partner pair based on a two-quasineutron structure, in contrast to the previously known two-quasiproton negative-parity bands. A forking has been observed at the 24{sup +} state in the yrast band, which calculations suggest may result from an unpaired crossing. The available evidence suggests oblate shapes in the yrast band coexist with prolate shapes in the negative-parity bands. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. New band structures and an unpaired crossing in {sup 78}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, H.; Doring, J.; Johns, R.A.; Solomon, G.; Tabor, S.; Devlin, M.; LaFosse, D.; Lerma, F.; Sarantites, D.; Baktash, C.; Rudolph, D.; Yu, C.H.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.; Birriel, I.; Saladin, J.; Winchell, D.; Wood, V.Q.; Ragnarsson, I.

    1998-07-06

    High-spin states in {sup 78}Kr were studied using the {sup 58}Ni({sup 23}Na,3p) reaction at 70 MeV and the {sup 58}Ni({sup 28}Si,{alpha}4p) reaction at 130 MeV. Prompt {gamma}-{gamma} coincidences were measured using the Pitt-FSU detector array and the GAMMASPHERE-MICROBALL array. Results from these experiments have led to 26 new excitation levels, some of which have been grouped into 3 new bands. Spins were assigned based on directional correlations of oriented nuclei. Two of the new negative-parity bands appear to form a signature-partner pair based on a two-quasineutron structure, in contrast to the previously known two-quasiproton negative-parity bands. A forking has been observed at the 24{sup +} state in the yrast band, which calculations suggest may result from an unpaired crossing. The available evidence suggests oblate shapes in the yrast band coexist with prolate shapes in the negative-parity bands.

  7. My academic life with isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present article outlines investigations and experience made by the author in carrying out a variety of studies on isotopes since 1939. First, he was interested in transuranic elements and his studies on artificial radioactive isotopes covered the detection of plutonium at Nagasaki, chemical separation of plutomium from atmosphere at Tokyo, spectral analysis of alpha rays from plutomium, application of 113mIn to emission spectral analysis as a tracer, chemical enrichment of 76As hot atom, and non-destructive analysis of the chemical state of 119Sn produced through EC disintegration in solid material. His studies on natural radioactivity include measurement of the radium content in rock and mineral samples collected in the Korean Peninsula, investigation on the formation process of minerals found around hot springs and determination of the age of rock and mineral samples. He started investigations on isotope enrichment around 1965. Studies in this field cover the application of cataphoretic processes to separation of 23Na and 22Na, enrichment of 7Li and other alkali metals, enrichment of 6Li by isotope exchange, derivation of an empirical equation (Saito-Kanno Equation) for mass effect in couter-current cataphoresis of molten halides, etc. (Nogami, K.)

  8. Dipole Polarizability of Alkali-Metal (Na, K, Rb) - Alkaline-Earth-Metal (Ca,Sr) Polar molecules - Prospects of Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Gopakumar, Geetha; Hada, Masahiko; Kajita, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    Electronic open-shell ground-state properties of selected alkali-metal (AM) - alkaline-earth-metal (AEM) polar molecules are investigated. We determine potential energy curves of the 2{\\Sigma}+ ground state at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles with partial triples (CCSD(T)) level of electron correlation. Calculated spectroscopic constants for the isotopes (23Na, 39K, 85Rb) - (40Ca, 88Sr) are compared with available theoretical and experimental results. The variation of the permanent dipole moment (PDM), average dipole polarizability, and polarizability anisotropy with internuclear distance is determined using finite-field perturbation theory at the CCSD(T) level. Owing to moderate PDM (KCa: 1.67 D, RbCa: 1.75 D, KSr: 1.27 D, RbSr: 1.41 D) and large polarizability anisotropy (KCa: 566 a.u., RbCa: 604 a.u., KSr: 574 a.u., RbSr: 615 a.u.), KCa, RbCa, KSr, and RbSr are potential candidates for alignment and orientation in combined intense laser and external static electric fields.

  9. Sodium insertion/extraction from single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes: The differences and similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonetilleke, Damian; Pramudita, James C.; Choucair, Mohammad; Rawal, Aditya; Sharma, Neeraj

    2016-05-01

    A comparative study on the sodium-ion insertion and extraction of commercially-available multi-wall and single-wall carbon nanotubes is reported. Single-wall carbon nanotubes exhibit charge/discharge capacities of 126 mA h g-1 and multi-wall carbon nanotubes produce a lower capacity of 28 mA h g-1 after 50 cycles at 25 mA g-1. To understand these differences, a combination of X-ray diffraction and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance measurements were performed at various states of sodium insertion and extraction.23Na nuclear magnetic resonance studies, a technique previously rarely used for characterising electrodes from sodium-ion batteries, shows differences in the sodium chemical environment near multi-wall compared to single-wall carbon nanotubes with distinct sodium sites found to be active during sodium insertion and extraction for the carbon nanotubes. Both types of carbon nanotubes show a similar amount of reversible sodium available for insertion/extraction reactions, but multi-wall carbon nanotubes feature half the initial insertion capacity relative to single-wall carbon nanotubes. The electrochemical performance of the carbon nanotube electrodes are discussed in relation to the observed mechanism of sodium insertion.

  10. Clinical application of sodium-23 nuclear magnetic resonance for measurement of red cell sodium concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, S.; Kanashiro, M.; Hayashi, F. (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)) (and others)

    1989-01-01

    Red cell sodium (RBC-Na{sup +}) concentrations were measured using {sup 23}Na nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), without the destruction of erythrocyte membranes. Subjects were categorized into four groups: 20 normotensive subjects (NT group), 20 age-matched essential hypertensive patients (EHT group), 10 patients with primary aldosteronism (PA group), and 18 patients treated with digoxin (DIG group). Although RBC-Na{sup +} concentrations were similar between the NT group (6.14{plus minus}0.80 (Mean{plus minus}SD) mmol/1) and the EHT group (5.92{plus minus}0.99), they were significantly higher in both the PA group (7.55{plus minus}0.88, p<0.001) and the DIG group (8.43{plus minus}3.81, p<0.02). In the PA group, RBC-Na{sup +} concentrations decreased significantly after resection of the adenoma, and there was an inverse relationship between serum potassium and RBC-Na{sup +} concentrations (r=-0.65, p<0.01). In the DIG group, RBC-Na{sup +} concentrations tended to increase in proportion to serum digoxin levels (r=0.53, p<0.05). These results support the view that RBC-Na{sup +} concentrations are determined primarily by Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-pump activity of red cell membranes. This study showed also that Na{sup +} NMR is a useful method determining intracellular Na{sup +} concentrations. (author).

  11. Long-range interactions between polar bialkali ground-state molecules in arbitrary vibrational levels

    CERN Document Server

    Vexiau, R; Aymar, M; Bouloufa-Maafa, N; Dulieu, O

    2015-01-01

    We have calculated the isotropic $C\\_6$ coefficients characterizing the long-range van der Waals interaction between two identical heteronuclear alkali-metal diatomic molecules in the same arbitrary vibrational level of their ground electronic state $X^1\\Sigma^+$. We consider the ten species made up of $^7$Li, $^{23}$Na, $^{39}$K, $^{87}$Rb and $^{133}$Cs. Following our previous work [M.~Lepers \\textit{et.~al.}, Phys.~Rev.~A \\textbf{88}, 032709 (2013)] we use the sum-over-state formula inherent to the second-order perturbation theory, composed of the contributions from the transitions within the ground state levels, from the transition between ground-state and excited state levels, and from a crossed term. These calculations involve a combination of experimental and quantum-chemical data for potential energy curves and transition dipole moments. We also investigate the case where the two molecules are in different vibrational levels and we show that the Moelwyn-Hughes approximation is valid provided that it i...

  12. Structure and aqueous reactivity of silicate glasses high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance contribution; Structure et reactivite aqueuse des verres silicates apport de la resonance magnetique nucleaire haute-resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeli, F

    2000-10-25

    This research aims at getting a better understanding of the relations which may exist between the chemical composition of the oxide silicate glasses, the structure and the aqueous reactivity. We study the cations present in most glasses, more particularly the radioactive waste glasses, and those which are more liable to bring information both about structure and reactivity. Among the experimental methods used, the nuclear magnetic resonance of multi-quantum magic-angle spinning (NMR MQ-MAS) has been carried out for the structural characterization of the pristine and altered glasses. In the first part, we discuss the possibility of deducting a type of information from a quantitative approach of the {sup 23}Na, {sup 27}Al and {sup 17}O NMR MQ-MAS. In the second part, we apply this method to glasses containing between two and six oxides. The vitreous compositions studied permit to focus our attention on the influence of sodium, aluminum and calcium on their local structural environment. We point out an evolution of the distributions of bond distances and angles in relation to the glass chemical composition. We show the strong potentiality of the {sup 17}O used to probe the pristine and altered glasses. The influence of the different cations studied on the rate of glass dissolution is debated from the alterations made on short periods. On the basis of all these data, we discuss the importance of the structural effect which may influence the kinetic phenomena of alteration. (author)

  13. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy: clinical application in neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) provides a non-invasive method of studying metabolism in vivo. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) defines neuro chemistry on a regional basis by acquiring a radiofrequency signal with chemical shift from one or many voxels or volumes previously selected on MRI. The tissue's chemical environment determines the frequency of a metabolite peak in an MRS spectrum. Candidates for MRS include: 1H, 31P, 13C, 23Na, 7Li, 19F, 14N, 15N, 17O, 39K The most commonly studied nuclei are 1H and 31P. This lecture is focused on Proton (1H) Spectroscopy. Proton MRS can be added on to conventional MR imaging protocols. It can be used to serially monitor biochemical changes in tumors, stroke, epilepsy, metabolic disorders, infections, and neurodegenerative diseases.The MR spectra do not come labeled with diagnoses. They require interpretation and should always be correlated with the MR images before making a final diagnosis. As a general rule, the single voxel, short TE technique is used to make the initial diagnosis, because the signal-to-noise is high and all metabolites are represented. Multi-voxel, long TE techniques are used to further characterize different regions of a mass and to assess brain parenchyma around or adjacent to the mass. Multi-voxel, long TE techniques are also used to assess response to therapy and to search for tumor recurrence. Each metabolite appears at a specific ppm, and each one reflects specific cellular and biochemical processes

  14. The ground state of a spin-1 anti-ferromagnetic atomic condensate for Heisenberg limited metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling-Na; You, Li

    2016-05-01

    The ground state of a spin-1 atomic condensate with anti-ferromagnetic interaction can be applied to quantum metrology approaching the Heisenberg limit. Unlike a ferromagnetic condensate state where individual atomic spins are aligned in the same direction, atoms in an anti-ferromagnetic ground state condensate exist as spin singlet pairs, whose inherent correlation promises metrological precisions beyond the standard quantum limit (SQL) for uncorrelated atoms. The degree of improvement over the SQL is measured by quantum Fisher information (QFI), whose dependence on the ratio of linear Zeeman shift p to spin-dependent atomic interaction c is studied. At a typical value of p = 0 . 4 c corresponding to a magnetic field of 28 . 6 μ G with c = h × 50 Hz (for 23 Na atom condensate in the F = 1 state at a typical density of ~1014cm-3), the scaled QFI can reach ~ 0 . 48 N , which is close to the limits of N for NooN state, or 0 . 5 N for twin-Fock state. We hope our work will stimulate experimental efforts towards reaching the anti-ferromagnetic condensate ground state at extremely low magnetic fields.

  15. Advanced MR methods at ultra-high field (7 Tesla) for clinical musculoskeletal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna/Vienna General Hospital, MR Centre - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology, Austrian Cluster for Tissue Regeneration, Vienna (Austria); Zbyn, Stefan; Schmitt, Benjamin; Friedrich, Klaus; Bogner, Wolfgang [Medical University of Vienna/Vienna General Hospital, MR Centre - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Juras, Vladimir; Szomolanyi, Pavol [Medical University of Vienna/Vienna General Hospital, MR Centre - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Slovak Academy of Sciences, Department of Imaging Methods, Institute of Measurement Science, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-11-15

    This article provides an overview of the initial clinical results of musculoskeletal studies performed at 7 Tesla, with special focus on sodium imaging, new techniques such as chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and T2* imaging, and multinuclear MR spectroscopy. Sodium imaging was clinically used at 7 T in the evaluation of patients after cartilage repair procedures because it enables the GAG content to be monitored over time. Sodium imaging and T2* mapping allow insights into the ultra-structural composition of the Achilles tendon and help detect early disease. Chemical exchange saturation transfer was, for the first time, successfully applied in the clinical set-up at 7 T in patients after cartilage repair surgery. The potential of phosphorus MR spectroscopy in muscle was demonstrated in a comparison study between 3 and 7 T, with higher spectral resolution and significantly shorter data acquisition times at 7 T. These initial clinical studies demonstrate the potential of ultra-high field MR at 7 T, with the advantage of significantly improved sensitivity for other nuclei, such as {sup 23}Na (sodium) and {sup 31}P (phosphorus). The application of non-proton imaging and spectroscopy provides new insights into normal and abnormal physiology of musculoskeletal tissues, particularly cartilage, tendons, and muscles. (orig.)

  16. Reconciling Local Structure Disorder and the Relaxor State in (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszewicz, Pedro B.; Gröting, Melanie; Breitzke, Hergen; Jo, Wook; Albe, Karsten; Buntkowsky, Gerd; Rödel, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    Lead-based relaxor ferroelectrics are key functional materials indispensable for the production of multilayer ceramic capacitors and piezoelectric transducers. Currently there are strong efforts to develop novel environmentally benign lead-free relaxor materials. The structural origins of the relaxor state and the role of composition modifications in these lead-free materials are still not well understood. In the present contribution, the solid-solution (100-x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-xBaTiO3 (BNT-xBT), a prototypic lead-free relaxor is studied by the combination of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, dielectric measurements and ab-initio density functional theory (DFT). For the first time it is shown that the peculiar composition dependence of the EFG distribution width (ΔQISwidth) correlates strongly to the dispersion in dielectric permittivity, a fingerprint of the relaxor state. Significant disorder is found in the local structure of BNT-xBT, as indicated by the analysis of the electric field gradient (EFG) in 23Na 3QMAS NMR spectra. Aided by DFT calculations, this disorder is attributed to a continuous unimodal distribution of octahedral tilting. These results contrast strongly to the previously proposed coexistence of two octahedral tilt systems in BNT-xBT. Based on these results, we propose that considerable octahedral tilt disorder may be a general feature of these oxides and essential for their relaxor properties.

  17. Simultaneous Acquisition of Multi-nuclei Enhanced NMR/MRI by Solution State Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yugui; Feng, Jiwen; Huang, Chongyang; Chen, Fang; Liu, Maili; Liu, Chaoyang

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) has become a very important hyperpolarization method because it can dramatically increase the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of various molecules. Liquid-state DNP based on Overhauser effect is capable of directly enhancing polarizations of all kinds of nuclei in the system. The combination of simultaneous Overhauser multi-nuclei enhancements with the multi-nuclei parallel acquisitions provides a variety of important applications in both MR spectroscopy (MRS) and image (MRI). Here we present two simple illustrative examples for simultaneously enhanced multi-nuclear spectra and images to demonstrate the principle and superiority. We have observed very large simultaneous DNP enhancements for different nuclei, such as 1H and 23Na, 1H and 31P, 19F and 31P, especially for the first time to report sodium ion enhancement in liquid. We have also obtained the simultaneous imaging of 19H and 31P at low field by solution-state DNP for the first time. This method can ob...

  18. Reconciling Local Structure Disorder and the Relaxor State in (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszewicz, Pedro B; Gröting, Melanie; Breitzke, Hergen; Jo, Wook; Albe, Karsten; Buntkowsky, Gerd; Rödel, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Lead-based relaxor ferroelectrics are key functional materials indispensable for the production of multilayer ceramic capacitors and piezoelectric transducers. Currently there are strong efforts to develop novel environmentally benign lead-free relaxor materials. The structural origins of the relaxor state and the role of composition modifications in these lead-free materials are still not well understood. In the present contribution, the solid-solution (100-x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-xBaTiO3 (BNT-xBT), a prototypic lead-free relaxor is studied by the combination of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, dielectric measurements and ab-initio density functional theory (DFT). For the first time it is shown that the peculiar composition dependence of the EFG distribution width (ΔQISwidth) correlates strongly to the dispersion in dielectric permittivity, a fingerprint of the relaxor state. Significant disorder is found in the local structure of BNT-xBT, as indicated by the analysis of the electric field gradient (EFG) in (23)Na 3QMAS NMR spectra. Aided by DFT calculations, this disorder is attributed to a continuous unimodal distribution of octahedral tilting. These results contrast strongly to the previously proposed coexistence of two octahedral tilt systems in BNT-xBT. Based on these results, we propose that considerable octahedral tilt disorder may be a general feature of these oxides and essential for their relaxor properties. PMID:27545094

  19. Radium geochemistry in Na-Cl type groundwater in Niigata Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Junpei; Satake, Hiroshi; Fukuyama, Taijiro; Sasaki, Keiichi; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2010-03-01

    Radium isotopes in 23 Na-Cl type groundwater sampled mainly from deep wells in Niigata Prefecture, which is the site of the largest oil- and gas-fields in Japan, were measured along with U isotopes, chemical components and hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios to elucidate the distribution and behavior of Ra in a brackish environment underground. Also analyzed were U and Th isotopes in 38 rock samples collected from outcrops at 17 locations. Ra-226 concentrations (8.86-1637 mBq kg(-1)) of groundwater samples roughly correlated with total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations and other alkaline earth contents. Their (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratios (0.32-5.2) were similar to or higher than the (232)Th/(238)U activity ratios (0.6-1.7) in the rocks. The most likely transport mechanism of Ra isotopes into groundwater was due to their alpha-recoil from the solid phase, probably from the water-rock interface where Th isotopes had accumulated, and adsorption/desorption reaction based on the increase in (226)Ra contents with TDS.

  20. A multinuclear static NMR study of geopolymerisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favier, Aurélie, E-mail: aurelie.favier@epfl.ch [Univ Paris-Est, IFSTTAR, Materials Department, 14-20 bd Newton, F-77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); Habert, Guillaume [Institute for Construction and Infrastructure Management, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Roussel, Nicolas [Univ Paris-Est, IFSTTAR, Materials Department, 14-20 bd Newton, F-77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); D' Espinose de Lacaillerie, Jean-Baptiste [Ecole Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Indusrtrielles de la Ville de Paris (ESPCI), ParisTech, PSL Research University, Soft Matter Sciences and Engineering Laboratory SIMM, CNRS UMR 7615, 10 rue Vauquelin, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-09-15

    Geopolymers are inorganic binders obtained by alkali activation of aluminosilicates. While the structure of geopolymers is now well understood, the details of the geopolymerisation reaction and their impact on the rheology of the paste remain uncertain. In this work, we follow the elastic properties of a paste made with metakaolin and sodium silicate solution. After the first sharp increase of elastic modulus occurring a few hundred of seconds after mixing and related to the heterogeneous formation of an alumina–silicate gel with a molar ratio Si/Al < 4 located at the grains boundaries, we focus on the progressive increase in elastic modulus on a period of few hours during the setting of the geopolymer. In this study, we combine the study of rheological properties of the paste with {sup 23}Na, {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si static NMR measurement in order to better understand the origin of this second increase in elastic modulus. Our results show that, after a few hours, Al and Na evolution in the liquid phase are concomitant. This suggests the precipitation of an aluminosilicate phase where Al is in tetrahedral position and Na compensates the charge. Furthermore, Si speciation confirms this result and allows us to identify the precipitation of a product, which has a chemical composition close to the final composition of geopolymer. This study provides strong evidence for a heterogeneous formation of an aluminosilicate glass directly from the first gel and the silicate solution without the need for a reorganisation of Gel 1 into Gel 2.

  1. Communication of nuclear data progress No.25 (2001. 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the 25th issue of Communication of Nuclear Data Progress (CNDP), in which the achievements in nuclear data field for the last year in China are carried. It includes the measurements of 10B(n, γ)7Li and 64Zn(n,α) 61Ni angular distributions and cross sections, 75As(n,γ) 76As cross section and fission product yields of n + 235,238U; theoretical calculations of n + 23Na, 93,95Nb, 99Tc, 99-105Ru, 132,134-138Ba, 133-135,137Cs, 136,138,140,142NatCe, 142-148,150Nd, 175,176NatLu, 174,176-180NatHf; evaluations of reference fission yield data and n + 93,95Nb, 99,100Ru, 121,123Sb, 127,135I and 241,242Pu complete data; method to set up file 6 in neutron data library of light nuclei, Kerma factor calculation, a code for automatically searching optimal optical potential parameters below 300 MeV, internal conversion electrons data calculation, a code for composition of a nuclear data file of natural element from its isotope files; and the developments of CWIMS code and its 69-group library. Also the activities and cooperation on nuclear data in China are summarized

  2. Sensitivity enhancement of remotely coupled NMR detectors using wirelessly powered parametric amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chunqi; Murphy-Boesch, Joseph; Dodd, Stephen; Koretsky, Alan

    2012-09-01

    A completely wireless detection coil with an integrated parametric amplifier has been constructed to provide local amplification and transmission of MR signals. The sample coil is one element of a parametric amplifier using a zero-bias diode that mixes the weak MR signal with a strong pump signal that is obtained from an inductively coupled external loop. The NMR sample coil develops current gain via reduction in the effective coil resistance. Higher gain can be obtained by adjusting the level of the pumping power closer to the oscillation threshold, but the gain is ultimately constrained by the bandwidth requirement of MRI experiments. A feasibility study here shows that on a NaCl/D(2) O phantom, (23) Na signals with 20 dB of gain can be readily obtained with a concomitant bandwidth of 144 kHz. This gain is high enough that the integrated coil with parametric amplifier, which is coupled inductively to external loops, can provide sensitivity approaching that of direct wire connection.

  3. Recent experiments with ring Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, S.; Kumar, A.; Anderson, N. W.; Campbell, G. K.

    2016-05-01

    Here, we present three recent results of our experiments with ring-shaped 23 Na Bose-Einstein condensates. First, we present results of the effect of temperature on the decay of persistent currents in the presence of a local, stationary perturbation, or weak link. When the weak link rotates, it can drive transitions between quantized persistent current states in the ring, that form hysteresis loops whose size depends strongly on temperature. We find that our data does not fit with a simple model of thermal activation. Second, we present a new method to measure the quantized persistent current state of the ring in a minimally-destructive way. This technique uses phonons as probes of the background flow through the Doppler effect. Finally, we present a set of experiments designed to reproduce the horizon problem in the early universe. Supersonic expansion of the ring creates causally-disconnected regions of BEC whose phase evolves at different rates. When the expansion stops and these regions are allowed to recombine, they form topological excitations. These excitations can be predicted using a simple theory that shows excellent agreement with the data.

