WorldWideScience

Sample records for 21st international isfg

  1. 21st International Meshing Roundtable

    CERN Document Server

    Weill, Jean-Christophe

    2013-01-01

    This volume contains the articles presented at the 21st International Meshing Roundtable (IMR) organized, in part, by Sandia National Laboratories and was held on October 7–10, 2012 in San Jose, CA, USA. The first IMR was held in 1992, and the conference series has been held annually since. Each year the IMR brings together researchers, developers, and application experts in a variety of disciplines, from all over the world, to present and discuss ideas on mesh generation and related topics. The technical papers in this volume present theoretical and novel ideas and algorithms with practical potential, as well as technical applications in science and engineering, geometric modeling, computer graphics, and visualization.

  2. 21st International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Shutthanandan, V.; Wang, Yongqiang; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Rout, Bibhudutta

    2014-08-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B contains the proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA – 2013). This conference was held in Marriott Waterfront in Seattle, Washington, USA during June 23–28, 2013.

  3. DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinz, M; Carracedo, A; Mayr, W R

    2006-01-01

    with human identifications and causes many DNA laboratories to get involved in DVI tasks. The present recommendations are meant to educate more forensic geneticists about their potential involvement in mass fatality preparedness and possible DVI efforts, as well as to provide practical guidance for each...... of the laboratories' individual tasks. The idea to work on DNA-specific recommendations was born after a round table discussion dealing with the 2004 Tsunami disaster in south east Asia during the 21st congress of the International Society for Forensic Genetics on the Azores, Portugal, in September 2005. The ensuing...... discussion between scientists and pathologists that had been involved in the International Center in Khao Lak, Thailand, revealed the need for the scientific community to be better prepared to answer the local authorities' questions by formulating generally acceptable scientific standards for the most...

  4. 21st International Conference on Domain Decomposition Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Gander, Martin; Halpern, Laurence; Pichot, Géraldine; Sassi, Taoufik; Widlund, Olof

    2014-01-01

    This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 21st international conference on domain decomposition methods in science and engineering held in Rennes, France, June 25-29, 2012. Domain decomposition is an active and interdisciplinary research discipline, focusing on the development, analysis and implementation of numerical methods for massively parallel computers. Domain decomposition methods are among the most efficient solvers for large scale applications in science and engineering. They are based on a solid theoretical foundation and shown to be scalable for many important applications. Domain decomposition techniques can also naturally take into account multiscale phenomena. This book contains the most recent results in this important field of research, both mathematically and algorithmically and allows the reader to get an overview of this exciting branch of numerical analysis and scientific computing.

  5. PREFACE: 21st International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy - ICOLS 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budker, Dmitry; Häffner, Hartmut; Müller, Holger

    2013-12-01

    The 21st International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy (ICOLS) took place at Berkeley, California on 9-14 June 2013. Following the tradition of previous meetings in this series, the conference featured about thirty invited talks broadly covering this burgeoning field of science that refuses to show any sign of saturation after more than half a century of continuous boom. In addition to the invited talks, there were two informative poster sessions, where the more than 300 ICOLS participants had an opportunity to exchange the latest scientific news and ideas while enjoying the gorgeous view of the San Francisco Bay from the vista of the Claremont Hotel, the meeting's venue. The heights of the cultural program of the meeting were excursions to several of the Bay Area gems (including the Lick observatory), as well as the conference banquet where the participants were treated to addresses by an inventor of the laser Professor Charles H Townes, a nonlinear optics pioneer Professor Erwin L Hahn, and one of the previous ICOLS chairs Professor Y R Shen. While the field of Laser Spectroscopy and the series of the bi-annual ICOLS meetings are as 'healthy' as one could imagine, the same cannot be said about the concept of published conference proceedings. With new ways to publish scientific articles and preprints, submitting papers to conference proceedings seems to be rapidly losing popularity. For this meeting, the great interest in attendance and opportunities to present is sharply contrasted with a somewhat sluggish response to the call for submission of the proceedings papers. The present collection represents a dozen or so contributions from the 'hero' invited speakers, to whom we are deeply grateful for submitting their work. We hope that this selection will faithfully convey to the readers the excitement of modern laser spectroscopy. In addition to these papers, we draw the reader's attention to the audio recordings and selected viewgraphs from the invited talks, and

  6. 21st International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Jiang; Dou, Runliang

    2015-01-01

    Being the premier forum for the presentation of new advances and research results in the fields of Industrial Engineering, IEEM 2014 aims to provide a high-level international forum for experts, scholars and entrepreneurs at home and abroad to present the recent advances, new techniques and applications face and face, to promote discussion and interaction among academics, researchers and professionals to promote the developments and applications of the related theories and technologies in universities and enterprises and to establish business or research relations to find global partners for future collaboration in the field of Industrial Engineering. All the goals of the international conference are to fulfill the mission of the series conference which is to review, exchange, summarize and promote the latest achievements in the field of industrial engineering and engineering management over the past year and to propose prospects and vision for the further development.

  7. 21st International Conference on DNA Computing and Molecular Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-24

    made. Printed on acid-free paper Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com...increasing K . Using Z3 ’s theory of linear integer arithmetic , we represent the stoichiom- etry of C as two symbolic matrices r E N~xN and p E N~x N...express var- 30 N. Dalchau et al. ious logical and arithmetic functions and operations. More general specifications, for example where intermediate

  8. Libraries in the early 21st century, v.2 an international perspective

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Following the pattern of the first volume, the second volume of Libraries in the early 21st century: An international perspective extends the range of countries covered. Each chapter covers a different country and describes the modern history, development of libraries and library technology. The careful selection of countries achieves good representation of professional library work on all continents.This two-volume work represents an excellent contribution to international librarianship and allows comparative studies both at graduate and professional level.

  9. DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG): an update of the recommendations on the use of Y-STRs in forensic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gusmão, L; Butler, J M; Carracedo, A

    2006-01-01

    The DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG) regularly publishes guidelines and recommendations concerning the application of DNA polymorphisms to the problems of human identification. A previous recommendation published in 2001 has already addressed Y-chromosome po...

  10. A comparative analysis of international frameworks for 21st century competences: implications for national curriculum policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, Joke; Pareja Roblin, N.N.

    2012-01-01

    National curricula need to change drastically to comply with the competences needed for the 21st century. In this paper eight frameworks describing 21st century competences were analysed. A comprehensive search for information about 21st century competences was conducted across the official websites

  11. A Comparative Analysis of International Frameworks for 21st Century Competences: Implications for National Curriculum Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, Joke; Roblin, Natalie Pareja

    2012-01-01

    National curricula need to change drastically to comply with the competences needed for the 21st century. In this paper eight frameworks describing 21st century competences were analysed. A comprehensive search for information about 21st century competences was conducted across the official websites of the selected frameworks, resulting in 32…

  12. A Comparative Analysis of International Frameworks for 21st Century Competences: Implications for National Curriculum Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, Joke; Roblin, Natalie Pareja

    2012-01-01

    National curricula need to change drastically to comply with the competences needed for the 21st century. In this paper eight frameworks describing 21st century competences were analysed. A comprehensive search for information about 21st century competences was conducted across the official websites of the selected frameworks, resulting in 32…

  13. AACR-NCI-EORTC--21st International Symposium. Molecular targets and cancer therapeutics--Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen; Padhiar, Meenal

    2010-01-01

    The 21st international symposium of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), the NCI and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), held in Boston, included topics covering the development of therapeutics and molecular targets in the field of cancer research. This conference report highlights selected presentations on the development of novel drugs for cancer. Investigational drugs discussed include RO-506876 (F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd), GDC-0980 (Genentech Inc), EMD-1214063 and EMD-1204831 (Merck Serono SA), AR-mTOR01 and AR-mTOR-26 (Array BioPharma Inc), GSK-2126458 (GlaxoSmithKline plc), EXEL-1415 and EXEL-2008 (Exelixis Inc), FP-1039 (FivePrime Therapeutics Inc), and AV-412 (AVEO Pharmaceuticals Inc).

  14. Preface: Proceedings of the 21st International Workshop on Inelastic Ion-Surface Collisions (IISC-21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juaristi, J. I.; Alducin, M.

    2016-09-01

    This special issue contains the Proceedings of the 21st International Workshop on Inelastic Ion-Surface Collisions (IISC-21). The conference series started in 1976 and focuses on fundamental aspects of interactions of atoms, molecules, clusters and ions with surfaces. The main research themes are (a) energy loss of particles at surfaces, (b) charge exchange between particles and surfaces, (c) electron, photon and secondary ion emission due to particle impact on surfaces, (d) ion induced desorption, electronic and kinetic sputtering, (e) defect formation, surface modification and nanostructuring, (f) laser induced desorption, (g) scattering of atoms, ions, molecules and clusters, (h) sputtering, fragmentation, cluster and ion formation in SIMS and SNMS, and (i) cluster/molecular and highly charged ion beams.

  15. 21st International Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The 21st International Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics (FB21) will take place at the Crowne Plaza Chicago Metro Downtown Hotel in the West Loop area of Chicago, Illinois, USA, from May 18th to 22nd, 2015. The first conference of this series took place in London in 1959 and subsequent meetings were held in Brela (1967), Birmingham (1969), Budapest (1971), Los Angeles (1972), Laval (1974), Delhi (1976), Graz (1978), Eugene (1980), Karlsruhe (1983), Sendai (1986), Vancouver (1989), Adelaide (1992), Williamsburg (1994), Groningen (1997), Taipei (2000), Durham (2003),Santos (2006),Bonn (2009),and Fukuoka (2012) see also "History". FB21 will be conducted with the principles passed by the General Assembly in 2008. In particular, no bona fide scientist will be excluded from participation on the grounds of national origin, nationality, or political considerations unrelated to science.

  16. International Order in the 21st Century and China's Foreign Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Liru; Fu Mengzi; Yuan Peng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Dramatic changes have occurred in the post-Cold War world strategic configuration and international order with their replacements burgeoning. This confronts nations, big powers in particular, with new strategic choices. Indeed unfolding before us is a contention among them for seizing the initiative in the emerging international landscape in the 21st century.Thus how to correctly assess and respond to these changes for pursuing a reasonable strategy and selecting a right policy option is not only a matter of primary concern for the academic community, but also a major foreign policy task before a rapidly growing China. For this, a symposium on this theme was recently sponsored by the Editorial Department of Contemporary International Relations to solicit from a dozen or so Beijingbased well-known scholars and experts for their views on and policy suggestions for such issues as the current overall strategic picture, global configuration, trends of the international order and the strategic environment facing China. Excerpts of their major views are as follows.

  17. ISFG: Recommendations on biostatistics in paternity testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjertson, David W; Brenner, Charles H; Baur, Max P

    2007-01-01

    The Paternity Testing Commission (PTC) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics has taken up the task of establishing the biostatistical recommendations in accordance with the ISO 17025 standards and a previous set of ISFG recommendations specific to the genetic investigations in patern......The Paternity Testing Commission (PTC) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics has taken up the task of establishing the biostatistical recommendations in accordance with the ISO 17025 standards and a previous set of ISFG recommendations specific to the genetic investigations...

  18. Window for Russia and Eastern Europe——The 21st International China Harbin Fair for Trade and Economic Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2010-01-01

    @@ The 21st International China Harbin Fair for Trade and conomic Cooperation will be held in Harbin International Conference and Exhibition Center from June 15 to 19, 2010. At this edition of China Harbin Trade Fair,there will be 3000 international standard booths available,with a total indoor and outdoor exhibition area of 86,000Uare meters, according to the announcement from Mr. Sun Yao, Vice governor of Heilongjiang Province on March 26,2010 in Beijing.

  19. The Large Marine Ecosystem Approach for 21st Century Ocean Health and International Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The global coastal ocean and watersheds are divided into 66 Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs), which encompass regions from river basins, estuaries, and coasts to the seaward boundaries of continental shelves and margins of major currents. Approximately 80% of global fisheries catch comes from LME waters. Ecosystem goods and services from LMEs contribute an estimated US 18-25 trillion dollars annually to the global economy in market and non-market value. The critical importance of these large-scale systems, however, is threatened by human populations and pressures, including climate change. Fortunately, there is pragmatic reason for optimism. Interdisciplinary frameworks exist, such as the Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) approach for adaptive management that can integrate both nature-centric and human-centric views into ecosystem monitoring, assessment, and adaptive management practices for long-term sustainability. Originally proposed almost 30 years ago, the LME approach rests on five modules are: (i) productivity, (ii) fish and fisheries, (iii) pollution and ecosystem health, (iv) socioeconomics, and (v) governance for iterative adaptive management at a large, international scale of 200,000 km2 or greater. The Global Environment Facility (GEF), World Bank, and United Nations agencies recognize and support the LME approach—as evidenced by over 3.15 billion in financial assistance to date for LME projects. This year of 2014 is an exciting milestone in LME history, after 20 years of the United Nations and GEF organizations adopting LMEs as a unit for ecosystem-based approaches to management. The LME approach, however, is not perfect. Nor is it immutable. Similar to the adaptive management framework it propones, the LME approach itself must adapt to new and emerging 21st Century technologies, science, and realities. The LME approach must further consider socioeconomics and governance. Within the socioeconomics module alone, several trillion-dollar opportunities exist

  20. The current skills gaps in analytical sciences are failing industry: debate at the 21st International Reid Bioanalytical Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Neil; Sangster, Timothy

    2016-07-01

    21st International Reid Bioanalytical Forum, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK, 7-10 September 2015 The 21st International Reid Bioanalytical Forum held between 7 and 10 September 2015, brought together over 100 scientists from around the world, representing industry, academia and vendors, for 4 days of engaging science at the University of Surrey in Guildford, UK. The scientific program consisted of 43 podium and 23 poster presentations from key opinion leaders and those just setting out on their scientific career. The latter being the focus of the meeting. One of the highlights of the forum was the debate. An expert panel helped spark off an active discussion among a passionate audience on the topic of 'The Current Skills Gaps in Analytical Sciences are Failing Industry.'

  1. Asylum vs sovereignty in the 21st century: How nation-state's breach international law to block access to asylum.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Asylum was created by the international community in the 20th century to provide legal protection to individuals fleeing persecution by nation states; but the ability to secure asylum has been fundamentally reshaped by sovereign national interests in the 21st century. This paper has two objectives. First it explores the various ways in which nation-states have adopted policies and pursued agendas which prevent asylum seekers from gaining access to countries of asylum, which criminalize many w...

  2. Comparison of US Birth Weight References and the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozuki, Naoko; Katz, Joanne; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    variance. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We examine neonatal mortality (death within the first 28 days after birth) as the main outcome measure. RESULTS: The pooled SGA prevalence was 23.7% (95% CI, 16.5%-31.0%) using the INTERGROWTH-21st standard compared with 36.0% (95% CI, 27.0%-45.0%) with the US 2000...... and no significant change in the associated neonatal mortality risk, resulting in a decrease in the percentage of neonatal death attributable to SGA. Our study sheds light on how previously published studies on SGA status may be reinterpreted with the introduction of this new birth weight standard.......) status. OBJECTIVES: To compare the birth weight distributions of the INTERGROWTH-21st international standard to commonly used US references and examine the differences in the prevalence and neonatal mortality risk of SGA status (below the 10th percentile of a population reference). DESIGN, SETTING...

  3. Developing skills for youth in the 21st century: The role of elite International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme schools in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ewan; Lee, Moosung

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing body of research suggesting that schools need to respond to changing social and economic dynamics by prioritising "21st-century skills". Proponents of this view, who have been termed "the 21st century skills movement", have called for greater emphasis on cognitive and non-cognitive skills development, alongside the learning of subject content and technical skills. This paper explores the potential of International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) schools to respond to this mandate in China, one of the fastest-growing markets for International Baccalaureate® (IB) schools globally. The authors' research team undertook a multi-site case study of five elite IBDP schools in China. Their findings revealed confidence among interviewees that the IB educational philosophy was conducive to 21st-century skills development, especially through the provision of the three IBDP "Core Requirements", which are Creativity, Action, Service (CAS), Extended Essay (EE) and Theory of Knowledge (TOK). Despite this confidence, concerns remain about the implementation of the IB educational philosophy in the context of IBDP schools in China.

  4. International Reports. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; A Canadian-American Librarianship or an American-Canadian Librarianship in the 21st Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabb, Winston; Birdsall, William F.

    2002-01-01

    Includes two reports: one from the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) that discusses digital libraries, standards, collaboration, and membership and structure of IFLA; and one that considers Canadian-American librarianship in the 21st century, including federal government policy, copyright reform, and…

  5. PREFACE: 21st International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, H.; Bonacorsi, D.; Ueda, I.; Lyon, A.

    2015-12-01

    quickly formed, have already started, and presumably have also followed previously unpredictable directions. In this scenario, it is normal and healthy for the entire community to question itself as of whether it is a set of proceedings the best way to document and communicate to peers (present and future) the work that has been done at a precise time and the vivid and live ideas of a precise moment in the evolution of the discipline. Pointing the attention to a specific CHEP event alone does not give the right answer: in fact, the heritage value lies in the quality and continuity of the documentation work, despite the changes of times, trends and actors. The CHEP proceedings, in their variety and thanks to the condensed form of knowledge they offer, are what most likely will be more easily preserved for future generations, thanks to the outstanding efforts over digital libraries for all kinds of cultural heritage. Since 1985, this long-standing tradition continued with the 21st CHEP edition in Okinawa. The successful model that brings together high-energy and nuclear physicist and computer scientists was repeated in the Okinawa prefecture, an outstanding location consisting of a few dozen small islands in the southern half of the Nansei Shoto, the island chain which stretches over about one thousand kilometres from Kyushu to Taiwan. The OIST (Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology) centre hosted the event, and offered an outstanding location and efficient facilities for the event. As for the CHEP history, contributions from 'general purpose' physics experiments mixed together with highly specialized work on the frontier of precision and intensity. The year 2015 is marked by the LHC restart in Run 2. Experimental groups at the LHC reviewed and presented their Run 1 experiences in detail, and reported the work done in acquiring the latest computing and software technologies, as well as in evolving their computing models in preparation for Run 2 (and beyond). On the

  6. Yakutia and International Scientific Cooperation on Arctic Studies. The End of 20th – Beginning of 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleymanov Aleksandr Albertovich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issues of participation of Yakutia in the international scientific cooperation in the Arctic during the last decade of the 20th and the first years of the 21st century. The author describes the history of realization of the international initiatives for studying social and cultural transformations and challenges of life of Arctic Indigenous Peoples, studying natural phenomena and processes, as well as environmental protection in the Yakutia’s Arctic and their main results on the basis of a set of archival documents, English- and Frenchlanguage materials. The author called the most important factors that determine the extent of joint research of Russian scientists and their foreign colleagues, identified the key participants (scientists from Great Britain, Germany, Canada, Russia, Finland, France and Japan, forms (collection of field data, its processing and laboratory analysis; provision of academic institutions of Yakutia, their research base, provision of special equipment for foreign partners; coordination of research and the exchange of the data obtained; organization of conferences and workshops; organization of protected areas; publication of research results, and mechanisms (organization of special structures to intensify and coordinate research; association of research through a unified methodology; elaboration of international programs and projects, taking into account the potential of the involved parties – financing, tools and staff of international scientific cooperation development.

  7. The Internal Medicine of the 21st century: Organizational and operational standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casariego-Vales, E; Zapatero-Gaviria, A; Elola-Somoza, F J

    2017-07-19

    The Spanish Society of Internal Medicine has developed a consensus document on the standards and recommendations that they consider essential to the organisation of internal medicine units for conducting their activities efficiently and with high quality. We defined 3 groups of key processes: the care of acutely ill adult patients, the comprehensive care of complex chronic patients and the examination of a patient with a difficult diagnosis and no organ-specific disease. As support processes, we identified the structure and operation of the Internal Medicine units. As strategic processes, we identified training and research. The main subprocesses are structured below, and we established the standards and recommendations for each of them. Lastly, we proposed resulting workloads. The prepared standards must be reviewed within a maximum of 4 years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  8. Libraries in the early 21st century, volume 1 An international perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Ravindra

    2012-01-01

    This unique volume gives a truly international overview over the modern history and development of libraries and library technology in selected countries of the world. The careful selection of countries achieves good representation of library work on all continents, covering examples of both the developed and the developing world. A further volume with further national profiles is planned for 2012. This multivolume work represents an excellent contribution to international librarianship and allows comparative studies both at graduate and professional level. Many of the contributors are well-kn

  9. Marine Language Exchange Program: A 21st Century International and Interdisciplinary Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robigou, V.; Nichols-Pecceu, M.

    2001-12-01

    The ability of scientists to communicate across cultural and linguistic barriers is crucial for the global economic sustainability and protection of the world\\'{}s oceans. Yet students with majors in the sciences and engineering constitute less than 2% of those who study abroad each year. And even rarer are students who study in countries where English is not the first language. The Marine Language Exchange program is a case study of an international and interdisciplinary collaboration between faculties in the languages and the sciences who address this gap. A consortium of U.S. and European institutions including Eckerd College (Florida), University of Washington (Washington), University of Hilo (Hawaii), Université de la Rochelle (France), Université de Liège (Belgium), and Universidad de Las Palmas (Spain) is developing a multilingual, marine sciences exchange program in an effort to internationalize their Marine Sciences departments. The program includes a three-week, intensive "bridge" course designed to reinforce second language skills in the context of marine sciences, and prepare undergraduate students for the cultural and educational differences of their host country. Following this immersion experience students from each institution enroll in courses abroad including marine sciences specialization for full academic credit. This session will review the Marine Language Exchange program activities since 2000 and will discuss the ideological and practical aspects of the program. The program successes, difficulties and future directions will also be presented. Different disciplinary approaches -Second Language Acquisition, English as a Second Language and Marine Science- prepare science students to contribute to the study and the management of the world\\'{}s oceans with an awareness of the cultural issues reflected by national marine policies. Based on this case study, other universities could initiate their own international and interdisciplinary

  10. Welcome to the 21st International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Dear Participants and Guests On behalf of the Rector's Office, welcome to St. Petersburg University, one of the oldest, largest and most prestigious universities in Russia. The 12 Colleges Building (named after the Collegia of Peter the Great's time, Ministries in the modern sense of the word) has been home to the University since 1804. St. Petersburg State University is the successor of the first Russian University founded by Peter the Great on 24 January 1724. It's distinguished faculty members include mathematicians Chebyshev and Smirnov, physicists Lenz and Fock, chemists Mendeleev and Butlerov, embryologist Kovalevsky, and physiologist Sechenov. Several of our alumni won Nobel Prizes - Pavlov, Semenov, Kantorovich, Landau and Prokhorov. The University is the alma mater of two presidents of Russia, Vladimir Putin and Dmitry Medvedev. St. Petersburg State University today consists of 19 faculties on two campuses: in the historic downtown, on Vasilyevsky Island, and in Peterhof. The Faculty of Physics carries out research projects through the efforts of 260 employees, of which 150 hold doctoral degrees, and 50 have been awarded Grand Doctorates. The work is done in a vast variety of areas, from the physics of elementary particles to the physics of the atmosphere. Optics and spectroscopy has been a particularly significant area of research. This field of inquiry goes back to the work of Academician D S Rozhdestvensky more than 70 years ago, when he first suggested his famous hook method. After him the work was headed by S Frisch, corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences and editor-in-chief of Optics and Spectroscopy Journal. Today research projects in optics involve over 50 staff members, graduate and post-graduate students. Work involves projects on spectroscopy of cold and hot plasma, atomic and molecular spectroscopy, non-linear spectroscopy and spectroscopic analysis. Our scholars support active international ties with their colleagues worldwide. The

  11. The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century: A Case for an International Police Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Globalization The spread of technology that has resulted in increased information flow has also fostered the spread of global business . Multi-national...corporations are now the rule rather than the exception when it comes to 21st Century business. The reality of a global business community that

  12. International Leaders Summit: using dialogue to Center the Conversation on the Education of Deaf Children and Youth in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John L

    2011-01-01

    Om July 18, 2010, the eve of the 21st International Congress on the Education of the Deaf (ICED 2010), the International Leaders Summit was held at the Center for Dialogue at Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada. A total of 120 world leaders from 32 countries participated. Presenters, including students, led the conversation on current perspectives, teacher preparation, worldwide resources, and major issues affecting the education of d/Deaf and hard of hearing infants, children, and youth. Summit participants recognized that advances in detection, early intervention, and technology present challenges in meeting the needs of a student population more diverse than at any other stage in history. While it was acknowledged that needs differ in various parts of the world, there was a consensus that change is required to prepare students to handle challenges in the 21st century.

  13. Science diplomacy in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoroff, Nina V

    2009-01-01

    Science diplomacy is the use of scientific collaborations among nations to address the common problems facing 21(st) century humanity and to build constructive international partnerships. There are many ways that scientists can contribute to this process.

  14. Defining a Communications Satellite Policy System for the 21st Century: A Model for a International Legal Framework and A New _Code of Conduct_

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    1996-02-01

    This paper addresses the changing international communications environment and explores the key elements of a new policy framework for the 21st Century. It addresses the issues related to changing markets, trade considerations, standards, regulatory changes and international institutions and law. The most important aspects will related to new international policy and regulatory frameworks and in particular to a new international code of ethics and behavior in the field of satellite communications. A new communications satellite policy framework requires systematically addressing the following points: • Multi-lateral agreements at the nation state and the operating entity level • Systematic means to access both private and public capital • Meshing ITU regulations with regional and national policy guidelines including • landing rights" and national allocation procedures. • Systematic approach to local partnerships • Resolving the issue of the relative standing of various satellite systems (i.e. GEO, MEO, and LEO systems) • Resolving the rights, duties, and priorities of satellite facility providers versus types of service prviders. Beyond this policy framework and generalized legal infrastructure there is also another need. This is a need that arises from both increased globalism and competitive international markets. This is what might quite simply be called a "code of reasonable conduct:" To provide global and international communications services effectively and well in the 21st Century will require more than meeting minimum international legal requirements. A new "code of conduct" for global satellite communications will thus likely need to address: • Privacy and surveillance • Ethics of transborder data flow • Censorship and moral values • Cultural and linguistic sensitivity • Freedom of the press and respect for journalistic standards As expanding global information and telecommunications systems grow and impact every aspect of modern

  15. International dimensions of higher education in nursing in Canada: tapping the wisdom of the 20th century while embracing possibilities for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Linda D; Paul, Pauline; Burgess-Pinto, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    New focus on the internationalization of universities occurred in the late 20th century and higher education in nursing has been quick to embrace the opportunities. In this manuscript, writers provide a brief overview of the nursing and more general literature from the late 20th century relating to key dimensions of internationalization, as well as present data from a survey conducted in 1995-96 of the international activities and dimensions at Canadian faculties/schools of nursing. While it is clear that nurses in Canadian universities were engaged in significant international endeavours in the 20th century, the literature and our experience suggest that the extent of such activity has increased substantially in recent years. Discussion centres on examination of how knowledge generated in the 20th century can inform current internationalization initiatives and on identification of key questions that merit consideration as we move forward in the 21st century.

  16. Developing Degrees: An Exploratory Analysis of Laureate International Universities' 21st Century Entry into Mexico and Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, Beau Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Laureate International Universities (LIU) embodies an emerging international phenomenon in which a multinational corporation (MNC) functions as a holding company that acquires and operates brick-and-mortar higher education institutions in a for-profit model; each individual portfolio institution granting degrees under its own name with any…

  17. The 21st Century as Whose Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Scott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Macro-analysis and East-West encounter are shown through consideration of objective yet subjective constructed concepts for the international system and international economy in the 21st century. Three paradigms are considered, namely the 21st century as the ‘Pacific Century’, as ‘China’s Century’ and as the ‘Asian Century’. Overlaps are shown between these three paradigms, as also developments in time, and gradually shift in geographical location. The ‘Pacific Century’, and its associated Rimspeak, was the paradigm emerging in the late 1970s, knitting together America’s West Coast and the Japanese economy. By the late 1980s this was already shifting to talk of the 21st century likely to be an ‘Asian Century’ model, mark-1, based on the Pacific Asia dynamism shown by the ‘Asian Tigers’ and Japan. However, the Asian financial crash of 1997-8, and the economic downturn in Japan, meant that such an ‘Asian Century’ seemed premature as the 21st century arrived. Instead, it was China’s economic growth that seemed most evident, and with it the concept of the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’. However, in turn that has already been modified during the first decade of the century by India’s arrival as a rapidly growing economy. Consequently the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’ and as ‘India’s Century’ has been combined into talk of an ‘Asian Century’, mark-2.

  18. Toward the 21st Century for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Ruth H.

    1975-01-01

    The International Women's Year Conference decided that the key to the future for women throughout the world was continuing education enabling women to gain a sense of self realization, promote family life, increase options, and to contribute their talents to a better world in the 21st century. (Author/BP)

  19. ISFG: Recommendations on biostatistics in paternity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjertson, David W; Brenner, Charles H; Baur, Max P; Carracedo, Angel; Guidet, Francois; Luque, Juan A; Lessig, Rüdiger; Mayr, Wolfgang R; Pascali, Vince L; Prinz, Mechthild; Schneider, Peter M; Morling, Niels

    2007-12-01

    The Paternity Testing Commission (PTC) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics has taken up the task of establishing the biostatistical recommendations in accordance with the ISO 17025 standards and a previous set of ISFG recommendations specific to the genetic investigations in paternity cases. In the initial set, the PTC recommended that biostatistical evaluations of paternity are based on a likelihood ratio principle - yielding the paternity index, PI. Here, we have made five supplementary biostatistical recommendations. The first recommendation clarifies and defines basic concepts of genetic hypotheses and calculation concerns needed to produce valid PIs. The second and third recommendations address issues associated with population genetics (allele probabilities, Y-chromosome markers, mtDNA, and population substructuring) and special circumstances (deficiency/reconstruction and immigration cases), respectively. The fourth recommendation considers strategies regarding genetic evidence against paternity. The fifth recommendation covers necessary documentation, reporting details and assumptions underlying calculations. The PTC strongly suggests that these recommendations should be adopted by all laboratories involved in paternity testing as the basis for their biostatistical analysis.

  20. Changing Academic Mobility Patterns and International Migration: What Will Academic Mobility Mean in the 21St Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Several scholars have underlined connections between academic mobility and international migration. This qualitative study explores a spectrum of academic mobility articulated by Teichler that empirically contributes to consideration of these connections. This analysis of e-mail excerpts from 20 migrant academics, living in seven countries,…

  1. Measuring up to the challenges of the 21st century. An international evaluation of the Centre for Metrology and Accreditation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapman, P.; Kaarls, R.; Temmes, M.

    1997-04-01

    The international evaluation of the Centre for Metrology and Accreditation (MIKES) is part of the process in which all relevant industrial and technology policy measures and organizations under the auspices of the Ministry of Trade and Industry (MTI) are being evaluated with the aim of improving their effectiveness. The overall conclusion of the evaluation is that MIKES is serving the country well. An effective national measurement system (FINMET) is being maintained which provides a wide range of calibration services covering most of the nation`s needs. The accreditation service (FINAS) is now well established, is operating effectively, and has good prospects for growth. The evaluators present, however, a number of proposals (including 33 specific recommendations) where they feel that the metrology and accreditation arrangements could be better-suited to meet future national and international challenges. According to the recommendations the Finnish quality policy framework should be developed in a consistent way. There is a need of a comprehensive governmental quality policy statement upon which the inter-ministry coordination and harmonization of various conformity assessment activities can be based. MIKES should retain its current status as an agency within MTI. The national measurement system should be more centralised and a new purpose-built national standards laboratory should be procured. The responsibility for legal metrology should be transferred to MIKES. The terms of reference and membership of Advisory Committee for Metrology, as well as the Advisory Committee for Accreditation should be revised to ensure wider representation of all relevant, and especially industrial interests

  2. Improving hospital care and collaborative communications for the 21st century: key recommendations for general internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Robert C; Lo, Vivian; Rossos, Peter; Kuziemsky, Craig; O'Leary, Kevin J; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Reeves, Scott; Wong, Brian M; Morra, Dante

    2012-09-24

    Communication and collaboration failures can have negative impacts on the efficiency of both individual clinicians and health care system delivery as well as on the quality of patient care. Recognizing the problems associated with clinical and collaboration communication, health care professionals and organizations alike have begun to look at alternative communication technologies to address some of these inefficiencies and to improve interprofessional collaboration. To develop recommendations that assist health care organizations in improving communication and collaboration in order to develop effective methods for evaluation. An interprofessional meeting was held in a large urban city in Canada with 19 nationally and internationally renowned experts to discuss suitable recommendations for an ideal communication and collaboration system as well as a research framework for general internal medicine (GIM) environments. In designing an ideal GIM communication and collaboration system, attendees believed that the new system should possess attributes that aim to: a) improve workflow through prioritization of information and detection of individuals' contextual situations; b) promote stronger interprofessional relationships with adequate exchange of information; c) enhance patient-centered care by allowing greater patient autonomy over their health care information; d) enable interoperability and scalability between and within institutions; and e) function across different platforms. In terms of evaluating the effects of technology in GIM settings, participants championed the use of rigorous scientific methods that span multiple perspectives and disciplines. Specifically, participants recommended that consistent measures and definitions need to be established so that these impacts can be examined across individual, group, and organizational levels. Discussions from our meeting demonstrated the complexities of technological implementations in GIM settings

  3. DNA commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P; Brenner, C H; Buckleton, J S;

    2006-01-01

    The DNA commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG) was convened at the 21st congress of the International Society for Forensic Genetics held between 13 and 17 September in the Azores, Portugal. The purpose of the group was to agree on guidelines to encourage best practice...... that can be universally applied to assist with mixture interpretation. In addition the commission was tasked to provide guidance on low copy number (LCN) reporting. Our discussions have highlighted a significant need for continuing education and research into this area. We have attempted to present...

  4. 21st International Seapower Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    issue. People will debate whether it is a real issue or not. I tend to subscribe to the theories and science that we were presented with earlier. But...States], you asked a great question about the weather and the implications of that. There are icebergs in the Atlantic and in the Pacific. In the...the world see a growing number of icebergs making their way south into the sea lanes as they get pushed down through the west coast of Greenland and

  5. The International System in the 21st Century: Considering the U.S. Role. Third Edition. Teacher Resource Book [and Student Text]. Public Policy Debate in the Classroom. Choices for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Sarah Cleveland

    Although the attacks of September 11, 2001, present new challenges and priorities for U.S. policy, it is uncertain what direction international relations will take. China's growth and power, Russia's political and economic problems, resentment and corruption in Russia, and global warming effect policymaking. While the war on terrorism may be a…

  6. PREFACE: International Symposium on Materials Science and Innovation for Sustainable Society - Eco-Materials and Eco-Innovation for Global Sustainability - The 21st Iketani Conference 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yasuo

    2012-08-01

    Conference logo The 21st century has been called the century of environmental revolution. Green innovations and environmentally friendly production systems based on physics, chemistry, materials science, and electronic engineering will be indispensable for ensuring renewable energy and establishing a sustainable society. In particular, production design, materials processing, and fabrication technologies such as welding and joining will be very important components of such green innovations. For these reasons, the International Symposium on Materials Science and Innovation for Sustainable Society - eco-materials and eco-innovation for global sustainability - (ECO-MATES 2011) was organized by the Joining and Welding Research Institute (JWRI) and the Center of Environmental Innovation Design for Sustainability (CEIDS), Osaka University. ECO-MATES 2011 was held at Hotel Hankyu Expo Park, Osaka, Japan from 28-30 November 2011. 435 participants from 20 countries around the world attended the symposium. 149 oral presentations including 60 invited talks and 160 posters were presented at the symposium to discuss the latest research and developments in green innovations in relation to environmental issues. The topics of the symposium covered all environmentally related fields including renewable energy, energy-materials, environment and resources, waste and biomass, power electronics, semiconductor, rare-earth metals, functional materials, organic electronics materials, electronics packaging, smart processing, joining and welding, eco-efficient processes, and green applied physics and chemistry. Therefore, 55 full papers concerning green innovations and environmentally benign production were selected and approved by the editorial board and the program committee of ECO-MATES 2011. All papers were accepted through peer review processes. I believe that all the papers have many informative contents. On behalf of the steering committee of the symposium, I would like to express

  7. Clinical presentation, etiology, and outcome of infective endocarditis in the 21st century: the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, David R; Corey, G Ralph; Hoen, Bruno; Miró, José M; Fowler, Vance G; Bayer, Arnold S; Karchmer, Adolf W; Olaison, Lars; Pappas, Paul A; Moreillon, Philippe; Chambers, Stephen T; Chu, Vivian H; Falcó, Vicenç; Holland, David J; Jones, Philip; Klein, John L; Raymond, Nigel J; Read, Kerry M; Tripodi, Marie Francoise; Utili, Riccardo; Wang, Andrew; Woods, Christopher W; Cabell, Christopher H

    2009-03-09

    We sought to provide a contemporary picture of the presentation, etiology, and outcome of infective endocarditis (IE) in a large patient cohort from multiple locations worldwide. Prospective cohort study of 2781 adults with definite IE who were admitted to 58 hospitals in 25 countries from June 1, 2000, through September 1, 2005. The median age of the cohort was 57.9 (interquartile range, 43.2-71.8) years, and 72.1% had native valve IE. Most patients (77.0%) presented early in the disease (<30 days) with few of the classic clinical hallmarks of IE. Recent health care exposure was found in one-quarter of patients. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen (31.2%). The mitral (41.1%) and aortic (37.6%) valves were infected most commonly. The following complications were common: stroke (16.9%), embolization other than stroke (22.6%), heart failure (32.3%), and intracardiac abscess (14.4%). Surgical therapy was common (48.2%), and in-hospital mortality remained high (17.7%). Prosthetic valve involvement (odds ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.90), increasing age (1.30; 1.17-1.46 per 10-year interval), pulmonary edema (1.79; 1.39-2.30), S aureus infection (1.54; 1.14-2.08), coagulase-negative staphylococcal infection (1.50; 1.07-2.10), mitral valve vegetation (1.34; 1.06-1.68), and paravalvular complications (2.25; 1.64-3.09) were associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death, whereas viridans streptococcal infection (0.52; 0.33-0.81) and surgery (0.61; 0.44-0.83) were associated with a decreased risk. In the early 21st century, IE is more often an acute disease, characterized by a high rate of S aureus infection. Mortality remains relatively high.

  8. 21世纪核心素养:国际认知及本土反思%Essential Skills for the 21st Century:Voices from International Community and Its Refection in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕珺

    2016-01-01

    Recently ,Chinese Ministry of Education released the “Core Competence Model of Chinese Student Development (Draft)” for public consultation ,therefore“core competence” is rapidly becom‐ing a hot topic in basic education .“Core competence” is also know n as the “21st century skills” in the international community .With the rapid flow of international population and capital ,and change of the social value chain brought by science and technology in the 21st century ,UNESCO ,OECD and other international organizations as well as some international scholars have actually kept thinking what kind of capacity is needed for the 21st century since 1990s .There is no uniform answer ,but a consensus on the importance of values and the real situation for non‐rule‐based complex ways of think‐ing and complex ways of working in the international community .In addition ,when “21st century skills” is discussed in China ,the following issues are still worth to be discussed :how to deal with the relationship between disciplines and interdisciplinary thematic learning ,how to deal with relationship between cognitive skills and non‐cognitive skills ,and how to deal with relationship between national i‐dentification and global aw areness .%最近,教育部公布了《中国学生发展核心素养(征求意见稿)》,“核心素养”迅速成为了基础教育领域众所关注的热点。“核心素养”,国际社会称之为“21世纪核心素养”。为积极应对21世纪国际人口与资金的快速流动和科学技术给社会价值链条带来的巨大变化,联合国教科文组织、经合组织等国际组织和部分国际学者早在20世纪末,就开始思考21世纪到底需要培养什么样的人。尽管国际社会对此尚无统一的答案,但他们均强调价值观的重要性,强调真实情境和非常规复杂思维的重要性。此外,在关于“21世纪核心素养”的讨论中,以下几组关系

  9. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  10. Challenges to learning and schooling in the digital networked world of the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, Joke; Erstad, O.; Dede, C.; Mishra, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article elaborates on the competencies, often referred to as 21st century competencies, that are needed to be able to live in and contribute to our current (and future) society. We begin by describing, analysing and reflecting on international frameworks describing 21st century competencies,

  11. Challenges to Learning and Schooling in the Digital Networked World of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, J.; Erstad, O.; Dede, C.; Mishra, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article elaborates on the competencies, often referred to as 21st century competencies, that are needed to be able to live in and contribute to our current (and future) society. We begin by describing, analysing and reflecting on international frameworks describing 21st century competencies, giving special attention to digital literacy as one…

  12. Challenges to Learning and Schooling in the Digital Networked World of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, J.; Erstad, O.; Dede, C.; Mishra, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article elaborates on the competencies, often referred to as 21st century competencies, that are needed to be able to live in and contribute to our current (and future) society. We begin by describing, analysing and reflecting on international frameworks describing 21st century competencies, giving special attention to digital literacy as one…

  13. Challenges to learning and schooling in the digital networked world of the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, Joke; Erstad, O.; Dede, C.; Mishra, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article elaborates on the competencies, often referred to as 21st century competencies, that are needed to be able to live in and contribute to our current (and future) society. We begin by describing, analysing and reflecting on international frameworks describing 21st century competencies, gi

  14. Challenges to learning and schooling in the digital networked world of the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.M.; Erstad, O.; Dede, C.; Mishra, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article elaborates on the competencies, often referred to as 21st century competencies, that are needed to be able to live in and contribute to our current (and future) society. We begin by describing, analysing and reflecting on international frameworks describing 21st century competencies, gi

  15. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  16. ‘Antarctic biology in the 21st century - Advances in, and beyond the international polar year 2007-2008’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, Michael

    2010-08-01

    The International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY) has provided an opportunity for biology to show itself as an important part of Antarctic science in a manner in which it was not seen during earlier Polar Years. Of the 15 endorsed biological projects in Antarctica, 7 included more than 20 scientists and could be deemed truly international. Four were conducted in the marine environment, and one each in the fields of biological invasions, microbial ecology, and terrestrial ecology, and one was SCAR’s over-arching ‘Evolution and Biodiversity in the Antarctic’. The marine projects have left a robust legacy of data for future research into the consequences of environmental change, and into future decisions about marine protected areas. Studies on introductions of exotic organisms reveal an ever-present threat to the warmer parts of the high-latitude Southern Ocean, or parts which might become warmer with climate change. Studies on microbial ecology reveal great complexity of ecosystems with high numbers of unknown species. Terrestrial research has shown how vulnerable the Antarctic is to accidental introductions, and how productive the soils can be under changed climate conditions. Antarctic biology has come-of-age during IPY 2007-2008 and the campaign has set the scene for future research.

  17. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1996-12-31

    This CD-ROM contains the proceedings from the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century Conference XII held July 9-11, 1996. Topics included model facilities, federal and NEPA stakeholders, microchemistry, source 4 solvents and reduction, education and outreach planning, return on investment, energy management, decontamination and decommissioning, planning and regulations, environmental restoration, solid waste, recycling, affirmative procurement in the executive branch, construction and demolition, international and ISO 14000, and poster sessions.

