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Sample records for 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine

  1. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF 23-VALENT PNEUMOCOCCAL POLYSACCHARIDE VACCINE IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

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    M. S. Naumtseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the clinical efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of a 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled 70 patients (55 women and 15 men aged 23–70 years, including 40 patients with RA and 30 people without systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (a control group who had a recent history of 2 and more cases of lower respiratory tract infections (bronchitis, pneumonia. When included, all the patients received anti-inflammatory therapy with methotrexate (MT (n = 24, leflunomide (LEF (n = 6, or MT + tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α inhibitors (n = 10. A single 0.5-ml dose of the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine Pneumo-23 (Sanofi Pasteur was administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly during continuous MT or LEF therapy for the underlying disease or 3–4 weeks before the use of a TNF-α inhibitor. During control visits (1 and 3 months and 1 year after administration of the vaccine, the patients underwent physical examination and routine clinical and laboratory studies. Results. No clinical and radiological symptoms of pneumonia were recorded in any case during a 12-month follow-up. The RA and control groups showed a more than 2-fold increase in anti-pneumococcal antibody levels 1 year after vaccination. The vaccine was well tolerated by 50 patients. Sixteen patients were observed to have pain, cutaneous swelling and hyperemia and 4 had subfebrility. There were neither episodes of RA exacerbation nor new autoimmune disorders during the follow-up. Conclusion. The findings suggest that 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine shows a good clinical efficacy, adequate immunogenicity, and good tolerability in the patients with RA. 

  2. Immunogenicity of a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in elderly residents of a long-term care facility

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    M. Teresa Valenzuela B.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available S. pneumoniae is a significant cause of community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly, and accounts for the majority of the pneumonia deaths among the elderly. We conducted this randomized double-blind study to evaluate the immune response to a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and the persistence of antibodies two years after the vaccination in an elderly population in Santiago, Chile. A total of 118 elderly nursing home residents received either the pneumococcal or a tetanus control vaccine. Serum samples were taken at enrolment, at two months, and at two years post-vaccination. Pre-vaccination anti-pneumococcal antibody geometric mean concentrations (GMC were similar in both study groups, with increased levels of antibodies found only against serotype 14. The pneumococcal vaccine was highly immunogenic at 2 months, and titers remained high two years after the vaccination for the 10 serotypes studied in this elderly population. The results thus support the benefits of this pneumococcal vaccine in this elderly population who are at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease.

  3. Serologic response to primary vaccination with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is better than with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in HIV-infected patients in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy

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    Lu, Ching-Lan; Hung, Chien-Ching; Chuang, Yu-Chung; Liu, Wen-Chun; Su, Chin-Ting; Su, Yi-Ching; Chang, Shu-Fang; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to compare the serologic responses at week 48 to primary vaccination with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) vs. 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV); and to identify factors associated with serologic response in HIV-infected adult patients with access to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Universal Vaccination of Adults Aged 60 Years with 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine versus Current Practice in Brazil.

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    Patrícia Coelho de Soárez

    Full Text Available To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of introducing universal vaccination of adults aged 60 years with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23 into the National Immunization Program (NIP in Brazil.Economic evaluation using a Markov model to compare two strategies: (1 universal vaccination of adults aged 60 years with one dose of PPV23 and 2 current practice (vaccination of institutionalized elderly and elderly with underlying diseases. The perspective was from the health system and society. Temporal horizon was 10 years. Discount rate of 5% was applied to costs and benefits. Clinical syndromes of interest were invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD including meningitis, sepsis and others and pneumonia. Vaccine efficacy against IPD was obtained from a meta-analysis of randomized control trials and randomized studies, whereas vaccine effectiveness against pneumonia was obtained from cohort studies. Resource utilization and costs were obtained from the Brazilian Health Information Systems. The primary outcome was cost per life year saved (LYS. Univariate and multivariate sensitivity analysis were performed.The universal vaccination strategy avoided 7,810 hospitalizations and 514 deaths, saving 3,787 years of life and costing a total of USD$31,507,012 and USD$44,548,180, respectively, from the health system and societal perspective. The universal immunization would result in ICERs of USD$1,297 per LYS, from the perspective of the health system, and USD$904 per LYS, from the societal perspective.The results suggest that universal vaccination of adults aged 60 years with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23 is a very cost-effective intervention for preventing hospitalization and deaths for IPD and pneumonia is this age group in Brazil.

  5. Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine elicits similar antibody response as standard 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine in adult patients with RA treated with immunomodulating drugs.

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    Kapetanovic, Meliha Crnkic; Roseman, Carmen; Jönsson, Göran; Truedsson, Lennart

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of the study were to compare antibody response in immunosuppressed patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after vaccination with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) to that of RA patients and healthy controls vaccinated with 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and to study the impact of disease and/or treatment characteristics and type of vaccine on antibody response following pneumococcal vaccination in patients with RA. In total, 253 RA patients treated with methotrexate (MTX), anti-TNF blockers as monotherapy or anti-TNF + MTX were vaccinated with a single dose (0.5 ml) of PCV7. In addition, 149 RA patients receiving corresponding treatments and 47 healthy controls were vaccinated with a single dose (0.5 ml) of PPV23. Serotype-specific IgG to 23F and 6B were measured at vaccination and 4-6 weeks after vaccination using ELISA. Antibody response ratio (ARR), i.e. ratio between post-/prevaccination antibody levels, was compared between corresponding treatment groups. Differences in ARR were analysed using analysis of variance. Positive antibody response (posAR) was defined as equal to or greater than twofold increase in prevaccination antibody levels. Possible predictors of posAR were analysed using logistic regression model. Corresponding RA treatment groups showed similar ARR and posAR for both serotypes regardless of vaccine type. Higher age at vaccination and concomitant MTX were identified as predictors of impaired posAR for both serotypes tested, whereas type of vaccine did not influence posAR significantly. PCV7 elicits similar antibody response as PPV23 in patients with RA receiving immunosuppressive treatment. In RA patients, higher age and MTX treatment but not type of vaccine predicted impaired posAR.

  6. Immunogenicity and Safety of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine versus the 23-Valent Polysaccharide Vaccine in Unvaccinated HIV-Infected Adults: A Pilot, Prospective Controlled Study

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    Lombardi, Francesca; Belmonti, Simone; Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Morandi, Matteo; Rossetti, Barbara; Tordini, Giacinta; Cauda, Roberto; De Luca, Andrea; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Montagnani, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Definition of the optimal pneumococcal vaccine strategy in HIV-infected adults is still under evaluation. We aimed to compare immunogenicity and safety of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) versus the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) in HIV-infected adults. Methods We performed a pilot, prospective controlled study enrolling HIV-infected pneumococcal vaccine-naïve outpatients, aged 18–65 years with CD4 counts ≥200 cells/μL. Eligible subjects were recruited into two parallel groups: group 1 (n = 50) received two doses of PCV13 eight weeks apart, and group 2 (n = 50) received one dose of PPSV23, as part of their standard of care. Anti-pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide immunoglobulin G concentrations were quantified by ELISA at baseline, 8, 24 and 48 weeks. Clinical and viro-immunological follow-up was performed at the same time points. Unvaccinated, age-matched HIV-negative adults (n = 100) were also enrolled as baseline controls. Results Pre-vaccination specific IgG titers for each pneumococcal antigen did not differ between study groups but they were constantly lower than those from the HIV-negative controls. After immunization, significant increases in IgG titers were observed in both study groups at each time point compared to baseline, but response to serotype 3 was blunted in group 1. Antibody titers for each antigen did not differ between study groups at week 48. Overall, the proportion of subjects achieving seroprotection and seroconversion to all serotypes was comparable between groups. A marked decrease in IgG levels over time was observed with both vaccines. No relevant adverse reactions were reported in either group. Conclusions In this population with favorable immune profile, no relevant differences were observed in immunogenicity between PCV13 and PPSV23. Both vaccines were safe and well tolerated. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02123433 PMID:27258647

  7. Immunogenicity and Safety of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine versus the 23-Valent Polysaccharide Vaccine in Unvaccinated HIV-Infected Adults: A Pilot, Prospective Controlled Study.

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    Francesca Lombardi

    Full Text Available Definition of the optimal pneumococcal vaccine strategy in HIV-infected adults is still under evaluation. We aimed to compare immunogenicity and safety of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 versus the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23 in HIV-infected adults.We performed a pilot, prospective controlled study enrolling HIV-infected pneumococcal vaccine-naïve outpatients, aged 18-65 years with CD4 counts ≥200 cells/μL. Eligible subjects were recruited into two parallel groups: group 1 (n = 50 received two doses of PCV13 eight weeks apart, and group 2 (n = 50 received one dose of PPSV23, as part of their standard of care. Anti-pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide immunoglobulin G concentrations were quantified by ELISA at baseline, 8, 24 and 48 weeks. Clinical and viro-immunological follow-up was performed at the same time points. Unvaccinated, age-matched HIV-negative adults (n = 100 were also enrolled as baseline controls.Pre-vaccination specific IgG titers for each pneumococcal antigen did not differ between study groups but they were constantly lower than those from the HIV-negative controls. After immunization, significant increases in IgG titers were observed in both study groups at each time point compared to baseline, but response to serotype 3 was blunted in group 1. Antibody titers for each antigen did not differ between study groups at week 48. Overall, the proportion of subjects achieving seroprotection and seroconversion to all serotypes was comparable between groups. A marked decrease in IgG levels over time was observed with both vaccines. No relevant adverse reactions were reported in either group.In this population with favorable immune profile, no relevant differences were observed in immunogenicity between PCV13 and PPSV23. Both vaccines were safe and well tolerated.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02123433.

  8. Clinical experience of the 23-valent capsular polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccination in HIV-1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy: a prospective observational study.

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    Hung, Chien-Ching; Chen, Mao-Yuan; Hsieh, Szu-Min; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Sheng, Wang-Hwei; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2004-05-01

    To assess the impact of vaccination with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine on the risks for development of pneumococcal disease, all-cause community-acquired pneumonia, HIV progression, and mortality and immunologic and virologic responses among HIV-1-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we conducted a 2-year prospective observational cohort study at a university hospital in Taiwan. A total of 305 HIV-1-infected patients who received 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine (vaccinees) and 203 patients who did not (non-vaccinees) were prospectively observed between 1 June 2000 and 31 October 2002. Changes of CD4+ and plasma viral load (PVL) from baseline to week 4 of vaccination were assessed in 31 randomly selected vaccinees. The incidence of pneumococcal disease and bacteremia of vaccinees was 2.1 per 1000 patient-years (PY) (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.7-2.5 per 1000 PY) over the median observation of 641 days (range, 37-832 days) following vaccination while that of non-vaccinee was 21.8 per 1000 PY (95% CI, 20.1-23.7 per 1000 PY) and 7.3 per 1000 PY (95% CI, 7.0-7.6 per 1000 PY), respectively, over the observation of 500 days (range, 32-851 days), with an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for developing pneumococcal disease of 0.085 (95% CI, 0.010-0.735) and for bacteremia of 0.22 (95% CI, 0.018-2.561). The median CD4+ count increased by 45 x 10(6) l(-1) (P = 0.01) and median PVL change was 0 log(10) copies/ml (range of decrease, -0.74 to 2.47 log(10) copies/ml) after 1 month of pneumococcal vaccination among the subgroup of 31 vaccinees receiving HAART. The median CD4+ count increase from baseline to the end of study was 149 x 10(6) l(-1) for vaccinees and 107 x 10(6) l(-1) for non-vaccinees (P = 0.21). The AOR of developing all-cause community-acquired pneumonia and new AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses (OI) of vaccinees as compared to non-vaccinees was 1.876 (95% CI, 0.785-4.485) and 0.567 (95% CI, 0

  9. Emerging pneumococcal carriage serotypes in a high-risk population receiving universal 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine since 2001

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    Stubbs Liz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia in June 2001, a unique pneumococcal vaccine schedule commenced for Indigenous infants; seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7PCV given at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23PPV at 18 months of age. This study presents carriage serotypes following this schedule. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys of pneumococcal carriage in Aboriginal children 0 to 6 years of age living in remote Aboriginal communities (RACs in 2003 and 2005. Nasal secretions were collected and processed according to published methods. Results 902 children (mean age 25 months living in 29 communities in 2003 and 818 children (mean age 35 months in 17 communities in 2005 were enrolled. 87% children in 2003 and 96% in 2005 had received two or more doses of 7PCV. From 2003 to 2005, pneumococcal carriage was reduced from 82% to 76% and reductions were apparent in all age groups; 7PCV-type carriage was reduced from 11% to 8%, and 23PPV-non-7PCV-type carriage from 31% to 25% respectively. Thus non-23PPV-type carriage increased from 57% to 67%. All these changes were statistically significant, as were changes for some specific serotypes. Shifts could not be attributed to vaccination alone. The top 10 of 40 serotypes identified were (in descending order 16F, 19A, 11A, 6C, 23B, 19F, 6A, 35B, 6B, 10A and 35B. Carriage of penicillin non-susceptible (MIC > = 0.12 μg/mL strains (15% overall was detected in serotypes (descending order 19A, 19F, 6B, 16F, 11A, 9V, 23B, and in 4 additional serotypes. Carriage of azithromycin resistant (MIC > = 2 μg/mL strains (5% overall, was detected in serotypes (descending order 23B, 17F, 9N, 6B, 6A, 11A, 23F, and in 10 additional serotypes including 6C. Conclusion Pneumococcal carriage remains high (~80% in this vaccinated population. Uptake of both pneumococcal vaccines increased, and carriage was reduced between 2003 and 2005. Predominant serotypes in combined

  10. 23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗稳定性考察%Stability of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine

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    黄林; 廖磊; 姚静; 邓景韬; 吕雪艳; 张丽莉; 何勤; 孟丽

    2012-01-01

    目的:考察23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗在2~8℃条件存放24,27个月的稳定性,以及在(37±2)℃和(25±2)℃条件下存放的加速稳定性.方法:选取2008年生产的3批23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗在2~8℃存放24,27个月后进行外观检查、鉴别试验、多糖含量、pH值、苯酚含量、氯化钠含量、无菌检查、热原检查、异常毒性检查;选取2011年生产的3批23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗在( 37±2)℃条件分别存放1,2,3,4周和在(25±2)℃条件分别存放1,2,3个月后进行鉴别试验和多糖含量测定、外观检查、pH值和苯酚含量测定.结果:疫苗2-8℃存放24,27个月,检定结果均符合质量标准的要求;疫苗(37±2)℃和(25±2)℃存放分别从第3周和第2个月开始,个别型别的多糖含量低于质量标准要求,其余各项检测指标均符合质量标准的要求.结论:23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗在2-8℃条件存放至24个月的有效期质量是稳定的;在(37±2)℃和(25±2)℃条件存放的加速稳定性表明合格的疫苗分别最多能存放2周和1个月.%Objective: To investigate the stability of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine stored at 2 ~ 8 ℃ for 24, 27 months, respectively, and accelerated stability of the vaccine stored at (37 ±2) T and (25 ± 2) ℃. Methods: 3 batches of vaccine produced in 2008 were selected and stored at 2 ~8℃ for 24, 27 months, then carrying out tests including appearance inspection, identity test, polysaccharide content, pH, phenol content, sodium chloride content, sterility test, pyrogen test, test for abnormal toxicity. 3 batches of vaccine produced in 2011 were stored at (37 ±2)℃ for 1, 2, 3, 4 weeks, respectively, and at (25 ± 2) ℃. For 1, 2, 3 months respectively, then carrying out tests including appearance inspection, identity test, polysaccharide content, pH, phenol content. Results: Test results of the vaccine stored at 2 ~8 ℃ for 24 and 27 months were in line with the

  11. Immunogenicity and Tolerance of a 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Nonresponders to the 23-Valent Pneumococcal Vaccine

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    Zielen, S; Bühring, I.; Strnad, N.; Reichenbach, J; Hofmann, D.

    2000-01-01

    There is still a lack of effective vaccination strategies for patients with a deficient antibody response to bacterial polysaccharide antigens. In an open trial, we evaluated the immunogenicity and tolerance of a new 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 22 infection-prone nonresponders to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and 21 controls. In the patient group, nonresponsiveness was confirmed by repeated vaccination with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. The study protoc...

  12. Advance in 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine%23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗研究进展

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    陆林; 刘晓强

    2012-01-01

    Pneumococcal disease is an important reason of morbidity and hospitalization among adults and children. Among 91 serotypes of pneumococcus, approximately 20 serotypes are responsible for >85% of invasive pneumococcal disease in all age groups. 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine ( PPV23) , which contains 23 serotypes that collectively accounted for most cases (85% ~90% ) of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) a-mong adults, is considered safe and with high efficacy. Effectiveness of PPV23 generally has shown that the vaccine was 50% ~ 80% effective in preventing IPD among immunocompetent adults and individuals with various underlying illnesses who are not severely immunosuppressed. The cost-benefit studies show that PPV23 immunization is valuable for children and adult. Vaccination of PPV23 is recommended for children with immunodeficiency, elderly group aged>60 years, and adult with chronic disease. This paper mainly reviewed the safety, immunological reaction, protective rate, cost-benefit, effect among special population and immunization strategy of PPV23.%肺炎球菌是导致成人和儿童罹患肺炎疾病住院甚至死亡的重要原因.肺炎球菌的91个血清型中有20种血清型与各年龄组超过85%的侵袭性肺炎球菌感染有关.根据23种引起85% - 90%的引起肺炎球菌感染疾病的血清型研制而成的23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗,具有很好的安全性,成人和>2岁儿童接种后会产生可靠的免疫力,在人群中保护率达50%~80%,具有较好的成本效益比,是儿童和成人预防肺炎球菌感染的有效措施,推荐用于60岁以上老年人和2岁以上体弱儿童和慢性疾病患者.本文主要对23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗的安全性、免疫反应、保护率及成本效益、对特殊健康状况人群的保护效果和免疫策略作一综述.

  13. Is 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV13) Combined With 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPSV23) Superior to PPSV23 Alone for Reducing Incidence or Severity of Pneumonia in Older Adults? A Clin-IQ

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    Hayward, Starla; Thompson, Lou Ann; McEachern, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Pneumonia infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the public health concerns, pneumonia also accounts for a significant cost to the health care system. Currently there are two leading vaccines targeted against S. pneumoniae: 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Until recently the recommendation for adult pneumonia vaccination has been a single dose of PPSV23 for all adults 65 years and older. However, concerns were raised regarding the vaccine’s efficacy due to the persistent burden of pneumococcal disease in the elderly population. This paper focuses on two trials which evaluate the safety and efficacy of PCV13 in the adult population. The first study reveals improved immune response with the addition of PCV13 to PPSV23, while the second shows PCV13 was effective in the prevention of vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia. The two studies observed adequate safety profiles for PCV13 in series with PPSV23 and with PCV13 compared to placebo. PMID:27376105

  14. Is 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV13 Combined With 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPSV23 Superior to PPSV23 Alone for Reducing Incidence or Severity of Pneumonia in Older Adults? A Clin-IQ

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    Starla Hayward

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the public health concerns, pneumonia also accounts for a significant cost to the health care system. Currently there are two leading vaccines targeted against Streptococcus pneumoniae: 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23 and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13. Until recently, the recommendation for adult pneumonia vaccination has been a single dose of PPSV23 for all adults aged 65 years or older. However, concerns were raised regarding the vaccine’s efficacy due to the persistent burden of pneumococcal disease in the elderly population. This paper focuses on two trials that evaluated the safety and efficacy of PCV13 in the adult population. The first study reveals improved immune response with the addition of PCV13 to PPSV23, while the second shows PCV13 was effective in the prevention of vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia. Both studies observed adequate safety profiles for PCV13 in series with PPSV23 and with PCV13 compared to placebo.

  15. Economic Evaluation of Immunisation Programme of 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine and the Inclusion of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in the List for Single-Dose Subsidy to the Elderly in Japan.

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    Shu-ling Hoshi

    Full Text Available Currently in Japan, both 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV-23 and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13 are available for the elderly for the prevention of S. pneumoniae-related diseases. PPSV-23 was approved in 1988, while the extended use of PCV-13 was approved for adults aged 65 and older in June 2014. Despite these two vaccines being available, the recently launched national immunisation programme for the elderly only subsidised PPSV-23. The framework of the current immunisation programme lasts for five years. The elderly population eligible for the subsidised PPSV-23 shot for the 1st year are those aged 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and ≥ 100. While from the 2nd year to the 5th year, those who will age 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 100 will receive the same subsidised shot.We performed economic evaluations to (1 evaluate the efficiency of alternative strategies of PPSV-23 single-dose immunisation programme, and (2 investigate the efficiency of PCV-13 inclusion in the list for single-dose pneumococcal vaccine immunisation programme. Three alternative strategies were created in this study, namely: (1 current PPSV-23 strategy, (2 65 to 80 (as "65-80 PPSV-23 strategy", and (3 65 and older (as "≥ 65 PPSV-23 strategy". We constructed a Markov model depicting the S. pneumoniae-related disease course pathways. The transition probabilities, utility weights to estimate quality adjusted life year (QALY and disease treatment costs were either calculated or cited from literature. Cost of per shot of vaccine was ¥ 8,116 (US$74; US$1 = ¥ 110 for PPSV-23 and ¥ 10,776 (US$98 for PCV-13. The model runs for 15 years with one year cycle after immunisation. Discounting was at 3%.Compared to current PPSV-23 strategy, 65-80 PPSV-23 strategy cost less but gained less, while the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs of ≥ 65 PPSV-23 strategy was ¥ 5,025,000 (US$45,682 per QALY gained. PCV-13 inclusion into the list for

  16. Economic Evaluation of Immunisation Programme of 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine and the Inclusion of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in the List for Single-Dose Subsidy to the Elderly in Japan

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    Hoshi, Shu-ling; Kondo, Masahide; Okubo, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently in Japan, both 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV–23) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV–13) are available for the elderly for the prevention of S. pneumoniae-related diseases. PPSV–23 was approved in 1988, while the extended use of PCV–13 was approved for adults aged 65 and older in June 2014. Despite these two vaccines being available, the recently launched national immunisation programme for the elderly only subsidised PPSV–23. The framework of the current immunisation programme lasts for five years. The elderly population eligible for the subsidised PPSV–23 shot for the 1st year are those aged 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and ≥100. While from the 2nd year to the 5th year, those who will age 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 100 will receive the same subsidised shot. Methods We performed economic evaluations to (1) evaluate the efficiency of alternative strategies of PPSV–23 single-dose immunisation programme, and (2) investigate the efficiency of PCV–13 inclusion in the list for single-dose pneumococcal vaccine immunisation programme. Three alternative strategies were created in this study, namely: (1) current PPSV–23 strategy, (2) 65 to 80 (as “65–80 PPSV–23 strategy”), and (3) 65 and older (as “≥65 PPSV–23 strategy”). We constructed a Markov model depicting the S. pneumoniae-related disease course pathways. The transition probabilities, utility weights to estimate quality adjusted life year (QALY) and disease treatment costs were either calculated or cited from literature. Cost of per shot of vaccine was ¥8,116 (US$74; US$1 = ¥110) for PPSV–23 and ¥10,776 (US$98) for PCV–13. The model runs for 15 years with one year cycle after immunisation. Discounting was at 3%. Results Compared to current PPSV–23 strategy, 65–80 PPSV–23 strategy cost less but gained less, while the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of ≥65 PPSV–23 strategy was ¥5,025,000 (US$45

  17. 北京市老年人肺炎多糖疫苗接种成本效益分析%Cost-benefit analysis of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in elderly population in Beijing

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    刘聚源; 纪文艳; 吴疆

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and compare the decrease of related medical care cost of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in pneumococcal infection diseases prevention among the elderly people in Beijing.Methods A historic cohort study was conducted.We selected 116 elderly people who vaccined pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine during the period of 2005 -2008 in Beijing as the vaccined group,and Il6 elderly people who did not have vaccine during the same period in the same community as the unvaccined group.The subjects were matched on age,gender,health condition,and income level.Also,we collected baseline informationon,incidence of related pneumonia diseases and medical care costs with a questionnaire.Chi-square test,U test and nonparametric test were adopted in the analysis.Results The incidence density of pneumococcal infection diseases and related pneumonia diseases in the vaccine group and unvaccine group was 9.17/100 person year and 48.42/100 person year,respectively.The protective rate was 81.10% and relative risk (RR) was 0.19,(95% confidence interval [CI]0.10 -0.34).The total health economic analysis indicated the cost was 24 418 RMB yuan and the total savings was 458 435.32 RMB yuan.The benefit cost ratio(BCR) was 6.49.BCR was sensitive to the cost of vaccine and the incidence of pneumoccal diseases.Conclusion The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine has an efficacy and good cost-benefit for prevention of pneumococcal infection diseases and related pneumonia diseases in the elderly population in Beijing.%目的 评价23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗在北京市老年人群中接种的效果和成本效益.方法 采用历史性队列研究,选择2005-2008年接种过23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗的老年人116人作为接种组,选择同期未接种疫苗的老年人116人为未接种组,进行1:1配对,通过问卷调查回顾性收集2组基本情况和相关疾病患病及其医疗花费情况,采用卫生经济学方法

  18. 23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗和流感疫苗联合接种对慢性阻塞性肺病患者防治的疗效观察%Observation on 23 Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine and Influenza Vaccine Inoculation in Prevention and Treatment of Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙冬

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine combined influenza vaccination in prevention and treatment of in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.MethodsIn our hospital from December 2013 to December 2015,240 cases were randomly divided into observation group and control group. 120 cases of the control group was given antispasmodic,anti-inflammatory and other symptomatic treatment,the observation group on the basis of the control group grven influenza vaccine and 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine.Results The seizure frequency,time of onset,number of hospitalizations,length of stay and number of deaths of difference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05). Conclusion Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary inoculation joint 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and influenza vaccine, have a significant effect.%目的:探讨23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗联合流感疫苗接种在预防和治疗慢性阻塞性肺病患者中的作用。方法收集我市某院2013年12月~2015年12月治疗的240例患者,随机分成观察组和对照组各120例,对照组给予解痉平喘,化痰止咳、消炎等对症治疗,观察组在对照组的基础上注射流感疫苗和23价肺炎链球菌疫苗。结果两组患者发作次数、发作时间、住院次数、住院时间和死亡例数比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论慢性阻塞性肺病患联合接种23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗和流感疫苗,疗效佳。

  19. Use of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine among adults%23价肺炎链球菌多糖疫苗和13价肺炎链球菌结合疫苗在成年人中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱朗; 陈磊; 林纪胜; 高强; 王见冬; 王新立; 蔡芳

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen causing serious diseases such as pneumonia, septicemia and meningitis in people of all ages, especially in young children and the eldly worldwide.These diseases can be prevented by pneumococcal vaccines.In countries where pneumococcal vaccines have been introduced in national immunization program, the incidence of pneumococcal diseases and the carriage of pneumococcal vaccine serotypes decreased dramatically in children, and indirect herd protection was developed among unvaccinated people.The utilization of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine are discussed in this article.%肺炎链球菌是引起全球不同年龄人群,尤其是幼儿和老年人肺炎、败血症和脑膜炎等严重疾病的重要病原菌,由肺炎链球菌导致的这些疾病可以通过疫苗进行预防.在将肺炎链球菌疫苗纳入国家免疫计划的国家,儿童肺炎链球菌病的发病率以及疫苗型肺炎链球菌的携带率大大降低,且可在未免疫人群中产生间接保护作用.此文对23价肺炎链球菌多糖疫苗和1 3价肺炎链球菌结合疫苗在成年人中的应用进行探讨.

  20. Additive effect of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and influenza vaccine on acute exacerbation in older patients with chronic lung disease%23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗和流行性感冒疫苗防治老年慢性肺病急性发作的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜坚宗; 刘小利; 赵恬; 顾亮; 钦光跃

    2012-01-01

    目的:评价老年慢性肺病人群联合接种23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗和流行性感冒疫苗,预防慢性肺病急性发作的效果.方法:选取2008年10月到2009年3月的稳定期老年慢性肺病患者192例.随机分为接种23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗和流行性感冒疫苗的试验组97例和接种流行性感冒疫苗的对照组95例.在基线调查的基础上,接种后1年内随访两组慢性肺病第一次急性发作时间情况.结果:试验组急性发作的发生率53.6%(52/97)低于对照组72.6%(69/95)(x2=6.659,P=0.010).接种23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗和流行性感冒疫苗能减少慢性肺病急性发作的发生率,其保护效率为26.2%.两组病死率相近,分别为8.2%(8/97)和11.6%(11/95)(x2=0.597,P=0.440).Kaplan-Meier生存函数发现试验组慢性肺病急性发作未发生率低于对照组(log-rank检验,x2=8.065,P=0.005).结论:联合接种23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗和流行性感冒疫苗能减少慢性肺病急性发作的发生,具有一定的保护效力.%AIM: To assess the effectiveness of 23-valent penumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PV) and influenza vaccine (IV) for preventing acute exacerbation in older patients with chronic lung diseases (CLD). METHODS: An open-label, randomized, controlled study among 192 older patients with CLD in a stable condition over a 1-year period was designed. Subjects were randomly assigned to a PV+ IV group (n = 97) or an IV group (n = 95). On base line survey, both groups were followed up one year about the time to the first episode of acute exacerbation after the enrollment in this study. RESULTS: The number of older patients with CLD experiencing infectious acute exacerbation (X2 =6. 659, P = 0.010), but not death(X2=0. 597, P = 0.440), was significantly lower in the PV + IV group compared with the IV group. In older patients with CLD, the Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated a significant difference for infectious acute exacerbation (log-rank test, X

  1. Immunization coverage and safety of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in Guang-zhou from 2010 to 2015%2010-2015年广州市23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗接种情况及安全性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈健; 许建雄; 张春焕; 谭慧峰; 李志群

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the immunization coverage of 23-valent pneumococcal polysac-charide vaccine(PPV23)in a large population in Guangzhou and to evaluate its safety by analyzing the ad-verse events following immunization(AEFI)reported to the passive surveillance system. Methods Immu-nization data of PPV23 in Guangzhou from 2010 to 2015 were collected from Information Management System of Biological Products and the Information System of Immune Programming of Guangzhou. AEFI reported to the AEFI Information System during 2010 to 2015 was collected for safety evaluation. The collected data were analyzed by using descriptive methodology. Results A total of 621 059 doses of PPV23 were pre-scribed in Guangzhou from 2010 to 2015. Most of the recipients were children younger than 10 years old,ac-counting for 79. 44% . Only 9. 38% of the subjects received PPV23 were older than 60 years. A total of 243 AEFI cases were reported at a rate of 39. 13 cases per 100 000 doses,among which 199 cases(32. 04 / 105 ) showed minor vaccine reactions,25 cases(4. 03 / 105 )occurred adverse events,16 cases(2. 58 / 105 )de-veloped coupled diseases and 3 cases(0. 48 / 105 )were classified as psychogenic reactions. No rare adverse reactions were observed. Conclusion The majority of people immunized with PPV23s in Guangzhou were children,while the immunization coverage among the elderly was relatively low. PPV23 was safe for vaccina-tion as the reported AEFI cases were similar to that of other vaccines.%目的:分析广州市23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗(23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine,PPV23)大规模人群应用情况及接种反应的被动监测结果,评价 PPV23的使用情况及安全性。方法通过广州市生物制品管理信息系统和免疫规划信息系统获得广州市2010—2015年 PPV23预防接种资料;通过疑似预防接种异常反应(adverse event following immunization,AEFI)信息管理系统,收集接种 PPV23后报告的 AEFI

  2. 老年人接种23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗药物经济学研究的系统评价%Study on the Pharmacoeconomics of 23-valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine in Elderly:A System-atic Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭艳芹; 余正; 王国栋

    2015-01-01

    目的:为我国卫生决策部门科学、合理地制定老年人接种23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗(PPV-23)政策提供理论支持.方法:计算机检索中国期刊全文数据库、万方数据库、Elsevier、PubMed,筛选出老年人接种PPV-23的药物经济学评价的相关文献,分别从成本研究、效果指标、年龄等方面进行统计分析.结果:共纳入13篇文献,合计900 472例老年人,年龄均大于60岁.研究所在地为哥伦比亚、美国、意大利、比利时、荷兰及中国.从成本角度来看,每增加一个生存质量调查年(QALY)成本介于9 239~33 000美元之间;从效果指标来看,成本-效果比介于9 239~45 161美元/AQLY之间.除荷兰一项研究认为65岁以上老年人接种PPV-23不具有成本效益,应该再考虑外,其余研究均显示65岁以上老年人接种PPV-23有一定的成本效益.结论:老年人接种PPV-23具有一定的经济性,且多数国家已将其纳入国家免疫计划.我国现有的研究尚无法确定老年人接种PPV-23的经济性,因此有待开展更多、更高质量的相关研究加以确认.%OBJECTIVE:To provide theoretical support for the scientific and reasonable policy-making of 23-valent pneumococ-cal polysaccharide vaccine(PPV-23)in elderly. METHODS:Retrieved from CJFD,Wanfang Database,Elsevier and PubMed,lit-erature about the pharmacoeconomics evaluation of PPV-23 in elder were selected and statistically analyzed in respects of cost stud-ies,effect indexes and research perspectives. RESULTS:Totally 13 literatures were included,involving 900 472 patients,who were older than 60 years old. Study locations were mainly Colombia,the United States,Italy,Belgium and China. Study results showed,each additional quality-adjusted life-year(QALY)cost was between $ 9 239-$ 33 000 in respect of cost;cost-effectiveness ratio was between $ 9 239-$ 45 161/QALY in respect of effect indexes. Most researches showed PPV-23 in elderly older than 65 years old had certain cast

  3. Superior Immune Response to Protein-Conjugate versus Free Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dransfield, Mark T.; Nahm, Moon H.; Han, MeiLan K.; Harnden, Sarah; Criner, Gerard J.; Fernando J Martinez; Scanlon, Paul D.; Woodruff, Prescott G.; Washko, George R.; Connett, John E.; Anthonisen, Nicholas R.; Bailey, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Debate exists about the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of antibodies produced by the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The 7-valent diphtheria-conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PCV7) induces a more robust immune response than PPSV23 in healthy elderly adults.

  4. 23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗接种对稳定期COPD患者的影响%Clinical observation of 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine in patients with stable chornic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐勇; 贾树雅; 苏畅; 方洵; 杜玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate clinical significance in the application of 23--valent peneurnococcal polysaccharide vaccine in COPD patients. Methods 100 subjects were divided into experimental group and control group randomly. 23-valent pneumococcal vaccines were injected to experimental group. They were observed the side effects for 1 week after vaccination. During 2 years observation, exacerbation frequency, pulmonary infection frequency,hospitalization, mortality, side effect were compared between two group. Results Exacerbation frequency, pulmonary infection frequency, hospitalization and mortality in experimental group were obviously less than control group.Most of side effects of vaccine were local reactions in inject site. They were relieved by local stupe or rest in 1-3 days.Conclusion 23-valent pneumococcal vaccines injection can reduce exacerbation frequency, pulmonary infection frequency, hospitalization, and mortality in stable COPD patients.%目的 评价23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗(PPSV-23)接种在稳定期慢性阻塞性肺病(COPD)的作用.方法 将100例稳定期COPD患者随机分成干预组和对照组,干预组患者于接种后随访1周观察不良反应.注射疫苗2年内观察病情急性发作、肺部感染、住院次数、死亡率和不良反应,并与对照组进行对比.结果 干预组急性发作次数、肺部感染、住院次数、病死率均低于对照组.接种后不良反应多为局部反应,经热敷或休息1~3d可缓解.结论 PPSV-23可以减少稳定期COPD患者急性发作率、肺部感染率、住院率、死亡率.

  5. Relationship between public subsidies and vaccination rates with the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine in elderly persons, including the influence of the free vaccination campaign after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Toshio; Matsuda, Naoto; Tanei, Mika; Watanabe, Yukiko; Watanabe, Akira

    2014-07-01

    Low vaccination rates with pneumococcal vaccine in elderly persons in Japan are thought to be related to low levels of public subsidy. To identify strategies to increase future pneumococcal vaccination rates, we examined the relationship between public subsidies and vaccination rates. We also investigated the influence of free vaccinations after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake on vaccination rates in the three Tohoku prefectures of Japan. We surveyed a total of 1742 municipalities in Japan about whether public subsidies were available and their monetary amount. Vaccination rates with the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine were calculated as the "cumulative amount shipped to each municipality divided by the population aged ≥65 years." There were no subsidies in 773 municipalities (44.4%). In those municipalities with public subsidies, larger subsidies were significantly associated with elevated vaccination rates (p Japan, the vaccination rate was 52.1% in municipalities where the full cost was subsidized. The three prefectures (Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima) most affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake ranked as the top three prefectures for vaccination rates in Japan, presumably as a result of the free vaccination campaign for disaster victims. Our findings show that public subsidies play an important role in increasing the vaccination rate. The free vaccinations given to disaster victims after the Great East Japan Earthquake helped to achieve extremely high vaccination rates in the three Tohoku prefectures. We suggest that such public subsidies should be promoted throughout Japan.

  6. Serologic response to a 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine administered prior to autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinge, Maja; Ingels, Helene A S; Slotved, Hans-Christian;

    2012-01-01

    prior to autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Specific antibody titers were measured before and after vaccination. Disease stage was evaluated and associated to the response. We found that 33% of the patients responded to the vaccine. There was a statistic significant association between...... response to the vaccine and disease stage (p = 0.01). We conclude that vaccination against S. pneumoniae prior to ASCT is reasonable at least in patients responding well to induction therapy, but still it is important to be aware that the response is frequently poor and the duration of it is unknown....

  7. Coste-efectividad de la vacunación antineumocócica 23-valente en Cataluña Cost-effectiveness of 23-valent antipneumococcical vaccination in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Plans

    2002-10-01

    vaccination is an effective procedure for preventing pneumococcal pneumonia. In this study we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination strategies (23 serotypes in the population aged 5 years and older in Catalonia. Methods: Cost-effectiveness was evaluated in terms of cost per year of life gained (YLG by comparing the net cost of the vaccination program with its effectiveness. The net cost of the vaccination program was calculated by subtracting 70% of the population from the vaccination costs, representing the reduction in health costs due to pneumococcal pneumonia that can ve achieved with vaccination. Vaccination costs were estimated based on a price of 12.41 euros (1,915 ptas. for pneumococcal vaccine. The costs and benefits of the vaccination program were updated for 1996 by using a discount rate of 5%. Results: A cost-effectiveness ratio of 9,023.27 euros per YLG was achieved for universal vaccination of the population. Cost-effectiveness was 11,3177.12 euros per YLG in individuals aged 5-24 years, 19,482.51 euros per TLG in those aged 25-44 years, 7,122.80 euros per YLG in those aged 45-64 years and less than 0 in those aged 65 years and older. In this group the reduction in cost of the disease was greater than the vaccination costs with a cost-benefit ratio of 1.58. The results of the cost-efecctiveness analysis were sensitive to vaccine costs and efficacy and the percentage of pneumonias caused by pneumococcus but were less sensitive to the costs of pneumococcal pneumonia, the rate of hospital admission among patients with community-acquired pneumonia and vaccine coverage. Conclusion: The results of this study show that pneumococcal vaccination should be a priority in individuals aged 65 years and older and in those aged 45-64 years.

  8. Cochlear-Meningitis Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevnar 13®) 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPSV) (Pneumovax®) Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate (Hib) Tetravalent (A, C, Y, W-135) ... CDC immunization guidelines for routine meningococcal vaccination. The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine is not routinely recommended for those ...

  9. Pneumococcal Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Chen-Fang Ho; Tzou-Yien Lin

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading bacterial pathogen of infectious diseases inchildren and adolescents. The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine could preventinvasive pneumococcal infection with broader serotype coverage but still has some limitations.On the other hand, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been shown todecrease cases of nasopharyngeal acquired S. pneumoniae vaccine serotypes and provedherd immunity. The safety and efficacy against vaccine serotype pneumo...

  10. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine for Adults: A New Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Paradiso, Peter R

    2012-01-01

    A 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been studied in adults aged ≥50 years to compare the immune response to that induced by the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, which has been the standard of care over the past 30 years. The results demonstrate that adults, regardless of whether they are naive or previously vaccinated with the polysaccharide vaccine, have an overall superior antibody response when vaccinated with the conjugate vaccine compared with the pneumococcal po...

  11. Immunosuppressive drugs impairs antibody response of the polysaccharide and conjugated pneumococcal vaccines in patients with Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantsø, Bjørn; Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam; Thomsen, Ole Østergaard;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) have a higher risk of infectious diseases including pneumococcal infections, and the risk increases with immunotherapy. The primary endpoint of this study was to investigate the specific antibody response to two pneumococcal vaccines in CD patients...... with and without immunosuppressive treatment four weeks post vaccination. METHODS: In a randomized trial of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV13), a group of CD patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs (IS) alone or in combination...... with TNF-α antagonists were compared to a group of CD patients not treated with any of these drugs (untreated). Specific pneumococcal antibody concentrations were measured against 12 serotypes common to the two vaccines before and 4 week after vaccination. RESULTS: PCV13 induced a significantly higher...

  12. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination does not induce a persisting mucosal IgA response in children with recurrent acute otitis media.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaert, D.; Veenhoven, R.H.; Ramdin, R.; Luijendijk, I.H.; Rijkers, G.T.; Sanders, E.A.M.; Groot, R. de; Hermans, P.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: In a prospective controlled study in young children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media, we analyzed the salivary IgA and IgG antibody titers upon vaccination with a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) given once or twice, followed by a 23-valent polysaccharide booster vacc

  13. Is there a potential role for protein-conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in older adults?

    OpenAIRE

    Ridda, Iman; Musher, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Longstanding controversy over the efficacy of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) led to a recommendation by the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) of the United Kingdom in March 2011, to discontinue routine use of PPV23 in older adults.1 Following careful review of the evidence and feedback from stakeholders, the JCVI decided to retain the original policy of uniform vaccination of adults >65 years of age, while keeping the subject under continued review....

  14. V(H)3 antibody response to immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in middle-aged and elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa, Jose A; Valayam, Josemon; Musher, Daniel M; Rossen, Roger D; Pirofski, Liise-anne; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C

    2011-03-01

    Pneumococcal disease continues to cause substantial morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Older adults may have high levels of anticapsular antibody after vaccination, but their antibodies show decreased functional activity. In addition, the protective effect of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) seems to cease as early as 3 to 5 years postvaccination. Recently, it was suggested that PPV elicits human antibodies that use predominantly V(H)3 gene segments and induce a repertoire shift with increased V(H)3 expression in peripheral B cells. Here we compared V(H)3-idiotypic antibody responses in middle-aged and elderly subjects receiving PPV as initial immunization or revaccination. We studied pre- and postvaccination sera from 36 (18 vaccine-naïve and 18 previously immunized subjects) middle-aged and 40 (22 vaccine-naïve and 18 previously immunized subjects) elderly adults who received 23-valent PPV. Concentrations of IgGs to four individual serotypes (6B, 14, 19F, and 23F) and of V(H)3-idiotypic antibodies (detected by the monoclonal antibody D12) to the whole pneumococcal vaccine were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PPV elicited significant IgG and V(H)3-idiotypic antibody responses in middle-aged and elderly subjects, regardless of whether they were vaccine naïve or undergoing revaccination. Age did not influence the magnitude of the antibody responses, as evidenced by similar postvaccination IgG and V(H)3 antibody levels in both groups, even after stratifying by prior vaccine status. Furthermore, we found similar proportions (around 50%) of elderly and middle-aged subjects experiencing 2-fold increases in V(H)3 antibody titers after vaccination. Age or repeated immunization does not appear to affect the V(H)3-idiotypic immunogenicity of PPV among middle-aged and elderly adults.

  15. Pneumococcal vaccination of older adults: Conjugate or polysaccharide?

    OpenAIRE

    Fedson, David S; Guppy, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease continues to be important problem for older adults. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) has a clinical effectiveness of 43–81%, and following primary vaccination and revaccination, antibody responses last 5–10 y. Hyporesponsiveness to a second dose of vaccine has not been shown to be a significant problem. The use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (initially PCV7; more recently PCV13) has led to a dramatic fall in the incidence of conjugate vaccine-type ...

  16. A Review of Pneumococcal Vaccines: Current Polysaccharide Vaccine Recommendations and Future Protein Antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Calvin C.; Rogers, P. David; Shelton, Chasity M.

    2016-01-01

    This review describes development of currently available pneumococcal vaccines, provides summary tables of current pneumococcal vaccine recommendations in children and adults, and describes new potential vaccine antigens in the pipeline. Streptococcus pneumoniae, the bacteria responsible for pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis and bacteremia, remains a cause of morbidity and mortality in both children and adults. Introductions of unconjugated and conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine...

  17. Effect of previous vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaballie, H; Wuyts, G; Dillaerts, D; Frans, G; Moens, L; Proesmans, M; Vermeulen, F; De Boeck, K; Meyts, I; Bossuyt, X

    2016-08-01

    During the past 10 years, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) has become part of the standard childhood vaccination programme. This may impact upon the diagnosis of polysaccharide antibody deficiency by measurement of anti-polysaccharide immunoglobulin (Ig)G after immunization with unconjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV). Indeed, contrary to PPV, PCV induces a T-dependent, more pronounced memory response. The antibody response to PPV was studied retrospectively in patients referred for suspected humoral immunodeficiency. The study population was divided into four subgroups based on age (2-5 years versus ≥ 10 years) and time tested (1998-2005 versus 2010-12). Only 2-5-year-old children tested in 2010-12 had been vaccinated with PCV prior to PPV. The PCV primed group showed higher antibody responses for PCV-PPV shared serotypes 4 and 18C than the unprimed groups. To a lesser extent, this was also found for non-PCV serotype 9N, but not for non-PCV serotypes 19A and 8. Furthermore, PCV-priming elicited a higher IgG2 response. In conclusion, previous PCV vaccination affects antibody response to PPV for shared serotypes, but can also influence antibody response to some non-PCV serotypes (9N). With increasing number of serotypes included in PCV, the diagnostic assessment for polysaccharide antibody deficiency requires careful selection of serotypes that are not influenced by prior PCV (e.g. serotype 8). Further research is needed to identify more serotypes that are not influenced. PMID:26939935

  18. Experience with Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, L; Debois, H; Fletcher, M; Dumas, R

    1999-09-01

    Typhoid fever remains an important health threat in many parts of the world, with an estimated 16 million cases and 600,000 deaths occurring each year. The emergence of Salmonella typhi strains multiply resistant to antibiotics has complicated the treatment of this disease. Field experience of 8 years shows that a vaccine composed of purified Vi capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi, given as a single intramuscular or deep subcutaneous injection, has consistent immunogenicity and efficacy. Side effects, based on reports since 1989, are infrequent and mild. Furthermore, the Vi vaccine may be administered simultaneously with other common "travel" vaccines, at two different sites of injection, without affecting immunogenicity and tolerability. This review presents an update of the development and clinical experience with the Salmonella typhi Vi polysaccharide vaccine (Typhim Vi; Pasteur Mérieux Connaught, France).

  19. Persistence of antibody titres three years after vaccination with Vi polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacket, C O; Levine, M M; Robbins, J B

    1988-08-01

    After a single injection of purified Vi polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever, serum titres were followed in student volunteers by passive haemagglutination assay and by radioimmunoassay. Elevated Vi antibody titres were still present after 36 months. This preliminary study should be followed by further investigations on the extent and duration of protection provided by Vi vaccine, and on volunteers in endemic areas.

  20. Serological response following re-vaccination with Salmonella typhi Vi-capsular polysaccharide vaccines in healthy adult travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggelin, Louise; Vinnemeier, Christof D; Fischer-Herr, Johanna; Johnson-Weaver, Brandi T; Rolling, Thierry; Burchard, Gerd D; Staats, Herman F; Cramer, Jakob P

    2015-08-01

    An injectable Vi-capsular polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever is available but vaccine-induced immunity tends to wane over time. The phenomenon of immunotolerance or hyporesponsiveness has earlier been described for polysaccharide vaccines such as pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine and some publications also suggest a possible immunotolerance after revaccination with Vi-capsular polysaccharide vaccines. In this study, post-immunisation antibody concentrations in adult travellers first vaccinated with a Salmonella typhi Vi-capsular polysaccharide vaccine (primary vaccination group) were compared with those having received one or more vaccinations previously (multiple vaccinations group). Vaccines administered were Typherix(®) (GlaxoSmithKline), Typhim Vi(®) (Sanofi Pasteur MSD) or Hepatyrix(®) (GlaxoSmithKline). Blood samples were obtained prior to vaccination (day 0) and on day 28 (-1/+14) after vaccination. Serum Vi-Antigen IgG concentrations were measured by ELISA. Of the 85 subjects included in the per protocol data set, 45 (53%) belonged to the multiple vaccinations group. In both groups, geometric mean antibody concentrations (GMCs) were significantly higher after vaccination than before vaccination. Pre-vaccination GMCs were lower in the primary vaccination group than in the multiple vaccinations group (3.40 μg/ml versus 6.13 μg/ml, P=0.005), while there was no significant difference in the post vaccination GMCs between groups (11.34 μg/ml versus 14.58 μg/ml, P=0.4). In the multiple vaccinations group, vaccination was performed 18 to 57 months after the last vaccination (median 38 months) and there was a negative correlation between time since last vaccination and antibody concentration on day 0. In conclusion, we were not able to demonstrate a relevant immunotolerance after multiple versus primary vaccination with S. typhi Vi-capsular polysaccharide vaccines.

  1. Immunization of immunosuppressed patients with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammann, A.J.; Schiffman, G.; Addiego, J.E.; Wara, W.M.; Wara, D.W.

    The antibody response after immunization with capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae of patients with Hodgkin's disease or with carcinoma of the head and neck was studied. Patients with Hodgkin's disease who were immunized prior to the institution of immunosuppressive therapy were capable of responding to each of the pneumococcal polysaccharides evaluated. The level of antibody achieved by the patients is lower than that of normal control subjects. Nevertheless, absolute values were in the range that would be expected to result in protection. The duration of antibody response was not evaluated. Patients with carcinoma of the head and neck did not demonstrate a significant increase in antibody levels after vaccination, which was done at the time of radiation therapy. Two years after immunization antibody levels were lower with recovery at three years. However, these changes were not statistically significant. Decreased levels of antibody to pneumococcal polysaccharide types not present in the vaccine were observed. Studies of patients with carcinoma of the heat and neck demonstrated that radiation therapy has a profound immunosuppressive effect on antibody levels. More selective immunosuppressive therapy and/or an increase in the immunogenicity of the polysaccharides in the vaccine are required for protection of patients with malignancy.

  2. Effectiveness of 23-valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine to Prevent LRTIs in the Elderly Population%23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗预防老年人下呼吸道感染的效果考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐英; 董碧蓉

    2005-01-01

    目的为了对23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗预防社区老年人下呼吸道感染(Lower respiratory tract infeceions,LRTIs)的效果、成本-效益及接种后的不良反应进行分析.方法抽取600名老年人均分为疫苗组和对照组,疫苗组接种后随访2周观察不良反应.同期追踪两组1年LRTIs、抗生素使用、住院情况、直接医疗费用.结果疫苗对LRTIs、抗生素使用、住院保护效率分别为69.7%、72.6%、65.9%.亚组分析,疫苗可减少慢性阻塞性肺疾病(Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,COPD)、冠状动脉硬化性心脏病(冠心病)患者LRTIs、抗生素使用、住院;减少糖尿病、高血压患者LRTIs、抗生素使用.接种疫苗的成本效益比为1:2.06,净效益66 471.65元.接种后不良反应多为局部反应,经热敷或休息1~3d可缓解.结论社区老年人,尤其是有COPD、冠心病的老年人,接种23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗具有一定的保护效率、成本-效益和安全性.

  3. Protective activity of Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, K P; Gilbertson, I T; Koornhof, H J; Robbins, J B; Schneerson, R; Schulz, D; Cadoz, M; Armand, J

    1987-11-21

    The protective efficacy against typhoid fever of a single intramuscular injection of 25 micrograms of the Vi capsular polysaccharide (CPS) was assessed in a randomised double-blind controlled trial. Vaccination of 11,384 children was followed by 21 months' surveillance. 47 blood-culture-proven cases of typhoid occurred in children who received meningococcal A + C CPS vaccine and 19 cases in those vaccinated with Vi CPS. Protective efficacy was 60% calculated from the day of vaccination and 64% from 6 weeks after vaccination. Surveillance also included 11,691 unvaccinated children; 173 cases occurred in this group. Protective efficacy in relation to the unvaccinated group was 77.4% and 81.0% after 21 months, calculated immediately and 6 weeks after vaccination, respectively. Vaccination was associated with minimum local side-effects, and an increase in anti-Vi antibodies occurred, as measured by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody levels remained significantly raised at 6 and 12 months post vaccination. Vi CPS is thus a safe and effective means of typhoid vaccination.

  4. Effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine for preschool-age children with chronic disease.

    OpenAIRE

    FIORE, A. E.; Levine, O S; Elliott, J A; Facklam, R R; Butler, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    To estimate the effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, we serotyped isolates submitted to the Pneumococcal Sentinel Surveillance System from 1984 to 1996 from 48 vaccinated and 125 unvaccinated children 2 to 5 years of age. Effectiveness against invasive disease caused by serotypes included in the vaccine was 63%. Effectiveness against serotypes in the polysaccharide vaccine but not in a proposed seven-valent protein conjugate vaccine was 94%.

  5. Pneumococcal Vaccination in High-Risk Individuals: Are We Doing It Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadatou, Ioanna; Spoulou, Vana

    2016-05-01

    Controversy exists regarding the optimal use of the 23-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for the protection of high-risk individuals, such as children and adults with immunocompromising conditions and the elderly. The effectiveness and immunogenicity of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) are limited in such high-risk populations compared to the healthy, with meta-analyses failing to provide robust evidence on vaccine efficacy against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) or pneumonia. Moreover, several studies have demonstrated a PPV23-induced state of immune tolerance or hyporesponsiveness to subsequent vaccination, where the response to revaccination does not reach the levels achieved with primary vaccination. The clinical significance of hyporesponsiveness is not yet clarified, but attenuated humoral and cellular response could lead to reduced levels of protection and increased susceptibility to pneumococcal disease. As disease epidemiology among high-risk groups shows that we are still in need of maximum serotype coverage, the optimal use of PPV23 in the context of combined conjugate/polysaccharide vaccine schedules is an important priority. In this minireview, we discuss PPV23-induced hyporesponsiveness and its implications in designing highly effective vaccination schedules for the optimal protection for high-risk individuals. PMID:27009210

  6. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines Overcome Splenic Dependency of Antibody Response to Pneumococcal Polysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Breukels, Mijke A.; Zandvoort, Andre; van den Dobbelsteen, Germie P. J. M.; van den Muijsenberg, Adrie; Lodewijk, Monique E.; Beurret, Michel; Pieter A Klok; Timens, Wim; Rijkers, Ger T.

    2001-01-01

    Protection against infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae depends on the presence of antibodies against capsular polysaccharides that facilitate phagocytosis. Asplenic patients are at increased risk for pneumococcal infections, since both phagocytosis and the initiation of the antibody response to polysaccharides take place in the spleen. Therefore, vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines is recommended prior to splenectomy, which, as in the case of trauma, is not always feasi...

  7. [Pneumococcal vaccines: different types and their use in practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Steenkiste, M

    2013-03-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for a large number of invasive infections and upper respiratory tract infections in infants, elderly and patients with high complication risk. Currently, two types of vaccine are available on the Belgian market. In the context of pharmaceutical care, it is important for pharmacists to know their specific characteristics and differences. In this article we try to explain these and to motivate their use in different patient populations. The 23-valent vaccine is different from the 13-valent vaccine, not only in number of serotypes, but also in its presentation as respectively polysaccharide- and conjugated vaccine which affects the immunogenicity. Moreover, their indication and use are also different. Finally we take a closer look at the specific use in infants and children at risk at one hand, and vaccination of eldery and adults with increased risk for severe pneumococcal infection on the other hand. PMID:23638606

  8. Pneumococcal Vaccination Strategies. An Update and Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berical, Andrew C; Harris, Drew; Dela Cruz, Charles S; Possick, Jennifer D

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important global pathogen that causes a wide range of clinical disease in children and adults. Pneumococcal pneumonia is by far the common presentation of noninvasive and invasive pneumococcal disease and affects the young, the elderly, and the immunocompromised disproportionately. Patients with chronic pulmonary diseases are also at higher risk for pneumococcal infections. Substantial progress over the century has been made in the understanding of pneumococcal immunobiology and the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease through vaccination. Currently, two pneumococcal vaccines are available for individuals at risk of pneumococcal disease: the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and the 13-valent pneumococcal protein-conjugate vaccine (PCV13). The goal of pneumococcal vaccination is to stimulate effective antipneumococcal antibody and mucosal immunity response and immunological memory. Vaccination of infants and young children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has led to significant decrease in nasal carriage rates and pneumococcal disease in all age groups. Recent pneumococcal vaccine indication and schedule recommendations on the basis of age and risk factors are outlined in this Focused Review. As new pneumococcal vaccine recommendations are being followed, continued efforts are needed to address the vaccine efficacy in the waning immunity of the ever-aging population, the implementation of vaccines using two different vaccines under very specific schedules and their real world clinical and cost effectiveness, and the development of next generation pneumococcal vaccines. PMID:27088424

  9. [Vaccinations in respiratory medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lode, H M; Stahlmann, R

    2015-09-01

    Vaccinations are the most successful and cost-effective measures for prevention of infections. Important pathogens of respiratory tract infections (e.g. influenza viruses and pneumococci) can be effectively treated by vaccinations. The seasonal trivalent and recently now quadrivalent influenza vaccines include antigens from influenza A and B type viruses, which have to be modified annually oriented to the circulating strains. The effective protection by influenza vaccination varies considerably (too short protection time, mismatch); therefore, administration late in the year is the best approach (November/December). Two pneumococcal vaccines are recommended for adults: the over 30-year-old 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and the 4-year-old 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13). The immunological and clinical efficacy of PPV23 is controversially discussed; however, a moderate reduction of invasive pneumococcal infections is widely accepted. The PCV13 stimulates a T-cell response and has currently demonstrated its clinical efficacy in an impressive study (CAPiTA). The problem of PCV13 is the relatively limited coverage of only 47% of the currently circulating invasive pneumococcal serotypes. PMID:26330051

  10. Effectiveness of Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine among children: a cluster randomized trial in Karachi, Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.I.; Soofi, S.B.; Ochiai, R.L.; Habib, M.A.; Sahito, S.M.; Nizami, S.Q.; Acosta, C.J.; Clemens, J.D.; Bhutta, Z.A.; Group, D.T.K.V.E.S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever is endemic in Karachi, with an incidence among children ranging from 170 to 450 per 100,000 child-years. Vaccination strategies are important for prevention, and the Vi capsular polysaccharide (ViCPS) vaccine has been shown to be effective in reducing the burden of typhoid

  11. Infants aged 12 months can mount adequate serotype-specific IgG responses to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Balloch, Anne; Licciardi, Paul V.; Russell, Fiona M.; Edward K Mulholland; Tang, Mimi L. K.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study examining serotype-specific IgG responses following immunization with the polysaccharide vaccine Pneumovax® in infants aged 12 months in the absence of prior pneumococcal conjugate vaccine priming.

  12. Recombinant plants provide a new approach to the production of bacterial polysaccharide for vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Smith

    Full Text Available Bacterial polysaccharides have numerous clinical or industrial uses. Recombinant plants could offer the possibility of producing bacterial polysaccharides on a large scale and free of contaminating bacterial toxins and antigens. We investigated the feasibility of this proposal by cloning and expressing the gene for the type 3 synthase (cps3S of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Nicotinia tabacum, using the pCambia2301 vector and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer. In planta the recombinant synthase polymerised plant-derived UDP-glucose and UDP-glucuronic acid to form type 3 polysaccharide. Expression of the cps3S gene was detected by RT-PCR and production of the pneumococcal polysaccharide was detected in tobacco leaf extracts by double immunodiffusion, Western blotting and high-voltage paper electrophoresis. Because it is used a component of anti-pneumococcal vaccines, the immunogenicity of the plant-derived type 3 polysaccharide was tested. Mice immunised with extracts from recombinant plants were protected from challenge with a lethal dose of pneumococci in a model of pneumonia and the immunised mice had significantly elevated levels of serum anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide antibodies. This study provides the proof of the principle that bacterial polysaccharide can be successfully synthesised in plants and that these recombinant polysaccharides could be used as vaccines to protect against life-threatening infections.