  4. The salt and lipid composition of model cheeses modifies in-mouth flavour release and perception related to the free sodium ion content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisard, Lauriane; Andriot, Isabelle; Martin, Christophe; Septier, Chantal; Boissard, Vanessa; Salles, Christian; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2014-02-15

    Reducing salt and lipid levels in foodstuffs without any effect on acceptability is a major challenge, particularly because of their interactions with other ingredients. This study used a multimodal approach to understand the effects of changes to the composition of model cheeses (20/28, 24/24, 28/20 lipid/protein ratios, 0% and 1% added NaCl) on sodium ion mobility ((23)Na NMR), in-mouth sodium release and flavour perception. An increase in the salt content decreased cheese firmness and perceived hardness, and increased sodium ion mobility, in vivo sodium release and both saltiness and aroma perception. With the same amount of salt, a lower lipid/protein ratio increased the firmness of the cheeses, perceived hardness, and decreased sodium ion mobility, in vivo sodium release, saltiness and aroma perception. These findings suggest on one hand that it could be possible to increase saltiness perception by varying cheese composition, thus inducing differences in sodium ion mobility and in free sodium ion concentration, leading to differences in in-mouth sodium release and saltiness perception, and on the other hand that the reformulation of foods in line with health guidelines needs to take account of both salt content and the lipid/protein ratio. PMID:24128499

  5. Modelling studies in aqueous solution of lanthanide (III) chelates designed for nuclear magnetic resonance biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, E. S.; Geraldes, C. F. G. C.; Ramos, M. J.

    Molecular dynamics simulations and complementary modelling studies have been carried out for the [Gd(DOTA)·(H2O)]- and [Tm(DOTP)]5- chelates in aqueous media, to provide a better understanding of several structural and dynamical properties of these versatile nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probes, including coordination shells and corresponding water exchange mechanisms, and interactions of these complexes with alkali metal ions. This knowledge is of key importance in the areas of 1H relaxation and shift reagents for NMR applications in medical diagnosis. A new refinement of our own previously developed set of parameters for these Ln(III) chelates has been used, and is reported here. Calculations of water mean residence times suggest a reassessment of the characterization of the chelates' second coordination shell, one where the simple spherical distribution model is discarded in favour of a more detailed approach. Na+ probe interaction maps are in good agreement with the available site location predictions derived from 23Na NMR shifts.

  6. Examination of the validity of statistical models for the 12C + 12C fusion reaction at sub-barrier energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlstrom, Erin

    2011-10-01

    Previous experimental studies of 12C + 12C fusion at sub-barrier energies using gamma spectroscopy have been limited by the use of a single detector. Use of the Gammasphere at the Argonne National Laboratory, however, allows for an array of germanium detectors to pick up the characteristic gamma rays, greatly increasing the information received. These decay products do not give us the total cross section for the fusion reaction though; we rely on statistical models that relate them to how the excited states are originally populated and decay. Using a combination of gamma spectroscopy based on data from the Gammasphere and proton spectroscopy from a recent 12C + 12C fusion experiment at Notre Dame, we tested these statistical models. The initial population of excited states for 23Na predicted by Empire, a standard statistical model for the decay of different 24Mg spins, was compared with the population determined from the gamma and proton spectroscopy. This comparison will potentially help us more accurately predict the spin population of 24Mg, further constraining the fusion reaction theory. Thanks: NSF grants PHY-1068192, PHY-0822648; ND REU.

  7. Form factors for dark matter capture by the Sun in effective theories

    CERN Document Server

    Catena, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    In the effective theory of isoscalar and isovector dark matter-nucleon interactions mediated by a heavy spin-1 or spin-0 particle, 8 isotope-dependent nuclear response functions can be generated in the dark matter scattering by nuclei. We compute the 8 nuclear response functions for the 16 most abundant elements in the Sun, i.e. H, $^{3}$He, $^{4}$He, $^{12}$C, $^{14}$N, $^{16}$O, $^{20}$Ne, $^{23}$Na, $^{24}$Mg, $^{27}$Al, $^{28}$Si, $^{32}$S, $^{40}$Ar, $^{40}$Ca, $^{56}$Fe, and $^{59}$Ni, through detailed numerical shell model calculations. We use our response functions to compute the rate of dark matter capture by the Sun for all isoscalar and isovector dark matter-nucleon effective interactions, including several operators previously considered for dark matter direct detection only. We study in detail the dependence of the capture rate on specific dark matter-nucleon interaction operators, and on the different elements in the Sun. We find that a so far neglected momentum dependent dark matter coupling to...

  8. On the microscopic fluctuations driving the NMR relaxation of quadrupolar ions in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carof, Antoine; Salanne, Mathieu; Charpentier, Thibault; Rotenberg, Benjamin

    2015-11-21

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation is sensitive to the local structure and dynamics around the probed nuclei. The Electric Field Gradient (EFG) is the key microscopic quantity to understand the NMR relaxation of quadrupolar ions, such as (7)Li(+), (23)Na(+), (25)Mg(2+), (35)Cl(-), (39)K(+), or (133)Cs(+). Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the statistical and dynamical properties of the EFG experienced by alkaline, alkaline Earth, and chloride ions at infinite dilution in water. Specifically, we analyze the effect of the ionic charge and size on the distribution of the EFG tensor and on the multi-step decay of its auto-correlation function. The main contribution to the NMR relaxation time arises from the slowest mode, with a characteristic time on the picosecond time scale. The first solvation shell of the ion plays a dominant role in the fluctuations of the EFG, all the more that the ion radius is small and its charge is large. We propose an analysis based on a simplified charge distribution around the ion, which demonstrates that the auto-correlation of the EFG, hence the NMR relaxation time, reflects primarily the collective translational motion of water molecules in the first solvation shell of the cations. Our findings provide a microscopic route to the quantitative interpretation of NMR relaxation measurements and open the way to the design of improved analytical theories for NMR relaxation for small ionic solutes, which should focus on water density fluctuations around the ion. PMID:26590539

  9. Reconciling Local Structure Disorder and the Relaxor State in (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszewicz, Pedro B.; Gröting, Melanie; Breitzke, Hergen; Jo, Wook; Albe, Karsten; Buntkowsky, Gerd; Rödel, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Lead-based relaxor ferroelectrics are key functional materials indispensable for the production of multilayer ceramic capacitors and piezoelectric transducers. Currently there are strong efforts to develop novel environmentally benign lead-free relaxor materials. The structural origins of the relaxor state and the role of composition modifications in these lead-free materials are still not well understood. In the present contribution, the solid-solution (100-x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-xBaTiO3 (BNT-xBT), a prototypic lead-free relaxor is studied by the combination of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, dielectric measurements and ab-initio density functional theory (DFT). For the first time it is shown that the peculiar composition dependence of the EFG distribution width (ΔQISwidth) correlates strongly to the dispersion in dielectric permittivity, a fingerprint of the relaxor state. Significant disorder is found in the local structure of BNT-xBT, as indicated by the analysis of the electric field gradient (EFG) in 23Na 3QMAS NMR spectra. Aided by DFT calculations, this disorder is attributed to a continuous unimodal distribution of octahedral tilting. These results contrast strongly to the previously proposed coexistence of two octahedral tilt systems in BNT-xBT. Based on these results, we propose that considerable octahedral tilt disorder may be a general feature of these oxides and essential for their relaxor properties. PMID:27545094

  10. Local structure of alkalis in mixed-alkali borate glass to elucidate the origin of mixed-alkali effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yomei Tokuda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the structural analysis of Na+ and Cs+ in sodium cesium borate crystals and glasses using 23Na and 133Cs magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR spectroscopy. The composition dependence of NMR spectra of the borate was similar to that of the silicate: (1 the peak position of cesium borate crystals shifted to upfield for structures with larger Cs+ coordination numbers, (2 the MAS NMR spectra of xNa2O-yCs2O-3B2O3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, x + y = 1 glass showed that the average coordination number (CN of both the alkali cations decreases with increasing Cs+/(Na+ + Cs+ ratio. However, the degree of decrement in borates is much smaller than that in silicates. We have considered that the small difference in CN is due to 4-coordinated B, because it is electrically compensated by the alkali metal ions resulting in the restriction of having various coordinations of O to alkali metal.

  11. Effect of lactobionic acid on the acidification, rheological properties and aroma release of dairy gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jéssica C Bigaski; Granato, Daniel; Masson, Maria Lucia; Andriot, Isabelle; Mosca, Ana Carolina; Salles, Christian; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2016-09-15

    The food industry is investigating new technological applications of lactobionic acid (LBA). In the current work, the effect of lactobionic acid on the acidification of dairy gels (pH 5.5 and 6.2), rheological properties using a double compression test, sodium mobility using (23)Na NMR technique and aroma release using headspace GC-FID were studied. Our results showed that it is possible to use LBA as an alternative to glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) for the production of dairy gels with a controlled pH value. Small differences in the rheological properties and in the amount of aroma volatile organic compounds that were released in the vapour phase, but no significant difference in the sodium ion mobility were obtained. The gels produced with LBA were less firm and released less volatile aroma compounds than the gels produced with GDL. The gels at pH 6.2 were firmer than those at pH 5.5 and had a more organised structure around the sodium ions. PMID:27080885

  12. Form factors for dark matter capture by the Sun in effective theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the effective theory of isoscalar and isovector dark matter-nucleon interactions mediated by a heavy spin-1 or spin-0 particle, 8 isotope-dependent nuclear response functions can be generated in the dark matter scattering by nuclei. We compute the 8 nuclear response functions for the 16 most abundant elements in the Sun, i.e. H, 3He, 4He, 12C, 14N, 16O, 20Ne, 23Na, 24Mg, 27Al, 28Si, 32S, 40Ar, 40Ca, 56Fe, and 59Ni, through numerical shell model calculations. We use our response functions to compute the rate of dark matter capture by the Sun for all isoscalar and isovector dark matter-nucleon effective interactions, including several operators previously considered for dark matter direct detection only. We study in detail the dependence of the capture rate on specific dark matter-nucleon interaction operators, and on the different elements in the Sun. We find that a so far neglected momentum dependent dark matter coupling to the nuclear vector charge gives a larger contribution to the capture rate than the constant spin-dependent interaction commonly included in dark matter searches at neutrino telescopes. Our investigation lays the foundations for model independent analyses of dark matter induced neutrino signals from the Sun. The nuclear response functions obtained in this study are listed in analytic form in an appendix, ready to be used in other projects

  13. 二维双量子魔角旋转核磁共振技术在功能材料研究中的应用%Application of Two-dimensional Double Quantum Magic Angle Spinning NMR to Solid Functional Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻志武; 郑安民; 王强; 邓风

    2011-01-01

    简要介绍了二维双量子魔角旋转核磁共振(DQ-MAS NMR)新技术的基本原理,详细综述了1H,19F,29Si,31P和27 Al DQ-MAS NMR技术在各种固体功能材料中的应用,并展望了该技术的应用前景.%Solid-state NMR spectroscopy has been developed into a powerful tool for obtaining detailed information about the structure, ordering, and dynamics in various kinds of inorganic organic, and biological materials. Two-dimensional double quantum magic angle spinning(DQ-MAS) NMR experiment is a useful method for probing spatial proximities or interactions between nuclei in various solid materials. During the past decade, the DQ-MAS NMR technique has been successfully applied not only to spin I = 1/2 nuclei, such as 1H, 19F, 29Si' 31p, but also to quadrupolar nuclei system, such as 27Al, 11B and 23Na. In this paper, we briefly introduce the principle of two-dimensional DQ-MAS NMR, and review the recent applications of DQ-MAS NMR technique(including 1H, 19F, 29Si, 31p and 27Al DQ-MAS NMR) to various solid functional materials. In addition, a perspective for the future of DQ-MAS NMR is also given.

  14. Experimental evaluation of neutron performance in boron-doped low activation concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaction rate distribution in concrete with/without boron dopant up to a thickness of 60 cm was measured using Yayoi fast reactor located at Univ. of Tokyo. The 7 reaction rates such as 197Au(n, γ), 59Co(n, γ), 115In(n, n'), 55Mn(n, γ), 23Na(n, γ), 94Zr(n, γ) and 96Zr(n, γ) were measured at 12 different depths, and the reduction of the reaction rate as a result of boron doping was quantitatively analysed. These reaction rates were also used to determine epithermal neutron spectrum shape parameter. Monte Carlo simulations of the experimental setup were performed using the MCNP-5 code. Simulated depth profiles of reaction rates and the epithermal neutron spectrum shape parameter agreed with the experimental results with fair accuracy. This experimental results provide useful data to benchmark the accuracy of neutron transport codes in the prediction of transmission and neutron spectrum distortion in boron-doped concrete. (authors)

  15. The first direct measurement of 12C(12C,n)23Mg at stellar energies

    CERN Document Server

    Bucher, B; Fang, X; Heger, A; Almaraz-Calderon, S; Alongi, A; Ayangeakaa, A D; Beard, M; Best, A; Browne, J; Cahillane, C; Couder, M; deBoer, R J; Kontos, A; Lamm, L; Li, Y J; Long, A; Lu, W; Lyons, S; Notani, M; Patel, D; Paul, N; Pignatari, M; Roberts, A; Robertson, D; Smith, K; Stech, E; Talwar, R; Tan, W P; Wiescher, M; Woosley, S E

    2015-01-01

    Neutrons produced by the carbon fusion reaction 12C(12C,n)23Mg play an important role in stellar nucleosynthesis. However, past studies have shown large discrepancies between experimental data and theory, leading to an uncertain cross section extrapolation at astrophysical energies. We present the first direct measurement that extends deep into the astrophysical energy range along with a new and improved extrapolation technique based on experimental data from the mirror reaction 12C(12C,p)23Na. The new reaction rate has been determined with a well-defined uncertainty that exceeds the precision required by astrophysics models. Using our constrained rate, we find that 12C(12C,n)23Mg is crucial to the production of Na and Al in Pop-III Pair Instability Supernovae. It also plays a non-negligible role in the production of weak s-process elements as well as in the production of the important galactic gamma-ray emitter 60Fe.

  16. Critical analysis for nuclear data of thermal neutron capture cross section and the resonance integral from library based on neutron activation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For research reactor applications of neutron activation analysis, the evaluated neutron reaction cross sections and resonance integrals in some different libraries available were analyzed comparatively. In order to check these data, the thermal neutron capture cross section (σ0) and the resonance integral (I0) of 23Na(n, γ )24Na, 58Fe(n, γ) 59Fe, 59Co(n, γ )60Co, 27Al(n, γ )28Al, 109Ag(n, γ) 110mAg, 197Au(n, γ)198Au and 238U(n, γ )239U reactions from different libraries were used for comparative analysis with experimental measurements based on fundamental neutron activation equation. The targets were irradiated with neutrons in a research nuclear reactor 100 kW power, Triga Mark I. A high purity Ge detector was used for the gamma ray measurements of the irradiated samples. The evaluated results have been in general agreement with the current data according to different library sources. (author)

  17. Molecular breast imaging. An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of molecular imaging is to visualize and quantify biological, physiological and pathological processes at cellular and molecular levels. Molecular imaging using various techniques has recently become established in breast imaging. Currently molecular imaging techniques comprise multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRSI), nuclear imaging by breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI), positron emission tomography (PET) and positron emission mammography (PEM) and combinations of techniques (e.g. PET-CT and multiparametric PET-MRI). Recently, novel techniques for molecular imaging of breast tumors, such as sodium imaging (23Na-MRI), phosphorus spectroscopy (31P-MRSI) and hyperpolarized MRI as well as specific radiotracers have been developed and are currently under investigation. It can be expected that molecular imaging of breast tumors will enable a simultaneous assessment of the multiple metabolic and molecular processes involved in cancer development and thus an improved detection, characterization, staging and monitoring of response to treatment will become possible. (orig.)

  18. Dlaczego edukacja domowa? Aksjologiczne uzasadnienia edukacji bez szkoły/ Why Home-Schooling? Axiological Justifications for an Education Outside of the School System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA MARIA KUCHARSKA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Od lat 90. XX wieku Polacy na nowo odkrywają edukację domową. Kształcenie i wychowanie w rodzinie nie jest nową koncepcją – poprzedzało rozwój instytucjonalnie zorganizowanej edukacji, silnie związane było z klasą społeczną i jej potrzebami. Obecnie, choć raczej w nieuświadomiony sposób, część rodziców powraca do podobnego sposobu nauczania w środowisku rodzinnym, odchodząc jednocześnie od nauczania szkolnego ze wszystkimi jego wadami. Wzorce edukacji domowej to jednak częściej bardziej współczesne modele anglosaskie, gdzie taka forma uczenia formalnego ma wielu zwolenników. Idea edukacji domowej, jak również jej praktyczne formy realizacji są intensywnie wspierane przez sieć szkół chrześcijańskich współpracujących ze Stowarzyszeniem Edukacyjnym Integracja. Początkowo może wydawać się to paradoksem – szkoła,w dodatku niepubliczna, wspierająca nauczanie poza szkołą. Poparcie nauczania domowego spójne jest z rozumieniem dominującej roli rodziny w wychowaniu i kształceniu w szkołach chrześcijańskich. Przede wszystkim podkreślany jest pokoleniowy przekaz wartości chrześcijańskich oraz ukształtowanie na wczesnym etapie życia moralnści opartej na tych wartościach. Szkoy te realizują podobną wizję wychowania i stawiają na spójność oddziaływań wychowawczych ze środowiskiem rodzinnym i kościelnym, jednak uznają rodziców za najwyższy autorytet w dziedzinie wychowania i edukacji dzieci. Zgodnie z polskimi rozwiązaniami prawnymi, dyrektor szkoły musi wyrazić zgodę na prowadzenie tego rodzaju edukacji przez konkretnych rodziców, tym samym instytucje otwarte na taką współpracę, a wręcz do nich zachęcające, są dla rodziców ogromną pomocą. W swoim artykule chciałabym wspomnieć też o kontrowersjach wokół edukacjidomowej, zwią zanych z rozwojem społecznym dziecka, socjalizacją oraz hermetycznością środowiska wychowawczego, jednak przede wszystkim interesuje

  19. «Too many Gatsbys in the fire»: un’occasione mancata?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Serrai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Da quando lo scadere del settantesimo anno dalla morte di Francis Scott Fitzgerald ha permesso di sfruttare commercialmente – e legalmente – le sue opere senza dover pagare i diritti d’autore, editori piccoli e grandi hanno invaso le librerie con nuove traduzioni dei suoi lavori più importanti. Nuove? Non sempre. Negli oltre sessant’anni che sono trascorsi dall’ultima versione italiana del Grande Gatsby (Fernanda Pivano per Mondadori, 1950, per esempio, il mondo ha «recuperato» il testo corretto dell’opera, grazie al lavoro di Matthew J. Broccoli; alcuni giovani studiosi – tra tutti, Keith Gandal del City College of New York – hanno guardato al romanzo con occhi nuovi e solida scholarship per offrirne punti di vista in parte inediti e, soprattutto, non viziati da pregiudizio; la teoria e la pratica della traduzione, infine, si sono evolute e il primato della traduzione scorrevole, accettabile e appropriante viene ormai sempre più eroso (almeno nei casi più virtuosi da traduzioni adeguate al testo e alla sua specificità culturale. Le nuove traduzioni tengono conto di tutto questo o sono solo operazioni commerciali? Questo contributo vorrebbe essere da stimolo alla nascita di una nuova tradizione nella ricezione di questo testo, che non risponda esclusivamente a logiche mercantili e narcisismi da catalogo, ma che come accadde per la versione di Fernanda Pivano formi nuove generazioni di lettori, entusiasti ma – soprattutto – consapevoli e informati. Since the coming of the seventieth year after Francis Scott Fitzgerald’s death allowed to commercially – and legally – take advantage of his works without having to pay royalties, publishers big and small flooded bookstores with new translations of his novels. New? Not always. In the more than sixty years since the last Italian version of The Great Gatsby (Fernanda Pivano, Mondadori, 1950 the world gained access to the correct text of the novel, thanks to the efforts of

  20. Experimental Testing of Innovative Cold-Formed "GEB" Section / Badania Eksperymentalne Innowacyjnego Kształtownika Giętego Na Zimno Typu "Geb"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukowicz, Agnieszka; Urbańska-Galewska, Elżbieta; Gordziej-Zagórowska, Małgorzata

    2015-03-01

    One of the major advantages of light gauge steel structures made of cold-formed steel sections is their low weight so the production of typical single-storey steel structures of this kind of profiles is still rising. The well known profiles, e.o. Z-sections, C-sections and the so called hat-sections studied and described in the literature, are used mainly as purlins or truss components. A new profile GEB was patented for the use for primary load-bearing member in fabricated steel frames. According to the code [1] every novel cross section should be tested to assign the deformation shape and bearing capacity. The paper deals with the numerical and experimental research of bearing capacity of cold formed GEB profiles. The deformation shape and limit load was obtained from bending tests. The GEB cross section bearing capacity was also determined according to codes [1, 2]. Jedną z najważniejszych zalet lekkich konstrukcji metalowych, wytwarzanych z kształtowników giętych na zimno, jest ich mała masa, dlatego też, producenci coraz częściej wykorzystują możliwości profili giętych do wytwarzania typowych konstrukcji halowych w budownictwie systemowym. Proces gięcia na zimno, pozwala na formowanie różnego rodzaju przekrojów poprzecznych, które mogą być wykorzystywane jako elementy konstrukcji. Typowe kształty elementów. tzn. Z, C oraz tzw. przekroje kapeluszowe, które zostały przebadane i opisane w literaturze, wykorzystuje się głównie jako płatwie lub części składowe wiązarów kratowych. Nowo opatentowany przekrój typu GEB ma być wykorzystany jako element nośny konstrukcji ramowych. W związku z tym innowacyjny kształt oraz parametry geometryczne przekroju takiego kształtownika, związane z możliwością jego wyprodukowania oraz z warunkami nośności, stateczności oraz sztywności, muszą być optymalne. Według normy PN-EN 1993-1-3, każdy nowo uformowany przekrój powinien być przebadany pod kątem nośności elementu i formy

  1. 9种热区植物白粉病菌的rDNA-ITS序列及系统发育分析%Phylogenetic Relationships and rDNA-ITS Sequence Analyses of Powdery Mildews on Some Plants in Tropical Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘先宝; 高宏华; 蔡吉苗; 张新春; 林春花; 黄贵修