  18. IBC's 21st Annual Antibody Engineering and 8th Annual Antibody Therapeutics International Conferences and 2010 Annual Meeting of the Antibody Society. December 5-9, 2010, San Diego, CA USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Samantha O; Teillaud, Jean-Luc; Wurch, Theirry; Reichert, Janice M; Dunlop, Cameron; Huber, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The 21st Annual Antibody Engineering and 8th Annual Antibody Therapeutics international conferences, and the 2010 Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society, organized by IBC Life Sciences with contributions from The Antibody Society and two Scientific Advisory Boards, were held December 5-9, 2010 in San Diego, CA. The conferences were organized with a focus on antibody engineering only on the first day and a joint engineering/therapeutics session on the last day. Delegates could select from presentations that occurred in two simultaneous sessions on days 2 and 3. Day 1 included presentations on neutralizing antibodies and the identification of vaccine targets, as well as a historical overview of 20 years of phage display utilization. Topics presented in the Antibody Engineering sessions on day 2 and 3 included antibody biosynthesis, structure and stability; antibodies in a complex environment; antibody half-life; and targeted nanoparticle therapeutics. In the Antibody Therapeutics sessions on days 2 and 3, preclinical and early stage development and clinical updates of antibody therapeutics, including TRX518, SYM004, MM111, PRO140, CVX-241, ASG-5ME, U3-1287 (AMG888), R1507 and trastuzumab emtansine, were discussed, and perspectives were provided on the development of biosimilar and biobetter antibodies, including coverage of regulatory and intellectual property issues. The joint engineering/therapeutics session on the last day focused on bispecific and next-generation antibodies.

  19. Genome Evolution in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, James

    2006-03-01

    Assume no previous theories about genetics and evolution. What conclusions would we draw from molecular data (e.g. genome sequences)? We start from basic principles of cellular information processing: cells behave cognitively using signal transduction networks; signal transduction involves weak noncovalent interactions; allosteric properties of biomolecules; multivalent storage of information in DNA sequences and nucleoprotein complexes; inertness of naked DNA. Genome informatics thus requires formation of nucleoprotein complexes. Complex formation requires generic repeated signals in the DNA; repetition also permits cooperativity to stabilize weak interactions. DNA is a functional structural component of nucleoprotein complexes, not a passive data tape. Specificity in DNA nucleoprotein complex formation involves combining multiple generic signals and/or sequence recognition by small RNAs. Novel combinations of generic signals and coding sequences arise in genomes by iteration and rearrangement. Cells possess natural genetic engineering functions that actively restructure DNA molecules. These internal DNA remodeling functions act cognitively in response to internal and external inputs. They operate non-randomly with respect to (1) the types of new structures produced and (2) the regions of the genome modified. Whole genome sequence data increasingly documents the historical role of natural genetic engineering in evolutionary changes. Basic principles of cellular molecular biology and DNA function lead to a complex interactive systems view of genome organization. This view incorporates different DNA components found in sequenced genomes. Regulated cellular natural genetic engineering functions permit genomes to serve as Read-Write information storage systems, not just Read-Only memories subject to accidental change. These 21st Century conclusions are most compatible with a systems engineering view of the evolutionary process.

  20. Materials for the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Segal, David

    2017-01-01

    The book is a general text that shows how materials can contribute to solving problems facing nations in the 21st century. It is illustrated with diverse applications and highlights the potential of existing materials for everyday life, healthcare and the economies of nations. There are 13 chapters and a glossary of 500 materials with their descriptions, historical development, their use or potential use and a range of references. Specific areas include synthetic polymers (e.g. nylon), natural polymers (e.g. proteins, cellulose) and the role of materials in the development of digital computers and in healthcare. Solid-state lighting, energy supplies in the 21st century, disruptive technologies and intellectual property, in particular patents, are discussed. The book concludes by asking how the 21st century will be characterised. Will it be the Silicon Age, Genomic Age or New Polymer Age, as examples?

  1. Nursing theory: the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, B P

    1992-01-01

    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience.

  2. Statistics in the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, Martin T; Wells, Martin T

    2001-01-01

    Exactly what is the state of the art in statistics as we move forward into the 21st century? What promises, what trends does its future hold? Through the reflections of 70 of the world's leading statistical methodologists, researchers, theorists, and practitioners, Statistics in the 21st Century answers those questions. Originally published in the Journal of the American Statistical Association, this collection of vignettes examines our statistical past, comments on our present, and speculates on our future. Although the coverage is broad and the topics diverse, it reveals the essential intell

  3. 21st International Symposium on Spin Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Bo-Qiang; SPIN 2014; SPIN2014

    2016-01-01

    This special volume collected important papers written by leading experts, highlighting the latest research findings in various topics of spin phenomena in particle and nuclear physics. The contents are originated from the plenary talks at the latest symposium of the Spin Physics series (SPIN2014) which was held in Beijing, China, October 20-24, 2014.The volume also comprises a special collection of contributions in memory of the late Professor Michel Borghini, an outstanding physicist well remembered for his great contributions to the progress of high energy spin physics.

  4. EDITORIAL: The 21st Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    This Topical Issue contains works presented at the 21st Nordic Semiconductor Meeting (21NSM) held at Sundvolden, Norway, 18-19 August 2005. The institutions supporting 21NSM were: University of Oslo, SINTEF, the Norwegian Defense Research Establishment and Vestfold University College. The Nordic Semiconductor Meeting has become an international forum that has been held every other year in a relay fashion in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The focus of the meeting has been on original research and science being carried out on semiconductor materials, devices and systems. Reports on industrial activity have usually been featured at the meetings. The topics have ranged from fundamental research on point defects in a semiconductor to system architecture of semiconductor electronic devices. For the last five meetings the proceedings have been printed in a dedicated volume of Physica Scripta in the Topical Issue series. The papers in this Topical Issue have undergone critical peer review and we wish to thank the reviewers and the authors for their cooperation, which has been instrumental in meeting the expected high standards of the series. The range of topics covered by this volume is broad, reflecting the call for papers; most of the papers have an element of materials science and the largest portion of these deal with other semiconductor materials other than silicon. The 21NSM was supported by the following sponsors: Renewable Energy Corporation (REC), EMF III-V Innovations (EMF), and the Nordic Research Board (NordForsk). Terje G Finstad Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Norway Andrej Y Kuznetsov and Bengt G Svensson Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, Norway

  5. Countering 21st Century Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharling Pedersen, Peter; Pillai, Chad M.; Hun, Lee Jae

    2015-01-01

    ), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Security and Stability Operations (SSO). • Establishing a construct that allows a strategic Whole-of-Government capacity for operations coordinated by joint interagency task forces. • Continue to developing the Global SOF network. • Increased intelligence sharing in areas...... to be addressed in order to successfully conduct IW. As result of researching the issues associated with developing a JIIM approach to IW, the paper makes the following recommendations: • Establishing universally accepted concepts and doctrines for IW, UW, Foreign Internal Defense (FID), Counter Insurgency (COIN...

  6. Reality Therapy for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubbolding, Robert E.

    This book serves as a comprehensive and practical guide to reality therapy, and extends its principles and practices beyond the initial descriptions. A central theme of this edition is that reality therapy is a method inherently designed for the exigencies of the 21st century. It contains 22 types of self-evaluations counselors can use to shorten…

  7. Creating 21st Century Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Phan P.; Locke, John; Nair, Prakash; Bunting, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    What is involved in creating learning environments for the 21st century? How can school facilities serve as tools for teaching and meet the needs of students in the future? What components are required to design effective schools, and how does architecture relate to the purposes of schooling? These are some of the questions addressed at the…

  8. Soaring into the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, John

    1993-01-01

    Describes the implementation of ideas from the National Congress on Catholic Schools for the 21st Century at Saint Thomas Aquinas School in the South Bronx. Discusses Catholic identity, school spirit, social change, and school development with respect to the school's long-range planning for success in an economically depressed neighborhood. (MAB)

  9. The 21st Century Information Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Rod

    This paper on the 21st century information environment begins with a section that discusses the impact of e-commerce over the next ten years. The second section addresses government focus areas, including ensuring a telecommunications infrastructure, developing the IT (information technology) industry, promoting innovation and entrepreneurship,…

  10. Learning Analytics for 21st Century Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham Shum, Simon; Crick, Ruth Deakin

    2016-01-01

    Many educational institutions are shifting their teaching and learning towards equipping students with knowledge, skills, and dispositions that prepare them for lifelong learning, in a complex and uncertain world. These have been termed "21st century competencies." Learning analytics (LA) approaches in general offer different kinds of…

  11. Digital Humanities in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    In this article it is argued that one of the major transformative factors of the humanities at the beginning of the 21st century is the shift from analogue to digital source material, and that this shift will affect the humanities in a variety of ways. But various kinds of digital material...

  12. Life Sciences in the 21 st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Chenglu (C. L. Tsou)

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a retrospective of the achievements of life sciences in the 20th century and a prospective in the 21 st century.primarily,because of the emergence of molecular biology in the 20th cetury,life sciences have grown up from a descriptive discipline to an exact science.Biology in the 21st century features a unification between analysis and integration,i.e.the unification of analysis and func-tional research.More and more interdisciplinary integration will be based on works of penetrating analyses.Secondly.the deeper understanding of all living phenomena will lead to a unified connition of the essence of life so that general biology in the genuine sese of the term will come into being.finally,basic research on the life sciences will produce an unprecedented influence on all aspects of human life.

  13. Selective Reproduction in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 21st century, human reproduction increasingly involves decisions about which gametes to fertilize, which embryos to implant, or which fetuses to abort. The term ‘selective reproduction’ refers to these increasingly widespread efforts to bring specific kinds of children into being....... To this end, selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) have been developed and routinized over the last few decades. In today’s world, selective reproduction is taking place on a historically unprecedented scale; through sex-selective abortions following ultrasound scans, termination of pregnancies following...... detection of fetal anomalies during prenatal screening and testing programs, the development of preimplantation genetic diagnosis techniques as well as the screening of potential gamete donors by egg agencies and sperm banks. Selective Reproduction in the 21st Century provides unique ethnographic insights...

  14. Detergents of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Tan Tai Louis

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Detergents of the 21st century will depend on evolutions in household appliances, in substrates and in consumer needs. In addition, the environmental constraints, which become more and more stringent, will also play an important role, particularly in the formulations. Surfactants, which constitute one of the main raw materials in detergents, will have to be more environmentally friendly with increasing criteria of biodegradability and renewable materials. Builders (phosphates or zeolithes, heavy metal complexants (EDTA and bleaching agents (combination perborate/TAED are also expected to be replaced by biodegradable compounds, with better performances and lower costs. The real raw materials of the detergents of the 21st century will probably be enzymes (oxidase, hydrolase, peroxidase which present several advantages. At the same time, efforts will be made on biodegradable packaging through the use of micro-organisms able to degrade polymers. Finally, in terms of product forms, the concept of concentration might come back through the use of tablets.

  15. The Worforce for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry O'Lawrence

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: In today’s changing economy, economic growth depends on career and technical programs for skill training. Background: This study discusses the key area in promoting individual learning and skill training and discusses the importance of career education and training as a way of promoting economic growth. Methodology\t: This study uses a qualitative study approach to investigate and report on the status and influence of Workforce Education and Development and its economic importance. Contribution: This report contributes to the knowledge base common to all work settings that can solve many human performance problems in the workplace. Findings: This study also justifies and validates the ideas on the importance of workforce education and development in the 21st century as a way of developing economic growth and providing learning to make individuals competitive in the global economy. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: For practitioners, this study suggests that we must always have discussions of what leads to career success and understanding that there is not enough high-skill/high-wage employment to go around. Therefore, developing these skills requires a decision about a career or related group of jobs to prepare to compete for them; we have to provide training needed in order to be competitive in global economy. Recommendation for Researchers: Researchers have to develop strategies to promote career direction with willingness to evaluate the level of academic interest, level of career focus and readiness for life away from home (attitudes, skills and knowledge of self. Impact on Society: Institutions must regularly evaluate curriculum to reflect the rapid technological changes and the globalization of world markets that reflect their mission and develop students’ mindset to always think big and think outside the box in order to be competitive in the global market. Change is external, transition is internal. It is important

  16. Social Aesthetics in Learning Practices in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    Social Aesthetics in Learning Practices in the 21st Century Due to the extensive reliance on media in our everyday perception of the surroundings we see a shift in relation to aesthetics from an individual focus to social negotiations around a situation. This article presents how individuals shape...... aesthetic systems through the use of networked media, resulting in self-producing systems that make themselves available for recognition, as well internally as externally. These cultures unfold in formats that educational institutions are not geared to meet. The article demonstrates and builds its arguments...... approach in which the process of decoding and negotiations around practices in social media is significant....

  17. Mexico and the 21st Century Power Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    The 21st Century Power Partnership's program in Mexico (21CPP Mexico) is one initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, carried out in cooperation with government and local stakeholders, drawing upon an international community of power system expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support Mexico's power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon system. 21CPP Mexico activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing policymakers, regulators, and system operators. In support of this goal, 21CPP Mexico taps into deep networks of expertise and professional connections.

  18. 21st Century Water Conservation Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of water conservation principles has been emphasized. The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The

  19. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008 and Zoo City (2010 are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published in 2011 as this consolidates women's presence in the SF world.

  20. Health Physics in the 21st Century

    CERN Document Server

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2008-01-01

    Adopting a proactive approach and focusing on emerging radiation-generating technologies, Health Physics in the 21st Century meets the growing need for a presentation of the relevant radiological characteristics and hazards. As such, this monograph discusses those technologies that will affect the health physics and radiation protection profession over the decades to come. After an introductory overview, the second part of this book looks at fission and fusion energy, followed by a section devoted to accelerators, while the final main section deals with radiation on manned space missions.

  1. Knowledge society in 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Urbanová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the increasing need of education in 21st century and on some problems which emerged in this context – the economists prefer to emphasize the development and growth, profit and effectiveness, and they can overlook general, ethical, and essential problems and needs of the contemporary world. These problems are not resolved by simple algometrical approaches, but they require multi-disciplined paradigms, which can provide social sciences.Especially in the 21st century we need wide-ranging critical thinking as a basis of responsible ethical behaviour. However in the current educational environment in the tertiary educational system we can observe over-emphasizing of utilitarian requirements. We produce professionals who are expected to be able to find quick, effective but also far-seeing solutions of any given problem, which is in obvious contradiction. This article discussed three conceptions of a human with the emphasis on the concept of “homo socio-oeconomicus”. This concept enables to see the world in wide context and develops necessary critical thinking, which is also economically more advantageous from the long-term point of view. That is why education in sociological, psychological, philosophical, political and other social sciences should not be considered by economists as something useless without any economic value, but as something that can help them to understand themselves, their environment and the consequences of their decisions. This is the core of this contribution.

  2. Nursing heroism in the 21st Century'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbyshire Philip

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Vivian Bullwinkel Oration honours the life and work of an extraordinary nurse. Given her story and that of her World War II colleagues, the topic of nursing heroism in the 21st century could not be more germane. Discussion Is heroism a legitimate part of nursing, or are nurses simply 'just doing their job' even when facing extreme personal danger? In this paper I explore the place and relevance of heroism in contemporary nursing. I propose that nursing heroism deserves a broader appreciation and that within the term lie many hidden, 'unsung' or 'unrecorded' heroisms. I also challenge the critiques of heroism that would condemn it as part of a 'militarisation' of nursing. Finally, I argue that nursing needs to be more open in celebrating our heroes and the transformative power of nursing achievements. Summary The language of heroism may sound quaint by 21st Century standards but nursing heroism is alive and well in the best of our contemporary nursing ethos and practice.

  3. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huray, P.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  4. Rethinking Global Water Governance for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, N. K.; Cooley, H.

    2012-12-01

    Growing pressure on the world's water resources is having major impacts on our social and economic well-being. According to the United Nations, today, at least 1.1 billion people do not have access to clean drinking water. Pressures on water resources are likely to continue to worsen in response to decaying and crumbling infrastructure, continued population growth, climate change, degradation of water quality, and other challenges. If these challenges are not addressed, they pose future risks for many countries around the world, making it urgent that efforts are made to understand both the nature of the problems and the possible solutions that can effectively reduce the associated risks. There is growing understanding of the need to rethink governance to meet the 21st century water challenges. More and more water problems extend over traditional national boundaries and to the global community and the types and numbers of organizations addressing water issues are large and growing. Economic globalization and transnational organizations and activities point to the need for improving coordination and integration on addressing water issues, which are increasingly tied to food and energy security, trade, global climate change, and other international policies. We will present some of the key limitations of global water governance institutions and provide recommendations for improving these institutions to address 21st century global water challenges more effectively.

  5. The good doctor: professionalism in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Amy Y; Creutzfeldt, Claire J; Gordon, James M

    2013-01-01

    Medical professionalism faces distinctive challenges in the 21st century. In this chapter, we review the history of professionalism, address specific challenges physicians face today, and provide an overview of efforts to address these issues, including behavioral and virtue ethics approaches. First, we discuss core features professions share and the development of codes of medical ethics that guide the practice of western medicine. Second, we address challenges related to the doctor-patient relationship, continuity of care, cultural competence, conflicts of interest, and the regulation of quality of care through maintenance of certification. We then explore three cultural trajectories that have deeply influenced medical practice: the technologic imperative, physicians' collective neglect of structural factors impacting medicine, and the rise of commercialism. Finally, we describe efforts to address these challenges, focusing on the Physician Charter developed by the American Board of Internal Medicine and widely endorsed by medical boards and societies internationally.

  6. Cooperative learning in 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Johnson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century brings four important challenges in which cooperation plays a central role: (1 a rapidly increasing global interdependence that will result in increasing local diversity as well as more frequent and intense conflicts, (2 the increasing number of democracies throughout the world, (3 the need for creative entrepreneurs, and (4 the growing importance of interpersonal relationships that affect the development of personal identity. The tools for meeting these challenges include cooperative learning. In this article the nature of cooperative learning will be reviewed, the underlying theory of social interdependence will be discussed, and the results of the research on cooperative learning will be briefly reviewed. The way in which cooperative learning contributes to meeting the four challenges will then be discussed.

  7. Digital Humanities in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    In this article it is argued that one of the major transformative factors of the humanities at the beginning of the 21st century is the shift from analogue to digital source material, and that this shift will affect the humanities in a variety of ways. But various kinds of digital material...... are not digital in the same way, which a distinction between digitized, born-digital, and reborn-digital may help us acknowledge, thereby helping us to understand how each of these types of digital material affects different phases of scholarly work in its own way. This is illustrated by a detailed comparison...... of the nature of digitized collections and web archives....

  8. Antiparasitic DNA vaccines in 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedrychowicz, Halina

    2015-06-01

    Demands for effective vaccines to control parasitic diseases of humans and livestock have been recently exacerbated by the development of resistance of most pathogenic parasites to anti-parasitic drugs. Novel genomic and proteomic technologies have provided opportunities for the discovery and improvement of DNA vaccines which are relatively easy as well as cheap to fabricate and stable at room temperatures. However, their main limitation is rather poor immunogenicity, which makes it necessary to couple the antigens with adjuvant molecules. This paper review recent advances in the development of DNA vaccines to some pathogenic protozoa and helminths. Numerous studies were conducted over the past 14 years of 21st century, employing various administration techniques, adjuvants and new immunogenic antigens to increase efficacy of DNA vaccines. Unfortunately, the results have not been rewarding. Further research is necessary using more extensive combinations of antigens; alternate delivery systems and more efficient adjuvants based on knowledge of the immunomodulatory capacities of parasitic protozoa and helminths.

  9. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity.

  10. Boosting 21st Century Skills through Moroccan ELT Textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Ait Bouzid

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that the changing realities of the 21st century necessitate a fundamental shift in language education towards promoting 21st Century Skills. This paper investigates the extent to which three Moroccan ELT textbooks currently used in teaching second year Baccalaureate students in public high school provide activities that help learners build skills that match the needs of the 21st century. It also explores the types of activities that are used to promote these skills and eventual...

  11. Sustainable leadership pre- and within the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloodless Dzwairo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews literature on sustainable leadership pre- and within the 21st century, using the following nuances: (1 selected dynamics attributable to socio-demographics, (2 implications and barriers that skew gender and leadership bias, and (3 the role of cultural norms and values in leadership practices and processes within organizations. The global challenge for research on sustainable leadership is also discussed, as it must take into account the different cultures, needs and requirements of different organizations within specific environmental contexts. A challenge spoke to the use of international models and strategies in order to achieve semantic interoperability. It is concluded that from the established theoretical framework, a focus on culture and sustainable leadership is needed, as these impact on various aspects of leadership including sustainability. It is suggested that for the future, emerging issues should incorporate sustainability into businesses in order to align environmental and social objectives with business strategies.

  12. A Case Study of 21st Century Skills Programs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Skills, such as critical thinking, problem-solving, and innovation are necessary for the 21st Century. The economy and the forums of international business and globalization demand skilled workers. Some schools in the United States are producing such workers, however it is unclear the programs and practices these schools utilize. This study…

  13. Life Designing: A Paradigm for Career Construction in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickas, Mark L.; Nota, Laura; Rossier, Jerome; Dauwalder, Jean-Pierre; Duarte, Maria Eduarda; Guichard, Jean; Soresi, Salvatore; Van Esbroeck, Raoul; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, a new social arrangement of work poses a series of questions and challenges to scholars who aim to help people develop their working lives. Given the globalization of career counseling, we decided to address these issues and then to formulate potentially innovative responses in an international forum. We used…

  14. Advances and Challenges for Nutrient Management in China in the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sims, J.T.; Ma, L.; Oenema, O.; Dou, Z.; Zhang, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Managing agricultural nutrients to provide a safe and secure food supply while protecting the environment remains one of the great challenges for the 21st century. The fourth International Nutrient Management Symposium (INMS), held in 2011 at the University of Delaware, addressed these issues via pr

  15. Smart Social Networking: 21st Century Teaching and Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boholano, Helen B.

    2017-01-01

    Education in the 21st century highlights globalization and internationalization. Pre-service teachers in the 21st century are technology savvy. To effectively engage and teach generation Z students, preservice teachers will help the educational system meet this requirement. The educational systems must be outfitted with a prerequisite of ICT…

  16. Vaccines for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, Isabel; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio

    2014-01-01

    In the last century, vaccination has been the most effective medical intervention to reduce death and morbidity caused by infectious diseases. It is believed that vaccines save at least 2–3 million lives per year worldwide. Smallpox has been eradicated and polio has almost disappeared worldwide through global vaccine campaigns. Most of the viral and bacterial infections that traditionally affected children have been drastically reduced thanks to national immunization programs in developed countries. However, many diseases are not yet preventable by vaccination, and vaccines have not been fully exploited for target populations such as elderly and pregnant women. This review focuses on the state of the art of recent clinical trials of vaccines for major unmet medical needs such as HIV, malaria, TB, and cancer. In addition, we describe the innovative technologies currently used in vaccine research and development including adjuvants, vectors, nucleic acid vaccines, and structure-based antigen design. The hope is that thanks to these technologies, more diseases will be addressed in the 21st century by novel preventative and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:24803000

  17. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Markwald, R [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Kasyanov, V [Riga Stradins University, Riga (Latvia); Little, S [South Carolina EPSCoR/IDeA Program, Columbia, SC (United States); Swaja, R [South Carolina Bioengineering Alliance, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry. (topical review)

  18. Science for the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    The Federal government plays a key role in supporting the country's science infrastructure, a national treasure, and scientific research, an investment in our future. Scientific discoveries transform the way we think about our universe and ourselves, from the vastness of space to molecular-level biology. In innovations such as drugs derived through biotechnology and new communications technologies we see constant evidence of the power of science to improve lives and address national challenges. We had not yet learned to fly at the dawn of the 20th century, and could not have imagined the amazing 20th century inventions that we now take for granted. As we move into the 21st century, we eagerly anticipate new insights, discoveries, and technologies that will inspire and enrich us for many decades to come. This report presents the critical responsibilities of our Federal science enterprise and the actions taken by the Federal research agencies, through the National Science and Technology Council, to align our programs with scientific opportunity and with national needs. The many examples show how our science enterprise has responded to the President's priorities for homeland and national security, economic growth, health research, and the environment. In addition, we show how the science agencies work together to set priorities; coordinate related research programs; leverage investments to promote discovery, translate science into national benefits, and sustain the national research enterprise; and promote excellence in math and science education and work force development.

  19. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  20. Pediatrics in 21(st) Century and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meharban

    2016-11-01

    Pediatrics is a dynamic discipline and there is awareness and hope for actualizing outstanding achievements in the field of child health in 21(st) century and beyond. Improved lifestyle and quality of children's health is likely to reduce the burden of adult diseases and enhance longevity because seeds of most adult diseases are sown in childhood. Identification and decoding of human genome is expected to revolutionize the practice of pediatrics. The day is not far off when a patient will walk into doctor's chamber with an electronic or digital health history on a CD or palmtop and a decoded genomic constitution. There will be reduced burden of genetic diseases because of selective abortions of "defective" fetuses and replacement of "bad" genes with "good" ones by genetic engineering. Availability of totipotent stem cells and developments in transplant technology are likely to revolutionize the management of a variety of hematologic cancers and life-threatening genetic disorders. The possibility of producing flawless designer babies by advances in assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) is likely to be mired by several ethical and legal issues.The availability of newer vaccines by recombinant technology for emerging infective and for non-infective lifestyle diseases is likely to improve survival and quality of life. There is going to be a greater focus on the "patient" having the disease rather than "disease" per se by practicing holistic pediatrics by effective utilization of alternative or complementary strategies for health care. Due to advances in technology, pediatrics may get further dehumanized. A true healer cannot simply rely on technology; there must be a spiritual bond between the patient and the physician by exploiting the concept of psycho-neuro-immunology and body-mind interactions. In the years to come, physicians are likely to play "god" but medicine can't achieve immortality because anything born must die in accordance with nature's recycling

  1. Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscience knowledge and skills play new roles in the workforce as our society addresses the challenges of living safely and sustainably on Earth. As a result, we expect a wider range of future career opportunities for students with education in the geosciences and related fields. A workshop offered by the InTeGrate STEP Center on 'Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce' brought together representatives from 24 programs with a substantial geoscience component, representatives from different employment sectors, and workforce scholars to explore the intersections between geoscience education and employment. As has been reported elsewhere, employment in energy, environmental and extractive sectors for geoscientists with core geology, quantitative and communication skills is expected to be robust over the next decade as demand for resources grow and a significant part of the current workforce retires. Relatively little is known about employment opportunities in emerging areas such as green energy or sustainability consulting. Employers at the workshop from all sectors are seeking the combination of strong technical, quantitative, communication, time management, and critical thinking skills. The specific technical skills are highly specific to the employer and employment needs. Thus there is not a single answer to the question 'What skills make a student employable?'. Employers at this workshop emphasized the value of data analysis, quantitative, and problem solving skills over broad awareness of policy issues. Employers value the ability to articulate an appropriate, effective, creative solution to problems. Employers are also very interested in enthusiasm and drive. Participants felt that the learning outcomes that their programs have in place were in line with the needs expressed by employers. Preparing students for the workforce requires attention to professional skills, as well as to the skills needed to identify career pathways and land a job. This critical

  2. Comparative endocrinology in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, R.J.; Hopkins, P.M.; McCormick, S.D.; Propper, C.R.; Riddiford, L.; Sower, S.A.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    responses to the environment. A major challenge for life scientists in the 21st century is to understand how a changing environment impacts all life on earth. A full understanding of the capabilities of organisms to respond to environmental variation, and the resilience of organisms challenged by environmental changes and extremes, is necessary for understanding the impact of pollution and climatic change on the viability of populations. Comparative endocrinologists have a key role to play in these efforts.

  3. 21st Colloquium on African Geology——CAG21

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lopo Vasconcelos

    2006-01-01

    @@ Under the auspices of the Geological Society of Africa (GSAf), the Geological Mining Association of Mozambique (AGMM) organized the 21st Colloquium on African Geology under the theme "Geoscience for Poverty Relief.

  4. Texting While Parenting: a 21st Century Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Texting While Parenting: A 21st Century Trap Smartphones can get in the way of family life, and stress is the result, study finds To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. (*this news ...

  5. Challenges of the 21st Century Ghanaian Universities | Braimah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... After going through a period of higher educational reforms, Ghanaian public Universities are now ... to address these challenges for the sustainability of Universities in the 21st Century Ghana.

  6. Vision & Strategy: Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Vision & Strategy: Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century Daniel L. Villeneuve* and Natàlia Garcia-Reyero In the 20th century, predicting...2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...century ecotoxicology can do Researchers have, for the first time, identi- fied the mechanisms of action of two toxins released by certain microalgae

  7. An animal protection perspective on 21st century toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Martin L

    2010-02-01

    The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) strongly endorses the vision for the future of toxicity testing proposed in the 2007 National Research Council report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century. Although crafted primarily with the aim of better assessing the public health risks from chemical exposures, the vision would have a major impact on advancing both alternative testing methods and animal welfare. Consequently, The HSUS seeks to have the vision implemented expeditiously. The HSUS is pleased that the report has elicited considerable discussion and debate and garnered a certain level of approval and applaud current implementation efforts. However, these efforts do not fully capture the vision and strategy outlined by the NRC. The HSUS believes that the timely implementation of the NRC vision warrants a large-scale "Human Toxicology Project" akin to the Human Genome Project of the late 20th century. The HSUS spearheaded the formation of the Human Toxicology Project Consortium to help marshal the necessary will, funding, and research for this effort. Our sister organization, the Humane Society International, is embarking on a related effort with European partners. The HSUS cofounded a website, AltTox.org, devoted exclusively to the scientific and policy issues central to advancing nonanimal methods of toxicity testing. The NRC report has provided a unified framework by which to systematically incorporate the fruits of modern biology and technology into hazard identification and risk assessment, to the betterment not only of toxicity testing and public health, but also of animal protection.

  8. Report on the workshop "Organising, Managing and Regulating Martial Arts" during the 21st EASM conference

    OpenAIRE

    Jikkemien Vertonghen; Marianne Dortants

    2013-01-01

    The present report provides a brief account of a workshop entitled “Organising, Managing and Regulating Martial Arts” organised during the 21st EASM conference held in Istanbul (Turkey) on September 12th, 2013. It was the first scientific workshop with regard to the organisational and policy related aspects of (full contact) martial arts. During this international meeting four scientists described in-depth the recent history and current situation regarding the organisation and regulation of m...

  9. Drinking games and contextual factors of 21st birthday drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Rinker, Dipali V; DiBello, Angelo M; Young, Chelsie M; Chen, Chun-Han

    2014-09-01

    21st birthday celebrations are among the highest risks for alcohol use throughout emerging adulthood and celebrants often experience a range of alcohol-related consequences. The present research considered what happens when drinking games are paired with an already high-risk event (i.e., 21st birthday celebrations) and how drinking games compare with other contextual factors on 21st birthdays. Approximately four days after turning 21, 1124 college students (55% women) completed an online survey assessing alcohol use and related consequences experienced during their birthday celebrations. Participants were also asked whether drinking games and other contextual factors were associated with their celebrations. Overall, 18% of participants reported playing drinking games during their 21st birthday celebrations. These individuals reported consuming more alcohol, had higher estimated BACs, and experienced more negative consequences than those who did not play drinking games. The association between playing drinking games and alcohol use and negative consequences was stronger for men. The effect of drinking games on negative consequences was mediated through elevated BAC levels. Receiving bar specials, having drinks purchased, playing drinking games, and loud music were uniquely and significantly associated with all alcohol outcomes. Together, these results suggest that drinking games are part of a larger context of risk contributing to extreme drinking on 21st birthdays. Furthermore, these results will help to facilitate interventions that are more individually tailored to target specific contextual risks, behaviors, and events.

  10. DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parson, W; Gusmão, L; Hares, D R;

    2014-01-01

    The DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG) regularly publishes guidelines and recommendations concerning the application of DNA polymorphisms to the question of human identification. Previous recommendations published in 2000 addressed the analysis and interpretat...

  11. Lexicography in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ; access routes; dictionary structures; dictionary reviewing; subject-field classifications; data retrieval; corpus lexicography; and collocations and phraseology. The contributors, all highly regarded international scholars in the field of lexicography, show how the theory of lexicographical functions can...

  12. TOWARDS GENDER EQUALITY: UKRAINE IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana V. Danylova

    2013-12-01

    address gender issues in program development. In the 21st century issues of gender equity should be a priority at all levels.

  13. TOWARDS GENDER EQUALITY: UKRAINE IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana V. Danylova

    2013-12-01

    to address gender issues in program development. In the 21st century issues of gender equity should be a priority at all levels.

  14. Defining War for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    over the centuries. It adapted to medievalism , the rise of the nation state, and the emergence of international organizations, so it can adapt to a...Dr. Vlahos has published over 80 articles, appearing in, among oth- ers, Foreign Affairs, Washington Quarterly, The Times Literary Supplement

  15. MCNP APPLICATIONS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. MCKINNEY; T. BOOTH; ET AL

    2000-10-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Monte Carlo N-Particle radiation transport code, MCNP, has become an international standard for a wide spectrum of neutron, photon, and electron radiation transport applications. The latest version of the code, MCNP 4C, was released to the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) in February 2000. This paper describes the code development philosophy, new features and capabilities, applicability to various problems, and future directions.

  16. Improved Projections of 21st Century Trans-Arctic Shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, N.; Haines, K.; Hawkins, E.

    2015-12-01

    Climate models unanimously project a decline in the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice as the climate warms, but at differing rates. Projecting the timing of an ice-free Arctic is a topic that has received considerable scientific and public attention. An ice-free Arctic opens up the potential for shorter global trade routes through the Arctic Ocean and there has already been a sharp increase in the number of transits along Russia's Northern Sea Route with escorts from nuclear powered icebreakers.Here we present results on the future of trans-Arctic shipping using bias corrected sea ice thickness projections, utilising the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble and considering multiple emission scenarios. We find that for 'Open Water' vessels (normal ocean going vessels that possess no specific ice strengthening), unaided trans-Arctic shipping is likely to become feasible in the next couple of decades. We find that the North West Passage will open approximately a decade later than the Northern Sea Route. Initially however, both routes exhibit marked inter-annual variability in accessibility which we quantify. The hypothesised trans-polar sea route through international waters via the North Pole will start to become navigable by 2050. Towards the latter period of the 21st century, normal ocean going vessels will be able to transit their choice of any of these routes for at least six months of any given year under the RCP 8.5 high future emissions scenario and four months for the lower RCP 4.5 emissions scenario. These findings suggest that further increases in global temperature could transform the Arctic into a global transport hub.

  17. Responsible Management Education for 21st Century Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Prandini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the 2008/09 financial crisis, business schools had to face increasing criticism to have failed equipping their students with a broad and critical understanding of management and business practices which go beyond pure self-interest. Business schools are supposed to contribute to a holistic understanding of management which creates value along a triple bottom line: profit, people and planet. The triple bottom line finds its realization in the concept of sustainable corporate responsibility. This paper discusses possible approaches for business schools how to educate students to be future generators of sustainable value for business and society at large and to work for an inclusive and sustainable global economy. On the basis of the recently published Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME as well as contemporary learning theories, the paper provides concrete recommendations how to foster students’ development towards long-term thinking, responsible business leaders. The paper argues that student learning needs to occur within powerful learning environments to provide an active, problem-based and self-directed acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Two approaches to create best-practice learning environments are real-life case studies and real-life student projects which both lead to a strong buy in of students, faculty and company partners. Both approaches are exemplified with the bachelor degree program International Management at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (Switzerland. As a conclusion, a responsible management education fosters the students’ knowledge, skills and attitudes towards responsible business leadership to shape the future direction of the 21st century.

  18. Space Biology in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Thora W.; Krauss, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    Space Biology is poised to make significant contributions to science in the next century. A carefully crafted, but largely ground-based, program in the United States has evolved major questions that require answers through experiments in space. Science, scientists, and the new long-term spacecrafts designed by NASA will be available for the first time to mount a serious Space Biology effort. The scientific challenge is of such importance that success will provide countless benefits to biologically dependent areas such as medicine, food, and commerce in the decades ahead. The international community is rapidly expanding its role in this field. The United States should generate the resources that will allow progress in Space Biology to match the recognized progress made in aeronautics and the other space sciences.

  19. Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Sampson, Demetrios; Yang, Lan; Mukama, Evode; Warusavitarana, Amali; Dona, Kulari Lokuge; Eichhorn, Koos; Fluck, Andrew; Huang, Ronghuai; Bridges, Susan; Lu, Jiingyan; Ren, Youqun; Gui, Xiaoqing; Deneen, Christopher C.; San Diego, Jonathan; Gibson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on the deliberations of the Assessment Working Group at EDUsummIT 2015 in Bangkok, Thailand. All of the members of Thematic Working Group 5 (TWG5) have contributed to this synthesis of potentials, concerns and issues with regard to the role of technology in assessment as, for and of learning in the 21st century. The group…

  20. Fostering 21st Century Skills through Game Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    This reflection paper argues that the design and development of digital games teach essential 21st century skills. Intrinsic to application and game development is design thinking. Design thinking requires iterative development, which demands creativity, critical thinking and problem solving. Students are engaged through learning by doing in both…

  1. Rice production in China in the early 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ Rice is the staple food crop in China. In the second half of the 20th century, rice has played an important role in feeding a large number of people. In the 21st century, rice will still be a main food crop in China and make great contribution to Chinese people's life.

  2. Software Engineering Technology for the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss the software engineering technologyfor the 21 st century. First we review development over the last half-century, overview application re quirement and environment, accept a challenge. Then we outline following software engineering techniques: 1) Process;2) Analysis;3) Design;4) UML;5) Component;6) Java +XML;7) Integrated;8) Quality(ISO9000&CMM).

  3. Understanding China's Curriculum Reform for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Wing-Wah

    2014-01-01

    This article uses curriculum-making frameworks to analyse and reconstruct the Chinese curriculum-making model and unpack the dynamics, complexity and constraints of China's curriculum reform since the early 1990s. It argues that curriculum reform is China's main human capital development strategy for coping with the challenges of the 21st century,…

  4. 21st European Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornnes, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The 21st European Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology took place in Antwerp 5-8 May 2010. The congress provided the participants with an overview of recent scientific and clinical developments throughout the field of obstetrics and gynaecology, and these are summarized in this article....

  5. Cyberbullying and Sexting: Technology Abuses of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegle, Del

    2010-01-01

    Many young people cannot remember a time before Instant Messaging (IM), cell phone text messaging, video conferencing, blogging, e-mailing, and MySpace and Facebook postings existed. Thanks to the ubiquitous nature of technology in the 21st century, digital natives are accustomed to seeing, and being seen, on a scale that was unimaginable by their…

  6. Attention, and Other 21st-Century Social Media Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheingold, Howard

    2010-01-01

    If educators want to discover how they can engage students as well as themselves in the 21st century, they must move beyond skills and technologies. They must explore the interconnected social media literacies of (1) attention; (2) participation; (3) cooperation; (4) network awareness; and (5) critical consumption. In this article, the author…

  7. Resource scarcity in the 21st century: conflict or cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qasem, I.

    2010-01-01

    Oil and natural gas, water, food, and minerals are critical to ensuring our wellbeing and prosperity. The mismatch between future demand and supply is crystallizing into one of the most complex and urgent issues policymakers will face in the 21st Century. Unless the challenges arising from these sca

  8. Essentials for Engaged 21st-Century Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Virginia R.

    2012-01-01

    The Millennial Generation is a subject of paramount interest for 21st-century educators. It is a generation unlike its predecessors, with some stating it is the most intelligent consumer generation in history. Experts in the fields of neurobiology and psychology have found that Millennial brains may actually be "physically different" because of…

  9. Adventurous Lives: Teacher Qualities for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Julie; Latham, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    What kinds of teachers are needed for 21st century learners? While there is recognition that curriculum content, classroom practices and learning environments must alter, there is less attention focussed on the teachers' dispositions for negotiating uncertainty. In this paper, the authors turn their attention to the importance of teachers' lives…

  10. 21st European Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornnes, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The 21st European Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology took place in Antwerp 5-8 May 2010. The congress provided the participants with an overview of recent scientific and clinical developments throughout the field of obstetrics and gynaecology, and these are summarized in this article....

  11. Implementing 21st Century Literacies in First-Year Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Maggie Gordon; Froehlich, Peter Alan

    2013-01-01

    In November 2008, the National Council of Teachers of English published "The NCTE Definition of 21st Century Literacies" (21CL); its objectives include using technology, producing and analyzing multimedia texts, accessing and evaluating complex research sources, building relationships to enable collaboration, considering the diversity of a global…

  12. 21st Century Standards and Curriculum: Current Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alismail, Halah Ahmed; McGuire, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The integration of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and 21st century skills in the curriculum is not only beneficial to students and teachers, but also necessary to prepare our youth for their future careers. In an age of education where standardized tests determine the success of our schools, it is important to allow students the creativity and…

  13. Assessing 21st Century Skills: Summary of a Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Judith Anderson

    2011-01-01

    The routine jobs of yesterday are being replaced by technology and/or shipped off-shore. In their place, job categories that require knowledge management, abstract reasoning, and personal services seem to be growing. The modern workplace requires workers to have broad cognitive and affective skills. Often referred to as "21st century…

  14. Developing 21st Century Process Skills through Project Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; MacDonald, Nora M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to illustrate how the promotion of 21st Century process skills can be used to enhance student learning and workplace skill development: thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, leadership, and management. As an illustrative case, fashion merchandising and design students conducted research for a…

  15. Building 21st. Century literacies through digital animated storytelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    -based learning for learner’s engagement, motivation and multimodal learning in a mixed methods study based on surveys, interviews and observations. The key literacy skills needed for 21st. Century learners have shifted from a predominant focus on verbal text towards multimodal literacies, that combine the visual...

  16. Upholding humanity: challenges of peace in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2000-01-01

    In this presentation we shall, first of all, explore the background to the topic for today as formulated by the organisers: Peace in the 21st century: between the supranational and the grassroots. From there some remarks will follow on the meaning of commemoration and liberation by giving you a very

  17. Cyber Portfolio: The Innovative Menu for 21st Century Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Ava Clare Marie O.

    2012-01-01

    Cyber portfolio is a valuable innovative menu for teachers who seek out strategies or methods to integrate technology into their lessons. This paper presents a straightforward preparation on how to innovate a menu that addresses the 21st century skills blended with higher order thinking skills, multiple intelligence, technology and multimedia.…

  18. Servant Leadership: Guiding Extension Programs in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astroth, Kirk A.; Goodwin, Jeff; Hodnett, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A new set of leadership skills is required for Extension administrators for the 21st century. Past models and theories are reviewed and discussed. The old "power" model of leadership is no longer relevant. A relatively new model called "Servant Leadership" is reviewed and explained. Seven key practices of servant leadership are outlined, and the…

  19. Understanding China's Curriculum Reform for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Wing-Wah

    2014-01-01

    This article uses curriculum-making frameworks to analyse and reconstruct the Chinese curriculum-making model and unpack the dynamics, complexity and constraints of China's curriculum reform since the early 1990s. It argues that curriculum reform is China's main human capital development strategy for coping with the challenges of the 21st century,…

  20. School Business Management in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    As society's fundamental characteristics change, schools and school leaders must be prepared to modify the educational enterprise to meet the new and unique needs of adults and youngsters in the 21st century. To anticipate and control change, the school business manager must be able to project future trends, issues, and challenges. In this volume,…

  1. Ethics, religion and humanity: Rethinking religion in 21 st century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethics, religion and humanity: Rethinking religion in 21 st century Africa. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... First and foremost, religion is a human activity. ... results of inhuman and unethical practices in religion and that these problems can be minimized ...