  13. Protein conjugate polysaccharide vaccines: Challenges in development and global implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Nair

    2012-01-01

    Replacement by nonvaccine serotypes;capsule switching;time duration of the antibody protective effect following vaccination;costs of the vaccines, programme costs, lack of knowledge of the disease burden, and targeting population groups for vaccination.

  14. Recurrent Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Serotype 12F in a Vaccinated Splenectomized Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Anne Katrine; Schumacher, Anna Holst; Kantsø, Bjørn;

    2016-01-01

    This is the first case report of recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), specifically, due to serotype 12F. The patient described here was vaccinated with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) due to previous splenectomy, and an anti-pneumococcal IgG test concluded that...... she had responded sufficiently to vaccination. Still, she had a fulminate recurrent infection with PPV23 serotype 12F. We investigated the anti-pneumococcal IgG test, and it turned out that it is based on the geometric mean value of only 12 of the serotypes included in PPV23; 12F is none of them. The...... reason is that there are no titer cut-offs available for 11 of the PPV23 serotypes, including 12F, neither nationally nor internationally. Yet, this is not specified in the answer to the clinicians. This case illustrates the need for titer cut-offs for the remaining pneumococcal serotypes in available...

  15. 单克隆抗体在肺炎球菌多糖疫苗多糖含量检测中的应用%Application of monoclonal antibodies in determination of polysaccharides in a pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷永红; 庞鉴勇; 童钦; 王欣; 陈磊; 蔡芳; 朱朗; 王新立; 高强

    2015-01-01

    目的 考察能否用单克隆抗体(单抗)替代多克隆抗体(多抗)血清检测23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗中各型多糖的含量.方法 使用8个血清型(2、3、4、6B、9N、17F、18C、23F)的小鼠抗肺炎球菌荚膜多糖单抗和丹麦国家血清研究所(Statens Serum Institut,SSI)的兔血清多抗,以速率散射免疫浊度法测定23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗中相应血清型的多糖含量.通过重复性和专属性试验确定单抗的可用性.采用t检验对单抗和多抗测定结果进行比较.结果 各型单抗与多糖标准品反应标准曲线的相关系数均>0.985 0.用单抗重复检测疫苗多糖3次,质量浓度为40.8~62.1 μg/ml,3次检测结果变异系数均<8.00%.各型多糖回收率为81.6%~124.2%.分别用8个血清型单抗检测其余各型多糖含量,结果均低于或接近于检测下限.单抗与SSI多抗血清的检测结果差异均无统计学意义,t值为0.210 3~1.926 0,P值均>0.05.结论 单抗检测重复性好、特异性高,与多抗血清检测结果相仿,因此,单抗可以替代SSI多抗血清用于测定23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗中的多糖含量.%Objective To investigate whether polyclonal antibody sera could be replaced by monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) to determine contents of pneumococcal polysaccharides in a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23).Methods Mouse Mabs against polysaccharides of types 2,3,4,6B,9N,17F,18C and 23F,and rabbit sera from Statens Serum Institut (SSI)were used.The pneumococcal polysaccharides in PPV23 were determined by rate Nephelometry.Repeatability and specificity were analyzed to evaluate the usability of Mabs.The results with two kinds of antibodies were compared by t test.Results When Mabs to different serotypes reacted with standard polysaccharides,all correlation coefficients of standard curves were >0.985 0.The polysaccharides in PPV23 ranged from 40.8 to 62.1 μg/ml when determined 3 times by Mabs,and the

  16. Effects of solution conditions on characteristics and size exclusion chromatography of pneumococcal polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidi, Mahsa; Buckley, John J; Zydney, Andrew L

    2016-11-01

    Molecular properties of bacterial polysaccharides and protein-polysaccharide conjugates play an important role in the efficiency and immunogenicity of the final vaccine product. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) is commonly used to analyze and characterize biopolymers, including capsular polysaccharides. The objective of this work was to determine the effects of solution ionic strength and pH on the SEC retention of several capsular polysaccharides from S. pneumoniae bacteria in their native and conjugated forms. The retention time of the charged polysaccharides increased with increasing ionic strength and decreasing pH due to compaction of the polysaccharides associated with a reduction in the intramolecular electrostatic interactions. The calculated radius of gyration was in good agreement with model calculations based on the worm-like chain model accounting for the increase in chain stiffness and excluded volume of the charged polysaccharide at low ionic strength. These results provide important insights into the effects of solution ionic strength on physical properties and SEC behavior of capsular polysaccharides and their corresponding conjugates. PMID:27516244

  17. Evaluation of a new Vi polysaccharide typhoid vaccine in children aged 2-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Yap, L; Rivera, R G; Dispo, A P; Mallabo, J

    2001-01-01

    Typhoid fever is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. In view of the increasing resistance of Salmonella typhi against antibiotics and the high costs associated with improving sanitation conditions, vaccination programs would be of great benefit. We report on the evaluation of a new candidate VI (sic) polysaccharide typhoid vaccine (TypheriX (sic), SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals), tested in Filipino children aged 2-5 years where the profile was compared with that of a competitor-vaccine (Typhim (sic), Pasteur Merieux Connaught). Vaccination with the new candidate vaccine was followed by fewer general symptoms (2.9%) than with the competitor vaccine (14.1%), particularly with lower incidence of fever. The new candidate vaccine is also highly immunogenic: >99% of the vacinees were immune 28 days post vaccination with comparable GMTs of 3597 EL.U/ml for TypheriX (sic) and 3365 EL.U/ml for Typhim (sic). This trial shows that the available VI (sic) polysaccharide vaccines provide a reliable means in preventing a disease responsible for a significant morbidity and placing a heavy burden on health budgets.

  18. Social support is positively associated with the immunoglobulin M response to vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Stephen; Phillips, Anna C; Ferraro, Alastair J.; Drayson, Mark T.; Carroll, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Evidence shows that psychosocial factors are associated with immunoglobulin G response to medical vaccinations. As yet, there are no reports of whether the earlier immunoglobulin M response is similarly susceptible. This study examined the association between psychological stress, social support and the immunoglobulin M response to vaccination with pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides. Stressful life events in the previous year and customary social support were measured by standard questionn...

  19. Physician Attitudes and Beliefs Associated with Patient Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccination Status

    OpenAIRE

    Santibanez, Tammy A.; Zimmerman, Richard Kent; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Katz Jewell, Ilene; Bardella, Inis J.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Barriers to adult immunizations persist as current rates for pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) receipt among eligible adults remain below national goals. This study investigated potential barriers to patients receiving the PPV, including predisposing, enabling, environmental and reinforcing factors among physicians from a variety of practice and geographic settings.

  20. The role of epidemiology in the introduction of vi polysaccharide typhoid fever vaccines in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Camilo J; Galindo, Claudia M; Ochiai, R Leon; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Page, Anne-Laure; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Park, Jin Kyoung; Park, Eunsik; Koo, Hyewon; Wang, Xuan-Yi; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon; Ali, Mohammad; Albert, M John; Ivanoff, Bernard; Pang, Tikki; Xu, Zhi-Yi; Clemens, John D

    2004-09-01

    Despite the availability of at least two licensed typhoid fever vaccines--injectable sub-unit Vi polysaccharide vaccine and live, oral Ty21a vaccine--for the last decade, these vaccines have not been widely introduced in public-health programmes in countries endemic for typhoid fever. The goal of the multidisciplinary DOMI (Diseases of the Most Impoverished) typhoid fever programme is to generate policy-relevant data to support public decision-making regarding the introduction of Vi polysaccharide typhoid fever immunization programmes in China, Viet Nam, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Indonesia. Through epidemiological studies, the DOMI Programme is generating these data and is offering a model for the accelerated, rational introduction of new vaccines into health programmes in low-income countries. Practical and specific examples of the role of epidemiology are described in this paper. These examples cover: (a) selection of available typhoid fever vaccines to be introduced in the programme, (b) generation of policy-relevant data, (c) providing the 'backbone' for the implementation of other multidisciplinary projects, and (d) generation of unexpected but useful information relevant for the introduction of vaccines. Epidemiological studies contribute to all stages of development of vaccine evaluation and introduction.

  1. Moderate PEGylation of the carrier protein improves the polysaccharide-specific immunogenicity of meningococcal group A polysaccharide conjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Yu, Weili; Wang, Yanfei; Hu, Tao

    2015-06-22

    Neisseria meningitidis can cause severe and fulminant diseases such as meningitis. Meningococcal capsular polysaccharide (PS) is a key virulence determinant that is not able to induce immunological memory. Conjugation of PS to a carrier protein can significantly increase the immunogenicity of PS and induce immunological memory. Due to the classically described carrier-induced epitopic suppression (CIES) mechanisms, a strong immune response against the carrier protein could suppress the immune response to PS after coadministration of free carrier protein with the conjugate vaccine. However, it was not clear whether suppressing or enhancing the protein-specific immunogenicity could improve the PS-specific immunogenicity of the conjugate vaccine. Thus, moderate PEGylation, extensive PEGylation and oligomerization were used to regulate the immunogenicity of tetanus toxoid (TT) in the conjugate vaccine (PS-TT). Moderate PEGylation led to a 2.7-fold increase in the PS-specific IgG titers elicited by PS-TT. In contrast, extensive PEGylation and oligomerization of TT led to 1.4-fold and 1.6-fold decrease in the PS-specific IgG titers elicited by PS-TT, respectively. The PS-specific immunogenicity of PS-TT can be increased by moderate PEGylation through mild suppression of the TT-specific immunogenicity. The PS-specific immunogenicity of PS-TT was decreased through significant suppression or enhancement of the TT-specific immunogenicity. Thus, our study contributes to understand the CIES mechanisms and improve the PS-specific immunogenicity of a meningococcal PS conjugate vaccine.

  2. Factors Associated with Influenza Vaccination of Hospitalized Elderly Patients in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Àngela; Soldevila, Núria; Toledo, Diana; Godoy, Pere; Castilla, Jesús; Force, Lluís; Morales, María; Mayoral, José María; Egurrola, Mikel; Tamames, Sonia; Martín, Vicente; Astray, Jenaro

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination of the elderly is an important factor in limiting the impact of influenza in the community. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with influenza vaccination coverage in hospitalized patients aged ≥ 65 years hospitalized due to causes unrelated to influenza in Spain. We carried out a cross-sectional study. Bivariate analysis was performed comparing vaccinated and unvaccinated patients, taking in to account sociodemographic variables and medical risk conditions. Multivariate analysis was performed using multilevel regression models. We included 1038 patients: 602 (58%) had received the influenza vaccine in the 2013-14 season. Three or more general practitioner visits (OR = 1.61; 95% CI 1.19-2.18); influenza vaccination in any of the 3 previous seasons (OR = 13.57; 95% CI 9.45-19.48); and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination (OR = 1.97; 95% CI 1.38-2.80) were associated with receiving the influenza vaccine. Vaccination coverage of hospitalized elderly people is low in Spain and some predisposing characteristics influence vaccination coverage. Healthcare workers should take these characteristics into account and be encouraged to proactively propose influenza vaccination to all patients aged ≥ 65 years.

  3. [Efficacy and side effects following immunization with Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z G; Zhou, W Z; Shi, J

    1997-02-01

    Efficacy and side effects following the immunization with Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine (Vi) were assessed. The diluted solution (DS) of Vi was used as placebo. A total number of 777 children and adults were observed for side effect response. Mild and moderate fever appeared 16.93% and 0.05% in Vi group, 15.01% and 0.03% in DS group, respectively (statistically significant). Two cases with mild local reaction were observed in Vi group. A total number of 81,506 vaccinees were investigated on the efficacy of Vi vaccine, using positive blood culture of Salmonolla typhi as a diagnostic criterion. The protective rate and index of vaccine were 71.35% and 3.49% respectively. If 2 cases of positive Widal's test were included in, the protective rate would come up to 78.17% with a protective index 4.85. Clinical data showed that fever seen in the cases in Vi group was much lower than that of DS group. The systematic and local reaction of Vi vaccine were mild. The vaccine is safe and has high protective rate. It can also decrease the degree of fever with only one single dose as primary immunization. We believe Vi vaccine may serve as a vaccine of new generation to be promoted.

  4. Preparation and immunogenicity-evaluation of typhoid O-specific polysaccharides bio-conjugate vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhehui, Peng; Chao, Pan; Peng, Sun; Erling, Feng; Jun, Wu; Li, Zhu; Qingzhong, Peng; Hengliang, Wang

    2015-05-01

    Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Typhi is still a major public health problem in developing countries. In this study, we constructed a genetically modified Salmonella Typhi strain expressing O-specific polysaccharides (OPS) antigen conjugated to a carrier, recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A(rEPA N29). The conjugates (OPS-rEPA N29) were further purified and evaluated for their immunogenicity. The results of ELISA showed that the conjugates evoked higher titers of IgG than OPS, suggesting that rEPAN29 increased immunogenicity of OPS significantly as a carrier. Moreover, three injections with 3-week interval evoked slightly higher titers of IgG than three injections with 2-week interval. However, injection of excess conjugates could not evoke higher titers of IgG against lipid polysaccharide (LPS). In summary, our study provides a new strategy for preparing polysaccharides-protein conjugate vaccines as well as similar bio-conjugate vaccines of other Gram-negative pathogens.

  5. Long-term impact of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination on nasopharyngeal carriage in children previously vaccinated with various pneumococcal conjugate vaccine regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelsen, Laura K; Dunne, Eileen M; Lamb, Karen E; Bright, Kathryn; Cheung, Yin Bun; Tikoduadua, Lisi; Russell, Fiona M; Mulholland, E Kim; Licciardi, Paul V; Satzke, Catherine

    2015-10-13

    Previously, the Fiji Pneumococcal Project (FiPP) evaluated reduced dose immunization schedules that incorporated pneumococcal protein conjugate and/or polysaccharide vaccine (PCV7 and 23vPPV, respectively). Immune hyporesponsiveness was observed in children vaccinated with 23vPPV at 12 months of age compared with children who did not receive 23vPPV. Here we assess the long-term impact of 23vPPV vaccination on nasopharyngeal carriage rates and densities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis. Nasopharyngeal swabs (n=194) were obtained from healthy children who participated in FiPP (now aged 5-7 years). S. pneumoniae were isolated and identified by standard culture-based methods, and serotyped using latex agglutination and the Quellung reaction. Carriage rates and densities of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, S. aureus and M. catarrhalis were determined using real-time quantitative PCR. There were no differences in the rate or density of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae or M. catarrhalis carriage by PCV7 dose or 23vPPV vaccination in the vaccinated participants overall. However, differences were observed between the two main ethnic groups: Fijian children of Indian descent (Indo-Fijian) were less likely to carry S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, and there was evidence of a higher carriage rate of S. aureus compared with indigenous Fijian (iTaukei) children. Polysaccharide vaccination appeared to have effects that varied between ethnic groups, with 23vPPV vaccination associated with a higher carriage rate of S. aureus in iTaukei children, while there was a lower carriage rate of S. pneumoniae associated with 23vPPV vaccination in Indo-Fijian children. Overall, polysaccharide vaccination had no long-term impact on pneumococcal carriage, but may have impacted on S. aureus carriage and have varying effects in ethnic groups, suggesting current WHO vaccine schedule recommendations against the use of 23v

  6. A High-Throughput Size Exclusion Chromatography Method to Determine the Molecular Size Distribution of Meningococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Rahman, K M Taufiqur; Siraj, S M Saad Us; Karim, Mahbubul; Muktadir, Abdul; Maheshwari, Arpan; Kabir, Md Azizul; Nahar, Zebun; Ahasan, Mohammad Mainul

    2016-01-01

    Molecular size distribution of meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine is a readily identifiable parameter that directly correlates with the immunogenicity. In this paper, we report a size exclusion chromatography method to determine the molecular size distribution and distribution coefficient value of meningococcal polysaccharide serogroups A, C, W, and Y in meningococcal polysaccharide (ACWY) vaccines. The analyses were performed on a XK16/70 column packed with sepharose CL-4B with six different batches of Ingovax® ACWY, a meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine produced by Incepta Vaccine Ltd., Bangladesh. A quantitative rocket immunoelectrophoresis assay was employed to determine the polysaccharide contents of each serogroup. The calculated distribution coefficient values of serogroups A, C, W, and Y were found to be 0.26 ± 0.16, 0.21 ± 0.11, 0.21 ± 0.11, and 0.14 ± 0.12, respectively, and met the requirements of British Pharmacopeia. The method was proved to be robust for determining the distribution coefficient values which is an obligatory requirement for vaccine lot release. PMID:27688770

  7. Brucellosis vaccines: assessment of Brucella melitensis lipopolysaccharide rough mutants defective in core and O-polysaccharide synthesis and export.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David González

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The brucellae are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, one of the major neglected zoonoses. In endemic areas, vaccination is the only effective way to control this disease. Brucella melitensis Rev 1 is a vaccine effective against the brucellosis of sheep and goat caused by B. melitensis, the commonest source of human infection. However, Rev 1 carries a smooth lipopolysaccharide with an O-polysaccharide that elicits antibodies interfering in serodiagnosis, a major problem in eradication campaigns. Because of this, rough Brucella mutants lacking the O-polysaccharide have been proposed as vaccines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To examine the possibilities of rough vaccines, we screened B. melitensis for lipopolysaccharide genes and obtained mutants representing all main rough phenotypes with regard to core oligosaccharide and O-polysaccharide synthesis and export. Using the mouse model, mutants were classified into four attenuation patterns according to their multiplication and persistence in spleens at different doses. In macrophages, mutants belonging to three of these attenuation patterns reached the Brucella characteristic intracellular niche and multiplied intracellularly, suggesting that they could be suitable vaccine candidates. Virulence patterns, intracellular behavior and lipopolysaccharide defects roughly correlated with the degree of protection afforded by the mutants upon intraperitoneal vaccination of mice. However, when vaccination was applied by the subcutaneous route, only two mutants matched the protection obtained with Rev 1 albeit at doses one thousand fold higher than this reference vaccine. These mutants, which were blocked in O-polysaccharide export and accumulated internal O-polysaccharides, stimulated weak anti-smooth lipopolysaccharide antibodies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrate that no rough mutant is equal to Rev 1 in laboratory models and question the notion that

  8. Evolution of vaccination rates after the implementation of a free systematic pneumococcal vaccination in Catalonian older adults: 4-years follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansa Xabier

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The systematic vaccination with 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV was introduced as a strategic objective of health for all the people over 65 in Catalonia in 1999. We analysed the evolution of the pneumococcal vaccination rates from 2000 to 2003. Methods We conducted a retrospective population-based study including all the individuals 65 years or older assigned to 8 Primary Care Centres (PCCs in Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain, who figured in the administrative population databases on 31 December 2003 (n = 10,410 persons. We assessed whether every person had received PPV during the last four years (2000 to 2003 or whether they had received it before January 2000. Data sources were the computerised clinical records of the 8 participating PCCs, which included adult vaccination registries and diagnoses coded of International Classification of Diseases 9th Review Results The overall vaccination uptake increased to 38.6% at the end of 2000. Global accumulated coverages increased more slowly the following years: 44.4% in 2001, 50.9% in 2002, and 53.1% at the end of 2003. Vaccine uptake varied significantly according to age (46.7% in people 65–74 years-old, 60.9% in people 75 years or more; p Discussion The pneumococcal vaccination coverage increased quickly after the introduction of the recommendation for free vaccination in all the elderly people (with and without risk factors, but two years after the improvement the coverage became stable and increased slowly.

  9. Vaccination with Astragalus and Ginseng Polysaccharides Improves Immune Response of Chickens against H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auwalu Yusuf Abdullahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of astragalus and ginseng polysaccharides (APS, GPS on immune response and improvement of H5N1 vaccine, 360-day-old broilers were randomly divided into 8 groups of 45 chicks, comprising APS groups (1–3; GPS groups (4–6; vaccine group (7; and blank control (8 (without polysaccharide and vaccine. From day 12 after hatch groups 1–3 were given APS and groups 4–6 with GPS both at 100, 200, and 400 (mg/kg, respectively. At day 15 after hatch, groups 1–7 were vaccinated with 0.3 mL H5N1 vaccine subcutaneously; daily weight gain (DWG and serum Ig antibody (by HI-test were measured on 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after vaccination. Serum antibody titers and expression of cytokines (IL-2, IL-10, I FN-γ, and TNF were determined by ELISA and RT-PCR. Results revealed that all the polysaccharide groups were numerically increased in antibody levels and the expression of cytokines was significant (P<0.05 in the APS and GPS groups compared to corresponding vaccine group and blank control. DWG was higher (P<0.05 in 400 mg/kg APS groups than control groups. Thus oral supplements of GPS and APS have shown their potential in the improvement of immune response and could be used as adjuvant in a formulation of H5N1 vaccine.

  10. Vaccination with Astragalus and Ginseng Polysaccharides Improves Immune Response of Chickens against H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Auwalu Yusuf; Kallon, Sanpha; Yu, Xingang; Zhang, Yongliang; Li, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of astragalus and ginseng polysaccharides (APS, GPS) on immune response and improvement of H5N1 vaccine, 360-day-old broilers were randomly divided into 8 groups of 45 chicks, comprising APS groups (1-3); GPS groups (4-6); vaccine group (7); and blank control (8) (without polysaccharide and vaccine). From day 12 after hatch groups 1-3 were given APS and groups 4-6 with GPS both at 100, 200, and 400 (mg/kg), respectively. At day 15 after hatch, groups 1-7 were vaccinated with 0.3 mL H5N1 vaccine subcutaneously; daily weight gain (DWG) and serum Ig antibody (by HI-test) were measured on 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after vaccination. Serum antibody titers and expression of cytokines (IL-2, IL-10, I FN-γ, and TNF) were determined by ELISA and RT-PCR. Results revealed that all the polysaccharide groups were numerically increased in antibody levels and the expression of cytokines was significant (P < 0.05) in the APS and GPS groups compared to corresponding vaccine group and blank control. DWG was higher (P < 0.05) in 400 mg/kg APS groups than control groups. Thus oral supplements of GPS and APS have shown their potential in the improvement of immune response and could be used as adjuvant in a formulation of H5N1 vaccine. PMID:27597953

  11. Distribution of kappa and lambda light chain isotypes among human blood immunoglobulin-secreting cells after vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann, C; Barington, T

    1989-01-01

    pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), IgM-, IgG- and IgA-secreting cells expressed the kappa light chain isotype in approximately 65% of the cells. IgM- and IgG-secreting cells induced by vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharides had a similar percentage of kappa light chain......-containing cells. In contrast, IgA-secreting cells induced by vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharides showed a different (bimodal) distribution as regards expression of kappa light chain. The majority (56%) of the investigated individuals expressed kappa light chain in approximately 50% of the cells...... chain pattern of IgA-secreting cells from individuals vaccinated with pneumococcal polysaccharides and from unvaccinated individuals probably indicates that these cells are being derived from B-cell clones with a limited idiotypic heterogeneity, which have been selected and clonally expanded...

  12. Specificity of antibody response to 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases%慢性肺部疾病患者接种23价肺炎链球菌多糖疫苗后抗荚膜多糖抗体的特异性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蒙; 赵德育

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨慢性肺部疾病患者接种23价肺炎链球菌多糖疫苗(PPV)后血清中抗肺炎链球菌荚膜多糖(CPS)IgG抗体的特异性.方法 以39例慢性肺部疾病患者为研究对象,分别用第二代和特异性更高的第三代ELISA测定疫苗接种前、后血清中的肺炎链球菌6B、19F和23F三种血清型的特异性IgG抗体浓度.结果 用第三代ELISA测得的患者血清中血清型特异性IgG抗体水平比用第二代ELISA测得的抗体水平显著降低.无论是PPV接种前的自然感染,还是PPV接种后的主动免疫,慢性肺部疾病患者血中产生的抗CPS-IgG中都有大约一半的非特异性抗体.结论 PPV接种并不能提高慢性肺部疾病患者血中的特异性抗CPS-IgG的比例.

  13. 上海市静安区60岁以上老年人接种23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗效果评估%Evaluation of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine immunization among people aged > 60 years in Jing'an, Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高洁; 何永频; 沈冰; 胡宏; 卑伟慧; 徐翠伟

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解60岁以上户籍老年人免费接种23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗(肺炎疫苗)对静安区老年人健康水平的影响.方法 采用回顾性队列研究,选取接种组和未接种组老年人各500名,按性别、年龄1∶1匹配,回顾性调查两组对象呼吸道感染发生情况.结果 肺炎疫苗对75岁以上老年人呼吸道感染的保护率为53.00%(95% CI:11.00% ~77.00%),对肺炎发病的保护率为87.00%(95%CI:1.00% ~99.80%).结论 接种肺炎疫苗对静安区老年人肺炎及其他呼吸道感染发病有保护作用,应继续努力推进老年人接种肺炎疫苗项目进展.

  14. Development and validation of a molecular size distribution method for polysaccharide vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, G; Dierick, J-F; Lenfant, C; Giffroy, D

    2014-01-01

    Determination of the molecular size distribution of vaccine products by high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled to refractive index detection is important during the manufacturing process. Partial elution of high molecular weight compounds in the void volume of the chromatographic column is responsible for variation in the results obtained with a reference method using a TSK G5000PWXL chromatographic column. GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines has developed an alternative method relying on the selection of a different chromatographic column with a wider separation range and the generation of a dextran calibration curve to determine the optimal molecular weight cut-off values for all tested products. Validation of this method was performed according to The International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The new method detected product degradation with the same sensitivity as that observed for the reference method. All validation parameters were within the pre-specified range. Precision (relative standard deviation (RSD) of mean values) was 70 per cent for all polysaccharide conjugates and for the Haemophilus influenzae type B final container vaccine. All results obtained for robustness met the acceptance criteria defined in the validation protocol (≤ 2 times (RSD) or ≤ 2 per cent difference between the modified and the reference parameter value if RSD = 0 per cent). The new method was shown to be a suitable quality control method for the release and stability follow-up of polysaccharide-containing vaccines. The new method gave comparable results to the reference method, but with less intra- and inter-assay variability. PMID:25655242

  15. Immunogenicity of a new Salmonella Typhi Vi polysaccharide vaccine--vax-TyVi--in Cuban school children and teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azze, Rolando Felipe Ochoa; Rodríguez, Juan Carlos Martínez; Iniesta, Mónica Ginebra; Marchena, Xenia Rosa Ferriol; Alfonso, Vivian María Rodríguez; Padrón, Franklin Tomás Sotolongo

    2003-06-20

    A randomized, controlled, double blind study was carried out in Cuban children and teenagers aged 9-13 years to evaluate the immunogenicity of vax-TyVi-Salmonella Typhi Vi polysaccharide vaccine-with respect control vaccines. Serum samples were taken before and 21 days after the immunization, and ELISA was used for the determination of antibodies to Vi polysaccharide. Subjects who received vax-TyVi and TYPHIM Vi (Pasteur-Mérieux) showed seroconversion rates of 85.61 and 78.36%, respectively. The geometric mean titer (GMT) values for Vi antibodies induced after vaccination were 6.27 microg/ml (5.40-7.38 microg/ml) and 5.97 microg/ml (5.01-7.10 microg/ml), respectively. In contrast, subjects receiving the tetanus toxoid vaccine showed 0% seroconversion.

  16. Impaired antibody response after immunization of HIV-infected individuals with the polysaccharide vaccine against Salmonella typhi (Typhim-Vi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, F P; van Dissel, J T; Ravensbergen, E; Nibbering, P H; van Furth, R

    1999-08-01

    Infections with Salmonella species, including Salmonella typhi, are more frequently observed in HIV-infected individuals than in healthy individuals. HIV-infected individuals were vaccinated with polysaccharide vaccine against Salmonella typhi (Typhim-Vi) which is assumed to be a T-cell-independent antigen. We found that the antibody response in patients with or = 200 x 10(6)/l CD4+ T lymphocytes and healthy controls. The antibody response after vaccination with the polysaccharide salmonella Vi-antigen was correlated with the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes and therefore Typhim-Vi can be considered to be a T-cell-independent type 2 antigen. The results of this study indicate that after vaccination the proportion of HIV-infected individuals with protective antibody concentrations against Salmonella typhi will be lower than in healthy controls.

  17. Immunological evaluation of Vi capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella enterica subsp. Typhi vaccine by serum bactericidal assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, H; Tabaraie, B; Maleknia, S; Shapouri, R; Nejati, M; Pour Mirza Gholi, F; Hedayati, M; Sadati, M; Zahednia, S; Sharifat Salmani, A

    2013-02-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. Typhi (S. Typhi) Vi antigen capsular polysaccharide (Vi-CPS) is a licensed vaccine against typhoid fever. As there is no animal model for S. Typhi fever to evaluate the protective efficacy of the Vi-CPS vaccine, a serum bactericidal assay (SBA) is the recommended 'gold standard' to evaluate its potency. Vi-CPS was extracted from S. Typhi Ty6S (CSBPI-B191) using a modified Gotschlich method. Purified Vi-CPS (50 µg) was injected intramuscularly into three groups of five rabbits; group 2 received an additional booster dose of 50 µg Vi-CPS on day 15 and group 3 received two additional boosters on days 15 and 30. The sera obtained from each group were tested by SBA on days 0, 15, 30 and 45. The anti-Vi-CPS titres for groups 1, 2 and 3 on days 15, 30 and 45 were 4, 16 and 16; 4, 32 and 32; and 16, 64 and 64, respectively. Thus, Vi-CPS was shown to be a potent immunogen, as even one dose could induce an efficient bactericidal effect against S. Typhi. Although Vi-CPS is a reliable vaccine, sometimes depolymerization during purification can affect its potency, which can be resolved through a potency test. As the passive haemagglutination test recommended by the World Health Organization does not indicate vaccine potency, we recommend using an SBA to evaluate the bactericidal ability of Vi-CPS.

  18. The assessment of antibody response following immunization with polysaccharide vaccine in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghamohammadi A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: An increased risk for invasive infections with encapsulated bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae has been described in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD or in those on dialysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibody response to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine in CKD patients. "n"nMethods : Sixty-six patients with CKD and 40 healthy individuals were vaccinated with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. The serum antibody response (IgG and IgG2 to the Pneumovax antigens was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA prior to and four weeks after vaccination."n"nResults : Out of 66 vaccinated patients with CKD, 14 were found to be hyporesponsive to the vaccine (Group 1. Patients with normal specific antibody response were regarded as respondents and were assigned to Group 2 (n=52. The mean post-vaccination IgG titer to the pneumococcal antigens in Group 1 was significantly lower than those in Group 2 (P=0.012 for IgG and P=0.02 for IgG2. The increased anti-pneumococcal IgG titer was significantly lower in patients in Group 1 versus Group 2 (P=0.001 or the healthy control group (P=0.005. During the follow-up period of patients, patients in Group 1 developed

  19. Duration of Vi antibodies in participants vaccinated with Typhim Vi (Typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine) in an area not endemic for typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froeschle, James E; Decker, Michael D

    2010-02-10

    After a single injection of Typhim Vi (typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine), serum antibody concentrations were monitored for 3 years in 37 adults who resided where typhoid fever was not endemic. Anti-Vi antibody concentrations declined progressively during the study, to levels that support the current US recommendation for revaccination every 2 years.

  20. [Prophylaxis of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Outbreaks with Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine. Prospects Analysis for Russian Military Community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guchev, I A; Klochkov, O I; Sinopalnikov, A I

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococcal pneumonia and other diseases caused by pneumococci still remain the main factors of high morbidity and mortality rates throughout the world. Pneumococci as the leading pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), acute otitis media and sinusitis also cause a number of other serious systemic disorders including invasive infections with high mortality in spite of the antimicrobial resistance status and adequate antimicrobials choice. Pneumococcal infections are responsible for 5-35% or more of community-acquired pneumonias. The burden of pneumonia (up to 100-200 per thousand) is recorded among military recruits in training centers. Since the specific environment of the soldiers could be carrected, their health protection requires medical surveillance. For these reasons, polysaccharide and more immunogenic conjugated pneumococcal vaccines were developed. There is now an urgent need to understand whether such vaccines are effective in military conscripts. Controversy about the effectiveness and value of the polysaccharide (PPV-23) vaccine as a CAP morbidity restriction measure still persists. There were implemented plenty of metaanalyses of pneumococcal vaccines in adults. Some of them showed that the vaccine was effective against bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia in 'low risk' healthy adults and elders. There have been a number of poor quality observational studies in Russia where 'all pneumonia cases' were considered as an endpoint. It remains controversial whether these observational studies provide adequate evidence to justify the use of the polysaccharide vaccine in the groups of healthy young men for whom it is being advocated. In our analysis we found weak evidence supporting pneumococcal vaccination with PPV-23 for this group. Nevertheless, favorable tendency was found to immunize. It is the reason for a trail to find pharmacoepidemiological support for vaccination by novel conjugated vaccines with better immunogenicity. PMID:27337866

  1. High throughput screening of particle conditioning operations: II. Evaluation of scale-up heuristics with prokaryotically expressed polysaccharide vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Aaron; Huffman, Ben; Berrill, Alex; Merchant, Nick; Godavarti, Ranga; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel; Coffman, Jonathan; Sunasara, Khurram; Mukhopadhyay, Tarit

    2015-08-01

    Multivalent polysaccharide conjugate vaccines are typically comprised of several different polysaccharides produced with distinct and complex production processes. Particle conditioning steps, such as precipitation and flocculation, may be used to aid the recovery and purification of such microbial vaccine products. An ultra scale-down approach to purify vaccine polysaccharides at the micro-scale would greatly enhance productivity, robustness, and speed the development of novel conjugate vaccines. In part one of this series, we described a modular and high throughput approach to develop particle conditioning processes (HTPC) for biologicals that combines flocculation, solids removal, and streamlined analytics. In this second part of the series, we applied HTPC to industrially relevant feedstreams comprised of capsular polysaccharides (CPS) from several bacterial species. The scalability of HTPC was evaluated between 0.8 mL and 13 L scales, with several different scaling methodologies examined. Clarification, polysaccharide yield, impurity clearance, and product quality achieved with HTPC were reproducible and comparable with larger scales. Particle sizing was the response with greatest sensitivity to differences in processing scale and enabled the identification of useful scaling rules. Scaling with constant impeller tip speed or power per volume in the impeller swept zone offered the most accurate scale up, with evidence that time integration of these values provided the optimal basis for scaling. The capability to develop a process at the micro-scale combined with evidence-based scaling metrics provide a significant advance for purification process development of vaccine processes. The USD system offers similar opportunities for HTPC of proteins and other complex biological molecules. PMID:25727194

  2. Radiation-therapeutic properties of living and killed antitularensis vaccine applied after polysaccharide modulation of immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The popular conception of modern immunology that the most reliable remedy against tularensis infection is the living antitularensis vaccine is considered. Similar conception exists in the radiobiology, where the radioresistance enhancement with different biological response modifiers is mainly due to the stimulation of the cell mediated immune protection. The comparative study is performed of the radiotherapeutic features of living and killed antitularensis vaccines, applied after polysaccharide stimulation. It is established that the best effect has been observed with the killed antitularensis vaccine applied 14 days before gamma irradiation (cobalt-60, 6.8 Gy). (author)

  3. Adjuvant Activity of Sargassum pallidum Polysaccharides against Combined Newcastle Disease, Infectious Bronchitis and Avian Influenza Inactivated Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jie Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effects of Sargassum pallidum polysaccharides (SPP on the immune responses in a chicken model. The adjuvanticity of Sargassum pallidum polysaccharides in Newcastle disease (ND, infectious bronchitis (IB and avian influenza (AI was investigated by examining the antibody titers and lymphocyte proliferation following immunization in chickens. The chickens were administrated combined ND, IB and AI inactivated vaccines containing SPP at 10, 30 and 50 mg/mL, using an oil adjuvant vaccine as a control. The ND, IB and AI antibody titers and the lymphocyte proliferation were enhanced at 30 mg/mL SPP. In conclusion, an appropriate dose of SPP may be a safe and efficacious immune stimulator candidate that is suitable for vaccines to produce early and persistent prophylaxis.

  4. Long-term thermal stability of group C meningococcal polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shwu-Maan; Petermann, Robert; Porte, Quallyna; Berezuk, Greg; Crowe, Brian; Shirtz, John

    2007-01-01

    The stability of vaccines during storage and handling is a prerequisite for optimal potency at the time of immunization. Meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines have been successfully incorporated in mass immunization programs, however, thus far no long-term real-time stability studies of these vaccines have been reported. Stability of de-O-acetylated group C meningococcal polysaccharide coupled to tetanus toxoid (GCMP-TT) was evaluated in real time on the basis of immunogenicity and physiochemical properties. The vaccine is formulated as a 0.5 mL suspension containing 10 mug GCMP conjugated to 10-20 mug of TT adsorbed on 0.5 mg aluminum in saline. The single dose syringes were stored under refrigeration (5 +/- 3 degrees C) and at room temperature (25 +/- 2 degrees C) for up to 42 months and at elevated temperature (40 +/- 2 degrees C) for up to 6 months. At both refrigerated and room temperatures, no time-dependent change in animal potency was detectable through 42 months. After the nine months maximum recommended storage period at room temperature, 96% of the baseline serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titer was maintained. Time-dependent decreases in SBA level and anti-GCMP-TT IgG level were observed at 40 +/- 2 degrees C. No changes in GCMP-TT adsorption and pH occurred in all the studies. Loss of integrity increased over six months at 40 +/- 2 degrees C (p = 0.004). Free sugar content did not change over 36 months under refrigeration. GCMP-TT retained immunogenicity and physicochemical properties under refrigeration and at room temperature (25 +/- 2 degrees C) for up to 42 months.

  5. Protecting the herd: the remarkable effectiveness of the bacterial meningitis polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines in altering transmission dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, David S

    2011-01-01

    Interrupting human-to-human transmission of the agents (Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae) of bacterial meningitis by new capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (PPCVs) has proven to be a remarkable (and unanticipated) contributor to vaccine effectiveness. Herd immunity accounts for ∼50% of the protection by meningococcal serogroup C PPCVs, pneumococcal PPCV7, and H. influenzae b PPCVs. Nasopharyngeal carriage can be reduced ≥75% for vaccine serotypes; the decrease in carriage is correlated with disease reduction in unvaccinated individuals, and the impact of herd immunity lasts for years. Based on these data, models for using herd immunity in vaccine-based prevention strategies are underway for control of meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the immunologic basis of herd immunity and impact on microbial biology need more study, protecting the unvaccinated by altering pathogen transmission dynamics is a powerful effect of PPCVs and increasingly important in vaccine introduction, implementation, and evaluation strategies.

  6. Efficacy of Artemisia annua polysaccharides as an adjuvant to hepatitis C vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, L D; Ren, X H; Ma, R L; Wang, Y; Yuan, H W; Lv, H J

    2015-01-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine Artemisia annua can prevent and treat hepatitis following an unclear mechanism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of A. annua polysaccharides (AAP) on hepatitis C virus (HCV). A pcDNA3.1/NS3 expression vector was constructed. Ninety female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into six groups: high-dose AAP (1 mg/mL) + HCV/NS3 plasmid; middle-dose AAP (0.5 mg/mL) + HCV/NS3 plasmid; low-dose AAP (0.1 mg/mL) + HCV/NS3 plasmid; HCV/NS3 plasmid; high-dose AAP (1 mg/mL); normal saline control (N = 15). Except the control group and the high-dose AAP group, other groups were inoculated with 50 μg pcDNA3.1-HCV/NS3 plasmid. Serum antigenic-specific antibody was detected after the last immunization, and the levels of secreted IFN-γ and IL-4 were measured. pcDNA3.1/NS3 plasmid was successfully constructed, and the extracted product contained HCV/NS3 sequence. Compared with single inoculation with HCV/NS3 DNA vaccine, the specific antibody levels induced by middle-dose AAP plus HCV/NS3 DNA vaccine were significantly different in weeks 1, 3 and 5 (P 0.05). The level of serum IFN-γ secretion was significantly higher than that of IL-4 secretion. Compared with the single HCV/NS3 DNA vaccine group, AAP plus HCV/NS3 DNA vaccine groups had significant increased IFN-γ levels (P 0.05). AAP, as the adjuvant of HCV/NS3 DNA vaccine, can widely regulate the humoral immunity and cellular immune function of normal and cyclophosphamide-induced immunocompromised mice. AAP can promote IFN-γ secretion probably by inducing Th1-type cellular immune response. PMID:25966271

  7. Advances in pneumococcal vaccines: what are the advantages for the elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Córcoles, Angel

    2007-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the elderly. There are three established approaches to pneumococcal vaccination: polysaccharide vaccines, protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines and protein-based vaccines. This article reviews advances in anti-pneumococcal vaccines, with reference to advantages and shortcomings for the elderly in particular. The 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV) is currently recommended for high-risk patients and the general elderly population. Although the effectiveness of PPV against pneumonia is unclear, recent studies point to significant protective effects in preventing pneumococcal pneumonia and reducing the severity of disease in vaccinated elderly patients. PPV offers high serotype coverage and, although it is poorly immunogenic in some individuals, provides approximately 60% protection against invasive disease in the general elderly population. PPV vaccination appears cost effective for elderly patients although the vaccine might only be effective in preventing invasive disease. Additional benefits could mean a greater level of vaccine cost effectiveness. However, it is important to understand that PPV provides incomplete protection, especially in those with underlying high-risk conditions, and development of more effective pneumococcal vaccination strategies for elderly patients is still needed. In recent years, the most important advance in the prevention of pneumococcal infections in the elderly has been the introduction of a 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (CPV) as a routine vaccination for infants. In addition to dramatically reducing invasive infection in children, CPV has been observed to have a considerable indirect protective effect in parents and grandparents. While the possibility of using CPV in elderly patients has been suggested, currently there are only limited immunogenicity data and no efficacy data in adults. The low serotype coverage is an important

  8. Efficacy of a locally produced, Chinese Vi polysaccharide typhoid fever vaccine during six years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Camilo J; Hong-Hui, Yang; Ning, Wang; Qion, Gao; Qun, Deng; Xiaolei, Ma; Baode, Zhou; Liu, Wei; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Ochiai, R Leon; Wang, Xuan-Yi; Kim, Deok-Ryun; Zhi-Yi, Xu; Bai-Qing, Dong; Galindo, Claudia M; Clemens, John D

    2005-12-01

    A locally produced Vi polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever was licensed in China following two placebo-controlled, efficacy trials conducted in the early 1990s in Baoying, Jiangsu Province, and Quan-zhou, Guangxi Province. The two trials each enrolled over 80,000 participants and followed participants for 12 and 19 months post-vaccination, respectively. To define the long-term efficacy of this vaccine, we retrospectively assessed the occurrence of typhoid fever, diagnosed with clinical and serological criteria, in the two study populations for 6 years following vaccination. During the second year following vaccination, vaccine efficacy was 100% (95% CI: 17%, 100%) in Baoying and 85% (95% CI: 49%, 96%) in Quan-zhou. There was suggestive protection (51%; PE: -95%, 88%) during the third year in Baoying, nearly identical to the level observed in the third year of an earlier trial in South Africa. These results confirm that this vaccine protects for at least 2 years, and are consistent with the assertion that the vaccine protects for at least 3 years.

  9. Specific medicinal plant polysaccharides effectively enhance the potency of a DC-based vaccine against mouse mammary tumor metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ting Chang

    Full Text Available Dendritic cell (DC vaccines are a newly emerging immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment and prevention of cancer, but major challenges still remain particularly with respect to clinical efficacy. Engineering and optimization of adjuvant formulations for DC-based vaccines is one strategy through which more efficacious treatments may be obtained. In this study, we developed a new ex vivo approach for DC vaccine preparation. We evaluated two highly purified mixed polysaccharide fractions from the root of Astragalus membranaceus and Codonopsis pilosulae, named Am and Cp, for their use in enhancing the efficiency of a DC-based cancer vaccine against metastasis of 4T1 mammary carcinoma in mice. Mixed lymphocyte reaction showed all Am-, Cp- and [Am+Cp]-treated DCs enhanced mouse CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell proliferation. [Am+Cp]-treated DCs exhibited the strongest anti-4T1 metastasis activity in test mice. Treatments with Am, Cp and [Am+Cp] also resulted in augmented expression of CD40, CD80 and CD86 markers in test DCs. Bioinformatics analysis of the cytokine array data from treated DCs identified that [Am+Cp] is efficacious in activation of specific immune functions via mediating the expression of cytokines/chemokines involved in the recruitment and differentiation of defined immune cells. Biochemical analysis revealed that Am and Cp are composed mainly of polysaccharides containing a high level (70-95% glucose residues, but few or no (< 1% mannose residues. In summary, our findings suggest that the specific plant polysaccharides Am and Cp extracted from traditional Chinese medicines can be effectively used instead of bacterial LPS as a potent adjuvant in the formulation of a DC-based vaccine for cancer immunotherapies.

  10. Comparison of the immunogenicity and safety of two different brands of salmonella typhi VI capsular polysaccharide vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabitha P

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The recent emergence of multi-drug-resistant Salmonella strains highlights the need for better preventive measures, including vaccination. Safeand immunologic vaccines have been developed based on purified VI polysaccharide. OBJECTIVE: To compare the immune response elicited by two different brands of Salmonella Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine (ViCPS. SETTING AND DESIGN: Double blind, randomized (3:1, controlled, parallel, phase III study was conducted at two centres in India to compare the safety and immunogenicity of TypbarTM, the investigational vaccine with an already marketed vaccine "X", in healthy subjects aged between 12 -25 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A sample size of 184 subjects was calculated. Subjects were randomly distributed in two groups, immunized with single dose of TypbarTM or Vaccine "X". Serum samples were taken before 7 days and 4 weeks after immunization for the determination of antibodies to Vi polysaccharide, by ELISA method. Safety was assessed by physical examination, laboratory parameters before and after vaccination and by monitoring adverse events. Statistics: The geometric mean antibody titre (GMT 4 weeks after vaccination was compared from respective pre-vaccination values by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Geometric mean of antibody levels before and after immunization and the ratio between them (Mann-Whitney test, the Seroconversion rates (Z test of proportions and the adverse events (Fisher′s exact testand Chi square test, were compared between two groups. P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. P values and 95% confidence intervals were estimated in two-tailed fashion. RESULTS: 153 subjects (TypbarTM =116 and Vaccine "X" =37 were studied. 71.6% (95% CI=63.4%-79.8% and 75.7% (95% CI=64.9% - 89.5% were the seroconversion rates with TypbarTM and vaccine "X" respectively. The GMT values for Vi antibodies induced after TypbarTM and vaccine "X" were 10.23 TypbarTM and 13.46 mg

  11. Immunological efficacy of pneumococcal vaccine strategies in HIV-infected adults: a randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadlier, C.; O’Dea, S.; Bennett, K.; Dunne, J.; Conlon, N.; Bergin, C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the immunologic response to a prime-boost immunization strategy combining the 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) with the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPSV23) versus the PPSV23 alone in HIV-infected adults. HIV-infected adults were randomized to receive PCV13 at week 0 followed by PPSV23 at week 4 (n = 31, prime-boost group) or PPSV23 alone at week 4 (n = 33, PPSV23-alone group). Serotype specific IgG geometric mean concentration (GMC) and functional oposonophagocytic (OPA) geometric mean titer (GMT) were compared for 12 pneumococcal serotypes shared by both vaccines at week 8 and week 28. The prime-boost vaccine group were more likely to achieve a ≥2-fold increase in IgG GMC and a GMC >1 ug/ml at week 8 (odds ratio (OR) 2.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.46–2.74, p < 0.01) and week 28 (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.40–2.70, p < 0.01). Similarly, the prime-boost vaccine group were more likely to achieve a ≥4-fold increase in GMT at week 8 (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.22–2.39, p < 0.01) and week 28 (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.15–2.3, p < 0.01). This study adds to evidence supporting current pneumococcal vaccination recommendations combining the conjugate and polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines in the United States and Europe for HIV-infected individuals. PMID:27580688

  12. Evaluation in mice of a conjugate vaccine for cholera made from Vibrio cholerae O1 (Ogawa O-specific polysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Murshid Alam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protective immunity against cholera is serogroup specific. Serogroup specificity in Vibrio cholerae is determined by the O-specific polysaccharide (OSP of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Generally, polysaccharides are poorly immunogenic, especially in young children. METHODOLOGY: Here we report the evaluation in mice of a conjugate vaccine for cholera (OSP:TThc made from V. cholerae O1 Ogawa O-Specific Polysaccharide-core (OSP and recombinant tetanus toxoid heavy chain fragment (TThc. We immunized mice intramuscularly on days 0, 21, and 42 with OSP:TThc or OSP only, with or without dmLT, a non-toxigenic immunoadjuvant derived from heat labile toxin of Escherichia coli. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We detected significant serum IgG antibody responses targeting OSP following a single immunization in mice receiving OSP:TThc with or without adjuvant. Anti-LPS IgG responses were detected following a second immunization in these cohorts. No anti-OSP or anti-LPS IgG responses were detected at any time in animals receiving un-conjugated OSP with or without immunoadjuvant, and in animals receiving immunoadjuvant alone. Responses were highest following immunization with adjuvant. Serum anti-OSP IgM responses were detected in mice receiving OSP:TThc with or without immunoadjuvant, and in mice receiving unconjugated OSP. Serum anti-LPS IgM and vibriocidal responses were detected in all vaccine cohorts except in mice receiving immunoadjuvant alone. No significant IgA anti-OSP or anti-LPS responses developed in any group. Administration of OSP:TThc and adjuvant also induced memory B cell responses targeting OSP and resulted in 95% protective efficacy in a mouse lethality cholera challenge model. CONCLUSION: We describe a protectively immunogenic cholera conjugate in mice. Development of a cholera conjugate vaccine could assist in inducing long-term protective immunity, especially in young children who respond poorly to polysaccharide antigens.

  13. [Invasive pneumococcal disease in two non-vaccinated pediatric cases: pleural empyema and bacteremia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanık Yüksek, Saliha; Gülhan, Belgin; Tezer, Hasan; Özkaya Parlakay, Aslınur; Uzun Kenan, Bahriye; Sayed Oskovi, Hülya; Nar Ötgün, Selin

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive diplococcus, is the causative agent of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) characterized by severe infections such as bacteraemia, sepsis and meningitis. S.pneumoniae and IPDs are situated in the focus of the vaccine studies because of being encompassed of a significant burden of disease in the world, severe mortality and morbidities, and location in vaccine-preventable diseases group. Although S.pneumoniae has more than 90 defined serotypes, certain serotypes are often identified as the cause of IPDs. Individuals with comorbid and chronic diseases, primary or secondary immune deficiencies, and 65 years of age are at increased risk for IPDs. Currently, a 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine and also 7, 10 and 13 valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCV) have been produced for pneumococci. Phase studies of protein based vaccines, which will provide protection independent of serotypes, and 15-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine are still ongoing. In Turkey, in November 2008 PCV7 and in April 2011 PCV13 have been implemented in the national immunization program. First case of the pneumococcal unvaccinated cases presented in this report was a 6-year-old girl patient with pneumonia and pleural empyema due to S.pneumoniae serotype 1, without any underlying risk factors. The other case is a 52-days-old male patient, who had a history of pneumococcal septicemia in the newborn period and was followed for bacteremia associated S.pneumoniae serotype 12B and diagnosed as complement deficiency on follow-up. S.pneumoniae serotype 1 is within serotypes covered by 10 and 13 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine that are in use today, and is a highly invasive strain often isolated in pneumococcal lobar pneumonia and empyema. S.pneumoniae serotype 12B is a non-vaccine serotype not included in any of conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines, and usually obtained in respiratory infections and

  14. An outbreak of typhoid fever, Xing-An County, People's Republic of China, 1999: estimation of the field effectiveness of Vi polysaccharide typhoid vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H H; Kilgore, P E; Yang, L H; Park, J K; Pan, Y F; Kim, Y; Lee, Y J; Xu, Z Y; Clemens, J D

    2001-06-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Vi polysaccharide vaccine (Vi vaccine) in preventing typhoid fever, an analysis was done of an outbreak of typhoid fever among students attending a middle school in the People's Republic of China, where Vi vaccine is licensed for use. Vi vaccine effectiveness was analyzed by using Cox proportional hazards modeling to account for the time-dependent nature of vaccination and illness status during the outbreak. Among 1260 students who had been immunized before the outbreak, receipt of Vi vaccine was associated with 73% (95% confidence interval [CI], 32%-89%) protection. Among the additional 441 students immunized during the outbreak, receipt of Vi vaccine was associated with 71% (95% CI, -9% to 92%) protection. These results provide the first evidence about the effectiveness of Vi vaccine when deployed routinely in a typhoid-endemic area and support the use of Vi vaccine as a public health tool to control typhoid fever.

  15. Cross-reactive immune response induced by the Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine against Salmonella Paratyphi strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakkanen, S H; Kantele, J M; Kantele, A

    2014-03-01

    There are no vaccines in clinical use against paratyphoid fever, caused by Salmonella Paratyphi A and B or, rarely, C. Oral Salmonella Typhi Ty21a typhoid vaccine elicits a significant cross-reactive immune response against S. Paratyphi A and B, and some reports suggest cross-protective efficacy against the disease. These findings are ascribed to the O-12 antigen shared between the strains. The Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine has been shown to elicit antibodies reactive with O-9,12. Twenty-five volunteers immunized with the parenteral Vi vaccine (Typherix(®) ) were explored for plasmablasts cross-reactive with paratyphoid strains; the responses were compared to those in 25 age- and gender-matched volunteers immunized with Ty21a (Vivotif(®) ). Before vaccination, 48/50 vaccinees had no plasmablasts reactive with the antigens. Seven days after vaccination, 15/25 and 22/25 Vi- and Ty21a-vaccinated volunteers had circulating plasmablasts producing antibodies cross-reactive with S. Paratyphi A, 18/25 and 23/25 with S. Paratyphi B and 16/25 and 9/25 with Paratyphi C, respectively. Compared to the Ty21a group, the Vi group showed significantly lower responses to S. Paratyphi A and B and higher to S. Paratyphi C. To conclude, the Vi vaccine elicited a cross-reactive plasmablast response to S. Paratyphi C (Vi antigen in common) and less marked responses to S. Paratyphi A and B than the Ty21a preparation. S. Paratyphi A and B both being Vi-negative, the result can be explained by trace amounts of bacterial cell wall O-12 antigen in the Vi preparation, despite purification. The clinical significance of this finding remains to be determined.

  16. Stimulation of protective antibodies against type Ia and Ib group B streptococci by a type Ia polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    Wessels, M R; Paoletti, L C; Rodewald, A K; Michon, F; DiFabio, J; Jennings, H J; Kasper, D L

    1993-01-01

    Antisera elicited by type Ia group B streptococci (GBS) contain antibodies that react with both type Ia and type Ib strains. Previous studies suggested that antibodies elicited by type Ia organisms recognized a carbohydrate antigen or epitope common to Ia and Ib strains. We now report the synthesis and immunogenicity testing of a type Ia polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid (Ia-TT) conjugate vaccine. Ia-TT elicited type Ia polysaccharide-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies in all three of the rabbi...

  17. A mass vaccination campaign targeting adults and children to prevent typhoid fever in Hechi; Expanding the use of Vi polysaccharide vaccine in Southeast China: A cluster-randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Hong-hui; Liang Gui-chen; Ivanoff Bernard; Ali Mohammad; Park Jin-Kyung; Gong Jian; Tang Zhen-zhu; Tan Dong-mei; Wang Ming-liu; Liao He-zhuang; Zhou Bao-de; Zhang Jie; Danovaro-Holliday M Carolina; Page Anne-Laure; Ochiai R Leon

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background One of the goals of this study was to learn the coverage, safety and logistics of a mass vaccination campaign against typhoid fever in children and adults using locally produced typhoid Vi polysaccharide (PS) and group A meningococcal PS vaccines in southern China. Methods The vaccination campaign targeted 118,588 persons in Hechi, Guangxi Province, aged between 5 to 60 years, in 2003. The study area was divided into 107 geographic clusters, which were randomly allocated t...

  18. Salivary and Serum Antibody Response Against Neisseria meningitidis After Vaccination With Conjugate Polysaccharide Vaccines in Ethiopian Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bårnes, G K; Workalemahu, B; Kristiansen, P A; Beyene, D; Merdekios, B; Fissiha, P; Aseffa, A; Caugant, D A; Naess, L M

    2016-08-01

    Meningococcal conjugate vaccines induce serum antibodies crucial for protection against invasive disease. Salivary antibodies are believed to be important for hindering meningococcal acquisition and/or clearance of established carriage. In this study, we measured salivary IgA and IgG antibodies induced by vaccination with a monovalent serogroup A conjugate vaccine or a tetravalent A, C, W and Y conjugate vaccine, in comparison with antibody levels in serum. Saliva and serum samples from Ethiopian volunteers (1-29 years) collected before and eight times on a weekly basis after receiving the serogroup A conjugate vaccine, the tetravalent serogroup A, C, W and Y conjugate vaccine, or no vaccine (control group), were analysed using a multiplex microsphere immunoassay for antibody detection. Serogroup-specific IgG antibody levels in saliva increased significantly after vaccination with both vaccines. The monovalent serogroup A vaccine also induced an increase in salivary IgA antibodies. A strong correlation between serogroup-specific IgG antibodies in saliva and serum, and a somewhat lower correlation for IgA, was observed for all serogroups. There was also a strong correlation between specific secretory IgA and IgA antibodies in saliva for all serogroups. Meningococcal conjugate vaccines are able to elicit salivary antibodies against serogroup A, C, W and Y correlating with antibody levels in serum. The strong correlation between saliva and serum antibody levels indicates that saliva may be used as a surrogate of systemic antibody responses. PMID:27219622

  19. The Adjuvant Activity of Epimedium Polysaccharide-Propolis Flavone Liposome on Enhancing Immune Responses to Inactivated Porcine Circovirus Vaccine in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yunpeng Fan; Liwei Guo; Weifeng Hou; Chao Guo; Weimin Zhang; Xia Ma; Lin Ma; Xiaoping Song

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The adjuvant activity of Epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone liposome (EPL) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Methods. In vitro, the effects of EPL at different concentrations on splenic lymphocytes proliferation and mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-6 were determined. In vivo, the adjuvant activities of EPL, EP, and mineral oil were compared in BALB/c mice through vaccination with inactivated porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine. Results. In vitro, EPL promoted lymph...

  20. Brucella abortus 1119-3 O-chain polysaccharide to differentiate sera from B. abortus S-19-vaccinated and field-strain-infected cattle by agar gel immunodiffusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Cherwonogrodzky, J W; Nielsen, K H

    1988-01-01

    Purified Brucella abortus 1119-3 and Brucella melitensis 16M lipopolysaccharide O-chain polysaccharides were not precipitated in agar gel immunodiffusion by any of 24 sera from vaccinated cattle but were precipitated by 18 of 24 sera from infected cattle. This difference can be used to differentiate sera of cattle vaccinated with B. abortus S-19 from sera of some field-strain-infected cattle.

  1. Immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide CRM conjugate vaccine in infants and toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Tregnaghi

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: MenACWY-CRM vaccination regimens in infants and toddlers were immunogenic and well tolerated. No clinically meaningful effects of concomitant administration with routine infant and toddler vaccines were observed.

  2. Antigen Processing of the Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Carrier Protein CRM197 Differs Depending on the Serotype of the Attached Polysaccharide

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Ethan G.; Canaday, David H.; Harding, Clifford V.; Schreiber, John R.

    2003-01-01

    The pneumococcal (Pn) conjugate vaccine includes seven different polysaccharides (PS) conjugated to CRM197. Utilizing antigen-processing cells and a CRM197-specific mouse T-cell hybridoma, we found that the serotype of conjugated PnPS dramatically affected antigen processing of CRM197. Unconjugated CRM197 and serotype conjugates 14 and 18C were processed more efficiently.