    2013-01-01

    To understand the species and the phylogenetic relationships of powdery mildew fungi from Hevea brasiliensis, Artemisia princes, Momordica charantia, Daucus carrot, Plantago asiatica, Acacia auriculaeformis, Murraya exotica, Bixa orellana, Heliotropium indicurn, the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the genomic DNAs were amplified and subsequently sequenced. BLAST and the homologous analysis of ITS sequences were conducted in the GenBank database. The result indicated that the powdery mildew fungi had over 99% ITS sequences homology from Hevea brasiliensis, Bixa orellana, Murraya exotica and Acacia auriculae formis. The powdery mildew fungi, isolated from Artemisia princes, Heliotropium indicum and Momordica chararuia, and Podosphaera genus were closely related, The ITS sequences homology was 99% between the powdery mildew fungi of Daucus carrot and Erysiphe heraclei. The ITS sequences homology reached to 100% between the powdery mildew fungi of Plantago asiatica and Golovinomyces sordidus. The phylogenetic trees were constructed using the nucleotide sequences of the rDNA ITS region from a total of 49 ITS sequences examined, which were divided into four groups.%为弄清橡胶树、野艾蒿、大尾摇、胡萝卜、车前草、马占相思、红木、苦瓜和九里香等热区植物上白粉病菌的种类和彼此之间的系统发育关系,对这些白粉病菌的rDNA-ITS序列进行扩增和测序,与GenBank上公布的序列进行同源性比对,并进行分类.结果表明:橡胶树、马占相思、红木和九里香上的白粉病菌相似性非常高,均在99%以上;野艾蒿、大尾摇和苦瓜白粉病菌与叉丝单囊壳白粉菌的亲缘关系较近,分别达到100%和99%;胡萝卜白粉病菌与白粉菌属的独活白粉菌相似性在99%以上;而车前草白粉病菌与污色白粉菌的相似性达100%.利用供试菌和GenBank上公布的rDNA-ITS序列构建了系统发育树,将供试白粉菌分为4个

  2. Gardening the City: Neighbourliness and Appropriation of the Common Spaces in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meglena Ivanova Zlatkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gardening the City: Neighbourliness and Appropriation of the Common Spaces in BulgariaThe paper discusses the forms of public-private space division in a postcosialist Bulgarian city as everyday practices of inhabiting and appropriation of the common spaces in one neighborhood of Plovdiv. The anthropological research of the urban spaces includes a long term observation of the everyday practices in the city of socialism, the city in transition and the changed cities nowadays, following the line of the changing boundaries, distinction and expression of the public and private, common and individual.The cases of particular interest in my research are the forms of transgression of the physical borders and social boundaries as well as establishing new ones, according to the changing identities, social hierarchies, power relations, forms of social solidarity and networking and investment in social capital. The paper presents cases of blurring borders and boundaries as urban discourses – of the socialist city, the city in transition and the other – the city after 2007 when Bulgaria joined the EU. These cases are studied on the base of the everyday practices of urban gardening in common spaces – around block of flats, on the windowed balconies and small gardens (vegetable plots in the town outskirts. Uprawianie miasta: sąsiedzkość i zawłaszczanie przestrzeni wspólnej w BułgariiArtykuł omawia formy publiczno-prywatnego podziału przestrzeni w postsocjalistycznym mieście bułgarskim jako codzienne praktyki zamieszkiwania i zawłaszczania przestrzeni wspólnej na jednym z osiedli w Płowdiw. Antropologiczne badanie przestrzeni miejskiej koncentruje się na długookresowej obserwacji codziennych praktyk w mieście socjalistycznym, następnie przechodzącym okres transformacji, a wreszcie w mieście współczesnym, idąc za zmieniającą się linią granic, rozróżnieniem i wyrażaniem się publicznego i prywatnego, wspólnego i

  3. 秦岭火地塘林区3种森林类型乔木层碳密度和碳储量研究%Carbon Storage and Density of Tree Layer of Three Types of Forest at Huoditang Forest Region in the Qinling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任毅华; 蔡靖; 袁杰; 张硕新

    2012-01-01

    以秦岭火地塘林区锐齿栎(Quercus aliena var.acuteserrata)、华山松(Pinus armandi)和油松(Pinus tabulae formis)3种主要森林类型为研究对象,通过标准地调查和生物量回归模型计算其碳储量,并在此基础上估算了碳密度以及不同器官的碳储量.结果表明:不同森林类型碳密度具有显著差异,其中锐齿栎最高(118.724 t/hm2),油松次之(106.062 t/hm2),华山松最低(94.227t/hm2);3种森林类型的碳储量均随着林分径级的增大呈现出上升、下降和再上升的趋势,而大径级碳储量的上升主要取决于大径级单株林木的出现,具有明显的随机性;碳储量在不同树种各器官的分布表现为:干>枝>根>皮>叶(锐齿栎),干>枝>根>叶>皮(华山松),干>枝>叶>根>皮(油松),且不同树种同一器官及同一树种不同器官之间的碳储量所占比重差异显著.%The carbon storage of sharptooth oak(Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata) forest,armand pine(Pinus armandi) forest and Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) forest was studied via plots investigation and regression models of biomass of the forests at Huoditang forest region in the Qinling Mountains, the carbon density and storage of different organs of the forests were also estimated. The results showed that there were significant differences among the carbon density of the three forests, sharptooth oak forest had the highest carbon density(118. 724 t/ha), follow by Chinese pine forest (106. 062 t/ha) , armand pine forest had the lowest carbon density (94. 026 t/ha). With the increase of diameter class of the stands,the carbon storage of the three forests increased first, and then decreased and finally increased again. The increased carbon storage of high diameter class depended on high diameter class trees at random. The order of carbon storage in different organs for sharptooth oak was stem-wood>branches>roots>bark> leaves. For armand pine, the order was stem

  4. Identification and Properties of Amylase-producing Bacillus Isolated from Songhe Distiller's Yeast%宋河酒曲中产淀粉酶芽孢菌的分离鉴定及产酶特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯小歌; 王俊英; 张杰; 李学思; 李绍亮; 胡炳义

    2012-01-01

    为了有效控制宋河酒曲的制曲过程和发酵进程,对宋河酒曲中产淀粉酶芽孢菌进行了分离鉴定并研究筛选菌株的产淀粉酶特性.结果表明:从宋河酒曲中共分离到12株产淀粉酶芽孢菌,均属革兰氏阳性杆状菌,初步鉴定归为1个属5个种,即芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)、坚硬芽孢杆菌(Bacillus firmus)、枯草芽孢杆菌( Bacillus subtilis)、地衣芽孢杆菌(Bacillus licheni formis)、凝结芽孢杆菌(Bacillus coagulans)、巨大芽孢杆菌(Bacillus megaterium),其中,坚硬芽孢杆菌是宋河大曲产淀粉酶芽孢菌的数量优势菌群,获得1株地衣芽孢杆菌SQ2为中温型高产淀粉酶菌株,其液态发酵产酶特性为37℃培养,前24 h产酶较弱,此后,酶活力迅速上升,72 h达到最大值为89 μg/(mL·min),产酶旺盛期发生在菌体成熟期和衰亡初期,产酶过程pH值先稍偏酸性后接近中性.%Amylase-producing bacilli isolated from Songhe Distiller's yeast were identified and their properties were studied to effectively control the starter-making process and fermentation process. The results showed that 12 bacillus strains which could produce amylase were isolated and identified as Bacillus firmus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus coagulans and Bacillus megaterium , which belonged to genus of Bacillus. The B. firmus was the dominant amylase-producing bacillus in Songhe Daqu. Strain SQ2 was obtained as a high producing-amylase bacillus by determining transparent circle, its properties of producing amylase brothing under 37℃ were showed as follows: amylase-producing activity kept minimum in first fermenting 24 hours, gradually raised after 24 hours, reached primary stabilizing value to 72 hours, and decreased gently after fermenting 72 hours, the maximum value of amylase activity could reach 89 μg/(mL · min), the maximum amylase production occurred at the stage of strain maturity and decline growth. The pH value kept slightly acid

  5. Tko su za nas Turci / Osmanlije? Ili kako su predstavljeni u hrvatskim udžbenicima povijesti i sintezama / pregledima hrvatske povijesti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Agičić

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available What is our perception of the Ottoman Turks, or how are they presented in Croatian history textbooks and the outlines / overviews of Croatian historyHistory textbooks, especially in the Central and East European countries, often contain various single-sided, monocentric, xenophobic views, national exclusiveness, as well as divisions between “us” and “them,” confrontations with the others, etc. The countries with the more developed democratization process find it easier to overcome such difficulties in education, especially in textbooks, because they have no need for self justification and confirmation and have solid institutions addressing the social, economic, and various other rights of individuals. The Ottoman Turks have greatly influenced European, and thus also Croatian, history of the Late Medieval and Early Modern time. The author describes the position taken towards Ottoman invasions and rule in history textbooks and recent outlines of Croatian history. Both the textbooks and the analyzed outlines are found to contain two opposed views of Croatian history – one is ethno-centric, exuberating national past and often offers a prejudiced view of our neighbours, while the other is more modern and presents a more open and concrete overview of Croatian past. The paper lists a number of examples confirming such results.  Kim są dla nas Turcy osmańscy, czyli obraz Turków w chorwackich podręcznikach do nauki historii i w syntezach historii Chorwacji Podręczniki do nauki historii – szczególnie w krajach Europy Środkowej i Wschodniej, które podlegały transformacji ustrojowej – często prezentują różne formy jednostronnych wyobrażeń, monocentryzmu, ksenofobii czy narodowego ekskluzywizmu, stosując stereotypowe podziały na „my” i „oni”, przeprowadzają też często obrachunki z „innymi”. Przezwyciężanie tego typu trudności w nauczaniu przedmiotu łatwiejsze jest w krajach, gdzie proces demokratyzacji

  6. Effect of Endophytic Bacteria with ACC Deaminase Activity inKosteletzkya pentacarpos on Wheat Salt Tolerance%具有ACC脱氨酶活性的海滨锦葵(Kosteletzkya pentacarpos)内生细菌对小麦耐盐性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩坤; 田曾元; 刘珂; 张佳夜; 常银银; 郭予琦

    2015-01-01

    从盐生植物海滨锦葵块根中分离内生细菌43株,经形态学特征和16S rDNA序列相结合的方法鉴定,分属10个种属,其中芽孢杆菌属是优势属,其次是假单胞菌属和农杆菌属,蜡样芽孢杆菌(Bacillus cereus)和地衣芽孢杆菌(Bacillus licheni-formis)是优势种。对海滨锦葵内生细菌ACC脱氨酶活性的测定显示,其中5种菌明显具有ACC脱氨酶活性。用筛选到的5种细菌接种盐胁迫下小麦根系并测定其对于小麦耐盐性的影响。结果表明,蜡样芽孢杆菌、巨大芽孢杆菌(Bacillus mega-terium)、短小芽孢杆菌(Bacillus pumilus)、地衣芽孢杆菌四种芽孢杆菌均能显著提高盐胁迫下小麦幼苗的干物质重和叶绿素含量,并能显著提高保护酶(SOD、POD、CAT)活性,对盐胁迫的毒害有一定的缓解作用。绿针假单胞菌(Pseudomonas chlororaphis)对小麦幼苗株高、根长、鲜重、干重、叶绿素含量和保护酶活性的提高也具有一定的作用。上述分析表明从海滨锦葵块根中分离出的5株具有ACC脱氨酶活性的内生细菌均能提高小麦幼苗的耐盐性。%43 endophytic bacteria strains, isolated from roots of the halophyteKosteletzkya pentacarpos, belong to ten genus by 16S rDNA sequencing and the identiifcation of morphological features. Among them,Bacillus is the advantage genus, and then isPseudomonas andAgrobacterium.Bacillus cereus andBacillus licheniformis are the advantage species. ACC deaminase activity of endophytic bacteria inKosteletzkya pentacarposhas been determined. Results revealed that ifve strains could produce obvious ACC deaminase activity. These ifve kinds of bacteria were used to inoculate wheat roots under salt stress to determine their effects on the salt resistance of wheat. Data showed that four strains, includingBacillus cereus,Bacillus megaterium,Bacillus pumilusand Bacillus licheniformis,could not only promote the wheat fresh weight, dry weigh and

  7. Akcentuacja zapożyczonych leksemów czasownikowych w gwarze staroobrzędowców mieszkających w regionie suwalsko-augustowskim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Angelika Paśko-Koneczniak

    2015-12-01

    . Rodzimy zasób leksykalny badanej gwary staroobrzędowców zachowuje rosyjski system akcentuacyjny. Podobnie rzecz się ma z systemem akcentuacyjnym w leksemach zapożyczonych z języka polskiego, które podlegają adaptacji akcentuacyjnej, czyli następuje w nich przesunięcie miejsca akcentu w stosunku do języka dawcy. W zapożyczonych leksemach czasownikowych mamy do czynienia ze zmiennością akcentu uzależnioną od formy morfologicznej, niekiedy również z akcentem paroksytonicznym, wynikającym z wpływu języka polskiego.

  8. Деантропонимные топонимы белорусско-польского пограничья

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия [IUliia] Гурская [Hurskaia

    2014-12-01

    ów wywodzi się od obcojęzycznych imion chrześcijańskich. Trzecia grupa obejmuje nazwy osad, pochodzące od złożonych nazw indoeuropejskich. Na grupę czwartą składają się hybrydy nazw bałto-słowiańskich, zrekonstruowane od podstaw słowiańsko-bałtyckich, odpowiadające stosunkom etnicznym i historii osadnictwa na badanym obszarze. Nazwy bałtyckie na badanym terytorium, w formie substytucji fonetycznej i morfologicznej, dowodzą bliskich bałto-słowiańskich kontaktów językowych i kulturalnych. Liczne ojkonimy pochodzenia bałtyckiego zachowały się na badanym terytorium jako element występujący we współczesnych nazwiskach białoruskich.

  9. 微波辅助溶液燃烧法制备 MgAl2 O4粉体%Synthesis of MgAl2 O4 powders by microwave-assisted combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朔; 余俊; 赵惠忠; 李超; 王斌斌; 段连威

    2014-01-01

    High purity,low agglomeration MgAl2O4 powders were synthesized by the microwave-assisted low temperature combustion method using magnesium nitrate,aluminum nitrate and urea (mass ratio of 1 2 6.66) as starting materials,mixing in water forming a transparent precursor liquid.The effects of the microwave out-put power (200,400,600,and 700 W)on the microstructure,morphology and specific surface area of MgAl2O4 powders were analyzed.The results show that the microwave-assisted combustion method can accelerate combusti on reacti on to produce l arge vol umes of gas i nstantl y,formi ng ul tra-fi ne MgAl 2 O4 parti cl es.Moreo-ver,the increasing microwave output power accelerates the oxidation of urea,which is beneficial to the growth of MgAl2O4 grains.Under the conditions of microwave power 700 W for 2 min,the high crystallinity MgAl 2 O4 powder wi th a uni form parti cl e si ze di stri buti on (average grai n si ze of 56.03 nm)can be prepared.%将硝酸镁、硝酸铝、尿素按物质的量比为126.66制得透明混合前驱液,用低温燃烧技术与微波加热技术相结合的方法制备了高纯度、低团聚的镁铝尖晶石(MgAl2 O4)粉体。研究了燃烧反应过程中,微波输出功率(200、400、600、700 W)对MgAl2 O4粉体晶体结构、形貌及比表面积的影响。结果表明:微波高效加热方式导致燃烧反应瞬间产生大量气体,促进了MgAl2 O4超细颗粒的形成。同时,随着微波输出功率的增加,尿素氧化加速,利于MgAl2 O4晶粒的生长发育。在微波功率700 W,微波时间2 min的条件下,可制备结晶完整,粒度分布均匀(平均晶粒尺寸为56.03 nm)的MgAl2O4粉体。

  10. Use of Narcotic Drugs in the Dispensary for Inpatients in Our Hospital from 2010 to 2012%2010~2012年我院住院患者麻醉药品应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴惠珍; 刘静; 靳会欣

    2014-01-01

    To understand the application of narcotic drugs in our hospital patients,the reasonable application of narcotic drugs and provide reference for standardization management. Methods: To extract data of narcotics used in hospitalized patients with 2010~2012 from our hospital HIS system, calculation of drug use frequency (DDDs),defined daily cost (DDC),analysis and comparison of the drug use.Results:Narcotic drugs in our hospital in 2011 and 2012 compared to 2010 the amount of medication decreased the past three years the number of narcotic drugs varieties and specifications increased from 10 to 13,sufentanil, remifentanil has been living in narcotics sales amount and frequency of administration the first two; morphine injection DDDs ranked 3; pethidine injection use in oncology accounted for 0.3% to 0.7% of the total amount used pethidine; Oxycodone sustained-release tablets for the new varieties, consumption increased significantly, the dosageof 90.2% to 100% for application of oncology department. Oncology department narcotics oral dosage forms consumption quantity and amount are increasing year.Conclusion:Variety of narcotic drugs, dosage formis complete,the applicationof narcotic drugsis reasonable, rationaluseof narcotic drugsoncologystructure, in line with the basic principles of"Three step treatment for cancer".%目的:了解我院住院患者麻醉药品的应用情况,为麻醉药品合理应用及规范化管理提供参考。方法:从我院HIS系统提取2010~2012年住院患者麻醉药品的应用数据,计算药品用药频度(DDDs)、限定日费用(DDC),分析比较各药物的使用情况。结果:我院麻醉药品用药金额2011、2012年较2010年呈下降趋势,3年来麻醉药品品规数由10个增加至13个,舒芬太尼、瑞芬太尼一直居于麻醉药品销售金额、频率的前2位;吗啡注射液DDDs一直稳居第3位;哌替啶注射液在肿瘤科使用量仅占全院哌替啶使用量的0.3%~0.7%;羟考

  11. The hyperfine structure - a message from the inner circle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiment have been performed to determine the lifetimes and the hyperfine structures of excited states in atoms. Decay curves were recorded with the aid of time-resolved laser spectroscopy. From these curves, it was possible to evaluated the lifetimes with high accuracy. In certain cases, the hyperfine structures were also determined with high accuracy form quantum beat signals. The elements studied were lithium, sodium, copper, iron and silver. In favourable cases, the method of delayed coincidence gave uncertainties in lifetime measurements of about 0.5%. The detection of quantum beat signals with frequencies higher than 1 GHz was demonstrated. The effects of non-white excitation and delayed detection on level-crossing signals were also investigated. The method of delayed detection causes a narrowing of the detected signal, though most of the intensity of the signals is lost and it exhibits an oscillatory behaviour due to the gating procedure. The effect of high-intensity beams in combination with optically dense media applied to saturation absorption spectroscopy has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. In this regime the signals exhibited sharp profiles, with widths narrower than the natural linewidth, duel to the non-linearity of the medium. Also, a strong rejection of the background was achieved. These features make this regime interesting for frequency stabilization purpose. Using wavefunctions calculated with the multi-configuration Hartree-Fock method, the hyperfine structure interaction constants of the 3s 2S and the 3p 2P states in 23Na and the 3s3p 1.3P and the 3s3d 1.3D states in 25 Mg, the only stable isotope of magnesium with a hyperfine structure, were determined. (62 refs.) (au)

  12. PRELIMINARY CROSS SECTION AND NU-BAR COVARIANCES FOR WPEC SUBGROUP 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROCHMAN,D.

    2007-01-31

    We report preliminary cross section covariances developed for the WPEC Subgroup 26 for 45 out of 52 requested materials. The covariances were produced in 15- and 187-group representations as follows: (1) 36 isotopes ({sup 16}O, {sup 19}F, {sup 23}Na, {sup 27}Al, {sup 28}Si, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 56,56}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 90,91,92,94}Zr, {sup 166,167,168,170}Er, {sup 206,207,208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 233,234,236}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238,240,241,242}Pu, {sup 241,242m,243}Am, {sup 242,243,244,245}Cm) were evaluated using the BNL-LANL methodology. For the thermal region and the resolved and unresolved resonance regions, the methodology has been based on the Atlas-Kalman approach, in the fast neutron region the Empire-Kalman method has been used; (2) 6 isotopes ({sup 155,156,157,158,160}Gd and {sup 232}Th) were taken from ENDF/B-VII.0; and (3) 3 isotopes ({sup 1}H, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu) were taken from JENDL-3.3. For 6 light nuclei ({sup 4}He, {sup 6,7}Li, {sup 9}Be, {sup 10}B, {sup 12}C), only partial cross section covariance results were obtained, additional work is needed and they do not report the results here. Likewise, the cross section covariances for {sup 235}U, which they recommend to take from JENDL-3.3, will be included once the multigroup processing is successfully completed. Covariances for the average number of neutrons per fission, total {nu}-bar, are provided for 10 actinides identified as priority by SG26. Further work is needed to resolve some of the issues and to produce covariances for the full set of 52 materials.

  13. Phase evolution of Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O gels in synthetic aluminosilicate binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkley, Brant; San Nicolas, Rackel; Sani, Marc-Antoine; Gehman, John D; van Deventer, Jannie S J; Provis, John L

    2016-04-01

    This study demonstrates the production of stoichiometrically controlled alkali-aluminosilicate gels ('geopolymers') via alkali-activation of high-purity synthetic amorphous aluminosilicate powders. This method provides for the first time a process by which the chemistry of aluminosilicate-based cementitious materials may be accurately simulated by pure synthetic systems, allowing elucidation of physicochemical phenomena controlling alkali-aluminosilicate gel formation which has until now been impeded by the inability to isolate and control key variables. Phase evolution and nanostructural development of these materials are examined using advanced characterisation techniques, including solid state MAS NMR spectroscopy probing (29)Si, (27)Al and (23)Na nuclei. Gel stoichiometry and the reaction kinetics which control phase evolution are shown to be strongly dependent on the chemical composition of the reaction mix, while the main reaction product is a Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O type gel comprised of aluminium and silicon tetrahedra linked via oxygen bridges, with sodium taking on a charge balancing function. The alkali-aluminosilicate gels produced in this study constitute a chemically simplified model system which provides a novel research tool for the study of phase evolution and microstructural development in these systems. Novel insight of physicochemical phenomena governing geopolymer gel formation suggests that intricate control over time-dependent geopolymer physical properties can be attained through a careful precursor mix design. Chemical composition of the main N-A-S-H type gel reaction product as well as the reaction kinetics governing its formation are closely related to the Si/Al ratio of the precursor, with increased Al content leading to an increased rate of reaction and a decreased Si/Al ratio in the N-A-S-H type gel. This has significant implications for geopolymer mix design for industrial applications.