  2. Essentials for Engaged 21st-Century Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Virginia R.

    2012-01-01

    The Millennial Generation is a subject of paramount interest for 21st-century educators. It is a generation unlike its predecessors, with some stating it is the most intelligent consumer generation in history. Experts in the fields of neurobiology and psychology have found that Millennial brains may actually be "physically different" because of…

  3. Servant Leadership: Guiding Extension Programs in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astroth, Kirk A.; Goodwin, Jeff; Hodnett, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A new set of leadership skills is required for Extension administrators for the 21st century. Past models and theories are reviewed and discussed. The old "power" model of leadership is no longer relevant. A relatively new model called "Servant Leadership" is reviewed and explained. Seven key practices of servant leadership are outlined, and the…

  4. A New Leadership Paradigm for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, Calvin; Parsons, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Leadership in the 21st century will require new insights and a new paradigm. With nearly 100 years of combined experience in community college teaching and administration, the authors of this chapter blend theory and experience into a design for engaging the "new normal."

  5. Transforming Power Systems; 21st Century Power Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-20

    The 21st Century Power Partnership - a multilateral effort of the Clean Energy Ministerial - serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with deep energy ef?ciency and smart grid solutions.

  6. Designing Blended Learning Interventions for the 21st Century Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleton, Saramarie

    2017-01-01

    The learning requirements of diverse groups of students in higher education challenge educators to design learning interventions that meet the need of 21st century students. A model was developed to assist lecturers, especially those that are new to the profession, to use a blended approach to design meaningful learning interventions for…

  7. Dance Education in the 21st Century: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Anne Green

    2005-01-01

    Margaret H'Doubler brought the magic of dance to the 20th century, yet the 21st century has yet to find a person to rekindle the same public desire for dance education. Consequently, the future of dance education in the next century is hard to predict. Based on an informal survey of fellow advisory board members of Dance and the Child…

  8. New Challenges in 21st-Century Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassing, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    To become competent in today's society, individuals need multiliteracies. The 21st-century dancer needs to be an artist, choreographer, educator, and researcher who can meet challenges and make an impact within the profession, as well as across education, the arts, and society. As dance professionals assess how to utilize their resources better…

  9. Outline report of capable and leading energy system international conference for the twenty-first century; Renewable and Advanced Energy Systems for the 21st Cencury (21seiki no tameno saisei kano sendoteki enerugi sisutemu) kokusaikaigi no gaiyo hokoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Tadayoshi

    1999-07-31

    The above-mentioned international conference was held in U.S.A., HAWAII State, Maui Island. Though and, it differently and independently sponsored this time thermochemistry department, SED of JSME held it, and leading energy system department of ASME and cosponsor and Korea Institution of Mechanical Engineers between U.S.A. air conditioning and sanitary engineering association, Korea air conditioning and sanitary engineering association also cooperated and were held. Finally adopted number of paper was about 140, and participation enrollment about 160 persons, participating nation number was the 15 nations. (NEDO)

  10. South Africa and the 21st Century Power Partnership: Paving the Way to a Clean, Reliable, and Resilient Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-09

    The 21st Century Power Partnership (21CPP) serves as an open, collaborative platform for sharing policy and regulatory best practices in the service of power system transformation. Established in 2012, the 21CPP South Africa Programme is a global initiative that connects South African stakeholders with an international community of expertise. This fact sheet details the 21CPP South Africa Programme.

  11. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  12. Engineering education in 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Firoz; Sarkar, Rashid; La Brooy, Roger; Chowdhury, Harun

    2016-07-01

    The internationalization of engineering curricula and engineering practices has begun in Europe, Anglosphere (English speaking) nations and Asian emerging economies through the Bologna Process and International Engineering Alliance (Washington Accord). Both the Bologna Process and the Washington Accord have introduced standardized outcome based engineering competencies and frameworks for the attainment of these competencies by restructuring existing and undertaking some new measures for an intelligent adaptation of the engineering curriculum and pedagogy. Thus graduates with such standardized outcome based curriculum can move freely as professional engineers with mutual recognition within member nations. Despite having similar or near similar curriculum, Bangladeshi engineering graduates currently cannot get mutual recognition in nations of Washington Accord and the Bologna Process due to the non-compliance of outcome based curriculum and pedagogy. This paper emphasizes the steps that are required to undertake by the engineering educational institutions and the professional body in Bangladesh to make the engineering competencies, curriculum and pedagogy compliant to the global engineering alliance. Achieving such compliance will usher in a new era for the global mobility and global engagement by Bangladesh trained engineering graduates.

  13. Make a 21st century phone call

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Want to avoid roaming charges? Click to call anyone at CERN? How about merging your CERN landline with your existing smartphone? That's all easily done with Lync, CERN's new opt-in service that can take your calls to the next level.   The Lync application on Windows (left) and iPhone (right). Lync unites CERN's traditional telephone service with the digital sphere. "Lync gives you the gift of mobility, by letting you access your CERN landline on the go," explains Pawel Grzywaczewski, service manager of the Lync system. "Once you've registered your CERN telephone with the service, you can run the Lync application and make calls from a range of supported devices. No matter where you are in the world - be it simply out to lunch or off at an international conference - you can make a CERN call as though you were in the office. All you need is an Internet connection!" Following a recent upgrade, CERN's Lync service now has...

  14. Allen Terhaar: Future Development of Cotton for the 21 st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 China International Cotton Conference, organized by China Cotton Association (CCA), Research Centre for Rural Economy (RCRE) of the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) as well as the China National Cotton Exchange (CNCE), took place June 15-16 in the beautiful coastal city of Dalian this year. Allen Terhaar, Executive President of Cotton Council International (CCI), delivered a speech with the name of Cotton in the 21st Century: Sustaining Our Industry's Future. In the following part, let's share his opinions and suggestions.

  15. Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Wessels, R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2002-05-01

    Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes. The existence and characteristics of glaciers have security impacts, and rapidly changing HKH glaciers have broad strategic implications: (1) Glaciers supply much of the fresh water and hydroelectric power in South and Central Asia, and so glaciers are valuable resources. (2) Shared economic interests in water, hydroelectricity, flood hazards, and habitat preservation are a force for common cause and reasoned international relations. (3) Glaciers and their high mountains generally pose a natural barrier tending to isolate people. Historically, they have hindered trade and intercultural exchanges and have protected against aggression. This has further promoted an independent spirit of the region's many ethnic groups. (4) Although glaciers are generally incompatible with human development and habitation, many of the HKH region's glaciers and their mountains have become sanctuaries and transit routes for militants. Siachen Glacier in Kashmir has for 17 years been "the world's highest battlefield," with tens of thousands of troops deployed on both sides of the India/Pakistan line of control. In 1999, that conflict threatened to trigger all-out warfare, and perhaps nuclear warfare. Other recent terrorist and military action has taken place on glaciers in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. As terrorists are forced from easily controlled territories, many may tend to migrate toward the highest ground, where definitive encounters may take place in severe alpine glacial environments. This should be a major concern in Nepali security planning, where an Army offensive is attempting to reign in an increasingly robust and brutal

  16. Technology Born Fictions for the Cities of 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Rıfat Akbulut

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies will undoubtely be leading determinants of urban landscape in the 21st century. Until the present day, it was assumed that urban landscapes were being shaped by conventional factors such as demography, social and economical structure, transportion, infrastructure, building technologies etc. In spite of many speculative approaches, recent developments in information and communication technologies can offer us some clues which may go beyond mere speculation. The“intelligent city” which is based on “autonomous” and “intelligent” objects and agents promising novel solutions to urban problems. Mobile communication is also another promising domain to offer creative solutions to some cronical urban problems. All these novelties provide sufficient reasons to think about new urban structures based upon information technologies.This paper is an attempt to discuss probable effects of information technologies, as new dynamics to shape the urban environment and urban life of the 21st century.

  17. 21st Century Kinematics : The 2012 NSF Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    21st Century Kinematics focuses on algebraic problems in the analysis and synthesis of mechanisms and robots, compliant mechanisms, cable-driven systems and protein kinematics. The specialist contributors provide the background for a series of presentations at the 2012 NSF Workshop. The text shows how the analysis and design of innovative mechanical systems yield increasingly complex systems of polynomials, characteristic of those systems. In doing so, takes advantage of increasingly sophisticated computational tools developed for numerical algebraic geometry and demonstrates the now routine derivation of polynomial systems dwarfing the landmark problems of even the recent past. The 21st Century Kinematics workshop echoes the NSF-supported 1963 Yale Mechanisms Teachers Conference that taught a generation of university educators the fundamental principles of kinematic theory. As such these proceedings will be provide admirable supporting theory for a graduate course in modern kinematics and should be of consid...

  18. Energy in ASEAN: An outlook into the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arismunandar, A.; Dupuis, P.

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was formed in Bangkok in 1967 by five countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. A sixth nation, recently independent Brunei Darussalam, joined the association in 1984. The story on enery in the ASEAN is presented. The topics covered include the following: energy resources; energy demand versus elasticity; how to cope with energy demand; and an outlook into the 21st century.

  19. Strategic Leader Development for a 21st Century Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-30

    Fall of Strategic Planning. New York, NY: The Free Press, 1994. Northouse , Peter G. Leadership : Theory and Practice . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage...the 21st-Century Army,” Parameters, (Autumn 2001), 18. 40 Elliott Jaques and Stephen D. Clement, Executive Leadership : A Practical Guide to...Stephen D. Clement. Executive Leadership : A Practical Guide to Managing Complexity. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 1994. Mintzberg, Henry. The Rise and

  20. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000.

  1. [Multidisciplinary treatment of lung cancer in 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Hirokazu; Sagawa, M; Usuda, K; Ueno, M; Tanaka, M; Machida, Y; Sakuma, T

    2008-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Japan. Recently, big progress in the treatment of lung cancer has been achieved, such as new anti-cancer drugs, molecular targeted therapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, etc. Multidisciplinary approach has been required to the therapy for lung cancer patients. In this paper, we introduce The 21st Century Multidisciplinary Center in Kanazawa Medical University, and the Hokuriku Training Program for Making Specialists in Cancer Treatment.

  2. Aviation Security Force Assistance: A 21st Century Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    narrative to address the “irregular” challenges proliferating into the 21st century. Much of the focus was directly related to building the capacity of...a holistic narrative for AvSFA, has developed a different perspective on their roles and missions relative to aviation in SFA. The Joint Force as a...mission with the Honduran Air Force in January and February 2012, exercised the comprehensive components of nascent Air Force general purpose forces

  3. 21st International Taniguchi Symposium & a Conference held at Kyoto

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    The Taniguchi Symposium on global analysis on manifolds focused mainly on the relationships between some geometric structures of manifolds and analysis, especially spectral analysis on noncompact manifolds. Included in the present volume are expanded versions of most of the invited lectures. In these original research articles, the reader will find up-to date accounts of the subject.

  4. The country image and international relations: 21st century environment

    OpenAIRE

    LIANNA AYVAZYAN

    2010-01-01

    This article is primarily based on the analysis of the image projected by other actors,using the image of Armenia in the so-called “quality” American press as an example,since the influence of these media on making important political decisions is wellknown. These are The Washington Post, The New York Times and The Wall StreetJournal (all materials published in 1991-2009) [1]. Unfortunately, so far it is difficultto discuss the opposite process (i.e. the image that we make). On the other hand...

  5. Epidemiologic trends of leprosy for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Pieter A M; Noto, Salvatore; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Major gaps still exist in the knowledge about leprosy, particularly with regard to how it spreads. Leprosy epidemiology remains complicated due to the specific characteristics of Mycobacterium leprae. To describe epidemiologic trends for the 21st century, the first part of this paper gives an overview of the epidemiology of leprosy, followed by past trends and the present situation of new-case detection as a proxy of the incidence. The third part, regarding predicted epidemiologic trends for the 21st century, elaborates on the main topic of this paper. With limited diagnostic tools to detect infection with M leprae, other methods are necessary to estimate trends in incidence and transmission. A computer program has been developed for modeling the transmission and control of leprosy (SIMLEP). The effect of failure to sustain early case detection beyond 2005 on leprosy incidence and case detection is shown. Important unanswered questions are whether the incubation period is contagious and how rapid close contacts of leprosy patients are infected. As long as such key questions remain unanswered, it will be difficult to estimate the impact of control strategies on the transmission of M leprae on resulting disease incidence. In the meantime we can expect that the global new-case detection trends will stay more or less stable or only decrease slightly for many years to come. There is a need of new preventive interventions to change this situation and reduce the incidence of leprosy in the 21st century.

  6. How 21st century droughts affect food and environmental security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Felix

    The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.

  7. Species identification in forensic samples using the SPInDel approach: A GHEP-ISFG inter-laboratory collaborative exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Cíntia; Pereira, Rui; Prieto, Lourdes; Aler, Mercedes; Amaral, Cesar R L; Arévalo, Cristina; Berardi, Gabriela; Di Rocco, Florencia; Caputo, Mariela; Carmona, Cristian Hernandez; Catelli, Laura; Costa, Heloísa Afonso; Coufalova, Pavla; Furfuro, Sandra; García, Óscar; Gaviria, Anibal; Goios, Ana; Gómez, Juan José Builes; Hernández, Alexis; Hernández, Eva Del Carmen Betancor; Miranda, Luís; Parra, David; Pedrosa, Susana; Porto, Maria João Anjos; Rebelo, Maria de Lurdes; Spirito, Matteo; Torres, María Del Carmen Villalobos; Amorim, António; Pereira, Filipe

    2017-05-01

    DNA is a powerful tool available for forensic investigations requiring identification of species. However, it is necessary to develop and validate methods able to produce results in degraded and or low quality DNA samples with the high standards obligatory in forensic research. Here, we describe a voluntary collaborative exercise to test the recently developed Species Identification by Insertions/Deletions (SPInDel) method. The SPInDel kit allows the identification of species by the generation of numeric profiles combining the lengths of six mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene regions amplified in a single reaction followed by capillary electrophoresis. The exercise was organized during 2014 by a Working Commission of the Spanish and Portuguese-Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (GHEP-ISFG), created in 2013. The 24 participating laboratories from 10 countries were asked to identify the species in 11 DNA samples from previous GHEP-ISFG proficiency tests using a SPInDel primer mix and control samples of the 10 target species. A computer software was also provided to the participants to assist the analyses of the results. All samples were correctly identified by 22 of the 24 laboratories, including samples with low amounts of DNA (hair shafts) and mixtures of saliva and blood. Correct species identifications were obtained in 238 of the 241 (98.8%) reported SPInDel profiles. Two laboratories were responsible for the three cases of misclassifications. The SPInDel was efficient in the identification of species in mixtures considering that only a single laboratory failed to detect a mixture in one sample. This result suggests that SPInDel is a valid method for mixture analyses without the need for DNA sequencing, with the advantage of identifying more than one species in a single reaction. The low frequency of wrong (5.0%) and missing (2.1%) alleles did not interfere with the correct species identification, which demonstrated the

  8. GHEP-ISFG collaborative exercise on mixture profiles of autosomal STRs (GHEP-MIX01, GHEP-MIX02 and GHEP-MIX03): results and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespillo, M; Barrio, P A; Luque, J A; Alves, C; Aler, M; Alessandrini, F; Andrade, L; Barretto, R M; Bofarull, A; Costa, S; García, M A; García, O; Gaviria, A; Gladys, A; Gorostiza, A; Hernández, A; Herrera, M; Hombreiro, L; Ibarra, A A; Jiménez, M J; Luque, G M; Madero, P; Martínez-Jarreta, B; Masciovecchio, M V; Modesti, N M; Moreno, F; Pagano, S; Pedrosa, S; Plaza, G; Prat, E; Puente, J; Rendo, F; Ribeiro, T; Sala, A; Santamaría, E; Saragoni, V G; Whittle, M R

    2014-05-01

    One of the main objectives of the Spanish and Portuguese-Speaking Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (GHEP-ISFG) is to promote and contribute to the development and dissemination of scientific knowledge in the area of forensic genetics. Due to this fact, GHEP-ISFG holds different working commissions that are set up to develop activities in scientific aspects of general interest. One of them, the Mixture Commission of GHEP-ISFG, has organized annually, since 2009, a collaborative exercise on analysis and interpretation of autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) mixture profiles. Until now, three exercises have been organized (GHEP-MIX01, GHEP-MIX02 and GHEP-MIX03), with 32, 24 and 17 participant laboratories respectively. The exercise aims to give a general vision by addressing, through the proposal of mock cases, aspects related to the edition of mixture profiles and the statistical treatment. The main conclusions obtained from these exercises may be summarized as follows. Firstly, the data show an increased tendency of the laboratories toward validation of DNA mixture profiles analysis following international recommendations (ISO/IEC 17025:2005). Secondly, the majority of discrepancies are mainly encountered in stutters positions (53.4%, 96.0% and 74.9%, respectively for the three editions). On the other hand, the results submitted reveal the importance of performing duplicate analysis by using different kits in order to reduce errors as much as possible. Regarding the statistical aspect (GHEP-MIX02 and 03), all participants employed the likelihood ratio (LR) parameter to evaluate the statistical compatibility and the formulas employed were quite similar. When the hypotheses to evaluate the LR value were locked by the coordinators (GHEP-MIX02) the results revealed a minor number of discrepancies that were mainly due to clerical reasons. However, the GHEP-MIX03 exercise allowed the participants to freely come up with their own hypotheses to

  9. 78 FR 7387 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). The Secretary of Agriculture has...

  10. Very Large Array Retooling for 21st-Century Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    An international project to make the world's most productive ground-based telescope 10 times more capable has reached its halfway mark and is on schedule to provide astronomers with an extremely powerful new tool for exploring the Universe. The National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope now has half of its giant, 230-ton dish antennas converted to use new, state-of-the-art digital electronics to replace analog equipment that has served since the facility's construction during the 1970s. VLA and Radio Galaxy VLA Antennas Getting Modern Electronics To Meet New Scientific Challenges CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for more information, higher-resolution files "We're taking a facility that has made landmark discoveries in astronomy for three decades and making it 10 times more powerful, at a cost that's a fraction of its total value, by replacing outdated technology with modern equipment," said Mark McKinnon, project manager for the Expanded VLA (EVLA). Rick Perley, EVLA project scientist, added: "When completed in 2012, the EVLA will be 10 times more sensitive, cover more frequencies, and provide far greater analysis capabilities than the current VLA. In addition, it will be much simpler to use, making its power available to a wider range of scientists." The EVLA will give scientists new power and flexibility to meet the numerous challenges of 21st-Century astrophysics. The increased sensitivity will reveal the earliest epochs of galaxy formation, back to within a billion years of the Big Bang, or 93 percent of the look-back time to the beginning of the Universe. It will have the resolution to peer deep into the dustiest star-forming clouds, imaging protoplanetary disks around young stars on scales approaching that of the formation of terrestrial planets. The EVLA will provide unique capabilities to study magnetic fields in the Universe, to image regions near massive black holes, and to systematically track changes in transient objects

  11. Projections of 21st century climate of the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, David E.; Abatzoglou, John T.; Mote, Philip W.

    2017-09-01

    Simulations from 35 global climate models (GCMs) in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 provide projections of 21st century climate in the Columbia River Basin under scenarios of anthropogenic activity given by Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). The multi-model ensemble 30-year mean annual temperature increases by 2.8 °C (5.0 °C) by late 21st century under RCP4.5 (RCP8.5) over the 1979-1990 baseline, with 18% (24%) more warming in summer. By late 21st century, annual precipitation increases by 5% (8%), with an 8% (14%) winter increase and a 4% (10%) summer decrease, but because some models project changes of opposite sign, confidence in these sign changes is lower than those for temperature. Four questions about temperature and precipitation changes were addressed: (1) How and why do climate projections vary seasonally? (2) Is interannual variability in seasonal temperature and precipitation projected to change? (3) What explains the large inter-model spread in the projections? (4) Do projected changes in climate depend on model skill? Changes in precipitation and temperature vary seasonally as a result of changes in large-scale circulation and regional surface energy budget, respectively. Interannual temperature variability decreases slightly during the cool seasons and increases in summer, while interannual precipitation variability increases in all seasons. The magnitude of regional warming is linked to models' global climate sensitivity, whereas internal variability dominates the inter-model spread of precipitation changes. Lastly, GCMs that better reproduce historical climate tend to project greater warming and larger precipitation increases, though these results depend on the evaluation method.

  12. Projections of 21st century climate of the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, David E.; Abatzoglou, John T.; Mote, Philip W.

    2016-10-01

    Simulations from 35 global climate models (GCMs) in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 provide projections of 21st century climate in the Columbia River Basin under scenarios of anthropogenic activity given by Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). The multi-model ensemble 30-year mean annual temperature increases by 2.8 °C (5.0 °C) by late 21st century under RCP4.5 (RCP8.5) over the 1979-1990 baseline, with 18% (24%) more warming in summer. By late 21st century, annual precipitation increases by 5% (8%), with an 8% (14%) winter increase and a 4% (10%) summer decrease, but because some models project changes of opposite sign, confidence in these sign changes is lower than those for temperature. Four questions about temperature and precipitation changes were addressed: (1) How and why do climate projections vary seasonally? (2) Is interannual variability in seasonal temperature and precipitation projected to change? (3) What explains the large inter-model spread in the projections? (4) Do projected changes in climate depend on model skill? Changes in precipitation and temperature vary seasonally as a result of changes in large-scale circulation and regional surface energy budget, respectively. Interannual temperature variability decreases slightly during the cool seasons and increases in summer, while interannual precipitation variability increases in all seasons. The magnitude of regional warming is linked to models' global climate sensitivity, whereas internal variability dominates the inter-model spread of precipitation changes. Lastly, GCMs that better reproduce historical climate tend to project greater warming and larger precipitation increases, though these results depend on the evaluation method.

  13. Cancer Screening and Early Detection in the 21(st) Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loud, Jennifer T; Murphy, Jeanne

    2017-05-01

    To review the trends in and principles of cancer screening and early detection. Journal articles, United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) publications, professional organization position statements, and evidence-based summaries. Cancer screening has contributed to decreasing the morbidity and mortality of cancer. Efforts to improve the selection of candidates for cancer screening, to understand the biological basis of carcinogenesis, and the development of new technologies for cancer screening will allow for improvements in cancer screening over time. Nurses are well-positioned to lead the implementation of cancer screening recommendations in the 21(st) century through their practice, research, educational efforts, and advocacy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Young Adult Dystopias: Bildungsroman for the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines young adult dystopian novels written in the first decade of the 21st century, as heirs to the tradition of the bildungsroman, and the great dystopias. The focus of this new genre has shifted from maintaining "the best of all worlds" – where the young person adjusts and fits into the existing world, to the shaping of the hero’s critical spirit which is supposed to result in the hero/heroine growing up, but also in changes in the world which they inhabit. Two other important ...

  15. [Media for 21st century--towards human communication media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harashima, H

    2000-05-01

    Today, with the approach of the 21st century, attention is focused on multi-media communications combining computer, visual and audio technologies. This article discusses the communication media target and the technological problems constituting the nucleus of multi-media. The communication media is becoming an environment from which no one can escape. Since the media has such a great power, what is needed now is not to predict the future technologies, but to estimate the future world and take to responsibility for future environments.

  16. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FACING CHALLENGES IN 21ST CENTURY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The 21st Century is the time for human seeking harmonizing with environment and carrying out sustainable development strategy. But sustainable development is facing many challenges. They may mainly include the follows: challenge comes from the contradiction between human and the earth, challenge of local benefit conflict to human common goal, challenge of competition to fairness, challenge of unbalanced development in regions and countries, challenge of diversity and challenge of calamity. Challenges are not only pressure, but also the motive force. Challenge exists, the motive force would never stop. Sustainable development was born in challenges, is developing in contradiction and will sustain in conflict.

  17. 21st Century Power Partnership: September 2016 Fellowship Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reber, Timothy J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-29

    This report details the 21st Century Power Partnership fellowship from September 2016. This Fellowship is a follow-up to the Technical Audit of Eskom's Medium- and Long-term Modelling Capabilities, conducted by U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in April 2016. The prospect and role of variable renewable energy (vRE) in South Africa poses new modelling-related challenges that Eskom is actively working to address by improving the fidelity of PLEXOS LT and ST models.

  18. Dinosaur or Phoenix: Nuclear Bombers in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    REPORT DATE 02-04-10 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED 31-07-09 to 16-06-10 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dinosaur or Phoenix: Nuclear...WARFIGHTING SCHOOL DINOSAUR OR PHOENIX: NUCLEAR BOMBERS IN THE 21ST CENTURY by John W. Morehead Colonel, United States Air Force A paper...can argue Secretary Gates’ decision to halt development of a follow-on bomber indicates the DOD views nuclear bombers as dinosaurs no longer needed as

  19. Coal industry of Russia in early 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyshev, Y.N.; Trubetskoy, K.N. [Russian Union of Coal Producers, Moscow (Russia)

    2001-06-01

    The Russian coal industry enters 21st century as a completely revived and re-engineered profitable sector of the national economy, which is able to meet the national demand for coal and also to gradually expand the Russian annual exports of high quality coals to 40 MT. For the immediate future the improvement of coal sector efficiency on the basis of radical restructuring, introducing of the latest advanced technologies and product quality upgrading as well as the quantitative expansion of coal production, can be considered as the key direction for development. 4 refs., 4 annexs.

  20. Death in Design in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    The digital spheres of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Social Network Services (SNS) are influencing 21st. century death. Today the dying and the bereaved attend mourning and remembrance both online and offline, and combined, cemeteries, web memorials and social network sites...... and different attitudes towards new online grief, mourning and remembrance designs, platforms, services and initiatives. By studying the spatial, material, and emotional practices of mourning, guidelines for death-in-design, as both practice and research are formed. Following this we argue that designers must...

  1. After the book information services for the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Stachokas, George

    2014-01-01

    Libraries and librarians have been defined by the book throughout modern history. What happens when society increasingly lets print go in favour of storing, retrieving and manipulating electronic information? What happens after the book? After the Book explores how the academic library of the 21st Century is first and foremost a provider of electronic information services. Contemporary users expect today's library to provide information as quickly and efficiently as other online information resources. The book argues that librarians need to change what they know, how they work, and how they ar

  2. 试论主权财富基金对21世纪国际经济关系的影响——兼论我国的应对策略%Tentative Discussion on the Influences of the Sovereign Wealth Funds on International Economic Relations in 21st Century -- and China's strategies induded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李悦

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, sovereign wealth funds are on rapid rise, and with abundant capital strength, large quantity scale and the increasing international influence, they become the focus of world attention. Based on the introduction of sovereign wealth funds connotation, classification, features and reason of its rising, it emphatically analyzes the influences of sovereign wealth funds on international economic relations in 21st century through several fields such as economic structure of the reorganization, the rising trade friction and the transition of future development direction of developing countries and developed countries. In the end, this article presents strategies that China should strengthen the management of sovereign wealth funds, formulate long-term, flexible and diversified investment development strategy, moderately increasing transparency, strict permission condition and perfect the risk management system.%近几年来,主权财富基金迅速兴起,并以其雄厚的资金实力,庞大的数量规模及日益增强的国际影响力,成为世界关注的焦点。本文在介绍主权财富基金内涵、分类、特征及兴起原因的基础上,着重分析了主权财富基金对21世纪国际经济关系在经济格局的重组、贸易摩擦的加剧和发展中国家与发达国家未来发展方向的转变方面的影响。并据此提出中国应加强央行对主权财富基金的管理,制定长期、灵活且多元化的投资发展战略,适度提高透明度,严格准入条件和健全风险防范体系的应对策略。

  3. Tuberculosis: a new vision for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Peter M

    2009-11-01

    accelerate the development of new tools for the future. Simple improvements in tuberculosis control, such as expanding the use of under-utilized technologies, can have enormous impact. Fixed-dose combinations have existed for over 25 years, and could help ensure that more patients complete treatment; yet globally, only 15 percent of patients are using them. We also need new drugs, vaccines and diagnostics, as well as innovations in tuberculosis control and case management. Better diagnostics are already available, and new drugs and vaccines are coming. But more commitment and resources are needed. Better prevention and control of tuberculosis is the surest way to stop drug resistance. To ensure that drug resistance does not pose a wider threat, we need to employ a number of equally important approaches. These include improved basic tuberculosis control, increased use of underutilized technologies such as fixed-dose combinations, and new technologies and health systems innovations. At the same time, we should expand access to M/XDR-TB treatment and diagnostics for those who already have drug resistant tuberculosis. Some of the most innovative solutions can come from the private sector and through partnerships. An untapped market of two billion people carries the tuberculosis bacterium. Since tuberculosis requires a comprehensive approach, companies should also explore opportunities to work together and pool complementary technologies to ensure new tools are used most effectively. Japan is poised to play a leading role in the discovery, development and delivery of tuberculosis solutions in the 21st century.

  4. India and the 21st Century Power Partnership; 21st Century Power Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-13

    Indian leadership has been crucial in both the establishment of the foundational capabilities of the Power Partnership as well as the realization of opportunities for applied policy implementation. Understanding policy regimes that support and accelerate the transition to clean, smart, efficient, affordable, and reliable electricity will help inform decisions that enable innovative solutions, or even disruptive innovations. India has already demonstrated a wide variety of business model innovation in a wide range of industries. Its potential to do the same in the power sector is an enormous opportunity. Indian contributions to international knowledge about the legal, regulatory and business environment will be an integral component of the Power Partnership program.

  5. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Final main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The 21st Century Jobs Initiative has been launched in the context of new realities in Washington, D.C., rapid restructuring of the US economy and accelerating changes in the makeup of the East Tennessee economy driven by these and other external economic forces. Continuing downward pressure on Federal budgets for programs that support three key institutions in the region - DOE`s Oak Ridge complex, the Tennessee Valley Authority and research programs of the University of Tennessee - are especially threatening to the region. With a large part of its economy dependent on Federal spending, the area is at risk of troublesome impacts that could ripple out from the Oak Ridge and Knoxville home of these institutions throughout the entire 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley.{close_quotes} As these economic forces play out in the region`s economy, important questions arise. How will East Tennessee {open_quotes}earn its living{close_quotes} in the future if the Federal government role in the economy shrinks? What kind of new industries will be formed to replace those at risk due to Federal cutbacks and economic restructuring? Where will the jobs come from for the next generation of job seekers? These are among the questions driving the 21st Century Jobs Initiative, an action-oriented program designed and implemented by local leaders in response to the economic challenges facing East Tennessee. Fortunately, the region`s economy is strong today. Unemployment is at near record lows in most counties. Moreover, leaders are increasingly aware of the threats on the horizon and are already moving to action. And the impacts from the forces at work on the economy will probably come slowly, over the next decade or so. Based on economic research and input from local leaders knowledgeable about the economy, the 21st Century Jobs Initiative has set forth a strategic economic development plan for the region.

  6. Training Librarians for 21st Century Repository Services: Emerging Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Emasealu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviewed the emerging roles of the 21st century librarians, charged with the responsibility to manage repository services across libraries in present-day information technology environment. Librarians need to be trained and empowered with requisite skills and knowledge needed for successful management of the ICT driven repository initiatives that the 21st century demands. Literature was reviewed on the roles and responsibilities of librarians, training needs and opportunities, career path and recruitment of librarians, and community support necessary for effective and efficient implementation and management of repository initiatives. This entails the ability to comprehend trends and change patterns which are essential for providing research focused and user-friendly models in open repository services that are based on thorough analytical understanding of the challenges of emerging trends. To achieve this requires the training and retraining of librarians to reposition them as information specialists in their career path. The role of the library as an integral part of its social environment is to educate the community about the existence of an open repository by building partnership with community-oriented research centres through seminars, workshops, symposium, training, and awareness programmes. The study recommends that librarians should strategize and collaborate with researchers to make open repository an essential research tool.

  7. Identifying 21st Century STEM Competencies Using Workplace Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyewon

    2016-04-01

    Gaps between science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identify important STEM competencies and evaluate the relevance of current frameworks applied in education using the standardized job-specific database operated and maintained by the US Department of Labor. Our analysis of the importance of 109 skills, types of knowledge and work activities, revealed 18 skills, seven categories of knowledge, and 27 work activities important for STEM workers. We investigate the perspectives of STEM and non-STEM job incumbents, comparing the importance of each skill, knowledge, and work activity for the two groups. We aimed to condense dimensions of the 52 key areas by categorizing them according to the Katz and Kahn (1978) framework and testing for inter-rater reliability. Our findings show frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education do not encompass all important STEM competencies. Implications for STEM education programs are discussed, including how they can bridge gaps between education and important workplace competencies.

  8. The 21st century decline in damaging European windstorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Dawkins

    2016-08-01

    of the footprint exceeding 20 ms−1 over land, A20, is shown to be a good predictor of windstorm damage. This damaging characteristic has decreased in the 21st century, due to a statistically significant decrease in the relative frequency of windstorms exceeding 20 ms−1 in north-western Europe, although an increase is observed in southern Europe. This is explained by a decrease in the quantiles of the footprint wind gust speed distribution above approximately 18 ms−1 at locations in this region. In addition, an increased variability in the number of windstorm events is observed in the 21st century. Much of the change in A20 is explained by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO. The correlation between winter total A20 and winter-averaged mean sea-level pressure resembles the NAO pattern, shifted eastwards over Europe, and a strong positive relationship (correlation of 0.715 exists between winter total A20 and winter-averaged NAO. The shifted correlation pattern, however, suggests that other modes of variability may also play a role in the variation in windstorm losses.

  9. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, Muin J [National Institutes of Health; Lam, Tram Kim [National Institutes of Health; Ioannidis, John [Stanford University; Hartge, Patricia [National Institutes of Health; Spitz, Margaret R. [Baylor College of Medicine, Huston; Buring, Julie E. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital; Chanock, Stephen J. [National Institutes of Health; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL; Zauber, Ann [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center; Schully, Sheri D [National Institutes of Health

    2013-01-01

    n 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating big data science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  10. Results of the 2003-2004 GEP-ISFG collaborative study on mitochondrial DNA: focus on the mtDNA profile of a mixed semen-saliva stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespillo, Manuel; Paredes, Miguel R; Prieto, Lourdes; Montesino, Marta; Salas, Antonio; Albarran, Cristina; Alvarez-Iglesias, V; Amorin, Antonio; Berniell-Lee, Gemma; Brehm, Antonio; Carril, Juan C; Corach, Daniel; Cuevas, Nerea; Di Lonardo, Ana M; Doutremepuich, Christian; Espinheira, Rosa M; Espinoza, Marta; Gómez, Felix; González, Alberto; Hernández, Alexis; Hidalgo, M; Jimenez, Magda; Leite, Fabio P N; López, Ana M; López-Soto, Manuel; Lorente, Jose A; Pagano, Shintia; Palacio, Ana M; Pestano, José J; Pinheiro, Maria F; Raimondi, Eduardo; Ramón, M M; Tovar, Florangel; Vidal-Rioja, Lidia; Vide, Maria C; Whittle, Martín R; Yunis, Juan J; Garcia-Hirschfel, Julia

    2006-07-13

    We report here a review of the seventh mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) exercise undertaken by the Spanish and Portuguese working group (GEP) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) corresponding to the period 2003-2004. Five reference bloodstains from five donors (M1-M5), a mixed stain of saliva and semen (M6), and a hair sample (M7) were submitted to each participating laboratory for nuclear DNA (nDNA; autosomal STR and Y-STR) and mtDNA analysis. Laboratories were asked to investigate the contributors of samples M6 and M7 among the reference donors (M1-M5). A total of 34 laboratories reported total or partial mtDNA sequence data from both, the reference bloodstains (M1-M5) and the hair sample (M7) concluding a match between mtDNA profiles of M5 and M7. Autosomal STR and Y-STR profiling was the preferred strategy to investigate the contributors of the semen/saliva mixture (M6). Nuclear DNA profiles were consistent with a mixture of saliva from the donor (female) of M4 and semen from donor M5, being the semen (XY) profile the dominant component of the mixture. Strikingly, and in contradiction to the nuclear DNA analysis, mtDNA sequencing results yield a more simple result: only the saliva contribution (M4) was detected, either after preferential lysis or after complete DNA digestion. Some labs provided with several explanations for this finding and carried out additional experiments to explain this apparent contradictory result. The results pointed to the existence of different relative amounts of nuclear and mtDNAs in saliva and semen. We conclude that this circumstance could strongly influence the interpretation of the mtDNA evidence in unbalanced mixtures and in consequence lead to false exclusions. During the GEP-ISFG annual conference a validation study was planned to progress in the interpretation of mtDNA from different mixtures.

  11. Mexico and the 21st Century Power Partnership: Paving the Way to a Greener, Smarter, More Flexible Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-05-01

    The 21st Century Power Partnership's program in Mexico (21CPP Mexico) is one initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial carried out in cooperation with government and local stakeholders, drawing upon an international community of power system expertise.The overall goal of this program is to support Mexico's power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon system.

  12. INTEGRATION OF EUROPEAN FINANCIAL MARKETS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Antoaneta RADOI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest four decades have marked by their width, speed and radicality a true “revolution” on the financial market, a transformation and restructuring of financial services, of financial instruments which were used, of transaction systems, but also of competitive processes. The importance that should be given to such transformations of financial systems is given, as well, by their impact, both at the micro- and at the macro- levels, on the economy as a whole.The evolution of the European financial market at the beginning of the 21st century has followed the general trend of global markets. As a main tendency of financial market restructuring at the European level we should keep in mind the fact that there was an opening towards private financing according to the American model, due to the necessity to attract international capital resources, a process which is still ongoing.The integration of the European financial markets at the beginning of the 21st century follows the general process of financial globalization which develops rapidly on several structures of financial systems.

  13. Creating a 21st Century Community through the Teacher Research Experience (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, E.; Beine, H. J.

    2009-12-01

    In the spring of 2009, I participated in PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a Teacher Research Experience (TRE) funded by the National Science Foundation and managed by the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States. I assisted in hands-on research being performed by scientists with OASIS (Ocean, Atmosphere, Sea Ice and Snowpack) during their field campaign in Barrow, Alaska. Although I was in the field for only 3 weeks, it was merely a beginning to a transformation that took place not only in me, but also among all of those involved. The PolarTREC program embodies the principles fundamental to the 21st Century skill-set that we want our students to possess. The job market is changing for graduates, and education is striving to provide students with the skills necessary to thrive in the future. To ensure the success of students the International Society for Technology Education (ISTE) has defined 21st Century Skills. They are incorporated into many educational standards (such as the Arizona Educational Technology Standards) and they are practiced by the teachers, researchers, students and the PolarTREC community. They are: Creativity and Innovation Communication and Collaboration Research and Information Literacy Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making Digital Citizenship Technology Operations and Concepts

  14. Emerging infectious diseases at the beginning of the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashley, Felissa R

    2006-01-31

    The emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases involves many interrelated factors. Global interconnectedness continues to increase with international travel and trade; economic, political, and cultural interactions; and human-to-human and animal-to-human interactions. These interactions include the accidental and deliberate sharing of microbial agents and antimicrobial resistance and allow the emergence of new and unrecognized microbial disease agents. As the 21st century begins, already new agents have been identified, and new outbreaks have occurred. Solutions to limiting the spread of emerging infectious diseases will require cooperative efforts among many disciplines and entities worldwide. This article defines emerging infectious diseases, summarizes historical background, and discusses factors that contribute to emergence. Seven agents that have made a significant appearance, particularly in the 21st century, are reviewed, including: Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers, human monkeypox, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), West Nile virus, and avian influenza. The article provides for each agent a brief historical background, case descriptions, and health care implications.

  15. 21st Century Climate Change in the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobiet, Andreas; Kotlarski, Sven; Stoffel, Markus; Heinrich, Georg; Rajczak, Jan; Beniston, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Alps are particularly sensitive to global warming and warmed twice as much as the global average in the recent past. In addition, the Alps and its surroundings are a densly populated areas where society is affected by climate change in many ways, which calls for reliable estimates of future climate change. However, the complex Alpine region poses considerable challenges to climate models, which translate to uncertainties in future climate projections. Against this background, the present study reviews the state-of-knowledge about 21st century climate change in the Alps based on existing literature and additional analyses. It will be demonstrated that considerable and accelerating changes are not only to be expected with regard to temperature, but also precipitation, global radiation, relative humidity, and closely related impacts like floods, droughts, snow cover, and natural hazards will be effected by global warming. Under the A1B emission scenario, about 0.25 °C warming per decade until the mid of the 21st century and accelerated 0.36 °C warming per decade in the second half of the century is expected. Warming will most probably be associated with changes in the seasonality of precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity. More intense precipitation extremes and flooding potential are particularly expected in the colder part of the year. The conditions of currently record breaking warm or hot winter or summer seasons, respectively, may become normal at the end of the 21st century, and there is indication for droughts to become more severe in the future. Snow cover is expected to drastically decrease below 1500 - 2000 m and natural hazards related to glacier and permafrost retreat are expected to become more frequent. Such changes in climatic variables and related quantities will have considerable impact on ecosystems and society and will challenge their adaptive capabilities. Acknowledgements: This study has been initiated and is partly funded by

  16. THE HUMAN BEHAVIOR RATING SCALE-BRIEF: A TOOL TO MEASURE 21ST CENTURY SKILLS OF K-12 LEARNERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-Groves, Suzanne

    2015-06-01

    Currently there is a call for brief concise measurements to appraise relevant 21st century college readiness skills in K-12 learners. This study employed K-12 teachers' ratings for over 3,000 students for an existing 91-item rating scale, the Human Behavior Rating Scale, that measured the 21st century skills of persistence, curiosity, externalizing affect, internalizing affect, and cognition. Teachers' ratings for K-12 learners were used to develop a brief, concise, and manageable 30-item tool, the Human Behavior Rating Scale-Brief. Results yielded high internal consistency coefficients and inter-item correlations. The items were not biased with regard to student sex or race, and were supported through confirmatory factor analyses. In addition, when teachers' ratings were compared with students' academic and behavioral performance data, moderate to strong relationships were revealed. This study provided an essential first step in the development of a psychometrically sound, manageable, and brief tool to appraise 21st century skills in K-12 learners.