  3. Serotype-specific immunoglobulin G antibody responses to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in children with sickle cell anemia : Effects of continued penicillin prophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjornson, AB; Falletta, JM; Verter, JI; Buchanan, GR; Miller, ST; Pegelow, CH; Iyer, RV; Johnstone, HS; DeBaun, MR; Wethers, DL; Woods, GM; Holbrook, CT; Becton, DL; Kinney, TR; Reaman, GH; Kalinyak, K; Grossman, NJ; Vichinsky, E; Reid, CD

    1996-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To determine serotype-specific IgG antibody responses to reimmunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at age 5 years ski children with sickle cell anemia and (2) to determine whether continued penicillin prophylaxis had any adverse effects on these responses. Study design:

  4. 对多糖类疫苗免疫应答的研究进展%Advances in the research of immune responses to polysaccharide vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 朱为

    2009-01-01

    某些有荚膜的细菌,如b型流感嗜血杆菌、脑膜炎球菌和肺炎链球菌,其荚膜多糖可以开发成疫苗,但对儿童的免疫原性低,只有短期保护作用.多糖与蛋白质结合成为结合疫苗可以部分改善多糖疫苗的缺陷.此文回顾了对结合和非结合的多糖类疫苗的免疫应答研究进展,特别是关于人体对这些疫苗的异常应答的研究,以了解对多糖类疫苗的应答机制,从而有助于解决多糖类疫苗的低效和异常应答问题.%Vaccines can be developed from capsular polysaccharides of some encapsulated bacteria, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. But these vaccines have low immunogenicity and can only provide short-term protection in young children. These disadvantages can be improved by polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines. In this review, advances in the research of immune responses to conjugated and non-conjugated polysaccharide vaccines are discussed, and special attention is paid to abnormal responses following the use of such vaccines. Understanding of the mechanisms of such immune responses will help to solve the existing problems of polysaccharide vaccines.

  5. 新型肺炎链球菌疫苗研究进展%Advances in the research of new pneumococcal vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐江红; 陈兵

    2009-01-01

    肺炎链球菌是肺炎、脑膜炎、败血症、中耳炎和鼻窦炎的主要致病菌.目前针对肺炎链球菌疾病的预防主要是以多糖为基础的23价多糖疫苗和7价多糖蛋白结合疫苗,但因其有血清型的限制,应用有很大的局限性.因此以肺炎链球菌表面毒力因子或蛋白为基础的、无血清型限制的肺炎链球菌蛋白疫苗将成为新型肺炎链球菌疫苗发展的方向,此文综述了肺炎链球菌蛋白疫苗的研究进展.%Streptococcus prteumoniae is a major pathogen for community-acquired pneumonia,meningitis,septicemia,otitis media,and sinusitis.The licensed polysaceharide-based 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and 7-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine (PCV7) only elicit protective antibodies against the infection caused by serotypes that are included in the vaccines.To broaden the protection,the use of pneumococcal serotype-indepondent protein vaccines based on surface protein components will be a feasible and preferable alternative.In this review,advances in the research of pneumococcal protein vaccines are discussed.

  6. Immune responses to Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine in children 2 to 16 years old in Karachi, Pakistan, and Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, R Leon; Khan, M Imran; Soofi, Sajid B; Sur, Dipika; Kanungo, Suman; You, Young A; Habib, M Atif; Sahito, Shah Muhammad; Manna, Byomkesh; Dutta, Shanta; Acosta, Camilo J; Ali, Mohammad; Bhattacharya, Sujit K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Clemens, John D

    2014-05-01

    The geometric mean concentration (GMC) and the proportion maintaining a protective level (150 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) units [ELU]/ml) 2 years following a single dose of 25 μg of injectable Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine was measured against that of the control hepatitis A vaccine in children 2 to 16 years old in cluster randomized trials in Karachi and Kolkata. The GMC for the Vi group (1,428 ELU/ml) was statistically significantly different from the GMC of the control hepatitis A vaccine group (86 ELU/ml) after 6 weeks. A total of 117 children (95.1%) in the Vi group and 9 (7.5%) in the hepatitis A group showed a 4-fold rise in Vi IgG antibody concentrations at 6 weeks (P polysaccharide typhoid vaccine is immunogenic in children in settings of South Asia where typhoid is highly endemic. The antibody levels in children who received this vaccine remained higher than those in children who received the control vaccine but were significantly reduced at 2 years of follow-up.

  7. A Review of the Impact of Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine (7-valent) on Pneumococcal Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Tin Tin Htar, Myint; Madhava, Harish; Balmer, Paul; Christopoulou, Dina; Menegas, Damianos; Bonnet, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis. Young children, the elderly and those who are immunocompromised or who suffer from chronic diseases have the highest risk of developing pneumococcal meningitis. A 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was licensed in 2000 in the US and in 2001 in Europe. Methods A literature search was performed in PubMed to identify studies assessing the impact of routine childhood PCV7 vaccination on pneumococcal di...

  8. Impact of pneumococcal vaccines use on invasive pneumococcal disease in Nunavik (Quebec from 1997 to 2010

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    Jean-Baptiste Le Meur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2000, an outbreak of severe pneumonia caused by a virulent clone of serotype 1 Streptococcus pneumoniae was detected in the Nunavik region of Quebec. A mass immunization campaign was implemented in the spring of 2002, targeting persons ≥5 years of age and using the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23. At the same time, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was introduced into the routine immunization programme of infants, with catch-up for children up to 4 years of age. Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD in relation to PPSV23 and PCV7 use. Study design and methods: Retrospective analysis of IPD cases identified by the Quebec public health laboratory during the period 1997–2010. Results: A total of 82 IPD cases were identified during the study period. In adults, serotype 1 incidence decreased following the 2002 PPSV23 mass campaign but breakthrough cases continued to occur. Following PCV7 use in children, there was a decrease in the incidence of vaccine-type IPD and replacement by other serotypes in adults. In children, a marked decrease in the annual incidence of serotypes included in PCV7 was observed following PCV7 introduction: 162/100,000 in 1997–2001 vs. 10/100,000 in 2004–2010 (p<0.01. Concomitantly, the incidence of IPD caused by serotypes not included in PCV7 increased from 29/100,000 to 109/100,000 (p=0.11. Conclusion: The mass immunization campaign using the PPSV23 in 2002 and the introduction of PCV7 for the routine immunization of infants induced important modifications in the epidemiology of IPD. IPD rates in Nunavik remain much higher than in the southern part of the province both in children and adults. More effective pneumococcal vaccines are needed to eliminate geographic disparities in IPD risk.

  9. A neonatal pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trial in Papua New guinea: study population, methods and operational challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuanukoonnon, S; Reeder, J C; Pomat, W S; Van den Biggelaar, A H J; Holt, P G; Saleu, G; Opa, C; Michael, A; Aho, C; Yoannes, M; Francis, J; Orami, T; Namuigi, P; Siba, P M; Richmond, P C; Lehmann, D

    2010-01-01

    Infants in Papua New Guinea (PNG) are at a high risk of invasive pneumococcal disease, and a substantial burden of this falls on children less than six months old. PNG is planning to introduce a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for infants in the near future, but to make the maximum impact neonatal immunization will have to be considered. To provide evidence on safety and immunogenicity for neonatal and early infant immunization, we undertook an open randomized controlled trial of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV). 318 children received 7vPCV at ages 0, 1 and 2 months or at 1, 2 and 3 months or not at all. All children received 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at age 9 months. This was a large and complex trial: village reporters visited participants weekly during the first year and fortnightly for a further 6 months and nurses monitored self-reported morbidity and collected many thousands of biological samples. The study team was remarkably successful in achieving the study aims, with 18-month follow-up completed on 77% of enrolled children and over 80% of scheduled samples collected. While the results of the trial will be reported elsewhere, this paper discusses the design of the study and dissects out some of the main reasons for its successful completion. Strong community engagement was an essential factor in success and the principles of equitable partnership and service provision led to a strong research partnership. A two-stage consent process, comprising primary assent followed by later informed consent, led to a high drop-out before initial enrolment, but an outstanding retention of those enrolled in the study. We conclude that factors such as strong community participation, reciprocity and a good relationship between the study team and participants are just as important as the technical elements of laboratory testing and data handling in ensuring the success of a vaccine trial in PNG. PMID:23163191

  10. Effect of a polysaccharide from Poria cocos on humoral response in mice immunized by H1N1 influenza and HBsAg vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yajun; Li, Shuai; Li, Haixia; Zhao, Chunzhi; Ma, Hao; Zhao, Xiunan; Wu, Junhua; Liu, Kunlu; Shan, Junjie; Wang, Yuxia

    2016-10-01

    Poria cocos has a long history of medicinal use in China. Polysaccharides and their derivatives in the medicine exhibit many beneficial biological activities including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiviral activities. In this study, a new polysaccharide (PCP-II) was isolated from sclerotium of Poria cocos. Its physico-chemical characters were identified and its adjuvant activity was investigated in mice co-immunized with H1N1 influenza vaccine and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The results revealed that PCP-II has a molecular weight of 29.0kDa. It was composed of fucose, mannose, glucose and galactose in molar ration of 1.00:1.63:0.16:6.29 respectively. Pharmacological data demonstrated that PCP-II increased antigen-specific antibody levels in mice immunized with influenza vaccine. PCP-II also elicited anti-HBsAg antibodies at significantly higher titers and generated robust and durable immunity compared to mice immunized with HBsAg-alum following two administrations. PCP-II improved proliferation of splenocytes, stimulated IL-12p70 and TNF-α productions in dendritic cells and macrophages respectively. These results suggested that PCP-II-adjuvanted vaccines enhanced humoral and cellular immunity. PCP-II could be developed as an efficacious adjuvant in human and animal vaccines. PMID:27185068

  11. MyD88-dependent pro-inflammatory activity in Vi polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid promotes Ab switching to IgG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rohini; Akhade, Ajay Suresh; Yadav, Jitender; Qadri, Ayub

    2015-10-01

    Vi capsular polysaccharide is currently in use as a vaccine against human typhoid caused by Salmonella Typhi. The vaccine efficacy correlates with IgG anti-Vi Abs. We have recently reported that Vi can generate inflammatory responses through activation of the TLR2/TLR1 complex. In the present study, we show that immunization with Vi produces IgM as well as IgG Abs in wild type mice. This ability is not compromised in mice deficient in T cells. However, immunization of mice lacking the TLR adaptor protein, MyD88, with Vi elicits only IgM Abs. These results suggest that MyD88-dependent pro-inflammatory ability of the Vi vaccine might be vital in generating IgG Abs with this T-independent Ag.

  12. A mass vaccination campaign targeting adults and children to prevent typhoid fever in Hechi; Expanding the use of Vi polysaccharide vaccine in Southeast China: A cluster-randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hong-hui

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the goals of this study was to learn the coverage, safety and logistics of a mass vaccination campaign against typhoid fever in children and adults using locally produced typhoid Vi polysaccharide (PS and group A meningococcal PS vaccines in southern China. Methods The vaccination campaign targeted 118,588 persons in Hechi, Guangxi Province, aged between 5 to 60 years, in 2003. The study area was divided into 107 geographic clusters, which were randomly allocated to receive one of the single-dose parenteral vaccines. All aspects regarding vaccination logistics, feasibility and safety were documented and systematically recorded. Results of the logistics, feasibility and safety are reported. Results The campaign lasted 5 weeks and the overall vaccination coverage was 78%. On average, the 30 vaccine teams gave immunizations on 23 days. Vaccine rates were higher in those aged ≤ 15 years (90% than in adolescents and young adults (70%. Planned mop-up activities increased the coverage by 17%. The overall vaccine wastage was 11%. The cold chain was maintained and documented. 66 individuals reported of adverse events out of all vaccinees, where fever (21%, malaise (19% and local redness (19% were the major symptoms; no life-threatening event occurred. Three needle-sharp events were reported. Conclusion The mass immunization proved feasible and safe, and vaccine coverage was high. Emphasis should be placed on: injection safety measures, community involvement and incorporation of mop-up strategies into any vaccination campaign. School-based and all-age Vi mass immunizations programs are potentially important public health strategies for prevention of typhoid fever in high-risk populations in southern China.

  13. Randomized, single blind, controlled trial to evaluate the prime-boost strategy for pneumococcal vaccination in renal transplant recipients.

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    Selma Tobudic

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Renal transplant recipients are at increased risk of developing invasive pneumococcal diseases but may have poor response to the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV. It may be possible to enhance immunogenicity by priming with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPnC and boosting with PPV 1 year later. In a randomized single-blind, controlled study, adult recipients of renal transplants received either 7nPVC or PPV followed by PPV 1 year later. The vaccine response was defined as 2-fold increase in antibody concentration from baseline and an absolute post-vaccination values ≥1 µg/ml. The primary endpoint was vaccine response of the primed group (7vPnC/PPV compared with single PPV vaccination. Antibody concentrations for 10 serotypes were measured at baseline, 8 weeks after first vaccination, before second vaccination, and 8 weeks after second vaccination. Of 320 screened patients, 80 patients were randomized and 62 completed the study. Revaccination with PPV achieved no significant increase of immune response in the 7vPnC/PPV group compared with the single PPV recipients A response to at least 1 serotype was seen in 77.1% of patients who received 7vPnC and 93.1% of patients who received PPV (P = 0.046. After second vaccination response to at least 1 serotype was seen in 87.5% patients of 7vPnC/PPV group and 87.1% patients of PPV group (non significant p. The median number of serotypes eliciting a response was 3.5 (95% CI 2.5-4.5 in the 7vPnC/PPV group versus 5 (95% CI 3.9-6.1 in the PPV group (non-significant p. Immunogenicity of pneumococcal vaccination was not enhanced by the prime-boost strategy compared with vaccination with PPV alone. Administration of a single dose of PPV should continue to be the standard of care for adult recipients of renal transplants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT 2007-004590-25.

  14. The adjuvant effects of high-molecule-weight polysaccharides purified from Antrodia cinnamomea on dendritic cell function and DNA vaccines.

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    Chi-Chen Lin

    Full Text Available The biological activity of the edible basidiomycete Antrodia cinnamomea (AC has been studied extensively. Many effects, such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, have been reported from either crude extracts or compounds isolated from AC. However, research addressing the function of AC in enhancing immunity is rare. The aim of the present study is to investigate the active components and the mechanism involved in the immunostimulatory effect of AC. We found that polysaccharides (PS in the water extract of AC played a major role in dendritic cell (DC activation, which is a critical leukocyte in initiating immune responses. We further size purified and identified that the high-molecular weight PS fraction (greater than 100 kDa exhibited the activating effect. The AC high-molecular weight PSs (AC hmwPSs promoted pro-inflammatory cytokine production by DCs and the maturation of DCs. In addition, DC-induced antigen-specific T cell activation and Th1 differentiation were increased by AC hmwPSs. In studying the molecular mechanism, we confirmed the activation of the MAPK and NF-κB pathways in DCs after AC hmwPSs treatment. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TLR2 and TLR4 are required for the stimulatory activity of AC hmwPSs on DCs. In a mouse tumor model, we demonstrated that AC hmwPSs enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy of the HER-2/neu DNA vaccine by facilitating specific Th1 responses. Thus, we conclude that hmwPSs are the major components of AC that stimulate DCs via the TLR2/TLR4 and NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathways. The AC hmwPSs have potential to be applied as adjuvants.

  15. The impact and effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination in Scotland for those aged 65 and over during winter 2003/2004

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    Macfarlane Tatania V

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For winter 2003/2004 in Scotland, it was recommended that all those aged 65 and over be eligible to receive 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (23vPPV, which has been shown to be effective in reducing the risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD. We assessed the success of the vaccination programme by examining the age specific incidence rates of IPD compared to four previous winter seasons and estimating vaccination effectiveness. Methods Winter season incidence rates of IPD for vaccine targeted (65 years and over and non-targeted (0–4, 5–34, 35–49, 50–64 age bands were examined for the Scottish population in a retrospective cohort design for winter 2003/2004. Details of all IPD cases were obtained from the central reference laboratory and population vaccine uptake information was estimated from a GP sentinel practice network. Based on the preceding four winter seasons, standardised incidence ratios (SIR for invasive pneumococcal disease were determined by age-band and sex during winter 2003/2004. Vaccination effectiveness (VE was estimated using both screening and indirect cohort methods. Numbers needed to vaccinate were derived from VE results using equivalent annual incidence estimates for winter 2003/2004. Results Overall vaccination effectiveness using the screening method (adjusted for age and sex in those aged 65 and over was 61.7% (95%CI: 45.1, 73.2 which corresponded to a number needed to vaccinate of 5206 (95%CI: 4388, 7122 per IPD case prevented. Estimated effectiveness for the same age group using the indirect cohort method was not significant at 51% (95%CI: -278, 94. Reductions in the winter season incidence rate of IPD were highly significant for all those aged 75+: males SIR = 58.8 (95%CI: 41.6, 80.8; females SIR = 70.0 (95%CI: 55.1, 87.8. In the 65–74 years age-group, the reduction for females was significant: SIR = 60.3 (95%CI: 39.3, 88.4, but not for males: SIR = 74.8 (95%CI: 50

  16. The feasibility of a school-based VI polysaccharide vaccine mass immunization campaign in Hue City, central Vietnam: streamlining a typhoid fever preventive strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiem, Vu Dinh; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Canh, Do Gia; Son, Nguyen Dinh; Hoa, Nyugen Thai; Thuy, Dang Thi Dieu; Ochiai, R Leon; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Hop, Tran Quang; Ali, Mohammad; Park, Jin Kyung; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon; Holliday, Kris; Ivanoff, Bernard; Anh, Dang Duc; Pang, Tikki; Donner, Allan; Galindo, Claudia M; Trach, Dang Duc; Clemens, John D; Acosta, Camilo J

    2006-05-01

    We report the coverage, safety, and logistics of a school-based typhoid fever immunization campaign that took place in Hue City, central Vietnam; a typhoid fever endemic area. A cluster-randomized evaluation-blinded controlled trial was designed where 68 schools (cluster) were randomly allocated the single dose Vi polysaccharide vaccine (Typherix) or the active control hepatitis A vaccine (Havrix). A safety surveillance system was implemented. A total of 32,267 children were immunized with a coverage of 57.5%. Strong predictors for vaccination were attending primary schools, peri-urban location of the school, and low family income. Human resources were mainly schoolteachers and the campaign was completed in about 1 month. Most adverse events reported were mild. Safe injection and safe sharp-waste disposal practices were followed. A typhoid fever school-based immunization campaign was safe and logistically possible. Coverage was moderate and can be interpreted as the minimum that could have been achievable because individual written informed consent procedures were sought for the first time in Hue City and the trial nature of the campaign. The lessons learned, together with cost-effectiveness results to be obtained by the end of follow-up period, will hopefully accelerate the introduction of Vi typhoid fever vaccine in Vietnam.

  17. Head-to-head comparison of humoral immune responses to Vi capsular polysaccharide and Salmonella Typhi Ty21a typhoid vaccines--a randomized trial.

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    Anu Kantele

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The two typhoid vaccines, the parenteral Vi capsular polysaccharide and the oral live whole-cell Salmonella Typhi Ty21a vaccine, provide similar levels of protection in field trials. Sharing no antigens, they are thought to confer protection by different mechanisms. This is the first head-to-head study to compare the humoral immune responses to these two vaccines. METHODS: 50 age- and gender-matched volunteers were immunized, 25 with the Vi and 25 with the Ty21a vaccine. Circulating plasmablasts reactive with whole-cell Salmonella Typhi or one of the typhoidal antigenic structures, Vi, O-9,12, and H-d antigens, were identified as antibody-secreting cells (ASC with ELISPOT. Homing receptor (HR expressions were determined. These results were compared with ASC in four patients with typhoid fever. Antibodies to S. Typhi lipopolysaccharides were assessed in cultures of ALS (antibodies in lymphocyte supernatants and in serum with ELISA. RESULTS: In 49 out of 50 vaccinees, no typhoid-specific plasmablasts were seen before vaccination. On day 7, response to Vi antigen was mounted in 24/25 volunteers in the Vi, and none in the Ty21a group; response to S. Typhi and O-9,12 was mounted in 49/50 vaccinees; and to H-d in 3/50. The numbers of typhoid-specific plasmablasts (total of ASC to Vi, O-9,12 and H-d antigens proved equal in the vaccination groups. The HR expressions indicated a mainly systemic homing in the Vi and intestinal in the Ty21a group, the latter resembling that in natural infection. Plasmablasts proved more sensitive than serum and ALS in assessing the immune response. CONCLUSIONS: The typhoid-specific humoral responses to Vi and Ty21a vaccines are similar in magnitude, but differ in expected localization and antigen-specificity. The unforeseen O antigen-specific response in the Vi group is probably due to lipopolysaccharide contaminating the vaccine preparation. Only the response to Ty21a vaccine was found to imitate that in

  18. The Adjuvant Activity of Epimedium Polysaccharide-Propolis Flavone Liposome on Enhancing Immune Responses to Inactivated Porcine Circovirus Vaccine in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yunpeng; Guo, Liwei; Hou, Weifeng; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Weimin; Ma, Xia; Ma, Lin; Song, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The adjuvant activity of Epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone liposome (EPL) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Methods. In vitro, the effects of EPL at different concentrations on splenic lymphocytes proliferation and mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-6 were determined. In vivo, the adjuvant activities of EPL, EP, and mineral oil were compared in BALB/c mice through vaccination with inactivated porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine. Results. In vitro, EPL promoted lymphocytes proliferation and increased the mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-6, and the effect was significantly better than EP at all concentrations. In vivo, EPL significantly promoted the lymphocytes proliferation and the secretion of cytokines and improved the killing activity of NK cells, PCV2-specific antibody titers, and the proportion of T-cell subgroups. The effects of EPL were significantly better than EP and oil adjuvant at most time points. Conclusion. EPL could significantly improve both PCV2-specific cellular and humoral immune responses, and its medium dose had the best efficacy. Therefore, EPL would be exploited in an effective immune adjuvant for inactivated PCV2 vaccine. PMID:26612996

  19. Structural characterization of low molecular weight polysaccharide from Astragalus membranaceus and its immunologic enhancement in recombinant protein vaccine against systemic candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Xiao, Chunyu; Qu, Jing; Wang, Guiyun

    2016-07-10

    Structure and immunologic enhancement of low molecular weight polysaccharide (LMW-ASP) isolated from the root of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bge. Were detected in recombinant protein vaccine. Structure analysis of LMW-ASP revealed that LMW-ASP (Mw=5.6kDa) was an acid heteropolysaccharide, which consisted of Glc, Gal, Ara, Xyl and GalA in ratio of 10.0:1.3:1.7:1.0:0.9. Recombinant protein (rP-HSP90C) contained epitope C (LKVIRK) from heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) of Candida albicans was used as a vaccine. The results indicated that LMW-ASP significantly promoted specific antibody titers IgG, IgG1, IgG2b, and IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 in sera of mice immunized with rP-HSP90C (p<0.05). It was also found LMW-ASP improved DTH response in HSP90C-injceted mice. More importantly, the mice immunized with rP-HSP90C/LMW-ASP had fewer CFU (colony forming unites) in the kidneys compared to the mice immunized with rP-HSP90C (p<0.05). Therefore, LMW-ASP could be exploited into the novel adjuvant to enhance the efficacy of recombinant protein vaccine. PMID:27106150

  20. Protective efficacy of a Pasteurella haemolytica Serotype A2 outer membrane protein polysaccharide (OMP-PS) complex vaccine in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim is to study the immunogenicity of the crude and purified OMP-PS complex in conventional sheep and to determine the possible contribution of this candidate antigen to Pasteurella vaccines. This allows improvements of the existing vaccines for an effective control of pneumonic pasteurellosis in small ruminants. The trial has indicated that the purified preparation of OMP-PS complex vaccine was most successful in enhancing the serological response. The complex was immunogenic in adult sheet, with induction of humoral anticapsular antibody in the IHA test and with OMP in immunoblotting. The sera from adult sheep immunized with OMP-PS passively protected mice against A2 challenge. The study has demonstrated that immunity and protection in sheep are not confined to vaccination with live organisms, and that the OMP-PS can act as very effective vaccines in mice and sheep

  1. Immunization and chemical conjugation of Bm95 obtained from Pichia pastoris enhances the immune response against vaccinal protein and Neisseria meningitidis capsular polysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Valle M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Manuel Rodriguez-Valle,1 Leonardo Canan-Hadden,2 Olivia Niebla2 1Animal Biotechnology Division, 2Analytical Division, Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Havana, Cuba Abstract: The ectoparasite Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes severe economic losses to the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions, and transmits endoparasites, such as Babesia bovis. The glycoprotein Bm95 is homologous to Bm86, a surface membrane protein of gut epithelial cells in R. microplus, and has been shown to efficiently control this ectoparasite in regions of the Americas. The immunostimulant properties of Bm86 have already been demonstrated after its coinjection with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. This study evaluated the carrier and immunostimulant properties of Bm95 using low immunogenic Neisseria meningitidis capsular C polysaccharide (Men CpS and HBsAg. We produced two polysaccharide-Bm95 conjugates by carbodiimide (MenCpSBm-c and reductive amination (MenCpSBm-ra methods. These conjugates were characterized and evaluated in mice. Antibody titers against Men CpS were significantly higher in mice immunized with MenCpSBm-ra (2,350±250, P<0.01 than in those immunized with MenCpSBm-c (250±75 or Men CpS (570±104. The study data indicate effective immunological memory after booster inoculation in mice immunized with MenCpSBm-ra. Additionally, significant humoral immunity against HBsAg was documented in mice coimmunized via the intranasal route with recombinant Bm95 (11,400±345 and HBsAg (128,000±250 compared with mice immunized only with HBsAg (400±40 or Bm95 (5,461±150, P<0.01. In conclusion, the immunostimulatory properties of recombinant Bm95 make it a useful element for developing safer conjugated vaccines against bacterial pathogens and for evaluation against ticks and tick-borne diseases in the context of a polyvalent veterinary vaccine. Keywords: glycoconjugate, Bm86

  2. Studies on preparation and immunogenicity of 13-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines%13价肺炎链球菌多糖结合疫苗的制备及免疫原性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明华; 石继春; 曹欣; 任涛; 唐秀丽; 韩菲; 王婷婷; 胡鹏; 张美香

    2013-01-01

    目的 制备13价肺炎链球菌多糖结合疫苗,并初步研究其免疫原性.方法 将通过偶联方法制成的13种单价肺炎链球菌多糖结合疫苗,配制成含或不含铝佐剂的13价肺炎链球菌多糖结合疫苗.用制备的2种疫苗分别免疫猕猴和家兔,以ELISA法检测免疫动物的血清抗多糖抗体水平.结果 制备的2种疫苗的各项指标均达到质控标准.末次免疫后,含或不含铝佐剂疫苗免疫猕猴的平均血清抗各型多糖抗体阳转率分别为98.08%和94.23%;含或不含铝佐剂疫苗免疫家兔的平均血清抗各型多糖抗体阳转率分别为95.38%和96.92%.结论 成功研制了13价肺炎链球菌多糖结合疫苗,含或不含铝佐剂疫苗在猕猴和家兔中均具有免疫原性.%Objective To prepare 13-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines and study their immunogenicity preliminarily.Methods 13 monovalent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines were prepared by coupling method.13-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines with or without aluminium adjuvant were prepared by mixing 13 monovalent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines.Macaques and rabbits were immunized with both kinds of prepared vaccines,and levels of serum antibodies to polysaccharide were detected by ELISA.Results All the indexes of two kinds of prepared vaccines met the standard of quality control.After the last immunization,average seroconversion rates in macaques immunized with 13-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine with or without aluminium adjuvant were 98.08% and 94.23%,respectively; average seroconversion rates in rabbits immunized with 13-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine with or without aluminium adjuvant were 95.38% and 96.92%,respectively.Conclusions 13-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines are successfully prepared.No matter whether the vaccines contain adjuvant or not,they have

  3. Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  4. Acquisition of Meningococcal Serogroup W-135 Carriage in Turkish Hajj Pilgrims Who Had Received the Quadrivalent Meningococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Ceyhan, M; M. Celik; Demir, E. T.; Gurbuz, V.; Aycan, A. E.; Unal, S

    2013-01-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease is a recognized public health problem worldwide, with a dynamic and changeable epidemiology. In Turkey, the second most common pathogenic meningococcal serogroup (after serogroup B) is W-135, including an epidemic in 2005, which has been strongly associated with Hajj pilgrims and their close contacts. In two studies conducted in 2010, we assessed meningococcal carriage in intending Turkish pilgrims to the Hajj when they attended to receive a plain polysaccharide...

  5. High nasopharyngeal carriage of non-vaccine serotypes in Western Australian aboriginal people following 10 years of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination.

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    Deirdre A Collins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD continues to occur at high rates among Australian Aboriginal people. The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV was given in a 2-4-6-month schedule from 2001, with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV booster at 18 months, and replaced with 13vPCV in July 2011. Since carriage surveillance can supplement IPD surveillance, we have monitored pneumococcal carriage in western Australia (WA since 2008 to assess the impact of the 10-year 7vPCV program. METHODS: We collected 1,500 nasopharyngeal specimens from Aboriginal people living in varied regions of WA from August 2008 until June 2011. Specimens were cultured on selective media. Pneumococcal isolates were serotyped by the quellung reaction. RESULTS: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were carried by 71.9%, 63.2% and 63.3% respectively of children <5 years of age, and 34.6%, 22.4% and 27.2% of people ≥5 years. Of 43 pneumococcal serotypes identified, the most common were 19A, 16F and 6C in children <5 years, and 15B, 34 and 22F in older people. 7vPCV serotypes accounted for 14.5% of all serotypeable isolates, 13vPCV for 32.4% and 23vPPV for 49.9%, with little variation across all age groups. Serotypes 1 and 12F were rarely identified, despite causing recent IPD outbreaks in WA. Complete penicillin resistance (MIC ≥2µg/ml was found in 1.6% of serotype 19A (5.2%, 19F (4.9% and 16F (3.2% isolates and reduced penicillin susceptibility (MIC ≥0.125µg/ml in 24.9% of isolates, particularly 19F (92.7%, 19A (41.3%, 16F (29.0%. Multi-resistance to cotrimoxazole, tetracycline and erythromycin was found in 83.0% of 23F isolates. Among non-serotypeable isolates 76.0% had reduced susceptibility and 4.0% showed complete resistance to penicillin. CONCLUSIONS: Ten years after introduction of 7vPCV for Aboriginal Australian children, 7vPCV serotypes account for a small proportion of carried

  6. Pneumococcal vaccination and otitis media in Australian Aboriginal infants: comparison of two birth cohorts before and after introduction of vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenzie Grant

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal children in remote Australia have high rates of complicated middle ear disease associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae and other pathogens. We assessed the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination for prevention of otitis media in this setting. Methods We compared two birth cohorts, one enrolled before (1996–2001, and the second enrolled after introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate and booster 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (2001–2004. Source populations were the same for both cohorts. Detailed examinations including tympanometry, video-recorded pneumatic otoscopy and collection of discharge from tympanic membrane perforations, were performed as soon as possible after birth and then at regular intervals until 24 months of life. Analyses (survival, point prevalence and incidence were adjusted for confounding factors and repeated measures with sensitivity analyses of differential follow-up. Results Ninety-seven vaccinees and 51 comparison participants were enrolled. By age 6 months, 96% (81/84 of vaccinees and 100% (41/41 of comparison subjects experienced otitis media with effusion (OME, and by 12 months 89% and 88% experienced acute otitis media (AOM, 34% and 35% experienced tympanic membrane perforation (TMP and 14% and 23% experienced chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM. Age at the first episode of OME, AOM, TMP and CSOM was not significantly different between the two groups. Adjusted incidence of AOM (incidence rate ratio: 0.88 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.69–1.13] and TMP (incidence rate ratio: 0.63 [0.36–1.11] was not significantly reduced in vaccinees. Vaccinees experienced less recurrent TMP, 9% (8/95 versus 22% (11/51, (odds ratio: 0.33 [0.11–1.00]. Conclusion Results of this study should be interpreted with caution due to potential bias and confounding. It appears that introduction of pneumococcal vaccination among Aboriginal infants was not associated with significant changes

  7. Multiple colonization with S. pneumoniae before and after introduction of the seven-valent conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio D Brugger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Simultaneous carriage of more than one strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae promotes horizontal gene transfer events and may lead to capsule switch and acquisition of antibiotic resistance. We studied the epidemiology of cocolonization with S. pneumoniae before and after introduction of the seven-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7. METHODOLOGY: Nasopharyngeal swabs (n 1120 were collected from outpatients between 2004 and 2009 within an ongoing nationwide surveillance program. Cocolonization was detected directly from swabs by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis. Serotypes were identified by agglutination, multiplex PCR and microarray. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rate of multiple colonization remained stable up to three years after PCV7 introduction. Cocolonization was associated with serotypes of low carriage prevalence in the prevaccine era. Pneumococcal colonization density was higher in cocolonized samples and cocolonizing strains were present in a balanced ratio (median 1.38. Other characteristics of cocolonization were a higher frequency at young age, but no association with recurrent acute otitis media, recent antibiotic exposure, day care usage and PCV7 vaccination status. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumococcal cocolonization is dominated by serotypes of low carriage prevalence in the prevaccine era, which coexist in the nasopharynx. Emergence of such previously rare serotypes under vaccine selection pressure may promote cocolonization in the future.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and immunological properties of LPS-based conjugate vaccine composed of O-polysaccharide from pseudomonas aeruginosa IATS 10 bound to recombinant exoprotein A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an improtant opportunistic pathogen that can cause infection in immunocompromised patient. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major surface antigen of P. aeruginosa, is immunogenic and elieits protective antibodies in animals. The O-polysaccharids (O-PS) from international Antigenic typing Scheme (IATS) 10, the antigenic determinant of LPS, was coupled to recombinant exoprotein A (rPA) through adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) mediated by carbodiimide condensation reaction. Mice were immunized with the conjugate emulsifield with monophosphoryl lipid A-trehalose dicorynomycolate (MPL-T) and freund's adjuvants. The conjiugate emulsified with MPL-T adjuvant elicited the highest level of IgG and IgM followed by freuns's adjuvant. IgG titers using both MPL-T and freund's adjuvants were recorded to be higher than IgM titers after the second post of the immunization. Immunization of mice with the prepared conjugates emulsified with MPL-T and freund's adjvaided provide high level of protection (100%) against ten times the LD50 of homologous strain of P. aeruginsoa. the elicited high IgG level and the in vivo protection test results provided good evidences for the possible protection of the conjugate aginst subsequent infection with the pathogen. These findings will enable us to use it as protective vaccine candidate (authors).

  9. Survey of Obstetrics and Gynecology Residents Regarding Pneumococcal Vaccination in Pregnancy: Education, Knowledge, and Barriers to Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E. Fay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for adults over 65 years of age and younger adults with certain medical conditions. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC state insufficient evidence to recommend routine pneumococcal vaccination during pregnancy, but the vaccine is indicated for pregnant women with certain medical conditions. We designed this project to gauge obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN resident knowledge of maternal pneumococcal vaccination. Methods. We administered a 22-question survey to OB/GYN residents about maternal pneumococcal vaccination. We performed descriptive analysis for each question. Results. 238 OB/GYN residents responded. Overall, 69.3% of residents reported receiving vaccination education and 86.0% reported having ready access to vaccine guidelines and safety data. Most residents knew that asplenia (78.2%, pulmonary disease (77.3%, and HIV/AIDS (69.4% are indications for vaccination but less knew that cardiovascular disease (45.0%, diabetes (35.8%, asthma (42.8%, nephrotic syndrome (19.7%, and renal failure (33.6% are also indications for vaccination. Conclusion. OB/GYN residents are taught about vaccines and have ready access to vaccine guidelines and safety data. However, knowledge of indications for pneumococcal vaccination in pregnancy is lacking. Likely, the opportunity to vaccinate at-risk pregnant patients is being missed.

  10. Polysaccharide Nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Kontogiorgos, Vassilis

    2014-01-01

    Polysaccharides are carbohydrate polymers where sugar units are linked together through glycosidic linkages. In living organisms polysaccharides are the structural polymers that provide support (e.g., cellulose in plants or chitin in arthropods) or the sources of energy for plant development (e.g., starch). Polysaccharides are routinely used in the food industry, most frequently as thickeners, stabilizers of dispersions (emulsions, foams) or structuring agents of water and air.

  11. Establishment of a method for determination of polysaccharide contents in groups A, C, Y, W135 meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine%A、C、Y、W135群脑膜炎球菌多糖疫苗多糖含量测定方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖詹蓉; 潘殊男; 李世慧; 栗妍; 张萍

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立测定A、C、Y、W135群脑膜炎球菌(meningococcus,Men)多糖疫苗(groups A,C,Y,W135 menignococcal polysaccharide vaccine,MPV4)多糖含量的火箭免疫电泳(rocket immunoelectro-phoresis,RIE)法.方法 分别用A、C、Y、W135群Men菌液,A、C、Y、W135群Men菌液加弗氏佐剂,A、C、Y、W135群Men多糖-牛白蛋白结合物免疫家兔,制备特异性抗血清.将制备的抗血清以一定的比例加入琼脂糖凝胶制成平板,并将纯化的多糖作为定量参考品加入抗原孔进行RIE.以多糖含量和对应的RIE峰高作标准曲线并建立直线回归方程.采用优化的RIE法测定MPV4多糖含量和分子大小.结果 菌液加佐剂制备的抗血清效价较理想.在确定的电泳条件下,建立的RIE法制备的标准曲线呈现良好的线性关系,相关系数值均>0.98.该法特异性较好,未检出各多糖间的交叉反应.采用该法测定的3批MPV4的多糖含量、分子大小及回收率均与先前的检定结果相符,均符合质控标准.结论 建立的RIE法可作为MPV4多糖抗原含量的测定方法.%Objective To establish a rocket immunoelectrophoresis (ME) method for determination of polysaccharide contents in groups A,C,Y,W135 meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPV4). Methods Rabbits were immunized with meningococcal groups A,C,Y,W135 suspensions, mixture of Freund adjuvant with meningococcal suspension and meningococcal polysaccharide-bovine albumin conjugate, respectively.Specific antisera were prepared. The specific antisera were added to agarose gel with a certain proportion to pave plate, and pure polysaccharides as quantitative references were added into gel holes to carry out RIE.Standard curves were made with polysaccharide concentrations and precipitation peaks formed by RIE, and linear regression equations were established. Polysaccharide contents and molecular sizes in MPV4 were determined by the established RIE methed. Results Optimal antiserum titers were obtained

  12. [Present status of vaccines in 1989].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussey, M; Dabadie, A

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe 2 new vaccines now available in France: one is the GenHevac, an hepatitis B vaccine, the first virus recombinant vaccine; the other one is the Typhim Vi, a polysaccharide typhoid vaccine. Three other vaccines are currently used in foreign countries and will be soon available: the Hemophilus influenzae vaccine, the acellular pertussis vaccine and the varicella vaccine. Rotavirus and Cytomegalovirus vaccines are studied for their clinical efficacy.

  13. Antibiofilm polysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Rendueles, Olaya; Kaplan, Jeffrey B.; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial extracellular polysaccharides have been shown to mediate many of the cell-to cell and cell-to-surface interactions that are required for the formation, cohesion and stabilization of bacterial biofilms. However, recent studies have identified several bacterial polysaccharides that inhibit biofilm formation by a wide-spectrum of bacteria and fungi both in vitro and in vivo. This review discusses the composition, modes of action, and potential biological roles of antibiofilm polysaccha...

  14. Safety and immunogenicity of neonatal pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Papua New Guinean children: a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S Pomat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approximately 826,000 children, mostly young infants, die annually from invasive pneumococcal disease. A 6-10-14-week schedule of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV is efficacious but neonatal PCV may provide earlier protection and better coverage. We conducted an open randomized controlled trial in Papua New Guinea to compare safety, immunogenicity and priming for memory of 7-valent PCV (PCV7 given in a 0-1-2-month (neonatal schedule with that of the routine 1-2-3-month (infant schedule. METHODS: We randomized 318 infants at birth to receive PCV7 in the neonatal or infant schedule or no PCV7. All infants received 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV at age 9 months. Serotype-specific serum IgG for PCV7 (VT serotypes and non-VT serotypes 2, 5 and 7F were measured at birth and 2, 3, 4, 9, 10 and 18 months of age. Primary outcomes were geometric mean concentrations (GMCs and proportions with concentration ≥ 0.35 µg/ml of VT serotype-specific pneumococcal IgG at age 2 months and one month post-PPV. RESULTS: We enrolled 101, 105 and 106 infants, respectively, into neonatal, infant and control groups. Despite high background levels of maternally derived antibody, both PCV7 groups had higher GMCs than controls at age 2 months for serotypes 4 (p<0.001 and 9V (p<0.05 and at age 3 months for all VTs except 6B. GMCs for serotypes 4, 9V, 18C and 19F were significantly higher (p<0.001 at age 2 months in the neonatal (one month post-dose2 PCV7 than in the infant group (one month post-dose1 PCV7. PPV induced significantly higher VT antibody responses in PCV7-primed than unprimed infants, with neonatal and infant groups equivalent. High VT and non-VT antibody concentrations generally persisted to age 18 months. CONCLUSIONS: PCV7 is well-tolerated and immunogenic in PNG neonates and young infants and induces immunologic memory to PPV booster at age 9 months with antibody levels maintained to age 18 months. TRIAL REGISTRATION

  15. A Cholera Conjugate Vaccine Containing O-specific Polysaccharide (OSP of V. cholerae O1 Inaba and Recombinant Fragment of Tetanus Toxin Heavy Chain (OSP:rTTHc Induces Serum, Memory and Lamina Proprial Responses against OSP and Is Protective in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abu Sayeed

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae is the cause of cholera, a severe watery diarrhea. Protection against cholera is serogroup specific. Serogroup specificity is defined by the O-specific polysaccharide (OSP component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS.Here we describe a conjugate vaccine for cholera prepared via squaric acid chemistry from the OSP of V. cholerae O1 Inaba strain PIC018 and a recombinant heavy chain fragment of tetanus toxin (OSP:rTTHc. We assessed a range of vaccine doses based on the OSP content of the vaccine (10-50 μg, vaccine compositions varying by molar loading ratio of OSP to rTTHc (3:1, 5:1, 10:1, effect of an adjuvant, and route of immunization.Immunized mice developed prominent anti-OSP and anti-TT serum IgG responses, as well as vibriocidal antibody and memory B cell responses following intramuscular or intradermal vaccination. Mice did not develop anti-squarate responses. Intestinal lamina proprial IgA responses targeting OSP occurred following intradermal vaccination. In general, we found comparable immune responses in mice immunized with these variations, although memory B cell and vibriocidal responses were blunted in mice receiving the highest dose of vaccine (50 μg. We found no appreciable change in immune responses when the conjugate vaccine was administered in the presence or absence of immunoadjuvant alum. Administration of OSP:rTTHc resulted in 55% protective efficacy in a mouse survival cholera challenge model.We report development of an Inaba OSP:rTTHc conjugate vaccine that induces memory responses and protection against cholera in mice. Development of an effective cholera conjugate vaccine that induces high level and long-term immune responses against OSP would be beneficial, especially in young children who respond poorly to polysaccharide antigens.

  16. Polysaccharide Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Bruce A.; Svensson, Birte; Collins, Michelle E.; Rastall, Robert A.

    An overview of current and potential enzymes used to degrade polysaccharides is presented. Such depolymerases are comprised of glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, phosphorylases and lyases, and their classification, active sites and action patterns are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms that these enzymes use to cleave glycosidic linkages is reviewed as are inhibitors of depolymerase activity; reagents which react with amino acid residues, glycoside derivatives, transition state inhibitors and proteinaceous inhibitors. The characterization of various enzymes of microbial, animal or plant origin has led to their widespread use in the production of important oligosaccharides which can be incorporated into food stuffs. Sources of polysaccharides of particular interest in this chapter are those from plants and include inulin, dextran, xylan and pectin, as their hydrolysis products are purported to be functional foods in the context of gastrointestinal health. An alternative use of degraded polysaccharides is in the treatment of disease. The possibility exists to treat bacterial exopolysaccharide with lyases from bacteriophage to produce oligosaccharides exhibiting bioactive sequences. Although this area is currently in its infancy the knowledge is available to investigate further.

  17. 不同解吸附处理对肺炎球菌结合疫苗各型多糖含量检测结果的影响%Effect of various desorption treatments on determination result of polysaccharide content in pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琼; 石继春; 王春娥; 王珊珊; 叶强

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of various desorption treatments on determination results of contents of various types of polysaccharide in pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.Methods Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was desorbed by trypsin and sodium hydroxide respectively using that untreated as control.In addition,13-valant pueumococcal conjugate vaccines (products 1 and 2) were desorbed by trypsin and sodium hydroxide for 10,30 and 90 s separately,and determined for contents of various types of polysaccharide by immunochemical assay system (IMMAGE 800).Results Except that of polysaccharide of type 14,all the polysaccharide contents of various types in heptavalent vaccine untreated was significantly lower than those trypsin-and sodium hydroxide-desorbed vaccine (P < 0.05).Except that of type 23F,all the polysaccharide contents of various types in heptavalent vaccine desorbed with trypsin were significantly lower than those with sodium hydroxide.After desorption with trypsin,the polysaccharide contents of type 14 in product 1 and type 1 in product 2 were lower than the 50% of those after desorption with sodium hydroxide.However,the polysaccharide contents of type 19A in products 1 and 9 decreased remarkably with the increasing time for desorption with sodium hydroxide.Conclusion It is necessary to desorb the samples before determination of various types of polysaccharide content in pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.The desorption by either trypsin or sodium hydroxide impacts the determination result of polysaccharide content.%目的 探讨不同解吸附处理对肺炎球菌结合疫苗各型多糖含量检测结果的影响.方法 将七价肺炎球菌结合疫苗分别用胰蛋白酶、NaOH解吸附或未解吸附处理,十三价肺炎球菌结合疫苗(制品1和制品2)分别用胰蛋白酶、NaOH解吸附(10、30、90 s)处理,应用免疫化学分析系统(IMMAGE 800)测定各型多糖含量.结果 除14型外,未经解吸附处理的七价肺炎

  18. The epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in the Canadian North from 1999 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Helferty, Melissa; Rotondo, Jenny L.; Martin, Irene; Desai, Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The International Circumpolar Surveillance network is a population-based surveillance system that collects data on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Northern Canada. A 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was first introduced in some regions of Northern Canada in 2002, followed by 10-valent (2009) and 13-valent (PCV-13) vaccines (2010). A 23-valent polysaccharide (PPV-23) vaccine was first introduced in 1988 for special populations and adults aged 65 years and older. To ...

  19. OBSERVATION ON THE SAFETY OF DOMESTIC ACYW135 GROUP OF EPIDEMIC CEREBROSPINAL MENINGITIS POLYSACCHARIDE VACCINE%国产ACYW135流脑多糖疫苗免疫安全性观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈万庚; 马永法; 周爱庆

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To evaluate the immune safety of domestic ACYW135 group of epidemic ceiebrospinal meningitis polysaccharide vaccine used in children. [Methods] The immunities were recorded by using unified vaccination diary, we observed the adverse reaction of vaccine inoculation at the time of 30 minutes, 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, 7 days, IS days and 1 month after inoculation by trained professionals. [Results] On the 15317 children vaccinations and observation, 1212 cases of adverse reaction were occurred, with the occurrence of 7.91%. The adverse reaction occurrence at the time of 30 minutes, 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, 7 days, 15 days and 1 month after inoculation were 0.36%, 0.42%, 1.44%, 5.15%, 0.35%, 0.18%, 0%and 0%, respectively. The incidence of fever was 3.85%, the incidence of local reaction was 1.60%, and none of serious side effects was observed. [Conclusion] This domestic ACYW135 group of epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis polysaccharide vaccine has a mild reaction rate and good safety, can be wildly used among children of appropriate age.%[目的]评价国产ACYW 135流脑多糖疫苗用于儿童免疫的安全性. [方法]采用统一的疫苗接种日记卡,由经过培训的专业人员完成,调查疫苗接种后30 min、6h、12 h、24h、48 h、72 h和接种后7d、15d、1个月不 良反应发生情况. [结果]共接种并观察了15 317名适龄儿童,发生疫苗接种不良反应1 212人,不良反应发生率7.91%.接种后30 min、6h、12h、24h、48 h、72 h的发生率分别为0.36%、0.42%、1.44%、5.15%、0.35%、0.18%,未观案到疫苗接种7d后不良反应.发热反应发生率3.85%,局部反应发生率1.60%,未观察到严重不良反应.[结论]该国产ACYW135流脑多糖疫苗接种反应轻微,安全性好,可以在适龄儿童中进行推广接种.

  20. Quantitative Determination of Free Polysaccharide Content in Haemophilus influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine by Acid Precipitation with Sodium Deoxycholate%脱氧胆酸钠酸沉淀法定量测定b型流感嗜血杆菌结合疫苗中游离多糖的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁军; 李新国; 瞿明霞

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立一种b型流感嗜血杆菌(Haemophilus influenzae type b,Hib)结合疫苗中游离多糖含量新的检测方法.方法 分别对标准蛋白溶液、多糖溶液和标加衍生多糖(A H-PRP)的结合物原液进行脱氧胆酸钠(NaDC)酸沉淀处理,观察该方法 对蛋白和多糖的沉淀效果.分别采用NaDC酸沉淀法和乙醇分步沉淀法测定结合疫苗原液中的游离多糖含量.结果 不同浓度的标准蛋白溶液经NaDC酸沉淀法处理后,沉淀中蛋白的回收率在96%~ 99%之间;不同浓度的多糖溶液经NaDC酸沉淀法处理后,上清中的多糖回收率在99%~106%之间;该方法 对结合物中的游离多糖能起到很好的分离效果;两种方法 测定结合疫苗原液中的游离多糖含量差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 NaDC酸沉淀法能专一性地沉淀蛋白物质,对游离多糖无沉淀作用,该方法 具有良好的重复性和准确性,可用于测定Hib结合疫苗中的游离多糖含量.%Objective To develop a novel method for determination of free polysaccharide content in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine. Methods Standard protein solution, polysaccharide solution and bulk of conjugate added with polysaccharide derivative were treated by acid precipitation with sodium deoxycholate (NaDC ) and observed for precipitation effect of protein and polysaccharide. The free polysaccharide content in bulk of conjugate vaccine was determined by acid precipitation with NaDC and fractional precipitation with ethanol respectively. Results After acid precipitation with NaDC, the recovery rates of protein in precipitate of standard protein solution at various concentrations were 96% ~ 99%, while those of polysaccharide in supernatant of polysaccharide solution were 99% ~ 106%. The free polysaccharide in conjugate was effectively separated by the developed method. The free polysaccharide contents in bulk of conjugate vaccine determined by acid

  1. Meningococcal Vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy; Sullivan, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Neisseria meningitidis, a gram-negative diplococcal bacterium, is a common asymptomatic nasopharyngeal colonizer that may infrequently lead to invasive disease in the form of meningitis or bacteremia. Six serogroups (A, B, C, W, X and Y) are responsible for the majority of invasive infections. Increased risk of disease occurs in specific population groups including infants, adolescents, those with asplenia or complement deficiencies, and those residing in crowded living conditions such as in college dormitories. The incidence of invasive meningococcal disease varies geographically with some countries (e.g., in the African meningitis belt) having both high endemic disease rates and ongoing epidemics, with annual rates reaching 1000 cases per 100,000 persons. Given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with meningococcal disease, it remains a major global health threat best prevented by vaccination. Several countries have implemented vaccination programs with the selection of specific vaccine(s) based on locally prevalent serogroup(s) of N. meningitidis and targeting population groups at highest risk. Polysaccharide meningococcal vaccines became available over 40 years ago, but are limited by their inability to produce immunologic memory responses, poor immunogenicity in infants/children, hyporesponsiveness after repeated doses, and lack of efficacy against nasopharyngeal carriage. In 1999, the first meningococcal conjugate vaccines were introduced and have been successful in overcoming many of the shortcomings of polysaccharide vaccines. The implementation of meningococcal conjugate vaccination programs in many areas of the world (including the massive campaign in sub-Saharan Africa using a serogroup A conjugate vaccine) has led to dramatic reductions in the incidence of meningococcal disease by both individual and population protection. Progressive advances in vaccinology have led to the recent licensure of two effective vaccines against serogroup B

  2. Immunogenicity and safety of a pentavalent acellular pertussis combined vaccine including diphtheria, tetanus, inactivated poliovirus and conjugated Haemophilus Influenzae type b polysaccharide for primary vaccination at 2, 3, 4 or 3, 4, 5 months of age in infants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong Cheng; Li, Feng Xiang; Li, Yan Ping; Hou, Qi Ming; Li, Chang Gui; Li, Ya Nan; Chen, Fu Sheng; Hu, Xue Zhong; Su, Wen Bin; Zhang, Shu Min; Fang, Han Hua; Ye, Qiang; Zeng, Tian De; Liu, Tao Xuan; Li, Xiu Bi; Huang, Yun Neng; Deng, Man Ling; Zhang, Yan Ping; Ortiz, Esteban

    2011-02-24

    The aim was to demonstrate the immunogenicity and safety of a DTaP-IPV//PRP-T combined vaccine (Pentaxim(®)) compared to individual vaccines in infants in the People's Republic of China. Infants (N=792) were randomly assigned to receive DTaP-IPV//PRP-T at 2, 3 and 4 months of age (Group A) or 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group B), or DTaP (Wuhan Institute of Biological Products), PRP-T (Act-Hib(®)) and IPV (Imovax(®) Polio) at 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group C). Antibody titers were measured pre- and 1 month after the third vaccination; non-inferiority analyses were performed for seroprotection/seroconversion (SP/SC) rates. Safety was assessed 1 month after the primary series. SP/SC rates for the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine were high and non-inferior to the controls. Reactogenicity was low for each group and no hypotonic hyporesponsive episode or seizure was reported. In conclusion, the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine was highly immunogenic, non-inferior to the commercially available control vaccines and had a good safety profile for both primary administration schedules.

  3. Synthesis of an Aminooxy Derivative of the Tetrasaccharide Repeating Unit of Streptococcus dysgalactiae 2023 Polysaccharide for a PS A1 Conjugate Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Samir; Nishat, Sharmeen; Andreana, Peter R

    2016-06-01

    A highly efficient and stereocontrolled synthesis of an aminooxy derivative of the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of a rhamnose-rich polysaccharide isolated from the cell envelop of bovine mastitis Streptococcus dysgalactiae 2023 is reported for the first time. The synthesis was accomplished utilizing a stereoselective and convergent [2 + 2] glycosylation strategy inclusive of a disaccharide Schmidt donor and an inclusive rhamnose disaccharide acceptor. The synthetic aminooxy tetrasaccharide was conjugated to T-cell stimulating immunogen PS A1 from Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285/NCTC 9343 via a physiologically stable oxime linkage to furnish the first semisynthetic bacterial-based immunogen construct targeting S. dysgalactiae 2023. The synthetic tetrasaccharide was assembled in 19 steps with a ∼5.0% overall yield. PMID:27149417

  4. Working Group on quality, safety and efficacy of typhoid Vi capsular polysaccharide conjugate, vaccines, Jeju, Republic of Korea, 5-7 September 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Chris; Lee, Chung Keel; Ahn, Chiyoung; Shin, Jinho; Knezevic, Ivana

    2013-09-23

    Typhoid fever is a gastrointestinal disease transmitted through the ingestion of contaminated water or food. The bacterium, Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi is an important cause of illness and death in many poor countries where access to safe water and basic sanitation is limited. Humans are the only natural host and reservoir of S. Typhi. Typhoid fever causes around 21 million cases and at least 200,000 deaths per year. Currently, several groups are developing typhoid conjugate vaccines that are expected to be safe and effective in infancy or early childhood. The World Health Organization convened a meeting, in collaboration with the Korea Food and Drug Administration, with experts group in September 2012 to develop guidelines for regulatory evaluation of the quality, safety and efficacy of typhoid conjugate vaccines. This report summarizes collective views on scientific and technical issues that need to be considered in the guidelines.

  5. Preparation and immunogenicity-evaluation of typhoid O-specific polysaccharides bio-conjugate vaccines%生物法合成伤寒O-糖蛋白结合疫苗及其免疫原性评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭哲慧; 潘超; 孙鹏; 冯尔玲; 吴军; 朱力; 彭清忠; 王恒樑

    2015-01-01

    Typhoid fever caused bySalmonella Typhi is still a major public health problem in developing coun-tries. In this study, we constructed a genetically modifiedSalmonella Typhi strain expressing O-specific polysaccha-rides (OPS) antigen conjugated to a carrier, recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A(rEPA N29). The conju-gates (OPS-rEPA N29) were further purified and evaluated for their immunogenicity. The results of ELISA showed that the conjugates evoked higher titers of IgG than OPS, suggesting that rEPAN29 increased immunogenicity of OPS significantly as a carrier. Moreover, three injections with 3-week interval evoked slightly higher titers of IgG than three injections with 2-week interval. However, injection of excess conjugates could not evoke higher titers of IgG against lipid polysaccharide (LPS). In summary, our study provides a new strategy for preparing polysaccha-rides-protein conjugate vaccines as well as similar bio-conjugate vaccines of other Gram-negative pathogens.%伤寒由伤寒沙门氏菌(Salmonella Typhi)引发,至今在发展中国家仍是备受关注的重要公共卫生问题.文章通过敲除伤寒菌脂多糖合成途径中O-抗原连接酶基因,转入含脑膜炎奈瑟球菌(Neisseria meningitidis)蛋白糖基化途径中糖基转移酶的表达载体,以及改构的重组铜绿假单胞菌(Pseudomonas Aeruginosa)外毒素A(rEPAN29)的表达载体,使细胞内能够诱导合成以伤寒O特异性多糖(O-specific polysaccharides, OPS)为目标抗原、以rEPAN29为载体蛋白的伤寒OPS-rEPAN29糖蛋白复合物,并对纯化所得复合物进行了免疫原性评价.ELISA测定血清抗体滴度表明,rEPA N29作为载体蛋白能有效增加糖链的免疫原性,糖蛋白比单独的多糖能诱导产生更好的免疫应答;3次免疫、间隔3周比间隔2周IgG滴度稍有提高;而免疫过量的糖蛋白,抗O-多糖的血清抗体效价并无提升.文章为生物法制备多糖-蛋白结合疫苗提供了新思路,理论

  6. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control.

  7. 测定b型流感嗜血杆菌结合疫苗游离多糖的脱氧胆酸钠沉淀法的建立%Establishment of a sodium deoxycholate precipitation method for determination of the free polysaccharide in Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈坚; 梁芳; 方曼莉; 王伟; 赵菲琼; 马相虎

    2014-01-01

    目的 建立测定b型流感嗜血杆菌(Haemophilus in fluenzae type b,Hib)结合疫苗游离多糖的脱氧胆酸钠(sodium deoxycholate,DOC)沉淀法.方法 在一定的酸性条件下,用1%DOC沉淀分离Hib结合疫苗中的结合多糖和游离多糖,测定上清和沉淀的多糖含量,并对该法进行验证.结果 DOC沉淀法的标准曲线具有可靠的线性,决定系数>0.999.该法的准确性和精密度良好,多糖加样回收率为103%~108%,相对标准偏差均<10%.结论 建立的DOC沉淀法可用于Hib结合疫苗中的游离多糖测定.%Objective To establish a sodium deoxycholate precipitation method for determination of the free polysaccharide in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine.Methods The conjugated and the free polysaccharides were separated using 1 % sodium deoxycholate (DOC) under certain conditions.The contents of free polysaccharide in supernatant and precipitate were detected.The DOC precipitation method was validated.Results The standard curve of the DOC precipitation method had good linearity and the coefficient of determination was >0.999.The DOC precipitation method had good accuracy and precision.Recoveries and relative standard deviations of the establish method were 103%-108% and <10%,respectively.Conclusion The established DOC precipitation method can be used to detect the free polysaccharide in Hib conjugate vaccine.

  8. Next Generation Pneumococcal Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin L Moffitt; Malley, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Currently licensed pneumococcal vaccines are based on the generation of antibodies to the pneumococcal polysaccharide, of which there are more than 90 different types. While these vaccines are highly effective against the serotypes included, their high cost and limited serotype coverage limits their usefulness worldwide, particularly in low resources areas. Thus alternative or adjunctive options are being actively pursued. This review will present these various approaches, including variation...