  14. Thiolated polycarbophil/glutathione: defining its potential as a permeation enhancer for oral drug administration in comparison to sodium caprate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Glen; Barthelmes, Jan; Vetter, Anja; Krieg, Christof; Uhlschmied, Cindy; Bonn, Günther K; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    Thiolated polyacrylates were shown to be permeation enhancers with notable potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the permeation enhancing properties of a thiolated polycarbophil/glutathione (PCP-Cys/GSH) system for oral drug application in comparison to a well-established permeation enhancer, namely sodium caprate. In vitro permeation studies were conducted in Ussing-type chambers with sodium fluoresceine (NaFlu) and fluoresceine isothiocyanate labeled dextran (molecular mass 4 kDa; FD4) as model compounds. Bioavailability studies were carried out in Sprague Dawley rats with various formulations. Moreover, cytotoxic effects of both permeation enhancers were compared. Permeation enhancement ratios of 1% sodium caprate were found to be 3.0 (FD4) and 2.3 (NaFlu), whereas 1% PCP-Cys/0.5% GSH displayed enhancement ratios of 2.4 and 2.2. Both excipients performed at a similar level in vivo. Sodium caprate solutions increased oral bioavailability 2.2-fold (FD4) and 2.3-fold (NaFlu), while PCP-Cys hydrogels led to a 3.2-fold and 2.2-fold enhancement. Cell viability experiments revealed a significantly higher tolerance of Caco-2 cells towards 0.5% PCP-Cys (81% survival) compared to 0.5% sodium caprate (5%). As PCP-Cys is not absorbed from mucosal membranes due to its comparatively high molecular mass, systemic side-effects can be excluded. In conclusion, both systems displayed a similar potency for permeation enhancement of hydrophilic compounds. However, PCP-Cys seems to be less harmful to cultured cells. PMID:21554106

  15. Functional Differentiation of Antiporter-Like Polypeptides in Complex I; a Site-Directed Mutagenesis Study of Residues Conserved in MrpA and NuoL but Not in MrpD, NuoM, and NuoN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Sperling

    Full Text Available It has long been known that the three largest subunits in the membrane domain (NuoL, NuoM and NuoN of complex I are homologous to each other, as well as to two subunits (MrpA and MrpD from a Na+/H+ antiporter, Mrp. MrpA and NuoL are more similar to each other and the same is true for MrpD and NuoN. This suggests a functional differentiation which was proven experimentally in a deletion strain model system, where NuoL could restore the loss of MrpA, but not that of MrpD and vice versa. The simplest explanation for these observations was that the MrpA and MrpD proteins are not antiporters, but rather single subunit ion channels that together form an antiporter. In this work our focus was on a set of amino acid residues in helix VIII, which are only conserved in NuoL and MrpA (but not in any of the other antiporter-like subunits. and to compare their effect on the function of these two proteins. By combining complementation studies in B. subtilis and 23Na-NMR, response of mutants to high sodium levels were tested. All of the mutants were able to cope with high salt levels; however, all but one mutation (M258I/M225I showed differences in the efficiency of cell growth and sodium efflux. Our findings showed that, although very similar in sequence, NuoL and MrpA seem to differ on the functional level. Nonetheless the studied mutations gave rise to interesting phenotypes which are of interest in complex I research.

  16. Functional Differentiation of Antiporter-Like Polypeptides in Complex I; a Site-Directed Mutagenesis Study of Residues Conserved in MrpA and NuoL but Not in MrpD, NuoM, and NuoN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Eva; Górecki, Kamil; Drakenberg, Torbjörn; Hägerhäll, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    It has long been known that the three largest subunits in the membrane domain (NuoL, NuoM and NuoN) of complex I are homologous to each other, as well as to two subunits (MrpA and MrpD) from a Na+/H+ antiporter, Mrp. MrpA and NuoL are more similar to each other and the same is true for MrpD and NuoN. This suggests a functional differentiation which was proven experimentally in a deletion strain model system, where NuoL could restore the loss of MrpA, but not that of MrpD and vice versa. The simplest explanation for these observations was that the MrpA and MrpD proteins are not antiporters, but rather single subunit ion channels that together form an antiporter. In this work our focus was on a set of amino acid residues in helix VIII, which are only conserved in NuoL and MrpA (but not in any of the other antiporter-like subunits.) and to compare their effect on the function of these two proteins. By combining complementation studies in B. subtilis and 23Na-NMR, response of mutants to high sodium levels were tested. All of the mutants were able to cope with high salt levels; however, all but one mutation (M258I/M225I) showed differences in the efficiency of cell growth and sodium efflux. Our findings showed that, although very similar in sequence, NuoL and MrpA seem to differ on the functional level. Nonetheless the studied mutations gave rise to interesting phenotypes which are of interest in complex I research. PMID:27391676

  17. Phase evolution of Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O gels in synthetic aluminosilicate binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkley, Brant; San Nicolas, Rackel; Sani, Marc-Antoine; Gehman, John D; van Deventer, Jannie S J; Provis, John L

    2016-04-01

    This study demonstrates the production of stoichiometrically controlled alkali-aluminosilicate gels ('geopolymers') via alkali-activation of high-purity synthetic amorphous aluminosilicate powders. This method provides for the first time a process by which the chemistry of aluminosilicate-based cementitious materials may be accurately simulated by pure synthetic systems, allowing elucidation of physicochemical phenomena controlling alkali-aluminosilicate gel formation which has until now been impeded by the inability to isolate and control key variables. Phase evolution and nanostructural development of these materials are examined using advanced characterisation techniques, including solid state MAS NMR spectroscopy probing (29)Si, (27)Al and (23)Na nuclei. Gel stoichiometry and the reaction kinetics which control phase evolution are shown to be strongly dependent on the chemical composition of the reaction mix, while the main reaction product is a Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O type gel comprised of aluminium and silicon tetrahedra linked via oxygen bridges, with sodium taking on a charge balancing function. The alkali-aluminosilicate gels produced in this study constitute a chemically simplified model system which provides a novel research tool for the study of phase evolution and microstructural development in these systems. Novel insight of physicochemical phenomena governing geopolymer gel formation suggests that intricate control over time-dependent geopolymer physical properties can be attained through a careful precursor mix design. Chemical composition of the main N-A-S-H type gel reaction product as well as the reaction kinetics governing its formation are closely related to the Si/Al ratio of the precursor, with increased Al content leading to an increased rate of reaction and a decreased Si/Al ratio in the N-A-S-H type gel. This has significant implications for geopolymer mix design for industrial applications. PMID:26911317

  18. Magnetic and dielectric properties of one-dimensional array of S = 1/2 linear trimer system Na{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}Ge{sub 4}O{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Yukio, E-mail: yyasui@meiji.ac.jp [Department of Physics, School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan); Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kawamura, Yuji; Kobayashi, Yoshiaki [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sato, Masatoshi [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Comprehensive Research Organization for Science and Society, Tokai 319-1106 (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    Magnetic susceptibility χ, specific heat C, capacitance C{sub p}, and {sup 23}Na-NMR measurements have been carried out on polycrystalline samples of quantum spin linear trimer system Na{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}Ge{sub 4}O{sub 12}, which has the one-dimensional array of Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8} trimers formed of edge-sharing three CuO{sub 4} square planes. The exchange interactions between the Cu{sup 2+} (S = 1/2) spins have been determined by analyzing χ-T and C-T curves. By employing the isolated S = 1/2 Heisenberg trimer model above 70 K, the nearest-neighbor exchange couplings J{sub 1} and the second-neighbor one J{sub 2} in trimer have been evaluated to J{sub 1}/k{sub B} = 30 ± 20 K (antiferromagnetic) and J{sub 2}/k{sub B} = 340 ± 20 K. At low temperature region, two spins of the edge in the Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8} trimers form a nonmagnetic singlet by strong antiferromagnetic interaction J{sub 2}, and the spin left in the center of the Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8} trimer forms one-dimensional chains by the exchange interaction J{sub 3} between the trimers. By employing the S = 1/2 uniform Heisenberg chain model below 70 K, we have evaluated to J{sub 3}/k{sub B} = 18 ± 1 K. The mechanism of multiferroic behavior at T{sub c} = 2 K is discussed.

  19. Increase in VEGF secretion from human fibroblast cells by bioactive glass S53P4 to stimulate angiogenesis in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detsch, Rainer; Stoor, Patricia; Grünewald, Alina; Roether, Judith A; Lindfors, Nina C; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2014-11-01

    Bioactive glasses (BAGs) are being investigated for the repair and reconstruction of bone defects, as they exhibit osteoconductive and osteostimulatory potential. However, successful bone regeneration requires also the neovascularization of the construct which is, among other factors, guided by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this study, BAG S53P4 (53% SiO2 , 23% Na2 O, 20% CaO, 4% P2 O5 ) is investigated in relation to VEGF-release and response of fibroblast cells. Human CD-18CO fibroblasts were cultivated in contact with different granules of different sizes (0.5-0.8 mm, 1.0-2.0 mm, and 2.0-3.15 mm) and at different concentrations (0-1 wt/vol % of BAG) for 72 h. The analysis of morphology revealed no toxic effect for all granule sizes and concentrations. Compared with the reference, lactate dehydrogenase-activity of CCD-18CO cells increased in contact with BAG samples. The VEGF release from CCD-18CO fibroblasts cultured on different granule sizes and at different concentrations after 72 h of incubation was quantified. It was found that particles of 0.5-0.8 mm and 1.0-2.0 mm in size enhanced VEGF release, whereas BAG particle sizes of 2.0-3.15 mm led to inhibition of VEGF release. The results are relevant to understand the influence of the particle size and concentration of BAG S53P4 on VEGF expression and neovascularization. PMID:24357515

  20. Certification of the Cu and Cd amount contents in artificial food digest using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for Pilot Study 13 of the Comite Consultatif pour la Quantite de Matiere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Comite Consultatif pour la Quantite de Matiere (CCQM) launched the Pilot Study 13, an interlaboratory comparison between the metrological organizations worldwide on the determination of Ca, Cu and Cd in artificial food digests. These samples (available in 7% HNO3 and with a salinity evaluated around 370 mg kg-1, including approx. 30 mg Na kg-1) were prepared by gravimetrical mixing, and thus reference values traceable to the Kg for the three elements were available eventually. This paper describes the contribution of IRMM for the certification of the Cu and the Cd amount contents. The analytical protocol developed was based on isotope dilution associated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). The Cu measurements required 125-fold dilution of the initial sample solution. An interference of 23Na40Ar+ on 63Cu+ was identified but, since the ratio between both species was over 1000, it was successfully overcome by the calculation of a correction factor for its effect on the Cu amount content directly. Dilution of the sample was not possible for Cd only present at the low ng g-1 level. Up to 1% difference was observed on Cd isotope ratio results between measurements performed directly or after matrix separation. This is rarely shown. As similar results could be obtained either way after the necessary corrections, the direct measurements approach associated to a correction for mass discrimination effects using the CCQM-P13 sample itself (and the IUPAC table values as reference for the natural Cd isotopic composition) was preferred as it was the easiest. SI traceable values were obtained for Cu and Cd with less than 1 and 1.5% combined uncertainty, respectively (6 995±55 (k=2) nmol kg-1 and 45.53±0.64 (k=2) nmol kg-1). The excellent agreement between these results and the reference values (less than 0.6 and 0.08% difference) further validated the analytical protocols developed

  1. Atividade da torta de nim sobre adultos do cascudinho dos aviários em condições de laboratório Activity of neem cake on adults of the lesser mealworm in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Michelon Alves

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O cascudinho dos aviários é considerado um importante problema mundial no sistema de produção avícola, por infestar os aviários e ser potencial vetor de patógenos às aves e ao ser humano. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar em laboratório a atividade da torta de nim, Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae como forma alternativa de controle de Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. A torta foi aplicada diretamente no substrato (ração para aves ou cama de aviário na quantidade de 100g m-2 do produto. Foram verificados os efeitos letais e subletais da torta contra adultos do cascudinho dos aviários, sendo eles: ação inseticida, efeito na oviposição, repelência e efeito na alimentação. A utilização de torta de nim pareceu não afetar a sobrevivência dos insetos, porém, a avaliação do efeito repelente, atividade alimentar e oviposição foram influenciados, sendo observada redução de 23% na oviposição e 21% na atividade alimentar.The lesser mealworm is one the most important problem to avian production system, being a potential vector of avian and other animal pathogens. The objective of this study was to evaluate the neem cake (Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae as an alternative to control the Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. The neem cake was directly applied to substrates at 100g m-2 and were evaluated the lethal and sublethal effects to A. diaperinus adults, as mortality, oviposition, repellent effect and feeding. There was no effect on adult mortality, but were observed reduction of the oviposition (23%, repellent effect, and reduction of insect feeding (21%.

  2. Subcellular SIMS imaging of isotopically labeled amino acids in cryogenically prepared cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Subhash

    2004-06-15

    Ion microscopy is a potentially powerful technique for localization of isotopically labeled molecules. In this study, L-arginine and phenylalanine amino acids labeled with stable isotopes {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N were localized in cultured cells with the ion microscope at 500 nm spatial resolution. Cells were exposed to the labeled amino acids and cryogenically prepared. SIMS analyses were made in fractured freeze-dried cells. A dynamic distribution was observed from labeled arginine-treated LLC-PK{sub 1} kidney cells at mass 28 ({sup 13}C{sup 15}N) in negative secondaries, revealing cell-to-cell heterogeneity and preferential accumulation of the amino acid (or its metabolite) in the nucleus and nucleolus of some cells. The smaller nucleolus inside the nucleus was clearly resolved in SIMS images and confirmed by correlative light microscopy. The distribution of labeled phenylalanine contrasted with arginine as it was rather homogeneously distributed in T98G human glioblastoma cells. Images of {sup 39}K, {sup 23}Na and {sup 40}Ca were also recorded to confirm the reliability of sample preparation and authenticity of the observed amino acid distributions. These observations indicate that SIMS techniques can provide a valuable technology for subcellular localization of nitrogen-containing molecules in proteomics since nitrogen does not have a radionuclide tracer isotope. Amino acids labeled with stable isotopes can be used as tracers for studying their transport and metabolism in distinct subcellular compartments with SIMS. Further studies of phenylalanine uptake in human glioblastoma cells may have special significance in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as a boron analogue of phenylalanine, boronophenylalanine is a clinically approved compound for the treatment of brain tumors.

  3. Subcellular SIMS imaging of isotopically labeled amino acids in cryogenically prepared cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Subhash

    2004-06-01

    Ion microscopy is a potentially powerful technique for localization of isotopically labeled molecules. In this study, L-arginine and phenylalanine amino acids labeled with stable isotopes 13C and 15N were localized in cultured cells with the ion microscope at 500 nm spatial resolution. Cells were exposed to the labeled amino acids and cryogenically prepared. SIMS analyses were made in fractured freeze-dried cells. A dynamic distribution was observed from labeled arginine-treated LLC-PK 1 kidney cells at mass 28 ( 13C15N) in negative secondaries, revealing cell-to-cell heterogeneity and preferential accumulation of the amino acid (or its metabolite) in the nucleus and nucleolus of some cells. The smaller nucleolus inside the nucleus was clearly resolved in SIMS images and confirmed by correlative light microscopy. The distribution of labeled phenylalanine contrasted with arginine as it was rather homogeneously distributed in T98G human glioblastoma cells. Images of 39K, 23Na and 40Ca were also recorded to confirm the reliability of sample preparation and authenticity of the observed amino acid distributions. These observations indicate that SIMS techniques can provide a valuable technology for subcellular localization of nitrogen-containing molecules in proteomics since nitrogen does not have a radionuclide tracer isotope. Amino acids labeled with stable isotopes can be used as tracers for studying their transport and metabolism in distinct subcellular compartments with SIMS. Further studies of phenylalanine uptake in human glioblastoma cells may have special significance in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as a boron analogue of phenylalanine, boronophenylalanine is a clinically approved compound for the treatment of brain tumors.

  4. Modular Coils with Low Hydrogen Content Especially for MRI of Dry Solids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timon Eichhorn

    Full Text Available Recent advances have enabled fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of solid materials. This development has opened up new applications for MRI, but, at the same time, uncovered new challenges. Previously, MRI-invisible materials like the housing of MRI detection coils are now readily depicted and either cause artifacts or lead to a decreased image resolution. In this contribution, we present versatile, multi-nuclear single and dual-tune MRI coils that stand out by (1 a low hydrogen content for high-resolution MRI of dry solids without artifacts; (2 a modular approach with exchangeable inductors of variable volumes to optimally enclose the given object; (3 low cost and low manufacturing effort that is associated with the modular approach; (4 accurate sample placement in the coil outside of the bore, and (5 a wide, single- or dual-tune frequency range that covers several nuclei and enables multinuclear MRI without moving the sample.The inductors of the coils were constructed from self-supporting copper sheets to avoid all plastic materials within or around the resonator. The components that were mounted at a distance from the inductor, including the circuit board, coaxial cable and holder were manufactured from polytetrafluoroethylene.Residual hydrogen signal was sufficiently well suppressed to allow 1H-MRI of dry solids with a minimum field of view that was smaller than the sensitive volume of the coil. The SNR was found to be comparable but somewhat lower with respect to commercial, proton-rich quadrature coils, and higher with respect to a linearly-polarized commercial coil. The potential of the setup presented was exemplified by 1H/23Na high-resolution zero echo time (ZTE MRI of a model solution and a dried human molar at 9.4 T. A full 3D image dataset of the tooth was obtained, rich in contrast and similar to the resolution of standard cone-beam computed tomography.

  5. Excitatory amino acid-stimulated uptake of 22Na+ in primary astrocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we have found that L-glutamic acid, as well as being taken up by a Na+-dependent mechanism, will stimulate the uptake of 22Na+ by primary astrocyte cultures from rat brain in the presence of ouabain. By simultaneously measuring the uptake of 22Na+ and L-3H-glutamate a stoichiometry of 2-3 Na+ per glutamate was measured, implying electrogenic uptake. Increasing the medium K+ concentration to depolarize the cells inhibited L-3H-glutamate uptake, while calculations of the energetics of the observed L-3H-glutamate accumulation also supported an electrogenic mechanism of at least 2 Na+:1 glutamate. In contrast, kinetic analysis of the Na+ dependence of L-3H-glutamate uptake indicated a stoichiometry of Na+ to glutamate of 1:1, but further analysis showed that the stoichiometry cannot be resolved by purely kinetic studies. Studies with glutamate analogs, however, showed that kainic acid was a very effective stimulant of 22Na+ uptake, but 3H-kainic acid showed no Na+ -dependent uptake. Furthermore, while L-3H-glutamate uptake was very sensitive to lowered temperatures, glutamate-stimulated 22Na+ uptake was relatively insensitive. These results indicate that glutamate-stimulated uptake of 22Na+ in primary astrocytes cultures cannot be explained solely by cotransport of Na+ with glutamate, and they suggest that direct kainic acid-type receptor induced stimulation of Na+ uptake also occurs. Since both receptor and uptake effects involve transport of Na+, accurate measurements of the Na+ :glutamate stoichiometry for uptake can only be done using completely specific inhibitors of these 2 systems

  6. The aluminium effect on the structure of silico-phosphate glasses studied by NMR and FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitarz, Maciej; Fojud, Zbigniew; Olejniczak, Zbigniew

    2009-04-01

    Silico-phosphate glasses of NaCaPO 4-SiO 2 and NaCaPO 4-AlPO 4-SiO 2 system have been the subject of the presented investigations. Glasses of these systems are the basis for the preparation of glassy-crystalline biomaterials [R.D. Rawlings, Clin. Mater. 14 (1993) 155]. Detailed knowledge of the precursor glass structure is necessary for proper design of the glassy-crystalline biomaterials preparation procedure. Since there is no long-range ordering in glasses, spectroscopic methods which make it possible to study the short range ordering should be applied. MIR studies carried out in the work have allowed to establish that the glasses of the systems studied show domain composition [L.L. Hench, R.J. Splinter, T.K. Greenlee, W.C. Allen, J. Biol. Res. Symp. 2 (1971) 117; L.L. Hench, R.J. Splinter, W.C. Allen, T.K. Greenlee, J. Biol. Res. 5 (1972) 117]. Domain structure is close to that of the corresponding crystalline phases. It has been shown that even small amount of aluminium in the glass (5 mol.% of AlPO 4) significantly influences both, its texture (microscopic and EDX studies) and its structure (spectroscopic studies). 27Al NMR investigations have made it possible to establish unequivocally that aluminium occurs exclusively in tetrahedral coordination, i.e. it is involved in the formation of glass framework. Presence of aluminium results in significant changes in the [SiO 4] 4- and [PO 4] 3- tetrahedra environment which is reflected in 23Na, 31P and 29Si NMR spectra. Changes in the shapes and positions of the bands in the NMR spectra of glasses belonging to the NaCaPO 4-AlPO 4-SiO 2 system confirm great influence of aluminium on silico-phosphate glasses structure.

  7. Thiolated polycarbophil/glutathione: defining its potential as a permeation enhancer for oral drug administration in comparison to sodium caprate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Glen; Barthelmes, Jan; Vetter, Anja; Krieg, Christof; Uhlschmied, Cindy; Bonn, Günther K; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    Thiolated polyacrylates were shown to be permeation enhancers with notable potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the permeation enhancing properties of a thiolated polycarbophil/glutathione (PCP-Cys/GSH) system for oral drug application in comparison to a well-established permeation enhancer, namely sodium caprate. In vitro permeation studies were conducted in Ussing-type chambers with sodium fluoresceine (NaFlu) and fluoresceine isothiocyanate labeled dextran (molecular mass 4 kDa; FD4) as model compounds. Bioavailability studies were carried out in Sprague Dawley rats with various formulations. Moreover, cytotoxic effects of both permeation enhancers were compared. Permeation enhancement ratios of 1% sodium caprate were found to be 3.0 (FD4) and 2.3 (NaFlu), whereas 1% PCP-Cys/0.5% GSH displayed enhancement ratios of 2.4 and 2.2. Both excipients performed at a similar level in vivo. Sodium caprate solutions increased oral bioavailability 2.2-fold (FD4) and 2.3-fold (NaFlu), while PCP-Cys hydrogels led to a 3.2-fold and 2.2-fold enhancement. Cell viability experiments revealed a significantly higher tolerance of Caco-2 cells towards 0.5% PCP-Cys (81% survival) compared to 0.5% sodium caprate (5%). As PCP-Cys is not absorbed from mucosal membranes due to its comparatively high molecular mass, systemic side-effects can be excluded. In conclusion, both systems displayed a similar potency for permeation enhancement of hydrophilic compounds. However, PCP-Cys seems to be less harmful to cultured cells.

  8. Physico-technical progress in neutron-capture therapy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes mainly development studies on the determination method of in vivo 10B for the purpose of employment for neutron capture therapy for malignant melanoma and other tumors. To darify the efficacy of the neutron capture therapy, it is necessary to determine 10B concentration in the diseased part. This study aimed at in vivo 10B concention determination in living sample to the level of ppm order with 10 % of analytical error within 1 hour, and these determination conditions were satified by prompt γ-ray (478 keV) determination of 10B (n, αγ)7Li reaction. This method required no sample pretreatment. Further, data normalization by γ-ray of H(n, γ)D reaction permitted no disturbance by sample shape or size. Lower limit of detection of the proposed method was estimated in terms of measuring time and statistical error by the equations of 10B concentration and error analysis derived by the authors. As for the effect of prompt γ-rays of 23Na(n, γ)24Na and 6Li(n, γ)7Li reactions, it was clarified that the former showed no disturbance but some correction was necessary in case of less than 0.1 g of smaple size owing to the latter reaction. In vivo sample determination showed the proposed method was practical. In this paper some results of phantom experiment for in vivo non-destructive 10B measurement and related simulation calculation, and examination of effect of (γ, n) reaction in heavy water of biomedical irradiation equipment on radiation quality were also described. (Takagi, S.)