  17. Onwards! Reinforcing Democracy for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Serageldin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Universal suffrage has been the primary goal of democratic evolution. Despite elections and other measures taken to ensure democratic rights, some desired outcomes such as equality and transparency are not being met. The current mode of our democratic system is archaic in addressing the world’s multifaceted global crises. So, there’s a dire need to incorporate new elements of democratic governance to address the issue. Humanity now lives in a transition period, so the path may not be easy. But the scientific and technological revolution underway is rapidly changing the mindsets of people and helping them exercise their rights. The article thus focuses on how democracy serves as the best system to ensure human rights and provide for a better society and also, how current models of democratic governance which matured in the last century can be improved in the 21st century, which is instrumental for meeting the challenges humanity confronts today. – Editor

  18. The space life sciences strategy for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, A E; Gaiser, K K

    1992-06-01

    In the past, space life sciences has focused on gaining an understanding of physiological tolerance to spaceflight, but, for the last 10 years, the focus has evolved to include issues relevant to extended duration missions. In the 21st century, NASA's long-term strategy for the exploration of the solar system will combine the assurance of human health and performance for long periods in space with investigations aimed at searching for traces of life on other planets and acquiring fundamental scientific knowledge of life processes. Implementation of this strategy will involve a variety of disciplines including radiation health, life support, human factors, space physiology and countermeasures, medical care, environmental health, and exobiology. It will use both ground-based and flight research opportunities such as those found in current on-going programs, on Spacelab and unmanned biosatellite flights, and during Space Station Freedom missions.

  19. Surgical appreciation of Robert Boyle in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D L

    2000-12-01

    Robert Boyle was known as the Father of Chemistry. He lived at a time when science and religion were closely linked. It was a pious and puritanical time, but also a time of great enlightenment. His original and paramount thesis, that air has weight, has given us Boyle's gas law. Another of his writings in the Cowlishaw Collection is on religion. It is stated that, at one stage, he was deliberating whether to be a scientist or a priest. Surgical appreciation of Boyle's law has poignant application in scientific methods and research in the 21st century. The development of advanced laparoscopic surgery represents a challenging new era in surgery that was not envisaged by our surgical predecessors. Basic surgical research into the effects of gas pressure on renal function and bowel response will be presented.

  20. The 21st Annual Prostate Cancer Foundation Scientific Retreat report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahira, Andrea K; Simons, Jonathan W; Soule, Howard R

    2015-08-01

    The 21st Annual Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) Scientific Retreat was held from October 23-25, 2014, in Carlsbad, CA. This event is the world's foremost scientific meeting focusing on prostate cancer and brings together leading basic, translational and clinical researchers in prostate cancer and other diverse disciplines to discuss the newest findings most likely to advance the understanding of prostate cancer and the clinical care of prostate cancer patients. This year's meeting highlighted themes including: (i) research integrity and standards for scientific reproducibility; (ii) prostate cancer disparities; (iii) mechanisms and models of prostate cancer progression and dormancy; (iv) mechanisms of therapeutic resistance; and (v) advancements in precision medicine treatments, treatment models, and predictive and prognostic biomarkers.

  1. Reimagining Human Research Protections for 21st Century Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietz, Matthew; Bae, Deborah; Bigby, Barbara; Devereaux, Mary; Fowler, James; Waldo, Ann; Weibel, Nadir; Patrick, Kevin; Klemmer, Scott; Melichar, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Background Evolving research practices and new forms of research enabled by technological advances require a redesigned research oversight system that respects and protects human research participants. Objective Our objective was to generate creative ideas for redesigning our current human research oversight system. Methods A total of 11 researchers and institutional review board (IRB) professionals participated in a January 2015 design thinking workshop to develop ideas for redesigning the IRB system. Results Ideas in 5 major domains were generated. The areas of focus were (1) improving the consent form and process, (2) empowering researchers to protect their participants, (3) creating a system to learn from mistakes, (4) improving IRB efficiency, and (5) facilitating review of research that leverages technological advances. Conclusions We describe the impetus for and results of a design thinking workshop to reimagine a human research protections system that is responsive to 21st century science. PMID:28007687

  2. YANJI CITY ORIENTATION AND INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT TOWARDS 21ST CENTURY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Yanji is the biggest China Korean inhabited city. Based on a newly finished research project, this paper discusses strategic problems about Yanji towards 21st century. The general point of the authors is that at the beginning of new century,Yanji will play a more important role in Tumen River Delta development, regional economy cooperation in Korea Peninsula as well as Northeast Asia, and it will develop to be an important central city in this area. This paper puts forwards Yanji City′s developing goal, urban nature, and urban size, probes its regional orientation, and further probes how to establish The Yanji Urban Economy Cooperation Zone. The authors think that Yanji should depend on its intellect resources and other characteristic resources. Industry development need to pay much attention to modern agriculture, tertiary industry (especially commerce, trade and tourism) and dominant industries, and high-tech industry must give a special care, in order to establish a light industrial structure.

  3. Infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Satya S.; Wareham, David W. [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medical Microbiology; Britton, Keith E. [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Hall, Anne V. [Harefield Hospital, Middlesex (United Kingdom). Microbiology Dept.

    2002-09-01

    Infection continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nuclear medicine has an important role in aiding the diagnosis of particularly deep-seated infections such as abscesses, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, and infections of prosthetic devices. Established techniques such as radiolabelled leucocytes are sensitive and specific for inflammation but do not distinguish between infective and non-infective inflammation. The challenge for Nuclear Medicine in infection imaging in the 21st century is to build on the recent trend towards the development of more infection specific radiopharmaceuticals, such as radiolabelled anti-infectives (e.g. 99 m Tc ciprofloxacin). In addition to aiding early diagnosis of infection, through serial imaging these agents might prove very useful in monitoring the response to and determining the optimum duration of anti-infective therapy. This article reviews the current approach to infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals nd the future direction it might take. (author)

  4. Space medicine research: Needs for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Space medicine research in the 21st century will continue to focus on the four major areas including: (1) expansion of the current incomplete knowledge base of clinical and subclinical physiological changes due to microgravity; (2) development of countermeasures to extend the capabilities of the human performance envelope in extended duration flights; (3) development of novel methods for delivering all aspects of a comprehensive health care system in extreme remote conditions: and (4) further research and application of systems for biological materials processing. New space transportation vehicles will place unique physiologic and human factors demands on the human system, while providing better access to platforms for materials processing. Success in meeting the demands in each of the noted research areas will require an extensive, interactive team approach. Personnel from the medical research,operational, developmental, and basic science communities will be essential to success.

  5. Infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Satya S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nuclear medicine has an important role in aiding the diagnosis of particularly deep-seated infections such as abscesses, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, and infections of prosthetic devices. Established techniques such as radiolabelled leucocytes are sensitive and specific for inflammation but do not distinguish between infective and non-infective inflammation. The challenge for Nuclear medicine in infection imaging in the 21st century is to build on the recent trend towards the development of more infection specific radiopharmaceuticals, such as radiolabelled anti-infectives (e.g. 99mTc- ciprofloxacin. In addition to aiding early diagnosis of infection, through serial imaging these agents might prove very useful in monitoring the response to and determining the optimum duration of anti-infective therapy. This article reviews the current approach to infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals and the future direction it might take.

  6. Changes to postgraduate medical education in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mehool

    2016-08-01

    Medicine is a constantly evolving profession, especially with the advent of rapid advances in the scientific base that underpins this vocation. In order to ensure that training in medicine is contemporary with the continuous evolution of the profession, there has been a multitude of changes to postgraduate medical education, particularly in the UK. This article aims to provide an overview of relevant key changes to postgraduate medical education in the UK during the 21st century, including changes to the structure, governance and commissioning of medical education, effects of European Working Time Directive on training, recent recommendations in the Future Hospital Commission report and Shape of training report, and recent requirements for accreditation of medical education trainers. Many of these recommendations will require complex discussions often at organisational levels, hopefully with some realistic and pragmatic solutions for implementation.

  7. Musical instruments in the 21st century identities, configurations, practices

    CERN Document Server

    Campo, Alberto; Egermann, Hauke; Hardjowirogo, Sarah-Indriyati; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    By exploring the many different types and forms of contemporary musical instruments, this book contributes to a better understanding of the conditions of instrumentality in the 21st century. Providing insights from science, humanities and the arts, authors from a wide range of disciplines discuss the following questions: · What are the conditions under which an object is recognized as a musical instrument? · What are the actions and procedures typically associated with musical instruments? · What kind of (mental and physical) knowledge do we access in order to recognize or use something as a musical instrument? · How is this knowledge being shaped by cultural conventions and temporal conditions? · How do algorithmic processes 'change the game' of musical performance, and as a result, how do they affect notions of instrumentality? · How do we address the question of instrumental identity within an instrument's design process? · What properties can be used to differentiate successful and unsuccessful ins...

  8. Designing blended learning interventions for the 21st century student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleton, Saramarie

    2017-06-01

    The learning requirements of diverse groups of students in higher education challenge educators to design learning interventions that meet the need of 21st century students. A model was developed to assist lecturers, especially those that are new to the profession, to use a blended approach to design meaningful learning interventions for physiology. The aim of the model is to encourage methodical development of learning interventions, while the purpose is to provide conceptual and communication tools that can be used to develop appropriate operational learning interventions. A whole brain approach that encourages challenging the four quadrants is encouraged. The main arguments of the model are to first determine the learning task requirements, as these will inform the design and development of learning interventions to facilitate learning and the assessment thereof. Delivery of the content is based on a blended approach.

  9. Identifying 21st century STEM competencies using workplace data

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Hyewon

    2015-01-01

    Gaps between Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identify important STEM competencies and evaluate the relevance of current frameworks applied in education using the standardized job-specific database operated and maintained by the United States Department of Labor. Our analysis of the importance of 109 skills, types of knowledge and work activities, revealed 18 skills, seven categories of knowledge, and 27 work activities important for STEM workers. We investigate the perspectives of STEM and non-STEM job incumbents, comparing the importance of each skill, knowledge, and work...

  10. Challenges for Educational Technologists in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Mayes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1972, Edsger Dijkstra claimed that computers had only introduced the new problem of learning to use them effectively. This is especially true in 2015 with regard to powerful new educational technologies. This article describes the challenges that 21st century educational technologists are, and will be, addressing as they undertake the effective integration of new technologies into K-12 educational systems and learning environments. The expanding Internet, ever more powerful mobile devices, and other innovations make the task of designing effective formal and informal learning challenging, especially in light of the high rate of change in these new technologies. While these technologies introduce many benefits, they are also causing serious threats to system security and personal privacy. Furthermore, as these technologies continue to evolve, ethical issues such as equal access to resources become imperative. Educational technologists must expand their forward-thinking leadership and planning competencies so as to ensure effective use of new technologies.

  11. Designing Complex Systems for the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    organization with conflicting goals, and the difficulty in understanding the socio-technical interfaces. Classical systems engineering approaches which focus on processes for cascading engineering requirements from higher to lower system levels is no longer suited to dealing with the global and socio......-technical aspects of the 21st century complex systems. This presentation will first explore the research challenges and opportunities in designing complex “engineered” systems, and then focus on two specific topics in this area, i.e., (1) design of multiscale systems and (2) integrating heterogeneous consumer...... preference into enterprise-driven product design. Research in multiscale design presents the significant benefits of using computational design techniques for designing novel materials, new products, and new processes with exceptional system performance across diverse application domains such as material...

  12. Projections of Climate Change over China for the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yong; ZHAO Zongci; XU Ying; GAO Xuejie; DING Yihui

    2005-01-01

    The projections of climate changes in China for the 21st century by about 40 climate scenarios and multi-model ensembles have been investigated in this research. All the models with the different scenarios project a warming of 1.2℃ to 9.2℃ in China by the end of 21st century. Most of the projections point show the increasing of precipitation in China for the 21st century.

  13. Report on the workshop "Organising, Managing and Regulating Martial Arts" during the 21st EASM conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jikkemien Vertonghen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present report provides a brief account of a workshop entitled “Organising, Managing and Regulating Martial Arts” organised during the 21st EASM conference held in Istanbul (Turkey on September 12th, 2013. It was the first scientific workshop with regard to the organisational and policy related aspects of (full contact martial arts. During this international meeting four scientists described in-depth the recent history and current situation regarding the organisation and regulation of martial arts in their country (i.e., France, Flanders (Belgium, Italy and the Netherlands. The workshop was a unique meeting which provided a good opportunity to obtain a better understanding of the specific situation with regard to the regulation of martial arts in some European countries and to exchange results of current research concerning this topic. Further research could be helpful to gain more insight in dealing with problems related to governance, regulation and management of martial arts within a European context.

  14. The 21st LH Gray Conference (June 4-6, 2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C. M. L. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Martin, C. J. [Gartnavel Royal Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Sutton, D. G. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Wright, E. G. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-12

    The 21st LH Gray Conference, organised by the LH Gray Trust with the Society for Radiological Protection, brought together international experts in radiobiology, epidemiology and risk assessment, and scientists involved in diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure. The meeting - held in Edinburgh, Scotland 4-6 June 2008 - aimed to raise awareness, educate and share knowledge of important issues in radiation protection. A distinguished group of speakers discussed topics which included: non-targeted effects of radiation, exposure to high natural background radiation, non-cancer effects in Japanese bomb survivors, lessons learnt from Chernobyl, radiation in the workplace, biokinetic modelling, uncertainties in risk estimation, issues in diagnostic medical exposures, lessons leant from the polonium-210 incidence and how the radiobiology-radiation oncology community is needed to help society prepare for potential future acts of radiation terrorism. The conference highlighted the importance, relevance and topicality of radiobiology today.

  15. Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Giménez, Àlvaro; Niarchos, Panagiotis; Rucinski, Slavek

    2006-01-01

    An International Conference entitled "Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges", was held in Syros island, Greece, from 27 to 30 June, 2005. There are many binary star systems whose components are so close together, that they interact in various ways. Stars in such systems do not pass through all stages of their evolution independently of each other; in fact their evolutionary path is significantly affected by their companions. Processes of interaction include gravitational effects, mutual irradiation, mass exchange, mass loss from the system, phenomena of extended atmospheres, semi-transparent atmospheric clouds, variable thickness disks and gas streams. The zoo of Close Binary Systems includes: Close Eclipsing Binaries (Detached, Semi-detached, Contact), High and Low-Mass X-ray Binaries, Cataclysmic Variables, RS CVn systems, Pulsar Binaries and Symbiotic Stars. The study of these binaries triggered the development of new branches of astrophysics dealing with the structure and ev...

  16. Examining the Efficacy of Project-Based Learning on Cultivating the 21st Century Skills among High School Students in a Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Syan; Ma, Jung-Tsan; Kuo, Karen Yi-Chwen; Chou, Chien-Tzu Candace

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study is to explore the opportunities and challenges associated with Project-Based Learning strategy in a global context on the aspects of both fostering learning community of practices and nurturing the 21st century skills. For collecting empirical data, the study implements and administers an online international project-based…

  17. Arctic Ocean Pathways in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Yevgeny; van Gennip, Simon J.; Kelly, Stephen J.; Popova, Ekaterina E.; Yool, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    In the last three decades, changes in the Arctic environment have been occurring at an increasing rate. The opening up of large areas of previously sea ice-covered ocean affects the marine environment with potential impacts on Arctic ecosystems, including through changes in Arctic access, industries and societies. Changes to sea ice and surface winds result in large-scale shifts in ocean circulation and oceanic pathways. This study presents a high-resolution analysis of the projected ocean circulation and pathways of the Arctic water masses across the 21st century. The analysis is based on an eddy-permitting high-resolution global simulation of the ocean general circulation model NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) at the 1/4-degree horizontal resolution. The atmospheric forcing is from HadGEM2-ES model output from IPCC Assessment Report 5 (AR5) simulations performed for Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5), and follow the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. During the 21st century the AO experiences a significant warming, with sea surface temperature increased by in excess of 4 deg. C. Annual mean Arctic sea ice thickness drops to less than 0.5m, and the Arctic Ocean is ice-free in summer from the mid-century. We use an off-line tracer technique to investigate Arctic pathways of the Atlantic and Pacific waters (AW and PW respectively) under this future climate. The AW tracers have been released in the eastern Fram Strait and in the western Barents Sea, whereas the PW tracer has been seeded in the Bering Strait. In the second half of the century the upper 1000 m ocean circulation shows a reduction in the eastward AW flow along the continental slopes towards the Makarov and Canada basins and a deviation of the PW flow away from the Beaufort Sea towards the Siberian coast. Strengthening of Arctic boundary current and intensification of the cyclonic gyre in the Nansen basin of the Arctic Ocean is accompanied by

  18. Girltalk: Energy, Climate and Water in the 21ST Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, H. C.; Osborne, V.; Bush, R.; Bauer, S.; Bourgeois, E.; Brownlee, D.; Clark, C.; Ellins, K. K.; Hempel-Medina, D.; Hernandez, A.; Hovorka, S. D.; Olson, J. E.; Romanak, K.; Smyth, R. C.; Tinker, S.; Torres-Verdin, C.; Williams, I. P.

    2011-12-01

    In preparation for Earth Science Week, The University of Texas at Austin, Striker Communications and Ursuline Academy of Dallas partnered on a GirlTalk event ("Energy, Climate and Water in the 21st Century") to create a two-day (Fri-Sat), community science symposium and open house on critical issues surrounding energy, water and climate. On Friday, over 800 high school girls and 100 teachers from Ursuline participated in hands-on activities (led by faculty, researchers and graduate students from UT Austin and professionals from the surrounding Dallas community), films and discussions, plenary sessions and an expert panel discussion. An opening talk by Dr. Hilary Olson on "Energy, Water and Climate in the 21st Century: Critical Issues for the Global Community" began the day. A series of hands-on activities, and science and technology films with discussion followed. Each girl had an individualized, modular schedule for the day, completing four of the over twenty modules offered. During lunch, Dr. Scott Tinker, Director of the Bureau of Economic Geology, presented a compelling talk on "Time, Technology and Transition", and afterwards girls attended another round of hands-on activities in the afternoon. The day ended with a panel discussion where girls could submit questions to the various participants from the day's activities. The exciting experience of a full day of GirlTalk led many high school girls to volunteer for the middle school event on the following morning (Sat.), when 150 middle school girls and their mentors (parents, teachers) attended a community-wide public event to learn about the energy, water and climate nexus. "Breakfast with a Pro" was hosted by the various professionals. Girls and their mentors enjoyed breakfast and discussion about topics and careers in the earth sciences and engineering with presenters, followed by an informal discussion with a panel of professionals. Next, girls and their mentors were each given a pre-assigned individual

  19. 76 FR 48797 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: August 30-31, 2011. ADDRESSES: Rooms... consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming...

  20. 77 FR 26725 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting AGENCY... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are May 29-30, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to 5... consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming...

  1. 77 FR 46681 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting... meeting of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting... the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming communities, the seed industry,...

  2. 77 FR 11064 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are March 5-6, 2012..., 2012. The AC21 consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food...

  3. 21st Century Community Learning Centers: Providing Afterschool and Summer Learning Support to Communities Nationwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afterschool Alliance, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 21st Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC) initiative is the only federal funding source dedicated exclusively to before-school, afterschool, and summer learning programs. Each state education agency receives funds based on its share of Title I funding for low-income students at high-poverty, low performing schools. Funds are also…

  4. Leading the 21st-century academic library successful strategies for envisioning and realizing preferred futures

    CERN Document Server

    Eden, Bradford Lee

    2015-01-01

    Leading the 21st Century Academic Library: Successful Strategies for Envisioning and Realizing Preferred Futures will explore the new roles and directions academic libraries are taking in the 21st century as a consequence of visionary leadership in exploring diverse futures.

  5. The relation between 21st-century skills and digital skills: A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laar, Ester; van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; de Haan, Jos

    2017-01-01

    Innovation starts with people, making the human capital within the workforce decisive. In a fast-changing knowledge economy, 21st-century digital skills drive organizations' competitiveness and innovation capacity. Although such skills are seen as crucial, the digital aspect integrated with 21st-cen

  6. Intelligent manufacture adapts to agile manufacture production mode in the 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xurong

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the characteristics of the intelligent manufacturing system and production mode in the21st century in the information age, therefore draws a conclusion that the intelligent manufacturing system adapts to agilemanufacture (AM for short) production mode in the 21 st century.

  7. Assessing 21st Century Skills: A Guide to Evaluating Mastery and Authentic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards clearly define the skills students need for success in college and the 21st century workplace. The question is, how can you measure student mastery of skills like creativity, problem solving, and use of technology? Laura Greenstein demonstrates how teachers can teach and assess 21st century skills using authentic…

  8. Teaching 21st Century Competencies: Lessons from Crescent Girls' School in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Gucci; Patel, Deepa; Shear, Linda; Goh, Peishi; Quek, Yin Kang; Tan, Chen Kee

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents case studies of two teachers at Crescent Girl's School (an all-girls high school in Singapore) who implemented strategies learned through a teacher professional development program called 21st Century Learning Design (21CLD). Policymakers often state requirements for teachers to focus on 21st century (21C) competencies without…

  9. Access to Attainment: An Access Agenda for 21st Century College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Abby; Valle, Katherine; Engle, Jennifer; Cooper, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This report, "Access to Attainment: An Access Agenda for 21st Century College Students," examines the challenges facing 21st century students and presents strategies for addressing these challenges through policy-and practice-based solutions at the institutional, state and national levels. Recommendations include implementing a…

  10. Higher Education Administration and Globalization in the 21st Century in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbarifar, Taghi

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the changing scenario and management responsibilities of higher education in the 21st century in India. Of course, for those looking for challenges of management in higher education as a field, the future is not going to be a disappointment. Maybe by the end of the first decade of the 21st century management of higher…

  11. Assessing 21st Century Skills: A Guide to Evaluating Mastery and Authentic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards clearly define the skills students need for success in college and the 21st century workplace. The question is, how can you measure student mastery of skills like creativity, problem solving, and use of technology? Laura Greenstein demonstrates how teachers can teach and assess 21st century skills using authentic…

  12. Virtual Constructions: Developing a Teacher Voice in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the development of teacher identity in the 21st century. The simple way to describe this discussion of identity is that it is complex. In an attempt to unpack this complexity, this article begins with a discussion of definitions of teacher identity; then links that discussion to the literature on how 21st-century web 2.0…

  13. 21st Century Learning: Law-Related Education in South Tucson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golston, Syd

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. This Arizona high school magnet law program offers the ideal 21st century education--one that teaches skills through core subjects and interdisciplinary themes, uses innovative learning methods, and emphasizes higher order thinking skills. Students agree that the program has helped…

  14. Infusing Creativity and Technology in 21st Century Education: A Systemic View for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Danah; Mishra, Punya; Fisser, Petra

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore creativity alongside educational technology, as fundamental constructs of 21st century education. Creativity has become increasingly important, as one of the most important and noted skills for success in the 21st century. We offer a definition of creativity; and draw upon a systems model of creativity, to suggest…

  15. Kinesiology Faculty for the 21st Century: Steping into the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePauw, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Kinesiology faculty for the 21st century was one of the featured strands of the 2014 NAKHE Collaborative Congress: "STEPS into the future: Exploring opportunities and facing the challenges for the 21st century." Following a brief introduction delegates were assigned to discussion groups with conversations focused around six…

  16. Student Motivation in the 21st Century – Slovak Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozvadský Gugová Gabriela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the five primary objectives of the European Union within the framework of Europe 2020 is to increase the proportion of the tertiary educated population. The research task titled “The motivation of the student in the 21st century” is intended to address the factors that have both an impact on the decision of students to pursue higher studies and affect the choice of a specific field of study and a preferred form of study. The stimulus to the exploration was sparked by the mentioned EU initiative, interesting statistical data, the growing number of students studying in the external form compared to the daily option, and an increase of students from abroad. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the causes of these trends. Motivation of students is not researched in a systematic way in Slovakia, even though it is an important factor in a student’s decisionmaking process to study. Information was obtained by a questionnaire distributed to 105 students, evaluated using SPSS software and application of descriptive statistics.

  17. The 21st Century Cures Act: pharmacoeconomic boon or bane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2017-04-01

    Barriers to entry in healthcare markets constitute one of the overriding concerns of health economists. The recent enactment of the 21st Century Cures Act in the United States reduces statutory entry barriers to the discovery, development, testing, and licensing of drugs and medical devices. Drug and device makers also see the burdensome and time-consuming requirements of the Food and Drug Administration?s approval process as key barriers to lowering the costs of their products, considering it takes a decade of research amounting to $1 billion just to bring a single drug to the market. Along with novel opportunities for medical product innovation and faster treatment of diseases, the expedited approval process carries with it contentious challenges involving the safety, efficacy and value of drugs and devices. The ensuing trade-offs and unintended consequences of such a regulatory game-changer bring to the fore one of the most enduring debates between medicine and economics: Whether - or to what extent - cost and efficiency factors affect clinical inquiry into possible solutions to human illnesses. The practical and theoretical contributions of pharmacoeconomics should enlighten contemporary and future issues and discussions surrounding the implementation of this landmark legislation. After all, despite its undeniably good intent and far-reaching significance, no law can ever be perfect.

  18. Opportunities for natural products in 21(st) century antibiotic discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Gerard D

    2017-07-01

    Natural products and their derivatives are mainstays of our antibiotic drugs, but they are increasingly in peril. The combination of widespread multidrug resistance in once susceptible bacterial pathogens, disenchantment with natural products as sources of new drugs, lack of success using synthetic compounds and target-based discovery methods, along with shifting economic and regulatory issues, conspire to move investment in research and development away from the antibiotics arena. The result is a growing crisis in antibiotic drug discovery that threatens modern medicine. 21(st) century natural product research is perfectly positioned to fill the antibiotic discovery gap and bring new drug candidates to the clinic. Innovations in genomics and techniques to explore new sources of antimicrobial chemical matter are revealing new chemistry. Increasing appreciation of the value of narrow-spectrum drugs and re-examination of once discarded chemical scaffolds coupled with synthetic biology methods to generate new compounds and improve yields offer new strategies to revitalize once moribund natural product programs. The increasing awareness that the combination of antibiotics with adjuvants, non-antibiotic compounds that overcome resistance and enhance drug activity, can rescue older chemical scaffolds, and concepts such as blocking pathogen virulence present orthogonal strategies to traditional antibiotics. In all these areas, natural products offer chemical matter, shaped by natural selection, that is privileged in this therapeutic area. Natural product research is poised to regain prominence in delivering new drugs to solve the antibiotic crisis.

  19. Civilian Power from Space in the Early 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R; Ishikawa, M; Wood, L

    2003-06-01

    If power beamed from space is to be become widely used on Earth in the first half of the 21St century, several thus-far-persistent impediments must be obviated, including threshold effects and problematic aspects of cost, availability, reliability, hazards and environmental impacts. We sketch a generally-applicable route to doing so, noting key enabling technologies and practical features. Likely-essential features of any successful strategy include vigorous, systematic leveraging of all intrinsic features of space-derived power, e.g., addressing marginal, high-value-added markets for electric power in space- and time-agile manners to conveniently provide power-upon-demand, and incrementally ''wedging'' into ever-larger markets with ever more cost-efficient generations and scales of technology. We suggest that no prudent strategic plan will rely upon large-scale, long-term public subsidies--fiscal, regulatory, etc.--with their attendant ''sovereign risks'' and interminable delays, and that plan-essential governmental support likely will be limited to early feasibility demonstrations, provision of threshold technologies and a rational, competition-neutral licensing environment. If salient realities are uniformly respected and accessible technologies are intelligently leveraged, electricity derived from space-sourced power-beams may come into significant civilian use during the latter part of the first quarter of this century, and may become widely used by the half-century point.

  20. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Varga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC, the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the “ideal candidates” for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect.

  1. State, nation and democracy on the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia Catherine González Piñeros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between State and Nation in the recent events in Japan and Bolivia, cases in which the universally shared ideas about development and democracy are met with the common criteria for the majority of the countries in the world. This relationship is analyzed comparing the particularities of each context regarding the concepts mentioned. Japan, despite being considered as an economically developed country, is criticized for its lack of exercise of democratic, popular politics. That country, despite being in the 21st century, remains a constitutional monarchy. Thus, given the catastrophic episode from March, 2011, the destiny of the citizens was defined by the imperial family. Bolivia, for its part, since the beginning of this century has managed a national reconstruction that has re-founded the Constitution and, therefore, the nation and the State. However, this democratic reorganization now faces a number of dilemmas where the State is debating between democracy and authoritarianism, as well as between liberal development and development from a communal perspective.

  2. Young Adult Dystopias: Bildungsroman for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines young adult dystopian novels written in the first decade of the 21st century, as heirs to the tradition of the bildungsroman, and the great dystopias. The focus of this new genre has shifted from maintaining "the best of all worlds" – where the young person adjusts and fits into the existing world, to the shaping of the hero’s critical spirit which is supposed to result in the hero/heroine growing up, but also in changes in the world which they inhabit. Two other important characteristics of these novels are the critical relationship toward ancestors and tradition on the one hand, and on the other the positive assessment of non-rational decisions which are made impulsively and are based on emotions, which points to the abandonment of different aspects of the heritage of modernity (the traditions of rationalism and romanticism. Thus they set the stage for a new, different view of the world and the role which the individual is to fulfill by growing from a child into an adult in such a world.

  3. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyelle Khadydja F. Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and “green” products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries.

  4. Cyberbullying: a 21st Century Health Care Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jemica M; Wilson, Feleta L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined bullying and cyberbullying prevalence among 367 adolescents 10 to 18 years of age who were attending schools and community organizations in suburban and urban neighborhoods in the Midwest United States. The correlational design investigated adolescents' daily use of technology that could be used to cyberbully peers, such as cell phones, computers, email, and the Internet. Results showed that 30% of participants had been bullied during school, and 17% had been cyberbullied, with online social networking sites the most common media employed (68%). The majority of participants owned or had access to computers (92%), email accounts (88%), social networking accounts (e.g., Facebook or MySpace) (82%), and cell phones (79%). Daily technology use included an average of two hours on a computer and a median of 71 text messages per day. Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant differences in bullying or cyberbullying prevalence based on location (urban or suburban) or demographic characteristics. Given the substantial presence of cyberbullying and the increase in technology use among adolescents in the 21st century, nurses need knowledge of the phenomenon to plan assessments in clinical practice. Early identification and assessment of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators, and development and implementation of effective interventions are needed to reduce this form of bullying among adolescents.

  5. A 21st century roadmap for human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoor, Timothy P; Bachman, Ammie N; Bell, David R; Cohen, Samuel M; Dellarco, Michael; Dewhurst, Ian C; Doe, John E; Doerrer, Nancy G; Embry, Michelle R; Hines, Ronald N; Moretto, Angelo; Phillips, Richard D; Rowlands, J Craig; Tanir, Jennifer Y; Wolf, Douglas C; Boobis, Alan R

    2014-08-01

    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI)-coordinated Risk Assessment in the 21st Century (RISK21) project was initiated to develop a scientific, transparent, and efficient approach to the evolving world of human health risk assessment, and involved over 120 participants from 12 countries, 15 government institutions, 20 universities, 2 non-governmental organizations, and 12 corporations. This paper provides a brief overview of the tiered RISK21 framework called the roadmap and risk visualization matrix, and articulates the core principles derived by RISK21 participants that guided its development. Subsequent papers describe the roadmap and matrix in greater detail. RISK21 principles include focusing on problem formulation, utilizing existing information, starting with exposure assessment (rather than toxicity), and using a tiered process for data development. Bringing estimates of exposure and toxicity together on a two-dimensional matrix provides a clear rendition of human safety and risk. The value of the roadmap is its capacity to chronicle the stepwise acquisition of scientific information and display it in a clear and concise fashion. Furthermore, the tiered approach and transparent display of information will contribute to greater efficiencies by calling for data only as needed (enough precision to make a decision), thus conserving animals and other resources.

  6. 21st Century innovators. Interview by Joe Flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, P; Linton, P

    1992-01-01

    Last spring, The Healthcare Forum and 3M together announced the 21st Century Innovator Awards. They hoped to spotlight examples of the most forward-thinking organizations in American healthcare--organizations that could demonstrate readiness for the next century through the process of rebuilding their systems and structures. THF and 3M were looking for models for success with: (1) an organizational vision for the future, (2) an integrated planning process which reflected that vision, and (3) a measurable future benefit to the communities they served. The call elicited responses from more than 40 organizations across the country. THF and 3M were overwhelmed by both their range and quality. Choosing was difficult. But last September two winners were unveiled at the THF-3M Visionary Leadership conference in Hilton Head, South Carolina. Memorial Hospital and Health System of South Bend, Indiana, took the large, urban, regional, and national award for its progress in the long, tough process of revisioning itself according to a strategic concept CEO Phil Newbold calls "Quality Through People." The small, rural, and suburban prize went to Yavapai Regional Medical Center in Prescott, Arizona, where CEO Pat Linton is attempting to shape a "Total Healing Environment." We asked Joe Flower to visit both sites and send back an eyewitness report on what makes these two progressive organizations models for healthcare in the '90s and beyond.

  7. Being Black and Brown in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre W. Orelus

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Depending on one’s level of understanding and awareness about the plight of Black and Brown people, one might argue that they are better off today than they were 50 years ago or so, especially when one remembers the Jim Crow era during which Black and Brown people were ruthlessly brutalized, particularly by White supremacist groups such as the Klu Klux Kan. However, if one critically analyzed the achievement gap between students of color and their White counterparts, the decline in incomes, and other forms of educational and socioeconomic inequality that Black and Brown people, particularly poor students of color, have been experiencing for the last several decades or so, one would realize that substantially nothing has changed for them. In light of this view, this article explores the educational and socioeconomic conditions of People of Color, including those of linguistically and culturally diverse students. Specifically, it examines the ways and the degree to which lack of resources combined with institutional racism and the legacy of slavery continue to limit the life chances of Black and Brown people in the 21st century. The author ends this article making recommendations to counter inequality in schools and society at large that Black and Brown people have been facing.

  8. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-03-18

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and "green" products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries.

  9. Rethinking Approaches to Strategic Stability in the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hosted a two-day conference on rethinking approaches to strategic stability in the 21st century on October 20-21, 2016 in Livermore, CA. The conference was jointly convened by Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, and Sandia National Laboratories, and was held in partnership with the United States Department of State’s Bureau of Arms Control, Verification and Compliance. The conference took place at LLNL’s Center for Global Security Research (CGSR) and included a range of representatives from U.S. government, academic, and private institutions, as well as representatives from U.S. allies in Europe and Asia.The following summary covers topics and discussions from each of the panels. It is not intended to capture every point in detail, but seeks to outline the range of views on these complex and inter-related issues while providing a general overview of the panel topics and discussions that took place. The conference was held under the Chatham House rule and does not attribute any remarks to any specific individual or institution. The views reflected in this report do not represent the United States Government, Department of State, or the national laboratories.

  10. Bionic autonomic neuromodulation revolutionizes cardiology in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    In this invited session, we would like to address the impact of bionic neuromodulation on cardiovascular diseases. It has been well established that cardiovascular dysregulation plays major roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. This is the reason why most drugs currently used in cardiology have significant pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular regulatory system. Since the ultimate center for cardiovascular regulation is the brainstem, it is conceivable that autonomic neuromodulation would have significant impacts on cardiovascular diseases. On the basis of this framework, we first developed a bionic, neurally regulated artificial pacemaker. We then substituted the brainstem by CPU and developed a bionic artificial baroreflex system. We further developed a bionic brain that achieved better regulatory conditions than the native brainstem in order to improve survival in animal model with heart failure. We recently developed a bionic neuromodulation system to reduce infarction size following acute myocardial infarction. We believe that the bionic neuromodulation will inspire even more intricate applications in cardiology in the 21(st) century.

  11. Implementation of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwar, M; Kunnawar, N; Deshmukh, S; Singh, A; Mulik, I; Taori, V; Tayade, K; Mahorkar, C; Somani, A; Saboo, K; Choudhary, A; Shembekar, C; Choudhary, S; Ketkar, M; Knight, H E; Blakey, I; Cheikh Ismail, L

    2013-09-01

    The South Asian site in the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project was the city of Nagpur, in Maharashtra State, India, with approximately 4500 births per year among the target population with middle to high socio-economic status. These deliveries are mainly concentrated in 20 small private hospitals, most of which are in the city centre. The sample for the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study (NCSS) was drawn from ten of these hospitals, covering 76% of the target low-risk pregnant population. The Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study (FGLS) sample was recruited from the largest of these institutions, Ketkar Hospital, as well as several ancillary antenatal care clinics. Special activities to encourage participation and raise awareness of the study at this site included translating patient information leaflets into local languages and securing local media interest. Among the unique challenges of the Indian site was the coordination of the large number of hospitals involved in NCSS, a task that required careful planning and organisation by the field teams.

  12. L.S. Vygotsky in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardila A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Lev Vygotsky’s interpretation of human cognition was proposed almost one century ago, new scientific and technological advances have significantly supported many of his ideas and hypotheses. His cultural-historical theory of psychological processes, and his contributions to educational psychology, have continued growing without interruption. In this paper, three of Vygotsky’s hypotheses are examined in light of 21st century scientific developments: The influence of cultural factors on human cognition. A diversity of research studies in different countries has corroborated the crucial impact of culture on cognitive test performance; The role of language in higher psychological processes. According to Vygotsky’s cultural-historical approach, cognitive processes (“complex psychological processes” are social in origin, but complex and hierarchical in their structure. Intrinsic to the systemic organization of higher cognitive processes is the engagement of external artifacts (objects, symbols, signs, which have an independent history of development within a culture; and The hypothesis that thought and general complex cognition is associated with certain “inner speech.” Some contemporary neuroimaging studies (particularly PET and fMRI analyzing “inner speech” have been carried out. These studies have attempted to find the areas of the brain involved in “inner speech.” These scientific advances significantly support Vygotsky’s interpretation of human cognition. It has been found that inner speech depends on activity in Broca’s area and related brain network activity in the left hemisphere. Hence, inner speech is closely related to grammar, language production, and executive functions. Vygotsky’s important contribution to the understanding of psychological processes has stimulated, and continues to stimulate, a substantial amount of research in this area.

  13. 21st Century's energy: Hydrogen energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veziroglu, T.N.; Sahin, S. [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-07-15

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the hydrogen energy system. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system, which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar-hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar-hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st century.

  14. Health sector reforms for 21 st century healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshan Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India′s health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India′s Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40-70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21 st century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India′s public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of "integrative healthcare" because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own.

  15. Diabetes type 2 pandemic in 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2010-01-01

    In the second half of the 20th century it became obvious that a relentless increase in diabetes type 2 (DM) affecting the economically affluent countries, is gradually afflicting also the developing world. This review juxtaposes the threat that the DM epidemic represents to mankind, with the astonishing recent discoveries on the role of obesity and of the body fat in this metabolic disorder. Presently, the highest prevalence of DM is in Saudi Arabia, a country deep in riches generated by its oil wells. DM is very high, in over 10% of adults in the USA, Switzerland and Austria. Prevalence is low in Norway, China and in Iceland. Predictions of epidemiologists for the first third of the 21st century claim up to 2.5 times increase in DM in the Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, India, rest of Asia and in the Latin America. In China the number of patients with DM will double but in the economically advanced countries that experienced rise in DM in the 20th century, the increase will be only about 50%. Remarkably, a lowest increase in DM is expected in the countries that formerly belonged to the Soviet political space. Increasing urbanization, aging populations, obesity, and falling levels of physical activity are all contributing to the rise of DM worldwide. The main cause of DM pandemic is growing prevalence of obesity, in Europe and in the Latin America. In the North America obesity is considered to be responsible for 90% of DM in females. Male obesity is associated with DM slightly less, at 70-80% in the European Union and in the US. The precise mechanism by which obesity leads to insulin resistance and to DM is not completely described but it may be related to several biochemical factors, such as abnormalities in free fatty acids, adipokines, leptin and other substances (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 24).

  16. Progress in rheumatology in the early 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Nasonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, juvenile arthritis, spondyloarthritis, including psoriatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, and other systemic connective tissue diseases, are the most severe chronic immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases (IIRDs that affect as high as 10% of the population. Substantial progress has been made in the treatment of IIRDs in the 21st century. The current Treat to Target (T2T strategy for RA is to achieve remission as soon as possible. The main treatment goal is to improve quality of life, by controlling the symptoms of the disease, by preventing joint destruction and dysfunction, and by maintaining social possibilities. The most important way to achieve this goal is to inhibit inflammation and to evaluate the efficiency of treatment, by using the standardized activity indices and by choosing the appropriate treatment option. The widespread use of biological agents in combination with standard disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs could substantially enhance therapeutic effectiveness. A new class of medicaments (chemically synthesized small molecular weight agents to treat RA has appeared. The point of their application is tyrosine kinases, primarily Janus kinase (JAK. The new era in the treatment of SLE and other IIRDs is associated with the design of the new class of drugs Р BLyS inhibitors. In the coming years, the main lines of researches by Russian rheumatologists will be to elaborate a strategy to prevent IIRDs; to introduce innovative methods for their early diagnosis and treatment (biological agents, JAK inhibitors, and other cell signaling molecules and for the prediction of the outcomes of the most severe forms of IIRD; to realize the concept of personified medicine (to investigate the prognostic biomarkers of the efficiency and safety of targeted therapy, to reduce the risk of infectious complications, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporotic fractures, and other comorbidities.

  17. Maunder's Butterfly Diagram in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2005-01-01

    E. Walter Maunder created his first "Butterfly Diagram" showing the equatorward drift of the sunspot latitudes over the course of each of two solar cycles in 1903. This diagram was constructed from data obtained through the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) starting in 1874. The RGO continued to acquire data up until 1976. Fortunately, the US Air Force (USAF) and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have continued to acquire similar data since that time. This combined RGO/USAF/NOAA dataset on sunspot group positions and areas now extends virtually unbroken from the 19th century to the 21st century. The data represented in the Butterfly Diagram contain a wealth of information about solar activity and the solar cycle. Solar activity (as represented by the sunspots) appears at mid-latitudes at the start of each cycle. The bands of activity spread in each hemisphere and then drift toward the equator as the cycle progresses. Although the equator itself tends to be avoided, the spread of activity reaches the equator at about the time of cycle maximum. The cycles overlap at minimum with old cycle spots appearing near the equator while new cycle spots emerge in the mid-latitudes. Large amplitude cycles tend to have activity starting at higher latitudes with the activity spreading to higher latitudes as well. Large amplitude cycles also tend to be preceded by earlier cycles with faster drift rates. These drift rates may be tied to the Sun s meridional circulation - a component in many dynamo theories for the origin of the sunspot cycle. The Butterfly Diagram must be reproduced in any successful dynamo model for the Sun.

  18. Maunder's Butterfly Diagram in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2005-01-01

    E. Walter Maunder created his first "Butterfly Diagram" showing the equatorward drift of the sunspot latitudes over the course of each of two solar cycles in 1903. This diagram was constructed from data obtained through the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) starting in 1874. The RGO continued to acquire data up until 1976. Fortunately, the US Air Force (USAF) and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have continued to acquire similar data since that time. This combined RGO/USAF/NOAA dataset on sunspot group positions and areas now extends virtually unbroken from the 19th century to the 21st century. The data represented in the Butterfly Diagram contain a wealth of information about solar activity and the solar cycle. Solar activity (as represented by the sunspots) appears at mid-latitudes at the start of each cycle. The bands of activity spread in each hemisphere and then drift toward the equator as the cycle progresses. Although the equator itself tends to be avoided, the spread of activity reaches the equator at about the time of cycle maximum. The cycles overlap at minimum with old cycle spots appearing near the equator while new cycle spots emerge in the mid-latitudes. Large amplitude cycles tend to have activity starting at higher latitudes with the activity spreading to higher latitudes as well. Large amplitude cycles also tend to be preceded by earlier cycles with faster drift rates. These drift rates may be tied to the Sun s meridional circulation - a component in many dynamo theories for the origin of the sunspot cycle. The Butterfly Diagram must be reproduced in any successful dynamo model for the Sun.