  9. Meningococcal vaccines Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kurugöl, Zafer

    2007-01-01

    Meningococcal disease presenting primarily as meningococcemia and meningitis continues to be a devastating problem around the world In the past 200 years several meningococcal epidemics have been noted in Europe Africa Asia and the United States Annually 500 000 cases of invasive meningococcal disease occur still worldwide of which 8805;50 000 result in death Therefore vaccine development has been undertaken in earnest for the prevention of this disease Polysaccharide vaccines have been avail...

  10. 冻干A+C群脑膜炎球菌多糖结合疫苗安全性评估%Safety Evaluation of Group A and Group C Meningococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine (Freeze-dried)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹青; 罗献伟; 苏颖; 陆志坚; 王晓萍; 方大春; 潘贵霞; 张怀忠; 夏志才

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety of group A and group C meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (freeze-dried)(MPCV-Fd/A+C) which widely used in infants and young children.Methods Stratified cluster sampling method was used to collect 6 to 23 months of age group over 100 thousand people inoculated with 2 doses of MPCV-Fd/A+C in 5 cities of Anhui province.The interval of two doses is one month,each dose is with 0.5ml,containing group A and group C polysaccharide 10μg respectively.Observing the side effect in 30 minutes and 24,48,72 hours after vaccination.Observation ended if there was no report of any adverse events after 7 days.Observation and recording of the side reaction were conducted according to the case report form (inoculation diary cards).Results There were 100,155 people who inoculated MPCV-Fd/A+C.The analysis showed that the rate of fever was 2.57 % after inoculating the first dose within 3 days and that reduced day by day; and the systemic side effect rates of allergy,irritability,lethargy,anorexia,vomiting,diarrhea were 0.04%,0.12%,0.05%,0.06%,0.05% and 0.09% respectively; and the local side effect rates of pain,redness,swelling reaction,subcutaneous induration were 0.03 %,0.05 %,0.04%,0.02% respectively.After the second dose,all side effect rates were reduced.And 90% reaction were mild and grade 4 reaction did not occur.Conclusion The side effect rate of MPCV-Fd/A+C was mild and lower after widely used in infants and young children,it was safe.%目的 评价冻干A+C群脑膜炎球菌多糖结合疫苗(Group A and Group C Meningococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine,Freeze-dried; MPCV-Fd/A+C),在婴幼儿中大规模使用后的安全性.方法 采用分层整群抽样,在安徽省5个市,对>10万名6~23月龄婴幼儿接种2剂MPCV-Fd/A+C,2剂间隔1个月,每剂0.5毫升(ml),含A群、C群荚膜多糖各10微克(μg).接种后进行30min即时反应观察,以及24、48、72h的随访观察,接种后第7天如

  11. Persistent response to pneumococcal vaccine in individuals supplemented with a novel water soluble extract of Uncaria tomentosa, C-Med-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, S; Sheng, Y; Pero, R W

    2001-07-01

    A human intervention study was carried out using male volunteers attending a General Practice Clinic in New York City involving comparison of individuals supplemented with 350 mg x 2 C-Med-100 daily dose for two months with untreated controls for their abilities to respond to a 23 valent pneumococcal vaccine. C-Med-100 is a novel nutraceutical extract from the South American plant Uncaria tomentosa or Cat's Claw which is known to possess immune enhancing and antiinflammatory properties in animals. There were no toxic side effects observed as judged by medical examination, clinical chemistry and blood cell analysis. However, statistically significant immune enhancement for the individuals on C-Med-100 supplement was observed by (i) an elevation in the lymphocyte/neutrophil ratios of peripheral blood and (ii) a reduced decay in the 12 serotype antibody titer responses to pneumococcal vaccination at 5 months.

  12. 肺炎疫苗与免疫调节剂在预防下呼吸道感染中的作用%Role of pneumonia vaccines and immunomodulators in prevention of lower respiratory tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封辰叶; 康健

    2013-01-01

    关于下呼吸道感染的预防,近年来的研究大多集中于肺炎疫苗和免疫调节剂的使用上,且大多数研究肯定了上述2种药物的预防作用.目前肺炎疫苗主要有2种可获得的疫苗广泛应用于临床:23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗和7价肺炎球菌多糖蛋白结合疫苗.肺炎疫苗所带来的消减医疗费的经济学效益已经被多个临床研究肯定.肺炎疫苗在临床的应用主要集中在以下几个方面:老年人、慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)、艾滋病毒感染者、儿童以及抗生素耐药性的影响.免疫调节剂在预防下呼吸道感染中的应用主要集中在对COPD的急性加重期及反复呼吸道感染上,并且被多项研究证实其积极作用.其中应用于COPD的免疫调节剂主要包括:泛福舒、AM3、卡介菌多糖核酸、注射用母牛分枝杆菌、草分枝杆菌F.U.36注射液、匹多莫德和必思添.泛福舒预防COPD急性加重的作用得到了数项较大规模的多中心临床研究的证实,正是基于这些研究成果,GOLD推荐免疫调节剂作为COPD的重要辅助治疗.%The recent studies about prevention of lower respiratory tract infections focus on the use of the pneumonia vaccine and immunomodulator,and most studies have confirmed the preventive effect of the two drugs.There are two available pneumonia vaccines widely used in clinic:23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine.The medical expenses mitigation of pneumonia vaccine has been affirmed by multiple clinical studies.Pneumonia vaccine is mainly used in the following areas:elderly,chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,HIV infection,children as well as antibiotic resistance.The preventive effects of immunomodulators on the prevention of lower respiratory tract infections mainly concentrate on acute exacerbation of COPD and recurrent respiratory tract infections,and a number of studies have confirmed its positive role

  13. PolysacDB: A Database of Microbial Polysaccharide Antigens and Their Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Abhijit Aithal; Arun Sharma; Shilpy Joshi; Raghava, Gajendra P S; Varshney, Grish C.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines based on microbial cell surface polysaccharides have long been considered as attractive means to control infectious diseases. To realize this goal, detailed systematic information about the antigenic polysaccharide is necessary. However, only a few databases that provide limited knowledge in this area are available. This paper describes PolysacDB, a manually curated database of antigenic polysaccharides. We collected and compiled comprehensive information from literature and web reso...

  14. Meningococcal vaccine evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Bona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis worldwide. Although polysaccharide and glycoconjugate vaccines have been developed for serogroups A, C, Y and W-135, currently there are no broadly effective vaccines available for the prevention of meningococcal B disease. A general overview of the burden of the disease and the strains prevalence in the world with the focus in particular on the Italian situation is provided in this article, together with the vaccinations developed and under evaluation.

  15. 以重组肺炎球菌表面黏附素A 为载体蛋白的流感嗜血杆菌多糖结合疫苗的实验研究%Evaluation of the immunogenicity and efficacy of a Hib polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine by using PsaA as carrier protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泽宇; 郭蓉; 徐江红; 吴娟; 薛红刚; 范小勇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To prepare a conjugate vaccine by linking Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)polysaccharide to PsaA protein carrier and evaluate the immunogenicity and efficacy of the conjugate vaccine. Methods A recombinant protein rPsaA,expressed by using the genetic engineering technology, was used as a protein carrier to prepare conjugate vaccine together with Hib polysaccharide. Ten mice at age of 3 weeks were immunized with the conjugate vaccine,while another 10 age-matched mice were immunized with Hib-tetanus toxoid(Hib-TT)vaccine which was produced formerly as a control. The mice treated with equal volume of PBS were set up as the negative control. The IgG antibodies in serum samples against PsaA and Hib polysaccharide were detected in two weeks after the final immunization. A suspension of Pneumococ-cus was injected into the middle ears of mice from experiment and control group. Histopathological analysis was performed to measure the clearance of bacteria in the middle ears and the severity of infection on days 3 and 7 after bacterial challenge. Results The rPsaA protein was prepared by the genetic engineering tech-nology and purified successfully with anion-exchange column. The Hib polysaccharide-PsaA protein conju-gate vaccine was prepared through a series of amide condensation reactions. The detection of IgG antibodies against PsaA protein and Hib polysaccharide in the immunized mice demonstrated that there was no signifi-cant difference with the titer of IgG against Hib polysaccharide between the mice immunized with the Hib-PsaA conjugate vaccine and those immunized with the Hib-TT vaccine. Less Pneumococcus strains were de-tected in the middle ears of mice immunized with the conjugate vaccine than those mice immunized with the Hib-TT vaccine three days after challenge. The mice from control group showed severe inflammation in the middle ears than those from experiment group. The Hib polysaccharide-PsaA protein conjugate vaccine im-proved protection against

  16. Generation of a murine monoclonal antibody to capsular polysaccharide Vi from Salmonella Typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Reyes-López

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The conventional hybridoma technology has enabled the development of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs against many antigens. Mabs have several applications in the field of basic research, diagnosis, immunotherapy and vaccine manufacturing processes. Mabs-producing hybridomas against the capsular polysaccharide from Salmonella Typhi were obtained, after intraperitoneal immunization of BALB/c mice with 10 µg of capsular polysaccharide Vi conjugated to diphtheria toxoid, and subsequent fusion of lymphocytes isolated of the spleen and myeloma cells SP2/O. A Mab was selected, partially characterized, and named as 4G3E11. The isotype of this Mab was IgG1. It was proved by means of a sandwich ELISA that the 4G3E11 Mab reacts with different concentrations of polysaccharide in samples of the vax-TyVi® vaccine. The Mab obtained in this research could be useful as reagent for the detection and quantitation of polysaccharide Vi in typhoid vaccines.

  17. Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines: characteristics, development, and clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-12-01

    The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

  18. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safety of Tdap, Meningococcal, and HPV vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine is Very Safe Read about the safety of ... Hepatitis A Vaccine Safety Hepatitis B Vaccine Safety Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Safety FAQs about HPV Safety Influenza (Flu) Vaccine ...

  19. Recombinant expression of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Emily J.; Yates, Laura E.; Terra, Vanessa S.; Cuccui, Jon; Wren, Brendan W.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for over 14 million cases of pneumonia worldwide annually, and over 1 million deaths, the majority of them children. The major determinant for pathogenesis is a polysaccharide capsule that is variable and is used to distinguish strains based on their serotype. The capsule forms the basis of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) that contains purified capsular polysaccharide from 23 serotypes, and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), containing 13 common serotypes conjugated to CRM197 (mutant diphtheria toxin). Purified capsule from S. pneumoniae is required for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine production, and costs can be prohibitively high, limiting accessibility of the vaccine in low-income countries. In this study, we demonstrate the recombinant expression of the capsule-encoding locus from four different serotypes of S. pneumoniae within Escherichia coli. Furthermore, we attempt to identify the minimum set of genes necessary to reliably and efficiently express these capsules heterologously. These E. coli strains could be used to produce a supply of S. pneumoniae serotype-specific capsules without the need to culture pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, these strains could be applied to synthetic glycobiological applications: recombinant vaccine production using E. coli outer membrane vesicles or coupling to proteins using protein glycan coupling technology. PMID:27110302

  20. Radiation processed polysaccharide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation crosslinking, degradation and grafting techniques for modification of polymeric materials including natural polysaccharides have been providing many unique products. In this communication, typical products from radiation processed polysaccharides particularly plant growth promoter from alginate, plant protector and elicitor from chitosan, super water absorbent containing starch, hydrogel sheet containing carrageenan/CM-chitosan as burn wound dressing, metal ion adsorbent from partially deacetylated chitin were described. The procedures for producing those above products were also outlined. Future development works on radiation processing of polysaccharides were briefly presented. (author)

  1. Vaccines against typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Carlos A; Borsutzky, Stefan; Griot-Wenk, Monika; Metcalfe, Ian C; Pearman, Jon; Collioud, Andre; Favre, Didier; Dietrich, Guido

    2006-05-01

    Because of high infectivity and significant disease burden, typhoid fever constitutes a major global health problem. Implementation of adequate food handling practices and establishment of safe water supplies are the cornerstone for the development of an effective prevention program. However, vaccination against typhoid fever remains an essential tool for the effective management of this disease. Currently, there are two well tolerated and effective licensed vaccines. One is based on defined subunit virulence (Vi) polysaccharide antigen and can be administered either intramuscularly or subcutaneously and the other is based on the use of live attenuated bacteria for oral administration. The advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches taken in the development of a vaccine against typhoid fever are discussed, along with the potential for future vaccine candidates.

  2. The preparation method of the type 1 pneumococcal polysaccharide - protein binding biochemical and immunological characteristics of vaccine%不同方法制备的1型肺炎球菌多糖-蛋白结合疫苗生化及免疫学特性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴吉平

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较不同方法制备的1型肺炎球菌多糖-蛋白结合疫苗生化及免疫学特性。方法采用胺还原法以及溴化氰活化法分别对结合物进行制备,并采取生化以及免疫学检测的方式对其进行检测。结果相对于胺还原法制造出来的结合物,利用溴化氰活化法具有较高的高分子结合物含量以及较高的结合率,与此同时,免疫小鼠产生的抗体提高的也十分明显。结论相对于胺还原法制造出来的结合物,利用溴化氰活化法对1型肺炎球菌多糖-蛋白结合疫苗进行制备要优。%Objective To compare the different methods of preparation of type 1 pneumococcal polysaccharide - protein conjugate vaccine biochemical and immunological properties. Methods amine reduction and cyanogen bromide activation method was used to conjugate prepared and take biochemical and immunological detection methods for its detection. The results relative to the amine reduction conjugates produced using cyanogen bromide activation method combined with high polymer content and higher binding rate, while the immunized mice produced antibodies increased very significantly. Conclusion reduction relative to the amine conjugates produced using cyanogen bromide activation method for type 1 pneumococcal polysaccharide - protein conjugate vaccine prepared to excellent.

  3. Reimmunization after bone marrow transplantation: Current recommendations and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Clarisse M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous and allogeneic BMT recipients lose immune memory of exposition to infectious agents and vaccines accumulated throughout lifetime and therefore need to be revaccinated. Diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, pertussis vaccine (children < 7 years old, Haemophilus influenza type B (Hib conjugate, 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide, inactivated influenza vaccine, inactivated polio vaccine and live-attenuated measles-mumps-rubella vaccine are the currently recommended vaccines to be included in a vaccination program after BMT. For most of them, the best time of vaccination, the number of vaccine doses and/or the duration of immunity after vaccination have not been established. Vaccination protocols vary greatly among BMT centers suggesting that the lack of sufficient data has not permitted the establishment of solid recommendations. The use of other vaccines and the perspectives for different vaccination protocols are discussed in this review.

  4. The role of economic evaluation in vaccine decision making : Focus on meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welte, R.; Trotter, C.L.; Edmunds, W.J.; Postma, Maarten; Beutels, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, several countries have experienced increases in the incidence of serogroup C meningococcal disease. It can be controlled with older polysaccharide vaccines and particularly the recently developed conjugate vaccines. For 21 developed countries, we investigated the role that economic

  5. Characterization of Brucella abortus O-polysaccharide and core lipopolysaccharide mutants and demonstration that a complete core is required for rough vaccines to be efficient against Brucella abortus and Brucella ovis in the mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Monreal, D.; Grillo, M.J. (María Jesús); Gonzalez-fernandez, D.; Marin, C.M.; de Miguel, M. J.; Lopez-Goñi, I. (Ignacio); Blasco, J.M. (José); Cloeckaert, A.; Moriyon, I. (Ignacio)

    2003-01-01

    Brucella abortus rough lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutants were obtained by transposon insertion into two wbk genes (wbkA [putative glycosyltransferase; formerly rfbU] and per [perosamine synthetase]), into manB (pmm [phosphomannomutase; formerly rfbK]), and into an unassigned gene. Consistent with gene-predicted roles, electrophoretic analysis, 2-keto-3-manno-D-octulosonate measurements, and immunoblots with monoclonal antibodies to O-polysaccharide, outer and inner core epitopes showed no O-po...

  6. Proprietary arabinogalactan extract increases antibody response to the pneumonia vaccine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udani Jay K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arabinogalactan from Larch tree (Larix spp. bark has previously demonstrated immunostimulatory activity. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that ingestion of a proprietary arabinogalactan extract, ResistAid™, would selectively enhance the antibody response to the pneumococcal (pneumonia vaccine in healthy adults. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group pilot study included 45 healthy adults who had not previously been vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The volunteers began taking the study product or placebo (daily dosage 4.5 g at the screening visit (V1-Day 0 and continued over the entire 72 day study period. After 30 days the subjects received the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine (V2. They were monitored the following day (V3-Day 31, as well as 21 days (V4-Day 51 and 42 days (V5-Day 72 after vaccination. Responses by the adaptive immune system (antigen specific were measured via pneumococcal IgG antibodies (subtypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F and salivary IgA levels. Responses by the innate immune system (non-specific were measured via white blood cell counts, inflammatory cytokines and the complement system. Results Vaccination significantly increased pneumococcal IgG levels as expected. The arabinogalactan group demonstrated a statistically significant greater IgG antibody response than the placebo group in two antibodies subtypes (18C and 23F at both Day 51 (p = 0.006 and p = 0.002 and at Day 72 (p = 0.008 and p = 0.041. These same subtypes (18C and 23F also demonstrated change scores from baseline which were significant, in favor of the arabinogalactan group, at Day 51 (p = 0.033 and 0.001 and at Day 72 (p = 0.012 and p = 0.003. Change scores from baseline and mean values were greater in the arabinogalactan group than placebo for most time points in antibody subtypes 4, 6B, 9V, and 19F, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. There

  7. [Pneumococcal vaccination: conjugated vaccine induces herd immunity and reduces antibiotic resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletz, M W; Maus, U; Hohlfeld, J M; Lode, H; Welte, T

    2008-02-01

    Pneumococcal infections (pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis, meningitis) are common and usually involve toddlers and the elderly. Currently, two pneumococcal vaccines are in clinical use. The older vaccine consists of pure capsular polysaccharides from 23 pneumococcal serotypes and induces only a limited B-cell response because polysaccharides are poor antigens that stimulate mainly B-cells. In 2000, a vaccination program with a novel 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was launched in the U.S. The conjugation of capsular polysaccharides with a highly immunogenic diphtheria toxoid protein induces both a T cell and B cell response that results in specific humoral and mucosal immunity. Since children are the main reservoir of pneumococci, the 7-valent conjugate vaccine seems to eradicate the respective pneumococcal serotypes within the population, as demonstrated by recent US data. Pronounced herd immunity resulted in a decrease in invasive pneumococcal diseases in vaccinees and non-vaccinees as well as in a reduction of antibiotic resistance rates. However, recent data suggest a replacement of vaccine-serotypes by non-vaccine serotypes, which conquer the ecological niche created by the vaccine. In order to encounter this problem a 13-valent conjugated vaccine is currently under development.

  8. Review of meningococcal vaccines with updates on immunization in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahlanie, Yorgo C; Hammadi, Moza M; Ghanem, Soha T; Dbaibo, Ghassan S

    2014-01-01

    Meningococcal disease is a serious and global life-threatening disease. Six serogroups (A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y) account for the majority of meningococcal disease worldwide. Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines were introduced several decades ago and have led to the decline in the burden of disease. However, polysaccharide vaccines have several limitations, including poor immunogenicity in infants and toddlers, short-lived protection, lack of immunologic memory, negligible impact on nasopharyngeal carriage, and presence of hyporesponsiveness after repeated doses. The chemical conjugation of plain polysaccharide vaccines has the potential to overcome these drawbacks. Meningococcal conjugate vaccines include the quadrivalent vaccines (MenACWY-DT, MenACWY-CRM, and MenACWY-TT) as well as the monovalent A and C vaccines. These conjugate vaccines were shown to elicit strong immune response in adults. This review addresses the various aspects of meningococcal disease, the limitations posed by polysaccharide vaccines, the different conjugate vaccines with their immunogenicity and reactogenicity in adults, and the current recommendations in adults. PMID:24500529

  9. Immunochemical characterization of polysaccharide antigens from six clinical strains of Enterococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huebner Johannes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterococci have become major nosocomial pathogens due to their intrinsic and acquired resistance to a broad spectrum of antibiotics. Their increasing drug resistance prompts us to search for prominent antigens to develop vaccines against enterococci. Given the success of polysaccharide-based vaccines against various bacterial pathogens, we isolated and characterized the immunochemical properties of polysaccharide antigens from five strains of Enterococcus faecalis and one strain of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. Results We cultured large batches of each strain, isolated sufficient quantities of polysaccharides, analyzed their chemical structures, and compared their antigenic specificity. Three classes of polysaccharides were isolated from each strain, including a polyglucan, a teichoic acid, and a heteroglycan composed of rhamnose, glucose, galactose, mannosamine, and glucosamine. The polyglucans from all six strains are identical and appear to be dextran. Yields of the teichoic acids were generally low. The most abundant polysaccharides are the heteroglycans. The six heteroglycans are structurally different as evidenced by NMR spectroscopy. They also differ in their antigenic specificities as revealed by competitive ELISA. The heteroglycans are not immunogenic by themselves but conjugation to protein carriers significantly enhanced their ability to induce antibodies. Conclusion The six clinical strains of enterococci express abundant, strain-specific cell-surface heteroglycans. These polysaccharides may provide a molecular basis for serological typing of enterococcal strains and antigens for the development of vaccines against multi-drug resistant enterococci.

  10. 芦荟多糖对肉鸡免疫器官指数和新城疫疫苗免疫效果的影响%Effects of aloe polysaccharide on immune organ index and immune efficacy of vaccine against Newcastle disease in broiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯元璋; 古飞霞; 袁朝霞; 张雅君; 刘胜洪; 胡浪浪; 徐磊

    2011-01-01

    To observe the effect of aloe polysaccharide(AP)on immune organs and immune efficacy of Newcastle disease(ND) vaccine in yellow broiler(broiler) ,AP solution was injected subcutaneously in amount of 3.75 ,7.50 ,11.25 ,15.00,0 mg each time per bird,respectively,while ND vaccine was inoculated. Effects of AP of different concentrations and injecting times on immune organ indexes and HI antibody titer in broilers vaccinated ND vaccine were studied. The results showed that AP could promote the growth of immune organs,increase the mass and indexes of thymus,spleen and bursa when injected to 5-day-old together with 1 dose live and 1/2 dose inactived ND vaccine,and enhance ND HI antibody titers of broilers vaccinated ND,especially the treatments of 3.75 ,7.50 mg AP per bird,in which effects were the most significant(P <0.05)on 35-day-old. AP improved immune organsand indexes when injected twice at 5 ,20-day-old,respectively,together with live ND vaccine,and the thymus indexes were significantly higher than those of the controled (P <0. 05) except the treatment of 15.00 mg AP per bird and the bursa indexes of all treatments were higher than those of the controled. AP also promoted ND HI antibody titer when injected twice at 5,20-day-old,respectively,together with live ND vaccine,ND HI antibody titers were higher than the controled after 15 days of first injection (20-day-old) .except the treatment of 15.00 mg AP per bird,especially the treatments of 3.75 mg AP per bird,in which effect was the most significant(P <0. 05) ,and ND HI antibody titers were significantly higher than those of the controled(P <0. 05) after 15 days of second injection(35-day-old) except the treatment of 11.25 mg AP per bird. It was proved that certain amount of AP can improve immune organs,enhance the immune efficacy of ND vaccine,and AP can be used as an immunopoten-tiator totether with ND vaccine.%为了观察芦荟多糖( Aloe polysaccharide,AP)对黄羽肉鸡免

  11. A+C群脑膜炎球菌多糖疫苗在C群流脑暴发中应急接种效果的研究%Effectiveness of an immunization campaign with group A and C meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine in controlling an outbreak of group C meningococcal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚健; 方锦嵩; 崔萱林; 谢贵林; 吴兴华; 蓝荣伟; 李翠云; 董柏青; 黄景枝; 权怡; 陆万专; 罗成慧; 毛伟成; 廖和壮

    2008-01-01

    目的 报告A+C群脑膜炎球菌多糖疫苗(A+C群MPV)在C群流行性脑脊髓膜炎(流脑)暴发疫情中应急接种的安全性、免疫原性和保护效果.方法 在2002年广西来宾市发生C群流脑局部暴发接种A群MPV人群中约6周后应急接种A+C群MPV,观察接种对象局部和全身反应.选择疫点人群71人和非疫点人群43人于应急接种前和接种后1个月采血,用ELISA检测脑膜炎球菌C群和A群多糖抗体IgG.随访接种人群流脑发病情况至免疫后5年.结果 A+C群MPV应急接种率为97%,接种后未观察到严重不良反应.疫点人群、非疫点人群、应急接种前C群抗体阴性者和阳性者的C群流脑抗体阳性率为97.67%~100%,几何平均浓度(GMC)为30.81~37.44 μg/ml,各组人群抗体水平差异无统计学意义.流脑罹患率在及时接种学校(218.58/10万)比不及时接种学校(705.72/10万)减少69.02%.接种人群随访15 760人年未发现流脑临床确诊病例.结论 国产A+C群MPV应急接种可成功扑灭C群流脑暴发疫情,与A群MPV仅间隔6周接种仍然安全,对易感人群可诱导产生高水平的特异性抗体,对已有抗体者可显著提高抗体水平,保护效果至少持续5年.%Objective To assess the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of group A and C meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (A/C MPV) in response to an outbreak of group C meningococcal disease. Methods A vaccination campaign with A/C MPV was prompted 6 weeks after the use of group A MPV in Laibin city, Guangxi, where an outbreak of group C meningococcal meningitis occurred in 2002.Vaccinees were observed for local and systemic reactions after the vaccination and followed up for the meningococcal disease for 5 years. Blood samples were collected from 71 people in the epidemic and 43 in the non-epidemic areas before and 1 month after the vaccination and examined by ELISA to detect IgG antibodies to group A and C polysaccharides. Results The vaccination coverage was 97

  12. 杭州市儿童接种b型流行性感冒嗜血杆菌多糖结合疫苗影响因素的调查分析%Influencing Factors of Haemophilus Influenzae Type b Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine Vaccination in Children in Hangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 许二萍; 王骏; 刘仕俊; 车鑫仁; 杜渐; 张小平

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨影响杭州市儿童接种b型流行性感冒嗜血杆菌(Haemophilus influenzae Type b,Hib)多糖结合疫苗(Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine)(Hib疫苗)的因素,提出促进儿童接种Hib疫苗的策略.方法 采用多级抽样方法,对杭州市4个区(县)458名儿童家长开展接种Hib疫苗影响因素的问卷调查.结果 458名儿童Hib疫苗接种率为55.68%.将是否接种Hib疫苗进行单因素分析,户籍为常住儿童[比值比(Odds Ratio,OR)=0.634,95%可信区间(Confidence Interval,CI):0.437 ~ 0.918,P=0.016]、参加医疗保险(OR=0.580,95%CI:0.393 ~0.856,P=0.006)、母亲文化程度高(OR =0.631,95%CI:0.435~0.915,P=0.015)、家庭人均年收入高(OR=0.484,95% CI:0.305 ~0.768,P=0.002)、收到接种Hib疫苗的告知(OR =0.196,95% CI:0.156 ~0.244,P<0.001)、知晓Hib可引起多种疾病(OR =0.055,95% CI:0.031~0.097,P<0.001)、知晓Hib疫苗(OR=0.031,95% CI:0.018 ~0.052,P<0.001)是接种Hib疫苗的促进因素,而Hib疫苗价格高(OR=1.980,95%CI:1.311~2.994,P=0.001)是接种Hib疫苗的阻碍因素.在单因素分析的基础上,进行非条件逻辑斯谛回归分析,户籍为常住儿童(OR =0.512,95%CI:0.3 ~0.876,P=0.015)、收到接种Hib疫苗告知(OR =0.218,95%CI:0.094 ~0.505,P<0.001)是接种Hib疫苗的促进因素,而Hib疫苗价格高(OR=1.403,95% CI:1.116~1.894,P=0.036)是接种Hib疫苗的阻碍因素.结论 影响杭州市儿童接种Hib疫苗的因素主要有户籍、家长是否收到接种Hib疫苗的告知、Hib疫苗的价格等.

  13. Evaluation of some selected vaccines and other biological products irradiated by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular sizing potency results are presented for irradiated samples of one lot of Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine, pneumococcal polysaccharide type 6B and typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine. The samples were irradiated (25 kGy) by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays. IgG and IgM antibody response in mice test results (ELISA) are given for the Hib conjugate vaccine irradiated at 0 deg. C or frozen in liquid nitrogen

  14. Evaluation of some selected vaccines and other biological products irradiated by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, J.C. E-mail: may@cber.fda.gov; Rey, L.; Lee, C.-J

    2002-03-01

    Molecular sizing potency results are presented for irradiated samples of one lot of Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine, pneumococcal polysaccharide type 6B and typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine. The samples were irradiated (25 kGy) by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays. IgG and IgM antibody response in mice test results (ELISA) are given for the Hib conjugate vaccine irradiated at 0 deg. C or frozen in liquid nitrogen.

  15. Evaluation of some selected vaccines and other biological products irradiated by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J. C.; Rey, L.; Lee, Chi-Jen

    2002-03-01

    Molecular sizing potency results are presented for irradiated samples of one lot of Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine, pneumococcal polysaccharide type 6B and typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine. The samples were irradiated (25 kGy) by gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays. IgG and IgM antibody response in mice test results (ELISA) are given for the Hib conjugate vaccine irradiated at 0°C or frozen in liquid nitrogen.

  16. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in adults: Let's see what happens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Peter R

    2016-07-01

    The recent recommendation for the use of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in adults 65 y of age and older, provides a new tool for preventing disease in this at-risk population. The conjugate vaccine induces a T-cell dependent response, which distinguishes it from the polysaccharide vaccine and could provide the longer-term protection necessary to have a significant impact in this population. PMID:26901618

  17. Pneumococcal antibody concentrations of subjects in communities fully or partially vaccinated with a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    Ota, Martin O. C.; Anna Roca; Christian Bottomley; Philip C. Hill; Uzochukwu Egere; Brian Greenwood; Adegbola, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND A recent trial with PCV-7 in a rural Gambian community showed reduced vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage in fully vaccinated compared with control communities. We measured pneumococcal polysaccharide antibody concentrations in this trial to understand further the mechanisms underlying the observed changes. METHODS A single-blind, cluster-randomized (by village) trial was conducted in 21 Gambian villages. In 11 villages, all residents received PCV-7 (Vaccine group); in 10 contr...

  18. Prevention of otitis media in children by pneumococcal vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karma, P; Pukander, J; Sipilä, M; Timonen, M; Pöntynen, S; Herva, E; Grönroos, P; Mäkelä, H

    1985-01-01

    A total of 3,340 infants, 95 per cent of them 7 to 9 months old, were randomly vaccinated in a double-blind fashion with either the 14-valent pneumococcal (Pn) polysaccharide vaccine or a saline placebo in three urban areas in Finland. The second dose of the vaccine was given 5 months later. Age and sex distribution, recruitment of infants, and their otitis-related treatment and follow-up were similar in the study areas. Side effects after vaccination were mild and fewer than among older children. Antibody responses to vaccine polysaccharides varied from type to type, but were generally poor, especially to types most prevalent in otitis media. After the first dose of vaccine, the occurrence of otitis visits among the Pn-vaccinated, as compared with controls, showed inter-area differences, but ranged from not more than a 30 per cent reduction at its best to an increase in some areas and in some clinical categories. The respective figures for children with acute otitis media were similar between the vaccination groups and the study areas. The effect of the vaccine on acute otitis media caused by specific Pn types/groups represented in the vaccine was variable but generally poor. Group 6 attacks especially seemed to behave problematically. The second dose of the vaccine did not give additional benefit serologically or clinically. The efficacy of currently available pneumococcal vaccine against otitis media seemed poor in infants.

  19. 肺炎球菌表面蛋白A的原核表达及其作为多糖结合疫苗载体的可行性%Prokaryotic Expression of Pneumococcal Surface Protein A (PspA) and Its Feasibility as a Carrier of Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李启明; 唐玉龙; 张学峰; 靳玉琴; 马智静; 张靖

    2011-01-01

    目的 原核表达肺炎球菌表面蛋白A(Pneumococcal surface protein A,PspA),并探讨其作为多糖结合疫苗候选载体的可行性.方法 合成PspA基因,定向克隆至pET-30a(+)载体,构建重组表达质粒pET-30a-rPspA,转化E.coli Star( DE3)菌株,IPTG诱导表达.表达产物经Ni离子亲和层析纯化后,经Western blot鉴定.取破伤风类毒素(Tetanus toxoid,TT)及纯化的rPspA,分别与A群脑膜炎球菌多糖(Group A meningococcal capsular polysaccharide,GAMP)通过溴化氰活化法进行偶联,获得rPspA-GAMP与TT-GAMP多糖蛋白结合物,对其进行纯化及检定.多糖结合物分别以滴鼻和肌肉注射途径免疫BALB/c小鼠,评价其诱发的体液免疫和黏膜免疫水平.结果 重组表达质粒经双酶切及测序鉴定构建正确;表达产物主要以可溶形式存在,表达量约占菌体总蛋白的20%,经纯化后纯度可达90%,可与His单抗特异性结合;肌肉注射途径显示,两种蛋白载体的结合物均能诱发较高水平的体液免疫,不同载体间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);滴鼻途径显示,载体蛋白rPspA的结合物刺激产生sIgA的能力优于传统载体TT,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 原核表达并纯化了rPspA,其具有新型多糖蛋白载体的潜力,也可作为黏膜投递型多糖结合疫苗的候选载体.%Objective To express pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) in prokaryotic cells and investigate its feasibility as a carrier of polysaccharide conjugate vaccine. Methods PspA was synthesized and cloned into vector pET-30a( + ). The constructed recombinant plasmid pET-30a-rPspA was transformed to E. Coli Star (DE3) and induced with IPTG. The expressed product was purified by nickel ion affinity chromatography and identified by Western blot. Tetanus toxoid (TT) and purified recombinant PspA (rPspA) were conjugated with group A meningococcal capsular polysaccharide (GAMP) by activation with cyanogen bromide respectively, and the obtained

  20. Antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus toxoid in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kim; Gyhrs, A; Lausen, B;

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibody response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine (HibCP-TT) in preterm infants. SUBJECTS: Thirty-five healthy preterm infants with gestational ages (GA) from 27 to 36 weeks and birth weights from...

  1. Polysaccharides and bacterial plugging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogler, H.S.

    1991-11-01

    Before any successful application of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery process can be realized, an understanding of the cells' transport and retentive mechanisms in porous media is needed. Cell transport differs from particle transport in their ability to produce polysaccharides, which are used by cells to adhere to surfaces. Cell injection experiments have been conducted using Leuconostoc cells to illustrate the importance of cellular polysaccharide production as a transport mechanism that hinders cell movement and plugs porous media. Kinetic studies of the Leuconostoc cells, carried out to further understand the plugging rates of porous media, have shown that the cells' growth rates are approximately equal when provided with monosaccharide (glucose and fructose) or sucrose. The only difference in cell metabolism is the production of dextran when sucrose is supplied as a carbon source. Experimentally it has also been shown that the cells' growth rate is weakly dependent upon the sucrose concentration in the media, and strongly dependent upon the concentration of yeast extract. The synthesis of cellular dextran has been found to lag behind cell generation, thus indicating that the cells need to reach maturity before they are capable of expressing the detransucrase enzyme and synthesizing insoluble dextran. Dextran yields were found to be dependent upon the sucrose concentration in the media. 10 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Why Were Polysaccharides Necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoguzov, Vladimir

    2004-12-01

    The main idea of this paper is that the primordial soup may be modelled by food systems whose structure-property relationship is based on non-specific interactions between denatured biopolymers. According to the proposed hypothesis, polysaccharides were the first biopolymers that decreased concentration of salts in the primordial soup, `compatibilised' and drove the joint evolution of proto-biopolymers. Synthesis of macromolecules within the polysaccharide-rich medium could have resulted in phase separation of the primordial soup and concentration of the polypeptides and nucleic acids in the dispersed phase particles. The concentration of proto-biopolymer mixtures favoured their cross-linking in hybrid supermacromolecules of conjugates. The cross-linking of proto-biopolymers could occur by hydrophobic, electrostatic interactions, H-bonds due to freezing aqueous mixed biopolymer dispersions and/or by covalent bonds due to the Maillard reaction. Cross-linking could have increased the local concentration of chemically different proto-biopolymers, fixed their relative positions and made their interactions reproducible. Attractive-repulsive interactions between cross-linked proto-biopolymer chains could develop pairing of the monomer units, improved chemical stability (against hydrolysis) and led to their mutual catalytic activity and coding. Conjugates could probably evolve to the first self-reproduced entities and then to specialized cellular organelles. Phase separation of the primordial soup with concentration of conjugates in the dispersed particles has probably resulted in proto-cells.

  3. Rough vaccines in animal brucellosis: Structural and genetic basis and present status

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyon, I. (Ignacio); Grillo, M.J. (María Jesús); Monreal, D.; Gonzalez-fernandez, D.; Marin, C.M.; Lopez-Goñi, I. (Ignacio); Mainar, R. (Raúl); Moreno, E.; Blasco, J.M. (José)

    2004-01-01

    International audience - Brucellosis control and eradication requires serological tests and vaccines. Effective classical vaccines (S19 in cattle and Rev 1 in small ruminants), however, induce antibodies to the O-polysaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide which may be difficult to distinguish from those resulting from infection and may thus complicate diagnosis. Rough attenuated mutants lack the O-polysaccharide and would solve this problem if eliciting protective immunity; the empirically o...

  4. Leptospirosis vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the recent advancements of recombinant outer membrane protein (OMP vaccines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS vaccines, inactivated vaccines, attenuated vaccines and DNA vaccines against leptospirosis are reviewed. A comparison of these vaccines may lead to development of new potential methods to combat leptospirosis and facilitate the leptospirosis vaccine research. Moreover, a vaccine ontology database was built for the scientists working on the leptospirosis vaccines as a starting tool.

  5. Pneumococcal vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a frequent cause of pneumonia and meningitis. This article looks at the pneumococcal vaccine, its uses, efficacy, and adverse effects and how vaccination may be improved. We also look at the role of the new conjugate vaccines.

  6. Smallpox Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsletters Events Also Known As Smallpox = Vaccinia Smallpox Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The smallpox ... like many other vaccines. For that reason, the vaccination site must be cared for carefully to prevent ...

  7. Polysaccharides: Molecular and Supramolecular Structures. Terminology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinze, Thomas; Petzold-Welcke, Katrin; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter summarises important issues
    about the molecular and supramolecular structure
    of polysaccharides. It describes the terminology
    of polysaccharides systematically. The
    polysaccharides are divided regarding the
    molecular structures in glucans, polyoses,
    polysaccharid

  8. Increase in Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Infections in Children with Sickle Cell Disease since Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Licensure

    OpenAIRE

    McCavit, Timothy L.; Quinn, Charles T.; Techasaensiri, Chonnamet; Rogers, Zora R.

    2010-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) has decreased with prophylactic penicillin, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and pneumococcal protein-conjugate vaccine (PCV7) usage. We report 10 IPD cases since PCV7 licensure, including a recent surge of non-vaccine serotypes. IPD continues to be a serious risk in SCD.

  9. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact.

  10. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. PMID:26541249

  11. A threading receptor for polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooibroek, Tiddo J.; Casas-Solvas, Juan M.; Harniman, Robert L.; Renney, Charles M.; Carter, Tom S.; Crump, Matthew P.; Davis, Anthony P.

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose, chitin and related polysaccharides are key renewable sources of organic molecules and materials. However, poor solubility tends to hamper their exploitation. Synthetic receptors could aid dissolution provided they are capable of cooperative action, for example by multiple threading on a single polysaccharide molecule. Here we report a synthetic receptor designed to form threaded complexes (polypseudorotaxanes) with these natural polymers. The receptor binds fragments of the polysaccharides in aqueous solution with high affinities (Ka up to 19,000 M-1), and is shown—by nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy—to adopt the threading geometry. Evidence from induced circular dichroism and atomic force microscopy implies that the receptor also forms polypseudorotaxanes with cellulose and its polycationic analogue chitosan. The results hold promise for polysaccharide solubilization under mild conditions, as well as for new approaches to the design of biologically active molecules.

  12. Meningococcal conjugate vaccines: optimizing global impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terranella A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Andrew Terranella1,2, Amanda Cohn2, Thomas Clark2 1Epidemic Intelligence Service, Division of Applied Sciences, Scientific Education and Professional Development Program Office, 2Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Meningococcal conjugate vaccines have several advantages over polysaccharide vaccines, including the ability to induce greater antibody persistence, avidity, immunologic memory, and herd immunity. Since 1999, meningococcal conjugate vaccine programs have been established across the globe. Many of these vaccination programs have resulted in significant decline in meningococcal disease in several countries. Recent introduction of serogroup A conjugate vaccine in Africa offers the potential to eliminate meningococcal disease as a public health problem in Africa. However, the duration of immune response and the development of widespread herd immunity in the population remain important questions for meningococcal vaccine programs. Because of the unique epidemiology of meningococcal disease around the world, the optimal vaccination strategy for long-term disease prevention will vary by country. Keywords: conjugate vaccine, meningitis, meningococcal vaccine, meningococcal disease

  13. Immunization of newborns with bacterial conjugate vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Biggelaar, Anita H J; Pomat, William S

    2013-05-17

    Bacterial conjugate vaccines are based on the principle of coupling immunogenic bacterial capsular polysaccharides to a carrier protein to facilitate the induction of memory T-cell responses. Following the success of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines in the 1980s, conjugate vaccines for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis infections were developed and proven to be effective in protecting children against invasive disease. In this review, the use of conjugate vaccines in human newborns is discussed. Neonatal Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal conjugate vaccination schedules have been trialed and proven to be safe, with the majority of studies demonstrating no evidence for the induction of immune tolerance. Whether their neonatal administration also results in an earlier induction of clinical protection in the first 2-3 critical months of life is still to be demonstrated. PMID:22728221

  14. Computer simulation and experimental study of the polysaccharide-polysaccharide interaction in the bacteria Azospirillum brasilense Sp245

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefeva, Oksana A.; Kuznetsov, Pavel E.; Tolmachev, Sergey A.; Kupadze, Machammad S.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Rogacheva, Svetlana M.

    2003-09-01

    We have studied the conformational properties and molecular dynamics of polysaccharides by using molecular modeling methods. Theoretical and experimental results of polysaccharide-polysaccharide interactions are described.

  15. 某新上市国产冻干A+C群脑膜炎球菌多糖结合疫苗免疫原性及安全性观察%Study on the safety and immunogenicity of a new home-made vaccine of freeze-dried group A/C meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昕; 崔雪莲; 黎明强; 李艳萍; 马波; 袁琳

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价某新上市国产冻干A+C群脑膜炎球菌多糖结合疫苗接种婴幼儿的安全性和免疫原性。方法采用随机、盲法、对照的方法,选择900名6~23月龄健康儿童,其中6~11月龄300人,12~23月龄600人,每个年龄组按1∶1比例随机分到试验组和对照组。实验组接种某新上市疫苗,对照组接种罗益(无锡)生物制药有限公司生产的同类疫苗。每人接种2剂疫苗,间隔1个月,评价试验组和对照组疫苗免疫后不良反应发生率、抗体阳转率及抗体几何平均滴度(GMT)。结果免疫后两个年龄段A、C群抗体阳转(4倍增长)率均>95%,试验组与对照组的阳转率差异无统计学意义。12~23月龄接种1剂、2剂疫苗后抗体阳转率差异无统计学意义;6~11月龄段,试验组A群抗体水平高于对照组;两个年龄段试验组的C群抗体水平均低于对照组,但均处于较高水平(>1∶128)。实验组与对照组全身及局部不良反应率差异无统计学意义,未观察到与试验疫苗相关的严重不良事件。结论某新上市国产冻干A+C群脑膜炎球菌多糖结合疫苗在6~23月龄的儿童中具有良好安全性和免疫原性。%Objective To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a new home-made vaccine of freeze-dried group A/C meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate (MCV-A/C) in infants. Methods The double-blind, randomized, parallel controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the adverse reaction, the positive conversion rate and GMT of antibodies. The participants included 300 of 6-11 months and 600 of 12-23 months old children, who were randomly allocated to the trial group and control group by age at 1:1 ratio. Each participant was injected with 2 doses of the new brand (in the trial group) or old brand (in the control group) of the vaccine at an interval of 1 month. Results The positive conversion rates of antibodies to A, C antigens

  16. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  17. Evaluation of components of X-ray irradiated 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent and X-ray and gamma-ray irradiated acellular pertussis component of DTaP vaccine products

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J. C.; Rey, L.; Lee, Chi-Jen; Arciniega, Juan

    2004-09-01

    Samples of pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and two different diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccines adsorbed were irradiated with X-rays and/or gamma-rays (Co-60). Mouse IgG and IgM antibody responses (ELISA) for types 9V, 14, 18C, and 19F pneumococcal polysaccharides and conjugates indicated that the polysaccharides were more tolerant of the radiation than the conjugates. The mouse antibody response for the detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) antigen, filamentous hemagglutinin antigen (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM) antigens for the appropriate vaccine type indicated that the antibody response was not significantly changed in the 25 kGy X-ray irradiated vaccines frozen in liquid nitrogen compared to the control vaccine.

  18. Evaluation of components of X-ray irradiated 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent and X-ray and gamma-ray irradiated acellular pertussis component of DTaP vaccine products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and two different diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccines adsorbed were irradiated with X-rays and/or gamma-rays (Co-60). Mouse IgG and IgM antibody responses (ELISA) for types 9V, 14, 18C, and 19F pneumococcal polysaccharides and conjugates indicated that the polysaccharides were more tolerant of the radiation than the conjugates. The mouse antibody response for the detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) antigen, filamentous hemagglutinin antigen (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM) antigens for the appropriate vaccine type indicated that the antibody response was not significantly changed in the 25 kGy X-ray irradiated vaccines frozen in liquid nitrogen compared to the control vaccine

  19. Evaluation of components of X-ray irradiated 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent and X-ray and gamma-ray irradiated acellular pertussis component of DTaP vaccine products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, J.C. E-mail: may@cber.fda.gov; Rey, L. E-mail: louis.rey@bluewin.ch; Lee, C.-J.; Arciniega, Juan

    2004-10-01

    Samples of pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and two different diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccines adsorbed were irradiated with X-rays and/or gamma-rays (Co-60). Mouse IgG and IgM antibody responses (ELISA) for types 9V, 14, 18C, and 19F pneumococcal polysaccharides and conjugates indicated that the polysaccharides were more tolerant of the radiation than the conjugates. The mouse antibody response for the detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) antigen, filamentous hemagglutinin antigen (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM) antigens for the appropriate vaccine type indicated that the antibody response was not significantly changed in the 25 kGy X-ray irradiated vaccines frozen in liquid nitrogen compared to the control vaccine.

  20. Biochemical And Genetic Modification Of Polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Roger G.; Petersen, Gene R.; Richards, Gil F.

    1993-01-01

    Bacteriophages producing endopolysaccharase-type enzymes used to produce, isolate, and purify high yields of modified polysaccharides from polysaccharides produced by, and incorporated into capsules of, certain bacteria. Bacteriophages used in conversion of native polysaccharide materials into polymers of nearly uniform high molecular weight or, alternatively, into highly pure oligosaccharides. Also used in genetic selection of families of polysaccharides structurally related to native polysaccharide materials, but having altered properties. Resulting new polysaccharides and oligosaccharides prove useful in variety of products, including pharmaceutical chemicals, coating materials, biologically active carbohydrates, and drag-reducing additives for fluids.

  1. Genomics of immune response to typhoid and cholera vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Partha P

    2015-06-19

    Considerable variation in antibody response (AR) was observed among recipients of an injectable typhoid vaccine and an oral cholera vaccine. We sought to find whether polymorphisms in genes of the immune system, both innate and adaptive, were associated with the observed variation in response. For both vaccines, we were able to discover and validate several polymorphisms that were significantly associated with immune response. For the typhoid vaccines, these polymorphisms were on genes that belonged to pathways of polysaccharide recognition, signal transduction, inhibition of T-cell proliferation, pro-inflammatory signalling and eventual production of antimicrobial peptides. For the cholera vaccine, the pathways included epithelial barrier integrity, intestinal homeostasis and leucocyte recruitment. Even though traditional wisdom indicates that both vaccines should act as T-cell-independent antigens, our findings reveal that the vaccines induce AR using different pathways.

  2. Two variants among Haemophilus influenzae serotype b strains with distinct bcs4, hcsA and hcsB genes display differences in expression of the polysaccharide capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burger Marina

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite nearly complete vaccine coverage, a small number of fully vaccinated children in the Netherlands have experienced invasive disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib. This increase started in 2002, nine years after the introduction of nationwide vaccination in the Netherlands. The capsular polysaccharide of Hib is used as a conjugate vaccine to protect against Hib disease. To evaluate the possible rise of escape variants, explaining the increased number of vaccine failures we analyzed the composition of the capsular genes and the expressed polysaccharide of Dutch Hib strains collected before and after the introduction of Hib vaccination. Results The DNA sequences of the complete capsular gene clusters of 9 Dutch Hib strains were assessed and two variants, designated type I and type II were found. The two variants displayed considerable sequence divergence in the hcsA and hcsB genes, involved in transport of capsular polysaccharide to the cell surface. Application of hcsA type specific PCRs on 670 Hib strains collected from Dutch patients with invasive Hib disease showed that 5% of the strains collected before 1996 were type II. No endogenous type II Hib strains were isolated after 1995 and all type II strains were isolated from 0–4 year old, non-vaccinated children only. Analysis of a worldwide collection of Hib strains from the pre-vaccination era revealed considerable geographic differences in the distribution of the type I and type II strains with up to 73% of type II strains in the USA. NMR analysis of type I and type II capsule polysaccharides did not reveal structural differences. However, type I strains were shown to produce twice as much surface bound capsular polysaccharide. Conclusion Type II strains were only isolated during the pre-vaccination era from young, non-vaccinated individuals and displayed a lower expression of capsular polysaccharide than type I strains. The higher polysaccharide

  3. Dismantling the Taboo against Vaccines in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinating pregnant women in order to protect them, the fetus, and the child has become universal in no way at all. Prejudice in health professionals add to fears of women and their families. Both these feelings are not supported by even the smallest scientific data. Harmlessness for the mother and the child has been observed for seasonal, pandemic, or quadrivalent influenza, mono, combined polysaccharide or conjugated meningococcal or pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, human papillomavirus, cholera, hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, anthrax, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles and rubella combined, typhoid fever, inactivated or attenuated polio vaccines, and Bacillus Calmétte Guerin vaccines. Instead, the beneficial effects of influenza vaccine for the mother and the child as well as of pertussis vaccine for the child have been demonstrated. Obstetrician-gynecologists, general practitioners, and midwives must incorporate vaccination into their standard clinical care. Strong communication strategies effective at reducing parental vaccine hesitancy and approval of regulatory agencies for use of vaccines during pregnancy are needed. It must be clear that the lack of pre-licensure studies in pregnant women and, consequently, the lack of a statement about the use of the vaccine in pregnant women does not preclude its use in pregnancy. PMID:27338346

  4. Dismantling the Taboo against Vaccines in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio de Martino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinating pregnant women in order to protect them, the fetus, and the child has become universal in no way at all. Prejudice in health professionals add to fears of women and their families. Both these feelings are not supported by even the smallest scientific data. Harmlessness for the mother and the child has been observed for seasonal, pandemic, or quadrivalent influenza, mono, combined polysaccharide or conjugated meningococcal or pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, human papillomavirus, cholera, hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, anthrax, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles and rubella combined, typhoid fever, inactivated or attenuated polio vaccines, and Bacillus Calmétte Guerin vaccines. Instead, the beneficial effects of influenza vaccine for the mother and the child as well as of pertussis vaccine for the child have been demonstrated. Obstetrician-gynecologists, general practitioners, and midwives must incorporate vaccination into their standard clinical care. Strong communication strategies effective at reducing parental vaccine hesitancy and approval of regulatory agencies for use of vaccines during pregnancy are needed. It must be clear that the lack of pre-licensure studies in pregnant women and, consequently, the lack of a statement about the use of the vaccine in pregnant women does not preclude its use in pregnancy.

  5. Dismantling the Taboo against Vaccines in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinating pregnant women in order to protect them, the fetus, and the child has become universal in no way at all. Prejudice in health professionals add to fears of women and their families. Both these feelings are not supported by even the smallest scientific data. Harmlessness for the mother and the child has been observed for seasonal, pandemic, or quadrivalent influenza, mono, combined polysaccharide or conjugated meningococcal or pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, human papillomavirus, cholera, hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, anthrax, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles and rubella combined, typhoid fever, inactivated or attenuated polio vaccines, and Bacillus Calmétte Guerin vaccines. Instead, the beneficial effects of influenza vaccine for the mother and the child as well as of pertussis vaccine for the child have been demonstrated. Obstetrician-gynecologists, general practitioners, and midwives must incorporate vaccination into their standard clinical care. Strong communication strategies effective at reducing parental vaccine hesitancy and approval of regulatory agencies for use of vaccines during pregnancy are needed. It must be clear that the lack of pre-licensure studies in pregnant women and, consequently, the lack of a statement about the use of the vaccine in pregnant women does not preclude its use in pregnancy. PMID:27338346

  6. Quantitation of antibody-secreting cells in the blood after vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, T; Heilmann, C; Andersen, V

    1990-01-01

    -specific antibody-secreting cells (AbSC) of the isotypes IgM, IgG, and IgA. The appearance of AbSC in the blood after vaccination of adults with diphtheria toxoid-conjugated Hib polysaccharide was investigated. AbSC were detected from post-vaccination day 5 to day 14. IgA was the predominant isotype among...... these cells. IgM AbSC peaked slightly earlier (median day 7) than IgG and IgA AbSC (both day 8). On post-vaccination day 8 the numbers of AbSC were: IgA, 1217/10(6) mononuclear cells (median); IgG, 211; and IgM, 30 (n = 11). Similar isotype distribution has earlier been found after vaccination with pure...... capsular polysaccharides from Hib and pneumococci. The predominance of IgA AbSC in response to both conjugate and pure polysaccharide vaccines is probably due to reactivation of the same clones of IgA-committed memory B cells originally primed at the mucosa by natural exposure to the polysaccharide...

  7. Radiation processing of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing is a very convenient tool for imparting desirable effects in polymeric materials and it has been an area of enormous interest in the last few decades. The success of radiation technology for processing of synthetic polymers can be attributed to two reasons namely, their ease of processing in various shapes and sizes, and secondly, most of these polymers undergo crosslinking reaction upon exposure to radiation. In recent years, natural polymers are being looked at with renewed interest because of their unique characteristics, such as inherent biocompatibility, biodegradability and easy availability. Traditionally, the commercial exploitation of natural polymers like carrageenans, alginates or starch etc. has been based, to a large extent, on empirical knowledge. But now, the applications of natural polymers are being sought in knowledge - demanding areas such as pharmacy and biotechnology, which is acting as a locomotive for further scientific research in their structure-function relationship. Selected success stories concerning radiation processed natural polymers and application of their derivatives in the health care products industries and agriculture are reported. This publication will be of interest to individuals at nuclear institutions worldwide that have programmes of R and D and applications in radiation processing technologies. New developments in radiation processing of polymers and other natural raw materials give insight into converting them into useful products for every day life, human health and environmental remediation. The book will also be of interest to other field specialists, readers including managers and decision makers in industry (health care, food and agriculture) helping them to understand the important role of radiation processing technology in polysaccharides

  8. Immunogenicity and Efficacy of Different Haemophilus influenzae type b Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgani, N.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus influenzae, a major cause of meningitis in young children leading to death and other neurological sequelae. The disease leaves 15 to 35% of the survivors with permanent disabilities, such as, mental retardation or deafness. Despite the availability of new and more powerful antibiotics children with Hib meningitis still suffer from high mortality or morbidity. The emergence of multiresistant Hib strains causes increasing difficulties in selecting proper antibiotics for the treatment. Since 1970, the capsular polysaccharide polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP in H. influenzae b has been the target for vaccine development. The first Hib polysaccharide vaccine licensed in 1985, proved immunogenic in human adults, but failed to elicit an immune response in children under 2 years of age who were at greatest risk of developing the invasive Hib infection. These factors led to one of the most exciting advances in pediatrics, the development of Hib conjugate vaccines. Unlike most other vaccines for preventing a particular disease which are generally similar for all types, the specific characteristics of the available Hib conjugate vaccines licensed vary from each other in structure and immunological properties. In this review the immunogenicity and efficacy of Hib vaccines including a PRP vaccine; b Conjugate vaccines; and c Combination vaccines is evaluated.

  9. 预防接种疫苗的异常反应及其对策%Abnormal reaction and its countermeasures of vaccination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟静

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the abnormal reaction of vaccination and the corresponding countermeasures.Methods:The clinical data of 79 cases of suspected abnormal reaction after vaccination were analyzed retrospectively,and the corresponding countermeasures were put forward.Results:18 cases was DPT vaccine (22.78%);8 cases was rabies vaccine(10.13%);7 cases had 23 valent pneumococcal vaccine(8.86%).Suspected abnormal reaction mainly included general reaction,coupling disease,allergic reaction and so on.Conclusion:The health examination and health knowledge education before inoculation and the well countermeasures for abnormal reaction could reduce the incidence of abnormal reaction and ensure the inoculation safety of children.%目的:探讨预防接种疫苗的异常反应及相应对策。方法:回顾性分析接种疫苗发生疑似异常反应79例的临床资料,并提出相应对策。结果:百白破疫苗18例(22.78%),狂犬病疫苗8例(10.13%),23价肺炎疫苗7例(8.86%)。疑似异常反应主要包括一般反应、偶合症、过敏反应等。结论:接种前对儿童进行健康体检、健康知识教育及做好异常反应处理对策,可降低异常反应发生率,确保儿童安全接种。

  10. Determination of polysaccharide content in Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines by high performance anion exchange chromatography-pulsed amperometric detector%高效阴离子交换色谱-脉冲安培法测定b型流感嗜血杆菌结合疫苗的多糖含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺鹏飞; 唐静; 李亚南; 李茂光; 叶强

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) content in Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine by high performance anion exchange chromatography-pulsed amperometric detector (HPAEC-PAD).Methods The PRP in test samples of Hib conjugate vaccine or isolated free polysaccharide was hydrolyzed with 0.3 mol/L sodium hydroxide at room temperature in oscillation for (16 ± 8) h,then separated by CarboPac(@) PA-10 anion exchange column,eluted by sodium hydroxide/sodium acetate gradient elution,detected by pulsed amperometric detector,and calculated according to the peak area of test samples.The samples were tested for 2 times,and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of test results was calculated.Meanwhile,the PRP content in test sample or free PRP content of the same batch of vaccine were determined by orcinol method in the appendix of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (Volume Ⅲ,2010 edition),and the result was compared with that by HPAEC-PAD.Results The RSD between 2 test results of the same sample was not more than 4.6%.The total PRP contents in samples S01~S03 determined by HPAEC-PAD were 105%,104% and 106%,while the free PRP contents were 126%,109% and 115% of those by orcinol method,respectively.Conclusion HPAEC-PAD method showed high sensitivity,reproducibility and separation effectiveness for PRP content in Hib conjugate vaccine,by which the samples needed no derivation,and multiple components were determined at the same time,therefore may be used as an alternative method of traditional orcinol method for deter-mination of PRP content in Hib conjugate vaccine.%目的 采用高效阴离子交换色谱-脉冲安培检测法(high performance anion exchange chromatography withpulsed amperometric detector,HPAEC-PAD)测定b型流感嗜血杆菌(haemophilus influenzae type b,Hib)结合疫苗的多聚磷酸核糖基核糖醇(polyribosylribitol phosphate,PRP)多糖含量.方法 用终浓度为0.3N的NaOH溶液将待测疫苗中的PRP多糖

  11. 肺炎球菌多糖结合疫苗不同免疫程序的免疫学效果Meta分析%The Meta-Analysis of Immunological Effects of Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine Following Different Immunization Schedules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡昱; 唐学雯; 郭静; 陈雅萍; 沈灵智

    2014-01-01

    目的 评价肺炎球菌多糖结合疫苗(Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine,PPCV)按照不同免疫程序接种后的免疫学效果.方法 电子检索National Center for Biotechnology Information(NCBI,《美国国家医学图书馆数据库》)、《考克兰(Cochrane)协作网图书馆》、《中国生物医学文献数据库》、《中国期刊全文数据库》、《万方全文数据库》等数据库,将有关接种PPCV免疫学效果的研究纳入分析.使用综述管理(RevMan)5.1软件进行统计分析,按照不同免疫程序接种完成最后1剂PPCV后的抗体水平[抗体浓度≥0.35微克/毫升(μg/ml)判定为阳性],计算抗体阳转率(Antibody Positive Rate,APR)的率差(Rate Different,RD).结果 共纳入6篇文献,均为随机对照试验.2剂基础免疫(2 Primary Doses,2p)程序与3剂基础免疫(3 Primary Doses,3p)程序之间APR的合并RD是-0.08[95%可信区间(Confidence Interval,CI):-0.10~-0.05].2剂基础免疫+1剂加强免疫(2Primary Doses +1 Booster Dose,2p +1)与3剂基础免疫+l剂加强免疫(3 Primary Doses+1 Booster Dose,3p +1)程序之间APR合并的RD是-0.02(95% CI:-0.03~-0.01).结论 3p免疫程序免疫学效果优于2p免疫程序,2p+1和3p+1免疫程序的免疫学效果并无明显差异.