  9. Solid-state NMR in the analysis of drugs and naturally occurring materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska, Katarzyna; Wawer, Iwona

    2014-05-01

    This article presents some of the solid-state NMR (SSNMR) techniques used in the pharmaceutical and biomedical research. Solid-state magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR provides structural information on powder amorphous solids for which single-crystal diffraction structures cannot be obtained. NMR is non-destructive; the powder sample may be used for further studies. Quantitative results can be obtained, although solid-state NMR spectra are not normally quantitative. As compared with other techniques, MAS NMR is insensitive and requires a significant amount of the powder sample (2-100mg) to fill the 1.3-7 mm ZrO2 rotor. This is its main drawback, since natural compounds isolated from plants, microorganisms or cell cultures are difficult to obtain in quantities higher than a few milligrams. Multinuclear MAS NMR routinely uses (1)H and (13)C nuclei, less frequently (15)N, (19)F, (31)P, (77)Se, (29)Si, (43)Ca or (23)Na. The article focuses on the pharmaceutical applications of SSNMR, the studies were aimed to control over manufacturing processes (e.g. crystallization and milling) investigation of chemical and physical stability of solid forms both as pure drug and in a formulated product. SSNMR is used in combination with some other analytical methods (DSC, XRD, FT-IR) and theoretical calculations of NMR parameters. Biologically active compounds, such as amino acids and small peptides, steroids and flavonoids were studied by SSNMR methods (part 4) providing valuable structural information. The SSNMR experiments performed on biopolymers and large natural products like proteins, cellulose and lipid layers are commented upon briefly in part 5. PMID:24173236

  10. Brain intra- and extracellular sodium concentration in multiple sclerosis: a 7 T MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracca, Maria; Vancea, Roxana O; Fleysher, Lazar; Jonkman, Laura E; Oesingmann, Niels; Inglese, Matilde

    2016-03-01

    Intra-axonal accumulation of sodium ions is one of the key mechanisms of delayed neuro-axonal degeneration that contributes to disability accrual in multiple sclerosis. In vivo sodium magnetic resonance imaging studies have demonstrated an increase of brain total sodium concentration in patients with multiple sclerosis, especially in patients with greater disability. However, total sodium concentration is a weighted average of intra- and extra-cellular sodium concentration whose changes reflect different tissue pathophysiological processes. The in vivo, non-invasive measurement of intracellular sodium concentration is quite challenging and the few applications in patients with neurological diseases are limited to case reports and qualitative assessments. In the present study we provide first evidence of the feasibility of triple quantum filtered (23)Na magnetic resonance imaging at 7 T, and provide in vivo quantification of global and regional brain intra- and extra-cellular sodium concentration in 19 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients and 17 heathy controls. Global grey matter and white matter total sodium concentration (respectively P brain regional level, clusters of increased total sodium concentration and intracellular sodium concentration and decreased intracellular sodium volume fraction were found in several cortical, subcortical and white matter regions when patients were compared with healthy controls (P < 0.05 family-wise error corrected for total sodium concentration, P < 0.05 uncorrected for multiple comparisons for intracellular sodium concentration and intracellular sodium volume fraction). Measures of total sodium concentration and intracellular sodium volume fraction, but not measures of intracellular sodium concentration were correlated with T2-weighted and T1-weighted lesion volumes (0.05 < P < 0.01) and with Expanded Disability Status Scale (P < 0.05). Thus, suggesting that while intracellular sodium volume fraction decrease could

  11. Geochemical cycling and depositional patterns across the northeast region of the Greenland Ice Sheet as determined from trace element chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G. J.; Osterberg, E. C.; Courville, Z.; Hawley, R. L.; Lutz, E.; Overly, T. B.

    2012-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet is both a repository of climate history and a major driver in Arctic and global climate. Between 1952 and 1955, Carl Benson led a series of traverses of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), and characterized the GIS via mapping of the spatial distribution of annual net accumulation and classifying the diagenetic glacier facies (Benson, 1962). While polar ice sheets represent a unique archive of past atmospheric and climatic conditions, little information exists on large-scale geographical trends in trace element snow chemistry across GIS because of the remote, challenging location. In the spring of 2011, we undertook a 1120 km traverse of the GIS from Thule Air Base to Summit Station. Samples from 11 snow pits and 3 firn cores, dated by stable water isotopes, were analyzed and evaluated in seasonal resolution for their trace element content (23Na, 24Mg, 27Al, 32S, 39K, 44Ca, 47Ti, 51V, 52Cr, 55Mn, 56Fe, 59Co, 63Cu, 66Zn, 75As, 88Sr, 111Cd, 133Cs, 138Ba, 139La, 140Ce, 141Pr, 208Pb, 209Bi, 238U). Here, we present an initial analysis of the spatial gradients of these trace elements and an interpretation of how their depositional patterns characterize the GIS. The seasonal trends coupled with spatial variability of certain trace elements establish the behavior of specific aerosols (e.g. dust, sea salt, pollution), which will be useful in quantifying geochemical cycling across the GIS and comparing characterizations with results from Benson's traverses. Benson, CS. 1962. Stratigraphic studies in the snow and firn of the Greenland Ice Sheet. SIPRE Research Report, 70, 89 pp.

  12. Nuclear spectroscopy of 24Na and 46Sc by thermal neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the intensity and the energy of γ-rays produced by capture of thermal neutrons in 45Sc is reported. Of the total primary transition strength 99% could be accounted for and 426 lines could be placed in a 46Sc level scheme containing 27 previously unobserved levels. The reaction Q-value was determined as 8760.77. Of the 158 γ-rays ascribed to the 23Na(n,γ)24Na reaction, 143 have been placed in a 24Na decay scheme accounting for 100% of the total primary strength. The reaction Q-value amounts to 6959.42. The data resulted in spin assignments for four and spin restrictions for six levels. The circular polarization of 14 γ-rays from the capture of polarized neutrons has been measured. The Jsup(π) = 2+ channel spin contribution has been determined model-independently and unambiguously for 22 primary transitions. The average Jsup(π) = 2+ channel contribution is 5.8%. Spins of final levels are in agreement with previous assignments. For three levels spin restrictions have been made. The energies of positive parity levels are in agreement with a shell model calculation in the complete sd shell. Finally, the nuclear level densities of the 24Na, 46Sc, 484950Ti, 60Co, 6465Cu and 239U nuclei recently investigated by means of thermal neutron capture are described with the Fermi gas theory. Experimentally observed pairing effects in the level density parameter for nuclei in the mass region A = 40-81 are explained theoretically. (Auth.)

  13. Charge breeding results and future prospects with electron cyclotron resonance ion source and electron beam ion source (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrasek, R; Levand, A; Pardo, R; Savard, G; Scott, R

    2012-02-01

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility will provide low-energy and reaccelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams for the nuclear physics program. A 70 mCi (252)Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The final CARIBU configuration will utilize a 1 Ci (252)Cf source to produce radioactive beams with intensities up to 10(6) ions∕s for use in the ATLAS facility. The ECR charge breeder has been tested with stable beam injection and has achieved charge breeding efficiencies of 3.6% for (23)Na(8+), 15.6% for (84)Kr(17+), and 13.7% for (85)Rb(19+) with typical breeding times of 10 ms∕charge state. For the first radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for (143)Cs(27+) and 14.7% for (143)Ba(27+). The project has been commissioned with a radioactive beam of (143)Ba(27+) accelerated to 6.1 MeV∕u. In order to take advantage of its lower residual contamination, an EBIS charge breeder will replace the ECR charge breeder in the next two years. The advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are compared taking into account the requirements of the next generation radioactive beam facilities. PMID:22380254

  14. On the microscopic fluctuations driving the NMR relaxation of quadrupolar ions in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carof, Antoine; Salanne, Mathieu; Rotenberg, Benjamin, E-mail: benjamin.rotenberg@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire PHENIX, Case 51, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Charpentier, Thibault [CEA, IRAMIS, NIMBE, LSDRM, UMR CEA-CNRS 3685, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2015-11-21

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation is sensitive to the local structure and dynamics around the probed nuclei. The Electric Field Gradient (EFG) is the key microscopic quantity to understand the NMR relaxation of quadrupolar ions, such as {sup 7}Li{sup +}, {sup 23}Na{sup +}, {sup 25}Mg{sup 2+}, {sup 35}Cl{sup −}, {sup 39}K{sup +}, or {sup 133}Cs{sup +}. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the statistical and dynamical properties of the EFG experienced by alkaline, alkaline Earth, and chloride ions at infinite dilution in water. Specifically, we analyze the effect of the ionic charge and size on the distribution of the EFG tensor and on the multi-step decay of its auto-correlation function. The main contribution to the NMR relaxation time arises from the slowest mode, with a characteristic time on the picosecond time scale. The first solvation shell of the ion plays a dominant role in the fluctuations of the EFG, all the more that the ion radius is small and its charge is large. We propose an analysis based on a simplified charge distribution around the ion, which demonstrates that the auto-correlation of the EFG, hence the NMR relaxation time, reflects primarily the collective translational motion of water molecules in the first solvation shell of the cations. Our findings provide a microscopic route to the quantitative interpretation of NMR relaxation measurements and open the way to the design of improved analytical theories for NMR relaxation for small ionic solutes, which should focus on water density fluctuations around the ion.

  15. Studies on the superconducting state of NaxCoO2.yH2O - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of experimental studies carried out to clarify the superconducting state of NaxCoO2.yH2O (x ∼ 0.3; y ∼ 1.3) are presented. Various means such as NMR, neutron magnetic scattering, and specific-heats and magnetic-susceptibility measurements have been applied to both poly- and single-crystalline samples to obtain internally consistent data. Effects of non-magnetic impurities and oxygen isotope substitution on the superconducting transition temperature Tc have also been studied. Data obtained for the mother system NaxCoO2 have also presented useful information on the superconducting state of NaxCoO2.yH2O. In the course of these studies, we have shown by measuring Knight shifts of 59Co and 23Na of aligned crytalline samples that the Cooper pairs are in the singlet state. Neutron inelastic scattering measurements on large single crystals have presented the firm evidence for the disappearance of the low energy ferromagnetic excitation with decreasing T, excluding the triplet Cooper pairing in NaxCoO2.yH2O consistently with the Knight shift. In the Tc-νQ phase diagram, it has been confirmed that there is a nonsuperconducting phase, which divides the superconducting region into two, νQ being the nuclear quadrupole frequency. The possible different symmetries between the two superconducting phases suggested by this characteristic νQ dependence shown in the phase diagram, has been carefully examined mainly by specific heat measurements and NMR. However, any difference between the pair states of these phases has not been found. The appearance of the nonsuperconducting phase should be considered due to an instability which appears within a single superconducting phase.

  16. Reinforcing the municipal level in Iceland: Ideas, policies and implementations Efling íslenska sveitarstjórnarstigsins: Áherslur, hugmyndir og aðgerðir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grétar Þór Eyþórsson

    2012-12-01

    talska stjórnmálafræðingsins Bruno Dente um það hvernig ríki hafa reynt að lögmæta ríkisvaldið með því að laga það að þjóðfélagsþróuninni með endurskoðunar- og umbreytingarferlum m.a. á neðri stjórnstigum. Upphaf hugmynda sem lotið hafa að því að efla sveitarstjórnarstigið á því tímabili sem skoðað var má rekja til greinar Jónasar Guðmundssonar sem birtist 1943 í tímaritinu Sveitarstjórnarmál. Síðan þá hafa ný Sveitarstjórnarlög verið samþykkt á Alþingi árin 1961, 1986 og 2011. Einu sinni hafa verið sett sérstök lög um sameiningu sveitarfélaga, árið 1970. Þá hefur tvívegis verið efnt til átaksverkefna með því að efna til víðtækra kosninga um sameiningu sveitarfélaga; fyrra skiptið árið 1993 og í það síðara árið 2005. Tvívegis hafa stórir málaflokkar verið fluttir úr umsjá ríkis til sveitarfélaga; grunnskólinn frá 1996 og málefni fatlaðra frá 2011. Meginniðurstaðan varðandi greiningarramma Dente um umbreytingar á sveitarstjórnarstigi er sú að finna má aðgerðum, hugmyndum og áherslum á Íslandi víða stað í greiningarramma Dente. Sameiningar og verkefnaflutningurfrá ríki tilsveitarfélaga hafa þar lengst af verið meginstefið. Efling sveitarfélaga með innri breytingum er nokkuð sem fyrst og fremst hefur komið til eftir síðustu aldamót og þá einkanlega í formi lýðræðisumbóta.

  17. Hg(Ⅱ)和Pb(Ⅱ)对海洋单细胞藻的急性毒性效应%Acute Toxic Effect of Hg( Ⅱ ) and Pb ( Ⅱ ) on Marine Unicellular Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    战玉杰; 杨茹君; 王修林; 张莹莹; 王世荣

    2011-01-01

    cfcashhvo Hada, Chaetoceros curvisetus Cleve, Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg, Gymnodinium sp., Skeletone ma costatum (Greville) Cleve, Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin, Platymonas helgolanidica and Platymonas subcordi formis, was measured. The results showed that the 96 h-EC50 of Hg( II) for the tested algal species were 16, 42, 24, 37, 31, 12, 385 and 161 μg·L-1, respectively; and the 96 h-EC50 of Pb( H ) for Heterosigma ckashiwo, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Prorocentrum micans and Gymnodinium sp. Were 9 516, 8 373, 12 002 and 10 128 μg·L-1, respectively. The toxiciry of Hg( II) was significantly higher than that of Pb( II) under the f/2 culture condition; the ratios of 96 h-EC50 values of Pb( II) to Hg( II) for Heterosigma ckashiwo, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Prorocentrum micons and Gymnodinium sp. Were 594.75, 199.36, 500.08 and 273.73, respectively. However, the 96 h-EC50 of Pb( II) for Skele tonema costatum, Phaeodactyhim tricornutum, Platymonas helgolanidica and Platymonas subcordiformis could not be detected accurately in the effective concentration range under the f/2 culture condition, which suggested that the toxicity of Pb( II) to these four algae was very low. Based on the value of 96 h-ECS0, the tolerance of feed algae to heavy met als was estimated to be higher than that of harmful bloom algae. Moreover, it is found that Pb( II) could stimulate the growth of algae at relatively lower concentration, and the tolerance of algae to heavy metal was higher under the f/2 culture condition than that in natural environment.

  18. „Rozpoznać i zrozumieć siebie”. O świadomości narodowej w polskiej myśli romantycznej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Nowak

    2014-12-01

    ólnoty. Zdaniem polskich romantyków świadomość narodowa w szerszym zakresie społecznym była stosunkowo nowym zjawiskiem (dla jednych autorów koniec XVIII wieku, dla innych początek XIX stulecia. Wcześniej naród istniał, ale jako byt nie do końca ukształtowany, pozostający w „uśpieniu”. W artykule, w oparciu o źródła z epoki, przeanalizowano najistotniejsze motywy w romantycznym dyskursie dotyczącym omawianej kwestii. Chodziło przede wszystkim o rozumienie pojęcia świadomości narodowej, jego kształtowanie się w czasie, w tym o ustalenie „momentu” pojawienia się świadomego wyobrażenia wspólnoty narodowej w szerszym zakresie, które niejako sankcjonowało powstanie jej dojrzałej formy. Istotnym wątkiem w dyskusji było także dostrzeżenie przestrzennego uwarunkowania rozwoju narodowej świadomości (w zależności od oddalenia od narodowego centrum, jak również problem związany ze społecznym zakresem tej wizji. Analizowano proces samopoznania narodowego, który zgodnie z ówczesnym przeświadczeniem realizował się dwuetapowo. Najpierw rozpoznanie i utożsamienie ze wspólnotą odbywało się poprzez bezrefleksyjne odczuwanie, a następnie dokonało się samopoznanie wyższe, czyli wyrobienie dojrzałej idei narodowej. W wymiarze bardziej praktycznym chodziło o stopniowe rozszerzenie narodowej świadomości, aby poczucie wspólnoty objęło możliwie wszystkich członków narodu, a nie tylko jego polityczno-umysłowe elity.

  19. A PIN diode controlled dual-tuned MRI RF coil and phased array for multi nuclear imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seunghoon; Hamamura, Mark J; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Muftuler, L Tugan

    2010-05-01

    of four ports for more uniform 1H and 23Na excitation. We demonstrated that the performance is significantly improved at both frequencies with the PIN diode switched dual-frequency operation compared to an identical coil with a trap circuit. PMID:20393229

  20. SCAM-STMAS: satellite-transition MAS NMR of quadrupolar nuclei with self-compensation for magic-angle misset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Sharon E.; Wimperis, Stephen

    2003-06-01

    Several methods are available for the acquisition of high-resolution solid-state NMR spectra of quadrupolar nuclei with half-integer spin quantum number. Satellite-transition MAS (STMAS) offers an approach that employs only conventional MAS hardware and can yield substantial signal enhancements over the widely used multiple-quantum MAS (MQMAS) experiment. However, the presence of the first-order quadrupolar interaction in the satellite transitions imposes the requirement of a high degree of accuracy in the setting of the magic angle on the NMR probehead. The first-order quadrupolar interaction is only fully removed if the sample spinning angle, χ, equals cos-1(1/ 3) exactly and rotor synchronization is performed. The required level of accuracy is difficult to achieve experimentally, particularly when the quadrupolar interaction is large. If the magic angle is not set correctly, the first-order splitting is reintroduced and the spectral resolution is severely compromised. Recently, we have demonstrated a novel STMAS method (SCAM-STMAS) that is self-compensated for angle missets of up to ±1° via coherence transfer between the two different satellite transitions ST +( mI=+3/2↔+1/2) and ST -( mI=-1/2↔-3/2) midway through the t1 period. In this work we describe in more detail the implementation of SCAM-STMAS and demonstrate its wider utility through 23Na ( I=3/2), 87Rb ( I=3/2), 27Al ( I=5/2), and 59Co ( I=7/2) NMR. We discuss linewidths in SCAM-STMAS and the limits over which angle-misset compensation is achieved and we demonstrate that SCAM-STMAS is more tolerant of temporary spinning rate fluctuations than STMAS, resulting in less " t1 noise" in the two-dimensional spectrum. In addition, alternative correlation experiments, for example involving the use of double-quantum coherences, that similarly display self-compensation for angle misset are investigated. The use of SCAM-STMAS is also considered in systems where other high-order interactions, such as third

  1. Study of phase separation and crystallization phenomena in soda-lime borosilicate glass enriched in MoO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molybdenum oxide immobilization (MoO3, as fission product) is one of the major challenges in the nuclear glass formulation issues for high level waste solutions conditioning since many years, these solutions arising from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Phase separation and crystallisation processes may arise in molten glass when the MoO3 content is higher than its solubility limit that may depend on glass composition. Molybdenum combined with other elements such as alkali and alkaline-earth may form crystalline molybdates, known as 'yellow phases' in nuclear glasses which may decrease the glass durability. In order to confine high level wastes (HLW) such as the fission product solutions arising from the reprocessing of high burn-up UOX-type nuclear spent fuels, a new glass composition (HLW glass) is being optimized. This work is devoted to the study of the origin and the mechanism of phase separation and crystallization phenomena induced by molybdenum oxide incorporation in the HLW glass. From microstructural and structural point of view, the molybdenum oxide behavior was studied in glass compositions belonging to the SiO2-B2O3- Na2O-CaO simplified system which constituted basis for the HLW glass formulation. The structural role of molybdenum oxide in borosilicate network explaining the phase separation and crystallization tendency was studied through the coupling of structural (95Mo, 29Si, 11B, 23Na MAS NMR, XRD) and microstructural (SEM, HRTEM) analysis techniques. The determination of phase separation (critical temperature) and crystallization (liquidus temperature) appearance temperatures by in situ viscosimetry and Raman spectroscopy experiments allowed us to propose a transformation scenario during melt cooling. These processes and the nature of the crystalline phases formed (CaMoO4, Na2MoO4) that depend on the evolution of MoO3, CaO and B2O3 contents were correlated with changes of sodium and calcium cations proportions in the environment of molybdate

  2. Colour changes in different processing conditions of green olives of Chalkidiki variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaoulanis, G. D.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Green table olives of Chalkidiki variety, which are subject to enzymatic browning during processing and preservation by the commercial method, were collected in different pickings and in two cultivating years. Then, they were treated with 1.5%, 1.7%, 2% and 2.3% NaOH.
    During the removal of bitterness, washing, fermentation and preservation the green olives were kept, as much as possible, away from any contact with air. The pH was kept at relatively low values (~4.0, mainly during the preservation of green olives. Besides, the concentration of brine was kept constant during the stage of fermentation and preservation (8-10%.
    The aforementioned precaution resulted in the protection of the colour of the flesh and of the skin from enzymatic browning to a very satisfactory degree.
    As for the texture of the fruits, the firmness was well presented.

    Aceitunas verdes de mesa de la variedad Chalkidiki, sometidas a ennegrecimiento enzimático durante su tratamiento y conservación por métodos comerciales, se recogieron en diferentes cosechas y en dos años distintos. Posteriormente, se trataron con un 1'5%, 17%, 2% y 2'3% de NaOH.
    Durante la eliminación del amargor, lavado, fermentación y conservación, las aceitunas verdes se guardaron, tanto como fue posible, libre de contacto con el aire. El pH se mantuvo a valores relativamente bajos (~4'0, principalmente durante la conservación de aceitunas verdes. Además, la concentración de salmuera se mantuvo constante durante la etapa de fermentación y conservación (8-10%.
    La precaución anteriormente señalada tuvo como resultado la protección del color de la pulpa y de la piel del ennegrecimiento enzimático a un nivel muy satisfactorio.
    En cuanto a la textura del fruto, la firmeza se conservó bien.