  19. 76 FR 14895 - Request for Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... Agricultural Research Service Request for Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st...: Notice of request for nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES:...

  20. 76 FR 38348 - Notice of Appointment of Committee Members to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary... Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture. SUMMARY: The Office of the Under... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (``AC21''). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael...

  1. Global peat erosion risk assessment for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Irvine, Brian; Holden, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Many peatlands across the world are suffering from degradation and erosion exacerbated by human influences. Blanket peat erosion has adverse impacts on terrestrial and aquatic habitats, reservoir capacity and water quality, and also leads to accelerated carbon release. Bioclimatic modelling suggests that some areas, which are currently suitable for active peat growth, may be no longer under a climate supporting the accumulation of peat by the end of the century. Peat erosion in these marginal regions is thus more likely. A recently developed blanket peat erosion model, PESERA-PEAT, was established through significantly modifying the grid version of the Pan-European Soil Erosion Assessment model (PESERA-GRID) to explicitly include the freeze-thaw and desiccation processes, which appear to be the crucial drivers of peat erosion, and typical land management practices in blanket peatlands such as artificial drainage, grazing and managed burning. Freeze-thaw and desiccation are estimated based on climate (i.e. temperature) and soil moisture conditions. Land management practices interact with hydrology, erosion and vegetation growth via their influence on vegetation cover, biomass and soil moisture condition. The model has been demonstrated to be robust for blanket peat erosion modelling with riverine sediment flux data in the UK. In this paper, the PESERA-PEAT model is applied to investigate the impact of environmental change on the blanket peat erosion at a global scale. Climatic scenarios to the end of 21st Century were derived, as part of the QUEST-GSI initiative, from the outputs of seven global climate models: CGCM3 and CCCMA (Canada); CSIRO Mark III (Australia); IPSL (France); ECHAM5 (Germany); CCSM (US National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)); HadCM3 and HadGEM1 (UK). Land management practice such as artificial drainage is considered to examine if it is possible to buffer the impact of climate change on erosion through managing blanket peatlands in

  2. Hilbert problems for the geosciences in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghil

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific problems posed by the Earth's fluid envelope, and its atmosphere, oceans, and the land surface that interacts with them are central to major socio-economic and political concerns as we move into the 21st century. It is natural, therefore, that a certain impatience should prevail in attempting to solve these problems. The point of this review paper is that one should proceed with all diligence, but not excessive haste: "festina lente," as the Romans said two thousand years ago, i.e. "hurry in a measured way." The paper traces the necessary progress through the solutions to the ten problems: 1. What is the coarse-grained structure of low-frequency atmospheric variability, and what is the connection between its episodic and oscillatory description? 2. What can we predict beyond one week, for how long, and by what methods? 3. What are the respective roles of intrinsic ocean variability, coupled ocean-atmosphere modes, and atmospheric forcing in seasonal-to-interannual variability? 4. What are the implications of the answer to the previous problem for climate prediction on this time scale? 5. How does the oceans' thermohaline circulation change on interdecadal and longer time scales, and what is the role of the atmosphere and sea ice in such changes? 6. What is the role of chemical cycles and biological changes in affecting climate on slow time scales, and how are they affected, in turn, by climate variations? 7. Does the answer to the question above give us some trigger points for climate control? 8. What can we learn about these problems from the atmospheres and oceans of other planets and their satellites? 9. Given the answer to the questions so far, what is the role of humans in modifying the climate? 10. Can we achieve enlightened climate control of our planet by the end of the century? A unified framework is proposed to deal with these problems in succession, from the shortest to the longest timescale, i.e. from weeks to

  3. Hydroclimatic Extremes and Cholera Dynamics in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.; Islam, S.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera, an acute water-borne diarrheal illness, has reemerged as a significant health threat across much of the developing world. Despite major advances in the ecological and the microbiological understanding of the causative agent, V. cholerae, the role of the underlying climatic and environmental processes in propagating transmission is not adequately understood. Recent findings suggest a more prominent role of hydroclimatic extremes - droughts and floods - on the unique dual cholera peaks in the Bengal Delta region of South Asia, the native homeland of cholera. Increasing water scarcity and abundance, and coastal sea-level rise, influenced by changing climate patterns and large-scale climatic phenomena, is likely to adversely impact cholera transmission in South Asia. We focus on understanding how associated changes in macro-scale conditions in this region will impact micro-scale processes related to cholera in coming decades. We use the PRECIS Regional Climate Model over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin region to simulate detailed high resolution projections of climate patterns for the 21st century. Precipitation outputs are analyzed for the 1980-2040 period to identify the trends and changes in hydroclimatic extremes and potential impacts on cholera dynamics over the next three decades (2010-2040), in relation to the cholera surveillance operations over the past three decades (1980-2010). We find that an increased number of extreme precipitation events with prolonged dry periods in the Ganges basin region will likely adversely affect dry season cholera outbreaks. Increased monsoon precipitation volumes in the Brahmaputra basin catchments are likely to cause record floods and subsequently trigger large epidemics in downstream areas. Our results provide new insight by identifying the changes in the two distinctly different, pre and post monsoon, cholera transmission mechanisms related to large-scale climatic controls that prevail in the region. A

  4. World Future Mapping and Scenarios for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vareikis Egidijus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this text is to describe the methods of future studies, its possibilities and limitations, as well as to make some predictions about the real picture of the development of the 21st century. However, the planning is still not very reliable, and far from a “road map” framework. Thus, future studies are still balancing between science and scientific/artistic fiction. The set of methods of future investigation permits one to compose a few or even up to dozens of medium term or long term scenarios of the world’s future. There are a few well-proven laws of social and economic development as well as some partially predictable phenomena in the area of environment, biology, human ethic, etc. No future planning is secure from unpredictable phenomena – “black swans” – and their impact, nor secure from “political decisions” that destroy natural developments in society. So no one scenario can pretend to be absolutely right. The most frequent future scenarios are based on the wish to implement a copy of an existing “happy nation”, to fight undesirable trends, and create some kind of “dream society” while stimulating positives and inhibiting negative trends. The final version of a scenario depends also upon the “human factors”, e.g. knowledge, stereotypes of thinking, as well as the wishes of those who are financing the project. Generally they are “happy end” projects. This makes scenarios rather useless. Only the independent experts that present more realistic and reliable scenarios can help in the planning of medium term and long term futures. Currently many scenarios foresee the so-called American or European way of development, which is in fact the continuation of the existing world order. There is a growing number of publications about the emergence of China (and Russia as a great power as well as possibilities of a New Caliphate, New Messiah or new Orwellian style regimes.

  5. Oceanic N2O emissions in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Rey, J.; Bopp, L.; Gehlen, M.; Tagliabue, A.; Gruber, N.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean is a substantial source of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, but little is known on how this flux might change in the future. Here, we investigate the potential evolution of marine N2O emissions in the 21st century in response to anthropogenic climate change using the global ocean biogeochemical model NEMO-PISCES. We implemented two different parameterizations of N2O production, which differ primarily at low oxygen (O2) conditions. When forced with output from a climate model simulation run under the business-as-usual high CO2 concentration scenario (RCP8.5), our simulations suggest a decrease of 4 to 12% in N2O emissions from 2005 to 2100, i.e., a reduction from 4.03/3.71 to 3.54/3.56 Tg N yr-1 depending on the parameterization. The emissions decrease strongly in the western basins of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while they tend to increase above the Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs), i.e., in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in the northern Indian Ocean. The reduction in N2O emissions is caused on the one hand by weakened nitrification as a consequence of reduced primary and export production, and on the other hand by stronger vertical stratification, which reduces the transport of N2O from the ocean interior to the ocean surface. The higher emissions over the OMZ are linked to an expansion of these zones under global warming, which leads to increased N2O production associated primarily with denitrification. From the perspective of a global climate system, the averaged feedback strength associated with the projected decrease in oceanic N2O emissions amounts to around -0.009 W m-2 K-1, which is comparable to the potential increase from terrestrial N2O sources. However, the assesment for a compensation between the terrestrial and marine feedbacks calls for an improved representation of N2O production terms in fully coupled next generation of Earth System Models.

  6. Oceanic N2O emissions in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martinez-Rey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ocean is a substantial source of nitrous oxide (N2O to the atmosphere, but little is known on how this flux might change in the future. Here, we investigate the potential evolution of marine N2O emissions in the 21st century in response to anthropogenic climate change using the global ocean biogeochemical model NEMO-PISCES. We implemented two different parameterizations of N2O production, which differ primarily at low oxygen (O2 conditions. When forced with output from a climate model simulation run under the business-as-usual high CO2 concentration scenario (RCP8.5, our simulations suggest a decrease of 4 to 12% in N2O emissions from 2005 to 2100, i.e., a reduction from 4.03/3.71 to 3.54/3.56 Tg N yr−1 depending on the parameterization. The emissions decrease strongly in the western basins of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while they tend to increase above the Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs, i.e., in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in the northern Indian Ocean. The reduction in N2O emissions is caused on the one hand by weakened nitrification as a consequence of reduced primary and export production, and on the other hand by stronger vertical stratification, which reduces the transport of N2O from the ocean interior to the ocean surface. The higher emissions over the OMZ are linked to an expansion of these zones under global warming, which leads to increased N2O production associated primarily with denitrification. From the perspective of a global climate system, the averaged feedback strength associated with the projected decrease in oceanic N2O emissions amounts to around −0.009 W m−2 K−1, which is comparable to the potential increase from terrestrial N2O sources. However, the assesment for a compensation between the terrestrial and marine feedbacks calls for an improved representation of N2O production terms in fully coupled next generation of Earth System Models.

  7. The INTERGROWTH-21st Project Neurodevelopment Package: A Novel Method for the Multi-Dimensional Assessment of Neurodevelopment in Pre-School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Michelle; Stein, Alan; Newton, Charles R.; Cheikh-Ismail, Leila; Kihara, Michael; Wulff, Katharina; de León Quintana, Enrique; Aranzeta, Luis; Soria-Frisch, Aureli; Acedo, Javier; Ibanez, David; Abubakar, Amina; Giuliani, Francesca; Lewis, Tamsin; Kennedy, Stephen; Villar, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Background The International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st) Project is a population-based, longitudinal study describing early growth and development in an optimally healthy cohort of 4607 mothers and newborns. At 24 months, children are assessed for neurodevelopmental outcomes with the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Package. This paper describes neurodevelopment tools for preschoolers and the systematic approach leading to the development of the Package. Methods An advisory panel shortlisted project-specific criteria (such as multi-dimensional assessments and suitability for international populations) to be fulfilled by a neurodevelopment instrument. A literature review of well-established tools for preschoolers revealed 47 candidates, none of which fulfilled all the project's criteria. A multi-dimensional assessment was, therefore, compiled using a package-based approach by: (i) categorizing desired outcomes into domains, (ii) devising domain-specific criteria for tool selection, and (iii) selecting the most appropriate measure for each domain. Results The Package measures vision (Cardiff tests); cortical auditory processing (auditory evoked potentials to a novelty oddball paradigm); and cognition, language skills, behavior, motor skills and attention (the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Assessment) in 35–45 minutes. Sleep-wake patterns (actigraphy) are also assessed. Tablet-based applications with integrated quality checks and automated, wireless electroencephalography make the Package easy to administer in the field by non-specialist staff. The Package is in use in Brazil, India, Italy, Kenya and the United Kingdom. Conclusions The INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Package is a multi-dimensional instrument measuring early child development (ECD). Its developmental approach may be useful to those involved in large-scale ECD research and surveillance efforts. PMID:25423589

  8. The INTERGROWTH-21st Project Neurodevelopment Package: a novel method for the multi-dimensional assessment of neurodevelopment in pre-school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Fernandes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st Project is a population-based, longitudinal study describing early growth and development in an optimally healthy cohort of 4607 mothers and newborns. At 24 months, children are assessed for neurodevelopmental outcomes with the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Package. This paper describes neurodevelopment tools for preschoolers and the systematic approach leading to the development of the Package. METHODS: An advisory panel shortlisted project-specific criteria (such as multi-dimensional assessments and suitability for international populations to be fulfilled by a neurodevelopment instrument. A literature review of well-established tools for preschoolers revealed 47 candidates, none of which fulfilled all the project's criteria. A multi-dimensional assessment was, therefore, compiled using a package-based approach by: (i categorizing desired outcomes into domains, (ii devising domain-specific criteria for tool selection, and (iii selecting the most appropriate measure for each domain. RESULTS: The Package measures vision (Cardiff tests; cortical auditory processing (auditory evoked potentials to a novelty oddball paradigm; and cognition, language skills, behavior, motor skills and attention (the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Assessment in 35-45 minutes. Sleep-wake patterns (actigraphy are also assessed. Tablet-based applications with integrated quality checks and automated, wireless electroencephalography make the Package easy to administer in the field by non-specialist staff. The Package is in use in Brazil, India, Italy, Kenya and the United Kingdom. CONCLUSIONS: The INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Package is a multi-dimensional instrument measuring early child development (ECD. Its developmental approach may be useful to those involved in large-scale ECD research and surveillance efforts.

  9. Thomas Piketty's Capital in the 21st Century - An Intellectual Capital Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eduardo Tomé; Natalia Khazieva

    2015-01-01

    .... Published in French in 2013, and translated into English in 2014, Thomas Piketty's Capital in the 21st century became a worldwide sensation and best seller because of the deepness of its analysis...

  10. Post-Feminist Puritanism: Teaching (and Learning from) The Lowell Offering in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Appel, Sara

    2015-01-01

    ... (herself a former factory girl)-the mill women arguably exhibited a "Lean In" style feminist ethos more characteristic of ambitious 21st century college students than most other laboring classes of the time...

  11. FY 1998 Blue Book: Computing, Information, and Communications: Technologies for the 21st Century

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — As the 21st century approaches, the rapid convergence of computing, communications, and information technology promises unprecedented opportunities for scientific...

  12. Roadmap and technical white papers for the 21st century truck partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-12-01

    21st Century Truck Partnership will support the development and implementation of technologies that will cut fuel use and emissions and enhance safety, affordability, and performance of trucks and buses.

  13. The Socratic elenchus and knowledge processes in the 21st century

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is more of substantive freedom than formal freedom. With this ... the 21st century. 2. The Socratic elenchus: A philosophy and method of the knowledge ..... (including the physical or natural sciences, engineering and communications),.

  14. The Nature and Scope of Social Studies Education for the 21 st ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nature and Scope of Social Studies Education for the 21 st Century. ... Sophia: An African Journal of Philosophy ... Social studies is an innovative concept with an eclectic field involving the arts, sciences, technology and social sciences.

  15. Global trend in quality of health care delivery in the 21 st century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global trend in quality of health care delivery in the 21 st century. ... health care services without concern for quality is unprofessional and potentially deadly. ... antecedents with emphasis on the most current models of quality health care.

  16. Five Forces of 21st Century Innovation Strategy: Insights for Leaders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, Douglas J.; Pless, Jacquelyn; Statwick, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    Understanding these dynamics informs 21st century innovation strategies that government and business leaders rely upon to address modern technological, social, environmental, and demographic realities. This Research Highlight previews JISEA's continuing work on innovation strategy.

  17. Editorial: Digital systems supporting cognition and exploratory learning in 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrios G. Sampson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital systems and digital technologies are globally investigated for their potential to transform learning and teaching towards offering unique learning experiences to the 21st century learners. This Special Issue on Digital Systems supporting Cognition and Exploratory Learning in 21st Century aims to contribute to the dialogue between the educational technology and educational psychology research community and the educational practitioners on current issues towards large scale take-up of educational technology.

  18. The sea level fingerprint of 21st century ice mass fluxes

    OpenAIRE

    Bamber, J.; Riva, R.

    2010-01-01

    The sea level contribution from glacial sources has been accelerating during the 21st century (Meier et al., 2007; Velicogna, 2009). This contribution is not distributed uniformly across the world's oceans due to both oceanographic and gravitational effects. We compute the sea level signature of 21st century ice mass fluxes due to changes in the gravity field, Earth's rotation and related effects. Mass loss from Greenland results in a relative sea level (RSL) reduction for much of North Weste...

  19. Exploring the Cosmic Frontier Astrophysical Instruments for the 21st Century

    CERN Document Server

    Lobanov, Andrei P; Cesarsky, Catherine; Diamond, Phillip J

    2007-01-01

    In the coming decades, astrophysical science will benefit enormously from the construction and operation of several major international ground- and space based facilities, such as ALMA, Herschel/Planck, and SKA in the far infrared to radio band, Extremely Large Telescopes, JWST and GAIA in the optical to near infrared regime, XEUS and Constellation-X in the X-ray, and GLAST in the Gamma-ray regime. These and other new instruments will have a major impact in a wide range of scientific topics including the cosmological epoch of reionization, galactic dynamics and nuclear activity, stellar astronomy, extra-solar planets, gamma-ray bursts, X-ray binaries, and many others. On May 18-21, 2004, the Max-Planck-Society’s Harnack-Haus in Dahlem, Berlin hosted the international symposium "Exploring the Cosmic Frontier: Astrophysical Instruments for the 21st Century". The symposium in Berlin was dedicated to exploring the complementarity and synergies between different branches of astrophysical research, by presenting ...

  20. Afghanistan’s significance for Russia in the 21st Century: Interests, Perceptions and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangar Kaneshko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since President Barack Obama set the end of 2014 as the deadline to complete the planned troop withdrawal from Afghanistan, numerous commentators have sought to assess Russia’s Afghan policy since September 11, 2001 and anticipate Moscow’s strategy in ‘post-2014’ Afghanistan. This paper maintains that an assessment/evaluation of Afghanistan’s significance for Russia in the current system of international relations is needed to understand Moscow’s current and future Afghan strategy. Hence, the aim of this study is to identify and analyse the major factors, which lead to a conceptualization of Russia’s interests in Afghanistan. When assessing Russia’s interests in Afghanistan, one must take into account a plethora of significant issues, including Putin’s ‘great-power’ rhetoric; geopolitical, geostrategic, and geo-economic rivalries in the wider region; security threats such as the illegal narcotics emanating from Afghanistan and global terrorism and Islamic fundamentalism; the rivalry and competition for energy resources; and control over pipeline routes and energy corridors. The analysis of these substantiating factors demonstrate why in the 21st century the Afghan problem remains a significant challenge to Russia’s ‘great power’ identity, to its international strategy abroad, to its strategically important ‘near abroad,’ and to the country’s domestic socio-economic policy

  1. Antisocial Personality Disorder and Pathological Narcissism in Prolonged Conflicts and Wars of the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2016-02-01

    The end of the Cold War brought with it many protracted internal conflicts and wars that have lasted for decades and whose persistent instability lies at the heart of both chronic nation-state and regional instability. Responsibility for these chronically failed states has been attributed to multiple unresolved root causes. With previous governance and parties to power no longer trusted or acceptable, the vacuum of leadership in many cases has been filled with "bad leadership." This Concept piece argues that in a number of cases opportunistic leaders, suffering from severe antisocial character disorders, have emerged first as saviors and then as despots, or as common criminals claiming to be patriots, sharing a psychological framework that differs little from those responsible for World War II and the Cold War that followed. I describe the identifying characteristics of this unique and poorly understood subset of the population who are driven to seek the ultimate opportunity to control, dictate, and live out their fantasies of power on the world scene and discuss why their destructive actions remain unabated in the 21st century. Their continued antisocial presence, influence, and levels of violence must be seen as a global security and strategic issue that is not amenable to conventional diplomatic interventions, negotiations, mediations, or international sanctions.

  2. New energy strategies for the 21st century: A Russian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margulov, G.D. [International Fuel and Energy Association, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-12-01

    The new energy strategy developed by Russian scientists and specialists working in the International Fuel and Energy Association is a doctrine for the further liberalization of the energy sector; pooling of new know-how and efforts of the world community for economic progress; rejecting established stereotypes of lifestyles based on inefficient energy use thereby improving the quality of life; increasing the role and responsibilities of the individual in the process of arresting environment degradation; ensuring gradual decreases in energy consumption at existing costs; and reducing social divides. The article outlines the two stages of the strategy for the development of the energy sector, the first until the year 2030, the second extending to the middle of the 21st century. The first stage will give priority to natural gas usage and intensification of energy conservation measures, the second will tackle the problems of balancing the shares of petroleum, coal and natural gas, develop new and renewable energy and strengthen the resource-technological base of the coal industry and of nuclear energy. The importance of interaction with the government, the international community, social organisations and with the energy sector companies and commercial banks is discussed. 1 ref.

  3. Teaching in a 21st Century Educational Context: A Case Study to Explore the Alignment between Vision, Instruction and the Needs of a 21st Century Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendis, Evagkelia Irene

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to investigate how one secondary school, known for its high quality educational program, is infusing the pedagogical elements that are conducive for a 21st century education. The administration's vision along with teacher interviews and classroom observations were used to understand if the school was…

  4. Acidification of the Mediterranean Sea during the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vu, Briac; Palmieri, Julien; Orr, James C.; Dutay, Jean Claude; Sevault, Florence

    2014-05-01

    We modeled the carbon cycle in the Mediterranean Sea to study how its changes due to climate change and rising levels of atmospheric CO2 may differ from those typical of the global ocean. More specifically, we coupled offline an ocean biogeochemical model (PISCES) to a regional eddy-permitting model of the Mediterranean Sea (NEMO-MED8, 1/8° nominal horizonal resolution) using forcing from coupled regional climate model simulations of which the ocean circulation component was identical. Here we describe the simulated changes in pH and the associated carbonate system during the 21st century. Separate simulations were made with climate forcing for a hindcast (1965-2008) and for the future (2000-2100). For the former, climate and CO2 forcings were based on observations; for the latter, both climate and CO2 were driven by the IPCC SRES-A2 scenario. Our hindcast simulation over the period 1965-2008 allowed us to evaluate the model and assess recent variability of the carbonate system. In our future simulation, we used separate tracers to distinguish (1) the change due to climate change and the increase in atmospheric CO2 (from 370 to 800 ppm) and (2) the change due only to climate change (holding atmospheric CO2 to the year-2000 level of 370 ppm). By difference, we isolated the geochemical effect (anthropogenic CO2 perturbation). The hindcast simulation demonstrates that the model captures the amplitude and phase of the annual cycle of temperature, pCO2 and pH, in agreement with data from the DYFAMED station. That seasonal variability of surface pCO2 is everywhere driven by variations in temperature. These results lends support that the model is able to quantify the acidification of the Mediterranean Sea during the industrial period and for the future. However, they do not constrain the model's simulated effects of future climate change on ocean circulation and ocean biology, both of which in turn influence the carbon cycle. Similar to estimates for the global ocean

  5. South Africa and the 21st Century Power Partnership (Fact Sheet). 21st Century Power Partnership; 21st Century Power Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-16

    Established in 2012, the 21CPP South Africa Programme is a global initiative that connects South African stakeholders with an international community of expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support South Africa’s power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon power system. 21CPP activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing system planners, regulators, and operators. In support of this goal, 21CPP taps into deep networks of expertise among leading industry practitioners.

  6. Emerging technologies for the detection of rabies virus: challenges and hopes in the 21st century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R Fooks

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of rabies is routinely based on clinical and epidemiological information, especially when exposures are reported in rabies-endemic countries. Diagnostic tests using conventional assays that appear to be negative, even when undertaken late in the disease and despite the clinical diagnosis, have a tendency, at times, to be unreliable. These tests are rarely optimal and entirely dependent on the nature and quality of the sample supplied. In the course of the past three decades, the application of molecular biology has aided in the development of tests that result in a more rapid detection of rabies virus. These tests enable viral strain identification from clinical specimens. Currently, there are a number of molecular tests that can be used to complement conventional tests in rabies diagnosis. Indeed the challenges in the 21st century for the development of rabies diagnostics are not of a technical nature; these tests are available now. The challenges in the 21st century for diagnostic test developers are two-fold: firstly, to achieve internationally accepted validation of a test that will then lead to its acceptance by organisations globally. Secondly, the areas of the world where such tests are needed are mainly in developing regions where financial and logistical barriers prevent their implementation. Although developing countries with a poor healthcare infrastructure recognise that molecular-based diagnostic assays will be unaffordable for routine use, the cost/benefit ratio should still be measured. Adoption of rapid and affordable rabies diagnostic tests for use in developing countries highlights the importance of sharing and transferring technology through laboratory twinning between the developed and the developing countries. Importantly for developing countries, the benefit of molecular methods as tools is the capability for a differential diagnosis of human diseases that present with similar clinical symptoms. Antemortem

  7. Scenarios of 21st-century trans-Arctic shipping for climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, S. R.; Davis, S. J.; Zender, C. S.; Smith, L. C.

    2013-12-01

    Receding Arctic sea ice coupled with increased resource demand in east Asia have recast the Arctic as an international trade space facilitating export of petroleum and minerals and offering potential alternative pathways for global maritime trade. Several studies have examined the future impact of increased vessel traffic in the Arctic on emissions of greenhouse gases and black carbon (BC); however, the net impact of these emissions on climate forcing in the region is not well understood. Here we present several scenarios of 21st-century trans-Arctic shipping for climate studies. Vessel transits between 5 east Asian ports (Tianjin, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Tokyo/Yokohama, Busan) and 2 European ports (Rotterdam, Hamburg) are estimated from 2010-2050 according to projected sea ice concentration and thickness, trends in cargo export volumes, and vessel ice class and cargo capacity. Sea ice data are represented by a 7-model ensemble mean from CMIP5 under two forcing scenarios (RCP 4.5/8.5). Emissions presented (CO2, CH4, N2O, NOx, SOx, BC) are obtained by convolving projected transits with trends in emissions factors. Results illustrate a range of emissions inventories for the Arctic owing to differences in vessel accessibility, trade volume, routes, and fuel mixtures.

  8. Advances and challenges for nutrient management in china in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, J T; Ma, L; Oenema, O; Dou, Z; Zhang, F S

    2013-07-01

    Managing agricultural nutrients to provide a safe and secure food supply while protecting the environment remains one of the great challenges for the 21st century. The fourth International Nutrient Management Symposium (INMS), held in 2011 at the University of Delaware, addressed these issues via presentations, panel sessions, and field tours focused on latest technologies and policies available to increase nutrient use efficiency. Participants from the United States, Europe, Canada, and China discussed global trends and challenges, balancing food security and the environment in countries with struggling and emerging economics, nutrient management and transport at the catchment scale, new technologies for managing fertilizer and manure nutrients, and adaptive nutrient management practices for farm to watershed scales. A particular area of interest at the fourth INMS was nutrient management progress and challenges in China over the past 40 years. China's food security challenges and rapidly growing economy have led to major advances in agricultural production systems but also created severe nutrient pollution problems. This special collection of papers from the fourth INMS gives an overview of the remarkable progress China has made in nutrient management and highlights major challenges and changes in agri-environmental policies and practices needed today. Lessons learned in China are of value to both developing and developed countries facing the common task of providing adequate food for an expanding world population, while protecting air and water quality and restoring damaged ecosystems.

  9. Media and communication in Asia in early 21st century: Changes, continuities, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Asia has some of the largest, most dynamic, diversified, and complicated media industries in the world (McKinsey & Company, 2015. Entering the 21st Century, the rapid economic and political developments of Asia further energize the growth of media locally and globally (for general discussion, see, e.g., Keane [2006]; Thussu [2006], specific discussions on the cases of Korea [Kim, 2013], Japan [Iwabuchi, 2004], China [Sun, 2009]. In a reflection on the increasing importance of Asian players in global communication industry, Keane describes that “Asianness is colonizing international communications markets” (2006: 839-840 with the impacts ranging from the production of hardware (i.e., East Asian technology to content (e.g., Japanese manga, anime and TV formats and South Korean popular culture and from the cross-over of directors and actors from Asia to Hollywood and the world. Yet, a lack of timely understanding of media and communication in a fast-changing Asia is hindering not only our interpretation of the significance of media in social transformation in Asia, but also the efforts to de-westernize (e.g., Park & Curran, 2000; Wang, 2010 or internationalize communication studies (Lee, 2014.

  10. The Twins Study: NASA's First Foray into 21st Century Omics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrot, C. E.; Shelhamer, M.; Scott, G. B. I.

    2015-01-01

    The full array of 21st century omics-based research methods should be intelligently employed to reduce the health and performance risks that astronauts will be exposed to during exploration missions beyond low Earth Orbit. In March of 2015, US Astronaut Scott Kelly will launch to the International Space Station for a one year mission while his twin brother, Mark Kelly, a retired US Astronaut, remains on the ground. This situation presents an extremely rare flight opportunity to perform an integrated omics-based demonstration pilot study involving identical twin astronauts. A group of 10 principal investigators has been competitively selected, funded, and teamed together to form the Twins Study. A very broad range of biological function are being examined including the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, gut microbiome, immunological response to vaccinations, indicators of atherosclerosis, physiological fluid shifts, and cognition. The plans for the Twins Study and an overview of initial results will be described as well as the technological and ethical issues raised for such spaceflight studies. An anticipated outcome of the Twins Study is that it will place NASA on a trajectory of using omics-based information to develop precision countermeasures for individual astronauts.

  11. The Thrill of Discovery: Nuclear Physics Research in the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Khalili, J.S. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-18

    To many people outside our field, both scientists and the general public, nuclear physics is no longer regarded as being at the forefront of scientific endeavour. Indeed it is often met with outright hostility. Other physicists will point out that the last time a Nobel Prize was awarded in the field was in 1975. This paper, based on a lecture delivered during an Open Plenary Session of the recent International Nuclear Physics Conference INPC2004, which was aimed at a non-specialist audience, will seek to dispel this myth. Nuclear physics is currently enjoying a period of rapid advances. Many new discoveries have been made in the past few years, from neutron halos and nuclear molecules to a new form of radioactive decay via two protons; from hints of a new particle consisting of five quarks to new 'superheavy' elements. This talk will give a personal perspective on why, far from looking with envy at our neighbours in areas of physics that currently enjoy a higher media profile, we have more than enough to keep us busy and excited in the 21st century.

  12. The Prospect of Neutron Scattering In the 21st Century: A Powerful Tool for Materials Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kartini

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 60 years research reactors (RRs have played an important role in technological and socio-economical development of mankind, such as radioisotope production for medicine, industry, research and education. Neutron scattering has been widely used for research and development in materials science. The prospect of neutron scattering as a powerful tool for materials research is increasing in the 21st century. This can be seen from the investment of several new neutron sources all over the world such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS in USA, the Japan Proton Accelerator Complex (JPARC in Japan, the new OPAL Reactor in Australia, and some upgrading to the existing sources at ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK; Institute of Laue Langevin (ILL in Grenoble, France and Berlin Reactor, Germany. Developing countries with moderate flux research reactor have also been involved in this technique, such as India, Malaysia and Indonesia. The Siwabessy Multipurpose Reactor in Serpong, Indonesia that also produces thermal neutron has contributed to the research and development in the Asia Pacific Region. However, the international joint research among those countries plays an important role on optimizing the results.

  13. The role of HFCs in mitigating 21st century climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is growing international interest in mitigating climate change during the early part of this century by reducing emissions of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs, in addition to reducing emissions of CO2. The SLCPs include methane (CH4, black carbon aerosols (BC, tropospheric ozone (O3 and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs. Recent studies have estimated that by mitigating emissions of CH4, BC, and O3 using available technologies, about 0.5 to 0.6 °C warming can be avoided by mid-21st century. Here we show that avoiding production and use of high-GWP (global warming potential HFCs by using technologically feasible low-GWP substitutes to meet the increasing global demand can avoid as much as another 0.5 °C warming by the end of the century. This combined mitigation of SLCPs would cut the cumulative warming since 2005 by 50% at 2050 and by 60% at 2100 from the CO2-only mitigation scenarios, significantly reducing the rate of warming and lowering the probability of exceeding the 2 °C warming threshold during this century.

  14. The Thrill of Discovery: Nuclear Physics Research in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalili, J. S.

    2005-04-01

    To many people outside our field, both scientists and the general public, nuclear physics is no longer regarded as being at the forefront of scientific endeavour. Indeed it is often met with outright hostility. Other physicists will point out that the last time a Nobel Prize was awarded in the field was in 1975 . This paper, based on a lecture delivered during an Open Plenary Session of the recent International Nuclear Physics Conference INPC2004, which was aimed at a non-specialist audience, will seek to dispel this myth. Nuclear physics is currently enjoying a period of rapid advances. Many new discoveries have been made in the past few years, from neutron halos and nuclear molecules to a new form of radioactive decay via two protons; from hints of a new particle consisting of five quarks to new 'superheavy' elements. This talk will give a personal perspective on why, far from looking with envy at our neighbours in areas of physics that currently enjoy a higher media profile, we have more than enough to keep us busy and excited in the 21st century. to Aage Bohr and Ben Mottelson for their work on models of nuclear structure. This author would argue, however, that the 2004 prize was also for nuclear physics: to Gross, Politzer and Wilczek for "the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction".

  15. Projected Changes in Kppen Climate Types in the 21st Century over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ying; GAO Xue-Jie; WU Jia

    2012-01-01

    Future changes in the climate regimes over China as measured by the Kppen climate classification are reported in this paper. The analysis is based on a high-resolution climate change simulation conducted by a regional climate model (the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) RegCM3) driven by the global model of Center for Climate System Research (CCSR)/National Institute for Environment Studies (NIES)/Frontier Research Center for Global Change (FRCGC) MIROC3.2_hires (the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate) under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario. Validation of the model performances is presented first. The results show that RegCM3 reproduces the present-day distribution of the Kppen climate types well. Significant changes of the types are found in the future over China, following the simulated warming and precipitation changes. In southern China, the change is characterized by the replacement of subtropical humid (Cr) by subtropical winter-dry (Cw). A pronounced decrease of the cold climate types is found over China, e.g., tundra (Ft) over the Tibetan Plateau and sub-arctic continental (Ec) over northeast China. The changes are usually greater in the end compared with the middle of the 21st century.

  16. On the objectives and the factual basis of sustainable development in the early 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prica Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is highly indicative that the genesis and development of the principle of sustainable development on the international scale fully corresponds (time-wise with the genesis and development of the so-called globalization process. As illogical as it may sound, this fact may provide an answer to the question why the institutionalization of the idea of sustainable development at the international level has not contributed to guiding the globalization process towards the basic human values. Had the leading states in the early 1970s been really aware of the need to control the global economy via ecology, the legal nature of sustainable development at the beginning of the 21st century would have its definite and clear reflection on the economic and social developments of humankind. The fact that the states had no such awareness certainly does not entail that the institutionalization of sustainable development was initiated by scholars and the general public, primarily because their role on the international scene has always been perceived as 'having a snowball fight with a blizzard'. Considering the fact that environmental issues were suddenly given a huge international publicity in the early 1970s, as well as the fact that the idea of sustainable development was not legally institutionalized at a later stage, we are fully entitled to explore the following issue: whether the idea of sustainable development (just like the idea of globalization was actually initiated and controlled by the corporate elite in possession of huge financial capital. For, what appears to be illogical may actually be an expression of the brilliant art of ruling demonstrated by the covert power-holders. Just as democracy, human rights and protection of the 'free world' have been employed by the United States as a screen for establishing their own imperialisms, the transfer of economic and political power from the state level to the domain of multinational corporations has

  17. Inquiry-based science: Preparing human capital for the 21 st century and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Yolanda F.

    High school students need to graduate with 21st century skills to be college and career ready and to be competitive in a global marketplace. A positive trend exists favoring inquiry-based instructional practices that purportedly not only increase science content knowledge, but also 21 st century skill development. A suburban school district, Areal Township (pseudonym), implemented an inquiry-based science program based on this trend; however, the degree to which the program has been meeting students' needs for science content knowledge and 21st century skills development has not been explored. If we were to understand the process by which an inquiry-based science program contributes to attainment of science content and 21st century skill development, then we might be able to improve the delivery of the program and provide a model to be adopted by other schools. Therefore, the purpose of this descriptive case study was to engage with multiple stakeholders to formatively assess the successes and obstacles for helping students to achieve science content and 21st century skills through an inquiry-based curriculum. Using constructivist theory, this study aimed to address the following central research question: How does the implementation of an inquiry-based program within the Areal Township School District (ATSD) support the acquisition of science content knowledge and the development of 21st century skills? This study found that 21st century skill development is embedded in inquiry-based instructional practices. These practices engage students in meaningful learning that spirals in content and is measured using diverse assessments. Time to do inquiry-based science and adequate time for collegial collaboration were obstacles for educators in grades K-5. Other obstacles were turnkey professional development and a lack of ongoing program monitoring, as a result of imposed extrinsic factors from state and federal mandates. Lastly, it was discovered that not all parts of

  18. Atoms for Peace Initiative for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Strategic Studies. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 2009, 74. 22 “ World Energy Outlook 2010.” International Energy Agency...Washington, DC. (21 July 2009), 8. 24 World Energy Outlook 2010, 5. 25 Ibid. 26 Andres, 80. 27 Deutch and Schlesinger, 4. 28 Andres, 85. 29...International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, November 6-9, 2001, 6. 30 “ World Energy Outlook 2010.” International Energy Agency. Executive

  19. Population policies for 21st century. Population and sustainable development high on agenda at Bali conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    At the August 1992 Population Conference for Asia and the Pacific held in Bali, a state minister from Indonesia remarked that changes in population growth must occur along with changes in quality of life and that more effective family planning (FP), family health, and welfare programs were needed. FP programs must be internally financed by each country. Conference goals were to assist governments in understanding the value of having multidisciplinary policies and programs, the need for research and evaluation in program implementation, and the role of population data for planning and policy. Senior officials from 36 countries and representatives from international bodies attended the week-long meetings. There was representation from outside the regional (Syria, Sweden, the Holy See, and the World Bank). A series of goals for the 21st century were agreed upon by participants in the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development. The message that there were no "quick fixes" was communicated and that women need to be involved in development beyond their role as wives as mothers. Dr. Sadik spoke about the importance of reducing maternal mortality and improving reproductive health. In Southeast Asia alone maternal deaths number about 250,000/year. The solution is family planning particularly for women older than 35 years and teenagers and social welfare programs for improving health care, fertility regulation, nutrition, and income. Dr. Sadik also focused on placing the elimination of poverty, improving women's conditions, and enabling reproductive choice as top priorities on country agendas. The issue of a large aging population in Southeast Asia necessitates future planning. The Japanese delegation pledged continued bilateral and multilateral cooperation in population control, with the hope that Japan may be useful as an example to other countries. There was participant commitment to the creation of policies on population and sustainable development.

  20. Potential Damage to Modern Building Materials from 21st Century Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of damage to building materials has been estimated for the 21st century, with a particular focus on aluminum, zinc, copper, plastic, paint, and rubber in urban areas. We set idealized air pollution and climates to represent London and Prague across the period 1950–2100. Environmental parameters were used to estimate future recession, corrosion, and loss of properties through published damage or dose-response functions. The 21st century seems to provide a less aggressive environment for stone and metals than recent times. Improvements in air quality are the most relevant drivers for this amelioration. Changes in climate predicted for the 21st century do not alter this picture. On the other hand, polymeric materials, plastic, paint, and rubber might show slightly increased rates of degradation, to some extent the result of enhanced oxidant concentrations, but also the possibility of contributions from more solar radiation.

  1. Science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) as mathematics learning approach in 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milaturrahmah, Naila; Mardiyana, Pramudya, Ikrar

    2017-08-01

    This 21st century demands competent human resources in science, technology, engineering design and mathematics so that education is expected to integrate the four disciplines. This paper aims to describe the importance of STEM as mathematics learning approach in Indonesia in the 21st century. This paper uses a descriptive analysis research method, and the method reveals that STEM education growing in developed countries today can be a framework for innovation mathematics in Indonesia in the 21st century. STEM education integrate understanding of science, math skills, and the available technology with the ability to perform engineering design process. Implementation of mathematics learning with STEM approach makes graduates trained in using of mathematics knowledge that they have to create innovative products that are able to solve the problems that exist in society.

  2. Fiscal 1998 'Plant Biotechnology in the 21st Century' workshop report; '21 seiki no shokubutsu biotechnology' workshop 1998 nendo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The workshop was opened with the opening remarks by Yamada (President of Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NIST)), the overview of plant biotechnology in the 21st century from academia by Shinmyo (Professor of NIST), and the overview of such technology from Ministry of International Trade and Industry by Katao (Chief of Chemical Industry Division). Lectures and discussions of various topics were conducted for 2 days as follows. The effectiveness of a genomic DNA array method for obtaining the genes for switching genes according to daytime, nighttime, drying, salt, high temperature and low temperature for every plant. Current transfer technology of large DNA fragments into plant cell nuclei and chloroplast. Biological evaluation of the physiological functions and complex stress tolerance capacity transformed by transferring complex stress tolerance genes and useful genes for productivity improvement and value addition. Discussion was also held on the importance of a basic research for biotechnology in the 21st century. (NEDO)

  3. Survival and sustainability. Environmental concerns in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goekcekus, Hueseyin; Tuerker, Umut [Near East Univ., Nicosia, North Cyprus (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering; LaMoreaux, James W. (eds.) [P.E. LaMoreaux and Associates, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The International Conference on Environment: Survival and Sustainability, held at the Near East University, Nicosia, Northern Cyprus 19-24 February 2007, dealt with environmental threats and proposed solutions at all scales. The 21 themes addressed by the conference fell into four broad categories; Threats to Survival and Sustainability; Technological Advances towards Survival and Sustainability; Activities and Tools for Social Change; Defining Goals for Sustainable Societies. Activities and tools that move the society towards greater sustainability were emphasized at the conference. These included environmental law and ethics, environmental knowledge, technology and information systems, media, environmental awareness, education and lifelong learning, the use of literature for environmental awareness, the green factor in politics, international relations and environmental organizations. The breadth of the issues addressed at the conference made clear the need for greatly increased interdisciplinary and international collaboration the survival and sustainability concept. The exchanges at the conference represent a step in this direction. (orig.)

  4. 21st Century-based Soft Skills: Spotlight on Non-cognitive Skills in a Cognitive-laden Dentistry Program

    OpenAIRE

    Marjorie C. Quieng; Pearly P. Lim; Maria Rita D. Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Teaching and learning in the 21st century aim to produce students proficient in content knowledge, specific abilities, literacy, numeracy, and technology uses. From these 21st century skills, soft skills were delineated from these learning outcomes; and defined as intra- and interpersonal skills vital for personal development, social participation, and workplace success. This study has two goals: to determine the perceived extent of integration of 21st century-based soft skills in the cogniti...

  5. Public Health Security in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kumar Verma

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Global cooperation, collaboration, and investment are necessary to ensure a safer future. This means a multi-sectoral approach to managing the problem of global disease that includes governments, industry, public and private financiers, academia, international organizations and civil society, all of whom have responsibilities for building public health security.