  12. Safety Surveillance for 7-valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine in 5 Cities of Guangdong Province%7价肺炎球菌多糖结合疫苗在广东省5个市使用的安全性监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇; 郑慧贞; 赵占杰; 邵晓萍; 梁剑

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析7价肺炎球菌多糖结合疫苗(7-valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine,PCV7)上市后大规模人群应用的被动监测结果,评价PCV7的安全性.方法 通过疑似预防接种异常反应(Adverse Event Following Immunization,AEFI)信息管理系统,收集广东省珠江三角洲(珠三角)地区广州、深圳、东莞、中山、佛山5个市2009~2011年接种PCV7报告的AEFI个案,采用描述性流行病学方法分析相关信息.结果 5个市共接种PCV724.86万剂,报告AEFI 196例,报告发生率78.85/10万剂.报告一般反应102例,报告发生率41.04/10万剂;其中发热84例,报告发生率33.79/10万剂;局部红肿10例,报告发生率4.02/10万剂;异常反应73例,报告发生率29.37/10万剂;其中过敏性皮疹70例,报告发生率28.16/10万剂;热性惊厥2例,报告发生率0.80/10万剂;过敏性紫癜1例,报告发生率0.40/10万剂.97.96%的个案发生在接种后≤3d.结论 现有的PCV7被动监测数据未发现不同于其他疫苗的不良反应.

  13. Evaluation of safety of meningococcal group AC bivalent polysaccharide conjugate vaccine in children aged 5-24 months old%A、C群脑膜炎球菌多糖结合疫苗在5~24月龄儿童中接种安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海; 王锦瑜; 谈晔; 吕海英; 王曼; 蔡乾春; 张瀚中

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety of meningococcal group AC bivalent polysacchande conjugate vaccine among children aged 5-24 months old.Methods From July 2011 to June 2012,a total of 34 411 children aged 5-24 month-old who voluntarily vaccinated meningococcal group AC bivalent polysaccharide conjugate vaccine in Zhongshan city were included.The adverse effects within 72 hours were recorded and analyzed.Results 34 411 children were recruited,including 18 708 boys (54.36%),whose mean age were (11.4 ± 3.9) months old.Within 72 hours,the incidence rates of local adverse effects were 0.76% (261/34 411) for erythema,0.57% (197/34 411) for sclerosis,0.56% (191/34 411) for swelling,0.42% (143/34 411) for pain,0.15% (53/34 411) for pruritus,and 0.15% (50/34 411) for rash on the injection site.The overall incidence rate of local adverse effects was 1.61% (554/34 411;95% CI:1.48%-1.74%).The incidence rates of systemic adverse effects were 0.98% (312/34 411) for fever,0.48% (164/34 411) for anorexia,0.31% (108/34 411) for diarrhea,0.29% (100/34 411) for malaise,0.20% (70/34 411) for nausea and vomiting,and 0.08% (26/34 411) for headache.The overall incidence rate of systemic adverse effects was 1.64% (565/34 411; 95% CI:1.51%-1.78%).25 children (0.07%) had hyperpyrexia (> 39 ℃),and the time of duration lasted less than 48 hours.16 children (0.05%) had symptoms of cold,such as cough and catarrh.No accident and other serious events were reported.The incidence rate of systemic adverse effects among boys was 1.79% (334/18 708),which was higher than that of girls (1.47%,231/15 703),the difference showed statistical significance (x2 =5.22,P < 0.01).The incidence rate of systemic adverse effects among children aged 5-12 month-old was 1.78% (411/23 113),which was higher than that among children aged 13-24 month-old (1.36%,154/11 298),the difference showed statistical significance (x2 =8.10,P < 0.01).The incidence rate of

  14. New vaccines for the prevention of pneumococcal infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Käyhty, H; Eskola, J.

    1996-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of acute otitis media, pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. Because in recent years antibiotic-resistant pneumococcal strains have been emerging throughout the world, vaccination against pneumococcal infections has become more urgent. The capsular polysaccharide vaccine that has been available is neither immunogenic nor protective in young children and other immunocompromised patients. Several pneumococcal proteins have been proposed as candidate va...

  15. Diphtheria Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Diphtheria Vaccination Pronounced (dif-THEER-ee-a) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Diphtheria causes a thick covering in the back of ...

  16. Role of RpoS in fine-tuning the synthesis of Vi capsular polysaccharide in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander, Javier; Wanda, Soo-Young; Nickerson, Cheryl A; Curtiss, Roy

    2007-03-01

    Regulation of the synthesis of Vi polysaccharide, a major virulence determinant in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, is under the control of two regulatory systems, ompR-envZ and rscB-rscC, which respond to changes in osmolarity. Some serotype Typhi strains exhibit overexpression of Vi polysaccharide, which masks clinical detection of lipopolysaccharide O antigen. This variation in Vi polysaccharide and O antigen display (VW variation) has been observed since the initial studies of serotype Typhi. In this study, we report that rpoS plays a role in this increased expression in Vi polysaccharide. We constructed a variety of isogenic serotype Typhi mutants that differed in their expression levels of RpoS and examined the role of the rpoS product in synthesis of Vi polysaccharide under different osmolarity conditions. Vi polysaccharide synthesis was also examined in serotype Typhi mutants in which the native promoter of the rpoS was replaced by an araCP(BAD) cassette, so that the expression of rpoS was arabinose dependent. The RpoS(-) strains showed increased syntheses of Vi polysaccharide, which at low and medium osmolarities masked O antigen detection. In contrast, RpoS(+) strains showed lower syntheses of Vi polysaccharide, and an increased detection of O antigen was observed. During exponential growth, when rpoS is unstable or present at low levels, serotype Typhi RpoS(+) strains overexpress the Vi polysaccharide at levels comparable to those for RpoS(-) strains. Our results show that RpoS is another regulator of Vi polysaccharide synthesis and contributes to VW variation in serotype Typhi, which has implications for the development of recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines in humans.

  17. Liposomal co-entrapment of CD40mAb induces enhanced IgG responses against bacterial polysaccharide and protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Hatzifoti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibody against CD40 is effective in enhancing immune responses to vaccines when chemically conjugated to the vaccine antigen. Unfortunately the requirement for chemical conjugation presents some difficulties in vaccine production and quality control which are compounded when multivalent vaccines are required. We explore here an alternative to chemical conjugation, involving the co-encapsulation of CD40 antibody and antigens in liposomal vehicles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Anti-mouse CD40 mAb or isotype control mAb were co-entrapped individually in cationic liposomal vehicles with pneumococcal polysaccharides or diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. Retention of CD40 binding activity upon liposomal entrapment was assessed by ELISA and flow cytometry. After subcutaneous immunization of BALB/c female mice, anti-polysaccharide and DT/TT responses were measured by ELISA. Simple co-encapsulation of CD40 antibody allowed for the retention of CD40 binding on the liposome surface, and also produced vaccines with enhanced imunogenicity. Antibody responses against both co-entrapped protein in the form of tetanus toxoid, and Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide, were enhanced by co-encapsulation with CD40 antibody. Surprisingly, liposomal encapsulation also appeared to decrease the toxicity of high doses of CD40 antibody as assessed by the degree of splenomegaly induced. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Liposomal co-encapsulation with CD40 antibody may represent a practical means of producing more immunogenic multivalent vaccines and inducing IgG responses against polysaccharides without the need for conjugation.

  18. ROTAVIRUS VACCINES

    OpenAIRE

    Kang G

    2006-01-01

    Rotavirus, the most common cause of severe diarrhea and a leading cause of mortality in children, has been a priority target for vaccine development for the past several years. The first rotavirus vaccine licensed in the United States was withdrawn because of an association of the vaccine with intussusception. However, the need for a vaccine is greatest in the developing world, because the benefits of preventing deaths due to rotavirus disease are substantially greater than the risk of intuss...

  19. Multicenter comparison of levels of antibody to the Neisseria meningitidis group A capsular polysaccharide measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlone, G M; Frasch, C E; Siber, G R; Quataert, S; Gheesling, L L; Turner, S H; Plikaytis, B D; Helsel, L O; Dewitt, W. E.; Bibb, W F

    1992-01-01

    There is no standard immunoassay for evaluating immune responses to meningococcal vaccines. We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure total levels of antibody to Neisseria meningitidis group A capsular polysaccharide. Five laboratories measured the antibody levels in six paired pre- and postvaccination serum samples by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Methylated human serum albumin was used to bind native group A polysaccharide to microtiter plate surfaces. The ...

  20. Increased Protection against Pneumococcal Disease by Mucosal Administration of Conjugate Vaccine plus Interleukin-12

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Joyce M.; Briles, David E.; Metzger, Dennis W.

    2003-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of respiratory tract infections, its main entry route being the nasal mucosa. The recent development of pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines has led to a dramatic improvement in protection against invasive disease in infants and children, but these vaccines have been found to be only 50 to 60% protective against bacterial carriage. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of intranasal (i.n.) conjugate vaccine delivery using interleukin-...

  1. The capsular polysaccharide Vi from Salmonella Typhi is a B1b antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Jennifer L.; Flores-Langarica, Adriana; Kingsley, Robert A.; Hitchcock, Jessica R; Ross, Ewan A.; Lopez-Macias, Constantino; Lakey, Jeremy; Martin, Laura B; Toellner, Kai-michael; MacLennan, Calman A.; MacLennan, Ian C; Henderson, Ian R.; Dougan, Gordon; Cunningham, Adam F.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination with purified capsular polysaccharide Vi antigen from Salmonella Typhi can protect against typhoid fever, although the mechanism for its efficacy is not clearly established. Here, we have characterised the B cell response to this vaccine in wild-type and T cell-deficient mice. We show that immunization with Typhim Vi rapidly induces proliferation in B1b peritoneal cells, but not in B1a cells or marginal zone (MZ) B cells. This induction of B1b proliferation is concomitant with the...

  2. DNA vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2001-12-01

    Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

  3. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine, without a prior appointment. The vaccine can be reimbursed directly by Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the Medical Service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor. Medical Service

  4. Periodontal vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Malhotra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine is the name applied generally to a substance of the nature of dead or attenuated living infectious material introduced into the body with the object of increasing its power to resist or get rid of a disease. Vaccines are generally prophylactic, i.e. they ameliorate the effects of future infection. One such vaccine considered here is the "Periodontal vaccine". Till date, no preventive modality exists for periodontal disease and treatment rendered is palliative. Thus, availability of periodontal vaccine would not only prevent and modulate periodontal disease, but also enhance the quality of life of people for whom periodontal treatment cannot be easily obtained. The aim of the research should be development of a multispecies vaccine targeting the four prime periodontal pathogens, viz. Porphyromonas gingivalis, T. forsythus, T. denticola and A. comitans. Success is still elusive in case of periodontal vaccine due to the complex etiopathogenesis of the disease.

  5. Effect of the Polysaccharide Extract from the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rugea

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The polysaccharide-containing extracellular fractions (EFs of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus have immunomodulating effects. Being aware of these therapeutic effects of mushroom extracts, we have investigated the synergistic relations between these extracts and BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines. These vaccines target the stimulation of the immune system in commercial poultry, which are extremely vulnerable in the first days of their lives. By administrating EF with polysaccharides from P. ostreatus to unvaccinated broilers we have noticed slow stimulation of maternal antibodies against infectious bursal disease (IBD starting from four weeks post hatching. For the broilers vaccinated with BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines a low to almost complete lack of IBD maternal antibodies has been recorded. By adding 5% and 15% EF in the water intake, as compared to the reaction of the immune system in the previous experiment, the level of IBD antibodies was increased. This has led us to believe that by using this combination of BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccine and EF from P. ostreatus we can obtain good results in stimulating the production of IBD antibodies in the period of the chicken first days of life, which are critical to broilers’ survival. This can be rationalized by the newly proposed reactivity biological activity (ReBiAc principles by examining the parabolic relationship between EF administration and recorded biological activity.

  6. The capsular polysaccharide Vi from Salmonella typhi is a B1b antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer L; Flores-Langarica, Adriana; Kingsley, Robert A; Hitchcock, Jessica R; Ross, Ewan A; López-Macías, Constantino; Lakey, Jeremy; Martin, Laura B; Toellner, Kai-Michael; MacLennan, Calman A; MacLennan, Ian C; Henderson, Ian R; Dougan, Gordon; Cunningham, Adam F

    2012-12-15

    Vaccination with purified capsular polysaccharide Vi Ag from Salmonella typhi can protect against typhoid fever, although the mechanism for its efficacy is not clearly established. In this study, we have characterized the B cell response to this vaccine in wild-type and T cell-deficient mice. We show that immunization with typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine rapidly induces proliferation in B1b peritoneal cells, but not in B1a cells or marginal zone B cells. This induction of B1b proliferation is concomitant with the detection of splenic Vi-specific Ab-secreting cells and protective Ab in Rag1-deficient B1b cell chimeras generated by adoptive transfer-induced specific Ab after Vi immunization. Furthermore, Ab derived from peritoneal B cells is sufficient to confer protection against Salmonella that express Vi Ag. Expression of Vi by Salmonella during infection did not inhibit the development of early Ab responses to non-Vi Ags. Despite this, the protection conferred by immunization of mice with porin proteins from Salmonella, which induce Ab-mediated protection, was reduced postinfection with Vi-expressing Salmonella, although protection was not totally abrogated. This work therefore suggests that, in mice, B1b cells contribute to the protection induced by Vi Ag, and targeting non-Vi Ags as subunit vaccines may offer an attractive strategy to augment current Vi-based vaccine strategies.

  7. [Pneumococcal vaccination in obstructive lung diseases -- what can we expect?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M; Lode, H; de Roux, A; Zielen, S

    2005-03-01

    Many countries' guidelines recommend pneumococcal vaccination for patients suffering from obstructive airway disease. This paper reviews the literature as to immunogenicity and safety of this immunization. There is no evidence for a negative effect of pneumococcal vaccination on these patients. Only a few data exist on the preventive impact of pneumococcal vaccination as to exacerbations of obstructive airway diseases. Existing studies mostly took up this question as a side aspect. The effect in children and adults appears limited. On the other hand, the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine prevents life-threatening invasive infections in children younger than 5 years, and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine protects healthy adults against bacteriaemic pneumonia. Thus, pneumococcal vaccination of patients suffering from obstructive airway disease is recommendable.

  8. PolySac3DB: an annotated data base of 3 dimensional structures of polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Anita

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polysaccharides are ubiquitously present in the living world. Their structural versatility makes them important and interesting components in numerous biological and technological processes ranging from structural stabilization to a variety of immunologically important molecular recognition events. The knowledge of polysaccharide three-dimensional (3D structure is important in studying carbohydrate-mediated host-pathogen interactions, interactions with other bio-macromolecules, drug design and vaccine development as well as material science applications or production of bio-ethanol. Description PolySac3DB is an annotated database that contains the 3D structural information of 157 polysaccharide entries that have been collected from an extensive screening of scientific literature. They have been systematically organized using standard names in the field of carbohydrate research into 18 categories representing polysaccharide families. Structure-related information includes the saccharides making up the repeat unit(s and their glycosidic linkages, the expanded 3D representation of the repeat unit, unit cell dimensions and space group, helix type, diffraction diagram(s (when applicable, experimental and/or simulation methods used for structure description, link to the abstract of the publication, reference and the atomic coordinate files for visualization and download. The database is accompanied by a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI. It features interactive displays of polysaccharide structures and customized search options for beginners and experts, respectively. The site also serves as an information portal for polysaccharide structure determination techniques. The web-interface also references external links where other carbohydrate-related resources are available. Conclusion PolySac3DB is established to maintain information on the detailed 3D structures of polysaccharides. All the data and features are available

  9. Hepatitis Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  10. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ogholikhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  11. Implications of plant glycans in the development of innovative vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Salazar-González, Jorge A; Decker, Eva L; Reski, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    Plant glycans play a central role in vaccinology: they can serve as adjuvants and/or delivery vehicles or backbones for the synthesis of conjugated vaccines. In addition, genetic engineering is leading to the development of platforms for the production of novel polysaccharides in plant cells, an approach with relevant implications for the design of new types of vaccines. This review contains an updated outlook on this topic and provides key perspectives including a discussion on how the molecular pharming field can be linked to the production of innovative glycan-based and conjugate vaccines. PMID:26890067

  12. Implications of plant glycans in the development of innovative vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Salazar-González, Jorge A; Decker, Eva L; Reski, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    Plant glycans play a central role in vaccinology: they can serve as adjuvants and/or delivery vehicles or backbones for the synthesis of conjugated vaccines. In addition, genetic engineering is leading to the development of platforms for the production of novel polysaccharides in plant cells, an approach with relevant implications for the design of new types of vaccines. This review contains an updated outlook on this topic and provides key perspectives including a discussion on how the molecular pharming field can be linked to the production of innovative glycan-based and conjugate vaccines.

  13. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical service

  14. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  15. Flu vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor.CERN Medical Service

  16. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  17. Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Fang, Yapeng

    2016-05-18

    Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels has been studied extensively because it is expected to be useful in understanding flavour release from solid foods and to find a new processing method which produces more palatable and healthier foods. We provide an overview of the release of sucrose and other sugars from gels of agar and related polysaccharides. The addition of sucrose to agar solutions leads to the increase in transparency of the resulting gels and the decrease in syneresis, which is attributed to the decrease in mesh size in gels. The syneresis occurring in the quiescent condition and fluid release induced by compression is discussed. The relationship between the sugar release and the structural, rheological and thermal properties of gels is also discussed. Finally, the future research direction is proposed.

  18. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Hepatitis B vaccine: Why get vaccinated?Hepatitis B vaccine can prevent hepatitis B, and the serious consequences of hepatitis ...

  19. [HPV vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronski Huwiler, Susanne; Spaar, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Human Papilloma Viruses are associated with genital carcinoma (of the cervix, anus, vulva, vagina and the penis) as well as with non-genital carcinoma (oropharyngeal carcinoma) and genital warts. In Switzerland two highly efficient and safe vaccines are available. The safety of these vaccines has been repeatedly subject of controversial discussions, however so far post marketing surveillance has always been able to confirm the safety. In Switzerland girls and young women have been offered the HPV vaccination within cantonal programmes since 2008. 2015 the recommendation for the HPV-vaccination for boys and young men was issued, and starting July 1, 2016 they as well will be offered vaccination free of charge within the cantonal programmes. This article discusses the burden of disease, efficacy and safety of the vaccines and presents facts which are important for vaccinating these young people. Specifically, aspects of the decisional capacity of adolescents to consent to the vaccination are presented. Finally, the future perspective with a focus on a new vaccine with an enlarged spectrum of HPV-types is discussed. PMID:27268446

  20. Polysaccharide-Based Micelles for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Delivery of hydrophobic molecules and proteins has been an issue due to poor bioavailability following administration. Thus, micelle carrier systems are being investigated to improve drug solubility and stability. Due to problems with toxicity and immunogenicity, natural polysaccharides are being explored as substitutes for synthetic polymers in the development of new micelle systems. By grafting hydrophobic moieties to the polysaccharide backbone, self-assembled micelles can be readily formed in aqueous solution. Many polysaccharides also possess inherent bioactivity that can facilitate mucoadhesion, enhanced targeting of specific tissues, and a reduction in the inflammatory response. Furthermore, the hydrophilic nature of some polysaccharides can be exploited to enhance circulatory stability. This review will highlight the advantages of polysaccharide use in the development of drug delivery systems and will provide an overview of the polysaccharide-based micelles that have been developed to date.

  1. Meningococcal meningitis: vaccination outbreak response and epidemiological changes in the African meningitis belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod Artal, Francisco Javier

    2015-07-01

    The main approach to controlling epidemics of meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt has been reactive vaccination campaigns with serogroup A polysaccharide vaccine once the outbreak reached an incidence threshold. Early reactive vaccination is effective in reducing morbidity and mortality. A recent paper in International Health has shown that earlier reactive vaccination campaigns may be even more effective than increasing the coverage area of vaccination. Monovalent serogroup A conjugate vaccine programs have recently been launched to prevent transmission in endemic areas in the African meningitis belt. Conjugate vaccines can induce immunological memory and have impact on pharyngeal carriage. However, reactive vaccination still has a role to play taking into account the dynamic changes in the epidemiology of meningitis in this area. PMID:25878213

  2. Efficacy of 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine in preventing pneumonia and improving survival in nursing home residents:double blind,randomised and placebo controlled trial%23价肺炎球菌疫苗预防疗养院老人发生肺炎并提高其生存率的效果:双盲、随机、安慰剂对照试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takaya Maruyama; Takashi Noguchi; Yoshiyuki Takei; Esteban C Gabazza; 顾佳; Osamu Taguchi; Michael S Niederman; John Morser; Hiroyasu Kobayashi; Tetsu Kobayashi; Corina D'Alessandro-Gabazza; Sei Nakayama; Kimiaki Nishikubo

    2010-01-01

    目的 确定23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗对肺炎球菌肺炎高危人群的效果.设计 前瞻性、随机、安慰剂对照、双盲试验.地点 日本疗养院.参与者 1006名疗养院常住者.干预 参与者随机分配应用23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗(n=502)或安慰剂(n=504).主要评价指标 主要终点为全因肺炎及肺炎球菌肺炎发病率,次要终点为肺炎球菌肺炎、全因肺炎及其他原因所致死亡.结果 疫苗组和安慰剂组分别有63人(12.5%)、104人(20.6%)发生肺炎,分别有14名(2.8%)、37名参与者(7.3%)被诊断为肺炎球菌肺炎(P<0.001).安慰剂组全因肺炎及肺炎球菌肺炎的发病率为55/1000人年,明显高于疫苗组的91/1000人年(P<0.001).安慰剂组肺炎球菌肺炎死亡率明显高于疫苗组,分别为35.1%(13/37)和0%(0/14),P<0.01.两组全因肺炎死亡率,疫苗组为20.6%(13/63),安慰剂组为25.0%(26/104),P=0.5及其他原因死亡率无差异,疫苗组为17.7%(89/502),安慰剂组为15.9%(80/504),P:0.4.结论 23价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗可有效预防疗养院老人肺炎球菌肺炎的发生,降低肺炎球菌肺炎死亡率.

  3. Retention Behaviors of Uronic Acid-containing Polysaccharides and Neutral Polysaccharides in HPGPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The chromatographic behaviors of several uronic acid-containing polysaccharides and neutral polysaccharides were investigated in HPGPC for the first time. The effects of sample concentration and ionic strength of mobile phase on retention time were studied. The mechanism for the effects on Mw determination results of polysaccharides by HPGPC was also discussed.

  4. Immuno-enhancement of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharides on recombinant Bordetella avium ompA expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liping; Yu, Cuilian; Wang, Chuanwen; Shao, Mingxu; Yan, Zhengui; Jiang, Xiaodong; Chi, Shanshan; Wang, Zhen; Wei, Kai; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2016-06-01

    Bordetellosis, caused by Bordetella avium, continues to be an economic problem in the poultry industry of China. Vaccines with good protective ability are lacking. Thus, developing a novel vaccine against the B. avium infection is crucial. Here, we constructed a recombinant Pichia pastoris transformant capable of expressing the outer membrane protein A (ompA) of B. avium to prepare the recombinant ompA subunit vaccine and then evaluated its immune effects. To further investigate the immunomodulation effects of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharides (TPPPS) on this subunit vaccine, three concentrations (20, 40, and 60 mg/mL) of TPPPS were used as the adjuvants of the ompA subunit vaccine respectively. The conventional Freund's incomplete adjuvant served as the control of TPPPS. Chickens in different groups were separately vaccinated with these vaccines thrice. During the monitoring period, serum antibody titers, concentrations of serum IL-4, percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, lymphocyte transformation rate, and protection rate were detected. Results showed that the pure ompA vaccine induced the production of anti-ompA antibody, the secretion of IL-4, the increase of CD4(+) T-lymphocytes counts and lymphocyte transformation rate in the peripheral blood. Moreover, the pure ompA vaccine provided a protection rate of 71.67% after the B. avium challenge. Notably, TPPPS adjuvant vaccines induced higher levels of immune responses than the pure ompA vaccine, and 60 mg/mL TPPPS adjuvant vaccine showed optimal immune effects and had a 91.67% protection rate. Our findings indicated that this recombinant B. avium ompA subunit vaccine combined with TPPPS had high immunostimulatory potential. Results provided a new perspective for B. avium subunit vaccine research. PMID:26975477

  5. Polysaccharide production in batch process of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C comparing Frantz, modified Frantz and Cartlin 6 cultivation media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz Marcelo Fossa da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide of N. meningitidis serogroup C constitutes the antigen for the vaccine against meningitis. The goal of this work was to compare three cultivation media for production of this polysaccharide: Frantz, modified Frantz medium (with replacement of glucose by glycerol, and Catlin 6 (a synthetic medium with glucose. The comparative criteria were based on the final polysaccharide concentrations and the yield coefficient cell/polysaccharide (Y P/X. The kinetic parameters: pH, substrate consumption and cell growth were also determined. For this purpose, 9 cultivation runs were carried out in a 80 L New Brunswick bioreactor, under the following conditions: 42 L of culture medium, temperature 35ºC, air flow 5 L/min, agitation frequency 120 rpm and vessel pressure 6 psi, without dissolved oxygen or pH controls. The cultivation runs were divided in three groups, with 3 repetitions each. The cultivation using the Frantz medium presented the best results: average of final polysaccharide concentration = 0.134 g/L and Y P/X=0.121, followed by Catlin 6 medium, with results of 0.095 g/L and 0.067 respectively. Considering the principal advantages in the use of the synthetic medium, i.e. facilitation of a cultivation and purification steps of the polysaccharide production process, there is a possibility that in the near future, Catlin 6 will replace the traditional Frantz medium.

  6. Conjugation of Polysaccharide 6B from Streptococcus pneumoniae with Pneumococcal Surface Protein A: PspA Conformation and Its Effect on the Immune Response

    OpenAIRE

    Perciani, Catia T.; Barazzone, Giovana C.; Goulart, Cibelly; Carvalho, Eneas; Cabrera-Crespo, Joaquin; Gonçalves, Viviane M.; Luciana C. C. Leite; Tanizaki, Martha M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the substantial beneficial effects of incorporating the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into immunization programs, serotype replacement has been observed after its widespread use. As there are many serotypes currently documented, the use of a conjugate vaccine relying on protective pneumococcal proteins as active carriers is a promising alternative to expand PCV coverage. In this study, capsular polysaccharide serotype 6B (PS6B) and recombinant pneumococcal surface pro...

  7. Rotavirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?Rotavirus is a virus that causes diarrhea, mostly in babies and young children. The diarrhea can be severe, and lead ... and fever are also common in babies with rotavirus.Before rotavirus vaccine, rotavirus disease was a common ...

  8. Anti-Infectious Human Vaccination in Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, Enrico; Salemi, Simonetta; D'Amelio, Raffaele

    2016-05-01

    A brief history of vaccination is presented since the Jenner's observation, through the first golden age of vaccinology (from Pasteur's era to 1938), the second golden age (from 1940 to 1970), until the current period. In the first golden age, live, such as Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG), and yellow fever, inactivated, such as typhoid, cholera, plague, and influenza, and subunit vaccines, such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, have been developed. In the second golden age, the cell culture technology enabled polio, measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines be developed. In the era of modern vaccines, in addition to the conjugate polysaccharide, hepatitis A, oral typhoid, and varicella vaccines, the advent of molecular biology enabled to develop hepatitis B, acellular pertussis, papillomavirus, and rotavirus recombinant vaccines. Great successes have been achieved in the fight against infectious diseases, including the smallpox global eradication, the nearly disappearance of polio, the control of tetanus, diphtheria, measles, rubella, yellow fever, and rabies. However, much work should still be done for improving old vaccines, such as BCG, anthrax, smallpox, plague, or for developing effective vaccines against old or emerging infectious threats, such as human-immunodeficiency-virus, malaria, hepatitis C, dengue, respiratory-syncytial-virus, cytomegalovirus, multiresistant bacteria, Clostridium difficile, Ebola virus. In addition to search for innovative and effective vaccines and global infant coverage, even risk categories should adequately be protected. Despite patients under immunosuppressive therapy are globally increasing, their vaccine coverage is lower than recommended, even in developed and affluent countries. PMID:26606466

  9. A novel chemistry for conjugating pneumococcal polysaccharides to Luminex microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlottmann, Sonela A; Jain, Neil; Chirmule, Narendra; Esser, Mark T

    2006-02-20

    Here we describe a novel method to conjugate pneumococcal polysaccharides (PnPS) to Luminex microspheres for use in serological assays. 4-(4,6-dimethoxy[1,3,5]triazin-2-yl)-4-methyl-morpholinium (DMTMM) modification of PnPS and conjugation to carboxyl functional groups on Luminex microspheres (COOH-DMTMM method) was shown to be a reproducible chemistry that efficiently conjugated PnPS to Luminex microspheres without affecting the antigenicity of a broad set of PnPS. The COOH-DMTMM method was compared to three other methods for robustness, reproducibility and effect on PnPS antigenicity in a multiplexed assay format. The other methods examined included adsorption of the unmodified PnPS to Luminex microspheres, oxidation of the PnPS to conjugate them to amino-modified microspheres using carbodiimide chemistry and poly-l-lysine modification of the PnPS before conjugating to carboxy Luminex microspheres using carbodiimide chemistry. Of the four methods, the COOH-DMTMM chemistry was shown to be a robust methodology, producing stable PnPS coupled microspheres with a 4-log dynamic range and low cross-reactivity when used in a PnPS-specific IgG serology assay. This novel chemistry should be useful for developing serological assays to measure antibodies to polysaccharides for use in vaccine and epidemiology studies. PMID:16448665

  10. Enhancement of the Immune Response to Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Vaccine in Young Rabbits by Advanced Vaccination and Chinese Herbal Adjuvants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Long-sheng; XUE Jia-bin; HU Yuan-liang; WANG Fang; WANG De-yun; XU Wei-zhong

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of advanced vaccination and Chinese herbal adjuvants (CHA), containing astragalus polysaccharides (APS) and ginsenosides (GS) on the immune response to rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) vaccine in young rabbits. In experiment 1, 5 New Zealand rabbits of each group at 30, 35, 40, or 45 days of age were injected with 2 mL of inactivated RHD vaccine, respectively. The dynamic changes of antibody liters were tested by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) method. In experiment 2, 30 New Zealand rabbits at 35 days of age were randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups, representing inoculation with 3 mL of non-adjuvant RHD vaccine, CHA-RHD vaccine, CHA-HA vaccine (half dose antigen), aluminium adjuvant-RHD vaccine, and PBS, respectively. The dynamic changes of peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody liters were tested by the MTT method and the HI method. The results showed that the titer of maternal HI antibody in the 35-day-old rabbits was lower than the protective level of 3 log2, while on days 7 to 49 after the vaccination, the antibody tilers were higher than 3 log2. The CHA promoted me lymphocyte proliferation and enhanced the serum antibody liter (P<0.05). These findings from the two experiments suggested that advanced vaccination and Chinese herbal adjuvants significantly enhanced the immune response lo vaccine againsl RHD, and effectively protected the young rabbils againsl RHD challenge.

  11. Pneumococcal antibody concentrations of subjects in communities fully or partially vaccinated with a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin O C Ota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A recent trial with PCV-7 in a rural Gambian community showed reduced vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage in fully vaccinated compared with control communities. We measured pneumococcal polysaccharide antibody concentrations in this trial to understand further the mechanisms underlying the observed changes. METHODS: A single-blind, cluster-randomized (by village trial was conducted in 21 Gambian villages. In 11 villages, all residents received PCV-7 (Vaccine group; in 10 control villages only children 5.0 µg/mL for all but serotype 9V of the PCV-7 serotypes in the older group, but not in the younger age group. CONCLUSION: Higher antibodies in vaccinated communities provide an explanation for the lower pneumococcal carriage rates in fully vaccinated compared to control communities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN51695599 51695599.

  12. The effect of prophylaxis with chloroquine and proguanil on delayed-type hypersensitivity and antibody production following vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyhrs, A; Pedersen, B K; Bygbjerg, I;

    1991-01-01

    (1,000 mg/week), or 4) proguanil hydrochloride (200 mg/day) for six weeks. Skin testing was performed on days 0 and 28. Vaccinations with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal polysaccharide antigen vaccines were performed on day 28, and the presence of specific antibodies was determined...... dosages, does not induce any detectable suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity or vaccination responses to diphtheria, tetanus, polio, or pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens....... with seven delayed-type common antigens (Multitest) and 2) humoral immunity by measurement of specific antibody response to vaccination. Sixty healthy young individuals were randomized into four groups and given 1) no treatment (controls), 2) chloroquine diphosphate (500 mg/week), 3) chloroquine diphosphate...

  13. Thermal studies on natural polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil B Bothara; Sudarshan Singh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To characterize thermal property of natural gums obtained from the seeds of Diospyros melonoxylon(D. melonoxylon) Roxb, Buchanania lanzan (B. lanzan) spreng and Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) (Linn.) P. Royen syn. Methods: Natural gums were thermally characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) under nitrogen atmosphere. Major thermal transitions as well as activation energies of the major decomposition stages were determined. Elemental analysis was performed in order to determine the composition of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur. Results: DSC traces indicated a major intense exothermic transition (around 200℃) followed by weaker exotherm(s). Thermogravimetric analysis showed two phase of weight loss. The first phase has minor weight loss in samples is attributed to the loss of adsorbed and structural water of biopolymers or due to desorption of moisture as hydrogen bound water to the saccharide structure. The second weight loss event may be attributed to the polysaccharide decomposition. The initial decomposition temperature (IDT) was calculated from thermograms obtained of TGA, seed Polysaccharide of D. melonoxylon (IDT 221.21℃), B. lanzan (IPDT 170.4℃) and M. zapota (IPDT 178.6℃) were obtained. According to the integral procedural decomposition temperature (IPDT) values calculated based on the TGA thermograms; D. melonoxylon (IPDT 563.3℃), B. lanzan (IPDT 598.1℃) and M. zapota (IPDT 600.6℃) were obtained respectively. The elemental analysis study shows that the isolated natural Polysaccharides consist of certain percentage of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and hydrogen in all the gums. Conclusions: The results of the present investigation reveal that the natural gums are thermally stable and these gums can be used as release modifiers in various dosage forms.

  14. Starch-degrading polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Van V; Marletta, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    Polysaccharide degradation by hydrolytic enzymes glycoside hydrolases (GHs) is well known. More recently, polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs, also known as lytic PMOs or LPMOs) were found to oxidatively degrade various polysaccharides via a copper-dependent hydroxylation. PMOs were previously thought to be either GHs or carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), and have been re-classified in carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZY) database as auxiliary activity (AA) families. These enzymes include cellulose-active fungal PMOs (AA9, formerly GH61), chitin- and cellulose-active bacterial PMOs (AA10, formerly CBM33), and chitin-active fungal PMOs (AA11). These PMOs significantly boost the activity of GHs under industrially relevant conditions, and thus have great potential in the biomass-based biofuel industry. PMOs that act on starch are the latest PMOs discovered (AA13), which has expanded our perspectives in PMOs studies and starch degradation. Starch-active PMOs have many common structural features and biochemical properties of the PMO superfamily, yet differ from other PMO families in several important aspects. These differences likely correlate, at least in part, to the differences in primary and higher order structures of starch and cellulose, and chitin. In this review we will discuss the discovery, structural features, biochemical and biophysical properties, and possible biological functions of starch-active PMOs, as well as their potential application in the biofuel, food, and other starch-based industries. Important questions regarding various aspects of starch-active PMOs and possible economical driving force for their future studies will also be highlighted. PMID:27170366

  15. Tumor vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor vaccines have several potential advantages over standard anticancer regiments. They represent highly specific anticancer therapy. Inducing tumor-specific memory T-lymphocytes, they have potential for long-lived antitumor effects. However, clinical trials, in which cancer patients were vaccinated with tumor vaccines, have been so far mainly disappointing. There are many reasons for the inefficiency of tumor vaccines. Most cancer antigens are normal self-molecules to which immune tolerance exists. That is why the population of tumor-specific lymphocytes is represented by a small number of low-affinity T-lymphocytes that induce weak antitumor immune response. Simultaneously, tumors evolve many mechanisms to actively evade immune system, what makes them poorly immunogenic or even tolerogenic. Novel immunotherapeutic strategies are directed toward breaking immune tolerance to tumor antigens, enhancing immunogenicity of tumor vaccines and overcoming mechanisms of tumor escape. There are several approaches, unfortunately, all of them still far away from an ideal tumor vaccine that would reject a tumor. Difficulties in the activation of antitumor immune response by tumor vaccines have led to the development of alternative immunotherapeutic strategies that directly focus on effector mechanisms of immune system (adoptive tumor- specific T-lymphocyte transfer and tumor specific monoclonal antibodies). (author)

  16. Pharmacological Action of Adenophora Polysaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泱; 李春红; 唐富天; 李新芳

    2004-01-01

    Adenophora polysaccharides (AP), is an active principle extracted from the root of Adenophorae Potaninii Korsh originated in Gansu Province and isolated with boiling water. AP is isolated and purified from the crude drug by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-200 column, with a white powder and mean molecular weight of 8.3×104 , and [α]D20 of AP is + 68. AP is only composed of glucose judging from the analysis of it with patina chromatography (PC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) methods.

  17. Bioactive polysaccharides and gut microbiome (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many polysaccharides have shown the ability to reduce plasma cholesterol or postprandial glycemia. Viscosity in the small intestine seems to be required to slow glucose uptake. Cereal mixed linkage beta-glucans, psyllium, glucomannans, and other polysaccharides also seem to require higher molecula...

  18. Vaccines against stimulants: cocaine and MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosten, Thomas; Domingo, Coreen; Orson, Frank; Kinsey, Berma

    2014-01-01

    While the worldwide prevalence of cocaine use remains significant, medications, or small molecule approaches, to treat drug addictions have met with limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines, on the other hand, have demonstrated great potential for treating drug abuse using a distinctly different mechanism of eliciting an antibody response that blocks the pharmacological effects of drugs. We provide a review of vaccine-based approaches to treating stimulant addictions; specifically and cocaine addictions. This selective review article focuses on the one cocaine vaccine that has been into clinical trials and presents new data related to pre-clinical development of a methamphetamine (MA) vaccine. We also review the mechanism of action for vaccine induced antibodies to abused drugs, which involves kinetic slowing of brain entry as well as simple blocking properties. We present pre-clinical innovations for MA vaccines including hapten design, linkage to carrier proteins and new adjuvants beyond alum. We provide some new information on hapten structures and linkers and variations in protein carriers. We consider a carrier, outer membrance polysaccharide coat protein (OMPC), that provides some self-adjuvant through lipopolysaccharide components and provide new results with a monophosopholipid adjuvant for the more standard carrier proteins with cocaine and MA. The review then covers the clinical trials with the cocaine vaccine TA-CD. The clinical prospects for advances in this field over the next few years include a multi-site cocaine vaccine clinical trial to be reported in 2013 and phase 1 clinical trials of a MA vaccine in 2014. PMID:23509915

  19. Synthesis of part structures of Cryptococcus neoformans serotype C capsular polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzelli, Lorenzo; McCabe, Orla; Oscarson, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen that can cause life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. The development of a vaccine based on the capsular polysaccharide of C. neoformans is still an open challenge due to the heterogeneity of the capsular polysaccharide and the difficulty of identifying protective epitopes. Therefore, construction of structurally defined part structures of the C. neoformans GXM capsule is in great demand. Herein is presented the synthesis of a 3-O-naphthalenylmethyl protected trisaccharide thioglycoside building block which is present in C. neoformans serotype C polysaccharide. Its property as a donor in a glycosylation reaction with a model acceptor has been evaluated together with its behaviour as an acceptor following removal of the temporary protecting group. The heavily branched hexasaccharide was obtained in good yields and excellent α-selectivity. The frame shifted octasaccharide structural triad motif for serotype C was also prepared following the same building block strategy. For the first time this structural motif, which is the most substituted amongst the four C. neoformans serotypes, was prepared. Three synthesized C. neoformans serotype C fragments of varying size, from penta-up to octasaccharide, were deprotected and will be included in unique glycoarrays to further investigate the possibility to develop a synthetic vaccine against this pathogen. PMID:27423877

  20. Capsular polysaccharide from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides shows potential for protection against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwirigi, Martin; Nkando, Isabel; Olum, Moses; Attah-Poku, Samuel; Ochanda, Horace; Berberov, Emil; Potter, Andrew; Gerdts, Volker; Perez-Casal, Jose; Wesonga, Hezron; Soi, Reuben; Naessens, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) which is widespread in Africa. The capsule polysaccharide (CPS) of Mmm is one of the few identified virulence determinants. In a previous study, immunization of mice against CPS generated antibodies, but they were not able to prevent multiplication of Mmm in this model animal. However, mice cannot be considered as a suitable animal model, as Mmm does not induce pathology in this species. Our aim was to induce antibody responses to CPS in cattle, and challenge them when they had specific CPS antibody titres similar or higher than those from cattle vaccinated with the live vaccine. The CPS was linked to the carrier protein ovalbumin via a carbodiimide-mediated condensation with 1-ethyl-3(3-imethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC). Ten animals were immunized twice and challenged three weeks after the booster inoculation, and compared to a group of challenged non-immunized cattle. When administered subcutaneously to adult cattle, the vaccine elicited CPS-specific antibody responses with the same or a higher titre than animals vaccinated with the live vaccine. Pathology in the group of immunized animals was significantly reduced (57%) after challenge with Mmm strain Afadé compared to the non-immunized group, a figure in the range of the protection provided by the live vaccine. PMID:27496744

  1. Transport of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide in MHC Class II tubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Li Stephen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial capsular polysaccharides are virulence factors and are considered T cell-independent antigens. However, the capsular polysaccharide Sp1 from Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 has been shown to activate CD4(+ T cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II-dependent manner. The mechanism of carbohydrate presentation to CD4(+ T cells is unknown. We show in live murine dendritic cells (DCs that Sp1 translocates from lysosomal compartments to the plasma membrane in MHCII-positive tubules. Sp1 cell surface presentation results in reduction of self-peptide presentation without alteration of the MHCII self peptide repertoire. In DM-deficient mice, retrograde transport of Sp1/MHCII complexes resulting in T cell-dependent immune responses to the polysaccharide in vitro and in vivo is significantly reduced. The results demonstrate the capacity of a bacterial capsular polysaccharide antigen to use DC tubules as a vehicle for its transport as an MHCII/saccharide complex to the cell surface for the induction of T cell activation. Furthermore, retrograde transport requires the functional role of DM in self peptide-carbohydrate exchange. These observations open new opportunities for the design of vaccines against microbial encapsulated pathogens.

  2. New recombinant vaccines for the prevention of meningococcal B disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha MK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Ala-Eddine DeghmaneInstitut Pasteur, Unit of Invasive Bacterial Infections and National Reference Center for Meningococci, Paris, FranceAbstract: Meningococcal disease is a life-threatening invasive infection (mainly septicemia and meningitis that occurs as epidemic or sporadic cases. The causative agent, Neisseria meningitidis or meningococcus, is a capsulated Gram-negative bacterium. Current vaccines are prepared from the capsular polysaccharides (that also determine serogroups and are available against strains of serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135 that show variable distribution worldwide. Plain polysaccharide vaccines were first used and subsequently conjugate vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity were introduced. The capsular polysaccharide of meningococcal serogroup B is poorly immunogenic due to similarity to the human neural cells adhesion molecule. Tailor-made, strain-specific vaccines have been developed to control localized and clonal outbreaks due to meningococci of serogroup B but no “universal” vaccine is yet available. This unmet medical need was recently overcome using several subcapsular proteins to allow broad range coverage of strains and to reduce the risk of escape variants due to genetic diversity of the meningococcus. Several vaccines are under development that target major or minor surface proteins. One vaccine (Bexsero®; Novartis, under registration, is a multicomponent recombinant vaccine that showed an acceptable safety profile and covers around 80% of the currently circulating serogroup B isolates. However, its reactogenicity in infants seems to be high and the long term persistence of the immune response needs to be determined. Its activity on carriage, and therefore transmission, is under evaluation. Indirect protection is expected through restricting strain circulation and acquisition. This vaccine covers the circulating strains according to the presence of the targeted antigens in the

  3. HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EFFECTS The most common side effects are fainting, dizziness, nausea, headache, and skin reactions at the site where the shot was given. WHAT ELSE TO THINK ABOUT The HPV vaccine does not protect against all types of HPV ...

  4. Arthropod vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R; Opdebeeck, J P

    1999-03-01

    Antigens located in the midgut of the tick are hidden from the host's immune system. Egg production of ticks can be reduced when ticks are fed on animals vaccinated with midgut antigens of the tick, and a subunit vaccine formulated with the recombinant antigen Bm86 is now available that can reduce the number of ticks infesting cattle grazing on pasture. Midgut antigens used in vaccines against insects that transmit pathogenic organisms to humans have not been as effective in reducing insect fecundity and an alternative approach may be necessary. Transmission-blocking vaccines directed at interfering with the vector-pathogen interaction could result in loss of vector competence and block the spread of disease-causing organisms. PMID:10198800

  5. Typhim Vi vaccine against typhoid fever: a clinical trial in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, N B; Wamola, I A; Estambale, B A; Mbithi, E; Poillet, M

    1995-03-01

    Safety, tolerance and immunogenicity of the purified Vi polysaccharide vaccine (Typhim Vi) against typhoid fever was evaluated in primary school children aged 5-15 years. A total of 435 children were vaccinated, each with a single intramuscular injection in the left deltoid muscle. One hundred and ten children were randomly selected for blood samples on day 0 (pre vaccination) and day 30 (post vaccination). Vi antibodies studied by Radio immuno assay (RIA) on 97(88%) paired sera showed a seroconversion rate of 76.2% and seroprotection rate after vaccination was 74.2%, while 6.2% of children already had protective immunity before vaccination. The vaccine was well tolerated. Most commonly reported reactions were mild pain at site of injection (83%), and a few complained of mild swelling (4.6%), induration (1.1%), itching (1.1%) and headaches (1.4%). All reactions were of mild severity and disappeared within 24 to 48 hours.

  6. Antipneumococcal vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP is a gram-positive bacterium with more than 90 known serotypes causing around 11% of all deaths worldwide in children aged 1-59 months. A new era in prevention of SP-related diseases started in at the beginning of 2000s when a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was recommended as the vaccine of choice in pediatric age. PCV7 dramatically reduced invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD among children with indirect effects noted among other age groups as well. However, thanks to a strict surveillance network, an increase in non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs causing IPD was noted worldwide and in late 2000s a new second generation vaccine (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-PCV13 with an expanded serotype coverage was licensed. Due to the lack of solid effectiveness data, up to know it is difficult to predict how the composition of NVTs will change after the large-scale introduction of PCV13 or whether the characteristics of the serotypes will change. Long-term surveillance of both IPD, pneumonia, acute otitis media and carriage will be crucial to ascertain whether these second generation vaccines are having the desired effect of reducing the incidence of diseases in the long term. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  7. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  8. Vaccines and Thimerosal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preparedness Vaccine Safety Partners About ISO Thimerosal in Vaccines Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Thimerosal is ... harm. Thimerosal prevents the growth of bacteria in vaccines. Thimerosal is added to vials of vaccine that ...

  9. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A - Z Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live ... it cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine ...

  10. An exocellular polysaccharide and its interactions with proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinier, R.

    1999-01-01

    In the food industry polysaccharides are used as thickening or gelling agents. Polysaccharides are usually extracted from plants. Micro-organisms are also capable of excreting polysaccharides: exocellular polysaccharides (EPSs). In some cases EPSs are produced in-situ in food products, notably in ac

  11. Staphylococcus aureus vaccines: Deviating from the carol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missiakas, Dominique; Schneewind, Olaf

    2016-08-22

    Staphylococcus aureus, a commensal of the human nasopharynx and skin, also causes invasive disease, most frequently skin and soft tissue infections. Invasive disease caused by drug-resistant strains, designated MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus), is associated with failure of antibiotic therapy and elevated mortality. Here we review polysaccharide-conjugate and subunit vaccines that were designed to prevent S. aureus infection in patients at risk of bacteremia or surgical wound infection but failed to reach their clinical endpoints. We also discuss vaccines with ongoing trials for combinations of polysaccharide-conjugates and subunits. S. aureus colonization and invasive disease are not associated with the development of protective immune responses, which is attributable to a large spectrum of immune evasion factors. Two evasive strategies, assembly of protective fibrin shields via coagulases and protein A-mediated B cell superantigen activity, are discussed as possible vaccine targets. Although correlates for protective immunity are not yet known, opsonophagocytic killing of staphylococci by phagocytic cells offers opportunities to establish such criteria. PMID:27526714

  12. Novel adjuvant Alum-TLR7 significantly potentiates immune response to glycoconjugate vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonsanti, Cecilia; Balocchi, Cristiana; Harfouche, Carole; Corrente, Federica; Galli Stampino, Luisa; Mancini, Francesca; Tontini, Marta; Malyala, Padma; Bufali, Simone; Baudner, Barbara; De Gregorio, Ennio; Valiante, Nicholas M.; O’Hagan, Derek T.; Rappuoli, Rino; D’Oro, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    Although glycoconjugate vaccines are generally very efficacious, there is still a need to improve their efficacy, especially in eliciting a strong primary antibody response. We have recently described a new type of vaccine adjuvant based on a TLR7 agonist adsorbed to alum (Alum-TLR7), which is highly efficacious at enhancing immunogenicity of protein based vaccines. Since no adjuvant has been shown to potentiate the immune response to glycoconjugate vaccines in humans, we investigated if Alum-TLR7 is able to improve immunogenicity of this class of vaccines. We found that in a mouse model Alum-TLR7 greatly improved potency of a CRM197-MenC vaccine increasing anti-MenC antibody titers and serum bactericidal activity (SBA) against MenC compared to alum adjuvanted vaccine, especially with a low dose of antigen and already after a single immunization. Alum-TLR7 also drives antibody response towards Th1 isotypes. This adjuvant was also able to increase immunogenicity of all polysaccharides of a multicomponent glycoconjugate vaccine CRM197-MenACWY. Furthermore, we found that Alum-TLR7 increases anti-polysaccharide immune response even in the presence of a prior immune response against the carrier protein. Finally, we demonstrate that Alum-TLR7 adjuvant effect requires a functional TLR7. Taken together, our data support the use of Alum-TLR7 as adjuvant for glycoconjugate vaccines. PMID:27439378

  13. Rheology of interfacial protein-polysaccharide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, P.

    2013-05-01

    The morphology and mechanical properties of protein adsorption layers can significantly be altered by the presence of surfactants, lipids, particles, other proteins, and polysaccharides. In food emulsions, polysaccharides are primarily considered as bulk thickener but can under appropriate environmental conditions stabilize or destabilize the protein adsorption layer and, thus, the entire emulsion system. Despite their ubiquitous usage as stabilization agent, relatively few investigations focus on the interfacial rheology of composite protein/polysaccharide adsorption layers. The manuscript provides a brief review on both main stabilization mechanisms, thermodynamic phase separation and electrostatic interaction and discusses the rheological response in light of the environmental conditions such as ionic strength and pH.

  14. Radiation processing of polysaccharides for agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation of polysaccharides generates various types of degraded fragments by random scission. Polysaccharides can be easily degraded both in powder foam and solution. The radiation degraded polysaccharides induce various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of environmental stress, phytoalexins induction and can be applied not only in agriculture but also in medical fields. In this paper, the biological activities induced by radiation of chitosan, alginate, carrageenan, cellulose and pectin are reviewed for the agricultural use. (author)

  15. GEL PERMEATION CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF LACQUER POLYSACCHARIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Xingping; ZHANG Lina; DU Yumin; QIAN Baogong; LU Zaimin

    1992-01-01

    Ten fractionated samples of Chinese lacquer polysaccharide in aqueous 0.1M NaCl solution were studied by aqueous-phase gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The universal calibration, broad MWD calibration and corrected column dispersion were adopted to the analysis of GPC chromatograms of the polysaccharide. The molecular weights Mw, Mn and polydispersity index Mw/Mn obtained from GPC are in good agreement with the results of light scattering and membrane osmometry. It is verified that the universal calibration concept is applicable to the lacquer polysaccharide having a number of side chains.

  16. Enzymatic production of polysaccharides from gum tragacanth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Plant polysaccharides, relating to the field of natural probiotic components, can comprise structures similar to human milk oligosaccharides. A method for enzymatic hydrolysis of gum tragacanth from the bush-like legumes of the genus Astragalus, using a combination of pectin hydrolases and a xylo......Plant polysaccharides, relating to the field of natural probiotic components, can comprise structures similar to human milk oligosaccharides. A method for enzymatic hydrolysis of gum tragacanth from the bush-like legumes of the genus Astragalus, using a combination of pectin hydrolases...... and a xylogalacturonan hydrolase, is described. Fractions with different oligo- and/or polysaccharide compositions and structure are separated according to molecular weight....

  17. Development of capsular polysaccharide-based glycoconjugates for immunization against melioidosis and glanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtnick, Mary N; Heiss, Christian; Roberts, Rosemary A; Schweizer, Herbert P; Azadi, Parastoo; Brett, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei, the etiologic agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively, cause severe disease in humans and animals and are considered potential agents of biological warfare and terrorism. Diagnosis and treatment of infections caused by these pathogens can be challenging and, in the absence of chemotherapeutic intervention, acute disease is frequently fatal. At present, there are no human or veterinary vaccines available for immunization against these emerging/re-emerging infectious diseases. One of the long term objectives of our research, therefore, is to identify and characterize protective antigens expressed by B. pseudomallei and B. mallei and use them to develop efficacious vaccine candidates. Previous studies have demonstrated that the 6-deoxy-heptan capsular polysaccharide (CPS) expressed by these bacterial pathogens is both a virulence determinant and a protective antigen. Consequently, this carbohydrate moiety has become an important component of the various subunit vaccines that we are currently developing in our laboratory. In the present study, we describe a reliable method for isolating CPS antigens from O-polysaccharide (OPS) deficient strains of B. pseudomallei; including a derivative of the select agent excluded strain Bp82. Utilizing these purified CPS samples, we also describe a simple procedure for covalently linking these T-cell independent antigens to carrier proteins. In addition, we demonstrate that high titer IgG responses can be raised against the CPS component of such constructs. Collectively, these approaches provide a tangible starting point for the development of novel CPS-based glycoconjugates for immunization against melioidosis and glanders.

  18. Evaluation of Phosphorylated Psyllium Seed Polysaccharide as a Release Retardant

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Monica R. P.; Warrier, Deepa U.; Shivani H. Rao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to modify psyllium seed polysaccharide and evaluate the modified polysaccharide as release retardant in tablets employing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride as model drug. Studies on polysaccharide from psyllium husk has been reported but no work has been reported on characterization and modification of the polysaccharide present in the psyllium (Plantago ovata) seed and the use of the modified polysaccharide as a release retardant in tablets. In this study, the seed...

  19. Pharmacological Action of Adenophora Polysaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泱; 李春红; 唐富天; 李新芳

    2004-01-01

    @@ Adenophora polysaccharides (AP), is an active principle extracted from the root of Adenophorae Potaninii Korsh originated in Gansu Province and isolated with boiling water(1). AP is isolated and purified from the crude drug by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-200 column, with a white powder and mean molecular weight of 8.3 × 104 , and [α]D20of AP is + 68(1). AP is only composed of glucose judging from the analysis of it with patina chromatography (PC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) methods.The methylation analysis showed that AP is composed of (1→6) linked glucose residues. The measure of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR) 1H NMR and 14C NMR techniques further proved that AP is α(l→6) linked by Dglucose. The structure of AP is as follows: -[→6]α-D-Glu(1-)n→ (2).

  20. Hib Vaccines: Past, Present, and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Adi Essam; Almehdar, Hussein A; Redwan, Elrashdy M

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) causes many severe diseases, including epiglottitis, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. In developed countries, the annual incidence of meningitis caused by bacteria is approximately 5-10 cases per population of 100,000. The Hib conjugate vaccine is considered protective and safe. Adjuvants, molecules that can enhance and/or regulate the fundamental immunogenicity of an antigen, comprise a wide range of diverse compounds. While earlier developments of adjuvants created effective products, there is still a need to create new generations, rationally designed based on recent discoveries in immunology, mainly in innate immunity. Many factors may play a role in the immunogenicity of Hib conjugate vaccines, such as the polysaccharides and proteins carrier used in vaccine construction, as well as the method of conjugation. A Hib conjugate vaccine has been constructed via chemical synthesis of a Hib saccharide antigen. Two models of carbohydrate-protein conjugate have been established, the single ended model (terminal amination-single method) and cross-linked lattice matrix (dual amination method). Increased knowledge in the fields of immunology, molecular biology, glycobiology, glycoimmunology, and the biology of infectious microorganisms has led to a dramatic increase in vaccine efficacy. PMID:26904695

  1. Hib Vaccines: Past, Present, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Essam Zarei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib causes many severe diseases, including epiglottitis, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. In developed countries, the annual incidence of meningitis caused by bacteria is approximately 5–10 cases per population of 100,000. The Hib conjugate vaccine is considered protective and safe. Adjuvants, molecules that can enhance and/or regulate the fundamental immunogenicity of an antigen, comprise a wide range of diverse compounds. While earlier developments of adjuvants created effective products, there is still a need to create new generations, rationally designed based on recent discoveries in immunology, mainly in innate immunity. Many factors may play a role in the immunogenicity of Hib conjugate vaccines, such as the polysaccharides and proteins carrier used in vaccine construction, as well as the method of conjugation. A Hib conjugate vaccine has been constructed via chemical synthesis of a Hib saccharide antigen. Two models of carbohydrate-protein conjugate have been established, the single ended model (terminal amination-single method and cross-linked lattice matrix (dual amination method. Increased knowledge in the fields of immunology, molecular biology, glycobiology, glycoimmunology, and the biology of infectious microorganisms has led to a dramatic increase in vaccine efficacy.

  2. Extraction Optimization of Polysaccharides from Pitaya Stems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Cong-fen; LI Peng; ZHAO Hua; SONG Li-ya; ZHU Jun; DONG Yin-mao

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to describe the extraction of polysaccharides from pitaya stems.[Method] The hot water,enzyme-assisted and microwave-assisted methods were used,with the microwave-assisted extraction being deemed optimal by general evaluation.[Result] The main factors affecting the yield of polysaccharides in the microwave-assisted extraction,by order of magnitude,were as follows:timemicrowave powertemperature;additionally,optimal conditions included a 10 min extraction time,an 80 ℃ extraction temperature and a microwave setting of 200 W.Using these optimal conditions,the yield of PSPS(Polysaccharides from Pitaya Stems) was 1.42%.After purification,the yield of PSPS was 0.74%.[Conclusion] The PSPS was analyzed by IR,MALDI-TOF-MS and an element analysis technique.It was shown to be a polysaccharide mixture,and the molecular weight was between 3 900 and 4 300 Da.