  3. Fermentation of table olives by oleuropeinolytic starter culture in reduced salt brines and inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataridou, M; Kotzekidou, P

    2015-09-01

    The effect of an autochthonous starter culture developed by oleuropeinolytic strains belonging to the Lactobacillus plantarum group on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics and the biophenol content of table olives fermented under reduced salt conditions was studied. Black (cv. Kalamata) and green (cv. Chalkidikis) olives were fermented in two different kinds of brine (Brine A containing 2.3% NaCl, 32.3mM Ca-acetate and 33.9mM Ca-lactate and Brine B containing 4% NaCl, pH5.0 in both brines). The sensory attributes of olives fermented by oleuropeinolytic starter culture assessed by a trained panel did not differ significantly compared with industrial processing. It is possible to carry out significant changes in table olive processing applying a completely microbiological procedure using oleuropeinolytic strains of the L. plantarum group as both the debittering and the fermentation agent in order to achieve improved sensorial and nutritional characteristics of the final product. Table olives processed by the suggested methodology may constitute a good source of biophenols in the diet, especially hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The inactivation potential of Escherichia coli O157 EDL-932 and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A in olives fermented by oleuropeinolytic starter culture was evaluated. The population of each pathogen in olive homogenates of both cultivars is inactivated by more than 6logCFU/ml in less than 24h. When whole fermented olives were submerged in peptone/saline (containing 6.7logCFU/ml of the relevant bacterial pathogen) for 30min followed by rinsing in distilled water, the population of viable foodborne pathogens dropped more than 4 logs in olive pulp. During subsequent storage at 22 or 4°C the population of L. monocytogenes Scott A was further eliminated under the detection limit in both olive cultivars whereas the population of E. coli O157 EDL-932 could be detected in olives stored in peptone/saline at 22°C for 7days. The inhibitory effect of olives fermented by oleuropeinolytic starter culture in reduced salt brines on pathogens is due to the antimicrobial activity of the phenolic compounds and the antagonistic action of the associated microflora. PMID:26065729

  4. Development and application of multiple-quantum coherence techniques for in vivo sodium MRI at high and ultra-high field strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can quantify directly and non-invasively tissue sodium concentration levels in vivo. Tissue sodium concentration levels are tightly regulated and have been shown to be directly linked to cell viability. The intracellular sodium concentration is an even more specific parameter. The triple-quantum filtering (TQF) technique for sodium MRI has been suggested to detect the intracellular sodium only. Despite their huge potential, only few studies with sodium MRI have been carried out because of the long acquisition times of sodium MRI techniques, their susceptibility to static field inhomogeneities and their limited signal-to-noise ratio compared to proton MRI. Three novel techniques that address these limitations are presented in this thesis: (a) a sodium MRI sequence that acquires simultaneously both tissue sodium concentration maps and TQF images, (b) a phase-rotation scheme that allows for the acquisition of static field inhomogeneity insensitive TQF images, and (c) the combination of the two aforementioned techniques with optimised parameters at the ultra-high fi eld strength of 9.4 T in vivo. The SISTINA sequence - simultaneous single-quantum and triple-quantum filtered imaging of 23Na - is presented. The sequence is based on a TQF acquisition with a Cartesian readout and a three-pulse preparation. The delay between the first two pulses is used for an additional ultra-short echo time 3D radial readout. The method was implemented on a 4T scanner. It is validated in phantoms and in healthy volunteers that this additional readout does not interfere with the TQ preparation. The method is applied to three cases of brain tumours. The tissue sodium concentration maps and TQF images are presented and compared to 1H MR and positron emission tomography images. The three-pulse TQF preparation is sensitive to static field inhomogeneities. This problem is caused by destructive interference of different coherence pathways. To address this

  5. Constraints on CEMP-no progenitors from nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choplin, Arthur; Maeder, André; Meynet, Georges; Chiappini, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Context. The CEMP-no stars are long-lived small mass stars presenting a very low iron content and overabundances of carbon with no sign or only very weak signs of s- or r-elements. Although the origin of this abundance pattern is still a matter of debate, it was very likely inherited from a previous massive star, which we call the source star. Aims: We rely on a recent classification of CEMP-no stars arguing that some of them are made of a material processed by hydrogen burning that was enriched in products of helium burning during the nuclear life of the source star. We examine the possibility of forming CEMP-no stars with this material. Methods: We study the nucleosynthesis of the CNO cycle and the Ne-Na Mg-Al chains in a hydrogen burning single zone while injecting the helium burning products 12C, 16O, 22Ne, and 26Mg. We investigate the impact of changing density, temperature and the injection rate. The nuclear reaction rates involving the creation and destruction of 27Al are also examined. Results: 14N, 23Na, 24Mg, and 27Al are formed when injecting 12C, 16O, 22Ne, and 26Mg in the hydrogen burning zone. The 12C/13C ratio is constant under various conditions in the hydrogen burning zone. The predicted [Al/Fe] ratio varies up to ~ 2 dex depending on the prescription used for the reaction rates involving 27Al. Conclusions: The experiments we carried out support the view that some CEMP-no stars are made of a material processed by hydrogen burning that comes from a massive star experiencing mild to strong rotational mixing. During its burning, this material was likely enriched in helium burning products. No material coming from the carbon-oxygen rich core of the source star should be added to form the daughter star, otherwise the 12C/13C ratio would be largely above the observed range of values.

  6. Automatic Tuning Matching Cycler (ATMC) in situ NMR spectroscopy as a novel approach for real-time investigations of Li- and Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecher, Oliver; Bayley, Paul M.; Liu, Hao; Liu, Zigeng; Trease, Nicole M.; Grey, Clare P.

    2016-04-01

    We have developed and explored the use of a new Automatic Tuning Matching Cycler (ATMC) in situ NMR probe system to track the formation of intermediate phases and investigate electrolyte decomposition during electrochemical cycling of Li- and Na-ion batteries (LIBs and NIBs). The new approach addresses many of the issues arising during in situ NMR, e.g., significantly different shifts of the multi-component samples, changing sample conditions (such as the magnetic susceptibility and conductivity) during cycling, signal broadening due to paramagnetism as well as interferences between the NMR and external cycler circuit that might impair the experiments. We provide practical insight into how to conduct ATMC in situ NMR experiments and discuss applications of the methodology to LiFePO4 (LFP) and Na3V2(PO4)2F3 cathodes as well as Na metal anodes. Automatic frequency sweep 7Li in situ NMR reveals significant changes of the strongly paramagnetic broadened LFP line shape in agreement with the structural changes due to delithiation. Additionally, 31P in situ NMR shows a full separation of the electrolyte and cathode NMR signals and is a key feature for a deeper understanding of the processes occurring during charge/discharge on the local atomic scale of NMR. 31P in situ NMR with "on-the-fly" re-calibrated, varying carrier frequencies on Na3V2(PO4)2F3 as a cathode in a NIB enabled the detection of different P signals within a huge frequency range of 4000 ppm. The experiments show a significant shift and changes in the number as well as intensities of 31P signals during desodiation/sodiation of the cathode. The in situ experiments reveal changes of local P environments that in part have not been seen in ex situ NMR investigations. Furthermore, we applied ATMC 23Na in situ NMR on symmetrical Na-Na cells during galvanostatic plating. An automatic adjustment of the NMR carrier frequency during the in situ experiment ensured on-resonance conditions for the Na metal and

  7. A PIN diode controlled dual-tuned MRI RF coil and phased array for multi nuclear imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seunghoon; Hamamura, Mark J.; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Tugan Muftuler, L.

    2010-05-01

    of four ports for more uniform 1H and 23Na excitation. We demonstrated that the performance is significantly improved at both frequencies with the PIN diode switched dual-frequency operation compared to an identical coil with a trap circuit.

  8. 竹材浸渍用酚醛树脂的合成及表征%Synthesis and Characterization of Phenolic Resin for Bamboo Impregnation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春霞; 赵磊; 刘浩阳; 张长武; 张晶

    2012-01-01

      A method for obtaining free phenol from resin through distillation and determining the content of free phenol by means of a spectrophotometer is introduced. In the experiment, sodium hydroxide is used as a catalyst and formaldehyde is added gradually to synthetize water-soluble phenolic resin with low free phenol. A single factor experimental method is used to analyze the change in the content of free phenol in the insulation process when the reaction temperature is 55℃and the effect of reactant molar ratio, reaction temperature and formaldehyde content on the free phenol in the synthetic phenolic resin to determine the optimal synthesis process:reaction temperature , 55℃;insulation reaction time, 60 min; F/P Moore ratio, 2.3;NaOH amount ,0.4; Initial addition amount of formaldehyde, 50%.%  介绍了采用蒸馏法及分光光度法测定竹材游离苯酚含量的方法.实验选用氢氧化钠作催化剂,采用一次逐步加入甲醛的方法合成低游离酚的水溶性酚醛树脂.采用单因子试验方法分析了反应温度为55℃时保温过程中游离苯酚含量的变化情况,反应原料摩尔比、催化剂用量、分次加甲醛量对合成酚醛树脂游离苯酚的影响,确定优选的合成工艺为:反应温度55℃;保温反应时间60min;F/P摩尔比2.3;NaOH用量0.4;初次加甲醛量50%.

  9. New developments of 11C post-accelerated beams for hadron therapy and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, R. S.; Mendonca, T. M.; Wenander, F.; Penescu, L.; Orecchia, R.; Parodi, K.; Ferrari, A.; Stora, T.

    2016-06-01

    Hadron therapy was first proposed in 1946 and is by now widespread throughout the world, as witnessed with the design and construction of the CNAO, HIT, PROSCAN and MedAustron treatment centres, among others. The clinical interest in hadron therapy lies in the fact that it delivers precision treatment of tumours, exploiting the characteristic shape (the Bragg peak) of the energy deposition in the tissues for charged hadrons. In particular, carbon ion therapy is found to be biologically more effective, with respect to protons, on certain types of tumours. Following an approach tested at NIRS in Japan [1], carbon ion therapy treatments based on 12C could be combined or fully replaced with 11C PET radioactive ions post-accelerated to the same energy. This approach allows providing a beam for treatment and, at the same time, to collect information on the 3D distributions of the implanted ions by PET imaging. The production of 11C ion beams can be performed using two methods. A first one is based on the production using compact PET cyclotrons with 10-20 MeV protons via 14N(p,α)11C reactions following an approach developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory [2]. A second route exploits spallation reactions 19F(p,X)11C and 23Na(p,X)11C on a molten fluoride salt target using the ISOL (isotope separation on-line) technique [3]. This approach can be seriously envisaged at CERN-ISOLDE following recent progresses made on 11C+ production [4] and proven post-acceleration of pure 10C3/6+ beams in the REX-ISOLDE linac [5]. Part of the required components is operational in radioactive ion beam facilities or commercial medical PET cyclotrons. The driver could be a 70 MeV, 1.2 mA proton commercial cyclotron, which would lead to 8.1 × 10711C6+ per spill. This intensity is appropriate using 11C ions alone for both imaging and treatment. Here we report on the ongoing feasibility studies of such approach, using the Monte Carlo particle transport code FLUKA [6,7] to simulate

  10. Análise operacional de um sistema fotovoltaico de bombeamento de água Operational analysis of a photovoltaic water pumping (PV system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro M. Kolling

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O bombeamento de água é uma das atividades mais difundidas quanto ao emprego da energia solar fotovoltaica. Porém, apesar de se apresentar como alternativa interessante, o alto custo, a baixa eficiência dos sistemas e os projetos inadequados restringem sua aplicação. O uso racional, baseado na utilização mais eficiente de seus equipamentos, está vinculado ao conhecimento do comportamento operacional desses sistemas. No presente trabalho, teve-se o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento de um sistema fotovoltaico de bombeamento de água diretamente acoplado, sob diferentes condições de irradiância solar, por meio da montagem de uma bancada de testes, submetendo-o a diferentes alturas manométricas e determinando-se a vazão fornecida. A análise dos resultados permitiu estabelecer um modelo de regressão para estimativa de vazão do sistema em função da irradiância e altura manométrica. Concluiu-se que a potência gerada pelo painel e a vazão fornecida pela motobomba estão diretamente relacionadas à irradiância solar e à altura manométrica e influenciam na eficiência do sistema. A máxima eficiência do painel foi de 8%, 39% para a motobomba e 2,3% na interação dos componentes.The pumping of water is one of the activities most diffused to the employment of the photovoltaic solar energy, in spite of coming as an interesting alternative, the high cost and it lowers efficiency of the systems with the inadequate projects, still restricts its application. The rational use, based on the most efficient use of its equipments is linked to the knowledge of the operational behavior of these systems. The present work objectified to evaluate the operational behavior of a photovoltaic water pumping directly coupled operating in different conditions of solar irradiance, by means of the assembly of supported tests, submitting to different manometer elevation and determining the supplied rate flux of water. The analysis of the results allowed to determine a regression model for flux of water estimation as function of irradiance and manometer elevation. Was concluded that the power generated by the array and the rate flux supplied by the motor-pump is directly related to the solar irradiance. The maximum efficiency of the array was of 8%, 39% for the motor-pump and, 2.3% in the interaction of the components in the system.

  11. Physical And Medical Attributes Of Six Contemporary Noninvasive Imaging Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, Thomas F.

    1981-11-01

    tomography. 6) Nuclear magnetic resonance procedures measure the concentration of some nuclei (e.g., 1H, 23Na, 32P) as well as their chemical state and the local physical-chemical environment of the resolution volume. Velocity and diffusion are also potential measurements. Two unique capabilities of contemporary interest are the ability to image the spatial distribu-tion of relaxation parameters which give information about the local tissue characteristics, and the ability of NMR spectroscopy to sample (not image) the energy state of phosphorous in selected regions of the body. A third attribute of importance is that possible tissue heating seems to be the only hazard and this can be controlled.

  12. The PSIMECX medium-energy neutron activation cross-section library. Part 1: Description and procedures for use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atchison, F.

    1998-09-01

    The PSIMECX library contains calculated nuclide production cross-sections from neutron-induced reactions in the energy range about 2 to 800 MeV in the following 72 stable isotopes of 24 elements: {sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 16}O, {sup 17}O, {sup 18}O, {sup 23}Na, {sup 24}Mg, {sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg, {sup 27}Al, {sup 28}Si, {sup 29}Si, {sup 30}Si, {sup 31}P, {sup 32}S, {sup 33}S, {sup 34}S, {sup 36}S, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 37}Cl, {sup 39}K, {sup 40}K, {sup 41}K, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 42}Ca, {sup 43}Ca, {sup 44}Ca, {sup 46}Ca, {sup 48}Ca, {sup 46}Ti, {sup 47}Ti, {sup 48}Ti, {sup 49}Ti, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 50}V, {sup 51}V, {sup 50}Cr, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 53}Cr, {sup 54}Cr, {sup 55}Mn, {sup 54}Fe, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 57}Fe, {sup 58}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 61}Ni, {sup 62}Ni, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 65}Cu, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 66}Zn, {sup 67}Zn, {sup 68}Zn, {sup 70}Zn, {sup 92}Mo, {sup 94}Mo, {sup 95}Mo, {sup 96}Mo, {sup 97}Mo, {sup 98}Mo, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 121}Sb, {sup 123}Sb, {sup 204}Pb, {sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb, {sup 208}Pb, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U. The energy range covers essentially all transmutation channels other than capture. The majority of the selected elements are principal constituents of normal materials of construction used in and around accelerator facilities and the library is, first and foremost, designed to be a tool for the estimation of their activation in wide-band neutron fields. This first report, from a set of three, describes the form and usage of the library; the other two reports document the calculational methods. The present organisation of the library is the author's first idea and adequate for the intended use (activation calculations); being machine readable, translation of the library into other formats is straightforward. (author)

  13. The PSIMECX medium-energy neutron activation cross-section library. Part II: Calculational methods for light to medium mass nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atchison, F.

    1998-09-01

    The PSIMECX library contains calculated nuclide production cross-sections from neutron-induced reactions in the energy range about 2 to 800 MeV in the following 72 stable isotopes of 24 elements: {sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 16}O, {sup 17}O, {sup 18}O, {sup 23}Na, {sup 24}Mg, {sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg, {sup 27}Al, {sup 28}Si, {sup 29}Si, {sup 30}Si, {sup 31}P, {sup 32}S, {sup 33}S, {sup 34}S, {sup 36}S, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 37}Cl, {sup 39}K, {sup 40}K, {sup 41}K, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 42}Ca, {sup 43}Ca, {sup 44}Ca, {sup 46}Ca, {sup 48}Ca, {sup 46}Ti, {sup 47}Ti, {sup 48}Ti, {sup 49}Ti, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 50}V, {sup 51}V, {sup 50}Cr, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 53}Cr, {sup 54}Cr, {sup 55}Mn, {sup 54}Fe, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 57}Fe, {sup 58}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 61}Ni, {sup 62}Ni, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 65}Cu, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 66}Zn, {sup 67}Zn, {sup 68}Zn, {sup 70}Zn, {sup 92}Mo, {sup 94}Mo, {sup 95}Mo, {sup 96}Mo, {sup 97}Mo, {sup 98}Mo, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 121}Sb, {sup 123}Sb, {sup 204}Pb, {sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb, {sup 208}Pb, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U. The energy range covers essentially all transmutation channels other than capture. The majority of the selected elements are principal constituents of normal materials of construction used in and around accelerator facilities and the library is, first and foremost, designed to be a tool for the estimation of their activation in wide-band neutron fields. This second report, of a series of three, describes and discusses the calculational methods used for the stable isotopes up to and including {sup 123}Sb. The library itself has been described in the first report of the series and the treatment for the heavy nuclei is given in the third. (author)

  14. Single-slice mapping of ultrashort T(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Stefan; Schad, Lothar R

    2011-05-01

    In this communication we present a method for single-slice mapping of ultrashort transverse relaxation times T(2). The RF pulse sequence consists of a spin echo preparation of the magnetization followed by slice-selective ultrashort echo time (UTE) imaging with radial k-space sampling. In order to keep the minimum echo time as small as possible, avoid out-of-slice contamination and signal contamination due to unwanted echoes, the implemented pulse sequence employs a slice-selective 180° RF refocusing pulse and a 4-step phase cycle. The slice overlap of the two slice-selective RF pulses was investigated. An acceptable Gaussian slice profile could be achieved by adjusting the strength of the two slice-selection gradients. The method was tested on a short T(2) phantom consisting of an arrangement of a roll of adhesive tape, an eraser, a piece of modeling dough made of Plasticine®, and a 10% w/w agar gel. The T(2) measurements on the phantom revealed exponential signal decays for all samples with T(2)(adhesive tape)=(0.5 ± 0.1)ms, T(2)(eraser)=(2.33 ± 0.07)ms, T(2)(Plasticine®)=(2.8 ± 0.06)ms, and T(2)(10%agar)=(9.5 ± 0.83)ms. The T(2) values obtained by the mapping method show good agreement with the T(2) values obtained by a non-selective T(2) measurement. For all samples, except the adhesive tape, the effective transverse relaxation time T(2)(∗) was significantly shorter than T(2). Depending on the scanner hardware the presented method allows mapping of T(2) down to a few hundreds of microseconds. Besides investigating material samples, the presented method can be used to study the rapidly decaying MR-signal from biological tissue (e.g.: bone, cartilage, and tendon) and quadrupolar nuclei (e.g.: (23)Na, (35)Cl, and (17)O). PMID:21353799

  15. Single-slice mapping of ultrashort T 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Stefan; Schad, Lothar R.

    2011-05-01

    In this communication we present a method for single-slice mapping of ultrashort transverse relaxation times T2. The RF pulse sequence consists of a spin echo preparation of the magnetization followed by slice-selective ultrashort echo time (UTE) imaging with radial k-space sampling. In order to keep the minimum echo time as small as possible, avoid out-of-slice contamination and signal contamination due to unwanted echoes, the implemented pulse sequence employs a slice-selective 180° RF refocusing pulse and a 4-step phase cycle. The slice overlap of the two slice-selective RF pulses was investigated. An acceptable Gaussian slice profile could be achieved by adjusting the strength of the two slice-selection gradients. The method was tested on a short T2 phantom consisting of an arrangement of a roll of adhesive tape, an eraser, a piece of modeling dough made of Plasticine®, and a 10% w/w agar gel. The T2 measurements on the phantom revealed exponential signal decays for all samples with T2(adhesive tape) = (0.5 ± 0.1) ms, T2(eraser) = (2.33 ± 0.07) ms, T2(Plasticine®) = (2.8 ± 0.06) ms, and T2(10% agar) = (9.5 ± 0.83) ms. The T2 values obtained by the mapping method show good agreement with the T2 values obtained by a non-selective T2 measurement. For all samples, except the adhesive tape, the effective transverse relaxation time T2∗ was significantly shorter than T2. Depending on the scanner hardware the presented method allows mapping of T2 down to a few hundreds of microseconds. Besides investigating material samples, the presented method can be used to study the rapidly decaying MR-signal from biological tissue (e.g.: bone, cartilage, and tendon) and quadrupolar nuclei (e.g.: 23Na, 35Cl, and 17O).

  16. Análise comparativa da assembléia de aves em dois remanescentes florestais no interior do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Comparative analysis of birds community in two forested fragments in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo J. Donatelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o levantamento quantitativo e qualitativo da comunidade de aves de dois fragmentos de floresta estacional semidecídua no interior do estado de São Paulo de julho de 2004 a julho de 2005. Para o estudo quantitativo utilizou-se da metodologia de Pontos de Escuta. Foram analisados os índices de diversidade e de freqüência de ocorrência dessa comunidade. O levantamento qualitativo registrou 181 espécies na Fazenda Rio das Pedras - FRP (Itapetininga, 350 ha e 126 espécies na Fazenda Santa Maria II - FSM (Buri, 480 ha, enquanto que o levantamento quantitativo registrou a presença de 73 espécies em 988 contatos e 64 espécies em 1019 contatos para FRP e FSM, respectivamente. O índice pontual de abundância (IPA variou de 0,01 (1 contato a 1,32 (132 contatos, para FRP e na FSM variou entre 0,01 (1 contato a 0,97 (97 contatos. A diversidade do fragmento da FRP foi de H’ = 3,04 e na FSM de H’ = 2,85 onde a eqüitatividade em ambas áreas foi de 0,91. A comunidade de aves nos fragmentos estudados mostrou o mesmo padrão encontrado em outros fragmentos de floresta estacional semidecídua de tamanhos relativos. As categorias alimentares mais representativas nos dois remanescentes foram insetívoras (53% na FSM e 50% na FRP e frugívoras (23% na FSM e 26% na FRP. Dentre os insetívoros, destacaram-se as famílias Tyrannidae na FSM e Thamnophilidae na FRP. Tanto na FSM como na FRP os insetívoros de sub-bosque foram mais representativos (53% e 51,4% respectivamente, seguidos pelos frugívoros de sub-bosque (50% na FSM e frugívoros de copa (52,6% na FRP. A importância do estudo de comunidade de aves esta ligada à elaboração do plano de manejo e conservação das áreas naturais.Qualitative and quantitative survey of bird community were performed in two distinct semideciduous forest in the interior of the State of São Paulo from July 2004 to July 2005. Point Counts were used for the quantitative survey followed by diversity and

  17. Avaliação do 'stay green' em famílias segregantes de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Performance of common bean segregating families based on stay green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Lacerda Marcelino do Carmo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Vários programas de melhoramento genético de feijoeiro no Brasil visam obter cultivares com menor índice de acamamento, ou seja, com porte ereto. Um dos caracteres relacionados a este fenótipo é o 'stay green', que é a senescência tardia do caule e folhas em relação às vagens. Com intuito de verificar a eficiência da seleção direta sobre o fenótipo 'stay green', utilizou-se a descendência do cruzamento entre as cultivares Carioca MG (com 'stay green' e Carioca 300 Vagens (sem 'stay green'. O caráter foi avaliado em 89 famílias F2:3 na safra da seca de 2000 e F2:4 na safra de inverno 2000. Juntamente com as famílias, foram incluídos os dois genitores e nove cultivares em um experimento em látice 10 x 10, com duas repetições nas secas e três repetições no inverno. Foi utilizado um diagrama de notas para avaliação do 'stay green'. Verificou-se que a seleção direta foi pouco efetiva, especialmente quando realizada em uma época para se obter o ganho em outra, em razão da interação famílias x ambientes ser um complicador para obtenção de cultivares com esse fenótipo, como mostrou a herdabilidade realizada de 22,9%. A seleção baseada no comportamento médio das famílias foi mais eficiente.Some common bean breeding programs in Brazil aim at obtaining upright cultivars. The stay green is one of the phenotypes responsible for that type of plant habit, and it means late senescence of stem and leaves in relation to the pods. Aiming at verifying the efficiency of selection for stay green, the cultivars Carioca MG (with stay green and Carioca 300 Vagens (without stay green were crossed, and derived 89 F2:3 families that were evaluated in the dry season, and in the winter of year 2000. Besides the families, both parents and nine checks were included in the experiments using a 10 x 10 square lattice, with two replications in the dry season and three in the winter. The treatments were evaluated using a score diagram for stay green. Direct selection showed low efficiency due to the high families by environments interaction, since it was confirmed by the realized heritability of only 22.9%. Selection based on average family performance showed to be more effective.