  6. The Teacher-Librarian in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Libraries in Canada, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Includes 17 articles that address the role of Canadian teacher-librarians in the future. Highlights include curriculum development; instructional leadership; international perspectives; educating teacher-librarians; administrative support; teaching information literacy; the UNESCO school library manifesto; Ontario's school library information…

  7. Education for the 21st Century: Lessons and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Roberto; Draxler, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of proposals contained in the 1996 report "Learning: the Treasure Within" by the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century (established by UNESCO), the authors examine the influence and pertinence of its construct of education on the four pillars learning to know, learning to do, learning to be, and learning…

  8. 21st Century Policing: The Institutionalization of Homeland Security in Local Law Enforcement Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    hard to identify before they act, and hard to track down afterwards.”27 One example of a “lone wolf” operation is Timothy McVeigh’s bombing of the...1534. 76 Warren E. Leary , “Devising 21st-Century Escape Routes for Creative Exits,” New York Times, October 9, 2001, F4 . 45 organization should...University Press, 1992. 53 Lacqueur, Walter. Terrorism. Boston, MA: Little Brown and Company, 1977. Leary , Warren E. “Devising 21st-Century Escape

  9. HYDROGEN COMMERCIALIZATION: TRANSPORTATION FUEL FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    APOLONIO DEL TORO

    2008-05-27

    Since 1999, SunLine Transit Agency has worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to develop and test hydrogen infrastructure, fuel cell buses, a heavy-duty fuel cell truck, a fuel cell neighborhood electric vehicle, fuel cell golf carts and internal combustion engine buses operating on a mixture of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG). SunLine has cultivated a rich history of testing and demonstrating equipment for leading industry manufacturers in a pre-commercial environment. Visitors to SunLine's "Clean Fuels Mall" from around the world have included government delegations and agencies, international journalists and media, industry leaders and experts and environmental and educational groups.

  10. War and peace in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Ricardo Leis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, an unrealistic common sense on the understanding of the phenomenon of the war prevails in the Occident. That may be explained by the transformation of the analytical perspective of the State into one of the civil society, as well as of the historical loss of the meaning of human action. The text argues that the criticism to the unilateralism of the USA hides serious problems of reality perception that hinders the development of the debate in the area of the international relations. The conclusion is that the current international order is in transition, having been brokered by the emergency of the global terrorism, that ended up leading the USA to take over a strong warlike decisionism against any kind of threat to the global safety.

  11. Japan: Asian Peacekeeper of the 21st Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    what if every nation acted that way? There will be no more international order. [Ref. 189] MP Nakasone states that by clinging stubbornly to its egoism ... case . In fact, they have a bureaucratically guided conomy, one where industry cooperates closely with government, but few Japanese realize this. [i...Japan’s defense, ASDF aircraft and MSDF ships could engage those enemy aircraft. This was an actual test case put before the government in 1983. [Ref. 241

  12. Preventing Intelligence Failures in an Unpredictable 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    environment. The IC must be both adaptable and flexible in the face of new external threats and inevitable internal change. In the words of Louis Pasteur ...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Intelligence is a fundamental element of national security; however, history is littered with intelligence failures...Intelligence is about gathering information to inform our decisions and make better choices. Ultimately, intelligence will always be imperfect and, as history

  13. Outlook for the Chinese Oil Industry--21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yongkang; Pei Ying; Guo Yi

    1997-01-01

    @@ China is one of the world major oil producers and also one of the major oil consumers. The future of Chinese oil industry will not only severely constrain the growth of the national economy, but also yield dramatic impact on the economy of Asian-Pacific region and the other parts of the world. Therefore, it has aroused greater concerns of Chinese government and the international community.

  14. A Moral Framework for War in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-26

    member of the international community, as well as an economic leader. However, that correlation of cause and effect between jus in bello and jus post...the new world order vision of Nelson Mandela . He offers the following words from Mandela to frame the vision: As the possibility of nations to become...The words used by Mandela are sweeping in their scope, maybe too sweeping. But their underlying meaning is valid; the purpose of war in the world today

  15. Mitigation of bioterrorist threats in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan-Henfrey, L

    2000-01-01

    There is a raising level of awareness and concern that agriculture and food supplies might serve as targets for bioterrorists. To minimize such threats a number of new initiates are urgently needed: 1. Greater levels of financial commitment from federal, state, and international organizations for research on highly infectious diseases and for emergency response infrastructure; 2. Wellorchestrated emergency response plans based on inter-agency, inter-departmental and stakeholder working groups; 3. Teams prepared for risk assessment and risk communication; 4. Modern systems of animal identification and accurate trace-back for animal movement; 5. Increased biosecurity in intensive production operations; 6. Accurate intelligence as to what pathogens pose the highest risks for economic and social impact; 7. Establishment of new international animal and plant disease research networks and partnerships; 8. Strengthen international disease surveillance networks for early detection and intervention; 9. New generations of rapid diagnostic tests for pathogen detection that are practical for field and diagnostic laboratories; 10. Increased level of commitment to pathogen genomics research for molecular epidemiology and vaccine development; 11. New chemical and immunological intervention strategies to prevent or control disease outbreaks; 12. Increased level of training on exotic and emerging animal diseases in basic veterinary education and through continuing education for veterinarians, state and federal field personnel and laboratory diagnosticians.

  16. Physical therapy in the 21st century (Part I): toward practice informed by epidemiology and the crisis of lifestyle conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Elizabeth

    2009-07-01

    Part I of this two-part introduction to this Special Issue on the practice of physical therapy in the 21st century outlines the epidemiological basis and rationale for evidence-informed physical therapy practice for addressing contemporary health priorities. This evidence emanates from the definition of health by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Classification of Functioning (ICF), and WHO and other international databases on the prevalence of lifestyle conditions. Lifestyle conditions include ischemic heart disease, smoking-related conditions, hypertension and stroke, obesity, diabetes, and cancer. Epidemiological data combined with evidence supporting the effectiveness of noninvasive interventions related to physical therapy to address these priorities (e.g., health education and exercise) are highly consistent with the promotion of health and wellness and the ICF. Given their commitment to exploiting effective noninvasive interventions, physical therapists are in a preeminent position to focus on prevention of these disabling and lethal conditions in every client or patient, their cure in some cases, as well as their management. Thus, a compelling argument can be made that clinical competencies in 21st century physical therapy need to include assessment of smoking and smoking cessation (or at least its initiation), basic nutritional assessment and counseling, recommendations for physical activity and exercise, stress assessment and basic stress reduction recommendations, and sleep assessment and basic sleep hygiene recommendations. The physical therapist can then make an informed clinical judgment regarding whether a client or patient needs to be referred to another professional related to one or more of these specialty areas. The prominence of physical therapy as an established health care profession and its unique pattern of practice (prolonged visits over prolonged periods of time) attest further to the fact that physical therapists

  17. The Undergraduate Medical Education for the 21st Century (UME-21) project: the Federal Government perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazell, Carol; Davis, Howard; Glass, Jerilyn; Rodak, John; Bastacky, Stanford M

    2004-01-01

    The Undergraduate Medical Education for the 21st Century (UME-21) project was implemented by the Division of Medicine, Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) to encourage medical schools to collaborate with managed care organizations and others. The purpose of the collaboration was to ensure that medical students are prepared to provide quality patient care and manage that care in an integrated health care system in which the cost of care and use of empirically justified care are important elements. The UME-21 project represents a continuation of HRSA's interest in the managed care arena. The UME-21 project involved the collaboration of eight partner schools and 10 associate partner schools, together with 50 external partners, to develop innovative curricula that integrated UME-21 content from nine special areas as learning objectives. This project demonstrated that concerted efforts by the leadership in medical education can bring about innovative change in medical school curricula. It ís also demonstrated that faculty of the three primary care disciplines of family medicine, general internal medicine, and general pediatrics were able to cooperate to accomplish such change by working together to allocate clerkship time and content. An important lesson learned in this project was that significant innovations in medical school curricula could be accomplished with a broadbased commitment and involvement of both faculties across the three primary care disciplines and top administrative officials of the medical school. It is uncertain, however, if the innovations achieved will produce further changes or if those changes achieved can be sustained without continued funding.

  18. Projections of Wind Changes for 21st Century in China by Three Regional Climate Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ying; LUO Yong; ZHAO Zongci; SHI Ying; XU Yinlong; ZHU Jinhong

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the capability of three regional climate models(RCMs),i.e.,RegCM3(the International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model),PRECIS(Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies)and CMM5(the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-the National Center for Atmospheric Research of USA,NCAR Mesoscale Model)to simulate the near-surface-layer winds(10 m above surface)all over China in the late 20th century.Results suggest that like global climate models(GCMs),these RCMs have the certain capability of imitating the distribution of mean wind speed and fail to simulate the greatly weakening wind trends for the past 50 years in the country.However,RCMs especially RegCM3 have the better capability than that of GCMs to simulate the distribution and change feature of mean wind speed.In view of their merits,these RCMs were used to project the variability of near-surface-layer winds over China for the 21st century.The results show that 1)summer mean wind speed for 2020-2029 will be lower compared to those in 1990-1999 in most area of China; 2)annual and winter mean wind speed for 2081-2100 will be lower than those of 1971-1990 in the whole China; and 3)the changes of summer mean wind speed for 2081-2100 are uncertain.As a result,although climate models are absolutely necessary for projecting climate change to come,there are great uncertainties in projections,especially for wind speed,and these issues need to be further explored.

  19. 21ST Century Terrorism: Wrong Diagnosis, Inadequate Remedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Jihad later merged with Al- Qaeda), Abu Yasir Rifai Ahmad Taha (al Gamaa al Islamiyya), Mir Hamzah (Jamiat-ul- Ulema-e-Pakistan) and Fazlur Rahman (Jihad...solutions to both domestic and international problems. As Muqtedar Khan states “American policy makers must recognize the strategic value of liberal...Wittes, “Enemy Americans,” The Atlantic, July/August 2004, pp. 130-135. 185 M. A. Muqtedar Khan , “Radical Islam, Liberal Islam,” Current History

  20. Reaching for the Horizon: Enabling 21st Century Antarctic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan-Finnemore, M.; Kennicutt, M. C., II; Kim, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs' (COMNAP) Antarctic Roadmap Challenges(ARC) project translated the 80 highest priority Antarctic and Southern Ocean scientific questionsidentified by the community via the SCAR Antarctic Science Horizon Scan into the highest prioritytechnological, access, infrastructure and logistics needs to enable the necessary research to answer thequestions. A workshop assembled expert and experienced Antarctic scientists and National AntarcticProgram operators from around the globe to discern the highest priority technological needs includingthe current status of development and availability, where the technologies will be utilized in the Antarctic area, at what temporal scales and frequencies the technologies will be employed,and how broadly applicable the technologies are for answering the highest priority scientific questions.Secondly the logistics, access, and infrastructure requirements were defined that are necessary todeliver the science in terms of feasibility including cost and benefit as determined by expected scientific return on investment. Finally, based on consideration of the science objectives and the mix oftechnologies implications for configuring National Antarctic Program logistics capabilities andinfrastructure architecture over the next 20 years were determined. In particular those elements thatwere either of a complexity, requiring long term investments to achieve and/or having an associated cost that realistically can only (or best) be achieved by international coordination, planning and partnerships were identified. Major trends (changes) in logistics, access, and infrastructure requirements were identified that allow for long-term strategic alignment of international capabilities, resources and capacity. The outcomes of this project will be reported.

  1. Nursing Ethics and the 21st-Century Armed Conflict: The Example of Ciudad Juárez.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to call attention to the lack of caregiver safety in conflict settings; to bring awareness to nurses and health care professionals of new challenges, specifically the deliberate targeting of health care professionals, that they may encounter in local armed conflict situations; and to address a gap in knowledge about the social and cultural factors surrounding 21st-century armed conflict that directly affect the provision of health care. I argue that these are of interest to transcultural nursing in that violent actors belong to a dangerous subculture, the understanding of which is important to transcultural nursing practice and caregiver safety. The article calls for increased focus on the protection of the nursing workforce and renewed attention on international humanitarian law and the Geneva Conventions that mandate the safety of global health care workers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Glass - the challenge for the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beerkens, R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Commission on Glass (ICG invited international experts to take a look into the future of glass. The ICG organized a Top-level expert meeting on the “Future of Advanced Materials and Glass-Melting Technologies for the year 2020” in Brig (Switzerland, In March 2008, financed by the European Union within the framework of the EFONGA project. Two expert workshops were held in parallel and covered the topics “Advances in materials: glasses, glass-ceramics, ceramics” as well as “Innovation in glass melting technology: revolution or evolution”. Three months later, the 9th ESG Conference along with the Annual Meeting of the ICG, hosted by the Slovak Glass Society, was held in June 2008 in Trenčín, Slovakia. The conference was intended to deal not only with the state-of-the art in the areas (glass science and technology today concerned, but also to address the questions of future developments, applications and challenges in glass science and technology. Special attention was paid to the future role of the ICG (International Commission on Glass.

    La Comisión Internacional del Vidrio (ICG organizó un encuentro de expertos en Brig, Suiza, en marzo de 2008 para discutir acerca del futuro del vidrio. El Workshop “Materiales futuros y avanzados y tecnologías para el año 2020”, fue financiado por la UE a través del proyecto EFONGA. Se celebraron dos sesiones paralelas que cubrieron una serie importante de temas, bajo los títulos de “Avances en materiales: vidrios, vitrocerámicos, cerámicos” e “Innovaciones en tecnologías de fusión de vidrio: revolución o evolución”. Tres meses más tarde, en Trencin, Eslovaquia, se celebró la 9ª conferencia de la Sociedad Europea del Vidrio (ESG junto con la reunión anual de la ICG. La conferencia no solo trató el estado del arte en ciencia y tecnología del vidrio sino que abordó las cuestiones clave de futuros desarrollos, aplicaciones y desafíos del sector

  3. Science and Diplomacy in the 21ST Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colglazier, E. William

    2014-07-01

    It is my pleasure to talk to you today about "global water security" at the Erice International Seminars 46th Session focused on "The Role of Science in the Third Millennium." The growing importance of water security can be framed in two ways. First, water resources should be protected so that, on a reliable basis, there is sufficient, safe water to sustain the health and livelihoods of populations, while also increasing their resilience to water-related hazards such as floods and droughts. Second, the geopolitical dimensions of water security should be addressed by considering how water shortages, poor water quality, or floods might impact the stability or failure of states, increase regional tensions, and pose a risk to global public health and food markets, thus hobbling economic growth.

  4. African power in the 21st century and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavedra-Rivano Neantro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the concept of international power in connection with demographic trends as forecast by the United Nations. It focuses its attention on the situation of Africa, a region projected to become the second largest in terms of population by the turn of the century. The argument to be developed is that the large number of new entrants to labor markets of African countries will likely be deprived of the labor skills necessary to allow them earn a livelihood. The “demographic dividend” will thus be denied and the consequences will be felt not only in Africa but in the world at large, most acutely in Europe. To prevent the rise of this “disruptive” power in Africa the paper offers some novel ideas on how to redesign Official Development Assistance (ODA so as to promote human capital investment.

  5. Food Safety and Foodborne Disease in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Scott

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade there has been a growing recognition of the involvement of the home in several public health and hygiene issues. Perhaps the best understood of these issues is the role of the home in the transmission and acquisition of foodborne disease. The incidence of foodborne disease is increasing globally. Although foodborne disease data collection systems often miss the mass of home-based outbreaks of sporadic infection, it is now accepted that many cases of foodborne illness occur as a result of improper food handling and preparation by consumers in their own kitchens. Some of the most compelling evidence has come from the international data on Salmonella species and Campylobacter species infections.

  6. Kokes Awards for the 21st NAM Meeting (San Francisco, CA, 2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Alex [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-08-31

    The PI in this project Alexander Katz, UC Berkeley (askatz@berkeley.edu), in conjunction with the Kokes Awards subcommittee and conference organizing committee, used DOE grant DE-FG-02-08ER15993 to partially offset costs of attending the 21st North American Catalysis Society in San Francisco, California, for 30 graduate students from the United States.

  7. Critical Thinking Skills for Rehabilitation Professionals in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Allen N.; King, Eric S.; Pitt, Jenelle S.; Getachew, Almaz; Shamburger, Aisha

    2010-01-01

    Critical thinking (CT) is an essential tool for rehabilitation professionals in the 21st century. Well developed CT skills are indicated for rehabilitation professionals in the new century to promote continuous quality improvement of the service delivery system. Such improvement will occur as rehabilitation professionals learn to routinely…

  8. 76 FR 3599 - Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21) for a 2- year period. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Committee Purpose: USDA supports the responsible development and application of biotechnology within...

  9. 75 FR 36062 - Notice of Enforcement Policy Symposium on Combating Counterfeiting in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... 21st Century AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public symposium. SUMMARY: To focus on the United States Government enforcement policy regarding counterfeit goods involving health and safety concerns and the United States Patent and Trademark...

  10. Multiple Intelligences: The Most Effective Platform for Global 21st Century Educational and Instructional Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Donovan A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) as the most viable and effective platform for 21st century educational and instructional methodologies based on the understanding of the value of diversity in today's classrooms and educational institutions, the unique qualities and characteristics of individual learners, the…

  11. Addressing the 21st Century Paradox: Integrating Entrepreneurship in the Computer Information Systems Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Guido; Babb, Jeffry

    2015-01-01

    The Computer Information Systems (CIS) discipline faces an identity crisis: although demand for CIS graduates is growing, student enrollment is either in decline, or is at least soft or flat in many cases. This has been referred to as the 21st century paradox. As one solution to this problem, we propose to integrate entrepreneurship in the CIS…

  12. Thinking war in the 21st century: Introducing non-state actors in Just war theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorda, H.A.

    2016-01-01

    “Thinking War in the 21st Century” develops a theory of war applicable to conflicts with non-state actors such as the “Islamic State”. Just war theory traditionally focuses on states as actors in war. This book moves beyond this narrow lens, arguing that active individual members of organized collec

  13. "The Invisibles"...Disability in China in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anne; Uren, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the effects of traditional beliefs, Confucian ideology, Chinese government policy and western influences on China's inclusion of people with a disability in the Chinese community in the 21st century. Using visual ethnography and an auto-ethnographic approach, the study examines data obtained over a period of five years to…

  14. Australian Information Education in the 21st Century--The Synergy among Research, Teaching and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasie, Daniela L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 a group of Australian Library and Information Science academics led by Prof. Helen Partridge conducted an investigation into the Australian Library and Information Science education in the 21st century. The project was funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) and the final report, titled "Re-conceptualising and…

  15. Virtual Issue: Carbohydrates in the 21(st) Century: Synthesis and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, Antony J

    2015-12-01

    Creative with carbohydrates! This Virtual Issue on Carbohydrates in the 21 (st) Century: Synthesis and Applications highlights current research in the carbohydrate field in which synthesis underpins the development of novel applications of sugar-based materials in medicine, diagnostics, and as antiinfectives.

  16. Virtual Issue: Carbohydrates in the 21st Century: Synthesis and Applications†

    OpenAIRE

    Antony J. Fairbanks

    2015-01-01

    Creative with carbohydrates! This Virtual Issue on Carbohydrates in the 21 st Century: Synthesis and Applications highlights current research in the carbohydrate field in which synthesis underpins the development of novel applications of sugar‐based materials in medicine, diagnostics, and as antiinfectives.

  17. The relation between 21st-century skills and digital skills: A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laar, Ester; van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; de Haan, Jos

    2017-01-01

    Innovation starts with people, making the human capital within the workforce decisive. In a fast-changing knowledge economy, 21st-century digital skills drive organizations' competitiveness and innovation capacity. Although such skills are seen as crucial, the digital aspect integrated with

  18. Life designing: a paradigm for career construction in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savickas, M.L.; Nota, L.; Rossier, J.; Dauwalder, J.P.; Duarte, M.E.; Guichard, J.; Soresi, S.; van Esbroeck, R.; van Vianen, A.E.M.

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, a new social arrangement of work poses a series of questions and challenges to scholars who aim to help people develop their working lives. Given the globalization of career counseling, we decided to address these issues and then to formulate potentially

  19. School Censorship in the 21st Century: A Guide for Teachers and School Library Media Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, John S.; Dresang, Eliza T.

    As the world enters the 21st century, the access to information and freedom of speech provided by the Internet and other digital technologies have revolutionized the nature of censorship challenges and opened an entirely new realm of legal and social ramifications for censorship in United States schools. In the midst of this digital revolution,…

  20. Prediction of carbon exchanges between China terrestrial ecosystem and atmosphere in 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The projected changes in carbon exchange between China terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere and vegetation and soil carbon storage during the 21st century were investigated using an atmos-phere-vegetation interaction model (AVIM2). The results show that in the coming 100 a, for SRES B2 scenario and constant atmospheric CO2 concentration, the net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystem in China will be decreased slowly, and vegetation and soil carbon storage as well as net ecosystem productivity (NEP) will also be decreased. The carbon sink for China terrestrial ecosystem in the beginning of the 20th century will become totally a carbon source by the year of 2020, while for B2 scenario and changing atmospheric CO2 concentration, NPP for China will increase continuously from 2.94 GtC·a?1 by the end of the 20th century to 3.99 GtC·a?1 by the end of the 21st century, and vegetation and soil carbon storage will increase to 110.3 GtC. NEP in China will keep rising during the first and middle periods of the 21st century, and reach the peak around 2050s, then will decrease gradually and approach to zero by the end of the 21st century.

  1. Distance Education within the 21st Century and Its Application to Rehabilitation Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziekan, Kathryn; Main, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Historically, distance education applications served a select group of students through self-paced technical short courses that required scant to little interaction with their instructors. Today's 21st century distance education focuses on a) reaching underserved prospective students within a social justice framework, b) global recruitment, and c)…

  2. Coastal sea level changes, observed and projected during the 20th and 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carson, M.; Köhl, A.; Stammer, D.; A. Slangen, A. B.; Katsman, C. A.; W. van de Wal, R. S.; Church, J.; White, N.

    2015-01-01

    Timeseries of observed and projected sea level changes for the 20th and 21st century are analyzed at various coastal locations around the world that are vulnerable to climate change. Observed time series are from tide gauges and altimetry, as well as from reconstructions over the last 50 years. CMIP

  3. CONNECT: Linking Energy, Security, and Prosperity in the 21st Century - JISEA 2017 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-02

    This report demonstrates 2016 highlights of the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis' (JISEA's) work. The Annual Report overviews JISEA's research and analysis accomplishments in natural gas and methane emissions; nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems; the 21st Century Power Partnership; and more.

  4. Teacher Education Preparation Program for the 21st Century. Which Way Forward for Kenya?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katitia, David Melita Ole

    2015-01-01

    Teacher quality is always cited as the most significant efficiency of teacher preparation programs. This paper discusses the aspects of Teacher education factor that influences student achievement. There has always been an increased interest in examining the preparation program for the 21st century in Kenya and recommending the way forward for our…

  5. What Knowledge Is of Most Worth: Teacher Knowledge for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kereluik, Kristen; Mishra, Punya; Fahnoe, Chris; Terry, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a critical review of the literature on 21st century knowledge frameworks, with a particular focus on what this means for teachers and teacher educators. The authors accomplish this by identifying common themes and knowledge domains in 15 reports, books, and articles that describe the kinds of knowledge that researchers state…

  6. Friends in low places: The impact of locations and companions on 21st birthday drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Young, Chelsie M; Tomkins, Mary M; DiBello, Angelo M; Krieger, Heather; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    The present research examined how various locations and companions were associated with hazardous drinking during 21st birthday celebrations. The sample included 912 college students (57% female) who completed an online survey to examine 21st birthday drinking. Locations included bars, friends' houses, restaurants, outdoor barbecues, homes, parents' homes, and Fraternity/Sorority houses. Companions included friends, family members, casual acquaintances, roommates, significant others, Fraternity/Sorority members, and none (alone). Participants consumed an average of 7.6 drinks and reached an average eBAC of .15 during their 21st birthday celebrations. Locations accounted for 20%/18% of the variance in number of drinks and eBAC, respectively, whereas companions accounted for 23%/20% of the variance. Drinking with romantic partners was associated with less drinking, whereas drinking with Fraternity/Sorority members was associated with more drinking. Stepwise regressions combining locations and companions suggested that, overall, celebrating in a bar setting and with Fraternity and Sorority members were the strongest variables associated with drinking. With the exception of a bar setting, companions were the most important contextual factors associated with 21st birthday drinking.

  7. Student Voices on the Roles of Instructors in Asynchronous Learning Environments in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rey, Pilar; Barbera, Elena; Fernández-Navarro, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    This paper determines which instructional roles and outputs are important in the 21st century from the perspective of students in asynchronous learning environments. This research work uses a literature review, in-depth interviews with experts, and a pilot study with students to define the instructors' outputs. Following this, roles are determined…

  8. Prediction of carbon exchanges between China terrestrial ecosystem and atmosphere in 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI JinJun; HUANG Mei; LI KeRang

    2008-01-01

    The projected changes in carbon exchange between China terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere and vegetation and soil carbon storage during the 21st century were investigated using an atmos-phere-vegetation interaction model (AVIM2). The results show that in the coming 100 a, for SRES B2 scenario and constant atmospheric CO2 concentration, the net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystem in China will be decreased slowly, and vegetation and soil carbon storage as well as net ecosystem productivity (NEP) will also be decreased. The carbon sink for China terrestrial ecosystem in the beginning of the 20th century will become totally a carbon source by the year of 2020, while for B2 scenario and changing atmospheric CO2 concentration, NPP for China will increase continuously from 2.94 GtC.a-1 by the end of the 20th century to 3.99 GtC.a-1 by the end of the 21st century, and vegetation and soil carbon storage will increase to 110.3 GtC. NEP in China will keep rising during the first and middle periods of the 21st century, and reach the peak around 2050s, then will decrease gradually and approach to zero by the end of the 21st century.

  9. Principles for Learning and Competences in the 21st-Century Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acedo, Clementina; Hughes, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the core competences, attitudes and knowledge that the authors believe will promote transformative learning in the 21st century and should, therefore, feature in curriculum design. It first defines the purpose of curriculum, stressing the need for a coherent worldwide understanding of what is meant and intended by…

  10. Using "The Joy Luck Club" to Teach Core Standards and 21st Century Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Leslie David; Botzakis, Stergios G.

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors illustrate an instructional unit based on a Common Core grades 9-10 illustrative text--Amy Tan's "Two Kinds" from "The Joy Luck Club." They demonstrate how teachers can meet the new standards "and" respond to students' 21st-century needs by using this modern classic along with other traditional and new media resources.…

  11. Teaching 21st-Century Art Education in a "Virtual" Age: Art Cafe at Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lilly

    2010-01-01

    The emerging three-dimensional (3D) virtual world (VW) technology offers great potential for teaching contemporary digital art and growing digital visual culture in 21st-century art education. Such online virtual worlds are built and conceptualized based on information visualization and visual metaphors. Recently, an increasing number of…

  12. Toxicology in the 21st century - Working our way towards a visionary reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, N.; Wever, B.de; Fuchs, H.W.; Gaca, M.; Krul, C.A.M.; Roggen, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    In November 2009 the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) organized a meeting entitled '. Toxicology in the 21st century - working our way towards a visionary reality'. Participating delegates included scientists, key opinion leaders, developers and users of 3Rs-related tests and testing str

  13. A Genealogy of the "Future": Antipodean Trajectories and Travels of the "21st Century Learner"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Carolyn; Gannon, Susanne; Sawyer, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, from the particular positioning of educational researchers working in Australia, we unpack the figure of the "21st century learner" from both broad and specific perspectives. The paper begins with a policy genealogy that traces this figure through networks of documents, events and bodies that transcend borders and…

  14. Public Relations and Its Education: 21st Century Challenges in Definition, Role and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruckeberg, Dean

    This paper asserts that the greatest challenge for 21st century public relations practitioners will be the identification of organizational values and their reconciliation with societal values within the context of a quickly and seemingly chaotic syncretizing popular culture. This function of public relations requires considerable practitioner…

  15. Gamification: Questing to Integrate Content Knowledge, Literacy, and 21st-Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Tara L.; Grabner-Hagen, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    This article showcases the use of gamification as a means to turn an existing curriculum into a game-based learning environment. The purpose of this article is to examine how gamification, coupled with effective pedagogy, can support the acquisition of 21st-century skills. Gamifying content allows students to earn experience points, badges, and…

  16. Scenarios of biodiversity loss in southern Africa in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biggs, R.H.; Simons, H.; Bakkenes, M.; Scholes, R.J.; Eickhout, B.; Vuuren, van D.; Alkemade, R.

    2008-01-01

    The rich biodiversity of southern Africa has to date been relatively unimpacted by the activities of modern society, but to what degree will this situation persist into the 21st century? We use a leading global environmental assessment model (IMAGE) to explore future land use and climate change in s

  17. Questioning the Role of "21st-Century Skills" in Arts Education Advocacy Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdon, Leann F.

    2013-01-01

    The revised Core Arts Standards offer music educators the chance to examine the contradictions that currently permeate the arts advocacy discourse. This article examines the emphasis on 21st-century workplace skills in claims made by arts advocacy proponents. An alternative approach focuses instead on lifelong learning in the arts and the array of…

  18. Climate change may restrict dryland forest regeneration in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, M.D.; Bradford, John B.; Hubbard, R.M.; Lauenroth, W.K.; Andrews, Caitlin; Schlaepfer, D.R.

    2017-01-01

    The persistence and geographic expansion of dryland forests in the 21st century will be influenced by how climate change supports the demographic processes associated with tree regeneration. Yet, the way that climate change may alter regeneration is unclear. We developed a quantitative framework that estimates forest regeneration potential (RP) as a function of key environmental conditions for ponderosa pine, a key dryland forest species. We integrated meteorological data and climate projections for 47 ponderosa pine forest sites across the western United States, and evaluated RP using an ecosystem water balance model. Our primary goal was to contrast conditions supporting regeneration among historical, mid-21st century and late-21st century time frames. Future climatic conditions supported 50% higher RP in 2020–2059 relative to 1910–2014. As temperatures increased more substantially in 2060–2099, seedling survival decreased, RP declined by 50%, and the frequency of years with very low RP increased from 25% to 58%. Thus, climate change may initially support higher RP and increase the likelihood of successful regeneration events, yet will ultimately reduce average RP and the frequency of years with moderate climate support of regeneration. Our results suggest that climate change alone may begin to restrict the persistence and expansion of dryland forests by limiting seedling survival in the late 21st century.

  19. 21 Ways to 21st Century Skills: Why Students Need Them and Ideas for Practical Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Kristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The push for 21st century skills (TFCS) is not a new concept. Setting a diversified goal of education with aims of honing in on student needs and reflecting a better, more relevant education is something that has evolved throughout history. The world today reflects global influence and increased competitiveness in every way. Teaching TFCS is a…

  20. Social Diversity and Democracy in Higher Education in the 21st Century: Towards a Feminist Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Miriam E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a feminist perspective on the UK literature on mass higher education in the 21st century, building on US critiques about marketization, neo-liberalism and "academic capitalism". Concepts of equality and diversity have been transformed by neo-liberalism and how these changes have constrained democratic contributions to UK…

  1. Salamanca as Simbolyc Reference: the 21st Century City in Tierra Violenta de Luciano Egido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Eva Rodríguez Valentín

    2016-07-01

     It is a city that, apparently, lives in the past but that isn't immune to the mechanisms rule the 21st century. In this approach, the literary text is a source of different analytical lines for understanding the urban temporalities and the dialectics of both the public project and the urban heritage.

  2. TOXICITY TESTING IN THE 21ST CENTURY: A VISION AND A STRATEGY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krewski, D.; Acosta, D.; Andersen, M.

    2010-01-01

    With the release of the landmark report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, the U. S. National Academy of Sciences, in 2007, precipitated a major change in the way toxicity testing is conducted. It envisions increased efficiency in toxicity testing and decreased animal ...

  3. Developing the Vision: An L4L Job Description for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The release of AASL's "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner" and "Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Media Programs" has provided school library media specialists with the opportunity to "develop new visions for learning" (AASL 2009), and to rethink what their roles are, and what skills and characteristics are required of them to…

  4. Developing 21st Century Skills through a Constructivist-Constructionist Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Ah-Nam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Science and technology innovation and 21st century skills are increasingly important in the 21st century workplace. The purpose of this study is to propose an instructional strategy that develop constructivist-constructionist learning environment that simultaneously develop chemistry knowledge and 21st century skills. Based on constructivist and constructionist learning theories, we identified three central guiding principles for this study: (1 engage students in discovery and problem solving task through teamwork, (2 provide opportunities for communicating ideas, and (3 involve students in the process of design. An intervention module, Malaysian Kimia (chemistry Digital Game known as MyKimDG, was developed as a mechanism for creating the learning environment. In this study, students were required to work collaboratively to design educational media that help their peers who face difficulty in learning particular concept. They were guided to go through the IDPCR (Inquiry, Discover, Produce, Communicate and Review phases. It is hypothesized that MyKimDG can create learning environment that allows students to deepen subject content knowledge and practice various 21st century skills in real situation. This study employed quasi-experimental study with non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest control group design. Results suggest that this approach is able to improve the acquisition of chemistry knowledge and high productivity skill.

  5. FY 2001 Blue Book: Information Technology: The 21st Century Revolution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — At the dawn of the 21st century, the U.S. is enjoying an era of unprecedented possibilities and prosperity built on dramatic advances in science and technology....

  6. From Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom: Hopeful Essays for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, Marc

    2012-01-01

    What can you learn on a cell phone? Almost anything! How does that concept fit with our traditional system of education? It doesn't. Best-selling author and futurist Marc Prensky's book of essays challenges educators to "reboot" and make the changes necessary to prepare students for 21st century careers. His "bottom-up" vision is based on…

  7. Critical Thinking for 21st-Century Education: A Cyber-Tooth Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Steve

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that the advent of digital technologies requires fundamental change to the curriculum and to the teaching and learning approaches used in schools around the world to educate this generation of "digital natives" or the "net generation". This article analyses the concepts of 21st-century skills and critical…

  8. The Importance of Language: The Partnership for 21st Century Skills and AASL Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formanack, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Members of the school library media profession are fortunate to have new direction from two organizations that seek to define the type of educational experiences that will best benefit students as they prepare to continue to learn, live, and work in the 21st century. Both organizations, American Association of School Librarians (AASL) and the…

  9. Investigating the Key Attributes to Enhance Students' Learning Experience in 21st Century Class Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Fui-Theng; Neo, Mai; Hew, Soon Hin

    2016-01-01

    The 21st century marks the beginning of digital age with the extensive use of digital media, mobile devices, and Internet resources. Recent studies found that this digital era has expanded the landscape of student experiences, and educational technologies as well as increased the educator's awareness on embracing technologies to promote effective…

  10. Gamification: Questing to Integrate Content Knowledge, Literacy, and 21st-Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Tara L.; Grabner-Hagen, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    This article showcases the use of gamification as a means to turn an existing curriculum into a game-based learning environment. The purpose of this article is to examine how gamification, coupled with effective pedagogy, can support the acquisition of 21st-century skills. Gamifying content allows students to earn experience points, badges, and…

  11. Transforming Science Teaching Environment for the 21st Century Primary School Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Hendon

    2016-01-01

    The transformation of technology in the 21st century has produced children who are technology savvy and exposed to the internet and social networking at a very young age. These children are already in our school system. Thus teachers too need to use technology and transform the learning environment to meet the requirements of these children. This…

  12. Toxicology in the 21st century - Working our way towards a visionary reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, N.; Wever, B.de; Fuchs, H.W.; Gaca, M.; Krul, C.A.M.; Roggen, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    In November 2009 the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) organized a meeting entitled '. Toxicology in the 21st century - working our way towards a visionary reality'. Participating delegates included scientists, key opinion leaders, developers and users of 3Rs-related tests and testing str

  13. 21st Century Paradigms for Pre-Service Teacher Technology Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Judy; Gong, Yi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated major course changes in 11 sections of a stand-alone educational technology course redesigned around 21st century skill sets as opposed to technical skill development. Conducted in the fall of 2007 and spring 2008 with a random sample of 100 pre-service teachers, independent and paired sample t tests and correlational…

  14. Using Form+Theme+Context (FTC) for Rebalancing 21st-Century Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell, Renee

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the need to rebalance 21st-century art education for inclusion and integration leading to fuller art engagement in an increasingly visual world. I expand upon the form versus content canon in art and offset the typically predominant use of sensory, formal, or technical qualities in comprehending meaning from, as well as in…

  15. Teaching 21st-Century Art Education in a "Virtual" Age: Art Cafe at Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lilly

    2010-01-01

    The emerging three-dimensional (3D) virtual world (VW) technology offers great potential for teaching contemporary digital art and growing digital visual culture in 21st-century art education. Such online virtual worlds are built and conceptualized based on information visualization and visual metaphors. Recently, an increasing number of…

  16. Enhancing 21st Century Skills with AR: Using the Gradual Immersion Method to Develop Collaborative Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Jorge C.; Arámburo-Lizárraga, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    As 21st century skills (e.g., creativity and collaboration) are informally developed by tech-savvy learners in the Digital Age, technology-based strategies to develop such skills in non-formal and formal contexts are necessary to reduce the gap between academic and business organizations on the one hand, and the revolutionary wave of self-taught…

  17. What Does Vygotsky Provide for the 21st-Century Language Arts Teacher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagorinsky, Peter

    2013-01-01

    L. S. Vygotsky, the psychologist and teacher from Byelorussia who became a central figure in Soviet psychological and educational circles in the 1920s and 1930s, has become a frequent citation in 21st-century scholarship. He is most-often invoked to support some form of instructional scaffolding, based on his idea of the zone of proximal…

  18. Educating for the 21st Century: Beyond Racist, Sexist, and Ecologically Violent Futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Francis P.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses resources of hope in educating for the 21st century, arguing the importance of active listening to children's voices and resistance to fatalistic fallacies regarding negative trends. The discussion examines principles from critical futurism and contemporary movements of educational innovation (including peace, multicultural, nonsexist,…

  19. A Confrontation with Diversity: Communication and Culture in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calloway-Thomas, Carolyn; Garner, Thurmon

    2000-01-01

    Explores the framework of "creolization" and its implications for the communication discipline. Examines social and cultural factors that could shape the nature and content of persuasion in the 21st century. Emphasizes the intersection between deterritorialization and diversity. Proposes a research agenda that will include collections of…

  20. 21st century climate change threatens mountain flora unequally across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engler, R.; Randin, C.F.; Thuiller, W.

    2011-01-01

    Continental-scale assessments of 21st century global impacts of climate change on biodiversity have forecasted range contractions for many species. These coarse resolution studies are, however, of limited relevance for projecting risks to biodiversity in mountain systems, where pronounced microcl...

  1. SLA for the 21st Century: Disciplinary Progress, Transdisciplinary Relevance, and the Bi/Multilingual Turn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article are to appraise second language acquisition's (SLA) disciplinary progress over the last 15 years and to reflect on transdisciplinary relevance as the field has completed 40 years of existence and moves forward into the 21st century. I first identify four trends that demonstrate vibrant disciplinary progress in SLA. I then…

  2. Re-Imagining the 21st Century School Library: From Storage Space to Active Learning Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, Susan K. S.

    2015-01-01

    As libraries adjust to the needs of the 21st century, there needs to be a different way of thinking in regards to its design. School libraries have traditionally been designed as large rooms for the storage of materials for research and pleasure reading. As more and more districts focus their attention on digital acquisitions, the need for storage…

  3. 21st-Century Mentor Texts: Developing Critical Literacies in the Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainer, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    This column explores the idea of using 21st-century mentor texts to guide students in the development of critical literacy. The column focuses on one example from the U.S. presidential election of 2012 to illustrate how teachers might engage students to unpack the socially constructed nature of literacy. The author argues that the changing reading…

  4. What Does Vygotsky Provide for the 21st-Century Language Arts Teacher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagorinsky, Peter

    2013-01-01

    L. S. Vygotsky, the psychologist and teacher from Byelorussia who became a central figure in Soviet psychological and educational circles in the 1920s and 1930s, has become a frequent citation in 21st-century scholarship. He is most-often invoked to support some form of instructional scaffolding, based on his idea of the zone of proximal…

  5. The Role of ICT in the Teaching and Learning of History in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesote, S. A; Fatoki, O. R

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of Information and Communication Technology in the Teaching and Learning of History in the Senior Secondary School in the 21st century. The new Information and communication technologies of internet and multimedia which have led to positive impact in the field of education in most developed countries are still at…

  6. Preparing Youth for the 21st Century Knowledge Economy: Youth Programs and Workforce Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Graham R.; Ferrari, Theresa M.

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, the idea of preparing youth for the workforce has taken on new meaning. The shift to a knowledge economy has brought widespread concern that young people are entering the workforce without the skills employers value most, such as communication, critical thinking, leadership, and teamwork skills. As youth programs evaluate how…

  7. Digital Andragogy: A Richer Blend of Initial Teacher Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackley, Susan; Sheffield, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the term "andragogy" (adult education) and develops a new concept based upon an analysis of the skills and dispositions of 21st century learners in initial teacher education through the lens of adult education: "digital andragogy." In order to engage and retain students and revitalise education courses by…

  8. Mark Rein•Hagen’s Foundational Influence on 21st Century Vampiric Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konzack, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Mark Rein•Hagen’s role-playing game Vampire: The Masquerade, set in the World of Darkness shared universe, is foundational to the 21st Century vampire. We aim to, through the cultural analysis of how ideas have been transferred from this role-playing game to other media, clearly demonstrate Mark...

  9. Revealing Opportunities for 21st Century Learning: An Approach to Interpreting User Trace Log Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Caitlin K.; Nacu, Denise; Pinkard, Nichole

    2016-01-01

    Online environments can cultivate what have been referred to as 21st century skills and capabilities, as youth contribute, pursue, share, and interact around work and ideas. Such environments also hold great potential for addressing digital divides related to the development of such skills by connecting youth in areas with fewer resources and…

  10. Life designing: a paradigm for career construction in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savickas, M.L.; Nota, L.; Rossier, J.; Dauwalder, J.P.; Duarte, M.E.; Guichard, J.; Soresi, S.; van Esbroeck, R.; van Vianen, A.E.M.

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, a new social arrangement of work poses a series of questions and challenges to scholars who aim to help people develop their working lives. Given the globalization of career counseling, we decided to address these issues and then to formulate potentially innovat

  11. Technological Readiness of the UAE Higher Education Institutions for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Blooshi, Asma; Ezziane, Zoheir

    2013-01-01

    Educational institutions are considered as main indicator of a nation's competitiveness and the excellence of implementing their goals and objectives increase a nation's sense of competitiveness. Thus, it is important to receive a progress report showing how close the educational institutions are in accomplishing the 21st century visions and…

  12. Principles for Learning and Competences in the 21st-Century Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acedo, Clementina; Hughes, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the core competences, attitudes and knowledge that the authors believe will promote transformative learning in the 21st century and should, therefore, feature in curriculum design. It first defines the purpose of curriculum, stressing the need for a coherent worldwide understanding of what is meant and intended by…

  13. Galileo Educational Network: Creating, Researching, and Supporting 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    School and classroom structures designed to meet the needs of the industrial past cannot "maintain the temperature required for sustaining life." Recent learning sciences research findings compel educators to invent new learning environments better suited to meet the demands of the 21st century. These new learning environments require different…

  14. Using Shaun Tan's Work to Foster Multiliteracies in 21st-Century Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallacqua, Ashley K.; Kersten, Sara; Rhoades, Mindi

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores work in multimodality and design as it relates to 21st century multiliteracies. After outlining the concept of a multiliteracies pedagogy, this paper describes multimodality and multimodal texts. Moving from the theoretical to the practical, this paper primarily explores selected multimodal works of Shaun Tan and the…

  15. Moving the science of behavioral change into the 21st century: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranummi, Niilo; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Intille, Stephen S; Korhonen, Ilkka; Nilsen, Wendy J; Pavel, Misha

    2013-01-01

    What follows is the second part of a two-part special series of articles that illustrate through examples the breadth and depth of the field of behavioral-change science and highlight the challenges in moving it in to the 21st century. The first part appeared in the September/October issue of IEEE Pulse (see [1]-[3]).