  3. Influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerhus, Sven Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally,......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted.......The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally...

  4. Gamma radiation effects on the cuban antimeningococcic BC vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma rays on the Cuban antimeningococcic BC vaccine properties were studied. These were performanced by simulation with different bio burden of microbial pollutants. The isolated spores of the pollutants of non- aseptic areas were used. Its D10 was determined as 2.045 Gy. On that basis, the sterilization dose setting was performed. The quality of the irradiated vaccine was performed according to the Cuban standards: sterility, protein and polysaccharide concentration, immunogenicity, per cent of protein adsorption, nonspecific innocuousness. There were observed non negative effects on the vaccine of the radiation process in the dose range of 0-25 Gy. It was also studied the preservation of the properties of the irradiated vaccine, by storing it during one year at four celsius grade. The results were satisfactory

  5. Vaccination priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Robert; Baños, Ana; deBernardis, Chiara

    2003-02-01

    Selection of immunizations should be based on requirements and on risk of infection. According to the International Health Regulations, many countries require yellow fever vaccination and proof thereof as the International Certificate of vaccination. Additionally selected countries require proof of vaccination against cholera and meningococcal disease. A consultation for travel health advice is always an opportunity to ascertain that routine immunizations have been performed. Recommended immunizations often are more important for traveller's health than the required or routine ones. The most frequent vaccine preventable infection in non-immune travellers to developing countries is hepatitis A with an average incidence rate of 0.3% per month; in high risk backpackers or foreign-aid-volunteers this rate is 2.0%. Many immunizations are recommended for special risk groups only: there is a growing tendency in many countries to immunize all young travellers to developing countries against hepatitis B, as it is uncertain who will voluntarily or involuntarily get exposed. The attack rate of influenza in intercontinental travel is estimated to be 1%. Immunity against poliomyelitis remains essential for travel to Africa and parts of Asia. Many of the 0.2-0.4% who experience an animal bite are at risk of rabies. Typhoid fever is diagnosed with an incidence rate of 0.03% per month among travellers to the Indian subcontinent, North and West Africa (except Tunisia), and Peru, elsewhere this rate is 10-fold lower. Meningococcal disease, Japanese encephalitis, cholera and tuberculosis have been reported in travellers, but these infections are rare in this population. Although no travel health vaccine is cost beneficial, most professionals will offer protection against the frequent risks, while most would find it ridiculous to use all available vaccines in every traveller. It is essentially an arbitrary decision made on the risk level one wishes to recommend protection--but the

  6. Remodeling bacterial polysaccharides by metabolic pathway engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Wen; Liu, Xianwei; Li, Yanhong; Li, Jianjun; Xia, Chengfeng; Zhou, Guangyan; Zhang, Wenpeng; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Xi; Wang, Peng George

    2009-01-01

    Introducing structural modifications into biomolecules represents a powerful approach to dissect their functions and roles in biological processes. Bacterial polysaccharides, despite their rich structural information and essential roles in bacterium-host interactions and bacterial virulence, have largely been unexplored for in vivo structural modifications. In this study, we demonstrate the incorporation of a panel of monosaccharide analogs into bacterial polysaccharides in a highly homogenou...

  7. Vaccine Vexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya; Reid

    2011-01-01

    IT’S always nice when expectations are exceeded by half a billion dollars.This was the case for the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization(GAVI) at its fundraising conference in June.A public-private initiative,GAVI,which works to ensure children in developing countries receive crucial vaccinations,had gone into the meeting hoping to net $3.7 billion.They came away with $4.3 billion,"despite the fact that donors everywhere are coping with budget crises," as Bill Gates

  8. Typhoid vaccine introduction: An evidence-based pilot implementation project in Nepal and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Imran; Pach, Alfred; Khan, Ghulam Mustafa; Bajracharya, Deepak; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Bhutta, Waqaas; Tahir, Rehman; Soofi, Sajid; Thapa, Chandra B; Joshi, Nilesh; Puri, Mahesh K; Shrestha, Parisha; Upreti, Shyam Raj; Clemens, John D; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Ochiai, R Leon

    2015-06-19

    The World Health Organization (WHO) in 2008 recommended the use of currently licensed typhoid vaccines using a high risk or targeted approach. The epidemiology of disease and the vaccine characteristics make school-based vaccination most feasible in reducing typhoid disease burden in many settings. To assess feasibility of school-based typhoid vaccination, two districts in Kathmandu, Nepal and two towns in Karachi, Pakistan were selected for pilot program. Vaccination campaigns were conducted through the departments of health and in partnerships with not-for-profit organizations. In total 257,015 doses of Vi polysaccharide vaccine were given to students in grades 1-10 of participating schools. The vaccination coverage ranged from 39 percent (38,389/99,503) in Gulshan town in Karachi, to 81 percent (62,615/77,341) in Bhaktapur in Kathmandu valley. No serious adverse event was reported post vaccination. The coverage increased for vaccination of the second district in Pakistan as well as in Nepal. There was an initial concern of vaccine safety. However, as the campaign progressed, parents were more comfortable with vaccinating their children in schools. Supported and conducted by departments of health in Pakistan and Nepal, a school-based typhoid vaccination was found to be safe and feasible.

  9. Modelling the impact of vaccination on curtailing Haemophilus influenzae serotype 'a'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konini, Angjelina; Moghadas, Seyed M

    2015-12-21

    Haemophilus influenzae serotype a (Hia) is a human-restricted bacterial pathogen transmitted via direct contacts with an infectious individual. Currently, there is no vaccine available for prevention of Hia, and the disease is treated with antibiotics upon diagnosis. With ongoing efforts for the development of an anti-Hia protein-polysaccharide conjugated vaccine, we sought to investigate the effect of vaccination on curtailing Hia infection. We present the first stochastic model of Hia transmission and control dynamics, and parameterize it using available estimates in the literature. Since both naturally acquired and vaccine-induced immunity wane with time, model simulations show three important results. First, vaccination of only newborns cannot eliminate the pathogen from the population, even when a booster program is implemented with a high coverage. Second, achieving and maintaining a sufficiently high level of herd immunity for pathogen elimination requires vaccination of susceptible individuals in addition to a high vaccination coverage of newborns. Third, for a low vaccination rate of susceptible individuals, a high coverage of booster dose may be needed to raise the level of herd immunity for Hia eradication. Our findings highlight the importance of vaccination and timely boosting of the individual׳s immunity within the expected duration of vaccine-induced protection against Hia. When an anti-Hia vaccine becomes available, enhanced surveillance of Hia incidence and herd immunity could help determine vaccination rates and timelines for booster doses necessary to eliminate Hia from affected populations.

  10. Lipopolysaccharide as a target for brucellosis vaccine design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Álvarez, Raquel; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; Gil-Ramírez, Yolanda; Iriarte, Maite; Grilló, María-Jesús; Gorvel, Jean Pierre; Moriyón, Ignacio

    2013-05-01

    The gram-negative bacteria of the genus Brucella are facultative intracellular parasites that cause brucellosis, a world wide-distributed zoonotic disease that represents a serious problem for animal and human health. There is no human-to-human contagion and, since there is no human vaccine, animal vaccination is essential to control brucellosis. However, current vaccines (all developed empirically) do not provide 100% protection and are infectious in humans. Attempts to generate new vaccines by obtaining mutants lacking the lipopolysaccharide O-polysaccharide, in purine metabolism or in Brucella type IV secretion system have not been successful. Here we propose a new approach to develop brucellosis vaccines based on the concept that Brucella surface molecules evade efficient detection by innate immunity, thus delaying protective Th1 responses and opening a time window to reach sheltered intracellular compartments. We showed recently that a branch of the core oligosaccharide section of Brucella lipopolysaccharide hampers recognition by TLR4-MD2. Mutation of glycosyltransferase WadC, involved in the synthesis of this branch, results in a lipopolysaccharide that, while keeping the O-polysaccharide essential for optimal protection, shows a truncated core, is more efficiently recognized by MD2 and triggers an increased cytokine response. In keeping with this, the wadC mutant is attenuated in dendritic cells and mice. In the mouse model of brucellosis vaccines, the Brucella abortus wadC mutant conferred protection similar to that provided by S19, the best cattle vaccine available. The properties of the wadC mutant provide the proof of concept for this new approach and open the way for more effective brucellosis vaccines. PMID:23219811

  11. The Effect of Culture Condition on Type 5 Capsular Polysaccharide Production of Staphylococcus aureus from Diary Cattle%培养条件对奶牛金葡菌5型荚膜多糖产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨正涛; 张乃生; 刘庆涛; 杨琦; 尹荣兰

    2008-01-01

    [Objective]The effect of different culture conditions on type 5 capsular polysaccharide production of Staphylococcus aureus from diary cattle was studied to provide simple way for CP production and preparation and laid foundation for carrying out new polysaccharide vaccine research.[Method]Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from milk sample of sick dairy cattle and capsular polysaecharide serotypes were identified.Type 5 capsular polysaccharide was cultured on BHI,solid columbia and med110 culture media.Glucose and lactose were taken as carbon sources for every culture media in solid and liquid state.Therefore 9 different culture conditions were taken to study the effect of cuhure conditions on capsular polysaccharide production.[Result]Different culture conditions indicated that compared with columbia culture media,BHI culture media could decline capsular polysaccharide production and mod110 culture media could increase capsular polysaccharide production.While for same culture media,solid culture media was better for capsular polysaccharide production,meanwhile,taken lactose as carbon source could increase capsular polysaccharide production.

  12. Identification of vaccine candidates against serogroup B meningococcus by whole-genome sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pizza, M; Scarlato, [No Value; Masignani, [No Value; Giuliani, MM; Arico, B; Comanducci, M; Jennings, GT; Baldi, L; Bartolini, E; Capecchi, B; Galeotti, CL; Luzzi, E; Manetti, R; Marchetti, E; Mora, M; Nuti, S; Ratti, G; Santini, L; Savino, S; Scarselli, M; Storni, E; Zuo, PJ; Broeker, M; Hundt, E; Knapp, B; Blair, E; Mason, T; Tettelin, H; Hood, DW; Jeffries, AC; Saunders, NJ; Granoff, DM; Venter, JC; Moxon, ER; Grandi, G; Rappuoli, R

    2000-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of bacterial septicemia and meningitis. Sequence variation of surface-exposed proteins and cross-reactivity of the serogroup B capsular polysaccharide with human tissues have hampered efforts to develop a successful vaccine. To overcome these obstacles, the en

  13. Replicating vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early work on fish immunology and disease resistance demonstrated fish (like animals and humans) that survived infection were typically resistant to re-infection with the same pathogen. The concepts of resistance upon reinfection lead to the research and development of replicating (live) vaccines in...

  14. Malaria vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Some have argued that the vaccine against malaria developed by Manuel Pattaroyo, a Colombian scientist, is being tested prematurely in humans and that it is unlikely to be successful. While the Pattaroyo vaccine has been shown to confer protection against the relatively mild malaria found in Colombia, doubts exist over whether it will be effective in Africa. Encouraging first results, however, are emerging from field tests in Tanzania. The vaccine triggered a strong new immune response, even in individuals previously exposed to malaria. Additional steps must be taken to establish its impact upon mortality and morbidity. Five major trials are underway around the world. The creator estimates that the first ever effective malaria vaccine could be available for widespread use within five years and he has no intention of securing a patent for the discovery. In another development, malaria specialists from 35 African countries convened at an international workshop in Zimbabwe to compare notes. Participants disparaged financial outlays for the fight against malaria equivalent to 2% of total AIDS funding as insufficient; noted intercountry differences in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment; and found information exchange between anglophone and francophone doctors to be generally poor. PMID:12287671

  15. Vexing Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…

  16. Viscoelastic properties of levan polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Kenneth; Rende, Deniz; Ozisik, Rahmi; Toksoy-Oner, Ebru

    2014-03-01

    Levan is a naturally occurring polysaccharide that is composed of β-D-fructofuranose units with β(2-6) linkages between fructose rings. It is synthesized by the action of a secreted levansucrase (EC 2.4.1.10) that converts sucrose into the levan externally (exopolysaccharide). Levan is a homopolysaccharide that is non-toxic, water soluble,, and has anti-tumor activity and low immunological response. Therefore, levan presents great potential to be used as a novel functional biopolymer in foods, feeds, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Despite these favorable properties, levan has a moderately low mechanical properties and poor film forming capability. In the current study, the agglomeration behavior of levan in water and in saline solutions was investigated at 298 and 310 K by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The viscoelastic properties of neat and oxidized levan films were studied via nanoindentation experiments in the quasi-static and dynamic modes The material is partially based upon work supported by NSF under Grant Nos. 1200270 and 1003574, and TUBITAK 111M232.

  17. Fish Vaccines in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccination is a proven, cost-effective method to prevent infectious diseases in animals. Current fish vaccines can be categorized as killed fish vaccines or modified live vaccines. The major advantage of live vaccine is their ability to stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses for ...

  18. Determinants of adult vaccination at inner-city health centers: A descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymund Mahlon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination rates among adults 65 years and older or less than 65 years with high risk medical conditions are still below Healthy People 2010 recommended levels of 90%. This study was designed to: 1 assess self-reported pneumococcal vaccination rates following health center level interventions to increase adult vaccination rates; and 2 determine factors associated with vaccination. Methods Tailored interventions to increase immunizations were implemented at two inner-city health centers. We surveyed 375 patients 50 years of age and older. Multivariate logistic regression examines the predictors of 1 self-reported pneumococcal vaccination and 2 combined self-reported influenza and pneumococcal vaccination. Both of these models were stratified by age group (50–64 years and 65 years and older. Results Pneumococcal vaccination rates were 45% by self-report, 55% by medical record review, 69% for patients 65 years old and older, 32% for patients 50–64 years; they did not differ by race. Receipt of the previous season's influenza vaccine was significantly related to pneumococcal vaccination among both younger and older patients. Receiving both the pneumococcal vaccine and the most recent influenza vaccine compared with receiving neither, among younger patients was related to unemployment, more frequent physician visits, and belief that those who do not receive the flu shot are more susceptible to the flu. For older patients, receipt of both vaccines was related to nonsmoking status, believing that friends/family think the patient should be vaccinated, seeing posters advertising flu shot clinics, and belief that those who do not receive the flu shot are more susceptible to the flu. Conclusion Our findings suggest that improving overall pneumococcal vaccination rates among eligible adults, has the potential to eliminate racial disparities. Interventions delivering vaccination messages specific to older

  19. Polysaccharides and infrared spectra of galactic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that observations that are available for a number of astronomical objects over the infrared waveband 2 to 30 μm are reconcilable with the transmittance properties of polysaccharides, and it is considered reasonable to infer the detection of interstellar polysaccharides. The identification of highly complex macromolecules, such as cellulose, which are presumably formed by an abiogenic processing of interstellar formaldehyde, could have a profound bearing on interstellar chemistry, including the evolution of prebiotic molecules. A discussion is presented on the production of organic molecules in the interstellar medium, with special reference to formaldehyde and its polymers; the polysaccharides have structures built up from H2CO units and are probably the most stable polymers formed. Cellulose and starch are particularly stable, because each (H2C0)6 unit formed is able to form part of a very stable ring, with the polysaccharide becoming a chain of hexagonal ring structures. Cellulose can maintain its structure in a vacuum or a low density inert atmosphere probably up to a temperature around 625 to 900 K. Interstellar solid material is strongly absorbing in two infrared bands, centred at 3 and 10 μm, and it has been usual to attribute these absorptions to crystals of water-ice or magnesium silicate, but this presents certain difficulties, and it seems worthwhile to consider whether the infrared properties of interstellar dust might not be attributed to polysaccharides. (U.K.)

  20. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  1. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Diseases and Vaccinations Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... if we take away the protection given by vaccination, more and more people will be infected and ...

  2. Vaccinations and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 23, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 207 Vaccinations and HIV WHAT ARE VACCINATIONS? WHAT’S DIFFERENT FOR ... your viral load within 4 weeks of any vaccination. Flu shots have been studied more than any ...

  3. Vaccinations during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you do need any vaccinations, wait 1 month after you get them before you try to get pregnant. ... vaccine during pregnancy, you can get it right after you give birth. Getting the Tdap vaccine soon after ...

  4. Immunomodulatory effects of a polysaccharide from Tamarindus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelekha, T T; Vijayakumar, T; Ankanthil, R; Vijayan, K K; Nair, M K

    1993-04-01

    A polysaccharide isolated and purified from Tamarindus indica shows immunomodulatory activities such as phagocytic enhancement, leukocyte migration inhibition and inhibition of cell proliferation. These properties suggest that this polysaccharide from T. indica may have some biological applications.

  5. Immobilized phosphorylase for synthesis of polysaccharides from glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Continuous processes for enzymatic production of carbohydrates from glucose are discussed. Key reactant in process is identified as phosphorylase which catalyzes reversible formation or degradation of polysaccharide. Chemical compounds and reactions to synthesize polysaccharides are analyzed.

  6. Synthesis and interfacial behavior of polystyrene-polysaccharide diblock copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, W.T.E.; Ágoston, K.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Norde, W.; Timmermans, J.W.; Slaghek, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Linear block copolymers of polystyrene and polysaccharide were synthesized using a block synthesis method with amino-terminated polystyrene and sodium cyanoborohydride as reducing agent. Different types of polysaccharides, dextrans, and maltodextrins with various molecular weights were used. IR spec

  7. Influenza Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ellebedy, A. H.; Webby, R J

    2009-01-01

    Influenza A viruses pose a substantial threat to the human population whether by purposeful manipulation and release or by the natural process of interspecies transmissions from animal reservoirs. The challenge with preparing for these events with vaccination strategies is that the best forms of protective immunity target the most variably of the viral proteins, hemagglutinin. Add to this even just the natural extent of variation in this protein and the challenges to vaccinologists become gre...

  8. Ice nucleation activity of polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichler, Magdalena; Felgitsch, Laura; Haeusler, Thomas; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Grothe, Hinrich

    2015-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation is an important process in the atmosphere. It shows direct impact on our climate by triggering ice cloud formation and therefore it has much influence on the radiation balance of our planet (Lohmann et al. 2002; Mishchenko et al. 1996). The process itself is not completely understood so far and many questions remain open. Different substances have been found to exhibit ice nucleation activity (INA). Due to their vast differences in chemistry and morphology it is difficult to predict what substance will make good ice nuclei and which will not. Hence simple model substances must be found and be tested regarding INA. Our work aims at gaining to a deeper understanding of heterogeneous ice nucleation. We intend to find some reference standards with defined chemistry, which may explain the mechanisms of heterogeneous ice nucleation. A particular focus lies on biological carbohydrates in regards to their INA. Biological carbohydrates are widely distributed in all kingdoms of life. Mostly they are specific for certain organisms and have well defined purposes, e.g. structural polysaccharides like chitin (in fungi and insects) and pectin (in plants), which has also water-binding properties. Since they are widely distributed throughout our biosphere and mostly safe to use for nutrition purposes, they are well studied and easily accessible, rendering them ideal candidates as proxies. In our experiments we examined various carbohydrates, like the already mentioned chitin and pectin, as well as their chemical modifications. Lohmann U.; A Glaciation Indirect Aerosol Effect Caused by Soot Aerosols; J. Geoph. Res.; Vol. 24 No.4; pp 11-1 - 11-4; 2002 Mishchenko M.I., Rossow W.B., Macke A., Lacis A. A.; Sensitivity of Cirrus Cloud Albedo, Bidirectional Reflectance and Optical Thickness Retrieval Accuracy to Ice Particle Shape, J. Geoph. Res.; Vol. 101, No D12; pp. 16,973 - 16,985; 1996

  9. Status of paratyphoid fever vaccine research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura B; Simon, Raphael; MacLennan, Calman A; Tennant, Sharon M; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Khan, M Imran

    2016-06-01

    Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi) A and B cause enteric fever in humans. Of the paratyphoid group, S. Paratyphi A is the most common serovar. In 2000, there were an estimated 5.4 million cases of S. Paratyphi A worldwide. More recently paratyphoid fever has accounted for an increasing fraction of all cases of enteric fever. Although vaccines for typhoid fever have been developed and in use for decades, vaccines for paratyphoid fever have not yet been licensed. Several S. Paratyphi A vaccines, however, are in development and based on either whole cell live-attenuated strains or repeating units of the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen (O:2) conjugated to different protein carriers. An O-specific polysaccharide (O:2) of S. Paratyphi A conjugated to tetanus toxoid (O:2-TT), for example, has been determined to be safe and immunogenic after one dose in Phase I and Phase II trials. Two other conjugated vaccine candidates linked to diphtheria toxin and a live-attenuated oral vaccine candidate are currently in preclinical development. As promising vaccine candidates are advanced along the development pipeline, an adequate supply of vaccines will need to be ensured to meet growing demand, particularly in the most affected countries.

  10. Prospects for a vaccine against otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, Allan W; Otczyk, Diana C

    2006-08-01

    Otitis media is a major cause of morbidity in 80% of all children less than 3 years of age and often goes undiagnosed in the general population. There is evidence to suggest that the incidence of otitis media is increasing. The major cause of otitis media is infection of the middle ear with microbes from the nasopharynx. The anatomical orientation of the eustachian tube, in association with a number of risk factors, predisposes infants and young children to the infection. Bacteria are responsible for approximately 70% of cases of acute otitis media, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis predominating as the causative agents. The respiratory viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, parainfluenza and influenza, account for 30% of acute otitis media cases. Over the past decade, there has been a profound increase in the reported resistance to antibiotics, which, with increased disease burden, has focussed attention on vaccine development for otitis media. A polymicrobial formulation containing antigens from all major pathogens would have the greatest potential to deliver a sustained reduction in the disease burden globally. The disappointing outcomes for otitis media seen with the polysaccharide pneumococcal conjugate vaccine have raised major challenges for the vaccination strategy. Clearly, more knowledge is required concerning immune mechanisms in the middle ear, as well as vaccine formulations containing antigens that are more representative of the polymicrobial nature of the disease. Antigens that have been extensively tested in animal models are now available for testing in human subjects.

  11. Influence of polysaccharides on wine protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckels, Nadine; Meier, Miriam; Dietrich, Helmut; Will, Frank; Decker, Heinz; Fronk, Petra

    2016-06-01

    Polysaccharides are the major high-molecular weight components of wines. In contrast, proteins occur only in small amounts in wine, but contribute to haze formation. The detailed mechanism of aggregation of these proteins, especially in combination with other wine components, remains unclear. This study demonstrates the different aggregation behavior between a buffer and a model wine system by dynamic light scattering. Arabinogalactan-protein, for example, shows an increased aggregation in the model wine system, while in the buffer system a reducing effect is observed. Thus, we could show the importance to examine the behavior of wine additives under conditions close to reality, instead of simpler buffer systems. Additional experiments on melting points of wine proteins reveal that only some isoforms of thaumatin-like proteins and chitinases are involved in haze formation. We can confirm interactions between polysaccharides and proteins, but none of these polysaccharides is able to prevent haze in wine.

  12. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines ...

  13. Simplest identification, O-specific polysaccharide purification and antigenic evaluation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Vi negative isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Muhammad; Ali, Aamir; Jabbar, Abdul; Sarwar, Yasra; Rahman, Moazur; Iqbal, Mazhar; Haque, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Currently licensed typhoid vaccines are based on Vi capsular polysaccharides. Recent molecular reports from typhoid endemic countries state that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) Vi negative strains occur naturally and cause typhoid fever which is indistinguishable from disease caused by Vi positive strains. Vaccine based on Vi polysaccharide may not protect patients if the invading S. Typhi are negative for Vi. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an essential component of S. Typhi outer membrane in which O-specific polysaccharide (OSP) is a protective antigen and universal candidate for vaccine development. In this study, S. Typhi Vi negative isolates were discriminated from Vi positive isolates through a duplex PCR using primers of fliC-d (599bp) and tviA (495bp) genes. The LPS of S. Typhi Vi negative isolates was extracted by hot phenol method and OSP was purified by core hydrolysis. The yield of extracted LPS was 91 mg/L and that of purified OSP was 49.14 mg/L of culture broth. LPS showed ladder like appearance by zinc imidazole staining following SDS-PAGE. Whole cell challenged mice sera were used for in vitro antigenicity evaluation of the purified LPS and OSP. The antigenicity was found adequate by immunodiffusion assay. To our knowledge, this is the first report of purification and antigenic evaluation of LPS of a Vi negative S. Typhi isolate. The purified OSP from S. Typhi Vi negative isolate may be coupled with a carrier protein to produce universal low cost conjugate vaccine candidates for use in typhoid endemic regions.

  14. Effects of selenylation modification on immune-enhancing activity of garlic polysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulei Qiu

    Full Text Available The garlic polysaccharide was modified by HNO3-Na2SeO3 method according to orthogonal design L9(3(4 to obtain nine selenizing garlic polysaccharides, sGPS1-sGPS9. Their effects on chicken peripheral lymphocytes proliferation in vitro were compared by MTT assay. The results showed that sGPSs could significantly promote lymphocytes proliferation, sGPS3, sGPS5 and sGPS6 presented stronger efficacy. In vivo experiment, 14-day-old chickens were injected respectively with sGPS3, sGPS5 and sGPS6 when they were vaccinated with ND vaccine taking unmodified GPS as control. The results showed that three sGPSs could significantly promote lymphocyte proliferation, enhance serum antibody titer, IFN-γ and IL-2 contents. These results indicated that selenylation modification could significantly enhance the immune-enhancing activity of GPS, sGPS6 possessed the best efficacy and could be as a candidate drug of immunoenhancer. Its optimal modification conditions were 400 mg of sodium selenite for 500 mg of GPS, reaction temperature of 70°C and reaction time of 6 h.

  15. Selenylation modification can enhance immune-enhancing activity of Chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haibo, Feng; Fan, Jing; Bo, Hongquan; Tian, Xi; Bao, He; Wang, Xiaohua

    2016-11-20

    Chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharides (CVPS) were extracted, purified and selenizingly modified. The modification has been achieved by using the HNO3- Na2SeO3 method, and selenizing Chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharides (sCVPS) were evaluated for their physicochemical properties and their potential as adjuvant to modulate cellular and humoral immune responses to hepatitis B subunit vaccine in a mouse model. Our results demonstrated that sCVPS significantly promoted splenocytes proliferation and the production of IL-4 and IFN-γ in vitro. In vivo experiments showed that sCVPS significantly increased the rHBsAg-specific IgG level, IgG subclass (IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b) antibody titers, T cells proliferation, levels of IL-4, IL-2, and IFN-γ in CD4 (+)T cells and the level of IFN-γ in CD8(+)T cells. Furthermore, sCVPS increased the activity of natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, thus increasing both cellular and humoral immune responses in vivo. The present data suggest that selenylation of CVPS can significantly improve their immune-enhancing activity both in vitro and in vivo, thus representing a powerful adjuvant for vaccine design. PMID:27561500

  16. Synthesis and immunological evaluation of protein conjugates of Neisseria meningitidis X capsular polysaccharide fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Morelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine to prevent infections from the emerging Neisseria meningitidis X (MenX is becoming an urgent issue. Recently MenX capsular polysaccharide (CPS fragments conjugated to CRM197 as carrier protein have been confirmed at preclinical stage as promising candidates for vaccine development. However, more insights about the minimal epitope required for the immunological activity of MenX CPS are needed. We report herein the chemical conjugation of fully synthetic MenX CPS oligomers (monomer, dimer, and trimer to CRM197. Moreover, improvements in some crucial steps leading to the synthesis of MenX CPS fragments are described. Following immunization with the obtained neoglycoconjugates, the conjugated trimer was demonstrated as the minimal fragment possessing immunogenic activity, even though significantly lower than a pentadecamer obtained from the native polymer and conjugated to the same protein. This finding suggests that oligomers longer than three repeating units are possibly needed to mimic the activity of the native polysaccharide.

  17. The capsular polysaccharide Vi from Salmonella Typhi is a B1b antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer L.; Flores-Langarica, Adriana; Kingsley, Robert A.; Hitchcock, Jessica R.; Ross, Ewan A.; Lopez-Macias, Constantino; Lakey, Jeremy; Martin, Laura B.; Toellner, Kai-Michael; MacLennan, Calman A.; MacLennan, Ian C; Henderson, Ian R.; Dougan, Gordon; Cunningham, Adam F.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination with purified capsular polysaccharide Vi antigen from Salmonella Typhi can protect against typhoid fever, although the mechanism for its efficacy is not clearly established. Here, we have characterised the B cell response to this vaccine in wild-type and T cell-deficient mice. We show that immunization with Typhim Vi rapidly induces proliferation in B1b peritoneal cells, but not in B1a cells or marginal zone (MZ) B cells. This induction of B1b proliferation is concomitant with the detection of splenic Vi-specific antibody secreting cells and protective antibody and Rag1-deficient B1b cell chimeras generated by adoptive transfer induced specific antibody after Vi immunization. Furthermore, antibody derived from peritoneal B cells is sufficient to confer protection against Salmonella that express Vi antigen. Expression of Vi by Salmonella during infection did not inhibit the development of early antibody responses to non-Vi antigens. Despite this, the protection conferred by immunization of mice with porin proteins from Salmonella, which induce antibody-mediated protection, was reduced after infection with Vi-expressing Salmonella, although protection was not totally abrogated. This work therefore suggests that in mice, B1b cells contribute to the protection induced by Vi antigen and targeting non-Vi antigens as sub-unit vaccines may offer an attractive strategy to augment current Vi-based vaccine strategies. PMID:23162127

  18. Preclinical studies on new proteins as carrier for glycoconjugate vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontini, M; Romano, M R; Proietti, D; Balducci, E; Micoli, F; Balocchi, C; Santini, L; Masignani, V; Berti, F; Costantino, P

    2016-07-29

    Glycoconjugate vaccines are made of carbohydrate antigens covalently bound to a carrier protein to enhance their immunogenicity. Among the different carrier proteins tested in preclinical and clinical studies, five have been used so far for licensed vaccines: Diphtheria and Tetanus toxoids, the non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin CRM197, the outer membrane protein complex of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B and the Protein D derived from non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Availability of novel carriers might help to overcome immune interference in multi-valent vaccines containing several polysaccharide-conjugate antigens, and also to develop vaccines which target both protein as well saccharide epitopes of the same pathogen. Accordingly we have conducted a study to identify new potential carrier proteins. Twenty-eight proteins, derived from different bacteria, were conjugated to the model polysaccharide Laminarin and tested in mice for their ability in inducing antibodies against the carbohydrate antigen and eight of them were subsequently tested as carrier for serogroup meningococcal C oligosaccharides. Four out of these eight were able to elicit in mice satisfactory anti meningococcal serogroup C titers. Based on immunological evaluation, the Streptococcus pneumoniae protein spr96/2021 was successfully evaluated as carrier for serogroups A, C, W, Y and X meningococcal capsular saccharides. PMID:27317455

  19. Galactomannan: a versatile biodegradable seed polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Jani, Girish K; Moradiya, Naresh G; Randeria, Narayan P; Nagar, Bhanu J; Naikwadi, Nikhil N; Variya, Bhavesh C

    2013-09-01

    Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Galactomannans are a group of storage polysaccharides from various plant seeds that reserve energy for germination in the endosperm. There are four major sources of seed galactomannans: locust bean (Ceratonia siliqua), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze), and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Through keen references of reported literature on galactomannans, in this review, we have described occurrence of various galactomannans, its physicochemical properties, characterization, applications, and overview of some major galactomannans.

  20. Studies on Sulfation of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI,Jian-Ping; YAN,Hong; ZHONG,Ru-Gang

    2004-01-01

    @@ Polysaccharides can anti-virus, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1),[1] herpes simplex virus (HSV-1,HSV-2) and cytomegalovirus. Some of them are sulfates, e.g. dextran sulfate, heparin, sulfonation of chitosan and sulfated derivatives of Lentinan. Our results showed that sulfated derivatives of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP)have anti-HIV activity. Because the anti-HIV activity of LBP was deeply dependent on the molecular weight, the sulfation pattern and glycosidic branches besides degree of sulfation (DS), so we emphasized our work on the factors of DS.

  1. Outer Membrane Protein Complex of Meningococcus Enhances the Antipolysaccharide Antibody Response to Pneumococcal Polysaccharide–CRM197 Conjugate Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Zengzu; Schreiber, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial polysaccharides (PS) are T cell-independent antigens that do not induce immunologic memory and are poor immunogens in infants. Conjugate vaccines in which the PS is covalently linked to a carrier protein have enhanced immunogenicity that resembles that of T cell-dependent antigens. The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, which uses the outer membrane protein complex (OMPC) from meningococcus as a carrier protein, elicits protective levels of anti-capsular PS antib...

  2. Immunogenicity and safety of a novel quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM in healthy Korean adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoan Jong Lee

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: Findings of this first study of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine in Korean adults and adolescents demonstrated that a single dose of MenACWY-CRM was well tolerated and immunogenic, as indicated by the percentages of subjects with hSBA titers ≥8 (79%, 99%, 98%, and 94% of subjects and geometric mean titers (48, 231, 147, and 107 against serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively, at 1 month post-vaccination.

  3. HPAEC-PAD quantification of Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide in upstream and downstream samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Put, Robert M F; de Haan, Alex; van den IJssel, Jan G M; Hamidi, Ahd; Beurret, Michel

    2015-11-27

    Due to the rapidly increasing introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and other conjugate vaccines worldwide during the last decade, reliable and robust analytical methods are needed for the quantitative monitoring of intermediate samples generated during fermentation (upstream processing, USP) and purification (downstream processing, DSP) of polysaccharide vaccine components. This study describes the quantitative characterization of in-process control (IPC) samples generated during the fermentation and purification of the capsular polysaccharide (CPS), polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (PRP), derived from Hib. Reliable quantitative methods are necessary for all stages of production; otherwise accurate process monitoring and validation is not possible. Prior to the availability of high performance anion exchange chromatography methods, this polysaccharide was predominantly quantified either with immunochemical methods, or with the colorimetric orcinol method, which shows interference from fermentation medium components and reagents used during purification. Next to an improved high performance anion exchange chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) method, using a modified gradient elution, both the orcinol assay and high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) analyses were evaluated. For DSP samples, it was found that the correlation between the results obtained by HPAEC-PAD specific quantification of the PRP monomeric repeat unit released by alkaline hydrolysis, and those from the orcinol method was high (R(2)=0.8762), and that it was lower between HPAEC-PAD and HPSEC results. Additionally, HPSEC analysis of USP samples yielded surprisingly comparable results to those obtained by HPAEC-PAD. In the early part of the fermentation, medium components interfered with the different types of analysis, but quantitative HPSEC data could still be obtained, although lacking the specificity of the HPAEC-PAD method. Thus, the HPAEC

  4. Approach to the Discovery, Development, and Evaluation of a Novel Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup B Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Luke R; Eiden, Joseph; Hao, Li; Jones, Tom; Perez, John; McNeil, Lisa K; Jansen, Kathrin U; Anderson, Annaliesa S

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe a research and development pathway to identify and demonstrate the efficacy of a Neisseria meningitidis non-capsular vaccine, the recently licensed N. meningitidis serogroup B (MnB) vaccine, Trumenba(®). While other approaches have been followed in the identification of a MnB vaccine (Pizza et al. Science 287:1816-1820, 2000), the methods described here reflect the distinctive approach and experiences in discovering and developing Trumenba(®). In contrast to the development and licensure of polysaccharide-conjugate vaccines against meningococcal serotypes A, C, W, and Y, the development of a vaccine to produce broadly protective antibodies against meningococcal serogroup B has proved difficult, due to the antigenic mimicry of the serogroup B polysaccharide capsule, which is composed of polysialic acid structures similar to those expressed on human neuronal cells. Early development efforts for these vaccines failed because the MnB polysaccharide structures resemble autoantigens and thus were poorly immunogenic. The development of an MnB vaccine has therefore focused on non-polysaccharide approaches. It was critical to identify MnB cell surface-exposed antigens capable of inducing a protective response against diverse, circulating strains of invasive MnB to ensure global coverage. Once candidate antigens were identified, it was important to characterize antigenic variation and expression levels, and subsequently to assure that antigens were expressed broadly among diverse clinical isolates. Prior to the initiation of clinical trials in humans, candidate vaccine antigens were tested in functional immunogenicity assays and yielded responses that were correlated with protection from meningococcal disease. These functional immunogenicity assays (serum bactericidal assays using human complement, hSBAs) measure the titer of complement-dependent bactericidal antibodies in serum from immunized test animals using diverse clinical MnB isolates as

  5. A brief history of vaccines: smallpox to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Modern vaccine history began in the late 18th century with the discovery of smallpox immunization by Edward Jenner. This pivotal step led to substantial progress in prevention of infectious diseases with inactivated vaccines for multiple infectious diseases, including typhoid, plague and cholera. Each advance produced significant decreases in infection-associated morbidity and mortality, thus shaping our modem cultures. As knowledge of microbiology and immunology grew through the 20th century, techniques were developed for cell culture of viruses. This allowed for rapid advances in prevention of polio, varicella, influenza and others. Finally, recent research has led to development of alternative vaccine strategies through use of vectored antigens, pathogen subunits (purified proteins or polysaccharides) or genetically engineered antigens. As the science of vaccinology continues to rapidly evolve, knowledge of the past creates added emphasis on the importance of developing safe and effective strategies for infectious disease prevention in the 21st century.

  6. Improved coupling of bacterial polysaccharides to macromolecules and solid supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of producing a polysaccharide-carrier conjugate comprising coupling a polysaccharide to a carrier, said polysaccharide comprising at least one monosaccharide unit comprising a keto-carboxy group according to the formula -C(=O)COOR, where R is either hydrogen or C1......-alkoxyamine group of the carrier with a keto-carboxy group of said polysaccharide to form a covalent amide bond between the carrier and the polysaccharide. Another aspect of the present invention relates to a compound or solid surface obtained when performing the method of the present invention. A third aspect...

  7. Vaccines based on structure-based design provide protection against infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sunil; Luxon, Bruce A

    2013-11-01

    Vaccines elicit immune responses, provide protection against microorganisms and are considered as one of the most successful medical interventions against infectious diseases. Vaccines can be produced using attenuated virus or bacteria, recombinant proteins, bacterial polysaccharides, carbohydrates or plasmid DNA. Conventional vaccines rely on the induction of immune responses against antigenic proteins to be effective. The genetic diversity of microorganisms, coupled with the high degree of sequence variability in antigenic proteins, presents a challenge to developing broadly effective conventional vaccines. The observation that whole protein antigens are not necessarily essential for inducing immunity has led to the emergence of a new branch of vaccine design termed 'structural vaccinology'. Structure-based vaccines are designed on the rationale that protective epitopes should be sufficient to induce immune responses and provide protection against pathogens. Recent studies demonstrated that designing structure-based vaccine candidates with multiple epitopes induce a higher immune response. As yet there are no commercial vaccines available based on structure-based design and most of the structure-based vaccine candidates are in the preclinical stages of development. This review focuses on recent advances in structure-based vaccine candidates and their application in providing protection against infectious diseases.

  8. Impact of Vi vaccination on spatial patterns of typhoid fever in the slums of Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Sur, Dipika; Kim, Deok Ryun; Kanungo, Suman; Bhattacharya, Sujit K; Manna, Byomkesh; Ochiai, R Leon; Clemens, John

    2011-11-01

    A mass typhoid Vi vaccination campaign was carried out among approximately 60,000 slum residents of Kolkata, India. This study evaluated the impact of the campaign on spatial patterns of typhoid fever. Eighty contiguous residential groups of households in the study area were randomized to receive either a single dose of the Vi polysaccharide vaccine or a single dose of the inactivated hepatitis A vaccine as the control agent. Persons aged two years and older were eligible to receive the vaccine. Vaccine protection against typhoid fever was monitored for two years after vaccination at both outpatient and inpatient facilities serving the study population. Geographic analytic and mapping tools were used in the analysis. Spatial randomness of the disease was observed during the pre-vaccination period, which turned into a significant pattern after vaccination. The high-risk areas for typhoid were observed in the area dominated by the control clusters, and the low-risk areas were in the area dominated by the Vi clusters. Furthermore, the control clusters surrounded by the Vi clusters were low risk for typhoid fever. The results demonstrated the ability of mass vaccination to change the spatial patterns of disease through the creation of spatial barriers to transmission of the disease. Understanding and mapping the disease risk could be useful for designing a community-based vaccination strategy to control disease.

  9. Typhoid fever vaccines: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Abigail; Paul, Mical; Goldberg, Elad; Acosta, Camilo J; Leibovici, Leonard

    2007-11-01

    We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials comparing a typhoid fever vaccine with any alternative typhoid fever vaccine or inactive agent. Trials evaluating killed whole-cell vaccines were excluded. The cumulative efficacy at 3 years for the Ty21a and the polysaccharide Vi vaccine were similar: 51% (95%CI 36%, 62%), and 55% (95%CI 30%, 70%), respectively. The cumulative efficacy of the Vi-rEPA vaccine at 3.8 years was higher, 89% (95%CI 76%, 97%), but this vaccine has not yet been licensed for use and was evaluated in only one trial. Adverse events were mild in nature and for most, not significantly more frequent in any of the vaccine groups when compared with placebo. Both the currently licensed Ty21a and Vi vaccine, are safe and efficacious for preventing typhoid fever. Neither vaccine is currently registered for administration to children below 2 years of age. Given the recent finding that typhoid fever also affects infants, development of a conjugate vaccine is warranted.

  10. Enzymatic production of hyaluronan oligo- and polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, F.K.

    2010-01-01

    Hyaluronan oligo- and polysaccharides are abundant in the human body. Depending on the chain length, hyaluronan is an important structural component or is involved in influencing cell responses during embryonic development, healing processes, inflammation and cancer. Due to these diverse roles of hy

  11. Mucosal vaccination of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Kiron, V.

    2014-01-01

    Among the novel vaccination methods, mucosal vaccination seems to possess all the desired criteria. The chapter reviews the state-of-the-art knowledge regarding this type of vaccination with a focus on their uptake, immune stimulation, and where possible, discusses their potential as future vaccines

  12. History of vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

  13. Vaccine adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follows, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Millions of adults are vaccinated annually against the seasonal influenza virus. An undetermined number of individuals will develop adverse events to the influenza vaccination. Those who suffer substantiated vaccine injuries, disabilities, and aggravated conditions may file a timely, no-fault and no-cost petition for financial compensation under the National Vaccine Act in the Vaccine Court. The elements of a successful vaccine injury claim are described in the context of a claim showing the seasonal influenza vaccination was the cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  14. Nucleic Acid Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Shan

    2004-01-01

    @@ Anew method of immunization was discovered in the early 1990s. Several research groups independently demonstrated that direct inoculation of DNA plasmids coding for a specific protein antigen could elicit immune responses against that antigen[1-4].Since in theory the mRNA molecules also have the potential to be translated into the protein antigen, this vaccination approach was officially named by WHO as the nucleic acid vaccination even though the term DNA vaccine has been used more commonly in the literature. This novel approach is considered the fourth generation of vaccines after live attenuated vaccines, killed or inactivated vaccines and recombinant protein based subunit vaccines.

  15. Immunization with Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Serotype 3 and Lipopolysaccharide Modulates Lung and Liver Inflammation during a Virulent Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Restori, Katherine H.; Kennett, Mary J.; Ross, A. Catharine

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination reduces morbidity and mortality from pneumonia, but its effect on the tissue-level response to infection is still poorly understood. We evaluated pneumonia disease progression, acute-phase response, and lung gene expression profiles in mice inoculated intranasally with virulent Gram-positive Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 (ST 3) with and without prior immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide ST 3 (PPS3) or after coimmunization with PPS3 and a low dose of lipopolysacchari...

  16. CVD 908, CVD 908-htrA, and CVD 909 live oral typhoid vaccines: a logical progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacket, Carol O; Levine, Myron M

    2007-07-15

    Typhoid fever remains an important public health problem in many parts of the world. Despite the availability of oral Ty21a (Vivotif; Berna Biotech) and parenteral Vi polysaccharide vaccine (Typhim Vi; Aventis Pasteur), improved typhoid fever vaccines have been sought. These include a series of vaccine candidates developed at the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland, based on attenuation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi by deletions in the aroC, aroD, and htrA genes. These vaccine candidates, designated "CVD 908," "CVD 908-htrA," and "CVD 909," have been developed and tested in volunteers with variable success. This review summarizes the clinical data that directed the logical progression of this vaccine development strategy.

  17. Development of novel O-polysaccharide based glycoconjugates for immunization against glanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary N Burtnick

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia mallei, the etiologic agent of glanders, causes severe disease in humans and animals and is a potential agent of biological warfare and terrorism. Diagnosis and treatment of glanders can be challenging, and in the absence of chemotherapeutic intervention, acute human disease is invariably fatal. At present, there are no human or veterinary vaccines available for immunization against disease. One of the goals of our research, therefore, is to identify and characterize protective antigens expressed by B. mallei and use them to develop efficacious glanders vaccine candidates. Previous studies have demonstrated that the O-polysaccharide (OPS expressed by B. mallei is both a virulence factor and a protective antigen. Recently, we demonstrated that Burkholderia thailandensis, a closely related but non-pathogenic species, can be genetically manipulated to express OPS antigens that are recognized by B. mallei OPS-specific monoclonal antibodies. As a result, these antigens have become important components of the various OPS-based subunit vaccines that we are currently developing in our laboratory. In this study, we describe a method for isolating B. mallei-like OPS antigens from B. thailandensis oacA mutants. Utilizing these purified OPS antigens, we also describe a simple procedure for coupling the polysaccharides to protein carriers such as cationized bovine serum albumin, diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197 and cholera toxin B subunit. Additionally, we demonstrate that high titer IgG responses against purified B. mallei LPS can be generated by immunizing mice with the resulting constructs. Collectively, these approaches provide a rational starting point for the development of novel OPS-based glycoconjugates for immunization against glanders.

  18. Development of novel O-polysaccharide based glycoconjugates for immunization against glanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtnick, Mary N; Heiss, Christian; Schuler, A Michele; Azadi, Parastoo; Brett, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei the etiologic agent of glanders, causes severe disease in humans and animals and is a potential agent of biological warfare and terrorism. Diagnosis and treatment of glanders can be challenging, and in the absence of chemotherapeutic intervention, acute human disease is invariably fatal. At present, there are no human or veterinary vaccines available for immunization against disease. One of the goals of our research, therefore, is to identify and characterize protective antigens expressed by B. mallei and use them to develop efficacious glanders vaccine candidates. Previous studies have demonstrated that the O-polysaccharide (OPS) expressed by B. mallei is both a virulence factor and a protective antigen. Recently, we demonstrated that Burkholderia thailandensis, a closely related but non-pathogenic species, can be genetically manipulated to express OPS antigens that are recognized by B. mallei OPS-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). As a result, these antigens have become important components of the various OPS-based subunit vaccines that we are currently developing in our laboratory. In this study, we describe a method for isolating B. mallei-like OPS antigens from B. thailandensis oacA mutants. Utilizing these purified OPS antigens, we also describe a simple procedure for coupling the polysaccharides to protein carriers such as cationized bovine serum albumin, diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197 and cholera toxin B subunit. Additionally, we demonstrate that high titer IgG responses against purified B. mallei LPS can be generated by immunizing mice with the resulting constructs. Collectively, these approaches provide a rational starting point for the development of novel OPS-based glycoconjugates for immunization against glanders.

  19. Development of capsular polysaccharide-based glycoconjugates for immunization against melioidosis and glanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary N Burtnick

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei, the etiologic agents of melioidosis and glanders respectively, cause severe disease in humans and animals and are considered potential agents of biological warfare and terrorism. Diagnosis and treatment of infections caused by these pathogens can be challenging and, in the absence of chemotherapeutic intervention, acute disease is frequently fatal. At present, there are no human or veterinary vaccines available for immunization against these emerging/re-emerging infectious diseases. One of the long term objectives of our research, therefore, is to identify and characterize protective antigens expressed by B. pseudomallei and B. mallei and use them to develop efficacious vaccine candidates. Previous studies have demonstrated that the 6-deoxy-heptan capsular polysaccharide (CPS expressed by these bacterial pathogens is both a virulence determinant and a protective antigen. Consequently, this carbohydrate moiety has become an important component of the various subunit vaccines that we are currently developing in our laboratory. In the present study, we describe a reliable method for isolating CPS antigens from O-polysaccharide deficient strains of B. pseudomallei; including a derivative of the select agent excluded strain Bp82. Utilizing these purified CPS samples, we also describe a simple procedure for covalently linking these T-cell independent antigens to carrier proteins. In addition, we demonstrate that high titer IgG responses can be raised against the CPS component of such constructs. Collectively, these approaches provide a tangible starting point for the development of novel CPS-based glycoconjugates for immunization against melioidosis and glanders.

  20. Thermostable cross-protective subunit vaccine against Brucella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherwonogrodzky, John W; Barabé, Nicole D; Grigat, Michelle L; Lee, William E; Poirier, Robert T; Jager, Scott J; Berger, Bradley J

    2014-12-01

    A subunit vaccine candidate was produced from Brucella suis 145 (biovar 4; expressing both the A antigen of Brucella abortus and the M antigen of Brucella melitensis). The preparation consisted mostly of polysaccharide (PS; >90% [wt/wt]; both cell-associated PS and exo-PS were combined) and a small amount of protein (1 to 3%) with no apparent nucleic acids. Vaccinated mice were protected (these had a statistically significant reduction in bacterial colonization compared to that of unvaccinated controls) when challenged with representative strains of three Brucella species most pathogenic for humans, i.e., B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis. As little as 1 ng of the vaccine, without added adjuvant, protected mice against B. suis 145 infection (5 × 10(5) CFU), and a single injection of 1 μg of this subunit vaccine protected mice from B. suis 145 challenge for at least 14 months. A single immunization induced a serum IgG response to Brucella antigens that remained elevated for up to 9 weeks. The use of heat (i.e., boiling-water bath, autoclaving) in the vaccine preparation showed that it was thermostable. This method also ensured safety and security. The vaccine produced was immunogenic and highly protective against multiple strains of Brucella and represents a promising candidate for further evaluation.

  1. Routine vaccination against MenB: considerations for implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaijk, Patricia; van der Ende, Arie; Luytjes, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Effective polysaccharide(conjugate) vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W, and Y have been widely used, but serogroup B meningococci remain a major cause of severe invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) worldwide, especially in infants. Recently, a vaccine, 4CMenB (Bexsero(®)), containing three recombinant proteins, and outer membrane vesicles (OMV) derived from a serogroup B meningococcal strain (MenB) has been licensed in Europe and Australia and is indicated for persons aged 2 mo or older. This article discusses what should be considered to enable a successful implementation of a broad coverage MenB vaccine in national immunization programs. Epidemiology data, vaccine characteristics including vaccine coverage, immunogenicity, post-implementation surveillance and costs are relevant aspects that should be taken into account when selecting an appropriate immunization strategy. The potential impact on strain variation and carriage, as well as monitoring vaccine effectiveness, and rare but potentially serious adverse events are points that need to be included in a post-implementation surveillance plan. PMID:24141209

  2. Meningococcal B vaccination strategies and their practical application in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, R; Amicizia, D; Lai, P L; Panatto, D

    2015-08-31

    Immunisation against meningococcal meningitis has a long history, which has passed through several phases: the studies by Flexner, extraction of the polysaccharide capsule, the development of monovalent and multivalent conjugate vaccines, the outer membrane vesicle vaccines up to the development of effective and safe vaccines for meningococcal B invasive disease through the application of the techniques of molecular biology and reverse vaccinology. The new available vaccines are Bexsero® and Trumenba®. Bexsero ® has been approved and is available in Europe, the USA, Canada, Australia and Chile, and is currently under review in Brazil for the prevention of MenB invasive disease in subjects ≥ 2 months. Trumemba® is currently approved only in the USA, for use in adolescents and young adults. At present, the greatest obstacle to the extensive use of these vaccines in industrialised countries is the high cost and the need administer multiple doses in infants. However, in some European countries and in some Italian Regions, strategies (free and active call) to fight the disease through vaccination (Bexsero®) are already in place.

  3. Oral vaccination of fish

    OpenAIRE

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines fo...

  4. Towards universal influenza vaccines?

    OpenAIRE

    Osterhaus, Ab; Fouchier, Ron; Rimmelzwaan, Guus

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination is the most cost-effective way to reduce the considerable disease burden of seasonal influenza. Although seasonal influenza vaccines are effective, their performance in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals would benefit from improvement. Major problems related to the development and production of pandemic influenza vaccines are response time and production capacity as well as vaccine efficacy and safety. Several improvements can be envisaged. Vaccine production technologi...

  5. Vaccines against poverty

    OpenAIRE

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vacc...

  6. Synthesis of Staphylococcus aureus type 5 capsular polysaccharide repeating unit using novel L-FucNAc and D-FucNAc synthons and immunochemical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, Elisa; Proietti, Daniela; Brogioni, Giulia; Romano, Maria R; Cappelletti, Emilia; Tontini, Marta; Berti, Francesco; Lay, Luigi; Costantino, Paolo; Adamo, Roberto

    2012-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of nosocomial infections. Glycoconjugates of type 5 and 8 capsular polysaccharides have been investigated for vaccine application. The proposed structure of type 5 polysaccharide is: →4-β-D-ManNAcA-(1→4)-α-L-FucNAc(3OAc)-(1→3)-β-D-FucNAc-(1→. The stereocontrolled insertion of these three glycosydic bonds is a real synthetic challenge. In the present paper we report the preparation of two novel versatile L- and D-fucosamine synthons from commercially available starting materials. In addition we applied the two building blocks to the synthesis of type 5 trisaccharide repeating unit. The immunochemical properties of the synthesized trisaccharide were assessed by competitive ELISA and by immunodot blot analysis using sera of mice immunized with type 5 polysaccharide conjugated to CRM(197). The results suggest that although the type 5 S. aureus trisaccharide is recognized by specific anti polysaccharide antibodies in dot blot, structures longer than the trisaccharide may be needed in order to significantly compete with the native type 5 polymer in the binding with sera from mice immunized with S. aureus type 5 polysaccharide-CRM(197) conjugate. PMID:23000295

  7. Carriage rate and effects of vaccination after outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal disease, Brazil, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáfadi, Marco Aurelio Palazzi; Carvalhanas, Telma Regina Marques Pinto; Paula de Lemos, Ana; Gorla, Maria Cecilia Outeiro; Salgado, Maristela; Fukasawa, Lucila O; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Higa, Fabio; Brandileone, Maria Cristina Cunto; Sacchi, Claudio Tavares; Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Sato, Helena Keico; Bricks, Lucia Ferro; Cassio de Moraes, José

    2014-05-01

    During 2010, outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) disease occurred in 2 oil refineries in São Paulo State, Brazil, leading to mass vaccination of employees at 1 refinery with a meningococcal polysaccharide A/C vaccine. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of meningococci carriage among workers at both refineries and to investigate the effect of vaccination on and the risk factors for pharyngeal carriage of meningococci. Among the vaccinated and nonvaccinated workers, rates of overall meningococci carriage (21.4% and 21.6%, respectively) and of MenC carriage (6.3% and 4.9%, respectively) were similar. However, a MenC strain belonging to the sequence type103 complex predominated and was responsible for the increased incidence of meningococcal disease in Brazil. A low education level was associated with higher risk of meningococci carriage. Polysaccharide vaccination did not affect carriage or interrupt transmission of the epidemic strain. These findings will help inform future vaccination strategies. PMID:24751156

  8. Who Should Not Get Vaccinated with These Vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be updated.) Top of Page HPV-Cervarix (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine Some people should not get HPV vaccine or ... updated.) Top of Page HPV-Gardasil-9 (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine Some people should not get HPV vaccine. Anyone ...

  9. Identification, characterization and immunogenicity of an O-antigen capsular polysaccharide of Francisella tularensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Apicella

    Full Text Available Capsular polysaccharides are important factors in bacterial pathogenesis and have been the target of a number of successful vaccines. Francisella tularensis has been considered to express a capsular antigen but none has been isolated or characterized. We have developed a monoclonal antibody, 11B7, which recognizes the capsular polysaccharide of F. tularensis migrating on Western blot as a diffuse band between 100 kDa and 250 kDa. The capsule stains poorly on SDS-PAGE with silver stain but can be visualized using ProQ Emerald glycoprotein stain. The capsule appears to be highly conserved among strains of F. tularensis as antibody 11B7 bound to the capsule of 14 of 14 F. tularensis type A and B strains on Western blot. The capsular material can be isolated essentially free of LPS, is phenol and proteinase K resistant, ethanol precipitable and does not dissociate in sodium dodecyl sulfate. Immunoelectron microscopy with colloidal gold demonstrates 11B7 circumferentially staining the surface of F. tularensis which is typical of a polysaccharide capsule. Mass spectrometry, compositional analysis and NMR indicate that the capsule is composed of a polymer of the tetrasaccharide repeat, 4-alpha-D-GalNAcAN-(1->4-alpha-D-GalNAcAN-(1->3-beta-D-QuiNAc-(1->2-beta-D-Qui4NFm-(1-, which is identical to the previously described F. tularensis O-antigen subunit. This indicates that the F. tularensis capsule can be classified as an O-antigen capsular polysaccharide. Our studies indicate that F. tularensis O-antigen glycosyltransferase mutants do not make a capsule. An F. tularensis acyltransferase and an O-antigen polymerase mutant had no evidence of an O-antigen but expressed a capsular antigen. Passive immunization of BALB/c mice with 75 microg of 11B7 protected against a 150 fold lethal challenge of F. tularensis LVS. Active immunization of BALB/c mice with 10 microg of capsule showed a similar level of protection. These studies demonstrate that F. tularensis

  10. Non-epitope-specific suppression of the antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines by preimmunization with vaccine components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, T; Skettrup, M; Juul, L;

    1993-01-01

    Recently, conjugate vaccines containing Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) coupled to protein carriers were introduced for use in infants and certain adult risk groups. Similar conjugate vaccines against other capsulated bacteria are currently under development for both...... children and adults. Despite its potential importance, the possible influence of preexisting immunity to the components of such conjugates on the vaccination response in humans has been addressed by few studies. To study this issue, we randomized 82 healthy adult volunteers into six groups and vaccinated...... them twice, with a 4-week interval between immunizations. Four groups received tetanus toxoid (TT) or diphtheria toxoid (DT) and then HibCP coupled to TT (HibCP-TT) or DT (HibCP-DT). Two groups received HibCP-TT followed by HibCP-DT or vice versa. The total antibody levels to HibCP, TT, and DT...

  11. Rotavirus vaccine: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Goel Manish; Arun, Kumar; Bilas, Jain Ram; Ruchi, Jain; Pardeep, Khanna; Pradeep, Siwach

    2012-12-01

    Worldwide, large proportion i.e., 37% of deaths due to diarrhea in young children is attributed to rotavirus. A monovalent P1A[8] G1 vaccine and a pentavalent bovine-human reassortant vaccine human rotavirus vaccine had shown good clinical efficacy without any increase in intussusception among vaccine recipients. WHO recommends that the first dose of rotavirus vaccine should be administered to infants up to age of 6-15 weeks irrespective of the prior history of rotavirus infection and the maximum age for administering the last dose of the vaccine should be 32 weeks. Booster doses are not recommended. The current update reviews the issues related to rotavirus vaccines and their usages like milestones in the development of rotavirus vaccines, concerns regarding their efficacy and cost-effectiveness, immunity after natural infection, potential for changes in virus strains, current recommendations, post marketing surveillance, and future challenges and scope for further research regarding rotavirus vaccines. PMID:25145068

  12. Safety, immunogenicity and dose ranging of a new Vi-CRM₁₉₇ conjugate vaccine against typhoid fever: randomized clinical testing in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre van Damme

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever causes more than 21 million cases of disease and 200,000 deaths yearly worldwide, with more than 90% of the disease burden being reported from Asia. Epidemiological data show high disease incidence in young children and suggest that immunization programs should target children below two years of age: this is not possible with available vaccines. The Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health developed a conjugate vaccine (Vi-CRM₁₉₇ for infant vaccination concomitantly with EPI vaccines, either starting at 6 weeks with DTP or at 9 months with measles vaccine. We report the results from a Phase 1 and a Phase 2 dose ranging trial with Vi-CRM₁₉₇ in European adults. METHODOLOGY: Following randomized blinded comparison of single vaccination with either Vi-CRM₁₉₇ or licensed polysaccharide vaccines (both containing 25·0 µg of Vi antigen, a randomised observer blinded dose ranging trial was performed in the same center to compare three concentrations of Vi-CRM₁₉₇ (1·25 µg, 5·0 µg and 12·5 µg of Vi antigen with the polysaccharide vaccine. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All vaccines were well tolerated. Compared to the polysaccharide vaccine, Vi-CRM₁₉₇ induced a higher incidence of mild to moderate short lasting local pain. All Vi-CRM₁₉₇ formulations induced higher Vi antibody levels compared to licensed control, with clear dose response relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Vi-CRM₁₉₇ did not elicit safety concerns, was highly immunogenic and is therefore suitable for further clinical testing in endemic populations of South Asia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01123941 NCT01193907.