  18. Investigations of the structure and "interfacial" surface chemistry of Bioglass (RTM) materials by solid-state multinuclear NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Gautam

    Bioactive materials such as BioglassRTM 45S5 (45% SiO 2, 24.5% CaO, 24.5% Na2O, and 6% P2O5 by weight) are sodium-phosphosilicate glasses containing independent three-dimensional silicate and phosphate networks and Na+ and Ca2+ ions as modifying cations. Due to their bioactivity, these materials are currently used as implants and for other surgical and clinical applications. The bioactivity of BioglassesRTM is due to their unique capability to form chemical bonds to tissues through an octacalciumphosphate (OCP)- and/or hydroxyapatite-like (HA) "interfacial" matrix. The formation of OCP and/or HA is preceded by the formation of a silica-rich surface layer and the subsequent growth of an amorphous calcium phosphate (a-CP) layer. Structural characterization of a series of commercial and synthesized Bioglass materials 45S5 52S, 55S, 60S, and synthesized 17O-labelled "Bioglass materials 45S, 52S, 55S and 60S" have been obtained using solid-state single-pulse magic-angle spinning (SP/MAS) 17O, 23Na, 29Si and 31P NMR. The 17O NMR isotropic chemical shifts and estimates of the quadrupole coupling constants (Cq) [at fixed asymmetry parameter ( hQ ) values of zero] have been obtained from solid-state spin-echo 17O SP/MAS NMR spectra of 17O-labelled "Bioglasses". The simulation results of these spectra reveal the presence of both bridging-oxygens (BO, i.e. ≡ Si-17OSi ≡ ) and non-bridging oxygens (NBO, i.e. ≡ Si-17O-Na+/Ca2+ ) in the silicate networks in these materials. 17O NMR spectra of these Bioglass materials do not show any direct evidence for the presence of BO and NBO atoms in the phosphate units; however, they are expected to be present in small amounts. In vitro reactions of BioglassRTM 45S5, 60S and 77S powders have been used to study the "interfacial" surface chemistry of these materials in simulated body-fluid (SBF, Kyoto or K9 solution) and/or 17O-enriched tris-buffer solution. 29Si and 31P SP/MAS NMR have been used to identify and quantify the extent of

  19. Fluor-ferro-leakeite, NaNa2(FC2+2Fe3+2Li)Si8O22F2, a new alkali amphibole from the Canada Pinabete pluton, Questa, New Mexico, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, F.C.; Oberti, R.; Ungaretti, L.; Ottolini, L.; Grice, Joel D.; Czamanske, G.K.

    1996-01-01

    Fluor-ferro-leakeite is a new amphibole species from the Canada Pinabete pluton, Questa, New Mexico, U.S.A.; it occurs in association with quartz, alkali feldspar, acmite, ilmenite, and zircon. It forms as anhedral bluish black crystals elongated along c and up to 1 mm long. It is brittle, H = 6, Dmeas = 3.37 g/cm3, Dcalc = 3.34 g/cm3. In plane-polarized light, it is strongly pleochroic, X = very dark indigo blue, Y = gray blue, Z = yellow green; X ??? c = 10?? (in ??obtuse), Y = b, Z ??? a = 4?? (in ?? obtuse), with absorption X > Y > Z. Fluor-ferro-leakeite is biaxial positive, ?? = 1.675(2), ??= 1.683(2), ?? = 1.694(1); 2V = 87(2)??; dispersion is not visible because of the strong absorption. Fluor-ferro-leakeite is monoclinic, space group C2/m, a = 9.792(1), b = 17.938(1), c = 5.3133(4) A??, ??= 103.87(7)??, V = 906.0(1) A??3, Z = 2. The ten strongest X-ray diffraction lines in the powder pattern are [d(I,hkl)]: 2.710(100,151), 2.536(92,202), 3.404(57,131), 4.481(54,040), 8.426(45,110), 2.985(38,241), 2.585(38,061), 3.122(29,310), 2.165(26,261), and 1.586(25,403). Analysis by a combination of electron microprobe, ion microprobe, and crystal-structure refinement (Hawthorne et al. 1993) gives SiO2 51.12, Al2O3 1.13, TiO2 0.68, Fe2O3 16.73, FeO 8.87, MgO 2.02, MnO 4.51, ZnO 0.57, CaO 0.15, Na2O 9.22, K2O 1.19, Li2O 0.99, F 2.87, H2Ocalc 0.60, sum 99.44 wt%. The formula unit, calculated on the basis of 23 O atoms, is (K0.23Na0.76)(Na1.97Ca0.03)(Mg 0.46Fe2+1.4Mn2+0.59Zn0.07Fe3+1.93-Ti 0.08Al0.02Li0.61])(Si7.81Al 0.19)O22(F1.39OH0.61). A previous crystal-structure refinement (Hawthorne et al. 1993) shows Li to be completely ordered at the M3 site. Fluor-ferro-leakeite, ideally NaNa2(Fe2+2Fe3+2Li)Si8O22F2, is related to leakeite, NaNa2(Mg2Fe3+3Li)Si 8O22(OH)2, by the substitutions Fe2+ ??? Mg and F ??? OH.

  20. AFCI-2.0 Neutron Cross Section Covariance Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, M.; Herman, M; Oblozinsky, P.; Mattoon, C.M.; Pigni, M.; Hoblit, S.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Sonzogni, A.; Talou, P.; Chadwick, M.B.; Hale, G.M.; Kahler, A.C.; Kawano, T.; Little, R.C.; Yount, P.G.

    2011-03-01

    materials and fission products, and 20 actinides. Covariances are given in 33-energy groups, from 10?5 eV to 19.6 MeV, obtained by processing with LANL processing code NJOY using 1/E flux. In addition to these 110 files, the library contains 20 files with nu-bar covariances, 3 files with covariances of prompt fission neutron spectra (238,239,240-Pu), and 2 files with mu-bar covariances (23-Na, 56-Fe). Over the period of three years several working versions of the library have been released and tested by ANL and INL reactor analysts. Useful feedback has been collected allowing gradual improvements of the library. In addition, QA system was developed to check basic properties and features of the whole library, allowing visual inspection of uncertainty and correlations plots, inspection of uncertainties of integral quantities with independent databases, and dispersion of cross sections between major evaluated libraries. The COMMARA-2.0 beta version of the library was released to ANL and INL reactor analysts in October 2010. The final version, described in the present report, was released in March 2011.

  1. Reconstructing the Chronology of Supernovae: Determining Major Variations in the History of the Cosmic-ray Flux Incident on the Earth's Surface by Measuring the Concentration of 22Ne in Halite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahill, N. D.; Giegengack, R.; Lande, K.; Omar, G.

    2008-12-01

    We plan to measure the inventory of cosmogenically produced 22Ne atoms preserved in the mineral lattice of halite in deposits of rock salt, and to use that inventory to measure variations in the cosmic-ray flux to enable us to reconstruct the history of supernovae. Bedded rock salt consists almost entirely of the mineral halite (NaCl). Any neon trapped in the halite crystals during precipitation is primarily 20Ne, with a 22Ne concentration of 9% or less. Any neon resulting from cosmic-ray interactions with 23Na is solely 22Ne; therefore, 22Ne atoms in excess of 9% of the total neon are cosmogenic in origin. Measurement of the 22Ne inventory in halite from deposits covering a range of geologic ages may enable us to document the systematic growth of 22Ne through geologic time and, thus, establish the cosmic-ray flux and a chronology of supernovae. The cosmic-ray flux is attenuated in direct proportion to the mass of material overlying a halite deposit. To adjust the 22Ne inventory to account for that attenuation, we must reconstruct the post-depositional history of accumulation and removal of superjacent sediment for each halite deposit we study. As an example of our procedure, we reconstruct here the shielding history of the Permian halite deposit, the Salado Formation, Delaware Basin, New Mexico. The stratigraphy of the Delaware Basin has been well documented via exploration and production wells drilled in search of oil and gas, exploration boreholes associated with potash mining, and comprehensive geologic site assessment of the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). WIPP is a subsurface repository for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes, located in southeastern New Mexico, 42 km east of Carlsbad and approximately 655 m beneath the surface in the Salado Fm. The Salado Fm is part of the Late Permian Ochoan Series, and consists of 1) a lower member, 2) the McNutt Potash Zone, and 3) an upper member. WIPP lies between marker bed (MB)139 and MB136 in the

  2. Kasatkinite, Ba2Ca8B5Si8O32(OH)3 · 6H2O6, a new mineral from the Bazhenovskoe deposit, the Central Urals, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekov, I. V.; Chukanov, N. V.; Filinchuk, Ya. E.; Zadov, A. E.; Kononkova, N. N.; Epanchintsev, S. G.; Kaden, P.; Kutzer, A.; Göttlicher, J.

    2013-12-01

    A new mineral, kasatkinite, Ba2Ca8B5Si8O32(OH)3 · 6H2O, has been found at the Bazhenovskoe chrysotile asbestos deposit, the Central Urals, Russia in the cavities in rhodingite as a member of two assemblages: (l) on prehnite, with pectolite, calcite, and clinochlore; and (2) on grossular, with diopside and pectolite. Kasatkinite occurs as spherulites or bunches up to 3 mm in size, occasionally combined into crusts. Its individuals are acicular to hair-like, typically split, with a polygonal cross section, up to 0.5 mm (rarely, to 6 mm) in length and to 20 μm in thickness. They consist of numerous misoriented needle-shaped subindividuals up to several dozen μm long and no more than 1 μm thick. Kasatkinite individuals are transparent and colorless; its aggregates are snow white. The luster is vitreous or silky. No cleavage was observed; the fracture is uneven or splintery for aggregates. Individuals are flexible and elastic. The Mohs' hardness is 4-4.5. D meas = 2.95(5), D calc = 2.89 g/cm3. Kasatkinite is optically biaxial (+), α = 1.600(5), β = 1.603(2), γ = 1.626(2), 2 V meas = 30(20)°, 2 V calc = 40°. The IR spectrum is given. The 11B MAS NMR spectrum shows the presence of BO4 in the absence of BO3 groups. The chemical composition of kasatkinite (wt %; electron microprobe, H2O by gas chromatography) is as follows: 0.23 Na2O, 0.57 K2O, 28.94 CaO, 16.79 BaO, 11.57 B2O3, 0.28 Al2O3, 31.63 SiO2, 0.05 F, 9.05 H2O, -0.02 -O=F2; the total is 99.09. The empirical formula (calculated on the basis of O + F = 41 apfu, taking into account the TGA data) is: Na0.11K0.18Ba1.66Ca7.84B5.05Al0.08Si8.00O31.80(OH)3.06F0.04 · 6.10H2O. Kasatkinite is monoclinic, space group P21/ c, P2/ c, or Pc; the unit-cell dimensions are a = 5.745(3), b = 7.238(2), c = 20.79 (1) Å, β = 90.82(5)°, V = 864(1) Å3, Z = 1. The strongest reflections ( d Å- I[ hkl]) in the X-ray powder diffractions pattern are: 5.89-24[012], 3.48-2.1[006], 3.36-24[114]; 3.009-100[, 121, ], 2

  3. Experimental studies of single-photon photodetachment of atomic anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvvuri, Srividya S.

    Laser photodetachment electron spectroscopy (LPES) has been used to study the structure of the terbium anion. The data was analyzed assuming that the terbium anion forms in dysprosium-like states. Using this assumption, the electron affinity of Tb([Xe]4f96s 2 6 Ho15/2 ) equals 1.98 +/- 0.10 eV, and the ground state of the terbium anion is assigned to the Dy-like Tb-([Xe]4f 106s2 5I 8) electronic configuration. At lust two bound excited states of Tb - are also evident in the photoelectron kinetic energy spectra, with binding energies of 0.449 +/- 0.01 and 1.67 +/- 0.07 eV relative to the Tb(6 Ho15/2 ) ground state. The energy scale of each Tb- photoelectron spectrum way calibrated using reference photoelectron peaks from 12 C-, 16O- and 23Na-, which have well known binding energies [1]. Photoelectron angular distribution measurements following the single-photon photodetachment of the lanthanide anions Tb- and Lu - are also presented. The asymmetry parameters were determined from the non-linear least-square fits of the photoelectron yields as a function of the angle between the photon polarization vector and the photoelectron momentum vector of the collected photoelectrons. The measurements indicated the single-photon photodetachment process hnu + Tb -([Xe]4f106s 2 5I8) → Tb([Xe]4 f96s2 6) Ho15/2 + e - has beta values of 1.51 +/- 0.08 and 1.35 +/- 0.08 at wavelengths of 514.5 and 488 nm, respectively. For Lu -, the fine-structure resolved photodetachment process hnu +Lu-([Xe]4f146s 26p5d 1D 2) → Lu([Xe]4f145 d6s2 2D 3/2) + e-, has been measured at wavelength of 532 nm yielding beta = 0.8 +/- 0.1, supporting the assertion that Lu - forms via the attachment of a 6p-electron to the neutral Lu atom [2]. Finally, photodetachment cross sections and the angular distributions of photo-electrons produced by the single-photon detachment of the Fe - and Cu- have also been measured at discrete visible photon wavelengths. From the measured photodetachment cross sections, the

  4. Processamentos de amêndoa e torta de castanha-do-Brasil e farinha de mandioca: parâmetros de qualidade Processing of Brazil nut and meal and cassava flour: quality parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luzenira de Souza

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A castanha-do-Brasil (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K. e mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz são matérias-primas importantes que constituem a base de subsistência para os povos da região Amazônica. Devido à falta de incentivo às suas utilizações pela indústria de alimentos no mercado interno, buscou-se processar a castanha-do-Brasil para obtenção de amêndoa e torta, e de mandioca para obtenção de farinha, objetivando identificar parâmetros de qualidade que justificassem e incentivassem o apelo aos seus aproveitamentos. Os resultados mostraram que a negatividade de aflatoxinas na amêndoa e torta apontaram a alta qualidade do lote da castanha-do-Brasil em relação a segurança alimentar. Os teores encontrados de selênio 2,04mg/kg na amêndoa e 7,13mg/kg na torta, os percentuais de fibra alimentar de 8,02 na amêndoa, de 15,72 na torta e de 5,68 na farinha, proteína bruta de 40,23% na torta e carboidratos 79,33% na farinha, permitiram caracterizar o produto a base de castanha como protéico, rico em selênio e fibras; e o de mandioca como rico em carboidratos e fibras. A proteína bruta da amêndoa é completa, rica em aminoácidos sulfurados, estando uns aminoácidos em quantidades superiores e outros equivalentes aos do padrão da FAO, podendo a castanha e derivados - devido a estes aminoácidos, ao selênio e fibras - serem considerados um apelo ao seu consumo, pelas funções de grande relevância que desempenham à manutenção da saúde do ser humano.Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K. and cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz are important raw materials, which constitute the basis of subsistence for those who live in the Amazon region. Due to a total lack of incentive for their use by the national food industry, this study aimed at processing Brazil nuts to obtain the nuts and the meal and at processing cassava to obtain the flour, studying the quality parameters which could justify and encourage their use. The absence of

  5. Coast-to-interior gradients and recent trends in physical and chemical properties of near-surface snow and firn in northwest Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G. J.; Osterberg, E. C.; Hawley, R. L.; Caughey, S. K.; Courville, Z.; Howley, J.; Lutz, E.; Overly, T. B.

    2013-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), which holds enough ice to raise global sea levels by approximately 7 m, is a major driver of Arctic and global climate. Observations over the past two decades have documented changes including notable increases in ice discharge, significant warming in coastal regions, and expanded areal extent of annual surface melt (e.g., Rignot and Thomas, 2002; Mote, 2007; Hanna and others, 2008). In contrast, observations document little change in temperature or accumulation in the central regions of the ice sheet (Hanna and others, 2008, 2011). The 1120 km-long Greenland Inland Traverse (GrIT), between Thule Air Base in northwest Greenland and Summit Station in central Greenland, is a logistics traverse that follows a nearly identical route taken by Carl Benson and the US Army Snow, Ice and Permafrost Research Establishment (SIPRE) between 1952 and 1955 (Benson, 1962). Observations from the SIPRE and GrIT traverses provide two snapshots of surface conditions across the northwest region of the GIS separated by 56 years. Hawley and others (in review) observe an increase in snow accumulation rates along the GrIT traverse route based on internal reflecting horizons in radar data dated with firn cores, with larger accumulation increases observed in the coastal region near Thule. Here we expand upon the analysis of Hawley and others (in review) by determining coast-to-interior gradients in snow accumulation, density, hardness (Rammsonde), and snow chemistry using samples from 18 snow pits and 3 firn cores collected during the 2010 and 2011 GrIT traverses. Snow pit and firn core samples were analyzed for trace element (23Na, 24Mg, 27Al, 32S, 39K, 44Ca, 47Ti, 51V, 52Cr, 55Mn, 56Fe, 59Co, 63Cu, 66Zn, 75As, 88Sr, 111Cd, 133Cs, 138Ba, 139La, 140Ce, 141Pr, 208Pb, 209Bi, 238U) concentrations and stable water isotope ratios (δD, δ18O), and were dated by seasonal oscillations in chemical concentrations and isotope ratios. We compare the GrIT data to those of

  6. Modelo genéticode los skarns de Fe de Vegas Peladas, Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Josefina Pons

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Datos de inclusiones fluidas(IF indican que el skarn de Fe relacionado al plutón diorítico de VegasPeladas se originó a 3,5 km de profundidad, bajo presiones litostáticas de 950bares y a expensas de fluidos muy salinos (hasta 70% NaCl eq. de altatemperatura (670-400°C. Es muy factible que estos fluidos ricos en NaCl ± KCl± FeCln ± hematita junto con vapor se hayan formado por la inmiscibilidad defluidos magmáticos de salinidad baja (6-8% NaCl eq.. Los datos isotópicos delagua en equilibrio con el granate (δ18O 7,2-8,5‰ y conla magnetita (4,8-7,9‰ confirman el origen magmático de estos fluidos.Debido a la interacción con la caja y a la formación del exoskarn degranate-clinopiroxeno, los fluidos redujeron isobáricamente sus temperaturas(hasta ~250°C. La continua exsolución de volátiles del magma y el sellado delos conductos de circulación de los fluidos por la precipitación de lossilicatos (magnetita del exoskarn y de la alteración del borde delplutón, generaron sobrepresiones, el fracturamiento de las rocas y laebullición del fluido. Bajo condiciones hidrostáticas, el aumento de lapermeabilidad permitió el ingreso de las aguas externas al sistema que semezclaron con los fluidos magmáticos provocando el reemplazo de los silicatospor minerales hidratados, cuarzo (con valores δ18O del fluidode -0,55 a 4,5‰ y la precipitación masiva de óxidos de hierro. Losregistros en inclusiones fluidas señalan temperaturas de 420° a 320°C,presiones hidrostáticas de 325 a 125 bares y fluidos menos salinos (41,6-23%NaCl eq. para este estadio. La disminución de la temperatura y de la salinidadfueron los factores principales que favorecieron la precipitación de la mena deFe. Las venillas tardías que cortan a las alteraciones anteriores se formaron alas temperaturas (165-315°C y salinidades (8,41 y 13,51% NaCl eq. más bajasdel sistema. Los valores δ18O del agua en equilibrio con elepidoto (-4,66 a 0,19‰ y con la calcita

  7. Role of the serotoninergic system in the sodium appetite control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís C. Reis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article reviews the role of the serotoninergic system in the regulation of the sodium appetite. Data from the peripheral and icv administration of serotoninergic (5-HTergic agents showed the participation of 5-HT2/3 receptors in the modulation of sodium appetite. These observations were extended with the studies carried out after brain serotonin depletion, lesions of DRN and during blockade of 5-HT2A/2C receptors in lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN. Brain serotonin depletion and lesions of DRN increased the sodium appetite response, in basal conditions, after sodium depletion and hypovolemia or after beta-adrenergic stimulation as well. These observations raised the hypothesis that the suppression of ascending pathways from the DRN, possibly, 5-HTergic fibers, modifies the angiotensinergic or sodium sensing mechanisms of the subfornical organ involved in the control of the sodium appetite. 5-HTergic blockade in LPBN induced to similar results, particularly those regarded to the natriorexigenic response evoked by volume depletion or increase of the hypertonic saline ingestion induced by brain angiotensinergic stimulation. In conclusion, many evidences lead to acceptation of an integrated participation resulting of an interaction, between DRN and LPBN, for the sodium appetite control.Este artigo revisa o papel do sistema serotoninérgico no controle do apetite ao sódio. Dados derivados da administração periférica e icv de agentes serotoninérgicos demonstraram a participação de receptores 5-HT2/3 na modulação do apetite ao sódio. Estas observações foram estendidas com os estudos realizados após a depleção cerebral de serotonina, lesões do NDR e durante o bloqueio 5-HT2A/2C no núcleo parabraquial lateral (NPBL. A depleção cerebral de serotonina e as lesões do NDR aumentaram o apetite ao sódio, em condições basais, após depleção de sódio, durante a hipovolemia ou após a estimulação beta-adrenérgica. Estas evidências suscitaram a hipótese de que a supressão de vias ascendentes do NDR, possivelmente 5-HT, alteram os mecanismos angiotensinérgicos e a atividade dos sensores de sódio do órgão subfornicial envolvidos no controle do apetite ao sódio. O bloqueio serotoninérgico no NPBL induziu a resultados similares, particularmente aqueles relacionados com a resposta natriorexigênica provocada pela depleção de volume ou o aumento da ingestão de salina hipertônica induzida pela estimulação angiotensinérgica cerebral. Em resumo, as evidências convergem para a admissão de uma participação integrada resultante da interação recíproca entre NDR e NPBL objetivando controlar o apetite ao sódio.