  16. Developing the 21st-Century Social Studies Skills through Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farisi, Mohammad Imam

    2016-01-01

    Recently, technology has become an educational necessity in global-digital era. Facing these phenomena, social studies (SS) should make innovations related to changes of 21st-century skills and learning paradigm, which is characterized by the principles of disclosure of information, computing, automation, and communication. Technology integration…

  17. Paving the Way for the 21st Century: The Human Factor in Higher Education Financial Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Sigmund G., Ed.

    This book presents human resources issues that will affect the financial management of colleges and universities as they move into the 21st century. It examines how business managers and human resources managers must balance human resources management policies and practices against the financial demands on the institution. It discusses the…

  18. SLA for the 21st Century: Disciplinary Progress, Transdisciplinary Relevance, and the Bi/Multilingual Turn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article are to appraise second language acquisition's (SLA) disciplinary progress over the last 15 years and to reflect on transdisciplinary relevance as the field has completed 40 years of existence and moves forward into the 21st century. I first identify four trends that demonstrate vibrant disciplinary progress in SLA. I then…

  19. Theater for the 21st Century and beyond: The New Digital Stagecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovich, George

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Theatricality Lab uses media innovations such as digital video, stereoscopic 3D projection, motion capture, and real time virtual reality navigation. These resources nurture the daring creative visions of theater artists who will embrace the multidimensional technological performance arena of the 21st century and beyond. (Contains 2…

  20. Mobile Devices: Toys or Learning Tools for the 21st Century Teenagers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Ch'ng Lay; Samsudin, Zarina

    2014-01-01

    Learning is interwoven in daily life and so it can be take place at anytime and anywhere by using mobile device. In the 21st century, mobile devices have become ubiquitous, affordable and accessible for the teenagers. The teenagers have the opportunity to perform the learning activities by using the mobile devices. However, what are they used…

  1. Toxicology in the 21st century - Working our way towards a visionary reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, N.; Wever, B.de; Fuchs, H.W.; Gaca, M.; Krul, C.A.M.; Roggen, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    In November 2009 the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) organized a meeting entitled '. Toxicology in the 21st century - working our way towards a visionary reality'. Participating delegates included scientists, key opinion leaders, developers and users of 3Rs-related tests and testing

  2. Promoting Children's Learning through Technology Literacy: Challenges to School Librarians in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejikeme, Anthonia N.; Okpala, Helen N.

    2017-01-01

    In today's world of technological revolution, children need to be encouraged to be ready to acquire lifelong knowledge and skills in the 21st century. This paper presents an overview of the application of technologies in children's learning environment which apparently will give them the opportunity of making use of their thinking skills in order…

  3. Dewey Redux: Virtual Dewey Resources Deliver Trusted, Familiar 21st-Century Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamich, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Where do school librarians go to find out the latest on how the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system is being used (and will be used) in the 21st-century virtual-knowledge world? The answer is two great websites containing: (1) the most current information on both Dewey and linked data at dewey.info>; (2) Dewey here-and-now…

  4. California Energy Systems for the 21st Century 2016 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Randwyk, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Boutelle, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McClelland, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Weed, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-25

    The California Energy Systems for the 21st Century (CES-21) Program is a public-private collaborative research and development program between the California Joint Utilities1 and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The purpose of this annual report is to provide the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC or Commission) with a summary of the 2016 progress of the CES-21 Program.

  5. Strategy on China's Security-oriented Disaster Reduction in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Lei

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a study of strategies on the construction of China's scientific and caltural capacities for security-oriented disaster reduction from a cross-disciplinary perspective and based on an analysis of the causes of disasters and accidents in China in the 20th century and a prediction of the disaster situation in the 21st century.

  6. A new approach to projecting 21st century sea-level changes and extremes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodwin, P.; Haigh, I.D.; Rohling, E.J.; Slangen, A.

    2017-01-01

    Future increases in flooding potential around the world's coastlines from extreme sea level events is heavily dependent on projections of future global mean sea level (GMSL) rise. Yet, the two main approaches for projecting 21st century GMSL rise—i.e., process-based versus semi-empirical—give

  7. The politics of plasticity: Sex and gender in the 21st century brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinherenbrink, A.V.

    2016-01-01

    The Politics of Plasticity examines how sex and gender are imag(in)ed in the 21st century brain. At the beginning of this century, the idea that the brain is plastic (i.e. that its structure and function change throughout life) began to replace the idea that adult brains are fixed. The claim that se

  8. Nurturing professionalism and humanism in the 21st century medical professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Rajput, MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to redefine physician excellence through promoting professionalism with humanism to meet the needs of a diverse generational and cultural society. My goal is to bring together and advance concepts that cultivate emotional and social intelligence to complement the clinical skills required for the effective practice of medicine in the complex milieu of the 21st century

  9. Fostering 21st-Century Evolutionary Reasoning: Teaching Tree Thinking to Introductory Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Laura R.; Catley, Kefyn M.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to interpret and reason from Tree of Life (ToL) diagrams has become a vital component of science literacy in the 21st century. This article reports on the effectiveness of a research-based curriculum, including an instructional booklet, laboratory, and lectures, to teach the fundamentals of such tree thinking in an introductory biology…

  10. Re-Designing a School Library Media Center for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Mary; Baker, Rosalie M.

    2004-01-01

    The School Library Media Center at Delsea Regional High School was not meeting the needs of the students, staff and community of the 21st century and hence a re-design of the library space was needed. The re-design project included planning objectives, providing a scale drawing and involving key players as stakeholders.

  11. Workplace, Organizational, and Societal: Three Domains of Learning for 21st-Century Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorks, Lyle; Barto, Jody

    2015-01-01

    Interconnections between workplace and organizational learning can highlight the ongoing changes taking place that prestage the need for learning cities and regions. The diverse institutions that comprise cities and regions can function as organizational learning mechanisms in the 21st century. Learning cities themselves can also be conceptualized…

  12. Effects of global change during the 21st century onthe nitrogen cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, D.; Steadman, C. E.; Stevenson, D.; Coyle, M.; Rees, R. M.; Skiba, U. M.; Sutton, M. A.; Cape, J. N.; Dore, A. J.; Vieno, M.; Simpson, D.; Zaehle, S.; Stocker, B. D.; Rinaldi, M.; Facchini, M. C.; Flechard, C. R.; Nemitz, E.; Twigg, M.; Erisman, J. W.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Galloway, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    The global nitrogen (N) cycle at the beginning of the 21st century has been shown to be strongly influenced by the inputs of reactive nitrogen (Nr) from human activities, including combustion-related NOx, industrial and agricultural N fixation, estimated to be 220 Tg N yr-1 in 2010, which is approximately equal to the sum of biological N fixation in unmanaged terrestrial and marine ecosystems. According to current projections, changes in climate and land use during the 21st century will increase both biological and anthropogenic fixation, bringing the total to approximately 600 Tg N yr-1 by around 2100. The fraction contributed directly by human activities is unlikely to increase substantially if increases in nitrogen use efficiency in agriculture are achieved and control measures on combustion-related emissions implemented. Some N-cycling processes emerge as particularly sensitive to climate change. One of the largest responses to climate in the processing of Nr is the emission to the atmosphere of NH3, which is estimated to increase from 65 Tg N yr-1 in 2008 to 93 Tg N yr-1 in 2100 assuming a change in global surface temperature of 5 °C in the absence of increased anthropogenic activity. With changes in emissions in response to increased demand for animal products the combined effect would be to increase NH3 emissions to 135 Tg N yr-1. Another major change is the effect of climate changes on aerosol composition and specifically the increased sublimation of NH4NO3 close to the ground to form HNO3 and NH3 in a warmer climate, which deposit more rapidly to terrestrial surfaces than aerosols. Inorganic aerosols over the polluted regions especially in Europe and North America were dominated by (NH4)2SO4 in the 1970s to 1980s, and large reductions in emissions of SO2 have removed most of the SO42- from the atmosphere in these regions. Inorganic aerosols from anthropogenic emissions are now dominated by NH4NO3, a volatile aerosol which contributes substantially to PM10

  13. Croatian Migration at the Beginning of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Lajić

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the most recent time-period, all modalities of migration have existed, side-by-side, in Croatia, hence confirming a high degree of mobility of its population, and also indicating a wide range of factors causing migration. The scale of Croatian migration, the spatial distribution of the various sending areas, the demographic structure of the migrant contingent, and especially the negative migration balance on the national level, as well as on the level of the country’s main regions, are all indications of a negative effect on socio-economic and especially demographic development. At the same time, some forms of migration that have previously dominated – e.g. economic migration to the countries of Western Europe, seasonal internal migration and circulation of labour, rural-urban migration – are by now becoming phenomena of second-rate importance. Nevertheless, in the present migration constellation, migration still has a negative effect on the demographic development of Croatia. The internal demographic polarisation within Croatia, characterised by propulsive areas on the one hand, and an ever broader depopulational pole on the other, is increasing in relevance, since the vitality of demographic events (natural growth and a positive migration balance is tied to large cities, which brings about a further problem, i.e. an asimetrical spatial development caused by the growing oligocentric significance of regional centres. The author estimates that natural growth of Croatia’s population in the inter-census period from 1991 to 2001 amounted to 45,000. If only that component would be taken into account, Croatia’s population should have fallen from 4,784,265 to 4,739,265. The population, however, fell to 4,437,460. Therefore, on the basis of such (in fact discrepant criteria, 301,805 more persons left Croatia, than arrived through immigration in the same time-period. Two basic categories that have contributed to this loss are

  14. Challenges to meat safety in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofos, John N

    2008-01-01

    The safety of meat has been at the forefront of societal concerns in recent years, and indications exist that challenges to meat safety will continue in the future. Major meat safety issues and related challenges include the need to control traditional as well as "new," "emerging," or "evolving" pathogenic microorganisms, which may be of increased virulence and low infectious doses, or of resistance to antibiotics or food related stresses. Other microbial pathogen related concerns include cross-contamination of other foods and water with enteric pathogens of animal origin, meat animal manure treatment and disposal issues, foodborne illness surveillance and food attribution activities, and potential use of food safety programs at the farm. Other issues and challenges include food additives and chemical residues, animal identification and traceability issues, the safety and quality of organic and natural products, the need for and development of improved and rapid testing and pathogen detection methodologies for laboratory and field use, regulatory and inspection harmonization issues at the national and international level, determination of responsibilities for zoonotic diseases between animal health and regulatory public health agencies, establishment of risk assessment based food safety objectives, and complete and routine implementation of HACCP at the production and processing level on the basis of food handler training and consumer education. Viral pathogens will continue to be of concern at food service, bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Campylobacter will continue affecting the safety of raw meat and poultry, while Listeria monocytogenes will be of concern in ready-to-eat processed products. These challenges become more important due to changes in animal production, product processing and distribution; increased international trade; changing consumer needs and increased preference for minimally processed products; increased

  15. Multiculturalism and Diversity in the 21st Century Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana MATEI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the present time, the debate regarding European minorities is a problem of high interest. Even if it is a discussion of Basques and Catalans, Turks and Greeks in Cyprus, Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland, Hungarians in Romania or genocide in the former Yugoslavia, the matter is high on the agenda. After centuries of confrontations in Europe, the European Union tries to legitimate the issue of national minorities, willing to eliminate any kind of discrimination and to preserve cultural identity. Recommendation 1201/1993 of the Council of Europe intended to draw up an additional protocol on the rights of minorities to the European Convention of Human Rights in order to provide the Council with a suitable mediation instrument.Considering the diversity of peoples and cultures living for centuries within the European space and their important contribution to the cultural development of the European states and civilization, the Recommendation seeks to recognize the rights of persons belonging to a national minority within a state and the international protection of those rights as an aspect of international co-operation, able to end the ethnic, linguistic and religious confrontations, and to guarantee justice, democracy and peace [1]. Nevertheless, at the beginning of the third millennium, the topic of minorities is still an actual one.Antony Alcock’s [2] book, A History of the Protection of Regional Cultural Minorities in Europe (From the Edict of Nantes to the Present Days, is an important study of the main historical events that changed the European approach of the issue of national minorities, providing an original account of the historical foundations of this direction of research. The book is divided in five parts, with seven chapters in total, accompanied by an introductory study, a comprehensive conclusion, two appendixes (one showing the main minorities and the percentage from the total population in 37 European states

  16. Superconducting Super Collider: A step in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAshan, M.

    1991-08-01

    The development of superconducting materials and the development of helium temperature refrigeration technology have both been propelled by their wide application in large-scale scientific research. The development of materials and technology for the Tevatron proton storage ring at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL USA, in the decade of the seventies provided the basis in the decade of the eighties, for example, for the use of superconducting helium-cooled whole-body magnets for magnetic resonance imaging in medical diagnosis. In the decade of the nineties a number of particle accelerators for high energy physics will be constructed in national and international laboratories around the world. These devices will employ superconductivity on an ambitious scale, and their operation will require more than double the amount of helium refrigeration capacity now installed worldwide. This large increase in the use of helium refrigeration will have a significant effect on the technology and on the industry that produces it. The largest of these accelerator projects is the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) now under construction at a new laboratory near Dallas, TX USA. This report discusses the development of this cryogenic system for the SSC magnets.

  17. Nuclear power in the 21st century: Challenges and possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Akos; Rachlew, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    The current situation and possible future developments for nuclear power--including fission and fusion processes--is presented. The fission nuclear power continues to be an essential part of the low-carbon electricity generation in the world for decades to come. There are breakthrough possibilities in the development of new generation nuclear reactors where the life-time of the nuclear waste can be reduced to some hundreds of years instead of the present time-scales of hundred thousand of years. Research on the fourth generation reactors is needed for the realisation of this development. For the fast nuclear reactors, a substantial research and development effort is required in many fields--from material sciences to safety demonstration--to attain the envisaged goals. Fusion provides a long-term vision for an efficient energy production. The fusion option for a nuclear reactor for efficient production of electricity has been set out in a focussed European programme including the international project of ITER after which a fusion electricity DEMO reactor is envisaged.

  18. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  19. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  20. Tracking the Internet into the 21st Century

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: The Internet was designed in 1973, began operation in 1983, became widely known to the general public in 1993 and now has become a global infrastructure for all forms of communication. The network is relatively unaware of the applications that use it and also relatively insensitive to the technologies that transport its Internet "packets" around the world. Where did the Internet come from? What is its condition today? How will it be used tomorrow? What might we expect it to look like in the next decade? What technical and international policy challenges does the Internet pose? Could it be made to operate across our solar system to support manned and robotic exploration? Answers to these questions and more will be provided in this presentation. Short Biography: Vinton G. Cerf is vice president and chief Internet evangelist for Google. Cerf served as a senior vice president of MCI from 1994-2005, as VP of the Corporation for National Research Initiatives from 1986-1994, as VP MCI from 1982-1986, and ...

  1. Infrastructure: A technology battlefield in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, H.

    1997-12-31

    A major part of technological advancement has involved the development of complex infrastructure systems, including electric power generation, transmission, and distribution networks; oil and gas pipeline systems; highway and rail networks; and telecommunication networks. Dependence on these infrastructure systems renders them attractive targets for conflict in the twenty-first century. Hostile governments, domestic and international terrorists, criminals, and mentally distressed individuals will inevitably find some part of the infrastructure an easy target for theft, for making political statements, for disruption of strategic activities, or for making a nuisance. The current situation regarding the vulnerability of the infrastructure can be summarized in three major points: (1) our dependence on technology has made our infrastructure more important and vital to our everyday lives, this in turn, makes us much more vulnerable to disruption in any infrastructure system; (2) technologies available for attacking infrastructure systems have changed substantially and have become much easier to obtain and use, easy accessibility to information on how to disrupt or destroy various infrastructure components means that almost anyone can be involved in this destructive process; (3) technologies for defending infrastructure systems and preventing damage have not kept pace with the capability for destroying such systems. A brief review of these points will illustrate the significance of infrastructure and the growing dangers to its various elements.

  2. Main Dynamics of Turkish-African Relations in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therence Atabong Njuafac

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on an overview of Turkey’s increased engagement towards Africa, especially in terms of its potentials, future perspectives and limits of the relations. It portrays and examines the main essence of Turkey’s foreign policy in Africa, and equally analyses the main reason or aspects behind the relations with Africa within the 21st century. It tries to answer the questions of why Turkey has so much interest in Africa now. In other words, it explores more the economic interaction (diplomacy that fosters the relations between Turkey and Africa in the 21st century. It equally shows the economic aspects as key instrument in building relations between Turkey and Africa. This continent known as Africa in the 90s was never a concern to Turkey as it is in this 21st century, since Turkey paid more attention to its relations with the West, and its close neighbors like Middle East, Balkans, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It discusses some of the main political, economic, religious, cultural and strategic motivations behind Turkey’s interest in Africa, as well as some of the challenges face along the line in the 21st century. This paper consists of three main sections. The first section presents the relations between Turkey and Africa during Ottoman Empire, Turkish foreign policy toward Africa in Cold War period. It also gives an overview of Turkey’s relations with Africa, Turkey’s policy in Africa and the main elements shaping relations between Turkey and Africa. Then, the various approaches, mainly economic diplomacy approach in maintaining relations between Turkey and Africa in the 21st century are presented.Turkey’s increasing use of soft power strategies drive a great desire to tie both the economy of Turkey and Africa more closely. From the aforementioned, Turkey’s soft power content ranges from professional and cultural exchange, agriculture, and humanitarian assistance.

  3. Future dryness in the southwest US and the hydrology of the early 21st century drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, Daniel R; Das, Tapash; Pierce, David W; Barnett, Tim P; Tyree, Mary; Gershunov, Alexander

    2010-12-14

    Recently the Southwest has experienced a spate of dryness, which presents a challenge to the sustainability of current water use by human and natural systems in the region. In the Colorado River Basin, the early 21st century drought has been the most extreme in over a century of Colorado River flows, and might occur in any given century with probability of only 60%. However, hydrological model runs from downscaled Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment climate change simulations suggest that the region is likely to become drier and experience more severe droughts than this. In the latter half of the 21st century the models produced considerably greater drought activity, particularly in the Colorado River Basin, as judged from soil moisture anomalies and other hydrological measures. As in the historical record, most of the simulated extreme droughts build up and persist over many years. Durations of depleted soil moisture over the historical record ranged from 4 to 10 years, but in the 21st century simulations, some of the dry events persisted for 12 years or more. Summers during the observed early 21st century drought were remarkably warm, a feature also evident in many simulated droughts of the 21st century. These severe future droughts are aggravated by enhanced, globally warmed temperatures that reduce spring snowpack and late spring and summer soil moisture. As the climate continues to warm and soil moisture deficits accumulate beyond historical levels, the model simulations suggest that sustaining water supplies in parts of the Southwest will be a challenge.

  4. Future dryness in the Southwest US and the hydrology of the early 21st century drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, D.R.; Das, T.; Pierce, D.W.; Barnett, T.P.; Tyree, Mary; Gershunova, A.

    2010-01-01

    Recently the Southwest has experienced a spate of dryness, which presents a challenge to the sustainability of current water use by human and natural systems in the region. In the Colorado River Basin, the early 21st century drought has been the most extreme in over a century of Colorado River flows, and might occur in any given century with probability of only 60%. However, hydrological model runs from downscaled Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment climate change simulations suggest that the region is likely to become drier and experience more severe droughts than this. In the latter half of the 21st century the models produced considerably greater drought activity, particularly in the Colorado River Basin, as judged from soil moisture anomalies and other hydrological measures. As in the historical record, most of the simulated extreme droughts build up and persist over many years. Durations of depleted soil moisture over the historical record ranged from 4 to 10 years, but in the 21st century simulations, some of the dry events persisted for 12 years or more. Summers during the observed early 21st century drought were remarkably warm, a feature also evident in many simulated droughts of the 21st century. These severe future droughts are aggravated by enhanced, globally warmed temperatures that reduce spring snowpack and late spring and summer soil moisture. As the climate continues to warm and soil moisture deficits accumulate beyond historical levels, the model simulations suggest that sustaining water supplies in parts of the Southwest will be a challenge.

  5. Approaches to defining deltaic sustainability in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John W.; Agboola, Julius; Chen, Zhongyuan; D'Elia, Christopher; Forbes, Donald L.; Giosan, Liviu; Kemp, Paul; Kuenzer, Claudia; Lane, Robert R.; Ramachandran, Ramesh; Syvitski, James; Yañez-Arancibia, Alejandro

    2016-12-01

    Deltas are among the most productive and economically important of global ecosystems but unfortunately they are also among the most threatened by human activities. Here we discuss deltas and human impact, several approaches to defining deltaic sustainability and present a ranking of sustainability. Delta sustainability must be considered within the context of global biophysical and socioeconomic constraints that include thermodynamic limitations, scale and embeddedness, and constraints at the level of the biosphere/geosphere. The development, functioning, and sustainability of deltas are the result of external and internal inputs of energy and materials, such as sediments and nutrients, that include delta lobe development, channel switching, crevasse formation, river floods, storms and associated waves and storm surges, and tides and other ocean currents. Modern deltas developed over the past several thousand years with relatively stable global mean sea level, predictable material inputs from drainage basins and the sea, and as extremely open systems. Human activity has changed these conditions to make deltas less sustainable, in that they are unable to persist through time structurally or functionally. Deltaic sustainability can be considered from geomorphic, ecological, and economic perspectives, with functional processes at these three levels being highly interactive. Changes in this functioning can lead to either enhanced or diminished sustainability, but most changes have been detrimental. There is a growing understanding that the trajectories of global environmental change and cost of energy will make achieving delta sustainability more challenging and limit options for management. Several delta types are identified in terms of sustainability including those in arid regions, those with high and low energy-intensive management systems, deltas below sea level, tropical deltas, and Arctic deltas. Representative deltas are ranked on a sustainability range

  6. Active thermochemistry tables : thermochemistry for the 21st century.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruscic, B.; Pinzon, R. E.; von Laszewski, G.; Kodeboyina, D.; Burcat, A.; Leahy, D.; Montoya, D.; Wagner, A. F.; Technion - Israel Inst. of Tech.; SNL; LANL

    2005-01-01

    Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT) are a good example of a significant breakthrough in chemical science that is directly enabled by the US DOE SciDAC initiative. ATcT is a new paradigm of how to obtain accurate, reliable, and internally consistent thermochemistry and overcome the limitations that are intrinsic to the traditional sequential approach to thermochemistry. The availability of high-quality consistent thermochemical values is critical in many areas of chemistry, including the development of realistic predictive models of complex chemical environments such as combustion or the atmosphere, or development and improvement of sophisticated high-fidelity electronic structure computational treatments. As opposed to the traditional sequential evolution of thermochemical values for the chemical species of interest, ATcT utilizes the Thermochemical Network (TN) approach. This approach explicitly exposes the maze of inherent interdependencies normally ignored by the conventional treatment, and allows, inter alia, a statistical analysis of the individual measurements that define the TN. The end result is the extraction of the best possible thermochemistry, based on optimal use of all the currently available knowledge, hence making conventional tabulations of thermochemical values obsolete. Moreover, ATcT offer a number of additional features that are neither present nor possible in the traditional approach. With ATcT, new knowledge can be painlessly propagated through all affected thermochemical values. ATcT also allows hypothesis testing and evaluation, as well as discovery of weak links in the TN. The latter provides pointers to new experimental or theoretical determinations that can most efficiently improve the underlying thermochemical body of knowledge.

  7. Active Thermochemical Tables: thermochemistry for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruscic, Branko [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Pinzon, Reinhardt E [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Laszewski, Gregor von [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Kodeboyina, Deepti [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Burcat, Alexander [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Leahy, David [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Montoy, David [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wagner, Albert F [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT) are a good example of a significant breakthrough in chemical science that is directly enabled by the US DOE SciDAC initiative. ATcT is a new paradigm of how to obtain accurate, reliable, and internally consistent thermochemistry and overcome the limitations that are intrinsic to the traditional sequential approach to thermochemistry. The availability of high-quality consistent thermochemical values is critical in many areas of chemistry, including the development of realistic predictive models of complex chemical environments such as combustion or the atmosphere, or development and improvement of sophisticated high-fidelity electronic structure computational treatments. As opposed to the traditional sequential evolution of thermochemical values for the chemical species of interest, ATcT utilizes the Thermochemical Network (TN) approach. This approach explicitly exposes the maze of inherent interdependencies normally ignored by the conventional treatment, and allows, inter alia, a statistical analysis of the individual measurements that define the TN. The end result is the extraction of the best possible thermochemistry, based on optimal use of all the currently available knowledge, hence making conventional tabulations of thermochemical values obsolete. Moreover, ATcT offer a number of additional features that are neither present nor possible in the traditional approach. With ATcT, new knowledge can be painlessly propagated through all affected thermochemical values. ATcT also allows hypothesis testing and evaluation, as well as discovery of weak links in the TN. The latter provides pointers to new experimental or theoretical determinations that can most efficiently improve the underlying thermochemical body of knowledge.

  8. 21st Century-Based Soft Skills: Spotlight on Non-Cognitive Skills in a Cognitive-Laden Dentistry Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quieng, Marjorie C.; Lim, Pearly P.; Lucas, Maria Rita D.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching and learning in the 21st century aims to produce students proficient in content knowledge, specific abilities, literacy, numeracy, and technology uses. From these 21st century skills, soft skills were delineated from these learning outcomes; and defined as intra- and interpersonal skills vital for personal development, social…

  9. Preparing Teachers and Librarians to Collaborate to Teach 21st Century Skills: Views of LIS and Education Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Don; Gross, Melissa; Witte, Shelbie

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the results of an exploratory research project in which library and information studies (LIS) faculty and education faculty were asked about their views on teaching pre-service school librarians and teachers 21st Century Skills (as defined by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills) and librarian-teacher collaboration.…

  10. The National Guard -- DOD’s Logical Homeland Security "First Responder" for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Virginia 22134-5068 FUTURE WAR PAPER TITLE: THE NATIONAL GUARD – DOD’S LOGICAL HOMELAND SECURITY “ FIRST RESPONDER ” FOR THE 21ST...INCLUDE THE FOREGOING STATEMENT. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY TITLE: THE NATIONAL GUARD – DOD’S LOGICAL HOMELAND SECURITY “ FIRST RESPONDER ” FOR THE 21ST

  11. The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Performance Plan. The report details key priorities for the Agency: 1. GHG emissions inventories and reduction through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and transportation management. 2. High-performance sustainable buildings. 3. Regional and local planning. 4. Water conservation. 5. Recycling and pollution prevention. 6. Sustainable acquisition. 7. Electronics stewardship. Many researchers are of the opinion that applying the principles of free market enterprise to water conservation ideas would result in a more efficient utilization of water supply and distribution everywhere. References: EPA's June 2011 Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (SSPP) (PDF) (74 pp, 1MB) June 2010 EPA Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (PDF) (67 pp, 3.8MB) U.S. EPA Policy Statement on Climate-Change Adaptation (PDF) (3pp, 55KB) Narayanan, Mysore. (2008). Hydrology, Water Scarcity and Market Economics. 68th AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 89, No. 53, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2009. H11E - 0801. Postel, Sandra L. The Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. 1997.

  12. A Lunar Laser Ranging Retroreflector for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, D.; Dell-Agnello, S.; Delle Monache, G.

    radiation within the CCR, reduce the transfer of heat from the hot housing to the CCR and 3) Define a method of emplacing the CCR package on the lunar surface such that the relation between the optical center of the array and the center of mass of the moon remains stable over the lunar day/night cycle. The design approach, the computer simulations using Thermal Desktop, Code V and locally developed IDL software, and the results of the thermal vacuum testing conducted at the INFN/LNF's SCF facility at Frascati, Italy of the new array will also be presented. For example, the new lunar CCR housing has been built at INFN/LNF. The innovations in the LLRRA-21 with respect to the Apollo LLRR Arrays and current satellite retroreflector packages will be described. The new requirements for ground stations will be briefly addressed. This new concept for the LLRRA-21 is being considered for the NASA Manned Lunar Landings, for the NASA Anchor Nodes for the International Lunar Network and for the proposed Italian Space Agency's MAGIA lunar orbiter mission.

  13. A report of the 2000 and 2001 paternity testing workshops of the English speaking working group of the international society for forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallenberg, Charlotte; Morling, Niels

    2002-01-01

    During the last 10 years, the English Speaking Working Group (ESWG) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) has once a year arranged a Paternity Testing Workshop in which blood samples as well as a questionnaire concerning laboratory strategies were distributed to the participat......During the last 10 years, the English Speaking Working Group (ESWG) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) has once a year arranged a Paternity Testing Workshop in which blood samples as well as a questionnaire concerning laboratory strategies were distributed...

  14. Keeping the human: neuroethics and the conciliation of dissonant values in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gini A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Gini,1,2,* Denis Larrivee,2,3,* Michele Farisco,4,5 Vittorio Alessandro Sironi6 1Neuroradiology Division, Neuroscience Department, San Camillo-Forlanini Medical Center, Rome, Italy; 2International Neuroethics Society, Bethesda, MD, USA; 3Educational Outreach Office, Catholic Dioceses of Charleston, SC, USA; 4Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 5Biogem Genetic Research Center, Ariano Irpino, Italy; 6Research Center on the History of Biomedical Thought, School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Studied since antiquity, the human brain has recently been the inspiration for an international neuroscientific entrepreneurship, the Human Brain Project in Europe and the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies initiative in the USA. Different in their approach, both regard the human brain as one of the greatest challenges of 21st century science and the organ that makes us “human”. However, it is mainly the necessity of developing new therapies that affect up to a billion people worldwide, which has propelled the search for extensive expertise and investment in neuroscience research. The debate on ethical and social policy issues as well as the research and medical strategies of such gigantic efforts has involved participants as diverse as neuroscientists, philosophers, scholars in ethics and law, politicians, and the general public, rendering modern neuroscience an interdisciplinary and conflictual endeavor. In fact, the brain is described as the biological underpinning of our thoughts, emotions, perceptions, free willed actions, and memories, features unique to our humanity. In this review, three neuroscientists and a philosopher from the neuroethics community provide their perspectives for an up-to-date survey of salient neuroethical issues, ie, modulation of free will and

  15. Hugo Chavez: a neo-populist phenomenon of the 21st century’s Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Acosta Zapata

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neo-populism is a socio-political phenomenon, which is characteristic of Latin America in the 21st century, but it has a clear legacy of populism found throughout the entire region in the twentieth century. Hugo Chavez was a political and military figure recognized for his social policies and practices, marked by personalism and the appeal to a direct relationship with people while planting a leftist political discourse called “Socialism of the 21st century”. This paper aims to conceptualize, from the sociological and political theories, the present situation in Latin America, with a special focus on Venezuela, and argue that Chávez must be regarded as the most outstanding figure of the neo-populism of the early twenty-first century.

  16. Managing medical groups: 21st century challenges and the impact of physician leadership styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William E; Keogh, Timothy J

    2004-01-01

    Physician group managers and administrators charged with leading medical groups in the 21st century face a set of old and new challenges and opportunities. Leadership is assumed to make the difference between a successful and not-so-successful medical group. Yet, there is little research about how physician manager leadership styles contribute to the success of medical group practices. This article is a study of physician leadership styles using the DiSC, based upon a sample of 232 physician managers. Dominance (D) and conscientiousness (C) were the two dominant styles found in this study. Moreover, the two dominant combination leadership styles fall under the categories of the "creative" and the 'perfectionist." The article formulates practical recommendations for both physician managers and administrators for leading medical groups to respond more effectively to the challenges and opportunities facing medical groups in the 21st century.

  17. Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program, a government-industry research partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The 21st Century Truck Program has been established as a government-industry research partnership to support the development and implementation of commercially viable technologies that will dramatically cut fuel use and emissions of commercial trucks and buses while enhancing their safety and affordability as well as maintaining or enhancing performance. The innovations resulting from this program will reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve our nation's air quality, provide advanced technology for military vehicles, and enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. truck and bus industry while ensuring safe and affordable freight and bus transportation for the nation's economy. This Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program has been prepared to guide the development of the technical advancements that will enable the needed improvements in commercial truck fuel economy, emissions, and safety.

  18. Between the Scylla and the Charybdis: Theological education in the 21st century in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Buitendag

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects on the challenges of theological education in the 21st century and in Africa. Reputation, impact, success and funding have become the driving forces of the modern university. However, we are living in the 21st century and in Africa with a subsequent frame of reference that is holistic and faith-based. The article therefore argues for a multi- and transdisciplinary approach towards the nature of a university and recognition of the unique contribution theological education can contribute. Due to the inherently cooperative nature of theological scholarship, theological education could be able to avoid the extremes of the Scylla and the Charybdis, that is, fideism and secularisation, and therefore be able to survive at an academic institution. Both sectarianism and scientism should be avoided. Theological education in Africa needed to travel the same difficult road of theological faculties in Europe in the previous century.

  19. Framework for 21st Century School Nursing Practice: Framing Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Johnson, Ann

    2017-05-01

    The NASN Code of Ethics upholds that it is the responsibility of the school nurse to maintain competency and pursue personal and professional growth. Designing professional development activities that are relevant and support the needs of the school nurse can be a challenge. The Framework for 21st Century School Nursing Practice provides a model rooted in evidence-based standards of practice that can be utilized to assess an existing professional development program and identify gaps in learning opportunities. Nurse leaders can use the Framework for 21st Century Nursing Practice to provide a roadmap toward a professional development program that will be meaningful to school nurse staff, help restore or maintain joy in their practice, and allow them to achieve the goal of advancing the well-being, academic success, and lifelong achievement and health of students.

  20. 2006 GEP-ISFG collaborative exercise on mtDNA: reflections about interpretation, artefacts, and DNA mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, L; Alonso, A; Alves, C; Crespillo, M; Montesino, M; Picornell, A; Brehm, A; Ramírez, J L; Whittle, M R; Anjos, M J; Boschi, I; Buj, J; Cerezo, M; Cardoso, S; Cicarelli, R; Comas, D; Corach, D; Doutremepuich, C; Espinheira, R M; Fernández-Fernández, I; Filippini, S; Garcia-Hirschfeld, Julia; González, A; Heinrichs, B; Hernández, A; Leite, F P N; Lizarazo, R P; López-Parra, A M; López-Soto, M; Lorente, J A; Mechoso, B; Navarro, I; Pagano, S; Pestano, J J; Puente, J; Raimondi, E; Rodríguez-Quesada, A; Terra-Pinheiro, M F; Vidal-Rioja, L; Vullo, C; Salas, A

    2008-03-01

    We report the results of the seventh edition of the GEP-ISFG mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) collaborative exercise. The samples submitted to the participant laboratories were blood stains from a maternity case and simulated forensic samples, including a case of mixture. The success rate for the blood stains was moderate ( approximately 77%); even though four inexperienced laboratories concentrated about one-third of the total errors. A similar success was obtained for the analysis of mixed samples (78.8% for a hair-saliva mixture and 69.2% for a saliva-saliva mixture). Two laboratories also dissected the haplotypes contributing to the saliva-saliva mixture. Most of the errors were due to reading problems and misinterpretation of electropherograms, demonstrating once more that the lack of a solid devised experimental approach is the main cause of error in mtDNA testing.

  1. Perspectives on scientific and technological literacy in Tonga: Moving forward in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palefau, Tevita Hala

    Tonga has undergone complex changes in the last three decades. Disturbing numbers of young Tongans have inadequate knowledge in traditional science and technology, ill equipped to work in, contribute to and profit from our society. In short, they lack sufficient background knowledge to acquire the training, skills and understanding that are needed in the 21st Century. The purpose of this research is to assist the formulation of national science and technology curriculum. Hence, views of life in Tonga and opinions about Tonga's needs held by three stakeholder groups (traditional, workplaces, public) were paramount in this study. How these stakeholders see Tonga in terms of science and technology needs will contribute substantially to the Ministry of Education's decisions for this century. Based on critical evaluation of international literature and how scientific and technological literacy (STL) is crucial to Tongan society, a model 'TAP-STL' is established as study framework: 'TAP' for ṯraditional, a&barbelow;cademic and p&barbelow;ublic STL, to promote national development. This qualitative case study employs an interview method to collect data from twelve knowledgeable participants selected by reputational sampling from across the kingdom. By exploring their understanding of STL requirements, the study sought to identify any shortfall between the science and technology provided in school and that needed for maintenance of traditional culture, effective participation in Tonga's workplaces and public understanding. The study produced findings under these categories: understanding of traditional knowledge and skills needed to preserve Tongan cultural identity; understanding needed for fishing, handicrafts and everyday maintenance, together with essential health knowledge and skills; and required understanding of public information campaigns related to health, domestic goods, drugs and environment that contribute to responsible citizenship. The study identified

  2. The Teacher Candidates’ Views Concerning the 21st Century Literacy Education Project (LEP)

    OpenAIRE

    ARSLAN, Rumiye; NALİNCİ, Gülbin Zeren

    2015-01-01

    AbstractToday, the concept of “Literacy” represents reading and writing in various forms of texts which embody knowledge and a range of skills.  Different literacies are essential for human to live, work and produce in the society. In order to use communication technologies in educational and teaching processes appropriately, individuals are not only required to become scientifically and technologically literate but also multimedia literate. Within this respect, a Project called “The 21st Cen...

  3. Teacherpreneurs: a bold brand of teacher leadership for 21st-century teaching and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Barnett

    2013-04-19

    Challenges facing our public schools demand a bold brand of teacher leadership. Teacherpreneurs, effective teachers who teach students regularly but also incubate and execute the kinds of policies and pedagogies students deserve, represent a new culture of training and ingenuity. Teachers who lead outside the classroom but do not lose their connection to students are best positioned to develop and disseminate best policies and practices for 21st-century teaching and learning.

  4. Developing 21st century skills in chemistry classrooms: Opportunities and challenges of STEAM integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadinugrahaningsih, Tritiyatma; Rahmawati, Yuli; Ridwan, Achmad

    2017-08-01

    The paper portrays the first year of two-year study in integration Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, and Mathematics (STEAM) in chemistry learning. The research focused on developing 21st-century skills of chemistry students in secondary schools. The 21st-century skills as a set of abilities that students need to develop in facing the future challenge which involves learning, literacy, and life skills. The study was conducted in two secondary schools both public and private school in topics of hydrocarbon, petroleum, solubility, and acid base in year 10 and 11. The qualitative methodology was applied to explore the students' learning experiences and understanding the research context. Data was collected through observation, interview, reflective journal, and 21st-century rubric. The STEAM approach was integrated through modification of project-based learning model. The students had opportunities to develop their own projects by integrating chemistry and STEAM principles to their project. The results show that students have developed their critical and creative thinking, problem-solving skills, collaboration and argumentation skills, leadership and responsibility, information and literacy skills. The researchers faced the challenges of integrating STEAM within the chemistry curricula, empowering students, and managing the teaching and time resources. Students have started to challenge their critical and creative thinking within the existing learning environments. Integrating STEAM into chemistry learning has developed students' 21st-century skills in those three areas. Teachers also learned to develop their competencies for being facilitators and agents of change, in addition to skills development in dealing with students' differences.

  5. Some Hot Spots in the Study of Chinese Drugs in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖培根

    2004-01-01

    @@ Mankind has entered the 21st century of high speed development in science and economics. Owing to the alteration of disease modes in the new century, the greatly elevated quality of human life and the arrival of aged society, the modes of medicine have obviously changed from the treatment mode to the prevention mode, the medical thought emphasizes more the holistic approach of human body.

  6. A Bold 21st Century Strategy for U.S. Airborne ISR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-13

    Staff G-2, United States Army , 7 April 2004,14-20. 27 Richard Meinhart , Strategic Planning by the Chairmen, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1990 to 2005...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT A BOLD 21ST CENTURY STRATEGY FOR U.S. ARMY AIRBORNE ISR by Mr. Jack L...Kimberly Department of Army Civilian Colonel John H. Schnibben Project Adviser This SRP is submitted in partial fulfillment of

  7. Energy use and sustainable development in the 21st century - Local action and national strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report sums up the conference ''Energy use and sustainable development in the 21st century - Local action and national strategies'' that was held in Oslo in 1999. The purpose of the conference was to stimulate the development of climate- and energy strategies and actions that support a sustainable use of energy locally and regionally. The report discusses important points from the various contributions and from the workshops of the conference.

  8. Three focal points for education systems in the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desjardins, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Strong and shared growth increasingly depend on the capacity of nations to develop, deploy and upgrade the skills of their citizens. Within this context, the following places an emphasis on three focal points for education systems in the 21st century. The first focus is on essential skills....... The second focus is on the effectiveness of impact of education on economic and social outcomes. The third focus is on the dynamic elements of skill formation and skill use....

  9. eLearning: Exploring Digital Futures in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Finger

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a globalised knowledge economy, enabled by an increasingly pervasive digital, networked world, eLearning possibilities are being explored by educational institutions. Learning and teaching is now able to be designed to enable learning anywhere and at anytime. This opens up exciting possibilities as well as challenges. Consequently, this special issue aimed to provide evidence-based guidance through conceptual and research papers on eLearning and digital futures in the 21st century. [...

  10. There Is More to Love: Meeting and Mating in The 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Carbino, Jessica M.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation explores how individuals meet and mate in the 21st Century. Technology has always influenced the way we date, but meeting a partner online is increasingly common. I employ a mixed methods approach to understand the complex online dating space. Using three unique data sources, I explore how facial attractiveness, gender, and third parties structure online dating interactions. In chapter one, I examine the influence of facial attractiveness and demographic factors on initiati...

  11. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MORFO AS A COMMUNICATION ENHANCEMENT TOOL IN 21ST CENTURY LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Reka Ramachandiran; Malissa Maria Mahmud; Nazean Jomhari

    2016-01-01

    Learning has changed in the 21st Century. The learning process is no longer confined to the classroom alone, but extends to a global classroom. Students now use instructional technologies to synthesize newly acquired knowledge, collaborate with peers, solve problems, and formulate correct decisions. Therefore, communication becomes a vital process to ensure that learning takes place. Although it has been shown that effective two-way communication between the instructor and the learner is impo...