  13. Diphtheria Vaccination: Who Needs It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Diphtheria Vaccination: Who Needs It? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) See also: Healthcare Personnel Vaccination Recommendations [1 page] July 2008 Top of Page ...

  14. 75 FR 48712 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Influenza Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ..., rotavirus, hepatitis A, meningococcal, human papillomavirus (HPV), and trivalent influenza vaccines.... People who got the 2009 H1N1 vaccine still need to get vaccinated with the 2010-2011 influenza vaccine... always changing. Because of this, influenza vaccines are updated every year, and an annual vaccination...

  15. POLYPEPTIDE AND POLYSACCHARIDE PROCESSING IN HYPERTHERMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY, ROBERT M.

    2008-12-22

    This project focused on the microbial physiology and biochemistry of heterotrophic hyperthermophiles with respect to mechanisms by which these organisms process polypeptides and polysaccharides under normal and stressed conditions. Emphasis is on two model organisms, for which completed genome sequences are available: Pyrococcus furiosus (growth Topt of 98°C), an archaeon, and Thermotoga maritima (growth Topt of 80°C), a bacterium. Both organisms are obligately anaerobic heterotrophs that reduce sulfur facultatively. Whole genome cDNA spotted microarrays were used to follow transcriptional response to a variety of environmental conditions in order to identify genes encoding proteins involved in the acquisition, synthesis, processing and utilization of polypeptides and polysaccharides. This project provided new insights into the physiological aspects of hyperthermophiles as these relate to microbial biochemistry and biological function in high temperature habitats. The capacity of these microorganisms to produce biohydrogen from renewable feedstocks makes them important for future efforts to develop biofuels.

  16. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides encapsulated in liposome as an adjuvant to promote Th1-bias immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenguang; Xing, Jie; Zheng, Sisi; Bo, Ruonan; Luo, Li; Huang, Yee; Niu, Yale; Li, Zhihua; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Liu, Jiaguo; Wu, Yi

    2016-05-20

    Liposome-based vaccine delivery systems are known to enhance immune responses. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) have been widely studied as immunomodulator and it could be as inducers of strong immune responses. In the research, GLP and ovalbumin (OVA) were encapsulated into liposome as vaccine and inoculated to mice. The magnitude and kinetics of the humoral and cellular immune responses were investigated. The results showed that GLP-OVA-loaded liposomes (GLPL/OVA) could induce more powerful antigen-specific immune responses than each single-component formulation. Mice immunized with GLPL/OVA displayed higher antigen-specific IgG antibodies, better splenocytes proliferation, higher cytokine secretion by splenocytes and significant activation of CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cells. Thus the GLPL/OVA formulation produced a heightened humoral and cellular immune response, with an overall Th1 bias. Enhanced immune responses elicited by the GLPL/OVA formulation might be attributed to effective activation and mature of DC in draining lymph nodes. Overall, these findings indicate that GLPL have the potential to enhance immune responses as vaccine delivery systems.

  17. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides encapsulated in liposome as an adjuvant to promote Th1-bias immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenguang; Xing, Jie; Zheng, Sisi; Bo, Ruonan; Luo, Li; Huang, Yee; Niu, Yale; Li, Zhihua; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Liu, Jiaguo; Wu, Yi

    2016-05-20

    Liposome-based vaccine delivery systems are known to enhance immune responses. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) have been widely studied as immunomodulator and it could be as inducers of strong immune responses. In the research, GLP and ovalbumin (OVA) were encapsulated into liposome as vaccine and inoculated to mice. The magnitude and kinetics of the humoral and cellular immune responses were investigated. The results showed that GLP-OVA-loaded liposomes (GLPL/OVA) could induce more powerful antigen-specific immune responses than each single-component formulation. Mice immunized with GLPL/OVA displayed higher antigen-specific IgG antibodies, better splenocytes proliferation, higher cytokine secretion by splenocytes and significant activation of CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cells. Thus the GLPL/OVA formulation produced a heightened humoral and cellular immune response, with an overall Th1 bias. Enhanced immune responses elicited by the GLPL/OVA formulation might be attributed to effective activation and mature of DC in draining lymph nodes. Overall, these findings indicate that GLPL have the potential to enhance immune responses as vaccine delivery systems. PMID:26917384

  18. Polysaccharides: The “Click” Chemistry Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Romain Lucas; Daniel Montplaisir; Rachida Zerrouki; Pierre-Antoine Faugeras; François Brouillette; Benjamin Boëns; Pierre-Henri Elchinger

    2011-01-01

    Polysaccharides are complex but essential compounds utilized in many areas such as biomaterials, drug delivery, cosmetics, food chemistry or renewable energy. Modifications and functionalizations of such polymers are often necessary to achieve molecular structures of interest. In this area, the emergence of the “click” chemistry concept, and particularly the copper-catalyzed version of the Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between terminal acetylenes and azides, had an impact on the ...

  19. Marine origin polysaccharides in drug delivery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Matias J. Cardoso; Costa, Rui R.; Mano, João F.

    2016-01-01

    Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents an...

  20. Plant Cell Wall Matrix Polysaccharide Biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ajay Pal S. Sandhu; Gursharn S. Randhawa; Kanwarpal S. Dhugga

    2009-01-01

    The wall of an expanding plant cell consists primarily of cellulose microfibrils embedded in a matrix of hemi-cellulosic and pectic polysaccharides along with small amounts of structural and enzymatic proteins. Matrix polysacchar-ides are synthesized in the Golgi and exported to the cell wall by exocytosis, where they intercalate among cellulose microfibrUs, which are made at the plasma membrane and directly deposited into the cell wall. Involvement of Golgi glucan synthesis in auxin-induced cell expansion has long been recognized; however, only recently have the genes corresponding to glucan synthases been identified. Biochemical purification was unsuccessful because of the labile nature and very low abundance of these enzymes. Mutational genetics also proved fruitless. Expression of candidate genes identified through gene expression profiling or comparative genomics in heterologous systems followed by functional characterization has been relatively successful. Several genes from the cellulose synthase-like (Cs/) family have been found to be involved in the synthesis of various hemicellulosic glycans. The usefulness of this approach, however, is limited to those enzymes that probably do not form complexes consisting of unrelated proteins. Nonconventional approaches will continue to incre-mentally unravel the mechanisms of Golgi polysaccharide biosynthesis.

  1. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias J. Cardoso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine.

  2. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-06-22

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  3. Influence of prevaccination immunity on the human B-lymphocyte response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, T; Kristensen, K; Henrichsen, J;

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preexisting immunity to components of a polysaccharide-protein conjugate influences the B-lymphocyte response to vaccination with the conjugate. Thirty-two healthy adults were vaccinated once or twice with a conjugate (PRP-D) consisting...... of Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (PRP) and diphtheria toxoid (DT), and the response was related to the prevaccination levels of PRP and DT antibodies. Positive correlations were found between increases in plasma PRP (median, 32.0 micrograms/ml) and DT (1.14 IU/ml) antibodies and numbers...... revaccination with PRP-D, small increases in the level of PRP antibodies (median, 2.9 micrograms/ml; n = 11) were found; no significant increase in the level of DT antibodies was seen. The numbers of PRP AbSC were lower (P = 0.04) and peaked earlier (day 7) than after the first vaccination. The isotype pattern...

  4. Epidemiology of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in adults in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankilampi, U.; Herva, E.; Haikala, R.; Liimatainen, O.; Renkonen, O. V.; Leinonen, M.

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory-based surveillance of invasive pneumococcal infections in adults in Finland from 1983 to 1992 identified 862 episodes of pneumococcal bacteraemia and 97 episodes of meningitis. The overall incidence of invasive pneumococcal infections was 9.1 per 100,000 for all adults per year, but 27.1, 35.8, and 44.5 per 100,000 in those aged 65 years or over, 75 years or over, and 85 years or over, respectively. Most (99.7%) of the pneumococcal strains were sensitive to penicillin. Ninety-five percent of the strains belonged to serogroups/types present in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Group/type distribution was different in patients aged 16-64 years compared to those 65 years or over (P < 0.001), in bacteraemia compared to meningitis (P < 0.001), and in the years 1983-7 compared to 1988-92 (P < 0.05). PMID:9042030

  5. A Case of Necrotizing Fasciitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 5 in Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Dawar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae is a rare and grave condition, and only a few cases have been reported. Suggested risk factors include minor trauma, systemic lupus erythematosus, immunosuppression secondary to medication, use of intramuscular anti-inflammatories and alcoholism. A fatal case of pneumococcal necrotizing fasciitis that occurred in a 51-year-old woman with a history of alcohol abuse and oral anti-inflammatory use is presented. Her condition was caused by a multi-etiology outbreak of community-acquired pneumonia, from which S pneumoniae serotype 5 was also isolated. The case description outlines the subtle presentation and rapid clinical progression of this condition. Because serotype 5 antigen is included in the polysaccharide 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine, the present case highlights the importance of pneumococcal immunization programs in Canada.

  6. Evaluation of phosphorylated psyllium seed polysaccharide as a release retardant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica R P Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to modify psyllium seed polysaccharide and evaluate the modified polysaccharide as release retardant in tablets employing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride as model drug. Studies on polysaccharide from psyllium husk has been reported but no work has been reported on characterization and modification of the polysaccharide present in the psyllium (Plantago ovata seed and the use of the modified polysaccharide as a release retardant in tablets. In this study, the seed gum was modified using sodium trimetaphosphate as crosslinking agent. Sustained release matrix tablets of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride were prepared by wet granulation using various drug-polymer ratios. The polymers investigated were psyllium polysaccharide, phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide and widely used release retardant hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K100M. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content, swelling profile and in vitro dissolution studies. The matrix tablets containing 1:3 proportion of drug-phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide was found to have higher hardness as compared to tablets containing 1:1 and 1:2 proportions. The results of swelling behavior in water showed that the tablets containing 1:3 drug:phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide ratio had swelling comparable to that of tablets containing 1:3 drug:hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ratio. The in vitro dissolution studies shows that the dissolution rate was retarded from 98.41 to 37.6% in 6 h with increase in concentration of phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide from 100 to 300 mg. Formulations containing psyllium polysaccharide showed complete drug release in 8 h whereas those formulated with phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide exhibited extended drug release over the 12 h period. Drug release kinetic studies revealed that drug release followed Korsmeyer-Peppas model.

  7. Evaluation of Phosphorylated Psyllium Seed Polysaccharide as a Release Retardant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Monica R P; Warrier, Deepa U; Rao, Shivani H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to modify psyllium seed polysaccharide and evaluate the modified polysaccharide as release retardant in tablets employing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride as model drug. Studies on polysaccharide from psyllium husk has been reported but no work has been reported on characterization and modification of the polysaccharide present in the psyllium (Plantago ovata) seed and the use of the modified polysaccharide as a release retardant in tablets. In this study, the seed gum was modified using sodium trimetaphosphate as crosslinking agent. Sustained release matrix tablets of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride were prepared by wet granulation using various drug-polymer ratios. The polymers investigated were psyllium polysaccharide, phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide and widely used release retardant hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K100M. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content, swelling profile and in vitro dissolution studies. The matrix tablets containing 1:3 proportion of drug-phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide was found to have higher hardness as compared to tablets containing 1:1 and 1:2 proportions. The results of swelling behavior in water showed that the tablets containing 1:3 drug:phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide ratio had swelling comparable to that of tablets containing 1:3 drug:hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ratio. The in vitro dissolution studies shows that the dissolution rate was retarded from 98.41 to 37.6% in 6 h with increase in concentration of phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide from 100 to 300 mg. Formulations containing psyllium polysaccharide showed complete drug release in 8 h whereas those formulated with phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide exhibited extended drug release over the 12 h period. Drug release kinetic studies revealed that drug release followed Korsmeyer-Peppas model. PMID:26798177

  8. Structural Analysis of Polysaccharide from Cladonia furcatar and Its Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qian; LIN Xin; CAI YuJun; LI ZhiXiao

    2001-01-01

    @@ Cladonia furcatar is a member of the lichens genus Cladonia. Japanese scientific researchers [1] made a great achievement in selecting lichens as anticancer agent and polysaccharides are generally considered to be their main bioactive constituents. Recently, Iacomini et al[2] have investigated the members of the genus Cladonia, a mannose-containing polysaccharide was isolated from Cladoniafurcatar. We now report the new chemical structure of polysaccharide from Cladoniafurcatar and its activities.

  9. Structural Analysis of Polysaccharide from Cladonia furcatar and Its Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Qian

    2001-01-01

    Cladonia furcatar is a member of the lichens genus Cladonia. Japanese scientific researchers [1] made a great achievement in selecting lichens as anticancer agent and polysaccharides are generally considered to be their main bioactive constituents. Recently, Iacomini et al[2] have investigated the members of the genus Cladonia, a mannose-containing polysaccharide was isolated from Cladoniafurcatar. We now report the new chemical structure of polysaccharide from Cladoniafurcatar and its activities.  ……

  10. Antibacterial and antiviral study of dialdehyde polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Le

    Concerns for microbial contamination and infection to the general population, especially the spread of drug-resistant microorganisms, have greatly increased. Polymeric biocides have been found to be a feasible strategy to inactivate drug-resistant bacteria. However, current polymeric biocide systems involve multi-step chemical reactions and they are not cost-effective. Desirable antimicrobial systems need to be designed to be environmentally friendly, broad-spectrum effective against microorganisms, flexible for various delivery methods and economically affordable. We demonstrated that dialdehyde polysaccharides (including dialdehyde starch and dialdehdye cellulose) were broad-spectrum polymeric biocides against gram-positive/negative bacteria, bacteriophages and human virus. These polymers can be easily converted from starch and cellulose through one-step periodate oxidation. Destructions of microorganism by dialdehyde polysaccharides have been achieved in aqueous suspension or by solid surface contact. The dialdehdye functions of dialdehdye polysaccharides were found to be the dominant action against microorganism. The reactivity of the dialdehyde functionality was found to be pH-dependent as well as related to the dispersion of dialdehyde polysaccharides. Degradation of dialdehyde starch during cooking was confirmed. Degradation of dialdehyde starch was more liable in alkaline condition. Carboxylic acid and conjugated aldehyde functionalities were the two main degradation products, confirmed from the spectroscopic studies. The pH effect on the polysaccharide structure and the corresponding antimicrobial activity was very complicated. No decisive conclusions could be obtained from this study. Liner inactivation kinetics was found for dialdehyde starch aqueous suspension against bacteria. This linear inactivation kinetics was derived from the pseudo-first chemical reaction between the dialdehyde starch and the bacteria. The established inactivation kinetics was

  11. Key Facts about Seasonal Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flu is to get vaccinated each year. Flu Vaccination Why should people get vaccinated against the flu? ... Vaccine Benefits What are the benefits of flu vaccination? While how well the flu vaccine works can ...

  12. [Improvement on microwave technology of extracting polysaccharide from yacon leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-wei; Liu, Jian; Yang, Yong; Zheng, Ming-min; Rong, Ting-zhao

    2007-11-01

    According to the extraction ratio of polysaccharide in yacon leaves, the comparison between microwave extraction and traditional hot water extraction was conducted, and the two-factor and three-level experiment on the microwave extraction of polysaccharide from yacon leaves was investigated. The result showed that the extraction ratio of polysaccharide by using microwave extraction was better than that by using traditional hot water extraction. Moreover, according to the result of variance analysis and multiple comparison, the optimum conditions for extraction of polysaccharide by using microwave technology from yacon leaves were as follows: 280W microwave power for 2 times and 15 minutes at every time. PMID:18323219

  13. Antiviral polysaccharides isolated from Hong Kong brown seaweed Hydroclathrus clathratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two relatively pure polysaccharides H3-a1 and H3-b1 had been isolated from the brown seaweed Hydroclathrus clathratus. They were characterized by HPLC, ultraviolet scanning, gas chromatography, infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis, and shown to be two different sulfated polysaccharides with different monosaccharide content, but both with high relative molecular mass. They contained some proteins and uronic acid respectively. The sulfate content and bioactivity of these polysaccharides varied during purification. The fractions derived from the hot water extract also exhibited low anticoagulant effect. This is the first time that the antiherpetic and anticoagulant activities were evaluated for the polysaccharides from the Hong Kong brown seaweed Hydroclathrus clathratus.

  14. Development of approaches to a third-generation carbohydrate-conjugate vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae: the search for optimal oligosaccharide ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gening, M. L.; Kurbatova, E. A.; Tsvetkov, Yu E.; Nifantiev, N. E.

    2015-11-01

    The review addresses the application of synthetic oligosaccharides related to fragments of capsular polysaccharides from different serotypes of the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae for the design of third-generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Special focus is given to characteristic features of the chemical structures of oligosaccharides required for the induction of the protective immune response when using synthetic glycoconjugate vaccines based on oligosaccharide ligands and carrier proteins. The bibliography includes 101 references.

  15. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tdap= Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination Pronounced (per-TUS-iss) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Whooping cough — known medically as pertussis — is a ...

  16. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  17. Vaccine Safety Datalink

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink is part of the National Immunization Program within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was started in recognition of gaps in the scientific knowledge of rare vaccine side effects.

  18. The HPV Vaccination Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.

  19. RECOMBINANT INFLUENZA VACCINES

    OpenAIRE

    Sedova, E.; Shcherbinin, D.; Migunov, A.; Smirnov, Iu; Logunov, D.; Shmarov, M.; Tsybalova, L.; Naroditskiĭ, B.; O. Kiselev; Gintsburg, A.

    2012-01-01

    This review covers the problems encountered in the construction and production of new recombinant influenza vaccines. New approaches to the development of influenza vaccines are investigated; they include reverse genetics methods, production of virus-like particles, and DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines. Such approaches as the delivery of foreign genes by DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines can preserve the native structure of antigens. Adenoviral vectors are a promising gene-delivery pla...

  20. Clinical vaccine development

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Seunghoon

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is regarded as one of the biggest triumphs in the history of medicine. We are living in the most successful period of vaccine development. The accumulation of multidisciplinary knowledge and the investment of massive funding have enabled the development of vaccines against many infectious diseases as well as other diseases including malignant tumors. The paradigm of clinical vaccine evaluation and licensure has also been modernized based on scientific improvements and historical e...

  1. Status of vaccine research and development for Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Mark S; Guerry, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of bacterial diarrhea worldwide and is associated with a number of sequelae, including Guillain-Barre Syndrome, reactive arthritis, irritable bowel syndrome and growth stunting/malnutrition. Vaccine development against C. jejuni is complicated by its antigenic diversity, a lack of small animal models, and a poor understanding of the bacterium's pathogenesis. Vaccine approaches have been limited to recombinant proteins, none of which have advanced beyond Phase I testing. Genomic analyses have revealed the presence of a polysaccharide capsule on C. jejuni. Given the success of capsule-conjugate vaccines for other mucosal pathogens of global importance, efforts to evaluate this established approach for C. jejuni are also being pursued. A prototypical capsule-conjugate vaccine has demonstrated efficacy against diarrheal disease in non-human primates and is currently in Phase I testing. In addition to proof of concept studies, more data on the global prevalence of capsular types, and a better understanding of the acute and chronic consequences of C. jejuni are needed to inform investments for a globally relevant vaccine. PMID:26973064

  2. Vaccines in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali M Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a specific disease. More than two centuries have passed since the first successful vaccine for smallpox was developed. We′ve come a long way since. Today′s vaccines are among the 21 st century′s most successful and cost-effective public health tools for preventing diseases.

  3. Vaccination: problems and perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Kharit

    2014-01-01

    Massive vaccination had proved its effective morbidity reduction. Today it is necessary to extend vaccination schedule, creation of selective, regional schedules based on epidemiological, clinical, economical substantiation. Development of vaccination needs the profound scientific research, modernization of adverse reaction observing system, betterment training system and awareness of population.

  4. A Dengue Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Anna P

    2016-06-30

    Denvaxia is the first licensed vaccine for the prevention of dengue. It is a live vaccine developed using recombinant DNA technology. The vaccine is given as three doses over the course of a year and has the potential to prevent hundreds of thousands of hospitalizations each year. PMID:27368091

  5. Extraction, chemical analysis of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides and antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides in ischemia-reperfusion rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; He, Ben; Ge, Junbo; Li, Huibin; Luo, Xiuying; Zhang, Hui; Li, Yuhui; Zhai, Changlin; Liu, Pingang; Liu, Xin; Fei, Xuetao

    2010-11-01

    Angelica sinensis polysaccharides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR). The major sugar of the polysaccharide was saccharose (18.55%); and the sugar constituted about 83% of the monomer content. Glucose and fructose were found as minor components of the polysaccharides. The FT-IR spectra of A. sinensis polysaccharides are used for determination of their structural features. The FT-IR spectrum of A. sinensis polysaccharides showed bands at 1641 cm(-1), 1415 cm(-1), 1050 cm(-1) and 926 cm(-1) characteristic for the carboxylic group. Absorptions at 2920-2930 cm(-1) are attributed to asymmetrical stretching vibration of CH(2)-group. Medium stretch observed in the range 1650-1400 cm(-1) is assigned to C-C stretching of polysaccharides. Cardioprotective effects of A. sinensis polysaccharides were evaluated by using myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) rats. A. sinensis polysaccharides treatment significantly reduced myocardial infarction size, enhanced CT-1 and antioxidant enzymes activity, downregulated caspase-12 mRNA expression in rats. The study strongly suggests the cardioprotective activity of A. sinensis polysaccharides in limiting ischemia-reperfusion induced myocardial injury. PMID:20691723

  6. Neonatal and Infantile Immune Responses to Encapsulated Bacteria and Conjugate Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Klein Klouwenberg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulated bacteria are responsible for the majority of mortality among neonates and infants. The major components on the surface of these bacteria are polysaccharides which are important virulence factors. Immunity against these components protects against disease. However, most of the polysaccharides are thymus-independent (TI-2 antigens which induce an inadequate immune response in neonates and infants. The mechanisms that are thought to play a role in the unresponsiveness of this age group to TI-2 stimuli will be discussed. The lack of immune response may be overcome by conjugating the polysaccharides to a carrier protein. This transforms bacterial polysaccharides from a TI-2 antigen into a thymus-dependent (TD antigen, thereby inducing an immune response and immunological memory in neonates and infants. Such conjugated vaccines have been shown to be effective against the most common causes of invasive disease caused by encapsulated bacteria in neonates and children. These and several other approaches in current vaccine development will be discussed.

  7. Compared effectiveness of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children with the 13-valent vaccine in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillat, J

    2013-06-01

    13-valent-pneumococcal conjugated vaccine was recently approved in the USA and Europe for adults 50 years of age or more. But this approval was followed by recommendations limiting its use to immunocompromised and asplenic patients. The extension of indications to adults was based on the well-demonstrated clinical effectiveness in infants less than 2 years of age, and on a better immune response either quantitatively or qualitatively with conjugated vaccines compared to the immunogenicity of plain polysaccharide vaccines. Nevertheless, the issue was to know whether results observed with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children are reproducible in adults with the 13-valent. The answer was given by comparing the epidemiological and physiopathological data, and the immunological response of the two populations. Very few clinical effectiveness studies in adults are available. We had for aim to assess these various issues in infants and adults. A lot of questions remain, such as the unknown impact of serotype replacement with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine on the clinical epidemiology and emergent Streptococcus pneumoniae pathogenicity, while waiting for the CAPITA study results expected in 2014.

  8. Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Erika D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large body of literature suggests that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Much of this literature, however, consists of in vitro studies or studies in which polysaccharides were injected. Their immunologic effects following oral administration is less clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to consolidate and evaluate the available data regarding the specific immunologic effects of dietary polysaccharides. Methods Studies were identified by conducting PubMed and Google Scholar electronic searches and through reviews of polysaccharide article bibliographies. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Two researchers reviewed data on study design, control, sample size, results, and nature of outcome measures. Subsequent searches were conducted to gather information about polysaccharide safety, structure and composition, and disposition. Results We found 62 publications reporting statistically significant effects of orally ingested glucans, pectins, heteroglycans, glucomannans, fucoidans, galactomannans, arabinogalactans and mixed polysaccharide products in rodents. Fifteen controlled human studies reported that oral glucans, arabinogalactans, heteroglycans, and fucoidans exerted significant effects. Although some studies investigated anti-inflammatory effects, most studies investigated the ability of oral polysaccharides to stimulate the immune system. These studies, as well as safety and toxicity studies, suggest that these polysaccharide products appear to be largely well-tolerated. Conclusions Taken as a whole, the oral polysaccharide literature is highly heterogenous and is not sufficient to support broad product structure/function generalizations. Numerous dietary polysaccharides, particularly glucans, appear to elicit diverse immunomodulatory effects in numerous animal tissues, including the blood, GI tract and spleen. Glucan extracts from the Trametes versicolor

  9. Seroprevalence of anti Vi antibodies and immunogenicity of Typhim Vi vaccine in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Divya; Faridi, M M A; Aggarwal, Anju; Kaur, Iqbal

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study was carried out on 250 children between 6 months to 5 years of age to determine seroprevalence of anti Vi antibodies and to measure seroresponse and percent seroconversion to TyphimVi polysaccharide vaccine in children 2-5 years of age. Fifty children each were enrolled between 6 to 12 months of age (Group A), between 1- 2 years of age(Group B), between 2-3 years of age (Group C), between 3-4 years of age (Group D) and between 4-5 years of age (Group E). Anti-Vi antibody baseline titres were determined in all children. Children in Groups C to E were vaccinated with Typhim Vi vaccine. Baseline and postvaccination antibody titres were determined by ELISA. Test sera which had antibody levels >1 microg/ml were scored as seropositive. Of 250 children, 3 had base line anti-Vi antibodies >1 microg/ml. Following immunization overall seroconversion rate was 77.5% with 65.3%, 78.2% and 88% children showing seroconversion in Groups C, D and E respectively. Seroconversion was significantly more in Group E children compared to Group C (p=0.0148). There were no significant adverse reactions following vaccination. The study highlights very low prevalence of baseline anti Vi antibodies in children between 6 months and less than 5 years of age and shows high immunogenicity and safety of Typhim Vi polysaccharide vaccine in children 2-5 years of age.

  10. Reduction of Streptococcus pneumoniae Colonization and Dissemination by a Nonopsonic Capsular Polysaccharide Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Doyle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization of the nasopharynx (NP is a prerequisite for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD. The marked reduction in IPD that followed the routine use of pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines (PCVs has been linked to reduced NP colonization with vaccine-included serotypes (STs, with the caveat that PCVs are less effective against pneumonia than against IPD. Although PCV-elicited opsonic antibodies that enhance phagocytic killing of the homologous ST are considered a key correlate of PCV-mediated protection, recent studies question this relationship for some STs, including ST3. Studies with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs to the pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PPS of ST3 (PPS3 have shown that nonopsonic, as well as opsonic, antibodies can each protect mice against pneumonia and sepsis, but the effect of these types of MAbs on NP colonization is unknown. In this study, we determined the effects of protective opsonic and nonopsonic PPS3 MAbs on ST3 NP colonization in mice. Our results show that a nonopsonic MAb reduced early NP colonization and prevented ST3 dissemination to the lungs and blood, but an opsonic MAb did not. Moreover, the opsonic MAb induced a proinflammatory NP cytokine response, but the nonopsonic MAb had an antiinflammatory effect. The effect of the nonopsonic MAb on colonization did not require its Fc region, but its antiinflammatory effect did. Our findings challenge the paradigm that opsonic MAbs are required to prevent NP colonization and suggest that further studies of the activity of nonopsonic antibodies could advance our understanding of mechanisms of PCV efficacy and provide novel correlates of protection.

  11. The S. aureus polysaccharide capsule and Efb-dependent fibrinogen shield act in concert to protect against phagocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Annemarie; Stapels, Daphne A. C.; Weerwind, Lleroy T.; Ko, Ya-Ping; Ruyken, Maartje; Lee, Jean C.; van Kessel, Kok P.M.; Rooijakkers, Suzan H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus has developed many mechanisms to escape from human immune responses. In order to resist phagocytic clearance, S. aureus expresses a polysaccharide capsule, which effectively masks the bacterial surface and surface-associated proteins, such as opsonins, from recognition by phagocytic cells. Additionally, secretion of the Extracellular fibrinogen binding protein (Efb) potently blocks phagocytic uptake of the pathogen. Efb creates a fibrinogen shield surrounding the bacteria by simultaneously binding complement C3b and fibrinogen at the bacterial surface. By means of neutrophil phagocytosis assays with fluorescently labeled encapsulated serotype 5 (CP5) and serotype 8 (CP8) strains we now compare the immune-modulating function of these shielding mechanisms. Our data indicate that, in highly encapsulated S. aureus strains, the polysaccharide capsule is able to prevent phagocytic uptake at plasma concentrations <10%, but loses its protective ability at higher concentrations of plasma. Interestingly, Efb shows a strong inhibitory effect on both capsule-negative as well as encapsulated strains at all tested plasma concentrations. Furthermore our results suggest that both shielding mechanisms can exist simultaneously and collaborate to provide optimal protection against phagocytosis at a broad range of plasma concentrations. Since opsonizing antibodies will be shielded from recognition by either mechanism, incorporating both capsular polysaccharides and Efb in future vaccines could be of great importance. PMID:27112346

  12. Vaccination in Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...... significant losses in aquacultural enterprises but vaccination methods implemented since the 1990s have demonstrated their role as one of the most efficient disease control strategies. These have been particularly successful with regard to bacterial diseases in Norwegian salmon farming where multivalent...

  13. Vaccination for Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehen, Stephan; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant virus vaccines that express a limited number of epitopes are currently being developed to prevent disease by changing the relative balance between viral spread and the immune response. Some circumstances, however, were found in infections with a noncytopathic virus in which vaccination caused disease; sensitive parameters included the genetic background of the host, the time or dose of infection, and the constituents of the vaccine. Thus, immunopathologic damage by T cells may be an unwanted consequence of vaccination with the new types of peptide or recombinant vaccines that are being investigated for the human immunodeficiency viruses and other pathogens.

  14. Advances in FIV vaccine technology

    OpenAIRE

    Uhl, Elizabeth W.; Martin, Marcus; Coleman, James K.; Yamamoto, Janet K

    2008-01-01

    Advances in vaccine technology are occurring in the molecular techniques used to develop vaccines and in the assessment of vaccine efficacy, allowing more complete characterization of vaccine-induced immunity correlating to protection. FIV vaccine development has closely mirrored and occasionally surpassed the development of HIV-1 vaccine, leading to first licensed technology. This review will discuss technological advances in vaccine designs, challenge infection assessment, and characterizat...

  15. Emerging Vaccine Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqun He

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine informatics is an emerging research area that focuses on development and applications of bioinformatics methods that can be used to facilitate every aspect of the preclinical, clinical, and postlicensure vaccine enterprises. Many immunoinformatics algorithms and resources have been developed to predict T- and B-cell immune epitopes for epitope vaccine development and protective immunity analysis. Vaccine protein candidates are predictable in silico from genome sequences using reverse vaccinology. Systematic transcriptomics and proteomics gene expression analyses facilitate rational vaccine design and identification of gene responses that are correlates of protection in vivo. Mathematical simulations have been used to model host-pathogen interactions and improve vaccine production and vaccination protocols. Computational methods have also been used for development of immunization registries or immunization information systems, assessment of vaccine safety and efficacy, and immunization modeling. Computational literature mining and databases effectively process, mine, and store large amounts of vaccine literature and data. Vaccine Ontology (VO has been initiated to integrate various vaccine data and support automated reasoning.

  16. Vaccines for allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-06-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic.

  17. Vaccine epidemiology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    This review article outlines the key concepts in vaccine epidemiology, such as basic reproductive numbers, force of infection, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine failure, herd immunity, herd effect, epidemiological shift, disease modeling, and describes the application of this knowledge both at program levels and in the practice by family physicians, epidemiologists, and pediatricians. A case has been made for increased knowledge and understanding of vaccine epidemiology among key stakeholders including policy makers, immunization program managers, public health experts, pediatricians, family physicians, and other experts/individuals involved in immunization service delivery. It has been argued that knowledge of vaccine epidemiology which is likely to benefit the society through contributions to the informed decision-making and improving vaccination coverage in the low and middle income countries (LMICs). The article ends with suggestions for the provision of systematic training and learning platforms in vaccine epidemiology to save millions of preventable deaths and improve health outcomes through life-course. PMID:27453836

  18. Methods of saccharification of polysaccharides in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Fake, Gina

    2014-04-29

    Saccharification of polysaccharides of plants is provided, where release of fermentable sugars from cellulose is obtained by adding plant tissue composition. Production of glucose is obtained without the need to add additional .beta.-glucosidase. Adding plant tissue composition to a process using a cellulose degrading composition to degrade cellulose results in an increase in the production of fermentable sugars compared to a process in which plant tissue composition is not added. Using plant tissue composition in a process using a cellulose degrading enzyme composition to degrade cellulose results in decrease in the amount of cellulose degrading enzyme composition or exogenously applied cellulase required to produce fermentable sugars.

  19. INTERACTION OF IONIC LIQUIDS WITH POLYSACCHARIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Liebert

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of ionic liquids (ILs in the field of cellulose chemistry opens up a broad variety of new opportunities. Besides the regeneration of the biopolymer to fibers, films, and beads, this new class of cellulose solvents is particularly useful for the homogeneous chemical modification of the polysaccharide. In this review, the potential of ILs as a reaction medium for the homogeneous cellulose functionalization is discussed. It is shown that numerous conversions proceed very efficiently and the ILs may be recycled. But it is also demonstrated that some side reactions have to be considered.

  20. Structural modification of polysaccharides: A biochemical-genetic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Roger G.; Petersen, Gene R.

    1991-01-01

    Polysaccharides have a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications. An industry trend is underway towards the increased use of bacteria to produce polysaccharides. Long term goals of this work are the adaptation and enhancement of saccharide properties for electronic and optic applications. In this report we illustrate the application of enzyme-bearing bacteriophage on strains of the enteric bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae, which produces a polysaccharide with the relatively rare rheological property of drag-reduction. This has resulted in the production of new polysaccharides with enhanced rheological properties. Our laboratory is developing techniques for processing and structurally modifying bacterial polysaccharides and oligosaccharides which comprise their basic polymeric repeat units. Our research has focused on bacteriophage which produce specific polysaccharide degrading enzymes. This has lead to the development of enzymes generated by bacteriophage as tools for polysaccharide modification and purification. These enzymes were used to efficiently convert the native material to uniform-sized high molecular weight polymers, or alternatively into high-purity oligosaccharides. Enzyme-bearing bacteriophage also serve as genetic selection tools for bacteria that produce new families of polysaccharides with modified structures.

  1. Enzymatic synthesis of oligo- and polysaccharide fatty acid esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den L.A.M.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Amphiphilic oligo- and polysaccharides (e.g. polysaccharide alkyl or alkyl-aryl esters) form a new class of polymers with exceptional properties. They function as polymeric surfactants, whilst maintaining most of the properties of the starting polymeric material such as emulsifying, gelling, and fil

  2. In vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Gardenia jasminoides ellis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y.; Ge, Z.; Luo, A.

    2011-01-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide, GP, was isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The in vitro free radicals scavenging tests exhibited that GP has significant scavenging abilities especially for ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals, which suggests that the polysaccharide GP is a novel antioxidant. ?? 2011 Academic Journals.

  3. Life cycle assessment of polysaccharide materials: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Patel, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    Apart from conventional uses of polysaccharide materials, such as food, clothing, paper packaging and construction, new polysaccharide products and materials have been developed. This paper reviews life cycle assessment (LCA) studies in order to gain insight of the environmental profiles of polysacc

  4. Characterisation of cell wall polysaccharides in bilberries and black currants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilz, H.

    2007-01-01

    During berry juice production, polysaccharides are released from the cell walls and cause thickening and high viscosity when the berries are mashed. Consequences are a low juice yield and a poor colour. This can be prevented by the use of enzymes that degrade these polysaccharides. To use these enzy

  5. Tribological Properties of Neutral Polysaccharide Solutions under Simulated Oral Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinoviadou, K.; Janssen, A.M.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Predictability of the perception of foods thickened by polysaccharides is only poor. Therefore, the effect of saliva on the lubrication properties of 2 types of neutral polysaccharides, cross-linked starch and locust bean gum, was studied. Despite the similar bulk rheological behavior of the 2 polys

  6. Polysaccharides isolated from Acai fruit induce innate immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Holderness

    Full Text Available The Açaí (Acai fruit is a popular nutritional supplement that purportedly enhances immune system function. These anecdotal claims are supported by limited studies describing immune responses to the Acai polyphenol fraction. Previously, we characterized γδ T cell responses to both polyphenol and polysaccharide fractions from several plant-derived nutritional supplements. Similar polyphenol and polysaccharide fractions are found in Acai fruit. Thus, we hypothesized that one or both of these fractions could activate γδ T cells. Contrary to previous reports, we did not identify agonist activity in the polyphenol fraction; however, the Acai polysaccharide fraction induced robust γδ T cell stimulatory activity in human, mouse, and bovine PBMC cultures. To characterize the immune response to Acai polysaccharides, we fractionated the crude polysaccharide preparation and tested these fractions for activity in human PBMC cultures. The largest Acai polysaccharides were the most active in vitro as indicated by activation of myeloid and γδ T cells. When delivered in vivo, Acai polysaccharide induced myeloid cell recruitment and IL-12 production. These results define innate immune responses induced by the polysaccharide component of Acai and have implications for the treatment of asthma and infectious disease.

  7. Separation of Pneumcoccal Capsular Polysaccharide BY Gel Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xiaoping; Huang Xinghua; Li Zhongqin; Chen Jiebo

    2004-01-01

    Separation of pneumcoccal capsular polysaccharide by gel was investigated in this paper. The gels used here were poly(acrylamide-co-sodium methacrylate)gels and prepared by free radical polymerization in aqueous solution. The experimental results indicated that gel extraction is a potential method to separate pneumcoccal capsular polysaccharide from its dilute solution.

  8. Preparation and evaluation of immunogenic conjugates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi O-specific polysaccharides with diphtheria toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aamir; An, So Jung; Cui, Changfa; Haque, Abdul; Carbis, Rodney

    2012-02-01

    Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), is a major health problem particularly in developing countries. The available vaccines have certain limitations regarding their efficacy, and inability to induce an immune response especially in individuals under 2 years of age. Conjugate vaccines which consist of a bacteria-specific polysaccharide chemically bound to a carrier protein overcome these problems by inducing a T-cell dependent immune response characterized by enhanced immunogenicity in all ages. In this study, O-specific polysaccharides (OSP) of S. Typhi were conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (DT) using adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) as a linker. These conjugates (OSP-AH-DT) were then evaluated for their immunogenicity using mice as a model and showed significantly higher levels of IgG ELISA titers (P = 0.0241 and 0.0245) than lipopolysaccharides alone. Different immunization  schedules were compared and it was found that schedule-B (three injections with 4-weeks interval) induced higher immune responses than schedule-A (three injections with 2-weeks interval). We showed that diphtheria toxoid can be successfully employed as a carrier protein for conjugation with Salmonella OSP and play an important role in facilitating adequate immune response.

  9. Immune adjuvant effect of V. cholerae O1 derived Proteoliposome coadministered by intranasal route with Vi polysaccharide from Salmonella Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Reinaldo; Callicó, Adriana; Aranguren, Yisabel; Zayas, Caridad; Valdés, Yolanda; Pérez, Oliver; García, Luis; Ferro, Valerie A; Pérez, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    The proteoliposome derived from Vibrio cholerae O1 (PLc) is a nanoscaled structure obtained by a detergent extraction process. Intranasal (i.n) administration of PLc was immunogenic at mucosal and systemic level vs. V. cholerae; however the adjuvant potential of this structure for non-cholera antigens has not been proven yet. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of coadministering PLc with the Vi polysaccharide antigen (Poli Vi) of S. Typhi by the i.n route. The results showed that Poli Vi coadministered with PLc (PLc+Poli Vi) induce a higher IgA response in saliva (p0.05) to that induced in a group of mice immunised by the parenteral route with the Cuban anti-typhoid vaccine vax-TyVi, although this vaccine did not induce a mucosal response. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that PLc can be used as a mucosal adjuvant to potentiate the immune response against a polysaccharide antigen like Poli Vi.

  10. New tuberculosis vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Montañés, Carlos; Gicquel, Brigitte

    2011-03-01

    The current tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), is a live vaccine used worldwide, as it protects against severe forms of the disease, saving thousands of lives every year, but its efficacy against pulmonary forms of TB, responsible for transmission of the diseases, is variable. For more than 80 years now no new TB vaccines have been successfully developed. Over the last decade the effort of the scientific community has resulted in the design and construction of promising vaccine candidates. The goal is to develop a new generation of vaccines effective against respiratory forms of the disease. We will focus this review on new prophylactic vaccine candidates that aim to prevent TB diseases. Two are the main strategies used to improve the immunity conferred by the current BCG vaccine, by boosting it with new subunit vaccines, and a second strategy is focused on the construction of new more effective live vaccines, capable to replace the current BCG and to be used as prime vaccines. After rigorous preclinical studies in different animal models new TB vaccine candidates enter in clinical trials in humans. First, a small Phase I for safety followed by immunological evaluation in Phase II trials and finally evaluated in large population Phase III efficacy trials in endemic countries. At present BCG prime and boost with different subunit vaccine candidates are the more advanced assessed in Phase II. Two prime vaccines (based on recombinant BCG) have been successfully evaluated for safety in Phase I trials. A short number of live attenuated vaccines are in advance preclinical studies and the candidates ready to enter Phase I safety trials are produced under current good manufacturing practices. PMID:21420568

  11. Modified polysaccharides as alternative binders for foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kaczmarska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides constitute a wide group of important polymers with many commercial applications, for example food packaging, fibres, coatings, adhesives etc. This review is devoted to the presentation of polysaccharide application in foundry industry. In this paper the selected properties of foundry moulding sand and core sand containing modified polysaccharides as binders are presented according to foreign literature data. Also, author’s own research about effect of using moulding sand binder consisting of modified polysaccharide (modified starch or its composition with non-toxic synthetic polymers are discussed. Based on technologies taken under consideration in this paper, it could be concluded that polysaccharides are suitable as an alternative for use as binder in foundry moulding applications.

  12. Structural Features and Healthy Properties of Polysaccharides Occurring in Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guillamón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from mushrooms have attracted a great deal of attention due to the many healthy benefits they have demonstrated, such as immunomodulation, anticancer activity, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, antiviral and antimicrobial effects, among others. Isolation and purification of polysaccharides commonly involve several steps, and different techniques are actually available in order to increase extraction yield and purity. Studies have demonstrated that the molecular structure and arrangement significantly influence the biological activity; therefore, there is a wide range of analytical techniques for the elucidation of chemical structures. Different polysaccharides have been isolated from mushrooms, most of them consisting of β-linked glucans, such as lentinan from Lentinus edodes, pleuran from Pleurotus species, schizophyllan from Schizophyllum commune, calocyban from Calocybe indica, or ganoderan and ganopoly from Ganoderma lucidum. This article reviews the main methods of polysaccharide isolation and structural characterization, as well as some of the most important polysaccharides isolated from mushrooms and the healthy benefits they provide.

  13. Coste-efectividad de la vacunación antineumocócica 23-valente en Cataluña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plans P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: La vacunación antineumocócica es un procedimiento efectivo para prevenir la neumonía neumocócica. En este estudio se ha evaluado el coste-efectividad de las estrategias de vacunación antineumocócica (23 serotipos en la población de 5 o más años de Cataluña. Métodos: El coste-efectividad se ha evaluado en términos de coste por año de vida ganado (AVG, comparando el coste neto del programa vacunal con su efectividad. El coste neto del programa vacunal se calculó restando a los costes de vacunar al 70% de la población la reducción de los costes sanitarios de la neumonía neumocócica que se puede conseguir con la vacunación. Los costes de vacunación se estimaron teniendo en cuenta un precio de 11,51 euros (1.915 ptas. para la vacuna antineumocócica. Los costes y beneficios del programa vacunal se actualizaron para el año 1996 utilizando una tasa de descuento del 5%. Resultados: Se obtuvo una razón coste-efectividad de 9.023,27 euros por AVG para la vacunación universal de la población. El coste-efectividad fue de 113.177,12 euros por AVG en los individuos de 5-24 años; de 19.482,51 euros por AVG en los de 25-44 años, de 7.122,80 euros por AVG en los de 45-64, e inferior a cero en los mayores de 65 años. En el grupo ≥ 65 años, la reducción de los costes de la enfermedad superaba los costes de vacunación con una razón ahorro:coste de 1,58. Los resultados del análisis coste-efectividad eran sensibles al precio de la vacuna, la eficacia vacunal y el porcentaje de neumonías causadas por el neumococo, siendo menos sensibles a los costes de la neumonía neumocócica la tasa de ingreso hospitalario en los pacientes con neumonías adquiridas en la comunidad y la cobertura vacunal. Conclusión: Los resultados de este estudio demuestran que la vacunación antineumocócica debería ser una intervención preventiva prioritaria en los individuos de 65 o más años y los de 45 a 64 años.

  14. Bacterial Extracellular Polysaccharides Involved in Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ivanova

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS produced by microorganisms are a complex mixture of biopolymers primarily consisting of polysaccharides, as well as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and humic substances. EPS make up the intercellular space of microbial aggregates and form the structure and architecture of the biofilm matrix. The key functions of EPS comprise the mediation of the initial attachment of cells to different substrata and protection against environmental stress and dehydration. The aim of this review is to present a summary of the current status of the research into the role of EPS in bacterial attachment followed by biofilm formation. The latter has a profound impact on an array of biomedical, biotechnology and industrial fields including pharmaceutical and surgical applications, food engineering, bioremediation and biohydrometallurgy. The diverse structural variations of EPS produced by bacteria of different taxonomic lineages, together with examples of biotechnological applications, are discussed. Finally, a range of novel techniques that can be used in studies involving biofilm-specific polysaccharides is discussed.

  15. Microanalysis of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicolai Obel; Veronika Erben; Tatjana Schwarz; Stefan Kühne; Andrea Fodor; Markus Pauly

    2009-01-01

    Oligosaccharide Mass Profiling (OLIMP) allows a fast and sensitive assessment of cell wall polymer structure when coupled with Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The short time required for sample preparation and analysis makes possible the study of a wide range of plant organs, revealing a high degree of heterogeneity in the substitution pattern of wall polymers such as the cross-linking glycan xyloglucan and the pectic polysaccharide homogalacturonan. The high sensitivity of MALDI-TOF allows the use of small amounts of samples, thus making it possible to investigate the wall structure of single cell types when material is collected by such methods as laser micro-dissection. As an example, the analysis of the xyloglucan structure in the leaf cell types outer epidermis layer, entire epidermis cell layer, palisade mesophyll cells, and vascular bundles were investigated. OLIMP is amenable to in situ wall analysis, where wall polymers are analyzed on unprepared plant tissue itself without first iso-lating cell walls. In addition, OLIMP enables analysis of wall polymers in Golgi-enriched fractions, the location of nascent matrix polysaccharide biosynthesis, enabling separation of the processes of wall biosynthesis versus post-deposition apo-plastic metabolism. These new tools will make possible a semi-quantitative analysis of the cell wall at an unprecedented level.

  16. EXTRACELLULAR POLYSACCHARIDES OF POTATO RING ROT PATHOGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafikova Т.N.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteria, including phytopathogenic ones produce extracellular polysaccharides or exopolysaccharides which are universal molecules. Causal agent of potato ring rot, Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies sepedonicus, secretes exopolysaccharides which role in pathogenesis is poorly investigated. The aim of our research is to ascertain the composition and structure of Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies sepedonicus exopolysaccharides. Exopolysaccharides of Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies sepedonicus are determined to consist of 4-6 anionic and neutral components which have molecular weights from 700 kDa. Glucose is a major monomer of polysaccharides and arabinose, rhamnose and mannose are minor monomers. Glucose is present in α-Dglucopyranose and β-D-glucopyranose configurations. Calcium is determined to be a component of exopolysaccharides. Components of exopolysaccharides of potato ring rot pathogen are probably capableto associate via calcium ions and other ionic interactions that may result in a change of their physiological activity. Further studies of Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies sepedonicus exopolysaccharides composition and structure can serve a base for the synthesis of their chemical analogues with elicitor action.

  17. Primary structure and configuration of tea polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The monosaccharide composition of a tea polysaccharide(TGC)was determined by GC-MS method.Furthermore,the primary structure of tea polysaccharide and its configuration in the aqueous solution were investigated utilizing a combination of classical chemical methods and modern instrumental techniques including GC-MS,Proton NMR,UV and CD.The results indicate that TGC consists of 6 monosaccharides: Rha,Ara,Xyl,Glu,Man and Gal.The configuration of TGC in water solution is proposed to be an ordered helix.The possible primary structure of TGC was outlined as below: the basic structure of the main chain consists of Rha,Glu and Gal units.All three monosaccharides can potentially be connected to branch chains consisting of mainly Ara,and the linkages could be in β1 →2,β1 →3,β2→3 forms.When branch chain is absent in the basic structure of the main chain the linkage consists of only β1→3; Xyl exists at the terminal end of either the main chain or the branch chain with β1 → linkage.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus but not cytomegalovirus is associated with reduced vaccine antibody responses in Gambian infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Holder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and cytomegalovirus (CMV are persistent herpesviruses that have various immunomodulatory effects on their hosts. Both viruses are usually acquired in infancy in Sub-Saharan Africa, a region where childhood vaccines are less effective than in high income settings. To establish whether there is an association between these two observations, we tested the hypothesis that infection with one or both viruses modulate antibody responses to the T-cell independent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine and the T-cell dependent measles vaccines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Infection with EBV and CMV was diagnosed by the presence of virus-specific IgM in the peripheral blood or by the presence of IgG at higher levels than that found in umbilical cord blood. Anti-meningococcus IgG and IgM were quantified by ELISA. Anti-measles antibody responses were quantified by haemagglutinin antibody inhibition assay. Infants infected with EBV had reduced IgG and IgM antibody responses to meningococcal polysaccharides and to measles vaccine. Infection with CMV alone predicted no changes in the response to meningococcal polysaccharide. While CMV alone had no discernable effect on the antibody response to measles, the response of infants infected with both CMV and EBV was similar to that of infants infected with neither, suggesting that the effects of CMV infection countered the effects of EBV on measles antibody responses. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this exploratory study indicate that infection with EBV is associated with reduced antibody responses to polysaccharides and to measles vaccine, but suggest that the response to T-cell dependent antigens such as measles haemagglutinin may be restored by infection with CMV.

  19. 75 FR 48706 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Rotavirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ..., rotavirus, hepatitis A, meningococcal, human papillomavirus (HPV), and trivalent influenza vaccines... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Rotavirus Vaccine AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and...

  20. Vaccine Effectiveness - How Well Does the Seasonal Flu Vaccine Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flu viruses. What are the benefits of flu vaccination? While how well the flu vaccine works can ... of age and older). How are benefits of vaccination measured? Public health researchers measure how well flu ...

  1. Heavy-chain isotype patterns of human antibody-secreting cells induced by Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines in relation to age and preimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, T; Juul, Lars; Gyhrs, A;

    1994-01-01

    The influence of preexisting immunity on the heavy-chain isotypes of circulating antibody-secreting cells (AbSC) induced by vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) coupled to tetanus toxoid (TT) or diphtheria toxoid (DT) and by vaccination with TT or DT...... of natural HibCP antibodies (r = 0.59; P = 0.00002). A possible role of natural exposure for Hib or cross-reactive bacteria on the mucosal surfaces in the shaping of the isotype response to HibCP conjugate vaccines is discussed....

  2. Vaccination and neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gkampeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Active immunization of children has been proven very effective in elimination of life threatening complications of many infectious diseases in developed countries. However, as vaccination-preventable infectious diseases and their complications have become rare, the interest focuses on immunization-related adverse reactions. Unfortunately, fear of vaccination-related adverse effects can led to decreased vaccination coverage and subsequent epidemics of infectious diseases. This review includes reports about possible side effects following vaccinations in children with neurological disorders and also published recommendations about vaccinating children with neurological disorders. From all international published data anyone can conclude that vaccines are safer than ever before, but the challenge remains to convey this message to society.

  3. Vaccination against seasonal flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Service once again recommends you to get your annual flu vaccination for the year.   Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. The flu can have especially serious consequences for people with chronic conditions (diabetes, cardio-vascular disease, etc.), pregnant women, infants, and people over 65 years of age. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement by UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccination service for family members or retired members of the personnel. For more information: • The "Seasonal flu" flyer by the Medical Service • Recommendations of the Swiss Federal Office of Public...

  4. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination. PMID:26920587

  5. Vaccine herd effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyong; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Vaccination ideally protects susceptible populations at high risk for complications of the infection. However, vaccines for these subgroups do not always provide sufficient effectiveness. The herd effect or herd immunity is an attractive way to extend vaccine benefits beyond the directly targeted population. It refers to the indirect protection of unvaccinated persons, whereby an increase in the prevalence of immunity by the vaccine prevents circulation of infectious agents in susceptible populations. The herd effect has had a major impact in the eradication of smallpox, has reduced transmission of pertussis, and protects against influenza and pneumococcal disease. A high uptake of vaccines is generally needed for success. In this paper we aim to provide an update review on the herd effect, focusing on the clinical benefit, by reviewing data for specific vaccines.

  6. Antibiofilm activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Karwacki

    Full Text Available Cell-free extracts isolated from colony biofilms of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were found to inhibit biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, but not by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 itself, in a 96-well microtiter plate assay. Physical and chemical analyses indicated that the antibiofilm activity in the extract was due to high-molecular-weight polysaccharide. Extracts isolated from a mutant strain deficient in the production of serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide did not exhibit antibiofilm activity. A plasmid harboring the serotype 5 capsule genes restored the antibiofilm activity in the mutant extract. Purified serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide also exhibited antibiofilm activity against S. aureus. A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts did not inhibit S. aureus growth, but did inhibit S. aureus intercellular adhesion and binding of S. aureus cells to stainless steel surfaces. Furthermore, polystyrene surfaces coated with A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts, but not with capsule-mutant extracts, resisted S. aureus biofilm formation. Our findings suggest that the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsule inhibits cell-to-cell and cell-to-surface interactions of other bacteria. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide is one of a growing number of bacterial polysaccharides that exhibit broad-spectrum, nonbiocidal antibiofilm activity. Future studies on these antibiofilm polysaccharides may uncover novel functions for bacterial polysaccharides in nature, and may lead to the development of new classes of antibiofilm agents for industrial and clinical applications.

  7. The immunostimulating role of lichen polysaccharides: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Gajendra; St Clair, Larry L; O'Neill, Kim L

    2015-03-01

    The immune system has capacity to suppress the development or progression of various malignancies including cancer. Research on the immunomodulating properties of polysaccharides obtained from plants, microorganisms, marine organisms, and fungi is growing rapidly. Among the various potential sources, lichens, symbiotic systems involving a fungus and an alga and/or a cyanobacterium, show promise as a potential source of immunomodulating compounds. It is well known that lichens produce an abundance of structurally diverse polysaccharides. However, only a limited number of studies have explored the immunostimulating properties of lichen polysaccharides. Published studies have shown that some lichen polysaccharides enhance production of nitrous oxide (NO) by macrophages and also alter the production levels of various proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-12, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-α/β) by macrophages and dendritic cells. Although there are only a limited number of studies examining the role of lichen polysaccharides, all results suggest that lichen polysaccharides can induce immunomodulatory responses in macrophages and dendritic cells. Thus, a detailed evaluation of immunomodulatory capacity of lichen polysaccharides could provide a unique opportunity for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents. PMID:25339289

  8. Polysaccharide Production in Pilot Scale Bioreactor Cultivations of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruque-Ramos, Julia; Juncioni de Arauz, Luciana; Fossa da Paz, Marcelo; Vicentin, Marcio Alberto; Hiss, Haroldo

    2016-01-01

    Serogroup C polysaccharide from Neisseria meningitidis (PS) constitutes the antigen for the respective vaccine production. In order to investigate the enhancement of the final PS concentration (Pf), as well as the overall yield factor (PS/biomass) (YP/X), 13 total cultivations distributed in 6 series (from A to F) were carried out in Frantz medium (40 L plus inoculum) in a 80L bioreactor at 35oC, 0.4 atm, 120 rpm, airflow rate of 5 L/min and KLa = 4.2 h-1. The series (A-F) correspond to different experimental conditions as follows: A) without pH and dissolved O2 controls; B) pH control at 6.5; C) pH control at 6.5 and glucose pulse at the 10th hour; D) dissolved O2 control at 10% saturation value; E) pH control at 7.4; F) dissolved O2 limitation (set rotation at 55 rpm). Concentrations of dry biomass, PS, cellular nitrogen, residual glucose, organic and inorganic nitrogen in the medium were measured. The best results were represented by series A (averages of Pf = 0.15 g/L and YP/X = 107 mg/g). The presented findings could be useful for a proper Frantz medium reformulation in order to obtain a greater amount of PS and improve the vaccine development in industrial scale-up production.

  9. New polysaccharide-based polymer electrolytes; Nouveaux electrolytes polymeres a base de polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Morales, P.; Le Nest, J.F.; Gandini, A. [Ecole Francaise de Papeterie et des Industries Graphique, 38 - Saint Martin d`Heres (France)

    1996-12-31

    Polysaccharides like cellulose and chitosan are known for their filmic properties. This paper concerns the synthesis and the study of chitosan-based polymer electrolytes. A preliminary work concerns the study of glucosamine reactivity. The poly-condensation of chitosan ethers (obtained by reaction with ethylene oxide or propylene oxide) with bifunctional and monofunctional oligo-ethers leads to the formation of thin lattices (10 {mu}m) having excellent mechanical properties. The presence of grafted polyether chains along the polysaccharide skeleton allows to modify the vitreous transition temperature and the molecular disorder of the system. Two type of polymer electrolytes have been synthesized: electrolytes carrying a dissolved alkaline metal salt and ionomers. The analysis of their thermal, dynamical mechanical, nuclear magnetic relaxation, electrical, and electrochemical properties shows that this new class of polymer electrolytes has the same performances as ethylene poly-oxide based amorphous lattices plus the advantage of having good filmic properties. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  10. Enzymatic method for improving the injectability of polysaccharides. [US Patent Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Holleman, J.W.

    A method for enhancing the ability of polysaccharides in aqueous solution to flow through a porous medium comprises contacting the polysaccharides with an endoenzyme capable of hydrolyzing at least one of the linkages of the sugar units of the polysaccharides and maintaining the polysaccharides in contact with the enzyme under hydrolysis conditions for a time sufficient to decrease the tendency of the polysaccharides to plug the porous medium yet insufficient to decrease the viscosity of the aqueous polysaccharides by more than 25%. The partially hydrolyzed polysaccharides are useful as thickening agents for flooding water used to recover oil from oil-containing subterranean formations.

  11. Anthrax vaccination strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Cybulski, Robert J.; Sanz, Patrick; O'Brien, Alison D.

    2009-01-01

    The biological attack conducted through the U.S. postal system in 2001 broadened the threat posed by anthrax from one pertinent mainly to soldiers on the battlefield to one understood to exist throughout our society. The expansion of the threatened population placed greater emphasis on the reexamination of how we vaccinate against Bacillus anthracis. The currently-licensed Anthrax Vaccine, Adsorbed (AVA) and Anthrax Vaccine, Precipitated (AVP) are capable of generating a protective immune res...