  8. Índice SPAD no limbo foliar da batateira sob parcelamentos e doses de nitrogênio e potássio SPAD index in the leaves of potato under splitting and doses of nitrogen and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Dias Cardoso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a intensidade do verde no limbo foliar da batateira submetido a doses e parcelamentos de nitrogênio e potássio foi conduzido este experimento no município de Mucugê-BA. Foram utilizadas 3 doses de N e K (75% da dose recomendada; dose recomendada de acordo com a análise do solo; 125% da dose recomendada; e 5 épocas de aplicação (100% no plantio; 1/3 no plantio e 2/3 na tuberização; 50% no plantio e 50% na tuberização; 1/3 no plantio, 1/3 na tuberização e 1/3 25 dias após a tuberização; 1/4 no plantio, 1/4 na tuberização, 1/4 25 dias após a tuberização e 1/4 50 dias após a tuberização. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 5 x 3, com quatro repetições. Foram utilizados tubérculos das cultivares Ágata, Monalisa e Vivaldi, uniformemente brotados, foram plantados em espaçamento 0,8 m x 0,3 m de acordo com o recomendado para a cultura. Foi medida, ao longo do ciclo, a intensidade do verde em folhas de batateira: 30; 55 e 80 dias após o plantio, utilizando-se o medidor indireto de clorofila SPAD-502. As doses de N e K não influenciaram no índice SPAD, nas cultivares de batata ao longo do ciclo. O índice SPAD pode ser usado como ferramenta para indicar a época mais correta de se fazer a colheita dos tubérculos de batata.With the purpose of assessing the leaf greenness of potato under application times and doses of nitrogen and potassium, this experiment was carried out in the municipality of Mucugê-BA.Three doses of N and K were used (75% of the recommended dose; the recommended dose according to soil analysis; 125% of the recommended dose. Five application times (100% upon planting; 1/3 upon planting and 2/3 upon tuberization; 50% upon planting and 50% upon tuberization; 1/3 upon planting, 1/3 upon tuberization and 1/3 25 days after tuberization; 1/4 upon planting, 1/4 upon tuberization, 1/4 25 days after tuberization and 1/4 50 days after tuberization were utilized. The experimental design was factorial (5 x 3, with plots arranged in randomized blocks with four replications. Tubercles from Ágata, Monalisa and Vivaldi cultivars, uniformly budded, were planted with spacing of 0.8 x 0.3m on a prepared soil as recommended for the culture. Was measured, throughout the cycle, the leaf greenness of potato, 30, 55 and 80 days after planting, using the indirect chlorophyll meter SPAD. The doses of N and K did not influence SPAD index, in potato cultivars over the cycle. The SPAD index can be used as a tool to indicate the most correct time for tubercule potato harvest.

  9. Abundância e riqueza de espécies de Syrphidae (Diptera em áreas de borda e interior de floresta no Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brasil Abundance and species richness of Syrphidae (Diptera in the interior and edges of forest in the State Park of Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Marinoni

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar a fauna local de insetos foram obtidas amostras semanais, de setembro/1999 a agosto/2000, utilizando-se armadilhas Malaise instaladas na borda da floresta e no seu interior. Uma análise temporal foi realizada com as espécies de Syrphidae coletadas há, aproximadamente, dezessete anos no mesmo local, dentro da floresta. A abundância e a riqueza de espécies também foram avaliadas. Tanto a riqueza quanto a abundância foram maiores na borda da floresta. Comparando-se os dados atuais com aqueles obtidos em 1986/1987, observa-se um decréscimo na abundância e também na riqueza de espécies de Syrphidae. A espécie mais abundante na borda foi Allograpta neotropica Curran, 1936 e no interior (1999/2000, Ocyptamus sativus (Curran, 1941. Os espécimens de Toxomerus Macquart, 1855 foram os mais abundantes na armadilha localizada na borda da floresta e os de Ocyptamus Macquart, 1834 no interior. Noventa e cinco espécies foram identificadas em 22 gêneros. Ocyptamus foi o gênero com maior riqueza de espécies (23. Na seqüência estão Copestylum Macquart, 1846 (15, Toxomerus (15 e Microdon Meigen, 1803 (10. Sete espécies foram comuns aos três levantamentos: Allograpta neotropica; Copestylum selectum (Curran, 1939; Leucopodella gracilis (Williston, 1891; Mixogaster polistes Hull, 1954; Ocyptamus funebris Macquart, 1834; Toxomerus procrastinatus Metz, 2001 e Toxomerus tibicen (Wiedemann, 1830. Três novas espécies de Microdon, uma de Toxomerus, uma de Aristosyrphus Curran, 1941 e uma de Myolepta Newman, 1838 foram identificadas.To characterize the local insect fauna, samples were obtained weekly from September/1999 to August/2000 through Malaise traps installed at the edge and inside the forest. A temporal analysis of Syrphidae species collected approximately 17 years ago at the same local, inside the forest, was made. Also, the abundance and species richness between the areas were analyzed. The syrphids were more

  10. Modelo genéticode los skarns de Fe de Vegas Peladas, Mendoza Genetic model of the Vegas PeladasFe-sakarns, Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Josefina Pons

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Datos de inclusiones fluidas(IF indican que el skarn de Fe relacionado al plutón diorítico de VegasPeladas se originó a 3,5 km de profundidad, bajo presiones litostáticas de 950bares y a expensas de fluidos muy salinos (hasta 70% NaCl eq. de altatemperatura (670-400°C. Es muy factible que estos fluidos ricos en NaCl ± KCl± FeCln ± hematita junto con vapor se hayan formado por la inmiscibilidad defluidos magmáticos de salinidad baja (6-8% NaCl eq.. Los datos isotópicos delagua en equilibrio con el granate (δ18O 7,2-8,5‰ y conla magnetita (4,8-7,9‰ confirman el origen magmático de estos fluidos.Debido a la interacción con la caja y a la formación del exoskarn degranate-clinopiroxeno, los fluidos redujeron isobáricamente sus temperaturas(hasta ~250°C. La continua exsolución de volátiles del magma y el sellado delos conductos de circulación de los fluidos por la precipitación de lossilicatos (magnetita del exoskarn y de la alteración del borde delplutón, generaron sobrepresiones, el fracturamiento de las rocas y laebullición del fluido. Bajo condiciones hidrostáticas, el aumento de lapermeabilidad permitió el ingreso de las aguas externas al sistema que semezclaron con los fluidos magmáticos provocando el reemplazo de los silicatospor minerales hidratados, cuarzo (con valores δ18O del fluidode -0,55 a 4,5‰ y la precipitación masiva de óxidos de hierro. Losregistros en inclusiones fluidas señalan temperaturas de 420° a 320°C,presiones hidrostáticas de 325 a 125 bares y fluidos menos salinos (41,6-23%NaCl eq. para este estadio. La disminución de la temperatura y de la salinidadfueron los factores principales que favorecieron la precipitación de la mena deFe. Las venillas tardías que cortan a las alteraciones anteriores se formaron alas temperaturas (165-315°C y salinidades (8,41 y 13,51% NaCl eq. más bajasdel sistema. Los valores δ18O del agua en equilibrio con elepidoto (-4,66 a 0,19‰ y con la calcita

  11. Structure and properties of α-NaFeO{sub 2}-type ternary sodium iridates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroudi, Kristen, E-mail: kbaroudi@princeton.edu [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Yim, Cindi [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Wu, Hui [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2115 (United States); Huang, Qingzhen [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); Roudebush, John H. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Vavilova, Eugenia [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research IFW, Dresden (Germany); Zavoisky Physical Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kazan (Russian Federation); Grafe, Hans-Joachim; Kataev, Vladislav [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research IFW, Dresden (Germany); Buechner, Bernd [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research IFW, Dresden (Germany); Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Ji, Huiwen [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kuo, Changyang; Hu, Zhiwei; Pi, Tun-Wen [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Nöthnitzer Straße 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Pao, Chiwen; Lee, Jyhfu [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan, ROC (China); Mikhailova, Daria; Hao Tjeng, Liu [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Nöthnitzer Straße 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Cava, R.J. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The synthesis, structure, and elementary magnetic and electronic properties are reported for layered compounds of the type Na{sub 3−x}MIr{sub 2}O{sub 6} and Na{sub 3−x}M{sub 2}IrO{sub 6}, where M is a transition metal from the 3d series (M=Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe and Mn). The rhombohedral structures, in space group R−3m, were determined by refinement of neutron and synchrotron powder diffraction data. No clear evidence for long range 2:1 or 1:2 honeycomb-like M/Ir ordering was found in the neutron powder diffraction patterns except in the case of M=Zn, and thus in general the compounds are best designated as sodium deficient α-NaFeO{sub 2}-type phases with formulas Na{sub 1−x}M{sub 1/3}Ir{sub 2/3}O{sub 2} or Na{sub 1−x}M{sub 2/3}Ir{sub 1/3}O{sub 2}. Synchrotron powder diffraction patterns indicate that several of the compounds likely have honeycomb in-plane metal–iridium ordering with disordered stacking of the layers. All the compounds are sodium deficient under our synthetic conditions and are black and insulating. Weiss constants derived from magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that Na{sub 0.62}Mn{sub 0.61}Ir{sub 0.39}O{sub 2}, Na{sub 0.80}Fe{sub 2/3}Ir{sub 1/3}O{sub 2}, Na{sub 0.92}Ni{sub 1/3}Ir{sub 2/3}O{sub 2}, Na{sub 0.86}Cu{sub 1/3}Ir{sub 2/3}O{sub 2}, and Na{sub 0.89}Zn{sub 1/3}Ir{sub 2/3}O{sub 2} display dominant antiferromagnetic interactions. For Na{sub 0.90}Co{sub 1/3}Ir{sub 2/3}O{sub 2} the dominant magnetic interactions at low temperature are ferromagnetic while at high temperatures they are antiferromagnetic; there is also a change in the effective moment. Low temperature specific heat measurements (to 2 K) on Na{sub 0.92}Ni{sub 1/3}Ir{sub 2/3}O{sub 2} indicate the presence of a broad magnetic ordering transition. X-ray absorption spectroscopy shows that iridium is at or close to the 4+ oxidation state in all compounds. {sup 23}Na nuclear magnetic resonance measurements comparing Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3} to Na{sub 0.92}Ni{sub 1/3}Ir

  12. Cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio associada a endarterectomia de carótida Combined operation for myocardial revascularization and carotid endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januário M Souza

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available A oportunidade para realização de endarterectomia de carótida (EC e revascularização do miocárdio (RM para doença concomitante ainda é controversa. Entre 1979 e 1994, 10940 pacientes foram operados para revascularização do miocárdio. Cirurgia combinada RM/EC foi realizada em 46 (0,43% pacientes, no mesmo período. A idade variou de 48 a 76 anos, média de 65,2 anos, sendo 34,7% (16/46 com 70 anos ou mais; 80,4% eram do sexo masculino. Infarto do miocárdio prévio estava presente em 23 (50% pacientes. Diabetes mellitus em 10 (21,7%, insuficiência renal crônica em 5 (10,8%; 29 (63% estavam em classe funcional III ou IV para angina; havia ICC em 4 (8,6%, lesão obstrutiva significativa em 9 (19,5% pacientes em tronco da coronária esquerda; 5 pacientes estavam sendo reoperados para RM e 1 para RM e EC. Dos 25 pacientes com lesão carotídea bilateral, 4 tinham uma artéria carótida interna ocluída. Vinte e três pacientes tinham tido isquemia cerebral transitória (ICT e 2 pacientes acidente vascular cerebral (AVC com seqüela permanente; 21 não tinham manifestação neurológica. Endarterectomia de carótida foi realizada na carótida esquerda em 23, na direita em 14 e bilateral em 9. A RM foi realizada com pontes de safena e artéria torácica interna (ATI, variando de 1 a 4 pontes, com média de 2,8 pontes por paciente; 11 receberam ATI. A mortalidade imediata foi de 8,6% (4/46; AVC permanente não ocorreu no trans-operatório. Três dos 4 óbitos ocorreram em pacientes com idade igual ou superior a 70 anos. A EC foi realizada após preparo e heparinização do paciente para circulação extracorpórea (CEC. Nos 4 pacientes que apresentavam oclusão da artéria carótida interna contralateral a EC foi realizada após o estabelecimento da CEC com hipotermia sistêmica 25º C. Em nenhum caso foi utilizado sfrunf carotídeo. Nos casos de lesões cirúrgicas bilaterais, o lado com lesão de maior risco foi operado juntamente com a

  13. ZZ IRDF-2002, 640-Group Cross-Section Library and Spectra for Dosimetry Calculation in ENDF-6 Format. ZZ IRDF-2002-ACE, Cross-Section Library and Spectra for Dosimetry Calculation in ACE Format for Monte Carlo methods. ZZ IRDF-90, 640-Group Cross-Section Library and Spectra for Dosimetry Calculation in ENDF-6 Format. ZZ IRDF-82, 620-Group Cross-Section Library and Spectra for Dosimetry Calculation in ENDF-5 Format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    sections, using the SAND-II group structure. (2) The reactions 19F(n,2n), 24Mg(n,p), 31P(n,p), 29Cu(n,2n), 64Zn(n,p), 90Zr(n,2n), 93Nb(n,n') and 103(Rh(n,n'), supplied by Vonach. This data was converted to the ENDF/B-V Format, which in turn was converted to 620 group form. (3) The reaction 23Na(n,2n) provided by Marcinkowski. This data was converted to the ENDF/B-V Format (5) and then converted to 620 group Format. (4) The reaction 241Am(n,f) as supplied by Patrick. This data was converted to the ENDF/B-V Format at Stuttgart and then converted to 620 group form. (5) ASTM and EUR standards damage Cross sections for iron as provided by Zijp (10) in the form of 620 group Cross sections. This data was converted to the ENDF/B-V Format. II) The Benchmark Spectra library contains ten benchmark spectra, including: (1) The NBS 252Cf spontaneous fission; the NBS 235U and ENDF/B-V 235U thermal fission, the Intermediate-Energy Standard Neutron Field (ISNF), the Coupled Fast Reactivity Measurement Facility (CFRMF), the 10 % Enriched Uranium Cylindrical Critical Assembly (BIG-TEN) and the Coupled Thermal/Fast Uranium and Boron Carbide Spherical Assembly (SIGMA-SIGMA) spectra, all of which were provided by Eisenhauer in 620 group form. (2) The ORR and YAYOI Spectra, which were provided by Greenwood in 100 group form. (3) The Central Zone Flux of the NEACRP Benchmark Spectra provided by Goel in 208 group form. - (B) ZZ-IRDF-90: The following changes compared to the 1982 version should be noted: - IRDF-90 is mainly based on the ENDF/B-IV data and its present version contains cross section values for 51 different dosimetry reactions. Damage Cross sections are given for three different materials: Fe, Cr, Ni. - The library is written in the ENDF-6 Format. - Gas production reactions are completely missing from IRDF-90.V.1 and other important dosimetry reactions are also not yet present. At the same time, double cross section information is given for the following reactions Ni582, Cu632 and Fe

  14. A aplicação de nitrogênio ao solo em diferentes estádios não afetou o rendimento de frutos de cultivares de macieira Application of nitrogen to the soil in different stages did not affect on fruit yield of apple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Ernani

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Tanto o excesso quanto a deficiência de N causam efeitos negativos na produtividade e na qualidade dos frutos de macieira. Como a taxa de absorção de N pelas árvores de macieira é afetada pela demanda das mesmas, dentro da estação de crescimento, e pelo N disponível no solo, é importante conhecer a necessidade da adição suplementar desse nutriente e a melhor época para aplicá-lo. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da época de aplicação de N ao solo na produtividade de frutos de duas cultivares de macieira. Os experimentos, um para a Gala e outro para a Fuji, foram conduzidos de 1990 a 1996, em Vacaria, RS, num pomar plantado em 1988, na densidade de1481 árvores ha-1, sobre um Latossolo bruno com 4,0% de matéria orgânica, 60% de argila e pH 6,9. Os tratamentos constaram de 50kg de N ha-1 nos três primeiros anos, e 60kg de N ha-1 nas outras três safras, aplicados no inchamento das gemas (IG, ou na queda de pétalas (QP, ou dividido 2/3 no IG + 1/3 na QP, ou 2/3 na QP + 1/3 trinta dias após. O N foi sempre aplicado sobre a superfície do solo, sem incorporação, numa faixa de 2,0m ao longo da fila de plantio. Houve também um tratamento sem a aplicação de N. A produtividade média anual de frutos variou de 40 a 112t ha-1 para a cultivar Gala e de 38 a 76t ha-1 para a Fuji, e a produtividade média da Gala, no período, foi 35% superior à da Fuji. A aplicação de N ao solo, independentemente da época, não teve efeito na produtividade de frutos, no tamanho das brotações, na concentração de N nas folhas e no diâmetro do tronco das duas cultivares. Presume-se, portanto, que a quantidade de N liberada a partir da decomposição da matéria orgânica do solo foi suficiente para atender à demanda das plantas e permitir uma alta produtividade de frutos de macieira.Excess or deficiency of N have deleterious effects on apple yield and fruit quality. Since the rate of N uptake by apple trees depends on crop requirement within the season and on N available in the soil, it is important to know the need for supplemental N addition and the best application time. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of timing of N application to the soil on fruit yield of apple cultivars. The experiments, one for 'Gala' and other for 'Fuji', were conducted from 1990 to 1996 in an orchard planted in 1988, with a density of 1481 trees ha-1, in an Oxisol with pH of 6.9, 4,0% of organic matter, and 60% of clay. Nitrogen treatments (50kg ha-1 year-1 during the first three growing seasons, and 60kg ha-1 year-1 afterwards were applied at bud break (BB, or at petal fall (PF, or split 2/3 at BB + 1/3 at PF, or 2/3 at PF + 1/3 thirty-days later, always broadcast over the soil surface, without incorporation, in a 2-m-wide strip in the planting row. There was also a treatment without N addition. Average annual fruit yield varied from 40 to 112t ha-1 for 'Gala', and from 38 to 84t ha-1 for 'Fuji', and in the entire period it was 35% greater for 'Gala' than for 'Fuji'. Application of N to the soil, regardless of timing, had no effect on fruit yield, on N content in the leaves, and on canopy growth of both cultivars, in any year evaluated. It was assumed that N released from soil organic matter decay was sufficient to promote normal growth and high fruit productivity for these two apple cultivars.

  15. Role of Carboxylate ligands in the Synthesis of AuNPs: Size Control, Molecular Interaction and Catalytic Activity

    KAUST Repository

    Aljohani, Hind Abdullah

    2016-05-22

    then describe the effect of the concentrations and of various type of the stabilizer, and the post-synthesis treatment on gold nanoparticles size. In Chapter 4, we focus on determining the nature of the interactions at molecular level between citrate (and other carboxylate-containing ligands) and AuNP in terms of the mode of coordination at the surface, and the formal oxidation state of Au when interacting with these negatively charged carboxylate ligands (i.e., LX- in the Green formalism). We achieve this by combining very advanced 13C CP/MAS, 23Na MAS and low-temperature SSNMR, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A particular emphasis will be based on SS-NMR. In Chapter 5, we study the influence of pretreatment of 1% Au/TiO2 catalysts on the resulting activity in the oxidation of carbon monoxide, the effect of the concentration and the type of the ligands on the catalytic activity. The catalysts were characterized by TPO, XRD, and TEM spectroscopy.

  16. Prevalência de quedas em idosos asilados do município de Rio Grande, RS Prevalence of falls in institutionalized elderly in Rio Grande, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Gatto Gonçalves

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O aumento da expectativa de vida nos países em desenvolvimento tem provocado preocupação com a qualidade de vida e o bem-estar dos idosos, principalmente a ocorrência de quedas. Nesse sentido, o objetivo do estudo foi descrever a prevalência de quedas em idosos que vivem em asilos e fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Estudo de delineamento transversal na cidade de Rio Grande (RS, em 2007. Participaram 180 indivíduos idosos (65 anos ou mais residentes em asilos para acolhimento. Em entrevista, os idosos responderam a questões de instrumento pré-testado sobre a ocorrência de quedas. Além de análise bivariada (Wald, foi realizada análise por regressão de Poisson com cálculo de razões de prevalência e intervalos de confiança de 95%, ajustada para as variáveis de confusão. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de quedas entre os idosos asilados estudados foi de 38,3%. As quedas foram mais comuns no ambiente do asilo (62,3%, sendo o quarto o ambiente onde ocorreu o maior número de quedas (23%. Na análise ajustada, as quedas se mantiveram associadas com cor da pele branca, com os idosos separados e divorciados, com depressão, e maior quantidade referida de medicamentos para uso contínuo. CONCLUSÕES: O estudo mostra que a prevalência de quedas entre idosos asilados é alta. Embora alguns dos possíveis fatores associados sejam passíveis de prevenção, ainda ocorrem quedas em locais que deveriam ser considerados seguros, como o quarto do idoso.OBJETIVO: El aumento de la expectativa de vida en los países en desarrollo ha provocado preocupación con la calidad de vida y el bienestar de los ancianos, principalmente la ocurrencia de caídas. En ese sentido, el objetivo del estudio fue describir la prevalencia de caídas en ancianos que viven en asilos y factores asociados. MÉTODOS: Se realizó estudio de delineamiento transversal en la ciudad de Rio Grande (Sur de Brasil, en 2007. Participaron 180 individuos ancianos (65 años o mas

  17. Úvodník 2009/IV/3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Dlouhá

    2009-12-01

    schopnosti přírodní jevy pozorovat, orientovat se jimi a pak je také ukládat do paměti anebo řadit do systému kategorií. Popisuje způsoby, jak tyto vlohy dále rozvíjet, uvádí též důsledky, které by jejich potlačování mohlo přinášet. Podobným tématem viděným ovšem z perspektivy jedince dospělého a (ontogeneticky i fylogeneticky rozvinutého se zabývá Jana Krčmářová v článku Hypotéza biofilie Edwarda O. Wilsona; přináší zde pohled na možné příčiny lidského vnímání a rozumění různým přírodním jevům. Jak říká autorka, biofilie je buď „vrozeným pocitem, že jsem součástí života" (spočívajícím v prociťování fylogenetické příbuznosti všeho života na Zemi, nebo „vrozeným soustředěním na jiné životní formy" (tedy evolučním uzpůsobením lidské mysli, usměrňujícím vztahy k přírodním jevům. A jako taková může dodnes ovlivňovat náš pohled na přírodní hodnoty, i naše chování vůči přírodě... ...ale také působit příznivě na psychický rozvoj, jsou-li emoce s ní související dostatečně stimulovány. Například humánně-animální interakce pak mohou mít vliv terapeutický a lze je využít výchovně; v zemích západní Evropy i u nás se stávají jednou z cest zmírňování prohlubujícího se odcizování člověka přírodě. Tuto problematiku, konkrétně zaměřenou na zooasistence v pedagogické praxi, rozebírá Kateřina Jančaříková, která prezentuje též relevantní výzkum a na jeho základě vytvořený postgraduální kurz na Pedagogické fakultě UK v Praze. Má-li být proměna, o kterou usilujeme, činem odpovědným, pak je zapotřebí ji reflektovat a hodnotit. Jan Činčera v textu Evaluace pobytového programu Podblanického ekocentra seznamuje s metodikou výzkumu a jeho výsledky, které byly následně využity ke zlepšení programu ovlivňujícího především znalosti a chování žáků ve spotřebitelské oblasti