  12. Long-Lived Digital Data Collections Enabling Research and Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    increasingly restrictive default rules” for creative, digital works (see http://www. creativecommons.org). The digital preservation program of the...Enabling Research and Education in the 21st Century54 Hodge, Gail, and Evelyn Frangakis. 2004. Digital Preservation and Permanent Access to...Information Managers Group, focuses on operational digital preservation systems specifically in science and technology (S&T). It considers the wide range of

  13. Americans, The Economy and National Security: Opportunity and Influence in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-19

    Nu3c AMERICANS, THE ECONOMY AND NATIONAL SECURITY: OPPORTUNITY AND INFLUENCE IN THE 21st CENTURY WILLIAM J. FALLON Captain, U.S. Navy National...valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE MAR 1992 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Americans, The Economy and...individuals, which affect the economic well being of the nation. The importance of the economy is highlighted in the National Security Strategy which

  14. Concepts of Play and Play Culture for the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Toft, Herdis; Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2014-01-01

    BIN Norden conference 2014 Accepted panel ________________________________________ Concepts of Play and Play Culture for the 21st Century Participants in the panel are: Associate professor Herdis Toft, University of Southern Denmark (organizer), Professor Beth Juncker, University of Copenhagen, A...... and gender? • How do you conceive the concept of play in relation to concepts of ‘the magic circle’ and of atmosphere (mood) and aesthetics (mode)?...

  15. Power Systems of the Future: A 21st Century Power Partnership Thought Leadership Report (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Powerful trends in technology, policy environments, financing, and business models are driving change in power sectors globally. In light of these trends, the question is no longer whether power systems will be transformed, but rather how these transformations will occur. Power Systems of the Future, a thought leadership report from the 21st Century Power Partnership, explores these pathways explores actions that policymakers and regulators can take to encourage desired power system outcomes.

  16. 21st Century Skills In The Teaching Of Foreign Languages At Primary And Secondary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Mário; Orange, Edite

    2016-01-01

    Taking an experiential communicative approach (Fernández-Corbacho, 2014) into account, enriched by gamifi-cation strategies (Foncubierta & Rodríguez, 2015), in this paper we intend to disseminate teaching practices in English and Spanish as Foreign Languages at primary/secondary schools, which account for the development of 21st Century Skills, namely: collaboration and communication, creativity and innovation, critical thinking and problem solving. Therefore, we will present practices...

  17. Multi-Model Assessment of the Factors Driving Stratospheric Ozone Evolution Over the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, L. D.; Plummer, D. A.; Waugh, D. W.; Austin, J.; Scinocca, J.; Douglass, A. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T.; Akiyoshi, H.; Bekki, S.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of stratospheric ozone from 1960 to 2100 is examined in simulations from fourteen chemistry-climate models. There is general agreement among the models at the broadest levels, showing column ozone decreasing at all latitudes from 1960 to around 2000, then increasing at all latitudes over the first half of the 21st century, and latitudinal variations in the rate of increase and date of return to historical values. In the second half of the century, ozone is projected to continue increasing, level off or even decrease depending on the latitude, resulting in variable dates of return to historical values at latitudes where column ozone has declined below those levels. Separation into partial column above and below 20 hPa reveals that these latitudinal differences are almost completely due to differences in the lower stratosphere. At all latitudes, upper stratospheric ozone increases throughout the 21st century and returns to 1960 levels before the end of the century, although there is a spread among the models in dates that ozone returns to historical values. Using multiple linear regression, we find decreasing halogens and increasing greenhouse gases contribute almost equally to increases in the upper stratospheric ozone. In the tropical lower stratosphere an increase in tropical upwelling causes a steady decrease in ozone through the 21st century, and total column ozone does not return to 1960 levels in all models. In contrast, lower stratospheric and total column ozone in middle and high latitudes increases during the 21st century and returns to 1960 levels.

  18. DEVELOPING THE 21ST-CENTURY SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imam FARISI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, technology has become an educational necessity in global-digital era. Facing these phenomena, social studies (SS should make innovations related to changes of 21st-century skills and learning paradigm, which is characterized by the principles of disclosure of information, computing, automation, and communication. Technology integration into SS learning is one of the learning innovations in the global-digital era, and powerfully supports the National Council for Social Studies (NCSS as stated in their visions: meaningful, powerful, value-based, challenging, and active. It also strongly supports the development of three core skills of the 21st-century, including learning and innovation skills; information, media and technology skills; life and career skills that developed in partnership with the Partnership Forum for 21st-Century Skills (P21. This paper examines and describes academics evolution toward a commitment and further developments in research; 21stcentury skills map for the SS; and the implications for developing teachers’ competences and teachers’ education curriculum.

  19. The direction of cloud computing for Malaysian education sector in 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Jazurainifariza; Rahman, M. Nordin A.; Kadir, M. Fadzil A.; Shamsudin, Syadiah Nor; Saany, Syarilla Iryani A.

    2017-08-01

    In 21st century, technology has turned learning environment into a new way of education to make learning systems more effective and systematic. Nowadays, education institutions are faced many challenges to ensure the teaching and learning process is running smoothly and manageable. Some of challenges in the current education management are lack of integrated systems, high cost of maintenance, difficulty of configuration and deployment as well as complexity of storage provision. Digital learning is an instructional practice that use technology to make learning experience more effective, provides education process more systematic and attractive. Digital learning can be considered as one of the prominent application that implemented under cloud computing environment. Cloud computing is a type of network resources that provides on-demands services where the users can access applications inside it at any location and no time border. It also promises for minimizing the cost of maintenance and provides a flexible of data storage capacity. The aim of this article is to review the definition and types of cloud computing for improving digital learning management as required in the 21st century education. The analysis of digital learning context focused on primary school in Malaysia. Types of cloud applications and services in education sector are also discussed in the article. Finally, gap analysis and direction of cloud computing in education sector for facing the 21st century challenges are suggested.

  20. Impact test comparisons of 20th and 21st century American football helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam; Benzel, Edward; Miele, Vincent; Prakash, Vikas

    2012-01-01

    Concussion is the signature American football injury of the 21st century. Modern varsity helmets, as compared with vintage leather helmets, or "leatherheads," are widely believed to universally improve protection by reducing head impact doses and head injury risk for the 3 million young football players in the US. The object of this study was to compare the head impact doses and injury risks with 11 widely used 21st century varsity helmets and 2 early 20th century leatherheads and to hypothesize what the results might mean for children wearing similar varsity helmets. In an injury biomechanics laboratory, the authors conducted front, oblique front, lateral, oblique rear, and rear head impact tests at 5.0 m/second using helmeted headforms, inducing near- and subconcussive head impact doses on par with approximately the 95th percentile of on-field collision severity. They also calculated impact dose injury risk parameters common to laboratory and on-field traumatic neuromechanics: linear acceleration, angular acceleration, angular velocity, Gadd Severity Index, diffuse axonal injury, acute subdural hematoma, and brain contusion. In many instances the head impact doses and head injury risks while wearing vintage leatherheads were comparable to or better than those while wearing several widely used 21st century varsity helmets. The authors do not advocate reverting to leather headgear, but they do strongly recommend, especially for young players, instituting helmet safety designs and testing standards, which encourage the minimization of linear and angular impact doses and injury risks in near- and subconcussive head impacts.

  1. A Conceptual Framework for the Integration of 21st Century Skills in Biology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chuo Hiong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to propose the conceptual framework for the integration of 21st century skills in biology education in Malaysia. An interdisciplinary approach for Biology, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (BTEM is suggested to imbibe 21st century skills into the existing Biology curriculum. Solving complex and interdisciplinary worldwide biology problems will require students to understand what connections exist across disciplines and how to make those connections. BTEM allows students to master biological knowledge and at the same time to be adroit in other sub disciplinary skills. The main teaching and learning strategies that apply in the BTEM subjects are problem-based learning and inquiry-based learning which require the coordination of both knowledge and skills simultaneously. This is intended to enhance the students’ abilities to construct their own knowledge through the relevant hands-on and minds-on activities. The essence of engineering is production of design for the inventive problem solving. Integrating advanced information communication technologies such as e-tools and World Wide Web resources are believed to be able to fulfil the learning style needs of the current ‘Net Generation’. Mathematics plays an important role providing computational tools for biology and engineering, especially in analysing data. The expected outcomes of BTEM implementation are the inculcation of 21st century skills digital literacy, inventive thinking, effective communication, high productivity, spiritual and noble values in Malaysian students.

  2. CHALLENGES AND CORRESPONDING STRATEGIES FOR CHINAS PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY IN 21st CENTURY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Challenges and corresponding strategies for Chinas petroleum refining industry in 21st century were described in this paper. Entering 21st century, many countries put more concerns on environmental protection and the possibility of continual development. Production of clean fuel with low sulfur, low olefin and low aromatics to reduce toxic material emission, clean production and free-toxic emission and development of environmental friendly products and technologies will be the main themes of worlds refining industry. The challenges faced by Chinas petroleum refining industry are those from inadequate crude sources, from plant scale and its economic benefit, from processing configuration and product structure, from inferior crude and high quality products and from environmental protection and sustaining development, etc. As long as china recognizes the development trend of overall refining technology and carry out long term strategy for technological innovation and progress, its petroleum refining industry will definitely undergo a greater development and become more capable in market competition in the 21st century.

  3. The role of methane in projections of 21st century stratospheric water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, Laura E.; Stenke, Andrea; Rozanov, Eugene; Ball, William; Lossow, Stefan; Peter, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Stratospheric water vapour (SWV) is an important component of the Earth's atmosphere as it affects both radiative balance and the chemistry of the atmosphere. Key processes driving changes in SWV include dehydration of air masses transiting the cold-point tropopause (CPT) and methane oxidation. We use a chemistry-climate model to simulate changes in SWV through the 21st century following the four canonical representative concentration pathways (RCPs). Furthermore, we quantify the contribution that methane oxidation makes to SWV following each of the RCPs. Although the methane contribution to SWV maximizes in the upper stratosphere, modelled SWV trends are found to be driven predominantly by warming of the CPT rather than by increasing methane oxidation. SWV changes by -5 to 60 % (depending on the location in the atmosphere and emissions scenario) and increases in the lower stratosphere in all RCPs through the 21st century. Because the lower stratosphere is where water vapour radiative forcing maximizes, SWV's influence on surface climate is also expected to increase through the 21st century.

  4. Drought over China in the 21st Century: Results of RegCM3%Drought over China in the 21st Century: Results of RegCM3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ke; JIANG Da-Bang; MA Jian-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Based on 150-year simulations of a regional climate model, RegCM3, under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario, the effective drought index (EDI) is used to project the future drought change in China. During the baseline period 1986–2005, RegCM3 was found to reliably simulate the spatial pattern of drought over the country. Over the 21st century, the regionally averaged EDI should increase, corresponding to a decrease of drought, while the probability of extreme drought events should increase. Geographically, drought should clearly increase in Northeast China, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley, Southwest China, and southern Tibet but decrease in most parts of the rest of the country.

  5. Teaching Students to Learn and to Work Well with 21st Century Skills: Unpacking the Career and Life Skills Domain of the New Learning Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivunja, Charles

    2015-01-01

    In "Do You Want Your Students to Be Job-Ready With 21st Century Skills?" Kivunja (2014a) draws on the work by the Partnership For Teaching 21st Century Skills (P21) reported by Trilling and Fadel (2009), to articulate that the skills that young people need to succeed as individuals, citizens and workers in the 21st century fall into four…

  6. ESO Receives Computerworld Honors Program 21st Century Achievement Award in Science Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    In a ceremony held in Washington, D.C. (USA) on June 6, 2005, ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the southern Hemisphere, received the coveted 21st Century Achievement Award from the Computerworld Honors Program for its visionary use of information technology in the Science category. Sybase, a main database server vendor and member of the Chairmen's Committee, nominated ESO's Data Flow System in recognition of its contributions to the global information technology revolution and its positive impact on society. The citations reads: "ESO has revolutionized the operations of ground-based astronomical observatories with a new end-to-end data flow system, designed to improve the transmission and management of astronomical observations and data over transcontinental distances." This year's awards, in 10 categories, were presented at a gala event at the National Building Museum, attended by over 250 guests, including leaders of the information technology industry, former award recipients, judges, scholars, and diplomats representing many of the 54 countries from which the 17-year-old program's laureates have come. "The Computerworld Honors Program 21st Century Achievement Awards are presented to companies from around the world whose visionary use of information technology promotes positive social, economic and educational change," said Bob Carrigan, president and CEO of Computerworld and chairman of the Chairmen's Committee of the Computerworld Honors Program. "The recipients of these awards are the true heroes of the information age and have been appropriately recognized by the leading IT industry chairmen as true revolutionaries in their fields." ESO PR Photo 18/05 ESO PR Photo 18/05 ESO Receives the Award in the Science Category [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 496 pix - 53k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 992 pix - 470k] [Full Res - JPEG: 1250 x 1550 pix - 1.1M] Caption: ESO PR Photo 18/05: Receiving the Computerworld 21st Century Achievement Award for Science

  7. 77 FR 48948 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and... meeting of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). The notice...

  8. 21st Century-based Soft Skills: Spotlight on Non-cognitive Skills in a Cognitive-laden Dentistry Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie C. Quieng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Teaching and learning in the 21st century aim to produce students proficient in content knowledge, specific abilities, literacy, numeracy, and technology uses. From these 21st century skills, soft skills were delineated from these learning outcomes; and defined as intra- and interpersonal skills vital for personal development, social participation, and workplace success. This study has two goals: to determine the perceived extent of integration of 21st century-based soft skills in the cognitive-laden dentistry curriculum, and to examine the perceived 21st century-based soft skills of the student participants to serve as baseline data for future research. Communication, and relationship and collaboration skills will be critical components to motivate students; in turn, when students are motivated, it will encourage them to think critically and initiate actions toward the achievement of their goals.

  9. Public Lecture: Minister Malusi Gigaba on Critical infrastructure needed to confront the challenges of the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Malusi Gigaba, Minister of Public Enterprises gave a public lecture on “CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDED TO CONFRONT THE CHALLENGES OF THE 21ST CENTURY”. Prof. Marwala welcomed and hosted the minister while Prof. Amanda Dempsey facilitated the discussion.

  10. Support for the 21st-Century Reserve Force: Insights on Facilitating Successful Reintegration for Citizen Warriors and their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    21st-Century Reserve Force: Insights on Facilitating Successful Reintegration for Citizen Warriors and Their Families 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...R P O R A T I O N Support for the 21st Century Reserve Force Insights on Facilitating Successful Reintegration for Citizen Warriors and Their...Century Reserve Force Insights on Facilitating Successful Reintegration for Citizen Warriors and Their Families Laura Werber, Agnes Gereben Schaefer

  11. The Defense Science Board 1999 Summer Study Task Force on 21st Century Defense Technology Strategies. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Study Task Force On 21ST Century Defense Technology Strategies Volume 1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...3. Defense Technology Strategy and Management PART 4. Strategic Agility PART 5. Analysis and Quantitative Results iii PREFACE The Defense Science...Board (DSB) 1999 Summer Study Task Force on 21st Century Defense Technology Strategies continues a series of studies that have examined key challenges

  12. PREFACE: 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iván Vargas-Blanco, V.; Herrera-Velázquez, J. Julio E.

    2015-03-01

    Written contributions from participants of the Joint 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) - 21st IAEA Technical Meeting on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (21st IAEA TM RUSFD). The International Advisory Committees of the 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and the 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD), agreed to carry out together this Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD in San José, Costa Rica, on 27-31 January 2014. The Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD meeting, organized by the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, and Ad Astra Rocket Company in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP) is a series of events which has been held periodically since 1982, with the purpose of providing a forum in which the research of the Latin American plasma physics community can be displayed, as well as fostering collaborations among plasma scientists within the region and with researchers from the rest of the world. Recognized plasma scientists from developed countries are specially invited to the meeting to present the state of the art on several "hot" topics related to plasma physics. It is an open meeting, with an International Advisory Committee, in which the working language is English. It was firstly held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by workshops in Medellín, Colombia (1985), Santiago de Chile, Chile (1988), Buenos Aires, Argentina (1990), Mexico City, Mexico (1992), Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil (1994, combined with the International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP)), Caracas, Venezuela (1997), Tandil, Argentina (1998), La Serena, Chile (2000), Sao Pedro, Brazil (2003), Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Caracas, Venezuela (2007), Santiago de Chile, Chile (2010, combined with the ICPP) and Mar de Plata, Argentina (2011). The 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices is an ideal forum for

  13. Studies of 21st-Century Precipitation Trends Over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druyan, Leonard M.

    2010-01-01

    West Africa includes a semi-arid zone between the Sahara Desert and the humid Gulf of Guinea coast, approximately between 10 N and 20 N, which is irrigated by summer monsoon rains. This article refers to the region as the Sahel. Rain-fed agriculture is the primary sustenance for Sahel populations, and severe droughts (in the 1970s and 1980s), therefore, have devastating negative societal impacts. The future frequency of Sahel droughts and the evolution of its hydrological balance are therefore of great interest. The article reviews 10 recent research studies that attempt to discover how climate changes will affect the hydrology of the Sahel throughout the 21st century. All 10 studies rely on atmosphere ocean global climate model (AOGCM) simulations based on a range of greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Many of the simulations are contained in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change archives for Assessment Reports #3 and #4. Two of the studies use AOGCM data to drive regional climate models. Seven studies make projections for the first half of the 21st century and eight studies make projections for the second half. Some studies make projections of wetter conditions and some predict more frequent droughts, and each describes the atmospheric processes associated with its prediction. Only one study projects more frequent droughts before 2050, and that is only for continent-wide degradation in vegetation cover. The challenge to correctly simulate Sahel rainfall decadal trends is particularly daunting because multiple physical mechanisms compete to drive the trend upwards or downwards. A variety of model deficiencies, regarding the simulation of one or more of these physical processes, taints models climate change projections. Consequently, no consensus emerges regarding the impact of anticipated greenhouse gas forcing on the hydrology of the Sahel in the second half of the 21st century.

  14. Emerging role of wetland methane emissions in driving 21st century climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Stenke, Andrea; Li, Xin; Hodson, Elke L; Zhu, Gaofeng; Huang, Chunlin; Poulter, Benjamin

    2017-09-05

    Wetland methane (CH4) emissions are the largest natural source in the global CH4 budget, contributing to roughly one third of total natural and anthropogenic emissions. As the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas in the atmosphere after CO2, CH4 is strongly associated with climate feedbacks. However, due to the paucity of data, wetland CH4 feedbacks were not fully assessed in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report. The degree to which future expansion of wetlands and CH4 emissions will evolve and consequently drive climate feedbacks is thus a question of major concern. Here we present an ensemble estimate of wetland CH4 emissions driven by 38 general circulation models for the 21st century. We find that climate change-induced increases in boreal wetland extent and temperature-driven increases in tropical CH4 emissions will dominate anthropogenic CH4 emissions by 38 to 56% toward the end of the 21st century under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP2.6). Depending on scenarios, wetland CH4 feedbacks translate to an increase in additional global mean radiative forcing of 0.04 W·m(-2) to 0.19 W·m(-2) by the end of the 21st century. Under the "worst-case" RCP8.5 scenario, with no climate mitigation, boreal CH4 emissions are enhanced by 18.05 Tg to 41.69 Tg, due to thawing of inundated areas during the cold season (December to May) and rising temperature, while tropical CH4 emissions accelerate with a total increment of 48.36 Tg to 87.37 Tg by 2099. Our results suggest that climate mitigation policies must consider mitigation of wetland CH4 feedbacks to maintain average global warming below 2 °C.

  15. Studies of 21st-Century Precipitation Trends Over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druyan, Leonard M.

    2010-01-01

    West Africa includes a semi-arid zone between the Sahara Desert and the humid Gulf of Guinea coast, approximately between 10 N and 20 N, which is irrigated by summer monsoon rains. This article refers to the region as the Sahel. Rain-fed agriculture is the primary sustenance for Sahel populations, and severe droughts (in the 1970s and 1980s), therefore, have devastating negative societal impacts. The future frequency of Sahel droughts and the evolution of its hydrological balance are therefore of great interest. The article reviews 10 recent research studies that attempt to discover how climate changes will affect the hydrology of the Sahel throughout the 21st century. All 10 studies rely on atmosphere ocean global climate model (AOGCM) simulations based on a range of greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Many of the simulations are contained in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change archives for Assessment Reports #3 and #4. Two of the studies use AOGCM data to drive regional climate models. Seven studies make projections for the first half of the 21st century and eight studies make projections for the second half. Some studies make projections of wetter conditions and some predict more frequent droughts, and each describes the atmospheric processes associated with its prediction. Only one study projects more frequent droughts before 2050, and that is only for continent-wide degradation in vegetation cover. The challenge to correctly simulate Sahel rainfall decadal trends is particularly daunting because multiple physical mechanisms compete to drive the trend upwards or downwards. A variety of model deficiencies, regarding the simulation of one or more of these physical processes, taints models climate change projections. Consequently, no consensus emerges regarding the impact of anticipated greenhouse gas forcing on the hydrology of the Sahel in the second half of the 21st century.

  16. 21st century climate change in the European Alps--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobiet, Andreas; Kotlarski, Sven; Beniston, Martin; Heinrich, Georg; Rajczak, Jan; Stoffel, Markus

    2014-09-15

    Reliable estimates of future climate change in the Alps are relevant for large parts of the European society. At the same time, the complex Alpine region poses considerable challenges to climate models, which translate to uncertainties in the climate projections. Against this background, the present study reviews the state-of-knowledge about 21st century climate change in the Alps based on existing literature and additional analyses. In particular, it explicitly considers the reliability and uncertainty of climate projections. Results show that besides Alpine temperatures, also precipitation, global radiation, relative humidity, and closely related impacts like floods, droughts, snow cover, and natural hazards will be affected by global warming. Under the A1B emission scenario, about 0.25 °C warming per decade until the mid of the 21st century and accelerated 0.36 °C warming per decade in the second half of the century is expected. Warming will probably be associated with changes in the seasonality of precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity, and more intense precipitation extremes and flooding potential in the colder part of the year. The conditions of currently record breaking warm or hot winter or summer seasons, respectively, may become normal at the end of the 21st century, and there is indication for droughts to become more severe in the future. Snow cover is expected to drastically decrease below 1500-2000 m and natural hazards related to glacier and permafrost retreat are expected to become more frequent. Such changes in climatic parameters and related quantities will have considerable impact on ecosystems and society and will challenge their adaptive capabilities. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Study of the Climate Change during 21st Century over Peninsular Malaysia Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvas, M. L.; Ercan, A.; Ishida, K.; Chen, Z. R.; Jang, S.; Amin, M. Z. M.; Shaaban, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    15 coarse-resolution (150 - 300 km) climate projections for the 21st century by 3 different coupled land-atmosphere-ocean GCMs (ECHAM5 of the Max Planck Institute of Meteorology of Germany, CCSM3 of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) of the United States, and MRI-CGCM2.3.2 of the Meteorological Research Institute of Japan) under 4 different greenhouse gas emission scenarios (B1, A1B, A2, A1FI) were dynamically downscaled at hourly intervals by a regional hydro-climate model of Peninsular Malaysia (RegHCM-PM) that consisted of Regional Atmospheric Model MM5 that was coupled with WEHY watershed hydrology model over Peninsular Malaysia (PM), at the scale of the hillslopes of 13 selected watersheds (Batu Pahat, Johor, Muda, Kelang, Kelantan, Linggi, Muar, Pahang, Perak, Selangor, Dungun, Kemaman and Kuantan) and 12 selected intervening coastal regions in order to assess the impact of climate change on the climate conditions at the selected watersheds and coastal regions of PM. From the downscaled climate projections it can be concluded that the mean annual precipitation gradually increases toward the end of the 21st century over each of the 13 watersheds and the 12 coastal regions. The basin-average mean annual temperature increases in the range of 2.50C - 2.950C over PM during the 2010 -2100 period when compared to the 1970-2000 historical period. The ensemble average basin-average annual potential evapotranspiration increases gradually throughout the 21st century over all watersheds.

  18. Transforming Pedagogies:
Integrating 21st Century Skills And Web 2.0 Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelia Y. TUCKER

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to (P21, Partnership for 21st Century Skills (n.d., unless the gap is bridged between how students learn and how they live, today’s education system will face irrelevance. The way people work and live has been transformed by demographic, economic, political, technological, and informational forces. Schools must adapt to these changing conditions in order to thrive. Students must be equipped to live in a multifaceted, multitasking, technology-driven world. And, regardless of their economic background, we must also ensure that all students have equal access to this new technological world. Collaborative learning theory which is connected to constructivism pedagogy requires students to work together to solve problems. Students need lifelong learning skills i.e., communication and information skills, problem-solving and thinking skills, and interpersonal and self-directional skills. The challenge becomes to deliberately incorporate learning skills into classrooms strategically and broadly. In this digital age, students must learn to use tools essential to everyday life and workplace productivity. They live in a world of almost unlimited streams of profound information, difficult choices and enormous opportunity. Teachers can create a 21st century context for learning by taking students out into the world, by bringing the world into the classroom, and by creating opportunities for students to collaboratively interact with each other (Learning for the, n.d.. One way of accomplishing this task is by employing the use of the Internet to connect Web 2.0 technology and 21st century skills. These skills are essential due to increased global competition, rising workforce capabilities, and accelerated technological change (Learning for the, n.d..

  19. Challenges of Epidemiologists of Developing Countries in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Rezaeian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many published articles which cover current and future challenges of epidemiology. However, up until now, most of them are written by developed world epidemiologists. Therefore, despite a common use of assumptions, they did not have the opportunity to discuss the different range of practical tasks and priorities away from developed countries. The topics covered are; facing poverty, non-democratic government that has links to developed countries, man-made and natural disasters, handling low-quality data and accessing it, and finally improving contribution to the world epidemiological knowledge for the 21st century.

  20. Patient neglect in 21st century health-care institutions: a community health psychology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Tom W; Gillespie, Alex; Mannell, Jenevieve

    2014-01-01

    Despite the technological and organisational advances of 21st century health-care systems, care scandals and burgeoning complaints from patients have raised concerns about patient neglect in hospitals. This article reviews the concept of patient neglect and the role of community health psychology in understanding its occurrence. Patient neglect has previously been conceptualised as a problem associated with hospital staff attitudes and behaviours, with regulation and training cited as solutions. Yet, a community health psychology perspective shows that the wider symbolic, material and relational aspects of care are crucial for understanding why patient neglect occurs and for outlining new solutions to augment existing interventions.

  1. [Acute heart failure and cardiogenic shock - trends at the beginning of 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokyta, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Acute heart failure (AHF) is a clinical syndrome of different etiology and several clinical presentations. Cardiogenic shock patients have highest long-term mortality. In contrast to chronic heart failure, we have no evidence of therapeutic benefit for any treatment strategy from randomized clinical trials. Search for new pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies is ongoing. Both causal and symptomatic treatment of AHF episode should be initiated as soon as possible. This review is focused on trends in acute heart failure therapy at the beginning of 21st century.

  2. [Perspectives in researches on grassland ecology for the early 21st century in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Cunzhu; Zhu, Tingcheng; Wang, Deli; Lü, Xinlong

    2002-06-01

    Grassland degeneration is a prominent problem in China. More in-depth studies should be carried out on the key problem--grassland degeneration for Chinese grassland ecologists in the early 21st century. Some hot research fields were restoration ecology, interface ecology, grazing ecology, health diagnoses and evaluation for grasslands. Among them, restoration ecology was the foundation for restoring degenerative grasslands; interface ecology involved with the point of contact for analyzing degenerative grasslands; grazing ecology was the effective way to control degenerative grasslands; diagnoses of grassland health benefited accurately appraising degenerative levels of grasslands; and evaluation for grassland was also considered as an estimation on services and benefits of grassland ecosystems.

  3. Scientific Workflow Systems for 21st Century e-Science, New Bottle or New Wine?

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yong; Foster, Ian

    2008-01-01

    With the advances in e-Sciences and the growing complexity of scientific analyses, more and more scientists and researchers are relying on workflow systems for process coordination, derivation automation, provenance tracking, and bookkeeping. While workflow systems have been in use for decades, it is unclear whether scientific workflows can or even should build on existing workflow technologies, or they require fundamentally new approaches. In this paper, we analyze the status and challenges of scientific workflows, investigate both existing technologies and emerging languages, platforms and systems, and identify the key challenges that must be addressed by workflow systems for e-science in the 21st century.

  4. The globalization and environmental sustainability of LNG: Is LNG a fuel for the 21st century?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakmar, Susan

    2010-09-15

    As the world enters the 21st Century, policy makers around the world are grappling with issues related to energy security, energy poverty, global climate change, and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while meeting an expected increase in demand for all energy sources. As a clean burning fuel, many policy leaders have suggested that LNG can play an important role as the world struggles to develop a more environmental sustainable energy future. Others claim that the safety and environmental impact of LNG, including life-cycle emissions, may nullify any clean burning benefit LNG might otherwise provide.

  5. Juan Mayorga's adaptations of Lope: La dama boba in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Molanes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The adaptations made by one of today’s most eminent playwrights, Juan Mayorga, on the texts by Lope de Vega which were represented during the first decade of the 21st century allow us to analyse some of the most relevant aspects in the reception, canonization and theatrical interpretation of 17th century theatre. This study will thus focus on Lope’s La Dama Boba and the adaptation offered by Juan Mayorga for the Compañía Nacional de Teatro Clásico, directed by Helena Pimenta in 2002.

  6. NASA Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    The Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century provided a unique opportunity to train individuals to conduct biological research in hypo- and hyper-gravity, and to conduct ground-based research. This grant was developed to maximize the potential for Space Biology as an emerging discipline and to train a cadre of space biologists. The field of gravitational and space biology is rapidly growing at the future of the field is reflected in the quality and education of its personnel. Our chief objective was to train and develop these scientists rapidly and in a cost effective model.

  7. English Continues to Be the World StandardLanguage in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭凤梅

    2004-01-01

    @@ The world is in various stages of social, economic, and demographic transition. Economically and politically, the world has changed more rapidly in the past few years than at any time since 1945. The emerging global economy is both competitive and interdependent. It reflects the availability of modern communications and production technologies in most parts of the world. So, do we need to be concerned about the future of the English language in the 21st century? According to The Economist (1996), English continues to be the world standard language, and there is no major threat to the language or to its global popularity. But, changes are coming.

  8. 21st century climate change in the European Alps—A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobiet, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.gobiet@uni-graz.at [Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change, University of Graz, Brandhofgasse 5, 8010 Graz (Austria); Kotlarski, Sven, E-mail: sven.kotlarski@env.ethz.ch [Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Universitätstrasse 16, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Beniston, Martin, E-mail: martin.beniston@unige.ch [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Site de Battelle − Bâtiment D, 7, route de Drize − 1227 Carouge, Geneva (Switzerland); Heinrich, Georg, E-mail: g.heinrich@uni-graz.at [Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change, University of Graz, Brandhofgasse 5, 8010 Graz (Austria); Rajczak, Jan, E-mail: jan.rajczak@env.ethz.ch [Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Universitätstrasse 16, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Stoffel, Markus, E-mail: markus.stoffel@unige.ch [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Site de Battelle − Bâtiment D, 7, route de Drize − 1227 Carouge, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15

    Reliable estimates of future climate change in the Alps are relevant for large parts of the European society. At the same time, the complex Alpine region poses considerable challenges to climate models, which translate to uncertainties in the climate projections. Against this background, the present study reviews the state-of-knowledge about 21st century climate change in the Alps based on existing literature and additional analyses. In particular, it explicitly considers the reliability and uncertainty of climate projections. Results show that besides Alpine temperatures, also precipitation, global radiation, relative humidity, and closely related impacts like floods, droughts, snow cover, and natural hazards will be affected by global warming. Under the A1B emission scenario, about 0.25 °C warming per decade until the mid of the 21st century and accelerated 0.36 °C warming per decade in the second half of the century is expected. Warming will probably be associated with changes in the seasonality of precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity, and more intense precipitation extremes and flooding potential in the colder part of the year. The conditions of currently record breaking warm or hot winter or summer seasons, respectively, may become normal at the end of the 21st century, and there is indication for droughts to become more severe in the future. Snow cover is expected to drastically decrease below 1500–2000 m and natural hazards related to glacier and permafrost retreat are expected to become more frequent. Such changes in climatic parameters and related quantities will have considerable impact on ecosystems and society and will challenge their adaptive capabilities. - Highlights: • Warming is expected to accelerate throughout the 21st century in the Alpine region. • Seasonal shifts in precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity are expected. • Precipitation and temperature extremes are expected to intensify. • Snow cover

  9. Future trends and geographical distribution of potential evapotranspiration in Germany throughout the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, E.; Panferov, O.; Doering, C.

    2009-04-01

    Recent climate projections for the 21st century (e.g. ECHAM5-MPIOM) show strong changes of the global climate. Forests in Germany are exposed to these changes, which include increase of temperature, changes of seasonal precipitation patterns and possibly the increase of frequency of extreme meteorological events as droughts, rain and wind storms. Present study focuses on the characterization of possible future developments of potential evapotranspiration (PET) throughout the 21st Century under conditions of SRES scenarios A1B and B1. The FAO-56-Penman-Monteith (ALLEN et al., 1998) was implemented. Climate scenario data were downscaled by the regional climate model Climate Local Model (CLM) to the spatial resolution of about 0.2°*0.2° and used to calculate PET for Germany. The spatial and temporal variability of PET in Germany during the 21st century is examined and causes of variation discussed. Areas within Germany with particularly stronger - hot spots - and weaker - cold spots - changes in PET are identified and analyzed in detail. Two hot spots, the Saarland and the Black Forest, and a cold spot, East Brandenburg, were identified. The deviating development of the hot/cold spots are traced back to the stronger or weaker development of the energy balance, which is higher in the hot spots and lower in the cold spot. The spatially differential development of PET could be traced back to the regionally different development of the meteorological variables. The contributions of various meteorological variables to the temporal trend detected in the PET are then determined. Clear trends in the annual sums or means could be described for several component variables of PET. Some variables do not show any noteworthy trend in annual mean but changes in their seasonal variability. The annual PET sums do not increase so much as expected when seen in relation to the temperature increase predicted for the 21st century, particularly in SRES A1B. PET in B1 does not evolve as

  10. Lope de Vega and History on the Stages of the 20th and 21st Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificació Mascarell

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine, on the one hand, the presence of Lope’s historical dramas on contemporary stage to confirm their continuity; and, on the other, to reflect on the distinctive features of the staging of these dramas from a specific corpus of performances dating from the last decades. The goal is to observe the current relevance of these dramas and performances, to study under what ethical and aesthetic assumptions characters are now represented and the historical episodes that Lope used in the creation of his fictions, as well as to analyze the possible connections between History, Lope and the audience of the 21st century.

  11. Is the Partner the Don Quixote of the 21st Century Corporate World?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bévort, Frans; Poulfelt, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    A large and growing proportion of the organizations in the contemporary knowledge economy are organized as professional partnerships as is the case of professional service firms (PSFs). As these firms have grown larger (e. g. Big4: Deloitte, PwC, E&Y, KPMG), the way of organizing is under pressure...... for change. This raises the question of whether the Partner ownership and management model is a relic of the past - and the partner a Don Quixote-figure of the 21st century corporate world? Based on an ethnographic study of a PSF in Denmark, and data from other sources, the paper analyzes the changing...

  12. Acute pancreatitis at the beginning of the 21st century: The state of the art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alfredo F Tonsi; Matilde Bacchion; Stefano Crippa; Giuseppe Malleo; Claudio Bassi

    2009-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas which can lead to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with significant morbidity and mortality in 20% of patients. Gallstones and alcohol consumption are the most frequent causes of pancreatitis in adults. The treatment of mild acute pancreatitis is conservative and supportive; however severe episodes characterized by necrosis of the pancreatic tissue may require surgical intervention. Advanced understanding of the pathology, and increased interest in assessment of disease severity are the cornerstones of future management strategies of this complex and heterogeneous disease in the 21st century.

  13. Digital services in the 21st century a strategic and business perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Digital Services in the 21st Century provides a holistic approach to understanding telecommunications by addressing the emergence and dominance of new digital services, consumer and economic dynamics, and the creation of content by service providers. The authors cover the main products and services that are provided by telecommunications operators (in general information and communication technologies providers). Key topics discussed include enriched communications, fixed and mobile broadband, financial services for unbanked customers in emerging markets, Pay TV, data communications for machines, and digital home. As opposed to technical-driven textbooks, this book also addresses customer demand and the competitive nature between telecommunications operators and Internet providers that compete to provide compelling services.

  14. The Impact of Technological Change on Military Manpower in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    11ners. flat data bases volume. equity operatuial planning "TIhe Federaiin" h,--h r-,hn I her’stchial, Man s.imiar A,, uilgarchv Duplicated opera!ing... foot soldier who will continue to be the key to future combat operations. In addition Wickham emph sed the importance of command, control...G.J., "Moving C3 Into the 21st Century," Signal, pp. 91-94, August 1989. Mannle, T.E., and Risser , D.T., Estimating the Manpower, Personnel, and

  15. Individuals, knowledge and governance in the 21st-century society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cerroni

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge society is a new social species that, despite many uncertainties and some (old and new ambiguities, is emerging on the horizon of the 21st century. Placed at the convergence of two long-term processes (society of individuals and knowledge society, it is characterised by the social-economic process of knowledge circulation, which can be divided into four fundamental phases (generation, institutionalisation, spreading and socialisation. The current situation also sees the traditional (modern structure of knowledge being outdated by the convergence of nanotechnologies, biotechnologies, information technologies and neuro-cognitive technologies (NBIC. In the background, the need arises to cross the cultural frontier of modernity.

  16. The Competitiveness of China in the 21st Century: Analysing China's Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    DVOŘÁKOVÁ, Markéta

    2015-01-01

    The diploma thesis aims to discourse how China´s competitiveness has developed in the 21st century, with a special focus on human capital as one of the key factors of production that greatly fosters competitive advantage. The first chapter builds up a theoretical framework for the research part of the thesis. It reviews the concepts of competitiveness, Michael Porter´s diamond, and the theory of human capital. The second chapter examines trends and challenges of China´s competitive advantage ...

  17. Migrations from the Gora region at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević-Crnobrnja Jadranka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will analyze economic and political migration in the Gora region at the end of the 20th and in the first decade of the 21st century. It is my intent to consider and explain their cause and their intensity and scope. In short, I view the socioeconomic and political dimension of these migrations from an ethnological and anthropological point of view. The economic and political migrations from the Gora region at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century represent the continuation of earlier migrations, albeit more intensive and larger in scope (whole families are migrating. There migrations can be viewed as the effects of political changes in Kosovo, as well as the socioeconomic crisis of the 1990’s. There are no fixed boundaries between these types of migrations, and the only truly stand out examples are the cases in which people migrated for safety reasons. A certain type of migration can be identified based on the terminology used by the interlocutors. I have encountered the terms “banishment” and “displacement” in the narrative discourse of my interlocutors. These terms are used to describe the migrations from Gora during the 1999 war, as well as immediately after. The differences between economic and political migrants can be gouged from other factors such as going to Gora during vacations and holidays as well as investing money into real-estate in the region. Individuals who emigrated from Gora because they feared for their and the loves of their families go to Gora rarely (to attend funerals for example and are not currently thinking of investing unlike those who had left Gora as economic migrants. There are no differences when it comes to where people migrate to for different reasons. Places of migration can, however, be indicative of the form of migration in the sense of whether people migrated to a foreign country or not. One can turn into the other due to the changing of state borders. Thus

  18. The Nanchang Communication about the potential for implementation of conservation practices for climate change mitigation and adaptation to achieve food security in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Delgado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a large number of peer-reviewed publications reporting that a changing climate is one of the biggest challenges humanity will have during the 21st century. With population growth and the need to significantly increase agricultural production per unit of area during the 21st century, a changing climate will put additional stress on soil resources. Soil and water conservation will be key for the future of humanity. Professional societies in the area of agriculture and soil and water conservation have recognized the importance that soil resources will have for humanity during this century and have made calls for implementation of worldwide soil and water conservation. For example, in 2010 the Soil and Water Conservation Society (SWCS invited a group of scientists to review the literature about the potential to use conservation practices for climate change adaptation and mitigation. The Delgado et al. (2011 paper was used by the SWCS to develop and adopt a position statement about the importance of using soil and water conservation practices to mitigate and adapt to climate change. The International Soil Conservation Organization (ISCO invited the lead author to present the paper as a keynote presentation at the ISCO 2013 conference. The European Society of Soil Conservation (ESSC published a short communication about this paper in one of their newsletters in 2014. The World Association of Soil and Water Conservation (WASWAC also invited the lead author to present a keynote presentation on this topic at the 2015 WASWAC annual meeting in Nanchang. This paper (the Nanchang Communication is a summary of the Delgado et al. (2011 paper that was used by the SWCS to develop the SWCS position statement related to soil and water conservation and climate change. The Nanchang Communication (this paper was used by WASWAC to develop a position statement about the immediate need for implementation of conservation practices for mitigation of and

  19. The Importance of Establishing and Maintaining Continuity of Knowledge during 21st Century Nuclear Fuel Cycle Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, Chris A [ORNL; Rowe, Nathan C [ORNL; Younkin, James R [ORNL; Wishard, Bernard [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Bean, Robert [U.S. Department of Energy, NNSA; Blair, Dianna [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Lawson, Ray [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); Weeks, George [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); Tolk, Keith [Milagro Consulting

    2012-01-01

    During this century, the entire nuclear fuel cycle will expand and become increasingly more global, taxing both the resources and capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to maintain an effective Continuity of Knowledge (CoK) and its ability to provide timely detection of diversion. Uranium that currently is mined and milled in one country will be converted, enriched, and fabricated into fuel for reactors in an expanding set of new countries. This expansion will make it harder to guarantee that regional activities stay regional and that diversion detection is timely unless new and sustainable tools are developed to improve inspector effectiveness. To deal with this emerging reality, the IAEA must increase its use of unattended monitoring and employ new tools and methods that enhance CoK during all phases of the fuel cycle. This approach will help provide useful information to aid in detecting undeclared activities and create opportunities for timely and appropriate responses to events well before they enter phases of greater concern (e.g., enrichment). The systems that maintain CoK of safeguarded assets rely on containment and surveillance (C/S) technologies. The 21st century fuel cycle will require increased use of these technologies and systems, plus greater implementation of unattended systems that can securely collect data when inspectors are not present.

  20. The influence of environment and energy macro surroundings on the development of tourism in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovicić, Dobrica

    2012-06-01

    Trying to anticipate the future of tourism may be a particularly fraught task. However, this does not mean that trying to predict the future of tourism is not without value. From a business perspective, examining the future enables firms to anticipate new business conditions and develop new strategies. From a destination perspective, reflections on the future enable consideration of how to maintain or improve the qualities of a destination. The paper is focused on an analysis of the impacts of the energy and ecological macro environments on tourism trends in 21st century. Mass international tourism has thrived on the abundant and cheap supply of energy, and this may be about to change as the world moves towards 'Peak Oil'. The resultant scarcity and high price of all energy fuels will produce changes in human activities, specifically in tourism. The basis of the health of the economy is the health of the environment. Therefore issues of global environmental changes are increasingly influencing consideration of trends in tourism. In this looming transitional era tourism needs to make some dramatic changes to harmonize with the new realities of a post-energy world affected additionaly by global warming and other environmental changes.