  12. Immunobiology of Influenza Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez Lorenzo, Margarita M.; Fenton, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination is the primary strategy for prevention and control of influenza. The surface hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the influenza virus contains two structural elements (head and stalk) that differ in their potential utility as vaccine targets. The head of the HA protein is the primary target of antibodies that confer protective immunity to influenza viruses. The underlying health status, age, and gene polymorphisms of vaccine recipients and, just as importantly, the extent of the antigeni...

  13. Influenza vaccination during pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Ran D.; Koren, Gideon

    2002-01-01

    QUESTION: A 27-year-old patient of mine recently learned she is pregnant. She took the influenza vaccine offered at work when she was 7 weeks pregnant. Is her fetus at risk of malformations? ANSWER: No evidence indicates that killed influenza vaccine is teratogenic, even if given during the first trimester. Since 1996, Health Canada's Centre for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended that pregnant women in their second and third trimesters be vaccinated. This should not be interpreted...

  14. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future therapeutics. PMID:22130115

  15. Vaccination against RSV

    OpenAIRE

    Kaaijk, Patricia; Luytjes, Willem; Rots, Nynke Y.

    2013-01-01

    The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants worldwide. Also persons with heart/lung disease or an immunodeficiency disorder, and the elderly are at increased risk for severe LRI upon RSV infection. Although there is at present no licensed RSV vaccine available, it is a priority target for several vaccine developers. For the implementation of a future RSV vaccination within national immunization schemes, various strategies can be...

  16. Lipoprotein NMB0928 from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B as a novel vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Maité; Yero, Daniel; Niebla, Olivia; González, Sonia; Climent, Yanet; Pérez, Yusleydis; Cobas, Karem; Caballero, Evelín; García, Darien; Pajón, Rolando

    2007-12-01

    Polysaccharide-based vaccines for serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis have failed to induce protective immunity. As a result, efforts to develop vaccines for serogroup B meningococcal disease have mostly focused on outer membrane proteins (OMP). Vaccine candidates based on meningococcal OMP have emerged in the form of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) or, more recently, purified recombinant proteins, as alternative strategies for serogroup B vaccine development. In our group, the protein composition of the Cuban OMVs-based vaccine VA-MENGOC-BC was elucidated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The proteomic map of this product allowed the identification of new putative protective proteins not previously reported as components of an antimeningococcal vaccine. In the present study, we have determined the immunogenicity and protective capacity of NMB0928, one of those proteins present in the OMVs. The antigen was obtained as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli, purified and used to immunize mice. The antiserum produced against the protein was capable to recognize the natural protein in different meningococcal strains by whole-cell ELISA and Western blotting. After immunization, recombinant NMB0928 induced bactericidal antibodies, and when the protein was administered inserted into liposomes, the elicited antibodies were protective in the infant rat model. These results suggest that NMB0928 is a novel antigen worth to be included in a broadly protective meningococcal vaccine.

  17. 25 years after Vi typhoid vaccine efficacy study, typhoid affects significant number of population in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Bajracharya

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhi, first isolated in 1884, results in infection of the intestines and can end in death and disability. Due to serious adverse events post vaccination, whole cell killed vaccines have been replaced with new generation vaccines. The efficacy of Vi polysaccharide (ViPS vaccine, a new generation, single-dose intramuscular typhoid vaccine was assessed in Nepal in 1987. However, despite the availability of ViPS vaccine for more than 25 years, Nepal has one of the highest incidence of typhoid fever. Therefore we collected information from hospitals in the Kathmandu Valley from over the past five years. There were 9901 enteric fever cases between January 2008 and July 2012. 1,881 of these were confirmed typhoid cases from five hospitals in the Kathmandu district. Approximately 70% of the cases involved children under 15 years old. 1281 cases were confirmed as S. Paratyphi. Vaccines should be prioritized for control of typhoid in conjunction with improved water and sanitation conditions in Nepal and in endemic countries of Asia and Africa.

  18. 25 years after Vi typhoid vaccine efficacy study, typhoid affects significant number of population in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, Deepak; Khan, M Imran; Pach, Alfred; Shrestha, Parisha; Joshi, Nilesh; Upreti, Shyam R; Wierzba, Thomas; Puri, Mahesh; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Ochiai, R Leon

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella Typhi, first isolated in 1884, results in infection of the intestines and can end in death and disability. Due to serious adverse events post vaccination, whole cell killed vaccines have been replaced with new generation vaccines. The efficacy of Vi polysaccharide (ViPS) vaccine, a new generation, single-dose intramuscular typhoid vaccine was assessed in Nepal in 1987. However, despite the availability of ViPS vaccine for more than 25 years, Nepal has one of the highest incidence of typhoid fever. Therefore we collected information from hospitals in the Kathmandu Valley from over the past five years. There were 9901 enteric fever cases between January 2008 and July 2012. 1,881 of these were confirmed typhoid cases from five hospitals in the Kathmandu district. Approximately 70% of the cases involved children under 15 years old. 1281 cases were confirmed as S. Paratyphi. Vaccines should be prioritized for control of typhoid in conjunction with improved water and sanitation conditions in Nepal and in endemic countries of Asia and Africa.

  19. Composite polysaccharide fibers prepared by electrospinning and coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, N; Miao, J; Simmons, T J; Dordick, J S; Linhardt, R J

    2014-02-15

    Composite polysaccharide fibers composed two oppositely charged natural polysaccharides, chitosan and hyaluronic acid, were prepared by electrospinning and subsequent coating. The fiber size distribution was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Chitosan/hyaluronic acid composite fibers were stable in water but showed controlled release of hyaluronic acid into phosphate buffered saline, and the presence of 3-wt% hyaluronic acid coating improved the swelling ratio to 30%. The resulting composite polysaccharide fibers have a number of potential biomedical applications in wound healing applications and in drug delivery systems. PMID:24507368

  20. Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adacel® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) ... Boostrix® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine)

  1. A Vaccine Approach for the Prevention of Infections by Multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodali, Srinivas; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Lin, Fiona; Khoury, Nancy; Hao, Li; Pavliak, Vilo; Jones, C Hal; Laverde, Diana; Huebner, Johannes; Jansen, Kathrin U; Anderson, Annaliesa S; Donald, Robert G K

    2015-08-01

    The incidence of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium hospital infections has been steadily increasing. With the goal of discovering new vaccine antigens, we systematically fractionated and purified four distinct surface carbohydrates from E. faecium endocarditis isolate Tx16, shown previously to be resistant to phagocytosis in the presence of human serum. The two most abundant polysaccharides consist of novel branched heteroglycan repeating units that include signature sugars altruronic acid and legionaminic acid, respectively. A minor high molecular weight polysaccharide component was recognized as the fructose homopolymer levan, and a glucosylated lipoteichoic acid (LTA) was identified in a micellar fraction. The polysaccharides were conjugated to the CRM197 carrier protein, and the resulting glycoconjugates were used to immunize rabbits. Rabbit immune sera were evaluated for their ability to kill Tx16 in opsonophagocytic assays and in a mouse passive protection infection model. Although antibodies raised against levan failed to mediate opsonophagocytic killing, the other glycoconjugates induced effective opsonic antibodies, with the altruronic acid-containing polysaccharide antisera showing the greatest opsonophagocytic assay activity. Antibodies directed against either novel heteroglycan or the LTA reduced bacterial load in mouse liver or kidney tissue. To assess antigen prevalence, we screened a diverse collection of blood isolates (n = 101) with antibodies to the polysaccharides. LTA was detected on the surface of 80% of the strains, and antigens recognized by antibodies to the two major heteroglycans were co-expressed on 63% of these clinical isolates. Collectively, these results represent the first steps toward identifying components of a glycoconjugate vaccine to prevent E. faecium infection. PMID:26109072

  2. Use of paramagnetic chelated metal derivatives of polysaccharides and spin-labeled polysaccharides as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bligh, S.W.; Harding, C.T.; Sadler, P.J.; Bulman, R.A.; Bydder, G.M.; Pennock, J.M.; Kelly, J.D.; Latham, I.A.; Marriott, J.A. (Department of Chemistry, Birkbeck College, London (England))

    1991-02-01

    Soluble and insoluble polysaccharides were derivatized with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and/or spin-labeled with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO). Polysaccharides derivatized with DTPA were prepared via cyanogen bromide activation, coupling to a diamine linker, and to DTPA anhydride. Spin-labeled polysaccharides were also prepared via cyanogen bromide activation. The extent of derivatization for dextran (18 kDa) was about 120 glucose units per DTPA, and for cellulose and starch about 15-30 units per DTPA. For spin-labeled polysaccharides, the average loading ranged from 1 nitroxide per 16 glucose units for starch to 181 for dextran (82 kDa). These derivatized paramagnetic polysaccharides were shown to be more effective relaxants than the small paramagnetic molecules alone. Both soluble and insoluble polysaccharide-linker-DTPA-Gd(3) complexes were effectively cleared from the body (rats) after oral administration. After intravenous administration, the biodistribution of dextran-linker-DTPA-Gd(3) complexes differed significantly from that of GdDTPA. Reduction of the nitroxide by ascorbic acid was retarded in the polysaccharide derivatives, particularly in starch derivatized with both nitroxide and linker-DTPA-Cu(2). These agents showed contrast enhancement in the gastrointestinal tract of rabbits.

  3. NMR studies of polysaccharides from brown seaweeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseda, M.D.; Tisher, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J.; Duarte, M.E.R. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica; Cerezo, A.S. [Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica Organica

    1997-12-31

    Alginic acid is the major intercellular polysaccharide serving as matrix in the brown algae and is comprised of an unbranched chain of (1->4)-linked {beta}-D-mannuronic acid (M) and {alpha}-L-guluronic acid (G), arranged in a blockwise fashion. The composition of the monomer residues and the block structure varies depending on the source of the polymer. The selective binding of cations to alginate accounts for its ability to form gels, which is dependent on the number and lenght of the G-blocks. They are widely used industrially for their ability to retain water, and for their gelling, viscosifying and stabilizing properties (Smidsrod and draget, 1996). In this study, alginate composition and block structure in Sargassum stenophyllum has been determined by chemical methods and NMR spectroscopic analysis. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Nutraceutical functionalities of polysaccharides from marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byeong-Dae; Choi, Yeung Joon

    2012-01-01

    Many researchers are seeking functional materials from marine resources. These marine resources can be used as traditional food additives, and specifically, these are based on polysaccharides. To date, there is a big opportunity to develop new high-value added products with indispensable functional characteristics, which can be used in nutraceuticals either as additives or supplements. Also, a crossover in the pharmaceutical market may be established. Some glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) mimetic-type molecules are already being utilized in the field of nutrition as well as in the cosmetics industry. This chemical is used as a dietary supplement to maintain the structure and function of cartilages, for the relief of pain caused by osteoarthritic joints, and can also be used as an anti-inflammatory agent. Recently, in relation to the prevalence of mad cow disease and avian influenza, the production of GAGs from marine invertebrates offers new market opportunities as compared with that obtained from bovine or avian livestock. PMID:22361178

  5. An Acidic Polysaccharide from Tribulus terrestris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaiShengCHEN; WingNangLEUNG; 等

    2002-01-01

    An aqueous acidic polysaccharide, named rhamnogalacturonan (designated as TIP-D2) was isolated from Tribulus terrestris L by means of DEAE-cellulose chromatography and gel filtration. The molecular mass of TTP-D2 was estimated to be 26 KDa by gel filtration.TTP-D2 is composed of galacturonic acid, rhamnose, arabinose, galactose,fucose,mannose,xylose and glucose in a ratio of 71.4:13.5:5.6:4.9:3.1:1.9:1.9:1.0. The main chain structure of TTP-D2 was elucidated as an acidic hetero-polysaccaride with the connection of α-(1-4) galacturonic acid with α-(1-3) rhamnose by GC analysis of partially hydrolyzed products and determination of 1H,13C-NMR spectra.

  6. An Acidic Polysaccharide from Tribulus terrestris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An aqucous acidic polysaccharide, named rhamnogalacturonan (designated as TTP-D2)was isolated from Tribulus terrestris L by means of DEAE-cellulose chromatography and gel filtration. The molecular mass of TTP-D2 was estimated to be 26 KDa by gel filtration. TTP-D2 is composed of galacturonic acid, rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, fucose, mannosc, xylose and glucose in a ratio of 71.4: 13.5: 5.6: 4.9: 3.1: 1.9: 1.9: 1.0. The main chain structure of TTP-D2 was elucidated as an acidic hetero-polysaccharidc with the connection of α-(l-4) galacturonic acid with α-(1-3) rhamnose by GC analysis of partially hydrolyzed products and the determination of 1H, 13C-NMR spectra.

  7. Utilization of polysaccharides by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation treatment has been applied for improvement or pasteurization of agro-resources to recycle the resources and to reduce the pollution of environment. By using the radiation effect for pasteurization, upgrading of cellulosic wastes of oil palm to animal feeds and mushroom has been studied under the bilateral research cooperation between JAERI and MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research). The necessary dose for pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main cellulosic by-product of palm oil industry, was determined as 10 kGy. After pasteurization, the EFB substrate was inoculated with Pleurotus sajor-caju and fermented for 1 month. The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. For the improvement of resources, radiation effects on polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to induce the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities. The anti-bacterial activity and elicitor activity of chitosan were induced by irradiation. The induction of phytoalexins was also observed by irradiated pectin but the higher elicitor activity for pisatin was obtained by chitosan than pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa carrageenan irradiated at 100 kGy. Furthermore, some radiation degraded polysaccharides suppressed the damage of environmental stress on plants. (author)

  8. Utilization of polysaccharides by radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Radiation treatment has been applied for improvement or pasteurization of agro-resources to recycle the resources and to reduce the pollution of environment. By using the radiation effect for pasteurization, upgrading of cellulosic wastes of oil palm to animal feeds and mushroom has been studied under the bilateral research cooperation between JAERI and MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research). The necessary dose for pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main cellulosic by-product of palm oil industry, was determined as 10 kGy. After pasteurization, the EFB substrate was inoculated with Pleurotus sajor-caju and fermented for 1 month. The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. For the improvement of resources, radiation effects on polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to induce the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities. The anti-bacterial activity and elicitor activity of chitosan were induced by irradiation. The induction of phytoalexins was also observed by irradiated pectin but the higher elicitor activity for pisatin was obtained by chitosan than pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa carrageenan irradiated at 100 kGy. Furthermore, some radiation degraded polysaccharides suppressed the damage of environmental stress on plants. (author)

  9. The development of an experimental multiple serogroups vaccine for Neisseria meningitidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerian B Pinto

    Full Text Available A native outer membrane vesicles (NOMV vaccine was developed from three antigenically diverse strains of Neisseria meningitidis that express the L1,8, L2, and L3,7 lipooligosaccharide (LOS immunotypes, and whose synX, and lpxL1 genes were deleted.. Immunogenicity studies in mice showed that the vaccine induced bactericidal antibody against serogroups B, C, W, Y and X N. meningitidis strains. However, this experimental NOMV vaccine was not effective against serogroup A N. meningitidis strains. N. meningitidis capsular polysaccharide (PS from serogroups A, C, W and Y were effective at inducing bactericidal antibody when conjugated to either tetanus toxoid or the fHbp1-fHbp2 fusion protein fHbp(1+2. The combination of the NOMV vaccine and the N. meningitidis serogroup A capsular polysaccharide (MAPS protein conjugate was capable of inducing bactericidal antibodies against a limited number of N. meningitidis strains from serogroups A, B, C, W, Y and X tested in this study.

  10. Clinical development of Ebola vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Saranya

    2015-09-01

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa highlighted the lack of a licensed drug or vaccine to combat the disease and has renewed the urgency to develop a pipeline of Ebola vaccines. A number of different vaccine platforms are being developed by assessing preclinical efficacy in animal models and expediting clinical development. Over 15 different vaccines are in preclinical development and 8 vaccines are now in different stages of clinical evaluation. These vaccines include DNA vaccines, virus-like particles and viral vectors such as live replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV), human and chimpanzee adenovirus, and vaccinia virus. Recently, in preliminary results reported from the first phase III trial of an Ebola vaccine, the rVSV-vectored vaccine showed promising efficacy. This review charts this rapidly advancing area of research focusing on vaccines in clinical development and discusses the future opportunities and challenges faced in the licensure and deployment of Ebola vaccines.

  11. Clinical development of Ebola vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Saranya

    2015-09-01

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa highlighted the lack of a licensed drug or vaccine to combat the disease and has renewed the urgency to develop a pipeline of Ebola vaccines. A number of different vaccine platforms are being developed by assessing preclinical efficacy in animal models and expediting clinical development. Over 15 different vaccines are in preclinical development and 8 vaccines are now in different stages of clinical evaluation. These vaccines include DNA vaccines, virus-like particles and viral vectors such as live replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV), human and chimpanzee adenovirus, and vaccinia virus. Recently, in preliminary results reported from the first phase III trial of an Ebola vaccine, the rVSV-vectored vaccine showed promising efficacy. This review charts this rapidly advancing area of research focusing on vaccines in clinical development and discusses the future opportunities and challenges faced in the licensure and deployment of Ebola vaccines. PMID:26668751

  12. Impact of a pectic polysaccharide on oenin copigmentation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana; Brás, Natércia F; Oliveira, Joana; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2016-10-15

    Copigmentation plays an important role in the colors provided by anthocyanins. However, little attention has been paid to the interaction between anthocyanins and cell wall compounds (e.g. polysaccharides) and the impact of this interaction on anthocyanins color, a fundamental issue to be considered in industrial applications of these pigments as food colorants. The copigmentation binding constants (KCP) for the interaction between malvidin-3-O-glucoside and (+)-catechin in the presence of low methoxylated pectic polysaccharide were determined. The values obtained showed that in the presence of pectic polysaccharide the copigmentation binding constants decreased. These results probably suggest the occurrence of competition equilibrium in which the presence of pectin limited the association between catechin and oenin. (1)H NMR studies revealed that the dissociation constant determined for these complexes was very similar in absence and presence of 1.5g/L pectin with this polysaccharide apparently not affecting the strength of anthocyanin-catechin binding. PMID:27173529

  13. Anti-diabetic polysaccharides from natural sources: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Zhao, Shan; Yang, Bing-You; Wang, Qiu-Hong; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease attracted worldwide concerns, which severely impairs peoples' quality of life and is attributed to several life-threatening complications, including atherosclerosis, nephropathy and retinopathy. The current therapies for DM include mainly oral anti-diabetic drugs and insulin. However, continuous use of these causes insulin resistance and side-effects, and the demand of effective, nontoxic and affordable drugs for DM patients is eager. Several previous studies have shown that non-toxic biological macromolecules, mainly polysaccharides, possess prominent efficacies on DM. Based on these encouraging observations, a great deal of efforts have been focused on discovering anti-diabetic polysaccharides for the development of effective therapeutics for DM. This review focuses on the advancements in the anti-diabetic efficacy of various natural polysaccharides and polysaccharide complexes from 2010 to 2015. PMID:27185119

  14. Detection of Inulin, a Prebiotic Polysaccharide, in Maple Syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiadong; Ma, Hang; Seeram, Navindra P; Rowley, David C

    2016-09-28

    Maple syrup is a widely consumed plant-derived natural sweetener produced by concentrating xylem sap collected from certain maple (Acer) species. During thermal evaporation of water, natural phytochemical components are concentrated in maple syrup. The polymeric components from maple syrup were isolated by ethanol precipitation, dialysis, and anion exchange chromatography and structurally characterized by glycosyl composition analysis, glycosyl linkage analysis, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Among the maple syrup polysaccharides, one neutral polysaccharide was characterized as inulin with a broad molecular weight distribution, representing the first isolation of this prebiotic carbohydrate from a xylem sap. In addition, two acidic polysaccharides with structural similarity were identified as arabinogalactans derived from rhamnogalacturonan type I pectic polysaccharides.

  15. Antioxidant activities of five polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheng-quan; Ding, Shaodong; Fan, Liuping

    2012-06-01

    Five polysaccharides (IOP1b, IOP2a, IOP2c, IOP3a and IOP4) were isolated and purified from Inonotus obliquus by DEAE-Sepharose fast flow and SepharoseCL-6B column chromatography. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined and antioxidant activities were investigated on the basis of hydroxyl radical assay, superoxide radical assay and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay. The results showed that five polysaccharides exhibited antioxidant activities, and the higher content of uronic acid and proteinous substances, the stronger antioxidant activities of polysaccharides. Besides, molecular weights of polysaccharides also influence their antioxidant activities. IOP3a and IOP4 showed higher antioxidant properties than IOP1b, IOP2a and IOP2c. PMID:22484729

  16. Radiation-chemical degradation of cellulose and other polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of studies on the radiation-chemical transformations of cellulose, its ethers, and some other polysaccharides (xylan, starch, dextran, chitin, chitosan, and heparin) are discussed. Ionising radiation causes the degradation of these compounds accompanied by decomposition of the pyranose ring and formation of compounds with carbonyl and carboxy groups, as well as formation of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The efficiency of degradation increases considerably with temperature and depends on the structure of the polysaccharide and the nature of its substituents. A mechanism of the radiation-chemical transformations of cellulose and other polysaccharides is suggested. The prospects of using radiation-chemical methods for processing of cellulose and other polysaccharides in industry and agriculture are considered. The bibliography includes 213 references.

  17. Synbiotic matrices derived from plant oligosaccharides and polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    A porous synbiotic matrix was prepared by lyophilization of alginate and pectin or fructan oligosaccharides and polysaccharides cross-linked with calcium. These synbiotic matrices were excellent physical structures to support the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus (1426) and Lactobacillus reuteri (...

  18. Comparison of Polysaccharides from Two Species of Ganoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Tang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma sinense, known as Lingzhi in Chinese, are commonly used Chinese medicines with excellent beneficial health effects. Triterpenes and polysaccharides are usually considered as their main active components. However, the content of triterpenes differs significantly between the two species of Ganoderma. To date, a careful comparison of polysaccharides from the two species of Ganoderma has not been performed. In this study, polysaccharides from fruiting bodies of two species of Lingzhi collected from different regions of China were analyzed and compared based on HPSEC-ELSD and HPSEC-MALLS-RI analyses, as well as enzymatic digestion and HPTLC of acid hydrolysates. The results indicated that both the HPSEC-ELSD profiles and the molecular weights of the polysaccharides were similar. Enzymatic digestion showed that polyshaccharides from all samples of Lingzhi could be hydrolyzed by pectinase and dextranase. HPTLC profiles of their TFA hydrolysates colored with different reagents and their monosaccharides composition were also similar.

  19. Visualization of capsular polysaccharide induction in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellenberg, S.; Leon Morales, C.F.; Sand, W.; Vera, M.

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) are of fundamental importance for attachment to metal sulfides, biofilm formation and leaching efficiency of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. In this work we have visualized the capsular polysaccharides (CPS) of A. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 using the fluorescent

  20. Extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Rana chensinensis skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanyong; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Su, Tingting

    2015-01-22

    The extraction process of polysaccharides from Rana chensinensis skin was optimized by using a Box-Behnken design. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: extraction time, 4.96h; extraction temperature, 100°C; ratio of water to raw material, 60; and extraction frequency, 1. Under these conditions, the experimental polysaccharide yield was 2.03±0.14%, which agreed with the predicted yield. The purified polysaccharide RCSP II was successfully obtained by diethylaminoethanol-Sepharose and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. In vitro experiments showed that RCSP II exhibited a strong scavenging activity against superoxide anion and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals but a weak scavenging activity against hydroxyl radicals. RCSP II also showed a strong reducing capacity. Thus, this polysaccharide can be used as a natural antioxidant in functional foods or medicines.

  1. Vaccines and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Paz, Ziv; Israeli, Eitan; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2009-11-01

    Vaccines have been used for over 200 years and are the most effective way of preventing the morbidity and mortality associated with infections. Like other drugs, vaccines can cause adverse events, but unlike conventional medicines, which are prescribed to people who are ill, vaccines are administered to healthy individuals, thus increasing the concern over adverse reactions. Most side effects attributed to vaccines are mild, acute and transient; however, rare reactions such as hypersensitivity, induction of infection, and autoimmunity do occur and can be severe and even fatal. The rarity and subacute presentation of post-vaccination autoimmune phenomena means that ascertaining causality between these events can be difficult. Moreover, the latency period between vaccination and autoimmunity ranges from days to years. In this article, on the basis of published evidence and our own experience, we discuss the various aspects of the causal and temporal interactions between vaccines and autoimmune phenomena, as well as the possible mechanisms by which different components of vaccines might induce autoimmunity.

  2. Vaccines and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, M; Chiappini, E; Galli, L

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines have eradicated or controlled many infectious diseases, saving each year millions of lives and quality of life of many other millions of people. In spite of the success of vaccines over the last two centuries, parents (and also some health care workers) gloss over the devastating consequences of diseases, which are now avoided thanks to vaccines, and direct their attention to possible negative effects of immunization. Three immunological objections are raised: vaccines cause antigenic overload, natural immunity is safer and better than vaccine-induced immunity, and vaccines induce autoimmunity. The last point is examined in this review. Theoretically, vaccines could trigger autoimmunity by means of cytokine production, anti-idiotypic network, expression of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigens, modification of surface antigens and induction of novel antigens, molecular mimicry, bystander activation, epitope spreading, and polyclonal activation of B cells. There is strong evidence that none of these mechanisms is really effective in causing autoimmune diseases. Vaccines are not a source of autoimmune diseases. By contrast, absolute evidence exists that infectious agents can trigger autoimmune mechanisms and that they do cause autoimmune diseases.

  3. Chimeric Pestivirus Experimental Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Ilona; Blome, Sandra; Beer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Chimeric pestiviruses have shown great potential as marker vaccine candidates against pestiviral infections. Exemplarily, we describe here the construction and testing of the most promising classical swine fever vaccine candidate "CP7_E2alf" in detail. The description is focused on classical cloning technologies in combination with reverse genetics. PMID:26458840

  4. Composite polysaccharide fibers prepared by electrospinning and coating

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, N; Miao, J; Simmons, T.J.; Dordick, J S; Linhardt, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Composite polysaccharide fibers composed two oppositely charged natural polysaccharides, chitosan and hyaluronic acid, were prepared by electrospinning and subsequent coating The fiber size distribution was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Chitosan/hyaluronic acid composite fibers were stable in water but showed controlled release of hyaluronic acid into phosphate buffered saline, and the presence of 3-wt% hyaluronic acid coating improved the swelling ratio to 30%. The resulting...

  5. Antioxidant properties of cell wall polysaccharides of Stevia rebaudiana leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Mediesse Kengne Francine; Woguia Alice Louise; Fogue Souopgui Pythagore; Atogho-Tiedeu Barbara; Simo Gustave; Thaddée Boudjeko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the total phenolic and protein contents, and the antioxidant activities of cell wall polysaccharide fractions of Stevia rebaudiana leaves. Methods: Three different polysaccharide-enriched fractions, namely FPE (extract with 50 mmol/ L ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid), FPK (extract with 0.05 mol/L KOH) and FH (extract with 4 mol/L KOH) were extracted from Stevia rebaudiana leaves. The antioxidant activity of these fractions was evaluated based on thei...

  6. Safety Assessment of Microbial Polysaccharide Gums as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2016-07-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel assessed the safety of 34 microbial polysaccharide gums for use in cosmetics, finding that these ingredients are safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration. The microbial polysaccharide gums named in this report have a variety of reported functions in cosmetics, including emulsion stabilizer, film former, binder, viscosity-increasing agent, and skin-conditioning agent. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data in making its determination of safety. PMID:27383198

  7. Immunomodulatory Activity and Partial Characterisation of Polysaccharides from Momordica charantia

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan-Yuan Deng; Yang Yi; Li-Fang Zhang; Rui-Fen Zhang; Yan Zhang; Zhen-Cheng Wei; Xiao-Jun Tang; Ming-Wei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Momordica charantia Linn. is used as an edible and medicinal vegetable in sub-tropical areas. Until now, studies on its composition and related activities have been confined to compounds of low molecular mass, and no data have been reported concerning the plant’s polysaccharides. In this work, a crude polysaccharide of M. charantia (MCP) fruit was isolated by hot water extraction and then purified using DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange chromatography to produce two main fractions MCP1 and M...

  8. Characterisation of cell wall polysaccharides in bilberries and black currants

    OpenAIRE

    Hilz, H

    2007-01-01

    During berry juice production, polysaccharides are released from the cell walls and cause thickening and high viscosity when the berries are mashed. Consequences are a low juice yield and a poor colour. This can be prevented by the use of enzymes that degrade these polysaccharides. To use these enzymes most efficiently, the structure and composition of the cell walls had to be known. This thesis describes a detailed composition of the cell walls of bilberries and black currants. The obtained ...

  9. Next generation vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2011-07-01

    In February this year, about 100 delegates gathered for three days in Vienna (Austria) for the Next Generation Vaccines conference. The meeting held in the Vienna Hilton Hotel from 23rd-25th February 2011 had a strong focus on biotech and industry. The conference organizer Jacob Fleming managed to put together a versatile program ranging from the future generation of vaccines to manufacturing, vaccine distribution and delivery, to regulatory and public health issues. Carefully selected top industry experts presented first-hand experience and shared solutions for overcoming the latest challenges in the field of vaccinology. The program also included several case study presentations on novel vaccine candidates in different stages of development. An interactive pre-conference workshop as well as interactive panel discussions during the meeting allowed all delegates to gain new knowledge and become involved in lively discussions on timely, interesting and sometimes controversial topics related to vaccines. PMID:22002157

  10. Therapeutic HIV Peptide Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity......Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... and hence adjuvants are included to enhance and direct the immune response. Although the vaccine has been tested in ART naïve individuals, we recommend future testing of the vaccine during (early started) ART that improves immune function and to select individuals likely to benefit. Peptides representing...

  11. Neisseria meningitidis B vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Lai, Piero Luigi; Gasparini, Roberto

    2011-09-01

    Invasive infections caused by Neisseria meningitidis are a serious public health problem worldwide and have a heavy economic impact. The incidence of invasive disease due to Neisseria meningitidis is highly variable according to geographical area and serogroup distribution. Since the introduction of vaccination programs with conjugated vaccine C in children and adolescents, most cases of invasive meningococcal disease in developed countries have been caused by meningococcus B. It is important to underline that invasive meningococcal disease will not be controlled until safe and effective vaccines for meningococcal B are available and widely used. The aims of this article are to describe the most recent developments in meningococcal B vaccines and to discuss how these vaccines can contribute to containing meningococcal disease.

  12. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup;

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... with viral-vectored vaccines, various synergistic components may need to be incorporated into DNA vaccines. From the perspective of the future clinical use of DNA vaccines, it has been suggested that antigen presentation should be improved and cytokine coadministration attempted. However, even...

  13. Antibody response to pneumococcal vaccine in patients with early stage Hodgkin's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B.; Specht, L.; Henrichsen, J.;

    1989-01-01

    Antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination was studied in 76 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) before, during and at different time intervals after cessation of therapy. All patients were in pathological stage I and II following explorative laparatomy with splenectomy. The increase in...... antibody response was compared to the findings in 12 healthy volunteers with the aim of establishing the optimal time for vaccination. Serum antibodies against 6 of the pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens (types 1, 4, 7F, 14, 18C and 23F) contained in the vaccine were determined by an ELISA. Antibody...... response to pneumococcal type antigens was similar in healthy adults and in patients with early stage HD before therapy. After treatment, postvaccination antibody response became negligible. Even up to 7 years after cessation of therapy patients were not able to raise a significant antibody response...

  14. Is there a potential role for protein‐conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Musher

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Longstanding controversy over the efficacy of 23‐valentpneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23 led to arecommendation by the Joint Committee on Vaccinationand Immunisation (JCVI of the United Kingdom in March2011, to discontinue routine use of PPV23 in older adults.1Following careful review of the evidence and feedbackfrom stakeholders, the JCVI decided to retain the originalpolicy of uniform vaccination of adults >65 years of age,while keeping the subject under continued review. In theUnited States, the Advisory Committee on ImmunizationPractices (ACIP which is also concerned about the efficacyof PPV23 is currently considering a different strategy, i.e.adding 13‐valent pneumococcal protein‐conjugate vaccine(PCV13 for recommended use in adults, following recentFood and Drug Administration (FDA approval for thispurpose in adults over 50 years of age. It is thereforetimely to review the options for prevention ofpneumococcal disease in adults.

  15. Antibody response to pneumococcal vaccine in patients with early stage Hodgkin's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B; Specht, L; Henrichsen, J;

    1989-01-01

    Antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination was studied in 76 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) before, during and at different time intervals after cessation of therapy. All patients were in pathological stage I and II following explorative laparatomy with splenectomy. The increase in...... antibody response was compared to the findings in 12 healthy volunteers with the aim of establishing the optimal time for vaccination. Serum antibodies against 6 of the pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens (types 1, 4, 7F, 14, 18C and 23F) contained in the vaccine were determined by an ELISA. Antibody...... response to pneumococcal type antigens was similar in healthy adults and in patients with early stage HD before therapy. After treatment, postvaccination antibody response became negligible. Even up to 7 years after cessation of therapy patients were not able to raise a significant antibody response....

  16. Vaccine safety--vaccine benefits: science and the public's perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C B; Marcuse, E K

    2001-11-01

    The development of cowpox vaccination by Jenner led to the development of immunology as a scientific discipline. The subsequent eradication of smallpox and the remarkable effects of other vaccines are among the most important contributions of biomedical science to human health. Today, the need for new vaccines has never been greater. However, in developed countries, the public's fear of vaccine-preventable diseases has waned, and awareness of potential adverse effects has increased, which is threatening vaccine acceptance. To further the control of disease by vaccination, we must develop safe and effective new vaccines to combat infectious diseases, and address the public's concerns.

  17. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  18. Lassa fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; McCormick, Joseph B

    2004-04-01

    Lassa fever remains a serious challenge to public health in West Africa threatening both local residents in rural areas and those who serve them, particularly medical care providers. Given the ecology of the rodent host and conditions in the endemic area, a vaccine is mandatory for control. The challenge is to overcome the scientific, political and economic obstacles to producing a human use vaccine candidate. There are some scientific issues to resolve. It is known that the G-protein confers protection but we do not know its duration. If the N-protein is also included there may be a better duration of protection but it is unclear whether the N-protein as a vaccine may possibly enhance the infection. The original vaccinia vector must be replaced by new vectors, chimeras or by delivering DNA in some format. A live vaccine is attractive because it can confer protection in a single shot. A killed vaccine is more stable, particularly for distribution in the tropics but usually requires repeated shots. For practical reasons a live vaccine format should probably be pursued, which could then be combined with a yellow fever vaccine, using the same cold chains, since this disease occupies the same endemic areas in West Africa. Lassa vaccine initiatives have suffered from a lack of funding in the past but bioterrorism has brought new resources to Lassa virus science. Adequate funding and applications of new vaccine technologies give hope that we may soon see a vaccine in clinical trials. However, the difficulty of conducting trials in endemic areas and lack of political stability remain serious problems. PMID:15056044

  19. Liposome-Based Delivery Systems in Plant Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiwan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant polysaccharides consist of many monosaccharide by α- or β-glycosidic bond which can be extracted by the water, alcohol, lipophile liquid from a variety of plants including Cordyceps sinensis, astragalus, and mushrooms. Recently, many evidences illustrate that natural plant polysaccharides possess various biological activities including strengthening immunity, lowering blood sugar, regulating lipid metabolism, antioxidation, antiaging, and antitumour. Plant polysaccharides have been widely used in the medical field due to their special features and low toxicity. As an important drug delivery system, liposomes can not only encapsulate small-molecule compound but also big-molecule drug; therefore, they present great promise for the application of plant polysaccharides with unique physical and chemical properties and make remarkable successes. This paper summarized the current progress in plant polysaccharides liposomes, gave an overview on their experiment design method, preparation, and formulation, characterization and quality control, as well as in vivo and in vitro studies. Moreover, the potential application of plant polysaccharides liposomes was prospected as well.

  20. Characterization of active polysaccharides of HemoHIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kwang Sun; Shin, Myeong Suk; Bae, Beom Seon; Hwang, Yong Cheol [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Kwang Won [Chungju University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    In this study, we aimed to elucidate the detailed structure and active moiety of polysaccharide, one of the active constituents of immune and hematopoietic modulating activities of HemoHIM. We first isolated the polysaccharide fractions from the hot water extracts of the each ingredient herbs (A. gigas, P. janonica, C. officinale) of HemoHIM and their mixture. These polysaccharides were composed of neutral (85.32-92.73%) and acidic (4.25-7.88%) saccharides, proteins (0.16-4.02%), and polyphenols (2.09-5.37%). The hydrolytic analysis of polysaccharide fractions showed that they commonly showed higher arabinose, galactose, and galacturonic acid contents. These result suggested that these polysaccharides may have higher contents of rhamnogalacturonan among pectic substances and the main active moiety is composed of polysaccharides. The anion exchange chromatography of HemoHIM and each ingredient herb extract using DEAE-Sepharose FF (Cl- form) column resulted in 1 non-adsorption and 8 adsorption fractions. The analysis of immune activity (lymphocyte proliferation) on these fractions showed that the fractions obtained by higher salt concentration carried the higher activity, but all fractions showed considerable immune activity

  1. Marine derived polysaccharides for biomedical applications: chemical modification approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ayala, Giovanna Gomez; Malinconico, Mario; Laurienzo, Paola

    2008-09-03

    Polysaccharide-based biomaterials are an emerging class in several biomedical fields such as tissue regeneration, particularly for cartilage, drug delivery devices and gelentrapment systems for the immobilization of cells. Important properties of the polysaccharides include controllable biological activity, biodegradability, and their ability to form hydrogels. Most of the polysaccharides used derive from natural sources; particularly, alginate and chitin, two polysaccharides which have an extensive history of use in medicine, pharmacy and basic sciences, and can be easily extracted from marine plants (algae kelp) and crab shells, respectively. The recent rediscovery of poly-saccharidebased materials is also attributable to new synthetic routes for their chemical modification, with the aim of promoting new biological activities and/or to modify the final properties of the biomaterials for specific purposes. These synthetic strategies also involve the combination of polysaccharides with other polymers. A review of the more recent research in the field of chemical modification of alginate, chitin and its derivative chitosan is presented. Moreover, we report as case studies the results of our recent work concerning various different approaches and applications of polysaccharide-based biomaterials, such as the realization of novel composites based on calcium sulphate blended with alginate and with a chemically modified chitosan, the synthesis of novel alginate-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers and the development of a family of materials based on alginate and acrylic polymers of potential interest as drug delivery systems.

  2. Marine Derived Polysaccharides for Biomedical Applications: Chemical Modification Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Laurienzo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide-based biomaterials are an emerging class in several biomedical fields such as tissue regeneration, particularly for cartilage, drug delivery devices and gelentrapment systems for the immobilization of cells. Important properties of the polysaccharides include controllable biological activity, biodegradability, and their ability to form hydrogels. Most of the polysaccharides used derive from natural sources; particularly, alginate and chitin, two polysaccharides which have an extensive history of use in medicine, pharmacy and basic sciences, and can be easily extracted from marine plants (algae kelp and crab shells, respectively. The recent rediscovery of poly-saccharidebased materials is also attributable to new synthetic routes for their chemical modification, with the aim of promoting new biological activities and/or to modify the final properties of the biomaterials for specific purposes. These synthetic strategies also involve the combination of polysaccharides with other polymers. A review of the more recent research in the field of chemical modification of alginate, chitin and its derivative chitosan is presented. Moreover, we report as case studies the results of our recent work concerning various different approaches and applications of polysaccharide-based biomaterials, such as the realization of novel composites based on calcium sulphate blended with alginate and with a chemically modified chitosan, the synthesis of novel alginate-poly(ethylene glycol copolymers and the development of a family of materials based on alginate and acrylic polymers of potential interest as drug delivery systems.

  3. Antitussive activity of polysaccharides isolated from the Malian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutovská, M; Franová, S; Priseznaková, L; Nosálová, G; Togola, A; Diallo, D; Paulsen, B S; Capek, P

    2009-04-01

    From the leaves of popular Malian medicinal plants Trichilia emetica (TE) and Opilia celtidifolia (OC), and fruits of Crossopteryx febrifuga (CF) water and water-ethanol soluble polysaccharide materials were isolated. The results of chemical analysis of the crude polysaccharides showed the dominance of the arabinogalactan ( approximately 54%) and the rhamnogalacturonan ( approximately 30%) in T. emetica leaves, the arabinogalactan ( approximately 60%), the rhamnogalacturonan ( approximately 14%) and the glucuronoxylan ( approximately 14%) in O. celtidifolia leaves, and pectic type of polysaccharides ( approximately 75%) with a lower content of the arabinogalactan ( approximately 17%) in C. febrifuga fruits. The plant polysaccharides showed various biological effects on the citric acid-induced cough reflex and reactivity of airways smooth muscle in vivo conditions. T. emetica and O. celtidifolia polysaccharides possessed significant cough-suppressive effect on chemically induced cough. Furthermore, values of specific airways resistance pointed on bronchodilatory property of polysaccharides isolated from O. celtidifolia. However, the crude extract from C. febrifuga in the same dose as T. emetica and O. celtidifolia did not influence the experimentally induced cough as well as reactivity of airways smooth muscle despite of the fact that the water-ethanol extract is recommended for cough therapy in Mali in the form of syrup. PMID:19150368

  4. Correlation Between Chain Architecture and Hydration Water Structure in Polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossutti, Michael; Dutcher, John R

    2016-03-14

    The physical properties of confined water can differ dramatically from those of bulk water. Hydration water associated with polysaccharides provides a particularly interesting example of confined water, because differences in polysaccharide structure provide different spatially confined environments for water sorption. We have used attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to investigate the structure of hydration water in films of three different polysaccharides under controlled relative humidity (RH) conditions. We compare the results obtained for films of highly branched, dendrimer-like phytoglycogen nanoparticles to those obtained for two unbranched polysaccharides, hyaluronic acid (HA), and chitosan. We find similarities between the water structuring in the two linear polysaccharides and significant differences for phytoglycogen. In particular, the results suggest that the high degree of branching in phytoglycogen leads to a much more well-ordered water structure (low density, high connectivity network water), indicating the strong influence of chain architecture on the structuring of water. These measurements provide unique insight into the relationship between the structure and hydration of polysaccharides, which is important for understanding and exploiting these sustainable nanomaterials in a wide range of applications.

  5. Oral versus postingestive origin of polysaccharide appetite in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, A; Nissenbaum, J W

    1987-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that rats consume substantial amounts of polysaccharide solutions, even if the solutions are made bitter with the addition of sucrose octa acetate (SOA). The present experiment used the gastric sham-feeding preparation to determine if it is the orosensory or postingestive properties of polysaccharides that motivate rats to consume polysaccharide (Polycose) solutions. In Experiment 1, food deprived rats sham fed less of a 0.05% SOA + 32% Polycose solution than they did of a 32% glucose solution, but their SOA-Polycose intake was still considerable (44 ml/hr). The same rats refused to sham feed SOA-gum and SOA-sugar solutions that were similar to the SOA-Polycose solution in bitter taste, viscosity and free sugar content. In Experiment 2, rats sham fed as much of a 32% Polycose solution as they did of a 32% sucrose solution. Despite the gastric fistula, some of the ingested Polycose was absorbed as evidenced by an increase in the rats' blood glucose levels. The addition of acarbose, a drug that inhibits polysaccharide digestion, to the Polycose solution blocked the increase in blood glucose, but did not reduce the rats' sham feeding of the solution. These findings indicate that it is the orosensory (presumably taste) properties of polysaccharide solutions, not their postingestive effects, that initially attract rats to the solutions. The results question the assumption that polysaccharides are "tasteless" to animals.

  6. Correlation Between Chain Architecture and Hydration Water Structure in Polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossutti, Michael; Dutcher, John R

    2016-03-14

    The physical properties of confined water can differ dramatically from those of bulk water. Hydration water associated with polysaccharides provides a particularly interesting example of confined water, because differences in polysaccharide structure provide different spatially confined environments for water sorption. We have used attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to investigate the structure of hydration water in films of three different polysaccharides under controlled relative humidity (RH) conditions. We compare the results obtained for films of highly branched, dendrimer-like phytoglycogen nanoparticles to those obtained for two unbranched polysaccharides, hyaluronic acid (HA), and chitosan. We find similarities between the water structuring in the two linear polysaccharides and significant differences for phytoglycogen. In particular, the results suggest that the high degree of branching in phytoglycogen leads to a much more well-ordered water structure (low density, high connectivity network water), indicating the strong influence of chain architecture on the structuring of water. These measurements provide unique insight into the relationship between the structure and hydration of polysaccharides, which is important for understanding and exploiting these sustainable nanomaterials in a wide range of applications. PMID:26859153

  7. Phosphorylation of psyllium seed polysaccharide and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Monica R P; Warrier, Deepa U; Gaikwad, Snehal R; Shevate, Prachi M

    2016-04-01

    Psyllium is widely used as a medicinally active natural polysaccharide for treating conditions like constipation, diarrhea, and irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis and colon cancer. Studies have been performed to characterize and modify the polysaccharide obtained from psyllium seed husk and to evaluate its use as a pharmaceutical excipient, but no studies have been performed to evaluate the properties of the polysaccharide present in psyllium seeds. The present study focuses on phosphorylation of psyllium seed polysaccharide (PPS) using sodium tri-meta phosphate as the cross-linking agent. The modified phosphorylated psyllium seed polysaccharide was then evaluated for physicochemical properties, rheological properties, spectral analysis, thermal analysis, crosslinking density and acute oral toxicity studies. The modified polysaccharide (PhPPS) has a high swelling index due to which it can be categorized as a hydrogel. The percent increase in swelling of PhPPS as compared to PPS was found to be 90.26%. The PPS & PhPPS mucilages of all strengths were found to have shear thinning properties. These findings are suggestive of the potential use of PhPPS as gelling & suspending agent. PhPPS was found to have a mucoadhesive property which was comparable with carbopol. PMID:26769088

  8. The Vaccine Safety Datalink: successes and challenges monitoring vaccine safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michael M; Gee, Julianne; Weintraub, Eric S; Belongia, Edward A; Lee, Grace M; Glanz, Jason M; Nordin, James D; Klein, Nicola P; Baxter, Roger; Naleway, Allison L; Jackson, Lisa A; Omer, Saad B; Jacobsen, Steven J; DeStefano, Frank

    2014-09-22

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) is a collaborative project between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and 9 health care organizations. Established in 1990, VSD is a vital resource informing policy makers and the public about the safety of vaccines used in the United States. Large linked databases are used to identify and evaluate adverse events in over 9 million individuals annually. VSD generates rapid, important safety assessments for both routine vaccinations and emergency vaccination campaigns. VSD monitors safety of seasonal influenza vaccines in near-real time, and provided essential information on the safety of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine during the recent pandemic. VSD investigators have published important studies demonstrating that childhood vaccines are not associated with autism or other developmental disabilities. VSD prioritizes evaluation of new vaccines; searches for possible unusual health events after vaccination; monitors vaccine safety in pregnant women; and has pioneered development of biostatistical research methods.

  9. TLR9-adjuvanted pneumococcal conjugate vaccine induces antibody-independent memory responses in HIV-infected adults

    OpenAIRE

    Offersen, Rasmus; Melchjorsen, Jesper; Paludan, Søren R; Østergaard, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Søgaard, Ole S.

    2012-01-01

    HIV-patients have excess of pneumococcal infection. We immunized 40 HIV-patients twice with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar, Pfizer) +/− a TLR9 agonist (CPG 7909). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with pneumococcal polysaccharides and cytokine concentrations measured. The CPG 7909 adjuvant group had significantly higher relative cytokine responses than the placebo group for IL-1β, IL-2R, IL-6, IFN-γ and MIP-β, which, did not correlate with IgG antibody responses. The...

  10. [Current events in vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, M; Aumaître, H; Beytout, J; Bloch, K; Bouhour, D; Callamand, P; Chave, C; Cheymol, J; Combadière, B; Dahlab, A; Denis, F; De Pontual, L; Dodet, B; Dommergues, M-A; Dufour, V; Gagneur, A; Gaillat, J; Gaudelus, J; Gavazzi, G; Gillet, Y; Gras-le-Guen, C; Haas, H; Hanslik, T; Hau-Rainsard, I; Larnaudie, S; Launay, O; Lorrot, M; Loulergue, P; Malvy, D; Marchand, S; Picherot, G; Pinquier, D; Pulcini, C; Rabaud, C; Regnier, F; Reinert, P; Sana, C; Savagner, C; Soubeyrand, B; Stephan, J-L; Strady, C

    2011-11-01

    The annual meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) ; which brought together nearly 5000 participants from over 80 countries in Vancouver, Canada, October 21 to 24, 2010 ; provided a review of the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, evaluated vaccination programmes and presented new vaccines under development. With 12,500 deaths in the United States in 2009-2010, the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic was actually less deadly than the seasonal flu. But it essentially hit the young, and the toll calculated in years of life lost is high. The monovalent vaccines, whether live attenuated or inactivated with or without adjuvants, were well tolerated in toddlers, children, adults and pregnant women. In order to protect infants against pertussis, family members are urged to get their booster shots. The introduction of the 13-valent Pneumococcal conjugated vaccine in the beginning of 2010 may solve - but for how long ? - the problem of serotype replacement, responsible for the re-increasing incidence of invasive Pneumococcal infections observed in countries that had introduced the 7-valent vaccine. The efficacy of a rotavirus vaccine has been confirmed, with a reduction in hospitalization in the United States and a reduction in gastroenteritis-related deaths in Mexico. In the United States, vaccination of pre-adolescents against human papillomavirus (HPV) has not resulted in any specific undesirable effects. Routine vaccination against chicken pox, recommended since 1995, has not had an impact on the evolution of the incidence of shingles. Vaccination against shingles, recommended in the United States for subjects 60 years and over, shows an effectiveness of 55 %, according to a cohort study (Kaiser Permanente, Southern California). Although some propose the development of personalized vaccines according to individual genetic characteristics, the priority remains with increasing vaccine coverage, not only in infants but also in adults and the elderly. Vaccine

  11. Structural studies of the O-specific polysaccharide(s) from the lipopolysaccharide of Azospirillum brasilense type strain Sp7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigida, Elena N; Fedonenko, Yuliya P; Shashkov, Alexander S; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Konnova, Svetlana A; Ignatov, Vladimir V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2013-10-18

    Lipopolysaccharide was obtained by phenol-water extraction from dried bacterial cells of Azospirillum brasilense type strain Sp7. Mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide followed by GPC on Sephadex G-50 resulted in a polysaccharide mixture, which was studied by composition and methylation analyses, Smith degradation and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The following polysaccharide structures were established, where italics indicate a non-stoichiometric (∼40%) 2-O-methylation of l-rhamnose.

  12. The epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in older adults from 2007 to 2014 in Ontario, Canada: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Shalini; Policarpio, Michelle E.; Wong, Kenney; Gubbay, Jonathan; Fediurek, Jill; Deeks, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Ontario, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been sequentially introduced into the publicly funded childhood vaccination program since 2005. A 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) has been routinely recommended for adults aged 65 years and older since 1996. To determine the effect of herd immunity, we examined the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in adults aged 65 years and older. Methods: Invasive pneumococcal disease is a provincially reportable disease. We were therefore able to conduct a descriptive epidemiologic analysis that included assessing time trends for patients aged 65 years and older using surveillance data from 2007 to 2014. Using serotype information within the surveillance data, cases were grouped into categories according to vaccine type and periods and then compared using Poisson regression. Results: A total of 3825 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease were reported among adults aged 65 years and older, for an overall annualized incidence of 25.4 cases per 100 000 population. There was a decrease in incidence due to serotypes included in 7-valent PCV (3.0 to 0.7 cases per 100 000 population) (p herd immunity from the childhood program. A burden of illness due to unique PPV23 serotypes and those that are not covered by a vaccine exists and has increased over time. PMID:27730119

  13. The first dose of a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine reactivates memory B cells: evidence for extensive clonal selection, intraclonal affinity maturation, and multiple isotype switches to IgA2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougs, L; Juul, L; Ditzel, H J;

    1999-01-01

    The Ab response of a healthy adult to the first dose of a Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) conjugate vaccine was studied at the level of Ig gene usage by circulating Ab-secreting cells. Forty-one IgA and 17 IgG mRNA sequences were obtained. The major part...

  14. DNA vaccine: the miniature miracle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Kaliaperumal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA, the essential part of the life is making way in to new vaccine technology. Plasmid vectors from the bacteria have revolutionized the world of vaccine design by its new technology – DNA vaccines. Small portion of the nucleotides from the pathogen held under the control of promoter in a plasmid vector can be used as a vaccine. DNA vaccines alleviate the odds of the other vaccines by having good hold on both the faces of the immunity. The key to the success of DNA vaccine lies in the route of administration of the vaccine which can be done in many ways. Prime boost strategy is an approach used to boost the action of DNA vaccine. To date there are only four DNA vaccine available in the market. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000: 228-232

  15. The polysaccharide from Tamarindus indica (TS-polysaccharide) protects cultured corneal-derived cells (SIRC cells) from ultraviolet rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, L; Lodovici, M; Guglielmi, F; Banchelli, G; Ciuffi, M; Boldrini, E; Pirisino, R

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possible protective effect of a new viscosising agent, TS-polysaccharide, on corneal-derived cells (SIRC) exposed to ultraviolet-B rays. To verify this, SIRC cells were first exposed, in the absence or in the presence of TS-polysaccharide (1% w/v), for 9 s at the UV-B source and then post-incubated for 45 min at 37 degrees C. After this period the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) accumulated in the medium and the concentration of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy-guanosine (8-OHdG) in cell DNA was measured. In addition, the amount of (3)H-methyl-thymidine incorporated in cellular DNA was evaluated after 18 h from irradiation. Our results show that cells exposed to UV-B rays accumulate H(2)O(2), and have higher levels of 8OHdG and a lower amount of (3)H-methyl-thymidine incorporated in DNA than control cells. In the presence of TS-polysaccharide, the H(2)O(2) and 8-OHdG accumulation, and the (3)H-methyl-thymidine incorporation were significantly reduced with respect to the values measured in cells exposed in the absence of the polysaccharide. We propose a protective role of the polysaccharide in reducing UV-B derived DNA damage to eye cells. This finding could be of some clinical importance when the polysaccharide is used as a delivery system for ophthalmic preparations.

  16. Impaired Antigen-Specific Immune Response to Vaccines in Children with Antibody Production Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczawinska-Poplonyk, Aleksandra; Breborowicz, Anna; Samara, Husam; Ossowska, Lidia; Dworacki, Grzegorz

    2015-08-01

    The impaired synthesis of antigen-specific antibodies, which is indispensable for an adaptive immune response to infections, is a fundamental pathomechanism that leads to clinical manifestations in children with antibody production defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synthesis of antigen-specific antibodies following immunization in relation to peripheral blood B cell subsets in young children with hypogammaglobulinemia. Twenty-two children, aged from 8 to 61 months, with a deficiency in one or more major immunoglobulin classes participated in the study. Postvaccination antibodies against tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus, and the capsular Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide antigen were assessed along with an immunophenotypic evaluation of peripheral blood B lymph cell maturation. A deficiency of antibodies against the tetanus toxoid was assessed in 73% of cases and that against the diphtheria toxoid was assessed in 68% of cases, whereas a deficiency of antibodies against the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus was revealed in 59% of the children included in the study. A defective response to immunization with a conjugate vaccine with the Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide antigen was demonstrated in 55% of hypogammaglobulinemic patients. Increased proportions of transitional B lymph cells and an accumulation of plasmablasts accompanied antibody deficiencies. The defective response to vaccine protein and polysaccharide antigens is a predominating disorder of humoral immunity in children with hypogammaglobulinemia and may result from a dysfunctional state of the cellular elements of the immune system. PMID:26018535

  17. An extracellular Staphylococcus epidermidis polysaccharide: relation to Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin and its implication in phagocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiliopoulou Anastasia I

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The skin commensal and opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading cause of hospital-acquired and biomaterial-associated infections. The polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA, a homoglycan composed of β-1,6-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues, synthesized by enzymes encoded in icaADBC is a major functional factor in biofilm accumulation, promoting virulence in experimental biomaterial-associated S. epidermidis infection. Extracellular mucous layer extracts of S. epidermidis contain another major polysaccharide, referred to as 20-kDa polysaccharide (20-kDaPS, composed mainly out of glucose, N-acetylglucosamine, and being partially sulfated. 20-kDaPS antiserum prevents adhesion of S. epidermidis on endothelial cells and development of experimental keratitis in rabbits. Here we provide experimental evidence that 20-kDaPS and PIA represent distinct molecules and that 20-kDaPS is implicated in endocytosis of S. epidermidis bacterial cells by human monocyte-derived macrophages. Results Analysis of 75 clinical coagulase-negative staphylococci from blood-cultures and central venous catheter tips indicated that 20-kDaPS is expressed exclusively in S. epidermidis but not in other coagulase-negative staphylococcal species. Tn917-insertion in various locations in icaADBC in mutants M10, M22, M23, and M24 of S. epidermidis 1457 are abolished for PIA synthesis, while 20-kDaPS expression appears unaltered as compared to wild-type strains using specific anti-PIA and anti-20-kDaPS antisera. While periodate oxidation and dispersin B treatments abolish immuno-reactivity and intercellular adhesive properties of PIA, no abrogative activity is exerted towards 20-kDaPS immunochemical reactivity following these treatments. PIA polysaccharide I-containing fractions eluting from Q-Sepharose were devoid of detectable 20-kDaPS using specific ELISA. Preincubation of non-20-kDaPS-producing clinical strain with increasing amounts of

  18. Flu vaccination in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Siettou

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In periods of seasonal influenza, during pandemic flu in the past and from recent experience that we have the emergence of influenza A (H1N1, pregnant compared with non-pregnant women are at increased risk to get sick and to develop serious complications up to mortality. Purpose: This paper examines the risks that arise for pregnant from contamination with the flu virus and the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Method: The method involves searching review and research studies in Pubmed data base mainly of the 2000 until 2009 and the words were used is pregnancy, flu vaccination, complications of the flu vaccination at the period of pregnancy. Results: Morbidity during periods of seasonal influenza in pregnant women is increased, while in times of pandemic are recorded fatalities. Based on this, specific recommendations have been made for a flu vaccination in pregnant women, both from the CDC, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in the U.S. and other official bodies like the World Health Organization, according to that the constitution of influenza vaccine in the pregnancy is necessary, given that the probability of morbidity in this period is increased at 10%. Conclusions: The studies so far to influenza vaccination in pregnancy, do not record serious complications for pregnant women and infants. However more research needs to be done on the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy.

  19. Parental caregivers of children with developmental disabilities mount a poor antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Stephen; Phillips, Anna C; Drayson, Mark T; Carroll, Douglas

    2009-03-01

    In older populations, caregiving for a spouse with dementia has been associated with a poor antibody response to vaccination. The present study examined whether younger caregivers, specifically the parents of children with developmental disabilities, would also show a diminished antibody response to vaccination. At baseline assessment, 30 parents of children with developmental disabilities and 29 parents of typically developing children completed standard measures of depression, perceived stress, social support, caregiver burden, and child problem behaviours. They also provided a blood sample and were then vaccinated with a pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Further blood samples were taken at 1- and 6-month follow-ups. Caregivers mounted a poorer antibody response to vaccination than control parents at both follow-ups. This effect withstood adjustment for a number of possible confounders and appeared to be, at least in part, mediated by child problem behaviours. The negative impact of caregiving on antibody response to vaccination is not restricted to older spousal caregivers, but is also evident in younger parents caring for children with developmental disabilities. The behavioural characteristics of the care recipients may be a key consideration in whether or not immunity is compromised in this context.

  20. Vaccine acceptance: The UK perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, John A; Mahgoub, Hamid; Shankar, Ananda Giri

    2013-01-01

    The United Kingdom has had a long history with vaccine acceptability dating back to Edward Jenner’s theory of small pox vaccination. More recently, the discredited, Wakefield study published in 1998 continues to cause MMR skepticism. In pregnant women pertussis vaccination has been considerably more successful than influenza vaccination. Influenza vaccine uptake in healthcare workers remains poor. The media, politicians, and health reforms have contributed to the mixed coverage for these vacc...